# MPLAB Assembler, Linker and Utilities for PIC32 MCUs

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MPLAB® Assembler,
for PIC32 MCUs
User’s Guide
DS51833A
Note the following details of the code protection feature on Microchip devices:
•
Microchip products meet the specification contained in their particular Microchip Data Sheet.
•
Microchip believes that its family of products is one of the most secure families of its kind on the market today, when used in the
intended manner and under normal conditions.
•
There are dishonest and possibly illegal methods used to breach the code protection feature. All of these methods, to our
knowledge, require using the Microchip products in a manner outside the operating specifications contained in Microchip’s Data
Sheets. Most likely, the person doing so is engaged in theft of intellectual property.
•
Microchip is willing to work with the customer who is concerned about the integrity of their code.
•
Neither Microchip nor any other semiconductor manufacturer can guarantee the security of their code. Code protection does not
mean that we are guaranteeing the product as “unbreakable.”
Code protection is constantly evolving. We at Microchip are committed to continuously improving the code protection features of our
products. Attempts to break Microchip’s code protection feature may be a violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. If such acts
Information contained in this publication regarding device
applications and the like is provided only for your convenience
MICROCHIP MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR
WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND WHETHER EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, WRITTEN OR ORAL, STATUTORY OR
OTHERWISE, RELATED TO THE INFORMATION,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ITS CONDITION,
QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY OR
FITNESS FOR PURPOSE. Microchip disclaims all liability
arising from this information and its use. Use of Microchip
devices in life support and/or safety applications is entirely at
hold harmless Microchip from any and all damages, claims,
suits, or expenses resulting from such use. No licenses are
conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any Microchip
intellectual property rights.
The Microchip name and logo, the Microchip logo, Accuron,
dsPIC, KEELOQ, KEELOQ logo, MPLAB, PIC, PICmicro,
PICSTART, rfPIC, SmartShunt and UNI/O are registered
trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the
U.S.A. and other countries.
FilterLab, Hampshire, Linear Active Thermistor, MXDEV,
MXLAB, SEEVAL, SmartSensor and The Embedded Control
Solutions Company are registered trademarks of Microchip
Technology Incorporated in the U.S.A.
Analog-for-the-Digital Age, Application Maestro, CodeGuard,
dsPICDEM, dsPICDEM.net, dsPICworks, dsSPEAK, ECAN,
ECONOMONITOR, FanSense, In-Circuit Serial
Programming, ICSP, ICEPIC, Mindi, MiWi, MPASM, MPLAB
Certified logo, MPLIB, MPLINK, mTouch, nanoWatt XLP,
PICkit, PICDEM, PICDEM.net, PICtail, PIC32 logo, PowerCal,
PowerInfo, PowerMate, PowerTool, REAL ICE, rfLAB, Select
Mode, Total Endurance, TSHARC, WiperLock and ZENA are
trademarks of Microchip Technology Incorporated in the
U.S.A. and other countries.
SQTP is a service mark of Microchip Technology Incorporated
in the U.S.A.
All other trademarks mentioned herein are property of their
respective companies.
© 2009, Microchip Technology Incorporated, Printed in the
Printed on recycled paper.
Microchip received ISO/TS-16949:2002 certification for its worldwide
headquarters, design and wafer fabrication facilities in Chandler and
Tempe, Arizona; Gresham, Oregon and design centers in California
and India. The Company’s quality system processes and procedures
are for its PIC® MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs, KEELOQ® code hopping
devices, Serial EEPROMs, microperipherals, nonvolatile memory and
analog products. In addition, Microchip’s quality system for the design
and manufacture of development systems is ISO 9001:2000 certified.
DS51833A-page ii
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
Preface ........................................................................................................................... 1
32-Bit Language Tools and MPLAB IDE ..................................................................... 7
Part 1 – MPLAB Assembler for PIC32 MCUs
Chapter 1. Assembler Overview
1.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 17
1.2 Assembler and Other Development Tools ................................................... 17
1.3 Feature Set ................................................................................................... 18
1.4 Input/Output Files ......................................................................................... 19
Chapter 2. MPLAB IDE Projects for PIC32 Assembly Code
2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 25
2.2 Project Overview .......................................................................................... 25
2.3 Creating a Project ......................................................................................... 26
2.5 Building Your Project .................................................................................... 30
2.6 Debugging Your Project ............................................................................... 31
Chapter 3. Assembler Command Line Interface
3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 33
3.2 Assembler Interface Syntax ......................................................................... 33
3.3 Compilation-Driver Interface Syntax ............................................................. 34
3.4 Options that Modify the Listing Output ......................................................... 35
3.5 Options that Control Informational Output .................................................... 46
3.6 Options that Control Output File Creation .................................................... 47
3.7 Assembler Symbol-Definition and Search-Path Options .............................. 48
3.8 Compilation-Driver and Preprocessor Options ............................................. 48
Chapter 4. Assembler Syntax
4.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 51
4.2 Internal Preprocessor ................................................................................... 51
4.3 Source Code Format .................................................................................... 52
4.4 Constants ..................................................................................................... 57
4.5 Summary ...................................................................................................... 59
Chapter 5. Assembler Expression Syntax and Operation
5.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 61
5.2 Expressions .................................................................................................. 61
5.3 Operators ..................................................................................................... 62
DS51833A-page iii
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
Chapter 6. Assembler Symbols
6.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 65
6.2 What are Symbols ........................................................................................ 65
6.3 Local Symbols .............................................................................................. 65
6.4 Giving Symbols Other Values ...................................................................... 66
6.5 The Special DOT Symbol ............................................................................. 66
Chapter 7. Assembler Directives
7.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 67
7.2 Directives that Define Sections .................................................................... 68
7.3 Directives that Initialize Constants ............................................................... 71
7.4 Directives that Declare Symbols .................................................................. 74
7.5 Directives that Define Symbols .................................................................... 75
7.6 Directives that Modify Section Alignment .................................................... 76
7.7 Directives that Format the Output Listing ..................................................... 78
7.8 Directives that Control Conditional Assembly .............................................. 79
7.9 Directives for Substitution/Expansion ........................................................... 80
7.10 Directives that Include Other Files ............................................................. 83
7.11 Directives that Control Diagnostic Output .................................................. 84
7.12 Directives for Debug Information ................................................................ 85
7.13 Directives that Control Code Generation .................................................... 87
Part 2 – MPLAB Object Linker for PIC32 MCUs
8.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 91
8.2 Linker and Other Development Tools ........................................................... 91
8.3 Feature Set ................................................................................................... 92
8.4 Input/Output Files ......................................................................................... 92
9.1 Introduction ................................................................................................... 99
9.2 Linker Interface Syntax ................................................................................. 99
9.3 Compilation-Driver Linker Interface Syntax ................................................ 100
9.4 Options that Control Output File Creation .................................................. 101
9.5 Options that Control Run-time Initialization ................................................ 106
9.6 Options that Control Multilib Library Selection ........................................... 106
9.7 Options that Control Informational Output .................................................. 107
9.8 Options that Modify the Link Map Output ................................................... 110
10.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 111
10.2 Overview of Linker Scripts ........................................................................ 111
10.3 Command Line Information ...................................................................... 111
10.4 Default Linker Script ................................................................................. 111
10.5 Adding a Custom Linker Script to an MPLAB IDE Project ....................... 113
10.6 Linker Script Command Language ........................................................... 114
DS51833A-page iv
10.7 Expressions in Linker Scripts ................................................................... 127
11.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 133
11.2 Overview of Linker Processing ................................................................. 133
11.4 Global and Weak Symbols ....................................................................... 136
11.5 Stack Allocation ........................................................................................ 136
11.6 Heap Allocation ........................................................................................ 137
11.7 Interrupt Vector Tables ............................................................................. 137
Part 3 – Binary Utilities for PIC32 MCUs
Chapter 12. MPLAB Object Archiver/Librarian for PIC32 MCUs
12.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 141
12.2 Arichiver/Libraian and Other Development Tools ..................................... 142
12.3 Feature Set ............................................................................................... 142
12.4 Input/Output Files ..................................................................................... 142
12.5 Syntax ...................................................................................................... 143
12.6 Options ..................................................................................................... 143
12.7 Scripts ...................................................................................................... 145
Chapter 13. Other PIC32 MCU Binary Utilities
13.1 Introduction ............................................................................................... 147
13.2 pic32-bin2hex Utility ............................................................................ 147
13.3 pic32-nm Utility ...................................................................................... 149
13.4 pic32-objdump Utility ............................................................................ 151
13.5 pic32-ranlib Utility .............................................................................. 153
13.6 pic32-size Utility .................................................................................. 154
13.7 pic32-strings Utility ............................................................................ 155
13.8 pic32-strip Utility ................................................................................ 156
Part 4 – Appendices
A.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 161
A.2 List of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) ................................................ 161
Appendix B. Assembler Errors/Warnings/Messages
B.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 167
B.2 Fatal Errors ................................................................................................ 167
B.3 Errors ......................................................................................................... 168
B.4 Warnings .................................................................................................... 175
B.5 Messages ................................................................................................... 178
C.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 179
C.2 Fatal Errors ................................................................................................ 179
C.3 Errors ......................................................................................................... 180
DS51833A-page v
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
C.4 Warnings .................................................................................................... 182
Appendix D. Useful Tables
D.1 Introduction ................................................................................................ 185
D.2 ASCII Character Set .................................................................................. 185
D.3 Hexadecimal to Decimal Conversion ......................................................... 186
Appendix E. GNU Free Documentation License
E.1 Preamble .................................................................................................... 187
E.2 Applicability and Definitions ....................................................................... 187
E.3 Verbatim Copying ...................................................................................... 189
E.4 Copying In Quantity ................................................................................... 189
E.5 Modifications .............................................................................................. 190
E.6 Combining Documents ............................................................................... 191
E.7 Collections of Documents .......................................................................... 191
E.8 Aggregation with Independent Works ........................................................ 192
E.9 Translation ................................................................................................. 192
E.10 Termination .............................................................................................. 192
E.11 Future Revisions of this License .............................................................. 192
Glossary .....................................................................................................................193
Index ...........................................................................................................................213
Worldwide Sales and Service ...................................................................................222
DS51833A-page vi
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
Preface
NOTICE TO CUSTOMERS
All documentation becomes dated, and this manual is no exception. Microchip tools and
documentation are constantly evolving to meet customer needs, so some actual dialogs
and/or tool descriptions may differ from those in this document. Please refer to our web site
(www.microchip.com) to obtain the latest documentation available.
Documents are identified with a “DS” number. This number is located on the bottom of each
page, in front of the page number. The numbering convention for the DS number is
“DSXXXXXA”, where “XXXXX” is the document number and “A” is the revision level of the
document.
For the most up-to-date information on development tools, see the MPLAB® IDE on-line help.
Select the Help menu, and then Topics to open a list of available on-line help files.
INTRODUCTION
This chapter contains general information that will be useful to know before using 32-bit
language tools. Items discussed include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Document Layout
Conventions Used in this Guide
The Microchip Web Site
Development Systems Customer Change Notification Service
Customer Support
DS51833A-page 1
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
DOCUMENT LAYOUT
This document describes how to use GNU language tools to write code for 32-bit
applications. The document layout is as follows:
“32-Bit Language Tools and MPLAB IDE” – an overview of using the 32-bit language
tools with MPLAB IDE.
Part 1 – “MPLAB Assembler for PIC32 MCUs”
• Chapter 1. “Assembler Overview” – gives an overview of assembler operation.
• Chapter 2. “MPLAB IDE Projects for PIC32 Assembly Code” – provides an
overview of using the PIC32 language tools with MPLAB IDE in a project.
• Chapter 3. “Assembler Command Line Interface” – details command line
options for the assembler.
• Chapter 4. “Assembler Syntax” – describes syntax used with the assembler.
• Chapter 5. “Assembler Expression Syntax and Operation” – provides guidelines for using complex expressions in assembler source files.
• Chapter 6. “Assembler Symbols” – describes what symbols are and how to use
them.
• Chapter 7. “Assembler Directives” – details the available assembler directives.
Part 2 – “MPLAB Object Linker for PIC32 MCUs”
• Chapter 8. “Linker Overview” – gives an overview of linker operation.
• Chapter 9. “Linker Command-Line Interface” – details command line options
• Chapter 10. “Linker Scripts” – describes how to generate and use linker scripts
• Chapter 11. “Linker Processing” – discusses how the linker builds an application from input files.
Part 3 – “Binary Utilities for PIC32 MCUs”
• Chapter 12. “MPLAB Object Archiver/Librarian for PIC32 MCUs” – details
command line options for the archiver/librarian.
• Chapter 13. “Other PIC32 MCU Binary Utilities” – details the other utilities and
their operation. Utilities include: pic32-bin2hex (binary-to-hexadecimal conversion), pic32-nm (listing symbols in an object file), pic32-objdump (displaying information about object files), pic32-ranlib (creating an archive index), pic32-size (),
pic32-strings (printing character sequences), and pic32-strip (discarding all symbols from an object file).
Part 4 – “Appendices”
• Appendix B. “Assembler Errors/Warnings/Messages” – contains a descriptive
list of the errors, warnings and messages generated by the 32-bit assembler.
• Appendix C. “Linker Errors/Warnings” – contains a descriptive list of the errors
and warnings generated by the 32-bit linker.
• Appendix D. “Useful Tables” – lists some useful tables: the ASCII character set
requirements for using the GNU language tools.
DS51833A-page 2
Preface
CONVENTIONS USED IN THIS GUIDE
The following conventions may appear in this documentation:
DOCUMENTATION CONVENTIONS
Description
Represents
Examples
Arial font:
Italic characters
Initial caps
Referenced books
MPLAB® IDE User’s Guide
Emphasized text
...is the only compiler...
A window
the Output window
A dialog
the Settings dialog
select Enable Programmer
Quotes
A field name in a window or
dialog
“Save project before build”
Underlined, italic text with
right angle bracket
File>Save
Bold characters
A dialog button
Click OK
A tab
Click the Power tab
A key on the keyboard
Press <Enter>, <F1>
Sample source code
#define START
Filenames
autoexec.bat
File paths
c:\mcc18\h
Keywords
_asm, _endasm, static
Command-line options
-Opa+, -Opa-
Bit values
0, 1
Constants
0xFF, ’A’
Italic Courier
A variable argument
file.o, where file can be
any valid filename
Square brackets [ ]
Optional arguments
mpasmwin [options]
file [options]
Curly brackets and pipe
character: { | }
Choice of mutually exclusive
arguments; an OR selection
errorlevel {0|1}
Ellipses...
Replaces repeated text
var_name [,
var_name...]
Represents code supplied by
user
void main (void)
{ ...
}
Text in angle brackets < >
Courier font:
Plain Courier
DS51833A-page 3
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
This documentation describes how to use 32-bit language tools. Other useful
documents are listed below. The following Microchip documents are available and
recommended as supplemental reference resources.
For the latest information on Microchip tools, read the associated Readme files (HTML
files) included with the software.
MPLAB® C Compiler for PIC32 MCUs User’s Guide (DS51686)
A guide to using the 32-bit C compiler. The 32-bit linker is used with this tool.
32-Bit Language Tools Libraries (DS51685)
A descriptive listing of libraries available for Microchip 32-bit devices. This includes
standard (including math) libraries and compiler built-in functions. 32-bit peripheral
libraries are described in HTML files provided with each peripheral library type.
Device-Specific Documentation
The Microchip web site contains many documents that describe 32-bit device functions
and features. Among these are:
• Individual and family data sheets
• Family reference manuals
• Programmer’s reference manuals
DS51833A-page 4
Preface
THE MICROCHIP WEB SITE
Microchip provides online support via our web site at www.microchip.com. This web
site is used as a means to make files and information easily available to customers.
Accessible by using your favorite Internet browser, the web site contains the following
information:
• Product Support – Data sheets and errata, application notes and sample
programs, design resources, user’s guides and hardware support documents,
latest software releases and archived software
• General Technical Support – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs), technical
support requests, online discussion groups, Microchip consultant program
member listing
• Business of Microchip – Product selector and ordering guides, latest Microchip
press releases, listing of seminars and events, listings of Microchip sales offices,
distributors and factory representatives
DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS CUSTOMER CHANGE NOTIFICATION SERVICE
Microchip’s customer notification service helps keep customers current on Microchip
updates, revisions or errata related to a specified product family or development tool of
interest.
To register, access the Microchip web site at www.microchip.com, click on Customer
The Development Systems product group categories are:
• Compilers – The latest information on Microchip C compilers, assemblers, linkers
and other language tools. These include all MPLAB C compilers; all MPLAB
assemblers (including MPASM™ assembler); all MPLAB linkers (including
librarian).
• Emulators – The latest information on Microchip in-circuit emulators.These
include the MPLAB REAL ICE™, MPLAB ICE 2000 and MPLAB ICE 4000
in-circuit emulators
• In-Circuit Debuggers – The latest information on Microchip in-circuit debuggers.
These include the MPLAB ICD 2 and 3 in-circuit debuggers and PICkit™ 2 and 3
debug express.
• MPLAB® IDE – The latest information on Microchip MPLAB IDE, the Windows®
Integrated Development Environment for development systems tools. This list is
focused on the MPLAB IDE, MPLAB IDE Project Manager, MPLAB Editor and
MPLAB SIM simulator, as well as general editing and debugging features.
• Programmers – The latest information on Microchip programmers. These include
the MPLAB PM3 and PRO MATE® II device programmers and the PICSTART®
Plus and PICkit 1, 2 and 3 development programmers.
DS51833A-page 5
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
CUSTOMER SUPPORT
Users of Microchip products can receive assistance through several channels:
•
•
•
•
Distributor or Representative
Local Sales Office
Field Application Engineer (FAE)
Technical Support
Customers should contact their distributor, representative or field application engineer
(FAE) for support. Local sales offices are also available to help customers. A listing of
sales offices and locations is included in the back of this document.
Technical support is available through the web site at: http://support.microchip.com
DS51833A-page 6
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
32-Bit Language Tools and MPLAB IDE
INTRODUCTION
The MPLAB Assembler for PIC32 MCUs (formerly MPLAB ASM32), the MPLAB Object
Linker for PIC32 MCUs (formerly MPLAB LINK32) and 32-bit utilities, including the
MPLAB Archiver/Librarian for PIC32 MCUs (formerly MPLAB LIB32) may be used
together under MPLAB IDE to provide GUI development of application code for the
PIC32MX MCU family of devices. The operation of these language tools with MPLAB
IDE is discussed here.
Additionally, MPLAB C Compiler for PIC32 MCUs (formerly MPLAB C32) is available
for free as a lite or standard evalution version with MPLAB IDE, or for purchase as a
standard version.
Topics covered in this chapter:
•
•
•
•
•
MPLAB IDE and Tools Installation
MPLAB IDE Setup
MPLAB IDE Projects
Project Setup
Project Example
MPLAB IDE AND TOOLS INSTALLATION
In order to use the 32-bit language tools with MPLAB IDE, you must first install MPLAB
IDE. The latest versions of this software are available at our web site
(http://www.microchip.com) or from any sales office (back cover). When you install
MPLAB IDE, you will be installing the 32-bit compiler (standard evaluation version),
assembler, object linker and supporting utilities as well.
The language tools will be installed, by default, in the directory:
• C:\Program Files\Microchip\MPLAB C32 Suite\bin
The executables for each tool will be in this directory:
•
•
•
•
•
Compiler - pic32-gcc.exe
Assembler - pic32-as.exe
Archiver/Librarian - pic32-ar.exe
Other Utilities - pic32-utility.exe
All include (header) files are in the directory:
• C:\Program Files\Microchip\MPLAB C32 Suite\pic32mx\include
For more on these files, see the assembler documentation.
All device linker script files are in the directory:
• C:\Program Files\Microchip\MPLAB C32 Suite\
pic32mx\lib\ldscripts
For more on these files, see the object linker documentation.
Code examples are also included in the directory:
• C:\Program Files\Microchip\MPLAB C32 Suite\examples
DS51833A-page 7
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
MPLAB IDE SETUP
Once MPLAB IDE is installed on your PC, check the settings below to ensure that the
language tools are properly recognized under MPLAB IDE.
1. From the MPLAB IDE menu bar, select Project>Set Language Tool Locations to
open a dialog to set/check language tool executable location.
FIGURE 1:
SET LANGUAGE TOOL LOCATIONS
2. In the dialog, under “Registered Tools”, select “Microchip PIC32 C Compiler Toolsuite”. Click the “+” to expand.
3. Select “Executables”. Click the “+” to expand.
4. Select “MPLAB C32 Compiler (pic32-gcc.exe)”. Under “Location”, a path to
the executable file should be displayed. If no path is displayed, enter one or
browse to the location of this file. The default location is listed in
Section “MPLAB IDE and Tools Installation”.
5. Select “MPLAB ASM32 Assembler (pic32-as.exe)”. Under “Location”, a path
to the executable file should be displayed. If no path is displayed, enter one or
browse to the location of this file. The default location is listed in
Section “MPLAB IDE and Tools Installation”.
path to the executable file should be displayed. If no path is displayed, enter one
or browse to the location of this file. The default location is listed in
Section “MPLAB IDE and Tools Installation”.
7. Select “LIB30 Archiver (pic32-ar.exe)”. Under “Location”, a path to the executable file should be displayed. If no path is displayed, enter one or browse to
the location of this file. The default location is listed in Section “MPLAB IDE
and Tools Installation”.
8. Click OK.
DS51833A-page 8
32-Bit Language Tools and MPLAB IDE
MPLAB IDE PROJECTS
A project in MPLAB IDE is a group of files needed to build an application, along with
their associations to various build tools. Below is a generic MPLAB IDE project.
FIGURE 2:
PROJECT RELATIONSHIPS
MPLAB® IDE Project
C Source Files
(*.c)
Assembly Source
Files (*.S)
C Compiler
Source Files (*.s)
Assembler
Archiver (Librarian)
Object File Libraries
(*.a)
Object Files
(*.o)
Executable File
(*.exe)
(*.ld)
MPLAB® IDE
Debug Tool
Command Line
Simulator
In this MPLAB IDE project, C source files are shown as input to the C compiler (MPLAB
C Compiler for PIC32 MCUs.) The compiler will generate source files for input into the
Assembly source files are shown as input to the C preprocessor. The resulting source
files are input to the assembler. The assembler will generate object files for input into
Assembler for PIC32 MCUs documentation.
Object files can be archived into a library using the archiver/librarian. For more
information on the archiver, see the MPLAB Archiver/Librarian for PIC32 MCUs
documentation.
The object files and any library files, as well as a linker script file (generic linker scripts
are added automatically), are used to generate the project output files via the linker.
The main output file generated by the linker is the executable file, used by the simulator
see the MPLAB Object Linker for PIC32 MCUs documentation.
For more on projects and related workspaces, see MPLAB IDE documentation.
DS51833A-page 9
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
PROJECT SETUP
To set up an MPLAB IDE project for the first time, it is advisable to use the built-in
Project Wizard (Project>Project Wizard.) In this wizard, you will be able to select a
language toolsuite that uses the 32-bit assembler (e.g., the Microchip PIC32 C
Compiler Toolsuite). For more on the wizard, and MPLAB IDE projects, see MPLAB
IDE documentation.
Once you have a project set up, you may then set up properties of the tools in MPLAB
IDE.
1. From the MPLAB IDE menu bar, select Project>Build Options>Project to open a
dialog to set/check project build options.
2. Click on the tool tab to modify tool settings.
- Build Options Dialog, MPLAB PIC32 Assembler Tab
- Build Options Dialog, MPLAB PIC32 C Compiler Tab
- Build Options Dialog, MPLAB PIC32 Linker Tab
- Build Options Dialog, PIC32 Suite Tab
Build Options Dialog, MPLAB PIC32 Assembler Tab
A subset of command-line options may be specified in MPLAB IDE in the Build Options
dialog, MPLAB PIC32 Assembler tab. Select a category, and then set up assembler
options. For additional options, see MPLAB Assembler for PIC32 MCUs
documentation.
General Category
Generate Command Line
Generate debugging
information
Create an ELF file with information to allow debugging of code in
MPLAB IDE. Equivalent to -g option.
Keep local symbols
Keep local symbols, i.e., labels beginning with .L (uppercase
only). Equivalent to --keep-locals (-L) option.
Exclude floating point
library
Do not include floating point information when assembling.
Macro Definitions
Restore Defaults
Restore tab default settings.
Use Alternate Settings
Text Box
Enter options in a command-line (non-GUI) format.
Diagnostics Category
Generate Command Line
Diagnostics level
Select to display all warnings; suppress the display of all warnings;
or display only fatal warnings. These will be shown in the Output
window.
Listing Options
If “Enable Listing” is checked, you may select different listing
options. Equivalent to -a[suboption] [=file] options.
- Include source code (-ah)
- Expand macros (-am)
- Include false conditionals (-ac)
- Omit forms processing (-an)
- Include assembly (-al)
- List symbols (-as)
- Section information (-ai)
Restore Defaults
Restore tab default settings.
Use Alternate Settings
Text Box
DS51833A-page 10
Enter options in a command-line (non-GUI) format.
32-Bit Language Tools and MPLAB IDE
Build Options Dialog, MPLAB PIC32 C Compiler Tab
Although the MPLAB C Compiler for PIC32 MCUs comes with MPLAB IDE, it is only
the demo version. The full version must be purchased. See the Microchip web site
(www.microchip.com) for details.
A subset of command-line options may be specified in MPLAB IDE in the Build Options
dialog, MPLAB PIC32 C Compiler tab. Select a category, and then set up compiler
options. For additional options, see the “MPLAB C Compiler for PIC32 MCUs User’s
Guide” (DS51686), also available on the Microchip web site.
General Category
Generate Command Line
Generate debugging
information
Create an ELF file with information to allow debugging of code in
MPLAB IDE. Equivalent to -g option.
Isolate each function in a
section
Place data in its own section
Use indirect calls
Generate 16-bit code
Exclude floating point
library
Do not include floating point information when compiling.
Macro Definitions
Restore Defaults
Restore tab default settings.
Use Alternate Settings
Text Box
Enter options in a command-line (non-GUI) format.
Optimization Category
Generate Command Line
Optimization Level
Click in a circle on the chart to select an optimization level. Equivalent to -O option.
Specific Optimizations
Choose specific optimizations.
- Unroll loops (-funroll-loops)
- Omit Frame Pointer W14 (-fomit-frame-pointer)
Pre-Optimization Instruc- Choose from default, disabled or enabled. Equivalent to
tion Scheduling
-fschedule-insns option.
Post-Optimization
Instruction Scheduling
Choose from default, disabled or enabled. Equivalent to
-fschedule-insns2 option.
Restore Defaults
Restore tab default settings.
Use Alternate Settings
Text Box
Enter options in a command-line (non-GUI) format.
DS51833A-page 11
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
Errors and Warnings Category
Generate Command Line
Make warnings into
errors
Select to halt compilation based on warnings as well as errors.
Equivalent to -Werror option.
Enable all warnings. Equivalent to -Wall option.
Support all ANSI-standard programs
Support all (and only) ASCI C programs. Equivalent to -ansi
option.
Strict ANSI warnings
Issue all warnings demanded by strict ANSI C. Equivalent to
-pedantic option.
Restore Defaults
Restore tab default settings.
Use Alternate Settings
Text Box
Enter options in a command-line (non-GUI) format.
Build Options Dialog, MPLAB PIC32 Linker Tab
A subset of command-line options may be specified in MPLAB IDE in the Build Options
dialog, MPLAB PIC32 Linker tab. Select a category, and then set up linker options. For
General Category
Generate Command Line
Heap Size
Specify the size of the heap in bytes. Same as:
--defsym=_min_heap_size=size option.
Min Stack Size
Specify the minimum size of the stack in bytes. Same as:
--defsym=_min_stack_size=size option.
Allow overlapped sections
Do not check section addresses for overlaps. Same as
--no-check-sections option.
Remove unused sections
Symbol Definitions
Restore Defaults
Restore tab default settings.
Use Alternate Settings
Text Box
Enter options in a command-line (non-GUI) format.
Diagnostics Category
Generate Command Line
Generate map file
Create a map file. Same as -Map file option.
Generate cross-reference file
Create a cross-reference table. Same as --cref option.
Warn on section realignment
Warn if start of section changes due to alignment. Same as
--warn-section-align option.
Trace Symbols
Restore Defaults
Restore tab default settings.
Use Alternate Settings
Text Box
DS51833A-page 12
Enter options in a command-line (non-GUI) format.
32-Bit Language Tools and MPLAB IDE
Symbols and Output Category
Generate Command Line
Symbols
Specify symbol information in the output.
- Keep all
- Strip debugging info (--strip-debug (-S))
- Strip all symbol info (--strip-all (-s))
Output Filename Root
Enter a root directory for saving output files.
Restore Defaults
Restore tab default settings.
Use Alternate Settings
Text Box
Enter options in a command-line (non-GUI) format.
Library Selection Category
Generate Command Line
Optimization Level of
Standard Libraries
Click in a circle on the chart to select an optimization level. Equivalent to -O option.
To see optimization for the following conditions, check the checkbox:
- Exclude standard libraries
- Generate 16-bit code
- Exclude floating point library
Use Alternate Settings
Text Box
Enter options in a command-line (non-GUI) format.
Build Options Dialog, PIC32 Suite Tab
Select a category, and then set up output options.
General All Options
Generate Command Line
Target Type
Build normal target (invoke PIC32 linker)
The files in the project will be built for normal output using the
To set linker options, see Build Options Dialog, MPLAB PIC32
To exclude the addition of start-up code in the build, check this
checkbox.
Build library target (invoke PIC32 archiver)
The files in the project will be built into a library using the PIC32
librarian (archive file.)
For a library build, a generic device-family library may be built by
checking “Build generic library”.
For more on libraries, see PIC32 archiver/librarian documentation.
DS51833A-page 13
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
PROJECT EXAMPLE
Chapter 2. “MPLAB IDE Projects for PIC32 Assembly Code”covers the basics of
MPLAB IDE projects setup and use for the assembler. For more detailed information
on projects, see MPLAB IDE documentation.
DS51833A-page 14
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
Part 1 – MPLAB Assembler for PIC32 MCUs
Chapter 1. Assembler Overview ................................................................................. 17
Chapter 2. MPLAB IDE Projects for PIC32 Assembly Code ..................................... 25
Chapter 3. Assembler Command Line Interface ....................................................... 33
Chapter 4. Assembler Syntax...................................................................................... 51
Chapter 5. Assembler Expression Syntax and Operation........................................ 61
Chapter 6. Assembler Symbols .................................................................................. 65
Chapter 7. Assembler Directives ................................................................................ 67
DS51833A-page 15
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
NOTES:
DS51833A-page 16
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
Chapter 1. Assembler Overview
1.1
INTRODUCTION
MPLAB Assembler for PIC32 MCUs (pic32-as) produces relocatable machine code
from symbolic assembly language for the PIC32 MCU family of devices. The assembler
is a Windows console application that provides a platform for developing assembly
language code. The assembler is a port of the GNU assembler from the Free Software
Foundation.
Topics covered in this chapter are:
• Assembler and Other Development Tools
• Feature Set
• Input/Output Files
1.2
ASSEMBLER AND OTHER DEVELOPMENT TOOLS
MPLAB Assembler for PIC32 MCUs translates user assembly source files. In addition,
the MPLAB C Compiler for PIC32 MCUs uses the assembler to produce its object file.
After the C preprocessor processes the assembly source file (*.S), the assembler
generates a relocatable object file that can then be put into an archive or linked with
other relocatable object files and archives to create an executable file. See Figure 1-1
for an overview of the tools process flow.
FIGURE 1-1:
TOOLS PROCESS FLOW
C Source Files
(*.c)
Assembly Source
Files (*.S)
C Compiler
Compiler
Driver
Program
Source Files (*.s)
Assembler
Archiver (Librarian)
Object File Libraries
(*.a)
Object Files
(*.o)
Executable File
(*.elf)
(*.ld)
MPLAB® IDE
Debug Tool
Command Line
Simulator
DS51833A-page 17
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
1.3
FEATURE SET
Notable features of the assembler include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
DS51833A-page 18
Support for the MIPS32 and MIPS16e instruction sets
Support for ELF object format
Available for Windows OS
Rich Directive Set
Flexible Macro Language
Command-Line Interface
Integrated component of MPLAB® IDE
Assembler Overview
1.4
INPUT/OUTPUT FILES
Standard assembler input and output files are listed below.
Extension
Description
Input
.S
Preprocessed Source File
.s
Source File
Output
.o
Object File
.lst
Listing File
Unlike the MPASM™ assembler (for use with 8-bit PIC® MCUs), MPLAB Assembler for
PIC32 MCUs does not generate error files, hex files, or symbol and debug files. The
assembler is capable of creating a listing file and a relocatable object file (that may or
may not contain debugging information). MPLAB Linker for PIC32 MCUs is used with
the assembler to produce the final object files, map files and final executable file for
debugging with MPLAB IDE (see Figure 1-1).
1.4.1
Source Files
The assembler accepts, as input, a source file that consists of PIC32 instructions,
assembler directives and comments. A sample source file is shown in Example 1-1.
Note:
Microchip Technology strongly suggests a .S extension for assembly
source files. This will enable you to easily use the C compiler driver without
having to specify the option to tell the driver that the file should be treated
as an assembly file. The capitalized S also indicates that the source file
should be preprocessed by the C preprocessor before being passed to the
assembler. See the “MPLAB® C Compiler for PIC32 MCUs User’s Guide”
(DS51686) for more details on the C compiler driver.
EXAMPLE 1-1:
SAMPLE ASSEMBLER CODE
#include <p32xxxx.h>
#define IOPORT_BIT_7 (1 << 7)
.global main
/* define all global symbols here */
.text
/* define which section (for example "text")
* does this portion of code resides in. Typically,
* all your code will reside in .text section as
* shown below.
*/
.set noreorder
/* This is important for an assembly programmer. This
* directive tells the assembler not to optimize
* the order of the instructions as well as not to insert
* 'nop' instructions after jumps and branches.
*/
/*********************************************************************
* main()
* This is where the PIC32 start-up code will jump to after initial
* set-up.
********************************************************************/
DS51833A-page 19
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
.ent main /* directive that marks symbol 'main' as function in the ELF
* output
*/
main:
/* Call function to clear bit relevant to pin 7 of port A.
* The 'jal' instruction places the return address in the $ra * register. */ ori$a0, $zero, IOPORT_BIT_7 jal mPORTAClearBits nop /* endless loop */ endless: j endless nop .end main /* directive that marks end of 'main' function and its * size in the ELF output */ /********************************************************************* * mPORTAClearBits(int bits) * This function clears the specified bits of IOPORT A. * * pre-condition:$ra contains return address
* Input: Bit mask in $a0 * Output: none * Side effect: clears bits in IOPORT A ********************************************************************/ .ent mPORTAClearBits mPORTAClearBits: /* function prologue - save registers used in this function * on stack and adjust stack-pointer */ addiu$sp, $sp, -4 sw$s0, 0($sp) la sw$s0, LATACLR
$a0, 0($s0)
/* clear specified bits */
/* function epilogue - restore registers used in this function
* from stack and adjust stack-pointer
*/
lw
$s0, 0($sp)
$sp,$sp, 4
jr
$ra nop .end mPORTAClearBits For more information, see also Chapter 4. “Assembler Syntax” and Chapter 7. “Assembler Directives”. DS51833A-page 20 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Assembler Overview 1.4.2 Object File The assembler creates a relocatable ELF object file. The object files do not yet have addresses resolved and must be linked before they can be used for an executable. By default, the name of the object file created is a.out. Specify the -o option (See Chapter 3. “Assembler Command Line Interface”) on the command line to override the default name. 1.4.3 Listing File The assembler has the capability to produce a listing file. The listing file is not an absolute listing file, and the addresses that appear in the listing are relative to the start of its section. By default, the listing file is displayed on standard output. Specify the -a=<file> option (See Chapter 3. “Assembler Command Line Interface”) on the command line to send the listing file to a specified file. A listing file produced by the assembler is composed of the elements listed below. Example 1-2 shows a sample listing file. 1.4.3.1 HEADER The header contains the name of the assembler, the name of the file being assembled, and a page number. This is not shown if the -an option is specified. 1.4.3.2 TITLE The title line contains the title specified by the .title directive. This is not shown if the -an option is specified. 1.4.3.3 SUBTITLE The subtitle line contains the subtitle specified by the .sbttl directive. This is not shown if the -an option is specified. 1.4.3.4 HIGH-LEVEL SOURCE High-level source will be present if the -ah option is given to the assembler. The format for high-level source is: <line #>:<filename> **** <source> For example: 1:hello.c 1.4.3.5 **** #include <stdio.h> ASSEMBLER SOURCE Assembler source will be present if the -al option is given to the assembler. The format for assembler source is: <line #> <addr> <encoded bytes> <source> For example: 35 0000 80000434 Note 1: © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. ori$a0, $zero, IOPORT_BIT_7 Line numbers may be repeated. 2: Addresses are relative to sections in this module and are not absolute. 3: Instructions are encoded in “little endian” order. DS51833A-page 21 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide 1.4.3.6 SYMBOL TABLE A symbol table is present if the -as option is given to the assembler. Both, a list of defined and undefined symbols will be given. The defined symbols will have the format: DEFINED SYMBOLS <filename>:<line #> <section>:<addr> <symbol> For example: DEFINED SYMBOLS foo.S:79 .text:00000000 main foo.S:107 .text:00000014 mPORTAClearBits The undefined symbols will have the format: UNDEFINED SYMBOLS <symbol> For example: UNDEFINED SYMBOLS WDTCON WDTCONCLR EXAMPLE 1-2: GAS LISTING foo.s 1 2 1 0 0 3 4 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 DS51833A-page 22 SAMPLE ASSEMBLER LISTING FILE page 1 # 1 "foo.S" # 1 "<built-in>" .nolist .list #define IOPORT_BIT_7 (1 << 7) .global baz /* define all global symbols here */ /* define which section (for example "text") * does this portion of code resides in. * Typically, all of your code will reside in * the .text section as shown. */ .text /* This is important for an assembly programmer. * This directive tells the assembler not to * optimize the order of the instructions * as well as not to insert 'nop' instructions * after jumps and branches. */ .set noreorder .ent baz /* directive that marks symbol 'baz' as * a function in ELF output */ baz: /* Call function to clear bit relevant to pin * 7 in port A. The 'jal' instruction places © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Assembler Overview 33 * the return address in$ra.
34
*/
35 0000 80000434
ori
$a0,$zero, IOPORT_BIT_7
36 0004 0500000C
jal
mPORTAClearBits
37 0008 00000000
nop
38
39
/* endless loop */
40
endless:
41 000c 03000008
j
endless
42 0010 00000000
nop
43
44
.end baz /* directive that marks end of 'baz'
45
* function and registers size in ELF
46
* output
47
*/
DEFINED SYMBOLS
*ABS*:00000000 foo.S
*ABS*:00000001 __DEBUG
foo.S:56
.text:00000014 mPORTAClearBits
foo.S:38
.text:0000000c endless
DS51833A-page 23
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
NOTES:
DS51833A-page 24
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
Chapter 2. MPLAB IDE Projects for PIC32 Assembly Code
2.1
INTRODUCTION
This section covers the basics of MPLAB IDE projects and configuration options for
testing the examples and applications in this guide with MPLAB SIM simulator. Skip this
chapter if you are already familiar with these MPLAB IDE operations or intend to use
the assembler for a command-line interface.
Note:
This is not a step-by-step procedure to create and build a project, but an
overview and a checklist to ensure that MPLAB IDE is set up correctly. The
MPLAB IDE User’s Guide has a tutorial for creating projects.
Topics covered in this chapter are:
•
•
•
•
•
2.2
Project Overview
Creating a Project
PROJECT OVERVIEW
Projects are groups of files associated with language tools, such as MPLAB Assembler
for PIC32 MCUs, in the MPLAB IDE. A project consists of source files, header files,
object files, library files and a linker script. Every project should have one or more
source files. Typically, at least one header file is required to identify the register names
of the target microcontroller. Header files are typically included by source files and are
not explicitly added to the project. A project may either use an implicit default linker
script (included with the language tools) or an explicit application-specific linker script
(created by the developer).
The project’s output files consist of executable code to be loaded into the target microcontroller as firmware. Debugging files are generated to help MPLAB IDE correlate the
symbols and function names from the source files with the executable code and
memory used for variable storage.
Most examples and applications in this chapter consist of a project with only one source
file and the implicit default linker script.
DS51833A-page 25
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
2.3
CREATING A PROJECT
1. Select Project>Project Wizard to create a new project. When the Welcome
screen displays, click Next to continue.
2. At “Step One: Select a device”, use the pull-down menu to select the device.
Click Next to continue.
DS51833A-page 26
MPLAB IDE Projects for PIC32 Assembly Code
3. At “Step Two: Select a language toolsuite”, choose “Microchip PIC32 C-Compiler
Toolsuite” as the “Active Toolsuite”. Then click on each language tool in the toolsuite (under “Toolsuite Contents”) and check or set up its associated executable
location.
