INTRODUCTION TO THE APA and OTHER WRITING TIPS

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INTRODUCTION TO THE APA
and
OTHER WRITING TIPS
for
GRADUATE STUDENTS
Revised 08/04
Cheryl Prentice
Director, The Writing Center
Saint Mary’s University of Minnesota
School of Graduate & Special Programs
Contents of this booklet are copyrighted.
Reproduction without permission is prohibited.
Screen shots reprinted by permission from Microsoft® Corporation.
This booklet is not written in APA style.
About This Booklet
This booklet was compiled in response to student and faculty requests for an introduction to
th
the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5 edition, better known
as “the APA manual.”
The booklet is not intended to replace the APA manual, but rather to help you interpret it
and to call your attention to some of its most important features. In addition, the booklet
provides information to supplement the APA, such as word processing instructions and
writing tips.
In this booklet you will find an introduction to the Saint Mary’s University Writing Center on
the Twin Cities campus, a free service to help you develop your writing skills. I hope you'll
take advantage of the support the Writing Center offers.
Please note that this booklet is not formatted in APA style. I have used APA style where
possible, but APA was designed for academic papers, not "how-to" manuals.
Consequently, you will see many departures from APA style and formatting.
If you want to suggest ways to make the booklet more helpful, I would appreciate hearing
from you. You can reach the Writing Center through the contact information on the last
page.
Cheryl Prentice
Director, Twin Cities Writing Center
Saint Mary’s University of Minnesota
TABLE OF CONTENTS
These symbols used throughout the booklet indicates a frequently-asked question (
? ) or an especially helpful tip (
).
Numbers in brackets indicate relevant page numbers or section numbers of the APA manual.
APA TIPS
APA, What is it ?............................................................................ 3
Basic Formatting of APA Paper.................................................. 5
Citing Sources.............................................................................. 9-14
Basics of Citing ...................................................................... 9
Citing in the Text....................................................................10
Electronic Resources.............................................................10, 11-12
Primary & Secondary Sources..............................................13
Reference Page ..............................................................11-14
Sample reference page ..................................................14
Scholarly Source.................................................................... 9
APA Manual, Oops!......................................................................23-24
Headings.......................................................................................19-20
Lists, Numbered and Lettered ......................................................21
See also 29
Deleting Hyperlinks ..................................................................... 25
See also 30-31
E-mail Attachments ..................................................................... 34-35
Highlighting Large Quantities of Text (Preventing “Racing”) ...... 25
Indents, Hanging, Blocked quotes ................................................ 27
Line Spacing ................................................................................ 29
Irregular spaces between paragraphs .................................. 31-32
Margins and Alignment ............................................................... 26
Page Headers and Page Numbers ............................................. 28
Show/ Hide Formatting Codes.................................................... 25
Spelling and Grammar Check..................................................... 30
Table of Contents, Dot leaders for............................................... 33
Paraphrasing ................................................................................ 7-8
Typeface (Fonts)........................................................................... 26
Plagiarism..................................................................................... 7
See also 9, 21
Undo Last Keystroke................................................................... 25
Punctuation ..................................................................................17-18
See also 39
OTHER WRITING TIPS
Quick Guide to the APA Manual ................................................. 3
Active & Passive Voice ............................................................... 37
Quotations ....................................................................................16
See also 7, 27
Abstract, How to write .................................................................. 45
Table of Contents.........................................................................33
Pronoun Confusion, Avoiding ..................................................... 41-42
Tables and Figures ......................................................................22
Sentence Construction, Parallelism............................................ 43
Title Page, ..................................................................................... 5-6
Summary, Response, and Critique ............................................ 43-44
Titles ............................................................................................15
Thesis and Research Question .................................................. 45
Apostrophes................................................................................. 38
Transitions and Conjunctions .................................................... 39
USING MICROSOFT WORD® FOR APA TASKS
Troublesome Words .................................................................... 40
Auto-Formatting...........................................................................29-30
Verb Tense ................................................................................... 37
Comments, Using Electronic ........................................................35-36
Vocabulary, Increase.................................................................... 44
Backspace and Delete .................................................................25
Wordiness, Eliminating................................................................. 42
Centering ......................................................................................25
Writing Center, Services and policies .......................................... 46
Dashes and Hyphens...................................................................25
WHAT IS APA?
QUICK GUIDE to the APA MANUAL*
Bracketed numbers and decimals refer to APA page and section numbers.
APA is not a government agency, a Swedish rock band, an oil cartel, a test ban treaty, a
sexually transmitted disease, a sports drink, a hair gel, or a California spiritualist
movement. APA stands for “American Psychological Association.” Outside the field of
psychology, “APA” is shorthand for the writing style manual published by the APA: The
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
Listed below are parts of the manual that are essential to using the manual effectively. This
is not to say the manual does not contain useful information not listed here, but writers new
to the manual will find the sections below the best way to get started.
Introduction: “Organization of the Fifth Edition” [xxiv]. Best overview of the
What is a style manual and who needs one?
manual.
The New York Times has a journalistic style manual that each of its editors and writers
must follow religiously so that folks who read the Times find consistency in its presentation
of news. Smaller newspapers adopt The New York Times style or that of another
journalistic stylebook such as The Los Angeles Times or the Columbia School of
Journalism. Style manuals ensure that a newspaper’s writers are working from the same
page, so to speak.
Chapter 2: Expressing Ideas and Reducing Bias in Language.
Just as newspapers require consistency of style, so do academic disciplines. English,
foreign language, and linguistic professionals use the MLA (Modern Language
Association); other humanities professionals use Chicago Manual of Style. Medical
professionals use the American Medical Association Manual of Style, of course.
Psychologists and others in the human behavioral sciences—including educators—have
adopted the APA as their guide.
This rhetorical guide is the most overlooked part of the manual but the one most important
to developing an effective academic writing style.
[2.01] Orderly Presentation of Ideas
[2.02] Smoothness of Expression
[2.03] Economy of Expression
[2.04] Precision and Clarity
[2.05] Strategies to Improve Writing Style
[40-60] Grammar
[61-76] Guidelines to Reduce Language Bias
Why so many guides? Why can’t everyone use the same one?
Chapter 3: Editorial Style
•
The research and writing for one academic discipline may require a style that does not
meet the needs of other disciplines or professions. You can understand how a professor of
French literature, for example, might require a set of stylistic guidelines different from those
of a chemist or neurosurgeon.
•
Saint Mary’s University has adopted the APA as the official style manual for its School of
Graduate and Professional Studies. (SMU medical students use the AMA.) Use of the
APA ensures that SMU students have a solid stylistic foundation for their academic and,
later, their professional writing.
Chapter 4: References
•
What’s in the APA that I need to know?
•
The APA manual is a guide to clear, concise writing in an academic or
professional context. The section entitled “Linguistic Devices” (Chapter 2) is an
excellent guide to getting ideas across effectively and objectively. “Strategies to
Improve Writing Style” (also Chapter 2) lays out the rules of grammar,
punctuation, and usage as they apply in your discipline. No guesswork.
•
The manual describes a research manuscript, section by section, in terms of
content and organization, and format.
•
•
•
Reference List Citations [215-232]. Gives the basic guidelines for construction
of a reference list and each element of a reference list entry (author, pub date,
titles, publisher information).
Index to Reference List Examples [232-236]. The examples are indexed by
type of resource. Each listing gives the number of an example.
Index to Variations on Basic Elements [237-239]. This is an index of the
same examples, but arranged by the elements of a reference list entry—author,
titles, publisher—and by variations on those elements.
Chapter 5: Sample Paper [306-320].
The model paper allows one to see what the parts of an APA paper actually look like on the
page. Annotations lead to appropriate sections of the manual.
The lengthy section on documentation style tells you how and when to cite
dozens of reference types. It defines plagiarism and explains the difference
between primary and secondary sources
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
Reference Guide to Grammar, Punctuation, and Usage [77-130]. A good
editorial guide for any writing.
In-Text Citations [207, 3.94]. Explains how to cite sources in the body of the
paper. This section is an essential accompaniment to Chapter 4, but students
often overlook it or find it difficult to locate when they need it.
th
* The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5 Edition
-3-
BASIC FORMATTING FOR AN APA PAPER
Remember that individual programs at Saint Mary's sometimes have their own variations on APA style. Check for these variations.
LINE SPACING
ALIGNMENT
All lines are double-spaced throughout unless your instructor specifies otherwise. The first
line of each page (except title page) begins at the top margin. Maintain a double space
after headings and between paragraphs.
Alignment is set at the left margin only for all text except title and title page. Lines should
be even on the left margin, but ragged on the right margin like the text on this page.
Use the Format, Paragraph commands to set double spacing at the beginning of the paper.
Do not double space manually by pressing the Enter key twice.
CHARACTER SPACING
Insert one space after every mark of punctuation.* (Two spaces are acceptable after
periods that end sentences, but be consistent throughout.)
MARGINS
Set margin at 1 inch on all sides. Many word processors set the default margin at 1.25, so
you may need to adjust the margins to 1 inch. (See "Using Microsoft Word for APA" in
Introduction to the APA & Other Writing Tips.)
*Exceptions: No space inside quotation marks and parentheses. Note the following
examples:
Byer advocated a “go-it-alone” position in the conflict.
Cole introduced the proposal (as recommended) and took a vote.
PAGE NUMBERS
Place page numbers at the top right corner, ½ inch from the top (inside the header). Never
type page numbers manually. The APA requires a header with the page number (though
some instructors may not). For details about setting page numbers with headers, see the
"Using MS Word for APA" section of Introduction to the APA & Other Writing Tips, and the
APA manual itself.) Count the title page as page 1 of the document.
FONT (TYPEFACE)
Use a clear, plain typeface in size 12. (The text your are reading is 8 pt). Do not use
boldface, underline, or all capitals unless your instructor specifies these. Keep the font the
same throughout the paper unless your instructor tells you otherwise. Select one of the
following:
Does APA require a page number on the title page?
This is Times New Roman.
This is Bookman Old Style.
This is Century.
This is Courier.
Yes, the APA indicates a page number and header title on the title page (p. 288, sect. 5.06;
pp. 296, 306, and 397); however, students should follow instructors' preferences.
PAPER
HEADINGS
Use 8-1/2” x 11” white paper. All papers are word-processed, one side only.
If your paper is lengthy and requires headings within it, format them in APA style. To begin,
determine your headings, then type or write the on a sheet of scratch paper. It's much
easier to format them correctly if you have them all together, without the text, to see how
they relate to one another. Once you have determined how many levels of heading you
need, then format them in the appropriate style. (See separate "Headings" section .)
TITLE PAGE
The title page in the APA manual is intended for the submission of a manuscript for
publication and may not serve to identify college papers. If your program has not provided
a model for a title page, use the example on the following page.
INDENTS
May I start a sentence with an abbreviation?
Indent the first sentence of each paragraph ½ inch (one tab space). All other lines of the
paragraph wrap to the left margin, as in this paragraph. Indent blocked quotes (40 words
or more) ½ inch on the left side only, including the first sentence.
Yes, according to the APA. Just don't use a lowercase abbreviation; you must use a
capital. Section 3.29, p. 11, states,
Never begin a sentence with a lowercase abbreviation (e.g., lb) or a symbol that
stands alone (e.g., α). Begin a sentence with a capitalized abbreviation or
acronym (e.g., U.S. or APA) or with a symbol connected to a word (e.g.,
β-Endorfphins) only when necessary to avoid indirect and awkward writing.
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
?
-5-
?
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
Attachment Disorder
1
-6-
TITLE PAGE
(See example left)
The APA manual describes how to create a title page for a manuscript submitted for
publication. That style of title page is not necessarily appropriate for student papers. If
your program or your instructor give you a sample title page, use that. Otherwise use
the model on the left.
The APA calls for a header and page number at the top right, ½ inch from the top edge
of the paper. However, some instructors prefer that the header and page number not
appear on the title page. (The format of this booklet did not allow for a page number and
header on the sample title page.) Always count the title page as page one, even if you
don't print a page number on it.
Set margins and font (size and type) on the title page to match the rest of paper. Do not
use boldface, italic, or underline.
Attachment Disorder: The Importance of Facial Expressions
Fleemore Q. Bogwart
Saint Mary's University School of Graduate and Special Programs
PSY690 Early Childhood Development
May 16, 2004
PLAGIARISM
QUOTING AND PARAPHRASING
th
See the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5 ed., for details.
Plagiarism is a very serious academic offence. A few students plagiarize in an attempt to
cut corners or to cover academic deficiencies. Other students, unfortunately, plagiarize
because they don't understand the concept of plagiarism and the methods for avoiding it.
In either case, students are held accountable for their actions, and the penalty could be as
severe as dismissal from the institution. Follow the rules of citation and documentation
carefully, and make sure you understand what is meant by paraphrasing.
Quoting
Avoid using direct quotes in your paper. They are problematic because (a) meaning can be
altered when authors’ words are taken out of context; (b) another author’s writing style may
not fit the writing style of your paper; (c) direct quotes give no indication that you
understand the source, nor does it help the reader understand the source; (d) direct quotes
can be distracting to the reader and break the flow of your paper.
In APA style, a citation consists of author’s last name and date of publication. A full citation
appears on the References page.
It is not necessary to use any direct quotes in a paper. If used at all, quotes should be
limited to the following:
Plagiarism is a very serious academic and ethical issue. Most universities impose
penalties on students or staff who plagiarize, whether the plagiarism is deliberate or
inadvertent.
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Paraphrasing
Avoiding Plagiarism
Perhaps paraphrasing is best defined by what it is not. Changing or omitting a few words
of another author’s statements in order to avoid a direct quote is not paraphrasing; it is, to
be blunt, a form of plagiarism. Readers are led to believe that you are presenting your
understanding of another author’s words, when in fact you are using that author’s actual
words (mostly). Paraphrasing requires that you express ideas in your own terms. Of
course, you will use some of the same terminology as the original author. If you are writing
about corporate downsizing, for example, you can’t avoid that term. However, if you simply
parrot the original author’s sentence structure, style, and diction, then you are not
paraphrasing.
Plagiarism is the presentation of someone else’s work as your own.
If you use another author’s words you must attribute the work to its
original source (its author, composer, etc.).
•
•
•
•
discussing the way an author expressed his or her ideas,
presenting a controversial or disputed statement,
conveying precise technical data or directions,
rhetorical effect, to introduce or emphasize a point.
If you borrow an idea from, or directly quote from, another
person’s work, cite the source of that idea or quote.
Phrases borrowed word-for-word from another author must
be placed in quotation marks and followed by the page
number from the original source.
Cite a source even if you don’t quote directly from it.
Paraphrase with care. Inadequate paraphrasing can be
another form of plagiarism, even with documentation
provided.
