MWAGHAVUL – ENGLISH DICTIONARY

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MWAGHAVUL – ENGLISH DICTIONARY
Roger Blench
Kay Williamson Educational
Foundation
Nathaniel Yeeɗen
Daapiya
(08036236494)
Fii’an Jacob Bess
Mwaghavul
Team
Bible
Translation
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS................................................................................................................................ 1
DEDICATION................................................................................................................................................. 4
ORIGINAL PREFACE .................................................................................................................................. 4
ORIGINAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...................................................................................................... 6
1. THE MWAGHAVUL PEOPLE AND THEIR LANGUAGE................................................................. 8
2. MWAGHAVUL PHONOLOGY ............................................................................................................... 8
2.1 Vowels..................................................................................................................................................... 8
2.2 Consonants .............................................................................................................................................. 9
Palatalised consonants .............................................................................................................................. 11
Labialised consonants............................................................................................................................... 12
Prenasalised consonants ........................................................................................................................... 13
2.3 Tones ..................................................................................................................................................... 15
3. MWAGHAVUL GRAMMAR SKETCH................................................................................................ 15
3.1 Nouns .................................................................................................................................................... 15
3.2 Pronouns................................................................................................................................................ 16
3.3 Verbs ..................................................................................................................................................... 16
3.3.1 Verb morphology............................................................................................................................. 16
3.3.2 Verb plurals ..................................................................................................................................... 16
3.4 Adjectives.............................................................................................................................................. 16
3.5 Adverbs ................................................................................................................................................. 16
3.6 Conjunctions ......................................................................................................................................... 16
3.7 Locatives ............................................................................................................................................... 16
3.8 Interjections........................................................................................................................................... 16
3.9 Ideophones ............................................................................................................................................ 16
4. MWAGHAVUL SYNTAX ....................................................................................................................... 16
5. MWAGHAVUL ORTHOGRAPHY PAST AND PRESENT ............................................................... 17
REFERENCES.............................................................................................................................................. 17
Parts of Speech............................................................................................................................................ 18
MWAGHAVUL-ENGLISH DICTIONARY ................................................................................................ 1
i
TABLES
Table 1. Illustrations of vowel-length contrast in Mwaghavul ......................................................................... 9
Table 2. Mwaghavul palatalised consonants................................................................................................... 12
Table 3. Mwaghavul labialised consonants..................................................................................................... 13
Table 4. Realisation of homorganic nasals in Mwaghavul ............................................................................. 13
Table 5. Mwaghavul plural verbs.....................................................................Error! Bookmark not defined.
Table 6. Former and current orthographic conventions in Mwaghavul .......................................................... 17
PHOTOS
Error! No table of figures entries found.
ii
Preface 2012
This dictionary of the Mwaghavul language is based on an electronic manuscript prepared by Nathaniel
Daapiya, whose original preface and introduction is included below. Roger Blench received the manuscript
in August 2007 and converted it into a database-like format, reformatted the whole text and edited or rewrote
many of the definitions. By agreement with Mr. Daapiya, a number of the original appendices, entitled
‘compendium’, have been deleted. Together with Jacob Bess of the Mwaghavul Bible Translation Team, the
introductory materials on Mwaghavul phonology and grammar have been prepared. Identifications of plants
and animals have been made by Roger Blench together with a workshop team organised by Jacob Bess and
held in Panyam on May 13th 2009. The photographs included were taken by Roger Blench and Nathaniel
Daapiya. Also reproduced are archive photographs from the 1920s illustrating a now-vanished way of life.
This remains a draft document circulated for comment and discussion.
Roger Blench
Jos, 07 May 2012
iii
DEDICATION
Nathaniel Dapiya wishes to dedicate this book to the Almighty God for giving me the wisdom, knowledge,
strength and inspiration to compile this work despite all odds. He also wishes to dedicate this work to the
chairman of the sub-committee on culture during the “Wus 2002, late Dr. (Mrs) Milcha Dadirep who
insisted that an album be produced showing the various artefacts at the annual Wus festival. Little did I
know that I would embark on this work and to require some of the photographs. Although we lost her
physically in the May 4th 2002 EAS plane crash she will continue to live in the hearts of all who find the
photographs helpful. May her years of service on earth be acceptable to the Almighty God Amen.
ORIGINAL PREFACE
The Mwaghavul language, I must say falls into the group of endangered languages where if care is not taken
will die a natural death. This is due to the simple fact that those of us who are supposed to speak and
promote the use of the language do not speak it, neither do we encourage our young ones. We tend to speak
more Hausa and our children seem to speak more Hausa than the Hausa man. We must therefore change our
attitude towards our language. If you have cause to change your religion, that has nothing to do with your
language for God who created you as Mwaghavul person has his reasons for doing so and therefore can not
be challenged or blamed. We should therefore try our best. If on the last day God asked us to explain why
we failed to sustain the language he ascribed to us what would be our individual and collective answers?
The church, I want to stress, has a great role to play in the promotion of language. We should go back to the
practice of at least singing one song in the Mwaghavul hymnbook each Sunday and our children would be
forced to read and write Mwaghavul language, those of us who are able to read and write the language today
are beneficiaries of the old order.
For any language to exist, it must be in continuous use, by those who speak it, it must be a means of
recording past and present events. The Evangelical Church of West Africa (ECWA), Jos has, a Yoruba
section for those who prefer listening to the service in Yoruba because of the importance they attach to their
language. We must be proud of our language no matter what.
Similarly the Baptist church in Mangu whose members are some seven hundred kilometres away from their
home base; their church is just about 500 meters from COCIN Central Mangu, interestingly enough they
conduct their activities in Yoruba while their host, COCIN Mangu, conduct theirs in Hausa. I think
something is seriously wrong somewhere. I think it should be corrected for the benefit of our upcoming
generation. The Mwaghavul Development Association (MDA) should be bold enough by confronting the
problem directly, by collaborating with the Local Education Board/Department for the language to be taught
in Primary Schools throughout the chiefdom. This is my humble submission as a way forward for the
appropriate books. We have learned men like Daa Geofrey M. Yenle and others who will gladly accept to
produce them within a given time, to be or not to be?
I have been forced to compile this Mwaghavul – English dictionary specifically for those children who are
products of inter-tribal marriages and those who grew up outside Mwaghavul chiefdom and therefore are
deprived of the normal experience and socialisation process in Mwaghavul culture. I have decided to be
more explicit in my definitions to give background information, considering the fact that they have been
detached from the community, so to say.
I do not wish to claim absolute knowledge of the Mwaghavul language, and therefore the discovery that
certain words are missing. This is to be expected in a maiden issue such as this, where there are no readily
available sources of reference. I have relied mostly on the daily usage of certain words. The Holy Bible etc.
What I have tried to present to you are words, names of artefacts, things, plants, animals etc. I therefore hope
that in the next edition, I will be able to include such words. If for any reason I fail to produce the next
edition it is a challenge for other compatriots to take up the challenge, since the foundation has been laid.
iv
I have included some vital information of general knowledge that you may find useful. This work is not
meant to teach you Mwaghavul language per se but to serve as a source of reference and gradually with the
help of others you may grasp what is said around you in Mwaghavul language. Some of the old practices I
have tried to explain are to serve more as historical information as those you may feel are “obnoxious” are
no longer in practice today but I have the onerous responsibility of transferring such information to the next
generation without distortions. I have also included a few list of Mwaghavul names for both males and
females which have positive meanings that could be of assistance in case you wish to name a child, etc.
Finally, I wish to recommend that the MDA should build a community multipurpose House where artefacts
that are on their way to extinction could be retrieved and kept for posterity. Also in the multipurpose House
there should be a “Hall of fame” where names of our sons and daughters who have distinguished themselves
should be kept. There can be no successful future without a blissful past. The MDA, in consultation with the
Mishkagham Mwaghavul, should substitute names of towns and villages in Hausa with local names for the
simple reason that our names are difficult for the Hausas. The Yoruba or Tiv man cares less if you cannot
pronounce the name of his village and life still continues, If care is not taken we shall in future lose
substantial part of our land due to this negligence as we have seen happened in Zangon Kataf and even Jos.
“A stitch in time they say saves nine”.
One should consider the complex nature of the Mwaghavul community, there are very slight differences in
the way certain words are said/pronounced in some parts of the community. An attempt has been made to
place them in juxtaposition. The important point to note here is that whichever version you choose to adopt
or you are conversant with, it is still in order since Mwaghavul people will never the less understand what
you mean. Do not be unnecessarily worried for speaking a version others are not used to.
The Mwaghavul Bible is written in a language that we all understand despite all our various differences. The
New Testament is in the market along with the new hymnbook, they are all affordable each at less than two
hundred naira, they will help you improve your knowledge of the language. You must take more than a
casual interest in your language. There is also in the market the “Jesus” film in Mwaghavul language which
can equally help you. The worst thing you can do to yourself is to be ashamed of asking questions, when I
started this work I knew less than half of what is now contained in this book, I had to ask questions in order
to get what is now before you, you therefore have no excuse not to ask questions. Nobody has a monopoly
of knowledge, it is when you continue to practise the language that you will be fluent. We all started like
that.
Language is part of culture, if you do not speak it with time, you will not only forget all that you know, but
will not be able to teach your own children and by the time their generation takes an exit they will not have
anything to hand over. The Mwaghavul language is presently at this cross road, the language is threatened
with extinction, suppose you wake up one morning and find that there are only two of you left who can still
speak the language; how would you feel? As youths, I encourage you to keep the flag of the Mwaghavul
race flying by continuously speaking the language no matter how poorly, for you will always be corrected.
I am usually disappointed and even embarrassed whenever I hear Mwaghavul people speaking highly
accented Hausa with exuberance to the detriment of the free-flow Mwaghavul language that they understand
and to worsen the matter, you will discover that both speakers are Mwaghavul people, the Heavens will not
forgive us if we should continue like this. We must adopt an “each-one’ teach one” approach if we must
reverse the trend. There are quite a number of languages on the Plateau that are no longer spoken like the
Latin, Greek etc. that we hear of. If we do not promote our language nobody will promote it for us rather we
will help promote other peoples’ languages for them.
May God forbid, help me say Amen!
Nathaniel Daapiya
v
ORIGINAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
When the inspiration to compile this maiden Mwaghavul-English dictionary came to me as a dream, I
considered it more as an exercise to either while away time or to see how many words I could still
remember. Little did I know that it would develop into something as this. This work could not have been
possible without the motivation of people like Sylvester Yakwal, who after going through my initial script of
over one thousand words, commented thus, “this modest effort is enough to start a Mwaghavul dictionary”.
Although the statement was meant to be a morale booster, I suddenly became sceptical of my ability to cope
with the technicalities, having discovered that I have ventured into a very unfamiliar terrain ie Linguistics, I
then started foot-dragging, proffering one excuse after another, why I may not be able to continue with the
project. However as God would have it, for each excuse I gave, God used him and several others to provide
solid answers and even linkages, which eventually subdued me and enhanced the completion of this work.
That is why I have dedicated the work to God first for using me as a mere tool to achieve his desire. I see
myself as a mere coordinator, To God be the Glory.
I am however indebted to the following; Reverend Polycarp Fi’an Dapiya who did a similar work much
earlier between 1971, and 1972 (although unpublished) and who despite his waning health, never got tired of
the countless times I approached him, seeking one kind of explanation or the other, and for allowing me the
use of his book “A short History of Sura (Panyam) 1730-1981” under the name of Datok. Another elder I
cannot afford to forget is Daa Bagiri Bishmang, the Baraya of Panyam (Sarkin Tsafi) and who I would
prefer to call as the “encyclopaedia” of Mwaghavul culture. He still has in his custody some of the artefacts,
such as the implements for the production of fire by friction method (see Pyaghar Wus and photograph on
Pyaghar Wus) and a host of others. When I requested to take the photographs of some of the items, he did
not only oblige, but insisted on producing fire with them for me to see first, to confirm the efficacy of the
implements. He was very supportive when I told him that all he knew in Mwaghavul culture would be
meaningless unless they were recorded for posterity as I was trying to do. For an elder who is not literate to
understand the importance of record keeping and divulge such information shrouded by myth is highly
commendable. Babuje Danazumi Gumwesh of Department of Language College of Education Gindiri was
one of those God led me to. The first time I called on him, I did not meet him, I therefore left the script with
a note attached. It was on the fourth visit that I had the privilege of meeting him for the first time, prior to
this meeting his wife had assured me at each visit that he was working on the script. I am excited that there
are still some Nigerians who do not believe in “eye service”.
I was next led to Reverend Yaluna Yiljep (the project adviser of Mwaghavul Bible Translation) and Jacob P.
Bess who cleared the technical areas. The next person was Geoffrey Musa Yenle, who despite his ill-health
at the time still devoted time to this work. It is such wonderful contributions from notable Mwaghavul sons
and daughters that convinced me that it was the handiwork of the Almighty God.
Dr. Sale Akila Lohor was equally very supportive and gave the work a touch that the entire Mwaghavul
people will be proud of. His Royal Highness the Mishkagham Mwaghavul Daa Nelson Andak Bakfur was of
tremendous help and support, that has gone a long way in widening my horizon. Others are their Highnesses
Daa Moses Yachan Derwan and Daa Micheal Kasham Hirse, the Deskagham of Panyam and Mangu
respectively. Daa Nehemiah D. Yakwal, Prof. Monday Y. Mangvwat (the vice chancellor University of Jos)
Dr. Umar Danfulani (the Dean of student Affairs Unijos) Emmanuel H. Dadirep, Mrs Tarifaina Manaseh
Toma, Mrs Florence Mamot, Enoch Y. Lot, Daa John Mark Samci (the Galadiman Mwaghavul) Barister
Danjuma Maina (the Waziri of Mwaghavul) for their support and encouragement, Barrister Alexander
Lohor, Andrew T. Duhur, Tanko Bitrus Yawus, Jatau nJele Daluk, Mal. Abdulrahman Adukuchili, Helon
Kwatdok (the Chiroma Chakfem) Clement Yelkopba, Isaac D. Gwantong, Rev Soloman Dawel, the Mangu
LGC, Tanko G. Sana (the Madakin Panyam), Charles Benle Gugin, Daa Tungshak Taba, Daammok
Riinlagham, Sergeant Peter Putmang, for their wise counsels. My appreciation also goes to Tunde Samuel
Olaniyi, Victoria Luka Dapirep and Ponzin Rindap who all handled the computer work at various stages.
The authors have obtained a written permission from the Federal College of Education (FCE) Pankshin to
include Mwaghavul Meta language, a compilation of coined words for school use. We would like to thank
vi
Professor David Wannang the Provost Federal College of Education Pankshin for allowing us the inclusion
of the Mwaghavul meta language made by consultancy services unit of the college under the Universal Basic
Education (UBE\PEP II Programme in conjunction with the Pushit zone of Mangu LGC. These words are
listed in the Appendix.
In conclusion, I wish to acknowledge the support and advice of my unbeatable sisters Mrs Beatrice Nancin
Usman, Mrs Charity Piring’ar Maina and my immediate family Rhoda, Naanlop, Sam and Kyespan for their
supportive roles. Last but not the least I am indebted to numerous Mwaghavul elders who contributed in one
way or the other. To all I am most grateful.
Nathaniel Daapiya
Jos, April 2012
vii
1. The Mwaghavul people and their language
Mwaghavul is a relatively large West Chadic language spoken in Mangu Local Government Area, Plateau
State, Nigeria. The main towns of the Mwaghavul are Mangu and Panyam. There are generally estimated to
be some 150,000 speakers of Mwaghavul, although such a figure is largely guesswork. Mupun, often
considered a distinct language, is very close to Mwaghavul and the division may be more ethnic than
linguistic. The Toos, or the language of Takas also appears to be very similar. The closest relatives of
Mwaghavul are Cakfem-Mushere and Miship and it falls within the same group as Ngas and Goemai. The
Mwaghavul are known as ‘Sura’ in much of the older literature. Mwaghavul is bordered by Plateau (i.e.
Benue-Congo) languages to the north and west, notably Berom and Izere.
2. Mwaghavul phonology
No complete phonology or orthography of Mwaghavul has ever been published, although the sketch
accompanying Jungraithmayr (1963/4) provides a basic overview of the sound-system. A description of the
closely related Mupun by Frajzyngier (1991, 1993) has useful insights into the grammar and vocabulary of
Mwaghavul. The basis for the current Mwaghavul writing system is some unpublished documents prepared
by the late Stephen Nyang, now archived by the Nigeria Bible Translation trust. The phonology given below
was prepared afresh with new examples, but there are no major differences with the existing analysis.
2.1 Vowels
There are six vowels in Mwaghavul, the cardinal vowels and a central vowel /i/. This is a common Chadic
pattern, although not found in Hausa. Phonetically the mid-vowels are /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ but they are not in contrast
with /e/ and /o/ and are thus represented by ‘e’ and ‘o’ in orthographic practice.
Degree
Front Central Back
Close
i
ɨ
u
Half Open
ɛ
ɔ
Open
a
Long/short contrast exists for vowels but there are no nasalised vowels.
Words with the high central vowel /ɨ/ frequently have variants with /u/, for example;
ng ŕ ís ~ ngúrús
cartilage
This may be evidence that the /ɨ/ is gradually assimilating to a back vowel.
biscuit bone; cartilage also ngúrús (kwatar kashi – hausa) /ngúrús/
ng ́rís /ngrís/
ng r̀ òk /ng r̀ ɔk/ to snore, snoring
Examples of demonstrating vowel contrasts;
u~ɔ
kúm
navel kɔ́m
groundnut
ɗúŋ
lie
ɗɔ́ŋ
purity of water
tùghùm tilt
tɔ̀ghɔ̀m blood
a~ɔ
kam stick kɔm ear
pas arrow pɔs rub
ár
road
ɔr
alarm sound
viii
i~ɛ
píl blurred vision pɛ̀l flower
tíŋ tree
tɛ́ŋ rope
pìt quench
pɛ̀t call
a~ɛ
màn knowledge mɛ̀n beauty
tàŋ to count
tɛ́ŋ rope
par night
pɛr scatter
i~ɨ
niŋ
your mother nɨŋ
buffalo
ɗiɓen crops
ɗɨɓen water vapour
Each short vowel has a lengthened equivalent. Table 1 shows examples demonstrating this contrast;
Table 1. Illustrations of vowel-length contrast in Mwaghavul
Mwaghavul
Gloss
Mwaghavul
Gloss
sám
sharpen
saam
to sleep, to lie down
mar
swelling
maar
millet cultivar
pát
sheath
páát
Canarium fruit
kɨn
uncle
kɨɨn
salt
gɨt
small piece of meat
g ̀ t̀
hill, mountain
ɗi
to be there
ɗii
the one that is
ʃì
using
ʃíí
leg
ʃit
grass (general)
ʃiit
act of pounding
wɛ́t
to do something continuously wɛ́ɛ́t
both
ɗyɛ́s
bone
ɗyɛɛs
sand
ɗu
to smell
ɗùù
to be a crowd, to be many
fur
outside
fúúr
grass with white flower
gɔ́l
female lizard
gɔ̀ɔ̀l
to be bent, to be crooked
tɔ̀k
to greet
tɔ́ɔ́k
neck
2.2 Consonants
Mwaghavul consonants are as follows:
Bilabial
Plosive
Implosive
Nasal
Fricative
Affricate
Approximant
Trill
Lateral
Approximant
p
Labiodental
b
ɓ
Alveolar
t
Postalveolar
d
ɗ
m
f
n
s
v
z
Palatal
ɲ
ʃ
y
r
l
ix
ʒ
Velar
Labialvelar
Glottal
k g
/
ŋ
[ɣ]
tʃ ʤ
h
w
Mwaghavul has palatalised and labialised consonants in contrast with their normal forms. In addition it
permits homorganic nasals for some consonants. Mwaghavul also permits final approximants, although
these are rare. Examples;
Tidiw hunting expedition of Kombun community.
ngaw wild dog, fox
ngaw to shave the head completely
dúng-ndày-mpányàm
grasshopper sp.
nɨrét kway bong
to revolt, protest, associated with mad dogs
taway
small wall erected to block intruders into the compound
zày
/g/ and /ɣ/ are almost in complementary distribution, with g- occurring word-initially, or syllable-finally in
compounds and -ɣ- occurring between two vowels. Two exceptional words have /ɣ/ in word-initial position;
ghà
you
ghɨɓɨl swelling
As a consequence, /ɣ/ is represented as a distinct letter, gh, in the orthography. In principle it could probably
be eliminated, but has become established.
As with many neighbouring languages, stop consonants undergo voicing changes in medial position.
Word-final –p becomes /b/ in medial position
Word-final –t becomes /d/ in medial position
Word-final –k becomes /g/ in medial position
Evidence for key consonant contrasts is given below;
b~p
ba:l arm (hand)
pà:l sleeping material made from raffia branches
baŋ to join together paŋ poisonous snake
bár survival
par night
t~d
tá: to fall, drop dàá father
tàŋ to count
daŋ tail
tùl bush sp.
dul pull
k~g
kìŋ on the blind side of s.t. g ŋ̀
drum
kás to abuse, insult
gás sharing food after cooking
gam to be complete, full, fill kam stick, staff, rod
b~ɓ
bak
baan
bɨring
buu
bwang
to throw
wide
horse
worthless
brown
ɓak
ɓaan
ɓɨring
ɓuu
ɓwang
to share
unrequested help
roll on
grass for arrow-shaft
measure of steps
x
d~ɗ
ɗághár hail, ice blocks, snow daghar to limp
dang
tail
ɗang
monitor lizard
den
to deny of
ɗen
to put
f~v
fwaat
fwang
fùk
fur
piece of cloth
to protect
to blow air with bellows
open space in compound
vwààt
vwang
kuvuk
vur
to pluck a fowl
to wash
waste from fonio
hurry a person up
s~z
san self
zan to stretch
sum name zum to bend down
seel slimy zeel saliva
tʃ ~ ʤ
can
cut
jan
twin
caghar kind of beans jagham chin
ʃ~ʒ
shir
shwer
blur
pour down
zhir
zhwer
disappear
skinny child
Palatalised consonants
Palatalisation in Mwaghavul is rare but contrastive and can be applied to most consonants. Older
orthographic practice tended to insert a medial –i- between the initial consonant and the semi-vowel, thus
piyaa instead of pyaa for ‘white’, disguising the presence of the palatal. Since the –i- was non-tone-bearing,
this was highly inconsistent and has been dropped in the present dictionary. However, some personal names
spelt in this fashion have gained currency and these are noted in square brackets in the tables of personal
names ( and ). Table 2 shows examples of the palatalised consonants of Mwaghavul;
xi
Table 2. Mwaghavul palatalised consonants
Mwaghavul
Gloss
byagas
mangle; flatten an organism
dyagap
excessive application of ointment
ɗyágáp
to blink, dim a vehicle’s headlight
fyak
to feel annoyed, pained
gyɛt
last year
kyák
to pick
lyap
plural of naa (look, see)
myas
pl. of to drink water excessively
nyàk
to do something continuously
pyá:
white, fair
ryɛɛm
destroy, demobilize, render useless
tyɔ̀ɔ̀p
to jumble, mix up
vyaŋ
one-eyed person or animal
Palatalisation does not occur before the high vowels /i/, /ɨ/ and /u/ and if heard it is non-phonemic, as in
some neighbouring Plateau languages. However, there are examples of contrast before the mid-front vowel
ɛ. For example;
dɛ̀s groan
ɗyɛ́s bone
As a consequence, palatalisation must only be written where it is distinctive.
Labialised consonants
Labialised consonants only occur before low central and front vowels, never before /ɨ/, /i/, /o/ and /u/. As
with palatals, older orthographic practice tended to insert a medial –u- between the initial consonant and the
semi-vowel, thus luwaa instead of lwaa. This was highly inconsistent and has been dropped in the present
dictionary. However, some personal names spelt in this fashion have gained currency and these are noted in
square brackets in the tables of personal names ( and ). Many labialised consonants are only found in verb
plurals as part of a morphophonemic alternation;
xii
Table 3. Mwaghavul labialised consonants
Mwaghavul
Gloss
bwán
to beat thoroughly
ɓwaa
grass sp.
tʃwaŋ
spear
dwaŋ
self-centred person, stubborn
ɗwas
to lick
fwan
rain
gwàk
to rebuke
ʤwàl
threshed part of fonio ready for the pot
kwaam
to have sexual intercourse
lwas
mend (plural)
mwɛ́n
fool, foolishness
nwaŋ
satire, proverbs, insults, abusive language
pwan
eject (plural)
rwa
to embed (plural of ru)
swa
to run (plural of su)
twàk
thrust
vwaŋ
wash, cleanse
nvwàn-nvwam scrambling for things without being orderly
zwam
to bend down (plural of zum)
zhwer
skinny child
There is clearly a relationship between labialisation and verb plurals, although this is by no means
systematic.
Prenasalised consonants
Mwaghavul permits contrastive homorganic nasals preceding consonants. These are realised as m- before
bilabials, ŋ- before velars and n- before all others. Initial nasals have a wide variety of meanings in
Mwaghavul and it is important to distinguish specific usages. Moreover, there is an important distinction
between tone-bearing and non-tone-bearing nasals. Nasals that make important semantic distinctions, such
as dative pronouns or future, are all low-tone and are marked as such in the dictionary. However, those in
optional forms, such as for many nouns, have no individual tone. Table 4 illustrates the application of initial
nasals with such nouns. Thus;
Table 4. Realisation of homorganic nasals in Mwaghavul
Orthographic
Gloss
mbìì
thing
mmuus
cat
mpèp
beard
ncokmeel
grasshopper sp.
nding
stone
nfùt
mosquito
nlang
ant sp.
ngimaar
grass sp.
nk l̀ ń g
eagle
Mwaghavul distinguishes between initial velar nasal, /ŋ-/ and initial sequences of n + g. For example;
ǹgáw ngáʷ to shave the head completely
ngaw ŋaw wild dog, fox
xiii
ǹgàng ngàŋ fan palm
ngáng ŋáŋ traditional hoe
ǹgaa nga: adultery
ngaa ŋa: for long, a while
These are not distinguished in the current orthography. There is a proposal to indicate this in the future, for
example by separating the nasal prefix from the stem with a hyphen. Thus;
n-gàng ngàŋ fan palm
nga: adultery
n-gaa
n-gáw ngáʷ to shave the head completely
Many nouns occur in two forms, both with and without nasal initial consonants. Some words have a fixed
prenasal which is always present. Others have a variable nasal which readers would normally supply. The
logic of this is not fully worked out yet, but the following appear to be true.
1. Most animal names are prenasalised;
mbul
mbwoor
mp ́rámpas
ncokmeel
ndàl
ndìshìì
nfyéém
ngòk
dove, pigeon
lion
dragonfly
grasshopper sp.
small, striped rat
fly
hawk
grasshopper (generic)
2. Nasals can also mark evidentials
a
cin
a
gùrùm
kong
mo
ye
you
gave
you
people
how many
pl.
?
I know that you have allocated people but I don’t know how many?
a
cin
a
ǹgùrùm
kong
mo ye
you gave you people
how many
pl.
?
How many people of the group are actually doing the work?
3. Future is marked with a nasal
Prenasals /m/ and /n/ mark future
e.g. tar ɗin-nji, shii ɗin-nshee etc.
4. Nasals have a prepositional or locative function, with meanings such as to, for, in;
e.g. mPiyaanyaa, mPushit, nKɨrang, nJos, nAmerica, nEngland, mbut-nam etc
sum kɨ yil
ɗiisi ni a Jos
name of land this it is Jos
This place is called Jos
xiv
wan a
ǹJòs yaksi
I
am at Jos now
I am now in Jos
2.3 Tones
Mwaghavul has three level tones. Phonetic glides arise from combinations of similar vowels with differing
tones. The tones are represented as follows;
High acute accent above the syllable ʹ
Mid unmarked
Low grave accent over the syllable ˋ
Examples of a three-way height contrast are;
high kún three
mid kun be old
low kùn old age
high kús near
mid kus to rub together
low kùs big
high sát to say
mid sat herself
low sàt memorial stone
high wáár gruel
mid waar to mix flour with water to prepare gruel
low wààr law
Phonetic glide tones arise from sequences of two identical vowels with dissimilar tones and are very rare.
For example;
dàá father, lord
kàá grandmother, elderly woman
nàá mother
It is presumably no accident that these examples are all kin terms.
3. Mwaghavul grammar sketch
3.1 Nouns
The great majority of nouns make the plural by prefixing mo-. mo is always written as a separate morpheme,
as in many sentences it can be shifted to clause-final position, and is thus remote from the object it qualifies.
Mwaghavul has a few suppletive plurals, all of which are basic person terms. These are;
làà
ŋgo
mat
mish
reep
child
person
woman
man
girl
jép
nyem
shirop
daas
jiraap
children
people
women
men
girls
In most cases, even the suppletive plural can take a –mo suffix as well, to emphasise numbers. Thus;
nyem ni mo, shirop mo, daas mo, jiraap mo etc.
xv
An extremely productive process in Mwaghavul is the creation of verbal nouns from CVC verb stems
through tonal change. For example;
can to cut
càn circumcision
kun to be old
kùn old age
3.2 Pronouns
3.3 Verbs
3.3.1 Verb morphology
3.3.2 Verb plurals
A distinctive feature of Mwaghavul, shared with many Plateau family languages, is extensive use of plural
verbs (Blench, in press).
3.4 Adjectives
3.5 Adverbs
3.6 Conjunctions
3.7 Locatives
3.8 Interjections
3.9 Ideophones
4. Mwaghavul syntax
xvi
5. Mwaghavul orthography past and present
Missionaries first began work among the Mwaghavul in 1907, and by the early years of the First World War,
were producing books of the Bible in a preliminary orthography. These missionaries had previously worked
with Yoruba and as a consequence, early writing systems reflected its conventions. Those familiar with the
older orthography will notice changes in the following letters; ɓ, ɗ, gh, ng, sh, ɨ, ng, ny. Current orthographic
practice is shown in Table 5;
Table 5. Former and current orthographic conventions in Mwaghavul
Current
Examples
Formerly
ɓ
ɓal, ɓak, ɓaan, ɓam
b
c
cirem, cijeng, com, cileng
ch
ɗ
ɗak, ɗaan, ɗang, ɗuk
d
gh
aghas, gaghas, nagham, oghor
h, g, g
ng
mang, wang, wangkang, tang
ŋ
sh
sham, shang, shilip, shughur
ṣ
ɨ
ɨrong, ɨrap, fɨri, zɨng
i
zh
zhak, zhir, zhwer
sh
The use of ‘gh’ is misleading, since this normally represents /ɣ/ in Nigerian usage, but here it is simply /g/.
Neither long vowels nor tone were marked in the older orthography. The failure to mark length has had the
result that some rather common words, such a pòò ‘mouth’ were written po, a form which persists in the
orthography but which should be discouraged. Another defect of the orthography was a failure to understand
palatalisation, the introduction of a spurious high front vowel in some words. Thus a word such as pyáá ‘to
be lucky’ was typically written piya. Maghavul does permit –iy- sequences, for example;
piyem wild date-palm
References
Ames, C.G. 1934. Gazetteer of Plateau Province.
Blench, R.M. in press. Mwaghavul plural verbs. Papers in Chadic VI. Doris Lohr and Ari Awaganna eds.
Köln: Rüdiger Köppe.
Danfulani, U.H. ined. Understanding Nyam: Studies in the History and Cultures of the Ngas, Mupun and
Mwaghavul in Nigeria, Unpublished Manuscript.
Datok, P.F. 1983. A Short History of Sura (Panyam), 1700-1982. Jos: Nigeria Bible Translation Trust.
Frajyzngier, Z. 1991. A dictionary of Mupun. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
Frajyzngier, Z. 1993. A grammar of Mupun. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer.
Hayward, M.A. 1921. Round About Panyam. London: CMS.
Isichei, E. (ed) 1982. Studies in the History of Plateau State: Nigeria. London: Macmillan.
Jungraithmayr, H. 1963/4. Die Sprache der Sura (Mwaghavul) in Nord-nigerien. Afrika und Übersee, 47:889.
Lohor, S.A. 1984. The Impact of Colonialism on Mwaghavul Society. B.A History Project, University of Jos.
Lohor, S.A. 1993. Agricultural Changes in Mwaghavul land from Pre-colonial period to 1991. M.A.
Dissertation, University of Jos.
Meek, C.K. 1925. The Northern Tribes of Nigeria. 2 vols. London: Oxford University Press.
Meek, C.K. 1931. Tribal Studies in Northern Nigeria. 2 vols. London: Kegan Paul, Trench & Trubner.
Morrison, J.H. 1976. Jos Plateau Societies: Internal Changes and External Influence, 1800-1935. Ph.D.
Thesis, University of Ibadan.
Neirs, M.P. 1979. The People of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria: Their Philosophy, Manners and Customs.
Frankfurt Am Main
Takács, G. 2004. Comparative dictionary of the Angas-Sura languages. Berlin: Reimer.
Temple, O. 1922. Notes on the tribes, provinces, emirates and states of the Northern Provinces of Nigeria.
Lagos: CMS Bookshop.
xvii
Parts of Speech
Like all languages, Mwaghavul words can be classified according to the function they have in the sentence.
These are known as ‘parts of speech’ - the most well-known types are nouns and verbs. The following table
gives the abbreviations used in the dictionary with short explanations;
Abbreviation
Full form
Explanation
a.
adv.
aux.
clit.
c.i.
cond.
conj.
dem.
det.
excl.
int.
loc.
n.
n.p.
Adjective
Adverb
Auxiliary
Clitic
Colour intensifier
Conditional
Conjunction
Demonstrative
Determiner
Exclamation
Interrogative
Locative
Noun
Noun phrase
Describes a noun
Qualifies a verb
Added to a verb to modify it, like a tense-marker
num.
part.
p.n.
p.p.
pref.
pron.
quant.
v.
v.a.
v.i.
v.n.
v.p.
Numeral
Particle
Proper Name
Pronominal
phrase
Prefix
Pronoun
Quantifier
Verb
Verbal auxiliary
Intransitive Verb
Verbal Noun
Verb phrase
v.t.
voc.
Transitive verb
Vocative
A word which intensifies the degree of colour
Expresses the relation between two events
A word used to join two or more nouns, verbs or clauses
Words used to point out something. ‘this’, ‘that’ etc.
Word that specify the definiteness of a noun, ‘a’ ‘the’ etc.
Greetings or expressions that do not form part of an ordinary sentence
Question words
Describes the position of things in time or space
Refers to things, objects etc.
A phrase where a head-noun is joined to other words to form an
expression
Number
Short words added to complete the sentence
A name of a person or object; always capitalised
A phrase used in a pronoun slot
A word that stands for a noun
A word that expresses the amount of something
Expresses action
Modifies a verb with respect to tense or state
A verb with no object
A noun formed directly from a verb to express a state of being
A phrase where a head-noun is joined to other words to form an
expression
A verb with an object
Expression used in addressing someone directly
Needless to say, these categories were developed to describe English grammar and not all Mwaghavul words
fit neatly into them. For example, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish verbs from adjectives. Only a clear
grammatical description will help the reader understand the function of a word in a sentence. At that point,
the assignment to a particular part of speech is somewhat arbitrary; what counts is consistency throughout.
xviii
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
MWAGHAVUL-ENGLISH DICTIONARY
Mwaghavul
A.
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
a1
a1 ɗeng
a2
loc.
loc.
part.
/a/
a deŋ
/a/
on
on top of
focus marker
a3
a
pron.
v.
/a/
a
you (masc. sg.)
is, to be, copula
áá
pron.
àà1
àà2
conj.
int.
/à:/
/à:/
aa3
n.
/à:/
àà4
àà4 pòò
a.
n.
/à:/
/à:-pòò/
àà4 wus
aak
ààk dáás
a.p.
n.
n.p.
/à:-wus/
/a:k/
/à:k-dá:s/
ààk k ́cóó
n.p.
/à:k-k ć ɔ́/
ààk k ́cóó
n.
ààk nuk
n.p.
/à:k-nuk/
aak put
aak
ààkóó
n.p.
n.
conj.
/a:k-put/
ààmin
ààn
excl.
v.
/à:min/
/à:n/
aap1
v.
/a:p/
you (masc. sg.
progressive tense)
1
placed before most parts of
speech except verbs to
show focus
Panji a ɗiimish Panji is
male
+ áá kam a we kɨ sɨ
gwíshɓ ́r ́ng gwíshɓ ́r ́ng
ye? Who are you imitating,
that walks gwíshɓ ŕ ń g
gwíshɓ ŕ ń g? An
assimilated form of a k ́
or
is it so? is it the case Sentence final question
that?
morpheme, use when the
response
echoes
a
statement.
seed, kernel, grain,
stone, pit
bare, naked (knife)
astonishment,
lit. ‘bare mouth’
surprise
hottest part of fire
pregnancy
hernia
protrusion of the belly by
men
posthumous child
child born after death of
father
(mother
was
pregnant when father died)
pregnancy
outside now often refers to first
marriage
pregnancy
pregnancy
outside Considered a very shameful
marriage
act that no responsible
parent tolerated.
Songs
and
other
derogatory
remarks or comments are
made to ensure conformity
with the norm
abortion, miscarriage
squirrel
or
also àà. Wagha nji ààkóó
wan nso. You will come or
you will go
amen, let it be so
<Hausa
eating of bones
bite the small flesh on the
bone
to widen, open space
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
aap2
aar
aas1
aas ngòrò
ààs1
ààs2
ààs ɗiil
ààs kwee
pl.
mo-
PoS
n.
v.
n.
n.p.
n.
n.
n.
n.
ààs yer
n.
ààs yit
aase
n.
adv.
aasi1
aasí2
abet
int.
v.
adv.
abetabet
aɓwóón
aɗéng
adiko
adv.
adv.
n.
n.
aduwa
agaak
àghàr
n.
adv.
a.
àghàs
n.
àghàs cùghùr
n.p.
àghàs manzang
àghàs shwàr
àghàs wur
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
aghat
v.
agogo
àgwà
mo—
n.
voc.
IPA
/a:p/
/a:r/
/a:s/
/a:s-ngɔ̀rɔ̀/
Gloss
yawn
to scratch, scrape
flour, beverage
drink of farmers
before lunch
/à:s/
seed, grain
/à:s/
egg
/à:s-ɗí:l/
testicles
/à:s-kwɛ̀:/
egg of chicken
Mwaghavul believe that an
ancestor can come back to
the family in the form of an
egg to reveal a mystery to
the family/grand-children
etc. Only seers can interpret
such messages.
/à:spumpkin seed roasted
yɛr//à:s-ɓɛ́:/ and then pounded in a
mortar
/à:s-yit/
eyeball
frequently,
often, dee wurí kɨ mwaan aase
usually, a lot
gùsmètgùsmèt [as a result
of over-eating] He now
usually walks sluggishly
gùsmètgùsmèt
/a:si/
it is so
/a:sí/
is, are, be like
/abɛt/
suddenly,
immediately
/abɛtabɛt/
immediately, at once
/aɓwɔ́:n/
after
/aɗɛ́ŋ/
in heaven, up
/adikɔ/
headgear
<Hausa. Worn by women
for occasions, it is usually
bigger than dankwali.
/àduwa/
prayer
<Hausa
/aga:k/
openly
/àgàr/
excessive
consumption
of
liquid, to draw close
to
/àgàs/
general name for
teeth
/àgàswisdom
teeth
tʃùgùr/
premolars/molars
/manzaŋ/
canine
/àgàs-ʃwàr/ incisors (teeth)
/àgàs-wur/
milk teeth, wisdom
teeth
/agat/
to warm, dry or heat
s.t. on a fire
/àgɔgɔ/
wristwatch, clock
<Hausa
/àgwà/
address to young boy, cf. apa
man, vocative form
2
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
ájì
ak
ak pee
pl.