MPLAB ASM32 Assembler should point to the assembler executable,
pic32-as.exe, under “Location”. If it does not, enter or browse to the
executable location, which is by default:
C:\Program Files\Microchip\MPLAB C32\bin\pic32-as.exe or
C:\Program Files\Microchip\MPLAB C32 Suite\bin\pic32-as.exe
MPLAB C32 C Compiler should point to the compiler executable,
pic32-gcc.exe, under “Location”. If it does not, enter or browse to the
executable location, which is by default:
C:\Program Files\Microchip\MPLAB C32\bin\pic32-gcc.exe or
C:\Program Files\Microchip\MPLAB C32 Suite\bin\
pic32-gcc.exe
pic32-ld.exe, under “Location”. If it does not, enter or browse to the
executable location, which is by default:
C:\Program Files\Microchip\MPLAB C32\bin\pic32-ld.exe or
C:\Program Files\Microchip\MPLAB C32 Suite\bin\pic32-ld.exe
MPLAB LIB32 Object Librarian/Archiver should point to the library executable,
pic32-ar.exe, under “Location”. If it does not, enter or browse to the
executable location, which is by default:
C:\Program Files\Microchip\MPLAB C32\bin\pic32-ar.exe or
C:\Program Files\Microchip\MPLAB C32\bin\pic32-ar.exe
Click Next to continue.
DS51833A-page 27
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
4. At “Step Three: Create a new project, or reconfigure the active project?”, select
to create a new project file and use Browse to select the folder where the project
will be saved. Then click Next to continue.
5. At “Step Four: Add any existing files to your project”, you can add any pre-existing source files to your project. Click ADD>> to add it to the list of files to be used
for this project (on the right). If you do not have any existing source files at this
point, you can add them later.
Because we will be using the default built-in linker script for this example project,
we do not need to add the customized linker script to the project. If we had a
pre-existing customized linker script, we could add it here. Select Next to
continue.
6. At the Summary screen, review the “Project Parameters” to verify that the device,
toolsuite, and project file location are correct. If there are errors, use Back to
return to a previous wizard dialog. Otherwise, click Finish to create the new
project and workspace.
DS51833A-page 28
MPLAB IDE Projects for PIC32 Assembly Code
7. The Project window should open showing our new project. (If not, select
View>Project) The title bar shows the workspace filename (first-project.mcw) and the single project within our workspace (first-project.mcp)
shows as a tree of folders.
You can right click on various items in this window to perform many useful project-related functions. The right-mouse context menu allows you to add new files,
delete files, and open the project’s build options.
2.4
Once you have created your project, you can now add a new source file to it.
DS51833A-page 29
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
2. The project manager will prompt you for a new filename. Use the “Jump To” control to jump to the Project Directory. Enter a file name such as
first-source-file.S. Be sure to use a capitalized .S file extension. Save
the file.
3. Verify that your new file opens in an editor window and the file name appears in
the project window under Source Files.
4. You can now enter your assembly source code into this new file. The example
code below just provides an empty infinite loop to get you started.
#include <p32xxxx.h>
############################
# main routine
############################
.text
.set noreorder
.ent main
main:
# Do something here
nop
# Infinite loop
1:
b 1b
nop
.end main
.globl main
2.5
Now that you have a project with an assembly source file, you can build the project.
MPLAB IDE’s project manager manages the build steps for you. From the Project
The “Make” feature determines which source files need to be built and calls the associated language tool as necessary. In this case, it calls the assembler once for the single source file in our project. It then calls the linker to link in the appropriate libraries as
indicated by the default linker script.
The Build tab of MPLAB IDE’s Output window shows the language-tool commands
executed. It also shows the output from the language tools. Any build errors or warnings will appear in this window. “BUILD SUCCEEDED” appears in this window when
the ELF object file was successfully generated and loaded into MPLAB IDE.
DS51833A-page 30
MPLAB IDE Projects for PIC32 Assembly Code
2.6
Now that you have a successful build, select a debug tool to use in debugging your project. In this case, we will choose the MPLAB SIM software simulator. MPLAB SIM simulates the PIC32 MCU core and a number of on-chip peripherals without requiring
hardware.
To enable the simulator, select tool MPLAB SIM from the Debugger menu. MPLAB IDE
loads the simulator component, which populates the Debugger menu with a number of
new menu items specific to the simulator.
Note:
Some debug tools, such as the MPLAB REAL ICE in-circuit emulator or
MPLAB ICD 3, require the project to be built with specific options. Rebuilding your project after enabling the debug tool is the best way to ensure that
the project was correctly built for the debug tool. Use “Build All” under the
At this point, we are ready to begin debugging. Set a breakpoint on an assembly
instruction in the source code, such as nop or b, by double clicking the corresponding
line in the editor’s left-side gutter. A red breakpoint icon appears in the gutter as shown
below.
Now select “Run” under the Debugger menu to begin the simulation. You should
momentarily see a progress bar in the bottom status bar of the MPLAB IDE window.
This progress bar indicates that the simulator target is running.
Once the simulation reaches the breakpoint, a green arrow appears in the gutter on top
of the breakpoint icon. This green arrow indicates that the target device’s program
counter halted at the address associated with that line of your source code.
You have now successfully built a new PIC32 assembly-code project in MPLAB IDE
and run it in MPLAB SIM. You’re ready to begin your application development by
SIM or other debug tools.
DS51833A-page 31
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
NOTES:
DS51833A-page 32
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
Chapter 3. Assembler Command Line Interface
3.1
INTRODUCTION
MPLAB Assembler for PIC32 MCUs (pic32-as) may be used on the host PC’s
command-line interface (e.g., cmd.exe) as well as with MPLAB IDE’s project manager.
MPLAB IDE’s project manager will automatically call the assembler (via the
pic32-gcc compilation driver) when building a project. Many of the commonly used
options listed here are available as checkboxes on the IDE’s project build-options
dialog. However, for a more advanced option, you may have to specify the option in the
“Alternate Settings” field of the dialog. After you build a project in MPLAB IDE, the
Output window shows the options passed to the assembler.
Topics covered in this chapter are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
3.2
Assembler Interface Syntax
Compilation-Driver Interface Syntax
Options that Modify the Listing Output
Options that Control Informational Output
Options that Control Output File Creation
Assembler Symbol-Definition and Search-Path Options
Compilation-Driver and Preprocessor Options
ASSEMBLER INTERFACE SYNTAX
The assembler command line may contain options and file names. Options may appear
in any order and may be before, after or between file names. The order of file names
determines the order of assembly.
pic32-as [options|sourcefiles]...
‘--’ (two hyphens) by itself names the standard input file explicitly, as one of the files
for the assembler to translate. Except for ‘--’, any command line argument that begins
with a hyphen (‘-’) is an option. Each option changes the behavior of the assembler,
but no option changes the way another option works.
Some options require exactly one file name to follow them. The file name may either
immediately follow the option’s letter or it may be the next command line argument. For
example, to specify an output file named test.o, either of the following options would
be acceptable:
• -o test.o
• -otest.o
Note:
Command line options are case sensitive.
DS51833A-page 33
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
3.3
COMPILATION-DRIVER INTERFACE SYNTAX
The compilation-driver program (pic32-gcc) preprocesses, compiles, assembles,
and links C and assembly-language modules and library archives. This driver orchestrates the build process so that you often don’t need to know which individual programs
preprocess, compile, assemble, and link. The driver calls the appropriate individual
tools to complete the requested build process.
In practice, the assembler is usually invoked via pic32-gcc, which determines that it
should assemble an input file by its *.S or *.s filename extension. The compilation
driver sends a file with a *.S (uppercase) extension through the CPP-style preprocessor before it passes the file to the assembler while the driver sends a file with a *.s
(lowercase) extension directly to the assembler.
The basic form of the compilation-driver command line is:
pic32-gcc [options] files
Note:
Command-line options and filename extensions are case sensitive.
To pass an assembler option from the compilation driver to the assembler, use the
-Wa,option option. The option argument should not contain white space.
EXAMPLE 3-1:
EXAMPLE COMPILATION-DRIVER COMMAND LINE
pic32-gcc -mprocessor=32MX360F512L -I"./include" ASMfile.S
-o"ASMfile.o" -DMYMACRO=1 -Wa,-ah="ASMfile.lst"
For additional information on the compilation driver, see the “MPLAB® C Compiler for
PIC32 MCUs User’s Guide” (DS51686).
Note:
DS51833A-page 34
To use the pic32-gcc compilation driver from MPLAB IDE, be sure to
select the Microchip PIC32 C Compiler Toolsuite for your project.
Assembler Command Line Interface
3.4
OPTIONS THAT MODIFY THE LISTING OUTPUT
The following options are used to control the listing output. A listing file is helpful for
debugging and general analysis of code operation. Use the following options to
construct a listing file with information that you find useful.
•
•
•
•
•
-a[suboption] [=file]
--listing-lhs-width num
--listing-lhs-width2 num
--listing-rhs-width num
--listing-cont-lines num
3.4.1
-a[suboption] [=file]
The -a option enables listing output. The -a option supports the following sub-options
to further control what is included in the assembly listing:
-ac
Omit false conditionals
Omit debugging directives
-ah
Include high-level source
-al
Include assembly
-am
Include macro expansions
-an
Omit forms processing
-as
Include symbols
-a=file
Output listing to specified file (must be in current directory).
If no sub-options are specified, the default sub-options used are hls; the -a option by
itself requests high-level, assembly, and symbolic listing. You can use other letters to
select specific options for the listing output.
The letters after the -a may be combined into one option. So, for example, instead of
specifying -al -an on the command line, you could specify -aln.
DS51833A-page 35
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
3.4.1.1
-ac
-ac omits false conditionals from a listing. Any lines that are not assembled because
of a false .if or .ifdef (or the .else of a true .if or .ifdef) will be omitted from
the listing. Example 3-2 shows a listing where the -ac option was not used.
Example 3-3 shows a listing for the same source where the -ac option was used.
EXAMPLE 3-2:
LISTING FILE GENERATED WITH -al COMMAND LINE
OPTION
GAS LISTING asm.s
page 1
1
# 1 "asm.S"
2
# 1 "<built-in>"
1
.data
0
2
.if 0
3
.if 1
4
.endif
5
.long 0
6
.if 0
7
.long 0
8
.endif
9
.else
10
.if 1
11
.endif
12 0000 02000000
.long 2
13
.if 0
14
.long 3
15
.else
16 0004 04000000
.long 4
17
.endif
18
.endif
19
.if 0
20
.long 5
21
.elseif 1
22
.if 0
23
.long 6
24
.elseif 1
25 0008 07000000
.long 7
26
.endif
27
.elseif 1
28
.long 8
29
.else
30
.long 9
31
.endif
DS51833A-page 36
Assembler Command Line Interface
EXAMPLE 3-3:
LISTING FILE GENERATED WITH -alc COMMAND LINE
OPTION
GAS LISTING asm.s page 1
1
# 1 "asm.S"
2
# 1 "<built-in>"
1
.data
0
0
2
.if 0
9
.else
10
.if 1
11
.endif
12 0000 02000000
.long 2
13
.if 0
15
.else
16 0004 04000000
.long 4
17
.endif
18
.endif
19
.if 0
21
.elseif 1
22
.if 0
24
.elseif 1
25 0008 07000000
.long 7
26
.endif
27
.elseif 1
29
.else
31
.endif
Note:
Some lines omitted due to -ac option.
DS51833A-page 37
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
3.4.1.2
-ad omits debugging directives from the listing. This option is useful when processing
compiler-generated assembly code containing debugging information. The compilergenerated debugging directives will not clutter the listing. Example 3-4 shows a listing
using both the d and h sub-options. Compared to using the h sub-option alone (see
next section), the listing is much cleaner.
EXAMPLE 3-4:
LISTING FILE GENERATED WITH -alhd COMMAND LINE
OPTION
GAS LISTING test.s page 1
1
.section .mdebug.abi32
2
.previous
10
.Ltext0:
11
.align2
12
.globlmain
13
.LFB0:
14
.file 1 "src\\test.c"
1:src/test.c
**** #include <p32xxxx.h>
2:src/test.c
**** volatile unsigned int testval;
3:src/test.c
****
4:src/test.c
**** int
5:src/test.c
**** main (void)
6:src/test.c
**** {
15
.loc 1 6 0
16
.setnomips16
17
.entmain
18
main:
19
.frame$fp,8,$31# vars= 0, regs= 1/0, args= 0, gp= 0
20
21
22
.setnoreorder
23
.setnomacro
24
25 0000 F8FFBD27 addiu$sp,$sp,-8
26
.LCFI0:
27 0004 0000BEAF sw$fp,0($sp)
28
.LCFI1:
29 0008 21F0A003 move$fp,$sp
30
.LCFI2:
7:src/test.c
****
testval += 1;
31
.loc 1 7 0
32 000c 0000828F lw$2,%gp_rel(testval)($28)
33 0010 01004224 addiu$2,$2,1
34 0014 000082AF sw$2,%gp_rel(testval)($28)
8:src/test.c
****
return 0;
35
.loc 1 8 0
36 0018 21100000 move$2,$0
9:src/test.c
**** }
37
.loc 1 9 0
38 001c 21E8C003 move$sp,$fp
39 0020 0000BE8F lw$fp,0($sp)
40 0024 0800BD27 addiu$sp,$sp,8
41 0028 0800E003 j31 42 002c 00000000 nop DS51833A-page 38 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Assembler Command Line Interface 43 44 45 46 47 49 50 88 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. .setmacro .setreorder .endmain .LFE0: .commtestval,4,4 .Letext0: DS51833A-page 39 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide 3.4.1.3 -ah -ah requests a high-level language listing. High-level listings require that the assembly source code was generated by a compiler, a debugging option like -g was given to the compiler, and that assembly listings (-al) also be requested. -al requests an output program assembly listing. Example 3-5 shows a listing that was generated using the -alh command line option. EXAMPLE 3-5: LISTING FILE GENERATED WITH -alh COMMAND LINE OPTION GAS LISTING tempfile.s page 1 1 .section .mdebug.abi32 2 .previous 3 .section.debug_abbrev,"",@progbits 4 .Ldebug_abbrev0: 5 .section.debug_info,"",@progbits 6 .Ldebug_info0: 7 .section.debug_line,"",@progbits 8 .Ldebug_line0: 9 0000 34000000 .text 11 .align2 12 .globlmain 13 .LFB0: 14 .file 1 "src/test.c" 1:src/test.c **** #include <p32xxxx.h> 2:src/test.c **** volatile unsigned int testval; 3:src/test.c **** 4:src/test.c **** int 5:src/test.c **** main (void) 6:src/test.c **** { 15 .loc 1 6 0 16 .setnomips16 17 .entmain 18 main: 19 .framesp,0,$31 # vars= 0, regs= 0/0, args= 0, gp= 0 20 .mask0x00000000,0 21 .fmask0x00000000,0 22 .setnoreorder 23 .setnomacro 24 7:src/test.c **** testval += 1; 25 .loc 1 7 0 26 0000 0000848F lw$4,%gp_rel(testval)($28) 8:src/test.c **** return 0; 9:src/test.c **** } 27 .loc 1 9 0 28 0004 21100000 move$2,$0 29 .loc 1 7 0 30 0008 01008324 addiu$3,$4,1 31 000c 000083AF sw$3,%gp_rel(testval)($28) 32 .loc 1 9 0 33 0010 0800E003 j$31
34 0014 00000000 nop
DS51833A-page 40
Assembler Command Line Interface
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
3.4.1.4
.setmacro
.setreorder
.endmain
.LFE0:
.sizemain, .-main
.commtestval,4,4
-al
-al requests an assembly listing. This sub-option may be used with other sub-options.
See the other examples in this section.
3.4.1.5
-am
-am expands macros in a listing. Example 3-6 shows a listing where the -am option
was not used. Example 3-7 shows a listing for the same source where the -am option
was used.
EXAMPLE 3-6:
LISTING FILE GENERATED WITH -al COMMAND LINE
OPTION
GAS LISTING foo.s
page 1
1
# 1 "foo.S"
2
# 1 "<built-in>"
1
.macro sum from=0, to=5
0
0
2
.long
\from
3
.if
\to-\from
4
sum
"(\from+1)",\to
5
.endif
6
.endm
7
8
.data
9 0000 00000000
.long 0
10 0004 0A000000
sum 10, 14
10
0B000000
10
0C000000
10
0D000000
10
0E000000
11 0018 00000000
.long 0
DS51833A-page 41
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
EXAMPLE 3-7:
LISTING FILE GENERATED WITH -alm COMMAND LINE
OPTION
GAS LISTING foo.s
1
2
1
0
0
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
11
# 1 "foo.S"
# 1 "<built-in>"
.macro sum from=0, to=5
.long
.if
sum
.endif
.endm
\from
\to-\from
"(\from+1)",\to
.data
.long 0
sum 10, 14
0A000000 > .long 10
> .if 14-10
> sum "(10+1)",14
0B000000 >> .long (10+1)
>> .if 14-(10+1)
>> sum "((10+1)+1)",14
0C000000 >>> .long ((10+1)+1)
>>> .if 14-((10+1)+1)
>>> sum "(((10+1)+1)+1)",14
0D000000 >>>> .long (((10+1)+1)+1)
>>>> .if 14-(((10+1)+1)+1)
>>>> sum "((((10+1)+1)+1)+1)",14
0E000000 >>>>> .long ((((10+1)+1)+1)+1)
>>>>> .if 14-((((10+1)+1)+1)+1)
>>>>> sum "(((((10+1)+1)+1)+1)+1)",14
>>>>> .endif
>>>> .endif
>>> .endif
>> .endif
> .endif
00000000
.long 0
0000 00000000
0004
0008
000c
0010
0014
0018
Note:
DS51833A-page 42
page 1
> signifies expanded macro instructions.
Assembler Command Line Interface
3.4.1.6
-an
-an turns off all forms processing that would be performed by the listing directives
.psize, .eject, .title and .sbttl. Example 3-8 shows a listing where the -an
option was not used. Example 3-9 shows a listing for the same source where the -an
option was used.
EXAMPLE 3-8:
LISTING FILE GENERATED WITH -al COMMAND LINE
OPTION
GAS LISTING foo.s
page 1
User's Guide Example
Listing Options
1
# 1 "foo.S"
2
# 1 "<built-in>"
1
.text
0
0
2
.title "User's Guide Example"
3
.sbttl "Listing Options"
GAS LISTING foo.s
page 2
User's Guide Example
Listing Options
4
.psize 10
5
6 0000 01001A3C
lui $k0, 1 7 0004 02001A3C lui$k0, 2
8 0008 03001A3C
lui $k0, 3 9 .eject GAS LISTING foo.s page 3 User's Guide Example Listing Options 10 000c 04001A3C lui$k0, 4
11 0010 05001A3C
lui $k0, 5 EXAMPLE 3-9: 1 2 1 0 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 LISTING FILE GENERATED WITH -aln COMMAND LINE OPTION # 1 "foo.S" # 1 "<built-in>" .text .title "User's Guide Example" .sbttl "Listing Options" .psize 10 0000 01001A3C 0004 02001A3C 0008 03001A3C 000c 04001A3C 0010 05001A3C © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. lui$k0,
lui $k0, lui$k0,
.eject
lui $k0, lui$k0,
1
2
3
4
5
DS51833A-page 43
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
3.4.1.7
-as
-as requests a symbol table listing. Example 3-10 shows a listing that was generated
using the -as command line option. Note that both defined and undefined symbols are
listed.
EXAMPLE 3-10:
LISTING FILE GENERATED WITH -as COMMAND LINE
OPTION
GAS LISTING example.s page 1
DEFINED SYMBOLS
example.s:18
*ABS*:00000000 src\example.c
.text:00000000 main
*COM*:00000004 testval
UNDEFINED SYMBOLS
bar
3.4.1.8
-a=file
=file defines the name of the output file. This file must be in the current directory.
DS51833A-page 44
Assembler Command Line Interface
3.4.2
--listing-lhs-width num
The --listing-lhs-width option is used to set the width of the output data column
of the listing file. By default, this is set to 1 word. The following line is extracted from a
listing. The output data column is in bold text.
2 0000 54686973
2
20697320
2
616E2065
2
78616D70
2
6C650000
.ascii "This is an example"
If the option --listing-lhs-width 2 is used, then the same line will appear as
follows in the listing:
2 0000 54686973 20697320
2
616E2065 78616D70
2
6C650000
3.4.3
.ascii "This is an example"
--listing-lhs-width2 num
The --listing-lhs-width2 option is used to set the width of the continuation lines
of the output data column of the listing file. By default, this is set to 1. If the specified
width is smaller than the first line, this option is ignored. The following lines are
extracted from a listing. The output data column is in bold.
2 0000 54686973
2
20697320
2
616E2065
2
78616D70
2
6C650000
.ascii "This is an example"
If the option --listing-lhs-width2 3 is used, then the same line will appear as
follows in the listing:
2 0000 54686973 .ascii "This is an example"
2
20697320 616E2065 78616D70
2
6C650000
3.4.4
--listing-rhs-width num
The --listing-rhs-width option is used to set the maximum width in characters
of the lines from the source file. By default, this is set to 100. The following lines are
extracted from a listing that was created without using the --listing-rhs-width
option. The text in bold are the lines from the source file.
2 0000 54686973
2
206C696E
2
65206973
2
206C6F6E
2
67000000
.ascii "This line is long"
If the option --listing-rhs-width 22 is used, then the same line will appear as
follows in the listing:
2 0000 54686973
2
206C696E
2
65206973
2
206C6F6E
2
67000000
.ascii "This line is
The line is truncated (not wrapped) in the listing, but the data is still there.
DS51833A-page 45
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
3.4.5
--listing-cont-lines num
The --listing-cont-lines option is used to set the maximum number of continuation lines used for the output data column of the listing. By default, this is 8. The following lines are extracted from a listing that was created without using the
--listing-cont-lines option. The text in bold shows the continuation lines used
for the output data column of the listing.
2 0000 54686973
2
2
2
2
.ascii "This is a long character
sequence"
20697320
61206C6F
6E672063
68617261
Notice that the number of bytes displayed matches the number of bytes in the ASCII
string; however, if the option --listing-cont-lines 2 is used, then the output
data will be truncated after 2 continuation lines as shown below.
2 0000 54686973
2
2
3.5
.ascii "This is a long character
sequence"
20697320
61206C6F
OPTIONS THAT CONTROL INFORMATIONAL OUTPUT
The options in this section control how information is output. Errors, warnings and
messages concerning code translation and execution are controlled through several of
the options in this section.
Any item in parenthesis shows the short method of specifying the option (e.g.,
--no-warn also may be specified as -W).
3.5.1
--fatal-warnings
Warnings are treated as if they were errors.
3.5.2
--no-warn (-W)
Warnings are suppressed. If you use this option, no warnings are issued. This option
only affects the warning messages. It does not change how your file is assembled.
Errors are still reported.
3.5.3
--warn
Warnings are issued, if appropriate. This is the default behavior.
3.5.4
-J
No warnings are issued about signed overflow.
3.5.5
--help
The assembler will show a message regarding the command line usage and options.
The assembler then exits.
3.5.6
--target-help
The assembler will show a message regarding the PIC32 target specific command-line
options. The assembler then exits.
3.5.7
--version
The assembler version number is displayed. The assembler then exits.
DS51833A-page 46
Assembler Command Line Interface
3.5.8
--verbose (-v)
The assembler version number is displayed. The assembler does not exit. If this is the
only command line option used, then the assembler will print out the version and wait
for entry of the assembly source through standard input. Use <CTRL>-D to send an
EOF character to end assembly.
3.6
OPTIONS THAT CONTROL OUTPUT FILE CREATION
The options in this section control how the output file is created. For example, to
change the name of the output object file, use -o.
Any item in parenthesis shows the short method of specifying the option (e.g.,
--keep-locals may be specified as -L also).
3.6.1
-g
Generate symbolic debugging information.
3.6.2
--keep-locals (-L)
Keep local symbols (i.e., labels beginning with .L (uppercase only)). Normally you do
not see such labels when debugging, because they are intended for the use of
programs (like compilers) that compose assembler programs. Normally both the
assembler and linker discard such symbols. This option tells the assembler to retain
those symbols in the object files.
3.6.3
-o objfile
Name the object file output objfile. In the absence of errors, there is always one
object file output when you run the assembler. By default, it has the name a.out. Use
this option (which takes exactly one filename) to give the object file a different name.
Whatever the object file is called, the assembler overwrites any existing file with the
same name.
3.6.4
-Z
Generate object file even after errors. After an error message, the assembler normally
produces no output. If for some reason, you are interested in object file output even
after the assembler gives an error message, use the -Z option. If there are any errors,
the assembler continues anyway, and writes an object file after a final warning
message of the form “n errors, m warnings, generating bad object file”.
3.6.5
-MD file
Write dependency information to file. The assembler can generate a dependency file.
This file consists of a single rule suitable for describing the dependencies of the main
source file. The rule is written to the file named in its argument. This feature can be
used in the automatic updating of makefiles.
DS51833A-page 47
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
3.7
ASSEMBLER SYMBOL-DEFINITION AND SEARCH-PATH OPTIONS
The options in this section perform functions not defined in previous sections.
3.7.1
--defsym sym=value
Define symbol sym to given value.
3.7.2
-I dir
Use this option to add dir to the list of directories that the assembler searches for files
specified in .include directives. You may use -I as many times as necessary to
include a variety of paths. The current working directory is always searched first; after
that, the assembler searches any -I directories in the same order as they were
specified (left to right) on the command line.
When passed directly to the assembler, this option affects the search path used by the
assembler’s .include directive. To affect the search path used by the C preprocessor
for a #include directive, pass the corresponding option to the pic32-gcc compilation driver.
3.8
COMPILATION-DRIVER AND PREPROCESSOR OPTIONS
The compilation-driver (pic32-gcc) and C preprocessor options in this section may
be useful for assembly-code projects. The compilation driver will pass the options to the
preprocessor as required. See the “MPLAB® C Compiler for PIC32 MCUs User’s
Guide” (DS51686) for more information on the compilation driver and for a more
comprehensive list of driver options.
3.8.1
-mprocessor=device
Selects the device for which to compile (e.g., -mprocessor=32MX360F512L).
3.8.2
-Wa,option
Pass option as an option to the assembler. If option contains commas, it is split into
multiple assembler options at the commas. The option argument must not contain
white space.
3.8.3
-Dmacro=defn
Define macro macro as defn. All instances of -D on the command line are processed
before any -U options.
3.8.4
-Dmacro
Define macro macro as 1. All instances of -D on the command line are processed
before any -U options.
3.8.5
-Umacro
Undefine macro macro. -U options are evaluated after all -D options, but before any
-include and -imacros options.
3.8.6
-I dir
Add the directory dir to the head of the list of directories to be searched for #include
preprocessor header files. This can be used to override a system header file, substituting your own version, since these directories are searched before the system header
file directories. If you use more than one -I option, the directories are scanned in
left-to-right order. The standard system directories come after.
DS51833A-page 48
Assembler Command Line Interface
When passed to the compilation driver, this option affects the search path used by the
preprocessor’s #include directive. To affect the search path used by the assembler’s
.include directive, pass the corresponding option to the assembler using the -Wa
option.
3.8.7
-save-temps
Don’t delete intermediate files. Place them in the current directory and name them
based on the source file. Thus, compiling foo.c with -c -save-temps would
produce the following files:
• foo.i (preprocessed file)
• foo.s (assembly language file)
• foo.o (object file)
3.8.8
-v
Print the commands executed during each stage of compilation.
3.8.9
--help
Print a description of the command line options.
DS51833A-page 49
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
NOTES:
DS51833A-page 50
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
Chapter 4. Assembler Syntax
4.1
INTRODUCTION
Syntax for MPLAB Assembler for PIC32 MCUs (pic32-as) source code is defined
here.
Topics covered in this chapter are:
•
•
•
•
4.2
Internal Preprocessor
Source Code Format
Constants
Summary
INTERNAL PREPROCESSOR
The assembler has an internal preprocessor. The internal processor:
1. Adjusts and removes extra white space. It leaves one space or tab before the
keywords on a line, and turns any other white space on the line into a single
space.
2. Removes all comments, replacing them with a single space, or an appropriate
number of new lines.
3. Converts character constants into the appropriate numeric value.
If you have a single character (e.g., ‘b’) in your source code, this will be changed
to the appropriate numeric value. If you have a syntax error that occurs at the single character, the assembler will not display ‘b’, but instead display the first digit
of the decimal equivalent.
For example, if you had .global mybuf, ‘b’ in your source code, the error
message would say “Error: Rest of line ignored. First ignored character is ‘9’.”
Notice the error message says ‘9’. This is because the ‘b’ was converted to its
decimal equivalent 98. The assembler is actually parsing .global mybuf,98.
The internal processor does not do:
1. macro preprocessing
2. include file handling
3. anything else you may get from your C compiler’s preprocessor
You can do include file preprocessing with the .include directive (See Chapter
7. “Assembler Directives”.) You can use the C compiler driver to get other C
preprocessing style preprocessing by giving the input file a .S (uppercase) suffix (See
the “MPLAB® C Compiler for PIC32 MCUs User’s Guide” (DS51686) for more
information.)
DS51833A-page 51
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
If the first line of an input file is #NO_APP or if you use the -f option, white space and
comments are not removed from the input file. Within an input file, you can ask for white
space and comment removal in certain portions by putting a line that says #APP before
the text that may contain white space or comments, and putting a line that says
#NO_APP after this text. This feature is mainly intended to support assembly
statements in compilers whose output is otherwise free of comments and white space.
Note:
4.3
Excess white space, comments and character constants cannot be used
in the portions of the input text that are not preprocessed.
SOURCE CODE FORMAT
Assembly source code consists of statements and white spaces.
White space is one or more spaces or tabs. White space is used to separate pieces of
a source line. White space should be used to make your code easier for people to read.
Unless within character constants, any white space means the same as exactly one
space.
Each statement has the following general format and is followed by a new line.
[label:]
[mnemonic
[operands] ]
[; comment]
[directive
[arguments] ]
[; comment]
OR
[label:]
•
•
•
•
•
Label
Instruction Mnemonic
Operands
Directive Arguments
4.3.1
Label
A label is one or more characters chosen from the set of all letters, digits and the two
characters underline (_) and period (.). Labels may not begin with a decimal digit,
except for the special case of a local symbol. (See Section 6.3 “Local Symbols” for
more information.) Case is significant. There is no length limit; all characters are
significant.
Label definitions must be immediately followed by a colon. A space, tab, end of line or
an assembler mnemonic or directive may follow the colon.
Label definitions may appear on a line by themselves and will reference the next
The value of a label after linking is the absolute address of a location in memory.
4.3.2
Instruction Mnemonic
Mnemonics tell the assembler what machine instructions to assemble. For example,
addition (ADD), jumps (J), or loads (LUI). Unlike labels that you create yourself, mnemonics are provided by the PIC32 MCU assembly language. Mnemonics are not case
sensitive.
See the data sheet for your target PIC32 MCU for more details on the CPU instruction-set mnemonics available for the device.
The assembler also supports a number of synthesized/macro instructions intended to
make writing assembly code easier. The LI (load immediate) instruction is an example
of a synthetic macro instruction. The assembler generates two machine instructions to
load a 32-bit constant value into a register from this single synthetic instruction.
DS51833A-page 52
Assembler Syntax
The assembler synthesizes instructions for
•
•
•
•
•
A load from a memory location
An extended branch conditional
A two-operand form of some three-operand instructions
Assembly directives, such as .set noat, .set nomacro, and .set noreorder,
disable these normally helpful features for cases where you require full control over the
generated code. See Section 7.13 “Directives that Control Code Generation”.
4.3.3
Operands
Each machine instruction takes from 0 up to 4 operands. (See the appropriate data
sheet for your target PIC32 MCU for a full list of machine instructions.) These operands
give information to the instruction on the data that should be used and the storage location for the instruction. Operands must be separated from mnemonics by one or more
spaces or tabs.
Separate multiple operands with commas. If commas do not separate your operands,
the assembler displays a warning and takes its best guess on the separation of the
operands. For most PIC32 MCU instructions, an operand consists of a core general
purpose register, label, literal, or basereg+offset.
4.3.3.1
GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTER OPERANDS
The PIC32 MCU core contains thirty-two 32-bit general purpose registers used for
integer operations and address calculation. Most of the PIC32 MCU instructions
require one or more GPR operands, either for the source, the destination, or both.
Register operands are distinguished with a preceding dollar sign (‘$’). The register number immediately follows the dollar sign. Example 4-1 shows assembly source code using register number operands. However, if you use the compilation driver (pic32-gcc) to preprocess the source code with the CPP-style preprocessor before assembling, you can take advantage of macros provided in the p32xxxx.h header file provided with the C compiler. These macros map conventional register names to the corresponding register number. Example 4-2 shows assembly source code using conventional register names for operands. See the “MPLAB® C Compiler for PIC32 MCUs User’s Guide” (DS51686) for additional information on PIC32 MCU register conventions and the compiler’s runtime environment. EXAMPLE 4-1: ASSEMBLY SOURCE CODE WITH REGISTER NUMBER OPERANDS .text # Add Word li$2, 123
li
$3, 456 add$4, $2,$3
DS51833A-page 53
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
EXAMPLE 4-2:
ASSEMBLY SOURCE CODE WITH CONVENTIONAL
REGISTER NAMES
#include <p32xxxx.h>
.text
li
v0, 123
/* v0 is a return-value register */
li
v1, 456
/* v1 is a return-value register */
/* a0 is an argument register */
4.3.3.2
LITERAL-VALUE OPERANDS
Literal values can be hexadecimal, octal, binary, or decimal format. Hexadecimal numbers are distinguished by a leading 0x. Octal numbers are distinguished by a leading
0. Binary numbers are distinguished by a leading 0B or 0b. Decimal numbers require
no special leading or trailing character.
Examples:
0xe, 016, 0b1110 and 14 all represents the literal value 14.
-5 represents the literal value -5.
symbol represents the value of symbol.
4.3.3.3
BASEREG+OFFSET OPERANDS
Load and store operations select the memory location using a BaseReg+Offset operand. For an operand of this type, the effective address is formed by adding the 16-bit
signed offset to the contents of a base register. A PIC32 MCU data sheet shows this
type of operand as Mem[R+offset].
EXAMPLE 4-3:
USING ASSEMBLY SOURCE CODE WITH
BASEREG+OFFSET OPERANDS
#include <p32xxxx.h>
.data
.align 4
MY_WORD_DATA:
.word 0x10203040, 0x8090a0b0
.text
.global example
/* Store Word */
example:
la
v0, MY_WORD_DATA
lui
v1,0x1111
ori
v1,v1,0x4432
lui
a0,0x5555
ori
a0,a0,0x1123
sw v1, 0(v0)
/* Mem[GPR[v0]+0] <- GPR[v1] */
sw a0, 4(v0)
/* Mem[GPR[v0]+4] <- GPR[a0] */
lw a1, 0(v0)
/* GPR[a1] <- Mem[GPR[v0]+0] */
b .
to data lying within 32 KB of either side of the address stored in the gp register (64 KB
total) can be performed in a single instruction using the gp register as the base register.
DS51833A-page 54
Assembler Syntax
The C compiler’s -Gnum option controls the maximum size of global and static data
items that can be addressed in one instruction instead of two. The compiler’s default
gnum value is 8 bytes, which is large enough to hold all simple scalar variables.
Note:
To utilize gp-relative addressing, the compiler and assembler must group all
of the “small” variables and constants into one of the “small” sections: See
section 5.7.2 of the “MPLAB® C Compiler for PIC32 MCUs User’s Guide”
(DS51686) for more information on the global pointer and the -G option.
