9. Abbreviations and Letter Symbols

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9. Abbreviations and Letter Symbols
9.1.
Abbreviations and letter symbols are used to save space and to avoid
distracting the reader by use of repetitious words or phrases.
9.2.
The nature of the publication governs the extent to which abbreviations are used. In the text of technical and legal publications, and in
parentheses, brackets, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, leaderwork, and
bibliographies, many words are frequently abbreviated. Heads, legends, tables of contents, and indexes follow the style of the text.
9.3.
Internal and terminal punctuation in symbols represening units
of measure are to be omitted to conform with practice adopted by
scientific, technical, and industrial groups. Where the omission of
terminal punctuation causes confusion; e.g., the symbol in (inch)
mistaken for the preposition in, the symbol should be spelled out.
9.4.
Standard and easily understood forms are preferable, and they
should be uniform throughout a job. Abbreviations not generally
known should be followed in the text by the spelled-out forms in
parentheses the first time they occur; in tables and leaderwork such
explanatory matter should be supplied in a footnote. As the printer
cannot rewrite the copy, the author should supply these explanatory
forms.
9.5.
In technical matter, symbols for units of measure should be used
only with figures; similarly, many other abbreviations and symbols
should not appear in isolation. For example, energy is measured in
foot-pounds, NOT energy is measured in ft•lbs.
Capitals, hyphens, periods (points), and spacing
In general, an abbreviation follows the capitalization and hyphenation of the word or words abbreviated. It is followed by a period
unless otherwise indicated.
9.6.
c.o.d.
St.
221
but ft•lb
222
Chapter 9
9.7.
Abbreviations and initials of a personal name with points are set
without spaces. Abbreviations composed of contractions and initials or numbers, will retain space.
H.S.T.
J.F.K.
L.B.J.
U.S.
U.N.
U.S.C. (but Rev. Stat.)
A.F. of L.-CIO (AFL–CIO
preferred)
A.D., B.C.
e.s.t.
i.e., e.g. (but op. cit.)
9.8.
B.S., LL.D., Ph.D., B.Sc.
H.R. 116 (but S. 116, S. Con.
Res. 116)
C.A.D.C. (but App. D.C.)
A.B. Secrest, D.D.S.
but
AT&T
Texas A&M
R&D
Except as otherwise designated, points and spaces are omitted
after initials used as shortened names of governmental agencies
and of other organized bodies. “Other organized bodies” shall be
interpreted to mean organized bodies that have become popularly
identified with a symbol, such as MIT (Massachusetts Institute
of Technology), GM (General Motors), GMAC (General Motors
Acceptance Corp.), etc. (See “List of Abbreviations.”) Symbols, when
they appear in copy, may be used for acts of Congress. Example:
ARA (Area Redevelopment Act).
VFW
NLRB
TVA
AFL–CIO
ARC
ASTM
Geographic terms
9.9.
United States must be spelled out when appearing in a sentence
containing the name of another country. The abbreviation U.S.
will be used when preceding the word Government or the name
of a Government organization, except in formal writing (treaties,
Executive orders, proclamations, etc.); congressional bills; legal citations and courtwork; and covers and title pages.
U.S. Government
U.S. Congress
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
U.S. district court
U.S. Supreme Court (but Supreme Court of the United States)
U.S. Army (but Army of the United States)
Abbreviations and Letter Symbols
223
U.S. monitor Nantucket
U.S.-NATO assistance
U.S. Government efforts to control inf lation must be successful if the
United States is to have a stable economy.
but British, French, and United States Governments; United States-British
talks
9.10.
With the exceptions in the preceding rule, the abbreviation U.S.
is used in the adjective position, but is spelled out when used as a
noun.
U.S. foreign policy
U.S. farm-support program
U.S. attorney
U.S. citizen
United States Code (official title)
United States Steel Corp.
(legal title)
Foreign policy of the
United States
not Temperatures vary in the U.S.
9.11.
The names of foreign countries are not abbreviated, with the exception of the former U.S.S.R., which is abbreviated due to its length.
9.12.
In other than formal usage as defined in rule 9.9, all States of the
United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands are abbreviated
immediately following any capitalized geographic term, including armory, arsenal, airbase, airport, barracks, depot, fort, Indian
agency, military camp, national cemetery (also forest, historic site,
memorial, seashore, monument, park), naval shipyard, proving
ground, reservation (forest, Indian, or military), and reserve or station (military or naval).
Prince George’s County, MD
Mount Rainier National Forest,
WA
Stone Mountain, GA
National Naval Medical Center,
Bethesda, MD
Mark Twain National Wildlife
Refuge, IL-IA-MO (note use of
hyphens here)
Richmond, VA
9.13.
Arlington National Cemetery, VA
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD
Baltimore-Washington
International Airport, MD
Redstone Arsenal, AL
but
Leavenworth freight yards,
Kansas
Altoona sidetrack, Wisconsin
The Postal Service style of two-letter State, Province, and freely
associated State abbreviations is to be used.
224
Chapter 9
United States
[Including freely associated States]
Alabama........................................AL
Alaska ........................................... AK
American Samoa ........................ AS
Arizona .........................................AZ
Arkansas .......................................AR
California .....................................CA
Colorado ..................................... CO
Connecticut .................................CT
Delaware .......................................DE
District of Columbia ................. DC
Federated States of
Micronesia .............................. FM
Florida ...........................................FL
Georgia......................................... GA
Guam ............................................ GU
Hawaii ............................................HI
Idaho...............................................ID
Illinois .............................................IL
Indiana ...........................................IN
Iowa.................................................IA
Kansas ........................................... KS
Kentucky.......................................KY
Louisiana ...................................... LA
Maine............................................ME
Marshall Islands ....................... MH
Maryland .................................... MD
Massachusetts ........................... MA
Michigan....................................... MI
Minnesota .................................. MN
Mississippi....................................MS
Missouri...................................... MO
Montana.......................................MT
Nebraska .......................................NE
Nevada .........................................NV
New Hampshire .........................NH
New Jersey .....................................NJ
New Mexico ............................... NM
New York ..................................... NY
North Carolina........................... NC
North Dakota .............................ND
Northern Mariana
Islands......................................MP
Alberta ..........................................AB
British Columbia ........................BC
Manitoba .....................................MB
New Brunswick ...........................NB
Newfoundland and Labrador ...NL
Northwest Territories ............... NT
Nova Scotia .................................. NS
Nunavut .......................................NU
Ontario.........................................ON
Ohio ..............................................OH
Oklahoma.................................... OK
Oregon ..........................................OR
Palau .............................................PW
Pennsylvania................................ PA
Puerto Rico .................................. PR
Rhode Island ................................. RI
South Carolina .............................SC
South Dakota ............................... SD
Tennessee..................................... TN
Texas ..............................................TX
Utah ...............................................UT
Vermont ........................................VT
Virgin Islands ...............................VI
Virginia .........................................VA
Washington.................................WA
West Virginia.............................WV
Wisconsin.....................................WI
Wyoming .................................... WY
Canada
Prince Edward Island .................PE
Quebec ......................................... QC
Saskatchewan ...............................SK
Yukon ............................................YT
9.14.
The names of other insular possessions, trust territories, and Long
Island, Staten Island, etc., are not abbreviated.
9.15.
The names of Canadian Provinces and other foreign political subdivisions are not abbreviated except as noted in rule 9.13.
Addresses
9.16.
Words such as Street, Avenue, Place, Road, Square, Boulevard,
Terrace, Drive, Court, and Building, following a name or number,
are abbreviated in footnotes, sidenotes, tables, leaderwork, and
lists.
9.17.
In addresses, a single period is used with the abbreviations NW.,
SW., NE., SE. (indicating sectional divisions of cities) following
name or number. North, South, East, and West are spelled out at all
times.
Abbreviations and Letter Symbols
9.18.
The word Street or Avenue as part of a name is not abbreviated even
in parentheses, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, lists, or leaderwork.
14th Street Bridge
9.19.
225
Ninth Avenue Bldg.
The words County, Fort, Mount, Point, and Port are not abbreviated.
Saint (St.) and Sainte (Ste.) should be abbreviated.
Descriptions of tracts of land
9.20.
If fractions are spelled out in land descriptions, half and quarter are
used (not one-half or one-quarter).
south half of T. 47 N., R. 64 E.
9.21.
In the description of tracts of public land the following abbreviations
are used (periods are omitted after abbreviated compass directions
that immediately precede and close up on figures):
SE¼NW¼ sec. 4, T. 12 S., R. 15 E., of the Boise Meridian
lot 6, NE¼ sec. 4, T. 6 N., R. 1 W.
N½ sec. 20, T. 7 N., R. 2 W., sixth principal meridian
Tps. 9, 10, 11, and 12 S., Rs. 12 and 13 W.
T. 2 S., Rs. 8, 9, and 10 E., sec. 26
T. 3 S., R. 1 E., sec. 34, W½E½, W½, and W½SE¼SE¼
sec. 32 (with or without a township number)
9.22.
In case of an unavoidable break in a land-description symbol group
at end of a line, use no hyphen and break after fraction.
Names and titles
9.23.
The following forms are not always abbreviations, and copy should
be followed as to periods:
Al
Alex
9.24.
Fred
Sam
Walt
Will
In signatures, an effort should be made to retain the exact form used
by the signer.
George Wythe
9.25.
Ben
Ed
Geo. Taylor
In company and other formal names, if it is not necessary to preserve
the full legal title, such forms as Bro., Bros., Co., Corp., Inc., Ltd., and
& are used. Association and Manufacturing are not abbreviated.
226
Chapter 9
Radio Corp. of America
Aluminum Co. of America
Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey
H.J. Baker & Bro.
Jones Bros. & Co.
American Telephone &
Telegraph Co.
Norton Enterprises, Inc.
Maryland Steamship Co., Ltd.
Chesapeake & Delaware Canal
Fairmount Building & Loan
Association
9.26.
Electronics Manufacturing Co.