PoS
n.
v.
v.p.
IPA
/ájì/
/ák/
/ák-pɛ:/
ak sar
v.p.
/ák-sár/
akɨ
akú
conj.
loc.
/akɨ/
/akú/
akú ɗáng
adv.
/akú-ɗáŋ/
àm1
àm can ɗár
n.
n.
àm ɗóng
àm kuur
àm mmes
Àm Pùɗóng
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
p.n.
/àm/
/àm-tʃanɗár/
/àm-ɗɔ́ŋ/
àm pungùk
n.
àm put dúng
n.p.
Àm Sháál
p.n.
/àm put
dúŋ/
/àm-ʃá:l/
àm shwáá
àm yen
am2
n.
n.
v.
/àm-ʃwá:/
/àm-yɛn/
/am/
án1
v.
/án/
án pee
v.p.
/án-pɛ:/
/àm-mɛs/
/àm-pùɗɔ́ŋ/
/àm-pungùk/
n
3
Gloss
class
<Hausa
to increase, add
non-verbal insult (by
the use of hand)
to use the hand to
insult others
with
from, out of
a baa akú mpesi go away
from me, wuri ɓam akú
nsar fina he grabbed it out
of my hand wuri shang
akú mɓut am to took it out
of the water wuri lagham
akú pu mun ɗi he hid from
us wuri ɓa mu akú mɓut
njeel he saved us from
suffering
before
wuri saam akú ɗáng muu
ji mu wul he slept before
we arrived mu ship akú
ɗáng mu shee ɗik ni ɗi let
us break it down and then
rebuild it a ɗar akú ɗáng
let you stop before i.e. wait!
water
pond, lake
clean, clear water
sea, ocean, lake, pond
yellow colour
crater
lake
in
Ampang West
source of natural
spring water
cf. bahar.
cf. Àm Shaal
Kerang volcanic mountain
in Mangu LGA, Plateau
state, the water is warm in
the mornings and cool in
the afternoon.
flooding of stream,
river
place in Ampang area cf. Àm Puɗóng
of Mangu LGA
drinking water
medicinal syrup
to carve, peel
Manji k ̀ am lááwúr.
Manji has peeled the sweet
potato.
to worry, pity, be Followed by the pronouns
concerned,
be sak, sat, san to make a
anxious
reflexive
for
different
persons. wura gyar án sat
zam She was very anxious
about herself.
to worry about or pity
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
others
I, me
án2
pron.
/án/
ang
n.
/aŋ/
Ani mm n
̀ i
aníní
excl.
n.
/aníní/
ankwa
n.
ap
n.
/ánkwà//t ź
ɛk//t ś ɛ́k/
/ap/
voc.
/àpà/
ár
ár ààr
ár ɗel
ár màng
àr shìshàm
n.
n.
v.p.
v.p.
n.p.
/ár/
/ár-à:r/
/ár-ɗel/
/ármàŋ/
/àr-ʃìʃàm/
arang
aráng ye
int.
int.
/araŋ/
/aráŋ-ye/
n.
a.
n.
/as/
/as-kwar/
/às-kwàt/
v.
/as màŋ
mɛ: nìn/
n.
pron.
conj.
v.
v.p.
v.p.
v.p.
loc.
/às-pàr/
/aʃak/
/aʃì/
/at/
/at-lí:s/
/at-pɔ̀:/
/at-sár/
/at ĺ ɛ̀ŋ/
n.
/azɛ́:n/
redemption, setting
free, liberation
it is so, that’s it
one tenth of a penny < Hausa. No longer legal
(1/10 d)
tender with the introduction
of the Naira
handcuffs, chain used < English via Hausa. cf.
in detaining criminals also t ́zek, t ́sék
swelling on the body
as a result of beating
address from a senior Also pà. cf. aghwa
to a woman
road, way, procedure
main road
lit. ‘scraped road’
to miss road
to miss road
descending
road,
going down, slope,
declivity
how? why?
cf. cirang.
what is wrong?
ghà aráng ye? How are
you?
dog
severe
dog specially trained
for hunting
to be the matter
lit. ‘dog takes a locust-bean
pod’. Ba ri man nne as
màng mèè nìn. He doesn’t
know that something is the
matter.
dog nursing puppies
together, with
with
to bite
to bite the tongue
to bite the lips
to bite the fingers
in
front,
before,
ahead, outside, not
inside a building
fact, something true
part.
bà…kás
negative
àpà
as
as kwar
as kwat
—
momo-
as màng mèè nìn
às pàr
ashak
ashi
at
at líís
at pòò
at sár
at ́lèng
azéén
moɨrap
ɨrap líís
ɨrap pòò
ɨrap sár
first
person
singular
masculine pronoun. Also
wán
B.
ba…kás
bà..ɗak
4
(sentence is framed
these two words)
by
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
kas,…waa…zak
baa shik
baa
baa1
baa2
baa aku
baa so
bàà3
bàà feer
bàà kun
bàà mɨndong
pl.
PoS
n.
argument
let, allow
excess, times
to go back, retreat
to go back
to go back
ten
fourteen (14)
thirteen (13)
eleven (11)
bàà paat
bàà peemee
num.
num.
bàà po feer
bàà po kun
bàà po vul
bàà vul
bààjì
baal
baan
num.
num.
num.
num.
v.
n.
n.
n.
n.
/ba:n-kàs/
/ba:ta/
n.
v.
/bahar/
bak
v.
v.
/bak/
/bak/
baakuru
n.
bang
v.
/bá:kúrù//b
áŋkúr/
baŋ
baptisma
bár
bàr
bebul
been
n.
n.
v.
n.
n.
/bàptísma/
/bár/
/bàr/
/bɛ:bùl/
/bɛ̀:n/
mo-
baan kas
baata
bahar
bák
bak1
bak2
biyan
car
Gloss
/bá:-ʃìk/
???
/bà:/
/bà:/
/bà:-akú/
/bà:-sɔ̀/
bàà
/bà:-fɛ́:r/
/bà:-kún/
/bà:m ń dɔ̀ŋ/
/bà:-pà:t/
/bà:pɛ:mɛ́:/
/bà:-pɔfɛ́:r/
/bà:-pɔkún/
/bà:-pɔvul/
/bà:-vul/
/bà:-jì/
/ba:l/
/bá:n/
−
a.
v.
v.p.
v.p.
num.
num.
num.
num.
IPA
5
a baa kú wán ɗel ɗi Let
me pass
fifteen (15)
sixteen (16)
nineteen (19)
eighteen (18)
seventeen 17
twelve (12)
to return, come back
arm, hand
flat object i.e. plate,
tray, flat rock etc
shifting cultivation
local flask for child’s <Hausa
gruel
sea, ocean
<Arabic via Hausa
to strike, beat, pound,
hit
to throw
to pound s.t. half-dry
in a mortar
groundnut cakes
<Hausa. also bangkur
to
combine
(as
grains)
baptism
<English
survival
to survive, heal
bible
<English
gourd (calabash)
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
bèèn mwòòr
bèló
bèn
n.
v.
beng hɨr
n.
beng kɨɨn
n.
/bɛ̀ŋhɨr//bɛ̀ŋkɔ́gɔ́l/
/bɛ̀ŋ-kɨ:n/
v.
n.
v.
/bɛ̀t/
/bilat/
/bír/
bish1
bish2
v.
v.
/biʃ/
/bíʃ/
bish3
bish-bish
bish méé
bimbyol
v.
adv.
n.
/biʃ-mɛ́:/
/bìmbyɔ̀l/
bínkíta
n.
bìt
biyan
bɨghɨr
bɨlak
n.
v.
v.
v.
/bínkíta//b ́
nk t́ a/
/bìt/
/biyan/
/b ǵ ɨr/
/bɨlak/
b l̀ ààp
b l̀ ààp sar
b l̀ ààp shii
bɨlaat
n.
n.
n.
n.
/b l̀ à:p-sár/
/b l̀ à:p-ʃí:/
/bɨla:t/
bɨlem
n.
bɨlip1
bɨlip2
bɨlish
n.
v.
v.
/b l̀ ɛ̀m//mb l̀
ɛ̀m/
/b l̀ ìp/
/bɨlip/
/bɨliʃ/
bɨlon
n.
/b ĺ ɔn/
bɨrep
bɨrɨm
b ́ríng
v.
n.
n.
???
/bɨrɨm/
/b ŕ íŋ/
Gloss
colour complexion of
person who is neither
dark nor fair (dark in
complexion)
chicken-pox
to assume, think,
expect, hope for
plant dug from the
ground and eaten by
children
container
usually
made of palm leaves
used for storing salt,
potash
to push down
fonio variety
to move or travel
aimlessly
to be stingy
to be bad, wrong,
misshapen, ugly
to be bitter
????
sometimes, probably
inflammation of the
throat
gun,
revolver,
shotgun, rifle
hut, house
to beat (plural)
to expose, spread
to
till
farm
effortlessly
palm of hand
palm of one’s hand
flat part of one’s foot
fonio variety grown
by Fulɓe
soot, burning without
flame
election, investigation
select, search
search to the minuest
details
gap
left
after
removing tooth
to push down (pl.)
plant, fruit
horse
bɨring-shaghal
n.
/b r̀ ìŋ ʃàgàl/
bicycle
bèt
bilat
bir
pl.
PoS
a.
bɨrep
pweer
koon
IPA
/bɛ̀:nmwɔ̀:r/
/bɛ̀n/
6
also beng-kohol
cf. kusuk
also bɨnkɨta
bindiga
<
Hausa
cf. nɨram
also mbɨlem
cf. bet (sg.)
the following are used in
decorating a horse etc
muwur, nzidyak, sakpo,
shaghal-kɨpak
lit. ‘iron horse’
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
bɨrong1
pl.
PoS
n.
IPA
/b ŕ ɔ́ŋ/
bɨrong pas
bóng
n.
n.
/b r̀ ɔ̀ŋ-pas/
/bɔ́ŋ/
bòng can
n.
/bɔ̀ŋ-tʃan/
bòng kas
n.
/bɔ̀ŋ-kas/
bòng ning
n.
/bɔ̀ŋ-níŋ/
bòng yer
n.
/bɔ̀ŋ-yer/
bòò
n.
/bɔ̀:/
bòòng
n.
/bɔ̀ŋ/
buhol
n.
buk
v.
/buhɔl//mb ́
hɔl/
/búk/
bulut
v.
/búlút/
buu2
bwaan1
a.
v.
/bù:/
/bwá:n/
bwáán2
v.
/bwá:n/
bwaghar
v.
?
bwalaa
n.
/bwala://mbw
ala:/
bwat níng
n.
/bwatníŋ/
bwen1
bwen2
v.
v.
/bwɛn/
/ bwɛn/
bweer
v.
/bwɛ:r/
7
Gloss
big gourd used for
fetching water
quiver (for arrows)
farmland
(situated
around
the
compound)
area designated for
circumcision
of
children
area specifically set a
side for drying millet
ie from farm and
before threshing)
pen
for
keeping
dwarf cows
farm
behind
the cf. màng-yer
house where women
can plant melon and
other small crops
bangle made from
bronze
bronze
such as was used to
decorate horses
tree sp.
also mbɨhol. Syzygium
guineense H. malmo
to tell lie after lie or
speak endless words
where performance is
restricted
worthless, valueless
to
separate
by
selecting
to beat thoroughly
with stick
to become, turn into
a ààs kwèè k ́ yághál
bwaghar kwèè kàt ààs ni
ɓak. It is the egg that later
turns into a chicken when it
hatches
cowpea variety
also mbwalaa. Local bean
variety used in making
sacrifices.
maize with black
seeds on a cob
to expose
to tread on something
semi-solid such as
mud and spread it
about
to
spread
open This applies particularly to
carelessly
women who spread their
legs
open,
exposing
themseleves.
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
bwoon
pl.
bwaan
PoS
v.
IPA
bwot
v.
bwot cirem
bwot kòòk
bwot làà piit
bwot lèk
bwot mààp
bwot vwam
v.p.
v.p.
v.p.
v.p.
v.p.
v.p.
byááp
n.
byaghas
v.
/bíyá:p//byá
:p/
/byagas/
byán
v.
/byán/
byán maap
v.p.
byòlbyòl
n.
Gloss
to do a lot of
something
to let go of, drop s.t.,
put s.t. on s.t.
to broadcast seed
to start off a dance
to give s.o. a cold
to start a fight
to being to cry (child)
to scramble
jép mó bwot vwàmvwam
káá rep sé ɗi mó cin mó
Children scrambled
vwamvwam for the small
amount of food they were
given to share
big pumpkin variety
to mangle, destroy,
flatten s.t.
to beat thoroughly
with bare hand
to bewail, mourn
wùrá fès byán maap k ́
mùùt k ̀ puun kaam fɨra
ni. She cried bitterly on the
death of her father-in-law
tonsilitis
cf. mbìmbyòl
Ɓɓ
ɓaan3
ɓaan waar
n.
n.p.
/ɓá:n/
/ɓá:n-wà:r/
ɓaan1
ɓaan2
ɓaas
ɓák1
v.
v.
n.
v.
/ɓa:n/
/ɓa:n/
/ɓá:s/
/ɓák/
ɓak gin
v.p.
ɓak gín
ɓàk2
v.
/ɓàk/
v.p.
/ɓàk-mà:p/
ɓak pee
v.p.
/ɓák-pɛ:/
ɓak seen
v.p.
/ɓák-sɛ̀:n/
ɓak shaar1
v.p.
/ɓákʃa:r/
ɓak shaar2
v.p.
/ɓàkʃa:r/
ɓak maap
mo-
8
favour, kindness, help
attempt to do good
ends up in disaster
to be painful
to kick ball etc
shin (leg)
to despise, underrate,
underestimate
describes s.o. with a
few tribal marks on
the cheeks
to share, divide,
separate, split, be
cracked
dispersal of mourners
attending a funeral
to look down on
others, despise others
to underrate, look
down, despise
peers underrating one
another
division,
(see baanbish
kwangvileng)
lit. ‘divide cry’
lit. ‘despise place’
lit. ‘despise wise’
lit. ‘divide friend’
lit. ‘divide friend’
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
ɓàk shàk
v.p.
ɓàkyil
n.
ɓàkyit
n.
ɓál
ɓál kwàk
ɓál nkáá
ɓàl
ɓàl ɗyik
ɓàl káá
ɓàl káá
ɓalɓal
ɓam1
ɓam2
ɓammwaan
ɓang1
v.
v.
a.
v.
v.p.
v.
n.
jwal
IPA
/ɓàk-ʃàk/
/ɓál/
/ɓál-kwàk/
/ɓál-nká:/
/ɓàl/
/ɓàl-ká:/
v.
v.
n.
a.
/ɓam/
/ɓam/
ɓang been mwoor
a.p.
ɓang2
ɓang-ɓang
ɓe
ɓee1
v.
ɓak
conj.
v.
ɓaŋ bwèèn
mwòòr
/ɓáŋ/
????
/ɓɛ/
/ɓɛ́:/, /ɓak/
ɓee gɨn
ɓak gɨn
v.p.
/ɓak-g ń /
ɓee2
ɓee3
ɓak
v.
v.
/ɓɛ́:/
/ɓé:/
n.
/ɓɛ:p/
/ɓɛ̀:r/
/ɓɛ:r/
ɓeep
/ɓáŋ/
ɓeer1
ɓeer2
ɓeer ɗyes
ɓees
mo−
mo-
n.
v.
v.p.
n.
ɓees po
mo-
n.
/ɓɛ̀:s-pɔ̀:/
ɓeet1
ɓeet2
ɓeet shik1
momomo-
n.
n.
n.p.
/ɓɛ́:t/
/ɓɛ́:t/
/ɓɛ́:t-ʃìk/
ɓeet shik2
mo-
n.
/ɓɛ́:t-ʃìk/
/ɓɛ̀:s/
9
Gloss
disagreement,
disaffection
to separate,
from
differ lit. ‘divide each other’. Pee
wet ɓàk shàk kɨ pee teer
Where the day is spent is
different from where the
night is spent. Idiomatic
meaning:
Death
is
inevitable.
land boundary
e.g. between two farms,
two communities
demarcation, dividing
line
to be strong, forceful
strengthen
lit. ‘strong elbow’
stubborn
lit. ‘strong head’
to unite, fix, join
to marry
lit. ‘join marry’
to cooperate
lit. ‘join head’
association, group
lit. ‘join head’
?????
to help, assist, aid
to catch
mobile phone
recent coinage
fair complexion (ɗiiɓang) reference to
brown horse
dark
brown
complexion
to be clean
then, and
to dissect, cut open,
split open
to cut tribal mark, (lit. “tear cheek”)
tear apart
to have a rash, rashes
new shoot by plants,
sprout
dismembered parts of
the body
war, fight
to spill, pour out
diarrhoea
ingratitude,
ungratefulness
contemptuous
statement
judge
discussion
argument, contesting
an issue
to set aside money etc
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
for the winner
only
hollow grass sp. and
flute made from it
dance (for energetic
people)
to fetch light/fire
from another source
to intervene when
two
people
are
fighting
to intervene when
two
people
are
fighting
to postpone
bench made from
mud
other side, across
overseas, abroad
adv.
n.
/ɓɛʤɛ:/
/ɓɛ́l/
ɓel2
n.
/ɓɛ́l/
ɓelwus
n.
/ɓɛ́l-wus
ɓèl
v.
/ɓɛ̀n//ɓɛ̀l/
ɓèn1
v.
/ɓɛ̀n//ɓɛ̀l/
ɓen2
ɓín1
v.
n.
/ɓɛ̀n/
/ɓín/
ɓín2
ɓin mùluu
loc.
n.p.
/ɓín/
ɓísh
ɓishaal
ɓíshil
n.
n.
n.
/ɓíʃ/
/ɓiʃa:l/
/ɓíʃil/
soot
grass sp.
hay, fodder, cut straw
ɓít1
ɓít1 màng
ɓít2
ɓít lán
n.
n.
n.
n.
/ɓít/
/ɓítmàŋ/
/ɓít/
/ɓít lán/
ɓítsí
n.
/ɓítsí/
ɓiyaal
ɓìyàng1
ɓiyang2
ɓiyang fwan
a.
n.
v.
v.p.
/ɓiya:l/
/ɓìyàŋ/
/ɓiyaŋ/
/ɓiyaŋfwan/
morning, daybreak
daybreak
year
communal farming in
which members work
on each others’ farm
in turn
the
day
after
tomorrow
wild, furious
trouble
to inject, pierce, prick
to conduct a ritual to
induce rain
ɓɨghɨt1
ɓɨghɨt2
v.
n.
/ɓɨgɨt/
/ɓ g̀ t̀ /
ɓɨjer
n.
/ɓ ʤ
̀ ɛr/
ɓejee
ɓel1
mo-
sulwang
sulwang
fwan
10
also ɓèn
also ɓèl
Used as a bed. cf. gwáán.
lit. ‘across the pumpkins’
i.e. where white people live
mixed with mud to
strengthen building blocks
lit. ‘morning carry’
cf. maar
lit. ‘prick rain’. At the
beginning of the rainy
season, when it failed to
rain, elders would fix days,
when they would all fast.
Thereafter they went to a
certain place armed with
bows, arrows and spears
where they would offer
sacrifice. On their way back
it would rain heavily the
same day
to construct
a whole, complete,
unit
Mwaghavul clan
Mwaghavul people are
grouped into six main
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
ɓɨlang1
ɓɨlang1 nlaa
pl.
PoS
IPA
clans. They are still
remembered
during
initiation ceremonies as
initiates call out the names
of places where their
ancestors formerly stayed
when the spear is thrown
preparatory to attaining
manhood. The Mwaghavul
clans are ɓɨjer, dɨfɨri, dɨko,
jipari, paal = nshuu. ☞
Appendix
v.
v.p.
/ɓɨlaŋ/
/ɓɨlaŋ-nlà:/
v.
/ɓɨlaŋ/
ɓɨlem
ɓɨlem cuk
v.
v.p.
/ɓɨlɛm/
/ɓɨlɛmtʃùk/
ɓɨlem kúkwàk
v.p.
ɓɨlɛm
kúkwàk
ɓɨlem p g̀ h z̀ n
̀ g
v.p.
ɓɨleng1
n.
/ɓɨlemp g̀ ʒ̀ ɨŋ/
ɓ l̀ ɛ̀ŋ
ɓɨleng2
n.
/ɓ l̀ ɛ̀ŋ/
ɓɨlep
v.
/ɓ l̀ ɛ̀p/
ɓɨreng
v.
/ɓɨrɛŋ/
ɓɨring
v.
/ɓɨring/
ɓɨrong2
v.
/ɓɨrɔŋ/
ɓoghon
ɓòòk
ɓúk
ɓúl
ɓúlɓúl
ɓùlùk
n.
n.
n.
v.
id.
v.
/ɓɔ́gɔ́n/
/ɓɔ̀:k/
/ɓúk/
/ɓúl/
ɓurap
n.
ɓɨlang2
Gloss
ɓɨlang
njep
11
to lose
to lose a child
through still-birth
to work or do cf. lambir
something for doing
sake
to lick
to take an oath, to lit. ‘lick the knife’. In
swear
former times this was a way
of taking oaths.
to act to exonerate lit. ‘lick the elbow’
yourself, to assure
listeners that what
you say is true
to act to exonerate lit. ‘lick the nose’
yourself
bedroom for mature
but unmarried girls
local hanger usually
in the kitchen where
items like salt, potash
and other condiments
that
require
dry
storage are stored
to quarrel, to have a
misunderstanding
to soil or mix boiled
meat with palm oil
and salt etc
to roll on the ground,
bed etc
to not be fully dry
(clothing)
disaster
mud
fine dust
to increase
lukewarm
cf. ɓwaghal
describes meat that is
partly cooked
mongoose
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
ɓurish
ɓùrùk
pl.
PoS
a.
v.
IPA
tone?
untidy
to get dirty by
crawling
on
the
ground
stomach, inside, belly
wickedness
stomach-ache
excessive hunger
ɓut
ɓut bish
ɓut láá
ɓut Mùpun
n.
n.p.
n.p.
n.
ɓut yaghal
ɓúú
ɓùùl
n.
n.
n.
/ɓú:/
ɓùùl
stomach upset
plant sp.
plant sp.
ɓwaa
n.
/ɓwa:/
grass sp.
ɓwààr
a.
/ɓwà:r/
ɓwaghal
a.
ɓwàghàl ɓwàghàl
a.
ɓwàghàt1
ɓwaghat2
n.
v.
/ɓwagalal//ɓ
w
agalak/
/ɓwàgàlɓwàgàl/
/ɓwàgàt/
/ɓwagat/
laziness, lazy person,
weakling
lukewarm (water)
also ɓwaghalak. cf. ɓulɓul
ɓwaghat pee
ɓwaghat po
v.p.
v.p.
/ɓwagat-pɛ:/
/ɓwagat-pɔ̀/
ɓwak
v.
/ɓwák/
ɓwan
ɓwan bìsh
v.
n.
/ɓwan/
/ɓwanbìʃ/
ɓwan shìk
ɓwang
Ɓwanzùghùm
n.
n.
p.n.
/ɓwan-ʃìk/
??
/ɓwanzùgù
m/
ɓwap1
v.
/ɓwap/
ɓwap2
ɓwap sar
ɓwaarshit
dughurii
ɓwèng1
ɓweng2
v.
adv.
n.
n.
v.
/ɓut/
/ɓut-biʃ/
/ɓut-lá:/
/ɓutmùpun/
Gloss
lukewarm
bundle
to
tie,
imprison,
incarcerate
to get one into trouble
connive,
conspire,
frown
pimples
or
boil
developing into sore
to dig
greediness,
selfcentredness
creating problems
stride, long step
Area in Kerang
to knock, tap on a
door
/ɓwap/
to shake
/ɓwap-sár/
to clap hands
/ɓwa:rʃ:t//du wild yam
guri:/
/bwɛ̀ŋ/
grasshopper sp.
/bwɛ̀ŋ/
to support
12
also mɓut
lit. ‘bad stomach’
lit. ‘stomach-pain’
lit. ‘Mupun stomach’
lit. ‘stomach stands up’
Grown
within
the
compound to provide shade
and protect chicks from
kites.
used as shaft of an arrow.
The stem is eaten like sugar
cane
àm nii a ɓwàghàl ɓwàghàl
The water is lukewarm
lit. “tie place”
lit. “tie mouth”
practice of preparing meals
etc for oneself only
Hunting expedition of the
Kerang
community.
Usually
the
last
of
Mwaghavul
hunting
expeditions after which
mature girls get married
prior to the next farming
season.
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
ɓwer
PoS
v.
IPA
/ɓ ɛr/
ɓwóón1
ɓwóón2
n.
n.
/ɓwɔ́:n/
/ɓwɔ́:n/
ɓwóón2 shwal
ɓwóón3
ɓwóón kɨni
ɓwot
ɓwot aak
ɓwot ɓam
n.p.
adv.
adv.
v.
v.
v.p.
/ɓwɔ́:n-ʃwál/
/ɓwɔ́:n/
/ɓwɔ́:n-k ǹ i/
/ɓwɔt/
/ɓwɔt-a:k/
/ɓwɔt-ɓam/
v.p.
v.p
/ɓwɔt-nkùm/
/ɓwɔtkúsúk/
/ɓwɔt-wusa-lú/
ɓwot nkùm
ɓwot kúsúk
pl.
fwo
fwo aak
fwo
kúsúk
v.p.
ɓwot wus a lú
ɓwot yang
fwo yang
w
v.p.
/ɓwɔt-yáŋ/
v.
/tʃá:/
Gloss
to be full, fill to the
brim
menstruation
waist, back, rear,
behind
waist pain
after
after that
to release, drop
cf. also bwot.
to impregnate
game played
by
children throwing and
catching
pebbles
simultaneously.
to pour libation
to plant fonio
by scattering seed on the
farm from a calabash
to set a house on fire
In Mwaghavul culture only
a mad person would set a
house on fire. No matter the
enmity between you and
your neighbour you do not
set his house ablaze
demarcate farm prior
to making ridges
Cc
cáá
caa
mo-
n.
/tʃa:/
cààm
mo-
n.
/tʃà:m/
cáán1
mo-
n.
/tʃá:n/
to uplift, commend,
excite s.o.
gourd-rattle
Rattle made from a dried
gourd covered with a
network on rattling seeds.
A recent introduction.
wild plant
resembling onion but toxic.
Hausa gadali
hoe (general)
cf. parkiya, caander, fet,
ngang,
13
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
cáán der
PoS
n.p.
IPA
/tʃa:n-ɗɛr/
Gloss
traditional
hoe
without the shaft,
used for full scale
farming
caan2
v.
/tʃa:n/
caan
caan pee
v.
v.
/tʃa:n-pɛ:/
n.
n.
n.
/tʃá:p/
/tʃa:p-yit/
/tʃá:r/
càf1
a.
/tʃàf/
càf2
cághár
c.i.
n.
/tʃàf/
/tʃágár/
cághát
cak gar
adv.
n.
/tʃágát/
/tʃak-gar/
v.
v.p.
n.
v.p.
v.p.
/tʃan/
/tʃan-tʃi:n/
/tʃan-ɗár/
/tʃan-ɗíyɛ́:l/
/tʃanʤagám/
/tʃan-pɔ:/
/tʃan-ʃí:/
/tʃan-ʃí:ɗí:rɛ́t/
/tʃan-ʃí:ɗí:biʃ/
/tʃanyɔgɔp/
to start an activity
early
to burn
to set place on fire, to tájì yi pwos mwòòr cáán
burn s.t., to burnish, pee kas, ji yi milep
to make shine
h l̀ àkh l̀ àk Do not use
bleaching cream otherwise
you will shine artificially
?????
wing
eyelid, eyelash
lit. ‘wing of eye’
grass sp.
A tall, strong grass planted
along the edges of streams
to prevent flooding.
describes repugnant
odour
very red
intensifies nààt
variety
of
green
beans
quietly
house partly roofed
but incomplete
to cut
enthusiasm, hope
island
cf. sandur
judgement
to
be
pompous,
proud, boastful
to be pompous
lit. ‘cut mouth’
to stumble, backslide
to stumble with the indication of luck
right foot
to stumble with the indication of luck
left foot
to prevent s.o. else’s
enjoyment
caan-caan
cááp
caap yit
cáár
can1
can ciin
can ɗár
can ɗiyeel
can jaghám
pl.
mo-
momomo-
saa
can poo
can shii
can shii ɗiiret
v.p.
v.p.
v.p.
can shii ɗiibish
v.p.
can yòghòp
v.p.
14
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
Can
PoS
p.n.
IPA
/ ji://tʃan/
càn2
v.n.
/tʃàn/
cáp
car
céé
n.
v.
n.
/tʃáp//ntʃáp/
/tʃar/
v.
n.
/tʃɛ:n/
/tʃɛ̀:l/
cèèl yit
v.p.
???
ceer
p.n.
/tʃɛ́:r/
ceen
ceel
pl.
mo
n
15
Gloss
spirit associated with To appease the deity an
the initiation of boys erring boy might previously
into manhood
have been sacrificed (njii
selaa).
circumcision
The initiation of a youth
commences with càn. The
ceremony used to be
observed every third year
according to age grades,
within the four-year ceer
dup ritual cycle. Verbal
noun from can ‘to cut’
male lizard
also ncáp
to throw (pl.)
cf. vwet
food put aside for also ngaas gwom. Porridge
contingencies such as is placed on hot coals and is
feeding a child, food much appreciated.
left over for the
following day
to drive away, pursue
malformed egg, egg
that will not hatch
to look at s.o. out of
the corner of your eye
third
festival Those between the ages of
organized by girls 12-13, 14-15, 16-17 and 18
according to age- -19 years agree on a
grades. cf. waar prominent person in the
community to visit. They
shaar, ceer dup
organize themselves into a
big group to go there. An
elder comes out and asks
who the dancers are and
their purpose. The leader of
the girls identifies the group
and the reason for the visit.
They fix an appointment to
perform at the house of a
prominent person. This
practice is called le-bit. The
girls dress up, supported by
friends, well-wishers and
boyfriends.
It
is
an
opportunity for boys or
young men to make
proposals to girls. Those
from the age group 17-19
yrs may be having their last
festival
before
getting
married. It therefore serves
as a sendforth party for
them by the younger ones
who are also looking
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Ceer dup
p.n.
/tʃɛ:r-dúp/
cét1
cét1 lú
cét2
cèt1
cèt1 bish
v.
v.
n.
v.
v.
/tʃɛ́t/
/tʃɛ́t-lú/
cèt1 teer
v.
/tʃɛ̀t-tɛ̀:r/
cèt2
cèt3
cèt3 wan
n.
v.
v.
/tʃɛ̀t/
/tʃɛ̀t/
/tʃɛ̀t-wan/
cèré
n.
/tʃɛ̀rɛ́/
cíɓél
ciɓen
cicet
cicin
n.
n.
v.
adv.
cícírák
cícírép
n.
n.
cíí
v.
/tʃíɓɛ́l/
/tʃiɓɛn/
/tʃìtʃɛ̀t/
/tʃítʃín//tʃítʃ
ínsì/
/tʃítʃírák/
/tʃítʃírɛ́p//tʃítʃí
rɛ́k/
/tʃí:/
cicet
/tʃɛ̀t/
/tʃɛ̀t-bìʃ/
16
Gloss
forward to graduation into
womanhood. Some of the
senior girls fail to get
married as expected and the
younger girls irritate them
by singing this song jirapjirap ni mo yaghal dyik
kyes, de me niwur mwo
fee pe di ‘real girls have all
married, it is only the big
breasted ones that kicking
their heels’.
The same festival The difference is that this
with the normal Ceer one falls within the year
boys
are
circumcised/
initiated into manhood.
During the occasion all
parents whose children
have been initiated give out
salt, mworpaat, meat and
drinks to well-wishers in
appreciation.
to roof a house
to roof a house
roof
to cook
to cook for yourself
Since Mwaghavul live
communally this is viewed
badly
to cook certain types This refers to foods such as
of food overnight
kwakil
and
mɨlom,
cocoyam. If cocoyam is not
properly cooked, it will
irritate the throat while
eating.
trouble
to drizzle rain
to mix mud, clay and
water preparatory to
moulding blocks
meat
roasted on cf. kam lwaa
sticks, suya
locust (grasshopper)
nail
both fingers and toes
to cook pl.
cf. cèt
today
also cicinsi
crayfish
wart
to stop, refuse, debar,
prevent,
prohibit,
also cícírék
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
cíí pòò
cíí shìk
v.p.
v.p.
/tʃí:-pɔ̀/
/tʃí:-ʃìk/
cíí wúráng
a.
/tʃí:-wúráŋ/
cìì1
cìì2
n.
voc.
/tʃì:/
ciin1
v.
/tʃi:n/
ciin2
ciin2 màn1
ciin2 nɨghɨn
v.
v.p.
a.
/tʃi:n/
/tʃi:n-màn/
/tʃi:n-nɨgɨn/
ciin2 pan
ciin2 saam
cììn
v.
n.
n.
/tʃi:n-pàn/
/tʃi:n-sà:m/
/tʃì:n/
cíjài
cíjeng
n.
n.
/tʃí-ʤài/
/tʃí-ʤeŋ/
cijèng
cíkàrai
n.
n.
cilem
n.
cijèŋ
/tʃíkàrai//n ̀
ɓáŋ/
/tʃilɛm/
cilem
cileng
n.
n.
/tʃilɛm/
/tʃílɛ́ŋ/
cim
n.
/tʃim/
17
Gloss
deny, say no
to deny, be in denial
to
be
naughty,
delinquent, stubborn
dwarf
person,
diminutive
thigh
address to a child the
same age as your
grandchild.
to whisper, spread
rumours,
gossip,
indulge in side talk
to lack, want
ignorance
motherless
lit. ‘to refuse issue’
lit. ‘to refuse to grow’
Considered a prelude to
developing
a
friendly
relationship.
Used
to
describe
neglected child.
a
lack of understanding
insomnia
big pot used for
brewing
beer
or
storing water
vein
sherd,
piece
of These sherds were used in a
broken pot
technique to revive cold or
unappetising food and
drink. Elders used to put a
piece in the fire until it was
red hot. It would then be
dropped inside a dish
containing leftover draw
soup or a pot of local beer.
The piece would warm up
the draw soup without the
soup losing its flavour,
while the beer would regain
its attractions.
heel of the foot
fonio cultivar
also n ɓ
̀ áng. introduced by
the Fyem people. cf. kusuk
totem
cf. woocilem. Individual
clans may have totemic
species which they do not
kill. However, individuals
may
have
animal
counterparts in the bush and
the health or sickness of the
animal mirrors that of the
human being.
fever
leftover food or drink Mashed sweet potato left
over to dry
monitor lizard
Hausa damo. Mwaghavul
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
consider it as one of the
most foolish animals, as it
closes its eyes when it
encounters
a
person
believing that it is invisible.
címeer
n.
tʃímɛɛr
cín1
v.
/tʃín/
cín ɗiiɗes
cín hóp
cín…x
v.p.
v.p.
v.
/tʃín-ɗi:ɗɛs/
/tʃín-hɔ́p/
v.p.
/tʃín-sak/
cín zeen
cìn2
cìn aas ́
cìn ɗiiret
cìn k ́sı ̀
cip
cipes
cirang
v.p.
v.
v.p.
v.p.
v.p.
n.
conj.
int.
/tʃín-zɛ:n/
/tʃìn/
/tʃìn-a:s /́
/tʃìn-ɗi:rɛt/
/tʃìn-k ś /̀
/tʃip/
/tʃipɛs/
/tʃìraŋ/
círé
n.
cirem
Civir
cɨghɨr1
n.
p.n.
adv.
/tʃirɛm/
/tʃivir/
cɨghɨr2
v.
/tʃɨgɨr/
v.p.
/tʃɨgɨr-k -́
kɨɓwɔ́:n/
/tʃɨgɨrnɨgɨn/
/tʃɔ́gɔ́l/
/tʃɔ́gɔ́l/
cín sak
cɨghɨr2
kɨɓwóon
cɨghɨr nɨghɨn
coghol1
coghol2
coi
cokalí
còm
com goghot
cin suk
ḱ
n.
n.
v.
n.
v.
n.
?
/tʃɔkalí/
/tʃɔm/
18
black insect usually
found floating in
stagnant water
to give, add (in
bargaining)
to respect
to loan out money etc
to offer
Used
with
reflexive
pronoun, e.g. cín san to
volunteer
to offer yourself,
volunteer
to trust, believe in
to do
to do likewise
to do good
to do like this
trap
without, unless
how was it that?
Cirang ɗáng rí sò ye?
Why did he go?
small, dry bundle of An armful of firewood or
firewood
for twigs was made into a
immediate use
bundle by women when
fetching firewood. The
small bundle was usually
dry, ready for immediate
use, while bigger bundles
were dried for later.
seed, seedling
cf. kyèèt.
Kwanka people
soon, quickly
mó cɨghɨr sak máár ni
kyes kwààk they quickly
finished in the farm kwààk
to turn back, change,
turn, exchange, be
behind
to turn one’s back to
others
fonio cultivar
cf. kusuk.
hidden information
to unearth a matter
already laid to rest
stubborn person
spoon
< Hausa
grass-cutter
rock hyrax
Procavia capensis.
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
cùghùr1
cùghùr2
cùk
cùk ɓwoon
cùk kaa
cùk kúr
pl.
PoS
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
IPA
/tʃùgùr/
/tʃùgùr/
/tʃùk/
/tʃùk-ɓwɔ́:n/
/tʃùk-ká:/
/tʃùk-kúr/
cùk kúsúk
n.
cùk shit
n.
/tʃùk-ʃit/
v.
v.p.
/tʃùt/
/tʃùt-lúŋ/
v.p.
/tʃùt-túgúr/
v.
/tʃùt/
cwang1
n.
/tʃwáŋ/
cwang2
cwat
cwel
n.
v.
v.
/tʃwaŋ/
/tʃwat/
/tʃwɛ́l/
cwèt
adv.
/tʃwɛ̀t/
cwèt
adv.
cùt1
cùt lúng
cùt túghúr
cùt2
cwat
cwat
lung
cwat
túghúr
nung
Gloss
goose
molars and premolars
knife
knife (all purpose)
Usually tied to the waist.
razor, shaving knife
grass with sharp
edges
knife for harvesting
fonio
knife used for cutting
grass
to hit
to swim
lit. ‘to beat swimming’
to boast, to beat one’s
chest
to strike a sounding
iron
spear made from first spear to be used in
bamboo
warfare
or
hunting
expedition cf. kop
grass sp.
used in kum
to hit (pl.)
plural of cut
to miss a target
narrowly
very early, promptly,
before daybreak
fast, quickly, rapidly
a sor cwet ku a foghot mo
ɗi Go quickly to see how
they are doing following
the accident
Dd
dá
dàá
dàá k ́ dààm
mo-
pref.
/dá/
n.
n.p.
/dàá/
/da:-k -́
dà:m/
respect prefix applied i.e. Fi’an to Dá Fi’an.
to the name of a male
elder
father, lord
pelican
lit. ‘father’s bag’.
God
dàá Naan
dàà
pref.
dàà fwan
n.