EXAMPLE 4-4:
.align
.globl
.set
.ent
foo:
.set
.set
ASSEMBLY SOURCE CODE WITH GP-RELATIVE
2
foo
nomips16
foo
noreorder
nomacro
lw
$3,%gp_rel(testval)($28)
addiu $2,$3,1
sw
$2,%gp_rel(testval)($28)
j
31 nop .set .set .end macro reorder foo There are a few potential pitfalls to using gp-relative addressing: • You must take special care when writing assembler code to declare global (i.e., public or external) data items correctly: - Writable, initialized data of gnum bytes or less must be put explicitly into the .sdata section, e.g.: small: .sdata .word 0x12345678 - Global common data must be declared with the correct size, e.g: .comm small, 4 .comm big, 100 - Small external variables must also be declared correctly, e.g: .extern smallext, 4 • If your program has a very large number of small data items or constants, the C compiler’s -G8 option may still try to push more than 64 KB of data into the “small” region; the symptom will be obscure relocation errors (“relocation truncated”) when linking. Fix it by disabling gp-relative addressing with the compiler’s -G0 option and/or reducing the space reserved in the small data sections (i.e., .sbss and .sdata) in your assembly code. 4.3.4 Directive Arguments Each directive takes from 0 up to 3 arguments. These arguments give additional information to the directive on how it should carry out the command. Arguments must be separated from directives by one or more spaces or tabs. Commas must separate multiple arguments. More details are provided in Chapter 7. “Assembler Directives” on the available directives. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS51833A-page 55 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide 4.3.5 Comments Comments can be represented in the assembler in one of two ways described below. 4.3.5.1 SINGLE LINE COMMENT This type of comment extends from the comment character to the end of the line. For a single line comment, use a number/hash sign (#). Note: 4.3.5.2 This comment character differs from the character recognized by the MPASM assembler and the MPLAB Assembler for PIC24 MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs. MULTILINE COMMENT This type of comment can span multiple lines. For a multi-line comment, use /* ... */. These comments cannot be nested. Example: /* All of these lines are comments */ DS51833A-page 56 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Assembler Syntax 4.4 CONSTANTS A constant is a value written so that its value is known by inspection, without knowing any context. Examples are: .byte 74, 0112, 0b01001010, 0x4A, 0x4a, ’J’, ’\J’#All the same value .ascii "Ring the bell\7" #A string constant .float 0f-31415926535897932384626433832795028841971.693993751E-40 4.4.1 Numeric Constants The assembler distinguishes two kinds of numbers according to how they are stored in the machine. Integers are numbers that would fit into a long in the C language. Floating point numbers are IEEE 754 floating point numbers. 4.4.1.1 INTEGERS A binary integer is ‘0b’ or ‘0B’ followed by zero or more of the binary digits ‘01’. An octal integer is ‘0’ followed by zero or more of the octal digits ‘01234567’. A decimal integer starts with a non-zero digit followed by zero or more decimal digits ‘0123456789’. A hexadecimal integer is ‘0x’ or ‘0X’ followed by one or more hexadecimal digits ‘0123456789abcdefABCDEF’. To denote a negative integer, use the prefix operator ‘-’. 4.4.1.2 FLOATING POINT NUMBERS A floating point number is represented in IEEE 754 format. A floating point number is written by writing (in order): • An optional prefix, which consists of the digit ‘0’, followed by the letter ‘e’, ‘f’ or ‘d’ in upper or lowercase. Because floating point constants are used only with .float and .double directives, the precision of the binary representation is independent of the prefix. • An optional sign: either ‘+’ or ‘-’. • An optional integer part: zero or more decimal digits. • An optional fractional part: ‘.’ followed by zero or more decimal digits. • An optional exponent, consisting of: - An ‘E’ or ‘e’. - Optional sign: either ‘+’ or ‘-’. - One or more decimal digits. At least one of the integer part or fractional part must be present. The floating point number has the usual base-10 value. Floating point numbers are computed independently of any floating point hardware in the computer running the assembler. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS51833A-page 57 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide 4.4.2 Character Constants There are two kinds of character constants. A character stands for one character in one byte and its value may be used in numeric expressions. A string can contain potentially many bytes and their values may not be used in arithmetic expressions. 4.4.2.1 CHARACTERS A single character may be written as a single quote immediately followed by that character, or as a single quote immediately followed by that character and another single quote. The assembler accepts the following escape characters to represent special control characters: TABLE 4-1: ESCAPE CHARACTERS Escape Character Hex Value Description \a Bell (alert) character 07 \b Backspace character 08 \f Form-feed character 0C \n New-line character 0A \r Carriage return character 0D \t Horizontal tab character 09 \v Vertical tab character 0B \\ Backslash 5C \? Question mark character 3F \" Double quote character 22 \digit digit digit Octal character code. The numeric code is 3 octal digits. \x hex-digits Hex character code. All trailing hex digits are combined. Either upper or lowercase x works. The value of a character constant in a numeric expression is the machine’s byte-wide code for that character. The assembler assumes your character code is ASCII. 4.4.2.2 STRINGS A string is written between double quotes. It may contain double quotes or null characters. The way to get special characters into a string is to escape the characters, preceding them with a backslash ‘\’ character. The same escape sequences that apply to strings also apply to characters. DS51833A-page 58 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Assembler Syntax 4.5 SUMMARY Table 4-2 summarizes the general syntax rules that apply to the assembler: TABLE 4-2: SYNTAX RULES Character Character Description Syntax Usage . period begins a directive # number/hash begin single-line comment /* slash, asterisk begin multiple-line comment */ asterisk, slash end multiple-line comment : colon end a label definition none required begin a literal value ’c’ character in single quotes specifies single character value "string" character string in double quotes specifies a character string © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS51833A-page 59 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide NOTES: DS51833A-page 60 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MPLAB® ASSEMBLER, LINKER AND UTILITIES FOR PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE Chapter 5. Assembler Expression Syntax and Operation 5.1 INTRODUCTION Expression syntax and operation for MPLAB Assembler for PIC32 MCUs is discussed here. Topics covered in this chapter are: • Expressions • Operators 5.2 EXPRESSIONS An expression specifies an address or numeric value. White space may precede and/or follow an expression. The result of an expression must be an absolute number, or else an offset into a particular section. If an expression is not absolute, and there is not enough information when the assembler sees the expression to know its section, the assembler terminates with an error message in this situation. 5.2.1 Empty Expressions An empty expression has no value: it is just white space or null. Wherever an absolute expression is required, you may omit the expression, and the assembler assumes a value of (absolute) 0. 5.2.2 Integer Expressions An integer expression is one or more arguments delimited by operators. Arguments are symbols, numbers or sub expressions. Sub expressions are a left parenthesis ‘(’ followed by an integer expression, followed by a right parenthesis ‘)’; or a prefix operator followed by an argument. Integer expressions involving symbols in program memory are evaluated in Program Counter (PC) units. In MIPS32 mode, the Program Counter increments by 4 for each instruction word. For example, to branch to the next instruction after label L, specify L+4 as the destination. Example: b L+4 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS51833A-page 61 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide 5.3 OPERATORS Operators are arithmetic functions, like + or %. Prefix operators are followed by an argument. Infix operators appear between their arguments. Operators may be preceded and/or followed by white space. Prefix operators have higher precedence than infix operators. Infix operators have an order of precedence dependent on their type. 5.3.1 Prefix Operators The assembler has the following prefix operators. Each takes one argument, which must be absolute. TABLE 5-1: PREFIX OPERATORS Operator Description Example - Negation. Two’s complement negation. -1 ~ Bit-wise not. One’s complement. ~flags 5.3.2 Infix Operators Infix operators take two arguments, one on either side. Operators have a precedence, by type, as shown in the table below, but operations with equal precedence are performed left to right. Apart from + or –, both operators must be absolute, and the result is absolute. TABLE 5-2: INFIX OPERATORS Operator Description Example Arithmetic * Multiplication 5 * 4 (=20) / Division. Truncation is the same as the C operator ‘/’. 23 / 4 (=5) % Remainder 30 % 4 (=2) << Shift Left. Same as the C operator ‘<<’ 2 << 1 (=4) >> Shift Right. Same as the C operator ‘>>’ 2 >> 1 (=1) & Bit-wise And 4 & 6 (=4) ^ Bit-wise Exclusive Or 4 ^ 6 (=2) ! Bit-wise Or Not 0x1010 ! 0x5050 (=0xBFBF) | Bit-wise Inclusive Or 2 | 4 (=6) Bit-Wise Simple Arithmetic DS51833A-page 62 + Addition. If either argument is absolute, the result has the 4 + 10 (=14) section of the other argument. You may not add together arguments from different sections. - Subtraction. If the right argument is absolute, the result has the section of the left argument. If both arguments are in the same section, the result is absolute. You may not subtract arguments from different sections. 14 - 4 (=10) © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Assembler Expression Syntax and Operation TABLE 5-2: INFIX OPERATORS (CONTINUED) Operator Description Example Relational == Equal to .if (x == y) != Not equal to (also <>) .if (x != y) < Less than .if (x < 5) <= Less than or equal to .if (y <= 0) > Greater than .if (x > a) >= Greater than or equal to .if (x >= b) && Logical AND .if ((x > 1) && (x < 10)) || Logical OR .if ((y != x) || (y < 100)) Logical © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS51833A-page 63 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide NOTES: DS51833A-page 64 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MPLAB® ASSEMBLER, LINKER AND UTILITIES FOR PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE Chapter 6. Assembler Symbols 6.1 INTRODUCTION Symbols are defined and their use with MPLAB Assembler for PIC32 MCUs is discussed. Topics covered in this chapter are: • • • • 6.2 What are Symbols Local Symbols Giving Symbols Other Values The Special DOT Symbol WHAT ARE SYMBOLS A symbol is one or more characters chosen from the set of all letters, digits and the two characters underline (_) and period (.). Symbols may not begin with a digit. Case is significant (e.g., foo is a different symbol than Foo). There is no length limit and all characters are significant. Each symbol has exactly one name. Each name in an assembly language program refers to exactly one symbol. You may use that symbol name any number of times in a program. 6.3 LOCAL SYMBOLS Local symbols are used when temporary scope for a label is needed. There are ten local symbol names, which can be reused throughout the program. They may be referred to using the names ‘0’, ‘1’, ..., ‘9’. To define a local symbol, write a label of the form ‘N’, ‘N’, ..., ‘N’ (where N represents any digit 0-9). To refer to the most recent previous definition of that symbol, write ‘Nb’, using the same digit as when you defined the label. To refer to the next definition of a local label, write ‘Nf’. The ‘b’ stands for “backwards” and the ‘f’ stands for “forwards”. There is no restriction on how you can use these labels, and you can reuse them too. You can repeatedly define the same local label (using the same number ‘N’), although you can refer to only the most recently defined local label of that number (for a backwards reference) or the next definition of a specific local label for a forward reference. Also note that the first 10 local labels (‘0:’. . . ‘9:’) are implemented in a slightly more efficient manner than the others. Here is an example: EXAMPLE 6-1: 1: 2: 1: 2: b b b b SYMBOL USAGE 1f 1b 2f 1b Which is the equivalent of: label_1: b label_3 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS51833A-page 65 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide label_2: b label_1 label_3: b label_4 label_4: b label_3 Local symbol names are only a notational device. They are immediately transformed into more conventional symbol names before the assembler uses them. These conventional symbol names are stored in the symbol table and appear in error messages and optionally emitted to the object file. 6.4 GIVING SYMBOLS OTHER VALUES A symbol can be given an arbitrary value by writing a symbol, followed by an equals sign ‘=’, followed by an expression. Example: VAR = 4 6.5 THE SPECIAL DOT SYMBOL The special symbol ‘.’ refers to the current address being processed by the assembler. Thus, the expression ‘melvin: .long .’ defines melvin to contain its own address. Assigning a value to . is treated the same as a .org directive. Thus, the expression ‘.=.+4’ is the same as saying ‘.space 4’. When used in an executable section, ‘.’ refers to a Program Counter address. On a PIC32 MCU, the Program Counter increments by 4 for each 32-bit instruction word. User code should take care to properly align instructions after modifying the dot symbol. DS51833A-page 66 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MPLAB® ASSEMBLER, LINKER AND UTILITIES FOR PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE Chapter 7. Assembler Directives 7.1 INTRODUCTION Directives are assembler commands that appear in the source code but are not usually translated directly into opcodes. They are used to control the assembler: its input, output, and data allocation. Note: Assembler directives are not target instructions (ADD, XOR, JAL, etc). For instruction set information, consult your target-device data sheet. While there are many significant similarities with directives supported by the 16-bit MPLAB Assembler for PIC24 MCUs and dsPIC® DSCs (pic30-as), there are many differences in the directive set supported by the 32-bit MPLAB Assembler for PIC32 MCUs (pic32-as). Topics covered in this chapter are: • • • • • • • • • • • • Directives that Define Sections Directives that Initialize Constants Directives that Declare Symbols Directives that Define Symbols Directives that Modify Section Alignment Directives that Format the Output Listing Directives that Control Conditional Assembly Directives for Substitution/Expansion Directives that Include Other Files Directives that Control Diagnostic Output Directives for Debug Information Directives that Control Code Generation © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS51833A-page 67 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide 7.2 DIRECTIVES THAT DEFINE SECTIONS Sections are locatable blocks of code or data that will occupy contiguous locations in the 32-bit device memory. Three sections are pre-defined: .text for executable code, .data for initialized data and .bss for uninitialized data. Other sections may be defined; the linker defines several that are useful for locating data in specific areas of 32-bit memory. Section directives are: • • • • • • .bss .data .pushsection name .popsection .section name [, flags] [, @type] .text .bss Definition Assemble the following statements onto the end of the .bss (uninitialized data) section. The bss section is used for local common variable storage. You may allocate address space in the bss section, but you may not dictate data to load into it before your program executes. When your program starts running, all the contents of the bss section are zeroed bytes. Use the .bss directive to switch into the bss section and then define symbols as usual. You may assemble only zero values into the section. Typically, the section will contain only symbol definitions and .skip directives Example # The following symbols (B1 and B2) will be placed in # the uninitialized data section. .bss B1: .space 4 # 4 bytes reserved for B1 B2: .space 1 # 1 byte reserved for B2 .data Definition Assemble the following statements onto the end of the .data (initialized data) section. Example # The following symbols (D1 and D2) will be placed in # the initialized data section. .data D1: .long 0x12345678 # 4 bytes D2: .byte 0xFF # 1 byte .pushsection name This directive pushes the current section onto the top of the section stack and then replaces the current section with name. Every .pushsection should have a matching .popsection. DS51833A-page 68 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Assembler Directives .popsection Replace the current section description with the top section on the section stack. This section is popped off the stack. .section name [, flags] [, @type] Use the .section directive to assemble the following code into a section named name. The optional flags argument is a quoted string which may contain any combination of the following characters: a section is allocatable w section is writable x section is executable The @type argument may be one of: @progbits Normal section with contents @nobits Section does not contain data (i.e., section only occupies space) Reserved Section Names The following section names are available for user applications: TABLE 7-1: Section Name RESERVED SECTIONS DETAILS Generated by Final Location Default Linker Script MEMORY Region .text Compiler- or assemblergenerated instructions Executable code segment kseg0_program_mem .text.* Functions when compiled with Executable code segment -ffunction-sections are output to uniquely named sections of this form kseg0_program_mem .startup C start-up code Executable boot-code segment kseg0_boot_mem .app_excpt General-Exception handler Executable boot-code segment kseg0_boot_mem .reset Reset handler Executable boot-code segment kseg0_boot_mem .bev_excpt BEV-Exception handler Executable boot-code segment kseg0_boot_mem .vector_n Interrupt Vector n Executable boot-code segment kseg0_boot_mem .rodata Strings and C data declared const Read-only data segment kseg0_program_mem .rodata.* Constant data when compiled with Read-only data segment -fdata-sections are output to uniquely named sections of this form kseg0_program_mem .data Variables >n bytes (compiled -Gn) Initialized data segment with an initial value. Values copied from program memory to data memory at C start-up. kseg1_data_mem & kseg0_program_mem .data.* Large initialized variables compiled with -fdata-sections Initialized data segment kseg1_data_mem & kseg0_program_mem .ramfunc RAM-functions, copied from proInitialized data segment gram memory to data memory at C start-up kseg1_data_mem & kseg0_program_mem © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS51833A-page 69 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide TABLE 7-1: Section Name RESERVED SECTIONS DETAILS (CONTINUED) Generated by Final Location Default Linker Script MEMORY Region .lit4 / .lit8 Constants (usually floating point) which the assembler decides to store in memory rather than in the instruction stream. Used for gp-relative addressing. Small initialized data segment kseg1_data_mem & kseg0_program_mem .sdata Variables <=n bytes (compiled Small initialized data segment -Gn) with an initial value. Used for gp-relative addressing. kseg1_data_mem & kseg0_program_mem .sdata.* Small variables compiled with -fdata-sections. Used for gp-relative addressing. Small initialized data segment kseg1_data_mem & kseg0_program_mem .sbss Uninitialized variables <=n bytes (compiled -Gn). Used for gp-relative addressing. Small zero-filled segment kseg1_data_mem .sbss.* Small uninitialized variables compiled with -fdata-sections. Used for gp-relative addressing. Small zero-filled segment kseg1_data_mem .bss Uninitialized larger variables Zero-filled segment kseg1_data_mem .bss.* Uninitialized variables compiled with -fdata-sections. Zero-filled segment kseg1_data_mem .heap Heap used for dynamic memory Reserved by linker script kseg1_data_mem .stack Minimum space reserved for stack Reserved by linker script kseg1_data_mem .debug* DWARF debug information Not in load image n/a .line DWARF debug information Not in load image n/a .comment #ident/.ident strings Not in load image n/a .reginfo Information section Not in load image n/a Section Directive Examples .section foo,"aw",@progbits .section fob,"aw",@nobits .section bar,"ax",@progbits DS51833A-page 70 #foo is initialized #data memory. #fob is uninitialized #(but also not zeroed) #data memory. #bar is in program memory © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Assembler Directives .text Definition Assemble the following statements onto the end of the .text (executable code) section. Example .text .ent _main_entry _main_entry: jal main nop jal exit nop 1: b 1b nop .end _main_entry 7.3 DIRECTIVES THAT INITIALIZE CONSTANTS Constant initialization directives are: • • • • • • • • • • • • .ascii “string1” [, ..., “stringn”] .asciz “string1” [, ..., “stringn”] .byte expr1[, ..., exprn] .double value1[, ..., valuen] .float value1[, ..., valuen] .single value1[, ..., valuen] .hword expr1[, ..., exprn] .int expr1[, ..., exprn] .long expr1[, ..., exprn] .short expr1[, ..., exprn] .string “str” .word expr1[, ..., exprn] .ascii “string1” [, ..., “stringn”] .ascii expects zero or more string literals separated by commas. It assembles each string (with no automatic trailing zero byte) into consecutive addresses. .asciz “string1” [, ..., “stringn”] .asciz is just like .ascii, but each string is followed by a zero byte. The “z” in .asciz stands for “zero”. This directive is a synonym for .string. .byte expr1[, ..., exprn] .byte expects zero or more expressions, separated by commas. Each expression is assembled into the next byte in the current section. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS51833A-page 71 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide .double value1[, ..., valuen] Assembles one or more double-precision (64-bit) floating point constants into consecutive addresses in little-endian format. Floating point numbers are in IEEE format (see Section 4.4.1.2 “Floating Point Numbers”). The following statements are equivalent: .double .double .double .double .double .double .double 12345.67 1.234567e4 1.234567e04 1.234567e+04 1.234567E4 1.234567E04 1.234567E+04 Alternatively, you can specify the hexadecimal encoding of a floating point constant. The following statements are equivalent and encode the value 12345.67 as a 64-bit double-precision number: .double 0e:40C81CD5C28F5C29 .double 0f:40C81CD5C28F5C29 .double 0d:40C81CD5C28F5C29 .float value1[, ..., valuen] Assembles one or more single-precision (32-bit) floating point constants into consecutive addresses in little-endian format. It has the same effect as .single. Floating point numbers are in IEEE format (see Section 4.4.1.2 “Floating Point Numbers”). The following statements are equivalent: .float .float .float .float .float .float .float 12345.67 1.234567e4 1.234567e04 1.234567e+04 1.234567E4 1.234567E04 1.234567E+04 Alternatively, you can specify the hexadecimal encoding of a floating point constant. The following statements are equivalent and encode the value 12345.67 as a 32-bit double-precision number: .float 0e:4640E6AE .float 0f:4640E6AE .float 0d:4640E6AE .single value1[, ..., valuen] Assembles one or more single-precision (32-bit) floating point constants into consecutive addresses in little-endian format. This directive is a synonym for .float. Floating point numbers are in IEEE format (see Section 4.4.1.2 “Floating Point Numbers”). .hword expr1[, ..., exprn] Assembles one or more 2-byte numbers into consecutive addresses in little-endian format. This directive is a synonym for .short. DS51833A-page 72 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Assembler Directives .int expr1[, ..., exprn] Assembles one or more 4-byte numbers into consecutive addresses in little-endian format. This directive is a synonym for .long. .long expr1[, ..., exprn] Assembles one or more 4-byte numbers into consecutive addresses in little-endian format. This directive is a synonym for .int. .short expr1[, ..., exprn] Assembles one or more 2-byte numbers into consecutive addresses in little-endian format. This directive is a synonym for .hword. .string “str” This directive is a synonym for .asciz. .word expr1[, ..., exprn] Assembles one or more 4-byte numbers into consecutive addresses in little-endian format. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS51833A-page 73 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide 7.4 DIRECTIVES THAT DECLARE SYMBOLS Declare symbol directives are: • • • • • .comm symbol, length [, algn] .extern symbol .global symbol .globl symbol .lcomm symbol, length .weak symbol .comm symbol, length [, algn] .comm declares a common symbol named symbol. When linking, a common symbol in one object file may be merged with a defined or common symbol of the same name in another object file. If the linker does not see a definition for the symbol – just one or more common symbols – then it will allocate length bytes of uninitialized memory. length must be an absolute expression. If the linker sees multiple common symbols with the same name, and they do not all have the same size, it will allocate space using the largest size. The .comm directive takes an optional third argument. If algn is specified, it is the desired alignment of the symbol, specified as a byte boundary (for example, an alignment of 16 means that the Least Significant 4 bits of the address should be zero). The alignment must be an absolute expression, and it must be a power of two. If linker allocates uninitialized memory for the common symbol, it will use the alignment when placing the symbol. If no alignment is specified, the assembler will set the alignment to the largest power of two less than or equal to the size of the symbol, up to a maximum of 1. .extern symbol The .extern directive declares a symbol name that may be used in the current module, but it is defined as global in a different module. However, all symbols are extern by default so this directive is optional. .global symbol .globl symbol The .global directive declares a symbol symbol that is defined in the current module and is available to other modules. .global makes the symbol visible to the linker. If you define symbol in your partial program, its value is made available to other partial programs that are linked with it. Otherwise, symbol takes its attributes from a symbol of the same name from another file linked into the same program. Both spellings (.globl and .global) are accepted, for compatibility with other assemblers. .lcomm symbol, length Reserve length bytes for a local common denoted by symbol. The section and value of symbol are those of the new local common. The addresses are allocated in the .bss section, so that at run-time, the bytes start off zeroed. symbol is not declared global so it is normally not visible to the linker. DS51833A-page 74 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Assembler Directives .weak symbol Marks the symbol named symbol as weak. When a weak-defined symbol is linked with a normal-defined symbol, the normal-defined symbol is used with no error. When a weak-defined symbol is linked and the symbol is not defined, the value of the weak symbol becomes zero with no error. 7.5 DIRECTIVES THAT DEFINE SYMBOLS Define symbol directives are: • .equ symbol, expression • .equiv symbol, expression .equ symbol, expression This directive sets the value of symbol to expression. You may set a symbol any number of times in assembly. If you set a global symbol, the value stored in the object file is the last value equated to it. .equiv symbol, expression Like .equ, except that the assembler will signal an error if symbol is already defined. Note that a symbol which has been referenced but not actually defined is considered to be undefined. Except for the contents of the error message, this directive is roughly equivalent to: .ifdef SYM .err .endif .equ SYM,VAL © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS51833A-page 75 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide 7.6 DIRECTIVES THAT MODIFY SECTION ALIGNMENT Directives that explicitly modify section alignment are listed below. Note: • • • • • • User code must take care to properly align an instruction following a directive that modifies the section alignment or location counter. .align [algn[, fill]] .fill repeat[, size[, value]] .org new-lc[, fill] .skip size[, fill] .space size[, fill] .struct expression .align [algn[, fill]] The .align directive pads the location counter (in the current subsection) to a particular storage boundary. The first expression (which must be absolute) is the alignment required specified as the number of low-order zero bits the location counter must have after advancement. The assembler accepts algn values from 0 up to 15. A .align 0 turns off the automatic alignment used by the data creating pseudo-ops. You must make sure that data is properly aligned. Reinstate auto-alignment with a .align pseudo instruction. The second expression (also absolute) gives the fill value to be stored in the padding bytes. It (and the comma) may be omitted. If it is omitted, the padding bytes are zero by default. You may wish to use 0xFF for Flash regions of memory. .fill repeat[, size[, value]] Reserve repeat copies of size bytes. repeat may be zero or more. size may be zero or more, but if it is more than 8, then it is deemed to have the value 8. The content of each repeat bytes is taken from an 8-byte number. The highest order 4 bytes are zero. The lowest order 4 bytes are value rendered in the little-endian byte-order. Each size bytes in a repetition is taken from the lowest order size bytes of this number. size is optional. If the first comma and following tokens are absent, size is assumed to be 1. value is optional. If the second comma and value are absent, value is assumed zero. Example: mylabel: .text .fill 0x3, 1, 0xFF .align 2 b . .org new-lc[, fill] The .org directive advances the location counter of the current section to new-lc. new-lc is either an absolute expression or an expression with the same section as the current subsection. That is, you can’t use .org to cross sections: if new-lc has the wrong section, the .org directive is ignored. If the section of new-lc is absolute, pic32-as issues a warning, then pretends the section of new-lc is the same as the current subsection. DS51833A-page 76 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Assembler Directives .org may only increase the location counter, or leave it unchanged; you cannot use .org to move the location counter backwards. Because the assembler tries to assemble programs in one pass, new-lc may not be undefined. Beware that the origin is relative to the start of the section, not to the start of the subsection. When the location counter (of the current subsection) is advanced, the intervening bytes are filled with fill, which should be an absolute expression. If the comma and fill are omitted, fill defaults to zero. .skip size[, fill] .space size[, fill] These directives emit size bytes, each of value fill. Both size and fill are absolute expressions. If the comma and fill are omitted, fill is assumed to be zero. .struct expression Switch to the absolute section, and set the section offset to expression, which must be an absolute expression. You might use this as follows: .struct 0 field1: .struct field1 + 4 field2: .struct field2 + 4 field3: This would define the symbol field1 to have the value 0, the symbol field2 to have the value 4, and the symbol field3 to have the value 8. Assembly would be left in the absolute section, and you would need to use a .section directive of some sort to change to some other section before further assembly. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS51833A-page 77 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide 7.7 DIRECTIVES THAT FORMAT THE OUTPUT LISTING Output listing format directives are: • • • • • • .eject .list .nolist .psize lines[, columns] .sbttl “subheading” .title “heading” .eject Force a page break at this point when generating assembly listings. .list Controls (in conjunction with .nolist) whether assembly listings are generated. This directive increments an internal counter (which is one initially). Assembly listings are generated if this counter is greater than zero. Only functional when listings are enabled with the -a command line option and forms processing has not been disabled with the -an command line option. .nolist Controls (in conjunction with .list) whether assembly listings are generated. This directive decrements an internal counter (which is one initially). Assembly listings are generated if this counter is greater than zero. Only functional when listings are enabled with the -a command line option and forms processing has not been disabled with the -an command line option. .psize lines[, columns] Declares the number of lines, and optionally, the number of columns to use for each page when generating listings. If you do not use .psize, listings use a default line count of 60. You may omit the comma and columns specification; the default width is 200 columns. The assembler generates formfeeds whenever the specified number of lines is exceeded (or whenever you explicitly request one, using .eject). If you specify lines as 0, no formfeeds are generated save those explicitly specified with .eject. .sbttl “subheading” Use subheading as a subtitle (third line, immediately after the title line) when generating assembly listings. This directive affects subsequent pages, as well as the current page, if it appears within ten lines of the top. .title “heading” Use heading as the title (second line, immediately after the source file name and page number) when generating assembly listings. DS51833A-page 78 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Assembler Directives 7.8 DIRECTIVES THAT CONTROL CONDITIONAL ASSEMBLY Conditional assembly directives are: • • • • .else .elseif expr .endif .if expr .else Used in conjunction with the .if directive to provide an alternative path of assembly code should the .if evaluate to false. .elseif expr Used in conjunction with the .if directive to provide an alternative path of assembly code should the .if evaluate to false and a second condition exists. .endif Marks the end of a block of code that is only assembled conditionally. .if expr Marks the beginning of a section of code that is only considered part of the source program being assembled if the argument expr is non-zero. The end of the conditional section of code must be marked by an .endif; optionally, you may include code for the alternative condition, flagged by .else. The assembler also supports the following variants of .if. .ifdecl symbol Assembles the following section of code if the specified symbol has been defined. Note a symbol which has been referenced but not yet defined is considered to be undefined. .ifc string1,string2 This directive assembles the following section of code if the two strings are the same. The strings may be optionally quoted with single quotes. If they are not quoted, the first string stops at the first comma, and the second string stops at the end of the line. Strings which contain whitespace should be quoted. The string comparison is case sensitive. .ifeq absolute-expression This directive assembles the following section of code if the argument is zero. .ifeqs string1,string2 This directive is another form of .ifc. The strings must be quoted using double quotes. .ifge absolute-expression This directive assembles the following section of code if the argument is greater than or equal to zero. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS51833A-page 79 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide .ifgt absolute-expression This directive assembles the following section of code if the argument is greater than zero. .ifle absolute-expression This directive assembles the following section of code if the argument is less than or equal to zero. .iflt absolute-expression This directive assembles the following section of code if the argument is less than zero. .ifnc string1,string2 This directive is like .ifc, but the sense of the test is reversed: this assembles the following section of code if the two strings are not the same. .ifndef symbol This directive assembles the following section of code if the specified symbol has not been defined. Both spelling variants are equivalent. Note a symbol which has been referenced but not yet defined is considered to be undefined. .ifnotdef symbol This directive is the same as .ifndef. .ifne absolute-expression This directive assembles the following section of code if the argument is not equal to zero (in other words, this is equivalent to .if). .ifnes string1,string2 This directive is like .ifeqs, but the sense of the test is reversed: this assembles the following section of code if the two strings are not the same. 7.9 DIRECTIVES FOR SUBSTITUTION/EXPANSION Substitution/expansion directives are: • .exitm • .irp symbol, value1 [, ..., valuen] ... .endr • .irpc symbol, value ... .endr • .macro .exitm Exit early from the current macro definition. See .macro directive. .irp symbol, value1 [, ..., valuen] ... .endr Evaluate a sequence of statements assigning different values to symbol. The sequence of statements starts at the .irp directive, and is terminated by a .endr directive. For each value, symbol is set to value, and the sequence of statements is DS51833A-page 80 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Assembler Directives assembled. If no value is listed, the sequence of statements is assembled once, with symbol set to the null string. To refer to symbol within the sequence of statements, use \symbol. For example, assembling .irp reg,0,1,2,3 lwa\reg, 1032+\reg($sp) .endr is equivalent to assembling lw lw lw lw$a0,1032+0($sp)$a1,1032+1($sp)$a2,1032+2($sp)$a3,1032+3($sp) .irpc symbol, value ... .endr Evaluate a sequence of statements assigning different values to symbol. The sequence of statements starts at the .irpc directive, and is terminated by an .endr directive. For each character in value, symbol is set to the character, and the sequence of statements is assembled. If no value is listed, the sequence of statements is assembled once, with symbol set to the null string. To refer to symbol within the sequence of statements, use \symbol. For example, assembling .irpc reg,0123 lw$a\reg, 1032+\reg($sp) .endr is equivalent to assembling lw lw lw lw$a0,1032+0($sp)$a1,1032+1($sp)$a2,1032+2($sp)$a3,1032+3(sp) .macro The directives .macro and .endm allow you to define macros that generate assembly output. For example, this definition specifies a macro SUM that puts a sequence of numbers into memory: .macro SUM from=0, to=5 .long \from .if \+o-\from SUM "(\from+1)", \+o .endif .endm With that definition, ‘SUM 0,5’ is equivalent to this assembly input: .long .long .long .long .long .long © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. 0 1 2 3 4 5 DS51833A-page 81 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide .macro macname .macro macname macargs … Begin the definition of a macro called macname. If your macro definition requires arguments, specify their names after the macro name, separated by commas or spaces. You can supply a default value for any macro argument by following the name with =deflt. For example, these are all valid .macro statements: • .macro comm Begin the definition of a macro called comm, which takes no arguments. • .macro plus1 p, p1 .macro plus1 p p1 Either statement begins the definition of a macro called plus1, which takes two arguments; within the macro definition, write \p or \p1 to evaluate the arguments. • .macro reserve_str p1=0 p2 Begin the definition of a macro called reserve_str, with two arguments. The first argument has a default value, but not the second. After the definition is complete, you can call the macro either as ‘reserve_str a,b’ (with \p1 evaluating to a and \p2 evaluating to b), or as ‘reserve_str ,b’ (with \p1 evaluating as the default, in this case ‘0’, and \p2 evaluating to b). When you call a macro, you can specify the argument values either by position, or by keyword. For example, ‘SUM 9,17’ is equivalent to ‘sum to=9, from=17’. .endm Mark the end of a macro definition. .exitm Exit early from the current macro definition. \@ The assembler maintains a counter of how many macros it has executed in this pseudo-variable; you can copy that number to your output with \@, but only within a macro definition. In the following example, a recursive macro is used to allocate an arbitrary number of labeled buffers: .macro make_buffers num,size BUF\@: .space \size .if (\num - 1) make_buffers (\num - 1),\size .endif .endm .bss # create BUF0..BUF3, 16 bytes each make_buffers 4,16 This example macro expands as shown in the following listing: 6 make_buffers (\num - 1),\size 7 .endif 8 .endm 9 10 .bss 11 # create BUF0..BUF3, 16 bytes each 12 make_buffers 4,16 12 > BUF0:.space 16 12 0000 > .space 16 DS51833A-page 82 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Assembler Directives 12 > .if (4-1) 12 > make_buffers (4-1),16 12 >> BUF1:.space 16 12 0010 >> .space 16 12 >> .if ((4-1)-1) 12 >> make_buffers ((4-1)-1),16 12 >>> BUF2:.space 16 12 0020 >>> .space 16 12 >>> .if (((4-1)-1)-1) 12 >>> make_buffers (((4-1)-1)-1),16 12 >>>> BUF3:.space 16 12 0030 >>>> .space 16 12 >>>> .if ((((4-1)-1)-1)-1) 12 >>>> make_buffers ((((4-1)-1)-1)-1),16 12 >>>> .endif 12 >>> .endif 12 >> .endif 12 > .endif .purgem “name” Undefine the macro name, so that later uses of the string will not be expanded. See .macro directive. .rept count ... .endr Repeat the sequence of lines between the .rept directive and the next .endr directive count times. For example, assembling .rept 3 .long 0 .endr is equivalent to assembling .long 0 .long 0 .long 0 7.10 DIRECTIVES THAT INCLUDE OTHER FILES Directives that include data from other files are: • .incbin “file”[,skip[,count]] • .include “file” .incbin “file”[,skip[,count]] The .incbin directive includes file verbatim at the current location. The file is assumed to contain binary data. The search paths used can be specified with the -I command-line option (see Chapter 3. “Assembler Command Line Interface”). Quotation marks are required around file. The skip argument skips a number of bytes from the start of the file. The count argument indicates the maximum number of bytes to read. Note that the data is not aligned in any way, so it is the user’s responsibility to make sure that proper alignment is provided both before and after the .incbin directive. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS51833A-page 83 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide .include “file” Provides a way to include supporting files at specified points in your source code. The code is assembled as if it followed the point of the .include. When the end of the included file is reached, assembly of the original file continues at the statement following the .include. 7.11 DIRECTIVES THAT CONTROL DIAGNOSTIC OUTPUT Miscellaneous directives are: • • • • • • • • .abort .err .error "string" .fail expression .ident "comment" .print “string” .version “string” .warning "string" .abort Prints out the message “.abort detected. Abandoning ship.” and exits the program. .err If the assembler sees an .err directive, it will print an error message, and unless the -Z option was used, it will not generate an object file. This directive can be used to signal an error in conditionally compiled code. .error "string" Similar to .err, except that the specified string is printed. .fail expression Generates an error or a warning. If the value of the expression is 500 or more, pic32-as will print a warning message. If the value is less than 500, as will print an error message. The message will include the value of expression. This can occasionally be useful inside complex nested macros or conditional assembly. .ident "comment" Appends comment to the section named .comment. This section is created if it does not exist. The linker will ignore this section when allocating memory, but will combine all .comment sections together, in link order. .print “string” Prints string on the standard output during assembly. DS51833A-page 84 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Assembler Directives .version “string” This directive creates a .note section and places into it an ELF formatted note of type NT_VERSION. The note’s name is set to string. .version is supported when the output file format is ELF; otherwise, it is ignored. .warning "string" Similar to the directive .error, but emits a warning. 7.12 DIRECTIVES FOR DEBUG INFORMATION Debug information directives are: • • • • • • • • • • • .ent function .end .file fileno "filename" .fmask mask, offset .frame framereg, frameoffset, retreg .loc fileno, lineno [columnno] .mask mask, offset .size name, expression .sleb128 expr1 [, ..., exprn] .type name, description .uleb128 expr1[,...,exprn] .ent function This directive marks the function symbol as a function similarly to the generic .type directive. .end End program. .file fileno "filename" When emitting dwarf2 line-number information .file assigns filenames to the .debug_line file name table. The fileno operand should be a unique positive integer to use as the index of the entry in the table. The filename operand is a C string literal. The detail of filename indices is exposed to the user because the filename table is shared with the .debug_info section of the dwarf2 debugging information, and thus the user must know the exact indices that table entries will have. .fmask mask, offset Not used for current PIC32 MCUs. Maintain mask 0x00000000 and offset 0. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS51833A-page 85 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide .frame framereg, frameoffset, retreg This directive describes the shape of the stack frame. The virtual Frame Pointer in use is framereg; normally this is eitherfp or $sp. The Frame Pointer is frameoffset bytes below the canonical frame address (CFA), which is the value of the Stack Pointer on entry to the function. The return address is initially located in retreg until it is saved as indicated in .mask. .loc fileno, lineno [columnno] The object file’s debugging information contains a line-number matrix that correlates an assembly instruction to a line and column of source code. The .loc directive will add a matrix row corresponding to the assembly instruction immediately following the directive. The fileno, lineno, and columnno will be applied to the debug state machine before the row is added. .mask mask, offset Indicate which of the integer registers are saved in the current function’s stack frame. mask is interpreted a bit mask in which bit n set indicates that register n is saved. The registers are saved in a block located offset bytes from the canonical frame address (CFA), which is the value of the Stack Pointer on entry to the function. .size name, expression This directive sets the size associated with a symbol name. The size in bytes is computed from expression which can make use of label arithmetic. This directive is typically used to set the size of function symbols. .sleb128 expr1 [, ..., exprn] sleb128 stands for “signed little-endian base 128.” This is a compact, variable-length representation of numbers used by the DWARF symbolic-debugging format. .type name, description This sets the type of symbol name to be either a function symbol or an object symbol. There are five different syntaxes supported for the type description field, in order to provide compatibility with various other assemblers. The syntaxes supported are: .type .type .type .type .type .type .type .type .type .type <name>,#function <name>,#object <name>,@function <name>,@object <name>,%function <name>,%object <name>,"function" <name>,"object" <name> STT_FUNCTION <name> STT_OBJECT .uleb128 expr1[,...,exprn] uleb128 stands for “unsigned little endian base 128.” This is a compact, variable-length representation of numbers used by the DWARF symbolic-debugging format. DS51833A-page 86 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Assembler Directives 7.13 DIRECTIVES THAT CONTROL CODE GENERATION Directives controlling assembler code-generation behavior are: • • • • • • • • • • .set .set .set .set .set .set .set .set .set .set noat at noautoextend autoextend nomacro macro mips16e nomips16e noreorder reorder .set noat When synthesizing some address formats, the assembler may require a scratch register. By default, the assembler will quietly use the at ($1) register, which is reserved as
an assembler temporary by convention. In some cases, the compiler should not use
that register. The .set noat directive prevents the assembler from quietly using that
register.
.set at
Allow the assembler to quietly use the at ($1) register. .set noautoextend By default, MIPS16 instructions are automatically extended to 32 bits when necessary. The directive .set noautoextend will turn this off. When .set noautoextend is in effect, any 32-bit instruction must be explicitly extended with the .e modifier (e.g., li.e$4,1000’). The directive .set autoextend may be used to once again automatically extend instructions when necessary.
.set autoextend
Enable auto-extension of MIPS16 instructions to 32 bits.
.set nomacro
The assembler supports synthesized instructions, an instruction mnemonic that synthesizes into multiple machine instructions. For instance, the sleu instruction assembles into an sltu instruction and an xori instruction. The .set nomacro directive
causes the assembler to emit a warning message when an instruction expands into
more than one machine instruction.
.set macro
Suppress warnings for synthesized instructions.
.set mips16e
Assemble with the MIPS16e ISA extension.
DS51833A-page 87
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
.set nomips16e
Do not assemble with the MIPS16e ISA extension.
.set noreorder
By default, the assembler attempts to fill a branch or delay slot automatically by reordering the instructions around it. This feature can be very useful.
Occasionally, you’ll want to retain precise control over your instruction ordering. Use
the .set noreorder directive to tell the assembler to suppress this feature until it
encounters a .set reorder directive.
.set reorder
Allow the assembler to reorder instructions to fill a branch or delay slot.
DS51833A-page 88
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
Part 2 – MPLAB Object Linker for PIC32 MCUs
Chapter 9. Linker Command-Line Interface............................................................... 99
DS51833A-page 89
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
NOTES:
DS51833A-page 90
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
8.1
INTRODUCTION
MPLAB Object Linker for PIC32 MCUs (pic32-ld) produces binary code from relocatable object code and archives for the PIC32 MCU family of devices. The 32-bit linker
is a Windows console application that provides a platform for developing executable
code. The linker is a part of the GNU linker from the Free Software Foundation.
Topics covered in this chapter are:
• Linker and Other Development Tools
• Feature Set
• Input/Output Files
8.2
The PIC32 linker translates object files from the PIC32 assembler and archives files
from the PIC32 archiver/librarian into an executable file. See Figure 8-1 for an overview
of the tools process flow.
FIGURE 8-1:
TOOLS PROCESS FLOW
C Source Files
(*.c)
Assembly Source
Files (*.S)
C Compiler
Compiler
Driver
Program
Source Files (*.s)
Assembler
Archiver (Librarian)
Object File Libraries
(*.a)
Object Files
(*.o)
Executable File
(*.elf)
(*.ld)
MPLAB® IDE
Debug Tool
Command Line
Simulator
DS51833A-page 91
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
8.3
FEATURE SET
Notable features of the linker include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
8.4
User-defined minimum stack allocation
User-defined heap allocation
Available for Windows
Linker scripts for all current PIC32 devices
Command-Line Interface
Integrated component of MPLAB IDE
INPUT/OUTPUT FILES
Linker input and output files are listed below.
TABLE 8-1:
Extension
Description
Input
.o
Object Files
.a
Library Files
.ld
Output
.exe, .out
.map
Map File
32-bit linker is capable of creating a map file and a binary ELF file (that may or may not
contain debugging information). For text output similar to the MPLINK linker listing file,
run the ELF file through the pic32-objdump binary utility.
8.4.1
Object Files
Relocatable code produced by the assembler. The linker accepts the ELF object file
format.
8.4.2
Library Files
A collection of object files grouped together for convenience.
8.4.3
• Instruct the linker where to locate sections
• Specify memory ranges for a given part
• Can be customized to locate user-defined sections at specific addresses
DS51833A-page 92
EXAMPLE 8-1:
Note:
This simplified linker script example is for illustrative purposes only; it is not
OUTPUT_ARCH(pic32mx)
ENTRY(_reset)
MEMORY
{
kseg0_program_mem(rx):
kseg0_boot_mem
:
exception_mem
:
kseg1_boot_mem
:
debug_exec_mem
:
config3
:
config2
:
config1
:
config0
:
kseg1_data_mem (w!x):
sfrs
:
}
ORIGIN=0x9D000000,
ORIGIN=0x9FC00490,
ORIGIN=0x9FC01000,
ORIGIN=0xBFC00000,
ORIGIN=0xBFC02000,
ORIGIN=0xBFC02FF0,
ORIGIN=0xBFC02FF4,
ORIGIN=0xBFC02FF8,
ORIGIN=0xBFC02FFC,
ORIGIN=0xA0000000,
ORIGIN=0xBF800000,
LENGTH=0x8000
LENGTH=0x970
LENGTH=0x1000
LENGTH=0x490
LENGTH=0xFF0
LENGTH=0x4
LENGTH=0x4
LENGTH=0x4
LENGTH=0x4
LENGTH=0x2000
LENGTH=0x100000
SECTIONS
{
.text ORIGIN(kseg0_program_mem) :
{
_text_begin = . ;
*(.text .stub .text.* )
*(.mips16.fn.*)
*(.mips16.call.*)
_text_end = . ;
} >kseg0_program_mem =0
.data
:
{
_data_begin = . ;
*(.data1)
} >kseg1_data_mem AT>kseg0_program_mem
.bss
:
{
*(.dynbss)
*(.bss .bss.* )
*(COMMON)
. = ALIGN(32 / 8) ;
} >kseg1_data_mem
.stack ALIGN(4) :
{
. += _min_stack_size ;
} >kseg1_data_mem
}
DS51833A-page 93
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
8.4.4
By default, the name of the linker output binary file is a.out. You can override the
default name by specifying the -o option on the command line. MPLAB IDE’s project
manager uses the -o option to name the output file projectname.elf, where
projectname is the name of your MPLAB IDE project.
The format of the binary file is an Executable and Linking Format (ELF) file. The Executable and Linking Format was originally developed and published by UNIX System
Laboratories (USL) as part of the Application Binary Interface (ABI). The ELF specification is the result of the work of the Tool Interface Standards (TIS) Committee, an
association of members of the microcomputer industry formed to work toward standardization of the software interfaces visible to development tools.
The debugging information within the ELF file is in the DWARF Debugging Information
format. Also a result of the work of the TIS Committee, the DWARF format uses a series
of debugging entries to define a low-level representation of a source program. A
DWARF consumer, such as MPLAB IDE, can then use the representation to create an
accurate picture of the original source program
8.4.5
Map File
The map files produced by the linker consist of:
• Archive Member Table – lists the name of any members from archive files that are
• Memory Usage Report – shows the starting address and length of all output
sections in program memory and data memory. It also shows a percent utilization
of memory in the region.
• Memory Configuration – lists all of the memory regions defined for the link.
• Linker Script and Memory Map – shows modules, sections and symbols that are
• Outside Cross Reference Table (optional) – shows symbols, sorted by name. For
each symbol, a list of file names is given. If the symbol is defined, the first file
listed is the location of the definition. The remaining files listed contain references
to the symbol.
