11 Counting and Probability

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11
Counting
and Probability
Probability is the mathematical
study of chance and random
processes. The laws of probability
are essential for understanding
genetics, opinion polls, pricing
stock options, setting odds in
horseracing and games of
chance, and many other fields.
866
When it is not in our power to determine what is true,
we ought to follow what is most probable.
RENÉ DESCARTES
Many questions in mathematics involve counting. For example, in how many ways
can a committee of two men and three women be chosen from a group of 35 men
and 40 women? How many different license plates can be made using three letters
followed by three digits? How many different poker hands are possible?
Closely related to the problem of counting is that of probability. We consider
questions such as these: If a committee of five people is chosen randomly from a
group of 35 men and 40 women, what are the chances that no women will be chosen for the committee? What is the likelihood of getting a straight flush in a poker
game? In studying probability, we give precise mathematical meaning to phrases
such as “what are the chances . . . ?” and “what is the likelihood . . . ?”
11.1 COUNTING PRINCIPLES
Brampton
p
y
Ashbury
q
x
z
Carmichael
x
B
p
y
C
Route
px
C
py
FUNDAMENTAL COUNTING PRINCIPLE
C
pz
C
qx
Suppose that two events occur in order. If the first can occur in m ways and
the second in n ways (after the first has occurred), then the two events can
occur in order in m n ways.
C
qy
C
qz
z
A
x
y
q
B
FIGURE 1
Tree diagram
Suppose that three towns, Ashbury, Brampton, and Carmichael, are located in such
a way that two roads connect Ashbury to Brampton and three roads connect
Brampton to Carmichael. How many different routes can one take to travel from
Ashbury to Carmichael via Brampton? The key idea in answering this question is to
consider the problem in stages. At the first stage—from Ashbury to Brampton—
there are two choices. For each of these choices, there are three choices to make at
the second stage—from Brampton to Carmichael. Thus, the number of different
routes is 2 3 6. These routes are conveniently enumerated by a tree diagram
as in Figure 1.
The method used to solve this problem leads to the following principle.
z
There is an immediate consequence of this principle for any number of events: If
E1, E2, . . . , Ek are events that occur in order and if E1 can occur in n1 ways, E2 in
n2 ways, and so on, then the events can occur in order in n1 n2 . . . nk ways.
EXAMPLE 1 ■ Using the Fundamental Counting Principle
An ice-cream store offers three types of cones and 31 flavors. How many different
single-scoop ice-cream cones is it possible to buy at this store?
867
868
CHAPTER 11
Counting and Probability
SOLUTION
There are two choices: type of cone and flavor of ice cream. At the first stage we
choose a type of cone, and at the second stage we choose a flavor. We can think of
the different stages as boxes:
stage 1 stage 2
type of cone flavor
The first box can be filled in three ways and the second in 31 ways:
Persi Diaconis (b. 1945) is currently professor of statistics and
mathematics at Stanford University
in California. He was born in New
York City into a musical family
and studied violin until the age of
14. At that time he left home to
become a magician. He was a
magician (apprentice and master)
for ten years. Magic is still his
passion, and if there were a professorship for magic, he would certainly qualify for such a post! His
interest in card tricks led him to a
study of probability and statistics.
He is now one of the leading statisticians in the world. With his background he approaches mathematics
with an undeniable flair. He says
“Statistics is the physics of numbers. Numbers seem to arise in the
world in an orderly fashion. When
we examine the world, the same
regularities seem to appear again
and again.” Among his many original contributions to mathematics is
a probabilistic study of the perfect
card shuffle.
3
31
stage 1 stage 2
Thus, by the Fundamental Counting Principle, there are 3 31 93 ways of
choosing a single-scoop ice-cream cone at this store.
■
EXAMPLE 2 ■ Using the Fundamental Counting Principle
In a certain state, automobile license plates display three letters followed by three
digits. How many such plates are possible if repetition of the letters
(a) is allowed?
(b) is not allowed?
SOLUTION
(a) There are six choices, one for each letter or digit on the license plate. As in the
preceding example, we sketch a box for each stage:
26
26
26
10
letters
10
10
digits
At the first stage, we choose a letter (from 26 possible choices); at the second
stage, another letter (again from 26 choices); at the third stage, another letter
(26 choices); at the fourth stage, a digit (from 10 possible choices); at the fifth
stage, a digit (again from 10 choices); and at the sixth stage, another digit (10
choices). By the Fundamental Counting Principle, the number of possible
license plates is
26 26 26 10 10 10 17,576,000
(b) If repetition of letters is not allowed, then we can arrange the choices as
follows:
26
25
letters
24
10
10
digits
10
SECTION 11.1
Counting Principles
869
At the first stage, we have 26 letters to choose from, but once the first letter is
chosen, there are only 25 letters to choose from at the second stage. Once the
first two letters are chosen, 24 letters are left to choose from for the third
stage. The digits are chosen as before. Thus, the number of possible license
plates in this case is
26 25 24 10 10 10 15,600,000
■
EXAMPLE 3 ■ Using Factorial Notation
In how many different ways can a race with six runners be completed? Assume
there is no tie.
SOLUTION
There are six possible choices for first place, five choices for second place (since
only five runners are left after first place has been decided), four choices for third
place, and so on. So, by the Fundamental Counting Principle, the number of
different ways this race can be completed is
Factorial notation is explained on
page 851.
6 5 4 3 2 1 6! 720
■
11.1 EXERCISES
1. A vendor sells ice cream from a cart on the boardwalk. He
offers vanilla, chocolate, strawberry, and pistachio ice
cream, served on either a waffle, sugar, or plain cone. How
many different single-scoop ice-cream cones can you buy
from this vendor?
2. How many three-letter “words” (strings of letters) can be
formed using the 26 letters of the alphabet if repetition of
letters
(a) is allowed?
(b) is not allowed?
3. How many three-letter “words” (strings of letters) can be
formed using the letters WXYZ if repetition of letters
(b) is not allowed?
(a) is allowed?
4. Eight horses are entered in a race.
(a) How many different orders are possible for completing
the race?
(b) In how many different ways can first, second, and third
places be decided? (Assume there is no tie.)
5. A multiple-choice test has five questions with four choices
for each question. In how many different ways can the test
be completed?
6. Telephone numbers consist of seven digits; the first digit
cannot be 0 or 1. How many telephone numbers are
possible?
7. In how many different ways can a race with five runners be
completed? (Assume there is no tie.)
8. In how many ways can five people be seated in a row of
five seats?
9. A restaurant offers six different main courses, eight types
of drinks, and three kinds of desserts. How many different
meals consisting of a main course, a drink, and a dessert
does the restaurant offer?
10. In how many ways can five different mathematics books be
placed next to each other on a shelf?
11. Towns A, B, C, and D are located in such a way that there
are four roads from A to B, five roads from B to C, and six
roads from C to D. How many routes are there from town
A to town D via towns B and C?
12. In a family of four children, how many different boy-girl
birth-order combinations are possible? (The birth orders
BBBG and BBGB are different.)
870
CHAPTER 11
Counting and Probability
13. A coin is flipped five times, and the resulting sequence of
22. A combination lock has 60 different positions. To open the
heads and tails is recorded. How many such sequences are
possible?
lock, the dial is turned to a certain number in the clockwise
direction, then to a number in the counterclockwise direction, and finally to a third number in the clockwise direction. If successive numbers in the combination cannot be
the same, how many different combinations are possible?
14. A red die and a white die are rolled, and the numbers
showing are recorded. How many different outcomes are
possible? (The singular form of the word dice is die.)
15. A red die, a blue die, and a white die are rolled, and the
numbers showing are recorded. How many different outcomes are possible?
16. Two cards are chosen in order from a deck. In how many
ways can this be done if
(a) the first card must be a spade and the second must be a
heart?
(b) both cards must be spades?
17. A girl has 5 skirts, 8 blouses, and 12 pairs of shoes. How
many different skirt-blouse-shoe outfits can she wear?
(Assume that each item matches all the others, so she is
willing to wear any combination.)
18. A company’s employee ID number system consists of one
letter followed by three digits. How many different ID
numbers are possible with this system?
19. A company has 2844 employees. Each employee is to be
given an ID number that consists of one letter followed by
two digits. Is it possible to give each employee a different
ID number using this scheme? Explain.
20. An all-star baseball team has a roster of seven pitchers and
three catchers. How many pitcher-catcher pairs can the
manager select from this roster?
21. Standard automobile license plates in California display a
nonzero digit, followed by three letters, followed by three
digits. How many different standard plates are possible in
this system?
23. A true-false test contains ten questions. In how many dif-
ferent ways can this test be completed?
24. An automobile dealer offers five models. Each model
comes in a choice of four colors, three types of stereo
equipment, with or without air conditioning, and with or
without a sunroof. In how many different ways can a
customer order an auto from this dealer?
25. The registrar at a certain university classifies students
according to a major, minor, year (1, 2, 3, 4), and sex
(M, F). Each student must choose one major and either
one or no minor from the 32 fields taught at this university.
How many different student classifications are possible?
26. How many monograms consisting of three initials are
possible?
27. A state has registered 8 million automobiles. To simplify
the license plate system, a state employee suggests that
each plate display only two letters followed by three digits.
Will this system create enough different license plates for
all the vehicles registered?
28. A state license plate design has six places. Each plate
begins with a fixed number of letters, and the remaining
places are filled with digits. (For example, one letter
followed by five digits, two letters followed by four
digits, and so on.) The state has 17 million registered
vehicles.
(a) The state decides to change to a system consisting of
one letter followed by five digits. Will this design
allow for enough different plates to accommodate all
the vehicles registered?
SECTION 11.1
(b) Find a system that will be sufficient if the
smallest possible number of letters is to
be used.
Counting Principles
871
38. In how many ways can five different mathematics books be
placed on a shelf if the two algebra books are to be placed
next to each other?
29. In how many ways can a president, vice president, and
secretary be chosen from a class of 30 students?
30. In how many ways can a president, vice president, and sec-
retary be chosen from a class of 20 females and 30 males if
the president must be a female and the vice president a
male?
31. A senate subcommittee consists of ten Democrats and
seven Republicans. In how many ways can a chairman,
vice chairman, and secretary be chosen if the chairman
must be a Democrat and the vice chairman must be a
Republican?
32. Social Security numbers consist of nine digits, with the first
digit between 0 and 6, inclusive. How many Social Security
numbers are possible?
33. Five-letter “words” are formed using the letters A, B, C, D,
E, F, G. How many such words are possible for each of the
following conditions?
(a) No condition is imposed.
(b) No letter can be repeated in a word.
(c) Each word must begin with the letter A.
(d) The letter C must be in the middle.
(e) The middle letter must be a vowel.
39. Eight mathematics books and three chemistry books are to
be placed on a shelf. In how many ways can this be done if
the mathematics books are next to each other and the
chemistry books are next to each other?
40. Three-digit numbers are formed using the digits 2, 4, 5, and
7, with repetition of digits allowed. How many such numbers can be formed if
(a) the numbers are less than 700?
(b) the numbers are even?
(c) the numbers are divisible by 5?
41. How many three-digit odd numbers can be formed using
the digits 1, 2, 4, and 6 if repetition of digits is not
allowed?
DISCOVERY DISCUSSION
●
34. How many five-letter palindromes are possible? (A palin-
drome is a string of letters that reads the same backward
and forward, such as the string XCZCX.)
42. Pairs of Initials
Explain why in any group of 677 people,
at least two people must have the same pair of initials.
43. Area Codes
35. A certain computer programming language allows names of
variables to consist of two characters, the first being any
letter and the second any letter or digit. How many names
of variables are possible?
36. How many different three-character code words consisting
of letters or digits are possible for the following code
designs?
(a) The first entry must be a letter.
(b) The first entry cannot be zero.
37. In how many ways can four men and four women
be seated in a row of eight seats for the following
situations?
(a) The women are to be seated together, and the men are
to be seated together.
(b) They are to be seated alternately by gender.