The male respect prefix was
added by missionaries to
contrast with nàá Naan, the
original female God of the
Mwaghavul.
respect prefix applied
to the name of a
younger man
hare
Lepus crawshayi. The
respect prefix is applied to
the root, as the hare is a
character in folktales.
19
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
dàà kaa long
pl.
PoS
n.p.
dàà mwesh
n.p.
dàà ryéé Naan
n.p.
dààm1
dààm1 Mwanle
mo-
n.
n.
IPA
/dà:-ka:lɔŋ/
/dà: mwɛ́ʃ/
common name for all
baby boys, before
they are later given
appropriate names
/dà: riyɛ́: person who finds
na:n/
fault or is critical of
proceedings,
confusionist
/dà:m/
bag, container, purse
/dà:msmall purse worn by
mwanlɛ/
women
to
store
money
dààm1 shaghal
n.
daam2
v.
/dàm:ʃàgàl/
/dà:m/
daam2 pee
daar
daas
daasdaas
dàɗáár
daghar1
daghar2
dak
v.p.
adv.
n.
/dà:m-pɛ:/
/dà:r/
/dá:s/
adv.
v.
n.
n.
/dàɗá:r/
/daɣar/
/dàɣàr/
/dàk/
dákwàl
n.
/dákwàl/
dál
dàl
dàm
dan1
dan2
dang1
dang ning
v.
v.
n.
v.
n.
n.
n.
/dál/
dàl
dang pyáá
dang2
dang tughup
n.
n.
n.
mo-
Gloss
villain, hero
bag of money
/dan/
/dàn/
/daŋ/
/dàŋ-níŋ/
/daŋ/
/tiŋ dàŋ
20
lit. ‘man who
sceptically at God’.
stares
They usually wear it on top
of their underwear but
covered by their main
wrappers. it is believed that
women trust the bag than
they trust thems more elves.
The only time they remove
it is when having their bath.
(lalita-hausa) (Mwanle is a
tailor who sewed the purses
and also hawked them on
market days hence the
name ”Mwanle’s bag”
Also applied to £100 in old
currency
to debar, prevent,
turn back
to disturb s.o.
tomorrow
also daɗaar, dɨɗaar
brave man
tomorrow
to limp
walking stick
cf. kam daghar
oval calabash used
for drinking beer and
eating
costume worn by
velang dancers over
singlets
to add more
to suppress
poverty, lack or want
to bend down, stoop
plain between hills
tail
cow-tail
Used for driving away flies
and
dancing
during
ceremonies.
zorilla
lit. ‘white tail’
descendant
tree sp.
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
mo-
das
dawufil
n.
IPA
túgúp/
/tiŋ dàŋ
tup/
/dás/
v.
/dàs/
n.
/dawúfil/
n.
dang tup
dás
PoS
mo-
n.p.
dèè lele gòòk
deel1
deel1
momo-
n.
n.
/dɛ:l/
deel2
deetúú
mo-
n.
n.
/dɛ:l/
/dɛ:-tú:/
deghet
n.
/dɛ̀gɛ̀t/
den
dengdeng
v.
n.
/dɛn/
/dɛ̀ŋ-dɛ́ŋ/
dèp
der
der pee
Der kyes
n.
n.
loc.
p.n.
/dɛ̀p/
/dɛr/
/dɛr-pɛ:/
des
des
des kagham
v.
v.
n.
diip
dik
v.
v.
/dɛ̀s/
/dɛ̀s/
/dɛ̀skágám/
/dí:p/
/dík/
dikshinari
diyil
d 1̀
n.
n.
pref.
d 1̀ shoop
d 2̀
a.
pref.
dìshoop
n.
/d ̀ gyɔ́k/
d ̀ gyók
nyem
/dík-ʃinarì/
/d /̀
21
Gloss
tree sp.
people (male)
Usually occurs in the
indefinite pronoun mee dás
mó some men
to
pack
closely
together
grass with leaves
similar to maize
husk remaing after
maize kernels have
popped
tree top
escape hole for bush
rats
cock, rooster
trumpet
used
to
herald the arrival of
the chief, emir etc
muscle at the back of
the shin
to deny s.t. to s.o.
struck or plucked
musical instrument
black plum, tree sp.
clan, lineage
under
name given to a child
whose blood relations
have all died
to groan
to try hard
traditional leader
to beat without mercy
to instigate, trick,
lure, deceive
dictionary
rat sp.
prefix placed before a
body
part
to
emphasise a peculiar
oversized shape
hairy, hirsute
form of dàà, respect
prefix for males
person who moves
cf. ndengndeng
Vitex doniana Hausa ɗinya
cf. saghan
cf. gwan.
plural of mish kagham
< English
e.g. d -̀ káá (one with big
head), d -̀ ɓut (one with big
stomach), d -̀ kom (one with
large ears)
cf. n .̀
cf. n ̀ gyók
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
gyok
d ̀rɓ
̀ èt mbìì
nyem
rɨɓet
mbii
PoS
IPA
n.
/d -̀ r ɓ̀ ɛ̀tm
bì:/
dɨɓen
dɨɓen
n.
n.
/d ɓ́ ɛ́n/
/d ɓ̀ ɛ̀n/
dɗ
̀ áár
dɨfɨlip
Dɨfɨri
d g̀ ́n
d g̀ rii
dɨjet
adv.
n.
p.n.
a.
n.
a.
/d ɗ̀ á:r/
/d f̀ l̀ ìp
/d f̀ ɨrɨ/
dk
̀ aam
n.
/d k̀ a:m/
Dɨkɨɓɨn
p.n.
/d k̀ ɨɓɨn/
dk
̀ n
̀ òng
dɨkom
Dɨkoo
dɨkyet
dɨpyaa
dɨpyéél
dɨram
dɨram yoghom
n.
a.
p.n.
adv.
n.
n.
n.
n.
dɨre
dɨreng
dɨshol
adv.
n.
n.
/d k̀ ǹ ɔ̀ŋ/
dìkom
/d k̀ ɔ:/
/d k̀ yɛ́t/
/d p̀ yá:/
/dɨpiyɛ́:l/
/d r̀ àm/
/d r̀ àmyɔ́gɔ́m/
/dɨrɛ//ndɨrɛ/
/dɨrɛŋ/
/d ʃ̀ ɔl/
doghon
doghon tàghàm
adv.
adv.
dòghòròk
dong
duɓu
dubuk
duɗuk
duɗuk-kɨɨr
n.
num.
num.
n.
n.
n.
dùghùl
n.
dùghùl sár
dùghùl tù kàs
n.p.
n.
dughum
n.
/d g̀ ri:/
dìjet
/dɔgɔn/
/dɔgɔntàgàm/
/dɔ̀gɔ̀rɔ̀k/
/dɔ́ŋ/
/duɓú/
/dubuk/
/duɗuk/
/duɗukkɨɨr/
/dùgùl/
Gloss
about from place to
place, promiscuous
person
person who likes free
things
small portion, little
gum, glue, sticky
substance
tomorrow
young cockroach
Mwaghavul clan
describes fat cheeks
degree
describes
a
protruding back of
the head
respect term for an
elderly man
cf. daar
cf. ndɨfɨlip
cf. Ɓijer
< English
Also a reciprocal kin term
used between an elder male
and his daughter-in-law.
area in Ampang
district of Mangu
L.G.A
stink-ant
cf. ndɨtɨnong
describes wide ears
Mwaghavul clan
cf. Ɓijet
frantically, intensely
white horse
cockroach
cf. ndɨpiyeel
bark, scales
bark of tree
right, correct
cf. ndɨre
back of the knee
fruit of the wild date Phoenix reclinata
palm, pyem
yesterday
also tɨdòghòn.
last year
also gyet doghon tàghàm.
grass sp.
one
one thousand (1,000)
brain
silk cotton
silk cotton tree
walking stick also
used as a weapon
fist
/dùgùl tù T-shaped stick used
kàs/
for threshing millet
/dugum/
antelope with big
horn used for music
22
cf. ndɨɓen
used in feeding horses
cf. mɨndong
< Hausa
cf. ndubuk
Ceiba pentandra
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
dughun
pl.
dwaghan
PoS
v.
IPA
/dùgùn/
dughur
dwaghar
v.
/dùgùr/
dughur zai
v.p.
dùgùr zày
dúghúríí
n.
/dúgúrí:/
dúghúríí k ̀ r̀
n.
/dúgúri:k :̀ r/
cassava
duk caan
dukul
n.
n.
/dùk-cá:n/
/dukul/
dùkùlùm
a.
dùkúlùm
n.
/dùkúlùm/
v.
/dul, dires/
dul kom
v.p.
/dulkɔm/
dul pòò
v.p.
iron shaft of local hoe
place where the head
of the family hides
his grains, foodstuffs
ignorant,
not
knowing s.t.
heavy iron hammer
used by blacksmith
to pull, to manipulate
limb to rectify a
dislocation
to
warn,
advise,
admonish
to grimace, to frown,
pull a face
dùlùm
dùlúm
dùlúm tù
v.
v.
v.p.
/dùlùm/
/dùlúm/
/dùlúm-tù/
dùlúng kat
n.
/dùlúŋkat//
d l̀ úŋ/
dum1
dum2
n.
v.
/dùm/
/dùm/
dúmoghol
n.
/dúmɔgɔl/
dumu
dúmùk
dumuur
dun
dung1
dung2
n.
n.
n.
v.
n.
n.
/dùmú/
dul
dires
/dúmù:r/
/dùn/
/dúŋ/
/dúŋ/
23
Gloss
to annihilate, destroy
completely
to
block,
debar,
prevent
Ceremony to appease
the parents following
marriage by capture.
yam, tuber
This is done to right what is
a ‘wrong’ and formalise the
marriage after the fact.
Dioscorea rotundata and
other Dioscorea spp.
Manihot esculenta. lit.
‘yam of the silk-cotton
tree’. The leaves of cassava
resemble those of the silkcotton tree.
also ndukul
lit. ‘to pull ear’.
lit. ‘to pull mouth’. Yii dul
pòò a we ye? Who are you
being rude to?
to be blunt (knife etc)
to suffocate
death
due
to
suffocation,
asphyxiation
game
played
by cf. d l̀ úng
children
while
swimming
smoky place
to cook cocoyam or
sweet potato in a
sealed pot without
water
small
green
grasshopper
hyena
ndumu
brain
bone marrow
cf. ndumuur
to stammer
river/stream
riverside soil suitable
for growing millet
etc.
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
Dùng pámà
dùng
dúp
dup ngang
pl.
mo-
PoS
p.n.
IPA
/dùŋ-pamà/
v.a.
n.
n.
/dùŋ/
dùp wóóp
n.
durum
n.
dùshuu
n.
/dùp-ngàŋ/
/dùpwɔ́:p//n
dùpwɔ́:p/
/durum/
Gloss
plague
(influenza)
that killed hundreds
of people in 1918
about to…
penis, male genitals
central part of the
shoot of fan palm
winged termite
top of granary
cf. ndùng
It is eaten either roasted or
cooked
also fwash, ndupwoop
A
dome-shaped
construction to protect the
contents from fire. The
head of the household often
hid valuable things here.
cf. ndùshuu
v.
v.
n.
/dùʃu:/ndùʃ
u:/
/dùt/
/dwɔgar/
/dwaŋ/
dwang2
dwat
n.
v.
/ɗwat/
dyaghap
n.
/dyagap/
ɗaa
ɗaa ɗu kùm
n.
n.p.
/ɗa:/
dish, calabash
calabash
formerly
kept
in
every
compound filled with
charms and used to
protect members of
the family
ɗaa ɗu kwághál
n.
ɗaa ɗu lóót
ɗaan1
ɗaan2
n.
v.
v.
/ɗa:-ɗukwágál/
/ɗa:-ɗu-lɔ́:t/
ɗaar
v.
/ɗa:r/
ɗagham
n.
/ɗágám/
calabash with nodules
on the back
U-shaped calabash
to light fire etc
to nurse, nurture a
child to adulthood
to panic, tremble,
shiver
throat
cf. féél
dut
dwaghar
dwang1
dwat
caterpillar
to be short
to block (pl.)
self-centred person,
stubborn
smallpox
be diminutive, dwarf
(pl.)
excessive application
of ointment, pomade,
lotion
(singi)
cf. dughur sg.
cf. mùbin, ngòrzól.
cf. dut sg.
Ɗ.
/ɗa:n/
24
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
ɗaghar1
Ɗai
ɗák1
ɗak1 sak
pl.
ɗak suk
PoS
n.
p.n.
IPA
/ɗágár/
/ɗái/
Gloss
hail, ice blocks, snow
hunting
expedition
of Fwangko Ɓɨjer
clan
in
Panyam
district
v.
v.
/ɗák/
/ɗáksak//ɗáksuk/
to prepare
to prepare oneself
ɗak
? to get up
ɗak
? to lift
ɗak
ɗák2
v.
ɗak àà pòò
ɗák3
ɗak
n.
n.
adv.
/ɗak-à:pɔ̀:/
/ɗák/
a.
n.
n.
conj.
/ɗak/
/ɗál/
/ɗáŋ/
/ɗáŋ/
ɗáng2 ɓe
conj.
/ɗáŋ-ɓe/
ɗáng2 mu kaat
excl.
ɗàk
ɗal
ɗang1
ɗáng2
ɗilang
25
Includes areas like daika,
hiktup. The expeditions
were organised to check the
growth of wild animals in
the area, but it was also an
opportunity for men to
demonstrate
their
horsemanship, bravery etc
which were prerequisites
for having/choosing a wife
originally
called
deer
ngang which the Hausa
man later changed to Daika.
kaa ɗi mó ɗoo àm nkaa làà
ni ɓe wurí sham yagha ɗak
kùràsh when they poured
water on the boy he got up
suddenly
mpè ɗés kɨ léé ni ɗéé mó
g s̀ hìshash kɨ ni ɗak Due to
the size of the load, they
had to struggle gishishash
to lift it
a zonzón a sò ku mó tù ghà
ɗi ɗak You are following
them zonzon and they are
going to kill you
to
repair,
make
changes, fix
miracle
work, job, occupation
as expected
Doghon an sat nne taji a
sò kas.
A sò ɗak.
Yesterday I asked you not
to go. Now, you can go.
only, just
to swallow
beggar
and, then, before
Nyèm ɗák ni o cìn a
hàthàt ɗáng mó kyes ɗak
ni. The workers had to
really struggle in order to
finish the work
and then
Mu k ̀ sat nri ɗangɓe ri
kɨkwar kɨling ni. We have
told him and then he
refuses to hear it
Goodbye!
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
ɗang1
ɗang2
ɗangɗang
v.
n.
n.
/ɗaŋ/
/ɗaŋ/
/ɗaŋ-ɗáŋ/
ɗankwalí
n.
/ɗaŋ-kwalí/
v.
num.
n.
n.
conj.
/ɗár//ɗiraŋ/
/ɗarí/
/ɗarí/
ɗár1
ɗarí1
ɗarí2
ɗéé1
ɗéé2
ɗirang
ɗéé3
v.
ɗee
ɗeet1
ɗeet2
ɗèèt-ɗèèt
ɗel
v.
v.
v.
ɗel nɗem (kɨ
mengo)
v.
???
/ɗɛ̀:t/
/ɗɛ:t/
????
/ɗɛl/
Gloss
Goodnight!
to beg
monitor lizard
begging
Hausa guza
Begging in Mwaghavul
land is taboo, it is such a
humiliating thing that the
entire lineage or clan would
be looked down upon. It
shows that the family is
poor and that any girl
marrying into such a family
would not be properly
catered for. To discourage
the practice right from
childhood when an item is
being shared out to
children, the child that tries
to jump the queue or
stretches out his hand when
it is not his turn would be
denied or smacked. Each
child should wait for his
turn it is believed that when
the child gets used to such
undue advantages he would
eventually
become
a
beggar.
scarf usually tied as < Hausa
head gear or on the
neck
to stand, stop
hundred (100)
< Hausa
halfpenny (½d)
< Hausa. no longer in use
remains, remainder
then
ɗéé wurí kɨ mwaan aase
gùsmètgùsmèt He now
walks sluggishly
gùsmètgùsmèt [as a result
of over-eating]
to postpone, delay,
retard, stay away for
a long time
to become
to be bitter
to drain water
to enter, pass, rush randong mó ɗel pwat nkuut
long gùtùtùt The cows came
by, exit
out of the pen gùtùtùt
to commit adultery
lit. ‘enter inside-grass’.
Tenle kɨ ɗel nɗem kɨ mat
k ̀ shaar fɨri mo Tenle
commits adultery with his
v.p.
26
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
ɗel
v.
????
toss
ɗel ɗikɨ
v.p.
/ɗɛl-ɗik /́
ɗel nkun
ɗem
n.
v.
/ɗɛl-nkún/
/ɗɛm/
ɗèm
n.
/ɗɛm/
ɗemɗem
v.
/ɗɛmɗɛm/
ɗen
ɗen
ɗéng
ɗéng
ɗéng dúrúm
v.
v.
n.
loc.
n.p.
/ɗɛn/
???
/ɗɛ́ŋ/
ɗéng náán
ɗenget
ɗep
ɗep shii
n.
a.
v.
v.p.
????
/ɗɛp/
wrongdoing, mistake,
sin,
fault,
transgression
one is in trouble
to be greedy, to have
a compulsive desire
for meat etc
weeds, grasses not
useful to people
to have a compulsive
desire for meat and
other things
to place, keep
to become
up, heaven
on top of
place in the roof
where s.o. can hide
in times of insecurity
heaven, the skies
only, one, unique
to bend backwards
to die
v.
/ɗɛ́s/, nan
ɗep-ɗep
ɗes
ɗes-ɗes
ɗi
gɨrong
nan
v.a.
v.
/ɗi
ɗi
ɗi nshee
ɗiɓen
ɗiɓen
ɗii
adv.
a.
n.
n.
pron.
/ɗí/
/ɗí-nʃɛ̀:/
/ɗíɓɛ́n/
/ɗìɓɛ̀n/
/ɗi:/
27
cf. ɗemɗem
cf. ɗem. Làà sɨ ɗemɗem
zam This child desires meat
excessively
cf. ɗee.
lit. ‘up in the roof’
lit. ‘bend leg’. Ryeemshak
k ̀ ɗep shii Ryeemshak has
died.
?????
to be big in size
marks past action
ɗi
friend’s wives.
doghon wán náá me yèr
sham ɗel
jéghérékjéghérék I saw a
bird with long neck moving
around, tossing itself here
and there jéghérékjéghérék
ɗi dyem fina wurí gyar man
taan velang ni yángyáng My
son knows how to play
velang extremely well; a
zonzón a sò ku mó tù ghà ɗi
ɗak You are following them
zonzon and they are going
to kill you
to be there, live, stay,
remain
a while ago
the first
grain
heat, steam, vapour
which
relative pronoun. màt ɗii sɨ
wuraa cìn mbìì wàshwàsh
this woman does her tasks
energetically
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
ɗíí ɗang…ye
pl.
PoS
int.
IPA
/ɗí:-ɗaŋ-yɛ/
Gloss
which one?
n.p.
/ɗí:-ɗɛs/
n.
n.
/ɗí:-ɗɛ́s/
/ɗí:-hái/
a.
n.
/ɗí:lɛ:/
/ɗí:-rɛt/
v.
/ɗì:n-ʃìk/
n.
a.
n.
v.
n.
v.
n.
v.
v.
n.
/ɗí:-ɓáŋ/
/ɗí:-tʃì/
/ɗí:l/
/ɗì:n/
/ɗì:n/
/ɗi:n/
/ɗi:p/
/ɗì:s/
dem.
dem.
dem.
/ɗí:sí/
/ɗí:sí/
/ɗí:sì/
a.
a.
v.
v.
v.
adv.
n.
/ɗi:sɨsɔ̀k/
/ɗík/
/ɗík/
/ɗik/
/ɗik/
/ɗik /́
ɗikɨɗikɨ
adv.
/ɗik -́ ɗik /́
ɗilang
ɗileng
p.n.
/ɗilɛŋ/
ɗilèng2
n.
ɗilèŋ
respect,
honour,
exaltation, the biggest
big one
almighty, holiness,
majesty, glory
the smaller one
goodness, blessing
?
to consistently refuse
to heed advice
????
wrongdoing, evil, sin
useless, worthless
holy, holiness
different
testicles, testes
to insist
fruit-bat
to tie a knot
to harvest
to suck up, dry up,
evaporate
like that
that
this
as ɗíísì ni yem nɗin biise
kuni ɗéé sɨ gòkshiròk This
dog has not been fed for
some time, and it is looking
emaciated, gokshirok
hidden
different
to sieve
to marry
to build, construct
again
jerry-built building
that has collapsed
repeatedly, again and
again
swallow?
These expeditions were
hunting
expedition/festival of organised to check the
Bwai community in growth of wild animals in
the area. Today dances etc
Mangu LGA.
are organised mainly to
socialise. It was
an
opportunity to demonstrate
good horsemanship etc
Special house where Girls often stay there after
valuable items are the age of puberty when
kept.
they have been betrothed
ɗii ɗes
ɗii ɗes
ɗii hai
ɗii nan
ɗii lee
ɗii ret
ɗii nung
ɗii nshik
ɗiital
ɗííbish
ɗííbùù
ɗiiɓang
ɗiici
ɗiil
ɗìin1
ɗiin2
ɗiin3
ɗiip
ɗììs
ɗwan
ɗiisi1
ɗíísí2
ɗíísì
ɗiisɨsòk
ɗik1
ɗik2
ɗik3
ɗik4
ɗik ́
ɗikɨɓin
ɗíícì
28
a ɗíí ɗang ye? Which one
is it?
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
and tattooing
done.
ɗimo
ɗín
v.
ɗin kaan
ɗin njak
ɗíni
v.p.
v.p.
pron.
ɗín kààn
ɗín njàk
ɗirang
ɗirem
v.
n.
/ɗiraŋ/
/ɗírɛm/
ɗirep
ɗɨghɨm
ɗɨghɨn
ɗɨghɨr1
ɗɨghɨr2
n.
adv.
loc.
n.
v.
/ɗírɛ́p/
/ɗ ǵ m
́ /
/ɗ g̀ ǹ /
/ɗ g̀ r̀ /
/ɗ g̀ r̀ /
ɗɨghɨr3
ɗɨghɨr kap
ɗogho
ɗoghom1
ɗoghom2
ɗoghor
n.
v.
n.
v.
v.
v.
/ɗɨgɨr/
/ɗɨgɨr-kap/
/ɗɔ́gɔ́/
/ɗɔgɔm/
/ɗɔgɔm/
/ɗɔ̀gɔ̀r/
ɗok
ɗok’ku
ɗòm
adv.
v.p.
v.
/ɗɔk/
/ɗɔ̀m/
ɗong1
a.
/ɗɔ́ŋ/
ɗong2
a.
/ɗɔ́ŋ/
ɗong-ɗong
ɗong yetyet
a.
ɗoo1
ɗoo2
v.
a.
/ɗɔ́ŋ-yɛ́tyɛ́t/
/ɗɔ:/
/ɗɔ:/
ɗoo-ɗoo
ɗoo3
ɗoo3 mat
ɗu1
n.
n.p.
n.
/ɗɔ́:/
/ɗɔɔ màt
/ɗu/
ɗu2
ɗu2
v.
n.
/ɗu/
/ɗu/
29
has
been
???? that
to be without, be
lacking
to be evil
to be arrogant
which, that
Relative
pronoun.
nningkoro ni a zàrgong
ɗíni kɨ wal mɓut àm
ghòghò frog sp. that cries
inside the water ghòghò
to stand (plural)
cf. dar
visit by a suitor to his
proposed
during
courtship late in the
night
charcoal
nervousness
inside
dry land, dry place
to balance s.t. on the
head
scorpion
nausea
sound, voice
cf. ɗoo3
to stoop, bend down
to begin, start
to
frown,
look
gloomy
quietly
to keep quiet
< ɗok aku
to like, love, want,
desire
clean, clear liquid
(water)
describes well kept
body
of purity of water
to pour
describes s.p. pale as
a
result
of
dehydration
???
sound, voice
high-pitched voice
prefix for type of
calabash
to smell
odour, smell, stink,
pong
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
ɗu-ɗu
ɗu
ɗudak
pl.
PoS
IPA
v.
n.
???
/ɗudák/
v.
/ɗugun/
ɗughur1
ɗughur2
ɗughut-mwoor
a.
n.
v.
ɗuk
ɗukwat
v.
n.
/ɗugur/
/ɗugur/
/ɗugutmwɔ̀:r/
/ɗúk/
/ɗukwát/
ɗu kwat piin ɗee
been ɗi
id.
/ɗu-kwát
pi:n ɗɛ́:
bɛ:n ɗi/
ɗum
ɗung
ɗurum
v.
v.
v.
/ɗum/
/ɗúŋ/
/dùrùm/
ɗushúú
Ɗushuu-nkɨrang
n.
p.n.
/ɗuʃú:/
/ɗuʃú:nk ŕ áŋ/
ɗuu
v.
/ɗù:/
ɗuu
n.
/ɗù:/
ɗùù gùrùm
n.
ɗwáng
ɗwang-ɗwang
ɗwas
ɗwas pòò
ɗwas pòò nshak
v.
/ɗù:gùrùm/
/ɗwáŋ/
ɗughun
ɗwaghan
ɗiis
v.
v.
v.
/ɗwas/
/ɗwas pɔ/
/ɗwas pɔnʃak/
/ɗwat/
ɗwat1
n.
ɗwat2
ɗwat ɗyes
mmengo
v.
v.p.
/ɗwat/
ɗween
ɗween-ɗween
ɗwiit
a.
/ɗwɛ:n/
a.
ɗwiit-ɗwiit
30
Gloss
????
to appear
spherical
calabash
similar to bɨrong but
smaller,
to
have
sexual
intercourse
tiredness
kidney
to squeeze atili fruit
to extract its oil
to prepare, organise
small calabash used
in feeding small
children
small
calabash
breaking, leaving the
gourd
used for keeping food
Usually tied to the small
gourd like the flask and its
accompanying cup
Figurative way of referring
to the small baby dying
leaving behind the mother
(gourd) as long as the guard
is intact a calabash could
always be found.
to simmer
to tell a lie
to trap, prevent from
escape
volcanic hill
Kerang volcanic hill
from which Swan
water is bottled
to be a crowd, to be
many
number of a crowd,
livestock herd etc.
crowd
to be sour
???
to lick, suck
to kiss
to kiss one another
narrow
entrance,
narrow place
to squeeze
to put stress on, lit.
‘to
squeeze
out
pressurise
excrement’. Pantu kɨ ɗwat
ɗyes nlaa ni kɨ ɗak Pantu
drives that child too hard
small in size, tiny
???
narrow
(passage,
entrance)
????
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
ɗyaa
PoS
n.
IPA
/ɗ á:/
ɗyáár
n.
/ɗyá:r/
ɗyaar kùt cèt
n.p.
ɗyaghap
v.
/ɗyágáp/
ɗyaghap yit
ɗyeel1
ɗyeel tukaa
ɗyèel2
v.p.
n.
n.
n.
/ɗyágáp-yit/
/ɗyɛ́:l/
/ɗyɛ:l/
/ɗyɛ̀:l/
ɗyeel4
ɗyeep
ɗyeepkaa
ɗyees1
ɗyees
ɗyees shiit
ɗyel
v.
v.
n.
n.
v.
v.p.
n.
/ɗyɛ:l/
/ɗyɛ:p/
/ɗyɛ:pká:/
/ɗyɛ:s/
—
n.
n.
/ɗyɛ̀m/, jép
/ɗyɛ̀mnà:/
—
n.
/ɗyɛ̀mnɨgɨn/
ɗyen1
n.
/ɗyen/
ɗyen2
ɗyeng
ɗyes
ɗyes dang
n.
n.
n.
n.
/ɗyen/
/ɗyɛ̀ŋ/
/ɗyɛ́s/
/ɗyɛs daŋ/
ɗyes furum
n.
ɗyes kaa1
ɗyes kaa2
ɗyes kaa3
n.
n.
n.
/ɗyɛs
fùrùm/
/ɗyɛská:/
/ɗyɛská:/
/ɗyɛská:/
ɗyes paat
n.
/ɗyɛspá:t/
ɗyes
n.
/ɗyɛs/
ɗyes put
ɗyes toghom
n.
n.
ɗyes weet
n.p.
/ɗyɛs-put/
/ɗyɛstɔ̀gɔ̀m/
ɗyik1
n.
ɗyem
ɗyem naa
ɗyem nɨghɨn
pl.
jep
y
/ɗyɛ:s-ʃi:t/
/ɗyɛ́l/
/ɗyik/
31
Gloss
women of the same
age group ie friends
call each other rather
than calling each
others name
granary,
barn,
foodstore
special foodstore in
the kitchen
to blink, to dim
vehicle headlights
to blink
adjudication /trial
capital punishment
quarrel,
dispute,
misunderstanding
to smoke
to lift
arrogance
sand
to grind
grinding grains
to retain, take along,
own, possess
son, young man
my brother/sister
when you address him
directly
my brother and sister when talking about him
indirectly
manners, behaviour,
attitude, demeanour,
wish
wild fruit sp.
bone
coccyx, bone at base
of spine
knee cap
skull
theme, main point
name for s.o. who is
last person left alive
in a family
Canarium
schweinfurthii nuts
faeces, excreta, stool,
manure, dung
diarrhoea
dysentery
sandy soil suitable for
growing millet
marriage, traditional
See Appendix.
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
ɗyik bish
pl.
PoS
n.
IPA
/ɗ ik-biʃ/
ɗyik ret
n.
/ɗyik-rɛ́t/
ɗyik2
ɗyík3
ɗyong
ɗyoo
v.
v.
v.
v.
/ɗyik/
/ɗyík/
/ɗyɔŋ/
/ɗyɔ:/
y
Gloss
wife out of favour
from her husband
wife favoured by
husband
to build
to sieve
to trickle down
to
watch,
stare,
regard
E.
’é
int.
polar question marker
’e
int.
question marker
full form mé. Occurs in
sentence-final position.
Questions which do not
presuppose the response.
full form ye. Occurs in
sentence-final position.
F.
fee1
fee pɨder
v.
v.
/fɛ:/
/fɛ:-pɨdɛr/
fee2-fee-fee
v.
/fɛ:-fɛ́:/
féél1
feel fii
feel2
fèèl3
fèèl nwoo
féer1
feer2
fèer3
n.
v.
v.
n.
n.
num.
n.
v.
/fɛ́:l/
/fɛ́:l-fi:/
/fɛ:l/
/fɛ̀:l/
/fɛ̀:l-nwɔ̀:/
/fɛ́:r/
/fɛ:r/
/fɛ̀:r/
fès
a.
/fɛ̀s/
fèt1
n.
/fɛ̀t/
fét2
fét3
fet pee
v.
v.
v.p.
/fɛ́t/
/fɛ́t/
/fɛ́t-pɛ:/
32
to clean, drag
to look down on
some one to despise
to sweep the farm
after planting fonio to
prevent birds from
eating the seeds.
Young girls would cut
small branches of trees, tie
them neatly and align them
in a row on the farm to
cover the fonio seeds.
cf. ɗagham
throat, goitre
to thirst
to peel
plant sp.
sloth
four (4)
trumpet
to drag on the
buttocks
very,
emphasis, must
qualify
another
greater,
smaller, adjective. láá ɗi wùs meen
longer etc
wùrí ni fès bísh náá. The
burns he had from the fire
were a terrible sight
Berom hoe
see can. Presently in use by
Mwaghavul.
to slaughter
to sweep
cleanliness, keeping Mwaghavul
society
one’s
surrounding emphasises cleanliness in
clean
terms of neatness of both
personal
and
general
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
hygiene. Any house where
there are girls all adjoining
roads are properly swept
and kept clean on a daily
basis. A dirty compound
would not attract suitors1
lit. ‘to sweep legs’. The
origin of the expression lies
in a belief that once the
legs of a bachelor are swept
with the broom he will
remain unmarried.
fét shíí
v.p.
/fɛ́t-ʃí:/
belief
fii
fii pɨghɨzɨng
v.
v.
/fì:/
/fì:-p g̀ z̀ ɨŋ/
fii làà piit
fii nook
v.
v.
/fì:-là:-pi:t/
/fì:nɔ̀:k/
fii-fii
fii
fii
fiit taan fiit
fil
fìl gwóm
pron.
pron.
v.p.
v.
v.p.
/fi:/
/fi:/
/tà:n-fi:t/
/fil/
filet
v.
/fɨlɛt/
fílfóghól
filok
fin1
fín2
n.
n.
n.
v.
/fílfɔ́gɔ́l/
/f l̀ ɔ̀k/
/fin/
/fín/
fín3
fivir
f ́kot
v.
n.
n.
/fín/
/fívir/
/f ḱ ɔt/
fɨlap
v.
fɨna
pron.
/fɨlap//fulap
/
/fɨna/
to blow, dry
to despise, look down lit. ‘blow nose’
on others
to blow one’s nose
to give artificial
respiration
???
yours (of female)
you singular, female
also fiyi
to whistle
to boil, vaporise
ringworm
lit. ‘splash of boiling flour’
because it looks like
ringworm
to cut a small portion
or piece
puff-adder, snake sp. Bitis arietans
lungs
grinding stone
to
wear
clothes
inside-out
to expose, exhibit
tornado/whirlwind
corpse, lifeless body, cf. kúm
carcass, cadaver
to retrieve
also fulap
fɨra
fɨri
fɨrish
pron.
p.a.
v.
/fɨra/
???
/fɨriʃ//furiʃ/
my, mine
A we a shaar fɨna ye? Who
is my friend?
hers/his
hers/his
to cut a tiny piece or also furish
portion/to slice
Capt. H.D. Foulkes, a Briton who led the British patrol team to Panyam in 1907, stated thus “They are
not as ill looking as many pagan peoples. “In figures they are sturdy and perhaps owing to the plentiful
supply of water they are clean” (Source: National Archives Kaduna).
33
1
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
foghol
pl.
PoS
n.
IPA
/fɔ̀gɔ̀l/
Gloss
small pot used in
reserving drinks for
elders
foghom
foghot
fra
v.
v.
/fɔ̀gɔ̀m/
/fɔgɔt/
to grap
to visit a sick person
???
fughu
fùk
pron.
v.
/fugu//fu:/
/fùk/
fùk
fuka
fulap
v.
n.
v.
/fùka/
/fulap/
fulu
fulup
fung1
n.
v.
n.
/fulu/
/fulup/
/fùŋ/
fung aghas
fung zai
n.p.
n.
/fùŋ-àgàs/
/fùŋ-zài/
funggu
n.
funu
fur
pron.
n.
/funu/
/fur/
furap
v.
/furap/
fursuna
furu
furum
fùt
n.
pron.
n.
n.
/fúrsúna/
/furu//fuɗu/
/fùrùm/
mo-
34
yours
to blow air with
bellows
to be very angry
tuberculosis
to retrieve with the
use of finger nails
variety of rizga
to insult, abuse pl.
hole, opening, tunnel,
window, gap, chasm
gap-toothed
small
opening
between two houses
to serve as drainage
etc.
narrow
entrance
flanked by euphorbia
cactuses
our, ours
central space inside a
compound
to have a strong urge
to do something
prisoner
their
knee
wooden log or metal
bar
to
which
màt káá nɨ wùrá kɨ baa
ɓɨlang ɗi mme la fra ni ɗéé
wura teer shoor a map ɗak
shwetshwet the widow has
lost another child and she
has been crying all night
shwetshwet
other forms?
< Hausa. cf. muut-sighim
cf. nvuu
cf. kás sg.
used to deter slave-raiders
in former times
< English via Hausa
also fuɗu
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
fuu
fuul
pron.
a.
/fu:/
fúúr
n.
/fú:r/
fuut
fwaal
n.
v.
/fú:t/
/fwa:l/
fwààp
fwaat
fwagha
fwan1
n.
n.
p.a.
n.
/fwà:p/
mo-
/fwan//da:fw
an/
/fwan/
fwan2
n.
fwàn ɗághár
fwàn kút
fwàn lòk
n.p.
n.p.
n.
/fwan-lɔ̀k/
fwàn wááp
n.
/fwàn-wá:p/
fwan wet
fwang
n.
v.
/fwan-wɛ́t/
/fwaŋ/
fwash
n.
/fwaʃ//nfwaʃ/
fwat1
fwat2
fwat kom
n.
v.
v.
/fwat/
/fwàt/
/fwàt-kɔm/
fwo1
fwo ɗi
fwo2
v.
n.
v.
/fwɔ/
/fwɔ-ɗi/
/fwɔ/
fwo aak
fwo ngwam
fwo kam
fwo ruru
v.
v.
v.
v.
/fwɔ-a:k/
/fwɔ-ŋwàm/
/fwɔ-kam/
/fwɔ rúrú:/
fwo sushii
fwo toghom
v.
n.
/fwɔ-sùʃí:/
/fwɔ-tɔ̀gɔ̀m/
35
Gloss
madmen, prisoners
and women [!] were
chained
your
also fughu
describes
internal
pain due to external
shock
grass with white
flower
to vomit, regurgitate
to
retrieve
with
fingernails
odour, smell
also fwàghàp
piece of cloth
your (masc. sg.)
rabbit, hare
also dafwan
rain
cf. also nnìcwèt, cwet,
nìtyòòs, ngùmbìt, lòknìghìn màt
hail
rain that lasts all day
early rains during
spring
late rains during
harvest
rain that lasts all day
to protect, guard
jealously
termites, general term also nfwash. Other types
are
nlumwash
ndupoop/ndɨpwoop,
waryaa, njar, mpyeer,
ndɨryagham kaa
ashes
scatter
non-verbal
when one brushes his/her
communication
ears,
expressing
noninvolvement or innocence.
forgiveness
forgiveness
to throw (pl.), slap plural of vwet
the side of the mortar
to impregnate (pl.)
to whip
to cane a child etc.
to scream, shout for
help
to compete in a race
there was the belief that
some women have extra
powers and could make one
sick at any time they feel
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
like
fwoon
a.
/fwɔ:n/
fwoon
fwor1
fwor2
fyaat1
v.
v.
v.
v.
/fwɔ:n/
/fwɔ̀r/
/fwɔ̀r/
/fya:t/
fyaat2
v.
/fya:t/
fyaat2 poo
fwagha
fyak
v.p.
pron.
v.
/fwaga/
/fyak/
fyeel1
fyeel-fyeel
fyeel2
a.
/fyɛ́:l/
v.
/fyɛ́:l/
fyoot
a.
/fyɔ:t/
gaar
Gaaroo
n.
p.n.
/gá:r/
gaas gwom
n.
gàghàl
gàghàl féél
n.
n.p.
/ga:s
gwɔm//nga:
sgwɔm/
/gàgàl/
gaghap
gaghap ɓakzar
n.
n.
gaghap shi
gaghas
gal
n.
n.
v.
/gagap/
/gàgàpɓakzar/
/gàgàp-ʃí:/
/gàgàs/
/gàl/
gam
v.
/gam/
gàm k ̀ ɓít
v.p.
gam sughun
n.
/gàm-k -̀
ɓít//gàmɓít/
/gamsùgùn//nga
m-sùgùn/
/gàn/
describes
food
cooked loosely i.e.
jollof acha (fonio)
to untie
to change, demand
to follow after
to throw s.o. to the
ground in wrestling
to rekindle light from
ngyam
to provoke s.o.
you (male)
to feel annoyed,
pained
light, not heavy
???
to ease, to make
things easy
of a tiny hole
G.
gàn
gàng
gɨrang
v.
n.