Here’s a strategy for paraphrasing: Read a section of the text you plan to reference, put
the text aside, and write your own interpretation in your own words. If you can’t do it, you
need to reread the text for better understanding before you try again. Sometimes reading
aloud is helpful.
Following is an example of how to, and how not to, paraphrase.
The Original (Source: Quincy, K. (1995). Hmong: History of a people. Cheney, WA:
Eastern Washington University Press)
Vietnamese tradition wisely forbade the confiscation of land for the payment of debts,
but the French ignored this tradition. A peasant's land was treated like any other real
asset that could be seized for the payment of debts. Fearing the confiscation of their
land for non-payment of taxes, many peasants turned to wealthy Vietnamese for loans
(at interest rates that often exceeded 100% per annum) to meet their tax obligation in a
futile attempt to stall off the inevitable. Slowly but surely Vietnam was transformed
into a land of huge estates on which approximately seventy percent of the population
toiled as sharecroppers. French tax policy was exploitative and shortsighted. Within
two generations it created the social and economic conditions for revolution. (p. 114)
For more tips on avoiding plagiarism, go to the Writing Center Web site from Saint Mary's
University home page. From the home page, click Resources (top right) and find the Twin
Cities Writing Center link.
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
-7-
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
Poor Paraphrase
Vietnamese tradition did not allow the seizing of land for the payment of debts. The
French, however ignored the tradition and treated land like any other asset.
Fearing the loss of their property, many peasants went to wealthy Vietnamese for
loans at high interest rates. Eventually, Vietnam was changed into a collection of
huge estates, where nearly three-fourths of the people worked as sharecroppers.
The tax policy of the French was unfair and misguided, and it set the stage for
revolution (Quincy, 1995).
Paraphrase, Second Look
Take another look at the attempted paraphrase above. Here the words taken from the
original source are italicized.
Vietnamese tradition did not allow the seizing of land for the payment of debts. The
French, however ignored the tradition and treated land like any other asset.
Fearing the loss of their property, many peasants went to wealthy Vietnamese for
loans at high interest rates. Eventually, Vietnam was changed into a collection of
huge estates, where nearly three-fourths of the people worked as sharecroppers.
The tax policy of the French was unfair and misguided, and it set the stage for
revolution (Quincy, 1995).
Most of this unacceptable "paraphrase" consists of identical words in the identical
grammatical form of the original. Even if the paraphraser were to find synonyms for the
original words, the passage would still be a plagiarism because the pattern of expression is
the same. Now compare the paragraph above to an acceptable paraphrase below, in
which the ideas are summarized and expressed in a new way.
Paraphrase (one possibility)
Quincy (1995) described how destitute Vietnamese peasants had to sell off their small
landholdings to pay for heavy taxes imposed by the French. These plots of land were
then consolidated into large estates on which the peasants had to work as
sharecroppers. It was the "exploitative and shortsighted" French tax policies, Quincy
concluded, that planted the seeds of political and economic revolution in Vietnam (p.
114).
If you believe that some of the author's key words ought to be retained (in this example, ,
his words describing French tax policy), then quote only those words in your paraphrase;
but provide a page number for the quoted words. If quoted words are included, the author's
name should precede them
the same. Now compare the paragraph above to the paraphrase below, in which the ideas
are summarized and expressed in a new way.
-8-
NOTES
THE BASICS OF CITING SOURCES
th
See the Publication Manual American Psychological Association, 5 edition, for details.
See also "Special Citation Questions?
Basic Guidelines
What Is a Scholarly Source?
Keeping in mind the purpose of citing sources—ethics, credibility, and retrievability—apply
the following principles:
Sources consulted for scholarly papers generally
• have been reviewed by professional experts (peers, juries) in the field of study,
• contain content regarded as scholarly by professionals in the field,
• are archived (stored for availability) for a significant length of time.
•
The best way to limit your research to scholarly sources is to rely on professional or
university databases, indexes, and catalogues. On the Internet, for example, search
engines like Yahoo, Google, or Lycos yield a range of sources, from scholarly to downright
silly. Aggregate databases [278] such as ProQuest, Psych Info, or ERIC are limited, for the
most part, to scholarly sources that are adequately documented.
To retrieve a source, readers generally need to know the author, title, year of
publication, and date of publication. For electronic resources, the reader needs
at least an Internet address (URL or database name) and the date of retrieval. If
too much retrieval information is missing, the writer must ask if the source is a
reliable one.
•
Use valid, scholarly sources. Aggregated databases like ERIC and ProQuest,
available through university libraries, are efficient and reliable ways to access
such sources. Writers can surf the Internet, but Internet sources are not
screened the way university databases are, and Internet documentation
information can be scarce.
•
Writers should have a 1-to-1 correspondence between sources cited in the text
and sources entered in the reference list at the end of the paper. (The only
exception is personal communication, which is cited in text but does not appear
in the reference list because it is not retrievable.)
Ask a librarian to help you limit your searches to scholarly sources.
Why Do We Cite Sources?
Why are we asked to use and cite scholarly sources in academic writing? There
are three reasons, and understanding these help us determine what sources to cite and
how to document them.
What to Include
Reason 1: Academic Ethics. Honesty and fairness require us to let readers know
whose ideas and words we have borrowed. We can’t pass off someone else’s work as
our own. Simply changing a few words to avoid a direct quote doesn’t remove our
obligation to identify the source of an idea. No matter how it is worded, someone
else’s idea still needs to be identified as his or hers, not ours.
For every entry in your reference list, provide the following four elements, to the best of
your ability, in the following order
(a) author by last name & first initial, (b) publication year, (c) title information, and (d)
publisher location and name
If the work is an Internet resource, give the full retrieval date and the URL or database
as item (d).
Reason 2: Scholarly Credibility. Even new research needs to be founded on, or
related to, existing scholarly work. As writers, we must provide context for our ideas
and establish credibility with our readers, indicating our familiarity with a solid body of
knowledge about our topic. One way to do this is to relate what we are writing to what
has been written before by experts in the field. Citations help identify those experts.
Sources are Cited in Two Places:
1. Cite in your text, by author’s last name and year (in parentheses). The purpose of
the text citation is to lead readers to the full citation on the reference page at the
end of the text.
Reason 3: Source Retrieval. For various reasons, readers may want to view the
sources we used in our writing, whether we used those sources for background or
quoted them directly. Our responsibility as writers is to provide sufficient
documentation in a systematic way so that readers can retrieve the information we
used.
2. Cite on the reference page at the end of your document, where you will provide a
full citation (see "Sample Reference Page"). The citations are listed in alphabetical
order by author’s last name.
See also "Primary and Secondary Sources" in this booklet.
Reviewing the three reasons for documenting sources helps us decide what
kinds of sources to cite, when to cite them, and how to provide documentation for retrieving
them.
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
-9-
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
- 10 -
CITATIONS IN THE TEXT [207-217]
May I cite page numbers for unquoted text?
Purpose of In-Text Citation
The purpose of the in-text citation is to lead readers to the correct alphabetized entry on the
Reference page. The samples that follow illustrate variations on the same in-text citation.
Frazier and Paulson (1992) found that the portfolio method of assessment
motivated reluctant writers.
The word and must be spelled out in
running text, but the ampersand (&) is
used inside parentheses.
?
Yes. The APA says the following:
When paraphrasing or referring to an idea contained in another work, authors
are not required to provide a location reference (e.g. a page or paragraph
number). Nevertheless, authors are encouraged to do so, especially when it
would help an interested reader locate the relevant passage in a long or complex
text (p. 121, sect. 3.39).
Electronic Resources in Text: Page and Paragraph Numbers [APA 3.39]
In a later study (Frazier & Paulson, 1992) demonstrated that the portfolio
method of assessment motivated reluctant writers
In a 1992 study , Fazier and Paulson noted that the portfolio method of
Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers (unless they are PDF reproductions
of printed materials). If paragraph numbers are visible, use them in place of page numbers.
Use the symbol for paragraph (¶) or the abbreviation para. (See examples below).
assessment motivated reluctant writers.
Example 1
Varying the Citation Wording
better to live fulfilled, with joy—and a means to a more caring and healthy society.”
As Myers (2000, ¶ 5) aptly phrased it, “positive emotions are both an end—
Technically, you could write each citation the same way throughout the paper. However
the stylistic repetition sometimes gets monotonous for readers. Try varying the approach as
in these examples:
1.
According to Khali and Kozumi (2000), previous research failed to . . .
2.
Stieglitz & Hernandez (2002) emphasized . . .
3.
Several earlier studies (Willum, 1999; Wright & Formani, 1998; Gudmund,
If the online document does not contain page or paragraph numbers but does have
headings, then include the heading (in shortened form) and count the paragraph from
the heading under which it appears; for example, ("Innovations" section, para. 3)
Example 2
“The current system of managed care and the current approach to defining
Farrar, McDermot, et al., 1996) were inconclusive . . .
empirically supported treatments are shortsighted” (Beutler, 2000, Conclusion
4.
Zarweit (1997) responded, “At no time were the subjects informed” (p. 92).
section, ¶ 1).
5.
The failures, in Jordan’s (2000) view, were caused by . . .
6.
Czel (1979) defined sensation seeking as behavior that . . .
7.
. . . but the results were inconclusive (Hammel, 2003).
Avoid anthropomorphism (attributing human actions to non-humans nouns):
Not: A survey by Biggs and McCoy (2001) reported . . .
But: Biggs and McCoy (2001) reported . . .
Surveys, research, studies, and reports didn't do anything. Their authors did.
Must I use page or paragraph numbers for Internet Quotations?
Not necessarily. Writers should strive to provide page or paragraph numbers whenever
possible for Internet sources; however, note the following from the APA manual:
In some cases [of Internet citation], it may be necessary to omit a location
reference altogether, such as when no page or paragraph numbers are visible
and headings either are not provided or their use would prove unwieldy or
confusing. In documents accessed with a Web browser, readers will be able to
search for the quoted material. (p. 121, sect. 3.39)
?
CITATIONS ON THE REFERENCE PAGE
Ministry of Education. (1992). Dancing with the pen: The learner as a writer.
The examples in this booklet are set at 1.5 pace and reduced type to conserve
space, but the APA calls for double-spacing and 12 pt. throughout the text.
Wellington, New Zealand: Learning Media.
Book, Chapter in a book. [APA pp. 252-253]
The reference list always begins on a new page. It contains an entry for each source cited
in the paper, and only sources cited in the paper, listed in alphabetical order by author’s
last name. (The only exception is any personal communication of the writer, which is cited
in the text but not in the reference list because it is not a retrievable source.) Entries are
double-spaced within entries and between entries. Each entry is formatted in hanging
indent (see instructions in the “MS Word for APA Tasks” section of this booklet).
EXAMPLE 1: Unedited Book
Reference List Entry:
Author, X. (pub year). Title of chapter. In Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Pub
location: Pub name.
You will encounter an endless variety of sources and countless variations in types of
sources. The only way to ensure accuracy is to refer frequently to the APA manual
[Chapter 4]. For other excellent illustrations of APA style, including a complete reference
page, see the model paper [Figure 5.1] in the APA manual.
In-Text Citation: Cite author and pub year, and page numbers if necessary.
EXAMPLE 2: Edited Book
If the book is edited, note editor’s name in the reference list entry (but not in the
text) as follows:
Print Sources on the Reference Page
Author, X. (pub year). Title of chapter. In Name & Name (Eds.) Title of book
EXAMPLES
(pp. xxx-xxx). Pub location: Pub name.
Book
Lazear, D. G. (1994). Multiple intelligence approaches to assessment: Solving the
assessment conundrum. Tucson, AZ: Zephyr Press.
•
If the book and chapter authors are the same, but the chapter doesn’t have
a separate title, then give a regular book citation, but include appropriate
page numbers.
Book title is italicized but not capitalized except for first word, proper nouns, and first word
following a colon. Citations always end with a period unless the last element is an Internet
address.
•
If the book and chapter authors are different, but the book is not edited,
check to see if you are reading a secondary source.
Periodical Article with Two Authors
What if I cite material from several chapters of the same book by the same
author?
O’Flahaven, J. F., & Blassberg, R. (1992). Toward an embedded model of spelling
instruction for emergent literates. Language Arts, 69, 409-417.
If all the chapters were written by the same person(s), then cite the book only
once in the reference list without naming the separate chapters.
Ampersand (&) before last author. Article’s title not italicized and not capitalized. Journal
title both italicized and capitalized. Volume number follows title and comma, no
parentheses.
Electronic Sources on the Reference Page
Instructors sometimes require variations on the APA style. Always make the distinction
between APA guidelines and instructor’s variations. Follow your instructor’s preferences.
An issue number is needed only if each issue begins with page 1. Issue number
follows volume number without spaces, and is enclosed in parentheses as follows:
THE BASICS
Language Arts Teacher, 23(6), 47-58.
How do I cite an Internet source? This is not a question with a single answer. Electronic
resources are now so varied that the answer must be “it depends.” That’s why APA “quick
guides” are not very helpful and sometimes misleading. But here are some general rules.
Book, Publisher as Author
American Psychological Association. (1994). Publication manual of the American
How you cite depends, in part, on (a) what kind of document you are citing—journal article,
abstract, report, etc.; (b) how it was originally published—print source, on-line only, etc.;
and (c) how you retrieved it—CD-ROM, Web link, aggregate database, etc.
Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Publisher’s name replaces author. The word Author substitutes for the publisher’s name.
Keep in mind the following general guidelines [p. 269]:
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
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© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
• Direct readers as closely as possible to the information being cited. Whenever
possible, reference specific documents rather than home or menu pages.
• Provide addresses (URLs) that work.
Minimum Information for An Electronic Source Entry
Give the author, of course, if available, but you must provide at least
1. document title,
2. publication date—or the notation (n. d.) if date not available
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In other words, the [Electronic version] notation is not necessary, and the writer may cite
the source as other electronic sources are cited—with retrieval date and URL or database
name.
Article Retrieved from an Aggregate Database
Aggregate databases gather information from many sources into one searchable database.
Because an aggregate database is available from a variety of sources (university servers,
CD-ROMs, Web sites, etc.), the URL may not be helpful to readers. Name the database so
that readers can find the source through the same database you used [p. 278].
3. date you retrieved the document, and
The example that follows is fictitious but refers to an actual database, ProQuest, accessible
through the Saint Mary’s University library.
4. the Uniform Resource Locator (URL—also called an Internet address) or the
database name (if the source came from an aggregate database like ProQuest or
InfoTrac).
Gratke, J. (2000). APA style and college writing: Learning to deal with frustration.
The following fictitious samples are based on the model for articles in professional journals.
Newsletters, abstracts, reports, and other documents or forms of discourse are
documented differently. You will need to refer to the APA 5th edition for these.
EXAMPLES
Online Journal Article
Crow, J., Verte, D., & Zinn, P., (2001, March 7). An older population and its housing
needs: What are our options? Maturing & Health, 3, 122-126. Retrieved
February 12, 2000, from
Journal of Graduate Studies, 7, 23-29. Retrieved June 12, 2001, from
ProQuest database.