Until recently, telephone area codes in the
United States, Canada, and the Caribbean islands were
chosen according to the following rules: (i) The first digit
cannot be 0 or a 1, and (ii) the second digit must be a 0 or a
1. But in 1995, the second rule was abandoned when the
area code 360 was introduced in parts of western Washington State. Since then, many other new area codes that violate Rule (ii) have come into use, although Rule (i) still
remains in effect.
(a) How many area code telephone number combinations were possible under the old rules? (See Exercise 6
for a description of local telephone numbers.)
(b) How many area code telephone number combinations are now possible under the new rules?
(c) Why do you think it was necessary to make this
change?
(d) How many area codes that violate Rule (ii) are you personally familiar with?
872
CHAPTER 11
Counting and Probability
11.2 PERMUTATIONS AND COMBINATIONS
In this section we single out two important special cases of the Fundamental Counting Principle—permutations and combinations.
Permutations
A permutation of a set of distinct objects is an ordering of these objects. For
example, some permutations of the letters ABCDWXYZ are
Permutations of
three colored squares
XAYBZWCD
ZAYBCDWX
DBWAZXYC
YDXAWCZB
How many such permutations are possible? Since there are eight choices for the
first position, seven for the second (after the first has been chosen), six for the third
(after the first two have been chosen), and so on, the Fundamental Counting Principle tells us that the number of possible permutations is
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 40,320
This same reasoning with 8 replaced by n leads to the following observation.
The number of permutations of n objects is n!.
How many permutations consisting of five letters can be made from these same
eight letters? Some of these permutations are
XYZWC
AZDWX
AZXYB
WDXZB
Again, there are eight choices for the first position, seven for the second, six for the
third, five for the fourth, and four for the fifth. By the Fundamental Counting
Principle, the number of such permutations is
8 7 6 5 4 6720
In general, if a set has n elements, then the number of ways of ordering r elements from the set is denoted by P(n, r) and is called the number of permutations
of n objects taken r at a time.
We have just shown that PÓ8, 5Ô 6720. The same reasoning used to find
PÓ8, 5Ô will help us find a general formula for PÓn, rÔ. Indeed, there are n objects
and r positions to place them in. Thus, there are n choices for the first position,
n 1 choices for the second, n 2 choices for the third, and so on. The last position can be filled in n r 1 ways. By the Fundamental Counting Principle,
PÓn, rÔ nÓn 1ÔÓn 2Ô . . . Ón r 1Ô
SECTION 11.2
Permutations and Combinations
873
This formula can be written more compactly using factorial notation:
PÓn, rÔ nÓn 1ÔÓn 2Ô . . . Ón r 1Ô
nÓn 1ÔÓn 2Ô . . . Ón r 1ÔÓn rÔ . . . 3 2 1
n!
.
.
.
Ón rÔ!
Ón rÔ
321
PERMUTATIONS OF n OBJECTS TAKEN r AT A TIME
The number of permutations of n objects taken r at a time is
n!
PÓn, rÔ Ón rÔ!
EXAMPLE 1 ■ Finding the Number of Permutations
A club has nine members. In how many ways can a president, vice president, and
secretary be chosen from the members of this club?
SOLUTION
We need the number of ways of selecting three members, in order, for the
positions of president, vice president, and secretary from the nine club members.
This number is
9!
9!
PÓ9, 3Ô 9 8 7 504
Ó9 3Ô!
6!
■
EXAMPLE 2 ■ Finding the Number of Permutations
TI
CK
TICKET
ET
T
T
E
IC
K
KETIC
T KET
TIC
T
KE
T
TIC
TICKE
From 20 raffle tickets in a hat, four tickets are to be selected in order. The holder
of the first ticket wins a car, the second a motorcycle, the third a bicycle, and the
fourth a skateboard. In how many different ways can these prizes be awarded?
TICKET
SOLUTION
The order in which the tickets are chosen determines who wins each prize. So, we
need to find the number of ways of selecting four objects, in order, from 20
objects (the tickets). This number is
20!
20!
PÓ20, 4Ô 20 19 18 17 116,280
Ó20 4Ô!
16!
■
Distinguishable Permutations
If we have a collection of ten balls, each a different color, then the number of permutations of these balls is PÓ10, 10Ô 10!. If all ten balls are red, then we have just
one distinguishable permutation because all the ways of ordering these balls look
874
CHAPTER 11
Counting and Probability
exactly the same. In general, when considering a set of objects, some of which are
of the same kind, then two permutations are distinguishable if one cannot be
obtained from the other by interchanging the positions of elements of the same
kind. For example, if we have ten balls, of which six are red and the other four are
each a different color, then how many distinguishable permutations are possible?
The key point here is that balls of the same color are not distinguishable. So each
rearrangement of the red balls, keeping all the other balls fixed, gives essentially
the same permutation. Since there are 6! rearrangements of the red balls for each
fixed position of the other balls, the total number of distinguishable permutations is
10!6!. The same type of reasoning gives the following general rule.
DISTINGUISHABLE PERMUTATIONS
If a set of n objects consists of k different kinds of objects with n1 objects of
the first kind, n2 objects of the second kind, n3 objects of the third kind, and
so on, where n1 n2 . . . nk n, then the number of distinguishable
permutations of these objects is
n!
n1! n2! n3! . . . nk!
EXAMPLE 3 ■ Finding the Number of Distinguishable Permutations
Find the number of different ways of placing 15 balls in a row given that 4 are red,
3 are yellow, 6 are black, and 2 are blue.
SOLUTION
We want to find the number of distinguishable permutations of these balls. By the
formula, this number is
15!
6,306,300
4! 3! 6! 2!
■
Suppose we have 15 wooden balls in a row and four colors of paint: red, yellow,
black, and blue. In how many different ways can the 15 balls be painted in such a
way that we have 4 red, 3 yellow, 6 black, and 2 blue balls? A little thought will
show that this number is exactly the same as that calculated in Example 3. This way
of looking at the problem is somewhat different, however. Here we think of the
number of ways to partition the balls into four groups, each containing 4, 3, 6, and
2 balls to be painted red, yellow, black, and blue, respectively. The next example
shows how this reasoning is used.
EXAMPLE 4 ■ Finding the Number of Partitions
Fourteen construction workers are to be assigned to three different tasks. Seven
workers are needed for mixing cement, five for laying bricks, and two for carrying
SECTION 11.2
Permutations and Combinations
875
the bricks to the brick layers. In how many different ways can the workers be
assigned to these tasks?
SOLUTION
We need to partition the workers into three groups containing 7, 5, and 2 workers,
respectively. This number is
14!
72,072
7! 5! 2!
■
Combinations
When finding permutations, we are interested in the number of ways of ordering
elements of a set. In many counting problems, however, order is not important. For
example, a poker hand is the same hand, regardless of how it is ordered. A poker
player interested in the number of possible hands wants to know the number of
ways of drawing five cards from 52 cards, without regard to the order in which the
cards of a given hand are dealt. In this section we develop a formula for counting in
situations such as this, where order doesn’t matter.
A combination of r elements of a set is any subset of r elements from the set
(without regard to order). If the set has n elements, then the number of combinations of r elements is denoted by C(n, r) and is called the number of combinations
of n elements taken r at a time.
For example, consider a set with the four elements, A, B, C, and D. The combinations of these four elements taken three at a time are
ABC
ABD
ACD
BCD
The permutations of these elements taken three at a time are
ABC
ABD
ACD
BCD
ACB
ADB
ADC
BDC
BAC
BAD
CAD
CBD
BCA
BDA
CDA
CDB
CAB
DAB
DAC
DBC
CBA
DBA
DCA
DCB
We notice that the number of combinations is a lot fewer than the number of
permutations. In fact, each combination of three elements generates 3! permutations. So
PÓ4, 3Ô
4!
CÓ4, 3Ô 4
3!
3! Ó4 3Ô!
In general, each combination of r objects gives rise to r! permutations of these
objects.
876
CHAPTER 11
Counting and Probability
Thus
PÓn, rÔ
n!
CÓn, rÔ r!
r! Ón rÔ!
In Section 10.6 we denoted CÓn, rÔ by
Ó nrÔ, but it is customary to use the
notation CÓn, rÔ in the context of
counting. For an explanation of why
these are the same, see Exercise 76.
COMBINATIONS OF n OBJECTS TAKEN r AT A TIME
The number of combinations of n objects taken r at a time is
n!
CÓn, rÔ r! Ón rÔ!
The key difference between permutations and combinations is order. If we are
interested in ordered arrangements, then we are counting permutations; but if we
are concerned with subsets without regard to order, then we are counting combinations. Compare Examples 5 and 6 below (where order doesn’t matter) with
Examples 1 and 2 (where order does matter).
EXAMPLE 5 ■ Finding the Number of Combinations
A club has nine members. In how many ways can a committee of three be chosen
from the members of this club?
SOLUTION
We need the number of ways of choosing three of the nine members. Order is not
important here, because the committee is the same no matter how its members are
ordered. So, we want the number of combinations of nine objects (the club
members) taken three at a time. This number is
987
9!
9!
CÓ9, 3Ô 84
321
3!Ó9 3Ô!
3! 6!
■
EXAMPLE 6 ■ Finding the Number of Combinations
From 20 raffle tickets in a hat, four tickets are to be chosen at random. The holders
of the winning tickets are to be awarded free trips to the Bahamas. In how many
ways can the four winners be chosen?
SOLUTION
We need to find the number of ways of choosing four winners from 20 entries.
The order in which the tickets are chosen doesn’t matter, because the same prize is
awarded to each of the four winners. So, we want the number of combinations of
20 objects (the tickets) taken four at a time. This number is
20 19 18 17
20!
20!
CÓ20, 4Ô 4845
4321
4! Ó20 4Ô!
4! 16!
■
SECTION 11.2
Permutations and Combinations
877
If a set S has n elements, then CÓn, kÔ is the number of ways of choosing k elements from S, that is, the number of k-element subsets of S. Thus, the number of
subsets of S of all possible sizes is given by the sum
CÓn, 0Ô CÓn, 1Ô CÓn, 2Ô . . . CÓn, nÔ 2n
(See Section 10.6, Exercise 52, where this sum is discussed.)
A set with n elements has 2n subsets.
EXAMPLE 7 ■ Finding the Number of Subsets of a Set
Ronald Graham, born in Taft,
California, in 1935, is considered
the world’s leading mathematician
in the field of combinatorics, the
branch of mathematics that deals
with counting. For many years
Graham headed the Mathematical
Studies Center at Bell Laboratories
in Murray Hill, New Jersey, where
he solved key problems for the
telephone industry. During the
Apollo program, NASA needed to
evaluate mission schedules so that
the three astronauts aboard the
spacecraft could find the time to
perform all the necessary tasks.
The number of ways to allot these
tasks were astronomical—too vast
for even a computer to sort out.
Graham, using his knowledge of
combinatorics, was able to reassure
NASA that there were easy ways
of solving their problem that were
not too far from the theoretically
best possible solution. Besides
being a prolific mathematician,
Graham is an accomplished juggler
(he has been on stage with the
Cirque du Soleil and is a past president of the International Jugglers
Association). Several of his
research papers address the mathematical aspects of juggling. He is
also fluent in Mandarin Chinese
and Japanese, and once spoke
with President Jiang in his native
language.
A pizza parlor offers the basic cheese pizza and a choice of 16 toppings. How
many different kinds of pizza can be ordered at this pizza parlor?
SOLUTION
We need the number of possible subsets of the 16 toppings (including the empty
set, which corresponds to a plain cheese pizza). Thus, 216 65,536 different
pizzas can be ordered.
■
Problem Solving with Permutations
and Combinations
The crucial step in solving counting problems is deciding whether to use permutations, combinations, or the Fundamental Counting Principle. In some cases, the
solution of a problem may require using more than one of these principles. Here are
some general guidelines to help us decide how to apply these principles.
GUIDELINES FOR SOLVING COUNTING PROBLEMS
When consecutive choices are
being made, use the Fundamental Counting Principal.
1. FUNDAMENTAL COUNTING PRINCIPLE.
When we want to find the number of ways of
picking r objects from n objects, we need to ask ourselves: Does the order in
which we pick the objects matter?
2. DOES THE ORDER MATTER?
If the order matters, we use permutations.
If the order doesn’t matter, we use combinations.