36
white cactus
place where the dead
go
leftover food
ngaasgwom
obstruction
obstruction in throat
when eating yams
etc.
cave, hole, cracks
cracks in the ground
cracks on the leg
pile of stones
to not be properly
roasted or cooked (of
potato)
to be complete, full,
fill
new year, year’s end, also gàmɓít
tunring of the year
civet cat
Civetictis civetta
to wrestle to the
ground
borassus palm, fan Borassus
aethiopicum
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
gang
n.
/gáŋ/
gang kaa
gàng shak
v.
n.
/gáŋ-ká:/
/gàŋ-ʃàk/
gar
gar
garoo
v.
v.
n.
garvùm
n.
garwan
n.
/gàrɔ//ngar
ɔ:/
/garvùm//ng
arvùm/
/garwam/
gás (gwóm)
v.
/gás/
pron.
/ghà
ghɨɓɨl
ghɨɓɨl
ghɨɨ
n.
v.
n.
gɨɓɨl/
gɨɓɨl/
/gɨ:/
gh k
̀
ghɨlok
n.
v.
/h k̀ //g k̀ /
/ gɨlɔk/
gh ́r
n.
/ g ŕ /
ghɨr
ghɨr gók táá
ghɨr kùng
ghɨr pyáá
n.
n.
n.
n.
/gɨr/
ghɨr vùrèm
n.
ghɨr yàwó
n.
gh r̀
gh r̀
n.
v.
/hɨryawɔ//gɨr/
/g r̀ /
/g r̀ /
ghɨrɨm
n.
gɨrɨm/
gha
wun
/ghɨr-piya:/
37
Gloss
palm
Hausa giginya
peer
group,
age
grade, strength
to depend, rely
peer group (of the
same age)
to dilute a liquid
such as beer
to drink too much
area of the Hausa
< Hausa also ngaroo
grasshopper sp.
also ngàrvum
sticky soil suitable
for millet and fonio
to share food directly
from the pot
you (m.)
Second person singular
masculine
pronoun.
Typically used in questions.
ghà araŋ ye? How are
you? Written ha in the
former orthography.
satisfaction, repletion
to swell
goat
o ceen láá ghɨɨ fina ni ɓe
ni su sor tulu wúrwúr
They drove away my goat
and it went straight to the
house
stone
to make a hole
through a blocked
pipe, to try and get
s.t. out of a hole, to
move a stick in and
out of a tube, to ream
out
piece of broken pot,
larger pit for serving
beer to 6-10 people
thorn, acacia spp.
thorny tree sp.
‘snake thorn’
thorny tree sp.
whitethorn
Acacia albida. Hausa farar
ƙaya.
thorny plant sp.
Thorns are used to cut tribal
marks and tattoos
common thorn found
in the farm
pus
to collect, gather,
fetch
cowpea, bean
Vigna unguiculata
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
gíbát
girik
pl.
PoS
quant.
n.
IPA
/gyirik/
giring
g ́bár
g ́ ́l
gɨɨl aas
gɨɨt
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
/g :́ l/
/g :̀ l a:s/
/g :̀ t/
gɨk
n.
/gɨk//nŋɨk/
gɨlɨng
gm
̀ àà
gɨn
gin fyam
gɨnaa
gɨnang
ging
gɨnɨghɨn
v.
loc.
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
/gɨlɨŋ/
gɨnɨghɨn shak
n.
gɨnying
gɨrgɨr
n.
n.
/g ǹ g̀ ǹ ʃàk/
/g ǹ yíŋ/
/gɨrgɨr/
gɨrang
v.
????
gɨrong
gɨrong-gɨrong
gɨt
gɨzok
v.
/gɨrɔŋ/
v.
n.
goghol po
v.
/gɨt/
/g z̀ ɔk//ng z̀
ɔk/
/gɔgɔl-pɔ̀/
goghor
n.
/gɔ̀gɔr/
/g ń /
/g ǹ -fyàm/
/g ǹ à:/
/g ǹ áŋ/
/g ŋ̀ /
/g ǹ ɨgɨn/
/gɔgɔr-bu:/
goghor buu
goghor fut
/gíríŋ/
n.
/gɔ̀gɔ̀r-fùt/
38
Gloss
completely
traditional hoe made
of extremely heavy
metal, no longer in
use
rubbish/refuse dump
castrated ram
loaf
loaf of bread
hill,
mountain,
eminence
double
also ngɨk. Mostly used
while counting bundles of
millet for threshing
to not be full of liquid
opposite
cheek
Fyem tribal marks
my brother
your brother
drum
wives of the same also a companion of 2
husband
things
wives of the same
husband
your sister (female)
truck, large lorry
called from the sound it
makes
to wrestle to the cf. gàn sg.
ground pl.
to bend
small piece of meat
unkempt hair
also ngɨzok (tsuma-hausa)
one who does not one who frequently recalls
forget
issues that have long been
laid to rest
soup condiment
made from treated seeds of
the jute plant (gyampus)
popular phrase of the Fyam
people whenever they were
in Mwaghavul land for
trade by barter (see wor
nfyam)
local insecticide
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
góghót2
pl.
PoS
n.
IPA
/gɔ́gɔ́t//ngɔ́
gɔ́t/
/gɔgɔt/
/gɔk/
goghot1
gok
n.
a.
gók-gók
gòk
gok taa
gol
v.
n.
n.
góng1
góng1 pee
v.
v.p.
/gɔ̀k/
/gɔ́ktá:/
/gɔ́l//nafɔ:li
:/
/gɔ́ŋ/
/gɔ́ŋpɛ:/
gong2
gòng3
gong3 maar
gòng4
n.
n.
n.
v.
/gɔŋ/
/gɔ̀ŋ/
/gɔ̀ŋ má:r/
/gɔ̀ŋ/
gòng sak
v.p.
/gɔ̀ŋ-sak/
gòng shin
v.p.
/gɔ̀ŋ-ʃin/
gong
int.
???
gong ye
gonggong
int.
id.
???
?
gool
v.
/gɔ̀:l/
góór
n.
/gɔ́:r/
gòr
gòrò
gorzol
mo-
n.
n.
n.
gubang
n.
gughutuk
gu jaghar
adv.
n.
gu lu
n.
guk1
guk2
gul
gúl
v.
v.
n.
conj.
/gɔ̀rzɔ́l//ngɔ̀
rzɔ́l/
/gubaŋ//ku
baŋ//kɨbaŋ/
/gùgùtùk/
/gù-jagar/
/gù-lú//ngùlú/
/gùk/
/guk/
/gùl/
39
Gloss
flea
ngóghót
cave
emaciated, weak and
sick
to be old, worn out
snake type
female lizard
cloth, rag, any old item
cf. nafoolii
to wait, watch
keep
watch,
be
watchful, to wait for
some one
fallow land
edge of farm
edge of farm
to manage delicately,
balance
something
that is about to fall
to perform tasks in
spite of ill-health
to perform tasks in
spite of ill-health
how much, how
many?
how many?
describes s.t. that is
just about to fall
down
to be bent, to be
crooked
bachelor
a yaghal kɨ kaa ɗi
rongshòng sɨ, kaa góór sɨ
Get away from here with
your horn-like head.
plant sp.
Hausa duhuwa ??
pied crow
also ngòròò. Corvus albus
smallpox
farming
that kubang/kɨbang
beautifies the ridge
suddenly
general name for all
male babies before
they are later given
appropriate names.
husband
to get worse
to bark (dog)
enough, plenty
maybe
(of wound)
also ngúl
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
gulak
pl.
PoS
v.
gulang
n.
guldang
conj.
Guliya
guluk
guluk but
gunan
p.n.
n.
n.
n.
IPA
/gulak//ngù
k/
/gùláŋ//ngùl
áŋ/
/gùlɗaŋ//ngulɗaŋ/
/guliya/
/gulúk/
/gulúk-ɓut/
???
gung1
n.
/gùŋ/
gung2
v.
/gùŋ/
gung3
v.
/gùŋ/
Gunung
p.n.
gùràk
gurak ɗyes lwaa
v.
v.p.
gùrùm
gùrùm-gúrúm
n.
id.
guu
n.
guus
n.
/gú:s//kɔŋ/
gwaan
n.
/gwá:n/
gwaar
gwaar mààp
v.
v.p.
/gwa:r/
gwadawa
gwaghap
n.
v.
/gwadawa/
/gwagap/
/gùràk/
/gùràkɗyɛs-lwa:/
/gùrùm/
/gùrùmgúrúm/
40
Gloss
to perform an activity ngulak
with pride
sling,
throwing ngulang
device
maybe
proverbial figure
hole
hiccough
old person, elder
See Appendix
aghas kɨ gunan ni kɨ liyoon
kyes ku pò ni ɗéé g ǹ ǹ òn
The old man has lost almost
all his teeth and his mouth
is now just empty, g ǹ ǹ òn
tree sp. with strong
wood
try to do something,
effort
with stand, tolerate,
persevere
deity of the people of
Fwangko village
to struggle, try
to struggle while meaning ???
eating bones
person
also ngurum
tough person, great
person
euphorbia, cactus
Euphorbia kamerunica
cliff, small volcanic also kong
hill
local bed
made from single piece of
wood
to groan very deeply
to
weep
very
intensely
examination, test
< Hausa
to beat to a pulp
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
Gwaghap
gwaghazak
gwak
gwak pee
pl.
PoS
p.n.
v.
v.p.
gwak shik
gwak yil
v.p.
n.
gwam
gwam
v.
n.
gwan
gwan
v.
n.
gwar
gwarɓit
pron.
n.
gwàrkóng
n.
gwát
n.
gwàt
gweng
v.
n.
gwodo
n.
gwòm1
gwom2
n.
n.
gwom fwoon
n.p.
gwom gari
gwom kas1
gwòm kas2
gwom kusuk
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
gwom lupak
n.p.
gwom maap
n.p.
gwom mudang
n.p.
gwom mwoor
n.p.
gwom rogo
Gwom Shaar
n.p.
p.n.
IPA
/g agap/
Gloss
proverbial figure.
See Appendix
? flip flops
/gwak /
rebuke, warn
/gwak-pɛ:/
warn, advice, rebuke,
admonish
/gwak-ʃìk/
scold, rebuke
/gwak-yil/
maize with sparse
seed
/gwam/
deceive
/gwàm//ngwà whip
also ngwam
m/
/gwan/
to groan
cf. dès
/gwàn//ngwà wild cocoyam
also ngwan
n/
/gwàr/
someone
/gwárɓít/
cowry,
former
currency
soil
suitable
for
growing fonio
/gwat/
winner, victor
word usually used by
children/youth to determine
the first
to pour
/gwɛŋ/
last support from the the entire bunches of acha
bunch of acha which are piled before eventual
serves as the pivot
threshing (when fully dried)
/gwɔdɔ/
cloth made from < Hausa auduga
woven cotton
/gwɔ̀m/
baboon
Papio anubis
/gwɔ́m/
food,
porridge,
general term
w
/g ɔ̀mfonio porridge
fwɔ:n/
?
cassava porridge
/gwɔ̀m-kas/ millet porridge
/gwɔ̀m-kas/ plant sp.
/gwɔ̀mfonio porridge
kúsúk/
/gwɔ̀m
food
made
by It involved chewing millet
lùpák/
children
while cooked along with yam.
looking after sheep
and goats.
/gwɔ̀mfood
taken
to
mà:p/
bereaved family
/gwɔ̀mporridge
for
a
mùdaŋ/
circumcised child
/gwɔ̀mporridge
prepared
mwɔ:r/
with oil
?
cassava porridge
/gwɔ̀m-ʃa:r/ Festival of unmarried Girls of the same age grade
girls.
contribute items such as
millet, kwakil, mwoor
paat, mwoor bang, and
w
41
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
/gwɔ̀mmaize porridge
ʃwá:/
/gwɔ̀m-wàp/ fonio porridge with
sauce
marshy soil suitable
for growing cocoyam
and rizga
/gyàmpùs//n stalk of okra plant
gyàmpùs/
before it is converted
into ngyam
/gyar/
very, extremely
/gyartʃìn/
to overdo, excessive
/gyartàn/
to play excessively,
rough-play
piece of additional
cloth
gwom shuwa
n.p.
gwom wap
n.p.
gyaghat
n.
gyampus
n.
gyar
gyar cin
gyartan
adv.
v.p.
v.
gyele
n.
gyes
v.
/gyɛ́s/
gyet doghon
tàghàm
gyet mee muyii
adv.
/gyɛt/
adv.
gyet yam
gyok
adv.
n.
/gyɛt mɛ:
mu yi:/
/gyɛt-yàm/
/gyɔ́k/
gyook
v.
/gyɔ̀:k/
money to buy a ram or two
prepare same and share
with
their
friends
supporters and admirers.
This is one of the first
festivals organized by girls
and usually in the month of
January immediate after
yaghal opportunity for the
girls to show appreciation
to their male counterparts
whom they had supported
during the other festivities
such as velang etc.
H. fadama
also ngyampus
normally hung or the
shoulder by women either
as headgear or a spare
wrapper usually hung on
the shoulder.< Hausa
to shift, movement
from one point to the
other
last year
or doghon tàghàm.
42
many years ago
several years ago
one who does not
stay in one place,
restless person
to
watch
helplessly/gleefully
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
H.
pl.
PoS
IPA
haal
hakyeng
n.
adv.
/ha:l/
/hàkyɛŋ/
hàmbàl
num.
/hàmbàl/
hár1
n.
/hár/
har2
conj.
/hár/
hàthàt
v.
/hàthàt/
hiik
n.
/hí:k/
hime
h r̀ àt
n.
id.
/himɛ
/h r̀ àt/
h ́rít
hol
hop
hop puus
hòs
n.
n.
v.
v.p.
v.
/h ŕ ít/
/hɔ̀l/
/hɔ́p/
???
/hɔ̀s/
hos
n.
Gloss
sheet of paper
rightly,
correctly,
truly, verily, earnestly
single
used mainly when counting
bundles of millet for
threshing (hambal = 2
ngik). NB is this also used
for ‘hundred’?
chaff
(waste
or
residue)
to the extent that, so < Hausa
much that, until
to struggle to do s.t.
Moo hàthàt sɨ pus hang
aghas nwuri they are
struggling to remove his
tooth
cough
(whooping
cough)
greed
intensifies verbs of esp. applied things tied in a
tightening
knot
slip-knot
see sar hirit
shale
to borrow
to sit in the sun
to spend a whole
year/season
spear type
This spear has a knife-like
sharp edge and is usually
the second to be used. See
kop
I.
ìì
excl.
Yes!
ìnàà
pron.
Name
by
which
women of the same
peer group call each
other
43
A response to a polar
question
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
Ɨ
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
l̀ òng
ɨrap
v.
v.
/ìlɔ̀ŋ// l̀ ɔ̀ŋ/
??
loose, not tight, slack
to bite
ɨrong
n.
???
dust
jaal
jààp
v.
???
/ʤa:l/
/ʤà:p/
jàr
jagham1
jagham2
jàghàm-piil
n.
n.
n.
n.
jàghàs
jai1
n.
n.
/ʤàr//nʤàr/
/ʤághám/
/ʤágám/
/ʤàgàmpí:l/
/ʤàgàs/
/ʤai/
jai2
n.
/ʤai/
jak1
jak2
jak3
jakatai
???
v.
v.
n.
et. place-name. jaghatai
jààkí
n.
donkey, ass
< Hausa. also njaakii
jamii
n.
/ʤàk/
/ʤàk/
/ʤak/
/ʤakatai//
ʤagatai/
/ʤà:kí//nʤ
à:kí:/
?
to belch
empty, not there,
vanity
termites
boast
chin
grass with roots as
sweet as sugar cane
house-rat
stubborn, delinquent
person
wizard,
witch,
sorcerer, magician
appetizing
manners
sprinkle sparsely
plant sp.
tamarind tree
<
Hausa.
indica
jan
jan
n.
n.
jang
jarmen
n.
n.
/ʤán/
/ʤan//nʤan
/
/ʤaŋ/
/ʤármɛ́n/
jee
v.
/ʤɛ:/
jeel1
jeel2
jeel-jeel
jeer1
jèèr2
n.
n.
/ʤɛ́:l/
/ʤɛ́:l/
n.
n.
jeer3
n.
/ʤɛ̀:r/
/ʤɛ̀:r//nʤɛ̀:
r/
/ʤɛ̀:r//nʤɛ̀:
r/
(plural of at). Wùrí fès
loghot k ́ ɨrap ciɓen sár
firi mo. He already has the
habit
of
biting
his
fingernails
J.
twins
tapeworm
jaw
plant sp.
njàr(see fwash)
Rattus rattus
cf. Hausa santi
also njan
similar to pumbwan. It has
yellow flowers between
August and October and
marks the end of the rains
to be absent, be not
there, lack
poverty
suffering
44
Tamarindus
barren woman
barren maize plant
also njèèr
sugar-cane
also njeer
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
jeghen
pl.
PoS
n.
IPA
/ʤɛ̀gɛ̀n//nʤ
ɛ̀gɛ̀n/
/ʤɛ́:l-kyɛs/
jeel-kyes
jegher-jegher
jéghérékjéghérék
v.
jem
n.
jèng
jèng shii
jép1
jép2
jep lop
jep pee kaa
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.p.
jep ret
jer
jet
jí1
n.
n.
n.
adv.
jí1 t ́dók
jì2
ji2 wul
jìga
jii
Jìbìsh
adv.
v.
v.p.
n.
v.
p.n.
/ʤí-t d́ ɔ́k/
/ʤì/
/ʤì-wúl/
/ʤìga/
/ʤì://jì-k /́
/ʤìbìʃ//nʤì
bìʃ/
jiirii
jik
jikiram
jim mwos
n.
v.
n.
n.
???
/ʤik/
/ʤìkɨram/
/ʤìmmwɔ̀s/
Jing1
p.n.
/ʤiŋ/
jing2
n.
/ʤiŋ/
jingina
n.
/ʤìngínà/
jinjak
n.
/ʤìn-jak/
ideo.
/ʤɛm//nʤɛ
m/
/ʤɛ̀ŋ/
/ʤɛ̀ŋ-ʃí:/
/ʤɛ́p/
/ʤɛ́p/
???
/ʤɛ̀p-pɛ̀:kà:/
/ʤɛp-rɛt/
/tiŋ jɛ́r/
/ʤɛt/
/ʤí/
45
Gloss
heron
also njeghen
poverty is over
????
describes s.t. moving doghon wan naa me yer
about all over the sham ɗel jéghérékjéghérék
place
Yesterday, I saw a bird with
long neck moving around,
tossing itself here and there
jéghérékjéghérék
sorghum used in also njem
brewing local beer
heel
heel
children,
plural of làà
small, tiny
(reference to objects)
disciples
pl. of nyem lop
youths
money
tree sp.
back of the head
sometime ago, long
time ago, until now,
since
day before yesterday
to come
to arrive
jigger
to bring
masquerade
cf. shaghal
< Hausa ?
also jì-ki
also njibish. Used to scare
people from eating fruits in
the forest.
Alcelaphus buselaphus
hartebeest
sprinkle
wild weeds
preparation of local
beer (mwos) takes
two days, the product
of the first stage/day
is called jim:, it is
usually very sweet
hunting festival of
communities
of
Ajing, Panyam fish
farm etc
red,
sticky
soil
suitable for growing
millet
mortgage, to pledge < Hausa
one’s property to a
creditor payment.
local sieve made
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
from grass used in
separating the local
beer (mos) from the
chaff
Mwaghavul
clan,
name of an area in
Mupun
land
of
Pankshin LGA (see
bijer)
all
despite
to peck at food
zhirak
Jiparii
p.n.
/ʤìparí:/
jir
jir k ́s ́
jirak1
quant.
conj.
v.
/ʤír/
/ʤir-k ś /́
/ʤirak//zhi
rak/
jirak
v.
jirak2
id.
jiraap
jiraap sar
jiraap shii
jirem
n.
n.
n.
v.
jirgi
n.
jirgi àm
n.
jirgi caap
n.
jirgi déng
jirgi yil
jɨghɨr1
jɨghɨr2
jɨghɨt-pee
joghop
n.
n.
v.
n.
v.
v.
jòòmòò
n.
jóng
n.
jong
jong kɨ shak
adv.
adv.
jong-jong
josh
jùù
juruk
n.
n.
n.
??? to move from
place to place
/ʤirak//zhi describes how a zhirak
rak/
chicken picks its food
/ʤìrá:p/
young girls
(plural of reep)
/ʤìrà:p-sár/ fingers
/ʤìrà:-ʃi:/
toes
/ʤìrɛ̀m//nʤ afterbirth of women also njirem
ìrɛ̀m/
or animals
ʤirgi
canoe,
vessel
in < Hausa
general
/ʤirgi-àm/ steamship, submarine
etc
/ʤirgiaeroplane
tʃa:p/
/ʤirgi ɗɛ́ŋ/ aeroplane
/ʤirgi-yil/
train
/ʤ ǵ ŕ /
quarrel
/ʤ ǵ ŕ /
jaw
/ʤ g̀ t̀ -pɛ:/ to tickle
/ʤɔgɔp/
enmeshing plants in
water
before
transplanting them
/ʤɔ̀:mɔ̀://n
stem of a jute plant also njoomoo
ʤɔ̀:mɔ̀:/
after the bark has
been stripped
boys circumcised and
initiated during the
last exercise
/ʤɔŋ/
distant, far
/ʤɔŋ-k -́
far apart
ʃàk/
????
/ʤɔ́ʃ//nʤɔ́ʃ/ grits
also njosh
/jù:/
copper
/ʤuruk/
local tripod made The original hole in the pot
with three broken is called juruk, it serves as
pots.
a place to keep condiments
which are preserved by the
heat of the fire
46
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
jurum-jurum
jurung
pl.
PoS
IPA
n.
/ʤuruŋ/
jwa
jwaan1
jwaan2
jwaan3
v.
n.
v.
v.
/ʤwa:n/
/ʤwà:n/
/ʤwà:n/
jwaan2
v.
/ʤwà:n//n
wà:n/
jwak1
Jwak2
n.
p.n.
/ʤwak/
/ʤwak/
Jwak-yitup
p.n.
/ʤwakyìtùp//jwak
ngh k̀ tùp/
jwàk1
jwàk2
jwak3
jwak shii
jwal1
jwal2
n.
n.
v.
v.p.
v.
v.
/ʤwàk/
/ʤwàk/
/ʤwàk/
/ʤwàk-ʃí:/
/ʤwal/
/ʤwal/
jwàl1
n.
/ʤwàl/
jwàl2
n.
/ʤwàl/
jwát
v.
/ʤwát/
jwàt wur
a.
/ʤwàt-wur/
jweet
v.
ʤweet
jwèèt
id.
ʤwèèt
jwéng
n.
/ʤwɛ́ŋ//nʤ
wɛ́ŋ/
47
Gloss
???
depth of a stream,
river etc
to wear ???
temptation
to tempt someone
to
be
tempted,
succumb
to
temptation
to
console,
to also nwaan
encourage a bereaved
to stop mourning, to
soothe, to take heart
rock, mountain
Community
in The hunting expedition of
Panyam district.
jwak, bwor, diyes kopal
peoples
yitup
rock
at The early missionaries
Panyam,
erected a hut on top of the
rock where a bell was
mounted and rung on
Sundays.
also
jwak
nghiktup
to stuff
wickedness
to incite, instigate
to instigate, incite
to fix (many things)
Plural of ɓàl
to put in (many Plural of lop
things)
threshed fonio ready
for cooking
Pieces of raffia leaves
cut to specific sizes,
used for the weaving
of mat
proper
dressing,
appropriate dressing
one who dresses
haphazardly,
inappropriate
dressing
to catch s.o. in a lie,
to catch s.o. redhanded
intensifies verbs of
tightening
esp.
applied things tied in
a bundle
ocarina made from also njwéng
the dried fruit shell of
Strynchnos spinosa
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
K
???
ka
káá1
káá1 a fung
n.
n.p.
/ká:/
káá a fùŋ
káá ɓál
káá Mpang
a.p.
n.p.
káá Mpáŋ
kaa1
mbwaghalong
n.p.
kàà1 ncukcur
v.
kaa1 ngaw
káá nguryaat
n.p.
a.
káá1 pyaa
kaa1 pyan
káá1 tal
káá1 waa
káá2
káá2 gùù
n.
n.
n.p.
n.p.
v.
v.
káá waa
/ká:/
/ká:gù:/
kaa1
kaa2
kaa
quant.
conj.
n.
/ka:/
/ka:/
/kàá/
kaa kasuwa
n.
/ka:kasuwa/
kàà
kàà pòò
kàà pòò àghàs
v.
n.
n.p.
/kà:/
kàà zài
kaaɗi
kaam1
kaam2
kaam-kaam
v.
conj.
a.
n.
/kà:zài/
/ka:ɗi/
/ka:m/
/kà:m/
kaa
mbwaghalo
ŋ
/kà:
ncukcur/
kaa ngáw
/ká:ngurya:t/
/ká: píyá:/
/ká: pyan/
48
head
describes s.o. who
can predict of foresee
the future
stubborn
describes doing s.t.
for its own sake
insulting description
of appearance
to be overexcited, to
get into one’s head
shaven head
upside down (of a
person
grey hair
headache
violent, aggressive
bald-headed
to transplant (plants)
to
transplant
euphorbia
about, as many as
like
grandmother, elderly
woman
practice where a
person who cleans
the market place
collects a certain unit
of goods on the
display
for
maintaining
cleanliness
to climb, go up, rise
diarrhoea in children
children’s
teething
problems
to construct zai
as
wide
width
describes s.t. very
wide
dàá kaa long wurí ka taan
ɓel, fíyóótfíyóót an expert
is blowing the flute ɓel,
fíyóótfíyóót
lit. ‘head is open’
lit. ‘head
lit. ‘head of Ampang’
lit. ‘head of migratory bird’
lit. ‘head hot’
also pider
cf. zai.
Usually
in
insulting
expressions.
kom
kaamkaam kaa kútùt sɨ
Ears as wide as a
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
winnowing tray
kààm2
kààp
n.
n.
/kà:m/
?
kaar
kaar tup
kááran
káát
kaat1
kaat2
kaat3
n.
/ka:r/
n.
v.
n.
v.
v.
kaat3 kɨ nryeem
nwaa
v.
kacik
n.
kaghal1
n.
kaghal2
a.
kàghàl
n.
kaghalak
kághám
kagham
kaghan
kaghan shiit
a.
n.
v.
v.
v.
kaghapaat
kaghar
num.
n.
kaghas
n.
kàghàt
n.
kák
v.
kalanga
n.
public
baboon
cf. gwòm. Papio Anubis.
An alternative name.
Erythrocebus patas
Cercopithecus tantalus
recent coinage
patas monkey
tantalus monkey
professor
to owe, be in debt to
/ka:t/
young female animal
/ka:t/
to welcome a person
?
to meet, collide,
assemble
/ka:t k ́
to get into serious This refers to meeting this
n y
r ɛ:m nwa:/ trouble.
dangerous animal on its
way home. After a fruitless
search for a prey, it may
devour anything on its way.
Even if the animal is fully
satisfied, if molested it can
still attack.
/kàtʃík//k t̀ ʃ basket, made from also kɨcik
ík/
raffia/tar grass
/kagal/
dirty pot or plate,
clothes
e.g.
mechanics uniform
etc
/kagal/nkag stingy person
also nkaghal
al/
/kàgàl/
lump of clay/soil,
lump
of
mucus/phlegm
/kàgàlàk/
describes bitterness
/kágám/
well-being, health
/kàgàm/
to grip
/kágán/
to compete
/kagan-ʃi:t/ to pound food in a
mortar
simultaneously
by
two or three people
/kàgàpà:t/
ten (10)
/kágár/
remaining,
remainder, balance
/kàgàs//gàg iron ore from which gaghas
às/
the blacksmith makes
the hoe etc
satchel made of raffia Used mostly by elderly
leaves, well knitted people while travelling,
such that it holds also during warfare
water.
/kák/
to care for, be
concerned
/kalanga//kɨ mat made from palm also kɨram ngang
ram-ngàŋ/
leaves
49
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
kam1
pl.
PoS
v.
IPA
/kám/
kám koor
v.p.
/kám-kɔ:r/
kam shikaa
kam2
v.p.
v.
/kám-ʃìká:/
/kám/
kam1
kam daghar
n.
n.p.
kam láng¹
n.p.
/kam/
/kamdàgàr/
/kamláŋ/
kam láng²
kam lwaa
kam túghúl
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
/kamláŋ/
/kam-luwa/
/kam-túgúl/
kamb ́lóng
kàmbók
n.
v.
/kamb ĺ ɔ́ŋ/
/kàmbɔ́k/
kàmbong
kámgúng
n.
n.
kámkám
kàmbìl
kàmbìl
v.
n.
n.
/kàmbɔŋ/
/kámgúŋ//k
árgúŋ/
/kámkám/
kámgúng
n.
kampar
kan
n.
n.
/tiŋ kám
gúŋ/
/kampar/
/kàn/
kanding
n.
/kàndìŋ/
kansɨghɨn
Kanto
adv.
p.n.
/kànsɨgɨn/
???
kàp ́rók
n.
/kàp ŕ ɔ́k//k ̀
p ŕ ɔ́k/
kàpúk
n.
/kàpúk/
/kàmbìl/
50
Gloss
to
teach,
imitate
learn, aa kam a we kɨsɨ
gwíshɓ ŕ ń g gwíshɓ ŕ ń g
ye? Who are you imitating,
that walks gwíshɓ ŕ ń g
gwíshɓ ŕ ń g?
to aim at (shooting
contest)
to memorise
to measure, weigh, do
a blood test, stool test
etc
stick, staff, rod
walking staff used
mainly as support
riverine plant
used as chewing stick.
Also anyone washed away
in a sudden torrent held
onto this survive, hence the
transferred
meaning
‘saviour’.
saviour
roasted meat
lit. ‘stick meat’
wooden shaft of
smoking pipe
bush rat sp.
plead, appeal for < Hausa
forgiveness
house with no roof
Plant sp.
also kárgúng
to teach, learn
tree sp.
local plate made from
grass
tree sp.
barren cereal plant
cf. kara.
s.t. going in the
wrong direction, s.t.
bent, crooked
remnant of Canarium
oil, boiled and mixed
with water
afternoon, evening
Fyem
Fyem were notorious in
Mwaghavul culture as
slavers. Also Konto
part of palm leaf used also kɨpɨrok
for
collecting
dirt/rubbish
within
the compound
entrance
building It also serves as a place
which provides main where elders stay and take
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
kar1
v.
/kár/
kar pee1
kar pee2
v.p.
v.
/kár-pɛ:/
/kar-pɛ:/
kar2
n.
/kár/
kar3
kar
kárá
v.
v.
n.
/kár/
/kar/
/kárá/
kárgung
karshak1
karshak2
kárwa
kás1
n.
v.
v.
n.
part.
/kár-̃ʃàk/
/kár-̃ʃàk/
/kárwa/
/kás/
v.
n.
n.
/kás/
/kás/
/kàs/
kàs mbul
n.
/kàs-mbul/
Kásh
excl.
/káʃ/
kasuwa
kat1
a.
????
/kat/
kat-kat
kàt2
kàt bà
conj.
conj.
/kàt-bà/
kás2
kás2
kàs
fulup
51
Gloss
access
into
compound.
the important family decisions.
Women could be invited
here for discussion but not
at toghol
to instigate people to
break the law
instigate
to fetch, collect dirt
or refuse
interdiction,
discipline following a
transgression
to befriend a girl
suitors compete to do this
to fetch/scoop
barren guinea corn cf. kampar
plant
plant sp.
used in making holes
admonishment
instigate one another
prostitute
< Hausa
not (placed at end of also ká. tájì yi pwos mwòòr
clause or sentence) cáán pee kás, ji yi milep
goes with ba or tájì h l̀ àkh l̀ àk Do not use
(q.v.)
bleaching cream otherwise
you will shine artificially
to abuse, insult
abuse, insult
pearl millet
Pennisteum glaucum. (H.
dauro) In the past, millet
was the staple food of the
Mwaghavul. Millet was
used as food, war and
drink, mwos. It was
customary to give a visitor
water with ground millet
added.
Only
in
impoverished homes was
this not possible.
small plant like millet
eaten by small birds
exclamation
Used when something
desirable or you are
optimistic
about
fails,
especially narrowly, or
when something you have
been enjoying unexpectedly
ends.
market
< Hausa
insufficient, small in
size, quantity
???
if
if not
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
kàt ɗáng
kàt ɗéé
pl.
PoS
conj..
conj.
IPA
/kàtɗáŋ/
/kàt-ɗɛ́:/
kàt ɗéé sí…ɓe
ngyál
kàt3
conj.
kàt buu
v.p.
kàt k r̀ òng
v.p.
kàt pee1
kàt pee2
n.p.
v.
/kàt-pɛ:/
/kàt-pɛ:/
kàt pòò
v.p.
/kàt-pɔ̀:/
kàt pòò ngagham
ndagham
kàvúk
v.p.
??
n.
káwàn
kìɓèl
n.
n.
/kàvúk//k v̀
ùk/
/káwàn/
/kìɓɛ̀l/
kíɓér
Kíbírí
Kibiri
n.
p.n.
p.n.
/kibiri/
kiɓwoon1
n.
/k ɓ́ wɔ́:n/
kɨdom
n.
/kɨdɔm/
kɨpér
k ́1
n.
conj.
/kɨpɛ́r/
/k /́
k ́2
v.a.
kɨ máár
n.
k̀
k 2̀
v.a.
part.
kb
̀ én
n.
v.
/kàt/
/kíɓɛ́r/
/k /̀
52
Gloss
if
instead, rather than,
in place of
instead, rather than,
in place of + rather
to find, meet up with,
encounter
spoils of war, booty,
plunder
spoils of war, booty,
plunder
privilege, freedom
to get a chance,
opportunity, acquire a
privilege
to
talk,
speak,
discourse
to murmur, mutter,
complain
waste from jute fibre
also ngyàl
lit. ‘to find s.t. worthless’
lit. ‘to find s.t. for free’
cf. kɨvuk
ring
cripple
(disabled
person)
hedgehog
Atelerix albiventris
Mwaghavul deity
cf. Naan
spirit
causing
a
sickness
affecting
teeth, tongue, and
gums (H. bubu)
followership,
disciples, supporters
eunuch, infertile man the female equivalent is
jeer
pebble used as flint
addition,
and,
together with
marks
progressive k ́n when used with the first
action
person singular. wàghà k ́
jì you are coming
belonging to the same
farming group
perfective marker
Ni k ̀ ret It has been good
of
cf. mù. mpè ɗés k ̀ lee ni
ɗéé mó g s̀ hìshash kɨ ni ɗak
Due to the size of the load,
they had to struggle
gishishash to lift it
small bag
Made by children from
palm leaves to keep small
food items like millet to eat
while grazing goats and
sheep.
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
kɨɓan
PoS
v.
IPA
/kɨɓan/
n.
n.
v.
/tiŋ kɨɓáŋ/
/kɨɓɨn/
/kɨɓɨn/
kɨɓɨt
v.
/k ɓ̀ t̀ /
kɨbwoon2
loc.
/kɨɓwɔ:n/
kɨcir
k ́cóó
kɨfel
kɨfel kɨ gurum
n.
n.
n.
n.p.
/kɨcir/
kɨgong
kɨɨn
kɨɨr1
kɨɨr muut
n.
n.
v.
n.
/k f̀ ɛ́l/
/kɨfɛl
kɨgurum/
/k ǵ ɔ̀ŋ/
/kɨ:n/
/kɨ:r/
/kɨ:r-mu:t/
k ̀ r̀ 2
n.
/k :̀ r/
kɨɨs
n.
/kɨ:s/
kɨɨs
kk
̀
kk
̀ ar
kɨl
v.
n.
a.
/k k̀ /
/k k̀ àr/
/k ĺ /
kɨl-kɨl
kɨlakkɨlak
adv.
kɨlang
n.
/k ĺ ák
k ĺ ák/
/kɨlaŋ/
kɨlek
adv.
kɨling1
kɨlɨng2
v.
n.
kɨling pee1
kɨling pee2
kɨlom
kɨm
kɨm baal
kɨm juu
v.
n.
v.
n.
n.
n.
kɨɓáng
kɨɓɨn1
kɨɓɨn2
pl.
kɨɓan
/k ĺ ák
k ĺ ák/
/kɨliŋ/
/kɨlɨŋ//nkɨlɨ
ŋ/
/kɨliŋ-pɛ:/
/kɨliŋ-pɛ:/
/kɨlɔm/
/k m
́ /
/kɨm-ba:l/
/kɨm-ju:/
53
Gloss
to mix things up, plural of kɨɓɨn
juggle pl.
tree sp.
buffalo
Syncerus caffer
to mix things up,
juggle
to
complete
i.e.
construction etc
posterior, rear, back,
outside, exterior
grave
first born
notorious, delinquent
stubborn person
shoulder
salt
to fear, to be afraid
fear,
cowardice, lit. ‘fear death’
frightful
silk cotton tree
Ceiba pentandra.
rimi
quoin, support used
by women when
carrying objects on
their head
cf. mang kiis
to lean
raffia palm
Raffia sudanica
slow, not lively, not
agile
???
urgently, quickly
Hausa
water added to gruel
after preparation to
dilute it
describes absence of
people at a place
to hear, to heed, listen
eagle
also nkɨlɨng.
to hear, take advice
one who hears, heeds
to forge iron
bangles
armlet
copper bangles
Worn by infants and
children. Kɨm juu bangles
were also used to seek the
hands of 7 year olds in
marriage for a child of a
corresponding age. When
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
placed on the floor and
picked by the girl’s parents
this
would
signify
acceptance
of
the
relationship. This was
usually
performed
by
mothers who wish to
solidify
an
existing
relationship (cf. Mat shee)
kɨmáár
a.
kɨmos
n.
/kɨmɔs/
kɨmuur
n.
/kɨmù:r/
v.
/k ǹ /
kɨn2
n.
/kɨn/
k ́n
v.a.
kɨndingding
king
id.
loc.
kɨn1
kan
/k ń diŋ-diŋ/
kìng
54
belonging to the same
farming group
communal farming
This
involved
distant
relations who would all
work on the farm
wooden stick used in
preparing food
to defecate, to ease
oneself
The uncle in Mwaghavul
uncle,
culture plays a very
father’s/mother’s
brother of one’s significant role in the
father or mother, also socialization of the child
the husband of one’s particularly the initiation of
the
male
child
into
aunt.
adulthood. He stands by the
child as a great source of
support, he encourages the
child to succeed in life. in
one’s uncle’s house one can
catch a chicken without
being declared a thief.
Whenever
an
uncle
slaughters a cow, ram, goat
etc and if one is around the
head is automatically yours
and if you are many the
first to take or declare the
intention takes the head and
legs home to be prepared
for him. one surely has
some entitlements in ones
uncle’s house. All those
benefits are derived from
the maternal uncles.
marks
progressive k ́ elsewhere. An kɨn so
action with the first nJos I do go to Jos
person singular
completely
on the blind side of
s.t.
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
kɨnglíghít
pl.
mo-
PoS
n.
IPA
Gloss
eagle
kn
̀ òk
kɨpak
kɨpang
n.
n.
n.
/k ǹ ɔ̀k/
/kɨpák/
/kɨpàŋ/
kɨpɨt
n.
/kɨpɨt/
kɨpɨt shit
n.
/kɨpɨt-ʃit/
kɨrak daa
kɨram1
n.
v.