DS51833A-page 94
EXAMPLE 8-2:
MAP FILE
Archive member included because of file (symbol)
size\libc.a(general-exception.o)
size/crt0.o (_general_exception_context)
size\libc.a(default-general-exception-handler.o)
size\libc.a(general-exception.o) (_general_exception_handler)
size\libc.a(default-bootstrap-exception-handler.o)
size/crt0.o (_bootstrap_exception_handler)
size\libc.a(default-on-reset.o)
size/crt0.o (_on_reset)
size\libc.a(default-on-bootstrap.o)
size/crt0.o (_on_bootstrap)
size\libc.a(default-nmi-handler.o)
size/crt0.o (_nmi_handler)
Microchip PIC32 Memory-Usage Report
kseg0 Program-Memory Usage
section
(dec)
------- ---------- -------------.text
0x9d000000
0x678
1656
.rodata 0x9d000678
0x14
20
.data
0x9d00068c
0xf
244
.sdata 0x9d000780
0x4
4
Total kseg0_program_mem used:
0x784
1924
Description
----------Application's executable code
Data-initialization template
Small data-initialization template
kseg0 Boot-Memory Usage
length
(dec)
------- ---------- -------------.startup 0x9fc00490 0x1e0
480
Total kseg0_boot_mem used:
0x1e0
480
0.4% of 0x80000
Description
----------C startup code
19.9% of 0x970
Exception-Memory Usage
section
length
(dec)
---------------- -------------.app_excpt 0x9fc01180
0x10
16
.vector_1 0x9fc01220
0x8
8
Total exception_mem used :
0x18
24
Description
----------General-Exception handler
Interrupt Vector 1
0.6% of 0x1000
kseg1 Boot-Memory Usage
section
length
(dec) Description
---------------- -------------- ----------.reset
0xbfc00000
0x10
16 Reset handler
.bev_excpt 0xbfc00380
0x10
16 BEV-Exception handler
Total kseg1_boot_mem used :
0x20
32 2.7% of 0x490
----------------------------------------------Total Program Memory used :
0x99c
2460 0.5% of 0x81e00
----------------------------------------------kseg1 Data-Memory Usage
section
length
(dec)
---------------- -------------.data
0xa0000000
0xf4
244
.sdata
0xa00000f4
0x4
4
Description
----------Initialized data
Small initialized data
DS51833A-page 95
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
.sbss
.bss
.heap
.stack
0xa00000f8
0x4
4 Small uninitialized data
0xa00000fc
0x10c
268 Uninitialized data
0xa0000208
0x800
2048 Dynamic Memory heap
0xa0000a08
0x400
1024 Min space reserved for stack
Total kseg1_data_mem used :
0xe08
3592 11.0% of 0x8000
-------------------------------------------------------------Total Data Memory used :
0xe08
3592 11.0% of 0x8000
-------------------------------------------------------------Memory Configuration
Name
Origin
kseg0_program_mem 0x9d000000
kseg0_boot_mem
0x9fc00490
exception_mem
0x9fc01000
kseg1_boot_mem
0xbfc00000
config0
0xbfc02ffc
kseg1_data_mem
0xa0000000
sfrs
0xbf800000
*default*
0x00000000
Length
0x00080000
0x00000970
0x00001000
0x00000490
0x00000004
0x00008000
0x00100000
0xffffffff
Attributes
xr
w !x
0x00000800
_min_heap_size = 0x800
START GROUP
END GROUP
0x00000400
PROVIDE (_min_stack_size, 0x400)
0x00000000
PROVIDE (_min_heap_size, 0x0)
0x00000001
PROVIDE (_vector_spacing, 0x1)
0x9fc01000
0xbfc00000
0xbfc00380
0x9fc01180
.reset
*(.reset)
.reset
0xbfc00000
0x10
0xbfc00000
0xbfc00000
.bev_excpt
0xbfc00380
*(.bev_handler)
.bev_handler 0xbfc00380
.vector_0
0x9fc01200
*(.vector_0)
0x10 size/crt0.o
_reset
0x10
.startup
*(.startup)
.startup
0x9fc00490
0x1e0
0x9fc00490
0x1e0 size/crt0.o
0x10 size/crt0.o
0x0
.text
0x9d000000
0x678
0x9d000000
_text_begin = .
.text
0x9d000000
0x18 size/crt0.o
.text
0x9d000018
0x110 intermediate\object.o
DS51833A-page 96
0x9d000089
testfunct
0x9d0000a0
main
0x9d000018
foo
.text
0x9d000128
0xc intermediate
est.o
0x9d000128
mylabel
.text.general_exception
0x9d000134
0xd0 size\libc.a(general-exception.o)
0x9d000134
_general_exception_context
.text._general_exception_handler
0x9d0005bc 0x8 size\libc.a(default-general-exception-handler.o)
0x9d0005bc
_general_exception_handler
.text._bootstrap_exception_handler
0x9d0005c4 0x8 size\libc.a(default-bootstrap-exception-handler.o)
0x9d0005c4
_bootstrap_exception_handler
.text._on_reset
0x9d0005cc
0x8 size\libc.a(default-on-reset.o)
0x9d0005cc
_on_reset
.text._on_bootstrap
0x9d0005d4
0x8 size\libc.a(default-on-bootstrap.o)
0x9d0005d4
_on_bootstrap
.text
0x9d0005dc
0x18 size\libc.a(default-nmi-handler.o)
0x9d0005dc
_nmi_handler
.sdata
0xa00000f4
0xa00000f4
_sdata_begin = .
.heap
0xa0000208
0x800
0xa0000208
_heap = .
0xa0000a08
. = (. + _min_heap_size)
*fill*
0xa0000208
0x800 00
.stack
*fill*
0xa0000a08
0xa0000e08
0xa0000a08
.ramfunc
0xa0001000
0xa0001000
*(.ramfunc .ramfunc.*)
0xa0001000
0xa0008000
0x400
. = (. + _min_stack_size)
0x400 00
_ramfunc_begin = .
. = ALIGN (0x4)
_stack =
(_ramfunc_length >0x0)?
(_ramfunc_begin - 0x4):0xa0008000
Cross Reference Table
Symbol
PORTE
foo
main
mylabel
funct
File
./proc/32MX360F512L\processor.o
size\libc.a(default-nmi-handler.o)
size\libc.a(general-exception.o)
intermediate/test.o
size/crt0.o
intermediate\cobject.o
intermediate\cobject.o
size/crt0.o
intermediate\asmobject.o
intermediate\cobject.o
DS51833A-page 97
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
NOTES:
DS51833A-page 98
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
9.1
INTRODUCTION
MPLAB Object Linker for PIC32 MCUs (pic32-ld) may be used on the command line
interface as well as with MPLAB IDE.
Topics covered in this chapter are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
9.2
Options that Control Output File Creation
Options that Control Run-time Initialization
Options that Control Informational Output
Options that Modify the Link Map Output
The linker supports a plethora of command line options, but in actual practice few of
them are used in any particular context.
pic32-ld [options] file...
Note:
Command line options are case sensitive.
For instance, a frequent use of pic32-ld is to link object files and archives to produce
a binary file. To link a file hello.o:
pic32-ld -o output hello.o -lpic32
This tells pic32-ld to produce a file called output as the result of linking the file
hello.o with the archive libpic32.a.
When linking a C application, there are typically several archives (also known as “libraries”) which are included in the link command. The list of archives may be specified
within --start-group, --end-group options to help resolve circular references:
pic32-ld -o output hello.o --start-group -lpic32 -lm -lc --end-group
The command line options to pic32-ld may be specified in any order, and may be
repeated at will. Repeating most options with a different argument will either have no
further effect, or override prior occurrences (those further to the left on the command
line) of that option. Options that may be meaningfully specified more than once are
noted in the descriptions below.
Non-option arguments are object files that are to be linked together. They may follow,
precede or be mixed in with command line options, except that an object file argument
may not be placed between an option and its argument.
Usually the linker is invoked with at least one object file, but you can specify other forms
of binary input files using -l and the script command language. If no binary input files
are specified, the linker does not produce any output, and issues the message ‘No
input files’.
DS51833A-page 99
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
If the linker cannot recognize the format of an object file, it will assume that it is a linker
script. A script specified in this way augments the main linker script used for the link
(either the default linker script or the one specified by using -T). This feature permits
the linker to link against a file that appears to be an object or an archive, but actually
merely defines some symbol values, or uses INPUT or GROUP to load other objects.
For options whose names are a single letter, option arguments must either follow the
option letter without intervening white space, or be given as separate arguments
immediately following the option that requires them.
For options whose names are multiple letters, either one dash or two can precede the
option name; for example, -trace-symbol and --trace-symbol are equivalent.
There is one exception to this rule. Multiple-letter options that begin with the letter o can
only be preceded by two dashes.
Arguments to multiple-letter options must either be separated from the option name
by an equals sign, or be given as separate arguments immediately following the
option that requires them. For example, --trace-symbol srec and
--trace-symbol=srec are equivalent. Unique abbreviations of the names of
multiple-letter options are accepted.
9.3
In practice, the linker is usually invoked via pic32-gcc, the compilation driver. The basic
form of the compilation-driver command line is:
pic32-gcc [options] files
Note:
Command-line options and filename extensions are case sensitive.
To pass a linker option from the compilation driver to the linker, use the -Wl,option
option.
EXAMPLE 9-1:
COMPILATION-DRIVER COMMAND LINE
pic32-gcc -mprocessor=32MX360F512L "input.o" -o"output.elf"
-Os -Wl,--defsym=_min_heap_size=2048,-Map="mapfile.map",
--cref,--report-mem
directly.
• The driver’s -mprocessor option allows the driver to pass the correct
device-specific include-file and library search paths to the linker. For instance,
when specifying -mprocessor=32MX360F512L, the driver passes the corresponding device-specific library search path,
find the correct default linker script and processor library for the target device.
• The driver also uses the -mprocessor option to pass the device-specific peripheral-library name, mchp_peripheral_32MX360F512L, to the linker.
• The driver accepts the C compiler’s optimization, ISA mode, and floating point
support options required to select the appropriate multilib permutation. For example, when passing the -Os size optimization option, the driver passes
pic32mx/lib/size as a library search path so that the linker uses the
pre-compiled libraries optimized for size. See the “MPLAB® C Compiler for PIC32
MCUs User’s Guide” (DS51686) for more information on the C compiler’s multilib
feature.
DS51833A-page 100
9.4
OPTIONS THAT CONTROL OUTPUT FILE CREATION
Output file creation options are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
-( archives -), --start-group archives, --end-group
-d, -dc, -dp
--defsym sym=expr
--gc-sections
--library name (-l name)
--library-path <dir> (-L <dir>)
-nodefaultlibs
-nostartfiles
-nostdlib
--output file (-o file)
--relocatable (-r, -i, -Ur)
--retain-symbols-file file
--section-start sectionname=org
--script file (-T file)
--strip-all (-s)
--strip-debug (-S)
--undefined symbol (-u symbol)
--no-undefined
--wrap symbol
9.4.1
-( archives -), --start-group archives,
--end-group
Start and end a group.
The archives should be a list of archive files. They may be either explicit file names, or
-l options. The specified archives are searched repeatedly until no new undefined
references are created. Normally, an archive is searched only once in the order that it
is specified on the command line. If a symbol in that archive is needed to resolve an
undefined symbol referred to by an object in an archive that appears later on the
command line, the linker would not be able to resolve that reference. By grouping the
archives, they will all be searched repeatedly until all possible references are resolved.
Using this option has a significant performance cost. It is best to use it only when there
are unavoidable circular references between two or more archives.
9.4.2
-d, -dc, -dp
Force common symbols to be defined.
Assign space to common symbols even if a relocatable output file is specified (with -r).
The script command FORCE_COMMON_ALLOCATION has the same effect.
DS51833A-page 101
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
9.4.3
--defsym sym=expr
Define a symbol.
Create a global symbol in the output file, containing the absolute address given by
expr. You may use this option as many times as necessary to define multiple symbols
in the command line. A limited form of arithmetic is supported for the expr in this
context: you may give a hexadecimal constant or the name of an existing symbol, or
use + and - to add or subtract hexadecimal constants or symbols.
Note:
9.4.4
There should be no white space between sym, the equals sign (“=”) and
expr.
9.4.5
9.4.6
--gc-sections
Enable garbage collection of unused input sections. This option is not compatible with
-r. The default behavior (of not performing this garbage collection) can be restored by
specifying --no-gc-sections on the command line.
When link-time garbage collection is in use, marking sections that should not be eliminated is often useful. Mark the section by surrounding an input section’s wildcard entry
with KEEP(), as in KEEP(*(.init)) or KEEP(SORT_BY_NAME(*)(.ctors)).
9.4.7
--library name (-l name)
Search for library name.
Add archive file name to the list of files to link. This option may be used any number of
times. pic32-ld will search its path-list for occurrences of libname.a for every name
specified. The linker will search an archive only once, at the location where it is specified on the command line. If the archive defines a symbol that was undefined in some
object that appeared before the archive on the command line, the linker will include the
appropriate file(s) from the archive. However, an undefined symbol in an object appearing later on the command line will not cause the linker to search the archive again. See
the -( option for a way to force the linker to search archives multiple times. You may
list the same archive multiple times on the command line.
If the format of the archive file is not recognized, the linker will ignore it. Therefore, a
version mismatch between libraries and the linker may result in “undefined symbol”
errors.
9.4.8
--library-path <dir> (-L <dir>)
Add <dir> to library search path.
Add path <dir> to the list of paths that pic32-ld will search for archive libraries and
pic32-ld control scripts. You may use this option any number of times. The directories are searched in the order in which they are specified on the command line. All -L
options apply to all -l options, regardless of the order in which the options appear. The
library paths can also be specified in a link script with the SEARCH_DIR command.
Directories specified this way are searched at the point in which the linker script
appears in the command line.
DS51833A-page 102
9.4.9
-nodefaultlibs
Do not use the standard system libraries when linking. Only the libraries you specify
are passed to the linker. The compiler may generate calls to memcmp, memset and
memcpy. These entries are usually resolved by entries in the standard compiler libraries. These entry points should be supplied through some other mechanism when this
option is specified.
9.4.10
-nostartfiles
Do not pass the default prebuilt C start-up file (pic32mx/lib/crt0.o) to the linker.
You will provide your own version of the start-up code for the application.
9.4.11
-nostdlib
Do not use the standard system start-up files or libraries when linking. No start-up files
and only the libraries you specify are passed to the linker. The compiler may generate
calls to memcmp, memset and memcpy. These entries are usually resolved by entries
in standard compiler libraries. These entry points should be supplied through some
other mechanism when this option is specified.
9.4.12
--output file (-o file)
Set output ELF file name.
Use file as the name for the program produced by pic32-ld; if this option is not
specified, the name a.out is used by default.
9.4.13
--relocatable (-r, -i, -Ur)
Generate relocatable output.
I.e., generate an output file that can in turn serve as input to pic32-ld. This is often
called partial linking. If this option is not specified, an absolute file is produced.
9.4.14
--retain-symbols-file file
Keep only symbols listed in file.
Retain only the symbols listed in the file file, discarding all others. file is simply a
flat file, with one symbol name per line. This option is especially useful in environments
where a large global symbol table is accumulated gradually, to conserve run-time
memory. --retain-symbols-file does not discard undefined symbols, or symbols
needed for relocations. You may only specify --retain-symbols-file once in the
command line. It overrides -s and -S.
9.4.15
--section-start sectionname=org
Locate a section in the output file at the absolute address given by org. You may use
this option as many times as necessary to locate multiple sections in the command line.
org must be a single hexadecimal integer; for compatibility with other linkers, you may
Note:
There should be no white space between sectionname, the equals sign
(=), and org.
DS51833A-page 103
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
9.4.16
--script file (-T file)
default link script (rather than adding to it), so file must specify everything necessary
to describe the target format. If file does not exist, pic32-ld looks for it in the
directories specified by any preceding -L options. Multiple -T options accumulate.
9.4.17
--strip-all (-s)
Strip all symbols. Omit all symbol information from the output file.
9.4.18
--strip-debug (-S)
Strip debugging symbols. Omit debugger symbol information (but not all symbols) from
the output file.
9.4.19
must be a single hexadecimal integer; for compatibility with other linkers, you may omit
Normally the address of this section is specified in a linker script.
9.4.20
must be a single hexadecimal integer; for compatibility with other linkers, you may omit
Normally the address of this section is specified in a linker script.
9.4.21
must be a single hexadecimal integer; for compatibility with other linkers, you may omit
Normally the address of this section is specified in a linker script.
9.4.22
--undefined symbol (-u symbol)
Force symbol to be entered in the output file as an undefined symbol. Doing this may,
for example, trigger linking of additional modules from standard libraries. -u may be
repeated with different option arguments to enter additional undefined symbols.
9.4.23
--no-undefined
Allow no undefined symbols.
DS51833A-page 104
9.4.24
--wrap symbol
Use wrapper functions for symbol
Use a wrapper function for symbol. Any undefined reference to symbol will be resolved
to __wrap_symbol. Any undefined reference to __real_symbol will be resolved to
symbol. This can be used to provide a wrapper for a system function. The wrapper
function should be called __wrap_symbol. If it wishes to call the system function, it
should call __real_symbol.
Here is a trivial example:
void *
__wrap_malloc (int c)
{
printf ("malloc called with %ld\n", c);
return __real_malloc (c);
}
If you link other code with this file using --wrap malloc, then all calls to malloc will
call the function __wrap_malloc instead. The call to __real_malloc in
__wrap_malloc will call the real malloc function. You may wish to provide a
__real_malloc function as well, so that links without the --wrap option will
succeed. If you do this, you should not put the definition of __real_malloc in the
same file as __wrap_malloc; if you do, the assembler may resolve the call before the
linker has a chance to wrap it to malloc.
DS51833A-page 105
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
9.5
OPTIONS THAT CONTROL RUN-TIME INITIALIZATION
Run-time initialization options are:
• --defsym=_min_stack_size=size
• --defsym=_min_heap_size=size
9.5.1
--defsym=_min_stack_size=size
The default linker script provides a minimum stack size of 1024 bytes. Use the --defsym option to define the _min_stack_size symbol to change this default size
value. Note that the actual effective stack size may be larger than the minimum size.
pic32-gcc foo.c -Wl,--defsym=_min_stack_size=1536
9.5.2
--defsym=_min_heap_size=size
The default linker script provides a heap size of 0 bytes. Use the --defsym option to
define the _min_heap_size symbol to change this default size value. The linker creates
a heap with a size defined by this value.
pic32-gcc foo.c -Wl,--defsym=_min_heap_size=2048
9.6
OPTIONS THAT CONTROL MULTILIB LIBRARY SELECTION
Multilibs are a set of prebuilt target libraries. Each target library in the multilib gets built
with a different set of compiler options. Multilibs provide the linker with the capability to
match a target library with the compiler options used to build an application. The prebuilt target libraries represent the most common combinations of compiler options.
When the compilation driver is called to link an application, the driver chooses the version of the target library that corresponds to the application options. These options
should be passed to the compilation driver, not the linker proper. The compilation driver
then translates the options to the appropriate -L library search path when calling the
Note:
9.6.1
MPLAB IDE 8.20 shows the multilib options on the “Library Selection” category of the linker tab of the project’s build options. See the “MPLAB® C
Compiler PIC32 MCUs User’s Guide” (DS51686) for more details on the
multilib feature.
Size versus speed (-Os vs. -O3)
Select either -Os to optimize for size or -O0 through -O3 to optimize for speed.
-O0
Select the unoptimized multilib target-library permutation. (This is the default for the
command-line interface, but MPLAB IDE’s project manager may pass one of the other
optimization options by default.)
-O1
Select the multilib target-library permutation built with optimization level 1.
-O2
Select the multilib target-library permutation built with optimization level 2. This optimization level provides a good balance between execution speed and code size. This
multilib optimization level is a good choice for most applications.
DS51833A-page 106
-O3
Select the multilib target-library permutation built with optimization level 3. This optimization maximizes execution speed.
-Os
Select the multilib target-library permutation built optimized for code size.
Example:
pic32-gcc foo.o -Os -o project.elf
9.6.2
16-bit versus 32-bit (-mips16 vs. -mno-mips16)
Selects multilib permutation based on -mips16 or -mno-mips16 ISA mode.
Example:
pic32-gcc foo.o -O3 -mips16 -o project.elf
9.6.3
Software floating point versus no floating point support
The no-float library permutations typically have significantly less overhead than the
floating point library permutations. If your application does not require floating point
support, use this option.
-mno-float
Selects the multilib target-library permutation that does not support software floating
point operations.
Example:
pic32-gcc foo.o -Os -mno-mips16 -mno-float -o project.elf
-msoft-float
Selects the multilib-target-library permutation with full software floating point support.
9.7
OPTIONS THAT CONTROL INFORMATIONAL OUTPUT
Information output options are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
--check-sections
--no-check-sections
--help
--no-warn-mismatch
--report-mem
--trace (-t)
--trace-symbol symbol (-y symbol)
-V
--verbose
--version (-v)
--warn-common
--warn-once
--warn-section-align
9.7.1
--check-sections
Check section addresses for overlaps. (This is the default.) Normally the linker will
perform this check, and it will produce a suitable error message if it finds an overlap.
DS51833A-page 107
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
9.7.2
--no-check-sections
Do not check section addresses for overlaps.
9.7.3
--help
Print option help.
Print a summary of the command line options on the standard output and exit.
9.7.4
--no-warn-mismatch
Do not warn about mismatched input files.
Normally pic32-ld will give an error if you try to link together input files that are
mismatched for some reason, perhaps because they have been compiled for different
processors or for different endiannesses. This option tells pic32-ld that it should
silently permit such possible errors. This option should only be used with care, in cases
when you have taken some special action that ensures that the linker errors are
inappropriate.
9.7.5
--report-mem
Print a memory usage report. (Requires v1.05 or later.)
Print a summary of memory usage to standard output during the link. This report also
9.7.6
--trace (-t)
Trace file.
Print the names of the input files as pic32-ld processes them.
9.7.7
--trace-symbol symbol (-y symbol)
Trace mentions of symbol.
Print the name of each linked file in which symbol appears. This option may be given
any number of times. This option is useful when you have an undefined symbol in your
link but do not know where the reference is coming from.
9.7.8
-V
Print version and other information.
9.7.9
--verbose
Output lots of information during link.
Display the version number for pic32-ld. Display the input files that can and cannot
be opened. Display the linker script if using a default built-in script.
9.7.10
--version (-v)
Print version information.
9.7.11
--warn-common
Warn when a common symbol is combined with another common symbol or with a
symbol definition. This option allows you to find potential problems from combining
global symbols. There are three kinds of global symbols, illustrated here by C
examples:
int i = 1;
DS51833A-page 108
A definition, which goes in the initialized data section of the output file.
extern int i;
An undefined reference, which does not allocate space. There must be either a
definition or a common symbol for the variable somewhere.
int i;
A common symbol. If there are only (one or more) common symbols for a variable, it
goes in the uninitialized data area of the output file.
The linker merges multiple common symbols for the same variable into a single
symbol. If they are of different sizes, it picks the largest size. The linker turns a common
symbol into a declaration, if there is a definition of the same variable.
The --warn-common option can produce five kinds of warnings. Each warning
consists of a pair of lines: the first describes the symbol just encountered, and the
second describes the previous symbol encountered with the same name. One or both
of the two symbols will be a common symbol.
Turning a common symbol into a reference, because there is already a definition for the
symbol.
file(section): warning: common of ‘symbol’ overridden by definition
file(section): warning: defined here
Turning a common symbol into a reference, because a later definition for the symbol is
encountered. This is the same as the previous case, except that the symbols are
encountered in a different order.
file(section): warning: definition of ‘symbol’ overriding common
file(section): warning: common is here
Merging a common symbol with a previous same-sized common symbol.
file(section): warning: multiple common of ‘symbol’
file(section): warning: previous common is here
Merging a common symbol with a previous larger common symbol.
file(section): warning: common of ‘symbol’ overridden by larger common
file(section): warning: larger common is here
Merging a common symbol with a previous smaller common symbol. This is the same
as the previous case, except that the symbols are encountered in a different order.
file(section): warning: common of ‘symbol’ overriding smaller common
file(section): warning: smaller common is here
9.7.12
--warn-once
Warn only once for each undefined symbol, rather than once per module that refers to
it.
9.7.13
--warn-section-align
Warn if start of section changes due to alignment. This means a gap has been introduced into the (normally sequential) allocation of memory. Typically, an input section
will set the alignment. The address will only be changed if it is not explicitly specified;
that is, if the SECTIONS command does not specify a start address for the section.
DS51833A-page 109
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
9.8
OPTIONS THAT MODIFY THE LINK MAP OUTPUT
Link map output modifying options are:
• --cref
• --print-map (-M)
• -Map file
9.8.1
--cref
Output cross reference table.
If a linker map file is being generated, the cross-reference table is printed to the map
file. Otherwise, it is printed on the standard output. The format of the table is intentionally simple, so that a script may easily process it if necessary. The symbols are printed
out, sorted by name. For each symbol, a list of file names is given. If the symbol is
defined, the first file listed is the location of the definition. The remaining files contain
references to the symbol.
9.8.2
--print-map (-M)
Print map file on standard output. A link map provides information about the link, including the following:
• Where object files and symbols are mapped into memory.
• How common symbols are allocated.
• All archive members included in the link, with a mention of the symbol which
caused the archive member to be brought in.
9.8.3
-Map file
Write a map file.
Print a link map to the file file. See the description of the --print-map (-M)
option.
DS51833A-page 110
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
10.1
INTRODUCTION
Linker scripts are used to control MPLAB Object Linker for PIC32 MCUs (pic32-ld)
functions. By default, the linker uses a built-in linker script with a device-specific
include file. However, you can also customize your linker script for specialized control
Topics covered in this chapter are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
10.2
Command Line Information
• allocation of data memory and program memory
• mapping of sections from input files into the output file
• construction of special data structures (such as interrupt vector tables)
Linker scripts are text files that contain a series of commands. Each command is either
a keyword, possibly followed by arguments, or an assignment to a symbol.
10.3
COMMAND LINE INFORMATION
Linker scripts are specified on the command line using either the -T option or the
--script option (see Section 9.4 “Options that Control Output File Creation”):
pic32-ld -o output.elf input.o --script mylinkerscript.ld
If the linker is invoked through pic32-gcc, add the -Wl, prefix to allow the option to
10.4
If no linker script is specified on the command line, the linker will use an internal version
known as the built-in default linker script. The default linker script has section mapping
that is appropriate for all PIC32 MCUs. It uses an INCLUDE directive to include the
device-specific memory regions.
The default linker script is appropriate for most PIC32 MCU applications. Only applications with specific memory-allocation needs will require an application-specific linker
script. The default linker script can be examined by invoking the linker with the
--verbose option:
pic32-ld --verbose
DS51833A-page 111
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
In a normal toolsuite installation, a copy of the default linker script is located at
\pic32mx\lib\ldscripts\elf32pic32mx.x. Note that this file is only a copy of
The device-specific portion of the linker script is located in
\pic32mx\lib\proc\device\procdefs.ld, where device is the device value
specified to the -mprocessor compilation-driver (pic32-gcc) option.
Note:
The MPLAB® C Compiler for PIC32 MCUs User’s Guide (DS51686) examines the contents of the default linker script in detail. The discussion applies
to both assembly-code and C-code projects.
The default linker script maps each standard input section to one or more specific
MEMORY regions. In turn, each MEMORY region maps to an address segment on the
PIC32 MCU (e.g., kseg0, kseg1). See Section 3 of the “PIC32MX Family Reference
Manual” (DS61115) for a full description of the user/kernel address segments.
The table below shows how the default linker script maps standard sections to
MEMORY regions.
TABLE 10-1:
PIC32 RESERVED, STANDARD SECTION NAMES IN DEFAULT LINKER SCRIPT
Section Name
Generated by
Final Location
MEMORY Region
.reset
Reset handler
Executable boot-code segment
kseg0_boot_mem
.bev_excpt
BEV-Exception handler
Executable boot-code segment
kseg0_boot_mem
.app_excpt
General-Exception handler
Executable boot-code segment
kseg0_boot_mem
.vector_n
Interrupt Vector n
Executable boot-code segment
kseg0_boot_mem
.startup
C start-up code
Executable boot-code segment
kseg0_boot_mem
.text
Compiler- or assembler-generated Executable code segment
instructions
kseg0_program_mem
.rodata
Strings and C data declared const
kseg0_program_mem
.sdata2
Small initialized constant global
and static data
kseg0_program_mem
.sbss2
Uninitialized constant global and
static data (i.e., variables which
will always be zero)
kseg0_program_mem
.data
Variables >n bytes (compiled -Gn) Initialized data segment
with an initial value. Values copied
from program memory to data
memory at C start-up.
kseg1_data_mem &
kseg0_program_mem
.sdata
Variables <=n bytes (compiled
Small initialized data segment
-Gn) with an initial value. Used for
kseg1_data_mem &
kseg0_program_mem
.lit4 /
.lit8
Constants (usually floating point)
which the assembler decides to
store in memory rather than in the
instruction stream. Used for
Small initialized data segment
kseg1_data_mem &
kseg0_program_mem
.sbss
Uninitialized variables <=n bytes
(compiled -Gn). Used for
Small zero-filled segment
kseg1_data_mem
.bss
Uninitialized larger variables
Zero-filled segment
kseg1_data_mem
.heap
Heap used for dynamic memory
kseg1_data_mem
.stack
Minimum space reserved for stack Reserved by linker script
kseg1_data_mem
DS51833A-page 112
TABLE 10-1:
Section Name
PIC32 RESERVED, STANDARD SECTION NAMES IN DEFAULT LINKER SCRIPT
Generated by
MEMORY Region
Final Location
.ramfunc
RAM-functions, copied from proInitialized data segment
gram memory to data memory at C
startup
kseg1_data_mem &
kseg0_program_mem
.reginfo
.stab*
.debug*
Debug information
n/a
.line
DWARF debug information
n/a
.comment
#ident/.ident strings
n/a
10.5
The standard default 32-bit linker scripts are general purpose and will satisfy the
demands of most applications. However, an occasion may arise where a custom linker
script is required.
1. Under Project>Select Language Toolsuite, “Active Toolsuite”, select “Microchip
PIC32 C-Compiler Toolsuite”. Use this suite for both assembly code and C code
projects.
2. Create a new text file and save it with a .ld file extension.
3. Add the new *.ld file to your project. It should now appear in the project tree.
The MPLAB IDE project manager should now pass the *.ld file to the linker with the
--script option when calling the linker via the compilation driver.
Note:
While these instructions are based on the project manager in MPLAB IDE
v8.15, the steps required for other 8.xx versions should be similar.
Starting with the default linker script is almost always easier than starting from scratch.
Use a text editor to copy the contents of the \pic32mx\lib\ldscripts\
elf32pic32mx.x default linker script into your newly created *.ld file. You may also
replace the INCLUDE procdefs.ld directive with the contents of the device-specific
\pic32mx\lib\proc\device\procdefs.ld portion of the linker script.
Customizations that you make to your new *.ld file should now affect your project.
You may wish to retain unused sections in a custom linker script, since unused sections
will not impact application memory usage. If a section must be removed for a custom
script, C style comments can be used to disable it.
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10.6
Linker scripts are text files that contain a series of commands. Each command is either
a keyword, possibly followed by arguments, or an assignment to a symbol. Multiple
commands may be separated using semicolons. White space is generally ignored.
Strings such as file or format names can normally be entered directly. If the file name
contains a character such as a comma which would otherwise serve to separate file
names, the file name may be specified in double quotes. There is no way to use a
double quote character in a file name.
Comments may be included just as in C, delimited by /* and */. As in C, comments
are syntactically equivalent to white space.
10.6.1
The linker combines input files into a single output file. The output file and each input
file are in a special data format known as an ELF object file format. Each file is called
an object file. Each object file has, among other things, a list of sections. A section in
an input file is called an input section; similarly, a section in the output file is an output
section.
Each section in an object file has a name and a size. Most sections also have an
associated block of data, known as the section contents. A section may be marked as
loadable, which mean that the contents should be loaded into memory when the output
file is run. A section with no contents may be allocatable, which means that an area in
memory should be set aside, but nothing in particular should be loaded there (in some
cases this memory must be zeroed out).
Every loadable or allocatable output section has two addresses. The first is the VMA,
or virtual memory address. This is the address the section will have when the output
file is run. The second is the LMA, or load memory address. This is the address at
which the section will be loaded. In most cases, the two addresses will be the same.
An example of when they might be different is when a section is intended to contain
RAM-located functions (e.g., the default .ramfunc section). In this case, the program
memory address would be the LMA and the data memory address would be the VMA.
Note:
Both the VMA and the LMA use the PIC32 MCU’s virtual address. See the
“PIC32MX Family Reference Manual” (DS61115) for a description of the
PIC32MX Virtual-to-Physical Fixed Memory Mapping. In addition, the
family reference manual describes the PIC32 memory layout.
The sections in an object file can be viewed by using the pic32-objdump program
with the -h option.
Every object file also has a list of symbols, known as the symbol table. A symbol may
be defined or undefined. Each symbol has a name, and each defined symbol has an
address, among other information. If a C program is compiled into an object file, a
defined symbol will be created for every defined function and global or static variable.
Every undefined function or global variable which is referenced in the input file will
become an undefined symbol.
Symbols in an object file can be viewed by using the pic32-nm program, or by using
the pic32-objdump program with the -t option.
10.6.2
Commands Dealing with Files
Several linker script commands deal with files.
INCLUDE filename
DS51833A-page 114
Include the linker script filename at this point. The file will be searched for in the current
directory, and in any directory specified with the -L option. Calls to INCLUDE may be
nested up to 10 levels deep.
INPUT(file, file, ...)
INPUT(file file ...)
The INPUT command directs the linker to include the named files in the link, as though
they were named on the command line. The linker will first try to open the file in the
search path. See the description of -L in Section 9.4.8 “--library-path <dir>
(-L <dir>)”.
If INPUT (-lfile) is used, pic32-ld will transform the name to libfile.a, as
with the command line argument -l.
When the INPUT command appears in an implicit linker script, the files will be included
in the link at the point at which the linker script file is included. This can affect archive
searching.
GROUP(file, file, ...)
GROUP(file file ...)
The GROUP command is like INPUT, except that the named files should all be archives,
and they are searched repeatedly until no new undefined references are created. See
the description of -( in Section 9.4.1 “-( archives -), --start-group
archives, --end-group”.
OUTPUT(filename)
The OUTPUT command names the output file. Using OUTPUT(filename) in the linker
script is exactly like using -o filename on the command line (see
Section 9.4.12 “--output file (-o file)”). If both are used, the command line
option takes precedence.
SEARCH_DIR(path)
The SEARCH_DIR command adds path to the list of paths where the linker looks for
archive libraries. Using SEARCH_DIR(path) is exactly like using -L path on the
command line (see Section 9.4.8 “--library-path <dir> (-L <dir>)”). If both
are used, then the linker will search both paths. Paths specified using the command
line option are searched first.
STARTUP(filename)
The STARTUP command is just like the INPUT command, except that filename will
become the first input file to be linked, as though it were specified first on the command
line.
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32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
10.6.3
Assigning Values to Symbols
A value may be assigned to a symbol in a linker script. This will define the symbol as a
global symbol.
10.6.3.1
SIMPLE ASSIGNMENTS
A symbol may be assigned using any of the C assignment operators:
symbol
symbol
symbol
symbol
symbol
symbol
symbol
symbol
symbol
= expression ;
+= expression ;
-= expression ;
*= expression ;
/= expression ;
<<= expression ;
>>= expression ;
&= expression ;
|= expression ;
The first case will define symbol to the value of expression. In the other cases, symbol
The special symbol name ‘.’ indicates the location counter. This symbol may only be
used within a SECTIONS command.
The semicolon after expression is required.
Expressions are defined in Section 10.7 “Expressions in Linker Scripts”.
Symbol assignments may appear as commands in their own right, or as statements
within a SECTIONS command, or as part of an output section description in a
SECTIONS command.
The section of the symbol will be set from the section of the expression; for more
information, see Section 10.7.6 “The Section of an Expression”.
Here is an example showing the three different places that symbol assignments may
be used:
floating_point = 0;
SECTIONS
{
.text ORIGIN(kseg0_program_mem)
{
_text_begin = . ;
*(.text .stub .text.* )
_text_end = . ;
} >kseg0_program_mem =0
_bdata = (. + 3) & ~ 3;
.data : { *(.data) }
}
:
In this example, the symbol floating_point will be defined as zero. The symbol
_text_end will be defined as the address following the last .text input section. The
symbol _bdata will be defined as the address following the .text output section
aligned upward to a 4-byte boundary.
DS51833A-page 116
10.6.3.2
PROVIDE
In some cases, it is desirable for a linker script to define a symbol only if it is referenced
defined the symbol etext. However, ANSI C requires that etext may be used as a
function name without encountering an error. The PROVIDE keyword may be used to
define a symbol, such as etext, only if it is referenced but not defined. The syntax is
PROVIDE(symbol = expression).
Here is an example of using PROVIDE to define etext:
SECTIONS
{
.text :
{
*(.text)
_etext = .;
PROVIDE(etext = .);
}
}
The PIC32 default linker script uses the PROVIDE command to define the default
_min_stack_size, _min_heap_size, and _vector_spacing symbol values.
PROVIDE(_min_stack_size = 0x400) ;
PROVIDE(_min_heap_size = 0) ;
PROVIDE(_vector_spacing = 0x00000001);
10.6.4
MEMORY Command
The linker’s default configuration permits allocation of all available memory. This can
be overridden by using the MEMORY command.
The MEMORY command describes the location and size of blocks of memory in the
target. It can be used to describe which memory regions may be used by the linker and
which memory regions it must avoid. Sections may then be assigned to particular
memory regions. The linker will set section addresses based on the memory regions
and will warn about regions that become too full. The linker will not shuffle sections
around to fit into the available regions.
The syntax of the MEMORY command is:
MEMORY
{
name [(attr)] : ORIGIN = origin, LENGTH = len
...
}
The name is a name used in the linker script to refer to the region. The region name
has no meaning outside of the linker script. Region names are stored in a separate
name space, and will not conflict with symbol names, file names or section names.
Each memory region must have a distinct name.
The attr string must consist only of the following characters:
R
W
X
Executable section
A
Allocatable section
I
Initialized section
L
Same as I
!
Invert the sense of any of the following attributes
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32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
If an unmapped section matches any of the listed attributes other than !, it will be
placed in the memory region. The ! attribute reverses this test, so that an unmapped
section will be placed in the memory region only if it does not match any of the listed
attributes.
The origin is an expression for the start address of the memory region. The expression
must evaluate to a constant before memory allocation is performed, which means that
section relative symbols may not be used. The keyword ORIGIN may be abbreviated
to org or o (but not, for example, ORG).
The len is an expression for the size in bytes of the memory region. As with the origin
expression, the expression must evaluate to a constant before memory allocation is
performed. The keyword LENGTH may be abbreviated to len or l.
In the following example, we specify that there are two memory regions available for
allocation: one starting at 0 for 48 kilobytes, and the other starting at 0x800 for two
kilobytes. The linker will place into the rom memory region every section which is not
explicitly mapped into a memory region, and is either read-only or executable. The
linker will place other sections which are not explicitly mapped into a memory region
into the ram memory region.
MEMORY
{
rom (rx) : ORIGIN = 0, LENGTH = 48K
ram (!rx) : org = 0x800, l = 2K
}
Once a memory region is defined, the linker can be directed to place specific output
sections into that memory region by using the >region output section attribute. For
example, to specify a memory region named mem, use >mem in the output section
definition. If no address was specified for the output section, the linker will set the
address to the next available address within the memory region. If the combined output
sections directed to a memory region are too large for the region, the linker will issue
an error message.
10.6.5
SECTIONS Command
The SECTIONS command tells the linker how to map input sections into output sections
and how to place the output sections in memory.
The format of the SECTIONS command is:
SECTIONS
{
sections-command
sections-command
...
}
Each SECTIONS command may be one of the following:
•
•
•
•
an ENTRY command (see Section 10.6.6 “Other Linker Script Commands”)
a symbol assignment (see Section 10.6.3 “Assigning Values to Symbols”)
an output section description
an overlay description
The ENTRY command and symbol assignments are permitted inside the SECTIONS
command for convenience in using the location counter in those commands. This can
also make the linker script easier to understand because those commands can be used
at meaningful points in the layout of the output file.
Output section descriptions and overlay descriptions are described below.
DS51833A-page 118
If a SECTIONS command does not appear in the linker script, the linker will place each
input section into an identically named output section in the order that the sections are
first encountered in the input files. If all input sections are present in the first file, for
example, the order of sections in the output file will match the order in the first input file.
The first section will be at address zero.
10.6.5.1
INPUT SECTION DESCRIPTION
The most common output section command is an input section description.
The input section description is the most basic linker script operation. Output sections
tell the linker how to lay out the program in memory. Input section descriptions tell the
linker how to map the input files into the memory layout.
An input section description consists of a file name optionally followed by a list of
section names in parentheses.
The file name and the section name may be wildcard patterns, which are described
further below.
The most common input section description is to include all input sections with a
particular name in the output section. For example, to include all input .text sections,
one would write:
*(.text)
Here the * is a wildcard which matches any file name. To exclude a list of files from
matching the file name wildcard, EXCLUDE_FILE may be used to match all files except
the ones specified in the EXCLUDE_FILE list. For example:
*(EXCLUDE_FILE (*crtend.o *otherfile.o) .ctors)
will cause all .ctors sections from all files except crtend.o and otherfile.o to
be included.
There are two ways to include more than one section:
*(.text .rodata)
*(.text) *(.rodata)
The difference between these is the order in which the .text and .rodata input
sections will appear in the output section. In the first example, they will be intermingled.
In the second example, all .text input sections will appear first, followed by all
.rodata input sections.