ERIC Online Resources
Remember that ERIC provides only abstracts and location information. If you want the full
document, either order it from ERIC or use the location information to retrieve it yourself
(with help from a librarian).
Each ERIC entry is assigned an ERIC number. These numbers are prefixed with the
letters ED (for ERIC Document) or EJ (for ERIC Journal).
ƒ
If the ERIC resource contains an ED number, a librarian will use it to help you
obtain the full document, and you will include the ED number in your reference
list entry. It is placed in parentheses at the end of the entry, as in Example #43
[257].
ƒ
If your resource contains an EJ number, a librarian will use it to help you locate
the full journal article. You will then cite your source as you normally cite a
journal article. The EJ number will not appear in the reference entry.
ƒ
Sometimes, in addition to the ED or EJ number, ERIC provides a report number
or document number assigned by the document’s original publisher. If you have
that report number, include it in your Reference entry. Enclose it in parentheses
after the document title, as in example #43 [257].
http://oregon.agingcouncil.org/art.03.7.maturinghealth/oac.html
After the title and volume number, add the word retrieved, the date of retrieval, the word
from, and the URL.
Do not hyphenate a URL to force a break at the end of a line. It is not necessary to break a
URL to avoid white space. However, if you do break a URL, do so only after a slash or
before a period. Do not use a period to close an entry ending with a URL
?
When do I use the notation [Electronic Version] in a reference list entry?
A few years ago, nearly all Internet periodicals were replicas of print sources. The APA
manual says that electronic sources that are identical to their print versions should be cited
as print versions, with the words Electronic Version included in brackets. Now, however,
many periodicals exist only online, and online versions may vary from their print
counterparts. You may not know if your online article exists in print version, or if it varies
from a print version, without retrieving a print version for comparison. A member of the APA
Style Expert staff (personal communication, November 7, 2002) said the following:
The guiding principle in creating references is that they should enable readers to
retrieve and use the sources referenced. As long as the reference information is
clear and accurate, I don't think that, for example, an APA editor would question or
change an article reference that used a URL rather than an [Electronic version]
notation, even if he or she thought the two versions were identical.
I retrieved an ERIC article through ProQuest, an aggregated database.
Does the reference entry follow the database model or the ERIC model?
The most appropriate format would be a combination of Examples 88 and 43 in the APA
manual. Replace the publisher name/location information with the Web retrieval statement
and add the ERIC document number, as in the following example.
Author, X. (pub year). Title of document. (Report no., if any). Retrieved February 26,
2002, from ProQuest database. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.
ED123456).
If the database provides journal title, year, and page number, include those after article title.
?
For more information about the use of the ERIC database, including how to document, link
to the ERIC Web site at http://askeric.org/Eric/Help/cite.shtml
PRIMARY & SECONDARY SOURCES
For more information about documentation of electronic resources, consult the Publication
th
Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5 Edition [Chapter 4] and visit the APA
Web page, which provides interpretation and updating of the manual, at the address that
follows: http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html
In the illustration below, Plante is the secondary source (the source you read) and Chan is
the primary source (the source you didn't read) cited by Plante. Primary means the first
source of information. Secondary is the source in which the primary source was cited. Cite
as primary/secondary only when the primary source is quoted or when his or her name
appears in the running text.
How do I cite a telephone interview?
A telephone interview is not a retrievable source, so it does not get an entry on the
Reference page. However, it must be cited in the text as follows: (J. J. Doe, personal
communication, April 10, 2002). If the name of the person being cited is written into the
running text, then it need not appear again in the parentheses.
Secondary source
All non-retrievable personal communications (interviews, letters, e-mail, memos, and the
like) are cited in text but do not appear on the Reference page. Minutes of meetings
appear on the Reference page only if they are retrievable. Often times the minutes of
informal meetings are not published and thus not retrievable, in which case they should be
treated the same as personal communications.
Primary source
In-Text Citation
Cite both authors, making clear who cited whom. Using the example above, you would cite
this way: Chan (as cited in Plante, 2003) reported that . . . Such an arrangement tells
the reader who is being cited (Chan) and where you got Chan's information (in Plante). If
the reader wants to view the primary text (Chan's), he or she must go to Plante and look up
Plante's citation of Chan. You can see why readers prefer not to find secondary source
information in your papers.
Reference List Entry
List on the reference page only the works you read. In the example above, only Plante, the
secondary source, appears on the reference page. Chan, the primary source, receives no
mention on the reference page.
When to Use Secondary Sources
Avoid secondary sources when possible. They suggest weak scholarship. With the
availability of sources on the Internet and through university libraries, most sources are
retrievable. When you rely on a secondary source, you raise the question of why you didn't
seek the original. Furthermore, you are forced to rely on the interpretation of the secondary
source author. You will simply pass along any errors he or she made in presenting the
primary source. Use secondary sources when the primary source is not translated into
English, when you need to discuss reviews of the primary source material, or when the
primary source information is not essential to your purpose.
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© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
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SAMPLE REFERENCE PAGE
NOTES
(TOP MARGIN OF PAPER)
References
Burnham, B. R. (2000). Program planning as technology in three adult education
organizations. Adult Education Quarterly, 38(4), 211-233.
Cultural attractions and cultural distractions. (2003 July/August). WorldWide
Business Quarterly, 4, 518-523.
ConsumerCenterWEB. (n.d.). Six ways to protect your privacy. Retrieved June 13,
2002, from http://www..ConsumerCenterWEB.org/vol9/conadv/html
Gratke, J. (2003). APA style and college writing: Learning to deal with frustration.
Journal of Graduate Studies, 7, 23-29. Retrieved June 12, 2003, from
PsychINFO database.
Hebring, R. J., Jr., & Vang, C. (2002). Collective wisdom, diverse experience: Managers’
real stories (3rd ed.). New York: Random House.
Jawhar, A. (2003, January 12). Two communities tackle student drinking problems.
The Philadelphia Inquirer, pp. A3, A5-6.
Lazear, D. G. (2001). Multiple intelligence approaches to assessment: Solving the
assessment conundrum. Tucson, AZ: Zephyr Press.
Mayher, J. S. (1996). How the system is used to make meaning. In Uncommon Sense:
Theoretical practice in language education (pp.137-166). Portsmouth, NH:
Boynton/Cook Heinemann.
Parker, S. (2003). Why teach graduate students to write? University Writing, 8, 917933. Retrieved November 18, 2003, from ProQuest database.
Stonebrook Center for Technology-Assisted Learning. (1999). Guidelines for
maintaining the edge on a tight budget (2nd ed.). Roanoke, VA: Author.
OTHER EXAMPLES OF APA STYLE
Numbers in brackets indicate sections of the APA manual* where detailed information is available.
TITLES: Formatting
TITLES: Capitalizing
Three Types of Titles
Capitalizing Titles on the Reference Page [4.10 to 4.13]
Type 1. Work presented as part of a larger work [4.10]. Examples: chapter in
book, article from journal
y The only titles fully capitalized on the reference page are periodical titles, which are
capitalized as explained above, and are italicized: Journal of Abnormal Psychology.
Type 2. Stand-alone work [4.12]. Examples: book, stand-alone Internet
document, brochure, report, unpublished dissertation
y Titles of books and articles are capitalized in (a) first word, (b) first word after colon,
and (c) proper nouns:
Type 3. Periodical [4.11] The title of the journal or other periodical
From here to eternity (book)
Cut and paste 101: Plagiarism and the net (stand-alone Internet article)
Titles on the Reference Page
Manifest destiny and the settling of the American frontier (chapter in a book)
Type 1. Do not italicize. Capitalize only the following: (a) first word, (b) first
word after a colon, (c) proper nouns.
Capitalizing Titles in Your Text [3.13]
The general rule for capitalizing titles in the text is capitalize major words. But what are
major words? Major words are all words except (a) coordinating conjunctions, (b) articles,
and (c) short prepositions. However, capitalize these words as well if they appear as the
first word in the title.
Type 2. Italicize. Capitalize only the following: (a) first word, (b) first word after
a colon, (b) proper nouns
Type 3. Italicize. For capitalization, follow the form used by the publisher.
y Coordinating Conjunctions (not capitalized)
Type 3
Type 1
Coordinating conjunctions are defined as those words that connect grammatically
equal elements. There are seven coordinating conjunctions, and they can be
arranged by their first letters to form the "word" fanboy:
Predicting alcoholism: College binge drinking. National Journal of Addiction, 12, 11-19
for, and, nor, but, or, yet
Type 2
Examples: Forgiven but Not Forgotten
Elgin, G. I. (2003). The politics of curriculum in American education. Boston: Boynton.
"The Cambridge Spelling Report: Help or Hoax?"
The Logic and Rhetoric of Exposition
Titles in Your Text (excluding your own title)
y Articles (not capitalized)
Type 1. Place inside quotation marks. Capitalize major words (see below),.
Example: "The American Work Ethic" (article from New Psychology)
Articles are those three critical little words--a, an, and the--without which we can
scarcely write a sentence
Type 2. Italicize. Capitalize major words.
Example: Publication Manual of the American Psychological
Association
Short Prepositions (not capitalized)
Prepositions, like articles, are function words. When paired with nouns, they identify
relationships of position and time, like before sundown, between you and me, among
the trees, and above average. There are more than 70 common prepositions. Do
not capitalize prepositions of three words or fewer. There are 13 you should not
capitalize:
as at but by for in of off on out 'til to up
Type 3. Italicize. Capitalize major words (or follow capitalization of publisher).
Examples: (a) New England Journal of Medicine, (b) COMbusiness
Note: When the first word or two of a title is used to replace a missing author in a text
citation, follow the formatting for in-text titles.
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
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© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
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QUOTATIONS
How do I use direct quotes effectively?
Capitalization of Quotations*
In a word, sparingly. You could probably write a better paper if you didn’t use any. Direct
quotes can be problematic.
Capitalize the first word of a quoted sentence [p. 118, Quotation 1; and p. 293].
•
Quotations are necessarily taken from their original context and may not fit
properly in the context you provide. Sometimes the meaning or intent of the
quote is changed by the new context.
•
Quoting someone directly provides no indication of how well, or even if, you
understand the material you are quoting. Overuse of quotes therefore can cause
you to lose credibility with your readers.
•
Quoting, if not done very skillfully, can break up the flow of your writing.
Suddenly encountering another person’s writing style can be jarring to readers.
Use direct quotes only (a) if you intend to comment on the author’s word choice or style of
expression, or (b) once, for emphasis or rhetorical effect.
Quotation of Fewer than 40 Words. Keep within paragraph text.
Phenix and Scott-Dunn (1991) stated, “There is clearly a need for a new kind
of spelling instruction, one that raises students’ awareness about language and its
patterns, and focuses on word construction rather than word memorization” (p. 26).
Note page number outside quotation
marks and period after parentheses.
Jones and Smith (1992) described “the social construction of word families as
a powerful tool in spelling instruction” (p. 415).
Quotation of More than 40 Words. Place in separate, indented ("Blocked") paragraph.
Swicegood (1994) linked the use of portfolios with the Individual Education
Plan (IP) when he stated the following:
Insight gained through informal, ecological approaches gives teachers access
to viable information, which in turn leads to more effective interventions and
practices, both in schools and clinical settings. The use of student portfolios
in placement and instructional planning contexts, including the design of IEP
goals and objectives, can add depth and breadth to the intervention process.
(p. 14)
Note that indentation of quote replaces
quotation marks and that the period is
placed at end of quote rather than after
the parenthesis of page citation.
Harris (2000) remarked, “Finding information is an art, not a science” (p.
214).
According to Plotnik (1982), “The licensing or copyright agreement with the
author does not cover items the author borrowed from another source” (p. 16).
However, if the quoted sentence completes an unfinished sentence or follows the
word that, do not capitalize the first word or precede it with a comma. [p. 118,
Quotation 2; and p. 120]
Sutter was fascinated with Lake Superior because “the ore boats and foreign
freighters seemed impossibly exotic” (p. 2).
Quincy acknowledged that “negotiations over bride price sometimes involved
more than the price of the bride” (p. 105).
Do not capitalize the first word of a quoted phrase (incomplete sentence).
Bryson (2002) called the English language “a merry confusion of quirks and
irregularities that often seem willfully at odds with logic and common sense.”
If the quote is interrupted, do not capitalize the first word of the resumed quote.
“People and places,” noted Zinsser, “are the twin pillars on which most
nonfiction is built” (p. 54).
* Sources: Hacker, D. (2003) A writer’s reference, p. 284. Boston: Bedford St. Martins.
th
Harris, M. (2000). Prentice Hall reference guide to grammar and usage (4 ed.), p.
229. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
How should I format quoted material that is not in APA format?
Section 3.35 (p. 118) of the APA manual states that direct quotations must adhere to the
wording, spelling, and interior punctuation of the original source. But what about
formatting—for example, of bullets: According to a member of the APA Style Expert staff,
This is a question about which there does not seem to be complete agreement
. . . in the ranks. However, in my opinion, when quoting material, . . . keeping
bullets rather than changing them to enumerated paragraphs is the way to go. The
author undoubtedly had a choice between bullets and enumerated paragraphs when
writing the original work, so it is good form to respect that choice when quoting the
work, if it is possible to do so. (Personal communication, November 7, 2002)
To indent block quotes see section entitled "Using Microsoft Word for APA Tasks" in this
booklet.
PUNCTUATION
See also "Transitions and Conjunctions"
Spacing
If the introduction is not a complete sentence, no punctuation is needed:
Each mark of punctuation is followed by one space. (Two spaces may follow a period
ending a sentence; however, if used the practice should be consistent throughout the
paper.)
Dieters preferred low fat breakfast foods such as strawberries, unbuttered whole
wheat toast, unsweetened cereal, and applesauce.
2. Use a colon on the reference list, to separate publisher location from name.
Exceptions No space is required after
Hebring, R. J., Jr. & Vang, C. (2002). Collective wisdom, diverse experience:
• opening parenthesis:
Managers’ real stories (3rd ed.). New York: Random House
Departing flights (except those already noted) are temporarily grounded.
Commas: Six Rules
• opening quotation mark, and comma or period before a closing quotation mark
The following six comma rules will enable you to punctuate most sentences correctly.
The captain remarked, “The space is inadequate.” I agreed.
1.
All other punctuation marks are followed by one space.
Apostrophe (')
Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, so*, yet, nor, for)
if it joins two sentences.
• Ellen thought the movie was exciting, and Fred liked it more than any he had
seen that year.
• Fred and Ellen saw a movie and went out to dinner afterwards. (No comma
needed because and is not joining two sentences.
Use an apostrophe
1. to show ownership or possession.