EXAMPLE 8 ■ A Problem Involving Combinations
A group of 25 campers contains 15 women and 10 men. In how many ways can a
scouting party of 5 be chosen if it must consist of 3 women and 2 men?
878
CHAPTER 11
Counting and Probability
SOLUTION
Three women can be chosen from the 15 women in the group in CÓ15, 3Ô ways,
and two men can be chosen from the 10 men in the group in CÓ10, 2Ô ways. Thus,
by the Fundamental Counting Principle the number of ways of choosing the
scouting party is
CÓ15, 3Ô CÓ10, 2Ô 455 45 20,475
■
EXAMPLE 9 ■ A Problem Involving Permutations and Combinations
A committee of seven—consisting of a chairman, a vice chairman, a secretary, and
four other members—is to be chosen from a class of 20 students. In how many
ways can this committee be chosen?
SOLUTION
In choosing the three officers, order is important. So, the number of ways of
choosing them is
PÓ20, 3Ô 6840
Next, we need to choose four other students from the 17 remaining. Since order
doesn’t matter in this case, the number of ways of doing this is
We could have first chosen the four
unordered members of the committee—in CÓ20, 4Ô ways—and then the
three officers from the remaining
16 members, in PÓ16, 3Ô ways. Check
that this gives the same answer.
CÓ17, 4Ô 2380
Thus, by the Fundamental Counting Principle the number of ways of choosing this
committee is
PÓ20, 3Ô CÓ17, 4Ô 6840 2380 16,279,200
EXAMPLE 10 ■ A Group Photograph
Twelve employees at a company picnic are to stand in a row for a group
photograph. In how many ways can this be done if
(a) Jane and John insist on standing next to each other?
(b) Jane and John refuse to stand next to each other?
Jane John
SOLUTION
(a) Since the order in which the people stand is important, we use permutations.
But we can’t use the formula for permutations directly. Since Jane and John
■
SECTION 11.2
Permutations and Combinations
879
insist on standing together, let’s think of them as one object. Thus, we have
11 objects to arrange in a row and there are PÓ11, 11Ô ways of doing this. For
each of these arrangements, there are two ways of having Jane and John stand
together—Jane-John or John-Jane. Thus, by the Fundamental Counting Principle the total number of arrangements is
2 PÓ11, 11Ô 2 11! 79,833,600
(b) There are PÓ12, 12Ô ways of arranging the 12 people. Of these, 2 PÓ11, 11Ô
have Jane and John standing together [by part (a)]. All the rest have Jane and
John standing apart. So the number of arrangements with Jane and John apart is
PÓ12, 12Ô 2 PÓ11, 11Ô 12! 2 11! 399,168,000
■
11.2 EXERCISES
1–6
■
17. In how many ways can first, second, and third prizes be
Evaluate the expression.
awarded in a contest with 1000 contestants?
1. PÓ8, 3Ô
2. PÓ9, 2Ô
3. PÓ11, 4Ô
4. PÓ10, 5Ô
5. PÓ100, 1Ô
6. PÓ99, 3Ô
18. In how many ways can a president, vice president, secre7. In how many different ways can a president, vice president,
and secretary be chosen from a class of 15 students?
tary, and treasurer be chosen from a class of 30 students?
19. In how many ways can five students be seated in a row of
five chairs if Jack insists on sitting in the first chair?
8. In how many different ways can first, second, and third
Jack
prizes be awarded in a game with eight contestants?
9. In how many different ways can six of ten people be seated
in a row of six chairs?
10. In how many different ways can six people be seated in a
row of six chairs?
11. How many three-letter “words” can be made from the
20. In how many ways can the students in Exercise 19 be
seated if Jack insists on sitting in the middle chair?
letters FGHIJK? (Letters may not be repeated.)
12. How many permutations are possible from the letters of the
word LOVE?
13. How many different three-digit whole numbers can be
formed using the digits 1, 3, 5, and 7 if no repetition of
digits is allowed?
14. A pianist plans to play eight pieces at a recital. In how
many ways can she arrange these pieces in the program?
15. In how many different ways can a race with nine runners
be completed, assuming there is no tie?
16. A ship carries five signal flags of different colors. How
many different signals can be sent by hoisting exactly three
of the five flags on the ship’s flagpole in different orders?
21–24 ■ Find the number of distinguishable permutations of
the given letters.
21. AAABBC
22. AAABBBCCC
23. AABCD
24. ABCDDDEE
25. In how many ways can two blue marbles and four red
marbles be arranged in a row?
26. In how many different ways can five red balls, two white
balls, and seven blue balls be arranged in a row?
27. In how many different ways can four pennies, three nickels,
two dimes, and three quarters be arranged in a row?
28. In how many different ways can the letters of the word
ELEEMOSYNARY be arranged?
880
CHAPTER 11
Counting and Probability
29. A man bought three vanilla ice-cream cones, two chocolate
cones, four strawberry cones, and five butterscotch cones
for his 14 chidren. In how many ways can he distribute the
cones among his children?
43. How many different five-
card hands can be dealt
from a deck of 52 cards?
30. When seven students take a trip, they find a hotel with
three rooms available—a room for one person, a room for
two people, and a room for three people. In how many different ways can the students be assigned to these rooms?
(One student has to sleep in the car.)
31. Eight workers are cleaning a large house. Five are needed
to clean windows, two to clean the carpets, and one to
clean the rest of the house. In how many different ways can
these tasks be assigned to the eight workers?
32. A jogger jogs every morning to his health club, which is
eight blocks east and five blocks north of his home. He
always takes a route that is as short as possible, but he
likes to vary it (see the figure). How many different routes
can he take? [Hint: The route shown can be thought
of as ENNEEENENEENE, where E is East and N is
North.]
44. How many different seven-card hands can be picked from a
deck of 52 cards?
45. A student must answer seven of the ten questions on an
exam. In how many ways can she choose the seven
questions?
46. A pizza parlor offers a choice of 16 different toppings.
How many three-topping pizzas are possible?
47. A violinist has practiced 12 pieces. In how many ways can
he choose eight of these pieces for a recital?
48. If a woman has eight skirts, in how many ways can she
choose five of these to take on a weekend trip?
49. In how many ways can seven students from a class of 30 be
Health Club
chosen for a field trip?
50. In how many ways can the seven students in Exercise 49
be chosen if Jack must go on the field trip?
51. In how many ways can the seven students in Exercise 49 be
chosen if Jack is not allowed to go on the field trip?
52. In the 649 lottery game, a player picks six numbers
from 1 to 49. How many different choices does the player
have?
53. In the California Lotto game, a player chooses six
numbers from 1 to 53. It costs $1 to play this game.
How much would it cost to buy every possible
combination of six numbers to ensure picking the
winning six numbers?
Home
33–38
■
Evaluate the expression.
33. CÓ8, 3Ô
34. CÓ9, 2Ô
35. CÓ11, 4Ô
36. CÓ10, 5Ô
37. CÓ100, 1Ô
38. CÓ99, 3Ô
YOU CAN WIN $1,000,000
•••LOTTO•••
39. In how many ways can three books be chosen from a group
of six?
40. In how many ways can three pizza toppings be chosen from
12 available toppings?
41. In how many ways can six people be chosen from a group
of ten?
42. In how many ways can a committee of three members be
chosen from a club of 25 members?
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51 52 53
SECTION 11.2
54. A class has 20 students, of which 12 are females and 8 are
males. In how many ways can a committee of five students
be picked from this class under each condition?
(a) No restriction is placed on the number of males or
females on the committee.
(b) No males are to be included on the committee.
(c) The committee must have three females and two males.
55. A set has eight elements.
(a) How many subsets containing five elements does this
set have?
(b) How many subsets does this set have?
56. A travel agency has limited numbers of eight different free
brochures about Australia. The agent tells you to take any
that you like, but no more than one of any kind. How many
different ways can you choose brochures (including not
choosing any)?
57. A hamburger chain gives their customers a choice of ten
different hamburger toppings. In how many different ways
can a customer order a hamburger?
58. Each of 20 shoppers in a shopping mall chooses to enter
or not to enter the Dressfastic clothing store. How many
different outcomes of their decisions are possible?
59. From a group of ten male and ten female tennis players,
two men and two women are to face each other in a menversus-women doubles match. In how many different ways
can this match be arranged?
60. A school dance committee is to consist of two freshmen,
three sophomores, four juniors, and five seniors. If six
freshmen, eight sophomores, twelve juniors, and ten seniors
are eligible to be on the committee, in how many ways can
the committee be chosen?
61. A group of 22 aspiring thespians contains ten men and
twelve women. For the next play the director wants to
choose a leading man, a leading lady, a supporting male
role, a supporting female role, and eight extras—three
women and five men. In how many ways can the cast be
chosen?
62. A hockey team has 20 players of which twelve play for-
ward, six play defense, and two are goalies. In how many
ways can the coach pick a starting lineup consisting of
three forwards, two defense players, and one goalie?
Permutations and Combinations
881
(a) The group consists of two girls and four boys.
(b) The group contains at least two girls.
65. In how many ways can ten students be arranged in a row
for a class picture if John and Jane want to stand next to
each other, and Mike and Molly also insist on standing next
to each other?
66. In how many ways can the ten students in Exercise 65 be
arranged if Mike and Molly insist on standing together but
John and Jane refuse to stand next to each other?
67–68 ■ In how many ways can four men and four women be
seated in a row of eight seats for each of the following arrangements?
67. (a) The first seat is to be occupied by a man.
(b) The first and last seats are to be occupied by women.
68. (a) The women are to be seated together.
(b) The men and women are to be seated alternately by
gender.
69. From a group of 30 contestants, six are to be chosen as
semifinalists, then two of those are chosen as finalists, and
then the top prize is awarded to one of the finalists. In how
many ways can these choices be made in sequence?
70. Three delegates are to be chosen from a group of four
lawyers, a priest, and three professors. In how many ways
can the delegation be chosen if it must include at least one
professor?
71. In how many ways can a committee of four be chosen from
a group of ten if two people refuse to serve together on the
same committee?
72. Twelve dots are drawn on a page in such a way that no
three are collinear. How many straight lines can be formed
by joining the dots?
73. A five-person committee consisting of students and teach-
ers is being formed to study the issue of student parking
privileges. Of those who have expressed an interest in serving on the committee, 12 are teachers and 14 are students.
In how many ways can the committee be formed if at least
one student and one teacher must be included?
63. A pizza parlor offers four sizes of pizza (small, medium,
large, and colossus), two types of crust (thick and thin), and
14 different toppings. How many different pizzas can be
made with these choices?
64. Sixteen boys and nine girls go on a camping trip. In how
many ways can a group of six be selected to gather firewood, given the following conditions?
DISCOVERY DISCUSSION
●
74. Complementary Combinations
Without performing
any calculations, explain in words why the number of ways
of choosing two objects from ten objects is the same as the
number of ways of choosing eight objects from ten objects.
In general, explain why CÓn, rÔ CÓn, n rÔ.
882
CHAPTER 11
Counting and Probability
75. An Identity Involving Combinations
Kevin has ten
different marbles, and he wants to give three of them to
Luke and two to Mark. How many ways can he choose to
do this? There are two ways of analyzing this problem: He
could first pick three for Luke and then two for Mark,
or he could first pick two for Mark and then three for
Luke. Explain how these two viewpoints show that
CÓ10, 3Ô CÓ7, 2Ô CÓ10, 2Ô CÓ8, 3Ô. In general,
explain why
CÓn, rÔ CÓn r, kÔ CÓn, kÔ CÓn k, rÔ
gives
Óx yÔ2 Óx yÔÓx yÔ
Óx yÔx Óx yÔy
xx xy yx yy
Óx yÔ Óx yÔÓxx xy yx yyÔ
3
xxx xxy xyx xyy yxx
yxy yyx yyy
(a) Expand Óx yÔ5 using only the Distributive Property.
(b) Write all the terms that represent x 2y 3 together. These
are all the terms that contain two x’s and three y’s.
76. Why Is Ó nrÔ the Same as C(n, r)?
This exercise explains
why the binomial coefficients Ó nrÔ that appear in the expansion of Óx yÔn are the same as CÓn, rÔ, the number of ways
of choosing r objects from n objects. First, note that
expanding a binomial using only the Distributive Property
(c) Note that the two x’s appear in all possible positions.
