THE IHS PRIMARY CARE PROVIDER STD Screening and Treatment in Pregnancy

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A journal for health professionals working with American Indians and Alaska Natives
February 2008
Volume 33 Number 2
STD Screening and Treatment in Pregnancy
Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are common among
women of childbearing age, and may be asymptomatic. The
goals of STD screening during pregnancy are 1) early detection
and treatment of infection; 2) prevention of maternal
complications; and 3) prevention of vertical transmission and
neonatal disease. The Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC) 2006 STD Treatment Guidelines
recommend screening pregnant women for STDs. The CDC
screening recommendations are incorporated into the
recommendations below. Note that these are screening
recommendations for asymptomatic pregnant women. Women
presenting with signs or symptoms of STDs should be
examined, tested, and treated if an STD is suspected at any
time during pregnancy. This document is limited to an
overview of STD screening and treatment guidelines and does
not address issues regarding diagnostic work-up, STD
counseling, and/or partner management. Treatment of HIV,
including prophylaxis for HIV positive pregnant women, is
beyond the scope of this document.
STD Screening Recommendations by Disease
• Screen all pregnant women as early in the pregnancy
as possible. Testing is voluntary but HIV
information and testing should be offered to all
pregnant women in opt-out format.
• Re-test in third trimester in high risk women
(injection drug use, concurrent STDs, women with
multiple sex partners, domestic violence or abuse or
HIV-infected partners).
• Rapid HIV testing for women in labor if
undocumented HIV status. If rapid screen is
reactive, antiretroviral prophylaxis (with consent)
prior to confirmatory test results.
• Have linkages to HIV services/care and follow up in
• Document HIV screen was offered and/or completed
in patient medical records or electronic medical
records system.
Note: Some states require specific counseling or written
signed consent.
• Screen all pregnant women at first prenatal visit
with a non-treponemal test (VDRL or RPR), and if
positive, confirm with treponemal test (TP-PA or
• Retest at 28 to 32 weeks and at delivery for women
living in areas with excess syphilis morbidity.
• Stat RPR should be done at delivery for women with
no prenatal care.
• No infant or mother should leave the hospital
without having the maternal syphilis status
documented at least once during pregnancy.
• Any woman who delivers a stillborn after 20 weeks’
gestation should be tested for syphilis.
In this Issue…
STD Screening and Treatment in Pregnancy
STD/HIV Training
The Thirteenth Annual Elders Issue
Oral Health Risk Assessment Training
New Educational Opportunities from the New
Mexico Geriatric Education Center
2008 Nurse Leadership in Native Care
Save the Date: 2008 ELDP
IHS Child Health Notes
OB/GYN Chief Clinical Consultant’s Corner
Meetings of Interest
Position Vacancies
Note: If a treponemal EIA test is used for syphilis
screening all positive tests should be confirmed by a
non-treponemal test (RPR or VDRL). If the nontreponemal test is positive then syphilis is confirmed.
If the non-treponemal test is negative a second
treponemal test should be done. If this is positive then
syphilis is confirmed, if this is negative then the first
treponemal EIA was a false positive. Contact your
local health department to find out about areas with
excess syphilis morbidity where the risk for
congenital syphilis is high.
Hepatitis B
• Screen all pregnant women in first trimester with
hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in each
pregnancy even if previously vaccinated or tested.
• Test/retest at time of admission to hospital for
delivery in unscreened women and high risk women
(more than one sex partner prior six months,
concurrent STDs, recent or current injection drug
users (IDU) or HBsAg-positive partner).
Note: Hepatitis B vaccine is safe in pregnancy.
Women who are at risk for hepatitis B should be
vaccinated. HBsAg serologic testing should be done
prior to starting the hepatitis B vaccine as transient
positive HBsAg tests can occur post vaccination.
• Screen all pregnant women at first prenatal visit.
• Retest in third trimester for at-risk women (ages 25
years or younger or who have new or multiple sex
partners or if tested positive earlier in pregnancy).
Note: Urine or patient obtained vaginal swab Nucleic
Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs) for chlamydia
have the advantage of being non-invasive and can be
obtained when a pelvic exam is not being done or
when there is a risk to the pregnancy in taking
cervical specimens. Because NAATS are the most
sensitive testing technology to detect chlamydial
infection, they are recommended for screening.
• Screen at first prenatal visit for women ages 25
years or younger or women at risk (history of
gonorrhea in prior two years, more than one sex
partner in past year, partner with other partners,
commercial sex work, and drug use) or women
living in an area with high gonorrhea prevalence
(certain geographic regions). African American
women are also at higher risk for gonorrhea.
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 38
Retest in third trimester for women at continued risk
or if tested positive earlier in pregnancy
Note: Urine or vaginal swab NAATs for gonorrhea
have the advantage of being non-invasive and can be
obtained when a pelvic exam is not being done or
when there is a risk to the pregnancy in taking
cervical specimens.
Hepatitis C
• Screen at first prenatal visit in high risk women
(history of IDU, history of blood transfusion or
organ transplantation before 1992).
Bacterial Vaginosis
• Screen women with a history of preterm labor and
delivery at first prenatal visit.
• Benefit of screening women at low risk for preterm
labor is unproven.
Human Papillomavirus
• No recommendation for routine HPV screening
apart from work-up of abnormal Pap tests.
• If the patient has not had a Pap in the past year, it
may be warranted to obtain a Pap test for cervical
disease at the first prenatal visit.
• Examination to assess for genital warts can be done
during prenatal physical examination.
Note: the HPV vaccine is not recommended in
pregnancy. If the series is started prior to pregnancy,
it should be discontinued for the duration of the
• Currently no CDC guidelines for screening
asymptomatic pregnant women.
Herpes Simplex Virus
• Insufficient evidence to recommend routine Type
Specific HSV-2 serology screening.
• Screen (HSV-2 Type Specific Serology) for HIV coinfected women.
• Consider HSV Type Specific Serology if sex partner
with HSV infection and pregnant women has no
history of HSV.
• Third trimester serial cultures for HSV are not
recommended in asymptomatic women with a
history of HSV.
• All pregnant women should be examined for
evidence of genital herpes at the time of delivery.
Table 1. STD Screening Recommendations in Pregnancy
and Time of Screening
Time of
First prenatal
Tests for All PregnantWomen (unless specific
risk group noted)
• x HIV
• x Syphilis (RPR or VDRL). Always confirm a
28-32 weeks •
positive RPR or VDRL with treponemal test
x Chlamydia
x Gonorrhea for women ages 25 years or younger
or women at risk (histo ry of gonorrhea in prior
2 years, more than one sex partner in past year,
partner with other partners, commercial sex
work and drug use) or women living in an area
with high gonorrhea prevalence (certain
geographic regions). African American women
are also at higher risk for gonorrhea.
x Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)
x Hepatitis C if high risk (history of IDU, history
of blood transfusion or organ transplantation
before 1992)
x Bacterial Vaginosis if hi story of preterm labor
and delivery
x Pap test if no Pap in prior year
x Herpes (HSV-2 Type Specific Serology) for
HIV co-infected women and consider HSV
Type Specific Serology if sex partner with HSV
infection and pregnant women has no history of
x Syphilis if women lives in area with excess
syphilis morbidity
• x HIV if high risk (IDU, concurrent STDs,
multiple partners or HIV + partner)
• x Chlamydia for women ages 25 years or younger
or at risk (new or multiple partners) or if tested
positive earlier in pregnancy
• x Gonorrhea if continued risk or if tested positive
earlier in pregnancy
During Labor • x HIV rapid testing if undocumented HIV status
& Delivery • x Syphilis if women lives in area with excess
syphilis morbidity
• x Stat RPR if no prior prenatal care
• x HBsAg on admission to delivery if no prior
screening or if high risk women (multiple
partners prior 6 months, concurrent STDs,
recent or current IDUs or HBsAg-positive
STD Treatment in Pregnancy
(See Table 2 for treatment regimens)
• Azithromycin or Amoxicillin are the two
recommended regimens.
• Test of cure should be done 3-4 weeks after
completing therapy.
• Ceftriaxone and Cefixime are the only recommended
regimens. For patients with cephalosporin allergy,
anaphylaxis-type (IgE-mediated) penicillin allergy,
or other contraindication, CDC recommends
considering desensitization. However, in the vast
majority of cases, this may not be feasible.
Judicious use of azithromycin is a practical option if
spectinomycin is not available or not indicated. If
azithromcyin is used, a test-of-cure is prudent
because efficacy data are limited and there are
concerns about emerging resistance.
• Cefixime tablets have not been available in the US
since November 2002. An oral suspension
formulation is available.
• Spectinomycin is an alternative regimen; however it
has not been manufactured in the US since January
2006, and future availability is uncertain.
• Co-treatment for chlamydia infection is indicated
unless chlamydia infection is ruled out using
sensitive NAAT technology.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
• Parenteral therapy in an inpatient setting is
necessary because of risk of preterm delivery and
maternal morbidity.
• Clindamycin plus Gentamicin are the recommended
• Azithromycin is the drug of choice for presumptive
• If local prevalence of gonorrhea is greater than 5%,
co-treat for gonorrhea infection.
• Co-treat for bacterial vaginosis and/or
trichomoniaisis if infection detected.
• Metronidazole (pregnancy category B) is the only
recommended regimen.
• Some experts defer treatment in asymptomatic
women until after 37 weeks gestation.
• For suspected drug-resistant trichomoniasis, rule out
reinfection, and see 2006 CDC Guidelines,
Trichomonas Follow-up p. 53, for other treatment
options. Evaluate for metronidazole-resistant T.
vaginalis. For laboratory and clinical consultations,
contact CDC at (770) 488-4115;
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 39
Bacterial Vaginosis
• All pregnant women with symptomatic bacterial
vaginosis should be treated.
• Treatment of asymptomatic pregnant women with
bacterial vaginosis who are at high risk for preterm
delivery (prior delivery of a premature infant) might
reduce risk for premature outcomes.
• Metronidazole and clindamycin are the
recommended regimens.
• Follow-up evaluation for treatment effectiveness
should be considered one month after therapy is
completed in women at high risk for preterm
Herpes, Anogenital
• The safety of acyclovir in pregnancy has not been
established; however, available data do not show an
increased risk of birth defects in women treated with
acyclovir in the first trimester.
• Acyclovir is the recommended regimen for women
with first clinical episodes or severe recurrent
herpes, and IV acyclovir should be used in severe
• Symptomatic HSV identified late in pregnancy or at
the time of delivery should be managed in
consultation with an infectious disease specialist.
• Many experts recommend suppressive acyclovir
treatment late in pregnancy for women with
recurrent genital herpes as it reduces frequency of
C-section by reducing recurrent outbreaks at term.
Warts, Anogenital
• Cryotherapy, TCA, BCA, or surgical removal are
recommended treatments in pregnancy.
• Cryotherapy can be used on vaginal, urethral
meatus, and anal mucosal warts.
• TCA or BCA can be used on vaginal, anal mucosal
• Surgical removal is another option for anal mucosal
• Cervical warts should be managed by a specialist.
• Benzathine penicillin G (generic name) is the
recommended treatment for syphilis not involving
the central nervous system and is available in only
one long-acting formulation, Bicillin® L-A (the
trade name) which contains only benzathine
penicillin G. Other combination products, such as
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 40
Bicillin® C-R, contain both long- and short-acting
penicillins and are not effective for treating syphilis.
Pregnant women allergic to penicillin should be
treated with penicillin after desensitization.
Some specialists recommend a second dose of
benzathine penicillin G 2.4 million units IM 1 week
after initial dose for pregnant women with primary,
secondary, or early latent syphilis.
Table 2. STD Treatment Regimens for Pregnant Women
• Azithromycin 1 g po once or
• Amoxicillin 500 mg po tid x 7d
• Erythromycin base 500 mg po tid x 7d
• Erythromycin base 250 mg po qid x 14
d or
• Erythromycin ethlysuccinate 800mg po
qid x 7d o r
• Erythromycin ethlysuccinate 400 mg po
qid x 14 d
• Ceftriaxone 125 mg IM once or
• Cefixime 400 mg po once
• Cefpodoxime 400 mg po or
• Spectinomycin 2 g IM or
•Azithromycin 2 g po in a single dose
•Clindamycin 900 mg IV q 8 hrs
• Gentamicin 2mg/kg IM orIV followed
by 1.5 mg/kg IM or IV q 8 hrs.
Discontinue 24 hours after patient
improves clinically and continue with
oral clindamycin 450 mg qid for a total
of 14 days.
• Azithromycin 1 g po once
• Metronidazole if BV is present 100 mg
po bid x 7 d
• Metronidazole 2 g po once
• Metronidazole 500 mg po bid x 7d or
• Metronidazole250 mg po tid x 7d or
• Clindamycin300 mg po bid x 7d
• Azithromycin 1 g po once or
• Ceftriaxone 250 mg IM once or
• Erythromycin base 500 mg po tid x 7 d
• Eythromycin base 500 mg po qid x 3
wks or
• Azithromycin 1 g po once per week x 3
WARTS -Anogenital
External Genital/
Perianal Warts
OR Mucosal Genital
HERPES- Anogenital
First Clinical Episode
• Cryotherapy Apply once q 1-2 wks or
• Tricholoacetic acid (TCA). Apply once
q 1-2 wks or
• Bichloroacetic acid (BCA) 80%-90%.
Apply once q 1-2 wks or
• Surgical removal
• Acyclovir 400 mg po tid x 7-10 d or
• Acyclovir 200 mg po 5/day x 7-10 d
Episodic Therapy for
Recurrent Episode
• Acyclovir 400 mg po tid x 5 d or
• Acyclovir 800 mg po bid x 5 d or
• Acyclovir 800 mg po tid x 2 d
Suppressive Therapy
Primary, Secondary,
and Early Latent
• Acyclovir 400 mg po bid
• Benzathine penicillin G
2.4 million units IM
Late Latent, and
Unknown duration
• Benzathine penicillin G
7.2 million units, administered as 3 doses
of 2.4 million units IM, at 1-wk intervals
• Aqueous crystalline penicillin G18-24
million units daily, administered as 3-4
million units IV q 4 hrs x 10-14 d
Some specialists recommend 2.4 million units of
benzathine penicillin G q week for 1 to 3 weeks
after completion of neurosyphilis treatment.
STD Resources
1. The California Department of Public Health, STD
Control Branch website ( has
many STD resources including clinical guidelines,
treatment guidelines, surveillance reports, and links
to local STD data.
2. The California STD/HIV Prevention Training Center
(CA PTC) website(
has a variety of STD resources including
information about STD/HIV prevention training
courses, resources to assist providers in risk
assessment, diagnosis and management of STDs, as
well as STD fact sheets for patients.
3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2006
STD Treatment Guidelines
• Procaine penicillin G, 2.4 million units
IM q d x 10-14 d
Probenicid 500 mg po qid x 10-14 d
Training Available from the American Indian and
Alaskan Native STD/HIV Training Work Group
In April 2001 the Indian Health Service (IHS) National
Epidemiology Program began collaborating with a taskforce from the
National Network of STD/HIV Prevention Training Centers (PTCs) to
address Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) training needs among
providers working at IHS, tribal, and urban sites. The PTCs are a CDCfunded group of regional centers created in partnership with health
departments and universities. The PTCs are dedicated to increasing the
knowledge and skills of health professionals in the areas of sexual and
reproductive health. The entire network includes ten Clinical Training
Centers, four Behavioral and Social Intervention Training Centers and
four Partner Services and Program Support Training Centers located
throughout the United States. For more information on the NNPTC,
This initial taskforce has expanded to become the AI/AN
STD/HIV Training Work Group dedicated to addressing STD and HIV
training needs among all providers who care for AI/AN populations.
Current members of this work group include representation from PTCs,
AIDS Education and Training Centers (AETCs), National Native
American AIDS Prevention Center (NNAAPC), the IHS National
Epidemiology Program, and several Native organizations, including the
Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Project Red Talon of the
Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board, and the Northern Plains
Tribal Epidemiology Center. Projects that the AI/AN STD/HIV
Training Work Group have worked on include STD and HIV trainings
for clinical providers (MDs, NPs, PAs), Community Health
Representatives, Public Health Nurses, and Health Educators; periodic
update articles in The Provider; and providing speakers for national
conferences that target AI/AN providers. If you are interested in
learning more about this workgroup, contact Sharon Adler at
[email protected]
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 41
The 13th Annual Elders Issue
The May 2008 issue of The IHS Provider, to be published
on the occasion of National Older Americans Month, will be
the thirteenth annual issue dedicated to our elders. Indian
Health Service, tribal, and Urban Program professionals are
encouraged to submit articles for this issue on elders and their
health and health care. We are also interested in articles written
by Indian elders themselves giving their perspective on health
and health care issues. Inquiries or submissions can be
addressed to the attention of the editor at the address on the
back page of this issue.