Add an apostrophe and an s ('s) to words that don't end with an s:
* (when so means therefore or as a result, but not when it means so that)
somebody's car (the car belonging to somebody)
the men's locker room (the locker room of the men)
a month's rent (the rent of a month)
2. Use a comma after introductory expressions.
An introductory expression is a word or words that lead up to the main part of the
sentence.
Add only an apostrophe after the s to words that already end in s.
twelve days' pay (that is, the pay for twelve days)
the students' tests (that is, tests belonging to the students)
• Frankly, I have had enough of this cold and rainy weather.
• When our bakery closed down, Jan had to make her own bread.
• Confused by the freeway signs, Ralph got hopelessly lost in Chicago.
2. to form contractions.
Show omission of letters with apostrophes:
3. Use commas to separate three or more items in a series.
Could not = couldn't; he is = he's; they are = they're; cannot = can’t
Use a comma after each item, including the one before the conjunction (and or or).
• Protestors wore black pants, red shirts, and green sashes.
• Students can study before class, after school, or on Saturday afternoon.
Colon (:)
1. Use a colon after a complete sentence that introduces a list.
4. Use commas to set off words and phrases that interrupt the sentence if those
words are not essential to the purpose of the sentence.
The breakfast menu contained the clients’ favorite foods: bran muffins, bananas,
pancakes and maple syrup, and bacon and eggs.
• Michelle took her seat at the table and, much to everyone's surprise, blew her nose
on the tablecloth.
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
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© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
• I liked Brad's sense of humor. His lewd jokes, however, deeply embarrassed his
grandmother.
• Bill, a man of much courage, grabbed the burglar's hand and bit off his trigger
finger.
5. Use a comma to set off a phrase at the end of a sentence if that phrase refers to
the beginning or middle part of the sentence, or to the entire sentence. These
phrases will usually begin with a word ending in –ed or –ing.
• Teachers offered rewards to the students, trying to improve test scores.
With a comma, the sentence means that teachers offered rewards in an attempt to
improve test scores. (The phrase trying to improve test scores might better be placed
before or after teachers and set off with commas.)
• Teachers offered rewards to the students trying to improve their test scores.
Without a comma, the sentence means that teachers offered rewards only to students
who were trying to improve their test scores.
Example:
The company recognized every branch manager, raising morale and encouraging
high standards.
The sentence above—containing a comma before the final phrase—means that raising
morale and encouraging high standards are the result of the company’s recognition of
every branch manager. Raising refers to the entire sentence that precedes it.
The company recognized every branch manager raising morale and encouraging
high standards.
Without a comma, the sentence means that the company recognized only those branch
managers who were raising morale and encouraging high standards.
Example:
Close communication exists among the cell types, allowing interchange of
secretions between the hormones.
The sentence above means that the interchange is a result of the close communication
(among the cell types). Allowing refers to the phrase close communication exists
among cell types (that kind of communication is what allows the interchange).
Close communication exists among the cell types allowing interchange of
secretions between the hormones.
The sentence above means that communication exists only among cell types that allow
the interchange. (Allowing refers only to cell types.)
Example:
Effects on the endothelium increase sensitivity to pressure agents, causing the
vasoconstriction seen in preeclampsia.
Effects on the endothelium increase sensitivity to pressor agents causing the
vasoconstriction seen in preeclampsia.
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6. If rules 1-5 don’t apply, you probably don’t need a comma. Most people
over-use commas.
Exception. Occasionally, a comma is needed to prevent the misreading of a
sentence, even if one of the five rules doesn’t apply. Note the following example:
Patients who can discuss side effects with their doctors before undergoing
surgery.
Adding a comma will prevent misreading of the sentence:
Patients who can, discuss side effects with their doctors before undergoing
surgery.
HEADINGS [3.31, 5.10]
Sample Text with Three Levels of Heading
Heading Tips
(TOP MARGIN OF SAMPLE PAPER)
Format your headings after the paper is complete because heading format is determined by
how many levels of heading are needed, and this you may not know until the paper is
finished.
Title of Paper in Style 1
The best way to keep track of headings is to list all your headings on scratch paper. When
you see them all at once, you'll have a much better idea of the overall organization of your
paper and of the headings' relationships to one another. Furthermore, you will find that
formatting APA style is much easier when you can view the headings together. Once you
have them all set up, transfer the styles to your paper. D
First Major Heading in Style 3
The text for subheading number one begins here. You can have as many
paragraphs as you like under this heading. If you are dividing the paper into sections, you
know you will need at least one more heading at this level because you cannot “divide”
on't forget that the section titles (abstract title, title of the paper, reference page title) are
always formatted as Style 1 headings. Rarely will you need more than three levels of
headings, and two may suffice. .
your paper into “one.” Therefore, continue typing your paragraphs until you are ready for
the next heading.
Second Major Heading in Style 3
Sections 3.31 and 5.10 of the APA manual provide details about headings, but the sections
must be read very carefully. The style 5 heading (all uppercase and centered) is very
rarely used, so double check with your instructor or advisor if you find yourself typing it.
Now you have divided your paper into two subheadings, the minimum number of
divisions. You can make more divisions—as many as you like. In fact, you can divide the
Remember that headings require no special spacing between lines. They follow the
double-space pattern of the rest of the paper. They require no special font effects except
for the italicizing of style 2, 3, and 4 headings.
subheadings if you want to. Suppose that, within Subheading One, you want further
subdivisions. You just have to use a sub-subheading style to distinguish the subdivisions
from the larger subheadings.
What students seem to find most difficult about headings is that the sequence of styles
changes according to the number of headings used. What does that mean?
First minor subdivision in style 4. This is the paragraph level subdivision, used to
create a third level of heading. Put the subdivision heading at the beginning of the
Headings: A Summary
paragraph, italicize the heading, and place a period at the end of it to separate it from the
• If the paper requires 2 levels of headings, use style 1 and style 3 (not 1 and 2).
paragraph text. You can add additional unheaded paragraphs if necessary
• If the paper requires 3 levels of headings, use styles 1, 3, and 4 (not 1, 2, and 3).
Second minor subdivision in style 4. You have already learned that if you start
• If the paper requires 4 levels of heading, styles 1, 2, 3, and 4.
dividing a section, you must have at least two divisions at that level. This paragraph is the
• If the paper requires 5 levels, style 5 subordinates all others, so use
styles 5, 1, 2, 3, 4—in that order.
second minor subdivision of the Second Major Heading in Style 3
Style 1 is (a) centered, (b) capitalized in title style.
to you if you haven’t used them before. However, they are standard for academic writing.
Third Major Heading in Style 3
The headings illustrated in this sample may look a little odd (and perhaps boring)
You probably wouldn’t want to use academic-style headings for a brochure or for
Style 2 is (a) centered, (b) italicized, (c) capitalized in title style.
Style 3 is (a) placed at left margin, (b) italicized, (c) capitalized in title style.
advertising; but they serve the purpose of formal academic writing—and some business
Style 4 is (a) indented half-inch from left margin, (b) italicized, (c) not capitalized,
except for first word and proper nouns, (d) followed by period, (e) placed
on the same line as the text that follows it.
writing—because they are low profile and do not distract from the text.
Style 5 is (a) centered, b) all caps.
(BOTTOM MARGIN OF SAMPLE PAPER)
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
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© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
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Sample Text with Four Levels of Heading
How do I format appendix headings?
(TOP MARGIN OF SAMPLE PAPER)
The title of the appendix is separate from any headings that may fall in the appendix.
Therefore, every appendix will have a uniform layout: "Appendix," centered at the top of the
page and a title, centered (with uppercase and lowercase letters). The text below the title
then follows the standard headings as described in section 3.91.
Title of Paper in Style 1
First Major Division in Style 2
Ora avete diviso la vostra carta in due sottotitoli, il numero minimo di
divisioni.Potete rendere più divisioni -- altretante mentre gradite.Infatti, potete dividere i
sottotitoli se desiderate a.Supponga che, all'interno del sottotitolo uno, desiderate ulteriori
suddivisioni.Dovete usare appena uno stile di secondario-sottotitolo per distinguere le
suddivisioni dai più grandi sottotitoli.
Second Major Division in Style 2
First Major Heading in Style 3
Il testo per il sottotitolo il numero uno comincia qui.Se state dividendo la carta
nelle sezioni, sapete che avrete bisogno almeno di un'nuova intestazione a questo livello
perché non potete "dividere" la vostra carta "in una."di conseguenza, continuerete a
scrivere i vostri paragrafi a macchina fino a che non siate pronti per. . .
First minor subdivision in style 4. Uno stile preferito spesso è suddivisione
livellata di paragrafo, come illustrato qui.Iniziate semplicemente un nuovo paragrafo,
mettete l'intestazione di suddivisione all'inizio del paragrafo, italicize l'intestazione e
disponete un periodo all'estremità di esso per separarli dal testo di paragrafo.
Second minor subdivision in style 4. Già avete imparato che se cominciate
dividere una sezione, dovete avere almeno due divisioni a quel livello.Questo paragrafo è
la seconda suddivisione secondaria del sottotitolo il numero due.
Second Major Heading in Style 3
Le intestazioni illustrate in questo campione possono osservare poco
un dispari (e forse alesaggio) a voi se non li avete usati prima.Tuttavia, sono standard per
scrittura academic.Voi probabilmente non desidererebbe usare le intestazioni di academicstile per un opuscolo o per fare pubblicità; ma servono di scrittura academic convenzionale
di affari una certa e -- scrittura -- perché sono profilo basso e non distract dal testo.
(BOTTOM MARGIN OF SAMPLE PAPER)
COMPOSING LISTS
Numbered Paragraph Series [3.33 and 5.1]
Using Bullets
Sometimes it is not feasible to contain series within a paragraph because (a) either the
series is lengthy, as in a set of instructions, or (b) the series itself is a direct quote that was
originally listed as paragraphs. If the series cannot be included within one paragraph, set it
down in separate paragraphs, using numbers followed by periods. You must turn off the
auto-numbering function of the word processor (see the "MS Word for APA" section of
this booklet). Indent each numbered item as though it were a paragraph. Begin each
paragraph with a number, followed by a period and a space. Note that margins are
different for direct quotes than for unquoted text.
The APA does not allow lists marked with bullets. To make a list (seriation), follow one of
the appropriate APA styles explained and illustrated below.
Numbers or Letters? (Note: The following list is not APA style.)
1.
First off, the APA uses the term seriation when discussing lists. Look under the
term seriation or paragraph seriation in the APA manual’s index.
2.
Whether you use letters within a paragraph or numbers in a list of paragraphs,
the elements in a series must be grammatically and semantically parallel. For
information on parallel construction, see the APA manual [2.11, 60].
3.
Items in a numbered list are double-spaced, just like the rest of the text. They
are single-spaced below to save copying costs.
4.
If you are creating a numbered list, turn off the word processor’s automatic
numbering function. See the “Using MSWord for APA Tasks” section of this
booklet.
EXAMPLE 3: Paragraph Seriation, Unquoted Text
At the end of the first segment of the writing course, students completed the
following set of writing tasks. The instructors designed the tasks to test the students’
abilities to apply the information acquired by reading and discussing the text and by
completing exercises in the workbook that accompanied the text. Students completed
tasks in the order presented.
1. Paraphrase four ideas (two from each of the sources provided) in your own
words. Varying your presentation, provide in-text citations for each paraphrase.
2. From the Marsh and Willis article, give three short reasons why teachers
cannot control everything in the curriculum. Write several introductory sentences to
the issue, followed by the seriation. Remember to cite your source.
3. Briefly describe your role as a professional. Provide some introductory
sentences and then, using complete sentences, list the three most important aspects of
your work.
Alphabetized Series Within a Sentence [3.33 and 5.12]
When seriated items appear within a sentence, they can be—but don’t have to be—
designated by letters (not numbers) in parentheses. Whether the items are in a single
sentence or not, remember the serial comma—that’s the comma before the last item, as in
the following two examples:
EXAMPLE 4: Paragraph Seriation, Blocked Quote
EXAMPLE 1: Unlettered Seriation in a Sentence
A summary of the characteristics of research helps to clarify both its meaning
and its methodology. Best and Kahn (1993) summarized characteristics of research:
1. Research is directed toward the solution of a problem.
2. Research emphasizes the development of generalizations,
principles, or theories that will be helpful in predicting future occurrences.
3. Research is based upon observable experience or empirical
evidence.
4. Research demands accurate observation and description.
5. Research involves gathering new data from primary or firsthand sources or using existing data for a new project.
6. Although research activity may at times be somewhat random
and unsystematic, it is more often characterized by carefully designed
procedures that apply rigorous analysis.
7. Research strives to be objective and logical, applying every
possible test to validate the procedures employed, the data collected, and the
conclusions reached.
8. Research involves the quest for answers to unsolved problems.
(pp. 20-22)
The researchers divided participants into four groups on the basis of age, gender,
height, and weight.
serial comma
EXAMPLE 2: Lettered Seriation in a Sentence or Paragraph
In the text, cite all the research sources you used to produce your text, even if you don’t
quote the sources directly. Cite each source each time you refer to it in your paper.
Citations serve three functions: (a) to give credit to the persons whose ideas you used,
(b) to allow readers to find your original sources, and (c) to establish the credibility of
your presentation. Most of the time, you will comment on or paraphrase the ideas of
others. Occasionally, you will provide direct or indirect quotes to emphasize or clarify a
point. Note, however, that you must cite sources, regardless of whether you quote or
paraphrase.
serial comma
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
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© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
TABLES [3.62-3.74] AND FIGURES [3.75-3.86]
Use tables and figures sparingly, and only if the information contained in them is essential
for understanding the text of your paper. Tables and figures should supplement, not
duplicate, what is expressed in the text.
Mention the table or figure at the appropriate point in the text. Refer readers to the table or
figure with words such as
as shown in Table 2, the results were . . .
configuration of parts (see Figure 1) depended upon . . .
Numbering and Placing Tables and Figures
•
Table or figures are numbered in order of appearance in the text, and they are
numbered separately from one another (i.e. Table 1, Figure 1).
•
Provide a title for each table and place the title above the table, after the table
number (see p. 149 of APA manual for illustration).
•
Provide a caption for each figure and place the caption beneath the figure, after
the figure number (see p. 180 of APA manual for illustration).
•
For APA style, place each table or figure on a separate, unnumbered page, after
the Reference page. All tables come before all figures.
•
If the table or figure appears in an appendix, the appendix letter appears before
the number of the table or graph, e.g., Figure A2.
•
In APA style, tables have horizontal lines but not vertical lines.
Citations for Tables and Figures
No citation is needed in the text or on the Reference page, only a comment to direct the
reader to the table or figure (e.g., See Table 1).
Tables and Figures from Another Source [3.73].
If you obtained a table or figure from another source, you must, according to the APA
manual, “give credit in the figure caption to the original author and copyright” (p. 200).