Conclude that the number of terms that represent x 2y 3
is CÓ5, 2Ô.
(d) In general, explain why Ó nrÔ in the Binomial Theorem is
the same as CÓn, rÔ.
11.3 PROBABILITY
The mathematical theory of probability was first discussed in 1654 in
a series of letters between Pascal
(see page 845) and Fermat (see
page 532). Their correspondence
was prompted by a question raised
by the experienced gambler the
Chevalier de Méré. The Chevalier
was interested in the equitable distribution of the stakes of an interrupted gambling game (see
Problem 3, page 904).
If you roll a pair of dice, what are the chances of rolling a double six? What is the
likelihood of winning a state lottery? The subject of probability was invented to
give precise answers to questions like these. It is now an indispensable tool for
making decisions in such diverse areas as business, manufacturing, psychology,
genetics, and in many of the sciences. Probability is used to determine the effectiveness of new medicines, assess a fair price for an insurance policy, decide on the
likelihood of a candidate winning an election, determine the opinion of many people on a certain topic (without interviewing everyone), and answer many other
questions that involve a measure of uncertainty.
To discuss probability, let’s begin by defining some terms. An experiment is a
process, such as tossing a coin or rolling a die, that gives definite results, called the
outcomes of the experiment. For tossing a coin, the possible outcomes are “heads”
and “tails”; for rolling a die, the outcomes are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The sample
space of an experiment is the set of all possible outcomes. If we let H stand for
heads and T for tails, then the sample space of the coin-tossing experiment is
S {H, T}
The sample space for rolling a die is
S {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}
We will be concerned only with experiments for which all the outcomes are
“equally likely.” We already have an intuitive feeling for what this means. When
tossing a perfectly balanced coin, heads and tails are equally likely outcomes in the
sense that if this experiment is repeated many times, we expect that about half the
results will be heads and half will be tails.
SECTION 11.3
Probability
883
In any given experiment we are often concerned with a particular set of outcomes. We might be interested in a die showing an even number or in picking an
ace from a deck of cards. Any particular set of outcomes is a subset of the sample
space. This leads to the following definition.
DEFINITION OF AN EVENT
If S is the sample space of an experiment, then an event is any subset of the
sample space.
EXAMPLE 1 ■ Events in a Sample Space
If an experiment consists of tossing a coin three times and recording the results in
order, the sample space is
S {HHH, HHT, HTH, THH, TTH, THT, HTT, TTT}
The event E of showing “exactly two heads” is the subset of S that consists of all
outcomes with two heads. Thus
E {HHT, HTH, THH}
The event F of showing “at least two heads” is
F {HHH, HHT, HTH, THH}
and the event of showing “no heads” is G {TTT}.
■
We are now ready to define the notion of probability. Intuitively, we know that
rolling a die may result in any of six equally likely outcomes, so the chance of any
particular outcome occurring is 16. What is the chance of showing an even number?
Of the six equally likely outcomes possible, three are even numbers. So, it’s reasonable to say that the chance of showing an even number is 36 12. This reasoning is
the intuitive basis for the following definition of probability.
DEFINITION OF PROBABILITY
Let S be the sample space of an experiment in which all outcomes are equally
likely, and let E be an event. The probability of E, written PÓEÔ, is
nÓEÔ
number of elements in E
PÓEÔ nÓSÔ
number of elements in S
Notice that 0 nÓEÔ nÓSÔ, so the probability PÓEÔ of an event is a number
between 0 and 1, that is,
0 PÓEÔ 1
884
CHAPTER 11
Counting and Probability
MATHEMATICS IN
THE MODERN WORLD
Fair Voting Methods
The methods of mathematics have
recently been applied to problems
in the social sciences. For example,
how do we find fair voting methods? You may ask, what is the
problem with how we vote in elections? Well, suppose candidates A,
B, and C are running for president.
The final vote tally is as follows: A
gets 40%, B gets 39%, and C gets
21%. So candidate A wins. But
60% of the voters didn’t want A.
Moreover, you voted for C, but you
dislike A so much that you would
have been willing to change your
vote to B to avoid having A win.
Most of the voters who voted for C
feel the same way you do, so we
have a situation where most of the
voters prefer B over A, but A wins.
So is that fair?
In the 1950s Kenneth Arrow
showed mathematically that no
democratic method of voting can be
completely fair, and later won a
Nobel Prize for his work. Mathematicians continue to work on finding fairer voting systems. The
system most often used in federal,
state, and local elections is called
plurality voting (the candidate with
the most votes wins). Other systems
include majority voting (if no candidate gets a majority, a runoff is held
between the top two vote-getters),
approval voting (each voter can
vote for as many candidates as he
or she approves of), preference voting (each voter orders the candidates according to his or her
preference), and cumulative voting
(each voter gets as many votes as
(continued)
The closer the probability of an event is to 1, the more likely the event is to happen;
the closer to 0, the less likely. If PÓEÔ 1, then E is called the certain event and if
PÓEÔ 0, then E is called the impossible event.
EXAMPLE 2 ■ Finding the Probability of an Event
A coin is tossed three times and the results are recorded. What is the probability of
getting exactly two heads? At least two heads? No heads?
SOLUTION
By the results of Example 1, the sample space S of this experiment contains eight
outcomes and the event E of getting “exactly two heads” contains three outcomes,
{HHT HTH, THH}, so by the definition of probability,
nÓEÔ
3
PÓEÔ nÓSÔ
8
Similarly, the event F of getting “at least two heads” has four outcomes,
{HHH, HHT, HTH, THH}, and so
nÓFÔ
4
1
PÓFÔ nÓSÔ
8
2
The event G of getting “no heads” has one element, so
nÓGÔ
1
PÓGÔ nÓSÔ
8
■
To find the probability of an event, we do not need to list all the elements in the
sample space and the event. What we do need is the number of elements in these
sets. The counting techniques we’ve learned in the preceding sections will be very
useful here.
EXAMPLE 3 ■ Finding the Probability of an Event
A five-card poker hand is drawn from a standard deck of 52 cards. What is the
probability that all five cards are spades?
SOLUTION
The experiment here consists of choosing five cards from the deck, and the sample
space S consists of all possible five-card hands. Thus, the number of elements in
the sample space is
52!
nÓSÔ CÓ52, 5Ô 2,598,960
5! Ó52 5Ô!
SECTION 11.3
there are candidates and can give
all of his or her votes to one candidate or distribute them among the
candidates as he or she sees fit).
This last system is often used to
select corporate boards of directors.
Each system of voting has both
advantages and disadvantages.
Probability
885
The event E we are interested in consists of choosing five spades. Since the deck
contains only 13 spades, the number of ways of choosing five spades is
13!
nÓEÔ CÓ13, 5Ô 1287
5! Ó13 5Ô!
Thus, the probability of drawing five spades is
nÓEÔ
1287
PÓEÔ 0.0005
nÓSÔ
2,598,960
■
1
What does the answer to Example 3 tell us? Since 0.0005 2000 , this means that
if you play poker many, many times, on average you will be dealt a hand consisting
of only spades about once in every 2000 hands.
EXAMPLE 4 ■ Finding the Probability of an Event
A bag contains 20 tennis balls, of which four are defective. If two balls are
selected at random from the bag, what is the probability that both are defective?
SOLUTION
The experiment consists of choosing two balls from 20, so the number of elements
in the sample space S is CÓ20, 2Ô. Since there are four defective balls, the number
of ways of picking two defective balls is CÓ4, 2Ô. Thus, the probability of the event
E of picking two defective balls is
CÓ4, 2Ô
nÓEÔ
6
PÓEÔ 0.032
CÓ20, 2Ô
nÓSÔ
190
■
The complement of an event E is the set of outcomes in the sample space that is
not in E. We denote the complement of an event E by E. We can calculate the
probability of E using the definition and the fact that nÓEÔ nÓSÔ nÓEÔ:
nÓEÔ
nÓSÔ nÓEÔ
nÓSÔ
nÓEÔ
PÓEÔ 1 PÓEÔ
nÓSÔ
nÓSÔ
nÓSÔ
nÓSÔ
PROBABILITY OF THE COMPLEMENT OF AN EVENT
Let S be the sample space of an experiment and E an event. Then
PÓEÔ 1 PÓEÔ
This is an extremely useful result, since it is often difficult to calculate the probability of an event E but easy to find the probability of E, from which PÓEÔ can be
calculated immediately using this formula.
886
CHAPTER 11
Counting and Probability
EXAMPLE 5 ■ Finding the Probability of the Complement of an Event
An urn contains 10 red balls and 15 blue balls. Six balls are drawn at random from
the urn. What is the probability that at least one ball is red?
SOLUTION
Let E be the event that at least one red ball is drawn. It is tedious to count all the
possible ways in which one or more of the balls drawn are red. So, let’s consider
E, the complement of this event—namely, that none of the balls chosen is red.
The number of ways of choosing 6 blue balls from the 15 blue balls is CÓ15, 6Ô;
the number of ways of choosing 6 balls from the 25 balls is CÓ25, 6Ô. Thus
nÓEÔ
CÓ15, 6Ô
5005
13
PÓEÔ nÓSÔ
CÓ25, 6Ô
177,100
460
Since
PÓEÔ 1 PÓEÔ
By the formula for the complement of an event, we have
we have
447
13
PÓEÔ 1 PÓEÔ 1 0.97
460
460
PÓEÔ 1 PÓEÔ
■
Mutually Exclusive Events
Two events that have no outcome in common are said to be mutually exclusive
(see Figure 1). For example, in drawing a card from a deck, the events
E: The card is an ace
F: The card is a queen
E
FIGURE 1
F
are mutually exclusive, because a card cannot be both an ace and a queen.
If E and F are mutually exclusive events, what is the probability that E or F
occurs? The word or indicates that we want the probability of the union of these
events, that is, E F. Since E and F have no element in common,
nÓE FÔ nÓEÔ nÓFÔ
Thus
nÓFÔ
nÓEÔ nÓFÔ
nÓE FÔ
nÓEÔ
PÓE FÔ PÓEÔ PÓFÔ
nÓSÔ
nÓSÔ
nÓSÔ
nÓSÔ
We have proved the following formula.
PROBABILITY OF THE UNION OF MUTUALLY
EXCLUSIVE EVENTS
If E and F are mutually exclusive events in a sample space S, then the
probability of E or F is
PÓE FÔ PÓEÔ PÓFÔ
SECTION 11.3
Probability
887
There is a natural extension of this formula for any number of mutually exclusive
events: If E1, E2, . . . , En are pairwise mutually exclusive, then
PÓE1 E2 . . . EnÔ PÓE1Ô PÓE2Ô . . . PÓEnÔ
EXAMPLE 6 ■ The Probability of Mutually Exclusive Events
7♦
7♥
A card is drawn at random from a standard deck of 52 cards. What is the
probability that the card is either a seven or a face card?
7♣
7♠
K♦
K♥
K♣
K♠
Q♦ J♦
Q♥ J♥
Q♣ J♣
Q♠ J♠
SOLUTION
Let E and F denote the following events.
E: The card is a seven
F: The card is a face card
Since a card cannot be both a seven and a face card, the events are mutually
exclusive. We want the probability of E or F; in other words, the probability of
E F. By the formula,
4
12
4
PÓE FÔ PÓEÔ PÓFÔ 52
52
13
■
The Probability of the Union of Two Events
If two events E and F are not mutually exclusive, then they share outcomes in common. The situation is described graphically in Figure 2. The overlap of the two sets
is their intersection, that is, E F. Again, we are interested in the event E or F, so
we must count the elements in E F. If we simply added the number of elements
in E to the number of elements in F, then we would be counting the elements in the
overlap twice—once in E and once in F. So, to get the correct total, we must subtract the number of elements in E F. Thus
EF
E
FIGURE 2
F
nÓE FÔ nÓEÔ nÓFÔ nÓE FÔ
Using the formula for probability, we get
nÓEÔ nÓFÔ nÓE FÔ
nÓE FÔ
PÓE FÔ nÓSÔ
nÓSÔ
nÓE FÔ
nÓFÔ
nÓEÔ
nÓSÔ
nÓSÔ
nÓSÔ
PÓEÔ PÓFÔ PÓE FÔ
888
CHAPTER 11
Counting and Probability
We have proved the following.