Oral Health Risk Assessment Training for
Pediatricians and Other Child Health
The Oral Health Initiative of the American Academy of
Pediatrics is pleased to announce the release of the Oral Health
Risk Assessment Training for Pediatricians and Other Child
Health Professionals for
Education Credit. The training can be found online at The
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 42
title page is a bit text heavy as it contains the purpose of
training, learning objectives, and standard CME information.
But please continue to the bottom of the page where you will
find the button to begin the training. Questions about the
training can be addressed to [email protected]
New Educational Opportunities from the New
Mexico Geriatric Education Center
The University of New Mexico Geriatric Education
Center (NMGEC) is happy to announce a grant award from the
Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)
Bureau of Health Professions through 2010. NMGEC has
been funded for the past 17 years by a HRSA grant in five-year
cycles (latest cycle 2001-2006). Thanks to everyone for the
letters and support during the recent period of Congressional
budget cuts.
Under the grant goals, the NMGEC provides geriatric
continuing education and training to health care professionals
with an emphasis on providers in tribal and Indian Health
Service clinics. NMGEC education and training programs
concentrate on fostering an appreciation of the richness of
Indian culture and traditions, and an awareness of the use of
traditional healing practices. In the past five years, the
NMGEC has trained over 3,800 interdisciplinary health care
professionals and paraprofessionals on elder care in culturally
appropriate geriatric educational workshops, trainings, and
The NMGEC is pleased to announce the return of training
and educational offerings. The Summer Geriatric Institute will
be taking place in Albuquerque on June 19 - 21, 2008, with
CME/CEUs offered. The title this year is “Better Outcomes,
Healthier Elders: Collaboration in Management of Chronic
Disease.” The last half day of the Institute will be on Health
Literacy, which can be applied toward a Certificate in Health
Literacy of 25 credit hours. Additional sessions for the
certificate will be announced soon.
Tuition waivers will be available to tribal and Indian
Health Service health care professionals to attend the Summer
Geriatric Institute; please call the NMGEC at (505) 272-4934
for waiver request application. A reduced fee of $100 is
available for CHRs wishing to attend.
The Interdisciplinary Geriatric Certificate Program (40
credit hours) will resume this year with four Saturday sessions.
The first session will start March 29, 2008, with subsequent
sessions on July 12, September 27, and November 15. The
Interdisciplinary Geriatric Certificate Program is for all health
care professions with an interest in geriatrics. The certificate
requires 20 hours of core courses in geriatrics and 20 hours of
elective courses/workshops to complete the program. Four
sessions of core courses (20 hrs) will be offered in spring and
fall 2008 and will repeat each year with CME and CEUs
at for more information on
upcoming events and projects or call us at (505) 272-4934.
Open Door Forum Update
SAVE the DATE for the Indian Health Service
Open Door Forum on Health Initiatives-Forum #7
Quarterly Tele-conference/WebEx
Toll free number:
Pass code:
April 24, 2008
12:00 p.m. to 2:00 p.m. EST
Candace Jones
Obesity prevention and control will be the focus of this forum and will include National,
Area and local presentations on this topic. More information to follow. The accredited
sponsor is the IHS Clinical Support Center.
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 43
Save the Dates!
2008 Nurse Leadership in Native Care Conference
May 12-15, 2008
New Directions in the New Frontier:
Education, Evidence and Empowerment
Anchorage, Alaska
Jointly sponsored by the Alaska Native Medical Center and the IHS National Nurse Leadership Council.
Hotel Captain Cook
939 West 5th Avenue, Anchorage, AK 99501
(907) 276-6000
Designed for nurse administrators, directors of public health nursing, nurses, public health nurses, and advanced
practice nurses working for Indian health programs. This CE seminar provides an opportunity to network with
peers/colleagues on nursing issues of common concern, update knowledge of current nursing trends/issues and
enhance nursing practice to improve patient care, as well as receive accredited continuing nursing education.
The agenda will include plenary and concurrent workshop sessions and poster presentations on a variety of
clinical and public heath nursing topics focused on leadership, education, evidence-based practice and best
practices. On-line access to the agenda and registration materials will be available in late March. Visit the NNLC
Conference Website.
Alaska Native Medical Center is an approved provider of continuing education by the Alaska Nurses Association,
an accredited approver by the American Nurses Association Credentialing Center’s Commission on Accreditation.
Provider Number AP-06-002.
A block of rooms has been reserved at the Hotel Captain Cook in Anchorage. Please make your room reservation
online at, by calling the toll-free reservations number, 1-800-843-1950 or call the Hotel
Captain Cook directly at (907) 276-6000. Mention “Alaska Native Medical Center” to secure the special single
group rate of $105 + tax single or double occupancy per night. The deadline for making room reservations is April
11, 2008. Book early – regularly priced hotel rooms in Anchorage average nearly $200/night + tax in the summer!
Note: for those wishing to see some of Alaska, this rate is good for three days before and three days after the
conference, on a space available basis.
For more information about this event, contact Casie Williams, Nurse Educator, Alaska Native Medical Center,
[email protected] or 907-729-2936 visit the NNLC Conference Website.
Indian Health Service, tribal and urban programs employee: $100
Students: $50 (submit copy of current student ID)
All others: $150
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 44
* Challenges in Indian Health Care *
* Health Care Budgets & Financing *
* Data and Information Technology *
* Law *
* Integrity and Ethics *
* Negotiation *
You can be a part of the 2008 Class
of the Executive Leadership Development Program (ELDP)!
The purpose of the Executive Leadership Development Program
is to provide a forum where participants learn new skills and
encounter different approaches to reduce barriers, increase
innovation, ensure a better flow of information and ideas, and
lead change. The goal is to provide essential leadership training
and support for Indian health care executives, whether they work
in Federal, tribal, or urban settings.
Look for the registration material in January on .
ELDP Coordinators:
[email protected] and [email protected]
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 45
This is a page for sharing “what works” as seen in the published literature, as well as what is being done at sites that care for
American Indian/Alaskan Native children. If you have any suggestions, comments, or questions, please contact Steve Holve,
MD, Chief Clinical Consultant in Pediatrics at [email protected]
IHS Child Health Notes
Quote of the month
“Ignoring facts does not make them any less true.”
Aldous Huxley
Article of Interest
Laterality of acute otitis media: different clinical and
microbiologic characteristics.
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007 Jul;26(7):583-8.
Is bilateral acute otitis media clinically different than
unilateral acute otitis media?
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007 Jul;26(7):589-92.
Recently there has been an emphasis on decreasing the use
of antibiotics for acute otitis media (AOM). There is increasing
antibiotic resistance among many bacteria in this country. It is
also acknowledged that most cases of AOM will resolve
without antimicrobial treatment. The American Academy of
Pediatrics recently released guidelines for treating AOM which
include an option to withhold antibiotic for some patients with
AOM. The authors of these two studies were interested in
whether bilateral ear infections might be more severe than
unilateral AOM and more likely to benefit from antimicrobial
Bilateral AOM was more likely to have bacteria recovered
on tympanocentesis (70% versus 57%), more likely to have
Haemophilus influenzae recovered (31% versus 9%), be
younger (< 1 year) and have more severe and persistent
symptoms. The authors suggest that physicians should take
these factors into account when deciding whether to prescribe
or withhold antimicrobial therapy for AOM.
Infectious Disease Updates
Rosalyn Singleton, MD, MPH
The RSV Season: Is there relief in sight?
On December 7, CDC reported the RSV activity in the US
for the 2006-7 season using the National Respiratory and
Enteric Virus Surveillance (NRVSS), a passive, voluntary
network of laboratories. The national RSV season onset began
during the week ending Nov. 11, 2006, and continued for 19
weeks until the season end March 17, 2007. The season onset
ranged from late October in the south, to mid December in
west. The season end ranged from mid February in the
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 46
northeast to late March in the west – an average duration of
around 15 - 16 weeks. Alaska is not represented in the NRVSS
data, and the RSV season in Alaska is unique. The average
RSV onset over a 10 year period was the week ending October
21 and the average end was the week ending May 21 (30.5
weeks duration).
There are preliminary data from CDC on the season onset
for 2007 - 8 season. Reports through Nov 24 indicate that
although the national RSV season has not yet occurred, the
regional season onset occurred during the week ending Nov 17
in the south, and the week ending Nov 24 in the northeast.
There is exciting news in the RSV prevention arena.
Motavizumab, an enhanced monoclonal antibody against RSV
that is more potent than Synagis in animal models is in clinical
trials, some of which have results to share. In a head-to-head
study among premature infants and those with chronic lung
disease, Motavizumab was non-inferior to Synagis in
preventing RSV hospitalizations; it was superior in preventing
outpatient RSV disease. In a trial among otherwise healthy
full term Navajo and Apache infants, Motavizumab was found
to be 83% efficacious compared with placebo for prevention of
RSV hospitalizations and 71% efficacious compared with
placebo for prevention of RSV outpatient respiratory illnesses.
Motavizumab remains investigational at this time. IHS
representatives are involved in the policy development process
regarding this product if it should become licensed.
Recent literature on American Indian/Alaskan Native
Doug Esposito, MD
Pollack LA, Stewart ST, Thompson TD, Li J. Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention. Trends in Childhood Cancer
Mortality — United States, 1990–2004. MMWR.
This study investigates childhood cancer mortality trends
for the period 1990 - 2004 using National Vital Statistics
System data. Overall, childhood cancer mortality rates have
declined over the period for all cancers combined (from 34
deaths per million in 1990 to 27 deaths per million in 2004, or
an average decline of 1.7% per year), and for the two most
prevalent childhood cancer diagnoses: leukemia (3.0% per
year average decline) and brain and other nervous system
neoplasms (1.3% per year average decline). Fortunately, this
trend in improved mortality has occurred despite the increased
cancer incidence trends reported in other studies, and is likely
the result of advances in cancer treatment.
On the darker side, disparities do exist and probably relate
at least in part to health care access inequities, although other
factors could be at work. Death rates declined at a significantly
slower rate for Hispanics (1.0% per year) than for nonHispanics (1.6% per year). In addition, regional differences
existed whereby the decline in cancer mortality was highest in
the midwest (2.1% per year), followed by the south and
northeast (1.8% per year), with the west trailing behind (only
1.4% per year).
Of course, the same data limitations exist regarding AI/AN
children as described in a previous issue of the Notes.
Although aggregated cancer mortality rates (20.0 deaths per
million AI/AN children vs. 29.7 deaths per million overall) and
the annual percentage change (2.0% per year for AI/AN
children vs. 1.7% per year overall) over the 15-year period
appear to be most favorable for AI/AN children in the present
report, case numbers and the issue of racial misclassification
cast doubt that things are quite so rosy. With underestimates of
mortality for AI/AN populations as high as 21% (attributable to
racial misclassification of death certificate data), the true
AI/AN childhood cancer burden remains unclear.
Nevertheless, there might be some hope on the horizon.
I would like to direct the reader’s attention to the recently
published Annual report to the Nation on the status of cancer,
1975-2004, featuring cancer in American Indians and Alaska
Natives. Although the direct relevance of this report to AI/AN
children is limited (it reports on the top 15 cancers overall, and
with cancer in children and adolescents thankfully a fairly rare
occurrence, children end up being excluded), it accomplishes
something very important. The methods employed by the
authors provide the most comprehensive cancer data and best
estimate of cancer burden in the AI/AN population to date.
Hopefully, this method can be generalized to include other age
groups and even disease conditions, giving us a more accurate
picture of disease burden in AI/AN populations and subpopulations than has so far been available. I will try to keep
you posted.
Espey DK, Wu XC, Swan J, et al. Annual report to
the Nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2004,
featuring cancer in American Indians and Alaska
Natives. Cancer. 2007 Oct 15;110(10):2119-2152.
1. Holve SA, ed. (2007 September). IHS Child Health
2. Rosenberg HM, Maurer JD, Sorlie PD, Johnson NJ,
MacDorman MF, Hoyert DL, Spitler JF, Scott C.
Quality of death rates by race and Hispanic origin: a
summary of current research, 1999. Vital Health
Stat. 2 1999 Sep;(128):1-13.
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 47
Editor’s Note: The Chief Clinical Consultant’s Newsletter (Volume 6, No. 2, February 2008) is available on the Internet at We wanted to make our readers aware of this resource, and
encourage those who are interested to use it on a regular basis. You may also subscribe to a listserv to receive reminders about
this service. If you have any questions, please contact Dr. Neil Murphy, Chief Clinical Consultant in Obstetrics and Gynecology,
at [email protected]
OB/GYN Chief Clinical Consultant’s Corner
Abstract of the Month
Concern for rising Cesarean rates in Native American
Larry Leeman MD, MPH and Eve Espey MD, MPH
Editorial Note: the following is in response to a discussion
of trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) in rural hospitals in
the December CCC Corner.
We appreciate the opportunity to engage in discussion
about trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) availability and the
approach to cesarean delivery at W. W. Hastings Hospital.
Every facility faces unique factors in the decision to offer
TOLAC services. However, we fear that the high total
cesarean rate and lack of TOLAC services will ultimately
result in worse perinatal outcomes considered from a
population level.
Not only is vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) highly
desired by many women, but it is preferable to a repeat
cesarean delivery in certain women, including those with a
single cesarean delivery who have had a successful vaginal
birth before or after their cesarean delivery. Evidence suggests
that such women should be encouraged to have a TOLAC,
particularly if they plan to have additional children. Given
these data, anesthesia staff should be strongly encouraged to
change their policy and offer VBAC services in accordance
with guidelines similar to those developed in the Northern New
England Perinatal Quality Improvement Network
(NNEPQIN). Ethically, it is difficult to justify withholding
TOLAC when it is the safest option. If services were offered
to this group of women, obstetrical and anesthesia staff could
develop greater comfort with TOLAC and expand the local
eligibility criteria.
Annual cesarean rates at some Indian health facilities in
Oklahoma are > 37%, and short term rates over 40%, hence are
above the recently published 2006 national rates for the total
US population (31.1%), the Oklahoma state population
(33.3%), and the US Native American population (27.5%). We
note that the Native American cesarean rate increased 1.5%
from 2005 to 2006, almost double the 0.8% increase for the
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 48
total US population. The rising cesarean rate is likely a
reflection of both rising primary cesarean delivery rates and
decreased vaginal birth after cesarean delivery.
Given the limited availability of TOLAC services for
women in the Oklahoma service area, efforts should be made
to minimize the primary cesarean delivery rate. The decision to
lower the threshold for primary cesarean delivery as evidenced
by an acceptance of the high rate and an unwillingness to look
at physician specific factors will result in higher adverse
outcomes in future pregnancies, particularly when combined
with the lack of TOLAC services. Women in the Hastings area
with primary cesareans can be anticipated to have cesareans in
all future births, placing them at increased risk for placenta
accreta, increta, and percreta. These complications of abnormal
placentation may be particularly difficult to address in a rural
community hospital setting.
Although Healthy People 2010 does not include a
recommendation for the total cesarean rate due to varying
patient factors, it recommends that efforts be made to decrease
the primary cesarean rate to 15% in women who are giving
birth for the first time. ACOG similarly recommends that
comparative cesarean delivery rates for populations, hospitals,
or physicians should be based on the subgroup of nulliparous
women with term singleton vertex gestations. We would be
interested in seeing the rate for this population at those affected
facilities in Oklahoma Area.
We worked at the Gallup Indian Medical Center (GIMC)
and Zuni-Ramah Hospitals in the 1990s and continue to work
with Native populations in Albuquerque and New Mexico.
Our study of the population based CS rate in Zuni-Ramah in
the 1990s demonstrated a 7.3% cesarean rate despite an
incidence of diabetes and hypertensive disorders well above
national rates. Physician specific practices influence cesarean
delivery rates. We believe that the cesarean delivery review
initiated at GIMC in the early 1990s was important in
identifying factors in patient management that can result in a
high cesarean rate.
An important factor in reducing cesarean delivery, either
in nulliparous or parous women, is to place value on vaginal
delivery. The attitude that “None of the physicians in our
department are concerned with our cesarean delivery rate” may
prove the largest stumbling block in developing strategies
more consistent with national goals.
We suggest that the maternity care providers in Hastings
present the evidence for improved maternal outcomes in
women with prior vaginal delivery to their anesthesia
colleagues and make TOLAC available at least for this group
of women. Addressing the high total (and, presumably,
primary) cesarean rates will require analysis of the indications
and physician specific patterns. Given the increasing evidence
for adverse outcomes with multiple, repeat cesareans and the
limited ability of community hospitals to address problems
with placenta accreta, increta, and percreta, we support labor
management strategies to reduce cesarean rates in the Native
American population in the Oklahoma Area and nationwide.