•
Place the citation below the reproduced table (or figure) itself. Do not include a
citation in the text or on the reference page unless the source is mentioned in
your text. Do, however, point readers to the table or figure (e.g. See Figure 3).
•
Examples of wording for such citations are provided in the APA manual
[3.73].(The author and the copyright holder may not be the same because the
publisher, not the author, usually holds the copyright.)
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NOTES
OOPS! TROUBLESHOOTING THE APA MANUAL
.
EXAMPLE 1: Paragraph Seriation, Unquoted Text.
Yes, even the APA makes occasional boo boos; some of these will be corrected in
subsequent printings. Furthermore, the APA manual itself wasn't printed in APA style
(neither was the booklet you are reading). APA style applies to academic papers, not
necessarily to "how to" manuals. To keep you from getting confused, the Writing Center
offers this “heads up” bulletin. Check your manual to make the necessary corrections or
notations.
At the end of the first segment of the writing course, students completed the
following set of writing tasks. The instructors designed the tasks to test the students’
abilities to apply the information acquired by reading and discussing the text and by
completing exercises in the workbook that accompanied the text. Students completed
the following tasks:
1. Paraphrase four ideas (two from each of the sources provided) in your own
words. Varying your presentation, provide in-text citations for each paraphrase.
2. From the Marsh and Willis article, explain why teachers cannot control
everything in the curriculum. Write several introductory sentences to the issue,
followed by the seriation. Remember to cite your source.
3. Give four short quotations, two from each source. Preface two quotes with
a sentence in your own words. In the other two, make the quotation part of a complete
sentence.
Heads Up #1: Alignment of Margins
To save space, most examples in the APA manual are single-spaced, even though the
lines would be double-spaced in your paper. Also, margins in the manual are justified, or
aligned at both margins, but you should never align both margins in your papers—only the
left.
Note, for instance, Example 14 on p. 244. The alignment of both margins creates irregular
spacing between characters, making proofreading very difficult. Now turn to the model
reference list (Figure 5.1 on p. 314). The model reference list clearly indicates that the APA
did not intend for reference list entries to be aligned at both margins.
Wrapped to left margin of
the document’s text
Heads Up #2: Numbers, Lists, and Seriation
EXAMPLE 2: Paragraph Seriation in a Blocked Quote.
A summary of the characteristics of research helps to clarify both its meaning
and its methodology. Best and Kahn (1993) summarized characteristics of research:
1. Research is directed toward the solution of a problem.
2. Research emphasizes the development of generalizations,
principles, or theories that will be helpful in predicting future occurrences.
3. Research is based upon observable experience or empirical
evidence.
4. Research demands accurate observation and description.
5. Research involves gathering new data from primary or firsthand sources or using existing data for a new project.
6. Although research activity may at times be somewhat random
and unsystematic, it is more often characterized by carefully designed
procedures that apply rigorous analysis.
7. Research strives to be objective and logical, applying every
possible test to validate the procedures employed, the data collected, and the
conclusions reached.
8. Research involves the quest for answers to unsolved problems.
(pp. 20-22)
If you search the index for information about formatting numbered lists, do not look under
numbers or under lists. Instead, look under “Seriation, within a paragraph or sentence,”
where the index refers you to pages 116 [3.33] and 292 [5.12].
Both these sections deal with numbers, lists, and seriation; but the example of a seriated
paragraph list on page 117 [3.33] is wrong because the numbered paragraphs are indented
and aligned ("blocked") on the left side. Actually, according to APA, the left margins of
these numbered paragraphs should return all the way to the normal left margin; only the
first line of each paragraph should be indented.
Another example of a numbered list appears on p. 292 [5.12], where the paragraphs are
indented and wrapped to the left margin of the text. This is a better example; however,
even in this example the text is set in from the normal left margin.
To clarify some of the verbal and visual confusion, look at the following examples of
numbered lists, both of which are formatted in APA style. The first example illustrates a list
you would compose yourself; the second example illustrates a list quoted from another
source.
To create numbered lists in APA style, you must turn off the word processor’s automatic
numbering function (click “Undo”) or customize your automatic numbering function for APA
style (see Auto-Formatting in the “MS Word for APA Tasks” section of this booklet). Then
type each item as follows: Tab (1/2 inch); type number and period; one space; type first
word of item. Remember,
TAB—NUMBER—SPACE--WORD
Wrapped to left margin of
the indented text
Always use numbers (unless your instructor specifically tells you otherwise). APA does not
allow bullets.
NOTE: Text in the following examples has been single-spaced to fit the page. APA text in
your papers is always double-spaced.)
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
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© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
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Heads Up #3: Citing Secondary Sources
NOTES
When you cite a source you haven’t read, but only read about in a secondary source, use
the phrase, as cited in. Suppose, for example, you read an article by Mayo, who cited
information from Diaz. If you use Diaz’ information without reading her original work, the intext citation would be as follows: Diaz (as cited in Mayo, 2000). You can read more about
secondary sources in Chapter 4, p. 247, Example 22, of the APA manual.
Note, however, that in the model paper in the APA manual [308], the secondary source
example reads as follows: (cited in Brown & Milstead, 1968). The word as (which should
appear before cited) has been omitted. The omission was a publishing misprint.
Secondary source citations should be worded as shown in Chapter 4, Example 22.
See "Primary and Secondary Sources" in the "Citing Sources" section of this booklet.
Heads Up #4 Including Publication or Retrieval Date for Internet
Documents
The instructions in the APA manual [Section I, Electronic Media, p. 269] require that
publication date or retrieval date be included in citations of Internet sources. The following
two examples illustrate the point. The first has a publication and retrieval date; the second
has no publication date. If the publication date is missing, type in its place the letters n.d. in
parentheses, and then type the retrieval date.
Hastings, G., Wang, H., & Tubo, T. (1999, June 12). Losing the poverty war: An
update. Center for Social Change Newsletter. Retrieved April 30, 2000, from
http//www.socialchange.net./subscribe/newslet14.html
Granite Rock County Health Services. (n.d.). Evaluation of the Granite Rock County
teen pregnancy target program. Retrieved August 12, 2001, from
http//www.graniterock.cty.nm.gov/reports/taskforce_adol.html
Note, however, that Examples 73, 74, and 76 of the APA manual [272-273] do not include
retrieval dates. The omission of the dates is an error. Each of these examples should
include a retrieval date after the word retrieved and before the word from.
Works Consulted for This Section
Adelheid, N. A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: A practical guide for
creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American
th
Psychological Association (5 ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
rd
Szuchman, L. T. (2005). Writing with style: APA style made easy (3 ed.). Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth.
USING MICROSOFT WORD® FOR APA TASKS
Screen shots reprinted by permission of Microsoft® Corporation.
GENERAL TIPS
Show/Hide
The Show/Hide function allows you to see hidden formatting codes—a helpful tool when
you need to correct or modify formatting. To turn on Show/Hide, click the Show/Hide icon
on the menu bar. If you don’t find the icon, customize your toolbar (see the "MS Word for
APA" section). The Show/Hide icon
is a toggle switch: press it on, press it off. It reveals
the following codes:
Backspace and Delete
The keyboard has two delete keys: Backspace and Delete. What’s the difference?
ƒ
ƒ
Backspace deletes characters and spaces to the left of the cursor.
Delete deletes characters and spaces to the right of the cursor.
Symbol
¶
Save yourself some time and frustration by using the correct key.
Two Backspaces will
delete a space and an “n.”
cursor
Two Deletes will delete
a “b” and an “y.”
•
….Page Break…
Meaning
Manual line feed (Enter button pressed)
Tab space
Space inserted (space bar)
Manual page break inserted (Ctrl+Enter).
Undo
Typing Dashes and Hyphens
ƒ
ƒ
The Undo icon (back arrow) on the toolbar allows you to cancel out your last
command or your last several commands (if you keep pressing it). Make a
mistake? Just click
Hyphens are used to connect words and parts of words. The hyphen key is
located next to the 0 on the keyboard. Type hyphens with no space before or after
(e.g., step-by-step instructions).
Dashes are intended to separate words and phrases. To create a dash, type two
hyphens with no space before, after, or between them. Use dashes to indicate an
interruption (e.g., Students in the third group—those who received no training—
were least successful at accomplishing the task).
Center
Never center text by tabbing or spacing. If you do, any revisions will throw the text off
center. Use the Centering function of the word processor. It will automatically adjust
centering as you revise. You can center text before or after it is typed. If you center after
typing, you’ll need to highlight the text, then center it. To center text,
Highlight Text without “Racing”
To prevent the cursor from “racing” when you’re trying to highlight a large block of text,
Method 1: Click the Centering icon
on the toolbar, then type text, or
Method 2: Click Format, Paragraph, Alignment Center (see Figure 1).
1. Click the cursor where you want highlighting to begin.
2. Press and hold the Shift key.
3.. Click the cursor where you want highlighting to end, and release the Shift key.
Delete Single Hyperlink
When you type a URL (Internet or e-mail address) and press the Enter key, the URL turns
blue and underlines, creating a hyperlink. Hyperlinks occur on your Reference page when
you type URLs for electronic sources. Hyperlinks must be converted to “normal” text.
Method 1 if you typed the hyperlink, Click the Undo icon (left-curve arrow) on the
toolbar, or
.
Method 2 if you copied the hyperlink into your document, Highlight the hyperlink with
the mouse, click the right mouse button, select hyperlink, and click Remove
Hyperlink.
You can turn off the word processor function that creates hyperlinks in the first place. See
the "Customize Auto-Formatting" section.
Figure 1, Paragraph Format Window
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
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© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
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TYPEFACE (Fonts) [5.02]
Use an 11-pt. or 12-pt. serif black typeface (font) for text. APA recommends Times Roman
and Courier.
This is typed in Times New Roman.
This is typed in Courier.
This is typed in Century.
Serifs are the tiny lines that dangle on the ends of letters. Word processors offer a variety
of serif fonts. Avoid those that appear decorative, unusual, or otherwise distracting. Keep
the font appropriate to the formality of an academic paper.
MARGINS AND ALIGNMENT
Margins for APA are 1 inch all around (except for doctoral students, who use 1.5 on left).
The margin default on MS Word is 1.25, so you may need to change margins as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Make sure the cursor is at the very beginning of the paper.
Click File, then Page Setup.
Click the Margin tab, if not already selected, to change settings.
Close to return to editing screen.
Setting Typeface in MS Word
Most Word screens have the font type and size selections right on the toolbar. If not,
y Click Format on the
toolbar, select Font,
and click choices on
the font menu,
or
y Right click the
mouse from inside
your document to
get the font menu.
y Set font before you
begin typing the
text. That’s easier
than changing it
later.
y If you do have to
change font after
typing it, highlight
the text you want to
change, then follow
instructions for
changing font.
Figure 3, Page Setup Window
•
•
•
Figure2, Font Selection Window
Keep font the same throughout the paper, modifying only for italics when necessary.
Text is aligned at the left margin unless it needs to be indented to begin a
paragraph or to offset a blocked quotation.
To align text at the left margin, click the Align Left icon
on the toolbar, or
see the instructions for Centering.
Do not align text at both margins. Text aligned at both margins creates
irregular spacing between words and makes proofreading difficult.
Follow same procedure to change alignment to left.
INDENTS [5.08, 5.13, 5.18]
Paragraph Indent
Hanging Indents for Reference List
For consistency, indent paragraph either by
You can set hanging indents before or after typing the text. If you format hanging indents
after typing the text, you’ll need to highlight the text before formatting. You will also need to
remove all Tabs, if you inserted any, from the Reference list. (See Show/Hide in this
section.)
y pressing the Tab key, which is usually pre-set to indent ½ inch.
y or by using [Format--Paragraph--Indent .5"] to indent ½ inch whenever you press the
Enter key (see Figure 1).
Do not use the space bar to indent. One-half inch does not necessarily equal 8 or 10
spaces.
Check paragraph indentation against the ruler bar above your document. (If you don’t see
a ruler bar, go to the menu bar, click View, and then click Ruler (see "Dot Leaders" section
for an illustration). For hanging indents for the Reference page, see “Hanging Indents” in
this section of the booklet.
For hanging indents,
1. Set Left Indentation to
0.
Blocked Quote Indent
Quotations of 40 words or more should be double-spaced and blocked ½ inch from the left
margin. Do not do this manually by using the Enter and Tab keys. Instead, change the
paragraph indentation for the quoted text only.
2. Click “hanging” in the
box marked Special.
3. Set the hanging indent
margin to .05.
1. Highlight text to be
indented.
2. On the menu bar, click
Format.
3. Click Paragraph
4. Click the Indents and
Spacing tab if not
already selected.
5. In the Indentation
section, set left
indentation to .05.
Figure 5, Paragraph Format Window
Setting Hanging Indents
Alternate Method
Without changing settings,
type the quote, highlight
the quote, drag the ruler
bar indent ½ inch to the
right (see Figure 16).
Figure 4, Paragraph Format Window
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
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© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
PAGE HEADERS AND PAGE NUMBERS [5.06 and 6.03]
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Header Box in View Header Mode.
Use Align Right button to place header and
number in correct position.
Page Headers
Page headers are not to be confused with page headings. Headings are inserted
throughout the text to designate important sections of the paper. Headers appear in the top
margin of each page and include a page number and, in APA style, a short form of the
paper's title. (Some programs dispense with the header title, so check with your advisor or
instructor about your program's preference.)
Page headers cannot be typed directly on the page. They appear in a “no type zone” in
the top margin of the paper. So how do you get them there? First, view the Header box,
which is invisible when you are in the normal editing screen. It’s easiest to insert headers
and page numbers at the same time, so proceed to the section on page numbers.
If you insert page numbers by using the Insert Page Numbers command from the file menu,
you will not be able to insert text into the header.
Page Numbers
•
•
•
•
•
Pages are numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page and continuing
through the appendixes. (Some instructors and programs do not want the page
number and header to show on the title page. Check before typing the title page.)
Use Arabic numerals in the upper right-hand corner, inside the page header.
Include a header with the page number. The header usually consists of the first
two or three words of your title, and it is placed five spaces to the left of the page
number.
Do not “type” page numbers; use a word processor for automatic pagination.
Do not use the Insert Page Number function of the word processor because it will
not allow you to type headers with the page numbers.
Setting Page Numbers within the Header in MS Word (See Figures 6 and 7)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Click View, then click Header and Footer.
With the cursor inside the header, align the text to the right (see Figure 6)
a. Click the Align Right icon on the toolbar, or
b. Click Format, then Paragraph, then change alignment to right.
Type a header, followed by five spaces.
On the Header window (it opens when you select Header and Footer), click the
Insert Page Number icon.
Figure 6, Header Insertion Window
Header Window lets you select page number options.
Hold mouse over each button to see its function.
The Format Page Number icon opens the
window shown on the right that allows you
to set page numbering to start at any
number you wish. This is helpful if your
title page is in a separate file.