Texas College of Arts & Industries
Robert Wilson & Associates, Inc.
U.S. News & World Report
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad
Mine, Mill & Smelter Workers
but
Little Theater Company
Senate Banking, Housing and
Urban Affairs Committee
Company and Corporation are not abbreviated in names of Federal
Government units.
Commodity Credit Corporation
Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation
Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation
9.27.
In parentheses, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, and leaderwork,
abbreviate the words railroad and railway (RR. and Ry.),
except in such names as “Washington Railway & Electric Co.” and
“Florida Railroad & Navigation Corp.” SS for steamship, MS for motorship, etc., preceding name are used at all times.
9.28.
In the names of informal companionships the word and is spelled
out.
Gilbert and Sullivan
9.29.
Currier and Ives
In other than formal usage, a civil, military, or naval title preceding
a name is abbreviated if followed by first or given name or initial;
but Mr., Mrs., Miss, Ms., M., MM., Messrs., Mlle., Mme., and Dr. are
abbreviated with or without first or given name or initial.
United States military titles and abbreviations
Officer rank
Officer ranks in the United States military consist of commissioned officers and warrant officers. The commissioned ranks are the highest in the
military. These officers hold presidential commissions and are confirmed at
their ranks by the Senate. Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps officers are
called company grade officers in the pay grades of O–1 to O–3, field grade
Abbreviations and Letter Symbols
227
officers in pay grades O–4 to O–6, and general officers in pay grades O–7
and higher. The equivalent officer groupings in the Navy are called junior
grade, mid-grade, and flag.
Warrant officers hold warrants from their service secretary and are specialists and experts in certain military technologies or capabilities. The lowest
ranking warrant officers serve under a warrant, but they receive commissions from the President upon promotion to chief warrant officer 2. These
commissioned warrant officers are direct representatives of the President
of the United States. They derive their authority from the same source as
commissioned officers but remain specialists, in contrast to commissioned
officers, who are generalists. There are no warrant officers in the Air Force.
Army
Navy
Coast Guard
Marines
General of the Army
Fleet Admiral
(Reserved for wartime only) (Reserved for wartime only)
O10
General
GEN
Army Chief of Staff
Admiral
ADM
Chief of Naval Operations
and
Commandant of the
Coast Guard
Air Force
General of the Air Force
(Reserved for wartime only)
General
Gen.
Commandant of the
Marine Corps
General
Gen.
Air Force Chief of Staff
O9
Lieutenant
General
LTG
Vice Admiral
VADM
Lieutenant
General
Lt. Gen.
Lieutenant
General
Lt. Gen.
O8
Major General
MG
Rear Admiral
Upper Half
RADM
Major General
Maj. Gen.
Major General
Maj. Gen.
O7
Brigadier General
BG
Rear Admiral
Lower Half
RDML
Brigadier General
Brig. Gen.
Brigadier General
Brig. Gen.
O6
Colonel
COL
Captain
CAPT
Colonel
Col.
Colonel
Col.
O5
Lieutenant Colonel
LTC
Commander
CDR
Lieutenant Colonel
Lt. Col.
Lieutenant Colonel
Lt. Col.
O4
Major
MAJ
Lieutenant
Commander
LCDR
Major
Maj.
Major
Maj.
O3
Captain
CPT
Lieutenant
LT
Captain
Capt.
Captain
Capt.
228
Chapter 9
Army
Navy
Coast Guard
Marines
Air Force
O2
First Lieutenant
1LT
Lieutenant Junior Grade
LTJG
First Lieutenant
1st Lt.
First Lieutenant
1st Lt.
O1
Second Lieutenant
2LT
Ensign
ENS
Second Lieutenant
2nd Lt.
Second Lieutenant
2nd Lt.
W5
Chief Warrant Officer
CW5
Chief Warrant Officer
CWO5
Chief Warrant Officer 5
CWO5
NO WARRANT
W4
Chief Warrant Officer 4
CW4
Chief Warrant Officer 4
CWO4
Chief Warrant Officer 4
CWO4
NO WARRANT
W3
Chief Warrant Officer 3
CW3
Chief Warrant Officer 3
CWO3
Chief Warrant Officer 3
CWO3
NO WARRANT
W2
Chief Warrant Officer 2
CW2
Chief Warrant Officer 2
CWO2
Chief Warrant Officer 2
CWO2
NO WARRANT
W1
Warrant Officer 1
WO1
Warrant Officer 1
WO1
Warrant Officer 1
WO
NO WARRANT
Source: http://www.defenselink.mil/specials/insignias/officers.html.
Enlisted rank
Service members in pay grades E–1 through E–3 are usually either in some
kind of training status or on their initial assignment. The training includes
the basic training phase where recruits are immersed in military culture and
values and are taught the core skills required by their service component.
Basic training is followed by a specialized or advanced training phase that
provides recruits with a specific area of expertise or concentration. In the
Army and Marines, this area is called a military occupational specialty; in
the Navy it is known as a rate; and in the Air Force it is simply called an Air
Force specialty.
Leadership responsibility significantly increases in the mid-level enlisted
ranks. This responsibility is given formal recognition by use of the terms
noncommissioned officer and petty officer. An Army sergeant, an Air Force
staff sergeant, and a Marine corporal are considered NCO ranks. The Navy
NCO equivalent, petty officer, is achieved at the rank of petty officer third
class.
Abbreviations and Letter Symbols
229
At the E–8 level, the Army, Marines, and Air Force have two positions at the
same pay grade. Whether one is, for example, a senior master sergeant or a
first sergeant in the Air Force depends on the person’s job. The same is true
for the positions at the E–9 level. Marine Corps master gunnery sergeants
and sergeants major receive the same pay but have different responsibilities.
E–8s and E–9s have 15 to 30 years on the job, and are commanders’ senior
advisers for enlisted matters.
A third E–9 element is the senior enlisted person of each service. The sergeant
major of the Army, the sergeant major of the Marine Corps, the master chief
petty officer of the Navy, and the chief master sergeant of the Air Force are
the spokespersons of the enlisted force at the highest levels of their services.
Army
E9
Sergeant Major
of the Army
(SMA)
Navy
Coast Guard
Master Chief Petty
Officer
of the Navy
(MCPON)
and
Marines
Air Force
Sergeant Major of the
Marine Corps
(SgtMajMC)
Chief Master Sergeant
of the Air Force
(CMSAF)
Coast Guard
(MCPOCG)
E9
Sergeant
Major
(SGM)
Command
Sergeant
Major
(CSM)
E8
Master
Sergeant
(MSG)
First
Sergeant
(1SG)
Master
Chief
Petty
Officer
(MCPO)
Fleet/
Command
Master
Chief
Petty
Officer
Senior Chief Petty
Officer
(SCPO)
Sergeant
Major
(SgtMaj)
Master
Chief
First
Gunnery Master
Sergeant Sergeant Sergeant
(MGySgt) (CMSgt)
Master
Sergeant
(MSgt)
First
Sergeant
Command
Chief
Master
Sergeant
(CCM)
Senior
Master
Sergeant
(SMSgt)
First Sergeant
Master
Sergeant
(MSgt)
First Sergeant
E7
Sergeant First Class
(SFC)
Chief Petty Officer
(CPO)
Gunnery Sergeant
(GySgt)
E6
Staff Sergeant
(SSG)
Petty Officer
First Class
(PO1)
Staff Sergeant
(SSgt)
Technical Sergeant
(TSgt)
E5
Sergeant
(SGT)
Petty Officer
Second Class
(PO2)
Sergeant
(Sgt)
Staff Sergeant
(SSgt)
Petty Officer
Third Class
(PO3)
Corporal
(Cpl)
Senior Airman
(SrA)
E4
Corporal
(CPL)
Specialist
(SPC)
230
Chapter 9
Army
Navy
Coast Guard
Marines
Air Force
E3
Private First Class
(PFC)
Seaman
(SN)
Lance Corporal
(LCpl)
Airman First Class
(A1C)
E2
Private E–2
(PV2)
Seaman Apprentice
(SA)
Private First Class
(PFC)
Airman
(Amn)
E1
Private
Seaman Recruit
(SR)
Private
Airman Basic
Source: http://www.defenselink.mil/specials/insignias/enlisted.html.
9.30.
Spell out Senator, Representative, and commandant.
9.31.
Unless preceded by the, abbreviate Honorable, Reverend, and
Monsignor when followed by the first name, initials, or title.
Hon. Elihu Root; the Honorable Elihu Root; the Honorable Mr. Root
the Honorables John Roberts, John Paul Stevens, and Ruth Bader Ginsberg
Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr.; the Reverend Dr. King; Rev. Dr. King; Reverend
King (not Rev. King, nor the Reverend King)
Rt. Rev. James E. Freeman; the Right Reverend James E. Freeman; Very Rev. Henry
Boyd; the Very Reverend Henry Boyd
Rt. Rev. Msgr. John Bird; the Right Reverend Monsignor John Bird
9.32.
The following and similar forms are used after a name:
Esq., Jr., Sr.
2d, 3d (or II, III) (not preceded by comma)
Degrees: LL.D., M.A., Ph.D., etc.
Fellowships, orders, etc.: FSA Scot, F.R.S., K.C.B., C.P.A., etc.
9.33.
The abbreviation Esq. and other titles such as Mr., Mrs., and Dr.,
should not appear with any other title or with abbreviations indicating scholastic degrees.
John L. Smith, Esq., not Mr. John L. Smith, Esq., nor John L. Smith, Esq., A.M.;
but James A. Jones, Jr., Esq.
Ford Maddox, A.B., Ph.D., not Mr. Ford Maddox, A.B., Ph.D.
George Gray, M.D., not Mr. George Gray, M.D., nor Dr. George Gray, M.D.
Dwight A. Bellinger, D.V.M.
9.34.
Sr. and Jr. should not be used without first or given name or initials,
but may be used in combination with any title.