OB/GYN CCC Editorial Comment
An argument for better teamwork: Trial of labor after
cesarean in Indian Country
First, I want to thank the leaders of the Indian Health
Midwives listserv for raising these important issues, as this
discussion was originally begun in the Midwives Corner
feature. Though the current discussion revolves around Indian
health facilities, it is reflective of most small rural hospitals,
and increasingly some larger urban facilities.
Next, the availability of the trial of labor after cesarean
option is really a “systems” issue, not just a problem confined
to midwives or physicians. To decrease the long term
morbidity and mortality associated with cesarean rates that
now exceed 40%, we need to approach this issue
systematically. Specifically, how can we engage our Indian
health administrative staff to foster an environment whereby
anesthesia, pediatric, and nursing services work together with
the provider staff to decrease excess morbidity in Native
women? Should you offer vaginal birth after cesarean delivery
at your facility? Should your referral facility be offering
Let’s put some of the above issues into perspective. Here
are just a few of the risks that you should currently handle very
Incidence per 100
Shoulder dystocia
Cord Prolapse
Abruptio placenta, overall
Abruptio placenta, severe - stillbirth
Placenta previa, third trimester
Placenta accreta, overall
Placenta accreta/previa unscarred
Placenta accreta/previa with 1 Ces Del.
Placenta accreta/previa with 2 Ces
Placenta accreta/previa with > 3 Ces
0.2 -3.0
0.14 -0.62
0.4 - 1.3
0.1 to 0.4
11 to 25
35 to 47
50 to 67
Post partum hemorrhage
In all but one of the above situations, the incidence of
these obstetric emergencies is actually increasing each year.
If you can’t provide VBAC because of the 0.5% risk of
uterine rupture, then should your facility be offering
intrapartum care at all?
If you work at a facility that cannot develop a rapid
response for a clinical issue like symptomatic uterine rupture in
a VBAC setting, which happens ~ 0.5 percent of the time, then
your facility should re-evaluate its ability to manage obstetric
intrapartum care.
Taken individually, most of the above common urgencies
and emergencies occur more frequently than 0.5 percent.
Taken as an aggregate, the risks above far outweigh the risks of
VBAC. Now, seeing the above risks, if you feel you need to
re-evaluate offering obstetric intrapartum care, then please
contact me as soon as possible. For those facilities that feel
they are able to continue to offer obstetric intrapartum care
within the risk environment above, I would suggest a program
of emergency obstetric drills, ALSO certification for all nurses
and providers, and ongoing quality assurance.
Each of the last three national Indian Women’s Health and
MCH Conferences has devoted significant blocks of time to
improve systems of care and specific content updates.
Lastly, there seems to be some confusion, as some
providers at times combine the risk of a TOLAC sequela vs the
relative success of a vaginal birth in TOLAC. These are two
separate issues that need to be discussed with our patients
separately for fully informed consent.
Success of vaginal delivery
Overall, the rate of successful vaginal delivery in TOLAC
is quite high, often in the range of 75% in the general
population, and much higher in the AI/AN population, at 8590% over the years. A previous successful VBAC is probably
the best predictor of future success; about 90 percent of such
women deliver vaginally with trial of labor. By comparison,
women delivered abdominally for dystocia are least successful,
although approximately two-thirds are delivered vaginally.
In the previous dystocia group, the success rate is higher if
cesarean delivery was performed in the latent phase of labor
and lower if performed after full dilatation. Within the former
group, 79% of women who originally had surgery while still in
the latent phase of labor had a successful trial of labor,
compared with 61% of patients who had an arrest of dilation in
the active phase of labor and 65% of those who had an arrest
of descent (Duff et al. Obstet Gynecol 1988 Mar;71(3 Pt
Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified as
predictive of TOL success: previous vaginal delivery (OR 3.9;
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 49
95% CI 3.6-4.3), previous indication not being dystocia
(CPD/FTP) (OR 1.7; 95% CI 1.5-1.8), spontaneous labor (OR
1.6; 95% CI 1.5-1.8), birth weight <4000 g (OR 2.0; 95% CI
1.8-2.3), and Caucasian race (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.6-1.9) (all P <
The overall TOL success rate in obese women (BMI ≥ 30)
was lower (68.4%) than in nonobese women (79.6%) (P <
.001), and when combined with induction and lack of previous
vaginal delivery, successful VBAC occurred in only 44.2% of
cases (Landon et al. The MFMU Cesarean Registry: factors
affecting the success of trial of labor after previous cesarean
delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Sep;193(3 Pt 2):101623).
The combination of previous cesarean for dystocia, no
previous vaginal delivery, and induced labor had a particularly
poor prognosis in the Flamm system; fewer than 50 percent of
such women achieved a successful TOL.
A decision analysis model favored TOL if the chance of
success was > 50 percent and if the desire for additional
pregnancies was 10 to 20 percent (Mankuta et al. Am J Obstet
Gynecol 2003 Sep;189(3):714-9).
Numerous risk factors have been cited for uterine rupture
during labor in women with a previous CD. However, these
risk factors are not consistent across studies, which are
generally hampered by small numbers of patients with uterine
rupture. Unfortunately, no single factor or combination of risk
factors is sufficiently reliable to be clinically useful for
prediction of uterine rupture.
Purported risk factors include maternal age greater than 30
years, induction of labor, more than one prior CD, postpartum
fever, interdelivery interval less than 18 to 24 months,
dysfunctional labor, and one layer uterine closure. Within this
framework of incomplete data the New England Perinatal
Quality Improvement Network (NNEPQIN) has developed a
system to appropriately manage the risks.
Low Risk Patient:
• 1 prior low transverse cesarean delivery
• Spontaneous onset labor
• No need for augmentation
• No repetitive FHR abnormalities
• Patients with a prior successful VBAC are especially
low risk. (However, their risk status escalates the
same as other low risk patients)
Medium Risk Patient:
• Induction of labor
• Pitocin augmentation
• 2 or more prior low transverse cesarean deliveries.
(Two prior uterine scars and no vaginal deliveries is
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 50
listed as a circumstance under which trial of labor
should not be attempted, by the American College of
Obstetricians and Gynecologists ACOG Practice
Bulletin No. 54, “Vaginal birth after previous
cesarean delivery.”
< 18 months between prior cesarean delivery and
current delivery
High Risk Patient:
• Repetitive non-reassuring FHR abnormalities not
responsive to clinical intervention.
• Bleeding suggestive of abruption
• 2 hours without cervical change in the active phase
despite adequate labor
Here is a suggested management system per NNEPQIN
Low risk: Notify Pediatrics, Anesthesia, and operating
room crew of admission; OB/GYN on campus during active
phase; Perinatal Guidelines of Care, ACOG, observed
Medium risk: Notify Pediatrics, Anesthesia, and operating
room crew of admission; Operating room on campus in active
phase or other plan if crew is busy
High risk: OB/GYN, Anesthesia, and Pediatrics available;
No other acute care responsibilities; Rapid decision to incision
Please see the Midwives Corner and Oklahoma
Perspective for further discussion on this topic.
A complete discussion of risk, benefits, and systems issues is
available in the Perinatology Corner module, “Vaginal Birth
after cesarean.”
Reference: Online
Hot Topics
Chronic disease and illness
“Awake” during surgery: Examining intraoperative
Estimates show as many as 2 in every 1,000 patients who
receive general anesthesia remember events that occurred
while they were “under.” Given that over 40 million patients
undergo general anesthesia each year in North America, it is
not surprising the phenomenon has become the subject of a
new Hollywood movie. Dr Beverley A. Orser from the
University of Toronto and colleagues use the occasion of the
recent release of “Awake,“ a film depicting a man who
experiences “anesthesia awareness” and is conscious, but
physically paralyzed during surgery, to delve deeper into the
issue of intraoperative awareness.
Orser and colleagues said most patients who experience
intraoperative awareness do not experience pain but have
“vague auditory recall or a sense of dreaming and are not
distressed by the experience.” The authors add, however, that
some patients do experience pain, and it is occasionally severe.
In a study involving 11,785 patients who had received
general anesthesia, the incidence of awareness was 0.18% in
cases in which neuromuscular blockers were used and 0.10%
in the absence of such drugs. Of the 19 patients who
experienced recall, 7 (36%) reported some degree of pain,
ranging from soreness in the throat because of the endotracheal
tube, to severe pain at the incision site. Patients may remember
these events immediately after surgery, or hours or days later.
“Immense efforts have been made to understand the
effects of anesthetics on physiologic processes and to develop
strategies and technologies to manage the adverse effects of
these drugs,” the authors said. “However, certain risks remain,
including the possibility of intraoperative awareness.”
The authors conclude that intraoperative awareness should
be viewed as a recognized complication, with many features
similar to those of other adverse intraoperative and
perioperative events. They add that anesthesiologists are
directing research and patient care efforts toward reducing the
incidence and consequences of this adverse event, but they
suggest that more large-scale studies of the efficacy of brainmonitoring devices in the prevention of awareness are
Orser BA, et al. Awareness during anesthesia. CMAJ.
2007;Dec 11.
Behavioral Health Insights
Peter Stuart, IHS Psychiatry Consultant
Autism Screening
Guest editor Joshua Cabrera, MD
Identifying children with autism early has several benefits:
it allows family to adapt to unusual and challenging behaviors
in their toddler, it leads to early interventions that may improve
outcomes, and it opens the door for increased services at
school. The American Academy of Pediatrics currently
advocates screening for autism at the age of 18 months.
General developmental screening tools may be abnormal
when administered to autistic children, especially language
screens. General screens do not distinguish children with
developmental delays from autism, but can trigger further
screening and evaluation. A specific screening tool for autism
is the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT). This screen
consists of nine questions asked of the parents and five simple
in-office tests, administered at the age of 18-24 months. The
key elements of the CHAT assess the child’s capacity for
shared attention and imaginative play, both per history and in
the office.
A child demonstrates shared attention when pointing to an
object of interest, for example, a stuffed giraffe, and then
glancing at another person’s eyes or face to measure if they are
also noticing the giraffe. The examiner also should initiate the
test for shared attention by pointing to an object, demonstrating
interest in it, and observing the child share the examiners
attention in the object (usually through gaze).
Autistic children may point as part of an imperative, but not as
part of sharing attention. For example the autistic child may
point at food, and may even lead you by the arm to the food,
but will likely not look at your eyes or face to measure or
implore your shared attention. The second key ability,
imaginative play, is abundantly demonstrated in an office that
has age appropriate toys. In the CHAT, developed in the UK,
the examiner uses a cup to pretend to drink tea and asks the
toddler to join in. Using a spoon and play bowl to pretend to
scoop up stew or blue corn mush may be more appropriate for
those in the southwest. Autistic toddlers may play with toys,
but do not play imaginatively with them at 18 months, focusing
instead on sensory qualities such as its sound or feel. Often
their play is repetitive and stereotyped as well. Toddlers who
lack shared attention and imaginative play, by history and on
exam, likely have an autism spectrum disorder. Children who
have a mixed result, for example those whose parents report
shared attention, but who cannot do so for the examiner, have
a moderate risk of autism.
So what role does autism screening have in day-to-day
practice? Children who have family histories, who have
language delays, or whose parents express concern for their
development in language/social domains, warrant further
screening and evaluation. General screening, advocated by the
AAP, may be the first step to improving outcomes. Becoming
familiar with, or having easy access to some form of the CHAT,
can improve its routine use in the office. Its essential elements,
shared attention and imaginative play, can be screened for
effectively with brief office tests and have good specificity for
autism spectrum disorders.
For further reading on screening for autism, visit the
References: Online
Suzan Murphy, PIMC
Breast Pumps: The good, the bad, and the ugly
New families usually ask about breast pumps. Many retail
pumps work well for occasional pumping. But most retail
pumps are not clinically evaluated or labeled so that families
know what to expect. For example, a retail hand or electric
pump may work well for the occasional bottle so mom can go
to the store or out to eat, but not work well enough to maintain
a milk supply when mom goes to work or school. It can be
confusing and frustrating for new families and providers.
The following are suggestions for suggesting a pump:
• If the family needs a pump for once in a while, often
a retail breast pump will work. Also the hand
pumps from hospital grade electric pumps
producers, such as Medela or Ameda/Egnel will
• If the family needs a pump for more than 3-4 hours
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 51
of routine separation, encourage them to consider a
hospital grade electric pump. Resources for these
pumps are:
• WIC. If WIC has electric pumps available,
the rules are that the mom needs to be
exclusively breastfeeding. This means the
family cannot be receiving formula from the
WIC program. If the family is getting formula
on their own for occasional use, that is usually
okay. If WIC doesn’t have pumps, they might
be able to suggest local resources.
• Locally. If the baby is in a NICU, hospitals
often have pump loaners. If not, the hospital
usually has hospital pump available for moms to
use when they are at the hospital. Usually they
have a breastfeeding consultant or staff
members trained in breastfeeding support. They
can be very helpful. Encourage families to
check with local hospital gift shops. Sometimes
they have pump loaners/rentals.
• The yellow pages/Internet, under
“breastfeeding” is another place to look.
Suggest that families look for pump resources
that have an IBCLC (International Board
Certified Lactation Consultant) on staff. Pump
rentals often cost at least $30 per month to rent;
attachments are often $30 or more.
• Ebay. A word of caution: The Medela Pump in
Style pumps are designed for single person use;
the contaminant filter is inside the machine.
Replacing the attachments will not reduce the
potential contamination risk.
If your hospital or clinic is interested in having pumps to
loan, the hospital grade pump companies have rental programs.
Some companies have low cost “loss waivers/insurance” so
that if a pump is loaned and lost, the company will assume
responsibility. Rental costs to IHS vary, depending on
manufacturer and pump. For example, one IHS facility
reported a current cost of ~ $125/year for Medela Lactina Plus
pumps. Attachments are $30-40 per set. For more details,
check with local pump loaner stations or call PIMC
Breastfeeding Helpline at 1-877-868-9473.
Domestic Violence
Denise Grenier, Tucson/Rachel Locker, Warm Springs
Family violence in health care and public health settings:
accepting manuscripts
The Family Violence Prevention and Health Practice ejournal invites you to submit manuscripts on addressing family
violence in health care and public health settings. The next
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 52
issue will look at the relationship between childhood and adult
sexual and physical violence and obesity. For information on
submission guidelines, go to the “info for contributors” tab of
the journal or contact [email protected]
International Health Update
Claire Wendland, Madison, WI
Multiple Chlamydia species pose an unexpected
challenge for blindness prevention
In the US, most health care providers hearing the word
“chlamydia” think immediately of the sexually transmitted
infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydia the
STI is common around the world, but C. trachomatis has long
been believed also to be the major cause of trachoma, an eye
infection that is the leading cause of preventable blindness
worldwide. A new report calls into question some of the
conventional wisdom about trachoma, and raises concerns
about treatment and prevention efforts.
Trachoma is spread when ocular or respiratory secretions
from an infected person get into the eyes of an uninfected
person (typically through direct contact, when carried by house
flies or other insects, or by shared towels). It causes a
conjunctivitis that ultimately turn the eyelashes inward,
resulting in corneal scratching and ulcerations. Left untreated,
it progresses to blindness over a span of one to four decades.
The disease is found disproportionately in poor countries,
especially in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa, and especially
among women. Dry and dusty places where people are
inclined to rub their eyes and don’t have much water to wash
may be particularly affected.
Though trachoma was once a serious problem in the US, it
has been greatly reduced by antibiotic treatment and by
provision of clean water to affected communities. In fact, the
CDC claims trachoma has been eradicated in the US, though a
1997 report on eye disease on the Navajo reservation still listed
it as a significant cause of blindness there. Efforts to wipe out
trachoma in the Third World, however, fail consistently. Cases
quickly reappear following mass antibiotic treatment of
affected communities, and may persist or reappear even when
testing fails to demonstrate the presence of C. trachomatis.
These anomalies led researchers to investigate whether another
pathogen might be responsible.
In an endemic community in Nepal, Deborah Dean and
colleagues sampled tears from 146 people in nine affected
households and also did eye exams to stage them for clinical
trachoma. PCR testing on the tear samples showed that half
the sample was infected. The surprise was that of those
infected, 35% had only C. trachomatis (and even here there
were eight different genotypes involved), 20% had only C.
psittaci, 10% had only C. pneumoniae, and 35% had more than
one species. All three species were highly correlated with
severe eye inflammation consistent with clinical trachoma, and
the researchers conclude that all three are pathogenic. It’s not
clear that the same pattern of infection will prevail outside
Nepal. What is clear is that efforts to make a vaccine have just
had a significant setback, and that monotherapy with
azithromycin (which may not work for all Chlamydiaceae) can
no longer be counted on to wipe out the problem.