/k r̀ àk-ɗa:/
/kɨram/
kɨrám2
n.
/k ŕ ám/
kɨram pee
v.
/kɨram-pɛ:/
kɨrɨm1
a.
/k r̀ m
̀ /
kɨrɨm2
kɨrɨm yit
kirkir
kɨɨr naan
k ́róm1
kɨróm2
v.
n.
id.
n.
n.
n.
/k r̀ m
̀ /
/k r̀ m
̀ -yit/
/k ŕ -k ŕ /
/kɨ:rna:n/
/k ŕ ɔ́m/
/k ŕ ɔ́m/
kɨróm3
n.
/k ŕ ɔ́m/
kìròm2
kɨrom lu
n.
n.
/k r̀ ɔ̀m/
/k r̀ ɔ̀m-lú/
kɨrong
a.
/k r̀ ɔ̀ŋ/
kɨsak
n.
/k ś ák/
kɨshkɨsh
id.
/k ʃ́ -k ʃ́ /
kɨsɨ
55
back of a person
also nk n
̀ òk
cheek, side of face
main entrance to the
compound
stomach, intestine of
animals
towel-like part of the
intestine of ruminants
(animals)
big calabash
to destroy, tear into
shreds
mat made from tar Used in conveying corpses
grass
or to cover the main
entrance into a compound
or bong kas
delinquent,
very
destructive
expensive precious,
dear, costly
thrift
eyebrow
straightforward
fear of god
slave
mistletoe
Tapinanthus and Loranthus
spp. cf. ndur
insect sp.
it sticks pieces of wood and
grass to its body as it moves
along
abandoned settlement
abandoned building,
especially one that is
already crumbling
describes
wasted going back empty-handed,
effort etc.
doing something freely
without reward
Residue, chaff from
waar or mos
describes
bursting
into laughter
????
aa kam a we kɨsɨ
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
kɨsok
kɨsom
v.
n.
kɨtu lu
a.
kɨvuk
n.
/k v̀ úk/
kɨwung
n.
kɨzɨng
kɨzɨng kwaam
n.
n.p.
kɨzɨng liis
n.p.
/k w
̀ úŋ//kà
wúŋ/
/kɨzɨŋ/
/kɨzɨŋkwa:m/
/kɨzɨŋ-li:s/
klas
ko ngul
kobo
n.
?
n.
/klas/
/kɔ ngul/
/kɔɓɔ/
koghom
n.
/kɔgɔm/
koghom
koghon
koghop1
koghop2
n.
v.
n.
v.
????
/kɔ̀gɔ̀n/
/kɔ̀gɔ̀p/
/kɔ̀gɔ̀p/
Koghorong
p.n.
/kɔgɔrɔŋ/
kòk
kok pee
kóm1
kom
kom dwaghar
n.
n.
n.
n.
a.
kom dwaghar
kom mɨlom
n.
n.
kom pee
kom shwal
Komoghos
komtak
n.
n.
p.n.
pron.
2
A proverbial expression
/kɨsɔk/
/k s̀ ɔ́m/
/kɔk-pɛ:/
/kɔ́m/
/kɔm/
/kɔmdwagar/
/kɔm
mɨlɔm/
/kɔmpɛ:/
/kɔmʃwal/
/kɔmɔgɔs/
/kɔmtak/
56
Gloss
tear apart in shreds
plant sp.
gwíshɓ ŕ ń g gwíshɓ ŕ ń g
ye? Who are you imitating,
that walks gwíshɓ ŕ ń g
gwíshɓ ŕ ń g?
Used for settling disputes.
The first chicken to die
after drinking the mixture
was considered guilty
belonging to the same
compound
tiny specks or powder
from fonio/acha grain
shield made from also kawung
elephant hide
urine
sperm
drops of saliva that
fall while talking
class
< E.
doubtful, uncertainty
kobo coin
no longer legal tender with
the introduction of decimal
currency. < Hausa
hay,
dry
leaves,
rubbish
area, section,
to scrape
side, ribs
meaning,
purpose,
usefulness
hero
Koghorong làà yingyíng2
mang gha put ɓwot mmo
shwar Koghorong [a hero]
has given birth to an insane
person, which makes him
become a laughing-stock
wall
cleared surrounding
groundnut, peanut
ear, leaf
deaf
deafness, deaf person
cocoyam leaf
leaves
ear problem
compound in Panyam
someone, somebody,
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
kon
v.
/kɔn/
kon shik
v.p.
/kɔn ʃik/
kong1
kong mɨlom
n.
n.
kong sùng
n.
/kɔŋ/
/kɔŋ
mɨlɔm/
/kɔŋ-sùŋ/
kòng2
kòng2
kòng2
n.
n.
n.
/kɔ̀ŋ/
/kɔ̀ŋ/
/kɔ̀ŋ/
kòng² as
kòng3
kóó1
n.p.
quant.
quant.
/kɔ̀ŋ/
/kɔ́:/
koo2
pron.
/kɔ́:/
koo ɗi ni arang ye
pron.
kòò
kòòk
kòòk mààp
n.
n.
n.p.
/kɔ: ɗi ni
araŋyɛ/
/kɔ:/
koom
n.
/kwɔ:m/
kòòp
kóón
v.
v.
/kwɔ̀:p/
/kɔ́:n/
/lìyòòn/
koon1
v.
/kɔ:n/
koon2
koor
n.
n.
/kɔ:n/
/kɔ:r/
koos
v.
/kɔ:s/
koos páá
v.p.
/kɔ:s pa:/
lìyòòn
57
Gloss
a certain person
to spoil, mess up,
disorder, disorganise
things
to
disorganise,
destroy things
edge of a cliff
tender
piece
of
cocoyam
cocoyam seedling
that has spent about a year
and is ready for planting
(when there is hunger in the
land it is often cooked)
seat made of wood
big wooden dish
potsherd used to
serve dogs with food
or provide water for
livestock
dog-bowl
few, not many
only, one of several,
some, or
whosoever,
whatsoever whatever
however, whatever
darkness
song, dance
lamentation
cf. nkoo
heard at a funeral. Women
sing sad songs while
grinding cereals on the
millstone. Also nyàm maap
bird sp. that eats
maize
to praise
to dismantle a house,
to be taken apart, to
be stripped out, to be
lost (teeth)
to get trapped in a
tight place, to force
s.t. into a tight space
fig tree
Ficus sp. Hausa ɓaure
aim at something
with spear arrow, gun
etc
to detect/determine
the cause of illness or
misfortune by the use
of diviners
Traditional method of
detecting
illness,
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
kòòt
v.
kop1
n.
/kɔp/
kop2
kop pee
v.
conj.
/kɔp/
/kɔp-pɛ:/
kòp
Kop nshuu
n.
p.n.
/kɔ̀p/
/kɔp nʃu:/
58
Gloss
death etc by fortune
tellers
to make the sound of nlùú kòòt lit. the cloud
thunder
thundered i.e. there was the
sound of thunder
inheritance
Mwaghavul is a patrilineal
society, where descent is
traced through the male
child. It is therefore the
pride of a father to be
succeeded by his children
who should be the ones to
bury their elders. Where a
father has no male child, his
brothers
succeed
him.
Where there are several
male
children
from
different wives, the assets
are
shared
in
equal
proportions according to
the number of wives that
have male children. After
this, male children from the
female side share what has
been allocated to them.
Women are generally given
a small portion, although
this is not compulsory,
since they are expected to
move
out
to
their
matrimonial
homes.
However, some parents
make specific bequests to
daughters
before
their
demise. A male child
cannot inherit from his
uncles. i.e. his mothers’
brothers. However the
uncles could give them a
piece of land that would
then revert back to the
original owners. A piece of
land could be loaned to a
daughter to increase her
income, but eventually
would revert to her family.
to plant
instead of, in the
place of
spear, general term
cf. cwang, hoz, silak
hunting
These expeditions were
expedition/festival of organised to help check the
Ampang community growth of wild animals in
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Kop shuu
p.n.
/kɔp-ʃú:/
Kopaal
p.n.
/kɔpal/
koryòng
kú
kú…ɗi
a.
conj.
conj.
/kú/
kucet
n.
/kùtʃɛ̀t/
kuɗi
v.
/kúɗi/
kùdùl
n.
/kùdùl/
kùdùn
n.
/kùdùn/
kufùrùm
n.
kughun
n.
/kufùrùm//
kɨfùrùm/
/kugun/
kùk
n.
/kùk /
kùk yoghom
n.
kukun
kukwak
kukwar
n.
n.
n.
/kùkyɔ́gɔ́m/
/kú-kwàk/
/kúkwá:r/
kúkúí
kúl
kùl byáp
n.
a.
n.
/kúkwí:/
/kúl/
/kùl-byá:p/
ku ni
59
Gloss
of Mangu LGA
the area. Festivities were
also organised during the
period to exhibit good,
horsemanship, bravery etc.
Talented
hunters
horsemen, farmers and even
dancers
could
thereby
attract wives
place in Ampang in
Mangu LGA
village in Mangu
LGA
crooked
koryòng kɨ baal
in order to, so that
in order to, so that
a sòr cwèt kú a foghot mo
ɗi Go quickly to see how
they are doing following
the accident
????
lwaa miir ni sham táá
mɓut kom pee ɗii fii ku ni
wal hàghàshhàgàsh the
meat of a python fell inside
the dry leaves and made the
noise hàghàshhàgàsh
kitchen, or open place
for cooking
not yet, remainder,
balance, left over
acha variety
used in food fried as
sacrifices to the njii spirits
one who is not a
witch or wizard
knee
also kɨfùrùm
snake sp.
stem, foundation of a
house
piece of log, (wood)
fire wood
bushbuck
elbow
burnt remnants of
food
epilepsy
frozen
fontanelle, soft part
on the head of a child
that appears to be
breathing.
biggest snake second only
to python in size
Tragelaphus scriptus
According to Mwaghavul
belief, a child that is above
average in intelligence
should have their fontanelle
enmeshed in kudul (a fonio
variety) to protect the
child’s brain from evil
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
spirits. This is thought to
have a negative influence
on the development of the
child.
kulak
v.
/kulak/
kulap
kular
kuleen
n.
n.
n.
/kulap/
/kùlár/
/kúlɛ:n/
kulfit
n.
kúljem
n.
kuluk
n.
/kúlfít//gúl
vít/
/kúljɛm//nl
ujen/
/kùlùk/
kúm1
n.
/kúm/
kúm2
kúm3
kúm3 pee
kum nɨnung
n.
v.
v.p.
n.
kum
n.
/kúm/
/kúm/
/kúm-pɛ:/
/kumn ǹ uŋ/
/kùm/
Kùm Bóng
p.n.
kum jep
n.
/kùm-jɛ́p/
kum kam
n.
/kùmkam/
Kùm Pààl
p.n.
Kùm Pák
p.n.
Kùm Yer
p.n.
60
to
use
water
extravagantly
lie, untruth
left-handed person
tiny particle/powder
like part of fonio
gizzard (of bird)
also gulvit
bird sp.
cf. nkúljem
hunting bag made
from the skin of a
ram (worn by men)
corpse,
carcass, cf. f ́kot
cadaver
navel, umbilical cord
to wait, watch for
to keep watch
cheap thing
traditional religion, Every house hold has its
spirit, ritual practice
own kum. Whenever there
is death or misfortune seers
are consulted and the
results are interpreted.
Every household has it
ɗukum. The oldest member
of the family keeps the daa
ɗukum and ensures its full
protection
spirit which causes
illness to anyone who
offends it
conducted
on cf. Naan
children
suffering
from siri
treatment for those (see naan (n) ‘siri’)
suffering
from
sickness related to
bone etc
spirit which causes
illness for anyone
who offends it
spirit which demands those who told lies died
that truth must be told instantly
at all times
spirit which punishes This spirit ensured that the
all who swear false descendants of the culprit
oaths
were
eliminated.
This
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
kumùùr
n.
kún1
kun2
kùn3
kùndung
num.
v.
n.
n.
kundyághál
a.
/kumù:r//kɨ
mù:r/
/kún/
/kun/
/kùn/
/kùnduŋ//k
ùt/
kundyághál
kung1
n.
/kuŋ/
kùng2
kùng lúng
kùng tùp
n.
n.
n.
/kùŋ/
kungguleng
kunguul
n.
n.
/kungulɛŋ/
/kúngu:l/
kúp
v.
/kúp/
kur1
kúr2
v.
n.
kuram
n.
/kúr/
/kúr//dà:kúr/
/kuram/
kuram sar
n.
/kur̂ am-sár/
kúrgwàm
kúrgyè
kùríít
n.
n.
n.
/kúrgwàm/
/kúrgyɛ̀/
/kùríit//nkù
rí:t/
kuru
n.
/kuru/
kurum
kurum n furum
Kùrúmbàng
v.
v.p.
p.n.
/kurum/
61
Gloss
helped in ensuring honesty
in the day to day activities.
stick used for stirring also kɨmùùr
food
three (3)
to be old
old age
cripple
(disabled also kùt
person)
describes s.o. with a also kùngyághál
crowded mouth
big drum
Usually carried by two or
more people. Used during
the initiation of children
and
other
sacrificial
ceremonies
to
the
traditional spriit (njii)
plant sp.
shrub sp.
fruits are used to make soap
shea tree
Vitellaria paradoxa Hausa
kaɗanya
bell, gong
cereal stalk node or
joint
to close one’s hands,
or eyes
to squeeze or shrink
tortoise, turtle
also dàà kúr
dismembered,
destroyed
muscle cramped on
hand
wild banana plant
hook for fishing
black bird always in
the company of cattle
while grazing
traditional
Mwaghavul
horse,
short but fast
kneel
kneel down
Deity that protects.
Ensete gillettii
< Hausa
cf. nkùríít
< Hausa
It was placed at an entrance
to check male intruders into
the compound, especially
those with evil intentions,
such as witches. It was also
believed to deal with
dubious members of the
same
household.
The
absence of this deity today
has given rise to all kinds of
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
kuryeep
n.
/kúryɛ:p/
fonio variety
kus1
kus2
v.
v.
/kús/
/kus/
to be near
to prepare
skin
evil wickedness to one
another in Mwaghavul land,
hence the evolution of all
kinds of cults, secret
societies etc.
planted in the dry land cf.
kusuk
animal
a sò abetabet kus a tang làà
ni wurí ɗi you go at once
and find the boy
kus
kus2
v.
kus3
kús-kús
kuseleng
kushing
a.
/kùs/
n.
n.
/kùʃiŋ/
kúsúk1
n.
/kúsúk/
kusuk1 nyer
n.
kusuk2
v.
/kusuknyɛ̀r/
/kúsùk/
kùt1
n.
/kùt/
kut2
kut3
kutar
kutik
n.
n.
n.
n.
/kút/
/kút/
/kùtar/
/kútík/
kutung
n.
/kútuŋ/
kutut
n.
/kútùt/
kúúl4
kuul tum
kuul1
n.
n.
v.
/kú:l/
/ku:ltum/
/ku:l/
kuul2
kuur1
kuur2
n.
n.
n.
/ku:l
/ku:r/
/ku:r/
kuur3
v.
/kù:r/
kwaghal
62
to pester s.o. for a
favour
big, large
????
rat sp.
place for threshing,
pounding
and
grinding of grain etc
within the compound
fonio, acha, hungry Digitaria exilis. Varieties
rice
are sun, bilat, zor, kuriep,
cighirnighin, kutung
grass sp. similar to
fonio
beg,
appeal
for
leniency
loss of reasoning; no
longer self, disability,
disabled
air, wind, breeze
crocodile
bridge
muscle pull on hands
or legs
fonio variety
used for preparing kunu cf.
kusuk
local tray made from
raffia leaves, used
for separating food
items,
winnowing
tray
garden egg
Solanum incanum
garden egg variety
sheep are fond of it
to tie a knot, to
tighten the fist
knots
cf. sar hirit, ríshnàng
ashes, charcoal, soot
deepest part of water
body
to meet together,
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
kùùr4
kùùt
n.
n.
kùùt bileng
n.p.
kùùt cet
n.p.
kùùt ciin
n.p.
kùùt kùùr
kuzum
kuzum ting
Kuzung
n.p.
n.
n.
p.n.
Kuzung
kwaa
p.n.
id.
kwààk
id.
kwààkil
n.
/kwà:k l̀ /
kwaam
v.
/kwa:m/
kwaan
n.
kwaar
kwaar
kwaghal1
v.
n.
n.
/kwà:n//kwà:
/
/kwa:r/
/kwágál/
kwaghal2
n.
/kwàgàl/
kwaghal3
kwaghap
v.
n.
/kwagal/
/kwagap/
/kù:r/
/kù:t/
/kuzum/
/njì:-kuzuŋ/
/kuzuŋ/
/kwà:/
63
Gloss
assemble
crowd
place where you keep
or do s.t.
place where young
girls
are
kept
protected
place where they
cook food
place for storing
water
assembly hall
bush rat sp.
rat sp.
spirit which causes The treatment was to
sacrifice a chicken or other
sanyin kashi
animal.
clan in Panyam
sound to drive away
birds
describes s.t. that is cf. wèèt
finished completely
and faster than you
expected
traditional variety of Mwaghavul use it to offer
cowpeas much bigger sacrifices to njii. kwaakil
than the normal
was so important to the
Mwaghavul that it could be
exchanged with kusuk
(fonio). kwaakil was also
used
during
initiation
ceremonies.
kum-kudul
was prepared and sacrificed
to njii-kung and njii-paal
(all
these
required
kwaakil). while kusuk was
used to offer sacrifices to
njii-kirang (this was for
good yield/harvest).
to
have
sexual
intercourse
okra plant and fruits
also kwaa
to scrape, clean up
oribi
Ourebia ourebi
lump of flour not
properly mixed with
water
slope, valley, incline,
furrow
to tie knots
plural of kuul
peel or bark of fruits
etc
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
kwaghap shíí
kwàghàr
Kwàghàs1
pl.
PoS
n.
n.
p.n.
IPA
/k agap-ʃí:/
/kwàgàr/
/kwàgàs/
kwàghàs2
n.
/kwàgàs/
Kwaghas lap lek
p.n.
/kwàgàsláp-lɛ̀k/
kwàghàzàk
Kwang zughut
n.
p.n.
kwak kaa
v.
/kwàgàzàk/
/kwáŋzúgút/
/kwák-ká:/
kwak
kwak shimanjing
n.
n.
kwàk
kwàk sár
kwàk shíí
kwal
kwalba
kwandirang
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
/kwakʃiman
-ʤiŋ/
/kwàk/
/kwàk-sár/
/kwàk-ʃí:/
/kwàl/
/kwálɓá/
/kwánd r̀ àŋ/
kwang
kwang kaa
n.
n.
/kwáŋ/
/kwàŋ-ká:/
kwang kiɓel
n.
kwar
Kwaraa
v.
p.n.
/kwàŋkíɓɛ́l/
/kwar/
/kwara:/
kwas1
kwas2
n.
????.
/kwás/
/kwás/
kwasai
kwat1
n.
n.
/kwá:sɛ́i/
/kwat/
w
64
Gloss
shoe
gravel, laterite
area in Panyam
cf. kwàghàzàk
Set ablaze by the chief
priest as a declaration of the
Wus festival at Panyam
gravelly soil
suitable for millet, fonio
and beans
boundary
between (around dorowa) it used to
Mwaghavul land and be a battle ground as the
the Berom
name implies
shoe, generic
cf. kwaghap shíí
constellation
to hit on the head
with a closed fist
borassus palm frond
vegetable sp.
(see pumbwan)
joint
wrist
ankle
valley or slop
bottle
< Hausa
shoe
(the
hard
covered type)
corner
some heads have
corners, the name
refers to such heads
with corners or edges
crab
deny, refusal
dance
similar to velang of
neighbouring peoples in
Mupun, Chip, Chakfem and
Jipaal
scabies, skin disease
spotted, dotted, object
with pimples
bean cakes
< Hausa
bridewealth,
Paid to the parents of a
payment, price
bride to formalise a marital
relationship.
When
bridewealth is not paid and
there is are children as a
result of the relationship,
they automatically remain
with her parents until
redeemed by the father or
his relations making the
appropriate
payments.
Children born before any
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
kwat1 sar
n.
/kwat -sár/
court fine
kwàt2
Kwat2
v.
p.n.
/kwàt/
/kwàt/
kwat2 lagham
p.n.
kwat2 lagham
??
/kwàtlàgàm/
??
to hunt
hunting festival in
Mwaghavul land
hide and seek game
kwáy
kwèè
kwee jwak
kwee kin
n.
n.
n.
n.
/kwɛ̀:-jwak/
/kwɛ̀:-kɨn/
kwee piya
kwegher
kwes pee
kwetkwet
kyaas
kyaghar1
kyaghar1 ɗiibish
kyaghar2
n.
n.
v.
adv.
??
n.
??
v.
/kwɛ̀:-piyá:/
/kwɛ́gɛ́r/
/kwɛspɛ:/
/kwɛ́t-kwɛ́t/
/kyà:s/
/kwágár/
???
/kyagar/
kyák
kyák pee
v.
n.
/kyák/
/kyákpɛ:/
kyák pòo
v.
/kyákpɔ̀:/
kyál
n.
kyam1
n.
/kyam/
v.p.
/kyam-ká:fwaga
n.
/kyam-ʃáŋ/
n.
v.
/kyam/
kyam kaa fwagha
kyam1 shang
kyam2
kwátáp
kyam
sak
fwagha
/kwái/
65
formal
marriage,
the
children remain with their
mother’s
family
until
payment is made.
we believe in restitution
and retributive justice when
you damage a property you
repair hence the saying that
“kat motu nkwak be mo
ki lop a nkoor di” if you
are unable to pay, you work
for it.
not
being
straightforward,
devious, obfuscatory
matchet, sword
chicken, hen
stone-partridge
traditional gift of
chicken from an
uncle
cattle-egret
bird sp.
that eats maize
to search frantically
completely
straightforward
love, lust
love, lust
desire, admire to be
jealous
to pick
sickler, persistently
sick child
grumble,
always
complaining
clearing
land
preparatory to the
next farming season
to taste, examine,
touch
to examine oneself
Taste how good a
soup
is,
etc
palatability test
to ????
to pay a fine
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
kyee
pl.
PoS
v.
IPA
/k ɛ:/
kyee pyee
v.p.
kyéék
kyèek
n.
n.
/kyɛ̀://pyɛ̀://j
w
à:n/
/kyɛ́:k/
/kyɛ̀:k/
kyéén1
kyéén2
n.
v.
/kyɛ́:n/
kyeen2
kyeen
v.
loc.
/kyɛ:n/
/kyɛ:n/
kyeer1
kyeer2
v.
v.
/kyɛ:r/
/kyɛ:r/
kyeer long
kyen bish
kyen kyen
v.
v.
v.
kyen pyáá
n.
kyer waar
v.p.
/kyɛ:r-lɔŋ/
/kyɛn-biʃ/
/kyɛnkyɛn//nkyɛnn y
k ɛn/
/kyɛ:npiyá:/
/kyɛ:r-wa:r/
kyes1
kyes2
n.
v.
/kyɛs/
/kyɛs/
kyes³
Kyes kɨ yil
adv.
p.n.
/kyɛs/
?
kyet
kyet wa
adv.
v.
/kyɛt/
/kyɛ̀t-wá/
y
Gloss
to preserve, guard
jealously
to lure or deceive s.o. cf. jwaan
porcupine
Hystrix cristata
hand tool for shaping
wood
usefulness
to take advantage of,
to make use of
future, ahead
in
front,
ahead,
preceding
to adhere strictly
to be tender, nurture,
protect
cattle/sweep grazing
accident, misfortune
urgently, quickly
also nkyen-nkyen
good luck
to adhere to tenets of
the law
the last
to finish, conclude,
complete, finalise
completely
end-time, rapture
A recent concept but now
widespread in Christian
discourse in Nigeria
probably
to
be
doubtful,
uncertain
L.
lá
v.
láá1
láá1 pòò
n.
v.
/lá:/
/lá:-pɔ̀:/
láá2 wus
n.p.
/lá:-wus/
láá wus
làà2
làà2 di naat
làà2 diyem
jep
jep di
naat
jep
n.p.
n.
n.
n.
/là:/, /ʤɛ́p/
/là:-ɗiinà:t/
/là:-ɗyɛ̀m/
66
to take, have, answer, cf. láp
receive
wound, injury
to make derogatory lit. ‘have mouth’.
remarks, trouble
point
when
the cf. pyaghar wus
bundle
of
twigs
catches fire in the
Wus ritual
burns
child, offspring
small baby
young man
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
n.
n.
/là:-gɨr/
/là:-kam/
plant/fruit
policeman
làà2 kicoo
pl.
diyem
jep hiir
jep kam
mo
jep kicoo
n.
/là:-k t́ ʃɔ́:/
làà2 kut
jep kut
n.
/là:-kút/
làà2 kwee
làà2 lop
làà2 lu1
làà2 lu2
jep kwee
jep lop
jep lu
jep lu
n.
n.
n.
n.
/là:-kwɛ:/
/là:-lɔ̀p/
/là:-lú/
/là:-lú/
làà2 lukaa
jep
lukaa
mo
làà mat
mo
n.
/là:-lù-ká:/
child born outside
marriage
irresponsible
person/vagabond
chick
errand boy/girl
hut, small house
child
within
the
compound
orphan
n.
/là:-màt/
womenfolk
v.p.
/lá:-mbut/
n.
/là:-mìʃ/
n.p.
/là:-ni-k -́
kyák-pɛ:/
/là:-njú:/
to
get
annoyed,
annoyance
brave man, young
man
sickler child
làà2 hiir
làà2 kam
làà2 mat
làà2 mbut
làà2 mish
làà2 ni kɨ kyak
pee
làà njúú
làà reep
Làà2 taa ndung
jep mish
mo
jep ni kɨ
kyakpee
jep njuu
jìrááp
PoS
n.p.
n.p.
p.n.
n.
làà tong
jep tong
làà2 tong
làà2 tum
n.
n.
jep tum
mo
jep
yil n.
mo
v.
la
n.
n.
p.n.
n.
n.
làà2 yil
làà2
làà piit1
làà wéét
Laadi
laahir
lááp
IPA
/là:tɔŋ/
/là:-tɔŋ/
/là:-tum/
/là:-yíl/
/là:/ la
/là:-pi:t/
???
/tiŋ là:hɨr/
/lá:p/
laar1
n.
/la:r/
laar1 vul
laar2
lààr kas
num.
n.
n.p.
/la:r-vul/
/la:r/
/là:r-kas/
67
Gloss
tiny baby
young girl
young man chosen
due to his bravery to
lead his peers during
circumcision
and
other initiation rites
slave
boy/girl/dependant
stranger
lamb, young ram,
sheep
small
village,
indigene of a place
to give birth
mucus, catarrh, cough
tree sp.
Sunday
tree sp.
place for threshing
millet, acca
applied
while
counting above ten
and less than twenty
twenty (20)
flat surface of a rock
flat rock or stone
where millet is kept
to dry
His bravery is expected to
instil confidence in others.
red fruits when ripe
< Hausa
Hausa lemun tsuntsu
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
laariyaa
lààwéét
lááwúr
lághádish
pl.
PoS
n.
n.
n.
n.
IPA
???
làghàm
v.
/lá:wúr/
/lágádiʃ//nlá
gádiʃ/
/làgàm/
laghar1
n.
/lágár/
laghar2
lalek
lam
lambar
n.
n.
v.
n.
/lagar/
/lálɛ̀k/
/lám/
/làmbàr/
lambir
n.
/lambir/
lamteng
v.
/lámtɛ́ŋ/
lamzar
lang1
n.
v.
/làmzar/
/laŋ/
lang2
lang ɗi
lang ɗi lee
adv.
adv.
adv.
/làŋ/
/làŋɗi/
/làŋ-ɗi-lɛ:/
lang lee
lang3
lang3 lee
adv.
v.
n.p.
/làŋ-lɛ:/
/làŋ/
lang3 tìleng
n.p.
/làŋ-t l̀ ɛ̀ŋ/
lang ga
n.
/làŋ-gá/
lang kaa
v.p.
/làŋ-ká:/
lang lughup
v.p.
/làŋ-lùgùp/
lang tughup
láp
láp ɗi
v.p.
v.
v.
/làŋ-tugup/
láp hóp
v.
/láp-hɔ́p/
/láp-ɗi/
68
Gloss
sieve for flour
plant sp.
sweet potato
greenish grasshopper
to get lost, lose,
disappear
one who dances out
of tune, dance not
synchronised
exhaustion
quarrelsomeness
to weave twine, rope
leg applied as a
wedge to bring down
an opponent in a
wrestling contest
when one engages in
farming that is not
extensive but better
than remaining idle
to weave rope from
jute
tsetse fly
inability to get a
share of an item that
has been given out to
others
after; after sometime
in a while
in a short time,
sooner
shortly, soon
to hang, squat
place where things
are hung to dry
hanger where soup
condiments are kept
game where children
hop on one leg
to
take
undue
advantage
to make allowance
for free movement,
access etc
to be annoyed, angry
to take away, receive
remaking
ridges
when the plant has
fully grown instead
of formally weeding
the farm
to borrow
Hausa tsamiyan biri
< Hausa
with strong odour
edible)
(not
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
láp màt káá
PoS
n.
IPA
/láp-màtká:/
Gloss
widow inheritance
lap po
lap shak
lap shi pilang
v.
v.
/láp-pɔ̀:/
/láp-ʃàk/
lap shii
las
v.
v.
/láp-ʃí:/
/làs/
laweet
n.
/tiŋ la:
wɛ́:t/
/lɛ̀/ kwáŋ
answer, respond
resemblance
acknowledgement in
a publication
to follow up
to fix, mount an
object
tree sp.
Hausa tsamiyar biri
lè
pl.
kwáng
v.
le bit
le kom
v.p.
v.p.
/lɛ̀-ɓít/
lè ngáás
lè pòò
v.p.
v.p.
/lɛ̀-ngá:s/
/lɛ̀-pɔ̀:/
le sar1
v.p.
le sar2
le ting
léé1
léé1 ɗii pyaa
v.p.
adv.
n.
n.p.
lee jwat
n.
/lɛ̀-tiŋ/
/lɛ́:/
/lɛ́:-ɗi:pyá:/
/lɛ:-jwát/
lee kòòk
n.
/lɛ:-kɔ̀:k/
lee lèk
n.
/lɛ:-lɛ̀k/
lee lóp
lee
lèè1
lee2
n.
a.
n.
n.
/lɛ:-lɔ́p/
/lɛ:/
/lɛ̀:/
/lɛ̀:/
lèè ɗii rét
n.
/lɛ̀-ɗi:-rɛ́t/
69
Occurs when s.o. takes
over/inherits his deceased
relation’s wife. This is
permissible where many
children are left behind.
The wife is therefore
retained within the family
to look after the children.
The man does not therefore
pay any dowry. If an
outsider is marrying the
widow, he must pay dowry
or refund the dowry paid by
the
deceased
to
his
relations.
to keep, to place, to
cause, to put s.t.
fix an appointment
to be attentive, to pay
attention
leftover food
to condole a bereaved
family
to lay hands on, to
anoint
to sign, endorse
forcefully
clothes, goods
white clothing, robes,
gowns
dresses reserved for
outing
costumes,
musical
instruments,
dance
gear
arms,
armoured plural
mbii-lek.
clothing,
nlurlek (sing)
dresses worn
small quantity
good yield (of tubers)
tattooing as a result
of
girl
being
betrothed
blessing(s)
also
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
lee k ̀ mat muyi
pl.
PoS
n.p.
IPA
/lɛ́:-k -̀ màtmùyí/
/lɛ́:-k -̀ màttʃivir/
lee kɨ mat-civir
n.p.
lèè kiir muut
adv.
leelee
adv.
lèèmúú
lèèmúú ɗii dwáng
n.
n.
leen
lèk
n.
n.
/nlɛ̀:mú/
/lɛ̀:mú-ɗi:ɗwáŋ//nlɛ̀:m
ú/
/lɛ:n/
/lɛ̀k/
lèk aghas
n.p.
/lɛ̀k-àgàs/
lèk se
leng
leng sak
lepan
lèr
liɓin
n.p.
v.
v.
v.
n.
v.
/lɛŋ/
/lɛŋ-sak/
/lɛ̀-pàn/
/lɛr//nl r̀ /
/liɓin/
lii
lii kum
n.
n.
/lì:/
/lì:-kum/
lii n woo
liis
líjám
n.
n.
n.
/lí:s/
likàng
n.
/likàŋ//
lilyu
lip
n.
n.
/lílyú/
/lip/
/lɛ̀-kɨ:rmu:t/
????
liyoon
lɨ pòò
lɨɓet1
n.
v.
/l p̀ ɔ̀//lùpɔ̀/
/l ɓ̀ ɛ̀t/
lɨɓet2
lɨghɨt1
lɨghɨt2
v.
n.
v.
/l ɓ̀ ɛ̀t/
/l g̀ t̀ /
/lɨgɨt/
70
Gloss
applied when name is
to be confidential
applied when name is
expected
to
be
confidential
fearful, frightful
bit by bit, in small
increments
orange (plant, fruit)
also nlemu < Hausa
lemon (sour type
including grapefruit)
plant/fruit
flour, powder
war, fight, battle,
conflict
fight in which one of
the combatants uses
his teeth instead of
his fists etc
prisoner of war
to search
search one’s self
think that
shirt, dresses gowns
also nlɨr
to cover i.e. on the
farm you cover up
grass with soil
saliva, sputum
saliva
spreads on one’s cheeks
while sleeping
snake saliva
such as spat by a cobra
tongue
plant sp.
Soft plant used to dress
wounds after circumcision.
male agama lizard
also
nl ́kàng.
Agama
agama
rainbow
red powder
normally collected from the
stream over stagnant water.
The powder is used mostly
during war or festivities
?????
aghas kɨ gunan ni kɨ liyoon
kyes ku pò ni ɗéé g ǹ ǹ òn
The old man has lost almost
all his teeth and his mouth
is now just empty, g ǹ ǹ òn
dialect, language
also lùpòò
to show extra, excess,
over zealousness
to gain, profit
forest, shrub
to put on more
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
clothes
necessary
lɨghɨt-lɨghɨt
lɨle
loghom1
loghom2
loghor
v.
n.
v.
n.
loghot
v.
/lɨlɛ̀/
/lɔgɔm/
/lɔgɔm/
/lɔ̀gɔ̀r//nlɔ̀g
ɔ̀r/
/lɔgɔt/
lok1
lok2
lok3
v.
v.
n.
/lɔ̀k/
/lɔ̀k/
/lɔ̀k/
lok-lok
lòk nìghìn màt
n.
lok took
v.p.
lom
long
v.
/lɔ̀k-n g̀ ǹ màt/
/lɔ̀ktɔ́:k//lɔ̀kfɛ́:/
/lɔ́m/
long1
mo-
n.
/lɔŋ/
long lap
mo-
n.p.
?
Long kat
p.n.
/lɔŋ-kat/
Long feer
look1
p.n.
v.
/lɔŋfɛ:/
/lɔ́:k/
look2
lóót
v.
n.
/lɔ:k/
/lɔ́:t/
lòòt lú
n.p.
/lɔ̀:t-lú/
lop1
jwal
v.
/lɔp/
lop1 shik
jwal shik
v.p.
ʤwal shik
71
than
to keep
leprosy
to wither (plant)
insect that emits
also nloghor
slimy saliva
habit,
custom,
familiar way of doing
things
to soak
to get wet, to soak s.t.
wet, beginning of the
rainy season (tar-lok)
???
late rains
to wet the throat, to also lok feel
quench thirst
to consume (slang)
randong mó ɗel pwat nkuut
long gùtùtùt The cows came
out of the pen gùtùtùt
riches,
wealth
(generally
goods,
money
livestock),
domestic animal
Animal given by Usually a young female
parents to conclude goat that has yet to give
marriage formalities
birth and is without defects.
The offspring would be
given to their grandson
when he visited.
Fyam woman who traditionally local dances
popularised a local went anti-clockwise, but
dance which later this particular one was
bore
her
name clockwise. The name in
Mwaghavul signifies that
longkat
wealth is lacking or
inadequate
tallest hill in Panyam (around Sekop area)
to overdo something
bad e.g. telling lies
to make bald
long,
narrow
entrance, corridor
narrow entrance into
the house
to put on, wear
clothes
to accuse
lit. ‘to put on an issue’
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
lop2
lop2 shuu
PoS
v.p.
v.p.
lɔp
/lɔp-ʃu:/
v.
/lɔp/
lop4
los
n.
v.
lɔ̀p
/lɔ́s/
lú
n.
/lú/
lù adada
lù ɗeng
n.p.
n.p.
/lù-adada/
/lù ɗɛŋ/
lù dyar
n.p.
/lù ɗyá:r/
lù h k
̀
n.p.
lù kùm
lu mang po
lu mbii mang riin
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
lu naa mbiriin
n.p.
lù Naan
n.p.
/lùh k̀ //lùng
k̀ /
/lù kùm/
/lù-màŋ-pɔ̀/
/lù-mbì:maŋ-ri:n/
/lùná:mbì:ri:n/
/lu
na:n//lu:na:n/
lú Naan ɗííɗés
n.p.
lù shaghat
n.p.
/lù-ʃàgàt/
lu siminti
n.p.
/lu-siminti/
lù óó
lù tuk
lu wan
lu yen
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
/lù-ɔ́:/
/lù túk/
/lu wan/
/lù yɛn/
lùɓang
luɓura
lùbwak
ludee
n.
n.
n.
n.
lughum
v.
/lùbaŋ/
/lúɓúra/
/lùbwak/
/lú:dɛ://lú:d
i:/
/lugum/
lop3
lùghùs
lughut
pl.
jwal
jwal
shuu
lwaghas
v.
v.
IPA
/lùgùs/,
/lwagas/
/lùgùt/
72
Gloss
to put in
to thread a needle
to give a message,
send
message
excessive destruction
of lives, animals,
through
warfare,
accident, epidemic
house,
dwelling,
residence,
hut,
building
rectangular house
upstairs,
storey
building
house where the barn
or granary is located
house built with also lu-nghik
stones
shrine house
(nji)
radio house
television house
film theatre or video
house
church, house of god
temple, any large
religious building
prison,
detention
centre
house built with
cement blocks etc
round house
market
mud house
hospital, dispensary,
infirmary
kob antelope
needle
< Hausa
vegetable
(see pumbwan)
spoon made from < Hausa
gourd, ladle
to
bend/fold
vegetables
like
spinach
without
breaking them
thresh acha
to strap s.t. on the
back
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
lughut làà
pl.
PoS
v.p.
IPA
/lùgùt-là:/
luk1
luk puk
v.
v.p.
/lúk/
/lúk-pùk/
lúk pòò
v.p.
/lúk-pɔ̀:/
luk sar
v.p.
/lúk-sár/
luk shii
v.p.
/lúk-ʃi:/
luk shik
v.p.
/lúk ʃìk/
luk2
n.
/lùk/
luk kat
n.p.
/lùk-kàt/
luk naa
n.p.
/lùk-ná:/
luk-luk
lùkáá
lumwash
n.
n.
lumwat
n.
v.
v.
/lumwa//nlu
mwaʃ/
/lumwát//nlù
mwát/
/lùŋ/
/lùn/
n.
/lúŋ/
n.
/lùpàr/
v.
/lùs/, /lwas/
lùshìm
lùú
lùú dung shwaa
laa
lùú kaar
n.
n.
n.p.
lùú koot
lùú Naan
n.p.
n.