A.K. Jones, Jr., or Mr. Jones, Junior, not Jones, Jr., nor Jones, Junior
President J. B. Nelson, Jr.
Abbreviations and Letter Symbols
9.35.
231
When name is followed by abbreviations designating religious
and fraternal orders and scholastic and honorary degrees, their
sequence is as follows: Orders, religious first; theological degrees;
academic degrees earned in course; and honorary degrees in order
of bestowal.
Henry L. Brown, D.D., A.M., D.Lit.
T.E. Holt, C.S.C., S.T.Lr., LL.D., Ph.D.
Samuel J. Deckelbaum, P.M.
9.36.
Academic degrees standing alone may be abbreviated.
John was graduated with a B.A. degree; but bachelor of arts degree (lowercase
when spelled out).
She earned her Ph.D. by hard work.
9.37.
In addresses, signatures, lists of names, and leaderwork but not
in tables nor in centerheads, Mr., Mrs., and other titles preceding
a name, and Esq., Jr., Sr., 2d, and 3d following a name, are set in
roman caps and lowercase if the name is in caps and small caps. If
the name is in caps, they are set in caps and small caps, if small caps
are available—otherwise in caps and lowercase.
Parts of publications
The following abbreviations are used for parts of publications
mentioned in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, sidenotes, list of references, tables, and leaderwork, when followed by figures, letters, or
Roman numerals.
9.38.
app., apps. (appendix,
appendixes)
art., arts. (article, articles)
bull., bulls. (bulletin, bulletins)
ch., chs. (chapter, chapters)
col., cols. (column, columns)
ed., eds. (edition, editions)
fig., figs. (figure, figures)
No., Nos. (number, numbers)
p., pp. (page, pages)
par., pars. (paragraph,
paragraphs)
pl., pls. (plate, plates)
pt., pts. (part, parts)
sec., secs. (section, sections)
subch., subchs. (subchapter,
subchapters)
subpar., subpars. (subparagraph,
subparagraphs)
subpt., subpts. (subpart, subparts)
subsec., subsecs. (subsection,
subsections)
supp., supps. (supplement,
supplements)
vol., vols. (volume, volumes)
232
9.39.
Chapter 9
The word article and the word section are abbreviated when appearing at the beginning of a paragraph and set in caps and small caps
followed by a period and an en space, except that the first of a series
is spelled out.
Art. 2; Sec. 2; etc.; but Article 1; Section 1
Art. II; Sec. II; etc.; but Article I; Section I
9.40.
At the beginning of a legend, the word figure preceding the legend
number is not abbreviated.
Figure 4.—Landscape.
Terms relating to Congress
9.41.
The words Congress and session, when accompanied by a numerical reference, are abbreviated in parentheses, brackets, and text
footnotes. In sidenotes, lists of references, tables, leaderwork, and
footnotes to tables and leaderwork, the following abbreviations are
used:
106th Cong., 1st sess.
1st sess., 106th Cong.
9.42.
Public Law 84, 102d Cong.
Private Law 68, 102d Cong.
In references to bills, resolutions, documents and reports in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, and leaderwork, the
following abbreviations are used:
H.R. 416 (House bill)
S. 116 (Senate bill)
The examples above may be
abbreviated or spelled
out in text.
H. Res. 5 (House resolution)
H. Con. Res. 10 (House concurrent
resolution)
H.J. Res. 21 (House joint resolution)
S. Res. 50 (Senate resolution)
S. Con. Res. 17 (Senate concurrent
resolution)
S.J. Res. 45 (Senate joint resolution)
H. Conf. Rept. 10 (House
conference report)
H. Doc. 35 (House document)
S. Doc. 62 (Senate document)
H. Rept. 214 (House report)
S. Rept. 410 (Senate report)
Ex. Doc. B (Executive document)
Ex. F (92d Cong., 2d sess.)
Ex. Rept. 9 (92d Cong., 1st sess.)
Misc. Doc. 16 (miscellaneous
document)
Public Res. 47
Abbreviations and Letter Symbols
9.43.
233
References to statutes in parentheses, footnotes, sidenotes, tables,
leaderwork, and congressional work are abbreviated.
Rev. Stat. (Revised Statutes); 43 Rev. Stat. 801; 18 U.S.C. 38
Supp. Rev. Stat. (Supplement to the Revised Statutes)
Stat. L. (Statutes at Large)
but Public Law 85−1; Private Law 68
Calendar divisions
9.44.
Names of months followed by the day, or day and year, are abbreviated in footnotes, tables, leaderwork, sidenotes, and in bibliographies.
(See examples, rule 9.45.) May, June, and July are always spelled out.
In narrow columns in tables, however, the names of months may be
abbreviated even if standing alone. Preferred forms follow:
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
9.45.
Apr.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
In text only, dates as part of a citation or reference within parentheses or brackets are also abbreviated.
(Op. Atty. Gen., Dec. 4, 2005)
(Congressional Record, Sept. 25, 2007)
[From the New York Times, Mar. 4, 2008]
[From the Mar. 4 issue]
On Jan. 25 (we had commenced on Dec. 26, 2005) the work was finished. (In
footnotes, tables, leaderwork, and sidenotes)
On January 25, a decision was reached (Op. Atty. Gen., Dec. 4, 2006). (Text,
but with citation in parentheses)
but On January 25 (we had commenced on December 26, 2008) the work was
finished. (Not a citation or reference in text)
9.46.
Weekdays are not abbreviated, but the following forms are used, if
necessary, in lists or in narrow columns in tables:
Sun.
Mon.
Tues.
Wed.
Thurs.
Fri.
Sat.
234
Chapter 9
Time zones
9.47.
The following forms are to be used when abbreviating names of
time zones:
AKDT—Alaska daylight time
AKST—Alaska standard time
AKT—Alaska time (implies
standard or daylight time)
AST—Atlantic standard time
AT—Atlantic time
CDT—central daylight time
CST—central standard time
CT—central time
DST—daylight saving (no “s”) time
EDT—eastern daylight time
EST—eastern standard time
ET—eastern time
GCT—Greenwich civil time
GMAT—Greenwich mean
astronomical time
GMT—Greenwich mean time
HDT—Hawaii-Aleutian daylight time
(not observed in HI)
HST—Hawaii-Aleutian standard time
LST—local standard time
MDT—mountain daylight time
MST—mountain standard time
MT— mountain time
PDT—Pacific daylight time
PST—Pacific standard time
PT—Pacific time
UTC—coordinated universal time
Acronyms and coined words
9.48.
To obtain uniform treatment in the formation of acronyms and
coined words, apply the formulas that follow:
Use all capital letters when only the first letter of each word or selected words is
used to make up the symbol:
APPR (Army package power reactor)
EPCOT (Experimental Prototype Community of Tomorrow)
MAG (Military Advisory Group)
MIRV (multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle)
SALT (strategic arms limitation talks); (avoid SALT talks)
STEP (supplemental training and employment program)
Use all capital letters where first letters of prefixes and/or suffixes are utilized as
part of established expressions:
CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation)
ESP (extrasensory perception)
FLIR (forward-looking infrared)
Copy must be followed where an acronym or abbreviated form is copyrighted or
established by law:
ACTION (agency of Government; not an acronym)
MarAd (Maritime Administration)
NACo (National Association of Counties)
MEDLARS (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System)
Use caps and lowercase when proper names are used in shortened form, any word
Abbreviations and Letter Symbols
235
of which uses more than the first letter of each word:
Conrail (Consolidated Rail Corporation)
Pepco (Potomac Electric Power Co.)
Inco (International Nickel Co.)
Aramco (Arabian-American Oil Co.)
Unprofor (United Nations Protection Force)
Use lowercase in common-noun combinations made up of more than the first
letter of lowercased words:
loran (long-range navigation)
sonar (sound navigation ranging)
secant (separation control of aircraft by nonsynchronous techniques)
9.49.
The words infra and supra are not abbreviated.
Terms of measure
Compass directions are abbreviated as follows:
9.50.
N.
NE.
E.
SW.
9.51.
S.
NNW.
W.
ESE.
10° N. 25° W.
NW. by N. ¼ W.
The words latitude and longitude, followed by figures, are abbreviated in parentheses, brackets, footnotes, sidenotes, tables, and
leaderwork, and the figures are always closed up.
lat. 52°33'05" N.
long. 13°21'10" E.
9.52.
Avoid breaking latitude and longitude figures at end of line; space
out line instead. In case of an unavoidable break at end of line, use
hyphen.
9.53.
Temperature and gravity are expressed in figures. When the degree mark is used, it must appear closed up to the capital letter, not
against the figures. Note the following related abbreviations and letter symbols and their usages:
abs, absolute
Bé, Baumé
°C,1 degree Celsius 2
°F, degree Fahrenheit
°R, degree Rankine
K, kelvin
273.15 K
°API
1
2
API, American Petroleum
Institute
Twad, Twaddell
100 °C
212 °F 1
671.67 °R
18 °API
Without figures preceding it, ˚C or ˚F should be used only in boxhead and over fi gure columns in tables.
Preferred form (superseding Centigrade).
236
Chapter 9
References to meridian in statements of time are abbreviated as
follows:
9.54.
10 a.m. (not 10:00 a.m.)
2:30 p.m.
12 p.m. (12 noon)
12 a.m. (12 midnight)
The word o’clock is not used with abbreviations of time.
9.55.
not 10 o’clock p.m.
Metric unit letter symbols are set lowercase roman unless the unit
name has been derived from a proper name, in which case the first
letter of the symbol is capitalized (for example Pa for pascal and W
for watt). The exception is the letter L for liter. The same form is used
for singular and plural. The preferred symbol for cubic centimeter is
cm3; use cc only when requested.
9.56.
A space is used between a figure and a unit symbol except in the
case of the symbols for degree, minute, and second of plane angle.