Reference: Online
Medical Mystery Tour
St. John’s wort for depression in a young woman
A 28-year-old female with severe major depression has
achieved partial symptom remission with a selective serotonin
reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) but complains of persistent diarrhea
and loss of libido. She asks you about using St. John’s wort to
treat her depression. Appropriate advice would include which
of the following? (select all that are true.)
• St. John’s wort may be effective in milder forms of
major depression
• St. John’s wort is more effective than placebo in
patients with severe major depression
• St. John’s wort is better tolerated than prescription
• The combination of St. John’s wort and SSRIs is
safe and effective for major depression.
• St. John’s wort may reduce the efficacy of combined
oral contraceptives
Stay tuned to the March issue for the answers and a
Midwives Corner, Lisa Allee, CNM
VBACs: The evidence supports them, women want and
benefit from them, we need to provide them.
The following is in response to the comments of Dr. David
Gahn regarding VBACs at Hastings Indian Medical Center that
appeared in this column in the December issue of the CCC
Newsletter. This following is a conglomeration of my and other
midwives’ responses.
First, here is some overall VBAC information to ponder.
We must all remind ourselves of recent history. The change
from pro-VBAC thinking to pro-repeat cesarean delivery
occurred when ACOG came out with a recommendation (not a
requirement) that physicians (doesn’t specify anesthesia)
should be immediately available (no definition supplied).
This recommendation was based on a poorly done study of
discharge diagnosis codes that actually demonstrated the same
statistics on uterine rupture as previous studies of VBAC, but
the authors came to very different conclusions (LyndonRochelle 2001). Unfortunately, much of this country swung to
the extreme end of the pendulum’s arc and stopped offering
VBACs. Luckily, some kept their heads and a plethora of
research has been published since, which shows VBAC to be a
safe and reasonable option for the majority of women with a
history of cesarean deliveries, and many benefits to VBAC
over repeat cesarean delivery. Please see the many citations
that have been reviewed in December issue of this publication
and this month’s Abstract of the Month. More citations were
supplied by Neil Murphy and Sheila Mahoney on the Indian
Health Midwives listserv discussion related to VBACs.
Among the places that have remained sane and continued
to offer VBACs are many of us in the Indian Health Service
(Alaska Native Medical Center even got an award from the
American College Nurse Midwifes) and a group in the
Northeast, the Northern New England Perinatal Quality
Improvement Network (NNEPQIN). The folks in the New
England coalition have come out with useful guidelines on
deciding about VBAC and providing quality care. Their work
also helped us all face a bigger picture — how we handle
emergency surgery in general and how we can improve. Their
suggestions include improving teamwork, communications,
and skills via drills. This has the potential to improve responses
to emergency birth needs beyond the very few situations
related to VBACs. Those of us in IHS who have continued
VBACs have shown continued success with excellent statistics
and outcomes (see 2007 Indian Health Data Tally Sheet below)
Overall, the pendulum is beginning to swing back towards
a more rational approach to VBACs; there was even a quote
from an ACOG official that suggested a possible move towards
revising their “immediately available” statement.
Second, let’s go over some of the specifics raised by Dr.
Gahn. Since, according to Dr. Gahn, none of the physicians or
midwives at Hastings are anti-VBAC, I thought I would use the
responses from other midwives and myself to formulate some
suggestions to help overcome the barriers to VBACs at
Hastings which were elucidated by Dr. Gahn. These
suggestions can also be used by the few other IHS sites that
may be experiencing problems with offering VBAC services.
1. Have a journal club to present the overwhelming
amount of evidence that supports providing VBAC
services. Make sure to include the materials from
the Northern New England Perinatal Quality
Improvement Network and IHS VBAC statistics.
Invite all members of the perinatal team, including
anesthesia and executive staff members who
supervise the provider staff. This will help ensure
that all involved have the information to begin
providing evidence-based care and should help to
start the efforts to develop a functional
interdisciplinary team. This should also help those
obstetricians who “are not anti-TOLAC/VBAC,” but
who do not embrace the VBAC plan to start the
process of getting on board.
2. Start doing drills for obstetrical emergencies. This
will help to improve skills, as well as teamwork and
communication between anesthesia, surgery,
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 53
midwifery, obstetrics, and nursing — your second
step in team building. This should help a number of
issues. It should help to impress all on-call staff to
do what is necessary to improve response time, with
the goal of your medical staff rules- and regulationsrequired 20 minutes becoming reliable. Maybe this
will help folks come to the conclusion of having key
personnel located close by — i.e., a call room or on
campus housing. This would solve the problem of
anesthesia not being available when a VBAC patient
is laboring. When the larger picture of response to
any emergent surgery is focused upon, then the
VBAC topic, which represents a very small
proportion of the potential emergency surgeries, is
automatically included.
3. As a department, or even better, as an
interdisciplinary team or service unit, review the
World Health Organization and USPHS Healthy
People 2010 recommendations for cesarean delivery
rates. Both of these respected and esteemed
organizations have clearly and repeatedly
recommended cesarean delivery rates in the 10-15%
range. This clearly answers the question about
whether a cesarean delivery rate of 37%, which is
more than double to triple these recommendations, is
too high and gives a very good indication as to what
is too high for a cesarean delivery rate.
4. Re-evaluate how VBAC counseling is done. To
provide true informed consent, the numbers need to
be presented clearly. The data consistently show a
uterine rupture rate of 0.5-3%; it is important to
explain that this means 97-99.5 women out of 100
will not have a uterine rupture and out of the few
who do, not all will have problems. It is, of course,
important to discuss the risk of uterine rupture to
mother and baby, but to put it in this perspective of
being rare, and to review the high-quality, careful
care we provide to women who are undertaking
VBAC, to help prevent problems. It is also very
important to review the differences in postpartum
morbidity and risk between a vaginal birth and
cesarean delivery (be sure to include the oft ignored
higher rates of breastfeeding and orgasm difficulties
post cesarean delivery). If, in contrast, providers
only make a recommendation of repeat cesarean
delivery and an institution has a policy that only
allows for repeat cesarean delivery, then they have
effectively negated a woman’s right to make an
informed decision in a situation where there is a
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 54
5. Review the postpartum morbidity and risk
differences for women post vaginal birth vs. post
cesarean delivery. This will help to dispel the
illusion that a woman who has had a cesarean
delivery is walking out of the hospital “healthy” and
bring a more accurate sense of respect for what is
really happening for that woman. She has just had
major abdominal surgery and is in recovery from
that surgery. She is in pain and is at risk for a
number of post-surgical complications. Her future
pregnancies have also now taken on a longer list of
potential risks. Along with all this, she is also a new
mother with a newborn to care for and feed every 12 hours with an abdominal incision that she is fully
aware of each time she moves. This human
perspective of the implications of a cesarean
delivery might help providers to be concerned with
their personal and institutional cesarean delivery
6. Consider IHS as a model for the local standard of
care. Since we are not controlled by insurance
companies, we in IHS often have more opportunity
then our colleagues outside IHS to provide care that
is evidence-based. VBAC care is one of those
situations and we can proudly stand up in the
maternity care community as a model of excellent
Most importantly we need to respect the women we care
for as the ones who are giving birth and realize that, therefore,
it needs to be up to them where, how, and with whom they will
do so. We are here to provide information and care — to serve
not, to dictate.
Please feel free to contact me for any questions or
comments and for links to the above mentioned resources at
[email protected]
Resources: Online
Judy Whitecrane: Tireless improvement of care for Native
American women
Karen Carey, PIMC
CDR Judith Whitecrane started her professional career as
a diploma graduate prepared nurse, and over the years has
continued her education in a manner which is very inspiring to
any nurse. Today Ms. Whitecrane is a post master’s prepared
Nurse whose professional activities involve a concentration in
Not only is she on staff at Phoenix Indian Medical Center,
but she is the first non-physician to become Vice-President of
Medical Staff. She is involved with the maintenance of the
hospital’s level II obstetrical certification and is the PIMC
Coordinator and Liaison to the Arizona Perinatal Trust. Ms.
Whitecrane is the original author of the Prenatal Questionnaire
used throughout the Indian Health Service, tribal and urban
programs (I/T/U). Ms. Whitecrane was one of two individuals
responsible for the public health nursing teen pregnancy
program, which addressed many issues related to teen
Annually, Ms. Whitecrane has helped oversee the Advance
Practice Nurse/Physician Assistant Seminar in Scottsdale,
Arizona. This national conference has been most successful in
meeting the needs of advanced practice nurses and physician
Ms. Whitecrane serves on the National Nurse Leadership
Council as one of two Advance Practice Nurse Consultants. In
this role she has worked tirelessly on behalf of the many nurses
she represents across the Indian health sysem.
Of specific commendation are her efforts to increase the
awareness of the advanced practice nurse working within our
current personnel system. Ms. Whitecrane has advocated for
the elevation of the advanced practice nurse position to make it
more competitive with the private sector. In doing so, she has
successfully overseen the updating of the Advanced Practice
Nurse Scope of Practice. Both of these activities have been
most labor intensive and will have far reaching, positive affects
on present and future advanced practice nurses working
throughout the Indian health system.
Her efforts will not only pave the way for higher pay for
the advanced practice nurse, especially in obsterics and
anesthesia, which continue to be the hardest positions to fill,
but also will serve to promote a better understanding and
provide a firmer framework for facilities who hire advanced
practice nurses, by having a true scope of practice which better
conforms to local, regional, and national guidelines and
Over the past three years, Ms. Whitecrane has taken on the
role of Chairperson of the OB Task Force. This task force has
created significant changes and improvements to the Labor and
Delivery Unit at PIMC. She has helped in the creation of
emergency drills that allow the staff to better learn the
necessary skills to help recognize potential process problems
that can be corrected. The task force has also been
instrumental in the completion of the remodeling of our
obstetrical triage area to create a HIPAA compliant unit and
allow safer treatment areas.
Ms. Whitecrane also started the Special Care Clinic for
pregnant women with drug abusing problems. This clinic is
working well, and we have seen many good outcomes since its
initiation. She also has given many lectures to groups wanting
to start such a clinic across I/T/U.
Judy has been at PIMC for 26 years and with IHS for 30
years, and has worked tirelessly for the improvement of care to
our Native American patients. She retired on Jan. 1, 2008, but
her valuable services may be available to worthy causes on a
contract basis.
Navajo News
John Balintona, Shiprock
Biliary gallstone disease and pregnancy
Biliary tract disease is the second most common general
surgical condition encountered in pregnant women. Often the
care of these patients is shared between the obstetric provider
and other specialists, including primary care providers and
general surgeons. The purpose of this review is to discuss
salient points in caring for pregnant patients with biliary
gallstone disease. Included in the discussion is the
pathophysiology of gallstones, incidence in pregnancy,
evaluation of the patient, treatment options during pregnancy,
and recommendations for care for obstetric patients with
gallbladder disease.
In the US, cholesterol stones are the most common type of
gallstone. The formation of cholesterol stones is a result of
cholesterol supersaturation and impaired gallbladder motility.
Several risk factors have been associated with the increased
occurrence of gallstones:
• Obesity; BMI > 30
• Pregnancy
• Female gender
• Native American race
• Heredity
• Increasing age
• Ileal disease
• Drugs; estrogens, TPN, ceftriaxone
Cholelithiasis is found in about 20% of women over 40.
Literature suggests that the yearly risk of intervention is about
1 - 2%. Therefore, treatment for asymptomatic disease is not
warranted. Complications can occur however, which change
the approach and management of this condition. Acute
cholecystitis develops when there is a complete obstruction of
the cystic duct, usually with colonization by bacteria.
Choledocholithiasis occurs when gallstones migrate from the
primary site of origin through the cystic duct and into the
common bile duct. Gallstones can trigger an attack of acute
pancreatitis by transiently impacting in the duodenal papilla.
Symptoms related to gallstone disease include steady,
nonparyoxsmal pain, usually lasting more than four hours.
Anorexia, as well as nausea and vomiting frequently occur.
Findings such as low-grade fever and leukocytosis (> 13,000
WBC) are also indicative of cholecystitis. Pancreatic
involvement typically results in elevated serum amylase and
lipase, elevated liver enzymes, and leukocytosis.
The incidence of gallstone disease in pregnancy ranges
from 1 in 1000 to 1 in 4000 for symptomatic disease. When
taking into account the presence of asymptomatic
cholelithiasis, the literature suggests that 2.5% to 10% of
pregnant women will have this condition demonstrated on
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 55
ultrasound. It is believed that several factors predispose
pregnancy for the development of gallstones. First, the
gallbladder volume during fasting and residual volume after
contracting is twice that of nonpregnant patients. Second,
incomplete emptying may result in retention of cholesterol
crystals. The effect of progesterone on smooth muscle function
is thought to be the cause of the slow emptying time of the
gallbladder. Biliary sludge is thought to increase in pregnancy,
again increasing the risk for stone formation. The signs and
symptoms of biliary gallstone disease are similar in the
pregnant and nonpregnant patient.
Development of
cholecystitis and/or pancreatitis during pregnancy increases the
risk of maternal morbidity, as well as fetal complications, e.g.,
preterm labor, low birth weight, and fetal loss. Fetal loss is
attributed to a combination of acidosis, hypovolemia, and
Evaluation of possible gallstone disease is similar among
pregnant and nonpregnant patients. An appropriate history and
physical are warranted. Consideration for other disease
processes that are similar in presentation, such as acute fatty
liver of pregnancy, preeclampsia, infection, etc. should occur.
Gestational age-specific fetal surveillance and recording of
maternal vital signs is warranted. Laboratory data, which may
be helpful in the evaluation, include:
• Complete blood count
• Serum amylase
• Serum lipase
• Liver function tests
• Serum chemistries
• Urinalysis
Ultrasonography has been shown to be of greatest
importance in the evaluation of patients with biliary tract
disease. Stones as small as 2 mm can be seen, and the
sensitivity and specificity of this imaging modality is well over
95%. Findings on ultrasound that are characteristic for acute
cholecystitis include tenderness over the gallbladder
(ultrasound murphy’s sign), pericholecystic fluid, and
thickened gallbladder wall. Cholecystoscintigraphy (HIDA)
scan is another radiologic technique used in diagnosis, but is
currently believed to be contraindicated in pregnancy.
Early in the evaluation, empiric treatment and intervention
can be initiated. The patient should be placed NPO, and should
be resuscitated with intravenous fluids. Concomitant medical
problems should be stabilized. Consideration should be made
for nasogastric suction. Paraenteral analgesics should be given
and broad antibiotic coverage should be considered, especially
in cases involving suspected cholecystitis or pancreatitis. In
some facilities, it is standard for a consultation to be sought
from general surgery and the nutrition/dietary service.
Primary treatment for symptomatic cholelithiasis in
nonpregnant patients remains cholecystectomy. This procedure
is safe, relieves symptoms, and has low recurrence rate. Most
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 56
general surgeons would recommend immediate intervention,
with the exception of gallstone pancreatitis where many
suggest that resolution of the pancreatitis should occur before
surgery. There is a consensus that surgical intervention is
warranted in pregnant patients with obstructive jaundice, acute
cholecystitis failing medical management, pancreatitis, or
suspected peritonitis.
However, the management of
symptomatic cholelithiasis remains controversial.
Medical management of symptomatic cholelithiasis
includes previously described steps of bowel rest, IV
hydration, IV pain control, and surgical/nutrition consultations.
A number of nonsurgical approaches have been used for
gallstone disease. Oral bile acid dissolution therapy,
extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, and contact dissolution
have been described, but there is little, if any, experience with
these methods during pregnancy and they are therefore not
recommended. Some authors state that up to 80% of patients
will get relief from the initial attack with conservative medical
treatment. However, literature also suggests that the
recurrence rate is high, up to 50% with even higher rates if the
initial attack occurs during the second trimester. Some
obstetric providers include symptomatic cholelithiasis as an
indication for elective induction of labor in appropriate
candidates. Successful induction of labor anecdotally relieves
the symptoms and shortens the time to potential surgical
therapy. The author believes that induction of labor at term in
properly selected patients is a viable option for those with
symptomatic cholelithiasis.