Note: If necessary, you can change the font of the header and page number to match
the font of your text. Follow the same procedure as for changing font in the text.
5.
Close the header toolbar. Once you have set your page numbers, they will
automatically adjust to changes in the length and pagination of any part of your
paper.
Figure 7, Format Page Number
CUSTOMIZE AUTO-FORMATTING (for Windows XP®)
LINE SPACING [5.03]
You learned earlier in this booklet that numbered lists in APA style are “wrapped’ to the left
margin. You can customize your auto-formatting to comply with APA style; however, you
may prefer just to turn off auto-formatting for APA documents.
All text in an APA paper is double-spaced, even indented quotes and items in the
reference list. (Note, however, that most examples in the APA manual and in this booklet
are single-spaced to save space.)
•
•
•
Customize AutoFormat for a Single Document
Never single-space text.
Never use one-and-a-half-spacing.
Most important, never press the Enter key twice at the end of a line to create a
double-space. You’ll create spacing problems throughout the paper every time
you revise.
1. On the menu bar, click Format, then AutoFormat…
2. When the AutoFormat window opens, click on the Options button to open the
AutoCorrect window (see Figure 10).
3. Click the tab titled AutoFormat As You Type.
4. Click to remove checkmarks from Automatic bulleted lists and Automatic numbered lists.
Setting Double-Space in MS Word
Method One: Click the
Double Space icon
on the toolbar.
Method Two:
1. Click Format.
2. Click Paragraph.
3. Set the Line Spacing to
Double.
Double spacing begins at
the point where you placed
the cursor when you gave
the Double Space
command.
Figure 8, Paragraph Format Window
Figure 10, Customize AutoFormat for a Document
NOTE: If you experience irregular line spacing (especially triple spacing) between
paragraphs, see "Irregular Spacing Between Paragraphs" and Figure 13.
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
While the customizing window is open, you can click other tabs to make the changes you
want for the document you are working on. For example, you can remove the check from
"Internet and network path with hyperlinks" to prevent hyperlinks on your Reference page.
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© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
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Customize AutoFormat for All Documents (Not for networked computers.)
A Word of Caution About Grammar Check
To avoid going through this customizing process for each document, you can customize
AutoFormat for all documents: Select Tools from the menu bar. After selecting Tools,
click AutoCorrect Options, and proceed with steps 3 and 4 for "Single Document."
The grammar checker can be a useful tool, but it cannot think the way a human does. If you
type something that doesn't fit one of the grammatical patterns stored in the grammar
checker's memory, it will give you an "alert," meaning it can't find a matching pattern. Think
of the alert as a question rather than a command. It is asking, Is this the pattern you really
want? For example, the grammar check usually alerts writers to use of the passive voice,*
because passive voice is usually best avoided. However, it is not necessarily wrong, and
on occasion it may even be preferred to active voice. You must decide to keep, discard, or
modify text that sets off the grammar alert. Don't change something just because the
grammar check highlighted it.
Note: you cannot make a permanent AutoFormat change if you are working on a networked
computer.
Customize Spelling and Grammar Check
The red lines and green lines of the auto-spell check and auto-grammar check can be
annoying, especially on the reference page. You can turn off the auto-spell check and
auto-grammar check, and still check your spelling and grammar when you are ready.
*For information about active and passive voice, see the section of this booklet entitled
"Active and Passive Voice."
1 Select Tools from the
menu bar.
2. Click on Options
(Do not select
Spelling & Grammar,
which will activate the
checker!)
3. When the Options
window opens, click
the Spelling &
Grammar tab.
4. Click to remove
checks from "Check
spelling as you type"
and from "Check
Grammar as you
type."
HYPERLINKS
Delete Single Hyperlink
When you type a URL (Internet or e-mail address) and press the Enter key, the URL turns
blue and underlines, creating a hyperlink. Hyperlinks occur on your Reference page when
you type URLs for electronic sources. Hyperlinks must be converted to “normal” text.
Method 1 if you typed the hyperlink, Click the Undo icon (left-curve arrow) on the
toolbar, or
.
Method 2 if you copied the hyperlink into your document, Highlight the hyperlink with
the mouse, click the right mouse button, select hyperlink, and click Remove
Hyperlink.
Turn Off Hyperlinks for Current Document See Figure 12
This option prevents the creation of hyperlinks in the current document only. You will have
to select the option again to prevent hyperlinks in subsequent documents.
To prevent hyperlinks from being created automatically in the current document,
1. On the menu bar, click Format, then AutoFormat…
2. When the AutoFormat window opens, click on the Options button to open the
AutoCorrect window..
Figure 11, Customize Check-As-You-Type
Remember that you can still use the spelling and grammar check by selecting Tools,
Options, Spelling and Grammar when you are ready to check your document. Turning off
the Auto-check just keeps the checker turned off as you type.
3. Click the tab titled AutoFormat As You Type.
4. Click to remove the checkmark from the automatic hyperlinks box (Internet and network
paths and hyperlinks).
IRREGULAR SPACING BETWEEN PARAGRAPHS
Turn Off Auto-Hyperlinks for ALL Documents (Not for networked computers)
Problem
This option prevents hyperlinks in the current and all subsequent documents, until you
remove the option.
Cutting and pasting between documents can upset the line spacing of your document,
sometimes leaving three lines rather than two between paragraphs, as shown in the
example.
This option will not work on networked computers (like Saint Mary's) that do not allow
access to the computer's hard drive. However, it works well for stand-alone computers, like
those most people have at home.
Remedy
The extra line space
cannot be removed by
changing the line spacing
to double. Instead,
change the setting as
follows:
Click on Tools, select Autocorrect Options, and then follow steps 3-4 above.
1. Highlight the text you
want to change.
2. On the menu bar click
Format, Paragraph.
Turn off
AutoHyperlinks
3. Set the Before and
After boxes to 0.
You may also have to
set Line spacing to
Single and then reset
to Double.
4. Click OK to return
to document.
You may need to
readjust spacing.
To avoid irregular
paragraph spacing,
learn how to copy
and paste text from
the Internet into your
document. See
Figure 14.
Figure 12, Turn Off Auto-Hyperlinks
for Current Document Only
Figure 13, Customize Check-As-You-Type
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
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© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
How to Avoid Irregular Spacing: Pasting Text from the Internet
Irregular paragraph spacing occurs when you copy electronic text and paste it into your
document. It's best to avoid the problem rather than remedy it because the remedy can
sometimes require much time-consuming reformatting of text.
When you copy electronic text, paste it into a blank document before pasting it into your
working document.
Do not use the Paste command to insert electronic copy. Instead, use Paste Special…
from the Edit option on the Menu Bar as shown below.
1. Highlight and copy electronic text.
2. Open a new document.
3. In the new document window, select Edit, then Paste Special… If you use just Paste,
you will bring in hidden formatting codes from the electronic text.
4. When the Paste Special… dialogue box appears, select Unformatted Text.
Figure 14, Paste Text From the Internet
This procedure allows you to paste the text without including hidden format codes. You
can then reformat it to fit your document. If you bring in "foreign" format codes with pasted
text, you may not be able to remove the codes from your document
- 32 -
NOTES
DOT LEADERS FOR TABLE OF CONTENTS
Subheadings
Although the APA does not call for tables of content and therefore provides no guidelines
for them, some instructors do require a table of contents. Generally a table of contents
calls for dot leaders—rows of dots from entries to their page numbers, like this:
If your table of contents contains subheadings, you cannot indent them with the Tab key,
which now inserts dot leaders. The easiest way to indent subheadings without dot leaders
is to drag them using the ruler bar (see Figures 16 and 16a).
Statement of the Problem .............................................................3
Statement of the Problem ............................................................. 3
Research Questions ....................................................................... 4
Definition of Terms........................................................................ 5
History of the Charter School Movement..................................... 9
Urban Changes.................................................................. 10
Inner City Crises ............................................................... 12
Private Initiatives ............................................................. 13
Legislation ......................................................................... 15
Research Questions .......................................................................4
Definition of Terms........................................................................5
History of the Charter School Movement.....................................9
You will have trouble making your page numbers line up, and you will wear yourself out
typing dots if you don't set up dot leaders for your tab stops. Dot leaders automatically
insert dots when you press the tab key, and the dots adjust automatically to proportioned
characters, giving you a straight column on the right.
Ruler Bar (in Print Layout view)
Set Dot Leaders
1. Using the Ruler Bar as a Guide, decide
the position where you want to dot
leader tab to stop. If you have a oneinch right margin, you will probably want
to set your tab at 5.7
2. On the toolbar, click Format, and then
Tabs, to open the Tab Formatting
Window (see Figure 15).
3. Highlight and delete any existing tabs.
4. Type desired tab stop.
5. Make sure alignment is set at Left.
6. Set Leader at 2 (for dots).
Figure 16, Ruler Bar
7. Click both Set, and then OK.
NOTE: You must click both Set and OK
to engage dot leader.
8. Return to table of contents, type a
heading, and press Tab key for dots.
The "hourglass" splits:
Drag upper triangle to indent first line of paragraph.
Drag lower triangle to indent subsequent lines of paragraph.
Figure 15, Tab Formatting Window
Inset
Figure 16a
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
- 33 -
Drag square to move both triangles. To indent a block of text,
highlight the text and drag the square.
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
- 34 -
SENDING ATTACHMENTS BY E-MAIL
If you want to submit a paper by e-mail to the Writing Center, or if you want to e-mail the
paper to anyone else, send it as an e-mail attachment. If you try to insert it into the body of
the e-mail message, the formatting will be lost. In fact, a lengthy message in the body of
the e-mail can cause problems with your e-mail or the recipient’s e-mail.
The directions presented here were written for Web Mail used at Saint Mary's. Perhaps
you use another form of e-mail. However, e-mail attachments follow a general pattern; so
even if the icons and commands here appear different from yours, you can still use these
directions to help you negotiate your own e-mail.
3. Select Browse to search your file lists, just as you would if you were retrieving a file from
your diskette or hard drive.
4. Highlight the file you want, then press either Open, Insert, Ok, or Attach—or whatever
term your mail program prompts—to return to the Attachment Window
5. The file you selected will show in the Filename slot. Now press Add File (or whatever
your program prompts). In Web Mail, the file will next appear in the Attached Files slot.
6. When you are sure the file has been selected (in Web Mail, it will appear in the Attached
Files slot), press OK to return to mail screen.
After you browse and select a file, its name will first appear here. After you press Add
File, its name will appear here. Then its time to press OK to return to the mail screen.
Attachment Icon
Click to attach a
document to email.
Message Box
Provide your
name, program,
and phone
number, and
describe the help
you need.
Figure 17a, Web Mail's Attachment Window
Figure 17, Create Web Mail Window
In Webmail, the Attachment icon is a diskette. Other forms of e-mail use different icons, or
they may simply display the word Attachments. The icon may appear elsewhere on the
screen. However, all e-mail forms have some sort of visible cue for adding an attachment.
1. Open your e-mail screen and prepare your e-mail message.
2. Find your Attachment icon and click it to open an attachment window. Web Mail's
attachment window is shown in Figure 17a.
6. When you return to the mail screen, search for an icon that indicates your file has
actually been attached. Figure 17b illustrates a Web Mail screen indicating that a
document has been attached.
7. Now you can send your e-mail as usual.
NOTE: You can attach more than one document to an e-mail message. Your e-mail
program will determine whether you can select them all at once or one at a time
USING DOCUMENT COMMENTS
When you send a paper for review, the reviewer can insert comments into the margins of
your text. (Electronic comments are standard procedure when Writing Center staff review
papers online.) The comments can be operated a number of ways. These directions will
help you manage them. You can also insert your own comments into your document. (See
Figure 18)
The Web Mail screen in Figure 17b indicates that the message contains an e-mail
attachment. The indicators in other e-mail programs may look different and appear
elsewhere on the screen, but all e-mail programs show attachments.
®
These instructions are for Microsoft Word 2000 for Windows XL. Comments may appear
and function differently in another version of Word.
Show All Comments in a Document To show all comments in your document,
1. on the menu bar, click View
2. click to turn on the Markup icon
This procedures also allows you to print your document with comments.
Hide All Comments in a Document To hide all comments from your view,
1. on the menu bar, click View
2. click to turn off the Markup icon
This procedure removes comments from view temporarily but does not delete them.
The procedure also allows you to print the paper without comments showing.
Delete Comments From a Document To permanently delete any comment from a
document,
1. right click on the comment
2. select and click Delete Comment
Print Document With or Without Comments
To print with comments,
Figure 17b, Web Mail Window Indicating Attachment
1. on the menu bar, click View
2. click to turn on the Markup icon
3. print as usual.
To print without comments,
1. on the menu bar, click View
2. click to turn off the Markup icon
3. print as usual
Add Your Own Comments to a Documents
To insert your own comment into a document,
1. place the cursor at the insertion point and click (or highlight a string of text)
2. on the menu bar, click Insert
3. click to turn on the Comment icon
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
- 35 -
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
- 36 -
NOTES
Remove Strikethrough
If your paper contains words with a line through them (to suggest that you omit or replace
those words), you can remove the strikethough as follows:
1. highlight the words,
2. on the menu bar, click Format, then Font,
3. click to remove check in the strikethrough box,
4. click OK to return to document.
The strikethrough will be removed, but the words will remain.
Figure 18 illustrates a screen showing document comments.
Original text
Comments
Works Consulted for This Section
American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American
th
Figure 18, Screen Showing Document with Electronic Comments
Psychological Association (5 ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
®
Rubin, C. (1999). Running Microsoft Word 2000. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press.
WRITING TIPS
VERBS: TENSE FOR REPORTING RESEARCH [2.06]
ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE [2.06]
Active Voice
Research is always reported in the past tense. (Tense is the grammatical term for time.)
Whatever was said, done, written, etc. was done earlier and is not still being done. Note
the earlier examples and their past tense verbs. Here are some past tense verbs used for
writing about research. These words have different meanings, so select carefully for your
context:
Instructors often tell students to write in the active voice. What does this mean? Active
voice emphasizes a subject doing something, as in the following sentence:
Captain Hawes fired the gun.
I made a mistake.
Passive Voice
accepted
By contrast, passive voice emphasizes something done to a subject.
The gun was fired.
A mistake was made.
Passive voice emphasizes a different subject: in the examples above, passive voice places
the focus on gun and mistake, while active voice places the focus on who fired the gun and
who made the mistake.
Passive voice can also leave out important information—who did the action—contributing to
vagueness and evasiveness.
Active or Passive Voice?
In general, use the active voice because it is usually more direct, provides more
information, and reduces wordiness. Passive voice often requires more words than active
voice to express an idea, thus contributing to the problem of wordiness.
Active:
Passive:
Captain Hawes fired the gun.
The gun was fired by Captain Hawes.
Active:
Passive:
The President made a mistake.