/lùʃìm/
/lu://nlu:/
/lu:duŋ/wa:l
a:/
/lu:ka:r//nlu
:ka:r/
/lu: kɔ:t/
/lu:na:n//nlu
:na:n/
lùwìt
lùzáál
lwaa
lwàà kwat
n.
n.
n.
n.
lung
lun
lwan
lung
lung jet
lung as
lung sar
lung shii
lupar
lùs
lwas
n.p.
/lwa:/
/lwà:-kwat/
73
Gloss
to strap a child on
one’s back
to prepare local soup
method of preparing
traditional soup
to develop blisters on
the lips
to develop blisters on
the fingers
to develop blisters on
the foot
surprise, wonderful
thing
problem, difficulty,
puzzle, maze
not easy to find,
scarce
not east to see, not
visible
????
orphan
termite, flying ant
also nlumwash. (cf. fwash)
toad, frog type found
on dry land
to weed a farm
to mend a kutut tray
or laap preparatory
to the threshing of
millet
swimming
backstroke
doggy paddle
breast stroke
crawl
woman still nursing
the birth of a child
to
mend,
patch,
repair, fix
leopard
cloud
intermittent drizzle
also nlumwat
fog
also nlùú-kaar
thunder
spider
also nlùú koot
lit. ‘cloud of God’. also
nlùú-naan
recent coinage
recent coinage
cow dung is used
cf. cùt lúng.
Panthera pardus
minute
website
meat
booty in a hunting Usually shared in the
exercise
following order; the two
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
people who assisted in
killing the animal get the
(a) neck (b) portion below
the neck. The person who
killed the animal takes the
remainder
(meat from a hunt or traps
etc)
lwaa yil
n.
/lwà:-yíl/
bushmeat
lwaat
lwaghas1
v.
v.
/lwa:t/
/lwagas/
lwaghas2
lwas
lyap
v.
v.
v.
/lwagas/
/lwas/
/lyap/
to hijack, divert
to thresh acha, rice plural of lughus
etc.
to rub
to mend
plural of lus
to look, see (pl.)
plural of naa
maa1
excl.
/ma:/
what?
màà2
v.
/mà:/
mààp
n.
/mà:p/
mààp láá
n.p.
/mà:p-lá:/
maar1
v.
/má:r/
maar2
a. nung-aas
n.
/má:r/
to be exhausted, fed
up
mourning, wailing,
crying
revenge, retaliation, lit. ‘mourning for a wound’
vengeance
to farm
Mwaghavul
have
no
restriction on how to hold
the hoe. Women do not
hoe, but sow the seeds,
transplant weed, harvest,
thresh the fonio
etc.
However, women also farm
these days.
farm
involving
close
relations
involving
other
distant relations
general
communal
work which includes,
kyal,
lungshwa,
yangkas
lughus
kussuk, etc
when a group is
involved and each
person has a day
when others would
work on his farm
the participants ie the host would provide
M
b. kimos
c. wuk
d. ɓitlan
e. yaghal-maar
74
contraction of nné me àà.
Used when s.o. says s.t
disagreeable or irritating
and you ask them to repeat
it as if for clarification.
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
f. maar mat
g. ushat
h. nzhira
75
Gloss
farmers report late in them with food meat and
the afternoon on the drinks, they would spend
farm,
the night on the farm and
commence work as early as
5:00am by 8:00am the host
would provide them with
sat-yaghal etc. the farmers
would later depart in the
evening after providing
them with “vwangsar”
farming for your in- this is to prove to your inlaws.
laws that you are capable of
caring for their daughter
this farming takes
place after the girl
has come to your
house as wife to help
her establish her own
home
this
communal only in order to have a
farming
is successful farming season
specifically for the each ward, or group would
chief/traditional ruler. elect those that would
officiate/lead them during
the year. there is the
“barde” who is the head,
the
group
meets
occasionally to agree on
days that each member
would host the group on his
farm.
there
are
requirements to be fulfilled
by each member when it is
his turn to host the group by
way of drinks, food, meat
etc. the groups flag is flown
at the barde’s residence and
on the farm. the prayer of
each group is to have a
successful farming season.
The old traditional practice
of farming required the
head of the family (who
was incharge of the family
“kum” was always the first
to commence farming. a
day prior to the farming
(yaghal-maar) the family
head would get two ties of
kas (sarnighin) a hoe, and
kas (millet), would all
spend the night in the
lukum. the following day
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
the family head would take
them out, chew the millet
grain and spit over the hoe,
sargnighin (millet to be
transplanted)
kind
of
libation for the purpose of
good harvest, there after
they would proceed to the
farm with the items and
commence
farming.
Farming in Mwaghavul
land followed a particular
sequence prior to the advent
of dry season farming it
followed this order:-
maar milom
mààr mat
n.p.
n.p.
maar sen
n.p.
maar shwaa
n.p.
maar vuu
maar yangkas
maar lawur
maar3
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.
/ma:r/
máás
v.
/má:s/
maas po
maawuu
v.p.
v.
/má:s-pɔ̀/
/mma:wú:/
madubi
mak1
mak2
n.
a.
v.a.
/mádubí/
/mak/
/mak/
makaranta
mal
n.
voc.
/mákáránta/
/mal/
mal shak
n.
/màl ʃàk/
/mà:r-mat/
76
cocoyam farm
farming for future in- The idea was to prove to
laws, brideservice
potential in-laws that the
suitor was capable of
feeding their daughter. This
practice has disappeared or
been commuted to cash.
millet
Formerly the major crop of
the Mwaghavul, it has been
displaced by maize.
maize farm
(this was mainly around the
compound) at this point
millet is grown preparatory
to maar-sen as it would be
transplanted later during
maar-sen.
risga
acha
sweet potato
millet cultivar
(corresponds to Hausa
gero)
to taste alkaline, sour,
bitter
sour mouth
to shoot an arrow
high up in the sky
mirror
< Hausa
enough
to be capable, able, equivalent to English ‘can’
possible
school
< Hausa
of female, same term of address used by
father
different women
in
half-sister
mothers
relationship. Corresponding
male term is mwol
female relationship of cf. mwolshak
the same father but
different mothers
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
man1
man2
pl.
PoS
n.
v.
IPA
/man/
/man/
man der
n.
man shii
màng
v.p.
/man
dɛr//mundɛ
r/
/man-ʃí:/
màng
v.
/màŋ/
màng kaa
màng kɨɨs
v.p.
n.
/màŋ-kɨ:s/
màng ngáás
n.p.
/màŋ-ngá:s/
màng shik
v.p.
/màŋ-ʃìk/
màng yer
n.p.
/màŋ-yer/
màng zùng
v.p.
/màŋ-zùŋ/
mángòr
Mangu
n.
p.n.
/máŋòr/
/Maŋgú/
manman
n.
/man-màn/
77
Gloss
knowledge
to
know,
information
forgetfulness
to understand
????
have
also munder
Koghorong làà yingyíng
màng gha put ɓwot mmo
shwar Koghorong [a hero]
has given birth to an insane
person, which makes him
become a laughing-stock
to take away, carry, pl. hɨr, haghar, kok, oghop
steal, pick
to outgrow s.o.
Mwaghavul believed that
something was responsible
for
every
misfortune,
fortune tellers allege that
there must be a “kiis’
somewhere within the
family that unless they
investigate and ascertain
the cause before future
calamities would be averted
practice of lifting a It was believed that it
child
above
the helped speed the child’s
ground
level
by growth.
holding him by the
chin and the posterior
of the head.
to get yourself into lit. ‘to carry an issue’
trouble
farm
behind
the cf. bòng-yer
house where women
can plant melon and
other small crops
to challenge a peer to
a wrestling/fighting
contest
mango
< Hausa
name
of
town, The name originated from
the early inhabitants who
administrative
headquarters of the had to convey cactus to the
local
government area to serve as hedges.
where
the “Mang” literally mean to
Mwaghavul people carry while “guu” means –
are
the
most cactus. Hence they are
dominant
ethnic referred to as “those who
carry cactus i.e. ngu “Mang
group.
– guu”
educated, intelligent
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
manzang
map
pl.
PoS
n.
IPA
/mànzaŋ/
mar
n.
/mar/
Marbang
p.n.
/marbaŋ/
màt
màt bilat
màt cet mwos
n.
n.p.
n.p.
màt cicet
n.p.
màt kaa
màt kar
n.p.
n.p.
màt
/màt-b ĺ à:t/
/màt-tʃɛ̀tmwɔ̀s/
/màt-tʃìtʃɛ̀t/
/màt-ká:/
???
màt lu
màt mwààn
shwaa
màt muyii
n.p.
n.p.
/màt-lú/
n.p.
/màt-mùyí:/
màt ngaa
n.p.
/màt-nga:/
màt par
màt póó
n.p.
n.p.
/màt-pàr/
/màt-pɔ́:/
màt shee
n.p.
/màt-ʃɛ̀:/
78
Gloss
premolars (teeth)
????
màt káá nɨ wùrá kɨ baa
ɓɨlang ɗi mme la fra ni ɗéé
wùrá teer shoor a map ɗak
shwetshwet the widow has
lost another child and she
has been crying all night
shwetshwet
swelling,
swollen
patches on body
spirit believed to To appease this spirit a
cause sterility
horse
or
mare
was
sacrificed.
woman, wife
Fulɓe woman
woman who brews
local beer
woman who cooks
widow
woman engaged to
one man who breaks
the engagement and
marries s.o. else
housewife
concubine
recent coinage
name used when
actual name is being
kept confidential
prostitute,
harlot, cf. mwan shwa
whore
nursing mother
bride, newly wed
woman
girl betrothed at an Sometimes a girl could be
early age
betrothed at 2 years. She
stays with her parents until
puberty.
Marriage
in
Mwaghavul culture is a
relationship between the
two families rather than the
two couples. The parents of
the groom initiate the
process by first presenting
kim (bangle) to the young
proposed bride. When she
accepts the kim, the
groom’s parents would next
supply the bride’s parents
with two ‘tip’ (bag) of kas
(millet) and kusuk (fonio)
for the upkeep of the bride.
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
These items are presented
to the in-laws annually until
the groom’s parents wish to
formally take her to their
house. This is when the
quantity of millet and fonio
are increased to three tip
each. This time a guard
equivalent of a bottle of
“mwoor paat” (olive oil)
and “nuk” are added. The
nuk is to be worn by the
bride. later the groom’s
parents would buy a pot of
mwoor paat and “mos”
(local beer) would be
prepared and taken to the
bride’s home, by the
groom’s uncles along with
an already slaughtered
ram/goat. at the shiyeep
kipang the bride would
stand there when her
groom’s
father/uncles
would pour the mwoor paat
on her- kind of anointing
she would then follow him
to his house while she uses
kivuk to clean her face. the
following
day
gwom
kussuk would be prepared
which the bride’s relations
would eat nas notification
that year. then there will be
“tule” (tattoo). the parent of
a boy and a girl who are
friends
could
initiate
marriage between their
wards. sometimes even
before their own marriages
purposely to solidify an
existing relationship.
màt waar
n.p.
/màt-wá:r/
màt yil
n.p.
/màt-yíl/
mawe
mbaakwaa
mbam
n.
n.
n.
/tiŋ mawɛ/
/mbà:kwà:/
/mbam/
79
woman who sells
gruel
diminutive
superhuman being
physic nut
Jatropha curcas
large chili pepper
? < Hausa barkono
traditional test of
manhood by peers
where they cut each
other with knife until
one surrenders
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
mbanti
PoS
n.
IPA
/ bàntí/
mbarki
n.
/barki/
mbawaa
mbee
p.n.
n.
/mba:wa:/
/mbɛ:/
mbeen
mbeng
n.
/mbɛ̀ŋ/
mbenghii
n.
/mbɛ̀ŋgɨ://mbɛ̀ŋkɔ́gɔ́l/
Mbi tang kat
excl.
mbihol
n.
mbii
mbii aapo
mbii bish
n.
n.p.
n.p.
/mbì:-tàŋkàt/
/mb h́ ɔl//mb
úhɔl/
/mbì:/
/mbì:-à:pwɔ̀/
/mbì:-rɛt/
mbii bwoon
n.p.
/mbì:-ɓwɔ́:n/
mbii ɗii bish
mbii ɗii ret
mbìì ɗín kàn
mbii kaa
mbii kaam
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
/mbì:-ɗi:biʃ/
/mbì:-ɗi:rɛt/
mbii kam
mbii kiir
mbìì k ́kóp
mo-
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
/mbì:-kám/
/mbì:-k :́ r/
lee lek
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
/mbì:-kɔm/
/mbì:-kyɛ:n/
/lɛ:-lɛ̀k/
mbii loghot
n.p.
/mbì:-lɔgɔt/
mbii naayit
n.p.
mbii ran
n.p.
/mbì:-ná:yit/
/mbì:-ran/
mbii ret
n.p.
/mbì:-rɛt/
mbii kom
mbii kyeen
mbii lek
pl.
m
/mbì:-ka:/
/mbì:-kà:m/
80
Gloss
locally woven loincloth worn by men
only
zoo, immigration to
the urban area
Yoruba
grass (similar to tar
grass)
used
specifically for tying
millet for threshing.
????
container (traditional)
for keeping salt,
potash etc
small wild tuber
thank goodness
tree sp.
thing, job, task
wonderful thing
????
< Hausa bente
This grass was used for
three years consecutively. It
is soaked in water before
use.
also mbengkoghol. A
former favourite of children
when rearing sheep and
goats in the bush
for finding what you have
been searching
also buhol Hausa malmo.
Syzygium guineense
this is considered a bad
thing (although Mwaghavul
do not eat either frogs or
toad)
beads worn on the
waist by girls or
women, waistbeads
bad thing
good thing
evil
lit. thing that is wrong’
cap/hat
for the masses, for
the public
lesson
fearful person/thing
general term for plant lit. ‘thing that is planted’
planted by people
earrings
something productive
arms,
armoured cf. nlurlek
clothing
something/attitude,
habit, one is used to
mirror, reflection
writing material i.e.
pen, pencil, biro etc
something good
lumwat
(toads)
in
Mwaghavul
culture
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
mbii riin
n.p.
/mbì:-ri:n/
mbii saam
mbìì sé
n.p.
n.p.
/mbì:-sa:m/
/mbì:-sɛ́/
mbii shwaa
mbii shwoop pee
n.p.
n.p.
mbii si
mbii sup
mbii tong
pron.
n.p.
n.p.
/mbì:-ʃwá:/
/mbì:-ʃwɔ́:ppɛ:/
/mbì:-s /́
/mbì:-súp/
/mbì:-tɔ̀ŋ/
mbii took
mbii yit
n.p.
n.p.
/mbì:-tɔ́:k/
/mbì:-yit/
mbii zughum
n.p.
mbikɨkak
n.
/mbì:zùgùm/
?
mbit
mbìmbyòl
mbítmbít
v.
n.
adv.
/mbít/
mbɨbish
mbɨlip
mbɨna
mbɨrak
mbuk1
n.
n.
pron.
v.
v.
/mb b̀ iʃ/
/mb ĺ íp/
/mbɨna/
/mbɨrak/
/mbùk/
mbuk2
n.
/mbùk/
mbuka
mbul
n.
n.
/mbùká/
/mbul/
mbul guuk
mbul kɨrang
n.p.
n.p.
mbum
n.
/mbùl-gu:k/
/mbùlk ŕ áŋ/
/mbúm/
/mbít- mbít/
81
Gloss
(although we do not eat
neither frogs nor toads)
frogs
are
however
considered good; this gives
rise to the saying mbii bish
tu mbii ret (the bad thing
destroying the good thing)
photograph,
cinematograph and
video film etc
mat, sleeping place
feed,
foostuffs, as disi ni yém nɗin mbìì sé
general name for kuni ɗéé sɨ gòkshiròk The
food
dog has not been fed for
some time, and it is looking
emaciated, gòkshiròk
something to drink
shameful act
that thing
cover cloth ie blanket (name for Idoma)
common name for
seat
necklace, chain
spectacles,
reading
glasses, sunglasses
gift, offering
reed used to make
covers
for
local
baskets
morning
tonsilitis
very early in the
morning
the devil
lice on livestock
mine
wet, not fully dry
to manipulate game,
to lie, to make false
representation
lie,
cheating
especially in the
game of tubwoor,
corruption
bow
dove,
pigeon
(general)
pigeon
pigeon sp.
traditional
hunting
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
mburnaa
n.
/mbúrná:/
mbwa laa
n.
/mbwa:la:/
mbwaas
n.
/mbwà:s/
mbwaghash
n.
/mbwàgàʃ/
mbwák
n.
/mbwák/
mbwák ɗe
tòghòm
mbwémbwèrè
????
/mbwák-ɗɛ́:n
tɔ̀gɔ̀m/
/bwɛ́mbwɛ̀rɛ̀
/
mbwet
mbwet koon
n.
n.
mbwoor
mbyiyar
n.
id.
/mbwɛt/
/mbwɛtkɔ:n/
/mbwɔ:r/
/mbyar/
mɓut
mɓweng
mɓwoon
mé
n.
n.
/ɓut/
/mɓwɛŋ/
me gwee
pron.
n.
int.
me ye
mee
/mɛ:g ɛ́://mɛ:n
gɔ́/
n w
adv.
det.
/mmɛ́:/
/mɛ:/
mee ár
n.p.
/mɛ:-ár/
mee das mo
pron.
mee pee
meel
loc.
v.
/mɛ:-dásmɔ́/
/mɛ:-pɛ:/
/mɛ́:l/
méé
mee
mee…ni
82
Gloss
cap
small insect with a seen mostly in the rainy
painful bite
season
cowpea variety
local
beans
used
specifically for sacrifices to
rum
stomach of an animal,
whitewash
heap of pebbles
atili nut used in the game of
tubwoor
tiger-nut
also
bwák.
Cyperus
esculentus. Eaten as a snack
food
finding one self in
trouble
plant sp.
used in the preparation of
local pumbwan. Hausa
gwate.
tender fruit
cf. bwet
fruit of fig tree
Hausa ɓáuréé
lion
sound made while
pounding grains in
the mortar
stomach, inside, belly also ɓut
grasshopper sp.
it hops far
?????
polar question marker shortened form ’e. Occurs
in sentence-final position.
Questions which do not
presuppose the response.
person
also mee ngo
?????
??big
mee lwaa kɨ sham sɨ
gd
̀ ɓ
̀ ìsg d
̀ ɓ
̀ ìs A big animal
is dragging itself along over
there
probably
one, some, a, another, Ri cín mee àm ngán He
a certain
gave me a kind of water
Mee lú fugha ni k ̀ ship
One of your houses has
collapsed
another way, another
method
some people
somewhere
to fill to brim with
liquid
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
méén1
méén2
PoS
v.
v.
IPA
/mɛ́:n/
/mɛ́:n/
v.
/mɛ:n/
meen-meen
meer
v.
/mɛ:r/
meer pee1
v.p.
/mɛ:r-pɛ:/
meer pee2
v.
/mɛ:r-pɛ:/
mees
n.
/mɛ:s/
meet
n.
/mɛ́:t/
mem bii
memee1
memee2
pron.
adv.
pron.
/mɛmbì:/
/mɛ̀-mɛ́:/
/mɛ̀-mɛ́:/
mèn
v.
/mɛ̀n/
mér
mér táá
mès
v.p.
n.
/mɛ̀s/
meen
pl.
mulok
met
met del
met kaa
met pee
met sham
mii1
mii fɨna
mii2
miil
v.p.
v.p.
v.p.
v.p.
n.
pron.
v.
n.
/mɛ́t/
/mɛ́t
/mɨrɛp/
/mɛ́t-ɗɛl/
/mɛ́t-kà:/
/mɛ́t-pɛ:/
/mɛ́t-ʃam/
/mì:/
/mì:-fɨna/
/mì:/
/mi:l/
miir
mílìyòn
mìs1
myas
n.
num.
v.
/mi:r/
/mílìyɔ̀n/
/mìs//myas/
mìs2
mìs2 sar
myas
myas sar
v.
v.p.
/mìs//myas/
n.
/miʃ/
met
met
mish
mɨrep
v.
v.
83
Gloss
to be awake
to be raw (not
properly cooked)
to burn, wound, scald d ̀ gyók pal sham meen
kɨpák g ǹ ǹ òn The
delinquent child fell and
wounded the side of his
face g ǹ ǹ òn
to be unable to
perform a task
delinquency, frequent
breaking of law
inability
to
cure (of illness)
thereby resulting in
death
stalk of maize, corn
or milk
inconsequential, not
something to worry
about
something
probably, doubtful
one of them, another
one.
to be beautiful, with
good looks
????
to fall down
locust
beans, Parkia biglobosa
plant/fruit
????
wurí met tong sɨ sàlmùtàt
He sits there, sàlmùtàt
to claim to know all
to jump
to jump across
to jump up
to jump over
to jump down
relation
my relation
to be awake
grass sp.
used in constructing the
raft-zither
python
million (1,000,000)
< English
to drink too much
water
to slap s.o.
to slap s.o. with the
flat of the hand
husband, man, brave
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
mish kagham
pl.
des
kagham
PoS
n.p.
mìsh pòò
n.
mish poo din
ndeng
mish poo din
ngween
mìsh shèè
n.
mizep
mɨdang
n.
n.
n.
IPA
/mìʃ
kágám/
/mìʃ pɔ̀ɔ̀/
/mìʃ pɔ̀ɗín-ndɛ́ŋ/
/mìʃpɔ̀-ɗínn w
g ɛn/
n.
/m d̀ aŋ/
mɨghɨn
m j̀ àà
n.
mɨlam-mɨlam
mɨlep1
n.
/mɨlɛp/
a.
/mɨlɛp/
n.
v.
n.
p.a.
num.
v.
pron.
dem.
pron.
v.
pron.
v.
n.
n.
/m ĺ ɔ́m/
/mɨmàn/
/m m
̀ ɛ̀r/
/m ǹ a/
/m ń dɔŋ/
/m ń ɛ̀/
/m ǹ i/
/m ǹ i/
/m r̀ á/
/mɨrɛp/
/m r̀ í/
/mɨsak/
/m ś ɛ́/
/mmak/
mɨlep-mɨlep
mɨlep2
mɨlam
mɨlom
mɨman
mɨmer
mn
̀ a
m ́ndong
m ́nè
mɨni1
mɨni2
mɨra
mɨrep
mɨri
mɨs
mɨse
mmak
mmat
84
Gloss
man
traditional
chief, ruler
lip
leader,
can be applied to s.o. with
thick
lips.
lit.
‘new
husband’
upper lip
lower lip
man betrothed to a (see
màt-shee)
in
woman
Mwaghavul culture mothers
probably due to being peers
could initiate marriage
between their children to
sustain existing relationship
etc
stranger, visitor
incision made during also mudang
circumcision
??????
kòòk pughal ni doghon
shang mɨghɨn màt funu no
zam har ni kàá wùrá cukcur
yesterday our old woman
danced the Pughal dance so
much that she became very
excited cukcur
red liquid that starts
dripping during the
first stage of potash
production
????
flash,
lightening,
reflection, shining
???
green
slippery?
cocoyam, taro
Colocasia esculenta
known fact
scar (old memory)
mine, my
one (1)
cf. dong
uncertainty
it is
that
her
to jump
plural of met
his
to be alone
habit, behaviour
able, ability, capable
??
mó bàà wàt putughup ɗi
mmat poo furu ni ku wura
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
mmat kaa
mmawe
mme
mmes
mmet po
mming
mmini
mm ́lók
m̀ mo
PoS
IPA
n.
n.
/mmat-ka:/
?
n.
v.
n.
adv.
n.
/tiŋ mmɛ̀s/
/mmɛ̀t-pɔ̀/
/mmɨŋ/
/mm ǹ i/
/mm ĺ ɔ́k/
Gloss
ɗéé saa a làà píít ɗak
shùrètshùrèt they upset the
new wife so she is sniffling
continuously
pupa of dragonfly
physic nut
???
fig tree sp.
to be pompous
anus
it is so/at that time
nose bleeding
?????
for us
m̀ mu
pron.
n.
n.
/mmusut/
/mmu:s/
/mmù:skas/
mmwal
mó
v.
pron.
/mwa:l/
/mɔ́/
mó
moghoɗish
clit.
a.
/mɔgɔɗiʃ/
moghor
v.
/mɔgɔr/
moghos
món
v.
pron.
/mɔgɔs/
v.
/mɔ́r/
p.n.
/mwɔ̀s-ʃa:/
festival by elderly
women according to
their age-groups to
cement
their
relationships,
/mwɔ̀s-
from
mor
mos
Mos shaar
mos-shaar
3
A proverbial expression
85
Hausa durumi
Koghorong làà yingyíng3
màng ghà put ɓwot mmo
shwar Koghorong [a hero]
has given birth to an insane
person, which makes him
become a laughing-stock
first person plural dative
pronoun
for us, to us
themselves
cat
< Hausa
itchy part of threshed
millet
to conceal cleverly
they, them
third person plural pronoun.
Also mmó.
plural marker
follows the noun it qualifies
description
of
ugliness
practice of chewing
food that contain
sand with a lot of
care
to include
they, them
third person plural future
pronoun
???
yit kɨ ngunan ni moo naa
pee nd ŕ e nd ŕ e the eyes of
the old man see very well
twisted mouth
m̀ mun
mmusut
mmuus
mmuus kas
moo
Jatropha curcas
during the occasion they
brew local beer among
other things to entertain
their members and their
well-wishers. they organise
local dance, usually the
ceremony is weeklong
also waar shaar
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
ʃa:r//wà:rʃa:r/
????
/mpa:t/
mota
mpaat
mpe
n.
mpèè ɗi
conj.
mpɛɛ̀̀ɗí
mpèè ku
mpèè me
conj.
int.
/mpɛ̀:kú/
mpèè mini
mpèè si
conj.
/mpɛ̀:-m ǹ i/
???
mpep
mpet
mp d
̀ ok
mpɨrampas
mpuus
mpuus a naar
n.
n.
adv.
n.
/mpɛ̀p/
/mpɛ́t/
/mp ɗ̀ ɔ̀k/
/mp ŕ ámpas/
n.
mpuus kikaa
a.
mpuus rɨ ruu
a.
mú
pron.
/mpu:s-ana:r/
/mpu:skɨkà:/
/mpu:srɨrù/
/mú/
mu ɗar wa
mu kaat
mu kaat mos
v.
.
n.p.
mù
part.
mul
mulap
v.
/muɗár-wá/
/muka:t/
/mu-ka:tmwɔ̀s/
???
86
Gloss
car, vehicle
castrated cow
? due to
< English
mpe ɗes kɨ lee ni ɗéé mó
g s̀ hìshash kɨ ni ɗak Due to
the size of the load, they
had to struggle gishishash
to lift it mó kɨ tàng a ngo ɗi
wéélwéél mpe táá lúng
They look for a very slim
person to swim
due to, because of, as
a result of
so that
Why?
Rí nas ra a mpèème ye?
Why did he beat her?
because of that
???
mee kɨ sham ɗel mpèè si kɨ
kom yàlpàtyàlpàt A certain
goat just passed down here
with its ear hanging
yàlpàtyàlpàt
beard
broom
silently, quietly
dragonfly
????
noon
east
west
we, us
first
person
plural
masculine
pronoun,
reduced form. cf. mún
(a side talk)
can we have a chat?
let us meet
traditional practice of
sharing local beer
with a close friend or
relation
drinking
simultaneously, from
the same calabash
of
fwààp pèl ɗíísí ni a mù
ǹlaaghɨr the smell of the
flower is that of Plateau
berry
to insult s.o. by
twitching
your
tongue, lips, eyes or
any part of the face
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
mulap
mulok
pl.
PoS
v.
v.
mùmó
mùmún
pron.
pron.
muɓal mwos
v.p.
mùbin
mùdang
n.
n.
muk
mwak
mukyeen
múl
mulap
IPA
???
/mùmɔ́/
/mùmún//m
ún/
/muɓàlmwɔ̀s/
n.
/mùdaŋ//m ̀
daŋ/
/mùk//mwa
k/
/mùkyɛ́:n/
v.
/múl/
v.
n.
v.
v.
Mulam1
p.n.
/múl-pɛ:/
/mulgùt/
/mul
pɛ://mulap
pɛ:/
múl,
mulam
/mulam/
mulam2
n.
/múlàm/
mulɨlal mululap
n.
/mulɨlap//m
ululap//mɨlɨ
lar/
mùlùm1
mulum2
mùlúú1
n.
v.
n.
/mùlùm/
/mùlùm/
/mùlú:/
muluu2
n.
/mùlú:/
mum wáál
mùmún
v.
pron.
/mum wá:l/
mun
pron.
/mun/
mul pee
mul gut
mul pee
mul
mulam
v.
87
Gloss
to insult s.o. pl.
cf. mul sg.
to burn, wound, scald cf. meen. sg.
pl.
theirs
we (inclusive)
cf. mún
traditional practice of
sharing local beer
with a close friend or
relation
drinking
simultaneously, from
the same calabash
smallpox
also ngòrzól, dwang
incision made during also m d
̀ ang
circumcision
to sip
reasonable quantity,
enough
to insult s.o. by
twitching
your
tongue, lips, eyes or
any part of the face
spiteful look at others
mesmerism
non-verbal insults (by also mulap-pee
facial expression)
to rub in s.t.
hunting expedition of
people from Chissu,
Angwan
Kutare
(Mangu) and Bungha
slippery place or
object
local skiing on a
slippery rock using
pumpkin or water if
in a stream
algae
to paint s.t.
pumpkin
Cucurbita
pepo,
C.
moschata
white man
white men are thought to
look like pumpkins
to conceal, hide
< myal
we, us (exclusive)
first person plural exclusive
masculine pronoun.
mùmún nkaa cìn ɗák we
are about to work
we, us (inclusive)
first
person
plural
masculine pronoun. cf. mu
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
mùnaan
pl.
PoS
n.
muram
murap
murdù
n.
v.
n.
muru
murum ɗyeel
pron.
n.
Muse
musut
Mut del
p.n.
n.
p.n.
Mut duut
p.n.
muur
mùùt
murap
n.
v.
muut kaa1
v.p.
muut kaa2
v.p.
muut kaam
v.p.
muut leet
v.p.
muut saam
muut shawara
v.p.
v.p.
muut shugar
muut sɨghɨm
n.
n.
muut tep ntook
n.
muwur
n.
mwaal
mwaan1
mwààn2
mwààn lee
mwààn shwaa
v.
v.
n.
n.
n.
mwaar
mwaghal
mwaghal-mwaghal
mwàghalak
n.
a.
n.
IPA
/mùna:n
//m ǹ a:n/
/mùràm/
/murap/
/murdù/
Gloss
bitterleaf (plant)
marshy, muddy area
to die
pair
of
trousers,
shorts
/mùrú/
theirs
?
inflammation of the
leg
/musɛ/
Tiv people
/musut/
they are alone
/mutɗɛl/
area our ancestors
stayed
on
their
sojourn
before
settling
in
their
present abode
/mutdu:t//m an area where the
udugut/
ancestors
stayed
before settling in
their present territory
/mù:r/
fat
/mù:t//mura to die
p/
/mù:t-ká:/
less intensity from
the sun
/mù:t-ká:/
common illness such
as HIV/AIDS
/mù:t-kà:m/ common illness such
as HIV/aids
/mù:t-lɛ́:t/
lack of enthusiasm,
feeling
of
discouragement
/mù:t-sà:m/ sleeping sickness
/mù:tjaundice, hepatitis
ʃawara/
/mù:t-ʃuga/ diabetes
/mù:ttuberculosis
sɨgɨm/
/mù:t-tɛpcerebrospinal
tɔ́:k/
meningitis
/muwur/
ornament used to
decorate horses
/mwá:l/
to conceal
/mwa:n/
to walk, travel
/mwà:n/
friend
/mwà:n lɛ:/ welcome
/mwà:n
prostitute, woman of
ʃwa:/
easy virtue, harlot,
whore
/mwa:r/
contaminated water
w
fat, big, plumpy
/m agal/
???
/mwàgàlàk/ rubber vine
88
also m n
̀ aan.
amygdalina.
Vernonia
plural of mut
cf. muduut, gung, kofyer,
difiri, fwam, mwanwo
also Mudughut (see mut
del)
‘yellow fever’
Saba florida Hausa ciwo.
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Mwaghavul
p.n.
/mwagavul/
mwak
Mwan wo
v.
p.n.
/mwak/
/mwan-wɔ/
mwanaa
mwas
v.
n.
mwat
mweer
mwen
mwen jep
mwól
mwól
n.
v.
n.
n.
n.
pron.
/mwà:nà:/
/mwas//mwa
ʃ/
/mwát/
/mwɛ:r/
/mwɛ́n/
/mwɛ̀n-jɛ́p/
mwol shak
pron.
/mwɔ̀l-ʃàk/
mwóor1
a.
/mwɔ́:r/
mwòòr2
mwoor pwos
n.
n.p.
mwòòr ɓáng
mwoor kiir
mwoor kom
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
mwoor kungtup
n.p.
mwoor mawe
n.p.
mwoor mmawe
n.p.
mwoor paat
n.p.
/mwɔ̀r/
/mwɔ̀:rpwɔ́s/
/mwɔ̀:r-ɓáŋ/
/mwɔ̀:r-k :̀ r/
/mwɔ̀:rkɔ́m/
/mwɔ̀:rkùŋtù/
/mwɔ̀:rmawɛ/
/mwɔ̀:rm
mawe/
/mwɔ̀:r-pá:t/
mwoor ten
n.p.
/mwɔ̀:r-tɛ́n/
/mwɔ́l/
89
Gloss
sour fruit that is favourite
of monkeys etc
Mwaghavul people
A possible etymology is
mwo-avul, meaning they
are always two or in pairs,
or mwan-vul i.e. travelling
in twos.
to sip pl.
cf. muk
area
where
the (see mutdel)
ancestors
of
the
Mwaghavul
stayed
before finally settling
in their present site
to gossip
pus from a sore
also mwash
groin, private parts
to be twisted
fool, foolishness
childishness
family
same
father
but (of male)
different mothers
same
father
but
different mothers
the same as, carbon
copy, exactly
oil, grease, ointment
pomade
oil-palm
silk cotton tree
groundnut oil
Elaeis guineensis
edible
shea butter oil
oil from a plant sp.
(plant)
used
ointment
Canarium oil
mahogany oil
(medicinal)
as
used for anointing etc. oil
extracted from atili this oil
is of great significance to
the Mwaghavul person, it is
applied to boiled meat
while hosting important
visitors. it is poured on
drinks during velang dance.
it is believed to be cure to
many ailments. it is also
used in anointing a newly
wed woman by her in-laws
bitter oil (applied on
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
mwoor zem
n.p.
mwoot
v.
/mwɔ̀:rzɛm/
/mwɔ̀:t/
mwòs
n.
/mwɔ̀s/
mwos tu
n.
?
myaal
n.
/myá:ly
mm
́ á:l/
myaar
a.
/myaar/
myas
v.
/myas/
v.
n.
/ná/
/na/
v.
/ná:/ /lyap/
náá jéél
v.p.
/ná:-jɛ́:l/
náá kɨc ́r
v.p.
náá nkáá
v.p.
/ná:- nká:/
náá nyit
n.p.
/ná:-nyit/
náá pee
náá pee shi kaa
v.p.
v.
/ná:-pɛ:/
/ná:-pɛ:ʃìká:/
/nà:-ʃwɔ́:p/
nàá
Gloss
wounds and
deworming)
used
for
plant sp.
to stone, to throw s.t.
at an object
local beer made from
sorghum or millet
drunk, drunkard, pissartist
dry tears or slimy
substance in one’s
eyes when one wakes
up from sleep in the
morning
describes
well-fed,
over weight, fat,
plumpy person or
animal
to drink plenty of
water
the production takes two
days.
also mɨmyaal
plural of shuwa
N.
ná1
Ná-2
náá
naa shwoop
nàá
nàà
lyap
mo-
n.
n.
pref.
90
to see, look
respect prefix applied
to the name of a
female elder
to
see,
behold,
examine, watch
to
pity,
be
sympathetic,
be
compassionate
traditional method of
determining the cause
of death within a
family
different from next?
i.e. for Naceen, Nanaceen
and for Dinatu, NaDinatu
Usually three days after
death, the body is exhumed
and local priests inspect the
corpse and interpret the
cause of death.
to foresee, predict, lit. ‘to see in the head’
foretell
favouritism,
sectionalism,
tribalism
to see, sight
sorcerer, magician
shame
mother, respect prefix
for woman
respect prefix applied
to the name of a
younger woman
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
Naan
pl.
PoS
p.n.
IPA
/na:n/
Naan
Naan zok
naanii
naar
naar
p.n.
excl.
n.
adv.
loc.
????
???
/na:ní:/
/na:r/
/na:r/
naat1
naat2
naat-naat
nààt njileng
nagham
v.
v.
/nà:t/
/nà:t/
God
God forbid!
lit. ‘God hide!’
mouse sp.
middle
between,
in
the
middle
to be serious (issue)
to be red
v.p.
n.
/nà:t-njìlɛ̀ŋ/
/nagam/
rust, rustiness
mare, female horse
naghap
nagwet
nak
naka
nambwai
n.
loc.
n.
/nàgàp/
/nagwɛ́t/
/nák/
n.
/nambwai/
armpit
outside
fool, imbecile etc
??? fry
prolapsed uterus
namwésh
n.
/namwɛʃ/
nan1
nan2
nandii
n.
v.
n.
/nán/
/nán/
/nandi://ná
di:/
nandong
n.
/nandɔŋ//ná
dɔ́ŋ/
nang1
nang3
nang2
n.
v.
pron.
/naŋ/
/naŋ/
/náŋ/
nang kaa
adv.
/nàŋ-ká:/
91
Gloss
God
Daa naan and na Naan the
Mwaghavul have other
smaller gods ie deities
which they (deities) protect
them
against
certain
illnesses, catastrophes etc
that may be fall them. these
deities intercede for them.
Never used for hunting
expeditions or war
(more as a result of illness
as it often reaches the
ground if the woman sits
carelessly)
general name given cf. dààmwésh.
to a baby girl at birth
before
appropriate
name is later given
flesh
be big in size
plural of dees
courtesy title given to also nadii. Usually rhymes
the bride by her new with the bride’s name, and
family.
shows respect to the bride.
Actual names are only
added for identification.
courtesy title given to also nadong. It will usually
the bride by her new rhyme with the bride’s
family.
‘Mistress, name, and shows respect to
goodwife’ or similar. the bride. Actual names are
only
added
for
identification.
question, inquiry
ask, enquire
your mother (of man) note that the use of this
word in this context is now
considered
insulting,
probably due to the Hausa
sense of this expression
solely, on your own
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
nangoghot
nas
nasara
nashee-nashee
pl.
PoS
v.
v.
n.
v.
IPA
/naŋɔ́gɔ́t
/nas/
/nàsara/
/nàʃɛ́:nàʃɛ:/
nashwoop1
nashwoop2
ná shwoop neer
n.
n.
n.
/nàʃwɔ:p/
/nà:-ʃwɔ́:p/
/ná-ʃwɔ:pnɛ:r//kúrpá:
/
nawaa
n.
/nawá://nu
wá:/
nayong
nceng
ncicak
ncimeer
n.
n.
n.
n.
/nayɔŋ/
/ntʃɛ́ŋ/
/ntʃítʃàk/
/ntʃímɛ:r/
nciwe
ncok meel
ndaaji
n.
n.
n.