Surgical intervention remains a viable option even in the
pregnant patient with symptomatic gall bladder disease. As
noted above, surgical management is indicated in cholecystitis
and pancreatitis. Several studies have shown that laparoscopic
cholecystectomy is just as safe as open cholecystectomy and
even has a number of advantages as well, e.g., shorter hospital
stay, lower post-op pain, better cosmesis, etc. Furthermore,
several case studies note that the use of the laparoscopic
technique is safe and effective even in the third trimester. No
strict recommendations exist regarding the obstetric aspects
with patients undergoing cholecystectomy but some factors
should be considered:
• Perioperative fetal monitoring, especially in
gestational age past 14 weeks
• Adequate maternal hydration prior to surgery
• Use of the open (Hassan) technique for insufflation
• Placement of the patient in the left lateral recumbent
• Pneumoperitoneum pressure less than 15 mm Hg
• Corticosteroid injection for fetal maturity in
appropriate patients
• Prophylactic tocolytic therapy
Other sources cite the use of other interventions to include
percutaneous cholecystostomy and endoscopic retrograde
cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in selected patients.
Several studies have been published comparing the
outcomes of medical versus surgical management of
symptomatic cholelithiasis (with no evidence of cholecystitis
or pancreatitis) during pregnancy. One such study concluded
that surgical management is safe, decreases days in the
hospital, and reduced the rate of labor induction and preterm
deliveries. Furthermore, the rate of relapse of symptoms in
those managed medically was significantly higher. Maternal
and fetal mortality in both groups was shown to be similar.
The patient’s obstetric provider should ensure that she receives
an adequate consultation regarding the data and risks regarding
surgical intervention.
This review highlighted several salient factors in the role
of the obstetric provider in the care of pregnant patients with
biliary gallstone disease. The author would like to summarize
a few points that are felt to be especially important:
1. Pregnancy is a risk factor for cholelithiasis.
2. Asymptomatic cholelithiasis does not warrant
3. Symptomatic cholelithiasis can safely be managed
medically or surgically.
4. There is a significant recurrence rate for
symptomatic cholelithiasis in pregnancy.
5. Induction of labor for appropriately selected term
patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis is a viable
6. Cholecystitis and pancreatitis increase the risk for
maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality and
therefore should be treated aggressively.
7. The obstetric provider should provide specific
recommendations regarding the obstetric aspects in
patients undergoing surgical intervention.
Reference: Online
dealing with critical human rights concerns, and
other social, educational, environmental, health or
economic conditions that negatively affect their
4. They have been accepted into a non-doctoral
graduate program at an accredited university for
full-time study/research related to their work
experience in human rights, sustainable
development, and/or public health.
5. They can show evidence of financial need for
educational support.
6. They intend to return to their home countries to
work, utilizing training and research acquired in the
study program.
Women’s Health Headlines
Carolyn Aoyama, HQE
Women’s Leadership Scholarship
Women’s Leadership Scholarship is a program of the
Channel Foundation, a small, private foundation based
in Seattle, Washington, that promotes leadership in women’s
human rights around the globe. Channel’s mission is to fund
and create opportunities for groups working in many regions of
the world to ensure that women’s human rights are respected,
protected, and fulfilled.
Eligible candidates include women leaders from the
Global South and/or from indigenous groups who also meet all
the following criteria:
1. They are committed to grassroots organizing and the
needs of their communities or indigenous group.
2. They have proof of a bachelor’s or a higher degree.
3. They have at least three years of work experience
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 57
EHR is the Indian Health Service’s Electronic Health
Record software that is based on the Resource and Patient
Management System (RPMS) clinical information system. For
more information about any of these courses described below,
aining. To see registration information for any of these courses,
2008 Education in Palliative and End-Of-Life CareOncology/IHS (EPEC-O/IHS)
March 25 - 27, 2008; Bloomington, Minnesota
The 2008 Education in Palliative and End-Of-Life CareOncology/IHS (EPEC-O/IHS) will be held March 25 - 27, 2008
in Bloomington, Minnesota. This intensive, interactive training
course is a joint effort between the IHS and the National Cancer
Institute and is evolving into one of the best opportunities
available to develop specific skills related to caring for patients
and families who are facing cancer and other serious chronic
illnesses, and those facing the end of life.
The faculty features the top clinicians in the field.
Participation is open to all physicians, nurses, social workers,
and pharmacists across the Indian health system. All Indian
health facilities are encouraged to support interested physicians,
nurses, social workers, pharmacists, and others to attend this
course. If a facility wishes to send a team, that would be ideal.
The National Cancer Institute has provided funds to cover
travel costs and the per diem for about 35 attendees for this
course. We will accept applications on a first request, first
served basis. Please contact Timothy Domer, MD by e-mail at
[email protected]
A second training session will be held in Flagstaff, Arizona
April 22 - 24. The location of that training will be forthcoming
shortly. You may apply to attend that course using the same email address.
The March training will be held at the Holiday Inn Select
International Airport, 3 Appletree Square, Bloomington,
Minnesota 55425. Please make your hotel room reservations by
March 3, 2008 by calling 1-800-465-4329 or (952) 854-9000.
Be sure to ask for the “Indian Health Service” group rate. For
online registration and the most current conference agenda,
please visit the Clinical Support Center web page at
The IHS Clinical Support Center is the accredited sponsor
for this meeting. The Indian Health Service (IHS) Clinical
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 58
Support Center is accredited by the Accreditation Council for
Continuing Medical Education to sponsor continuing medical
education for physicians. The IHS Clinical Support Center
designates this continuing education activity for up to 18¾
hours of Category 1 credit toward the Physician’s Recognition
Award of the American Medical Association. Each physician
should claim only those hours of credit he or she actually spent
in the educational activity. The American Academy of
Physician Assistants (AAPA) accepts this AMA Category 1
credit for physician assistants. The Indian Health Service is
accredited as a provider of continuing education in nursing by
the American Nurses Credentialing Center Commission on
Accreditation, and designates this program for 18.75 contact
hours for nurses. For more information on CME/CEU, contact
Gigi Holmes or CDR Dora Bradley at (602) 364-7777 or e-mail
[email protected]
Cardiovascular Disease Update
April 4, 2008; Scottsdale, Arizona
The Native American Cardiology Program is organizing a
one-day conference for primary care providers in the Indian
Health Service. The conference agenda and registration will be
going out by e-mail and fax soon. We are excited to have a
group of topnotch faculty to discuss the most up-to-date clinical
recommendations for the diagnosis and management of
cardiovascular disease. Conference topics include advances in
the management of stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and
acute MI; evaluation and treatment of atrial fibrillation and
heart failure; who needs defibrillators; brief updates on
guidelines changes, and advances in cardiac resuscitation. The
target audience includes all medical staff with an interest in
cardiovascular disease. The IHS Clinical Support Center is the
accredited sponsor. The meeting is free to IHS personnel; it will
be held at the Chaparral Suites in Scottsdale. For more
information, please contact [email protected] or call our
office at (520) 694-7000 or fax requests to (520) 694-6712.
Lifesavers 2008 National Conference on Highway Safety
April 13 - 15, 2008; Portland, Oregon
Lifesavers is the premier national highway safety meeting
in the United States dedicated to reducing the tragic toll of
deaths and injuries on our nation’s roadways. The conference
addresses a wide range of safety topics, from child passenger
safety and occupant protection to roadway and vehicle safety
and technology. It offers the state-of-the-art information on
advances in highway safety, highlights successful programs,
and draws attention to emerging safety. Conference attendees
come from the public and private sectors representing a
multidisciplinary audience including child passenger safety
professionals, EMS, nurses, physicians, social workers, injury
prevention advocates, researchers, law enforcement, judicial
officials, and consumers. Each year, the Lifesavers Conference
has become even more relevant and timely, providing a forum
that delivers common-sense solutions to today’s critical
highway safety problems.
For more information visit;
telephone (703) 922-7944; fax (703) 922-7780.
8th Annual Advances in Indian Health
April 29 - May 2, 2008; Albuquerque, New Mexico
The 8th Annual Advances in Indian Health Conference is
offered for primary care physicians, nurses, and physician
assistants who work with American Indian and Alaskan Native
populations at Federal, tribal, and urban sites. Medical students
and residents who are interested in serving these populations are
also welcome.
Both new and experienced attendees will learn about
advances in clinical care specifically relevant to American
Indian populations with an emphasis on southwestern tribes.
Opportunities to learn from experienced clinicians who are
experts in American Indian health will be emphasized. Indian
Health Service Chief Clinical Consultants and disease control
program directors will be available for consultation and
program development.
The conference format includes three and a half days
(Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday morning) of
lectures and case discussion workshops. In early spring, the
brochure will be posted on the UNM CME website at For additional information, please
contact Kathy Breckenridge, University of New Mexico Office
of Continuing Medical Education at (505) 272-3942, or e-mail
the UNM CME Office to request at brochure at
[email protected]
If you would like to review a sample program, you can find
it on the National Council of Chief Clinical Consultant’s
website at
2008 Nurse Leadership in Native Care (NLiNC)
“New Directions in the New Frontier: Education,
Evidence, and Empowerment”
May 12 - 15, 2008; Anchorage, Alaska
IHS, tribal, and urban nurses are encouraged to attend the
NLiNC (Nurse Leadership in Native Care) Conference to be
held at the Hotel Captain Cook, 939 West 5 Avenue,
Anchorage, Alaska 99501; Please make
your room reservations by April 11, 2008 by calling the tollfree number, 1-800-843-1950, or call the Hotel Captain Cook
directly at (907) 276-6000; ask for the “Alaska Native Medical
Center” to secure the special rate of $105 + tax single or double
occupancy per night. Please remember to book early –regularly
priced hotel rooms in Anchorage can average nearly $200/night
+ tax in the summer! This rate is available three days before and
three days after the conference, on a space available basis.
Alaska Native Medical Center is an approved provider of
continuing education by the Alaska Nurses Association, an
accredited approver by the American Nurses Association
Credentialing Centers’ Commission on Accreditation; Provider
Number AP-06-002. For more information about this event,
contact Casie Williams, Nurse Educator, Alaska Native Medical
Center, at [email protected]; or telephone (907) 729-2936.
Keeping the Circle Strong: Celebrating Native Women’s
Health and Well Being
June 9 - 11, 2008; Albuquerque, New Mexico
The National Indian Women’s Health Resource Center,
directed by Pamela Iron, will hold their 10 year anniversary
celebration conference June 9 - 11, 2008 in Albuquerque, New
Mexico. An exciting and informative program is planned to
address the physical, mental, social, and spiritual well being of
our Native women by keeping the circle of our traditions strong
and celebrating what we were taught from those who came
before us. Health educators, nurse practitioners, health
administrators, and health care providers interested in women’s
health should attend. Dr. Kathleen Annette, Bemidji Area
Indian Health Service Director, will be the keynote speaker.
Other noted speakers include Dr. Cynthia Lindquist Mala, a
health and education activist, and Dr. Billie Kipp, University of
New Mexico Center for Native American Health.
Vanessa Shortbull will provide the entertainment. For more
information regarding the agenda, please go to our website at
The meeting will be held at the Marriott Hotel, 2101
Louisiana Blvd. NE, Albuquerque New Mexico 87110. Please
make your room reservations by calling 1-(800)-334-2086.
You can go online at to register for
the hotel using the group code NIWNIWA. If you call in your
registration, the group code is NIWHRC. The room rates are
$75.00 for a single or double. The conference rates are $100
with a NIWHRC membership and $150 without. To register for
the conference and become a member, visit
For further information on how to register by check or Purchase
Order, please call (918) 456-6094 or e-mail
[email protected] If you would like to be an exhibitor or arts
and crafts vendor, please contact our office. The conference will
be accredited by the National Council of Health Education
Credentialing (NCHES).
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 59
POSITION VACANCIES Editor’s note: As a service to our readers, THE IHS PROVIDER
will publish notices of clinical positions available. Indian
health program employers should send brief announcements
on an organizational letterhead to: Editor, THE IHS PROVIDER,
The IHS Clinical Support Center, Two Renaissance Square,
Suite 780, 40 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Arizona 85004.
Submissions will be run for two months, but may be renewed as
many times as necessary. Tribal organizations that have taken
their tribal “shares” of the CSC budget will need to reimburse
CSC for the expense of this service. The Indian Health Service
assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of the information
in such announcements.
Internal Medicine, Family Practice, and ER Physicians
Medical Technologists
ER, OR, OB Nurses
Crow Service Unit, Crow Agency, Montana
The Crow Service Unit is seeking health practitioners to
come work with their dedicated staff on the Crow Indian
Reservation. The Crow Service Unit consists of a small 24-bed
hospital located in Crow Agency and two satellite clinics,
Lodge Grass Health Center, located approximately 20 miles
south of Crow Agency, and Pryor Health Station, located about
70 miles northwest of Crow Agency.
The hospital is a multidisciplinary facility that includes
inpatient, outpatient, urgent care, emergency room, dental,
behavioral health, substance abuse, public health nursing,
physical therapy, pharmacy, dietary, obstetrics, surgery, and
optometry services. Our medical staff includes nine family
practice positions, two ER physician positions, one general
surgeon, two obstetrician/gynecologists, one podiatrist, one
internist/pediatrician, one pediatrician, one radiologist, one
nurse midwife, and six mid-level provider positions (NP or
PA). Family practice physicians and the internist share the
hospitalist responsibilities, and each primary care physician
shares the daytime ER call duties. The staff is complemented
by contract locum tenens physicians for nighttime, weekend,
and holiday coverage. OB call is shared between the
obstetrician/gynecologists, the midwife and the FP physicians.
The two outlying clinics in Lodge Grass and Pryor are
primarily staffed by midlevel providers.
The Crow Tribe is a close, proud people. They maintain
their own buffalo herd and proudly display their cultural
heritage during events such as the well-known Crow Fair.
Other points of cultural interest in the “Tipi Capital of the
World” are The Little Big Horn Battlefield National
Monument, Chief Plenty Coup State Park, and the Little Big
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 60
Horn College.
For those who enjoy the outdoors, Red Lodge Mountain
Resort offers great skiing. The Big Horn Canyon National
Recreation Area offers great fishing, camping, and boating fun.
The area offers spectacular mountains and mountain activities,
and world class hunting and fishing. Billings, Montana, a city
of 100,000, is less than an hour away.
For additional information, please contact Audrey Jones,
Physician Recruiter, at [email protected]; telephone (406)
247-7126; or Dr. Michael Wilcox at [email protected];
telephone (406) 638-3309.
Family Practice Physician
Warm Springs Health and Wellness Center; Warm
Springs, Oregon
The Warm Springs Health and Wellness Center has an
immediate opening for a board certified/eligible family
physician. We have a clinic that we are very proud of. Our
facility has been known for innovation and providing high
quality care. We have positions for five family physicians, of
which one position is open. Our remaining four doctors have
a combined 79 years of experience in Warm Springs. This
makes us one of the most stable physician staffs in IHS. Our
clinic primarily serves the Confederate Tribes of Warm Springs
in Central Oregon. We have a moderately busy outpatient
practice with our doctors seeing about 16 - 18 patients per day
under an open access appointment system. Currently we are a
pilot site for the IHS Director’s Initiative on Chronic Disease
Management. We fully utilize the IHS Electronic Health
Record, having been an alpha test site for the program when it
was created. We provide hospital care, including obstetrics and
a small nursing home practice, at Mountain View Hospital, a
community hospital in Madras, Oregon. Our call averages 1 in
5 when fully staffed. For more information, please call our
Clinical Director, Miles Rudd, MD, at (541) 553-1196, ext
Primary Care Physicians (Family Medicine/Internal
Santa Fe Indian Hospital; Santa Fe, New Mexico
The Santa Fe Indian Hospital is expanding its primary care
department and is currently seeking three to four board
certified family physicians and general internists to join its
outstanding medical staff. We provide care to a diverse
population of nine Pueblo communities in north central New
Mexico, as well as an urban population in and around Santa Fe,
New Mexico. The current primary care staff of five family
physicians, three pediatricians, one internist, and three
PA/CNP providers work closely with one another to give full
spectrum ambulatory and inpatient services. Three nurse
midwives, one OB-Gyn, one general surgeon, one podiatrist,
one psychiatrist, and one psychologist are also on site.
Family physicians and general internists at the Santa Fe
Indian Hospital all have continuity clinics, and are collectively
responsible for covering a moderately busy urgent care and
same day clinic seven days a week. They also participate in a
rotating hospitalist schedule. When fully staffed, these
providers will take one in eight night call and will work
approximately two federal holidays per year. In our “work
hard, play hard” approach to scheduling, hospitalist weeks are
followed by scheduled long weekends off, with scheduled days
off during the week in compensation for other weekend shifts.
This is an opportunity for experienced primary care
physicians to have the best of two worlds: providing care to a
fantastic community of patients and living in one of the
country’s most spectacular settings. Santa Fe has long been
recognized as a world-class destination for the arts and
southwestern culture, with nearly unlimited outdoor activities
in the immediate area. As a consequence, our staff tends to be
very stable, with very little turnover. Ideal candidates are those
with previous experience in IHS or tribal programs who are
looking for a long-term commitment. For more information,
please contact Dr. Bret Smoker, Clinical Director, at (505) 9469279 (e-mail at [email protected]), or Dr. Lucy Boulanger,
Chief of Staff, at (505) 946-9273 (e-mail at
[email protected]).