A mistake was made by the President.
Tetracycline was increased to 50 mg.
Researchers increased tetracycline to 50 mg.
Passive:
Active:
Students in Klein's (2003) study were paid $25 to participate.
Klein (2003) paid students $25 to participate in the study.
affirmed
agreed
analyzed
asserted
claimed
commented
concurred
considered
contradicted
countered
declared
defended
demonstrated
denied
described
disavowed
disclaimed
discovered
disputed
dissented
emphasized
established
examined
explained
explored
expressed
implied
indicated
informed
inquired
investigated
maintained
mentioned
noted
observed
offered
posited
presented
probed
promoted
proposed
questioned
recognized
recorded
recounted
refuted
rejected
related
remarked
reported
repudiated
revealed
stated
studied
suggested
summarized
supported
surveyed
theorized
urged
The realizing took place in the past, but the earth is still revolving around the sun.
You can use fewer words, but you will lose important information.
Fewer words can be used, but important information will be lost.
In the last example, passive voice removes the the vague subject, you, and places the
emphasis on what can be done, rather than who can do it.
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
advocated
Galileo realized that the earth revolves the sun.
Use passive voice to avoid awkward and vague pronouns (like the pronouns you and we ,
when they don't refer to identified individuals):
Active:
Passive:
advised
Although research is reported in the past tense (because the research was done in the
past), sometimes present tense is needed to express general truths or facts that exist in the
present. Consider the following example:
However, use the passive voice when you want to emphasize the receiver rather than the
doer of the action:
Passive:
Active:
accounted for
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© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
NOTES
APOSTROPHES
To Show Ownership or Possession
•
Add an apostrophe and an s ('s) to words that don't end with an s.
somebody's car (the car belonging to somebody)
the men's locker room (the locker room of the men)
a month's rent (the rent of a month)
•
Add only an apostrophe after the to words that already end in s.
twelve days' pay (that is, the pay for twelve days)
the students' tests (that is, tests belonging to the students)
•
To show joint possession, add an apostrophe and s to only the last word in the
group: e.g.,
Laurel and Hardy's last movie (a movie by the team of Laurel and Hardy.)
•
But to show individual possession, add an apostrophe and s to each word in the
group: e.g.,
Fossum's and Day's opinions (the opinions of Fossum, and the opinions of Day)
To Form Contractions
Show Omission of Letters with Apostrophes
Could not = couldn't
He is = he's
They are = they're
Cannot = can’t
Correct an Especially Troublesome Error
It’s (a contraction) means it is (e.g., It’s not snowing now).
Its means belonging to it (e.g., The school lost its funding).
To test for correctness, ask yourself, “Do I mean it is?”
Avoid Misuse of apostrophes.
Do not use an apostrophe for simple plurals.
Wrong: All the player's knew this was the last chance to score.
Right:
All the players knew this was the last chance to score.
Do not use an apostrophe for pronouns that already indicate possession.
Wrong: We didn't know the suitcases were her's (your's, their's, our's).
Right:
- 38 -
We didn't know the suitcases were hers (yours, theirs, ours).
In APA style, do not use apostrophes for plurals of numerals or letters.
TRANSITIONS and CONJUNCTIONS: Punctuation and Meanings
Coordinating Conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
Transitions and Their Meanings
1. Lucy didn’t like the way the contest was run. She let the judges know it.
2. Lucy didn't like the way the contest was run, and she let the judges know it.
Transitional words and phrases link ideas in one clause or sentence with those in the next.
They help the reader see the relationships between ideas. Think of them as bridges linking
one idea to another, or as road signs that lead the way.
The second example is a compound sentence—two independent clauses joined by
coordinating conjunction.
Some of these words may be used between independent clauses that have been joined by
a semicolon. In that case, they are called adverbial conjunctions, and they are set off by a
comma. Note this example: Lara was loud, bossy, and insensitive; consequently, people
avoided her whenever possible. Transitional expressions placed elsewhere within the
clause are punctuated with commas. Here are some frequently used transitional
expressions and their most common uses.
Punctuation Rule:: Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction when it joins two
independent clauses.
Subordinating Conjunctions: as, after, although, because, before, if, when, while,
since, until, unless, so (that), whether, even though
1. The contest was unfair. Many people did not applaud for the winner.
2. Because the contest was unfair, many people did not applaud for the winner.
3. The winner could not enjoy her victory because she knew the contest was
unfair.
Example: specifically, for instance, for example, to illustrate, in particular, especially,
most importantly
Addition: also, furthermore, besides, likewise, moreover, again, finally, in addition, in
the first (second, third) place, what is more, at last, next, beyond that
The last two examples are complex sentences--one independent clause and one
dependent clause. The dependent clause starts with a subordinating conjunction.
Comparison and Contrast: Comparison: similarly, likewise, at the same time, in
Punctuation Rule:: When a dependent (incomplete) clause begins a sentence, use
a comma at the end of the clause. When the independent (complete) clause begins
the sentence, a comma is not necessary before the conjunction.
the same way, in like manner Contrast: however, nevertheless, still, nonetheless,
conversely, rather, whereas, on the one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary, by
contrast, in contrast,
Adverbial Conjunctions: consequently, furthermore, however, in fact, indeed,
likewise, moreover, otherwise, therefore
Repetition: again, in other words, once again, to repeat, as stated
1. Everyone wants a new set of rules. Changes are not possible until next year.
2. Everyone wants a new set of rules; however, changes are not possible until
next year.
Cause and Result: therefore, thus, hence, consequently, as a result, all in all, for
this/that reason, because
The second example is a compound sentence—two independent clauses
Conclusion: finally, then, thus, hence, therefore, in conclusion, to summarize, in
Punctuation Rule:: Use a semicolon between the independent clauses and a
comma after the conjunction.
Time: earlier, before, since, subsequently, eventually, gradually, meanwhile,
short, all in all, in brief, on the whole
simultaneously, now, immediately, recently, suddenly, currently, during, then, next,
after a while, at last, in the meantime, until now
Transition Words: Adverbial conjunctions can be used as transition words, but so can
many other words.
Examples are simple sentences—one independent clause each.
Concession: doubtless, surely, certainly, naturally, granted, no doubt, admittedly
1. Everyone wants a new set of rules. However, changes are not possible until
next year.
2. Everyone wants a new set of rules. Changes are not possible, however, until
next year.
3. Everyone wants a new set of rules. Changes are not possible until next year,
Place: elsewhere, here, there
however.
Punctuation Rule:: Punctuate the sentences and then set off the transition words
with commas
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
- 39 -
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
- 40 -
TROUBLESOME WORDS
Because of the complexity of English spelling rules and pronunciation, writers sometimes
confuse some common words. The word processor’s spell check can’t help with these
because all are correctly spell. Writers should determine which words confuse them, and
then memorize ways to keep them straight. Here is a list of words that writers often
confuse. Learn some memory devices to help you tell them apart.
a lot
accept/except
affect/effect
all right
between/among
coarse/course
it's/its
knew/new, know/no
loose/lose
passed/past
personal/personnel
quiet/quit/quite
suppose/supposed
than/then
their/there/they're
though/thought/tough
use/used
wear/we're/were
weather/whether
who's/whose
you're/your
Helpful Hints for Troublesome Words
Accept/except Except always means that something/someone is left out (x'd out):
Everyone is going except Sam. (Sam is x'd out.)
Affect/effect Effect means result, so try substituting result. (Note that both result and
effect have an e in the beginning.)
The effect of Gena's greed was that she lost her inheritance. (Result
makes sense, so effect must be correct.)
I wonder how this powder will affect my skin. (Result does not make
sense, so affect must be correct.)
Between is used only between two: a secret between my mother and father
Among is used with more than two: a fad among American teens
Course refers to a course of study and contains a u. U (you) pass a course.
Coarse means crude, rough, or rude, like the word arse (ass), which it contains.
Note the difference in past and passed:
Glenda passed Henry in the park. (She did it.)
She rode past him on her bike. (Where she rode--a location)
She had done that in the past. (When--a time)
Quit/quite/quiet
1. Quite rhymes with white (substitute qu for wh)
2. Quit rhymes with shit (substitute qu for sh)
3. Quiet has two syllables: qui-et
Should have/would have/ must have
Some people write should of when they mean should have. People do this
because, when pronounced, should have gets run together ("should’ve") so that it
sounds like should of. In fact, no construction called should of exists in the
English language. Always write should have, would have, must have .
Then/than
1. Then has to do with time, and it rhymes with when, another time word: I
can't go out when it rains. Then (at that time) I work on my school
work.
2. Than is used with comparisons: She is taller than I am.
3. Then rhymes with when. Than rhymes with fan.
There/their/they're
1. There is a place, like here and there.
2. Their shows ownership (their coats),as an heir owns the family fortune.
3. They're is a contraction for they are. Try substituting they are to see if it
makes sense in the sentence.
Though (pronounced tho, rhymes with go) means although.
Thought refers to brain activity: She thought carefully before answering.
Tough (pronounced tuff) means hardy or thick-skinned. (Associate with rough).
To and too can be told apart by the fact that too means also or in excess and it has
an excessive number of o's. (It has one, and one more.)
Here is a place (here and there). Hear means listen (has an ear in it).
Wear/were/where
1. Wear your earrings on your ear. Wear is something you do.
2. Where is about a place: Where is the Tootsie Roll I left here?
Loose/lose Remember that loose rhymes with goose and both have double o's. If
you want to use lose, you have to lose an o.
Whether/weather Weather contains the letters for heat.
Passed is something done. (Harry passed the quiz. The bus passed us by.)
Past refers to a condition, location, or time.
The time for grief is past (a condition).
Drive past the Dairy Queen (a location).
Have you had car trouble in the past (a time)?
Contractions: Test contractions by substitutions in the following way.
Its or it's
The dog chased its tail. (not it's = it is)
Your/you're If Brad comes along, you're going to be sorry (you are).
Were/we're I don't understand why we're moving. (we're = we are)
AVOIDING PRONOUN CONFUSION
•
To avoid repetition of nouns, writers use pronouns as substitutes for nouns already named.
Jamison told the woman that his (Jamison's) table was wobbly because his
(Jamison's) son had lopped off its (the table's) leg with his (Jamison's son's) toy
saw.
Homeless people waited for hours in the cold rain to get into the shelter, which
made many of them ill.
How alarming to think that the shelter made them ill! That's what the sentence suggests,
however. The word which is associated with the noun closest to it: shelter. Recast the
sentence to place which next to the noun it refers to:
Pronouns are extremely useful as long as their antecedents (the words they stand for) are
absolutely clear. When pronouns are vague—when their antecedents are not clear—
readers are left to guess at their meanings. Such guessing irritates readers and causes
misinterpretations. (Lawyers know a lot about pronouns!)
•
To get into the shelter, homeless people waited for hours in the cold rain, which
made many of them ill.
Make sure that pronouns refer to something specific and that what they refer to
cannot be misunderstood.
Perhaps it wasn't just the cold rain that made them ill. To include the waiting, recast the
sentence again, this time eliminating which
Managers wanted new policies immediately, but this didn't happen until June.
Waiting in the cold rain for hours to get into the shelter made many of the
homeless people ill.
What exactly does this stand for in the sentence above? This managers? This policies?
No single antecedent exists for this. The sentence needs to be recast. Here are some
possibilities:
•
Managers wanted new policies immediately, but these new policies weren't
implemented until June.
It seems not to refer to anybody or anything in the sentence. (Actually it refers to the entire
phrase why only women were included in the study, making its use redundant. ) Recast
the sentence:
This, that, these, and those are pronouns frequently used carelessly, leaving readers to
ask, "This what?" "That what?"
The authors did not reveal why they had included only women in the trial.
•
Do not use this, that, these, or those unless the antecedent has already been
named.
Never use you in academic writing.
The study showed that you can reduce the risk of stroke by taking one baby
aspirin per day.
Suddenly this woman rose from her chair and stalked out.
The use of you suggests a specific reader, who, even if known, should not be addressed
directly. Such direct forms of address are just too chummy for academic or professional
writing. Recast the sentence:
Unless this woman has been introduced to readers in a previous sentence, they will
wonder," What woman?"
•
Avoid the Great Unnamed.
It was not revealed by the authors why only women were included in the trial.
Managers wanted new policies immediately but didn't get them until June.
•
Double check your use of which, that, who. Readers usually associate a pronoun
with the noun closest to it.
Research showed that taking one baby aspirin per day can reduce the risk of
stroke.
If you have trouble with vague pronouns, avoid using this, that, these, and those
all alone.
•
Edwards' boundless optimism creates high expectations on a limited budget. That
worries his supporters.
Never use we/us or they/ them unless those pronouns refer to specific
individuals.
We know that people pay attention when their money is at stake.
What worries Edwards' supporters: his optimism, the high expectations, or the budget?
The word that alone doesn't tell us. Use the appropriate term after that. For example,
Who is the we in the sentence above? The writer is including himself and some
unspecified others. Unspecified means vague. The use of we creates another rhetorical
problem: by including all readers, the writer ensures that somebody will disagree. Using we
to mean everyone challenges someone to disagree, thereby creating the opposite effect
intended.
Edwards' boundless optimism creates high expectations on a limited budget. That
optimism worries his supporters.
If a work is co-authored, using we to refer specifically to the authors is fine:
We (the other author and I) designed the study to exclude girls between the ages
of 6 and 8 years.
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
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© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
?
Am I allowed to use "I" or "we" in a paper?
Yes. In fact you should. The APA says this about the use of first person pronoun (I, We):
Inappropriately or illogically attributing action in a effort to be objective can be misleading.
Examples of undesirable attribution include use of the third person . . . and use of the editorial we. .
. . Writing "The experimenters instructed the participants when "the experimenters" refers to
yourself is ambiguous and may give the impression that you did not take part in your own study.
Instead, use a personal pronoun: "We instructed the participants." (p. 37).
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past history-------------------------------------------------------- history
He is a person who can be trusted ------------------------- He can be trusted.
in order to---------------------------------------------------------- to
the field of computer science--------------------------------- computer science
There are many teens who smoke.------------------------- Many teens smoke.
two different kinds---------------------------------------------- two kinds
refer back to------------------------------------------------------- refer to
surrounded on all sides---------------------------------------- surrounded
There is no doubt that he lost. ------------------------------ No doubt he lost.
For clarity, restrict your use of we to refer only to yourself and your coauthors (use I if you are the
sole author of the paper) (p. 39; see also 4th example p. 52).
ELIMINATING WORDINESS
Wordiness refers to the habit of loading one’s writing with words that don’t contribute to the
purpose or meaning of one’s message. Why do people resort to wordiness? Some resort
to wordiness because they’ve been assigned a 500-word paper, but have only 200 words
worth of ideas about the topic. Hence, the extra words to satisfy the word count.
Unfortunately, wordiness adds quantity but subtracts from the quality.