/ntʃíwɛ̀/
/ntʃɔk-mɛ:l/
/ndà:jí:/
ndaaji yaa puus
n.
ndaaji yaa tar
n.
ndaghan
ndaghap
n.
a.
/ndà:jí-yà:pu:s/
/ndà:jí-yàtár/
/ndàgàn/
/ndagap/
Ndai
ndal
p.n.
n.
/ndàl/
ndam dwaghar
n.
ndàm ɨs r̀
ndang
n.
/ndàmdwagar/
/ndàmɨs r̀ /
92
Gloss
to tickle
to beat pl.
white man
game
played
children
hairy lady
shame
sensitive plant.
(plural of nung)
< Hausa
by childhood poem
Mimosa
pudica.
Also
kúrpáá. If the centre is
touched, the leaves close
up. This song is usually
sung to it. Ná shwoop neer
kiling kɨ naa neer yi
(twice) kurpaa-o-kurpaa
oh! Ngoroo kɨ naa neer yi
ee! and it closes
titles given to the also
nuwaa.
Usually
bride by her new rhymes with the bride’s
family
name, and shows respect to
the bride. Actual names are
only
added
for
identification.
starvation
< Fyem
clitoris
grasshopper sp.,
green, thin
insect with black it is usually found floating
cover
in stagnant water
jackal
grasshopper sp.
anything used or
referred
to,
to
frighten or scare
children to conform
to certain norms of
the society
eclipse of the sun
eclipse of the moon
crocodile
pompous,
foolish
pride
place
small, striped and
intelligent rat
gecko sp.
gecko
????
jep mó swa put g t̀ t̀ àt
ndang wát mó they
scrambled out, g ̀ t ̀ tàt, in
pursuit of the thieves
nyèm sòr ndang Naan no kɨ
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
ndangshak
adv.
/ndàŋ-ʃàk/
ndengdeng
n.
/ndɛ̀ŋ-ndɛ́ŋ/
ndèngdéng ɗaa
n.p.
ndengdeng miil
n.p.
ndengdeng shim
n.p.
ndengdeng
soghom
ndi mman
n.p.
adv.
/ndɛ̀ŋ-ndɛ́ŋɗa:/
/ndɛ̀ŋ-ndɛ́ŋmi:l/
/ndɛ̀ŋ-ndɛ́ŋshìm/
/ndɛ̀ŋ-ndɛ́ŋsɔgɔm/
/ndí-mmàn/
ndimuur
ndin
n.
/ndimù:r/
ndin jak
adv.
/ndín-jàk/
nding
ndɨben
n.
n.
/ndiŋ/
/nd ɓ̀ ɛ̀n/
ndɨbet
n.
/nd ɓ̀ ɛ̀t/
ndɨbet furum
ndɨfɨlip
ndɨfɨnɨng
nd g̀ h m
̀
n.p.
n.
n.
n.
????
/nd f̀ l̀ ìp/
/nd f̀ ǹ ŋ̀ /
ndɨghɨs
ndɨghɨs naan
n.
n.
nd g̀ h n
̀
ndɨpoop
ndɨpiyeel
ndɨre
loc.
n.
n.
adv.
/ndɨgɨs/
/nd g̀ s̀ na:n/
/nd g̀ ǹ /
/nd p̀ ɔ́:p/
/nd p̀ yɛ́:l/
/nd ŕ ɛ́/
ndɨrendɨre
ndishii
adv.
n.
/nd ŕ ɛ́-nd ŕ ɛ́/
/ndìʃì:/
93
Gloss
mwaan sat poo Naan ní
ngurum mó a shìpeeshìpee
Christians go around
preaching to people from
place to place
tandem, one
another
raft-zither
lute with
resonator
raft-zither
after
calabash
lute
with
skin- like Hausa kuntiki
covered resonator
xylophone
with
cowhorn resonators
unknowingly,
unexpectedly
arrow
?????
wurí mwaan ndin
nnaashwoop
zòkmònzòkmòn he walks
around without shame
without
shame,
shamelessly
stone
gum, glue, sticky
substance
smaller stone used on
the main grinding
stone
knee-cap
young cockroach
wasp
general term for village weaver Ploceus
yellow-chested birds
cucullatus, yellow-fronted
tinkerbird
Pogoniulus
chrysoconus
cricket
cricket sp.
inside
termite sp.
cockroach
cf. dɨpyel
right, correct, proper,
suitable
properly
housefly
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
ndishiiwaar
ndɨtɨnong
pl.
PoS
n.
n.
IPA
/ dìʃì:-wa:r/
/nd t̀ ǹ ɔ̀ŋ/
ndoghorok
ndol
n.
n.
/ndɔ̀gɔ̀rɔ̀k/
/ndɔ́l/
ndol ngang
n.
/ndɔ̀l-ngàŋ/
ndu shwaa
ndubuk
nduduk
nduduk kɨr
n.
n.
n.
n.
ndugwaal
n.
/ndùbùk/
/ndùdúk/
/ndùdùkk :̀ r/
/ndùgwa:l/
ndukul
n.
/ndukul/
Ndúkúm
Ndukum
p.n.
p.n.
/ndúkúm/
/ndukùm/
nduldulum
n.
/nduldùlùm/
whetting-stone
ndúmoghol1
ndúmoghol2
a.
n.
colour of a horse
grasshopper sp.
ndumu
n.
/ndúmɔgɔl/
/ndúmɔgɔl//
n
dm
́ ɔgɔl/
/ndùmú/
hyena
ndúmùùr
ndùng
n.
v.a.
/ndúmù:r/
/ndùŋ/
bone marrow
about to…
ndup woop
n.
/ndùpwɔ́:p/
ndúr
n.
/ndúr/
ndúr
n.
/ndúr/
ndushuu
n.
/ndùʃu:/
n
94
Gloss
fly sp.
stink-ant
(big type)
cf. ndɨkɨnong
hausa)
(gwano-
grass sp.
ankle-rattle
made
from iron
leg-rattle made from
palm leaves with
pebbles
empty maize cob
brain
silk cotton
silk cotton
secretion by women
during intercourse
place where the head
of the family hides
his grains, foodstuffs
Mwaghavul deity
spirit that protects
food crops.
cf. dukul
cf. Naan
Planted on the edges of the
farm to protect the entire
crop.
Used in sharpening shaving
knives, hoes cutlasses etc
also ndɨmoghol
also refers to a greedy
person or glutton
Panmun ndùng sò wàà
Panmun can go home
winged termite
also dupwoop. See also
fwash, wuryaa
plant name referring Mariscus longibracteatus
two species
and
probably
other
Mariscus
spp.
(1)
monocotyledonous
plant
found in swampy/marshy
areas, (it belongs to the
grass family)
mistletoe
Tapinanthus and Loranthus
spp. mistletoes. A person
can be referred to as ndur
if they depend heavily on
others. cf. also kɨrom.
worm/caterpillar
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
ndùtúghút
nduu1
nduu ning
n.
n.
n.
nduu2
ndwet
ndyen1
n.
n.
adv.
/ndùtúgút/
/ndu:/
/ndù:niŋ//nd
ù:ní:/
/ndu:/
/ndwɛ́t/
/nɗyɛn/
ndyen2
n.
/ nɗyɛn/
ndyes
nɗaghamnɗagham
nɗin
n.
adv.
/ndyɛ̀s/
/nɗágámn
ɗágám/
neen
neen am
neen kwee
n.
n.
n.
/nɛ:n/
/nɛ̀:n-am/
/nɛ:n-kwɛ:/
neer
neer pee
n.
v.p.
/nɛ:r/
/nɛ:r-pɛ:/
neer pee cɨghɨr
kaat
nèn
v.
v.
/nɛ:r-pɛ:tʃɨgɨr-ka:t/
/nɛ̀n/
nfeer
nfong-nfong
p.n.
n.
/nfɛ̀:r/
/nfɔŋfɔŋ/
nfumfum
adv.
/nfúmfum/
nfut1
nfut2
n.
n.
/nfùt/
/nfùt/
nfwam
nfwash
nfwoon gwóóm
n.
n.
nfyeem
ngaa
ngaa
ngáám
ngaangaa
n.
n.
adv.
n.
adv.
/nfwàʃ/
/nfwɔ:ngwɔ́m/
/ nfyɛ́:m/
/nga:/
/ŋa:/
/ngá:m/
/ŋa:-ŋa:/
ngaas
a.
/ngá:s/
nfut
95
Gloss
(insect)
plant sp.
lizard sp.
lizard sp.
also nduunii
fish sp.
support, pillar, pole
at your own pace,
taking time
mannered
person,
considerate
pestle
grumble, murmuring
grudgingly
???
as disi ni yém nɗin biise
kuni ɗéé sɨ gòkshiròk The
dog has not been fed for
some time, and it is looking
emaciated, gòkshiròk
hunger
thirst
part of the intestine of
the fowl
vagina, circle
to demarcate, to
encircle a place
to surround a place
to feel like urinating,
be thirsty
Fyer people
wind that blows from also irresponsible person
the west
blindly, incognito, to
blindfold.
??? smell
gòghor nfùt ni ɗu aasí càf
the grass sp. its smell is
pungent
mosquito
metal lock
used mostly, in detention
centres to keep inmates legs
under lock and key
???
termite, general name also fwash. cf. wuryaa
plant sp.
see pumbwan
hawk
adultery
for long, a while
ram, male sheep
for a very long time,
for ever and ever
dry, bare
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
ngaas gwoom
pl.
PoS
a.p.
IPA
/ gà:sgwɔ́m/
/ngàk/
/ngam-pùs/
n
ngàk
ngam puus
a.
v.
ngam sughun
n.
ngan
ngáng
n.
n.
/ngamsùgùn/
/ŋàn/
/ŋáŋ/
ngàng
n.
/ngàŋ/
ngàng ràghàp
ngàng vét
ngár moghol
n.
n.
a.
/ngàŋràgàp/
/ngàŋvɛ́t/
/ngármɔgɔl/
ngàr mùn
n.
ngar piya
ngar vìp
ngaw
ngaw
n.
n.
n.
v.
/ngarpíyá:/
/ngarvìp/
/nŋau/
ngavurci
ngicak
n.
n.
/ngàvùrtʃì:/
/ng t̀ ʃák/
ngimaar
ng k
̀
ng k
̀ mindong
ngɨmɨrok
ngɨtish1
n.
n.
num.
n.
n.
/ngɨma:r/
/ng k̀ /
???
/n g m
̀ ŕ ɔ́k/
/ng t̀ íʃ/
ngɨtish2
n.
/ngɨtiʃ/
Gloss
left-over of food
big
drawn game in a when the contestants fall on
wrestling contest
their backs and there is no
winner
wild pig
snake
traditional hoe
96
palm tree, leaves or
fruit
chameleon
black scorpion
colour
of
horse
(reddish/brown)
bic, biro, ballpoint
pen
grasshopper sp.
book
wild dog, fox
to shave the head
completely
vulture
bunch of straws used
in the preparation of
kunu and other local
beverages
grass sp.
double
thousand
flesh of atili fruit
residue
from
extracted atili oil
sponge
used
for
washing plates, pots
etc
It has a long shaft and
handle tied to the main hoe
by a woven fibre. Once in a
while the hoe especially the
area where the handle is
tied with the fibre is soaked
in water for the fibre to
shrink. This is no longer in
use due to its complication
i.e. one has to get the jute
fibre, weave it before
getting an elder who will tie
the hoe. With the fet, one
could go straight to the
farm from the blacksmith
without further assistance
(see caan)
recent coinage
recent coinage
opposite of hambal
but cf. also dubu
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
ngìzók
pl.
PoS
n.
ngo
ngoghot
ngòk
ngomu muut
pron.
n.
n.
n.
ngong
ngòròò
ngos
ngris
int.
n.
n.
n.
ngrok
ngù
ngù ar
v.
n.
n.p.
ngù ɓaan
ngù ɓal nsar
ngù ɓam
ngù bɨlaat
ngù cicet
ngù cìncet
ngu ɗak ar
ngù ɗak
kwaghazak
ngù ɗak shii-feer
ngù ɗak wus
ngu ɗak yen
ngù ɗang
ngù ɗangɗang
ngù ɗeng
ngù ɗii ɗes
ngù ɗiip kas
ngù ɗung
nyem
nyem ar
nyem
baan
nyem
ɓal-nsar
nyem
ɓam
nyem
bɨlaat
nyem
cicet
nyem
cìncet
nyem
ɗak-ar
nyem
ɗak
kwaghaz
ak
nyem
ɗak-shiifeer
nyem
ɗak wus
nyem
ɗak-yen
nyem
ɗang
nyem
ɗangɗan
g
nyem
ɗeng
nyem
dinan
nyem
ɗiip kas
nyem
n.p.
IPA
ngìzók
/ngɔ́gɔ́t/
/ngɔ̀k/
/ngùmúmú:t
/
/ngɔ̀rɔ̀:/
/ngɔ̀s/
/ngrís//ngúr
ús/
/ng r̀ ɔk/
ŋù, nyem
/gù-ár//ngùár/
/ngù-ɓá:n/
Gloss
hair that grows on the
neck of ram
?????
kóó ngo whoever
flea
grasshopper (generic)
the dead
How much?
pied crow
penis
biscuit bone
miser
n.p.
n.p.
/ngù-b ĺ à:t/
Fulani man
n.p.
/ngù-tʃìtʃɛ̀t/
cook
n.p.
/ngù-tʃìntʃɛ̀t/
/ngù-ɗákár/
/ngù-ɗákkwàgàzàk/
one who prepares
food
person working on
road construction
cobbler, shoe repairer
n.p.
/ngù-ɗakʃí:fɛ́:r/
mechanic
n.p.
/ngù-ɗákwus/
/ngù-ɗakyɛn/
/gùɗaŋ//ngù
ɗaŋ/
/gù-ɗaŋɗaŋ//ngùɗaŋ-ɗáŋ/
/ngù-ɗɛŋ/
PHCN staff
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n
/ngɔ́-ɗí:ɗɛs/
/ngù-ɗi:pkàs/
/ngù-ɗuŋ/
97
also ngurus (H. kwatar
kashi)
to snore, snoring
person
intermediary
in
marriage transaction
good Samaritan
/ngú-ɓálsár/
/ngù-ɓàm/
n.p.
Corvus albus
helper
medical personnel
beggar
beggar
bushman, villager
(one not civilized)
influential person
harvester (one who
harvests crops)
liar
also
nguɗangɗang/nyemɗangɗ
ang
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
ngù ɗyik lu
ngù fet pee
ngù fong
ngù fung shii-feer
ngù ghir
ngù gok
ngù jeel
ngù kaaɓal
ngù kam
ngù kam ar ki
naan
ngù kamkam
ngù kɨlom
ngù kook
ngù koos paa
ngù kum
ngù kwat
pl.
ɗung
nyem
ɗyiklu
nyem
fet-pee
nyem
fong
nyem
fungshii-feer
nyem
ghir
nyem
gok
nyem
jeel
nyem
kaaɓal
nyem
kam
nyem
kam ar
ki naan
nyem
kamkam
nyem
kɨlom
nyem
kook
nyem
koos-paa
nyem
kum
nyem
kwat
ngù kyeer kwee
nyem
kyeer
kwee
ngù kyeer tum
nyem
kyeer
tum
ngù kyeer waar
nyem
kyeer
waar
ngù
kyeer nyem
randong
kyeerrandong
ngù kyes mwor nyem
ntughut
kyesmworntughut
PoS
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
IPA
/ngù-ɗyiklú/
/ngù-fɛ́tpɛ:/
/ngù-fɔŋ/
Gloss
mason
cleaner
useless person
n.p.
/ngù-túŋʃí:fɛ́:r/
driver
n.p.
/ngù-gɨr/
fish /tilapia
n.p.
/ngù-gɔk/
sick person
n.p.
/ngù-jɛ́:l/
poor man
n.p.
/ngù-ká:ɓál/
/ngù-kám/
one who is stubborn
teacher
n.p.
/ngù-kámár-k -̀ na:n/
pastor, evangelist,
reverend, prophet
n.p.
/ngùkámkám/
teacher
n.p.
/ngù-kɨlɔm/
blacksmith
n.p.
/ngù-kɔ̀:k/
singer, dancer
n.p.
n.p.
/ngù-kɔ:spá:/
/ngù-kùm/
n.p.
/ngù-kwàt/
one who sees by way
of voodoo
one who believes in
the
traditional
religion
hunter
n.p.
/ngù-kyɛ:rkwɛ̀:/
poultry farmer
n.p.
/ngù-kyɛ:rtum/
shepherd
n.p.
/ngù-kyɛ:rwà:r/
lawyer
n.p.
/ngù-kyɛ:rrandoŋ/
cattle herder
n.p.
/ngù-kyɛsmwɔ̀:rn
tughut/
very generous person
n.p.
98
lit. ‘person sweeps place’
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
ngù lap lop
pl.
PoS
nyem lap n.p.
lop
ngù lap nsar
nyem lap
nsar
nyem lap
wap
nyem le
aghas
nyem
loghom
nyem
long
nyem lop
kɨ naan
nyem
maar
nyem
maarpupwap
nyem
mang
foto
nyem
mangko
ok
nyem
mangshi
k
nyem
mangtoghom
nyem
mbii
nyem
mang
mbiiriin
nyem
mbit
ngù lap wap
ngù le aghas
ngu loghom
ngu long
ngù lop kɨ naan
ngù maar
ngù maar
pupwap
ngù mang foto
ngù mang kook
ngù mang shik
ngu mang
toghom
ngù mbii
ngù mang
mbiiriin
ngù mbit
ngu meernyang
ngu mupun
ngu naa jeel
ngu nan
ngu ncip
ngu ndaghap
nyem
meernya
ng
nyem
mupun
nyem
naajeel
nyem
nan
nyem
ncip
nyem
ndaghap
n.p.
IPA
/gù-láplɔ̀p//ngùláp-lɔ̀p/
/ngù-lápsár/
/ngù-lápwáp/
/ngù-lɛ̀àgàs/
/ngù-lɔgɔm/
one who make others
laugh, jester, joker
leper
n.p.
/ngù-lɔŋ/
wealthy person
n.p.
/ngùlɔp –
k -̀ na:n/
/ngù-má:r/
angel of god
n.p.
/ngù-mà:rpúpwáp/
fish farmer
n.p.
/ngu-màŋfɔ̀tɔ//mbì:ri:
n/
/ngù-màŋkɔ̀:k/
photographer
leader of a singing
group/dancing group
n.p.
/ngù-màŋʃìk/
person who easily
gets into trouble
n.p.
/ngù-màŋtɔ̀gɔ̀m/
laboratory technician
n.p.
/ngùmbí:/
owner
n.p.
/ngu-màŋfɔ̀tɔ//mbì:ri:
n/
/ngùmbìt/
photographer
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
Gloss
person who
errands
sharpshooter,
archer.
tax collector
runs
good
farmer
cloudy and violent
storm usually before
a heavy rain
Mernyang person
p.n.
/ngù-mɛ:rnyáŋ/
n.p.
n.p.
/ngùmùpun/
/ngù-ná:jɛ́:l/
/ngù-nan/
one
who
is
compassionate
elder, elderly person
/gù-lú/
n.p.
/ngù-ntʃíp/
Chip person
/ngùdagap/
pompous person
n.p.
n.p.
n
99
Mupun person
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
ngu ndeng
ngu nfyam
ngu ngween
ngu ngwe
ngurum
ngu njiiduguri
ngu nrem
ngu nron
ngu numpee
ngu piring pòò
ngu pɨring pòò
ngu pitwus
ngu pwas
mbitong mo
ngu pwos
kwaghazak
ngu ran
ngu ryee naan
ngu seet lwaa
ngu sel pee
ngu shwaayughur
ngu shwal
ngu shwoop
ngu sor-ndang
naan
ngu tàà jweng
pl.
nyem
ndeng
nyem
nfyam
nyemngween
nyem
ngwenye
mrum
nyem
njiidugu
ri
nyem
nrem
nyem
nron
nyem
numpee
nyem
piring po
nyem
pɨring po
nyem
pitwus
nyem
pwas
mbitong
mo
nyem
pwos
kwaghaz
ak
nyem
ran
nyemryee
naan
nyem
seet lwaa
nyem sel
pee
nyem
shwaayughur
nyem
shwal
nyem
shwoop
nyem sor
ndang
naan mo
nyem-
PoS
n.p.
IPA
/gundɛŋ/
n.p.
/ngù-nfyam/
Gloss
bushman, village man
etc
Fyem person
n.p.
/ngù-ngwɛ:n/
Hausa man
n.p.
/ngù-ngwɛ̀:n- Mwaghavul
man
gùrùm/
converted into Islam
n.p.
/ngù-njì:dúgúrí:/
Igbo man
n.p.
/ngù-nrɛ̀m/
Berom people
n.p.
/ngù-nrɔ̀n/
Ron people
n.p.
/ngùnumpɛ:/
/ngù-pɨriŋpɔ̀:/
/ngù-pɨriŋpɔ̀:/
/ngù-pìtwus/
/ngù-pwasm
bì:tɔ̀ŋ-mɔ́/
devil
n.p.
/ngù-pwɔskwàgàzàk/
shoe shiner
n.p.
/ngù-ràn/
secretary
n.p.
/ngù-ryɛ́:na:n/
magician
n.p.
/ngù-sɛ́:tlwa:/
/ngù-sɛ́lpɛ:/
/ngù-ʃwa:yúgúr/
butcher
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
interpreter
interpreter
fireman
carpenter
leader, chairman
drunkard
n.p.
/ngù-ʃwàl/
sick person
n.p.
/gùʃwo:p//ngùʃwɔ:p/
/ngù-sɔrn
daŋ-na:n/
hairy person
/ngù-tà:-
flautist
n.p.
n.p.
100
one who deceives people
Christian
also
ngushwoop/nyemshwoop
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
ngu tàà
ndengdeng
ngu taan pee
ngu tàng shwaan
ngu tap pee
ngu tap waar
ngu tar
ngu tenɗem cii
muut
ngu tok diyel
ngu tok dun
ngu tung jirgi
caap
ngu vum
ngu yaa shaghal
ngù yen
ngu zari
ngubang
ngùl
ngùl ɗáng
pl.
taajweng
nyem
tàandengde
ng
nyem
taan pee
nyem
tang
shwaan
nyem
tap pee
nyem
tap waar
nyem tar
nyem
tenɗem
cii muut
nyem
tok diyel
nyem
tok dun
nyem
tungjirgi
caap
nyem
vum
nyem
yaashag
hal
nyem
zari
ngul
ɗang
ngùlak
ngulang yak páát
ngum
ngùmbìt
ngulang
yak paat
PoS
IPA
j ɛŋ/
Gloss
n w
n.p.
/ngù-tà:n
dɛŋ-ndɛŋ/
zither player
n.p.
/ngù-tà:npɛ:/
/ngù-tàŋʃwàn/
tailor
/ngù-táppɛ:/
/ngù-tápwà:r/
/ngù-tár/
/ngù-tɛ̀nɗɛ̀m-tʃí:mú:t/
/ngù-tɔ̀kɗíyɛ:l//ngùɓɛ́:t-pɔ̀:n
kàpúk/
/ngù-tɔ̀kdùn/
/ngù-túŋjirgi-tʃá:p/
security personnel
n.p.
/ngù-vùm/
blind person
n.p.
/ngù-yà:ʃàgàl//ngùtáp-k -́
ʃàgàl/
treasurer
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
adv.
conj.
????
/ngùl//ngúl/
/ngùl-ɗáŋ/
n.
/ngùlak/
n.p.
/ngùlaŋyak-pá:t/
n.
n.
/ngum/
ngunan
101
troublesome person
police
mad person
thief
judge
also ngu-ɓeet po nkapuk
/nyem-ɓeet po nkapuk
stammerer, stutter
pilot
lit. ‘person carry money’.
also mgu tap ki shaghal,
mgu tap ki shaghal
herbalist, doctor
seer,
prophet,
soothsayer
?????
also nkubang
probable, doubtful
also ngúl
maybe
dignified way of
doing things
stick with hooked end
used for plucking
fruit, firewood
beetle (generic term)
clouds and violent
winds preceding a
heavy downpour
? old man
yit kɨ ngunan ni moo naa
pee nd ŕ end ŕ e the eyes of
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
the old man see very well
nyèm sòr ndang Naan no kɨ
mwaan sat pòò Naan ní
ngurum mó a shìpeeshìpee
Christians go around
preaching to people from
place to place
??? people
ngurum
ngúryaat
nguul
ngwaaghalak
n.
n.
n.
ngwaghar1
ngwaghar2
n.
n.
ngwagwa
ngwam
ngwan
ngwang
ngwávà
ngyal
ngyàm
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
v.
n.
ngyàm pus
n.
nhap
nh k
̀
n.
n.
mo-
/ngú:l/
/ngwàgàlàk//
kàgàlàk/
/ngwágár/
/ngwágár//tɛ
ŋ/
/ngwà:gwa/
/ngwàm/
/ngwàn/
/ngwaŋ/
/ngwávà/
/ngyàl/
/ngyàm/
/nhàp/
/nh k̀ //ng k̀ //
h k̀ /
parrot sp.
bird sp.
publish bitterness
flower of maize plant
rope
det.
pron.
/ni/
ni aasí
ni aasi wá
niyee
conj.
int.
/ni-a:s /́
/ni-a:s -́ wá/
it is so
is it so?
?????
níí
nii
n.
/ní:/
elephant
????
nik
nik
nik-nik
nin1
nìn2
n.
v.
/ník/
tone?
concentration
to be turbid
v.
n.
/nín/
/nìn/
protrude
locust bean cake
nɨghɨn fu n.
mo
/níŋ/
her mother
woman)
102
also teng. Mwaghavul
people are well-known for
making rope. This is called
yar-Sura in Hausa.
< Hausa
duck
horsewhip
cocoyam variety
growth on the body
guava fruit, tree
< English
better than
taper made from the
stalk of the jute plant
stem of the jute plant
used for rope-making
kobo (coin)
coll.
stone, rock
also ng k
̀ also hɨk
ni
ni
ning
also kaghalak
the
it
determiner marking specific
third
person
singular
pronoun for inanimates
a sát án a zéénzèèn, a we
cin wát niyee? Tell me
truly, who committed the
theft?
Elephas maximus
kung nii wal sɨ njwak
gunggung the big drum is
sounding gunggung in the
rocks
(of
Made from fermented seeds
and used to flavour foods.
Hausa dawadawa
a (the use of this word is now
offensive it is applied to our
youths)
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
niret
nish
nìsóghó
nìt yòòs
n ̀ gyók
pl.
PoS
v.p.
v.
n.
n.
n.
IPA
/nirɛ́t/
/níʃ/
/n g̀ yɔ́k/
????
nɨghɨn
nɨghɨn
nɨghɨn kaam
nɨghɨn sar
nɨghɨn shii
Gloss
it is good, proper
to groan
car, motor vehicle
light drizzling rain
promiscuous woman
nɨkong
nɨkong
kaam
nɨkong
sar
n.
n.
nɨkong
shii
n.
n.
recent coinage
female counterpart to d ̀
gyók
ngù tár wurí jwa nɨghɨn lee
mó nkaa shin ɗang wurí
mwaan d g̀ h s̀ hd g̀ h s̀ h the
madman wore many clothes
and as he walked made the
sound, d g̀ h s̀ hd g̀ h s̀ h
/nɨgɨn/
/nɨgɨnka:m/
/nɨgɨnsár//n k̀ ɔŋsár/
/nɨgɨn-ʃí:/
/n k̀ ɔŋ-ʃí:/
mother, very big
mother-in-law
to practise increasing
one’s
height
by
standing on toe or
reducing
one’s
stomach by taking a
deep breath
local humpless cattle, Hausa muturu
taurines
to beat many times
plural of nung
grasshopper sp.
nɨghɨr-nɨghɨr
n g̀ h t̀
v.
/n g̀ t̀ /
n ́ ng
n.
/n ŋ́ /
nɨram
nɨrét kwai bong
v.
n.
nɨshem
n.
/nɨram/
/nɨrɛ́t-kwaibɔŋ/
/nɨʃɛm/
njààl
njaam
njaghayang
n.
n.
n.
/njà:l/
/njà:m/
/njàgàyáŋ/
njààkwéét
n.
/njà:kwɛ́:t/
njamii
njangnjang
njee
njèèjee
njeer1
n.
n.
a.
n.
a.
/tiŋ njámi:/
/njàŋ-njaŋ/
/njɛ/
/njɛ̀:jɛ:/
/njɛ̀:r/
njeer2
njeghen
njiga
njii
n.
n.
n.
n.
/njɛ̀:r/
?
/njìga/
/njí:/
njìì k ́ráng
p.n.
/njì:-k ŕ áŋ/
103
thumb
‘mother of hand’
big toe
‘mother of foot’
smut on guinea corn
or millet
plant sp.
see pumbwan
bile
conjunctivitis,
inflammation of the
eyelid
dung-beetle
Heliocopridae spp. Hausa
gungura kashi
tamarind
Hausa tsamiya
mumps
reddish brown
cricket sp.
barren
of plant i.e. maize without
cobs
sugar-cane
stork
H. shamuwa
jigger
< ? English or Hausa
deity, spirit (general see Naan
term)
to appease this deity,
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
/njì:-pà:l/
njìì pààl
p.n.
njii ɗar nkaa làà
n.
njikon
n.
/njìkɔ̀n/
njirem
njimeza
njwak
n.
n.
/njìrɛ̀m/
?
njwèè
a.
/njwɛ̀:/
njwet
n.
/njwɛ̀t/
nkaa
nkaa
v.a.
v.a.
/nka:/
nkaa shak
loc.
nkaghal
nkághán
nkám kàghàs
n.
/nka:ʃàk//nk
ɨʃàk/
/nkagal/
n.
nkɨɨ
nkɨɨ dughurii
n.
n.
nkɨkoo
nkɨlɨng
nkɨlis
Nkɨmu
adv.
n.
n.
p.n.
/njí:-ɗárka:-là:/
n
/nkámkàgàs
/
/nk :́ /
/nk :́ dúgúrí:/
/nk ḱ ɔ̀:/
/nk l̀ ŋ́ /
/nkɨlis/
/nkɨmu/
104
Gloss
a chicken must be
offered as sacrifice
to appease this deity a
human being was
sacrificed
practice where a boy
already circumcised
is presented to njii
for
initiation
ceremony
into
manhood.
The uncles of the boys offer
support and encouragement
to the youth. The uncles
dress in a war costume with
the spear (kop), a sign of
strength which the youth
looks up to.
sweet potato variety,
red in colour
placenta, afterbirth
eucalyptus
????
kung nii wal sɨ njwak
gunggung the big drum is
sounding gunggung in the
rocks
grey, usually applied
to horses
rat kept in the granary
to help eat weevils
without
causing
damage to the grain
about, at
marks
progressive Ra nkaa maap She is
aspect
crying
on top of each other
also nkɨshak
stingy person, miser
to compete ??
ant sp.
It stores grains in its hole
head of the family
head of yam tuber
in the dark
eagle
plant sp.
male njii
used for pumbwan soup
Every compound has a
kum
to
protect
its
members.
Mwaghavul
believed
strongly
in
reincarnation. When a good
person dies, he goes to
Shibilang while the wicked
person
goes
to
Wonggohor. When all the
spirits failed it was
concluded that naNaan
must have been greatly
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
nkɨntɨreng
nkoghop gween
n.
n.
nkoghop ndeng
n.
nkoghop-puus
kàa
nkoghop puus ru
n.
nkokoo
nkong mɨlom
n.
n.
nkoo
nkoon tughur
a.
n.
nkoor
nkop
nkop pee
n.
loc.
loc.
nkúljem
nkùrííít
n.
n.
nkurtughut
nkuut
n.
nkwak
nkwang vɨleng
n.
n.
nkyennkyen
nkyep
n.
nlaa
nláá puus
ǹlaaghɨr
n.
n.
/nlá:pu:s/
????
millipede
Plateau berry
nlaat
n.
/nla:t/
bird sp.
nlàm zar
nlang
nlee le
n.
n.
p.n.
/nlàm-zar/
/nlaŋ/
/nlɛ̀:-lɛ́/
flea sp.
ant sp.
sugar cane buds
n.
/nkɨntɨrɛŋ/
/nkɔ̀gɔ̀pn w
g ɛ:n/
n
/ kɔ̀gɔ̀pn
dɛ́ŋ/
/nkɔ̀gɔ̀ppu:s-kà:/
/nkɔ̀gɔ̀ppu:s-rù/
/nkɔkɔ:/
/nkɔŋm ĺ ɔ́m/
Gloss
/nkɔ:ntúgúr/
/nkɔ:r/
/nkɔp/
/nkɔp
pɛ://kɔppɛ:/
grasshopper sp.
south
offended. Ancestors may
come back to the family in
the form of a child to reveal
a secret.
greenish
north
east
west
plant sp.
(see pumbwan)
cocoyam that is an
offshoot of a bigger
one
in the dark, darkness
plant sp.
(see pumbwan)
castrated he-goat
in place of
instead, in place
bird sp.
cf. kúljem
/ kùrí:t/
black bird mostly ? oxpecker
found on the back of
sheep while grazing
/nkúrtugut/ grasshopper sp.
????
randong mó ɗel pwat
nkuut long gùtùtùt The
cows came out of the pen
gùtùtùt
/nkwák/
he-goat
/nkwaŋvɨlɛŋ/ being dishonoured for
doing good
????
/nkyɛ́p/
spur on leg of bird,
especially chicken
n
105
Iule spp.
Carissa edulis. The fruit is
edible
It
feeds
on
insects,
grasshopper, fish
From the name of a certain
lunatic in Panyam in the
mid 1950’s. He was fond of
picking the tasteless portion
of sugar cane as he could
not afford any himself.
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
/nlɛ̀r-ká:dùgùr//nl r̀ ká:-dùgùr/
nler
n.
nlu
n.
nlùú
nlùú koot
n.
id.
/nlú:-kɔ̀:t/
nnàà
n.
/nnà:/
nnàà laak
n.
/nnà:la:k//ng
à:la:k/
Gloss
Consequently all sugar cane
buds became synonymous
with his name kaa – nlee –
le
robe, gown or loose also nlir kaa-dughur. i.e.
garment or gown Hausa alkyabba
worn over other
clothes
house,
dwelling, also lu
building
cloud
also lùú
noise
made
by
thunder
name by which men They have no other
whose mothers come relationship.
from
the
same
compound, area, or
home call each other.
praying mantis
also nghalaak
?????
nnaa shwoop
nnaar
loc.
/nna:r/
nnar
n.
/nnàr/
nné me àà
excl.
ǹne
ǹnee
nn ̀ cááp
nnì cwet
ǹn ̀ ɗeet
ǹn ̀ k ́m
ǹn ̀ lip
dem.
int.
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
/nnɛ//nnɛ:/
/nnɛyɛ/
/nn ̀ tʃá:p/
ǹn ̀ s ́lók
n.
/nn s̀ ĺ ɔ́k/
Nn ́neen
p.n.
/nn ń ɛ:n/
nningkoro
nnook-mindong
n.
adv.
nnos
no
n.
/nn ɗ̀ ɛ:t/
/nn k̀ m
́ /
/nnɔ̀:km ń dɔ̀ŋ/
/nnɔs/
106
wurí mwaan ndin nnaa
shwoop zòkmònzòkmòn he
walks around without
shame
between,
in
the
middle
leather apron worn
during the velang
dance
what?
full form of maa. Used
when
s.o.
says
s.t
disagreeable or irritating
and you ask them to repeat
it as if for clarification.
that
also nnee
where?
nneye
grasshopper sp.
light drizzling rain
grass sp.
with bitter taste
grasshopper sp.
bishop bird
also milipi. Hausa dogarin
tsuntsaye
grasshopper
sp.,
locust.
spirit
To appease this spirit a
horse, donkey or dog was
sacrificed
frog sp.
at once, at a go
fool, foolish person
????
kòòk pughal ni doghon
shang mɨghɨn màt funu no
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
zam har ni kàá wùrá
cukcur yesterday our old
woman danced the Pughal
dance so much that she
became very excited cukcur
nòghòl
n.
/nɔ̀gɔ̀l/
nóghón
nòòk1
nook ɗi
nook2
pron.
n.
n.p.
v.
/nɔ́gɔ́n/
/nɔ̀:k/
/nɔ:k-ɗi/
/nɔ:k/
noonoo
nryeem
n.
n.
???
/nryɛ:m/
nshak
pron.
nshang
nshang mos
nsar paat
nshii
ǹshilák
n.
n.
adv.
n.
n.
/nʃaŋ/
/mwɔ̀s/
Nshire
nshogholok
p.n.
n.
/nʃirɛ/
/nʃɔ̀gɔlɔ́k//n
a:hi:l/
Nshu
ns ́mès
p.n.
n.
/nʃú:/
/n s m
́ ɛ̀s//s ́
mɛ̀s/
nso
/nʃì:/
/nʃílák/
n.
nsuluk
nsushii
nsyám
ntas1
ntas fuk
ntas gɨng
ntas kiɓin
n.
n.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
ntas mulam
ntas randong
ntas tɨghɨr
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
ntas ting
ntɨɓet
n.p.
n.
/nsyám/
/ntás/
???
private parts of both
sexes, genitalia
her mother
breath, rest
holiday, leave
to stop something,
postpone
skimmed milk
animal that is very
vicious
for each other, for
one another
solder ant sp.
sugar-ant
innocently
honey, bee
boiled spinach or
vegetables
Mushere people
children’s
game
where
one
must
transfer a touch to
another person
Mwaghavul clan
caterpillar sp.
also naahiil
(see bijer)
also simes
wán sát ǹwùrí nne món
ǹtù wurí ɓe wurí sát a nso
ɗak zònzòn I told him they
were going to kill him, but
he kept on going zonzon
uncircumcised person
?
louse
mushroom general4
mushroom sp.
mushroom sp.
mushroom sp.
mushroom sp.
mushroom sp.
mushroom sp.
/ntɨɓɛt/
< Hausa
mushroom sp.
castrated ram
‘mushroom of dunghill’
‘mushroom of drum’
‘mushroom of animal sp.’
very large mushroom
‘mushroom of sliminess’
‘mushroom of cattle’
‘mushroom
of
termite
mound’
‘mushroom of tree’
Be warned that some of the mushrooms are very poisonous, they can kill instantly. If you are not sure of
the type, it is safer not to eat as many lives have been lost by eating the wrong variety.
107
4
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
ntíít
pl.
PoS
v.
IPA
/ tí:t/
ntiit ki
n.
ntiitntiit
id.
/ntí:tk /́ /ntí:t/
/ntí:t-ntí:t/
ntikan
ntísh
ntoghom
ntoghom
v.
n.
loc.
v.
/nt ḱ àn/
/ntíʃ/
/ntɔgɔm/
n.p.
v.
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
/ntɔŋ-a:s /́
/ntúgút/
/ntugut/
/ntùm/
/ntún/
ntwààr
v.
v.
n.
/nugul/
/nugul/
/nuk/
núm
num
num pee
nung
n.
v.
n.
n.
/núm/
/num/
/num pɛ:/
/nuŋ/
nung aas
n.
/nùŋ-a:s/
nung maar
n.
/nuŋ-ma:r/
n
ntong
ntong aas ́
ntu
ntúghút
ntughut
ntum
ntún
ntwààr
nughul1
nughul2
nuk
nwaghal
nwaghal
nùng1
nwang
v.
/nùŋ/
nùng2
nwang
v.
/nùŋ/
nùng3
v.