A file name can be specified to include sections from a particular file. This would be
useful if one of the files contain special data that needs to be at a particular location in
memory. For example:
data.o(.data)
If a file name is specified without a list of sections, then all sections in the input file will
be included in the output section. This is not commonly done, but it may be useful on
occasion. For example:
data.o
When a file name is specified which does not contain any wildcard characters, the
linker will first see if the file name was also specified on the linker command line or in
an INPUT command. If not, the linker will attempt to open the file as an input file, as
though it appeared on the command line. This differs from an INPUT command
because the linker will not search for the file in the archive search path.
10.6.5.2
INPUT SECTION WILDCARD PATTERNS
In an input section description, either the file name or the section name or both may be
wildcard patterns.
The file name of * seen in many examples is a simple wildcard pattern for the file name.
DS51833A-page 119
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
The wildcard patterns are like those used by the UNIX shell.
*
matches any number of characters
?
matches any single character
[chars]
matches a single instance of any of the chars; the - character may be used to
specify a range of characters, as in [a-z] to match any lowercase letter
\
quotes the following character
When a file name is matched with a wildcard, the wildcard characters will not match a
/ character (used to separate directory names on UNIX). A pattern consisting of a
single * character is an exception; it will always match any file name, whether it
contains a / or not. In a section name, the wildcard characters will match a / character.
File name wildcard patterns only match files which are explicitly specified on the
command line or in an INPUT command. The linker does not search directories to
expand wildcards.
If a file name matches more than one wildcard pattern, or if a file name appears
explicitly and is also matched by a wildcard pattern, the linker will use the first match in
the linker script. For example, this sequence of input section descriptions is probably
in error, because the data.o rule will not be used:
.data : { *(.data) }
.data1 : { data.o(.data) }
Normally, the linker will place files and sections matched by wildcards in the order in
which they are seen during the link. This can be changed by using the SORT keyword,
which appears before a wildcard pattern in parentheses (e.g., SORT(.text*)). When
the SORT keyword is used, the linker will sort the files or sections into ascending order
by name before placing them in the output file.
To verify where the input sections are going, use the -M linker option to generate a map
file. The map file shows precisely how input sections are mapped to output sections.
This example shows how wildcard patterns might be used to partition files. This linker
script directs the linker to place all .text sections in .text and all .bss sections in
.bss. The linker will place the .data section from all files beginning with an uppercase
character in .DATA; for all other files, the linker will place the .data section in .data.
SECTIONS {
.text : { *(.text) }
.DATA : { [A-Z]*(.data) }
.data : { *(.data) }
.bss : { *(.bss) }
}
DS51833A-page 120
10.6.5.3
INPUT SECTION FOR COMMON SYMBOLS
A special notation is needed for common symbols, because common symbols do not
have a particular input section. The linker treats common symbols as though they are
in an input section named COMMON.
File names may be used with the COMMON section just as with any other input sections.
This will place common symbols from a particular input file in one section, while
common symbols from other input files are placed in another section.
In most cases, common symbols in input files will be placed in the .bss section in the
output file. For example:
.bss { *(.bss) *(COMMON) }
If not otherwise specified, common symbols will be assigned to section .bss.
10.6.5.4
INPUT SECTION EXAMPLE
The following example is a complete linker script. It tells the linker to read all of the
sections from file all.o and place them at the start of output section outputa which
starts at location 0x10000. All of section .input1 from file foo.o follows immediately, in the same output section. All of section .input2 from foo.o goes into output
section outputb, followed by section .input1 from foo1.o. All of the remaining
.input1 and .input2 sections from any files are written to output section outputc.
SECTIONS {
outputa 0x10000 :
{
all.o
foo.o (.input1)
}
outputb :
{
foo.o (.input2)
foo1.o (.input1)
}
outputc :
{
*(.input1)
*(.input2)
}
}
10.6.5.5
OUTPUT SECTION DESCRIPTION
The full description of an output section looks like this:
{
output-section-command
output-section-command
...
} [>region] [AT>lma_region] [=fillexp]
Most output sections do not use most of the optional section attributes.
The white space around name and address is required. The colon and the curly
braces are also required. The line breaks and other white space are optional.
A section name may consist of any sequence of characters, but a name which contains
any unusual characters such as commas must be quoted.
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Each output-section-command may be one of the following:
• a symbol assignment (see Section 10.6.3 “Assigning Values to Symbols”)
• an input section description (see Section 10.6.5.1 “Input Section Description”)
• data values to include directly (see Section 10.6.5.7 “Output Section Data”)
10.6.5.6
The address is an expression for the VMA (the virtual memory address) of the output
section. If address is not provided, the linker will set it based on region if present, or
otherwise based on the current value of the location counter.
If address is provided, the address of the output section will be set to precisely that.
If neither address nor region is provided, then the address of the output section will
be set to the current value of the location counter aligned to the alignment requirements
of the output section. The alignment requirement of the output section is the strictest
alignment of any input section contained within the output section.
For example,
.text . : { *(.text) }
and
.text : { *(.text) }
are subtly different. The first will set the address of the .text output section to the
current value of the location counter. The second will set it to the current value of the
location counter aligned to the strictest alignment of a .text input section.
The address may be an arbitrary expression (see Section 10.7 “Expressions in
Linker Scripts”). For example, to align the section on a 0x10 byte boundary, so that
the lowest four bits of the section address are zero, the command could look like this:
.text ALIGN(0x10) : { *(.text) }
This works because ALIGN returns the current location counter aligned upward to the
specified value.
Specifying address for a section will change the value of the location counter.
10.6.5.7
OUTPUT SECTION DATA
Explicit bytes of data may be inserted into an output section by using BYTE, SHORT,
LONG or QUAD as an output section command. Each keyword is followed by an
expression in parentheses providing the value to store. The value of the expression is
stored at the current value of the location counter.
The BYTE, SHORT, LONG and QUAD commands store one, two, four and eight bytes
(respectively). For example, this command will store the four byte value of the symbol
After storing the bytes, the location counter is incremented by the number of bytes
stored. When using data commands in a program memory section, it is important to
note that the linker considers program memory to be 32-bits wide, even though only 24
bits are physically implemented. Therefore, the Most Significant 8 bits of a LONG data
value are not loaded into device memory.
Data commands only work inside a section description and not between them, so the
following will produce an error from the linker:
SECTIONS { .text : { *(.text) } LONG(1) .data : { *(.data) } }
whereas this will work:
SECTIONS { .text : { *(.text) ; LONG(1) } .data : { *(.data) } }
DS51833A-page 122
The FILL command may be used to set the fill pattern for the current section. It is
followed by an expression in parentheses. Any otherwise unspecified regions of
memory within the section (for example, gaps left due to the required alignment of input
sections) are filled with the two Least Significant Bytes of the expression, repeated as
necessary. A FILL statement covers memory locations after the point at which it occurs
in the section definition; by including more than one FILL statement, different fill
patterns may be used in different parts of an output section.
This example shows how to fill unspecified regions of memory with the value 0x9090:
FILL(0x9090)
The FILL command is similar to the =fillexp output section attribute (see
Section 10.6.5.9 “Output Section Attributes”), but it only affects the part of the
section following the FILL command, rather than the entire section. If both are used,
the FILL command takes precedence.
10.6.5.8
The linker will not create an output section which does not have any contents. This is
for convenience when referring to input sections that may or may not be present in any
of the input files. For example:
.foo { *(.foo) }
will only create a .foo section in the output file if there is a .foo section in at least one
input file.
If anything other than an input section description is used as an output section
command, such as a symbol assignment, then the output section will always be
created, even if there are no matching input sections.
The special output section name /DISCARD/ may be used to discard input sections.
Any input sections which are assigned to an output section named /DISCARD/ are not
included in the output file.
10.6.5.9
OUTPUT SECTION ATTRIBUTES
To review, the full description of an output section is:
{
output-section-command
output-section-command
...
} [>region] [AT>lma_region] [:phdr :phdr ...] [=fillexp]
the following sections, the remaining section attributes will be described.
10.6.5.10 OUTPUT SECTION TYPE
Each output section may have a type. The type is a keyword in parentheses. The
following types are defined:
The section should be marked as not loadable, so that it will not be loaded into memory
when the program is run.
DSECT, COPY, INFO, OVERLAY
These type names are supported for backward compatibility with older MIPS and GNU
assemblers but are rarely used. They all have the same effect: the section should be
marked as not allocatable, so that no memory is allocated for the section when the
program is run.
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The linker normally sets the attributes of an output section based on the input sections
which map into it. This can be overridden by using the section type. For example, in the
script sample below, the ROM section is addressed at memory location 0 and does not
need to be loaded when the program is run. The contents of the ROM section will appear
in the linker output file as usual.
SECTIONS {
ROM 0 (NOLOAD) : { ... }
...
}
10.6.5.11 OUTPUT SECTION LMA
expression which may appear in an output section description sets the VMA.
The linker will normally set the LMA equal to the VMA. This can be changed by using
the AT keyword. The expression lma that follows the AT keyword specifies the load
address of the section. Alternatively, with AT>lma_region expression, a memory
region may be specified for the section’s load address. See Section 10.6.4 “MEMORY
Command”.
This feature is designed to make it easy to build a ROM image. For example, the
following linker script creates three output sections: one called .text, which starts at
0xBFC00000, one called .mdata, which is loaded at the end of the .text section
even though its VMA is 0xA0000000, and one called .bss to hold uninitialized data at
address 0xA0001000. The symbol _data is defined with the value 0xA0000000,
which shows that the location counter holds the VMA value, not the LMA value.
SECTIONS
{
.text 0xBFC00000: { *(.text) _etext = . ; }
.mdata 0xA0000000:
AT ( ADDR (.text) + SIZEOF (.text) )
{ _data = . ; *(.data); _edata = . ; }
.bss 0xA0001000:
{ _bstart = . ; *(.bss) *(COMMON) ; _bend = . ;}
}
The run-time initialization code for use with a program generated with this linker script
would include a function to copy the initialized data from the ROM image to its run-time
address. The initialization function could take advantage of the symbols defined by the
Writing such a function would rarely be necessary, however. These functions are provided by the C compiler’s start-up and initialization code. See the “MPLAB® C Compiler
for PIC32 MCUs User’s Guide” (DS51686) for more information on the start-up code
provided with the compiler. The assembly source code for the start-up routine is provided in \pic32-libs\c\startup\crt0.S.
10.6.5.12 OUTPUT SECTION REGION
A section can be assigned to a previously defined region of memory by using >region.
See Section 10.6.4 “MEMORY Command”.
Here is a simple example:
MEMORY { rom : ORIGIN = 0x1000, LENGTH = 0x1000 }
SECTIONS { ROM : { *(.text) } >rom }
DS51833A-page 124
10.6.5.13 OUTPUT SECTION FILL
A fill pattern can be set for an entire section by using =fillexp. fillexp as an
expression. Any otherwise unspecified regions of memory within the output section (for
example, gaps left due to the required alignment of input sections) will be filled with the
two Least Significant Bytes of the value, repeated as necessary.
The fill value can also be changed with a FILL command in the output section
commands; see Section 10.6.5.7 “Output Section Data”.
Here is a simple example:
SECTIONS { .text : { *(.text) } =0x9090 }
10.6.5.14 OVERLAY DESCRIPTION
An overlay description provides an easy way to describe sections which are to be
loaded as part of a single memory image but are to be run at the same memory
address. At run time, some sort of overlay manager will copy the overlaid sections in
and out of the run-time memory address as required, perhaps by simply manipulating
Overlays are described using the OVERLAY command. The OVERLAY command is
used within a SECTIONS command, like an output section description. The full syntax
of the OVERLAY command is as follows:
OVERLAY [start] : [NOCROSSREFS] [AT ( ldaddr )]
{
secname1
{
output-section-command
output-section-command
...
} [:phdr...] [=fill]
secname2
{
output-section-command
output-section-command
...
} [:phdr...] [=fill]
...
} [>region] [:phdr...] [=fill]
Everything is optional except OVERLAY (a keyword), and each section must have a
name (secname1 and secname2 above). The section definitions within the OVERLAY
construct are identical to those within the general SECTIONS construct, except that no
addresses and no memory regions may be defined for sections within an OVERLAY.
sections are arranged such that they are consecutive in memory starting at the load
address used for the OVERLAY as a whole (as with normal section definitions, the load
and defaults to the current value of the location counter).
If the NOCROSSREFS keyword is used, and there are any references among the
sections, the linker will report an error. Since the sections all run at the same address,
it normally does not make sense for one section to refer directly to another.
For each section within the OVERLAY, the linker automatically defines two symbols. The
the section. Any characters within secname which are not legal within C identifiers are
removed. C (or assembler) code may use these symbols to move the overlaid sections
around as necessary.
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At the end of the overlay, the value of the location counter is set to the start address of
the overlay plus the size of the largest section.
Here is an example. Remember that this would appear inside a SECTIONS construct.
OVERLAY 0x9D001000 : AT (0xA0004000)
{
.text0 { o1/*.o(.text) }
.text1 { o2/*.o(.text) }
}
This will define both .text0 and .text1 to start at address 0x9D001000. .text0
.text0. The following symbols will be defined: __load_start_text0,
C code to copy overlay .text1 into the overlay area might look like the following:
The OVERLAY command is a convenience, since everything it does can be done using
the more basic commands. The above example could have been written identically as
follows.
.text0 0x9D001000: AT (0x9D004000) { o1/*.o(.text) }
.text1 0x9D001000: AT(0x9D004000+SIZEOF(.text0))
{o2/*.o(.text) }
. = 0x9D001000+ MAX (SIZEOF (.text0), SIZEOF (.text1));
10.6.6
There are several other linker script commands, which are described briefly:
ASSERT(exp, message)
Ensure that exp is non-zero. If it is zero, then exit the linker with an error code, and print
message.
ENTRY(symbol)
Specify symbol as the first instruction to execute in the program. The linker will record
the address of this symbol in the output object file header. This does not affect the
Reset instruction at address zero, which must be generated in some other way. By
convention, the 32-bit linker scripts construct a GOTO __reset instruction at address
zero.
EXTERN(symbol symbol ...)
Force symbol to be entered in the output file as an undefined symbol. Doing this may,
symbols may be listed for each EXTERN, and EXTERN may appear multiple times. This
command has the same effect as the -u command line option.
FORCE_COMMON_ALLOCATION
This command has the same effect as the -d command line option: to make 32-bit
linker assign space to common symbols even if a relocatable output file is specified
(-r).
DS51833A-page 126
NOCROSSREFS(section section ...)
This command may be used to tell 32-bit linker to issue an error about any references
among certain output sections. In certain types of programs, when one section is
loaded into memory, another section will not be. Any direct references between the two
sections would be errors.
The NOCROSSREFS command takes a list of output section names. If the linker detects
any cross references between the sections, it reports an error and returns a non-zero
exit status. The NOCROSSREFS command uses output section names, not input section
names.
OUTPUT_ARCH(bfdarch)
Specify a particular output machine architecture. The bfdarch value is always
pic32mx for Microchip PIC32 MCUs.
OUTPUT_FORMAT(format_name)
The OUTPUT_FORMAT command names the object file format to use for the output file.
The format_name value is always elf32-tradlittlemips for Microchip PIC32
MCUs.
TARGET(format_name)
The TARGET command names the object file format to use when reading input files. It
affects subsequent INPUT and GROUP commands. The format_name value should
remain elf32-tradlittlemips for Microchip PIC32 MCUs.
10.7
The syntax for expressions in the linker script language is identical to that of C
expressions. All expressions are evaluated as 32-bit integers.
You can use and set symbol values in expressions.
The linker defines several special purpose built-in functions for use in expressions.
10.7.1
Constants
All constants are integers.
As in C, the linker considers an integer beginning with 0 to be octal, and an integer
beginning with 0x or 0X to be hexadecimal. The linker considers other integers to be
decimal.
In addition, you can use the suffixes K and M to scale a constant by 1024 or 1024*1024,
respectively. For example, the following all refer to the same quantity:
_fourk_1 = 4K;
_fourk_2 = 4096;
_fourk_3 = 0x1000;
10.7.2
Symbol Names
Unless quoted, symbol names start with a letter, underscore, or period and may include
letters, digits, underscores, periods and hyphens. Unquoted symbol names must not
conflict with any keywords. You can specify a symbol which contains odd characters or
has the same name as a keyword by surrounding the symbol name in double quotes:
"SECTION" = 9;
"with a space" = "also with a space" + 10;
Since symbols can contain many non-alphabetic characters, it is safest to delimit
symbols with spaces. For example, A-B is one symbol, whereas A - B is an
expression involving subtraction.
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10.7.3
The Location Counter
The special linker variable dot ‘.’ always contains the current output location counter.
Since the . always refers to a location in an output section, it may only appear in an
expression within a SECTIONS command. The ‘.’ symbol may appear anywhere that
an ordinary symbol is allowed in an expression.
Assigning a value to ‘.’ will cause the location counter to be moved. This may be used
to create holes in the output section. The location counter may never be moved
backwards.
SECTIONS
{
output :
{
file1(.text)
. = . + 1000;
file2(.text)
. += 1000;
file3(.text)
} = 0x1234;
}
In the previous example, the .text section from file1 is located at the beginning of
the output section output. It is followed by a 1000 byte gap. Then the .text section
from file2 appears, also with a 1000 byte gap following before the .text section
from file3. The notation = 0x1234 specifies what data to write in the gaps.
‘.’ actually refers to the byte offset from the start of the current containing object.
Normally this is the SECTIONS statement, whose start address is 0, hence ‘.’ can be
used as an absolute address. If ‘.’ is used inside a section description, however, it refers
to the byte offset from the start of that section, not an absolute address. Thus in a script
like this:
SECTIONS
{
. = 0x100
.text: {
*(.text)
. = 0x200
}
. = 0x500
.data: {
*(.data)
. += 0x600
}
}
The .text section will be assigned a starting address of 0x100 and a size of exactly
0x200 bytes, even if there is not enough data in the .text input sections to fill this
area. (If there is too much data, an error will be produced because this would be an
attempt to move ‘.’ backwards). The .data section will start at 0x500 and it will have
an extra 0x600 bytes worth of space after the end of the values from the .data input
sections and before the end of the .data output section itself.
10.7.4
Operators
The linker recognizes the standard C set of arithmetic operators, with the standard
bindings and precedence levels:
DS51833A-page 128
TABLE 10-2:
Precedence
PRECEDENCE OF OPERATORS
Associativity
Operators
Description
1 (highest)
left
!
-
~
Prefix operators
2
left
*
/
%
multiply, divide, modulo
3
left
+
-
4
left
>>
<<
5
left
==
!=
6
left
&
bitwise and
7
left
|
bitwise or
8
left
&&
logical and
bit shift right, left
>
<
<=
>=
Relational
9
left
||
logical or
10
right
? :
Conditional
11 (lowest)
right
&=
10.7.5
+=
-=
*=
/=
Symbol assignments
Evaluation
The linker evaluates expressions lazily. It only computes the value of an expression
when absolutely necessary.
The linker needs some information, such as the value of the start address of the first
section, and the origins and lengths of memory regions, in order to do any linking at all.
script.
However, other values (such as symbol values) are not known or needed until after
storage allocation. Such values are evaluated later, when other information (such as
the sizes of output sections) is available for use in the symbol assignment expression.
The sizes of sections cannot be known until after allocation, so assignments dependent
upon these are not performed until after allocation.
Some expressions, such as those depending upon the location counter ‘.’, must be
evaluated during section allocation.
If the result of an expression is required, but the value is not available, then an error
results. For example, a script like the following:
SECTIONS
{
.text 9+this_isnt_constant :
{ *(.text) }
}
will cause the error message “non-constant expression for initial address”.
10.7.6
The Section of an Expression
When the linker evaluates an expression, the result is either absolute or relative to
some section. A relative expression is expressed as a fixed offset from the base of a
section.
The position of the expression within the linker script determines whether it is absolute
or relative. An expression which appears within an output section definition is relative
to the base of the output section. An expression which appears elsewhere will be
absolute.
A symbol set to a relative expression will be relocatable if you request relocatable
output using the -r option. That means that a further link operation may change the
value of the symbol. The symbol’s section will be the section of the relative expression.
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A symbol set to an absolute expression will retain the same value through any further
link operation. The symbol will be absolute, and will not have any particular associated
section.
You can use the built-in function ABSOLUTE to force an expression to be absolute when
it would otherwise be relative. For example, to create an absolute symbol set to the
address of the end of the output section .data:
SECTIONS
{
.data : { *(.data) _edata = ABSOLUTE(.); }
}
If ABSOLUTE were not used, _edata would be relative to the .data section.
10.7.7
Built-in Functions
The linker script language includes a number of built-in functions for use in linker script
expressions.
10.7.7.1
ABSOLUTE(EXP)
Return the absolute (non-relocatable, as opposed to non-negative) value of the
expression exp. Primarily useful to assign an absolute value to a symbol within a
section definition, where symbol values are normally section relative.
DS51833A-page 130
10.7.7.2
Return the absolute address (the VMA) of the named section. Your script must
previously have defined the location of that section. In the following example,
symbol_1 and symbol_2 are assigned identical values:
SECTIONS { ...
.output1 :
{
start_of_output_1 = ABSOLUTE(.);
...
}
.output :
{
symbol_2 = start_of_output_1;
}
...
}
10.7.7.3
ALIGN(EXP)
Return the location counter (.) aligned to the next exp boundary. exp must be an
expression whose value is a power of two. This is equivalent to
(. + exp - 1) & ~(exp - 1)
ALIGN doesn’t change the value of the location counter; it just does arithmetic on it.
Here is an example which aligns the output .data section to the next 0x2000 byte
boundary after the preceding section and sets a variable within the section to the next
0x8000 boundary after the input sections:
SECTIONS { ...
.data ALIGN(0x2000): {
*(.data)
variable = ALIGN(0x8000);
}
...
}
The first use of ALIGN in this example specifies the location of a section because it is
used as the optional address attribute of a section definition (see
Section 10.6.5 “SECTIONS Command”). The second use of ALIGN is used to define
the value of a symbol.
The built-in function NEXT is closely related to ALIGN.
10.7.7.4
BLOCK(EXP)
This is a synonym for ALIGN, for compatibility with older linker scripts. It is most often
seen when setting the address of an output section.
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10.7.7.5
DEFINED(SYMBOL)
Return 1 if symbol is in the linker global symbol table and is defined; otherwise return
0. You can use this function to provide default values for symbols. For example, the
following script fragment shows how to set a global symbol begin to the first location
in the .text section, but if a symbol called begin already existed, its value is
preserved:
SECTIONS { ...
.text : {
begin = DEFINED(begin) ? begin : . ;
...
}
...
}
10.7.7.6
KEEP(SECTION)
When link-time garbage collection is in use (--gc-sections), marking sections that
should not be eliminated is often useful. This is accomplished by surrounding an input
section’s wildcard entry with KEEP(), as in KEEP(*(.init)) or
KEEP(SORT_BY_NAME(*)(.ctors)).
10.7.7.7
Return the absolute LMA of the named section. This is normally the same as ADDR, but
it may be different if the AT attribute is used in the output section definition (see
Section 10.6.5 “SECTIONS Command”).
10.7.7.8
MAX(EXP1, EXP2)
Returns the maximum of exp1 and exp2.
10.7.7.9
MIN(EXP1, EXP2)
Returns the minimum of exp1 and exp2.
10.7.7.10 NEXT(EXP)
Return the next unallocated address that is a multiple of exp. This function is
equivalent to ALIGN(exp).
10.7.7.11 SIZEOF(SECTION)
Return the size in bytes of the named section, if that section has been allocated. If the
section has not been allocated when this is evaluated, the linker will report an error. In
the following example, symbol_1 and symbol_2 are assigned identical values:
SECTIONS{ ...
.output {
.start = . ;
...
.end = . ;
}
symbol_1 = .end - .start ;
symbol_2 = SIZEOF(.output);
...
}
DS51833A-page 132
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
11.1
INTRODUCTION
How the MPLAB Object Linker for PIC32 MCUs (pic32-ld) builds an application from
input files is discussed here.
Topics covered in this chapter are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
11.2
Global and Weak Symbols
Stack Allocation
Heap Allocation
Interrupt Vector Tables
A linker combines one or more object files, with optional archive files, into a single
executable output file. The object files contain relocatable sections of code and data
which the linker will allocate into target memory. The entire process is controlled by a
The link process may be broken down into 5 steps:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Allocating Memory
Resolving Symbols
Building the Output File
11.2.1
a linker script is specified, that file is opened and interpreted. Otherwise an internal
default linker script is used. In either case, the linker script provides a description of the
target device, including specific memory region information. See Chapter 10. “Linker
Scripts” for more details.
Next the linker opens all of the input object files. Each input file is checked to make sure
the object format is compatible. If the object format is not compatible, an error is
generated. The contents of each input file are then loaded into internal data structures.
Typically each input file will contain multiple sections of code or data. Each section
contains a list of relocation entries which associate locations in a section’s raw data
with relocatable symbols.
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11.2.2
Allocating Memory
After all of the input files have been loaded, the linker allocates memory. This is
accomplished by assigning each input section to an output section. The relation
between input and output sections is defined by a section map in the linker script. An
output section may or may not have the same name as an input section. Each output
section is then assigned to a memory region in the target device.
Note:
Input sections are derived from source code by the compiler or the
assembler. Output sections are created by the linker.
If an input section is not explicitly assigned to an output section, the linker will allocate
11.2.3
Resolving Symbols
Once memory has been allocated, the linker begins the process of resolving symbols.
Symbols defined in each input section have offsets that are relative to the beginning of
the section. The linker converts these values into output section offsets.
Next, the linker attempts to match all external symbol references with a corresponding
symbol definition. Multiple definitions of the same external symbol result in an error. If
an archive file. If the symbol definition is found in an archive, the corresponding archive
process continues until all external symbol references have matching definitions.
External symbols that are defined as “weak” receive special processing, as explained
in Section 11.4 “Global and Weak Symbols”. If any external symbol reference
remains undefined, an error is generated.
11.2.4
After the special sections have been created, the final sizes of all output sections are
known. The linker then computes absolute addresses for all output sections and
external symbols. Each output section is checked to make sure it falls within its
assigned memory regions. If any section falls outside of its memory region, an error is
generated. Any symbols defined in the linker script are also computed.
11.2.5
Building the Output File
Finally, the linker builds the output file. Relocation entries in each section are patched
using absolute addresses. If the address computed for a symbol does not fit in the
relocation entry, a link error results. This can occur, for example, when one module references a variable which it thinks is in a “small data” section, while the other defines it
in a non-small section.
A link map is also generated if requested with the appropriate option. The link map
includes a memory usage report, which shows the starting address and length of all
map, see Section 8.4.5 “Map File”.
DS51833A-page 134
11.3
Linker allocation is controlled by the linker script, and proceeds in two steps:
1. Mapping Input Sections to Output Sections
2. Assigning Output Sections to Regions
Input sections which appear in the linker script are assigned to specific memory regions
in the target devices. Addresses within a memory region are allocated sequentially,
beginning with the lowest address and growing upwards.
11.3.1
Mapping Input Sections to Output Sections
Input sections are grouped and mapped into output sections, according to the section
map. When an output section contains several different input sections, the exact
ordering of input sections may be important. For example, consider the following output
section definition:
/* Code Sections */
.text ORIGIN(kseg0_program_mem) :
{
*(.mips16.fn.*)
*(.mips16.call.*)
} >kseg0_program_mem =0
Here the output section named .text is defined. Notice that the contents of this
section are specified within curly braces {}. After the closing brace,
>kseg0_program_mem indicates that this output section should be assigned to
memory region kseg0_program_mem.
The contents of output section .text may be interpreted as follows:
• Input sections named .text and .stub and input sections that match the wildcard patterns .text.* and .gnu.linkonce.t.* are collected and mapped
into the output section. Grouping these sections ensures locality of reference.
• Input sections that match the wildcard pattern .mips16.fn.* are collected and
mapped into the output section.
• Input sections that match the wildcard pattern .mips16.call.* are collected
and mapped into the output section.
11.3.2
Assigning Output Sections to Regions
Once the sizes of all output sections are known, they are assigned to memory regions.
Normally a region is specified in the output section definition. If a region is not specified,
the first defined memory region will be used.
Memory regions are filled sequentially, from lower to higher addresses, in the same
order that sections appear in the section map. A location counter, unique to each
region, keeps track of the next available memory location. There are two conditions
which may cause gaps in the allocation of memory within a region:
1. The section map specifies an absolute address for an output section, or
2. The output section has a particular alignment requirement.
In either case, any intervening memory between the current location counter and the
absolute (or aligned) address is skipped. The exact address of all items allocated in
memory may be determined from the link map file.
For a section containing an aligned memory block (with the aligned attribute in C or
.align directive in assembly), the section must also be aligned, to the same (or
greater) alignment value. If two or more input sections have different alignment requirements, the largest alignment is used for the output section.
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11.4
GLOBAL AND WEAK SYMBOLS
When a symbol reference appears in an object file without a corresponding definition,
the symbol is declared external. By default, external symbols have global binding and
are referred to as global symbols. External symbols may be explicitly declared with
weak binding, using the __weak__ attribute in C or the .weak directive in assembly
language.
As the name implies, global symbols are visible to all input files involved in the link.
There must be one (and only one) definition for every global symbol referenced. If a
global definition is not found among the input files, archives will be searched and the
first archive module found that contains the needed definition will be loaded. If no
definition is found for a global symbol a link error is reported.
Weak symbols share the same name space as global symbols, but are handled differently. Multiple definitions of a weak symbol are permitted. If a weak definition is not
found among the input files, archives are not searched and a value of 0 is assumed for
all references to the weak symbol. A global symbol definition of the same name will take
precedence over a weak definition (or the lack of one). In essence, weak symbols are
considered optional and may be replaced by global symbols, or ignored entirely.
11.5
STACK ALLOCATION
The MPLAB C compiler for PIC32 MCUs dedicates general purpose register 29 as the
software Stack Pointer. All processor stack operations, including function calls, interrupts, and exceptions use the software stack. The stack grows downward from high
By default, the size of the stack is 1024 bytes. The size of the stack may be changed
by specifying the size on the linker command line using the
--defsym=_min_stack_size=size linker command line option. An example of
allocating a stack of 2048 bytes using the command line is:
pic32-gcc foo.c -Wl,--defsym=_min_stack_size=2048
Note:
See the “MPLAB® C Compiler for PIC32 MCUs User’s Guide” (DS51686)
The default linker script defines the stack as follows:
/* Stack allocation follows the heap */
.stack ALIGN(4) :
{
. += _min_stack_size ;
} >kseg1_data_mem
/*
* RAM functions go at the end of our stack and heap
* allocation. Alignment of 2K required by the boundary
* register (BMXDKPBA).
*/
.ramfunc ALIGN(2K) :
{
_ramfunc_begin = . ;
*(.ramfunc .ramfunc.*)
. = ALIGN(4) ;
_ramfunc_end = . ;
} >kseg1_data_mem AT>kseg0_program_mem
_ramfunc_length = SIZEOF(.ramfunc) ;
_ramfunc_begin - ORIGIN(kseg1_data_mem) ;
DS51833A-page 136
/*
* The actual top of stack should include the gap between
* the stack section and the beginning of the .ramfunc
* section caused by the alignment of the .ramfunc
* section minus 1 word. If RAM functions do not exist,
* then the top of the stack should point to the end of
* the data memory.
*/
_stack = (_ramfunc_length > 0)
? _ramfunc_begin - 4
: ORIGIN(kseg1_data_mem) + LENGTH(kseg1_data_mem) ;
Notice that the linker script defines a required _stack symbol at the beginning of the
.ramfunc section. When RAM functions don’t exist, the _stack symbol points to the
end of data memory. This means that the effective stack is the entire space between
the heap and the .ramfunc section or the end of data memory.
The linker’s reported size of the .stack section is the minimum size required to avoid
a link error. The effective stack size is usually larger than the reported .stack section
size.
11.6
HEAP ALLOCATION
The C runtime heap is an uninitialized area of data memory that is used for dynamic
memory allocation using the standard C library dynamic memory-management functions, calloc, malloc, and realloc. If you do not use any of these functions (directly or
indirectly), then you do not need to allocate a heap. By default, the heap size is 0.
If you do want to use dynamic memory allocation, either directly, by calling one of the
memory allocation functions, or indirectly, by using a standard C library function that
uses one of these functions, then a heap must be created. A heap is created by specifying its size on the linker command line using the --defsym=_min_heap_size
linker command line option. An example of allocating a heap of 512 bytes using the
command line is:
pic32-gcc foo.c -Wl,--defsym=_min_heap_size=512
The linker allocates the heap immediately before the stack.
11.7
INTERRUPT VECTOR TABLES
The vector address of a given interrupt is calculated using Exception Base (EBASE
<31:12>) register, which provides a 4 KB page-aligned base address value located in
the kernel segment (kseg) address space. (EBASE is a CPU register.) The address is
calculated by using EBASE and VS (INTCTL <9:5>) values. The VS bits provide the
The linker script creates the corresponding Interrupt Vector Table as follows:
PROVIDE(_vector_spacing = 0x00000001);
SECTIONS
{
{
KEEP(*(.gen_handler))
} > exception_mem
{
KEEP(*(.vector_0))
DS51833A-page 137
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
} > exception_mem
ASSERT (_vector_spacing == 0 || SIZEOF(.vector_0) <=
(_vector_spacing << 5),
"function at exception vector 0 too large")
(_vector_spacing << 5) * 1 :
{
KEEP(*(.vector_1))
} > exception_mem
ASSERT (_vector_spacing == 0 || SIZEOF(.vector_1) <=
(_vector_spacing << 5),
"function at exception vector 1 too large")
(_vector_spacing << 5) * 2 :
{
KEEP(*(.vector_2))
} > exception_mem
/* … */
(_vector_spacing << 5) * 63 :
{
KEEP(*(.vector_63))
} > exception_mem
ASSERT (_vector_spacing == 0 || SIZEOF(.vector_63) <=
(_vector_spacing << 5),
"function at exception vector 63 too large")
}
Each vector in the table is created as an output section located at an absolute address
based on values of the _ebase_address and _vector_spacing symbols. There is
one output section for each of the 64 vectors in the table.
DS51833A-page 138
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
Part 3 – Binary Utilities for PIC32 MCUs
Chapter 12. MPLAB Object Archiver/Librarian for PIC32 MCUs............................ 141
Chapter 13. Other PIC32 MCU Binary Utilities......................................................... 147
DS51833A-page 139
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
NOTES:
DS51833A-page 140
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
Chapter 12. MPLAB Object Archiver/Librarian for PIC32 MCUs
12.1
INTRODUCTION
The MPLAB Object Archiver/Librarian for PIC32 MCUs (pic32-ar) creates, modifies
and extracts files from archives. This tool is one of several utilities. An “archive” is a single file holding a collection of other files in a structure that makes it possible to retrieve
the original individual files (called “members” of the archive).
The 32-bit archiver/librarian can maintain archives whose members have names of any
length; however, if an f modifier is used, the file names will be truncated to 15 characters.
The archiver is considered a binary utility because archives of this sort are most often
used as “libraries” holding commonly needed subroutines.
The archiver creates an index to the symbols defined in relocatable object modules in
the archive when you specify the modifier s. Once created, this index is updated in the
archive whenever the archiver makes a change to its contents (save for the q update
operation). An archive with such an index speeds up linking to the library and allows
routines in the library to call each other without regard to their placement in the archive.
You may use pic32-nm -s or pic32-nm --print-armap to list this index table. If
an archive lacks the table, another form of the 32-bit archiver/librarian called
pic32-ranlib can be used to add only the table.
The 32-bit archiver/librarian is designed to be compatible with two different facilities.
You can control its activity using command line options or, if you specify the single
command line option -M, you can control it with a script supplied via standard input.
Topics covered in this chapter are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Arichiver/Libraian and Other Development Tools
Feature Set
Input/Output Files
Syntax
Options
Scripts
DS51833A-page 141
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
12.2
ARICHIVER/LIBRAIAN AND OTHER DEVELOPMENT TOOLS
The 32-bit librarian creates an archive file from object files created by the 32-bit assembler. Archive files may then be linked by the 32-bit linker with other relocatable object
files to create an executable file. See Figure 12-1 for an overview of the tools process
flow.
FIGURE 12-1:
TOOLS PROCESS FLOW
C Source Files
(*.c)
Assembly Source
Files (*.S)
C Compiler
Compiler
Driver
Program
Source Files (*.s)
Assembler
Archiver (Librarian)
Object Files
(*.o)
Object File Libraries
(*.a)
Executable File
(*.elf)
12.3
(*.ld)
MPLAB® IDE
Debug Tool
Command Line
Simulator
FEATURE SET
Notable features of the assembler include:
• Available for Windows
• Command Line Interface
12.4
INPUT/OUTPUT FILES
The 32-bit archiver/librarian generates archive files (.a). An archive file is a single file
holding a collection of other files in a structure that makes it possible to retrieve the original individual files (called members of the archive). All objects are processed in the
ELF object-file format.
pic32-ar is considered a binary utility because archives of this sort are most often
used as libraries holding commonly needed subroutines.
DS51833A-page 142
MPLAB Object Archiver/Librarian for PIC32 MCUs
12.5
SYNTAX
pic32-ar [-]P[MOD [RELPOS] [COUNT]] ARCHIVE [MEMBER...]
pic32-ar -M [ <mri-script ]
12.6
OPTIONS
When you use the 32-bit archiver/librarian with command line options, the archiver
insists on at least two arguments to execute: one key letter specifying the operation
(optionally accompanied by other key letters specifying modifiers), and the archive
name.
pic32-ar [-]P[MOD [RELPOS][COUNT]] ARCHIVE [MEMBER...]
Note:
Command line options are case sensitive.
Most operations can also accept further MEMBER arguments, specifying archive
members. Without specifying members, the entire archive is used.
The 32-bit archiver/librarian allows you to mix the operation code P and modifier flags
MOD in any order, within the first command line argument. If you wish, you may begin
the first command line argument with a dash.
The P keyletter specifies what operation to execute; it may be any of the following, but
you must specify only one of them.
TABLE 12-1:
Option
d
m
p
q
r
t
OPERATION TO EXECUTE
Function
Delete modules from the archive. Specify the names of modules to be deleted as
MEMBER...; the archive is untouched if you specify no files to delete.
If you specify the v modifier, the 32-bit archiver/librarian lists each module as it is
deleted.
Use this operation to move members in an archive.
The ordering of members in an archive can make a difference in how programs are
linked using the library, if a symbol is defined in more than one member.
If no modifiers are used with m, any members you name in the MEMBER arguments
are moved to the end of the archive; you can use the a, b or i modifiers to move
them to a specified place instead.
Print the specified members of the archive, to the standard output file. If the v
modifier is specified, show the member name before copying its contents to
standard output. If you specify no MEMBER arguments, all the files in the archive are
printed.
Append the files MEMBER... into ARCHIVE .
Insert the files MEMBER... into ARCHIVE (with replacement).
If one of the files named in MEMBER... does not exist, the archiver displays an
error message, and leaves undisturbed any existing members of the archive
matching that name. By default, new members are added at the end of the file; but
you may use one of the modifiers a, b or i to request placement relative to some
existing member. The modifier v used with this operation elicits a line of output for
each file inserted, along with one of the letters a or r to indicate whether the file was
appended (no old member deleted) or replaced.
Display a table listing the contents of ARCHIVE, or those of the files listed in
MEMBER..., that are present in the archive. Normally only the member name is
shown; if you also want to see the modes (permissions), timestamp, owner, group
and size, you can request that by also specifying the v modifier. If you do not
specify a MEMBER, all files in the archive are listed.
For example, if there is more than one file with the same name (fie) in an archive
(b.a), then pic32-ar t b.a fie lists only the first instance; to see them all, you
must ask for a complete listing in pic32-ar t b.a.
DS51833A-page 143
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
TABLE 12-1:
OPERATION TO EXECUTE (CONTINUED)
Option
Function
Extract members (named MEMBER) from the archive. You can use the v modifier
with this operation, to request that the archiver list each name as it extracts it.
If you do not specify a MEMBER, all files in the archive are extracted.
x
A number of modifiers (MOD) may immediately follow the P keyletter to specify
variations on an operation’s behavior.
TABLE 12-2:
Option
a
b
c
f
i
l
N
o
P
s
S
u
v
V
DS51833A-page 144
MODIFIERS
Function
Add new files after an existing member of the archive. If you use the modifier a,
the name of an existing archive member must be present as the RELPOS
argument, before the ARCHIVE specification.
Add new files before an existing member of the archive. If you use the modifier
b, the name of an existing archive member must be present as the RELPOS
argument, before the ARCHIVE specification. (Same as i.)
Create the archive. The specified ARCHIVE is always created if it did not exist,
when you requested an update. But a warning is issued unless you specify in
advance that you expect to create it, by using this modifier.
Truncate names in the archive. The 32-bit archiver/librarian will normally permit
file names of any length. This will cause it to create archives that are not compatible with the native archiver program on some systems. If this is a concern, the f
modifier may be used to truncate file names when putting them in the archive.
Insert new files before an existing member of the archive. If you use the modifier
i, the name of an existing archive member must be present as the RELPOS
argument, before the ARCHIVE specification. (Same as b.)
This modifier is accepted but not used.
Uses the COUNT parameter. This is used if there are multiple entries in the
archive with the same name. Extract or delete instance COUNT of the given
name from the archive.
Preserve the original dates of members when extracting them. If you do not
specify this modifier, files extracted from the archive are stamped with the time of
extraction.
Use the full path name when matching names in the archive. The 32-bit
archiver/librarian cannot create an archive with a full path name (such archives
are not POSIX compliant), but other archive creators can. This option will cause
the archiver to match file names using a complete path name, which can be convenient when extracting a single file from an archive created by another tool.