PROBABILITY OF THE UNION OF TWO EVENTS
If E and F are events in a sample space S, then the probability of E or F is
PÓE FÔ PÓEÔ PÓFÔ PÓE FÔ
EXAMPLE 7 ■ The Probability of the Union of Events
What is the probability that a card drawn at random from a standard 52-card deck
is either a face card or a spade?
SOLUTION
K♣
A♠ 6♠
Q♣ K ♠
2♠ 7♠
K♥
J♣ Q♠
Q♥
3♠
8♠
K♦
J♠
J♥
♠
4
Q♦
9♠
J♦
5 ♠ 10 ♠
We let E and F denote the following events:
E: The card is a face card
F: The card is a spade
There are 12 face cards and 13 spades in a 52-card deck, so
12
PÓEÔ 52
and
13
PÓFÔ 52
Since 3 cards are simultaneously face cards and spades, we have
3
PÓE FÔ 52
Thus, by the formula for the probability of the union of two events, we have
PÓE FÔ PÓEÔ PÓFÔ PÓE FÔ
12
13
3
11
52
52
52
26
■
The Intersection of Independent Events
We have considered the probability of events joined by the word or, that is, the
union of events. Now we study the probability of events joined by the word and—
in other words, the intersection of events.
When the occurrence of one event does not affect the probability of another
event, we say that the events are independent. For instance, if a balanced coin is
tossed, the probability of showing heads on the second toss is 12, regardless of the
SECTION 11.3
Probability
889
outcome of the first toss. So, any two tosses of a coin are independent.
PROBABILITY OF THE INTERSECTION
OF INDEPENDENT EVENTS
If E and F are independent events in a sample space S, then the probability of
E and F is
PÓE FÔ PÓEÔ PÓFÔ
EXAMPLE 8 ■ The Probability of Independent Events
A jar contains five red balls and four black balls. A ball is drawn at random from
the jar and then replaced; then another ball is picked. What is the probability that
both balls are red?
SOLUTION
The events are independent. The probability that the first ball is red is 59. The
probability that the second is red is also 59. Thus, the probability that both balls are
red is
5
5
25
0.31
■
9
9
81
EXAMPLE 9 ■ The Birthday Problem
What is the probability that in a class of 35 students, at least two have the same
birthday?
SOLUTION
Number of
people in a
group
Probability that
at least two have
the same birthday
5
10
15
20
22
23
24
25
30
35
40
50
0.02714
0.11695
0.25290
0.41144
0.47569
0.50730
0.53834
0.56870
0.70631
0.81438
0.89123
0.97037
It’s reasonable to assume that the 35 birthdays are independent and that each day of
the 365 days in a year is equally likely as a date of birth. (We ignore February 29.)
Let E be the event that two of the students have the same birthday. It is tedious
to list all the possible ways in which at least two of the students have matching
birthdays. So, we consider the complementary event E, that is, that no two
students have the same birthday. To find this probability, we consider the students
one at a time. The probability that the first student has a birthday is 1, the
36
4
probability that the second has a birthday different from the first is 365 , the
36
3
probability that the third has a birthday different from the first two is 365 , and so
on. Thus
36
4
36
3
36
2
33
1
...
PÓEÔ 1 365 365 365 365 0.186
So
PÓEÔ 1 PÓEÔ 1 0.186 0.814
■
Most people are surprised that the probability in Example 9 is so high. For this
reason, this problem is sometimes called the “birthday paradox.” The table in the
margin gives the probability that two people in a group will share the same birthday
for groups of various sizes.
890
CHAPTER 11
Counting and Probability
11.3 EXERCISES
1. An experiment consists of tossing a coin twice.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Find the sample space.
Find the probability of getting heads exactly two times.
Find the probability of getting heads at least one time.
Find the probability of getting heads exactly one time.
10. A child’s game has a spinner as shown in the figure. Find
the probability of the given event.
(a) The spinner stops on an even number.
(b) The spinner stops on an odd number or a number
greater than 3.
2. An experiment consists of tossing a coin and rolling a die.
(a) Find the sample space.
(b) Find the probability of getting heads and an even
number.
(c) Find the probability of getting heads and a number
greater than 4.
(d) Find the probability of getting tails and an odd number.
3–4
■
A die is rolled. Find the probability of the given event.
3. (a) The number showing is a six.
(b) The number showing is an even number.
(c) The number showing is greater than 5.
4. (a) The number showing is a two or a three.
(b) The number showing is an odd number.
(c) The number showing is a number divisible by 3.
5–6
■ A card is drawn randomly from a standard 52-card deck.
Find the probability of the given event.
5. (a) The card drawn is a king.
(b) The card drawn is a face card.
(c) The card drawn is not a face card.
6. (a) The card drawn is a heart.
(b) The card drawn is either a heart or a spade.
(c) The card drawn is a heart, a diamond, or a spade.
7–8
A ball is drawn randomly from a jar that contains five
red balls, two white balls, and one yellow ball. Find the
probability of the given event.
■
7. (a) A red ball is drawn.
(b) The ball drawn is not yellow.
(c) A black ball is drawn.
8. (a) Neither a white nor yellow ball is drawn.
(b) A red, white, or yellow ball is drawn.
(c) The ball drawn is not white.
9. A drawer contains an unorganized collection of 18 socks—
three pairs are red, two pairs are white, and four pairs are
black.
(a) If one sock is drawn at random from the drawer, what
is the probability that it is red?
(b) Once a sock is drawn and discovered to be red, what is
the probability of drawing another red sock to make a
matching pair?
11. A letter is chosen at random from the word
EXTRATERRESTRIAL. Find the probability of the given
event.
(a) The letter T is chosen.
(b) The letter chosen is a vowel.
(c) The letter chosen is a consonant.
12–15 ■ A poker hand, consisting of five cards, is dealt from a
standard deck of 52 cards. Find the probability that the hand
contains the cards described.
12. Five hearts
13. Five cards of the same suit
14. Five face cards
15. An ace, king, queen, jack, and 10 of the same suit
(royal flush)
16. A pair of dice is rolled, and the numbers showing are
observed.
List the sample space of this experiment.
Find the probability of getting a sum of 7.
Find the probability of getting a sum of 9.
Find the probability that the two dice show doubles
(the same number).
(e) Find the probability that the two dice show different
numbers.
(f ) Find the probability of getting a sum of 9 or higher.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
17. A couple intends to have four children. Assume that having
a boy or a girl is an equally likely event.
(a) List the sample space of this experiment.
(b) Find the probability that the couple has only boys.
SECTION 11.3
(c) Find the probability that the couple has two boys and
two girls.
(d) Find the probability that the couple has four children of
the same sex.
(e) Find the probability that the couple has at least two girls.
18. What is the probability that a 13-card bridge hand consists
of all cards from the same suit?
19. An American roulette wheel has 38 slots; two slots are
numbered 0 and 00, and the remaining slots are numbered
from 1 to 36. Find the probability that the ball lands in an
odd-numbered slot.
Probability
891
H, L, M, T. What is the probability that he will arrange
them to spell the word HAMLET ?
27. A monkey is trained to arrange wooden blocks in a straight
line. He is then given 11 blocks showing the letters
A, B, B, I, I, L, O, P, R, T, Y. What is the probability that
the monkey will arrange the blocks to spell the word
PROBABILITY?
28. Eight horses are entered in a race. You randomly predict a
particular order for the horses to complete the race. What is
the probability that your prediction is correct?
20. A toddler has wooden blocks showing the letters C, E, F,
H, N, and R. Find the probability that the child arranges the
letters in the indicated order.
(a) In the order FRENCH
(b) In alphabetical order
21. In the 649 lottery game, a player selects six numbers
from 1 to 49. What is the probability of picking the six
winning numbers?
22. The president of a large company selects six employees to
receive a special bonus. He claims that the six employees
are chosen randomly from among the 30 employees, of
which 19 are women and 11 are men. What is the
probability that no woman is chosen?
23. An exam has ten true-false questions. A student who has
not studied answers all ten questions by just guessing. Find
the probability that the student correctly answers the given
number of questions.
(a) All ten questions
(b) Exactly seven questions
24. To control the quality of their product, the Bright-Light
Company inspects three light bulbs out of each batch of ten
bulbs manufactured. If a defective bulb is found, the batch
is discarded. Suppose a batch contains two defective bulbs.
What is the probability that the batch will be discarded?
29. Many genetic traits are controlled by two genes, one domi-
nant and one recessive. In Gregor Mendel’s original experiments with peas, the genes controlling the height of the
plant are denoted by T (tall) and t (short). The gene T is
dominant, so a plant with the genotype (genetic makeup)
TT or Tt is tall, whereas one with genotype tt is short. By a
statistical analysis of the offspring in his experiments,
Mendel concluded that offspring inherit one gene from
each parent, and each possible combination of the two
genes is equally likely. If each parent has the genotype Tt,
then the following chart gives the possible genotypes of
the offspring:
Parent 2
25. An often-quoted example of an event of extremely low
probability is that a monkey types Shakespeare’s entire
play Hamlet by randomly striking keys on a typewriter.
Assume that the typewriter has 48 keys (including the
space bar) and that the monkey is equally likely to hit
any key.
(a) Find the probability that such a monkey will actually
correctly type just the title of the play as his first word.
(b) What is the probability that the monkey will type the
phrase “To be or not to be” as his first words?
26. A monkey is trained to arrange wooden blocks in a straight
line. He is then given six blocks showing the letters A, E,
Parent 1
T
t
T
t
TT
Tt
Tt
tt
Find the probability that a given offspring of these parents
will be (a) tall or (b) short.
30. Refer to Exercise 29. Make a chart of the possible geno-
types of the offspring if one parent has genotype Tt and the
other tt. Find the probability that a given offspring will be
(a) tall or (b) short.
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CHAPTER 11
Counting and Probability
37. (a) The spinner stops on red.
31–32 ■ Determine whether the events E and F in the given
experiment are mutually exclusive.
(b) The spinner stops on an even number.
(c) The spinner stops on red or an even number.
31. The experiment consists of selecting a person at random.
38. (a) The spinner stops on blue.
(a) E:
The person is male
F: The person is female
(b) E: The person is tall
F: The person is blond
(b) The spinner stops on an odd number.
(c) The spinner stops on blue or an odd number.
39. An American roulette wheel has 38 slots: two of the slots
are numbered 0 and 00, and the rest are numbered from
1 to 36. Find the probability that the ball lands in an oddnumbered slot or in a slot with a number higher than 31.
32. The experiment consists of choosing at random a student
from your class.
The student is female
F: The student wears glasses
(b) E: The student has long hair
F: The student is male
(a) E:
40. A toddler has eight wooden blocks showing the letters
A, E, I, G, L, N, T, and R. What is the probability that the
child will arrange the letters to spell one of the words
TRIANGLE or INTEGRAL?
33–34 ■ A die is rolled and the number showing is observed.
Determine whether the events E and F are mutually exclusive.
Then find the probability of the event E F.
33. (a) E:
The number is even
F: The number is odd
(b) E: The number is even
F: The number is greater than 4
1 to 49. What is the probability of selecting at least five of
the six winning numbers?
43. A jar contains six red marbles numbered 1 to 6 and ten blue
The number is greater than 3
F: The number is less than 5
(b) E: The number is divisible by 3
F: The number is less than 3
marbles numbered 1 to 10. A marble is drawn at random
from the jar. Find the probability that the given event
occurs.
(a) The marble is red.
(b) The marble is odd-numbered.
(c) The marble is red or odd-numbered.
(d) The marble is blue or even-numbered.
35–36 ■ A card is drawn at random from a standard
52-card deck. Determine whether the events E and F are
mutually exclusive. Then find the probability of the event
E F.
44. A coin is tossed twice. Let E be the event “the first toss
shows heads” and F the event “the second toss shows
heads.”
(a) Are the events E and F independent?
(b) Find the probability of showing heads on both tosses.