3m
45 mm
25 °C
Prefixes for multiples and submultiples
E
P
T
G
M
k
h
da
18
exa (10 )
peta (1015)
tera (1012)
giga (109)
mega (106)
kilo (103)
hecto (102)
deka (10)
d
c
m
μ
n
p
f
a
Length
km
hm
dam
m
dm
cm
mm
kilometer
hectometer
decameter
meter
decimeter
centimeter
millimeter
—1
deci (10 )
centi (10—2)
milli (10—3)
micro (10—6)
nano (10—9)
pico (10—12)
femto (10—15)
atto (10—18)
Metric units
m
g
L
Area
km2
hm2
dam2
m2
dm2
cm2
mm2
square kilometer
square hectometer
square decameter
square meter
square decimeter
square centimeter
square millimeter
but 33°15'21"
meter (for length)
gram (for weight or mass)
liter (for capacity)
Volume
km3
hm3
dam3
m3
dm3
cm3
mm3
cubic kilometer
cubic hectometer
cubic dekameter
cubic meter
cubic decimeter
cubic centimeter
cubic millimeter
Abbreviations and Letter Symbols
Weight
kg
hg
dag
g
dg
cg
mg
μg
9.57.
Land area
kilogram
hectogram
dekagram
gram
decigram
centigram
milligram
microgram
ha
a
Capacity of containers
hectare
acre
kL
hL
daL
L
dL
cL
mL
ampere
voltampere
farad
Henry
Hertz
joule
V
W
kc
kV
kVA
kW
volt
watt
kilocycle
kilovolt
kilovoltampere
kilowatt
mF
mH
μF
millifarad
millihenry
microfarad (onemillionth of a farad)
The following forms are used when units of English weight and
measure and units of time are abbreviated, the same form of abbreviation being used for both singular and plural:
Length
in
ft
yd
mi
inch
foot
yard
mile (statute)
Time
yr
mo
d
h
min
s
9.59.
kiloliter
hectoliter
dekaliter
liter
deciliter
centiliter
milliliter
A similar form of abbreviation applies to any unit of the metric
system.
A
VA
F
H
Hz
J
9.58.
237
Area and volume
2
in
in3
mi2
ft3
square inch
cubic inch
square mile
cubic foot
Weight
year
month
day
hour
minute
second
gr
dr
oz
lb
cwt
dwt
ton(s)
but t
grain
dram
ounce
pound
hundredweight
pennyweight
(not abbreviated)
metric ton (tonne)
Capacity
gill
pt
qt
gal
pk
bu
bbl
(not abbreviated)
pint
quart
gallon
peck
bushel
barrel
In astrophysical and similar scientific matter, magnitudes and units
of time may be expressed as follows:
5h3m9s
4.5h
238
Chapter 9
Money
9.60.
The following are some of the abbreviations and symbols used for
indicating money:
(For the abbreviations of other terms indicating currency, see the
table “Currency” in Chapter 17 “Useful Tables.”)
$, dol (dollar)
Mex $2,650
c, ct, ¢ (cent, cents)
₧ (peso)
TRL175 (Turkish)
£ (pound)
USD15,000
d (pence)
€ (euro)
Use “USD” if omission would result in confusion.
Standard word abbreviations
9.61.
If abbreviations are required, use these forms:
2,4D (insecticide)
3d—third
4˚—quarto
8˚—octavo
A1 (rating)
A.A.—Alcoholics Anonymous
AARP—American Association of
Retired Persons
abbr.—abbreviation
abs.—abstract
acct.—account
ACDA—Arms Control and
Disarmament Agency
ACTH—adrenocorticotropic
hormone
A.D.—(anno Domini) in the year
of our Lord (A.D. 937)
ADDH—attention deficit disorder
with hyperactivity
ADHD—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
AEF—American Expeditionary
Forces
AF—audiofrequency
AFB—Air Force Base
AFL–CIO—American Federation
of Labor and Congress of
Industrial Organizations
AID—Agency for International
Development
AIDS—acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
a.k.a.—also known as
A.L.R.—American Law Reports
AM—amplitude modulation (no
periods)
A.M.—(anno mundi) in the year of
the world
A.M. or M.A.—master of arts
a.m.—(ante meridiem) before noon
Am. Repts.—American Reports
Amtrak—National Railroad
Passenger Corporation
AMVETS—American Veterans of
World War II; Amvet(s)
(individual)
antilog—antilogarithm (no period)
AOA—Administration on Aging
API—American Petroleum
Institute
Abbreviations and Letter Symbols
APO—Army post office (no
periods)
App. D.C.—District of Columbia
Appeal Cases
App. Div.—Appellate Division
APPR—Army package power
reactor
approx.—approximately
ARC—American Red Cross
ARS—Agricultural Research
Service
ASCS—Agricultural Stabilization
and Conservation Service
ASME—American Society of
Mechanical Engineers
A.S.N.—Army service number
ASTM—American Society for
Testing and Materials
ATM—automatic teller machine
Atl.—Atlantic Reporter; A.2d,
Atlantic Reporter, second
series
AUS—Army of the United States
Ave.—avenue
AWACS—airborne warning and
control system
AWOL—absent without leave
B.A. or A.B.—bachelor of arts
BBB—Better Business Bureau
B.C.—before Christ (1200 B.C.)
B.C.E.—Before Common Era
BCG—(bacillus Calmette-Guerin)
antituberculosis vaccine
bf.—boldface
BGN—Board on (not of)
Geographic Names
BIA—Bureau of Indian Affairs
BIS—Bank for International
Settlements
Blatch. Pr. Cas.—Blatchford’s
Prize Cases
Bldg.—building
B. Lit(t). or Lit(t).B.—bachelor of
literature
239
BLM—Bureau of Land
Management
BLS—Bureau of Labor Statistics
Blvd.—boulevard
b.o.—buyer’s option
B.S. or B.Sc.—bachelor of science
c. and s.c.—caps and small caps
ca.—(circa) about
ca—centiare
CACM—Central American
Common Market
CAD—computer-aided design
CAP—Civil Air Patrol
CARE—Cooperative for
American Remittances to
Everywhere, Inc.
CAT scan—computerized axial
tomography
C.C.A.—Circuit Court of Appeals
CCC—Commodity Credit
Corporation
CCITT—Consultative Committee
for International Telegraphy
and Telephony
C.Cls.—Court of Claims
C.Cls.R.—Court of Claims Reports
C.C.P.A.—Court of Customs and
Patents Appeals
CCR—Commission on Civil Rights
CDC—Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention
C.E.—Common Era
CEA—Council of Economic
Advisers
cf.—(confer) compare or see
CFR—Code of Federal Regulations
CFR Supp.—Code of Federal
Regulations Supplement
CHAMPUS—Civilian Health
and Medical Program of the
Uniformed Services
CIA—Central Intelligence Agency
CIC—Counterintelligence Corps
C.J.—(corpus juris) body of law;
Chief Justice
240
Chapter 9
CNN—Cable News Network
CO—commanding officer
Co.—company (commercial)
c.o.d.—cash on delivery
COLA—cost-of-living adjustment
Comp. Dec.—Comptroller’s
Decisions (Treasury)
Comp. Gen.—Comptroller
General Decisions
con.—continued
conelrad—control of
electromagnetic radiation
(civil defense)
Conus—continental United States
Corp.—corporation (commercial)
cos—cosine (no period)
cosh—hyperbolic cosine (no
period)
cot—cotangent (no period)
coth—hyperbolic cotangent (no
period)
c.p.—chemically pure
C.P.A.—certified public
accountant
CPI—Consumer Price Index
CPR—cardiopulmonary
resuscitation
cr.—credit; creditor
C–SPAN—Cable Satellite Public
Affairs Network
csc—cosecant (no period)
csch—hyperbolic cosecant (no
period)
Ct.—court
Dall.—Dallas (U.S. Supreme
Court Reports)
DAR—Daughters of the American
Revolution
d.b.a.—doing business as
d.b.h.—diameter at breast height
D.D.—doctor of divinity
D.D.S.—doctor of dental surgery
DDT—dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
DHS—Department of Homeland
Security
Dist. Ct.—District Court
D.Lit(t). or Lit(t).D.—doctor of
literature
DNC—Domestic Names
Committee (BGN)
do.—(ditto) the same
DOC—Department of Commerce
DOD—Department of Defense
DOE—Department of Energy
DOJ—Department of Justice
DOL—Department of Labor
DOS—Department of State
DOT—Department of
Transportation
DP—displaced person (no period)
D.P.H.—doctor of public health
D.P.Hy.—doctor of public hygiene
DPT—diphtheria, pertussis,
tetanus innoculation
dr.—debit; debtor
Dr.—doctor; drive
d.s.t.—daylight saving (no “s”) time
D.V.M.—doctor of veterinary
medicine
E.—east
EDGAR—Electronic Data
Gathering, Analysis and
Retrieval (SEC)
EEOC—Equal Employment
Opportunity Commission
EFTA—European Free Trade
Association
EFTS—electronic funds transfer
system
e.g.—(exempli gratia) for example
EHF—extremely high frequency
emcee—master of ceremony
e.o.m.—end of month
EOP—Executive Office of the
President
EPA—Environmental Protection
Agency
Abbreviations and Letter Symbols
et al.—(et alii) and others
et seq.—(et sequentia) and the
following
etc.—(et cetera) and so forth
EU—European Union
Euratom—European Atomic
Energy Community
Euro—currency (common)
Eurodollars—U.S. dollars used to
finance foreign trade
Ex. Doc. (with letter)—executive
document
Ex-Im Bank—Export-Import
Bank of the United States
f., ff.—and following page (pages)
FAA—Federal Aviation
Administration
FACS—Faculty of the American
College of Surgeons
FAO—Food and Agriculture
Organization
f.a.s.—free alongside ship
FAS—Foreign Agricultural
Service
FBI—Federal Bureau of
Investigation
FCA—Farm Credit
Administration
FCC—Federal Communications
Commission
FCIC—Federal Crop Insurance
Corporation
FCSC—Foreign Claims
Settlement Commission
FDA—Food and Drug
Administration
FDIC—Federal Deposit Insurance
Corporation
FDLP—Federal Depository
Library Program
Fed.—Federal Reporter; F.3d,
Federal Reporter, third series
FEOF—Foreign Exchange
Operations Fund
241
FHA—Federal Housing
Administration
FmHA—Farmers Home
Administration
FHLBB—Federal Home Loan
Bank Board
FHWA—Federal Highway
Administration
FICA—Federal Insurance
Contributions Act