Write an object-file index into the archive, or update an existing one, even if no
other change is made to the archive. You may use this modifier flag either with
any operation, or alone. Running pic32-ar s on an archive is equivalent to
running ranlib on it.
Do not generate an archive symbol table. This can speed up building a large
library in several steps. The resulting archive cannot be used with the linker. In
order to build a symbol table, you must omit the S modifier on the last execution
of the archiver, or you must run ranlib on the archive.
Normally, pic32-ar r... inserts all files listed into the archive. If you would like
to insert only those of the files you list that are newer than existing members of
the same names, use this modifier. The u modifier is allowed only for the
operation r (replace). In particular, the combination qu is not allowed, since
checking the time-stamps would lose any speed advantage from the operation q.
This modifier requests the verbose version of an operation. Many operations
display additional information, such as, file names processed when the modifier
v is appended.
This modifier shows the version number of the 32-bit archiver/librarian.
MPLAB Object Archiver/Librarian for PIC32 MCUs
12.7
SCRIPTS
If you use the single command line option -M with the archiver, you can control its
operation with a rudimentary command language.
pic32-ar -M [ <SCRIPT ]
This form of the 32-bit archiver/librarian operates interactively if standard input is coming directly from a terminal. During interactive use, the archiver prompts for input (the
prompt is AR >), and continues executing even after errors. If you redirect standard
input to a script file, no prompts are issued, and the 32-bit archiver/librarian abandons
execution (with a nonzero exit code) on any error.
The archiver command language is not designed to be equivalent to the command line
options; in fact, it provides somewhat less control over archives. The only purpose of
the command language is to ease the transition to the 32-bit archiver/librarian for developers who already have scripts written for the MRI “librarian” program.
The syntax for the 32-bit archiver/librarian command language is straightforward:
• commands are recognized in upper or lowercase; for example, LIST is the same
as list. In the following descriptions, commands are shown in uppercase for
clarity.
• a single command may appear on each line; it is the first word on the line.
• empty lines are allowed, and have no effect.
• comments are allowed; text after either of the characters “*” or “;” is ignored.
• Whenever you use a list of names as part of the argument to an pic32-ar
command, you can separate the individual names with either commas or blanks.
Commas are shown in the explanations below, for clarity.
• “+” is used as a line continuation character; if “+” appears at the end of a line, the
text on the following line is considered part of the current command.
Table 12-3 shows the commands you can use in archiver scripts, or when using the
archiver interactively. Three of them have special significance.
TABLE 12-3:
ARCHIVER SCRIPTS COMMANDS
Option
OPEN or CREATE
SAVE
MODULE,...MODULE)
MEMBER
CLEAR
Function
Specify a “current archive”, which is a temporary file
required for most of the other commands.
Commits the changes so far specified by the script.
Prior to SAVE, commands affect only the temporary
copy of the current archive.
Add all the contents of ARCHIVE (or, if specified,
each named MODULE from ARCHIVE) to the current
archive.
Requires prior use of OPEN or CREATE.
Add each named MEMBER as a module in the current
archive.
Requires prior use of OPEN or CREATE.
Discard the contents of the current archive, canceling
the effect of any operations since the last SAVE. May
be executed (with no effect) even if no current
archive is specified.
DS51833A-page 145
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
TABLE 12-3:
ARCHIVER SCRIPTS COMMANDS (CONTINUED)
Option
CREATE ARCHIVE
DELETE MODULE, MODULE, ...
MODULE
DIRECTORY ARCHIVE (MODULE,
... MODULE) [OUTPUTFILE]
END
EXTRACT MODULE, MODULE, ...
MODULE
LIST
OPEN ARCHIVE
REPLACE MODULE, MODULE, ...
MODULE
VERBOSE
SAVE
DS51833A-page 146
Function
Creates an archive, and makes it the current archive
(required for many other commands). The new
archive is created with a temporary name; it is not
actually saved as ARCHIVE until you use SAVE. You
can overwrite existing archives; similarly, the
contents of any existing file named ARCHIVE will not
be destroyed until SAVE.
Delete each listed MODULE from the current archive;
equivalent to pic32-ar -d ARCHIVE MODULE ...
MODULE.
Requires prior use of OPEN or CREATE.
List each named MODULE present in ARCHIVE. The
separate command VERBOSE specifies the form of
the output: when verbose output is off, output is like
that of pic32-ar -t ARCHIVE MODULE.... When
verbose output is on, the listing is like pic32-ar
-tv ARCHIVE MODULE....
Output normally goes to the standard output stream;
however, if you specify OUTPUTFILE as a final
argument, the 32-bit archiver/librarian directs the output to that file.
Exit from the archiver with a 0 exit code to indicate
successful completion. This command does not save
the output file; if you have changed the current
archive since the last SAVE command, those
changes are lost.
Extract each named MODULE from the current
archive, writing them into the current directory as
separate files. Equivalent to pic32-ar -x
ARCHIVE MODULE....
Requires prior use of OPEN or CREATE.
Display full contents of the current archive, in
“verbose” style regardless of the state of VERBOSE.
The effect is like pic32-ar tv ARCHIVE. (This
single command is a 32-bit archiver/librarian
enhancement, rather than present for MRI compatibility.)
Requires prior use of OPEN or CREATE.
Opens an existing archive for use as the current
archive (required for many other commands). Any
changes as the result of subsequent commands will
not actually affect ARCHIVE until you next use SAVE.
In the current archive, replace each existing MODULE
(named in the REPLACE arguments) from files in the
current working directory. To execute this command
without errors, both the file, and the module in the
current archive, must exist.
Requires prior use of OPEN or CREATE.
Toggle an internal flag governing the output from
DIRECTORY. When the flag is on, DIRECTORY
output matches output from pic32-ar -tv ....
Commits your changes to the current archive and
actually saves it as a file with the name specified in
the last CREATE or OPEN command.
Requires prior use of OPEN or CREATE.
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
Chapter 13. Other PIC32 MCU Binary Utilities
13.1
INTRODUCTION
Besides the MPLAB Object Archiver/Librarian for PIC32 MCUs (pic32-ar), there are
several other binary utilities available for use with the PIC32 MCU assembler and
Topics covered in this chapter are:
Utility
13.2
Description
pic32-bin2hex Utility
pic32-nm Utility
pic32-objdump Utility
pic32-ranlib Utility
Converts a linked object file into an Intel® hex file.
pic32-size Utility
pic32-strings Utility
pic32-strip Utility
List file section sizes and total size.
Lists symbols from an object file.
Generates an index from the contents of an archive and
stores it in the archive.
Prints the printable character sequences.
Discards all symbols from an object file.
pic32-bin2hex UTILITY
The binary-to-hexadecimal (pic32-bin2hex) utility converts binary files (from the
• Input/Output Files
• Syntax
• Options
13.2.1
Input/Output Files
• Input: ELF formatted binary object files
• Output: Intel hex files
13.2.2
Syntax
Command line syntax is:
pic32-bin2hex [options] file
Example 13.1: hello.elf
Convert the absolute ELF executable file hello.elf to hello.hex
pic32-bin2hex hello.elf
DS51833A-page 147
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
13.2.3
Options
The following options are supported.
TABLE 13-1:
pic32-bin2hex OPTIONS
Option
Function
-a, --sort
-i, --virtual
-p, --physical
-v, --verbose
Print verbose messages
-?, --help
Print a help screen
Note:
See the “PIC32MX Family Reference Manual” (DS61115) for a description
of the PIC32MX Virtual-to-Physical Fixed Memory Mapping.
EXAMPLE 13-2:
-v OPTION OUTPUT
writing hello.hex
section
------.reset
.text
.dinit
.const
.ivt
.aivt
---------0
0x100
0x3614
0x3ce6
0x4
0x84
-----------0
0x200
0x6c28
0x79cc
0x8
0x108
Total program memory used (bytes):
DS51833A-page 148
-------------0x8
0x6a28
0xda4
0x40
0xf8
0xf8
actual length (dec)
-------------------0x6 (6)
0x4f9e (20382)
0xa3b (2619)
0x30 (48)
0xba (186)
0xba (186)
0x5b83
(23427)
Other PIC32 MCU Binary Utilities
13.3
pic32-nm UTILITY
The pic32-nm utility produces a list of symbols from object files. Each item in the list
consists of the symbol value, symbol type and symbol name.
•
•
•
•
Input Files
Syntax
Options
Output Formats
13.3.1
Input Files
• Input: ELF object file. If no object files are listed as arguments, pic32-nm
assumes the file a.out.
13.3.2
Syntax
Command line syntax is:
pic32-nm [ -A | -o | --print-file-name ]
[ -a | --debug-syms ] [ -B ]
[ --defined-only ] [ -u | --undefined-only ]
[ -f format | --format=format ] [ -g | --extern-only ]
[ --help ] [-l | --line-numbers ]
[ -n | -v | --numeric-sort ] [-omf=format]
[ -p | --no-sort ]
[ -P | --portability ] [ -r | --reverse-sort ]
[ -s --print-armap ] [ --size-sort ]
[ OBJFILE... ]
13.3.3
Options
The long and short forms of options, shown in Table 13-2 as alternatives, are
equivalent.
TABLE 13-2:
pic32-nm OPTIONS
Option
Function
-A
-o
--print-file-name
Precede each symbol by the name of the input file (or archive
member) in which it was found, rather than identifying the
input file once only, before all of its symbols.
-a
--debug-syms
Display all symbols, even debugger-only symbols; normally
these are not listed.
-B
The same as --format=bsd.
--defined-only
Display only defined symbols for each object file.
-u
--undefined-only
Display only undefined symbols (those external to each object
file).
-f format
--format=format
Use the output format format, which can be bsd, sysv or
posix. The default is bsd. Only the first character of format
is significant; it can be either upper or lowercase.
-g
--extern-only
Display only external symbols.
--help
Show a summary of the options to pic32-nm and exit.
-l
--line-numbers
For each symbol, use debugging information to try to find a
filename and line number. For a defined symbol, look for the
line number of the address of the symbol. For an undefined
symbol, look for the line number of a relocation entry that
refers to the symbol. If line number information can be found,
print it after the other symbol information.
DS51833A-page 149
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
TABLE 13-2:
pic32-nm OPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Option
Function
-n
-v
--numeric-sort
Sort symbols numerically by their addresses, rather than
alphabetically by their names.
-p
--no-sort
Do not bother to sort the symbols in any order; print them in
the order encountered.
-P
--portability
Use the POSIX.2 standard output format instead of the default
format. Equivalent to -f posix.
-r
--reverse-sort
Reverse the order of the sort (whether numeric or alphabetic);
let the last come first.
-s
--print-armap
When listing symbols from archive members, include the
index: a mapping (stored in the archive by pic32-ar or
pic32-ranlib) of which modules contain definitions for
which names.
--size-sort
Sort symbols by size. The size is computed as the difference
between the value of the symbol and the value of the symbol
with the next higher value. The size of the symbol is printed,
rather than the value.
Use radix as the radix for printing the symbol values. It must
be d for decimal, o for octal or x for hexadecimal.
-V
--version
Show the version number of pic32-nm and exit.
13.3.4
Output Formats
The symbol value is in the radix selected by the options, or hexadecimal by default.
If the symbol type is lowercase, the symbol is local; if uppercase, the symbol is global
(external). Table 13-3 shows the symbol types:
TABLE 13-3:
SYMBOL TYPES
Symbol
A
DS51833A-page 150
Description
The symbol’s value is absolute, and will not be changed by further linking.
B
The symbol is in the uninitialized data section (known as BSS).
C
The symbol is common. Common symbols are uninitialized data. When linking,
multiple common symbols may appear with the same name. If the symbol is
defined anywhere, the common symbols are treated as undefined references.
D
The symbol is in the initialized data section.
N
The symbol is a debugging symbol.
R
The symbol is in a read only data section.
T
The symbol is in the text (code) section.
U
The symbol is undefined.
V
The symbol is a weak object. When a weak defined symbol is linked with a normal
defined symbol, the normal defined symbol is used with no error. When a weak
undefined symbol is linked and the symbol is not defined, the value of the weak
symbol becomes zero with no error.
W
The symbol is a weak symbol that has not been specifically tagged as a weak
object symbol. When a weak defined symbol is linked with a normal defined
symbol, the normal defined symbol is used with no error. When a weak undefined
symbol is linked and the symbol is not defined, the value of the weak symbol
becomes zero with no error.
?
The symbol type is unknown, or object file format specific.
Other PIC32 MCU Binary Utilities
13.4
pic32-objdump UTILITY
The pic32-objdump utility displays information about one or more object files. The
options control what particular information to display. The output can provide information similar to that of a disassembly listing.
• Input Files
• Syntax
• Options
13.4.1
Input Files
• Input: Object archive files. If no object files are listed as arguments,
pic32-objdump assumes the file a.out.
13.4.2
Syntax
Command line syntax is:
pic32-objdump [ -a | --archive-headers ]
[ -d | --disassemble ]
[ -D | --disassemble-all ]
[ --file-start-context ]
[ -g | --debugging ]
[ -H | --help ]
[ -j name | --section=name ]
[ -l | --line-numbers ]
[ -M options | --disassembler-options=options]
[ -r | --reloc ]
[ -s | --full-contents ]
[ -S | --source ]
[ --[no-]show-raw-insn ]
[ -t | --syms ]
[ -V | --version ]
[ -w | --wide ]
[ -z | --disassemble-zeroes ]
OBJFILE...
OBJFILE… are the object files to be examined. When you specify archives,
pic32-objdump shows information on each of the member object files.
13.4.3
Options
The long and short forms of options, shown in Table 13-4, as alternatives, are
equivalent. At least one of the following options -a, -d, -D, -f, -g, -G, -h,
-H, -p, -r, -R, -S, -t, -T, -V or -x must be given.
TABLE 13-4:
pic32-objdump OPTIONS
Option
-a
Function
If any of the OBJFILE files are archives, display the archive
header information (in a format similar to ls -l). Besides
the information you could list with pic32-ar tv,
pic32-objdump -a shows the object file format of each
archive member.
DS51833A-page 151
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
TABLE 13-4:
pic32-objdump OPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Option
DS51833A-page 152
Function
-d
--disassemble
Display the assembler mnemonics for the machine
instructions from OBJFILE. This option only disassembles
those sections that are expected to contain instructions.
-D
--disassemble-all
Like -d, but disassemble the contents of all sections, not
just those expected to contain instructions.
-f
Display summary information from the overall header of
each of the OBJFILE files.
--file-start-context
Specify that when displaying inter-listed source
code/disassembly (assumes ‘-S’) from a file that has not
yet been displayed, extend the context to the start of the file.
-g
--debugging
Display debugging information. This attempts to parse
debugging information stored in the file and print it out using
a C like syntax. Only certain types of debugging information
have been implemented.
-h
Display summary information from the section headers of
the object file.
File segments may be relocated to nonstandard addresses,
for example by using the -Ttext, -Tdata or -Tbss
options to ld. However, some object file formats, such as
a.out, do not store the starting address of the file
segments. In those situations, although ld relocates the
sections correctly, using pic32-objdump -h to list the file
the target.
-H
--help
Print a summary of the options to pic32-objdump and
exit.
-j name
--section=name
Display information only for section name.
-l
--line-numbers
Label the display (using debugging information) with the
filename and source line numbers corresponding to the
object code or relocs shown. Only useful with -d, -D or
-r.
-M options
--disassembleroptions=options
Pass target specific information to the disassembler. The
PIC32 device supports the following target specific options:
symbolic - Will perform symbolic disassembly.
When disassembling, print the complete address on each
line. This is the older disassembly format.
-r
--reloc
Print the relocation entries of the file. If used with -d or -D,
the relocations are printed interspersed with the
disassembly.
-s
--full-contents
Display the full contents of any sections requested.
-S
--source
Display source code intermixed with disassembly, if
possible. Implies -d.
--show-raw-insn
When disassembling instructions, print the instruction in
hex, as well as in symbolic form. This is the default except
--no-show-raw-insn
When disassembling instructions, do not print the
instruction bytes. This is the default when
Start displaying data at the specified address. This affects
the output of the -d, -r and -s options.
Other PIC32 MCU Binary Utilities
TABLE 13-4:
pic32-objdump OPTIONS (CONTINUED)
Option
13.5
Function
Stop displaying data at the specified address. This affects
the output of the -d, -r and -s options.
-t
--syms
Print the symbol table entries of the file. This is similar to the
information provided by the pic32-nm program.
-V
--version
Print the version number of pic32-objdump and exit.
-w
--wide
Format some lines for output devices that have more than
80 columns.
-x
Display all available header information, including the
symbol table and relocation entries. Using -x is equivalent
to specifying all of -a -f -h -r -t.
-z
--disassemble-zeroes
Normally the disassembly output will skip blocks of zeroes.
This option directs the disassembler to disassemble those
blocks, just like any other data.
pic32-ranlib UTILITY
The pic32-ranlib utility generates an index to the contents of an archive and stores
it in the archive. The index lists each symbol defined by a member of an archive that is
a relocatable object file. You may use pic32-nm -s or pic32-nm --print-armap
to list this index. An archive with such an index speeds up linking to the library and
allows routines in the library to call each other without regard to their placement in the
archive.
Running pic32-ranlib is completely equivalent to executing pic32-ar -s
(i.e., the 32-bit archiver/librarian with the -s option).
• Input/Output Files
• Syntax
• Options
13.5.1
Input/Output Files
• Input: Archive file
• Output: Archive file
13.5.2
Syntax
Command line syntax is:
pic32-ranlib [-v | -V | --version] ARCHIVE
pic32-ranlib [-h | --help]
13.5.3
Options
The long and short forms of options, shown here as alternatives, are equivalent.
TABLE 13-5:
pic32-ranlib OPTIONS
Option
Function
-v
-V
--version
Show the version number of pic32-ranlib
-h
--help
Print a help message
DS51833A-page 153
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
13.6
pic32-size UTILITY
The pic32-size utility lists the section sizes, and the total size, for each of the object
or archive files in its argument list. By default, one line of output is generated for each
object file or each module in an archive.
Note:
•
•
•
•
information on memory usage.
Input/Output Files
Syntax
Options
Example
13.6.1
Input/Output Files
• Input: Object or archive file(s)
• Output: Standard output
13.6.2
Syntax
The pic32-size command-line syntax is:
pic32-size [ -A | -B | --format=compatibility ]
[ --help ]
[ -d | -o | -x | --radix= number]
[ -t | --totals ]
[ -V | --version ]
[objfile...]
13.6.3
Options
The pic32-size options are shown below.
TABLE 13-6:
pic32-size OPTIONS
Option
Function
-A
Using one of these options, you can choose whether the out-B
put from gnu size resembles output from System V size (using
--format=compatibility -A or --format=sysv), or Berkeley size (using -B or
--format=berkeley). The default is the one-line format
similar to Berkeley’s.
DS51833A-page 154
--help
Show a summary of acceptable arguments and options.
-d
-o
-x
Using one of these options, you can control whether the size
of each section is given in decimal (-d or --radix=10); octal
--radix=number, only the three values (8, 10, 16) are supported. The total size is always given in two radices; decimal
and hexadecimal for -d or -x output, or octal and
-t
--totals
Show totals of all objects listed (Berkeley format listing mode
only).
-V
--version
Display the version number of pic32-size.
Other PIC32 MCU Binary Utilities
13.6.4
Example
Here is an example of the Berkeley (default) format of output from size:
pic32-size --format=Berkeley ranlib size
text
data bss
dec
hex
filename
294880 81920 11592 388392 5ed28 ranlib
294880 81920 11888 388688 5ee50 size
This is the same data, but displayed closer to System V conventions:
pic32-size --format=SysV ranlib size
ranlib :
section
size
.text
294880
8192
.data
81920 303104
.bss
11592 385024
Total 388392
size :
section
size
.text
294880
8192
.data
81920 303104
.bss
11888 385024
Total 388688
13.7
pic32-strings UTILITY
For each file given, the pic32-strings utility prints the printable character
sequences that are at least 4 characters long (or the number given in the options) and
are followed by an unprintable character. By default, it only prints the strings from the
initialized and loaded sections of object files; for other types of files, it prints the strings
from the whole file.
pic32-strings is mainly useful for determining the contents of non-text files.
• Input/Output Files
• Syntax
• Options
13.7.1
Input/Output Files
• Input: ELF object file
• Output: Standard output
13.7.2
Syntax
Command line syntax is:
pic32-strings [-a | --all | -] [-f | --print-file-name]
[--help] [-min-len | -n min-len | --bytes=min-len]
DS51833A-page 155
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
13.7.3
Options
The long and short forms of options, shown in Table 13-7 as alternatives, are
equivalent.
TABLE 13-7:
pic32-strings OPTIONS
Option
13.8
Function
-a
--all
-
Do not scan only the initialized and loaded sections of object files;
scan the whole files.
-f
--print-file-name
Print the name of the file before each string.
--help
Print a summary of the program usage on the standard output and
exit.
-min-len
-n min-len
--bytes=min-len
Print sequences of characters that are at least -min-len
characters long, instead of the default 4.
Print the offset within the file before each string. The single
character argument specifies the radix of the offset - o for octal, x
for hexadecimal or d for decimal.
-v
--version
Print the program version number on the standard output and exit.
pic32-strip UTILITY
The pic32-strip utility discards all symbols from the object and archive files
specified. At least one file must be given. pic32-strip modifies the files named in its
argument, rather than writing modified copies under different names.
• Input/Output Files
• Syntax
• Options
13.8.1
Input/Output Files
• Input: Object or archive files
• Output: Object or archive files. If no object or archive files are listed as arguments,
pic32-strip assumes the file a.out.
13.8.2
Syntax
Command line syntax is:
pic32-strip [ -g | -S | --strip-debug ] [ --help ]
[ -K symbolname | --keep-symbol=symbolname ]
[ -N symbolname | --strip-symbol=symbolname ]
[ -o file ]
[ -p | --preserve-dates ]
[ -R sectionname | --remove-section=sectionname ]
[ -s | --strip-all ] [--strip-unneeded]
[ -v | --verbose ] [ -V | --version ]
OBJFILE...
DS51833A-page 156
Other PIC32 MCU Binary Utilities
13.8.3
Options
The long and short forms of options, shown in Table as alternatives, are equivalent.
pic32-strip Options
Option
Function
-g
-S
--strip-debug
Remove debugging symbols only.
--help
Show a summary of the options to pic32-strip
and exit.
-K symbolname
--keep-symbol=symbolname
Keep only symbol symbolname from the source file.
This option may be given more than once.
-N symbolname
--strip-symbol=symbolname
Remove symbol symbolname from the source file.
This option may be given more than once, and may
be combined with strip options other than -K.
-o file
Put the stripped output in file, rather than replacing
the existing file. When this argument is used, only
one OBJFILE argument may be specified.
-p
--preserve-dates
Preserve the access and modification dates of the
file.
-R sectionname
--remove-section=sectionname
Remove any section named sectionname from the
output file. This option may be given more than once.
Note that using this option inappropriately may make
the output file unusable.
-s
--strip-all
Remove all symbols.
--strip-unneeded
Remove all symbols that are not needed for
relocation processing.
-v
--verbose
Verbose output: list all object files modified. In the
case of archives, pic32-strip -v lists all members of the archive.
-V
--version
Show the version number for pic32-strip.
-x
Remove non-global symbols.
-X
Remove compiler-generated local symbols.
DS51833A-page 157
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NOTES:
DS51833A-page 158
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
Part 4 – Appendices
Appendix A. Frequently Asked Questions .............................................................. 161
Appendix B. Assembler Errors/Warnings/Messages.............................................. 167
Appendix C. Linker Errors/Warnings ....................................................................... 179
Appendix D. Useful Tables ........................................................................................ 185
Appendix E. GNU Free Documentation License ..................................................... 187
DS51833A-page 159
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NOTES:
DS51833A-page 160
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
A.1
INTRODUCTION
Linker, and Binary Utilities for PIC32 MCUs.
A.2
LIST OF FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ)
• How can I move the Interrupt Vector Table (IVT) from Boot ROM (kseg1) to Application Flash (kseg0)?
• How can I place my data at an absolute address in memory?
• How can I link my customized C start-up code?
• How can I reduce the C library overhead?
A.2.1
How can I move the Interrupt Vector Table (IVT) from Boot ROM
(kseg1) to Application Flash (kseg0)?
Relocating the Interrupt Vector Table
In some cases, you may want to move the Interrupt Vector Table (IVT) from the default
location in the Boot ROM (kseg1) to the Application Flash (kseg0). To relocate the IVT,
two lines must change in the device-specific portion of the linker script, procdefs.ld.
Note:
Consider creating a new custom linker script based on the default linker
script as described in Section 10.5 “Adding a Custom Linker Script to
an MPLAB IDE Project”. A new linker script is often preferable over modifying the existing procdefs.ld file because the changes become specific
to your project and will not get overwritten when you upgrade to a later tool
version.
First, the location of ebase must be changed to point to the area in Application Flash.
Here are the lines that specify the default ebase from the procdefs.ld for the
PIC32MX360F512L:
PROVIDE(_vector_spacing = 0x00000001);
To place the IVT at the highest possible address, set:
(0x9D080000-64*(_vector_spacing << 5)) & 0xFFFFF000;
where 0x9D080000 is the highest address in the PIC32MX360F512L MCU, 64 is the
number of interrupt vectors and (_vector_spacing << 5) converts the
_vector_spacing value to the actual number of bytes allocated on the PIC32 MCU.
boundary, as required.
We can simplify the expression to:
(0x9D080000-(_vector_spacing << 11)) & 0xFFFFF000;
DS51833A-page 161
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
For the PIC32MX360F512L this gives us:
The second line to change in the procdefs.ld specifies the memory region for the
exception vectors. The default lines from procdefs.ld specifying the exception
memory region are:
MEMORY
{
kseg0_program_mem (rx) : ORIGIN=0x9D000000, LENGTH=0x80000
kseg0_boot_mem
: ORIGIN=0x9FC00490, LENGTH=0x970
exception_mem
: ORIGIN=0x9FC01000, LENGTH=0x1000
The value for the ORIGIN of the exception memory must be the same as ebase, so
we change the line to:
exception_mem : ORIGIN = 0x9D07F000, LENGTH = 0x1000
We must also reduce the size of the kseg0_program_mem region to accommodate
the moved exception_mem region:
kseg0_program_mem (rx) :
ORIGIN=0x9D000000, LENGTH=0x80000-0x1000
In summary, to relocate the IVT from Boot ROM to App Flash memory, the user must
first set _ebase_address to the properly aligned address, set the ORIGIN of the
length of the kseg0_program_mem region.
A.2.2
How can I place my data at an absolute address in memory?
Placing sections at a fixed location
You may want to place a string such as a version number at a fixed location in memory.
The following section summarizes a way to accomplish this goal. First, place your variable into a uniquely named section. From C code, use the section attribute. From
assembly code, use the .section directive. For example:
/* Place string in a user-named section. */
const char __attribute__((section(".hellostring")))
absstring[] = "Hello, World!\n";
Once you have created your section, customize the linker script to map the input section to a new output section.
First create a new memory region to contain the new section. (See
Section 10.6.4 “MEMORY Command”.)
MEMORY
{
kseg0_program_mem (rx) :
ORIGIN = 0x9D000000, LENGTH = 0x80000-0x1000
/* ... */
/* Create the new region to be used */
myabspmdata
(rx) :
ORIGIN = 0x9D07F000, LENGTH = 0x1000
kseg0_boot_mem
:
ORIGIN = 0x9FC00490, LENGTH = 0x970
/* ... */
}
The length of the kseg0_program_mem is decreased by the size of the new region.
The regions must not overlap.
DS51833A-page 162
Next, modify the SECTIONS block to map the custom input section to an output section
and place that output section into the new region. (See Section 10.6.5 “SECTIONS
Command”.)
SECTIONS
{
/* Create an output section called .outputmyabspmdata the
containing user-named section from the source code.
Map the output section to the memory region created
above.
*/
.outputmyabspmdata : {
KEEP(*(.hellostring))
} > myabspmdata
.config_BFC02FF0 : {
KEEP(*(.config_BFC02FF0))
} > config3
/* ... */
}
These changes to the source code and the linker script place your data at a fixed location.
A.2.3
How can I link my customized C start-up code?
Occasionally, a project may require modifying the C start-up code provided with the C
compiler. The source file for the start-up code is located in the C compiler’s
pic32-libs\c\startup\crt0.S file. Copy this file to your project directory and
make the customizations to the copy.
Building from MPLAB IDE
Once you’ve made the customizations to the file, add start-up code as a source file to
You will also need to tell the compilation driver not to link the default start-up code.
Under the project’s build options, select the “Don’t link startup code” PIC32 Suite
option. This checkbox adds the -nostartfiles option to the compilation driver’s
command line.
DS51833A-page 163
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
FIGURE A-1:
PROJECT>BUILD OPTIONS>PROJECT SELECTION
FIGURE A-2:
BUILD OPTIONS DIALOG, PIC32 SUITE TAB
Now when you build your project, the compilation driver (pic32-gcc) will exclude the
default startup-code object from the link. It will use the customized code that is in your
Building on the Command-Line Interface
Once you’ve made the customizations to the startup-code source file, add it to the
pic32-gcc command line like you would any other source file. However, when calling
pic32-gcc for the link, add the -nostartfiles option. The compilation driver will
not pass the default startup-code object to the linker.
DS51833A-page 164
A.2.4
How can I reduce the C library overhead?
Select Optimized Libraries
By default, the linker selects the unoptimized, software floating point, no-mips16 multilib permutation of the C libraries. This safe but expensive default permutation may not
The MPLAB IDE project manager allows you to easily select a more appropriate multilib library permutation. Select Project>Build Options>Project, MPLAB PIC32 Linker
tab, “Library Selection” category.
FIGURE A-3:
BUILD OPTIONS – LIBRARY SELECTION
The dialog allows you to select an optimized permutation of the library. Optimization
level ‘2’ generally provides a good balance between code size and speed, but you may
wish to choose level ‘3’ or ‘s’ as appropriate for your application. You can also exclude
floating point support and select mips16 code as suitable for your application. These
options can significantly reduce the code-size footprint.
Note:
See the “MPLAB® C Compiler for PIC32 MCUs User’s Guide” (DS51686)
for more details on the multilib feature.
DS51833A-page 165
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NOTES:
DS51833A-page 166
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
Appendix B. Assembler Errors/Warnings/Messages
B.1
INTRODUCTION
MPLAB Assembler for PIC32 MCUs (pic32-as) generates errors, warnings and messages. A descriptive list of these outputs is shown here. This list shows only the most
common diagnostic messages from the assembler.
Topics covered in this appendix are:
•
•
•
•
B.2
Fatal Errors
Errors
Warnings
Messages
FATAL ERRORS
The following errors indicate that an internal error has occurred in the assembler.
assembler generates any of the fatal errors listed below. Be sure to provide full details
about the source code and command-line options causing the error.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Bad defsym; format is --defsym name=value
Broken assembler. No assembly attempted.
Can’t allocate elf private section data: %s
Can’t continue
Can’t create group: %s
Can’t extend frag %u chars
Can’t open a bfd on stdout %s
Can’t start writing .mdebug section: %s
Cannot write to output file
Could not write .mdebug section: %s
Dwarf2 is not supported for this object file format
Emulations not handled in this configuration
Error constructing %s pseudo-op table: %s
Expr.c(operand): bad atof_generic return val %d
Failed sanity check
Failed to read instruction table %s\n
Failed to set up debugging information: %s
Index into stored_fixups[] out of bounds
Inserting into symbol table failed: %s
Internal: bad mips opcode (bits 0x%lx undefined): %s %s.
Internal: bad mips opcode (unknown extension operand type ‘+%c’): %s %s.
Internal: bad mips opcode (unknown operand type ‘%c’): %s %s.
DS51833A-page 167
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
B.3
Internal error, line %d, %s
Internal error: unknown dwarf2 format
Internal: can’t hash ‘%s’: %s
Invalid abi -mabi=%s
Invalid listing option ‘%c’
Macros nested too deeply
Missing emulation mode name
Multiple emulation names specified
No compiled in support for 64 bit object file
No object file generated
Rva not supported
Rva without symbol
Too many fixups
Unrecognized emulation name ‘%s’
ERRORS
The errors listed below usually indicate an error in the assembly source code or command-line options passed to the assembler.
Symbol
.abort detected. Abandoning ship.
User error invoked with the .abort directive.
.else without matching .if
A .else directive was seen without a preceding .if directive.
.elseif after .else
A .elseif directive specified after a .else directive. Modify your code so that the
.elseif directive comes before the .else directive.
.elseif without matching .if
A .elseif directive was seen without a preceding .if directive.
.endfunc missing for previous .func
A .endfunc directive is missing for a previous .func directive.
.endif without .if
A .endif directive was seen without a preceding .if directive.
.err encountered.
User error invoked with the .err directive.
.Ifeqs syntax error
Two comma-separated, double-quoted strings were not passed as arguments to the
.ifeqs directive.
.Set pop with no .set push
Attempting to pop options off of an empty option stack. Use .set push before .set
pop.
.Size expression too complicated to fix up
The .size expression can be constant or use label subtraction.
DS51833A-page 168
Assembler Errors/Warnings/Messages
A
A bignum with underscores may not have more than 8 hex digits in any word.
A bignum constant must not have more than 8 hex digits in a single word.
A bignum with underscores must have exactly 4 words.
A bignum constant using the underscore notation must have exactly four 8-hexdigit
parts.
Absolute sections are not supported.
This assembler does not support the absolute section command.
Alignment not a power of 2.
The alignment value must be a power of 2. Modify the alignment to be a power of 2.
Alignment too large: 15. Assumed.
An alignment greater than 15 was requested. The assembler automatically continues
with a alignment value of 15.
Arg/static registers overlap.
A MIPS16 mode save/restore uses overlapping registers for args and statics.
Argument must be a string.
The argument to a .error or .warning directive must be a double-quoted string.
Attempt to allocate data in common section.
This directive attempts to allocate data to a section that isn’t allocatable. Allocate the
Attempt to get value of unresolved symbol name
The assembler could not get the value of an unresolved symbol.
Attempt to set value of section symbol.
Assignments to section symbols are not legal.
B
Backward ref to unknown label label:
The referenced label is either not seen or not defined here.
Could not determine an appropriate alignment value for a .comm symbol. A previously
seen .comm symbol may be incorrect.
The string uses a non-standard backslash-escaped characer
The expression type cannot be determined or an operand is not of the correct type for
the expression type.
The token could not be converted to a floating point value.
Bad floating point constant: exponent overflow.
The token could not be converted to a floating point value because of exponent overflow.
Bad floating point constant: unknown error code=%d.
The token could not be converted to a floating point value.
DS51833A-page 169
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
Bad format for ifc or ifnc.
The arguments to the ifc or ifnc directive are incorrect. They must be 2
comma-separated, double-quoted strings.
The absolute expression had an unexpected operator type.
The DWARF debugging directive has an invalid register expression.
Bignum invalid.
The bignum value specified in the expression is not valid.
C
Can’t parse register list.
In MIPS16 mode, the register list is invalid.
Can’t resolve value for symbol ‘%s’.
The assembler could not get a real value for the symbol.
Constant too large.
When sign extending a constant offset from a base register, the constant was too large.
The skip parameter to the .incbin directive was invalid for the given file.
D
Duplicate else.
Each .if directive can have only up to one corresponding .else directive.
E
End of file inside conditional.
The assembler identified a missing conditional-end directive. Terminate the conditional
before the end of the file.
End of macro inside conditional.
The assembler identified a missing macro-end directive. Terminate the macro before
the end of the file.
The expression was illegal, absent, or bignum but it should have been a constant
Expected comma after %s.
The arguments for this directive must be separated by a comma.
Expected comma after name ‘%s’ in .size directive.
The arguments for this directive must be separated by a comma.
Expected quoted string.
The argument should be a quoted string.
Expected simple number.
This argument must be a simple number.
Expected symbol name.
This argument must be a symbol name.
DS51833A-page 170
Assembler Errors/Warnings/Messages
Expression out of range.
The expression is out of range for the directive or instruction (e.g., 32-bit value when a
16-bit value is expected)
Expression too complex.
The expression should be a symbol or constant.
F
The file specified to a directive (such as .incbin) could not be opened as specified.
The file number passed to a .file directive is already in use.
File number less than one.
The file number passed to a .file directive must be > 1.
Floating point number invalid.
The floating point number is invalid.
G
Global symbols not supported in common sections.
External symbols are not supported in MRI common sections.
I
Ignoring attempt to redefine symbol name
The symbol being redefined by the .weakext directive has already been defined.
Improper insert size
The width of the field specified to an INS instruction was not valid for the shift position.
Improper extract size
The width of the field specified to an EXT instruction was not valid for the shift position.
Instruction insn requires absolute expression.
This instruction requires a constant expression.
Invalid astatic register list
The aregs field of a MIPS16e extended SAVE/RESTORE instruction specified an invalid
astatic register list.
Invalid arg register list.
The aregs field of a MIPS16e extended SAVE/RESTORE instruction specified an invalid
arg register list.
Invalid coprocessor 0 register number.
An invalid coprocessor 0 register number was passed to this instruction.
Invalid coprocessor sub-selection value (%ld), not in range 0-7.
The coprocessor sub-selection value must be in the range 0-7.
Invalid frame size
The frame size is not valid and could not be encoded.
Invalid identifier for .ifdef.
The specified identifier is not a valid name. It must begin with a legal character.
DS51833A-page 171
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
Invalid register list.
In MIPS16 mode, the register list contained an invalid register.
Invalid segment %s.
Attempting to change the location counter in an invalid segment.
Invalid static register list.
The static register list should include only $s2-$s8
J
The jump target address is not aligned.
Junk at end of line, first unrecognized character is char
There are extraneous characters after the expected input.
Junk at end of line, first unrecognized character valued 0xval
There are extraneous characters after the expected input.
L
The load/store address is greater than 32 bits wide. Make sure that the label is correct.
Local label label is not defined.
A referenced local label was never defined.
Lui expression not in range 0..65535.
The Load Upper Immediate expression should be within the 16-bit range.
N
New line in title.
The title heading string should be enclosed in double quotes.
No such section.
The section name specified in a .global directive does not exist. (e.g., .global foo
.myscn)
Non-constant expression in .elseif statement
The .elseif statement requires a constant expr expression. The argument of the
.elseif directive must be a constant value able to be resolved on the first pass of the
directive. Ensure that any .equ of a symbol used in this argument is located before the
directive. See Section 7.8 “Directives that Control Conditional Assembly” for
more details.
Non-constant expression in .if statement.
The .if statement requires a constant expr expression. The argument of the .if
directive must be a constant value able to be resolved on the first pass of the directive.
Ensure that any .equ of a symbol used in this argument is located before the directive.
See Section 7.8 “Directives that Control Conditional Assembly” for more details.
‘Noreorder’ must be set before ‘nomacro’.
Set noreorder before setting nomacro.
Number (0x%lx) larger than 32 bits.
Number larger than 64 bits.
DS51833A-page 172
Assembler Errors/Warnings/Messages
O
Offset too large.
The offset must be within the signed-extended 32-bit range.
Opcode not supported on this processor.
The instruction opcode is not supported on PIC32 MCUs.
Operand overflow.
The operand is not within the allowed range for this instruction.
Operation combines symbols in different segments.
The left-hand side of the expression and the right-hand side of the expression are
located in two different sections. The assembler does not know how to handle this
expression.
R
Register value used as expression.
An expression’s operator is a register rather than a valid operator.
Relocation reloc isn’t supported by the current ABI.
This relocation isn’t supported by the PIC32 little-endian ELF output format.
S
Seek to end of .incbin file failed ‘%s’.
Could not find the end of the file specified by .incbin
Skip (%ld) + count (%ld) larger than file size (%ld).
The .incbin skip value + count value is greater than the size of the file.
Store insn found in delay slot of noreorder code.
Consider moving the store in front of the branch and using a NOP in the delay instead.
Symbol ‘%s’ can not be both weak and common.
Both the .weak directive and .comm directive were used on the same symbol within
the same source file.
The symbol cannot be redefined.
Symbol definition loop encountered at ‘%s’.
The symbol could not be defined because a self-referential loop was encountered. A
symbol’s definition cannot depend on its own value.
Syntax error in .startof. Or .sizeof.
The assembler found either .startof. or .sizeof., but did not find the beginning
parenthesis ‘(‘ or ending parenthesis ’)’.
T
This string may not contain ‘\0’.
The string must be a valid C string and cannot contain ‘\0’.
Treating warnings as errors.
The assembler has been instruction to treat all warnings as errors with the
--fatal-warnings command-line option.
DS51833A-page 173
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
U
Unassigned file number num
The .loc directive specifies a file number that is not yet in use.
Unclosed ‘(‘.
An open ‘(‘ is unmatched with a closing ’)’. Add the missing ‘)’.
Unexpected register in list.
In MIPS16 mode, an invalid register was used. Check the operands for this instruction.
DS51833A-page 174
Assembler Errors/Warnings/Messages
B.4
WARNINGS
The assembler generates warnings when an assumption is made so that the
assembler could continue assembling a flawed program. Warnings should not be
ignored. Each warning should be specifically looked at and corrected to ensure that the
assembler understands what was intended. Warning messages can sometimes point
Symbol
.end directive missing or unknown symbol
The .end function debugging-info directive is missing or the associated symbol is not
defined. Make sure that the .end directive is placed appropriately after the .ent directive.
.end directive without a preceding .ent directive.
The .end function debugging-info directive does not have an associated .ent directive
to mark the symbol as a function. Make sure that the .end directive is positioned
appropriately after a .ent directive.