Chief Pharmacist
Staff Pharmacist
Zuni Comprehensive Healthcare Center; Zuni, New
The ZCHCC, within the Indian Health Service, is located
on the Zuni Indian Reservation in beautiful western New
Mexico. ZCHCC is a critical access hospital with an inpatient
unit consisting of 30 plus beds, labor and delivery suites,
emergency department, and a large outpatient clinic. The
center serves the Zuni and Navajo Tribes. Housing and
moving expenses available for eligible applicants. The Zuni are
a Pueblo people with rich culture, customs, and traditions.
Applicants may contact Cordy Tsadiasi at (505) 782-7516 or
CDR David Bates at (505) 782-7517.
SouthEast Alaska Regional Health Consortium; Sitka,
Cross cultural psychiatry in beautiful southeastern Alaska.
Positions available in Sitka for BE/BC psychiatrist in our
innovative Native Alaskan Tribal Health Consortium with a
state-of-the-art EHR in the coming year. Join a team of
committed professionals. Inpatient, general outpatient,
telepsychiatric, C/L, and child/adolescent work available.
Excellent salary and benefit pkg. Loan repayment option.
Live, hike, and kayak among snow capped mountains, an
island studded coastline, whales, and bald eagles. CV and
questions to [email protected] or (907) 966-8611. Visit us at
Family Practice Physician
Sonoma County Indian Health Project; Santa Rosa,
The Sonoma County Indian Health Project (SCIHP) in
Santa Rosa, California is seeking a full-time BC/BE Family
Practice Physician to join our team. SCIHP is a comprehensive
community care clinic located in the northern Californian wine
country. Candidates must currently hold a California
Physician/Surgeon license. Inpatient care at the hospital is
required. For the right candidate, we offer a competitive
salary, excellent benefits, and an opportunity for loan
repayment. For more information, please contact Bob Orr at
(707) 521-4654; or by e-mail at [email protected]
Family Practice Physician/Medical Director
American Indian Health and Family Services of
Southeastern Michigan; Dearborn, Michigan
American Indian Health and Family Services of
Southeastern Michigan (Minobinmaadziwin) (AIHFS) is a
non-profit ambulatory health center, founded 1978. AIHFS
provides quality, culturally integrated, medical and
preventative dental care in addition to comprehensive diabetes
prevention and treatment. All of AIHFS programs integrate
traditional Native American healing and spiritual practices
with contemporary western medicine in both treatment and
AIHFS is seeking a full time primary care and family
practice physician/medical director. This involves the delivery
of family oriented medical care services as well as general
professional guidance of primary care staff. The incumbent
will also function as the Medical Director, who will collaborate
with fellow physicians and the Executive Director on
administrative operations of the medical, dental, and
behavioral health services.
Please send a cover letter (include the position that you are
applying for, a summary of your interests and qualifications for
position), minimum salary requirement, resume, and a list of
three professional references with contact information to
American Indian Health and Family Services of Southeastern
Michigan, Inc., Attn: Jerilyn Church, Executive Director, P.O.
Box 810, Dearborn, Michigan; fax: (313) 846-0150 or e-mail
[email protected]
Nooksack Community Clinic; Everson, Washington
The Nooksack Community Clinic in Everson, Washington
is seeking an experienced pediatrician to take over the
successful practice of a retiring physician. The clinic provides
outpatient care to approximately 2,000 members of the
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 61
Nooksack Indian Tribe and their families. The position
includes some administrative/supervisory duties as well as
part-time direct patient care. We are seeking a dedicated,
experienced pediatrician with a special interest in child
advocacy and complex psychosocial issues. This is a full time
position with a competitive salary and benefits. There are no
on-call, no inpatient duties, and no obstetrics. We currently are
staffed with one family practitioner, one internist, one
pediatrician, and one nurse practitioner. Additionally we have
three mental health counselors, a state-of-the-art four-chair
dental clinic, a nutritionist, a diabetic nurse educator, and an
exercise counselor. We provide high quality care in an
environment that prides itself on treating our patients like
The clinic is located in a very desirable semi-rural area of
Northwest Washington, renown for its scenic beauty, quality of
life, and year ‘round outdoor recreation. The beautiful city of
Bellingham is 20 minutes away. Vancouver, Canada is less than
90 minutes away, and Seattle is approximately a two-hour
drive away. St. Joseph Hospital in nearby Bellingham offers a
wide range of specialist and inpatient services, an excellent
hospitalist program, as well as emergency care, lab, and
imaging services, all easily accessible for our patients.
For further information, please send your CV or contact
Dr. MaryEllen Shields at nooksackclinic a,, or write
c/o Nooksack Community Health Center, PO Box 647,
Everson, Washington 98247; telephone (360) 966-2106; fax
(360) 966-2304.
Nurse Executive
Santa Fe Indian Health Hospital; Santa Fe, New Mexico
The Santa Fe Indian Hospital is recruiting for a quality,
experienced nurse executive. The 39-bed Santa Fe Indian
Hospital is part of the Santa Fe Service Unit providing services
in the clinical areas of general medical and surgical care,
operating room, urgent care, progressive care, and preventive
health. The purpose of this position is to serve as the top level
nurse executive for all aspects of the nursing care delivery. As
Director of Nursing (DON) services, manages costs,
productivity, responsibility of subordinate staff, and programs,
as well as providing leadership and vision for nursing
development and advancement within the organizational goals
and Agency mission.
The Nurse Executive is a key member of the SFSU
Executive Leadership Team and has the opportunity to
coordinate clinical services with an outstanding, stable, and
experienced Clinical Director and Medical Staff. The SFSU
includes the hospital and four ambulatory field clinics
primarily serving nine tribes. The SFSU earned 2006
Roadrunner Recognition from Quality New Mexico. The
hospital is located in beautiful Santa Fe, New Mexico, filled
with cultural and artistic opportunities.
Contact CAPT Jim Lyon, CEO at (505) 946-9204 for
additional information.
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 62
Director of Nursing
Acoma-Canoncito Laguna Hospital; San Fidel, New
Acoma-Canoncito Laguna Hospital has an opening for a
director of nursing. The Acoma-Cononcito Laguna Service
Unit (ACL) serves three tribal groups in the immediate area:
the Acoma Pueblo (population 3,500), the Laguna Pueblo
(5,500) and the Canoncito Navajos (1,100). The ACL Hospital
is located approximately 60 miles west of Albuquerque, New
Mexico. The hospital provides general medical, pediatric, and
obstetric care with 25 beds. The director of nursing is
responsible for planning, organizing, managing, and evaluating
all nursing services at ACL. This includes both the inpatient
and outpatient areas of the service unit. The director of nursing
participates in executive level decision making regarding
nursing services and serves as the chief advisor to the chief
executive officer (CEO) on nursing issues.
responsibilities include management of the budget for nursing
services. For more information about the area and community,
go to
For details regarding this great employment opportunity,
please contact Dr. Martin Kileen at (505) 552-5300; or e-mail
[email protected]
Primary Care Physician
(Family Practice Physician/General Internist)
Family Practice Physician Assistant/Nurse Practitioner
Kyle Health Center; Kyle South, Dakota
Kyle Health Center, a PHS/IHS outpatient clinic, is
recruiting for the position of general internal medicine/family
practice physician and a position of family practice physician
assistant/nurse practitioner. The clinic is south of Rapid City,
South Dakota, and is located in the heart of the Badlands and
the Black Hills – an area that is a favorite tourist destination. It
is currently staffed with physicians and mid-level practitioners.
It provides comprehensive chronic and acute primary and
preventive care. In-house services include radiology,
laboratory, pharmacy, optometry, podiatry, primary
obstetrics/gynecology, diabetic program, and dentistry.
There is no call duty for practitioners. We offer competitive
salary, federal employee benefits package, CME leave and
allowance, and loan repayment. For further information,
please contact K.T Tran, MD, MHA, at (605) 455-8244 or 4558211.
Northern Navajo Medical Center; Shiprock, New Mexico
The Department of Internal Medicine at Northern Navajo
Medical Center (NNMC) invites board-certified or boardeligible internists to interview for an opening in our eightmember department. NNMC is a 75-bed hospital in Shiprock,
New Mexico serving Native American patients from the
northeastern part of the Navajo Nation and the greater Four
Corners area. Clinical services include anesthesia, dentistry,
emergency medicine, family practice, general surgery, internal
medicine, neurology, OB/Gyn, optometry, orthopedics, ENT,
pediatrics, physical therapy, and psychiatry. Vigorous
programs in health promotion and disease prevention, as well
as public health nursing, complement the inpatient services.
The staff here is very collegial and unusually well trained.
A vigorous CME program, interdepartmental rounds, and
journal clubs lend a decidedly academic atmosphere to
NNMC. Every six weeks, the departments of internal
medicine and pediatrics host two medical students from
Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons on
a primary care rotation. In addition, we have occasional
rotating residents to provide further opportunities for teaching.
There are currently eight internists on staff, with call being
about one in every seven weeknights and one in every seven
weekends. We typically work four 10-hour days each week.
The daily schedule is divided into half-days of continuity
clinic, walk-in clinic for established patients, exercise treadmill
testing, float for our patients on the ward or new admissions,
and administrative time. On call, there are typically between 1
and 4 admissions per night. We also run a very active five-bed
intensive care unit, where there is the capability for managing
patients in need of mechanical ventilation, invasive
cardiopulmonary monitoring, and transvenous pacing. The
radiology department provides 24-hour plain film and CT
radiography, with MRI available weekly.
The Navajo people suffer a large amount of diabetes,
hypertension, and coronary artery disease. There is also a high
incidence of rheumatologic disease, tuberculosis, restrictive
lung disease from uranium mining, and biliary tract and gastric
disorders. There is very little smoking or IVDU among the
Navajo population, and HIV is quite rare.
Permanent staff usually live next to the hospital in
government-subsidized housing or in the nearby communities
of Farmington, New Mexico or Cortez, Coloado, each about 40
minutes from the hospital. Major airlines service airports in
Farmington, Cortez, or nearby Durango, Colorado.
Albuquerque is approximately 3½ hours away by car.
The great Four Corners area encompasses an unparalleled
variety of landscapes and unlimited outdoor recreational
activities, including mountain biking, hiking, downhill and
cross-country skiing, whitewater rafting, rock climbing, and
fly fishing. Mesa Verde, Arches, and Canyonlands National
Parks are within a 2 - 3 hour drive of Shiprock, as are Telluride,
Durango, and Moab. The Grand Canyon, Capitol Reef
National Park, Flagstaff, Taos, and Santa Fe are 4 - 5 hours
If interested, please contact Thomas Kelly, MD, by e-mail
at [email protected] or call (505) 368-7037.
Physician Assistant
Native American Community Health Center, Inc.;
Phoenix, Arizona
The Native American Community Health Center, Inc. (dba
Native Health) is a non-profit, community focused health care
center centrally located in the heart of Phoenix, Arizona.
Native Health has been providing health care services to the
urban Indian community in metro Phoenix, since it was
incorporated in 1978. Native Health is currently seeking a
physician assistant (PA). The PA is a key element in providing
quality health care services to patients of all ages. Native
Health offers competitive and excellent benefits. For more
information, contact the HR Coordinator, Matilda Duran, at
(602) 279-5262 or [email protected]
Family Practice Physicians
Medical Clinic Manager
North Olympic Peninsula, Washington State
The Jamestown Family Health Clinic is seeking two
BC/BE full spectrum family practice physicians with or
without obstetrical skills. The clinic group consists of five FP
physicians, two OB/GYN physicians, and five mid-level
providers. The clinic is owned by the Jamestown S’Klallam
Tribe and serves tribal members and approximately 9,000
residents of the north Olympic Peninsula. The practice includes
four days per week in the clinic and inpatient care at Olympic
Medical Center. OMC is family medicine friendly with
hospitalists who cover nighttime call and are available to assist
with most hospital rounding. Our practice fully utilizes an
electronic medical record system (Practice Partner) and
participates in the PPRI net research affiliated with Medical
University of South Carolina. The clinic serves as a rural
training site for the University of Washington Family Medicine
The Jamestown S’Klallam Tribe provides a competitive
salary and unbeatable benefit package including fully paid
medical, dental, and vision coverage of the physician and
family. The north Olympic Peninsula provides boating
opportunities on the Strait of San Juan de Fuca, and hiking,
fishing, and skiing opportunities in the Olympic Mountains
and Olympic National Park. Our communities are a short
distance from Pacific Ocean beaches, a short ferry ride away
from Victoria, BC, and two hours from Seattle.
Send CV to Bill Riley, Jamestown S’Klallam Tribe, 1033
Old Blyn Highway, Sequim, Washington 98382, or e-mail
[email protected]
The Medical Clinic Manager is responsible for
management and staff supervision of the multiple provider
clinic in Sequim, Washington. Clinic services include primary
care and OB/GYN. Send cover letter and resume to
Jamestown S’Klallam Tribe, 1033 Old Blyn Highway; Sequim
Washington 98382, Attn: Bill Riley; or fax to (360) 681-3402;
or e-mail [email protected]
Job description
available at (360) 681-4627.
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 63
Chief Pharmacist
Deputy Chief Pharmacist
Staff Pharmacists (2)
Hopi Health Center; Polacca, Arizona
The Hopi Health Care Center, PHS Indian Health Service,
is located on the Hopi Indian Reservation in beautiful
northeastern Arizona. HHCC is a critical access hospital with
an inpatient unit consisting of four patient beds plus two labor
and delivery suites, emergency room, and a large outpatient
clinic. The HHCC serves the Hopi, Navajo and Kiabab/Paiute
Tribes. Housing, sign-on bonus and/or moving expenses are
available for eligible applicants. The Hopi people are rich in
culture, customs, and traditions and live atop the peaceful
mesas. Applications are available on-line at, or
contact Ms. April Tree at the Phoenix Area Office at (602) 3645227.
Nurse Practitioners
Physician Assistant
Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA), St. Paul and
Unalaska, Alaska
Renown bird watcher’s paradise! Provide health care
services to whole generations of families. We are recruiting for
mid-level providers for both sites, and a Medical Director for
St. Paul and a Clinical Director for Unalaska, Alaska.
Duties include primary care, walk-in urgent care, and
emergency services; treatment and management of diabetes a
plus. Must have the ability to make independent clinical
decisions and work in a team setting in collaboration with
referral physicians and onsite Community Health
Aide/Practitioners. Sub-regional travel to other APIA clinics
based on need or request. Graduate of an accredited ANP or
FNP, or PA-C program. Requires a registration/license to
practice in the State of Alaska. Credentialing process to
practice required. Knowledge of related accreditation and
certification requirements. Minimum experience 2 - 3 years in
a remote clinical setting to include emergency care services
and supervisory experience. Indian Health Service experience
a plus. Will be credentialed through Alaska Native Tribal
health Consortium. Positions available immediately. Work
37.5 hours per week.
Salary DOE + benefits. Contractual two year commitment
with relocation and housing allowance. Job description
available upon request. Please send resumes with at least three
professional references to Nancy Bonin, Personnel Director,
via email at [email protected]
Family Practice Physician
Northeastern Tribal Health Center; Miami, Oklahoma
The Northeastern Tribal Health Center is seeking a fulltime Family Practice Dentist and a Family Practice Physician
to provide ambulatory health care to eligible Native American
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 64
beneficiaries. The Health Care Center is located in close
proximity to the Grand Lake area, also with thirty minute
interstate access to Joplin, Missouri. The facility offers
expanded salaries, excellent benefits, loan repayment options,
no weekends, and no call. To apply please submit a current
resume, certifications, and current state license. Applicants
claiming Indian preference must submit proof with their
resume. Applicants will be required to pass a pre-employment
drug screen and complete a background check. To apply, send
requested documents to Northeastern Tribal Health Center,
P.O. Box 1498, Miami, Oklahoma 74355, attention: Personnel.
The phone number is (918) 542-1655; or fax (918) 540-1685.
Internal Medicine and Family Practice Physicians
Yakama Indian Health Center; Toppenish, Washington
Yakama Indian Health Center in Toppenish, WA will soon
have openings for internal medicine and family practice
physicians. The current staff includes four family physicians,
two pediatricians, one internist, five nurse practitioners, and a
physician assistant. The clinic serves the 14,000 American
Indians living in the Yakima Valley of south central
Washington. Night call is taken at a local private hospital with
24/7 ER coverage. The on-call frequency is about 1 out of 7
nights/weekends. The area is a rural, agricultural one with
close proximity to mountains, lakes, and streams that provide
an abundance of recreational opportunities. The weather offers
considerable sunshine, resulting in the nearest city, Yakima,
being dubbed the “Palm Springs of Washington.” Yakima is
about 16 miles from Toppenish, with a population of 80,000
people. There you can find cultural activities and a college.