35. (a) E:
The card is a face card
F: The card is a spade
(b) E: The card is a heart
F: The card is a spade
45. A die is rolled twice. Let E be the event “the first roll
36. (a) E:
The card is a club
F: The card is a king
(b) E: The card is an ace
F: The card is a spade
Refer to the spinner
shown in the figure. Find the
probability of the given event.
six males and eight females. What is the probability that
the committee includes either all males or all females?
42. In the 649 lottery game a player selects six numbers from
34. (a) E:
37–38
41. A committee of five is chosen randomly from a group of
shows a six” and F the event “the second roll shows a six.”
(a) Are the events E and F independent?
(b) Find the probability of showing a six on both rolls.
■
15
16
1
46–47 ■ Spinners A and B shown in the figure are spun at the
same time.
2
3
14
13
4
12
5
6
11
10
9
8
7
Spinner A
Spinner B
SECTION 11.3
46. (a) Are the events “spinner A stops on red” and “spinner B
stops on yellow” independent?
(b) Find the probability that spinner A stops on red and
spinner B stops on yellow.
47. (a) Find the probability that both spinners stop on purple.
(b) Find the probability that both spinners stop on blue.
48. A die is rolled twice. What is the probability of showing a
Probability
893
56. A slot machine has three wheels: Each wheel has 11 posi-
tions—a bar and the digits 0, 1, 2, . . . , 9. When the handle
is pulled, the three wheels spin independently before coming to rest. Find the probability that the wheels stop on the
following positions.
(a) Three bars
(b) The same number on each wheel
(c) At least one bar
one on both rolls?
49. A die is rolled twice. What is the probability of showing a
one on the first roll and an even number on the second roll?
50. A card is drawn from a deck and replaced, and then a sec-
ond card is drawn.
(a) What is the probability that both cards are aces?
(b) What is the probability that the first is an ace and the
second a spade?
51. A roulette wheel has 38 slots: Two slots are numbered 0
and 00, and the rest are numbered 1 to 36. A player places
a bet on a number between 1 and 36 and wins if a ball
thrown into the spinning roulette wheel lands in the slot
with the same number. Find the probability of winning on
two consecutive spins of the roulette wheel.
52. A researcher claims that she has taught a monkey to
spell the word MONKEY using the five wooden letters
E, O, K, M, N, Y. If the monkey has not actually learned
anything and is merely arranging the blocks randomly,
what is the probability that he will spell the word correctly
three consecutive times?
53. What is the probability of rolling “snake eyes” (double
ones) three times in a row with a pair of dice?
54. In the 649 lottery game, a player selects six numbers from
1 to 49 and wins if he selects the winning six numbers.
What is the probability of winning the lottery two times in
a row?
55. Jar A contains three red balls and four white balls. Jar B
contains five red balls and two white balls. Which one of
the following ways of randomly selecting balls gives the
greatest probability of drawing two red balls?
(i) Draw two balls from jar B.
(ii) Draw one ball from each jar.
(iii) Put all the balls in one jar, and then draw two balls.
57. Find the probability that in a group of eight students at least
two people have the same birthday.
58. What is the probability that in a group of six students at
least two have birthdays in the same month?
59. A student has locked her locker with a combination lock,
showing numbers from 1 to 40, but she has forgotten the
three-number combination that opens the lock. In order to
open the lock, she decides to try all possible combinations.
If she can try ten different combinations every minute,
what is the probability that she will open the lock within
one hour?
60. A mathematics department consists of ten men and eight
women. Six mathematics faculty members are to be
selected at random for the curriculum committee.
(a) What is the probability that two women and four men
are selected?
(b) What is the probability that two or fewer women are
selected?
(c) What is the probability that more than two women are
selected?
61. Twenty students are arranged randomly in a row for a class
picture. Paul wants to stand next to Phyllis. Find the probability that he gets his wish.
62. Eight boys and 12 girls are arranged in a row. What is the
probability that all the boys will be standing at one end of
the row and all the girls at the other end?
DISCOVERY DISCUSSION
●
63. The “Second Son” Paradox
Mrs. Smith says, “I have
two children—the older one is named William.” Mrs. Jones
894
CHAPTER 11
Counting and Probability
replies, “One of my two children is also named William.”
For each woman, list the sample space for the genders of
her children, and calculate the probability that her other
child is also a son. Explain why these two probabilities are
different.
64. The “Oldest Son or Daughter” Phenomenon
Poll
your class to determine how many of your male classmates
Laboratory
Project
are the oldest sons in their families, and how many of your
female classmates are the oldest daughters in their families.
You will most likely find that they form a majority of the
class. Explain why a randomly selected individual has a
high probability of being the oldest son or daughter in his
or her family.
Small Samples, Big Results
A national poll finds that voter preference for presidential candidates is as
follows:
Candidate A
57%
Candidate B
43%
In the poll 1600 adults were surveyed. Since over 100 million voters participate in
a national election, it hardly seems possible that surveying only 1600 adults
would be of any value. But it is, and it can be proved mathematically that if the
sample of 1600 adults is selected at random, then the results are accurate to
within 3% more than 95% of the time. Scientists use these methods to determine properties of a big population by testing a small sample. For example, a
small sample of fish from a lake is tested to determine the proportion that is diseased, or a small sample of a manufactured product is tested to determine the proportion that is defective.
We can get a feeling for how this works through a simple experiment. Put 1000
white beans and 1000 black beans in a bag, and mix them thoroughly. (It takes a
lot of time to count out 1000 beans, so get several friends to count out 100 or so
each.) Take a small cup and scoop up a small sample from the beans.
1. Record the proportion of black (or white) beans in the sample. How closely
does the proportion in the sample compare with the actual proportion in the
bag?
2. Take several samples and record the proportion of black (or white) beans in
each sample.
(a) Graph your results.
(b) Average your results. How close is your average to 0.5?
3. Try the experiment again but with 500 black beans and 1500 white beans.
What proportion of black (or white) beans would you expect in this sample?
SECTION 11.4
Expected Value
895
4. Have some friends mix black and white beans without telling you the number
of each. Estimate the proportion of black (or white) beans by taking a few
small samples.
PROGRAM: SAMPLE
:100 N
:0 C
:For ÓJ, 1, NÔ
:rand B
:ÓB 0.25Ô C C
:End
:Disp "PROPORTION"
:Disp CN
5. This bean experiment can be simulated on your graphing calculator. Let’s
designate the numbers in the interval ”0, 0.25’ as “black beans” and those in
(0.25, 1’ as “white beans.” Now use the random number generator in your
calculator to randomly pick a sample of numbers between 0 and 1. Try samples of size 100, 400, 1600, and larger. Determine the proportion of these that
are “black beans.” What would you expect this proportion to be? Do your
results improve when you use a larger sample? (The TI-83 program in the
margin takes a sample of 100 random numbers.)
6. Biologists use sampling techniques to estimate fish populations. For example,
to estimate the number of trout in a lake, some of the trout are collected,
tagged, and released. Later, a sample is taken and the number of tagged trout
in the sample is recorded. The total number of trout in the lake can be estimated from the following proportionality:
number of tagged trout in sample
number of tagged trout in lake
number of trout in lake
number of trout in sample
Model this process using beans as follows. Start with a bag containing an
unknown number of white beans. Remove a handful of the beans, count them,
then “tag” them by marking them with a felt tip pen. Return the tagged beans
to the bag and mix thoroughly. Now take a sample from the bag and use the
number of tagged beans in the sample to estimate the total number of beans in
the bag.
11.4 EXPECTED VALUE
FIGURE 1
In the game shown in Figure 1, you pay $1 to spin the arrow. If the arrow stops in a
red region, you get $3 (the dollar you paid plus $2); otherwise, you lose the dollar
you paid. If you play this game many times, how much would you expect to win?
Or lose? To answer these questions, let’s consider the probabilities of winning and
losing. Since three of the regions are red, the probability of winning is 130 0.3 and
that of losing is 170 0.7. Remember, this means that if you play this game many
times, you expect to win “on average” three out of ten times. So, suppose you play
the game 1000 times. Then you would expect to win 300 times and lose 700 times.
Since we win $2 or lose $1 in each game, our expected payoff in 1000 games is
2Ó300Ô Ó1ÔÓ700Ô 100
896
CHAPTER 11
Counting and Probability
1
00
So the average expected return per game is 1000 0.1. In other words, we expect
to lose, on average, 10 cents per game. Another way to view this average is to
divide each side of the preceding equation by 1000. Writing E for the result, we get
2Ó300Ô Ó1ÔÓ700Ô
E 1000
300
700
2 [email protected] Ó1Ô 1000
1000
2Ó0.3Ô Ó1ÔÓ0.7Ô
Thus, the expected return, or expected value, per game is
E a1 p1 a2 p2
where a1 is the payoff that occurs with probability p1 and a2 is the payoff that
occurs with probability p2. This example leads us to the following definition of
expected value.
DEFINITION OF EXPECTED VALUE
A game gives payoffs a1, a2, . . . , an with probabilities p1, p2, . . . , pn. The
expected value (or expectation) E of this game is
E a1 p1 a2 p2 . . . an pn
The expected value is an average expectation per game if the game is played
many times. In general, E need not be one of the possible payoffs. In the preceding
example the expected value is 10 cents, but it’s impossible to lose exactly
10 cents in any given trial of the game.
EXAMPLE 1 ■ Finding an Expected Value
A die is rolled, and you receive $1 for each point that shows. What is your
expectation?
SOLUTION
Each face of the die has probability 16 of showing. So you get $1 with probability 16,
$2 with probability 16, $3 with probability 16, and so on. Thus, the expected value is
1
1
1
1
1
1
21
E [email protected] 2 [email protected] 3 [email protected] 4 [email protected] 5 [email protected] 6 [email protected] 3.5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
This means that if you play this game many times, you will make, on average,
$3.50 per game.
■
SECTION 11.4
Expected Value
897
EXAMPLE 2 ■ Finding an Expected Value
28
18
2
14
3
23
4
26
16
30
9
0
11
33
5
17 32 20 7
8
21
6 31 19
29
34
22
12
25
10
27
1
13
36
24
3
15
In Monte Carlo, the game of roulette is played on a wheel with slots numbered 0, 1,
2, . . . , 36. The wheel is spun, and a ball dropped in the wheel is equally likely to
end up in any one of the slots. To play the game, you bet $1 on any number other
than zero. (For example, you may bet $1 on number 23.) If the ball stops in your
slot, you get $36 (the $1 you bet plus $35). Find the expected value of this game.
SOLUTION
You gain $35 with probability 317 , and you lose $1 with probability 3367 . Thus
36
1
E Ó35Ô Ó1Ô 0.027
37
37
In other words, if you play this game many times, you would expect to lose
2.7 cents on every dollar you bet (on average). Consequently, the house expects
to gain 2.7 cents on every dollar that is bet. This expected value is what makes
gambling very profitable for the gaming house and very unprofitable for the
gambler.
■
11.4 EXERCISES
1–10
■ Find the expected value (or expectation) of the games
described.
1. Mike wins $2 if a coin toss shows heads and $1 if it shows
tails.
2. Jane wins $10 if a die roll shows a six, and she loses $1
otherwise.
3. The game consists of drawing a card from a deck. You win
$100 if you draw the ace of spades or lose $1 if you draw
any other card.
4. Tim wins $3 if a coin toss shows heads or $2 if it shows
tails.
5. Carol wins $3 if a die roll shows a six, and she wins $0.50
otherwise.
10. A bag contains eight white balls and two black balls. John
picks two balls at random from the bag, and he wins $5 if
he does not pick a black ball.
11. In the game of roulette as played in Las Vegas, the wheel
has 38 slots: Two slots are numbered 0 and 00, and the rest
are numbered 1 to 36. A $1 bet on any number other than
0 or 00 wins $36 ($35 plus the $1 bet). Find the expected
value of this game.
12. A sweepstakes offers a first prize of $1,000,000, second
prize of $100,000, and third prize of $10,000. Suppose that
two million people enter the contest and three names are
drawn randomly for the three prizes.
(a) Find the expected winnings for a person participating
in this contest.
(b) Is it worth paying a dollar to enter this sweepstakes?
