Grammar - Ten

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Transcript

Ten-Minute
Grammar
COMMA RULES: Lesson Two
OBJECTIVES:
1. Students should understand that…
a. A comma should be used to set off introductory words or phrases, including transitions,
that come before the beginning of the main independent clause.
b. A word or phrase that interrupts an independent clause should have commas before it
and after it.
c. An ―appositive phrase‖ is a specific type of interruption that restates or renames a
noun—it should have commas before and after it like all interruptions.
d. A ―non-restrictive‖ subordinate clause, which does not change or limit the meaning of a
sentence, should have commas before and after it. ―Which‖ and ―who‖ often begin nonrestrictive clauses, but ―that‖ usually begins a clause that changes the meaning of the
sentence.
e. In a compound sentence, when you combine two independent clauses with a
conjunction like ―and,‖ ―but,‖ or ―or,‖ you should put a comma before the conjunction
and never after.
f. In a complex sentence, if the sentence begins with a subordinate clause, you should put a
comma at the end of the subordinate clause before the beginning of the independent
clause.
2. Students should be able to…
a. Correct sentences and passages that contain comma-use errors with introductory words
or phrases, interruptions, appositive phrases, non-restrictive clauses, compound
sentences, and complex sentences.
b. Write sentences that correctly use commas with introductory words or phrases,
interruptions, appositive phrases, non-restrictive clauses, compound sentences, and
complex sentences.
LITERATURE:
This unit contains example selections from the novel The
Maze Runner by James Dashner.
Ten-Minute
Grammar
DAY
One
COMMA RULES Two
Identify the comma errors in each of the following sentences (where do commas need to be added?):
1. All monkey children know about Monkey Clause an overweight
primate who brings gifts to good little monkeys on a certain holiday.
2. If a little monkey has been good Monkey Clause brings him bananas.
3. Bad little monkeys however only get dried ape droppings.
4. That might seem a little harsh but it helps little monkeys learn to obey
their monkey parents.
5. Most of the time just mentioning ―Monkey Clause‖ is enough to get
naughty little monkeys to quit their naughty monkey business.
Read the following example sentences from The Maze Runner by James Dashner. Find the missing
commas in each sentence:
6. One by one boys were stepping out of the crowd and walking over to
the long pole.
7. Because no one who’d been stung and didn’t make it back by sunset has
ever survived we just assume that was the point of no return.
Wordplay – Just for fun!
 EIGHT BALL: Create as many words as you can using three or more of the
letters below (at least one eight-letter word is possible):
SOGDMNIK
Ten-Minute
Grammar
DAY
Two
COMMA RULES Two
In your own words, write a comma rule that explains the following corrections (Your rule could start
with ―You should use a comma / commas to …‖):
1. The truth in fact is even scarier than the stories.
2. My mom is an animal rights activist but my dad is an avid deer hunter.
3. I asked Lizzie Jenkins the girl in my physics class to go to the dance
with me.
4. Jack and Jill fell down Granite Hill which is dotted with deadly rocks.
An introductory word or phrase that comes before the beginning of an
independent clause should have a comma after it. That includes transitions
like ―First of all,‖ ―In conclusion,‖ or ―Also.‖
Decide where each of the following sentences needs ONE added comma:
5. To begin with we need to find an old spare tire.
6. Also don’t forget to bring twenty feet of rope.
7. In the end we’ll have a very nice tire swing.
8. In fact it might very well be the coolest tire swing in history!
Wordplay – Just for fun!
 RHYME THYME: Time to think like a rapper. How many rhymes can you come
up with for the following word?
DARK
Ten-Minute
Grammar
DAY
Three
COMMA RULES Two
In a compound sentence, when you combine two independent clauses with a
conjunction like ―and,‖ ―but,‖ or ―or,‖ you should put a comma before the
conjunction and never after.
In each of the following sentences, find ONE comma that needs to be added OR deleted:
1. I have four dollars and my friend has six more.
2. Dogs usually don’t mind getting wet but cats absolutely hate it.
3. Jeff, and Kate are on the same soccer team, so they hang out a lot.
4. Karen, clean your room and the kitchen or you will be grounded!
In a complex sentence, if the sentence begins with a subordinate clause, you
should put a comma at the end of the subordinate clause before the
beginning of the independent clause.
In each of the following sentences, find ONE comma that needs to be added OR deleted:
5. Because she was tired Danielle decided not to go to the party.
6. Every time I eat pasta, I end up breaking out in a rash, when I wake up.
7. If my team wins this game we will be ranked number one!
Wordplay – Just for fun!