For further information, please call or clinical director, Danial
Hocson, at (509) 865-2102, ext. 240.
Family Practice Physician
Ilanka Community Health Center; Cordova, Alaska
The Ilanka Community Health Center has an immediate
opening for a board certified/eligible family practice physician.
Position is full-time or part-time with flexible hours.
Ilanka is a tribally-owned clinic that also receives federal
Community Health Center funding. We serve all members of
the community. Cordova also has a 10-bed Critical Access
Hospital with on-site long-term care beds. Physicians and
physician assistants provide services in the clinic and in the
hospital emergency department, as well as inpatient and longterm care.
This is a very satisfying practice with a nice mix of
outpatient, ER, and inpatient medicine. Sicker patients tend to
be transferred to Anchorage. The clinic provides prenatal care
to about 20 patients a year, but the hospital is currently not
doing deliveries.
Cordova is a small, beautiful community situated in
southeast Prince William Sound. It is a very friendly town.
The population of Cordova is 2,500 in the winter and around
5,000 in the summer. The population is 70% Caucasion, 15%
Alaska Native, and 10% Filipino, with an influx of Hispanic
patients in the summer.
Most of the town is within easy walking distance to the
clinic/hospital. The community is off the road system, but
connects to roads by ferry and has daily flights to Anchorage
and Juneau. This offers the advantages of remoteness with the
benefits of connectivity.
We have tremendous access to outdoor sports and
activities including excellent hiking, cross country skiing,
alpine skiing, ice skating, boating, world class kayaking, heliskiing, fishing, and hunting. This is the source of Copper River
We offer flexible schedules, competitive salary and
benefits, and loan repayment options. We would like to hear
from you if you are excited about being an old style, smalltown, family doctor.
at,, and
information, please contact Gale Taylor, at (907) 424-3622; or
[email protected]
Emergency Department Physician/Director
Kayenta Health Center; Kayenta, Arizona
Kayenta is unique in many ways. We are located in the
Four Corners area on the Navajo Indian Reservation as part of
the Indian Health Service/DHHS. We have challenging
assignments, beautiful rock formations, movie nostalgia,
ancient ruins, and wonderful clientele to care for. We are within
one hundred and fifty miles from the Grand Canyon and one
hundred miles from Lake Powell, which offers boating,
fishing, water skiing, and camping. World class skiing resorts
and winter sports are just a few hours away in Colorado and
Utah. Kayenta is a great place to raise a family with stress free
living in a small hometown setting.
Working for Kayenta Health Center provides a unique
opportunity. Because of our remote location and underserved
population, you may be eligible for loan repayment and can be
making a real difference in the world.
We are currently recruiting for a BC/BE emergency
department physician and director to work in our 24-hour,
eight bed facility. This is a great opportunity to join our multispecialty ten member medical staff and nursing team. This
position will be supported by dynamic outpatient clinical
services, including dental, optometry, mental health, public
heath nursing, pharmacy, radiology, environmental health
services, and nutrition.
If interested in this exciting employment opportunity,
please contact Stellar Anonye Achampong, MD, Clinical
Director, at (928) 697-4001; e-mail [email protected]; or
send CV to Human Resources/Melissa Stanley, PO Box 368,
Kayenta, Arizona 86033; telephone (928) 697-4236.
Multiple Positions
Riverside-San Bernardino County Indian Health Inc.;
Banning, California
Internal medicine physician: two years experience in an
ambulatory care patient setting. MD degree, current California
medical license, current DEA license, board certified.
Public health nurse: bachelor of science degree in nursing
from an accredited school of nursing. Must possess a current
California nursing license and public health nurse certificate;
valid California driver’s license and safe driving record.
RN charge nurse: current California RN license, current
CPR certification, current California driver’s license.
Experience with computerized medical management system
desirable. Two years experience in ambulatory care, urgent
care, or similar setting.
Registered Dietitian & Public Health Nutritionist:
bachelor of science degree in foods and nutrition, applicable
master’s degree in nutrition or masters in public health or RD.
At least two years professional experience required. A
California driver’s license and a current DMV printout are
Quality management/credentialing assistant: applicant
must possess a high school diploma or equivalent. Must have
two years experience in the coordination of quality
management and credentialing services for the professional
staff. Must have strong written and oral communications
All applicants must be able to work with the Indian
community and be sensitive to the Indian culture and its needs.
Please fax resumes to Human Resource Department at (951)
849-3581; or e-mail [email protected]
Multiple Professions
Pit River Health Service, Inc.; Burney, California
Pit River Health Service is an IHS funded rural health
clinic under P.L.93-638 in northern California that provides
medical, dental, outreach, and behavioral health. We are
seeking several professional positions to be filled. We are
looking for a Health Director to administer and direct the
program to fulfill the Pit River Health Service, Inc.’s primary
mission of delivering the highest possible quality of
preventative, curative and rehabilitative health care to the
Indian people served; a Dental Director to plan and implement
the dental program and supervise dental staff; a Public Health
Nurse or Registered nurse seeking a PHN license to provide
public health nursing and to coordinate and supervise
Community Health Services program; a Behavioral Health
Director/LCSW as an active member of an interdisciplinary
team providing prevention, intervention, and mental health
treatment services to clients; and a Registered Dental Assistant.
Burney is located about 50 miles northeast of Redding,
California in the Intermountain Area. The Intermountain Area
offers plenty of recreational opportunities such as fishing,
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 65
hiking, camping, boating, and hunting, with a beautiful
landscape. Snow skiing is within an hour’s drive away. The
Intermountain Area is a buyers market for homes, as well. All
available positions require a California license and/or
certification. To apply for employment opportunities and for
more information, please contact John Cunningham; e-mail
[email protected]; or telephone (530) 3355090, ext. 132.
Family Practice Physician
Internal Medicine Physician
Winslow Indian Health Care Center; Winslow, Arizona
The Winslow Indian Health Care Center (WIHCC) in
northern Arizona is currently looking for primary care
physicians in family practice, internal medicine, and
psychiatry. We have a staff of 12 physicians, including a
surgeon, and nine family nurse practitioners and physician
assistants. We offer comprehensive ambulatory and
urgent/emergent care to patients at our health center in
Winslow, which includes a state-of-the-art, seven-bed Urgent
Care Center completed in 2006. WIHCC also operates two
field clinics five days a week on the Navajo Reservation, at
Leupp and Dilkon. Our FPs and internist also provide inpatient
care at the local community hospital, the Little Colorado
Medical Center, where the FPs provide obstetrical deliveries
with excellent back-up from the local OB-Gyn group.
The psychiatrist works as part of a team consisting of one fulltime psychiatric nurse practitioner, another (part-time)
psychiatrist, and five Navajo counselors, providing primarily
outpatient services with occasional hospital consults.
WIHCC offers an awesome mix of professional, cultural,
and recreational opportunities. It is located just seven miles
from the breathtaking beauty of Navajoland and its people, and
50 miles from Flagstaff – a university town with extensive
downhill and cross-country skiing, where several of our
employees choose to live. Attractive salary and benefits, as
well as a team oriented, supportive work environment are key
to our mission to recruit and retain high quality professional
WIHCC became an ISDA 638 contracted site in 2002, and
has experienced steady growth and enhancement of programs
and opportunities since the transition from a direct IHS
program. Please contact Frank Armao, MD, Clinical Director,
if you are interested in pursuing an opportunity here, at
[email protected]; telephone (928) 289-6233.
Family Practice Physician
Peter Christensen Health Center; Lac du Flambeau,
The Peter Christensen Health Center has an immediate
opening for a board certified family practice physician;
obstetrics is optional, and call will be 1/6. The facility offers
competitive salaries, excellent benefits, and loan repayment
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 66
options; all within a family oriented work atmosphere.
The Lac du Flambeau Indian Reservation is located in the
heart of beautiful northern Wisconsin. The area’s lakes, rivers,
and woodlands teem with abundant wildlife, making it one of
the most popular recreational areas in northern Wisconsin. The
area boasts fabulous fishing, excellent snowmobiling, skiing,
hunting, golf, and much more. Four seasons of family fun will
attract you; a great practice will keep you.
For specific questions pertaining to the job description,
call Randy Samuelson, Clinic Director, at (715) 588-4272.
Applications can be obtained by writing to William Wildcat
Community Center, Human Resource Department, P.O. Box
67, Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin 54538, Attn: Tara La Barge,
or by calling (715) 588-3303. Applications may also be
obtained at
Primary Care Physician
Zuni Comprehensive Community Health Center; Zuni,
New Mexico
The Zuni Comprehensive Community Health Center
(Zuni-Ramah Service Unit) has an opening for a full-time
primary care physician starting in January 2008.
This is a family medicine model hospital and clinic providing
the full range of primary care -- including outpatient continuity
clinics, urgent care, emergency care, inpatient (pediatrics and
adults) and obstetrics -- with community outreach, in a highly
collaborative atmosphere. For a small community hospital, we
care for a surprisingly broad range of medical issues. Our
professional staff includes 14 physicians, one PA, one CNM, a
podiatrist, dentists, a psychiatrist, a psychologist, optometrists,
physical therapists, and pharmacists. Our patient population
consists of Zunis, Navajos, and others living in the surrounding
Zuni Pueblo is one of the oldest continuously inhabited
Native American villages in the US, estimated to be at least
800 - 900 years old. It is located in the northwestern region of
New Mexico, along the Arizona border. It is high desert,
ranging from 6000 - 7000 feet elevation and surrounded by
beautiful sandstone mesas, canyons, and scattered sage,
juniper, and pinon pine trees. Half of our medical staff has
been with us for more than seven years, reflecting the high job
and lifestyle satisfaction we enjoy in this community.
For more information, contact John Bettler, MD at (505)
782-7453 (voice mail), (505) 782-4431 (to page), or by e-mail
at [email protected] CVs can be faxed to (505) 782-4502,
attn: John Bettler.
Primary Care Physicians (Family Practice, Internal
Medicine, Med-Peds, Peds)
Chinle Service Unit; Chinle, Arizona
Got Hózhó? That’s the Navajo word for joy. Here on the
Navajo Reservation, there’s a great mix of challenging work
and quality of life. No rush hour traffic, no long commutes, no
stressors of urban life. We walk to work (naanish) and enjoy
living in our small, collegial community. Our 60-bed acute
care hospital is located in Chinle, Arizona, the heart of the
Navajo Nation. At work we see unique pathology, practice
evidence-based medicine, and are able to utilize the full scope
of our medical training. Together, we enjoy learning in an
atmosphere of interdepartmental collaboration, supported by
an established network of consulting specialists across the
southwest. A comprehensive system of preventive programs
and ancillary services allows us to provide the best possible
care for our patients. During our time off, many of us explore
the beautiful southwest, bike on amazing slick rock, and ski the
slopes of the Rocky Mountains. It’s a great life – combining
challenging and interesting work with the peaceful culture of
the Navajo people and the beautiful land of the southwest.
We’re looking for highly qualified health care
professionals to join our team. If you’re interested in learning
more about a place where “naanish baa hózhó” (work is
joyful), contact Heidi Arnholm, Medical Staff Recruiter,
Chinle Service Unit, telephone (970) 882-1550 or (928)
674-7607; e-mail [email protected]
Family Practice Physician
Family Practice Medical Director
Tanana Chiefs Conference, Chief Andrew Isaac Health
Center; Fairbanks, Alaska
We are seeking a board certified family practice physician,
preferably with obstetrics skills for a full-time position. We
will have openings in the summers of 2007 and 2008.
The facility is a multispecialty clinic providing services in
obstetric/gynecology, internal medicine, and family practice.
It also includes dental, optometry, pharmacy, behavioral health,
community health aides, and other services. Our referral
region includes 43 villages in interior Alaska covering an area
the size of Texas. Fairbanks has an outstanding school system
and university. We offer a very competitive salary with a great
benefits package and a loan repayment plan. Commissioned
Corps positions are also available. Contact Jim Kohler at (907)
459-3806 or [email protected]
Family Practice Physician
Seattle Indian Health Board; Seattle, Washington
Full Time, Fantastic Benefits! We are recruiting for a
family practice physician to join our team at the Seattle Indian
Health Board in Seattle, Washington. We are a multiservice
community health center for medical, dental, mental health,
substance abuse, and community education services. We are
looking for a physician who is familiar with health and social
issues facing American Indians/Alaska Natives and a desire to
promote the delivery of appropriate health services to this
Seattle Indian Health Board (SIHB) physicians are
responsible for the delivery of quality, culturally sensitive
primary medical care to the SIHB’s patient population. This
position provides general medical care (including diagnosis,
treatment, management, and referral) to SIHB patients with
acute, chronic, and maintenance health care needs. The
physician chosen will also participate in the medical on-call
rotation schedule and other responsibilities such as consulting
and coordinating care with other practitioners, nursing,
pharmacy, laboratory, and outside referral sites. He or she will
provide clinic preceptorship of mid-level practitioners and
patient care instruction to nurses, pharmacists, and other SIHB
clinical staff. The incumbent will precept for residents for the
outpatient continuity family practice clinics. In addition to
supervising patient care, preceptors engage in didactic activity
to enhance resident learning. The physician will also
participate in quality assurance, program development,
community health education/screening, and related activities.
He or she will document all patient care information/treatment
in problem-oriented format in the patient’s medical records, as
well as complete and submit encounter forms and related
materials according to established procedure. Finally, the
person selected will comply with SIHB policies and
procedures, and the AAAHC Standards of Care.
Qualifications include board certification in family
medicine and a Washington State medical license.
All applicants will be required to complete a background
check. Please visit our website at for more
information, or you can call Human Resources at (206) 3249360, ext. 1123.
Primary Care Physicians
USPHS Claremore Comprehensive Indian Health Facility;
Claremore, Oklahoma
The USPHS Claremore Comprehensive Indian Health
Facility has openings for full-time positions for an emergency
medicine physician, a surgeon, an anesthesiologist (or nurse
anesthetist), an OB/GYN physician, and an internal medicine
The Claremore hospital is a 50-bed specialty based
comprehensive care facility, providing care through nine
organized clinical services: community health, dentistry,
optometry, emergency medical services, general surgery,
internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, pediatrics, and
radiology. In addition, the hospital has a six-bed intensive and
coronary care unit and CAT scan equipment with 24 hour
teleradiology support. The facility maintains several academic
affiliations, and has a professional staff consisting of 36 staff
physicians, approximately 60 contract physicians, five dentists,
three nurse practitioners, a physician assistant, an optometrist,
and an audiologist.
Claremore is a town of 18,000 just 21 miles northeast of
the very metropolitan city of Tulsa, with a US Census county
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 67
population of 560,431. Tulsa has a major airport with
international flights and destinations in most major US cities,
and was ranked in the top 10 southern cities in Southern Living
magazine and Fodor’s Travel Publications as one of its
outstanding travel destinations. Tulsa‘s cost of living is 8
percent below the national average and has a county per capita
income 11 percent above the national average. If you prefer
rural living, there are many opportunities nearby. The facility
is located 10 minutes from a major lake, and only one hour
from a lake with over 1,100 miles of shoreline.
For more information, contact Paul Mobley, DO at
(918)342-6433, or by e-mail at [email protected]
CVs may be faxed to (918) 342-6517, Attn: Paul Mobley, DO.
Family Practice Physician
Hopi Health Care Center; Polacca, Arizona
The Hopi Health Care Center currently has openings for
family practice physicians and family nurse practitioner or
physician assistants. The Hopi Health Care Center is a small,
rural IHS hospital providing full spectrum family practice
medical services including ambulatory care, adult/peds
inpatient care, low risk obstetrics, and ER care. We currently
staff for 12 full time physicians, and four full time FNP/PA
positions. Our facility is located in northern Arizona, 90 miles
northeast of Flagstaff and 70 miles north of Winslow, on the
Hopi Indian Reservation. Services are provided to both Hopi
and Navajo reservation communities. The reservation is
located in the heart of the southwest; within a 90 mile radius
are abundant mountain areas, lakes, forests, and archeological
sites. The Hopi Health Care Center is a new facility established
in 2000 with a full ambulatory care center environment
including a dental clinic, physical therapy, optometry, and
behavioral health services. We are a designated NHSC site, and
qualify for the IHS Loan Repayment Program.
For more information, please contact Darren Vicenti, MD,
Clinical Director at (928) 737-6141 or [email protected]
CVs can be faxed to (928) 737-6001.