6. A coin is tossed twice. Albert wins $2 for each heads and
must pay $1 for each tails.
7. A die is rolled. Tom wins $2 if the die shows an even
number and he pays $2 otherwise.
8. A card is drawn from a deck. You win $104 if the card is
an ace, $26 if it is a face card, and $13 if it is the 8 of
clubs.
9. A bag contains two silver dollars and eight slugs. You pay
50 cents to reach into the bag and take a coin, which you
get to keep.
13. A box contains 100 envelopes. Ten envelopes contain $10
each, ten contain $5 each, two are “unlucky,” and the rest
are empty. A player draws an envelope from the box and
keeps whatever is in it. If a person draws an unlucky
envelope, however, he must pay $100. What is the
expectation of a person playing this game?
14. A safe containing $1,000,000 is locked with a combination
lock. You pay $1 for one guess at the six-digit combination. If you open the lock, you get to keep the million
dollars. What is your expectation?
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CHAPTER 11
Counting and Probability
15. An investor buys 1000 shares of a risky stock for $5 a
share. She estimates that the probability the stock will rise
in value to $20 a share is 0.1 and the probability that it will
fall to $1 a share is 0.9. If the only criterion for her decision to buy this stock was the expected value of her profit,
did she make a wise investment?
16. A slot machine has three wheels, and each wheel has 11
positions—the digits 0, 1, 2, . . . , 9 and the picture of a
watermelon. When a quarter is placed in the machine and
the handle is pulled, the three wheels spin independently
and come to rest. When three watermelons show, the payout is $5; otherwise, nothing is paid. What is the expected
value of this game?
17. In a 649 lottery game, a player pays $1 and selects six
numbers from 1 to 49. Any player who has chosen the six
winning numbers wins $1,000,000. Assuming this is the
only way to win, what is the expected value of this game?
18. A bag contains two silver dollars and six slugs. A game
consists of reaching into the bag and drawing a coin, which
you get to keep. Determine the “fair price” of playing this
game, that is, the price at which the player can be expected
to break even if he plays the game many times (in other
words, the price at which his expectation is zero).
19. A game consists of drawing a card from a deck. You win
$13 if you draw an ace. What is a “fair price” to pay to
play this game? (See Exercise 18.)
DISCOVERY DISCUSSION
●
20. The Expected Value of a Sweepstakes Contest
A
magazine clearinghouse holds a sweepstakes contest to sell
subscriptions. If you return the winning number, you win
$1,000,000. You have a 1-in-20-million chance of winning,
but your only cost to enter the contest is a first-class stamp
to mail the entry. Use the current price of a first-class
stamp to calculate your expected net winnings if you enter
this contest. Is it worth entering the sweepstakes?
11 REVIEW
CONCEPT CHECK
1. What does the Fundamental Counting Principle say?
2. (a) What is a permutation of a set of distinct objects?
(b) How many permutations are there of n objects?
(c) How many permutations are there of n objects taken
r at a time?
(d) What is the number of distinguishable permutations of
n objects if there are k different kinds of objects with
n1 objects of the first kind, n2 objects of the second
kind, and so on?
3. (a) What is a combination of r elements of a set?
(b) How many combinations are there of n elements taken
r at a time?
(c) How many subsets does a set with n elements have?
4. In solving a problem involving picking r objects from
n objects, how do you know whether to use permutations
or combinations?
5. (a) What is meant by the sample space of an experiment?
(b) What is an event?
(c) Define the probability of an event E in a sample
space S.
(d) What is the probability of the complement of E?
6. (a) What are mutually exclusive events?
(b) If E and F are mutually exclusive events, what is the
probability of the union of E and F? What if E and F
are not mutually exclusive?
7. (a) What are independent events?
(b) If E and F are independent events, what is the
probability of the intersection of E and F?
8. Suppose that a game gives payoffs a1, a2, . . . , an with
probabilities p1, p2, . . . , pn. What is the expected value
of the game? What is the significance of the expected
value?
EXERCISES
1. A coin is tossed, a die is rolled, and a card is drawn from a
deck. How many possible outcomes does this experiment
have?
2. How many three-digit numbers can be formed using the
digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 if repetition of digits
(a) is allowed?
(b) is not allowed?
CHAPTER 11
3. (a) How many different two-element subsets does the set
{A, E, I, O, U} have?
(b) How many different two-letter “words” can be made
using the letters from the set in part (a)?
4. An airline company overbooks a particular flight and seven
passengers are “bumped” from the flight. If 120 passengers
are booked on this flight, in how many ways can the airline
choose the seven passengers to be bumped?
5. A quiz has ten true-false questions. How many different
ways is it possible to earn a score of exactly 70% on this
quiz?
6. A test has ten true-false questions and five multiple-choice
questions with four choices for each. In how many ways
can this test be completed?
Review
899
length, that are composed of the nucleotides A, C, G, and
T. It is known that at least 20 different words exist. What is
the minimum word length necessary to generate 20 words?
17. Given 16 subjects from which to choose, in how many
ways can a student select fields of study as follows?
(a) A major and a minor
(b) A major, a first minor, and a second minor
(c) A major and two minors
18. (a) How many three-digit numbers can be formed using
the digits 0, 1, . . . , 9? (Remember, a three-digit
number cannot have 0 as the leftmost digit.)
(b) If a number is chosen randomly from the set
{0, 1, 2, . . . , 1000}, what is the probability that the
number chosen is a three-digit number?
7. If you must answer only eight of ten questions on a test,
how many ways do you have of choosing the questions you
will omit?
8. An ice-cream store offers 15 flavors of ice cream. The spe-
cialty is a banana split with four scoops of ice cream. If
each scoop must be a different flavor, how many different
banana splits may be ordered?
9. A company uses a different three-letter security code for
each of its employees. What is the maximum number of
codes this security system can generate?
10. A group of students determines that they can stand in a row
for their class picture in 120 different ways. How many
students are in this class?
11. A coin is tossed ten times. In how many different ways can
the result be three heads and seven tails?
12. The Yukon Territory in Canada uses a license-plate system
for automobiles that consists of two letters followed by
three numbers. Explain how we can know that fewer than
700,000 autos are licensed in the Yukon.
13. A group of friends have reserved a tennis court. They find
that there are ten different ways in which two of them can
play a singles game on this court. How many friends are in
this group?
14. A pizza parlor advertises that they prepare 2048 different
types of pizza. How many toppings does this parlor offer?
15. In Morse code, each letter is represented by a sequence of
dots and dashes, with repetition allowed. How many letters
can be represented using Morse code if three or fewer
symbols are used?
16. The genetic code is based on the four nucleotides adenine
(A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). These
are connected in long strings to form DNA molecules. For
example, a sequence in the DNA may look like
CAGTGGTACC . . . . The code uses “words,” all the same
19–20 ■ An anagram of a word is a permutation of the letters
of that word. For example, anagrams of the word triangle
include griantle, integral, and tenalgir.
19. How many anagrams of the word TRIANGLE are possible?
20. How many anagrams are possible from the word
MISSISSIPPI?
21. A committee of seven is to be chosen from a group of ten
men and eight women. In how many ways can the committee be chosen using each of the following selection requirements?
(a) No restriction is placed on the number of men and
women on the committee.
(b) The committee must have exactly four men and three
women.
(c) Susie refuses to serve on the committee.
(d) At least five women must serve on the committee.
(e) At most two men can serve on the committee.
(f) The committee is to have a chairman, a vice chairman,
a secretary, and four other members.
22. A jar contains ten red balls labeled 0, 1, 2, . . . , 9 and five
white balls labeled 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. If a ball is drawn from the
jar, find the probability of the given event.
(a) The ball is red.
(b) The ball is even-numbered.
(c) The ball is white and odd-numbered.
(d) The ball is red or odd-numbered.
23. If two balls are drawn from the jar in Exercise 22, find the
probability of the given event.
Both balls are red.
One ball is white and the other is red.
At least one ball is red.
Both balls are red and even-numbered.
Both balls are white and odd-numbered.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
900
CHAPTER 11
Counting and Probability
24. A coin is tossed three times in a row, and the outcomes of
each toss are observed.
(a) Find the sample space for this experiment.
(b) Find the probability of getting three heads.
(c) Find the probability of getting two or more heads.
(d) Find the probability of getting tails on the first toss.
25. A shelf has ten books: two mysteries, four romance novels,
and four mathematics textbooks. If you select a book at
random to take to the beach, what is the probability that it
turns out to be a mathematics text?
26. A die is rolled and a card is selected from a standard
52-card deck. What is the probability that both the die and
the card show a six?
27. Find the probability that the indicated card is drawn at
random from a 52-card deck.
An ace
An ace or a jack
An ace or a spade
A red ace
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
coin is tossed. Find the probability of each outcome.
(a) The ace of spades, a six, and heads
(b) A spade, a six, and heads
(c) A face card, a number greater than 3, and heads
29. Two dice are rolled. Find the probability of each outcome.
(a) The dice show the same number.
(b) The dice show different numbers.
30. Four cards are dealt from a standard 52-card deck. Find the
probability that the cards are
(b) all spades
same number; he pays $1 otherwise. What is the expected
value of this game?
35. Mary will win $1,000,000 if she can name the 13 original
states in the order in which they ratified the U.S. Constitution. Mary has no knowledge of this order, so she makes a
guess. What is her expectation?
36. A pizza parlor offers 12 different toppings, one of which is
anchovies. If a pizza is ordered at random, what is the
probability that anchovies is one of the toppings?
37. A drawer contains an unorganized collection of 50 socks—
20 are red and 30 are blue. Suppose the lights go out so
Kathy can’t distinguish the color of the socks.
(a) What is the minimum number of socks Kathy must
take out of the drawer to be sure of getting a matching
pair?
(b) If two socks are taken at random from the drawer, what
is the probability that they make a matching pair?
38. A volleyball team has nine players. In how many ways can
28. A card is drawn from a 52-card deck, a die is rolled, and a
(a) all kings
34. Three dice are rolled. John gets $5 if they all show the
(c) all the same color
31. In the “numbers game” lottery, a player picks a three-digit
number (from 000 to 999), and if the number is selected in
the drawing, the player wins $500. If another number with
the same digits (in any order) is drawn, the player wins
$50. John plays the number 159.
(a) What is the probability that he will win $500?
(b) What is the probability that he will win $50?
32. In a television game show, a contestant is given five cards
with a different digit on each and is asked to arrange them
to match the price of a brand-new car. If she gets the price
right, she wins the car. What is the probability that she
wins, assuming that she knows the first digit but must
guess the remaining four?
33. Two dice are rolled. John gets $5 if they show the same
number, or he pays $1 if they show different numbers.
What is the expected value of this game?
a starting lineup be chosen if it consists of two forward
players and three defense players?
39. Zip codes consist of five digits.
(a) How many different zip codes are possible?
(b) How many different zip codes can be read when the
envelope is turned upside down? (An upside down 9 is a
6; and 0, 1, and 8 are the same when read upside down.)
(c) What is the probability that a randomly chosen zip code
can be read upside down?
(d) How many zip codes read the same upside down as
right side up?
40. In the Zip4 postal code system, zip codes consist of nine
digits.
(a) How many different Zip4 codes are possible?
(b) How many different Zip4 codes are palindromes? (A
palindrome is a number that reads the same from left to
right as right to left.)
(c) What is the probability that a randomly chosen Zip4
code is a palindrome?
41. Let N 3,600,000. ÓNote that N 2 73 2 5 5.Ô
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
How many divisors does N have?
How many even divisors does N have?
How many divisors of N are multiples of 6?
What is the probability that a randomly chosen divisor
of N is even?
42. The U.S. Senate has two senators from each of the 50 states.
In how many ways can a committee of five senators be chosen if no state is to have two members on the committee?
CHAPTER 11
Test
901
11 TEST
1. How many five-letter “words” can be made from the letters A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J
if repetition (a) is allowed or (b) is not allowed?
2. A restaurant offers five main courses, three types of desserts, and four kinds of drinks.
In how many ways can a customer order a meal consisting of one choice from each
category?
3. Over the past year, John has purchased 30 books.
(a) In how many ways can he pick four of these books and arrange them, in order, on
his nightstand bookshelf?