.end not in text section
The .end function debugging-info directive must be in a section with executable code.
.end symbol does not match .ent symbol.
The .end function debugging-info directive’s function argument does not match the
preceding .ent directive’s function argument. Make sure that the .end directive is
positioned appropriately after its corresponding .ent directive.
.endr encountered without preceeding .rept, .irc, or .irp
The .endr directive ends a .rept, .irc, or .irp sequence; however this .endr
directive does not have a preceeding .rept, .irc, or .irp directive. Make sure that
the .endr directive is positioned correctly in your code.
.ent or .aent not in text section.
The .ent function debugging-info directive must be in a section containing executable
code.
.fail expr encountered
If the value of the your .fail expression is 500 or more, the assembler will print a
warning message. The message will include the value of expression.
.fill size clamped to 8
The .fill size value may be zero or more, but if it is more than 8, then it is deemed
to have the value 8.
.frame outside of .ent
The .frame directive describes the stack frame and therefore must be used within a
function.
.incbin count zero, ignoring filename
The .incbin count should be greater than zero. reading zero bytes from a file has no
effect.
The .mask/.fmask stack frame information should be defined within a .ent function.
Make sure that the .mask/.fmask directive is positioned correctly within the source
code.
.popsection without corresponding .pushsection; ignored
DS51833A-page 175
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
The assembler cannot pop a section off of the section stack without pushing one onto
the stack first.
.previous without corresponding .section; ignored
There’s no previous section swap with the current section. Make sure that the .previous directive is positioned correctly within the source code.
.space repeat count is negative, ignored.
The .space size argument must be greater than 0.
.space repeat count is zero, ignored.
The .space size argument must be greater than 0.
A
Alignment negative: 0 assumed.
The .align alignment must be a non-negative power-of-two value. .align 0 turns
off the automatic alignment used by the data creating pseudo-ops.
Alignment too large: 15 assumed.
The .align alignment value is greater than 15. The valid range is [0,15].
D
Divide by zero.
DIV instruction with $zero register as RT. Division by zero. This expression attempts to divide by zero. Check the operands. E Extended instruction in delay slot. A MIPS16e extended instruction may not be placed in a jump delay slot as it will cause undefined behavior. Move the instruction out of the delay slot. F Floating point constant too large. The hexadecimal encoding of a floating point constant is too large. Make sure that your floating point value is encoded correctly in the 32-bit or 64-bit IEEE format. I Ignoring changed section attributes for name If section attributes are specified the second time the assembler sees a particular section, then they should be the same as the first time the assembler saw the section attributes. The assembler assumes that the first set of section attributes was correct. Ignoring changed section entity size for name The section entity size should be the same the second time the assembler sees a particular section. The assembler assumes that the section entity size the first time it saw the section was correct. Ignoring changed section type for name The section type should be the same the second time the assembler sees a particular section. The assembler assumes that the section type the first time it saw the section was correct. DS51833A-page 176 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Assembler Errors/Warnings/Messages Ignoring incorrect section type for name When switching to a special predefined section by name, the section’s type should match the predefined type. The assembler uses the predefined type for the section. Immediate for %s not in range 0..1023 (%lu). The debugger Break code was not in the valid range. Normal user code should not use this instruction reserved for debugger use. Improper shift amount (%lu). The shift value for a shift instruction (e.g., SLL, SRA, SRL) is out of range. Instruction sne: Instruction %s: result is always false. The result of the condition tested by the SNE instruction is always false. (e.g., The s operand is the zero register and t is a nonzero constant expression.) Instruction seq: result is always true. The result of the condition tested by the SEQ instruction is always false. (e.g., The s operand is the zero register and t is the constant 0.) Invalid merge entity size. The section merge entity size must be non-negative. Invalid number. The constant was in an unrecognized format. Check the constant’s prefix and radix. J Jump address range overflow (0x%lx). The target address of the jump instruction is outside the 228-byte “page”. L Left operand is a bignum; integer 0 assumed. The left operand in the expression is a bignum rather than an integer. The assembler performs expression evaluation on only integers so it assumes integer 0 for this operand. Left operand is a float; integer 0 assumed. The left operand in the expression is a float rather than an integer. The assembler performs expression evaluation on only integers so it assumes integer 0 for this operand. Line numbers must be positive; line number %d rejected. This directive accepts only positive integers for the line number. M Missing close quote; (assumed). The single-character quote is not properly closed. Missing operand; zero assumed. An operand (probably the right-size operand) is missing in the expression. The assembler assumes integer 0 and continues. O Operand overflow. The constant expression used as in the (basereg+offset) operand accepts only 32-bit signed constants. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS51833A-page 177 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide R Repeat < 0; .fill ignored. The repeat argument to the .fill directive must be non-negative. Right operand is a bignum; integer 0 assumed. The right operand in the expression is a bignum rather than an integer. The assembler performs expression evaluation on only integers so it assumes integer 0 for this operand. Right operand is a float; integer 0 assumed. The right operand in the expression is a float rather than an integer. The assembler performs expression evaluation on only integers so it assumes integer 0 for this operand. S Setting incorrect section attributes for name When setting section attributes on a special section, the section’s attributes should match those of the predefined type. The assembler uses the predefined type for the section. Setting incorrect section type for name When setting section attributes on a special section, the section’s attributes should match those of the predefined type. The assembler uses the predefined type for the section. Size negative; .fill ignored. The size argument to the .fill directive must be non-negative. T Tried to set unrecognized symbol: name The symbol in the .set directive was not a recognized PIC32 MCU assembler symbol. Truncated file filename, num1 of num2 bytes read. The number of bytes read from the .incbin file was fewer than the number specified in the counts argument. U Unknown escape \escape in string; ignored. The string contains an unrecognized backslash-escaped character. Check that the character following the backslash is correct. Used$at without .set noat.
This code is using the at (assembler temporary) register, but the assembler may use it when generating synthesized macro instruction. Use the .set noat directive to tell the assembler not to quietly use this register B.5 MESSAGES The assembler generates messages when a non-critical assumption is made so that the assembler could continue assembling a flawed program. Messages may be ignored. However, messages can sometimes point out bugs in your program. DS51833A-page 178 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MPLAB® ASSEMBLER, LINKER AND UTILITIES FOR PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE Appendix C. Linker Errors/Warnings C.1 INTRODUCTION MPLAB Object Linker for PIC32 MCUs (pic32-ld) generates errors and warnings. A descriptive list of these outputs is shown here. This list shows only the most common diagnostic messages from the linker. Topics covered in this appendix are: • Fatal Errors • Errors • Warnings C.2 FATAL ERRORS The following errors indicate that an internal error has occurred in the linker. If the linker emits any of the fatal errors listed below and you’re using a custom linker script, check that the script specifies OUTPUT_FORMAT (elf32-tradlittlemips) and OUTPUT_ARCH (pic32mx). Other values may cause the linker to operate in an unsupported mode. Also check that you are passing only fully supported options on the linker’s command line. Finally, make sure that no other applications have the linker’s input or output files locked. If the fatal error occurs with the correct OUTPUT_FORMAT, OUTPUT_ARCH, and command-line options, contact Microchip Technology at http://support.microchip.com for engineering support. Be sure to provide full details about the source code and command-line options causing the error. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bfd backend error: bfd_reloc_ctor unsupported Bfd_hash_allocate failed creating symbol %s Bfd_hash_lookup failed: %e Bfd_hash_lookup for insertion failed: %e Bfd_hash_table_init failed: %e Bfd_hash_table_init of cref table failed: %e Bfd_link_hash_lookup failed: %e Bfd_new_link_order failed Bfd_record_phdr failed: %e Can’t set bfd default target to ‘%s’: %e Can not create link hash table: %e Can not make object file: %e Cannot represent machine ‘%s’ Could not read relocs: %e Could not read symbols Cref_hash_lookup failed: %e Error closing file ‘%s’ Error writing file ‘%s’ Failed to create hash table Failed to merge target specific data © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS51833A-page 179 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide • • • • • • • • • • • C.3 File not recognized: %e Final close failed: %e Final link failed: %e Hash creation failed Out of memory during initialization Symbol ‘%t’ missing from main hash table Target %s not found Target architecture respecified Unknown architecture: %s Unknown demangling style ‘%s’ Unknown language ‘%s’ in version information ERRORS The linker errors listed below usually indicate an error in the linker script or command-line options passed to the linker. An error could also indicate a problem with one or more of the input object files or archives. Symbols --gc-sections and -r may not be used together The section garbage-collection option and the relocatable-output option are not compatible. Remove either the --gc-sections option or the --relocatable option. --relax and -r may not be used together The relaxation option and the relocatable output option are not compatible. Remove one of the options. A Assignment to location counter invalid outside of SECTION An assignment to the special dot symbol can be done only during allocation within a SECTION. Check the location of the assignment statement in the linker script. B Bad --unresolved-symbols option: option The --unresolved-symbols method option was invalid. Note that this option is unsupported. Try the default --unresolved-symbols=report-all instead. C Can not PROVIDE assignment to location counter An assignment to the special dot symbol can be done only during allocation. A PROVIDE command cannot use an assignment to the location counter. Remove the erroneous statement from the linker script. Can not set architecture: arch_name If you’re using a custom linker script, check that the OUTPUT_ARCH (pic32mx) command appears in the linker script. The PIC32 MCU linker currently supports only the ‘pic32mx’ arch. Cannot move location counter backwards (from addr1 to addr2) The next dot-symbol value must be greater than the current dot-symbol value. DS51833A-page 180 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Linker Errors/Warnings D Dangerous relocation: relocation_type A symbol was resolved but the usage is dangerous. This can occur, for example, when the code uses GP-relative addressing but the _gp initialization symbol was not defined. The _gp symbol is normally defined in the linker script. F File format not recognized; treating as linker script One of the input files was not a recognized ELF object or archive. The linker assumes that it is a linker script. G Group ended before it began (--help for usage) The -) option appeared on the command line before the -( option. Check that the group is specified correctly on the linker command line. I Illegal use of name section The section name is reserved. For instance, the special output-section name /DISCARD/ may be used to discard input sections. Any input sections which are assigned to an output section named /DISCARD/ are not included in the output file. You should not create your own output section named /DISCARD/. Includes nested too deeply The maximum include depth is 10. Invalid argument to option --section-start The argument to --section-start must be sectionname=org. org must be a single hexadecimal integer. There should be no white space between sectionname, the equals sign (=), and org. Invalid assignment to location counter The assignment to the special dot symbol was invalid. Invalid syntax in flags The section flags are invalid. The accepted flags are: a r w x l. M Macros nested too deeply The maximum macro nesting depth is 10. May not nest groups (--help for usage) An archive group is already started. Use the -) option to close the current group before starting another group with the -( option. Member %b in archive is not an object The archive member is not a valid object. Check that the library archive is correct for the Microchip MPLAB C Compiler for PIC32 MCUs. Missing argument(s) to option --section-start The required argument to --section-start must be sectionname=org. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS51833A-page 181 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide Multiple definition of name The linker discovered a symbol that is defined multiple times. Eliminate the extraneous definition(s). Multiple start-up files The linker script is attempting to set a start-up file, but a start-up file has already been set. There should be only one start-up file specified in the linker script. N No input files The linker did not find an input file specified on the command line. There was nothing for the linker to do. Check that you are passing the correct object file names to the linker. Nonconstant expression for name name must be a nonconstant expression. R region region is full (filename section secname). The memory region region is full, but section secname has been assigned to it. Reloc refers to symbol name which is not being output An instruction references a symbol that is not being output. Relocation truncated to fit relocation_type name. This error indicates that the relocated value of name is too large for its intended use. This can happen when an address is out of range for the instruction in question. Check that the symbol is both declared and defined in the intended section. For instance, a variable’s declaration and definition must both be either const or non-const. Relocation truncated to fit: relocation_type name against undefined symbol name This error can occur if the symbol does not exist. For instance, the code calls a function that has not been defined. U Undefined MEMORY region region referenced in expression The expression referenced a MEMORY region that does not exist in the linker script. C.4 WARNINGS The linker generates warnings when an assumption is made so that the linker could continue linking a flawed program. Warnings should not be ignored. Each warning should be specifically looked at and corrected to ensure that the linker understands what was intended. Warning messages can sometimes point out bugs in your program. C Cannot find entry symbol name If we can’t find the specified entry symbol and it’s not a number. Use the first address in the text section. Changing start of section name by num bytes The linker is changing the start of the indicated section due to alignment. DS51833A-page 182 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Linker Errors/Warnings R Redeclaration of memory region name The MEMORY region has been declared more than once in the linker script. U Undefined reference to name The symbol is undefined. © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. DS51833A-page 183 32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide NOTES: DS51833A-page 184 © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. MPLAB® ASSEMBLER, LINKER AND UTILITIES FOR PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE Appendix D. Useful Tables D.1 INTRODUCTION Some useful tables are included for reference. The tables are: • ASCII Character Set • Hexadecimal to Decimal Conversion D.2 ASCII CHARACTER SET This table lists the ASCII standard character set. Most Significant Character Least Significant Character © 2009 Microchip Technology Inc. Hex 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 NUL DLE Space 0 @ P  p 1 SOH DC1 ! 1 A Q a q 2 STX DC2 " 2 B R b r 3 ETX DC3 # 3 C S c s 4 EOT DC4
4
D
T
d
t
5
ENQ
NAK
%
5
E
U
e
u
6
ACK
SYN
&
6
F
V
f
v
7
Bell
ETB
'
7
G
W
g
w
8
BS
CAN
(
8
H
X
h
x
9
HT
EM
)
9
I
Y
i
y
A
LF
SUB
*
:
J
Z
j
z
B
VT
ESC
+
;
K
[
k
{
C
FF
FS
,
<
L
\
l
|
D
CR
GS
–
=
M
]
m
}
E
SO
RS
.
>
N
^
n
~
F
SI
US
/
?
O
_
o
DEL
DS51833A-page 185
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
D.3
This table describes how to convert hexadecimal to decimal. For each hex digit, find
the associated decimal value. Add the numbers together.
High Byte
Low Byte
Hex 1000
Dec
Hex 100
Dec
Hex 10
Dec
Hex 1
Dec
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
4096
1
256
1
16
1
1
2
8192
2
512
2
32
2
2
3
12288
3
768
3
48
3
3
4
16384
4
1024
4
64
4
4
5
20480
5
1280
5
80
5
5
6
24576
6
1536
6
96
6
6
7
28672
7
1792
7
112
7
7
8
32768
8
2048
8
128
8
8
9
36864
9
2304
9
144
9
9
A
40960
A
2560
A
160
A
10
B
45056
B
2816
B
176
B
11
C
49152
C
3072
C
192
C
12
D
53248
D
3328
D
208
D
13
E
57344
E
3584
E
224
E
14
F
61440
F
3840
F
240
F
15
For example, hex A38F converts to 41871 as follows:
Hex 1000’s Digit Hex 100’s Digit
40960
DS51833A-page 186
768
Hex 10’s Digit
Hex 1’s Digit
Result
128
15
41871 Decimal
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
Appendix E. GNU Free Documentation License
Version 1.2, November 2002
Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document,
but changing it is not allowed.
E.1
PREAMBLE
The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional and
useful document “free” in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the effective
freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, either commercially or
non commercially. Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a
way to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible for modifications
This License is a kind of “copyleft”, which means that derivative works of the document
must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the GNU General Public
free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals
providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this License is not limited to
software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License principally for
works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
E.2
APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains a notice
License. Such a notice grants a worldwide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
to use that work under the conditions stated herein. The “Document”, below, refers to
any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as
“you”. You accept the license if you copy, modify, or distribute the work in a way
A “Modified Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a
portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into another
language.
A “Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document
that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document
to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could
fall directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of
DS51833A-page 187
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters,
or of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.
The “Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated,
as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document is
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The “Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover
Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released under
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A “Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented
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Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without
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The “Title Page” means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such following
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A section “Entitled XYZ” means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is
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“Preserve the Title” of such a section when you modify the Document means that it
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The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that
this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to
be included by reference in this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties:
any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no
effect on the meaning of this License.
DS51833A-page 188
E.3
VERBATIM COPYING
You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and the license notice
saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use technical
measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make
or distribute. However, you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you
distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in
section 3.
You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you may
publicly display copies.
E.4
COPYING IN QUANTITY
If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of
the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document’s license notice requires
Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the
back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of
these copies. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally
prominent and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying
with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document
and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects.
If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, you should put the
first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest
If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100,
you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque
copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the
protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. If you
use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin
distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will
remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time
you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
edition to the public.
It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document well
before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance to provide you
with an updated version of the Document.
DS51833A-page 189
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
E.5
MODIFICATIONS
You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions
of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version under
precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a
copy of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
a) Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from that of the
Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if there were any,
be listed in the History section of the Document). You may use the same title as
a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
b) List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible for
authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with at least five
of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer
than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
c) State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, as the
publisher.
d) Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
f) Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving the public
permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this License, in the
form shown in the Addendum below.
g) Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required
Cover Texts given in the Document’s license notice.
h) Include an unaltered copy of this License.
i) Preserve the section Entitled “History”, Preserve its Title, and add to it an item
stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Modified Version
as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled “History” in the Document,
create one stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as given
on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in the
previous sentence.
j) Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public access to
a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations given in
the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be placed in the
“History” section. You may omit a network location for a work that was published
at least four years before the Document itself, or if the original publisher of the
version it refers to gives permission.
k) For any section Entitled “Acknowledgements” or “Dedications”, Preserve the Title
of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of
the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.
l) Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their text and
in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the
section titles.
m) Delete any section Entitled “Endorsements”. Such a section may not be included
in the Modified Version.
n) Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled “Endorsements” or to conflict in
title with any Invariant Section.
o) Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
DS51833A-page 190
If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as
Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, you may at
your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their
titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version’s license notice. These titles
must be distinct from any other section titles.
You may add a section Entitled “Endorsements”, provided it contains nothing but
endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example, statements of
peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
definition of a standard.
You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage of
up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified
Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or by arrangement
made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you
may replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added
the old one.
The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission
to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modified
Version.
E.6
COMBINING DOCUMENTS
You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License,
under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided that you
include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license
notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple identical
Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there are multiple Invariant
Sections with the same name but different contents, make the title of each such section
unique by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original author or
publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment
to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined
work.
In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled “History” in the various
original documents, forming one section Entitled “History”; likewise combine any
sections Entitled “Acknowledgements”, and any sections Entitled “Dedications”. You
must delete all sections Entitled “Endorsements”.
E.7
COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released
under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the various
documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided that you follow
the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other
respects.
You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it individually
under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted
document, and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
that document.
DS51833A-page 191
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
E.8
AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent
documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an
“aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal
rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. When the
Document is included an aggregate, this License does not apply to the other works in
the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.
If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the
aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate.
E.9
TRANSLATION
Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations of
the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these
Invariant Sections. You may include a translation of this License, and all the license
notices in the Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices
and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original
version of this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
If a section in the Document is Entitled “Acknowledgements”, “Dedications”, or
“History”, the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically
require changing the actual title.
E.10 TERMINATION
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as expressly
provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, sublicense or
distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this
License. However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full
compliance.
E.11
The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU Free
Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to
the present version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.
See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the Document
specifies that a particular numbered version of this License “or any later version”
applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that
specified version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version number of this
License, you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free
Software Foundation.
DS51833A-page 192
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
Glossary
Absolute Section
A section with a fixed (absolute) address that cannot be changed by the linker.
Access Memory
PIC18 Only – Special registers on PIC18 devices that allow access regardless of the
setting of the Bank Select Register (BSR).
Access Entry Points
Access entry points provide a way to transfer control across segments to a function
which may not be defined at link time. They support the separate linking of boot and
secure application segments.
Value that identifies a location in memory.
Alphabetic Character
Alphabetic characters are those characters that are letters of the arabic alphabet
(a, b, …, z, A, B, …, Z).
Alphanumeric
Alphanumeric characters are comprised of alphabetic characters and decimal digits
(0,1, …, 9).
ANDed Breakpoints
Set up an ANDed condition for breaking (i.e., breakpoint 1 AND breakpoint 2 must
occur at the same time before a program halt). This can only be accomplished if a data
breakpoint and a program memory breakpoint occur at the same time.
Anonymous Structure
C30 – An unnamed structure.
C18 – An unnamed structure that is a member of a C union. The members of an anonymous structure may be accessed as if they were members of the enclosing union. For
example, in the following code, hi and lo are members of an anonymous structure
inside the union caster.
union castaway
int intval;
struct {
char lo; //accessible as caster.lo
char hi; //accessible as caster.hi
};
} caster;
ANSI
American National Standards Institute is an organization responsible for formulating
and approving standards in the United States.
Application
A set of software and hardware that may be controlled by a PIC® microcontroller.
DS51833A-page 193
MPLAB® Assembler, Linker and Utilities for PIC32
Archive
A collection of relocatable object modules. It is created by assembling multiple source
files to object files, and then using the archiver to combine the object files into one
library file. A library can be linked with object modules and other libraries to create
executable code.
Archiver
A tool that creates and manipulates libraries.
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange is a character set encoding that
uses 7 binary digits to represent each character. It includes upper and lowercase
letters, digits, symbols and control characters.
Assembler
A language tool that translates assembly language source code into machine code.
Assembly Language
A programming language that describes binary machine code in a symbolic form.
Assigned Section
A section which has been assigned to a target memory block in the linker command file.
Asynchronously
Multiple events that do not occur at the same time. This is generally used to refer to
interrupts that may occur at any time during processor execution.
Asynchronous Stimulus
Data generated to simulate external inputs to a simulator device.
Attribute
Characteristics of variables or functions in a C program which are used to describe
machine-specific properties.
Attribute, Section
Characteristics of sections, such as “executable”, “readonly”, or “data” that can be
specified as flags in the assembler .section directive.
Binary
The base two numbering system that uses the digits 0-1. The rightmost digit counts
ones, the next counts multiples of 2, then 22 = 4, etc.
Bookmarks
Use bookmarks to easily locate specific lines in a file.
Under the Edit menu, select Bookmarks to manage bookmarks. Toggle (enable /
disable) a bookmark, move to the next or previous bookmark, or clear all bookmarks.
Breakpoint
Hardware Breakpoint: An event whose execution will cause a Halt.
Software Breakpoint: An address where execution of the firmware will halt. Usually
achieved by a special break instruction.
Build
Compile and link all the source files for an application.
C
A general purpose programming language which features economy of expression,
modern control flow and data structures, and a rich set of operators.
DS51833A-page 194
Glossary
Calibration Memory
A Special Function Register or registers used to hold values for calibration of a PIC®
microcontroller on-board RC oscillator or other device peripherals.
Central Processing Unit
The part of a device that is responsible for fetching the correct instruction for execution,
decoding that instruction, and then executing that instruction. When necessary, it works
in conjunction with the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) to complete the execution of the
instruction. It controls the program memory address bus, the data memory address
bus, and accesses to the stack.
Clean
Under the MPLAB IDE Project menu, Clean removes all intermediary project files, such
as object, hex and debug files, for the active project. These files are recreated from
other files when a project is built.
COFF
Common Object File Format. An object file of this format contains machine code,
debugging and other information.
Command Line Interface
A means of communication between a program and its user based solely on textual
input and output.
Compiler
A program that translates a source file written in a high-level language into machine
code.
Conditional Assembly
Assembly language code that is included or omitted based on the assembly-time value
of a specified expression.
Conditional Compilation
The act of compiling a program fragment only if a certain constant expression, specified
by a preprocessor directive, is true.
Configuration Bits
Special purpose bits programmed to set PIC microcontroller modes of operation. A
Configuration bit may or may not be preprogrammed.
Control Directives
Directives in assembly language code that cause code to be included or omitted based
on the assembly-time value of a specified expression.
CPU
See Central Processing Unit.
Cross Reference File
A file that references a table of symbols and a list of files that references the symbol. If
the symbol is defined, the first file listed is the location of the definition. The remaining
files contain references to the symbol.
Data Directives
Data directives are those that control the assembler’s allocation of program or data
memory and provide a way to refer to data items symbolically; that is, by meaningful
names.
DS51833A-page 195
MPLAB® Assembler, Linker and Utilities for PIC32
Data Memory
On Microchip MCU and DSC devices, data memory (RAM) is comprised of General
Purpose Registers (GPRs) and Special Function Registers (SFRs). Some devices also
have EEPROM data memory.
Debugger
Hardware that performs debugging.
Debugger System
The debugger systems include the pod, processor module, device adapter, target
board, cables, and MPLAB IDE software.
Debugging Information
Compiler and assembler options that, when selected, provide varying degrees of information used to debug application code. See compiler or assembler documentation for
details on selecting debug options.
Deprecated Features
Features that are still supported for legacy reasons, but will eventually be phased out
and no longer used.
Device Programmer
A tool used to program electrically programmable semiconductor devices such as
microcontrollers.
Digital Signal Controller
A microcontroller device with digital signal processing capability (i.e., Microchip dsPIC
DSC devices).
Digital Signal Processing
The computer manipulation of digital signals, commonly analog signals (sound or
image) which have been converted to digital form (sampled).
Digital Signal Processor
A microprocessor that is designed for use in digital signal processing.
Directives
Statements in source code that provide control of the language tool’s operation.
Download is the process of sending data from a host to another device, such as an
emulator, programmer or target board.
DSC
See Digital Signal Controller.
DSP
See Digital Signal Processor.
DWARF
Debug With Arbitrary Record Format. DWARF is a debug information format for ELF
files.
EEPROM
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. A special type of PROM that
can be erased electrically. Data is written or erased one byte at a time. EEPROM
retains its contents even when power is turned off.
DS51833A-page 196
Glossary
ELF
Executable and Linking Format. An object file of this format contains machine code.
Debugging and other information is specified in with DWARF. ELF/DWARF provide
better debugging of optimized code than COFF.
Emulation
The process of executing software loaded into emulation memory as if it were firmware
residing on a microcontroller device.
Emulation Memory
Program memory contained within the emulator.
Emulator
Hardware that performs emulation.
Emulator System
The MPLAB ICE 2000 and MPLAB ICE 4000 emulator systems include the pod, processor module, device adapter, target board, cables, and MPLAB IDE software. The
MPLAB REAL ICE system consists of a pod, a driver (and potentially a receiver) card,
target board, cables, and MPLAB IDE software.
Endianness
The ordering of bytes in a multi-byte object.
Environment
IDE – The particular layout of the desktop for application development.
MPLAB PM3 – A folder containing files on how to program a device. This folder can be
transferred to a SD/MMC card.
Epilogue
A portion of compiler-generated code that is responsible for deallocating stack space,
restoring registers and performing any other machine-specific requirement specified in
the runtime model. This code executes after any user code for a given function,
immediately prior to the function return.
EPROM
can be erased usually by exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
Error File
A file containing error messages and diagnostics generated by a language tool.
Errors
Errors report problems that make it impossible to continue processing your program.
When possible, errors identify the source file name and line number where the problem
is apparent.
Event
A description of a bus cycle which may include address, data, pass count, external
input, cycle type (fetch, R/W), and time-stamp. Events are used to describe triggers,
breakpoints and interrupts.
Executable Code
Export
Send data out of the MPLAB IDE in a standardized format.
DS51833A-page 197
MPLAB® Assembler, Linker and Utilities for PIC32
Expressions
Combinations of constants and/or symbols separated by arithmetic or logical
operators.
Extended Microcontroller Mode
In Extended Microcontroller mode, on-chip program memory as well as external memory is available. Execution automatically switches to external if the program memory
address is greater than the internal memory space of the PIC18 device.
Extended Mode
In Extended mode, the compiler will utilize the extended instructions (i.e., ADDFSR,
ADDULNK, CALLW, MOVSF, MOVSS, PUSHL, SUBFSR and SUBULNK) and the indexed
External Label
A label that has external linkage.
A function or variable has external linkage if it can be referenced from outside the
module in which it is defined.
External Symbol
A symbol for an identifier which has external linkage. This may be a reference or a
definition.
External Symbol Resolution
A process performed by the linker in which external symbol definitions from all input
modules are collected in an attempt to resolve all external symbol references. Any
external symbol references which do not have a corresponding definition cause a linker
error to be reported.
External Input Line
An external input signal logic probe line (TRIGIN) for setting an event based upon
external signals.
External RAM
Fatal Error
An error that will halt compilation immediately. No further messages will be produced.
File Registers
On-chip data memory, including General Purpose Registers (GPRs) and Special
Function Registers (SFRs).
Filter
Determine by selection what data is included/excluded in a trace display or data file.
Flash
A type of EEPROM where data is written or erased in blocks instead of bytes.
FNOP
Forced No Operation. A forced NOP cycle is the second cycle of a two-cycle instruction.
Since the PIC microcontroller architecture is pipelined, it prefetches the next instruction
in the physical address space while it is executing the current instruction. However, if
the current instruction changes the program counter, this prefetched instruction is
explicitly ignored, causing a forced NOP cycle.
DS51833A-page 198
Glossary
Frame Pointer
A pointer that references the location on the stack that separates the stack-based
arguments from the stack-based local variables. Provides a convenient base from
which to access local variables and other values for the current function.
Free-Standing
An implementation that accepts any strictly conforming program that does not use
complex types and in which the use of the features specified in the library clause (ANSI
‘89 standard clause 7) is confined to the contents of the standard headers <float.h>,
<iso646.h>, <limits.h>, <stdarg.h>, <stdbool.h>, <stddef.h> and
<stdint.h>.
GPR
General Purpose Register. The portion of device data memory (RAM) available for
general use.
Halt
A stop of program execution. Executing Halt is the same as stopping at a breakpoint.
Heap
An area of memory used for dynamic memory allocation where blocks of memory are
allocated and freed in an arbitrary order determined at runtime.
Hex Code
Executable instructions stored in a hexadecimal format code. Hex code is contained in
a hex file.
Hex File
An ASCII file containing hexadecimal addresses and values (hex code) suitable for
programming a device.
The base 16 numbering system that uses the digits 0-9 plus the letters A-F (or a-f). The
digits A-F represent hexadecimal digits with values of (decimal) 10 to 15. The rightmost
digit counts ones, the next counts multiples of 16, then 162 = 256, etc.
High Level Language
A language for writing programs that is further removed from the processor than
assembly.
ICD
In-Circuit Debugger. MPLAB ICD 2 and 3, and PICkit 2 and 3 (with Debug Express),
are Microchip’s in-circuit debuggers.
ICE
In-Circuit Emulator. MPLAB ICE 2000, MPLAB ICE 4000 and MPLAB® REAL ICE™
system are Microchip’s in-circuit emulators.
ICSP™
In-Circuit Serial Programming™. A method of programming Microchip embedded
devices using serial communication and a minimum number of device pins.
IDE
Integrated Development Environment. MPLAB IDE is Microchip’s integrated
development environment.
Identifier
A function or variable name.
DS51833A-page 199
MPLAB® Assembler, Linker and Utilities for PIC32
IEEE
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
Import
Bring data into the MPLAB IDE from an outside source, such as from a hex file.
Initialized Data
Data which is defined with an initial value. In C,
int myVar=5;
defines a variable which will reside in an initialized data section.
Instruction Set
The collection of machine language instructions that a particular processor
understands.
Instructions
A sequence of bits that tells a central processing unit to perform a particular operation
and can contain data to be used in the operation.
A function or variable has internal linkage if it can not be accessed from outside the
module in which it is defined.
International Organization for Standardization
An organization that sets standards in many businesses and technologies, including
computing and communications.
Interrupt
A signal to the CPU that suspends the execution of a running application and transfers
control to an Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) so that the event may be processed. Upon
completion of the ISR, normal execution of the application resumes.
Interrupt Handler
A routine that processes special code when an interrupt occurs.
Interrupt Request
An event which causes the processor to temporarily suspend normal instruction execution and to start executing an interrupt handler routine. Some processors have
several interrupt request events allowing different priority interrupts.
Interrupt Service Routine
ALU30, C18, C30 – A function that handles an interrupt.
IDE – User-generated code that is entered when an interrupt occurs. The location of
the code in program memory will usually depend on the type of interrupt that has
occurred.
Interrupt Vector
Address of an interrupt service routine or interrupt handler.
IRQ
See Interrupt Request.
ISO
See International Organization for Standardization.
ISR
See Interrupt Service Routine.
DS51833A-page 200
Glossary
L-value
An expression that refers to an object that can be examined and/or modified. An l-value
expression is used on the left-hand side of an assignment.
Latency
The time between an event and its response.
Librarian
See Archiver.
Library
See Archive.
A language tool that combines object files and libraries to create executable code,
resolving references from one module to another.
describe available memory on the target platform.
Listing Directives
Listing directives are those directives that control the assembler listing file format. They
allow the specification of titles, pagination and other listing control.
Listing File
A listing file is an ASCII text file that shows the machine code generated for each C
source statement, assembly instruction, assembler directive, or macro encountered in
a source file.
Little Endian
A data ordering scheme for multibyte data whereby the Least Significant Byte is stored
Local Label
A local label is one that is defined inside a macro with the LOCAL directive. These
labels are particular to a given instance of a macro’s instantiation. In other words, the
symbols and labels that are declared as local are no longer accessible after the ENDM
macro is encountered.
Logic Probes
Up to 14 logic probes can be connected to some Microchip emulators. The logic probes
provide external trace inputs, trigger output signal, +5V, and a common ground.
Loop-Back Test Board
Used to test the functionality of the MPLAB REAL ICE in-circuit emulator.
LVDS
Low Voltage Differential Signaling. A low noise, low-power, low amplitude method for
high-speed (gigabits per second) data transmission over copper wire.
LVDS differs from normal input/output (I/O) in a few ways:
Normal digital I/O works with 5 volts as a high (binary ‘1’) and 0 volts as a low (binary
‘0’). When you use a differential, you add a third option (-5 volts), which provides an
extra level with which to encode, and results in a higher maximum data transfer rate.
A higher data transfer rate means fewer wires are required, as in UW (Ultra Wide) and
UW-2/3 SCSI hard disks, which use only 68 wires. These devices require a high transfer rate over short distances. Using standard I/O transfer, SCSI hard drives would
require a lot more than 68 wires.
DS51833A-page 201
MPLAB® Assembler, Linker and Utilities for PIC32
Low voltage means that the standard 5 volts is replaced by either 3.3 volts or 1.5 volts.
LVDS uses a dual wire system, running 180 degrees of each other. This enables noise
to travel at the same level, which in turn can get filtered more easily and effectively.
With standard I/0 signaling, data storage is contingent upon the actual voltage level.
Voltage level can be affected by wire length (longer wires increase resistance, which
lowers voltage). But with LVDS, data storage is distinguished only by positive and negative voltage values, not the voltage level. Therefore, data can travel over greater
lengths of wire while maintaining a clear and consistent data stream.
Source: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/L/LVDS.html.
Machine Code
The representation of a computer program that is actually read and interpreted by the
processor. A program in binary machine code consists of a sequence of machine
instructions (possibly interspersed with data). The collection of all possible instructions
for a particular processor is known as its “instruction set”.
Machine Language
A set of instructions for a specific central processing unit, designed to be usable by a
processor without being translated.
Macro
Macro instruction. An instruction that represents a sequence of instructions in abbreviated form.
Macro Directives
Directives that control the execution and data allocation within macro body definitions.
Makefile
Export to a file the instructions to Make the project. Use this file to Make your project
outside of MPLAB IDE (i.e., with a make).
Under Project>Build Options>Project, Directories tab, you must have selected
“Assemble/Compile/Link in the project directory” under “Build Directory Policy” for this
feature to work.
Make Project
A command that rebuilds an application, recompiling only those source files that have
changed since the last complete compilation.
MCU
Microcontroller Unit. An abbreviation for microcontroller. Also uC.
Memory Model
C30 – A representation of the memory available to the application.
C18 – A description that specifies the size of pointers that point to program memory.
Message
Text displayed to alert you to potential problems in language tool operation. A message
will not stop operation.
Microcontroller
A highly integrated chip that contains a CPU, RAM, program memory, I/O ports and
timers.
Microcontroller Mode
One of the possible program memory configurations of PIC18 microcontrollers. In
Microcontroller mode, only internal execution is allowed. Thus, only the on-chip program memory is available in Microcontroller mode.
DS51833A-page 202
Glossary
Microprocessor Mode
One of the possible program memory configurations of PIC18 microcontrollers. In
Microprocessor mode, the on-chip program memory is not used. The entire program
memory is mapped externally.
Mnemonics
Text instructions that can be translated directly into machine code. Also referred to as
opcodes.
MPASM™ Assembler
Microchip Technology’s relocatable macro assembler for PIC microcontroller devices,
KEELOQ® devices and Microchip memory devices.
Previous names for Microchip’s relocatable macro assembler, object linker and object
archiver/librarian supporting 16-bit devices (dsPIC30F/33F DSCs and PIC24H/F
MCUs).
MPLAB C18/C30/C32
Previous names for various C compilers from Microchip. MPLAB C18 supports
PIC18CXXX and PIC18FXXXX devices, MPLAB C30 supports dsPIC30F/33F DSCs
and PIC24H/F MCUs and MPLAB C32 supports PIC32MX devices.
MPLAB Language Tool for Device
Microchip’s C compilers, assemblers and linkers for specified devices. Select the type
of language tool based on the device you will be using for your application (e.g., if you
will be creating C code on a PIC18 MCU, select the MPLAB C Compiler for PIC18
MCUs).
MPLAB ICD 2/3
Microchip’s in-circuit debuggers that works with MPLAB IDE. The ICDs supports Flash
devices with built-in debug circuitry. The main component of each ICD is the pod. A
complete system consists of a pod, header board (with a device-ICD), target board,
cables, and MPLAB IDE software.
MPLAB ICE 2000/4000
Not recommended for new designs. See the MPLAB REAL ICE in-circuit
emulator.
Microchip’s in-circuit emulators that work with MPLAB IDE. MPLAB ICE 2000 supports
8-bit PIC MCUs. MPLAB ICE 4000 supports PIC18F and PIC24 MCUs and dsPIC
DSCs. The main component of each ICE is the pod. A complete system consists of a
pod, processor module, cables, and MPLAB IDE software.
MPLAB IDE
Microchip’s Integrated Development Environment.
MPLAB PM3
A device programmer from Microchip. Programs PIC18 microcontrollers and dsPIC
digital signal controllers. Can be used with MPLAB IDE or stand-alone. Will replace
PRO MATE® II.
MPLAB REAL ICE™ In-Circuit Emulator
Microchip’s in-circuit emulators that works with MPLAB IDE. The MPLAB REAL ICE
emulator supports PIC18F and PIC24 MCUs and dsPIC DSCs. The main component
of each ICE is the pod. A complete system consists of a pod, a driver (and potentially
a receiver) card, cables, and MPLAB IDE software.
DS51833A-page 203
MPLAB® Assembler, Linker and Utilities for PIC32
MPLAB SIM
Microchip’s simulator that works with MPLAB IDE in support of PIC MCU and dsPIC
DSC devices.
MPLIB™ Object Librarian
Microchip’s librarian that can work with MPLAB IDE. MPLIB librarian is an object librarian for use with COFF object modules created using either MPASM assembler (mpasm
or mpasmwin v2.0) or MPLAB C18 C compiler.
MPLINK linker is an object linker for the Microchip MPASM assembler and the Microchip C18 C compiler. MPLINK linker also may be used with the Microchip MPLIB librarian. MPLINK linker is designed to be used with MPLAB IDE, though it does not have to
be.
MRU
Most Recently Used. Refers to files and windows available to be selected from MPLAB
Native Data Size
For Native trace, the size of the variable used in a Watch window must be of the same
size as the selected device’s data memory: bytes for PIC18 devices and words for
16-bit devices.
Nesting Depth
The maximum level to which macros can include other macros.
Node
MPLAB IDE project component.
Non-Extended Mode
In Non-Extended mode, the compiler will not utilize the extended instructions nor the
Non Real Time
Refers to the processor at a breakpoint or executing single-step instructions or MPLAB
IDE being run in Simulator mode.
Non-Volatile Storage
A storage device whose contents are preserved when its power is off.
NOP
No Operation. An instruction that has no effect when executed except to advance the
program counter.
Object Code
The machine code generated by an assembler or compiler.
Object File
A file containing machine code and possibly debug information. It may be immediately
executable or it may be relocatable, requiring linking with other object files (e.g.,
libraries, to produce a complete executable program).
Object File Directives
Directives that are used only when creating an object file.
Octal
The base 8 number system that only uses the digits 0-7. The rightmost digit counts
ones, the next digit counts multiples of 8, then 82 = 64, etc.
DS51833A-page 204
Glossary
Off-Chip Memory
Off-chip memory refers to the memory selection option for the PIC18 device where
memory may reside on the target board, or where all program memory may be supplied
by the emulator. The Memory tab accessed from Options>Development Mode provides the Off-Chip Memory selection dialog box.
One-to-One Project-Workspace Model
The most common configuration for application development in MPLAB IDE to is have
one project in one workspace. Select Configure>Settings, Projects tab and check “Use
one-to-one project-workspace model”.
Opcodes
Operational Codes. See Mnemonics.
Operators
Symbols, like the plus sign ‘+’ and the minus sign ‘-’, that are used when forming
well-defined expressions. Each operator has an assigned precedence that is used to
determine order of evaluation.
OTP
One Time Programmable. EPROM devices that are not in windowed packages. Since
EPROM needs ultraviolet light to erase its memory, only windowed devices are erasable.
Pass Counter
A counter that decrements each time an event (such as the execution of an instruction
at a particular address) occurs. When the pass count value reaches zero, the event is
satisfied. You can assign the Pass Counter to break and trace logic, and to any
sequential event in the complex trigger dialog.