FLSA—Fair Labor Standards Act
FM—frequency modulation
FMC—Federal Maritime
Commission
FMCS—Federal Mediation and
Conciliation Service
FNMA—Federal National
Mortgage Association
(Fannie Mae)
FNS—Food and Nutrition Service
f˚—folio
f.o.b.—free on board
FPC—Federal Power Commission
FPO—fleet post office (no periods)
FR—Federal Register
(publication)
FRG—Federal Republic of
Germany
FRS—Federal Reserve System
FS—Forest Service
FSLIC—Federal Savings and Loan
Insurance Corporation
FSS—Federal Supply Service
F.Supp.—Federal Supplement
FTC—Federal Trade Commission
FWS—Fish and Wildlife Service
GAO—Government
Accountability Office
GATT—General Agreement on
Tariffs and Trade
GDR—German Democratic
Republic
GI—general issue; Government
issue
242
Chapter 9
GIS—Geographic Information
System
G.M.&S.—general, medical, and
surgical
GNMA—Government National
Mortgage Association
(Ginnie Mae)
GNP—gross national product
Gov.—Governor
GPO—Government Printing
Office
GPS—Global Positioning System
gr. wt.—gross weight
GSA—General Services
Administration
GSE—Government-Sponsored
Enterprise
H.C.—House of Commons
H. Con. Res. (with number)—
House concurrent resolution
H. Doc. (with number)—House
document
hazmat—hazardous material
HDTV—high definition television
HE—high explosive (no periods)
HF—high frequency (no periods)
HHS—Health and Human
Services (Department of)
HIV—human immunodeficiency
virus
H.J. Res. (with number)—House
joint resolution
HMO—health-maintenance
organization
HOV—high-occupancy vehicle
How.—Howard (U.S. Supreme
Court Reports)
H.R. (with number)—House bill
H. Rept. (with number)—House
report
H. Res. (with number)—House
resolution
HUD—Housing and Urban
Development (Department of)
IADB—Inter-American Defense
Board
IAEA—International Atomic
Energy Agency
ibid.—(ibidem) in the same place
ICBM—intercontinental ballistic
missile
id.—(idem) the same
IDA—International Development
Association
IDE—integrated drive electronics
i.e.—(id est) that is
IEEE—Institute of Electrical and
Electronic Engineers
IF—intermediate frequency (no
periods)
IFC—International Finance
Corporation
IMCO—Intergovernmental
Maritime Consultative
Organization
IMF—International Monetary
Fund
Insp. Gen. (also IG)—inspector
general
Interpol—International Criminal
Police Organization
IOU—I owe you
IQ—intelligence quotient
IRA—individual retirement
account
IRBM—intermediate range
ballistic missile
IRE—Institute of Radio Engineers
IRO—International Refugee
Organization
IRS—Internal Revenue Service
ISO—International Standards
Organization
ITO—International Trade
Organization
ITU—International
Telecommunications Union
JAG—Judge Advocate General
Abbreviations and Letter Symbols
jato—jet-assisted takeoff
J.D.—(jurum or juris doctor)
doctor of laws
JOBS—Job Opportunities in the
Business Sector
JIT—just in time
Jpn.—Japan or Japanese where
necessary to abbreviate
Jr.—junior
Judge Adv. Gen.—Judge Advocate
General
LAFTA—Latin American Free
Trade Association
lat.—latitude
LC—Library of Congress
LCD—liquid crystal display
lc.—lowercase
L.Ed.—Lawyer’s edition (U.S.
Supreme Court Reports)
liq.—liquid
lf.—lightface
LF—low frequency
LL.B.—bachelor of laws
LL.D.—doctor of laws
loc. cit.—(loco citato) in the place
cited
log (no period)—logarithm
long.—longitude
loran (no periods)—long-range
navigation
lox (no periods)—liquid oxygen
LPG—liquefied petroleum gas
Ltd.—limited
Lt. Gov.—lieutenant governor
M—money supply: M1, M2, etc.
M.—monsieur; MM., messieurs
m.—(meridies) noon
M—more
MAC—Military Airlift Command
MAG—Military Advisory Group
MarAd—Maritime
Administration
MC—Member of Congress
(emcee, master of ceremonies)
243
M.D.—doctor of medicine
MDAP—Mutual Defense
Assistance Program
MediCal—Medicaid California
memo—memorandum
MF—medium frequency;
microfiche
MFN—most favored nation
MIA—missing in action (plural
MIA’s)
MIRV—multiple independently
targetable reentry vehicle
Misc. Doc. (with number)—
miscellaneous document
Mlle.—mademoiselle
Mme.—madam
Mmes.—mesdames
mo.—month
MOS—military occupational
specialty
M.P.—Member of Parliament
MP—military police
Mr.—mister (plural Messrs.)
MRI—magnetic resonance
imaging
Mrs.—mistress
Ms.—feminine title (plural Mses.)
M.S.—master of science
MS.—MSS., manuscript,
manuscripts
MSC—Military Sealift Command
Msgr.—monsignor
m.s.l.—mean sea level
MSNBC—Microsoft National
Broadcasting Co.
MTN—multilateral trade
negotiations
N.—north
NA—not available; not applicable
NACo.—National Association of
Counties
NAFTA—North American Free
Trade Agreement
244
Chapter 9
NAS—National Academy of
Sciences
NASA—National Aeronautics and
Space Administration
NATO—North Atlantic Treaty
Organization
NCUA—National Credit Union
Administration
NE.—northeast
n.e.c.—not elsewhere classified
n.e.s.—not elsewhere specified
net wt.—net weight
N.F.—National Formulary
NFAH—National Foundation on
the Arts and the Humanities
NIH—National Institutes of
Health
NIST—National Institute of
Standards and Technology
n.l.—natural log or logarithm
NLRB—National Labor Relations
Board
NNTP—Network News Transfer
Protocol
No.—Nos., number, numbers
NOAA—National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration
n.o.i.b.n.—not otherwise indexed
by name
n.o.p.—not otherwise provided
(for)
n.o.s.—not otherwise specified
NOVS—National Office of Vital
Statistics
NPS—National Park Service
NRC—Nuclear Regulatory
Commission
NS—nuclear ship
NSA—National Security
Agency
NSC—National Security Council
NSF—National Science
Foundation
n.s.k.—not specified by kind
n.s.p.f.—not specifically provided
for
NW.—northwest
OAPEC—Organization of Arab
Petroleum Exporting
Countries
OAS—Organization of American
States
OASDHI—Old-Age, Survivors,
Disability, and Health
Insurance Program
OASI—Old-Age and Survivors
Insurance
OCD—Office of Civil Defense
OD—officer of the day
OD—overdose; Odd, overdosed
O.D.—doctor of optometry
OECD—Organization for
Economic Cooperation and
Development
OK—Oked, Oking, Oks
OMB—Office of Management and
Budget
Op. Atty. Gen.—Opinions of the
Attorney General
op. cit.—(opere citato) in the work
cited
OPEC—Organization of
Petroleum Exporting
Countries
OSD—Office of the Secretary of
Defense
OTC—Organization for Trade
Cooperation
PA—public address system
Pac.—Pacific Reporter; P.2d,
Pacific Reporter, second
series
PAC—political action committee
(plural PAC’s)
Passed Asst. Surg.—passed
assistant surgeon
PBS—Public Building Service
PCV—Peace Corps Volunteer
Abbreviations and Letter Symbols
Pet.—Peters (U.S. Supreme Court
Reports)
Ph—phenyl
Phar.D.—doctor of pharmacy
Ph.B. or B.Ph.—bachelor of
philosophy
Ph.D. or D.Ph.—doctor of
philosophy
Ph.G.—graduate in pharmacy
PHS—Public Health Service
PIN—personal identification
number
Pl.—place
p.m.—(post meridiem) after noon
P.O. Box (with number)—but post
office box (in general sense)
POP—Point of Presence; Post
Office Protocol
POW—prisoner of war (plural
POWs)
PTSD—post-traumatic-stress
disorder
Private Res. (with number)—
private resolution
Prof.—professor
pro tem—(pro tempore)
temporarily
P.S.—(post scriptum) postscript;
public school (with number)
PTA—parent-teachers’ association
Public Res. (with number)—public
resolution
PX—post exchange
QT—on the quiet
racon—radar beacon
radar—radio detection and
ranging
R&D—research and development
rato—rocket-assisted takeoff
Rd.—road
RDT&E—research, development,
testing, and evaluation
REA—Rural Electrification
Administration
245
Rev.—reverend
Rev. Stat.—Revised Statutes
RF—radiofrequency
R.F.D.—rural free delivery
Rh—Rhesus (blood factor)
RIF—reduction(s) in force; RIFed,
RIFing, RIFs
R.N.—registered nurse
ROTC—Reserve Officers’
Training Corps
RR.—railroad
RRB—Railroad Retirement Board
Rt. Rev.—right reverend
Ry.—railway
S.—south; Senate bill (with
number)
SAC—Strategic Air Command
SAE—Society of Automotive
Engineers
S&L(s)—savings and loan(s)
SALT—strategic arms limitation
talks
SAR—Sons of the American
Revolution
SBA—Small Business
Administration
sc.—(scilicet) namely (see also ss)
s.c.—small caps
S. Con. Res. (with number)—
Senate concurrent resolution
s.d.—(sine die) without date
SDI—Strategic Defense Initiative
S. Doc. (with number)—Senate
document
SE.—southeast
SEATO—Southeast Asia Treaty
Organization
SEC—Securities and Exchange
Commission
sec—secant
sech—hyperbolic secant
2d—second
SHF—superhigh frequency
shoran—short range (radio)
246
Chapter 9
SI—Systeme International d’Unités
sic—thus
sin—sine
sinh—hyperbolic sine
S.J. Res. (with number)—Senate
joint resolution
sonar—sound, navigation, and
ranging (no period)
SOP—standard operating
procedure
SOS—wireless distress signal
SP—shore patrol
SPAR—Coast Guard Women’s
Reserve (semper paratus—
always ready)
sp. gr.—specific gravity
Sq.—square (street)
Sr.—senior
S. Rept. (with number)—Senate
report
S. Res. (with number)—Senate
resolution
SS—steamship
ss—(scilicet) namely (in law) (see
also sc.)