(b) In how many ways can he choose four of these books to take with him on his
vacation at the shore?
4. A commuter must travel from Ajax to Barrie and back every day. Four roads join the
two cities. The commuter likes to vary the trip as much as possible, so he always leaves
and returns by different roads. In how many different ways can he make the round-trip?
5. A pizza parlor offers four sizes of pizza and 14 different toppings. A customer may
choose any number of toppings (or no topping at all). How many different pizzas does
this parlor offer?
6. An anagram of a word is a rearrangement of the letters of the word.
(a) How many anagrams of the word LOVE are possible?
(b) How many different anagrams of the word KISSES are possible?
7. A board of directors consisting of eight members is to be chosen from a pool of
30 candidates. The board is to have a chairman, a treasurer, a secretary, and five other
members. In how many ways can the board of directors be chosen?
8. One card is drawn from a deck. Find the probability of the given event.
(a) The card is red.
(b) The card is a king.
(c) The card is a red king.
9. A jar contains five red balls, numbered 1 to 5, and eight white balls, numbered 1 to 8.
A ball is chosen at random from the jar. Find the probability of the given event.
(a) The ball is red.
(b) The ball is even-numbered.
(c) The ball is red or even-numbered.
10. Three people are chosen at random from a group of five men and ten women. What is
the probability that all three are men?
11. Two dice are rolled. What is the probability of getting doubles?
12. In a group of four students, what is the probability that at least two have the same
astrological sign?
13. You are to draw one card from a deck. If it is an ace, you win $10; if it is a face card,
you win $1; otherwise, you lose $0.50. What is the expected value of this game?
Focus on Modeling
The Monte Carlo Method
A good way to familiarize ourselves with a fact is to experiment with it. For
instance, to convince ourselves that the earth is a sphere (which was considered a
major paradox at one time), we could go up in a space shuttle to see that it is so; to
see whether a given equation is an identity, we might try some special cases to
make sure there are no obvious counterexamples. In problems involving probability, we can perform an experiment many times and use the results to estimate the
probability in question. In fact, we often model the experiment on a computer,
thereby making it feasible to perform the experiment a large number of times. This
technique is called the Monte Carlo method, named after the famous gambling
casino in Monaco.
EXAMPLE 1 ■ The Contestant’s Dilemma
1
2
3
In a TV game show, a contestant chooses one of three doors. Behind one of them
is a valuable prize—the other two doors have nothing behind them. After the
contestant has made her choice, the host opens one of the other two doors, one that
he knows does not conceal a prize, and then gives her the opportunity to change
her choice.
Should the contestant switch, stay, or does it matter? In other words, by switching doors, does she increase, decrease, or leave unchanged her probability of winning? At first, it may seem that switching doors doesn’t make any difference. After
all, two doors are left—one with the prize and one without—so it seems reasonable that the contestant has an equal chance of winning or losing. But if you play
this game many times, you will find that by switching doors you actually win
about 23 of the time.
The authors modeled this game on a computer and found that in one million
games the simulated contestant (who always switches) won 667,049 times—very
close to 23 of the time. Thus, it seems that switching doors does make a difference:
Switching increases the contestant’s chances of winning. This experiment forces us
to reexamine our reasoning. Here is why switching doors is the correct strategy:
1. When the contestant first made her choice, she had a
Contestant: “I choose door number 2.”
1
3
chance of winning. If
she doesn’t switch, no matter what the host does, her probability of winning
remains 13.
2. If the contestant decides to switch, she will switch to the winning door if she
1
2
Contestant: “Oh no, what should I do?”
902
had initially chosen a losing one, or to a losing door if she had initially chosen
the winning one. Since the probability of having initially selected a losing door
is 23, by switching the probability of winning then becomes 23.
We conclude that the contestant should switch, because her probability of
winning is 23 if she switches and 13 if she doesn’t. Put simply, there is a much
greater chance that she initially chose a losing door (since there are more of
these), so she should switch.
■
The Monte Carlo Method
The “contestant’s dilemma” problem discussed here is an example of
how subtle probability can be. This
problem was posed in a nationally
syndicated column in Parade magazine in 1990. The correct solution
was presented in the column, but it
generated considerable controversy,
with thousands of letters arguing
that the solution was wrong. This
shows how problems in probability
can be quite tricky. Without a lot of
experience in probabilistic thinking,
it’s easy to make a mistake. Even
great mathematicians like D’Alembert and Roberval (see Problems 2
and 3) made mistakes in probability. Professor David Burton writes
in his book The History of Mathematics, “Probability theory abounds
in paradoxes that wrench the common sense and trip the unwary.”
PROGRAM: HEADTAIL
:0J:0K
:ForÓN, 1, 100Ô
:randX
:intÓ2XÔY
:JÓ1YÔJ
:KYK
:END
:Disp "HEADS",J
:Disp "TAILS",K
903
An experiment can be modeled using any computer language or programmable
calculator that has a random-number generator. This is a command or function
(usually called Rnd or Rand) that returns a randomly chosen number x with
0 x 1. In the next example we see how to use this to model a simple
experiment.
EXAMPLE 2 ■ Monte Carlo Model of a Coin Toss
When a balanced coin is tossed, each outcome—“heads” or “tails”—has
probability 12. This doesn’t mean that if we toss a coin several times, we will
necessarily get exactly half heads and half tails. We would expect, however, the
proportion of heads and of tails to get closer and closer to 12 as the number of
tosses increases. To test this hypothesis, we could toss a coin a very large number
of times and keep track of the results. But this is a very tedious process, so we will
use the Monte Carlo method to model this process.
To model a coin toss with a calculator or computer, we use the random-number
generator to get a random number x such that 0 x 1. Because the number is
chosen randomly, the probability that it lies in the first half of this interval
Ó0 x 12Ô is the same as the probability that it lies in the second half
Ó12 x 1Ô. Thus, we could model the outcome “heads” by the event that
0 x 12 and the outcome “tails” by the event that 12 x 1.
An easier way to keep track of heads and tails is to note that if 0 x 1, then
0 2x 2, and so “2x‘, the integer part of 2x, is either 0 or 1, each with probability 12. (On most programmable calculators, the function Int gives the integer part
of a number.) Thus, we could model “heads” with the outcome “0” and “tails”
with the outcome “1” when we take the integer part of 2x. The program in the
margin models 100 tosses of a coin on the TI-83 calculator. The graph in Figure 1
shows what proportion p of the tosses have come up “heads” after n tosses. As
you can see, this proportion settles down near 0.5 as the number n of tosses
increases—just as we hypothesized.
■
p
1.0
Heads
FIGURE 1
Relative frequency of “heads”
0.5
0
100
500
Number of tosses
1000 n
In general, if a process has n equally likely outcomes, then we can model the
process using a random-number generator as follows: If our program or calculator
produces the random number x, with 0 x 1, then the integer part of nx will be
a random choice from the n integers 0, 1, 2, . . . , n 1. Thus, we can use the outcomes 0, 1, 2, . . . , n 1 as models for the outcomes of the actual experiment.
904
Focus on Modeling
Problems
1. In a game show like the one described in Example 1, a prize is concealed behind one of
ten doors. After the contestant chooses a door, the host opens eight losing doors and
then gives the contestant the opportunity to switch to the other unopened door.
(a) Play this game with a friend 30 or more times, using the strategy of switching
doors each time. Count the number of times you win, and estimate the probability
of winning with this strategy.
(b) Calculate the probability of winning with the “switching” strategy using reasoning
similar to that in Example 1. Compare with your result from part (a).
2. A couple intend to have two children. What is the probability that they will have one
child of each sex? The French mathematician D’Alembert analyzed this problem (incorrectly) by reasoning that three outcomes are possible: two boys, or two girls, or one
child of each sex. He concluded that the probability of having one of each sex is 13,
mistakenly assuming that the three outcomes are “equally likely.”
(a) Model this problem with a pair of coins (using “heads” for boys and “tails” for
girls), or write a program to model the problem. Perform the experiment 40 or
more times, counting the number of boy-girl combinations. Estimate the probability
of having one child of each sex.
(b) Calculate the correct probability of having one child of each sex, and compare this
with your result from part (a).
3. A game between two players consists of tossing a coin. Player A gets a point if the coin
shows heads, and player B gets a point if it shows tails. The first player to get six points
wins an $8000 jackpot. As it happens, the police raid the place when player A has five
points and B has three points. After everyone has calmed down, how should the jackpot
be divided between the two players? In other words, what is the probability of A winning (and that of B winning) if the game were to continue?
The French mathematicians Pascal and Fermat corresponded about this problem, and
both came to the same correct conclusion (though by very different reasonings). Their
friend Roberval disagreed with both of them. He argued that player A has probability 34
of winning, because the game can end in the four ways H, TH, TTH, TTT, and in three
of these, A wins. Roberval’s reasoning was wrong.
(a) Continue the game from the point at which it was interrupted, using either a coin or
a modeling program. Perform this experiment 80 or more times, and estimate the
probability that player A wins.
(b) Calculate the probability that player A wins. Compare with your estimate from
part (a).
4. In the World Series, the top teams in the National League and the American League
play a best-of-seven series; that is, they play until one team has won four games. (No
tie is allowed, so this results in a maximum of seven games.) Suppose the teams are
evenly matched, so that the probability that either team wins a given game is 12.
(a) Use a coin or a modeling program to model a World Series, where “heads” represents a win by Team A and “tails” a win by Team B. Perform this experiment at
least 80 times, keeping track of how many games are needed to decide each series.
Estimate the probability that an evenly matched series will end in four games. Do
the same for five, six, and seven games.
(b) What is the probability that the series will end in four games? Five games? Six
games? Seven games? Compare with your estimates from part (a).
(c) Find the expected value for the number of games until the series ends. ”Hint: This
will be PÓfour gamesÔ 4 PÓfiveÔ 5 PÓsixÔ 6 PÓsevenÔ 7.’
The Monte Carlo Method
y
905
5. In this problem we use the Monte Carlo method to estimate the value of p. The circle
1
in the figure has radius 1, so its area is p and the square has area 4. If we choose a
point at random from the square, the probability that it lies inside the circle will be
p
area of circle
area of square
4
_1
0
1 x
The Monte Carlo method involves choosing many points inside the square. Then we
have
p
number of hits inside circle
number of hits inside square
4
_1
Thus, 4 times this ratio will give us an approximation for p.
To implement this method, we use a random-number generator to obtain the coordinates Óx, yÔ of a random point in the square, and then check to see if it lies inside the
circle (that is, we check if x 2 y 2 1Ô. Note that we only need to use points in the
first quadrant, since the ratio of areas is the same in each quadrant. The program in the
margin shows a way of doing this on the TI-83 calculator for 1000 randomly selected
points.
Carry out this Monte Carlo simulation for as many points as you can. How do your
results compare with the actual value of p? Do you think this is a reasonable way to
get a good approximation for p?
PROGRAM: PI
:0P
:ForÓN, 1, 1000Ô
:randX:randY
:PÓÓX 2Y 2Ô1ÔP
:End
:Disp "PI IS APPROX",4*PN
6. The Monte Carlo method can be used to estimate the area under the graph of a function.
The figure shows the region under the graph of fÓxÔ x 2, above the x-axis, between
x 0 and x 1. If we choose a point in the square at random, the probability that it
lies under the graph of fÓxÔ x 2 is the area under the graph divided by the area of the
square. So if we randomly select a large number of points in the square, we have
y
1
area under graph
number of hits under graph
number of hits in square
area of square
y=≈
Modify the program from Problem 5 to carry out this Monte Carlo simulation and
approximate the required area. [Note: The exact value of this area will be found in
Chapter 12.]
7. Choose two numbers at random from the interval ”0, 1Ô. What is the probability that the
0
1
x
sum of the two numbers is less than 1?
(a) Use a Monte Carlo model to estimate the probability.
(b) Calculate the exact value of the probability. [Hint: Call the numbers x and y.
Choosing these numbers is the same as choosing an ordered pair Óx, yÔ in the unit
square {Óx, yÔ 0 x 1, 0 y 1}. What proportion of the points in this square
corresponds to x y being less than 1?]

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