PC
Personal Computer or Program Counter.
PC Host
Any PC running a supported Windows operating system.
Persistent Data
Data that is never cleared or initialized. Its intended use is so that an application can
preserve data across a device reset.
Phantom Byte
An unimplemented byte in the dsPIC architecture that is used when treating the 24-bit
instruction word as if it were a 32-bit instruction word. Phantom bytes appear in dsPIC
hex files.
PIC® MCUs
PIC microcontrollers (MCUs) refers to all Microchip microcontroller families.
PICSTART Plus
A developmental device programmer from Microchip. Programs 8-, 14-, 28-, and 40-pin
PIC microcontrollers. Must be used with MPLAB IDE software.
Plug-ins
The MPLAB IDE has both built-in components and plug-in modules to configure the
system for a variety of software and hardware tools. Several plug-in tools may be found
DS51833A-page 205
MPLAB® Assembler, Linker and Utilities for PIC32
Pod
MPLAB REAL ICE system: The box that contains the emulation control circuitry for the
ICE device on the header or target board. An ICE device can be a production device
with built-in ICE circuitry or a special ICE version of a production device (i.e.,
device-ICE).
MPLAB ICD 2/3: The box that contains the debug control circuitry for the ICD device
on the header or target board. An ICD device can be a production device with built-in
ICD circuitry or a special ICD version of a production device (i.e., device-ICD).
MPLAB ICE 2000/4000: The external emulator box that contains emulation memory,
trace memory, event and cycle timers, and trace/breakpoint logic.
Power-on-Reset Emulation
A software randomization process that writes random values in data RAM areas to
simulate uninitialized values in RAM upon initial power application.
Pragma
A directive that has meaning to a specific compiler. Often a pragma is used to convey
implementation-defined information to the compiler. MPLAB C30 uses attributes to
convey this information.
Precedence
Rules that define the order of evaluation in expressions.
PRO MATE® II
No longer in Production. See the MPLAB PM3 device programmer.
A device programmer from Microchip. Programs most PIC microcontrollers as well as
most memory and KEELOQ devices. Can be used with MPLAB IDE or stand-alone.
Profile
For MPLAB SIM simulator, a summary listing of executed stimulus by register.
Program Counter
The location that contains the address of the instruction that is currently executing.
Program Counter Unit
ALU30 – A conceptual representation of the layout of program memory. The program
counter increments by 2 for each instruction word. In an executable section, 2 program
counter units are equivalent to 3 bytes. In a read-only section, 2 program counter units
are equivalent to 2 bytes.
Program Memory
IDE – The memory area in a device where instructions are stored. Also, the memory in
ALU30, C30 – The memory area in a device where instructions are stored.
Project
A project contains the files needed to build an application (source code, linker script
files, etc.) along with their associations to various build tools and build options.
Prologue
A portion of compiler-generated code that is responsible for allocating stack space, preserving registers and performing any other machine-specific requirement specified in
the runtime model. This code executes before any user code for a given function.
Prototype System
A term referring to a user’s target application, or target board.
DS51833A-page 206
Glossary
PWM Signals
Pulse Width Modulation Signals. Certain PIC MCU devices have a PWM peripheral.
Qualifier
An address or an address range used by the Pass Counter or as an event before
another operation in a complex trigger.
The number base, hex, or decimal, used in specifying an address.
RAM
Random Access Memory (Data Memory). Memory in which information can be
accessed in any order.
Raw Data
The binary representation of code or data associated with a section.
Memory hardware that allows fast access to permanently stored data but prevents
addition to or modification of the data.
Real Time
When an in-circuit emulator or debugger is released from the Halt state, the processor
runs in Real Time mode and behaves exactly as the normal chip would behave. In Real
Time mode, the real time trace buffer of an emulator is enabled and constantly captures
all selected cycles, and all break logic is enabled. In an in-circuit emulator or debugger,
the processor executes in real time until a valid breakpoint causes a Halt, or until the
user halts the execution.
In the simulator, real time simply means execution of the microcontroller instructions as
fast as they can be simulated by the host CPU.
Real-Time Watch
A Watch window where the variables change in real-time as the application is run. See
individual tool documentation to determine how to set up a real-time watch. Not all tools
support real-time watches.
Recursive Calls
A function that calls itself, either directly or indirectly.
Recursion
The concept that a function or macro, having been defined, can call itself. Great care
should be taken when writing recursive macros; it is easy to get caught in an infinite
loop where there will be no exit from the recursion.
Reentrant
A function that may have multiple, simultaneously active instances. This may happen
due to either direct or indirect recursion or through execution during interrupt
processing.
Relaxation
The process of converting an instruction to an identical, but smaller instruction. This is
useful for saving on code size. MPLAB ASM30 currently knows how to RELAX a CALL
instruction into an RCALL instruction. This is done when the symbol that is being called
is within +/- 32k instruction words from the current instruction.
Relocatable
An object whose address has not been assigned to a fixed location in memory.
DS51833A-page 207
MPLAB® Assembler, Linker and Utilities for PIC32
Relocatable Section
to relocatable sections through a process called relocation.
Relocation
A process performed by the linker in which absolute addresses are assigned to relocatable sections and all symbols in the relocatable sections are updated to their new
ROM
Read-Only Memory (Program Memory). Memory that cannot be modified.
Run
The command that releases the emulator from Halt, allowing it to run the application
code and change or respond to I/O in real time.
Run-time Model
Describes the use of target architecture resources.
Scenario
For MPLAB SIM simulator, a particular setup for stimulus control.
Section
A portion of an application located at a specific address of memory.
Section Attribute
A characteristic ascribed to a section (e.g., an access section).
Sequenced Breakpoints
Breakpoints that occur in a sequence. Sequence execution of breakpoints is
bottom-up; the last breakpoint in the sequence occurs first.
Serialized Quick Turn Programming
Serialization allows you to program a serial number into each microcontroller device
that the Device Programmer programs. This number can be used as an entry code,
SFR
See Special Function Registers.
Shell
The MPASM assembler shell is a prompted input interface to the macro assembler.
There are two MPASM assembler shells: one for the DOS version and one for the
Windows version.
Simulator
A software program that models the operation of devices.
Single Step
This command steps through code, one instruction at a time. After each instruction,
MPLAB IDE updates register windows, watch variables, and status displays so you can
analyze and debug instruction execution. You can also single step C compiler source
code, but instead of executing single instructions, MPLAB IDE will execute all assembly
level instructions generated by the line of the high level C statement.
Skew
The information associated with the execution of an instruction appears on the processor bus at different times. For example, the executed opcodes appears on the bus as
a fetch during the execution of the previous instruction, the source data address and
DS51833A-page 208
Glossary
value and the destination data address appear when the opcodes is actually executed,
and the destination data value appears when the next instruction is executed. The trace
buffer captures the information that is on the bus at one instance. Therefore, one trace
buffer entry will contain execution information for three instructions. The number of captured cycles from one piece of information to another for a single instruction execution
is referred to as the skew.
Skid
When a hardware breakpoint is used to halt the processor, one or more additional
instructions may be executed before the processor halts. The number of extra
instructions executed after the intended breakpoint is referred to as the skid.
Source Code
The form in which a computer program is written by the programmer. Source code is
written in a formal programming language which can be translated into machine code
or executed by an interpreter.
Source File
An ASCII text file containing source code.
Special Function Registers
The portion of data memory (RAM) dedicated to registers that control I/O processor
functions, I/O status, timers or other modes or peripherals.
SQTPSM
See Serialized Quick Turn Programming.
Stack, Hardware
Locations in PIC microcontroller where the return address is stored when a function call
Stack, Software
Memory used by an application for storing return addresses, function parameters, and
local variables. This memory is typically managed by the compiler when developing
code in a high-level language.
Static RAM or SRAM
Static Random Access Memory. Program memory you can read/write on the target
board that does not need refreshing frequently.
Status Bar
The Status Bar is located on the bottom of the MPLAB IDE window and indicates such
current information as cursor position, development mode and device, and active tool
bar.
Step Into
This command is the same as Single Step. Step Into (as opposed to Step Over) follows
a CALL instruction into a subroutine.
Step Over
Step Over allows you to debug code without stepping into subroutines. When stepping
over a CALL instruction, the next breakpoint will be set at the instruction after the CALL.
If for some reason the subroutine gets into an endless loop or does not return properly,
the next breakpoint will never be reached. The Step Over command is the same as
Single Step except for its handling of CALL instructions.
DS51833A-page 209
MPLAB® Assembler, Linker and Utilities for PIC32
Step Out
Step Out allows you to step out of a subroutine which you are currently stepping
through. This command executes the rest of the code in the subroutine and then stops
execution at the return address to the subroutine.
Stimulus
Input to the simulator (i.e., data generated to exercise the response of simulation to
external signals). Often the data is put into the form of a list of actions in a text file.
Stimulus may be asynchronous, synchronous (pin), clocked and register.
Stopwatch
A counter for measuring execution cycles.
Storage Class
Determines the lifetime of the memory associated with the identified object.
Storage Qualifier
Indicates special properties of the objects being declared (e.g., const).
Symbol
A symbol is a general purpose mechanism for describing the various pieces which
comprise a program. These pieces include function names, variable names, section
names, file names, struct/enum/union tag names, etc. Symbols in MPLAB IDE refer
mainly to variable names, function names and assembly labels. The value of a symbol
after linking is its value in memory.
Symbol, Absolute
Represents an immediate value such as a definition through the assembly .equ
directive.
System Window Control
The system window control is located in the upper left corner of windows and some dialogs. Clicking on this control usually pops up a menu that has the items “Minimize,”
“Maximize,” and “Close.”
Target
Refers to user hardware.
Target Application
Software residing on the target board.
Target Board
The circuitry and programmable device that makes up the target application.
Target Processor
The microcontroller device on the target application board.
Template
Lines of text that you build for inserting into your files at a later time. The MPLAB Editor
stores templates in template files.
Tool Bar
A row or column of icons that you can click on to execute MPLAB IDE functions.
Trace
An emulator or simulator function that logs program execution. The emulator logs program execution into its trace buffer which is uploaded to MPLAB IDE’s trace window.
DS51833A-page 210
Glossary
Trace Memory
Trace memory contained within the emulator. Trace memory is sometimes called the
trace buffer.
Trace Macro
A macro that will provide trace information from emulator data. Since this is a software
trace, the macro must be added to code, the code must be recompiled or reassembled,
and the target device must be programmed with this code before trace will work.
Trigger Output
Trigger output refers to an emulator output signal that can be generated at any address
or address range, and is independent of the trace and breakpoint settings. Any number
of trigger output points can be set.
Trigraphs
Three-character sequences, all starting with ??, that are defined by ISO C as
replacements for single characters.
Unassigned Section
A section which has not been assigned to a specific target memory block in the linker
command file. The linker must find a target memory block in which to allocate an
unassigned section.
Uninitialized Data
Data which is defined without an initial value. In C,
int myVar;
defines a variable which will reside in an uninitialized data section.
The Upload function transfers data from a tool, such as an emulator or programmer, to
the host PC or from the target board to the emulator.
USB
Universal Serial Bus. An external peripheral interface standard for communication
between a computer and external peripherals over a cable using bi-serial transmission.
USB 1.0/1.1 supports data transfer rates of 12 Mbps. Also referred to as high-speed
USB, USB 2.0 supports data rates up to 480 Mbps.
Vector
The memory locations that an application will jump to when either a Reset or interrupt
occurs.
Warning
IDE – An alert that is provided to warn you of a situation that would cause physical damage to a device, software file, or equipment.
ALU30, C30 – Warnings report conditions that may indicate a problem, but do not halt
processing. In MPLAB C30, warning messages report the source file name and line
number, but include the text ‘warning:’ to distinguish them from error messages.
Watch Variable
A variable that you may monitor during a debugging session in a Watch window.
Watch Window
Watch windows contain a list of watch variables that are updated at each breakpoint.
Watchdog Timer
A timer on a PIC microcontroller that resets the processor after a selectable length of
time. The WDT is enabled or disabled and set up using Configuration bits.
DS51833A-page 211
MPLAB® Assembler, Linker and Utilities for PIC32
WDT
See Watchdog Timer.
Workbook
For MPLAB SIM stimulator, a setup for generation of SCL stimulus.
WorkSpace
A workspace contains MPLAB IDE information on the selected device, selected debug
tool and/or programmer, open windows and their location, and other IDE configuration
settings.
DS51833A-page 212
MPLAB® ASSEMBLER,
PIC32 MCUs USER’S GUIDE
Index
Symbols
. ................................................................................ 66
.abort ........................................................................ 84
.align ........................................................................ 76
.ascii ......................................................................... 71
.asciz........................................................................ 71
.bss .......................................................................... 68
.bss section .....................................................104, 121
.byte ......................................................................... 71
.c ................................................................................ 9
.comm ...................................................................... 74
.comm symbol, length .............................................. 74
.data ......................................................................... 68
.data section........................................................... 104
.double ..................................................................... 72
.eject ........................................................................ 78
.else ......................................................................... 79
.elseif........................................................................ 79
.end .......................................................................... 85
.endif ........................................................................ 79
.endm ....................................................................... 82
.endr ..............................................................80, 81, 83
.ent ........................................................................... 85
.equ .......................................................................... 75
.equiv ....................................................................... 75
.err............................................................................ 84
.error ........................................................................ 84
.exitm ..................................................................80, 82
.extern ...................................................................... 74
.fail ........................................................................... 84
.file ........................................................................... 85
.fill............................................................................. 76
.float ......................................................................... 72
.frame ....................................................................... 86
.gld ............................................................................. 9
.global ...................................................................... 74
.globl ........................................................................ 74
.hword ...................................................................... 72
.ident ........................................................................ 84
.if .............................................................................. 79
.ifc ............................................................................ 79
.ifdecl........................................................................ 79
.ifeq .......................................................................... 79
.ifeqs ........................................................................ 79
.ifge .......................................................................... 79
.ifgt ........................................................................... 80
.ifle ........................................................................... 80
.iflt ............................................................................ 80
.ifnc .......................................................................... 80
.ifndef ....................................................................... 80
.ifne .......................................................................... 80
.ifnes......................................................................... 80
.ifnotdef .................................................................... 80
.incbin....................................................................... 83
.include..........................................................48, 51, 84
.int ............................................................................ 73
.irp ............................................................................ 80
.irpc .......................................................................... 81
.lcomm...................................................................... 74
.list............................................................................ 78
.loc............................................................................ 86
.long ......................................................................... 73
.macro ...................................................................... 81
.nolist........................................................................ 78
.org ........................................................................... 76
.popsection............................................................... 69
.print ......................................................................... 84
.psize........................................................................ 78
.purgem .................................................................... 83
.pushsection ............................................................. 68
.rept .......................................................................... 83
.s ................................................................................ 9
.sbttl.......................................................................... 78
.section name........................................................... 69
.set at ....................................................................... 87
.set autoextend......................................................... 87
.set macro ................................................................ 87
.set mips16e............................................................. 87
.set noat ................................................................... 87
.set noautoextend..................................................... 87
.set nomacro ............................................................ 87
.set nomips16e......................................................... 88
.set noreorder........................................................... 88
.set reorder............................................................... 88
.short ........................................................................ 73
.single....................................................................... 72
.size.......................................................................... 86
.skip.......................................................................... 77
.sleb128.................................................................... 86
.space....................................................................... 77
.string ....................................................................... 73
.struct ....................................................................... 77
.text .......................................................................... 71
.text section ............................................................ 104
.title........................................................................... 78
.type ......................................................................... 86
.uleb128 ................................................................... 86
.version..................................................................... 85
.warning.................................................................... 85
.weak................................................................ 75, 136
.word ........................................................................ 73
DS51833A-page 213
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
-( -) ......................................................................... 101
/@............................................................................. 82
A
-a .............................................................................. 35
a.out ............................................................21, 47, 103
-a=file ....................................................................... 44
-ac ............................................................................ 36
-ah ............................................................................ 40
-al ............................................................................. 41
ALIGN .................................................................... 131
Allocatable Section................................................. 117
Allocating Memory.................................................. 134
-am ........................................................................... 41
-an ............................................................................ 43
ar utility ................................................................... 141
Archiver .................................................................. 141
Command-Line Interface ................................ 143
Scripts ............................................................. 145
Arguments ................................................................ 55
-as ............................................................................ 44
ASCII Character Set............................................... 185
Assembler
Command-Line Interface .................................. 33
Directives .......................................................... 67
Expression Syntax and Operation .................... 61
Overview ........................................................... 17
Source............................................................... 21
Symbols ............................................................ 65
Syntax ............................................................... 51
ASSERT ................................................................. 126
Assigning Output Sections to Regions ................... 135
Assigning Values.................................................... 116
Attributes
Reserved Section Names ................................. 69
B
BaseReg+Offset....................................................... 54
bin2hex utility ......................................................... 147
Binary File ................................................................ 94
BLOCK ................................................................... 131
Build Options ............................................................ 10
Building the Output File .......................................... 134
Built-in Functions.................................................... 130
ALIGN ............................................................. 131
BLOCK ............................................................ 131
DEFINED ........................................................ 132
KEEP .............................................................. 132
MAX ................................................................ 132
MIN ................................................................. 132
NEXT .............................................................. 132
SIZEOF ........................................................... 132
C
Character Constants ................................................ 58
Characters................................................................ 58
--check-sections ..................................................... 107
Code Control Directives
DS51833A-page 214
.set at ................................................................ 87
.set autoextend.................................................. 87
.set macro ......................................................... 87
.set mips16e...................................................... 87
.set noat ............................................................ 87
.set noautoextend.............................................. 87
.set nomacro ..................................................... 87
.set nomips16e.................................................. 88
.set noreorder.................................................... 88
.set reorder........................................................ 88
Command-Line Information
Command-Line Interface
Archiver/Librarian ............................................ 143
Assembler ......................................................... 33
Conditional Assembly Directives
.else................................................................... 79
.elseif................................................................. 79
.endif ................................................................. 79
.if ....................................................................... 79
.ifc...................................................................... 79
.ifdecl................................................................. 79
.ifeq ................................................................... 79
.ifeqs.................................................................. 79
.ifge ................................................................... 79
.ifgt .................................................................... 80
.ifle..................................................................... 80
.iflt...................................................................... 80
.ifnc.................................................................... 80
.ifndef ................................................................ 80
.ifne ................................................................... 80
.ifnes.................................................................. 80
.ifnotdef ............................................................. 80
Constants ............................................................... 127
Floating-Point Numbers .................................... 57
Integer ............................................................... 57
Numeric............................................................. 57
COPY ..................................................................... 123
--cref ....................................................................... 110
Customer Support ...................................................... 6
D
-d ............................................................................ 101
-dc .......................................................................... 101
Debug Information Directives
.end ................................................................... 85
.ent .................................................................... 85
.file..................................................................... 85
.frame ................................................................ 86
.loc..................................................................... 86
.size................................................................... 86
.sleb128............................................................. 86
.type .................................................................. 86
.uleb128 ............................................................ 86
Index
Declare Symbols Directives
.comm ............................................................... 74
.extern ............................................................... 74
.global ............................................................... 74
.globl ................................................................. 74
.lcomm .............................................................. 74
.weak ................................................................ 75
Define Symbols Directives
.equ ................................................................... 75
.equiv ................................................................ 75
DEFINED ............................................................... 132
--defsym ............................................................48, 102
--defsym=_min_heap_size..................................... 106
--defsym=_min_stack_size .................................... 106
Diagnostic Control Directives
.abort................................................................. 84
.err .................................................................... 84
.error ................................................................. 84
.fail .................................................................... 84
.ident ................................................................. 84
.print .................................................................. 84
.version ............................................................. 85
.warning ............................................................ 85
Directives
Alignment .......................................................... 76
Assembler ......................................................... 67
Conditional ........................................................ 79
Debug Information ............................................ 85
Declare Symbols............................................... 74
Define Symbols................................................. 75
Initialization ....................................................... 71
Miscellaneous ................................................... 84
Output Listing.................................................... 78
Section .............................................................. 68
Substitution/Expansion ..................................... 80
Documentation
Conventions ........................................................ 3
Layout ................................................................. 2
DOT Symbol ............................................................ 66
Dot Variable ........................................................... 128
-dp .......................................................................... 101
DSECT ................................................................... 123
E
Empty Expressions .................................................. 61
--end-group ............................................................ 101
ENTRY ................................................................... 126
Escape Characters .................................................. 58
Evaluation .............................................................. 129
Example ................................................................... 14
EXCLUDE_FILE .................................................... 119
Executable Section ................................................ 117
Expression Syntax and Operation
Assembler ......................................................... 61
Expressions ............................................................. 61
Expressions, Empty ................................................. 61
Expressions, Integer ................................................ 61
EXTERN ................................................................ 126
F
--fatal-warnings ........................................................ 46
GROUP........................................................... 115
INCLUDE ........................................................ 114
INPUT ............................................................. 115
OUTPUT ......................................................... 115
SEARCH_DIR................................................. 115
STARTUP ....................................................... 115
File Extensions
Assembler ................................................... 19, 92
Files
Library ............................................................... 92
Listing................................................................ 21
Map ................................................................... 94
Object.......................................................... 21, 92
Source............................................................... 19
Floating-Point Numbers ........................................... 57
FORCE_COMMON_ALLOCATION ....................... 126
G
Garbage Collection ................................................ 132
--gc-sections........................................................... 102
Global Symbols ...................................................... 136
GPRs........................................................................ 53
GROUP .................................................................. 115
H
Heap Allocation ...................................................... 137
--help ................................................................ 46, 108
Hexadecimal to Decimal Conversion ..................... 186
High-level Source............................................... 21, 40
I
-I ............................................................................... 48
-i ............................................................................. 103
INCLUDE ............................................................... 114
Include Files Directives
.incbin................................................................ 83
.include.............................................................. 84
Infix Operators.......................................................... 62
INFO....................................................................... 123
Informational Output Options, Assembler
--fatal-warnings ................................................. 46
--help................................................................. 46
-J ....................................................................... 46
--no-warn........................................................... 46
--target-help ...................................................... 46
-v ....................................................................... 47
--verbose........................................................... 47
--version ............................................................ 46
-W ..................................................................... 46
--warn................................................................ 46
--check-sections.............................................. 107
--help............................................................... 108
--no-check-sections......................................... 108
DS51833A-page 215
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
--no-warn-mismatch ........................................ 108
--report-mem ................................................... 108
-t ...................................................................... 108
--trace.............................................................. 108
--trace-symbol ................................................. 108
-V .................................................................... 108
-v ..................................................................... 108
--verbose ......................................................... 108
--version .......................................................... 108
--warn-common ............................................... 108
--warn-once ..................................................... 109
--warn-section-align......................................... 109
-y ..................................................................... 108
Initializated Section ................................................ 117
Initialization Directives
.ascii .................................................................. 71
.asciz................................................................. 71
.byte .................................................................. 71
.double .............................................................. 72
.float .................................................................. 72
.hword ............................................................... 72
.int ..................................................................... 73
.long .................................................................. 73
.short ................................................................. 73
.single................................................................ 72
.string ................................................................ 73
.word ................................................................. 73
Initialized Section ................................................... 117
INPUT .................................................................... 115
Input Section
Common Symbols........................................... 121
Example .......................................................... 121
Wildcard Patterns............................................ 119
Integer Expressions ................................................. 61
Integers .................................................................... 57
Internal Preprocessor ............................................... 51
Interrupt
Vector Tables .................................................. 137
Invert Sense ........................................................... 117
J
-J .............................................................................. 46
K
K Suffix ................................................................... 127
KEEP...................................................................... 132
--keep-locals............................................................. 47
L
-L ...................................................................... 47, 102
-l ............................................................................. 102
Label .................................................................. 52, 65
LENGTH................................................................. 118
Librarian ................................................................. 141
Command-Line Interface ................................ 143
Scripts ............................................................. 145
--library ................................................................... 102
Library Files.............................................................. 92
--library-path ........................................................... 102
DS51833A-page 216
--cref................................................................ 110
-M .................................................................... 110
-Map ................................................................ 110
--print-map....................................................... 110
Allocation......................................................... 135
Command-Line Interface................................... 99
File Extensions .................................................. 92
Output File......................................................... 94
Overview ........................................................... 91
Processing ...................................................... 133
Command Language....................................... 114
Command-Line Information............................. 111
Concepts ......................................................... 114
Expressions..................................................... 127
File .................................................................... 92
File Commands ............................................... 114
Other Commands............................................ 126
Listing Files .............................................................. 21
Listing Output Options, Assembler ........................... 35
-a=file ................................................................ 44
-ac ..................................................................... 36
-ah ..................................................................... 40
-al ...................................................................... 41
-am .................................................................... 41
-an ............................................................... 43, 44
--listing-cont-lines .............................................. 46
--listing-lhs-width ............................................... 45
--listing-lhs-width2 ............................................. 45
--listing-rhs-width............................................... 45
--listing-cont-lines ..................................................... 46
--listing-lhs-width ...................................................... 45
--listing-lhs-width2 .................................................... 45
--listing-rhs-width ...................................................... 45
Literals...................................................................... 54
LMA ........................................................ 114, 124, 132
Local Symbols .......................................................... 65
Location Counter .................................................... 128
Location Counter Directives
.align.................................................................. 76
.fill...................................................................... 76
.org .................................................................... 76
.skip................................................................... 77
.space................................................................ 77
.struct ................................................................ 77
M
-M ........................................................................... 110
M Suffix .................................................................. 127
-Map ....................................................................... 110
Map File.................................................................... 94
Mapping Sections................................................... 135
MAX........................................................................ 132
-MD........................................................................... 47
MEMORY Command.............................................. 117
! ....................................................................... 117
Index
A ..................................................................... 117
I ....................................................................... 117
L...................................................................... 117
R ..................................................................... 117
W .................................................................... 117
X ..................................................................... 117
MIN ........................................................................ 132
Mnemonic ................................................................ 52
Modification Options, Archiver/Librarian
a...................................................................... 144
b...................................................................... 144
c ...................................................................... 144
f ....................................................................... 144
i ....................................................................... 144
l ....................................................................... 144
N ..................................................................... 144
o...................................................................... 144
P ..................................................................... 144
S ..................................................................... 144
s ...................................................................... 144
u...................................................................... 144
V ..................................................................... 144
v ...................................................................... 144
MPLAB ASM32 .......................................................... 7
MPLAB C32 ............................................................... 7
MPLAB IDE ................................................................ 7
MPLAB IDE Build Options Dialog
MPLAB PIC32 Assembler Tab ......................... 10
MPLAB PIC32 C Compiler Tab......................... 11
PIC32 Suite Tab ............................................... 13
MPLAB LIB32 ............................................................ 7
N
NEXT ..................................................................... 132
nm utility ................................................................. 149
--no-check-sections................................................ 108
NOCROSSREFS ................................................... 127
-nodefaultlibs.......................................................... 103
-nostartfiles ............................................................ 103
-nostdlib ................................................................. 103
--no-undefined........................................................ 104
--no-warn.................................................................. 46
--no-warn-mismatch ............................................... 108
Numeric Constants .................................................. 57
O
-o.......................................................................47, 103
objdump utility ........................................................ 151
Object Files .........................................................21, 92
Operands ................................................................. 53
BaseReg+Offset ............................................... 54
General Purpose Registers .............................. 53
Literal Value ...................................................... 54
Operators ..........................................................62, 128
Infix ................................................................... 62
Prefix................................................................. 62
Options, Archiver/Librarian
d...................................................................... 143
m ..................................................................... 143
p ...................................................................... 143
q ...................................................................... 143
r....................................................................... 143
t ....................................................................... 143
x ...................................................................... 144
Options, Assembler
Informational Output ......................................... 46
Listing Output.................................................... 35
Output File Creation.......................................... 47
Search Path ...................................................... 48
Symbol Definition .............................................. 48
Informational Output ....................................... 107
Output File Creation........................................ 101
Run-time Initialization...................................... 106
Options, pic320-nm
--no-sort .......................................................... 150
Options, pic320-objdump
--disassemble-zeroes...................................... 153
Options, pic32-nm
-A .................................................................... 149
-a..................................................................... 149
-B .................................................................... 149
--debug-syms .................................................. 149
--defined-only .................................................. 149
--extern-only.................................................... 149
-f...................................................................... 149
--format= ......................................................... 149
-g..................................................................... 149
--help............................................................... 149
-l ...................................................................... 149
--line-numbers................................................. 149
-n..................................................................... 150
--numeric-sort.................................................. 150
-o..................................................................... 149
-P .................................................................... 150
-p..................................................................... 150
--portability ...................................................... 150
--print-armap ................................................... 150
--print-file-name............................................... 149
-r...................................................................... 150
--reverse-sort .................................................. 150
-s ..................................................................... 150
--size-sort ........................................................ 150
-t...................................................................... 150
-u..................................................................... 149
--undefined-only .............................................. 149
-V .................................................................... 150
-v ..................................................................... 150
--version .......................................................... 150
Options, pic32-objdump
-a..................................................................... 151
-D .................................................................... 152
-d..................................................................... 152
--debugging..................................................... 152
DS51833A-page 217
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
--disassemble.................................................. 152
--disassemble-all ............................................. 152
--disassembler-options=.................................. 152
-f ...................................................................... 152
--file-start-context ............................................ 152
--full-contents .................................................. 152
-g..................................................................... 152
-H .................................................................... 152
-h..................................................................... 152
--help............................................................... 152
-j ...................................................................... 152
-l ...................................................................... 152
--line-numbers ................................................. 152
-M .................................................................... 152
--no-show-raw-insn ......................................... 152
-r...................................................................... 152
--reloc .............................................................. 152
-S .................................................................... 152
-s ..................................................................... 152
--section= ........................................................ 152
--show-raw-insn............................................... 152
--source ........................................................... 152
--syms ............................................................. 153
-t ...................................................................... 153
-V .................................................................... 153
--version .......................................................... 153
-w .................................................................... 153
--wide .............................................................. 153
-x ..................................................................... 153
-z ..................................................................... 153
Options, pic32-ranlib
-V .................................................................... 153
-v ..................................................................... 153
--version .......................................................... 153
Options, pic32-strings
- ....................................................................... 156
-a..................................................................... 156
--all .................................................................. 156
--bytes= ........................................................... 156
-f ...................................................................... 156
--help............................................................... 156
-n..................................................................... 156
--print-file-name............................................... 156
-t ...................................................................... 156
-v ..................................................................... 156
--version .......................................................... 156
Options, pic32-strip
-g..................................................................... 157
--help............................................................... 157
-K .................................................................... 157
--keep-symbol= ............................................... 157
DS51833A-page 218
-N .................................................................... 157
-o ..................................................................... 157
-p ..................................................................... 157
--preserve-dates.............................................. 157
-R .................................................................... 157
--remove-section= ........................................... 157
-S..................................................................... 157
-s ..................................................................... 157
--strip-all .......................................................... 157
--strip-debug.................................................... 157
--strip-symbol= ................................................ 157
--strip-unneeded.............................................. 157
-V..................................................................... 157
-v ..................................................................... 157
--verbose ......................................................... 157
--version .......................................................... 157
-X..................................................................... 157
-x ..................................................................... 157
ORG ....................................................................... 118
ORIGIN................................................................... 118
ASSERT.......................................................... 126
ENTRY ............................................................ 126
EXTERN.......................................................... 126
FORCE_COMMON_ALLOCATION ................ 126
NOCROSSREFS ............................................ 127
OUTPUT_ARCH ............................................. 127
OUTPUT_FORMAT ........................................ 127
TARGET.......................................................... 127
Other Options, Assembler
--defsym ............................................................ 48
-I ........................................................................ 48
OUTPUT................................................................. 115
--output ................................................................... 103
Output File Creation Options, Assembler
--keep-locals...................................................... 47
-L ....................................................................... 47
-MD ................................................................... 47
-o ....................................................................... 47
-Z....................................................................... 47
-( -) .................................................................. 101
-d ..................................................................... 101
-dc ................................................................... 101
--defsym .......................................................... 102
-dp ................................................................... 101
--end-group ..................................................... 101
--gc-sections.................................................... 102
-i ...................................................................... 103
-L ..................................................................... 102
-l ...................................................................... 102
--library ............................................................ 102
--library-path.................................................... 102
-nodefaultlibs................................................... 103
-nostartfiles...................................................... 103
-nostdlib........................................................... 103
--no-undefined................................................. 104
-o ..................................................................... 103
In d e x
--output ........................................................... 103
-r ..................................................................... 103
--relocateable .................................................. 103
--retain-symbols-file ........................................ 103
-S .................................................................... 104
-s ..................................................................... 104
--script ............................................................. 104
--section-start .................................................. 103
--start-group .................................................... 101
--strip-all .......................................................... 104
--strip-debug ................................................... 104
-T .................................................................... 104
-Tbss ............................................................... 104
-Tdata ............................................................. 104
-Ttext............................................................... 104
-u..................................................................... 104
--undefined...................................................... 104
-Ur ................................................................... 103
--wrap.............................................................. 105
-X .................................................................... 102
-x ..................................................................... 102
Output Formats, pic32-nm
?...................................................................... 150
A ..................................................................... 150
B ..................................................................... 150
C ..................................................................... 150
D ..................................................................... 150
N ..................................................................... 150
R ..................................................................... 150
T...................................................................... 150
U ..................................................................... 150
V ..................................................................... 150
W .................................................................... 150
Output Listing Directives
.eject ................................................................. 78
.list .................................................................... 78
.nolist ................................................................ 78
.psize ................................................................ 78
.sbttl .................................................................. 78
.title ................................................................... 78
Output Section
Attributes......................................................... 123
Data ................................................................ 122
Description ...................................................... 121
Fill ................................................................... 125
LMA ................................................................ 124
Region ............................................................ 124
Type................................................................ 123
COPY ...................................................... 123
DSECT .................................................... 123
INFO ........................................................ 123
OVERLAY................................................ 123
OUTPUT_ARCH .................................................... 127
OUTPUT_FORMAT ............................................... 127
OVERLAY .............................................................. 123
Overlay Description................................................ 125
Overview
Assembler ......................................................... 17
P
pic30-ar ...................................................................... 7
pic30-as...................................................................... 7
pic30-gcc.................................................................... 7
pic30-ld....................................................................... 7
pic32............................................................... 151, 157
pic32-ar utility ......................................................... 141
pic32-bin2hex utility................................................ 147
pic32-nm utility ....................................................... 149
pic32-objdump utility .............................................. 151
pic32-ranlib utility ................................................... 153
pic32-size utility...................................................... 154
pic32-strings utility.................................................. 155
pic32-strip utility ..................................................... 156
Precedence ...................................................... 62, 128
Prefix Operators ....................................................... 62
Preprocessor, Internal.............................................. 51
--print-map.............................................................. 110
Process Flow
Assembler ......................................................... 17
Librarian .......................................................... 142
Projects ...................................................................... 9
PROVIDE ............................................................... 117
R
-r............................................................................. 103
ranlib utility ............................................................. 153
relocatable................................................................ 21
--relocateable ......................................................... 103
--report-mem .......................................................... 108
Resolving Symbols................................................. 134
--retain-symbols-file................................................ 103
--defsym=_min_heap_size.............................. 106
--defsym=_min_stack_size ............................. 106
S
-S............................................................................ 104
-s ............................................................................ 104
--script .................................................................... 104
Scripts
Librarian .......................................................... 145
Scripts, Archiver/Librarian
CLEAR ............................................................ 145
CREATE ................................................. 145, 146
DELETE .......................................................... 146
DIRECTORY................................................... 146
END ................................................................ 146
EXTRACT ....................................................... 146
LIST ................................................................ 146
OPEN...................................................... 145, 146
DS51833A-page 219
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
REPLACE ....................................................... 146
SAVE ...................................................... 145, 146
VERBOSE....................................................... 146
SEARCH_DIR ........................................................ 115
Section Directives
.bss ................................................................... 68
.data .................................................................. 68
.popsection........................................................ 69
.pushsection...................................................... 68
.section name.................................................... 69
.text ................................................................... 71
Section of an Expression ....................................... 129
SECTIONS Command ........................................... 118
--section-start ......................................................... 103
Set Language Tool Locations .................................... 8
Simple Assignments............................................... 116
size utility................................................................ 154
SIZEOF .................................................................. 132
Source Code ........................................................ 9, 52
Source Files ............................................................. 19
Stack Allocation...................................................... 136
--start-group ........................................................... 101
STARTUP .............................................................. 115
Statement Format .................................................... 52
Strings ...................................................................... 58
strings utility ........................................................... 155
strip utility ............................................................... 156
--strip-all ................................................................. 104
--strip-debug ........................................................... 104
Substitution/Expansion Directives
.endm ................................................................ 82
.endr .......................................................80, 81, 83
.exitm .......................................................... 80, 82
.irpc ................................................................... 81
.macro ............................................................... 81
.purgem ............................................................. 83
.rept ................................................................... 83
/@ ..................................................................... 82
irp ...................................................................... 80
Subtitle ............................................................... 21, 78
Symbol Names ....................................................... 127
Symbol Table ......................................22, 44, 114, 132
Symbols ................................................................... 65
Assembler ......................................................... 65
Syntax
Archiver/Librarian ............................................ 143
Assembler ................................................... 33, 51
pic32-bin2hex.................................................. 147
pic32-nm ......................................................... 149
pic32-objdump ................................................ 151
pic32-ranlib ..................................................... 153
pic32-strings.................................................... 155
pic32-strip ....................................................... 156
-Tdata ..................................................................... 104
Title........................................................................... 78
Title Line................................................................... 21
--trace ..................................................................... 108
--trace-symbol ........................................................ 108
-Ttext ...................................................................... 104
U
-u ............................................................................ 104
--undefined ............................................................. 104
-Ur .......................................................................... 103
USB ........................................................................ 211
Utilities.................................................................... 139
V
-V............................................................................ 108
-v ...................................................................... 47, 108
--verbose .......................................................... 47, 108
--version ........................................................... 46, 108
Virtual Memory Address ................................. 114, 124
VMA................................................................ 114, 124
W
-W............................................................................. 46
--warn ....................................................................... 46
--warn-common ...................................................... 108
--warn-once ............................................................ 109
--warn-section-align................................................ 109
Watchdog Timer ..................................................... 211
Weak Symbols ....................................................... 136
Web Site, Microchip ................................................... 5
White Space ............................................................. 52
--wrap ..................................................................... 105
X
-X............................................................................ 102
-x ............................................................................ 102
Y
-y ............................................................................ 108
Z
-Z .............................................................................. 47
T
-T ............................................................................ 104
-t ............................................................................. 108
TARGET................................................................. 127
--target-help.............................................................. 46
-Tbss ...................................................................... 104
DS51833A-page 220
32-Bit Assembler, Linker and Utilities User’s Guide
NOTES:
DS51833A-page 221
WORLDWIDE SALES AND SERVICE
AMERICAS
ASIA/PACIFIC
ASIA/PACIFIC
EUROPE
Corporate Office
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Tel: 480-792-7200
Fax: 480-792-7277
Technical Support:
http://support.microchip.com
www.microchip.com
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Suites 3707-14, 37th Floor
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Fax: 91-80-3090-4080
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Tel: 91-11-4160-8631
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Tel: 43-7242-2244-39
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Tel: 678-957-9614
Fax: 678-957-1455
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Tel: 774-760-0087
Fax: 774-760-0088
Chicago
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Tel: 216-447-0464
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Tel: 972-818-7423
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Toronto
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Australia - Sydney
Tel: 61-2-9868-6733
Fax: 61-2-9868-6755
China - Beijing
Tel: 86-10-8528-2100
Fax: 86-10-8528-2104
China - Chengdu
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Fax: 86-28-8665-7889
Korea - Daegu
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Fax: 82-53-744-4302
China - Hong Kong SAR
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Korea - Seoul
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Fax: 82-2-558-5932 or
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China - Nanjing
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Fax: 86-25-8473-2470
Malaysia - Kuala Lumpur
Tel: 60-3-6201-9857
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China - Qingdao
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Malaysia - Penang
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Fax: 60-4-227-4068
China - Shanghai
Tel: 86-21-5407-5533
Fax: 86-21-5407-5066
Philippines - Manila
Tel: 63-2-634-9065
Fax: 63-2-634-9069
China - Shenyang
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Fax: 86-24-2334-2393
Singapore
Tel: 65-6334-8870
Fax: 65-6334-8850
China - Shenzhen
Tel: 86-755-8203-2660
Fax: 86-755-8203-1760
Taiwan - Hsin Chu
Tel: 886-3-6578-300
Fax: 886-3-6578-370
China - Wuhan
Tel: 86-27-5980-5300
Fax: 86-27-5980-5118
Taiwan - Kaohsiung
Tel: 886-7-536-4818
Fax: 886-7-536-4803
China - Xiamen
Tel: 86-592-2388138
Fax: 86-592-2388130
Taiwan - Taipei
Tel: 886-2-2500-6610
Fax: 886-2-2508-0102
China - Xian
Tel: 86-29-8833-7252
Fax: 86-29-8833-7256
Thailand - Bangkok
Tel: 66-2-694-1351
Fax: 66-2-694-1350
Italy - Milan
Tel: 39-0331-742611
Fax: 39-0331-466781
Netherlands - Drunen
Tel: 31-416-690399
Fax: 31-416-690340
Tel: 34-91-708-08-90
Fax: 34-91-708-08-91
UK - Wokingham
Tel: 44-118-921-5869
Fax: 44-118-921-5820
China - Zhuhai
Tel: 86-756-3210040
Fax: 86-756-3210049
03/26/09
DS51833A-page 222