SSA—Social Security
Administration
SSS—Selective Service System
St.—Ste., SS., Saint, Sainte, Saints
St.—street
Stat.—Statutes at Large
STP—standard temperature and
pressure
Sup. Ct.—Supreme Court
Reporter
Supp. Rev. Stat.—Supplement to
the Revised Statutes
Supt.—superintendent
Surg.—surgeon
Surg. Gen.—Surgeon General
SW.—southwest
S.W.2d—Southwestern Reporter,
second series
SWAT—special weapons and
tactics (team)
T.—Tps., township, townships
tan—tangent
tann—hyperbolic tangent
TB—tuberculosis
T.D.—Treasury Decisions
TDY—temporary duty
Ter.—terrace
t.m.—true mean
TNT—trinitrotoluol
TV—television
TVA—Tennessee Valley Authority
uc.—uppercase
UHF—ultrahigh frequency
UMTA—Urban Mass
Transportation
Administration
U.N.—United Nations
UNESCO—United Nations
Educational, Scientific, and
Cultural Organization
UNICEF—United Nations
Children’s Fund
U.S.—U.S. Supreme Court Reports
U.S.A.—United States of America
USA—U.S. Army
USAF—U.S. Air Force
U.S.C.—United States Code
U.S.C.A.—United States Code
Annotated
U.S.C. Supp.—United States Code
Supplement
USCG—U.S. Coast Guard
USDA—U.S. Department of
Agriculture
USES—U.S. Employment Service
U.S. 40—U.S. No. 40, U.S.
Highway No. 40
USGS—U.S. Geological Survey
USIA—U.S. Information Agency
USMC—U.S. Marine Corps
USN—U.S. Navy
Abbreviations and Letter Symbols
USNR—U.S. Naval Reserve
U.S.P.—United States
Pharmacopeia
USPS—U.S. Postal Service
U.S.S.—U.S. Senate
v. or vs.—(versus) against
VA—Department of Veterans
Affairs
VAT—value added tax
VCR—video cassette recorder
VHF—very high frequency
VIP—very important person
viz—(videlicet) namely
VLF—very low frequency
VTR—video tape recording
W.—west
247
w.a.e.—when actually employed
Wall.—Wallace (U.S. Supreme
Court Reports)
wf—wrong font
Wheat.—Wheaton (U.S. Supreme
Court Reports)
WHO—World Health
Organization
WIPO—World Intellectual
Property Organization
WMAL—WRC, etc., radio stations
w.o.p.—without pay
Yale L.J.—Yale Law Journal
ZIP Code—Zone Improvement
Plan Code (Postal Service)
ZIP+4—9-digit ZIP Code
Standard letter symbols for units of measure
9.62.
The same form is used for singular and plural senses.
A—ampere
Å—angstrom
a—are
a—atto (prefi x, one-quintillionth)
aA—attoampere
abs—absolute (temperature and
gravity)
ac—alternating current
AF—audiofrequency
Ah—ampere-hour
A/m—ampere per meter
AM—amplitude modulation
asb—apostilb
At—ampere-turn
at—atmosphere, technical
atm—atmosphere
at wt—atomic weight
au—astronomical units
avdp—avoirdupois
b—barn
B—bel
b—bit
bbl—barrel
bbl/d—barrel per day
Bd—baud
bd. ft.—board foot (obsolete); use fbm
Bé—Baumé
Bev (obsolete); see GeV
Bhn—Brinell hardness number
bhp—brake horsepower
bm—board measure
bp—boiling point
Btu—British thermal unit
bu—bushel
c—¢, ct; cent(s)
c—centi (prefix, one-hundredth)
C—coulomb
°C—degree Celsius
cal—calorie (also: calIT, International
Table; calth—thermochemical)
cd/in2—candela per square inch
cd/m2—candela per square meter
cg—centigram
cd•h—candela-hour
Ci—curie
cL—centiliter
cm—centimeter
c/m—cycles per minute
248
Chapter 9
cm2—square centimeter
cm3—cubic centimeter
cmil—circular mil
cp—candlepower
cP—centipoise
cSt—centistokes
cwt—hundredweight
D—darcy
d—day
d—deci (prefi x, one-tenth)
d—pence
da—deka (prefi x, 10)
dag—dekagram
daL—dekaliter
dam—dekameter
dam2—square dekameter
dam3—cubic dekameter
dB—decibel
dBu—decibel unit
dc—direct current
dg—decigram
dL—deciliter
dm—decimeter
dm2—square decimeter
dm3—cubic decimeter
dol—dollar
doz—dozen
dr—dram
dwt—deadweight tons
dwt—pennyweight
dyn—dyne
EHF—extremely high frequency
emf—electromotive force
emu—electromagnetic unit
erg—erg
esu—electrostatic unit
eV—electronvolt
°F—degree Fahrenheit
F—farad
f—femto (prefi x, one-quadrillionth)
fbm—board foot; board foot measure
fc—footcandle
fL—footlambert
fm—fentometer
FM—frequency modulation
ft—foot
ft2—square foot
ft3—cubic foot
ftH2O—conventional foot of water
ft•lb—foot-pound
ft•lbf—foot-pound force
ft/min—foot per minute
ft2/min—square foot per minute
ft3/min—cubic foot per minute
ft-pdl—foot poundal
ft/s—foot per second
ft2/s—square foot per second
ft3/s—cubic foot per second
ft/s2—foot per second squared
ft/s3—foot per second cubed
G—gauss
G—giga (prefix, 1 billion)
g—gram; acceleration of gravity
Gal—gal cm/s2
gal—gallon
gal/min—gallons per minute
gal/s—gallons per second
GB—gigabyte
Gb—gilbert
g/cm3—gram per cubic centimeter
GeV—gigaelectronvolt
GHz—gigahertz (gigacycle per second)
gr—grain; gross
h—hecto (prefix, 100)
H—henry
h—hour
ha—hectare
HF—high frequency
hg—hectogram
hL—hectoliter
hm—hectometer
hm2—square hectometer
hm3—cubic hectometer
hp—horsepower
hph—horsepower-hour
Hz—hertz (cycles per second)
id—inside diameter
ihp—indicated horsepower
Abbreviations and Letter Symbols
in—inch
in2—square inch
in3—cubic inch
in/h—inch per hour
inH2O—conventional inch of water
inHg—conventional inch of mercury
in-lb—inch-pound
in/s—inch per second
J—joule
J/K—joule per kelvin
K—kayser
K—kelvin (use without degree symbol)
k—kilo (prefix, 1,000)
k—thousand (7k=7,000)
kc—kilocycle; see also kHz (kilohertz),
kilocycles per second
kcal—kilocalorie
keV—kiloelectronvolt
kG—kilogauss
kg—kilogram
kgf—kilogram-force
kHz—kilohertz (kilocycles per second)
kL—kiloliter
klbf—kilopound-force
km—kilometer
km2—square kilometer
km3—cubic kilometer
km/h—kilometer per hour
kn—knot (speed)
kΩ—kilohm
kt—kiloton; carat
kV—kilovolt
kVA—kilovoltampere
kvar—kilovar
kW—kilowatt
kWh—kilowatthour
L—lambert
L—liter
lb—pound
lb ap—apothecary pound
lb—avdp, avoirdupois pound
lbf—pound-force
lbf/ft—pound-force foot
lbf/ft2—pound-force per square foot
249
lbf/ft3—pound-force per cubic foot
lbf/in2—pound-force per square inch
(see psi)
lb/ft—pound per foot
lb/ft2—pound per square foot
lb/ft3—pound per cubic foot
lct—long calcined ton
ldt—long dry ton
LF—low frequency
lin ft—linear foot
l/m—lines per minute
lm—lumen
lm/ft2—lumen per square foot
lm/m2—lumen per square meter
lm•s—lumen second
lm/W—lumen per watt
l/s—lines per second
L/s—liter per second
lx—lux
M—mega (prefix, 1 million)
M—million (3 M=3 million)
m—meter
m—milli (prefix, one-thousandth)
M1—monetary aggregate
m2—square meter
m3—cubic meter
μ—micro (prefi x, one-millionth)
μm—micrometer
mA—milliampere
μA—microampere
MB—megabyte
mbar—millibar
μbar—microbar
Mc—megacycle; see also MHz
(megahertz), megacycles per
second
mc—millicycle; see also mHz
(millihertz), millicycles per
second
mD—millidarcy
meq—milliquivalent
MeV—megaelectronvolts
mF—millifarad
μF—microfarad
250
Chapter 9
mG—milligauss
mg—milligram
μg—microgram
Mgal/d—million gallons per day
mH—millihenry
μH—microhenry
MHz—megahertz
mHz—millihertz
mi—mile (statute)
mi2—square mile
mi/gal—mile(s) per gallon
mi/h—mile(s) per hour
mil—mil
min—minute (time)
μin—microinch
mL—milliliter
mm—millimeter
mm2—square millimeter
mm3—cubic millimeter
μm2—square micrometer
μm3—cubic micrometer
μμ—micromicron (use of compound
prefixes obsolete; use pm,
picometer)
μμf—micromicrofarad (use of
compound prefixes obsolete; use
pF)
mmHg—conventional millimeter of
mercury
mΩ—megohm
mo—month
mol—mole (unit of substance)
mol wt—molecular weight
mp—melting point
ms—millisecond
μs—microsecond
Mt—megaton
mV—millivolt
μV—microvolt
MW—megawatt
mW—milliwatt
μW—microwatt
MWd/t—megawatt-days per ton
Mx—maxwell
n—nano (prefix, one-billionth)
N—newton
nA—nanoampere
nF—nanofarad
N•m—newton meter
N/m2—newton per square meter
nmi—nautical mile
Np—neper
ns—nanosecond
N•s/m2—newton second per square
meter
nt—nit
od—outside diameter
Oe—oersted (use of A/m, amperes per
meter, preferred)
oz—ounce (avoirdupois)
p—pico (prefix, one-trillionth)
P—poise
Pa—pascal
pA—picoampere
pct—percent
pdl—poundal
pF—picofarad (micromicrofarad,
obsolete)
pF—water-holding energy
pH—hydrogen-ion concentration
ph—phot; phase
pk—peck,
p/m—parts per million
ps—picosecond
psi—pounds per square inch
pt—pint
pW—picowatt
qt—quart
quad—quadrillion (1015)
°R—rankine
°R—roentgen
R—degree rankine
R—degree reaumur
rad—radian
rd—rad
rem—roentgen equivalent man
r/min—revolutions per minute
rms—root mean square
Abbreviations and Letter Symbols
r/s—revolutions per second
s—second (time)
s—shilling
S—siemens
sb—stilb
scp—spherical candlepower
s•ft—second-foot
shp—shaft horsepower
slug—slug
sr—steradian
sSf—standard saybolt fural
sSu—standard saybolt universal
stdft3—standard cubic foot (feet)
Sus—saybolt universal second(s)
T—tera (prefix, 1 trillion)
Tft3—trillion cubic feet
T—tesla
t—tonne (metric ton)
tbsp—tablespoonful
thm—therm
ton—ton
251
tsp—teaspoonful
Twad—twaddell
u—(unified) atomic mass unit
UHF—ultrahigh frequency
V—volt
VA—voltampere
var—var
VHF—very high frequency
V/m—volt per meter
W—watt
Wb—weber
Wh—watthour
W/(m•K)—watt per meter kelvin
W/sr—watt per steradian
W/(sr•m2)—watt per steradian square
meter
x—unknown quantity (italic)
yd—yard
yd2—square yard
yd3—cubic yard
yr—year
Standard Latin abbreviations
9.63.