Other writers use extra words to obscure fuzzy or undeveloped thinking. When they’re not
sure what they’re talking about, they try to cover their inadequacies with words. Most
readers, however, recognize the ploy. Writers who rely on verbosity lose credibility with
their readers.
Unless you know that you are a very succinct drafter, you should plan to cut your wordage
by 20% in your first revision of each paper. Read through your work and find places to cut
repetitions and unnecessary wording. The following is an excerpt from a paper written for a
management course.
The employees were not in agreement with the change in operational
procedures that the manager was wanting. Owing to the fact that they had much
work to do, it was not easy for them to adapt to new changes. What they were
trying to express was that they were dissatisfied, but there was a lot of resistance
to their communication on the part of the manager. It seems to me that the
manager should have been able to work out some way to let the employees of her
company be heard by her. A manager who had good training would have had an
Some writers are wordy without realizing it. They employ stock phrases without
considering whether or not they add meaning to our sentences. Below are some
examples. Wordiness is a problem that should be corrected when revising. Mark out those
meaningless or repetitive phrases.
idea about what to do. Personally, I don’t think that the manager in this
The Western style of academic and business writing requires you to (a) state ideas directly
and clearly, and (b) use as few words as possible to get the point across.
employees are trying to say, whereas good managers try to find ways for the
Don’t use more words than you have to:
in this day and age = today
at this point in time = now
are saying.
the poor managers are the kind of people who don’t listen to what their
employees to express themselves and then try to respond to what the employees
Now compare the paragraph to the following one, which has been revised for wordiness
and redundancy:
Don’t say the same thing twice:
in the month of November = in November
yellow in color = yellow
The employees did not agree with the supervisor’s proposed procedural
changes. Because they had heavy workloads, they could not easily adapt to
Don’t use words that don’t add meaning:
The fact of the matter is that I’m tired = I’m tired
WORDY
company had been trained very well. As far as my opinion, I would have to say
change. They tried to express their dissatisfaction, but the manager resisted
CONCISE
an unexpected surprise ----------------------------------------a surprise
at that point in time --------------------------------------------then
due to the fact that ----------------------------------------------because
end result-----------------------------------------------------------result
communication. The manager should have listened to her employees. A welltrained manager would have known what to do. Poor managers don’t listen,
whereas good managers listen and respond to their employees’ feedback.
IMPROVING SENTENCE CONSTRUCTION: PARALLELISM
Parallelism means that all sections are grammatically equal or balanced. Consider the
following example:
The sentence still has problems because the comparison is not clear and the parallel
elements are awkward; so let’s take the sentence a step further:
Whenever Harry has free time, he enjoys sailing, hiking, and he plays basketball.
Parallel and Improved
Remember that old jingle from
Sesame Street?
One of these things
is not like the others . . .
..
Johnston hypothesized that, in comparison to drug Y, drug X would speed postoperative recovery, improve respiratory status, and provide better pain control.
Whenever Harry has free time, he enjoys
(a) sailing,
(b) hiking,
and
(c) to play basketball.
In the last example, each element begins with a simple verb to eliminate the awkward
and repetitious would be construction. Also, the comparison is clarified by placing the
items being compared—the drugs—in the same part of the sentence.
WRITING A SUMMARY, RESPONSE, OR CRITIQUE
What is not like the others, of course, is the phrase to play basketball. It is grammatically
unparallel. The sentence would be better written as follows:
Summary. A condensed version of an original presentation that
•
•
•
Harry enjoys sailing, hiking, and playing basketball.
That way, each of the three elements is expressed in grammatically parallel form.
Response. Describes and explains your intellectual response to the original author’s
presentation. The response may include one or more of the following:
Parallel sentences are easier for readers to grasp, and they indicate that you have thought
through carefully what you intend to write. Everyone would understand (though maybe not
appreciate) the sentence about Harry, even if it weren’t parallel. The sentences you write
in your paper, however, are likely to be more complex and carry more sophisticated
messages than Harry likes sailing, and their ideas much more sophisticated, causing
readers to rely more on the grammatical structure.
•
•
•
•
Here are two examples of sophisticated sentences with parallelism problems:
1. Example 1
how the original author’s ideas compare to the ideas of other experts.
whether or not the original presentation contained logical flaws or
misinformation.
whether or not the author responded to other points of view on the subject.
how the author’s ideas might be applied or how they might change a
situation if they were (or were not) applied.
Critique. A combination of summary and response. Summary precedes response in a
critique.
Unparallel
The course instructor helped us see the necessity of designing meaningful
curriculum, meeting the required standards, and to keep the human element in
mind.
Tips For Writing Good Summaries
Parallel
The course instructor helped us see the necessity of designing meaningful
curriculum, meeting the required standards, and keeping the human element in
mind.
•
Put aside your own opinions when you begin to read the original, and do not let
yourself mentally argue with the author as you read. Remain objective in order to
“hear” what the author is saying.
•
Start your reading with these questions, in this order:
o
What is the topic?
o
What opinion does the author most want readers to keep in mind about
this topic?
o
What arguments or information does the author use to convince (or try
to convince) readers?
•
Summarize as you read. Write a sentence in your own words at the end of each
paragraph. Draw from these sentences for your final summary. Put the text out
of view to ensure that you are summarizing in your own words. Check yourself.
2. Example 2
Unparallel
Johnston hypothesized that with drug X, post-operative recovery would be fast,
improved respiratory status, and with better pain control than drug Y.
Parallel . . . but
Johnston hypothesized that with drug X, post-operative recovery would be fast,
respiratory status would improve, and pain control would be better than drug Y.
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
identifies the original author by name,
identifies the context for the original presentation, and
states the original author’s main idea and major points
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© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
•
•
Never insert your own ideas into a summary. A summary contains only the
ideas of the original author. Period. Your opinions are appropriate for the
response or critique.
Formatting can give you hints about main ideas and supporting points.
o
o
o
o
o
o
•
The title can suggest a question and answer about the topic.
Headings and section breaks can give a clue to main topics.
Italics or boldface type usually indicate an important point.
Paragraph or sentence numbering can indicate important points.
The main idea of a paragraph is often (though not always) expressed
in the first two or last two sentences of the paragraph.
The first paragraph often provides an overview of the entire article.
The last paragraph often provides a very brief summary.
Examples, illustrations, and anecdotes (little stories) are almost never main
points. When you run across an example, ask yourself: Ok, what is this an
example of?
•
Use the original author’s ideas, but not his or her words. Instead, paraphrase the
author. Paraphrase means that you read the author’s words, and, without
referring to the text, write down the author’s idea in your own words.
•
Make sure you understand what you’re reading. If you don’t, talk to someone—
instructor, classmate, Writing Center consultant—until you are sure you do. You
can’t summarize what you don’t understand. Get help: it’s not only allowed, it’s
encouraged.
Tips for Writing Good Responses
•
Tips for Writing Good Critiques
The most frequent mistake students make when asked to critique an article is to tell the
instructor only what the article is about. A critique requires that you articulate your opinions
about the article. If your instructor does not provide guidelines for writing a critique, follow
these:
•
Identify the author, his or her affiliation, and the context for the article or
presentation.
•
In one to three paragraphs, summarize the article: Describe the focus and
identify the major points of the article. Do not insert your opinions in this part.
•
If the work being critiqued is a research study, describe the type of research,
including purpose and methodology.
•
Comment on the author’s assumptions, methods, and conclusions. What was
the author trying to accomplish? Did the author acknowledge and respond to
other points of view? How objective was he or she? What new ideas were
presented? How do the author’s ideas compare with prevailing views on the
topic? What strengths or weaknesses did you notice in the author’s methods and
reporting?
•
Comment on the author’s work in terms of your own knowledge and experiences
with the topic. If you came away with new insights, explain them. If you disagree
with the author, say why; but explain your views as they derive from knowledge
and objective experience, not from feelings or intuition.
•
Describe how you can apply what you learned from the article. If you reject its
application, explain why. How could others in your profession apply this
information?
•
Provide a complete reference for the article in APA style.
In academic or scholarly writing,
o
o
o
o
•
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responses are based on facts that you can support (facts from experts,
class discussions, assigned reading in your text, and the like), not on
hearsay or emotions
responses are based on the original author’s purpose and audience.
you must provide support for the opinions you express in your
response.
your opinions and interpretations appear only in your response, not in
your summary of the author's work.
Sometimes an instructor will ask you for a gut reaction or a reaction based on
your own experience. In that case, and only in that case, you may stray from
Point 4 above. Still, you should try to analyze your reaction so that you can state
why you responded as you did.
NOTE: Special instructions from your instructor always take precedence over this
guideline.
Increase Your Vocabulary!
Join Merriam-Webster Inc.’s Word of the Day
To join the list via e-mail, send a blank e-mail to
[email protected]
FORMULATING A RESEARCH QUESTION AND THESIS
Tips for Being Concise
Once you have selected a topic, you might think you are ready to search for information—
but hold on a minute! Ask yourself, what do I want to know about this topic? If it’s a topic
you are familiar with, ask yourself, what is the most important point to make about this
topic? Such questions give you motivation and focus, and they help you stay on track.
You’ll know what you’re looking for: the answer to your questions.
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
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An outline or overview—a roadmap, if you will—is very helpful at this point. You need to
know where you are going, how to get there, and when you have arrived. If necessary, or if
you desire, you can revise the outline and the research question as you proceed.
ƒ
Your answer to the major research question is the thesis of your paper. Have you ever
read something, and afterwards found yourself asking so . . . what’s the point? If there is
no point, it’s because the essay, research paper, or editorial didn’t have a thesis—or at
least a clear one.
ƒ
Do not repeat the title in the abstract.
Avoid citing sources if possible.
Use numerals (e.g. 32) rather than words (thirty-two).
Start with the most important statement about the article.
Include only the most important findings.
Do not include examples.
Avoid passive voice (e.g., not similar results were reported by three researchers
. . . , but three researchers reported similar results).
Avoid starting sentences with “it is” and “there are” (e.g., not There were four
studies that showed . . . , but Four studies showed).
Avoid meaningless phrases like This review was undertaken to compare x and y
(instead of This review compares x and y)
APA Formatting
Sometimes you won’t refine your own thesis until you’ve completed your research.
However, you’ll never find the thesis without a research question.
ƒ
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WRITING AN ABSTRACT
ƒ
ƒ
Abstracts can vary according to the purpose of the document and the instructor’s or
publisher’s preferences. The following points, however, are useful general guidelines. For
additional information, including styles for empirical studies, reviews or theoretical articles,
methodological papers, or case studies, see Section 1.07 of the Publication Manual of the
th
American Psychological Association, 5 edition.
The abstract follows title page and is numbered as page 2.
Type the word Abstract one inch from top margin, centered, no italics or bold,
only first letter capitalized (Style 1 heading).
Double-space throughout, including after title line.
Use same font as body of article.
Other APA Rules for Abstracts
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Avoid abbreviations if possible, but define them if used.
Do not use quotes; if citation is necessary, use brief the form (author, pub date).
Use third person (he, she, it, they) but not first (I, we) or second (you).
Length
An abstract is less than one page, double-spaced. It is generally one paragraph
ranging in length from 75 to 120 words.
Contents
ƒ Write a comprehensive summary of the article, including conclusions.
ƒ Indicate the purpose and scope of the information contained in the article.
ƒ Describe the kinds of sources used (professional literature, observation, interview,
etc.) or methods or procedures, depending upon type of article.
ƒ State conclusions, implications, and applications.
ƒ Use key words used in the article that will enable database searchers (a) to discover
your work in a keyword search and (b) to decide whether your article is pertinent to
their needs.
ƒ Mention nothing in the abstract that is not included in the article.
ƒ Be focused: Use specific nouns (e.g., elementary science teachers, not educators)
and active verbs.
ƒ Be objective: Summarize, but don’t evaluate or editorialize.
ƒ Be concise; every word must count.
Works Consulted for This Section
American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American
th
Psychological Association (5 ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Hacker, D. (2003). A writer's reference. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's.
Harris, M. (2000). The writer's FAQs: A pocket handbook. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Prentice-Hall.
th
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10 ed.). (2001). Springfield, MA: Merriam
Webster.
rd
Szuchman, L. T. (2005). Writing with style: APA style made easy (3 ed.). Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth.
© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
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© The Writing Center, Saint Mary’s University School of Graduate & Special Programs
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ABOUT THE WRITING CENTER
SERVICES
POLICIES: WHAT WE DO and DON'T
On-Campus
y
Writing Conferences. A writing consultant will read your paper, respond to it,
and discuss its strengths and weaknesses with you. (Please bring your
instructor's guidelines for the assignment, along with the style manual designated
for the class.)
y
Questions. We will be happy to answer questions about APA, AMA, grammar,
punctuation, or usage.
y
Word Processing Instruction. Microsoft Word 2000® for Windows XP®
y
ESL Coaching. Students whose native language is not English can develop
their English writing and speaking skills.
y
Courses. The Writing Center offers four one-credit elective writing courses. For
details see the SMU Course Schedule or the online Writing Center. Course
descriptions are also available at the Writing Center.
y
Evening Workshops. Check our Class Schedule and Web site for postings.
Online and Telephone
y
y
Responses to E-mail Submissions. Submit your questions by e-mail. You
can submit a paper (or selected portions) as an e-mail attachment along with
your specific questions about the paper. You will receive a response by e-mail,
or you can call our toll-free number 1-866-437-2788, ext. 154, to discuss your
questions.
Online Resources for the Fundamentals of Grammar, Punctuation, Usage,
and Spelling. Includes rules, explanations, and test-yourself exercises with
answer keys. To visit the online Writing Center, go to the Saint Mary’s University
home page at www.smumn.edu, then click on the Twin Cities link and find the
link to the Twin Cities Writing Center.
y
Links to APA Information On-line.
y
Links to some of the best university writing centers in the nation.
y
Links to information about various academic writing genres
y
ESL Information. Students whose native language is not English will find links
to “English as a Second Language” resources.
Writing Center services are free.
y
We help you become a better writer. We won’t fix your paper for you; but we'll
help you improve it and, in the process, help you develop yourself as a writer.
y
We don’t edit. The Writing Center performs an instructional service, not an
editing service. Editing focuses attention on the paper rather than the writer.
Editing is often equated with proofreading—that is, finding and fixing all the
“errors” in the paper. At the Writing Center, you will participate fully by setting
your own writing objectives, discussing feedback, and revising your paper.
Making Appointments
Graduate Students
Cheryl Prentice 612-728-5154 [email protected]
or
Michelle Yener 612-728-5152 [email protected]
Undergraduates (Bachelor Completion)
Bro. Tom Geraghty 612-728-5147
[email protected]
Location: 1st floor of LaSalle Hall, Room 106 (just inside the library)
The Writing Center’s toll free number is 1-866-437-2788, ext. 154 or 152.

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