 CATALOG CREATOR: The suffix ―-ship‖ means ―state of being.‖ How many
words can you list that contain this suffix?
Ten-Minute
Grammar
DAY
Four
COMMA RULES Two
Read the following excerpts from The Maze Runner by James Dashner. Then answer the questions
afterward:
(a) For
the next few hours he and Minho scoured the ground, felt
along the walls, and climbed up the ivy in random spots. (b) They
found nothing, and Thomas grew more and more discouraged.
1. Where does sentence (a) need an extra comma?
2. Why is there a comma after ―nothing‖ in sentence (b)?
(c) ―With
open Doors and no sunset there’s no point in coming back
here, anyway. (d) It’s time to stay out there and see if anything
opens up when the walls move.‖
3. Where does sentence (c) need an extra comma?
4. Does sentence (d) need a comma after ―there‖? Why?
Using the proper proofreading marks, correct the six errors in this excerpt:
the south wall eventually moved closing for the night he leaned forward
until it stopped. Minutes later his back once again comfortably pressed
against thick layers of ivy he fell asleep
Wordplay – Just for fun!
 COMBINATOR: The vowel combination ―ee‖ almost always sounds like the
hard ―E‖ in ―feet.‖ List as many words as you can that contain ―ee.‖
Ten-Minute
Grammar
DAY
Five
COMMA RULES Two
A word or phrase that interrupts or comes in the middle of an independent
clause should have commas before and after it.
Decide where each of the following sentences needs TWO added commas:
1. Those purple pants however don’t look very stylish.
2. You and I therefore are no longer lab partners.
3. One obvious excuse of course would be to say your dog ate it.
4. The truth in fact is that you stole the cookies from me.
An ―appositive phrase‖ is a specific type of interruption that restates or
renames a noun; it should have commas before and after it.
Decide where each of the following sentences needs ONE or TWO added commas:
5. I just finished reading The Death Cure the third book in the Maze
Runner series.
6. My friend Jake the one with the pet parrot gave me his old iPod.
7. Last week, I met Tom Cruise the actor from Mission Impossible.
8. David’s uncle climbed K2 the world’s second highest peak last year.
Wordplay – Just for fun!
 DESCRAMBLER: Try to sort out the five scrambled words below:
KTNA LIWHE LAECRL NSIGRPA MTINOED
Ten-Minute
Grammar
DAY
Six
COMMA RULES Two
A ―non-restrictive‖ subordinate clause does not change or limit the meaning
of a sentence and should have commas before and after it. To find out if a
―that,‖ ―which,‖ or ―who‖ clause is non-restrictive, just ask yourself if you
could cut it out without changing the meaning of the sentence. If the clause
NEEDS to be there, DON’T put commas around it.
Decide whether the bold subordinate clause needs commas before and after it (YES or NO):
1. I need to check out a book that talks about the Great Depression.
2. The evil villain wants to steal the moon which is kind of ridiculous.
3. Steve Jobs who died in 2011 was a brilliant man.
4. They finally caught the guy who broke into our house last month.
During this unit, you have learned several comma rules. Create your own example sentence for each of
the following rules:
5. Put commas around an interrupting word or phrase.
6. Put a comma after an introductory word or phrase.
7. Combine two independent clauses with a comma and a conjunction.
Wordplay – Just for fun!
 EIGHT BALL: Create as many words as you can using three or more of the
letters below (at least one eight-letter word is possible):
TSTRFEHA
Ten-Minute
Grammar
DAY
Seven
COMMA RULES Two
In each of the following sentences, decide where a comma needs to be added OR deleted:
1. The aliens do not however have the power to read our minds.
2. First of all I’m allergic to peanuts.
3. If she comes to the party I’m going home because I can’t stand her.
4. The ninja, that killed my father has returned.
5. Kris, and James are going to be late so we’ll have to start without them.
6. Anderson Cooper who works for CNN, reports on a variety of stories.
Read the following example sentences from The Maze Runner by James Dashner. Find the missing
commas in each sentence:
7. Frozen with fear Thomas watched as one of the Griever’s long arms
reached for the lifeless body.
8. The dark skin of his face which had been oddly pale just a minute
earlier had turned purple.
Wordplay – Just for fun!
 FOUR-LETTER WORDS: Take the four-letter word below and change one letter
to make a new four-letter word (keep it clean!) Then take that word and change
one letter to make a new word. Then take that word and… You get the picture.