When Latin abbreviations are used, follow this list.
a.—annus, year; ante, before
A.A.C.—anno ante, Christum in the
year before Christ
A.A.S.—Academiae Americanae
Socius, Fellow of the American
Academy [Academy of Arts and
Sciences]
A.B.—artium baccalaureus, bachelor
of arts
ab init.—ab initio, from the beginning
abs. re.—absente reo, the defendant
being absent
A.C.—ante Christum, before Christ
A.D.—anno Domini, in the year of our
Lord
a.d.—ante diem, before the day
ad fin.—ad finem, at the end, to one end
ad h.l.—ad hunc locum, to this place,
on this passage
ad inf.—ad infinitum, to infinity
ad init.—ad initium, at the beginning
ad int.—ad interim, in the meantime
ad lib.—ad libitum, at pleasure
ad loc.—ad locum, at the place
ad val.—ad valorem, according to
A.I.—anno inventionis, in the year of
the discovery
al.—alia, alii, other things, other
persons
A.M.—anno mundi, in the year of the
world; Annus mirabilis, the
wonderful year [1666]; a.m., ante
meridiem, before noon
an.—anno, in the year; ante, before
ann.—annales, annals; anni, years
A.R.S.S.—Antiquariorum Regiae
Societatis Socius, Fellow of the
Royal Society of Antiquaries
252
Chapter 9
A.U.C.—anno urbis conditae, ab
urbe conolita, in [the year from]
the building of the City [Rome],
753 B.C.
B.A.—baccalaureus artium, bachelor
of arts
B. Sc.—baccalaureus scientiae,
bachelor of science
C.—centum, a hundred; condemno, I
condemn, find guilty
c.—circa, about
cent.—centum, a hundred
cf.—confer, compare
C.M.—chirurgiae magister, master of
surgery
coch.—cochlear, a spoon, spoonful
coch. amp.—cochlear amplum, a
tablespoonful
coch. mag.—cochlear magnum, a large
spoonful
coch. med.—cochlear medium, a
dessert spoonful
coch. parv.—cochlear parvum, a
teaspoonful
con.—contra, against; conjunx, wife
C.P.S.—custos privati sigilli, keeper of
the privy seal
C.S.—custos sigilli, keeper of the seal
cwt.—c. for centum, wt. for weight,
hundredweight
D.—Deus, God; Dominus, Lord; d.,
decretum, a decree; denarius, a
penny; da, give
D.D.—divinitatis doctor, doctor of
divinity
D.G.—Dei gratia, by the grace of God;
Deo gratias, thanks to God
D.N.—Dominus noster, our Lord
D. Sc.—doctor scientiae, doctor of
science
d.s.p.—decessit sine prole, died
without issue
D.V.—Deo volente, God willing
dwt.—d. for denarius, wt. for weight
pennyweight
e.g.—exempli gratia, for example
et al.—et alibi, and elsewhere; et alii, or
aliae, and others
etc.—et cetera, and others, and so forth
et seq.—et sequentes, and those that
follow
et ux.—et uxor, and wife
F.—filius, son
f.—fiat, let it be made; forte, strong
fac.—factum similis, facsimile, an
exact copy
fasc.—fasciculus, a bundle
fl.—flores, flowers; floruit, flourished;
fluidus, fluid
f.r.—folio recto, right-hand page
F.R.S.—Fraternitatis Regiae Socius,
Fellow of the Royal Society
f.v.—folio verso, on the back of the leaf
guttat.—guttatim, by drops
H.—hora, hour
h.a.—hoc anno, in this year; hujus
anni, this year’s
hab. corp.—habeas corpus, have the
body—a writ
h.e.—hic est, this is; hoc est, that is
h.m.—hoc mense, in this month; huius
mensis, this month’s
h.q.—hoc quaere, look for this
H.R.I.P.—hic requiescat in pace, here
rests in peace
H.S.—hic sepultus, here is buried; hic
situs, here lies; h.s., hoc sensu, in
this sense
H.S.S.—Historiae Societatis Socius,
Fellow of the Historical Society
h.t.—hoc tempore, at this time; hoc
titulo, in or under this title
I—Idus, the Ides; i., id, that;
immortalis, immortal
ib. or ibid.—ibidem, in the same place
id.—idem, the same
i.e.—id est, that is
Abbreviations and Letter Symbols
imp.—imprimatur, sanction, let it be
printed
I.N.D.—in nomine Dei, in the name of
God
in f.—in fine, at the end
inf.—infra, below
init.—initio, in the beginning
in lim.—in limine, on the threshold, at
the outset
in loc.—in loco, in its place
in loc. cit.—in loco citato, in the place
cited
in pr.—in principio, in the beginning
in trans.—in transitu, on the way
i.q.—idem quod, the same as
i.q.e.d.—id quod erat demonstrandum,
what was to be proved
J.—judex, judge
J.C.D.—juris civilis doctor, doctor of
civil law
J.D.—jurum or juris doctor, doctor of
laws
J.U.D.—juris utriusque doctor, doctor
of both civil and canon law
L.—liber, a book; locus, a place
£—libra, pound; placed before figures
thus £10; if l., to be placed after, as
401.