Family Practice Physician
Chief Redstone Health Clinic, Fort Peck Service Unit,
Wolf Point, Montana
We are announcing a job opportunity for a family practice
physician at the Chief Redstone Clinic, Indian Health Service,
Fort Peck Service Unit in Wolf Point, Montana. This is a
unique opportunity for a physician to care for individuals and
families, including newborns, their parents, grandparents, and
extended family. Applicants must be culturally conscious and
work well within a team environment. The Fort Peck Service
Unit is located in the northeast corner of Montana along the
Missouri river. Fort Peck Service Unit has two primary care
clinics, one in the town of Poplar and one in the town of Wolf
Our Medical Staff is composed of five family practice
physicians, two internal medicine physicians, one pediatrician,
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 68
one podiatrist, and four family nurse practitioners/physician
assistants. We have a full complement of support services,
which include dental, optometry, audiology, psychology, social
work, radiology, lab, public health nursing, and a very active
Diabetes Department. These are ambulatory clinics; however
our providers have privileges in the local community hospital.
We have approximately 80,000 patient contacts per year. We
work very closely with the private sector. IHS and the private
hospital have a cardiac rehabilitation center. By cooperating
with IHS, the hospital has been able to get a CT scanner and a
mammography unit. Tribal Health has a dialysis unit attached
to the Poplar IHS clinic. Customer service is our priority. The
IHS has excellent benefits for Civil Service and Commissioned
Corps employees. There are loan repayment options, and we
are a designated NHSC site. We strive to provide quality care
through a strong multidisciplinary team approach; we believe
in being closely involved in our population to encourage a
“Healthier Community.”
There are many opportunities for recreation, as we are a
short distance from the Fort Peck Dam and Reservoir. For
more information about our area and community please go to
eck/index.asp. Fort Peck tribes also can be found on, and the Fort Peck Community College
on Northeast Montana offers many amenities
one might not expect this far off the beaten path. If you are
interested please contact our provider recruiter, CDR Karen
Kajiwara-Nelson, MS, CCC-A, at (406) 768-3491 or by e-mail
at [email protected] Alternatively, you can contact Dr.
Craig Levy at (406) 768-3491, or e-mail [email protected],
or the Billings Area Physician Recruiter, Audrey Jones, at
(406) 247-7126 or e-mail [email protected] We look
forward to communicating with you.
Family Practice Physician
PHS Indian Hospital; Browning, Montana
The Blackfeet Service Unit is recruiting for health
practitioners who want to join the staff at the PHS Indian
Hospital, Browning, Montana. The Blackfeet Service Unit is
home to the Blackfeet Community Hospital, a 27-bed hospital,
active outpatient clinic, and well-equipped emergency
department. Inpatient care includes obstetrics and elective
general surgery. We also offer community health nursing, an
active diabetes program, optometry, laboratory, dental, and
ENT services along with behavioral and social services and
women’s health. We are seeking candidates who are committed
to improving the health of the local community and being part
of a team approach to medicine. The hospital is located 13
miles from Glacier National Park. This area offers spectacular
mountains and incredible outdoor activities year round. There
are loan repayment options, excellent benefits, and we are a
designated NHSC site. If you are interested in joining our
medical team, contact Dr. Peter Reuman at
[email protected] or telephone (406) 338-6150; or contact
[email protected] or telephone (406) 247-7126. We look
forward to hearing from interested candidates.
Family Practice Physician
PHS Indian Hospital, Harlem, Montana
The Fort Belknap Service Unit is seeking family practice
physician and pharmacist candidates to join their dedicated
staff. The service unit is home to a critical access hospital
(CAH) with six inpatient beds, two observation beds, and a 24hour emergency room, as well as an 8 am to 5 pm outpatient
clinic. The service unit also operates another outpatient clinic
35 miles south of Fort Belknap Agency in Hays. The Fort
Belknap CAH outpatient visits average 39,000 per year. The
new clinic in Hays, the Eagle Child Health Center, can
adequately serve 13,000 per year. The medical staff includes
four family practice positions, two physician assistants, and
one nurse practitioner, and has implemented the Electronic
Health Record in the outpatient clinic. The service unit also has
a full-time staffed emergency medical services program. The
staff is complemented by contract locum tenens physicians for
weekend emergency room coverage.
The medical staff is supported by and works with a staff of
nurses, behavior health personnel, physical therapist, lab and
x-ray personnel, pharmacists, dentists, administrators,
housekeepers, supply specialists, and contract practitioners to
provide the best possible care to patients. The staff works as a
team to make a difference. Contract (private) hospitals are
from 45 to 210 miles from the facility.
There are loan repayment options, excellent benefits, and
we are a designated NHSC site. The area is primarily rural, and
a friendly small-town atmosphere prevails here. The
reservation communities promote various local activities such
as rodeos, church socials, and basketball. The tribe also
manages its own buffalo herd. Bigger events fill in the
calendar as well, such as the Milk River Indian Days, Hays
Powwow, and the Chief Joseph Memorial Days, featuring
cultural activities and traditional dancing. The Fort Belknap
Tribe has hunting and fishing available both on and off the
reservation. The Little Rocky Mountains and the Missouri
River provides scenic and enjoyable areas for the outdoorminded. If you are interested in joining our medical team,
contact Dr. Robert Andrews at [email protected] or
telephone (406) 353-3195; or contact the Physician Recruiter,
Audrey Jones, at [email protected]; telephone (406) 2477126.
Family Nurse Practitioner or Physician Assistant
Fort Peck Service Unit; Poplar, Montana
We are announcing a job opportunity for a family nurse
practitioner and/or physician assistant at the Verne E Gibbs
Health Center in Poplar, Montana and the Chief Redstone
Health Clinic, Indian Health Service, Fort Peck Service Unit in
Wolf Point, Montana. The Fort Peck Service Unit is located in
the northeast corner of Montana along the Missouri river. Fort
Peck Service Unit has two primary care clinics, one in the town
of Poplar and one in the town of Wolf Point. The Medical Staff
is composed of five family practice physicians, two internal
medicine physicians, one pediatrician, one podiatrist, and four
family nurse practitioners/physician assistants. We have a full
complement of support services, which include dental,
optometry, audiology, psychology, social work, radiology, lab,
public health nursing, and a very active Diabetes Department
that includes one nurse educator, one FNP, and one nutritionist.
We strive to provide quality care through a strong
multidisciplinary team approach; we believe in being involved
in the community to encourage a “Healthier Community.”
There are many opportunities for recreation, as we are a
short distance from the Fort Peck Dam and Reservoir. For
more information about our area and community please go to
eck/index.asp. We are looking for an applicant with well
rounded clinical skills. Two years experience is preferred but
new graduates are welcome to apply. Northeast Montana
offers many amenities one might not expect this far off the
beaten path. If you are interested please contact our provider
recruiter, CDR Karen Kajiwara-Nelson, MS, CCC-A at (406)
768-3491 or by e-mail at [email protected]
Family Practice Physicians
Crownpoint Comprehensive Healthcare Facility;
Crownpoint, New Mexico
The Crownpoint IHS facility has openings for two family
practitioners with low risk obstetric skills (we will consider
candidates without OB skills), two pharmacists, and two
general dentists. Our service unit follows a family medicine
model for providing full-spectrum care to our patients, with a
dynamic medical staff that finds the work here quite rewarding.
With a high HPSA rating, we are a NHSC-eligible site for
payback and loan repayment.
Crownpoint is a town of about 2,500 people in the Four
Corners region of New Mexico. We serve a traditional
community of 25,000 Navajo people, many of whom speak
only Navajo and live in traditional homes with no running
water, electricity, or phone service. Our hospital has a six bed
ER, a 17 bed med/peds unit, a labor and delivery/post-partum
unit, and a large outpatient clinic. We have a total of 16 dental
chairs, optometry, and mental health services, as well as on-site
pharmacy, laboratory, radiology, and ultrasonography. Our
medical/dental staff is a collegial and supportive group
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 69
including ten family physicians, two pediatricians, an
obstetrician/gynecologist, a psychiatrist, three PAs, three
FNPs, four dentists, and a podiatrist. We have a very exciting,
full-spectrum medical practice that includes high-risk prenatal
care, low-risk labor and delivery, emergency room care with
management of trauma and orthopedics, and an interesting
inpatient medicine and pediatric service.
As primary care physicians in a rural setting, we manage a
wide variety of medical problems. We care for many patients
with diabetes and hypertension, but we also see some unusual
illnesses such as plague, Hantavirus, and snake bites. There are
many opportunities for outpatient and ER procedures including
suturing, therapeutic injections, closed reductions of fractures
and dislocations, para/thoracentesis, chest tubes, LPs,
colposcopy, sigmoidoscopy, and OB ultrasound.
While Crownpoint is small, there is a lot to do in the
surrounding area. There are two junior colleges in town where
many of us have taken Navajo language, weaving, and history
classes. Some have gotten involved with local churches and
children’s activities. Outdoor activities are plentiful, with
downhill and cross-country skiing, camping, and fishing all
nearby. There are several excellent mountain biking and hiking
trails, as well as Anasazi ruins that are right in Crownpoint.
Albuquerque is two hours away and is our nearest large city
with an international airport. Other destinations that are within
an afternoon’s drive include Santa Fe (three hours), Durango
and the Rocky Mountains (two hours), Taos (four hours),
Southern Utah’s Moab and Arches/Canyonlands National
Parks (four hours), Flagstaff (three hours) and the Grand
Canyon (five hours).
For more information, contact Harry Goldenberg, MD,
Clinical Director, at (505)786-5291, ext.46354; e-mail
[email protected]; or Lex Vujan at (505) 786-6241; email [email protected]
Family Practice Physician
Bristol Bay Area Health Corporation, Dillingham, Alaska
Bristol Bay Area Health Corporation (BBAHC) is a
mature tribal compact located in scenic southwestern Alaska.
The Bristol Bay Area Service Unit encompasses 44,000 square
miles of Alaska country bordering the Bristol Bay region of the
state. Over 400 employees provide primary care to 28 villages
including two sub-regional villages, and a primary care
hospital, Kanakanak, located in Dillingham, Alaska. The
Medical Staff consists of nine family physicians, a
pediatrician, a nurse midwife, four dentists, a physical therapist
and an optometrist, all providing primary care. The patient
population consists of Yupik Eskimo, Aleut, and Athabascans
who have been residents of the area for hundreds of years.
Family physicians provide a broad spectrum of practice
including obstetrics, inpatient medicine, emergency care and
procedures such as colonoscopy, EGD, flexible
sigmoidoscopy, colposcopy, and treadmill services in a very
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 70
collegial and supportive atmosphere. Our solo pediatrician is
allowed to practice full spectrum pediatrics with an extremely
interesting patient mix and some very high risk and rare
genetic disorders unique to this area. The pediatrician works in
a collegial manner with family physicians and is not required
to perform any adult medicine or obstetrics, but solely
BBAHC was the first hospital in the country to establish a
638 contract and has an extremely good working relationship
with their Board of Directors. Of note, the practice here in
Alaska is unique, and air travel to outlying villages is required,
since continuity care to the villages is very important to our
care here and is uniquely rewarding. BBAHC has an
extremely competitive salary and benefits package.
If interested, please contact Arnie Loera, MD, Corporate
Medical Director, at (907) 842-9218, Kanakanak
Hospital/Bristol Bay Area Health Corporation, PO Box 130,
Dillingham, Alaska 99576. You may also contact him by email at [email protected] CVs can be faxed to (907) 8429250, attn: Arnie Loera, MD. You may also view our website
for information about our corporation at www.bbahc.orq.
Medical Technologist
Tuba City Regional Health Care Corporation; Tuba City,
The Tuba City Regional Health Care Corporation, a 73bed hospital with outpatient clinics serving 70,000 residents of
northern Arizona, is recruiting for full-time generalist medical
The laboratory has state-of-the-art equipment. We offer
competitive salary, based on experience. Relocation benefits
are available. New graduates are encouraged to apply for this
position. Tuba City is located on the western part of the Navajo
reservation approximately 75 miles north of Flagstaff, Arizona,
with opportunities for outdoor recreation and cultural
experiences with interesting and adventurous people.
For more information, please contact Minnie Tsingine,
[email protected] For an application, please
contact Human Resources at (928) 283-2041/2432 or
[email protected]
Family Medicine Physicians
Phoenix Indian Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona
The Family Medicine Department is recruiting for BC/BE
family physicians at the Phoenix Indian Medical Center and
the satellite clinic at Salt River. The positions are
predominantly outpatient with limited hospital inpatient
activity; OB optional. Join eight physicians, one nurse
practitioner, one physician’s assistant, and a number of parttime providers. PIMC is one of the largest IHS sites, with over
100 providers and 70 active beds. We have been using PCC+
and in part EMR. There are great opportunities socially,
culturally, professionally, and educationally living in the
Phoenix metropolitan area. The IHS has a great benefits
package for Civil Service and Commissioned Corps. Loan
payback is an option. For more information, please
contact/send CV to Eric Ossowski MD, Family Medicine
Department, Phoenix Indian Medical Center, 4212 N. 16th
Street, Phoenix Indian Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona
85016. Telephone (602) 263-1537; fax (602) 263-1593; or email [email protected]
Family Practice Physician
Gallup Indian Medical Center; Gallup, New Mexico
The Gallup Indian Medical Center has an immediate
opening for a family medicine physician. GIMC is one of the
largest Indian Health Service sites. The IHS has great benefits
packages for both Civil Service and Commissioned Corps
providers. We are an NHSC scholarship and an IHS Loan
Repayment site as well. The Department of Family Medicine
offers the opportunity for full spectrum family medicine care.
There are currently nine physicians, two physician assistants,
and one pharmacist clinician in the department. Chronic
disease management and prevention are the focus for
continued development and expansion of this department and
program. The hospital has a multi-specialty group, and family
medicine physicians have inpatient privileges at GIMC as well
as at the community hospital, Rehoboth McKinley Christian
Please contact Dr. Alma Alford, Chief of Family
Medicine, if you are interested in pursuing an opportunity here.
The address is Gallup Indian Medical Center, 516 E. Nizhoni
Blvd., P.O. Box 1337, Gallup, New Mexico 87301-1337;
telephone (505) 722-1000; fax (505) 726-8740; office number
(505) 722-1280 or 722-1775; e-mail [email protected]
February 2008 THE IHS PROVIDER 71
Change of Address or Request for
New Subscription Form
Name _____________________________________________________ Job Title ________________________________
Address ____________________________________________________________________________________________
City/State/Zip ______________________________________________________________________________________
Urban Indian Other
Service Unit (if applicable) _________________________ Last Four Didgets of SSN ____________________________
Check one:
New Subscription Change of address
If change of address, please include old address, below, or attach address label.
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A journal for health professionals working with American Indians and Alaska Natives
THE IHS PROVIDER is published monthly by the Indian Health
Service Clinical Support Center (CSC). Telephone: (602) 364-7777;
fax: (602) 364-7788; e-mail: [email protected] Previous issues of
THE PROVIDER (beginning with the December 1994 issue) can be
found on the CSC Internet home page (
Wesley J. Picciotti, MPA ............................................Director, CSC
John F. Saari, MD..................................................................Editor
E.Y. Hooper, MD, MPH......................................Contributing Editor
Cheryl Begay....................................................Production Assistant
Theodora R. Bradley, RN, MPH ........................Nursing Consultant
Erma J. Casuse, CDA ..............Dental Assisting Training Coordinator
Edward J. Stein, PharmD ................................Pharmacy Consultant
Opinions expressed in articles are those of the authors and do not
necessarily reflect those of the Indian Health Service or the Editors.
Dept. of Health and Human Services
Indian Health Service
Clinical Support Center
Two Renaissance Square, Suite 780
40 North Central Avenue
Phoenix, Arizona 85004
Circulation: The PROVIDER (ISSN 1063-4398) is distributed to more
than 6,000 health care providers working for the IHS and tribal
health programs, to medical schools throughout the
country, and to health professionals working with or interested in
American Indian and Alaska Native health care. If you would like to
receive a copy, send your name, address, professional title, and
place of employment to the address listed below.
Publication of articles: Manuscripts, comments, and letters to the
editor are welcome. Items submitted for publication should be no
longer than 3000 words in length, typed, double-spaced, and
conform to manuscript standards. PC-compatible word processor
files are preferred. Manuscripts may be received via e-mail.
Authors should submit at least one hard copy with each
electronic copy. References should be included. All manuscripts are
subject to editorial and peer review. Responsibility for obtaining
permission from appropriate tribal authorities and Area Publications
Committees to publish manuscripts rests with the author. For those
who would like more information, a packet entitled “Information for
Authors” is available by contacting the CSC at the address below or
on our website at

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