PAGE
Ten-Minute
Grammar
DAY
Eight
COMMA RULES Two
Read the following excerpts from The Maze Runner by James Dashner. Then answer the questions
afterward:
Thomas had an overwhelming feeling that all of these changes
were a spur, a catalyst for the endgame. (b) ―Because now we have
to solve it. (c) We’ll be forced to. (d) We can’t live that way anymore
day to day thinking that what matters most is getting back to the
Glade before the Doors close.‖
(a)
1. Why is there a comma after the word ―spur‖ in sentence (a)?
2. Sentence (d) needs two commas; where should they go?
3. Is sentence (b) an independent clause or a subordinate clause?
4. What is the subordinate clause in sentence (a), and does it need commas
around it?
Using the proper proofreading marks, correct the six errors in this excerpt:
He wanted to share his idea but he decided against it. Instead he just nodded
and headed and for the stairs. All the same Thomas know had a plan. As bad
as it was he had a plan. They needed memories.
Wordplay – Just for fun!
 FIXER-ROOTER: How many words can you think of that have the same prefix,
suffix, or root as the multisyllabic word below?
RESONANCE
RE / SON / ANCE
(the quality of being able to reinforce sound by sympathetic vibrations)
Ten-Minute
Grammar
DAY
nine
COMMA RULES Two
In each of the following sentences, decide where a comma needs to be added OR deleted:
1. Whenever Anna calls we end up talking on the phone all night.
2. Candy, pop, and chips are delicious but they’re not very healthy.
3. I found out that Dustin was the one, who stole my shoes.
4. The number of people who like Twinkies according to a recent study
has gone down in the last two years.
5. Of course we won’t know the truth, until we read that file.
During this unit, you have learned several comma rules. Create your own example sentence for each of
the following rules:
6. Put commas around an appositive phrase, a phrase that restates or
renames a noun.
7. If a sentence starts with a subordinate clause, put a comma at the end of
the subordinate clause.
8. A clause that starts with ―which‖ or ―who‖ should have commas around
it as long as it doesn’t change or limit the meaning of the sentence.
Wordplay – Just for fun!
 ANAGRAM: Rearrange the letters in the nonsense phrase below to
create new words that actually make sense.
GLANCED A CASUAL BLUR
(Hint: equations)
NAME:
PERIOD:
An introductory word or phrase that comes before the beginning of an
independent clause should have a comma after it. That includes
transitions like ―First of all,‖ ―In conclusion,‖ or ―Also.‖
Do the example sentences follow correct comma rules (answer YES or NO)?
1. ______ To begin with it annoys me when you call me ―Tiger.‖
2. ______ Most importantly, I should be the class president because I’m cool.
In each sentence, add commas where they are needed:
3. In addition cats shed on carpets and ruin hardwood floors.
4. In conclusion iPads could be very useful in a school classroom.
Now write your own example sentence that contains an introductory word or phrase:
A word or phrase that interrupts or comes in the middle of an
independent clause should have commas before and after it. Common
interruptions include ―however,‖ ―therefore,‖ and ―in fact.‖
Do the example sentences follow correct comma rules (answer YES or NO)?
5. ______ My great grandma is, of course, too old to go skiing now, but she still loves the snow.
6. ______ I on the other hand can’t stand winter.
In each sentence, add commas where they are needed:
7. Vegetables are according to my mother the most important part of the meal.
8. This man therefore could not possibly have killed his boss with a broken piece of glass.
Now write your own example sentence that contains an interruption:
An ―appositive phrase‖ is a specific type of interruption that restates or
renames a noun—it should have commas before and after it.
Do the example sentences follow correct comma rules (answer YES or NO)?
9. ______ Carrie, my girlfriend’s older sister doesn’t like me at all.
10. ______ I’m a huge fan of Suzanne Collins, the author that wrote The Hunger Games.
In each sentence, add commas where they are needed:
11. Yesterday, I got in trouble in art class the only class I have with my girlfriend for talking too much.
12. My favorite Sesame Street character is Elmo the little red puppet with the cute laugh.
Now write your own example sentence that contains an appositive phrase:
Add the necessary commas to the paragraph below (there are 7 missing commas in all):
My sister is a huge fan of Johnny Depp the actor who plays Captain Jack Sparrow in
Pirates of the Caribbean. She has of course seen almost every one of his movies. Her
favorite Depp movie is Edward Scissor Hands a strange movie about a man with scissors
for hands. In the end she just likes the actor because she thinks he’s hot. I on the other
hand like him because he’s a good actor.
Add the necessary commas to the paragraph below (there are 8 missing commas in all):
A few years ago my older brother voted for the first time. He decided to vote for
Barack Obama the democratic candidate. His girlfriend however voted for the
republican John McCain. At first my brother and his girlfriend fought about the political
differences. In the end of course they realized that this was a stupid thing to be mad at
each other about.

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