L.A.M.—liberalium artium magister,
master of the liberal arts
L.B.—baccalaureus literarum,
bachelor of letters
lb.—libra, pound (singular and plural)
L.H.D.—literarum humaniorum
doctor, doctor of the more
humane letters
Litt. D.—literarum doctor, doctor of
letters
LL.B.—legum baccalaureus, bachelor
of laws
LL.D.—legum doctor, doctor of laws
LL.M.—legum magister, master of
laws
loc. cit.—loco citato, in the place cited
253
loq.—loquitur, he, or she, speaks
L.S.—locus sigilli, the place of the seal
l.s.c.—loco supra citato, in the place
above cited
£ s. d.—librae, solidi, denarii, pounds,
shillings, pence
M.—magister, master; manipulus,
handful; medicinae, of medicine;
m., meridies, noon
M.A.—magister artium, master of arts
M.B.—medicinae baccalaureus,
bachelor of medicine
M. Ch.—magister chirurgiae, master
of surgery
M.D.—medicinae doctor, doctor of
medicine
m.m.—mutatis mutandis, with the
necessary changes
m.n.—mutato nomine, the name being
changed
MS.—manuscriptum, manuscript;
MSS., manuscripta, manuscripts
Mus. B.—musicae baccalaureus,
bachelor of music
Mus. D.—musicae doctor, doctor of
music
Mus. M.—musicae magister, master of
music
N.—Nepos, grandson; nomen, name;
nomina, names; noster, our; n.,
natus, born; nocte, at night
N.B.—nota bene, mark well
ni. pri.—nisi prius, unless before
nob.—nobis, for (or on) our part
nol. pros.—nolle prosequi, will not
prosecute
non cul.—non culpabilis, not guilty
n.l.—non licet, it is not permitted; non
liquet, it is not clear; non longe,
not far
non obs.—non obstante,
notwithstanding
non pros.—non prosequitur, he does
not prosecute
254
Chapter 9
non seq.—non sequitur, it does not
follow logically
O.—octarius, a pint
ob.—obiit, he, or she, died; obiter,
incidentally
ob. s.p.—obiit sine prole, died without
issue
o.c.—opere citato, in the work cited
op.—opus, work; opera, works
op. cit.—opere citato, in the work cited
P.—papa, pope; pater, father; pontifex,
bishop; populus, people; p.,
partim, in part; per, by, for; pius,
holy; pondere, by weight; post,
after; primus, first; pro, for
p.a.—or per ann., per annum, yearly;
pro anno, for the year
p. ae.—partes aequales, equal parts
pass.—passim, everywhere
percent.—per centum, by the hundred
pil.—pilula, pill
Ph. B.—philosophiae baccalaureus,
bachelor of philosophy
P.M.—post mortem, after death
p.m.—post meridiem, afternoon
pro tem.—pro tempore, for the time
being
prox.—proximo, in or of the next
[month]
P.S.—postscriptum, postscript; P.SS.,
postscripta, postscripts
q.d.—quasi dicat, as if one should say;
quasi dictum, as if said; quasi
dixisset, as if he had said
q.e.—quod est, which is
Q.E.D.—quod erat demonstrandum,
which was to be demonstrated
Q.E.F.—quod erat faciendum, which
was to be done
Q.E.I.—quod erat inveniendum, which
was to be found out
q.l.—quantum libet, as much as you
please
q. pl.—quantum placet, as much as
seems good
q.s.—quantum sufficit, sufficient
quantity
q.v.—quantum vis, as much as you
will; quem, quam, quod vide,
which see; qq. v., quos, quas, or
quae vide, which see (plural)
R.—regina, queen; recto, right-hand
page; respublica, commonwealth
嗱—recipe, take
R.I.P.—requiescat, or requiescant, in
pace, may he, she, or they, rest in
peace
R.P.D.—rerum politicarum doctor,
doctor of political science
R.S.S.—Regiae Societatis Sodalis,
Fellow of the Royal Society
S.—sepultus, buried; situs, lies;
societas, society; socius or
sodalis, fellow; s., semi, half;
solidus, shilling
s.a.—sine anno, without date;
secundum artem, according to
art
S.A.S.—Societatis Antiquariorum
Socius, Fellow of the Society of
Antiquaries
sc.—scilicet, namely; sculpsit, he, or
she, carved or engraved it
Sc. B.—scientiae baccalaureus,
bachelor of science
Sc. D.—scientiae doctor, doctor of
science
S.D.—salutem dicit, sends greetings
s.d.—sine die, indefinitely
sec.—secundum, according to
sec. leg.—secundum legem, according
to law
sec. nat.—secundum naturam,
according to nature, or naturally
sec. reg.—secundum regulam,
according to rule
Abbreviations and Letter Symbols
seq.—sequens, sequentes, sequentia,
the following
S.H.S.—Societatis Historiae Socius,
Fellow of the Historical Society
s.h.v.—sub hac voce or sub hoc verbo,
under this word
s.l.a.n.—sine loco, anno, vel nomine,
without place, date, or name
s.l.p.—sine legitima prole, without
lawful issue
s.m.p.—sine mascula prole, without
male issue
s.n.—sine nomine, without name
s.p.—sine prole, without issue
S.P.A.S.—Societatis Philosophiae
Americanae Socius, Fellow of the
American Philosophical Society
s.p.s.—sine prole superstite, without
surviving issue
S.R.S.—Societatis Regiae Socius or
Sodalis, Fellow of the Royal
Society
ss—scilicet, namely (in law)
S.S.C.—Societas Sanctae Crucis,
Society of the Holy Cross
stat.—statim, immediately
S.T.B.—sacrae theologiae
baccalaureus, bachelor of sacred
theology
255
S.T.D.—sacrae theologiae doctor,
doctor of sacred theology
S.T.P.—sacrae theologiae professor,
professor of sacred theology
sub.—subaudi, understand, supply
sup.—supra, above
t. or temp.—tempore, in the time of
tal. qual.—talis qualis, just as they
come; average quality
U.J.D.—utriusque juris doctor, doctor
of both civil and canon law
ult.—ultimo, last month (may be
abbreviated in writing but should
be spelled out in printing)
ung.—unguentum, ointment
u.s.—ubi supra, in the place above
mentioned
ut dict.—ut dictum, as directed
ut sup.—ut supra, as above
ux.—uxor, wife
v.—versus, against; vide, see; voce,
voice, word
v. —— a., vixit —— annos—lived [so
many] years
verb. sap.—verbum [satis] sapienti, a
word to the wise suffices
v.g.—verbi gratia, for example
viz—videlicet, namely
v.s.—vide supra, see above
Information technology acronyms and initialisms
9.64.
If abbreviations are required, use these forms:
AARP—Apple Address Resolution
Protocol
ABLS—Automated Bid List System
ABM—asynchronous balanced mode
ACES—access certificates for
electronic services
ACP—Access Content Package
ACS—Access Content Storage
ACSIS—Acquisition, Classification,
and Shipment Information
System
AES—advanced encryption standard
AIFF—audio interchange file format
AIP—Archival Information Package
AIS—Archival Information Storage
ANSI—American National Standards
Institute
AP—access processor
ARK—archival resource key
ARP—address resolution protocol
ASCII—American Standard Code for
Information Interchange
256
Chapter 9
ASP—application service provider
BAC—billing address code
BBS—bulletin board service
BPEL—business process execution
language
BPI—business process information
BPS—business process storage
CA—certification authority
CCSDS—Consultative Committee for
Space Data Systems
CD—compact disk
CDN—content delivery network
CDR—critical design review
CD–ROM—compact disk read only
memory
CE—content evaluator
CFR—Code of Federal Regulations
CGP—Catalog of U.S. Government
Publications
CMS—content management system
CMYK—cyan, magenta, yellow, black
CO—content originator
COOP—continuity of operations plan
CP—content processor
CPI—content packet information
CRC—cyclic redundancy checks
CSV—comma separated variable
DBMS—database management system
DES—data encryption standard
DIP—Dissemination Information
Package
DMI—desktop management interface
DNS—domain name system
DO—digital objects
DOI—Digital Object Identifier
DoS—denial of service
DPI—dots per inch
DSR—deployment system review
DSSL—document style and semantics
language
DVD—digital versatile disc
EA—enterprise architecture
EAD—encoded archival description
EAC—estimate at completion
EAP—enterprise application platform
EBCDIC—Extended Binary Coded
Decimal Interchange Code
ePub—Electronic Publishing Section
FAQ—frequently asked question
FBCA—Federal Bridge Certificate
Authority
FDDI—fiber distributed data interface
FDLP—Federal Depository Library
Program
FDsys—Federal Digital System
FICC—Federal Identity Credentialing
Committee
FIFO—first in first out
FIPS—Federal Information Processing
Standard
FOB—free on board
FOSI—format output specification
instance
FTP—file transfer protocol
GAP—GPO Access Package
GDI—graphical device interface
GFE—government furnished
equipment
GFI—government furnished
information
GGP—gateway-to-gateway protocol
GIF—graphics interchange format
GILS—Government Information
Locator Service
GUI—graphical user interface
HDTV—high definition television
HMAC—key hashed message
authentication code
HSM—hardware security module
HTML—hypertext markup language
HTTP—hypertext transfer protocol
Hz—Hertz
ICMP—internet control message
protocol
ID—Information Dissemination
IDD—interface design description
Abbreviations and Letter Symbols
IEEE—Institute of Electronics and
Electrical Engineers
IETF—Internet Engineering Task
Force
ILS—Integrated Library System
IP—internet protocol
IPR—internal progress review
IPSEC—internet protocol security
ISO—International Organization for
Standardization
ISP—internet service provider
ISSN—International Standard Serial
Number
IT—information technology
ITU—International
Telecommunications Union
JDF—Job Definition Format
JPEG—Joint Photographic Experts
Group
LAN—local area network
LDAP—lightweight directory access
protocol
LPI—lines per inch
MAC—message authentication code
MARC—Machine Readable
Cataloging
METS—Metadata Encoding and
Transmission Standard
MHz—megahertz
MIME—multipurpose internet mail
extensions
MIPS—millions of instructions per
second
MMAR—Materials Management
Procurement Regulation
MODS—Metadata Object Descriptive
Schema
MPCF—marginally punched
continuous forms
NAT—network address translation
NDIIPP—National Digital
Information Infrastructure and
Preservation Program
257
NFC—National Finance Center
NIST—National Institute of
Standards and Technology
NNTP—network news transfer
protocol
OAI—Open Archives Initiative
OAI–PMH—Open Archives Initiative
Protocol for Metadata Harvesting
OAIS—Open Archival Information
Systems
OCLC—Online Computer Library
Center
OCR—optical character recognition
OLTP—online transaction processing
PRONOM—Practical Online
Compendium of File Formats
PTR—program tracking report
PURL—persistent uniform resource
locator
RAID—redundant array of
inexpensive disks
RAM—random access memory
RFC—request for comments
RGB—red, green, blue
RI—representation information
RMA—reliability, maintainability,
availability
RPC—remote procedure call
RSA—Rivest, Shamir, Adleman
(public key decryption algorithm)
RTF—rich text format
RVTM—requirements verification
traceability matrix
SAML—security assertion markup
language
SDLC—software/system development
life cycle
SDR—system design review
Section 508—Section 508 of the
Rehabilitation Act
SGML—standard generalized markup
language
SHA—secure hash algorithm
258
Chapter 9
SIP—Submission Information Package
SLIP—serial line internet protocol
SMP—storage management processor
SMS—storage management system
SMTP—simple mail transfer protocol
SNMP—simple network management
protocol
SPA—simplified purchase agreement
SSL—secure sockets layer
SSP—system security plan
SSR—software specification review
TDES—Triple Data Encryption
Standard
TIFF—tagged image file format
TLS—transport layer security
UDP—user datagram protocol
URL—uniform resource locator
URN—uniform resource name/
number
VLAN—virtual local area network
VPN—virtual private network
VRML—virtual reality modeling
language
W3C—World Wide Web Consortium
WAIS—wide area information service
WAN—wide area network
WAP—wireless application protocol
WAV—waveform audio format
WIP—work in process
WML—wireless markup language
WMS—workflow management system
WWW—World Wide Web
WYSIWYG—what you see is what
you get
XML—extensible markup language
XMLDsig—xml signature
XMLENC—xml encryption

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