/nùŋ/
nung-nung
nur
n.
/núr/
n.
n.
p.n.
/nùwɛ́l/
/nùwɛ́ʃ/
/nve:-ku:k/
n.
/nví:-
nùwél
nùwésh
Nveekuuk
nvíí m ́lóm
mo
mo
108
Gloss
to be similar, to be
equal, to happen at
the same time, to be
coincidental
resemblance, look- also ntiit
alike
very similar, the same
as
wrong
snail
beneath, underneath
to appear before, be
presented to
????
ba mìsh kághám ni wùrín
ntong ɗi a ngaangaa kás the
chief will not live for ever
probable, doubtful
??? kill, destroy
cf. tù
grasshopper sp.
oil container
bush rat sp.
ant sp.
sideboards
(facial
hair)
to bend
to make a return trip
long, thin strips of
skin worn by girls
around the waist
gum (in mouth)
to deceive
deceit
ridges already made
but not planted
communal farming
involving relations
ploughed ridges yet
to be planted
to beat, hit, strike cf. nɨram, biyan, sɨram
with a stick
to
set
fire
to
something, burn
to be ripe or properly
cooked
squeeze,
frown,
grimace
daughter-in-law
sister-in-law
dance type
performed
by
Jipal,
Chakfem, Bwoonpe and
Mupun people
germinating cocoyam (often cooked although
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
nvùù
nvwàm-nvwam
n.
id.
nwaan1
n.
IPA
m ĺ ɔ́m/
/nvù:/
/nvwànn w
v am/
/nwa:n/
nwaan2
nwaar
n.
n.
/nwa:n/
/nwa:r/
nwaghap
v.
/nwagap/
nwang1
n.
/nwaŋ/
nwang pòò
nwang2
Nwangkang
n.p.
v.
p.n.
/nwaŋpɔ̀/
/nwaŋ/
/nwàŋ-kàŋ/
nwàp
nwàp dúng
nwee
nwul
ǹwùrí
n.
n.
part.
n.
pron.
/nwàp/
/nwàp-dúŋ/
/nwɛ:/
/ nwul/
ǹwùrá
pron.
nyaa
nyaal
n.
n.
????
/nya:l/
109
Gloss
usually bitter).
rizga
scrambling for things
without being orderly
to console a bereaved
person or a crying
child
to deceive
tissue joining the used to describe s.o. with
upper lip and gum
extra thick lips. It was
believed that if you ate very
dry millet, you would get
thick lips
to squeeze an object
in an overlapping
manner
satire,
proverbs,
insults,
abusive
language
against
another
provocative statement
burn
plural of nung
traditional deity that It was sent to the laap (kas)
protects grain at when women have begun to
harvest
separate the grain (millet)
from the chaff to ensure
that not a single grain was
stolen by the women. It also
ensured that the entire grain
was transferred to the home
and barn intact
valley
valley
no
snake sp.
he, his
third
person
singular
masculine dative pronoun
she, hers
third
person
singular
feminine dative pronoun
intoxicant
foolish act
Name of a man considered
foolish. He was once
admitted to a general
hospital.
After
being
discharged
from
the
hospital he had cause to be
back in the same town for
the celebration of British
Empire day. When others
could
not
secure
accommodation anywhere,
he quickly went back to his
former bed in the hospital.
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
/nyàgàs/
/nyàk/
nyaghas
nyàk
v.
v.
nyák tìràk
nyak yit
nyalwat sen
n.
n.
nyàm
n.
nyàm mààp
n.p.
nyang1
n.
/nyáŋ/
nyang2
nyang
nyawi
v.
v.
n.
/nyáŋ/
/nyaŋ/
/nyawi/
nyee kúúl
nyèm
nyèm ɗák
nyèm ɗák yen
n.
n.
n.p.
n.p.
/nyɛ:kú:l/
nyèm kaa jai
nyèm kaa soghot
nyèm lop
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
nyèm maar mo
nyèm muyi
n.p.
n.p.
nyèm nan
nyèm
sòdàng
naan mo
n.p.
n.p.
nyem yilang pee
n.p.
nyer
n.
nyer
nyer am
n.
n.
nyer kushing
nyer peng
n.
n.
/nyak-yit/
?????
/nyàm/
Gloss
When the nurses on duty
discovered him they sent
him away. Consequently
any foolish act is nyaal.
to refuse absolutely
to do something
continuously
plant sp.
plant sp.
clod, soil thrown up
by the hoe
music, song in which
praise or insults are
used, proverbs, wise
sayings, self-praise.
lamentation
funeral.
at
wickedness,
troublesomeness
to deliberate
to disagree, object
hyena
cf. pumbwan
cf. sumpo. Elements of
nyam are; nzeltet, nwang,
jwat poo, shwat poo,
karshak, gwatshak, sat
tap lee, nshak, cin ciin
nshak.
a Women sing sad songs
while grinding cereals on
the millstone.
<Fyem. Can be applied to a
glutton
(see pumbwan)
vegetable sp.
person ???
/nyɛ̀m-ɗák/ workers
/nyɛ̀m-ɗák/ health workers, clinic lit. ‘person + xx + health’
staff
sorcerer, wizard
sorcerer, wizard
/nyɛ̀m-lɔ̀p/
angels, messengers cf. ngulop sg.
(pl)
/nyɛ̀m-má:r/ farmers
/nyɛ̀mold people that we
mùyí:/
cannot remember
/nyɛ̀m-nan/ elders
/nyɛ̀m-sɔ̀Christians
n
dàŋ-na:nmɔ/
/nyɛ̀mthose who tear others
yilaŋ-pɛ:/
apart
n
/ yɛr/
container keeping a cf. different types of spears
bundle of spears kop, cwang, hoz, sɨlak
together
bird (generic)
???
water bird
generic term for all types of
duck and grebe
bird sp.
Hausa ba’u
injury on the leg but
/nyɛ̀rpɛ́ŋ/
transferred to the
110
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
nyet
v.
/nyɛ́t/
nyèt máár
n.
/nyɛ̀t-má:r/
nyììyìì
nyik
n.
n.
/nyi:-yì:/
/nyík/
nyil caan jee
n.p.
nyìm
n.
/nyìl-tʃá:njɛ:/
/nyìm/
nyoghop1
nyoghop2
v.
v.
/nyɔgɔp/
/nyɔ̀gɔ̀p/
nyòk
v.
/nyɔ̀k/
nyok-nyok
nyok shik
n.
/nyɔ̀kʃìk/
nyom
nyoop
n.
n.
/nyɔ́m/
/nyɔ:p/
nzeltet
nzidyak
nzhira
n.
n.
/nzɛ̀ltɛ́t/
/nzìɗyák/
/nʒira/
nzhitaa
nziik
n.
n.
/nʒìtá:/
/nzi:k/
nzire
n.
/nz ŕ ɛ́/
nzire vul
nzughum laa
n.
n.
nzutur
n.
/nz ŕ ɛ́-vul/
/nzùgùmlá:/
???
Gloss
groin
to be meticulous
about
knitting,
weaving or plaiting
earthworm,
roundworm
owl
concentration
to
perform a task
death
traditional women’s
dress
to make s.t. untidy
to nourish mashed
food with oil
to make a place dirty,
filthy
????
dirty habit, filthy
person
grimace, frown
clay used for making
pots and smoothing
the interior of houses
scorn
made from grass or raphia
communal farming
for a traditional ruler
pepper
< Hausa
bass tone, lowest
singing voice, lowpitched
anklet worn by riders
to increase speed of
horses
gossiper
ant sp.
bedbug
this cloth, it smells of
bedbugs
????
o cén láá hɨɨ fina ni ɓe ni su
sor tulu wúrwúr They drove
away my goat and it went
straight to the house
O.
o
oghop
oghor
v.
v.
/ɔ̀gɔ̀p/
/ɔ̀gɔ̀r/
ok
?.
/ɔk/
to overload, pile up
to move very close to
fire
111
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
ór
ór káá
oot
pl.
PoS
n.
n.p.
v.
IPA
/ɔ́r/
/ɔ́r-ká:/
/ɔ:t/
Gloss
noise, shout
to be confused
to force, compel
pa
paa1
paa2
pron.
v.
v.
/pà//àpà/
/pá:/
/pá:/
???
to cover, close, shut
to cast lots
Paal1
paal2
p.n.
n.
/pá:l/
/pà:l/
paap
páápáá
n.
excl.
/pà:p/
/pá:pá:/
paar1
paar2
n.
v.
/pà:r/
/pa:r/
paas
páát1
v.
n.
/pà:s/
/pá:t/
pààt2
pák1
num.
quant.
/pà:t/
/pák/
pak2
pàk3
v.
n.
/pak/
/pàk/
pal
v.
/pal/
pam
n.
/pam/
pán1
pan2
pàn3
v.
adv.
v.
/pán/
/pán/
/pàn/
pàn3
n.
/pàn/
pang1
pàng2
n.
n.
/paŋ/
/pàŋ/
Pányàm
p.n.
/pányàm/
P.
112
also apa
A traditional method of
detecting the cause of
illness and crime.
Mwaghavul clan
(see bijer)
mat made from raffia These were tied together
branches
with a cord, which could be
spread like a mat and rolled
up.
duiker
completely finished!
A gesture to a child to tell
them not to expect anything
else. The two hands are
clapped together.
artery
to shoot over a house,
tree etc.
to comb, clean
African olive tree and Canarium
schweinfurthii
fruit, bush-candle
Hausa atili
five (5)
cf. pòò
some, not all
Mee gurum mo ji k ́
shaghal, ɗang pak gurum
mo ji k ́ long mo Some
people brought money and
other
people
brought
animals
to nurse a grudge
his father (reference Presently
considered
to a male)
offensive to the youths who
are affected
to fall, fail
economically
pound (£)
< English. Former currency
but no longer legal tender
to take along
a little longer
to
think,
worry,
remember
thought,
thinking,
worries
poisonous snake sp.
soil type, red and suitable for growing millet
stony
major
Mwaghavul The respelt name for
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
town.
par1
par2
par meci
par vul
n.
adv.
adv.
adv.
/par/
/pàr/
/parmɛ:tʃi/
/parvul/
parci
adv.
parkiya
n.
/pàrtʃì//pàr
mɛ̀:-tʃì/
/parkiya/
parpuus
pas1 tar-pas
n.
pas2
pas buluk
pas jengkajer
n.
n.p.
n.p.
pas kano
Pyaanyaa, a town in
Mangu L.G.A. One of the
areas early missionaries
first settled.
night
that day, day
refers to days of the week)
sometimes, some day
the
day
after
tomorrow
one day
also parmeci
small
hoe
used < Hausa fartanya
mainly for scraping
and weeding
????
wet, rainy season
arrow, generic
arrow without barbs
arrow type
n.p.
/pas//tarpas/
/pas/
/pas-ɓuluk/
/pasjeŋkajer/
/pas-kanɔ/
pas nangal
n.p.
/pas-naŋal/
arrow type
pas piyaghar
n.p.
arrow type
pas song
pas songkun
n.p.
n.p.
arrow type
arrow type
with several barbs
with three barbs
pas yen
páp ́rá
pát
n.p.
n.
n.
/paspyagar/
/pas-sɔŋ/
/passoŋkún/
/pas-yɛn/
/páp ŕ á/
/pát/
poisoned with a flat part
towards the thin point
with poison made from
wood, Kulere type
with spiral head
with poison
< Hausa parpara
pataari
n.
/pàtà:rí/
arrow type
guinea corn variety
sheath
of
knife,
sword, matchet
underwear used by
elderly women
pee1
pee2
pèè aas1
pèè ɓang
n.
n.
n.p.
adv.
/pɛ:/
/pɛ:/
/pɛ̀:-a:s/
/pɛ:-ɓáŋ/
pèè bar
pèè can
pèè cɨghɨr
pèè cin pèè
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
pèè dak
pèè dar
pèè del
pèè ɗi
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
/pɛ̀:-bár/
/pɛ̀:-tʃàn/
/pɛ̀:-tʃ g̀ r̀ /
/pɛ:-tʃìnpɛ:/
/pɛ̀:-ɗák/
/pɛ̀:-ɗár/
/pɛ̀:-ɗɛ̀l/
pɛɛɗi
pèè diisi1
n.p.
/pɛ:113
arrow type
with poisoned barbs
This has fallen out of use
with the
introduction of
dam mwanle
time
place, chance
nest
lit. ‘place eggs’
daybreak, early in the
morning
where to survive
where to cut
where to turn to
when the going gets
tough
workplace
appropriate place
entrane
there is chance, place,
opportunity
here, this place
also peesi
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
pèè diisi2
n.p.
pèè gung
n.p.
IPA
ɗí:s /̀ /pɛ:s /̀
/pɛ:ɗí:s /́ /pɛ:s /́
/pɛ̀:-gùŋ/
pèè kaa
pèè kaat
pèè ki kaa
pèè ki wul
pèè kyeer
pèè kyes
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
/pɛ̀:-kà:/
/pɛ̀:-kà:t/
/pɛ̀:-k k̀ à:/
/pɛ:-k -̀ wúl/
/pɛ̀:-kyɛ̀:r/
/pɛ̀:-kyɛ́s/
pèè lang
n.p.
/pɛ̀:-làŋ/
pèè le
n.p.
/pɛ̀:-lɛ̀/
pèè mee
pèè mer
n.p.
?????
/pɛ̀:-mɛ́r/
pèè mɨmer
pèè mɨmet
pèè mini
pèè mɨni
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
pèè muut
pèè mwan
n.p.
n.p.
/pɛ̀:-m m
̀ ɛ̀t/
/pɛ̀:-mɨmɛ́t/
/pɛ:-m ǹ i/
/pɛ̀:m ǹ i//mpɛ̀:m ǹ i/
/pɛ̀:-mú:t/
/pɛ̀:-mwan/
pèè nɗok
n.p.
/pɛ:-nɗɔ̀k/
pèè nkoo
n.p.
/pɛ:-nkɔ̀:/
pèè pal
pèè piring
pèè put
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
/pɛ̀:-pàl/
/pɛ̀:-p r̀ ìn/
/pɛ̀:-pút/
pèè rii
pèè ririi
n.p.
n.p.
/pɛ:-rí:/
/pɛ:-r ŕ í:/
pèè sààm
pèè sakkaa
n.p.
n.p.
pèè se gwoom
n.
pèè seen
pèè sese
pèè shaal
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
/pɛ̀:-sà:m/
/pɛ̀:-sákká:/
/pɛ̀:sɛgwɔm/
/pɛ̀:-sɛ̀:n/
/pɛ̀:-sɛsɛ/
/pɛ:-ʃá:l/
pèè shi sham
n.p.
/pɛ:-ʃ ʃ́ ám/
pèè so
pèè sok
n.p.
n.p.
/pɛ̀:-sɔ̀/
/pɛ̀:-sɔk/
114
Gloss
there, that place
also peesi
where
to
persevere/tolerate
where to climb
where to meet
uphill
it is time, time is up
where to graze
finally, at the end; in
conclusion
where to hide/place
of destruction
where
you
keep
things
????
where
there
are
branches or where to
branch to
where to turn to
where to jump
there
because of that, in also mpeemɨni
view
of
that,
consequently
where to die
where to walk/travel
to
where
to
be
quiet/silent
where
there
is
darkness
where to fall
where to turn to
where you come
from/ones origin
where it gets dark
late in the evening
(dusk)
bed
lit. ‘place to sleep’
barber, hairdresser
where to have a haircut
restaurant
where one gets wiser
where to eat
dusk, late in the
evening
slope,
downhill,
decline
where to go
place for saving
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pèè sushii
pèè taa
pèè taanpee
pl.
PoS
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
IPA
/pɛ̀:-sùʃí:/
/pɛ̀:-tá:/
/pɛ̀:-tà:npɛ:/
/pɛ̀:-tàn/
/pɛ̀:-tɛ̀:r/
pèè tan
pèè teer
n.p.
n.p.
pèè tok diyeel
n.p.
pèè tong1
pèè tong2
pèè wààr
pèè wet
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
/pɛ̀:-tɔ̀kɗíyɛ́:l/
/pɛ̀:-tɔ̀ŋ/
/pɛ̀:-tɔ̀ŋ/
/pɛ̀:-wà:r/
/pɛ̀:-wɛ́t/
pèè wum
pèè wurang
n.p.
n.p.
/pɛ̀:-wùm/
/pɛ̀:-wúráŋ/
pèè yaa
pèè zok
pèè zughum
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
pèè me ye
peeméé
pee pugyet
peet
peku
int.
num.
adv.
pron.
conj.
pel
péngpéng
n.
c.i.
/pɛ̀:-yà:/
/pɛ̀:-zɔ́k/
/pɛ:zùgùm/
/mpɛ̀:-mɛyɛ/
/pɛ:mɛ́:/
/pɛ:pùgyɛt/
/pɛ̀:t/
/pɛ̀:kú//mpɛ̀:
kú/
/pɛ̀l/
pér1
per2
per2 yang kas
n.
v.
v.p.
per3
n.
pet1
pèt2
pet2 pee
pet3
picom
pɨrep
pɨrep
v.
v.
v.
n.
n.
/pɛ́r/
/pɛr/
/pɛr-yàŋkàs/
/pɛt/
/pɛ̀t/
/pɛ̀t-pɛ:/
/pɛ́t//mpɛ́t/
/pɨtʃɔm//p k̀
ɔm//pùkɔm
/
pider
piil
n.
n.
/pí:l/
piin1
piin2
piin3
n.
v.
v.
/pi:n/
/pi:n/
/pi:n/
pɨrep
pyan
Gloss
where to run
where to fall
where to sew
where to play
where to spend the
night
court
where to stay
seat
forbidden place
where to spend the
day
cemetery
where to bury the dead
where your height
reaches, according to
height
where to hold
where to save, hide
cold place
why?
six (6)
many years ago
her father (of female)
so that
also mpeku
flower
intensifies
white
(pyáá)
pebble
to scatter
method of farming
fonio
where
the
former millet ridges
are broken up
soil
suitable
for
growing millet, fonio
to burst, explode
to call
call
broom
also mpet
edge of a cliff
also pikom, pukom
diarrhoea in children also kàà poo li
swordgrass,
Imperata cylindrica
congograss
to change money
to burst, explode
to break, split, smash,
burst out laughing
115
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
piin4
pl.
PoS
v.
IPA
/pi:n/
piit
pik
pk
̀ om
píl
píl wus
v.
pron.
n.
v.
n.
pimbwoon
n.
/pi:t/
/pìk/
/p k̀ ɔm/
/píl/
/pílwus//mp
ílwus/
/pìmɓwɔ́:n/
pirap
v.
/pɨrap//pura
p/
pirep1
pirep2
v.
v.
/pɨrɛp/
/pɨrɛp/
piring1
n.
/pɨriŋ/
piring2
v.
/pɨriŋ/
pisyaa
pit
n.
v.
/p s̀ yá:/
/pìt/
pito
n.
/pìtɔ́/
piyeem
n.
/tiŋ piyɛ:m/
pɨder
pɨghɨr
n.
v.
/p d̀ ɛr/
/pɨgɨr/
pɨghɨt
v.
/pɨgɨt/
pɨghɨzɨng
n.
/p g̀ z̀ ɨŋ/
pɨghɨzɨng vwaplas
n.
/p g̀ z̀ ɨŋ
vwàplàs
116
Gloss
to scatter animals
while grazing them
to whistle
also fiit
your father
used by a woman
edge
to dazzle
firefly
also mpilwus. lit. ‘dazzle
fire’
female
traditional made from woven jute like
dress
a ‘short knicker’
to tear from the also purap
seams i.e. dress, box
etc.
to call (plural)
cf. pet
to explode (plural)
cf.
pin
[?]also
pet
(singular)
to
change
(i.e.
money)
to exchange, to turn
over a person
jute, fibre
to put out fire, switch
off light
local liquor
< Hausa. Extracted from
mos after the first brew
and allowed to ferment over
24 hours. Sweet in taste but
strong in alcohol content
wild date-palm
Phoenix reclinata. Hausa
kajinjere
buttocks
to expose, to dry
clothes in the sun
to begin cooking, to
place pot on fire
nose
but used to apply to s.o.
who has a large or pointed
nose
describes s.o. who
has a very flat nose
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pɨkom
pk
̀ yeen
pl.
PoS
n.
n.
IPA
/p k̀ ɔm/
p k̀ yeen
pɨlang1
pɨlang3
pɨlang ɗes
v.
excl.
excl.
/pɨlaŋ/
/pɨlaŋ/
/pɨlaŋɗɛs/
pɨlang zam
pɨlang2
pɨpɨlet
excl.
v.
n.
p r̀ áng…ye
p z̀ èp
plas
int.
n.
v.
/pɨlaŋ-zam/
/pɨlaŋ/
/p ṕ ĺ ɛ́t//mp ́
lɛ́lɛ́r/
/p r̀ áŋ/
/p z̀ ɛ̀p/
/plás/
pòò1
n.
/pɔ̀:/
pòò1 àm
pòò1 bish
pòò1 bwágháp
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
/pɔ̀:-àm/
pòò1 ɗéé
pòò1 fung
pòò1 lap
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
pòò1 lu
pòò1 mù yíí
pòò1 Mwaghavul
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
pòò1 Ngween
pòò1 Nnàt
pòò1 pee
pòò1 rét
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.
pòò1 wur
pòò2
n.p.
num
/pɔ̀:-wur/
pòò2 féér
pòò2 kún
pòò2 vul
num.
num.
num.
/pɔ̀:fɛ́:r/
/pɔ̀:-kún/
/pɔ̀:vul/
pɔɔ
̀ ̀
bwágháp
/pɔ̀:-ɗɛ́:/
/pɔ̀:-fuŋ/
/pɔ̀:-láp/
/pɔ̀:-lú/
/pɔ̀:mwagavul/
/pɔ̀:-ngwɛ:n/
/pɔ̀:-nnà:t/
/pɔ̀:-pɛ:/
/pɔ̀:-rɛ́t/
117
Gloss
edge
forehead
wuri kɨ p k
̀ yeen kaa
nkwak sɨ He has a forehead
like a he-goat
to thank
Thank you!
Thank you
very
much!
Thanks very much!
to rinse
strong grass used as Also mpɨleler
local broom
When?
fibre from maize cob
to smoothen, plaster a
building
mouth,
opening, cf. l ̀ pòò for ‘language’
entrance,
word,
dialect, language
seaside, riverside
scorn
describes s.o. with a
toothless mouth
slip of the tongue
window
lit. ‘mouth hole’.
person who amplifies
what the chief or emir
says for others to hear
door, entrance
chronicles, history
lit. recent coinage.
Mwaghavul language
Hausa language
English language
entrance
good talk, soothing
speech or words
nipple
five (5)
only used in compounds. cf.
pààt for the count form.
nine (9)
5+4
eight (8)
5+3
seven (7)
5+2. This number symbolic
for
the
Mwaghavul
community. The “Kum” is
structured into 7 such that
anything resulting in ‘7’ is
considered as complete
“nrankum”. The tubwoor
native draft game is
structured into 7 per side
and if one is eliminated by
an opponent casting his atili
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
portok
n.
pris
pu
n.
v.a.
/pris/
pù ɓít
pù ɗòk
adv.
adv.
pughal
púk1
/pù-ɓít/
/pùɗɔ̀k//mp ̀
ɗɔ̀k/
n.
/púk/
púk2
n.
/púk/
puk1
v.
/puk/
puk2
v.
/puk/
pùk
pùk ɓúlúk
n.
n.p.
/pùk/
/pùk-ɓúlúk/
pùk cicet
pùk ɗai
n.p.
n.p.
pùk dep
pùk kam
pùk kɨɨr
pùk kɨpuk
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
/pùk-tʃìtʃɛ̀t/
/pùkɗái//pùkkɔk-jan/
/pùk-dɛ̀p/
/pùk-kam/
/pùk-k :̀ r/
/pùk-kɨpuk/
pùk kom
pùk kom goghor
n.p.
n.p.
pùk kom mɨlom
n.p.
pùk kunglung
n.p.
pùk kwaan
n.p.
/pùk-kɔ́m/
/pùk-kɔmgɔ̀gɔ̀r/
/pùk-kɔmm ĺ ɔ́m//pùk
-kɨm ĺ ɔ́m/
/pùk-kùŋlúŋ/
/pùkkwà:n//kwà:/
118
Gloss
seeds in the multiple of ‘7’
i.e. 21, then you would
have eliminated him in
accordance with the Kum.
If the “Seer” (Local priest
casts his lot and the result is
synonymous
with
the
number ‘7’ then the ‘gods’
must have answered the
prayer.
portion
of
meat assigned to the one who
between the neck and kills the animal on a
the body of an hunting expedition
animal.
church minister
< E. ‘priest’
marks
progressive Ra pu shwàr She is
aspect
laughing
dawn, by day break
quietly
also mp ɗ
̀ òk
???
temporary shelter for cf. Hausa buka
drying maize, guinea
corn etc
soot,
lampblack,
carbon
cover the top of a
temporary shelter or
house
to splash flour all
over the place
soup, general name
soup without other
condiments
stew
draw soup
kokjan
not draw soup
draw soup
not draw soup
draw soup made from yakuwa.
sorrel
groundnut soup
draw soup
soup from cocoyam puk5-kɨmɨlom
leaves
draw soup
okra soup
also kwaa
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pùk laaweet
pl.
PoS
n.p.
IPA
/pùk-là:wɛ́:t/
/pùk-là:kɨɓaŋ//pùkbwɛ́mbwɛrɛ̀/
/pùk-lɛm/
/pùklɛ̀ndɛ̀ŋ/
/pùk-lúlúk/
Gloss
draw soup
pùk lakɨbang
n.p.
pùk lem
pùk lengdeng
n.p.
n.p.
pùk5 luluk
n.p.
pùk mumwish
n.p.
pùk munaan
n.p.
pùk ndarkam
n.p.
pùk ntas
n.p.
/pùk-ntás/
pùk sheem
pùk taanting
n.p.
n.p.
pùk
takbwagham
n.p.
pùk wap
pùk yer
pùkáá
pùkáá sar kul
n.p.
n.p.
n.
n.
pùkáá sar se
n.
pùkòr
n.
pùkyen
n.
pulpul
n.
pùmbulek
v.
pùmbúlét
n.
pùmbwàn
n.
pùmbwàn biyaap
pùmbwàn
bwembwere
pùmbwàn
n.
n.
/pùk-ʃɛ:m/
/pùk-tá:n
tíŋ/
/pùk-tàkdraw soup
bwàgàm//pù
k-mbwàgàm/
/pùk-wàp/
pepper soup
/pùk-yɛr/
draw soup
/pùká:/
leader of farmers
/pùka:leader of left-handed
sarkùl/
farmers
/pùka:leader of right handed
sarsɛ/
farmers
/pùkɔ̀r//pɨk non-indigene
ɔ̀r/
/pùkyɛ:n//p ̀ forehead
kyɛ:n/
/pulpul//mp butterfly
ul-pul/
/pùmbulɛk/ air bubbles when
water boils
m
/pù búlɛ́t/
edge of a chair,
bench, tail end of a
chair
/pùmbwàn/ local food of the
Mwaghavul
/bíyá:p/
pumpkin
w
/b ɛmbwɛre/
/dàwúfil/
n.
/pùkmumwiʃ/
/pùkmuna:n//mɨ
na:n/
119
not draw soup
also bwenbwere
draw soup
draw soup
local soup with all the
appropriate
condiments
soup (medicinal)
it causes itchiness, it is a
cure for typhoid
bitterleaf soup
also minaan
creeper used in
making a very
mucilaginous soup,
favoured by the
Idoma
mushroom soup, not
draw soup
same as pukluluk.
draw soup
(tumbunuwa- hausa) also
puk5 mbwaagham
why this distinction?
also pikyeen
Also mpulpul
made with fonio combined
with various leaves
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
dawufil
pùmbwàn dinkim
pùmbwàn jarmen
pùmbwàn kom
yer
pùmbwàn
kwakshimanjing
pùmbwàn
lubwak
pùmbwàn
mbwagham
pùmbwàn muluu
pùmbwàn
nfwoongwom
pùmbwàn
ngughir
pùmbwàn njaal
pùmbwàn nkilis
pùmbwàn nkoko
pùmbwàn
nkontughur
pùmbwàn nsum
caar
pùmbwàn
nyaktirak
pùmbwàn
nyakyit
pùmbwàn nyee
kuul
pùmbwàn pwas
ɓweng
wugɨl
wulam
yizep
pun1
pun2
pun2 aak
pun2 aas
pl.
PoS
IPA
n.
n.
n.
/dìnkim/
/jármén/
/kɔm-yɛr/
n.
n.
/kwakʃiman-jiŋ/
/lùbwàk/
n.
/mbwàgàm/
n.
n.
/mùlú:/
/nfwɔ:ngwɔ́m/
/ngùgɨr/
n.
n.
/njà:l/
/nkɨlɨs/
/nkɔkɔ́:/
/nkɔ:ntugur/
/nsúm-tʃá:r/
n.
/nyàkt r̀ àk/
n.
/nyak-yit/
n.
/nyɛ:-kú:l/
n.
/pwas-ɓwɛŋ/
n.
n.
n.
v.
v.
v.p.
v.p.
/wùg ĺ /
/wùlám/
/yìzɛ̀p/
/pun/
/pun/
/pun-a:k/
/pun-a:s/
v.p.
v.p.
/pun-as/
/pun-lɔn/
pun3
Pun
v.
p.n.
/pùn/
pùn dìng
v.p.
/pùn-ɗìŋ/
punpún
n.
/pun-pún/
pun2 as
pun2 long
n.
n.
n.
n.
pwan
pwan
shang
aas
120
Gloss
pumpkin
to thresh maize
to eject, evict
abortion
separation of flour using a winnowing tray
from chaff
kutut
to castrate dog
to castrate
A ram with one testes
removed is called gibar,
castrated cow is called
mpaat, castrated ram is
called ntibe, castrated hegoat is called nkoor.
to regurgitate (baby)
ceremony
for
initiation of youth
to attend in great
numbers
regurgitation
by
babies
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
púpúlep
pl.
PoS
n.
púpwáp
pùs1
pùs2
pwas
pwas
n.
v.
v.
IPA
/púpúlɛp//p
ĺ ɛ́lɛ́r/
/púpwáp/
/pùs/
/pùs/
pùs3
pùs àm
pwas
pwas am
v.
v.p.
/pwas/
/pùs-àm/
pùs àm làà
pwas am
làà
v.p.
/pùs-àmlà:/
pùs kaam
n.
/pùs-ka:m/
pùs tùp
n.
/pùs-tùp/
put
put
put dáás
pwat
pwat
dáás
v.
n.
/put/
/putdá:s//wa:nd
á:s/
put lú
pwat lú
v.p.
/putlú/
n.
/pùtugur/
n.
/putugup/
pùtughup2
n.
/pùtugup/
pùtughup ɗii
wuwat
n.p.
/pùtugup
ɗi:wuwat/
pùtughur
putughup1
5
mo
A proverbial expression
121
Gloss
tough grass sp.
also p ́lélér
fish sp.
to kick, butt (animal)
to shoot, arrow, gun
etc.
to nail s.t. in
to blow ointment on
the anus of a child to
relieve constipation
traditional way of
inducing a child that
has not passed stool
for days to pass such
stool
itchy substance from
jute plant
cowitch,
stinging Mucuna pruriens
bush-vine
????
Koghorong làà yingyíng5
màng ghà put ɓwot mmo
shwar Koghorong [a hero]
has given birth to an insane
person, which makes him
become a laughing-stock
to go out, get out
????
also
waa-ndáás.
Mwaghavul men who have
been properly raised, when
shot at the war front or
during hunting expedition
and certain requirements
are met would re-surface at
home provided that women
do not mourn his death
once the family begins to
mourn his death, he will
never show up again at
home
but
probably
elsewhere. Real men were
known for such gallantry.
to transfer from one
house to another
sloping area, edge of
a cliff
person
full
of
determination
part of the chest near
the heart
sorrow, grief, sadness
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pùtughup wat
puul
puun
puun kaam
pùùr1
pl.
mo
mo
mo
pwaar
PoS
n.
n.
n.
n.
v.
IPA
/pùtugupwat/
/pù:l/
/pu:n/
/pu:n-ka:m/
/pù:r/
puur2
puus
puus a naar
n.
n.
adv.
Puus Kààt
p.n.
puus kɨ kàà
n.p.
puus làà
puus nɨnèèp
n.p.
adv.
puus nook ɗi
n.p.
pwághál1
n.
/pu:s-kɨkà:/
/pu:s-là:/
/pu:snɨnɛ̀:p/
/pu:s-nɔ:kɗi/
/pwágál/
Pwàghàl2
p.n.
/pwàgàl/
pwaghan
v.
/pwagan/
pwan1
v.
/pwan/
pwan2
pwas1
v.
v.
/pwan/
/pwas/
pwas mwaan
n.
/pwasmwa:n/
/pu:r/
/pu:s/
/pu:s-ana:r/
/pu:s-kà:t/
Gloss
sorrow, grief, sadness
eagle
father
father-in-law
to roast, burn, roast
an animal to get rid
the fur or feathers
animal sp.
sun, day
noon
day set aside by
Mwaghavul people to
meet and showcase
their culture
sunrise
birthday
afternoon
holiday
frame for hanging
animals to be smoked
celebration of victory
when
a
famous
enemy was killed on
the battlefield or a
large wild animal was
killed
to jealousy imitate,
rivalry, mimic
to thresh maize by cf. pun
hand (plural)
to eject (plural)
cf. pun
to nail an object, cf. push
crucify, peck, shoot
(plural)
plant sp.
???? run out
pwat
122
The enemy’s head would be
cut off, put in a goatskin
bag with locust beans
leaves. Only heroes wore
that leaf on their heads,
others would participate in
the victory dance. The
peoples for which this
could be organised for were
the Ron, Berom, Fyam and
animals such as leopard and
cheetah, but not a hyena.
The heads of such enemies
and animals were offered to
the gods for blessing (no
longer practised)
randong mó ɗel pwat nkuut
long gùtùtùt The cows came
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
out of the pen gùtùtùt
v.
/pwɛ:r/
n.
v.
/pwɔ̀:n/
/pwɔs/
pwos lip
v.p.
/pwɔs-lip/
pwos mwòòr
v.p.
pwos yen
v.p.
/pwɔsmwɔ̀:r/
/pwɔs-yɛn/
pyaa
pyáá1
excl.
v.
pyaa2
pyaa-pyaa
pyáá péngpéng
v.
pyághál
pyághál pyáá
pyàghàr
n.
n.p.
n.
pyàghàr wus
n.
pweer
pwòòn
pwos
mo
a.
Gloss
/pyá:/
/pyá://kyɛ:n
pyá:/
/pyá:/
/pyá:pɛ́ŋpɛ́ŋ/
/pyágál/
/pyágálpyá:/
/pyàgàr/
/pyàgàrwus/
123
to expose, to dry
clothes in the sun
wooden spoon
to clean, comb, brush,
rub
to rub powder on
one’s face
to rub pomade
to rub ointment on
the body
Good luck!
to be lucky
also kyeen-pyáá
to be white, fair
????
very white
thigh
poor person
lit. ‘white thigh’
spiral, screw – like, to
screw
old
method
of Production of fire requires
producing fire
team work ie two or three
people would take their
turns in quick succession
and in about five minutes
smoke will be produced
resulting in fire. The
Mwaghavul people had two
methods,
the
friction
method piyarghar wus and
the flint method shaghal
wus. the following items
are required piyaghar wus;
strong piece of stick
silk cotton or hay
dry cactus or piece of wood
(soghor plant)
piece of iron/metal
pebble
silk cotton from silk cotton
tree
to produce fire the pebble
and silk cotton are held
together on one hand while
the piece of metal/iron on
the other hand is struck
against the pebble, the
spark so produced would be
converted into fire by
burning the silk cotton, it is
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
necessary to state here that
since the production of light
i.e the piyahar wus was
cumbersome
the
Mwaghavul people had to
find a way of preserving
fire for domestic use. they
used cow-dung or kavuk
(chaff from threshed acha)
these two don’t burn fast
and could store fire for two
or three days, it is usually
preserved at toghol if in the
dry season and in the
kapuk during the rainy
season.
pyak
pyak pee
pyan
Pyáányaa
v.
a. ?
v.
p.n.
/pyan/
/pyá:-nya:/
Pyan túghúl
p.n.
/pyantúgúl/
pyeel
pyeem
n.
n.
/pyɛ:l/
/pyɛ:m/
pyéér
v.
/pyɛ́:r/
pyepye
n.
/pyɛ-pyɛ/
ra
raa
ráá nlèr kút
pron.
v.
v.p.
ráá shit
v.p.
/ra/
/ra:/
/rá:-nlɛ̀rkút/
/rá:-ʃit/
ráá t b
̀ àrná
rààm
v.
n.
/rá:-t b̀ àrná/
/rà:m/
rààs
raghap
rák
n.
a.
v.
/rà:s/
/ragap/
/rák/
ran
v.
/ran/
ran
v.
ran
to grope in the dark
groping in the dark
to break (pl.)
cf. piin
original name of
Panyam town
hunting
festival, Panyam and Pushit people,
expedition
usually a day preceding
Riyeem
morsel, piece of food
wild date palm
Phoenix reclinata used for
mats and hats
to cut, slice, make
incision
flat
cover
for < Hausa
calabash woven from
raffia leaves
R
124
she, her
to weave, knit
to knit a sweater
also wura
to weave grass for
thatching of roof
to weave a mat
tree sp. and its fruit
Syzygium guineense Hausa
malmo
bamboo (plant)
excessive beating
to do something
irrespective of the
consequences
to write, to make
stripes
to distribute, to share
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
ran g ́n
v.p.
ran g ń
randong
randong maar
rang
ranran
rap1
n.
???
v.
/randɔŋ/
????
????
/ranran/
/rap/
rap2
rap2 kyeen
v.
v.p.
out
describes s.o. with
extensive
tribal
marking
on
the
cheeks
cow
ox
????
writing
to be black, dirty,
dark (complexion)
to be unlucky
to have bad luck,
misfortune, to have a
bad rap
rap-rap
rasa
n.
/rasa/
costume
rèèké
reep
rèèp bilaat
n.
n.
n.
/rɛ̀:kɛ́/
/rɛ:p/
/rɛ̀:p-b ĺ à:t/
sugar-cane
young girl, daughter
Fulani girl
v.
/rɛ́ŋ/
réng2
n.
/rɛ́ŋ/
rèp
rep pák
v.
a.
/rɛ̀p/
/rɛp pák/
rét
rét nyit
v.
v.p.
/rɛ́t/
/rɛ́t nyit/
to outdo one another
on the farm
fresh soil produced
while farming
to be small
small
portion;
quantity
to be good, fine
happiness,
excitement, thrills
ret-ret
rí
pron.
/rí/
he, him
1
rɓ
̀ èt
n.
/rìɓɛ̀t/
2
rɓ
̀ èt
rɓ
̀ èt káá
ring
ríí
riin
riin ɗiiɓang
riin ɗiibish
Rim
v.
n.
v.
v.
n.
n.
n.
p.n.
/rìɓɛ̀t/
/rìɓɛ̀t-ká:/
/rìŋ/
/rí/
/ri:n/
/ri:nɗí:ɓáŋ/
/ri:n ɗi:-biʃ/
/rìm/
ring shii
rip1
rip2
rɨran
v.
n.
v.
??
rìŋ-ʃí:/
/rìp/
/rip/
/rɨràn/
ceremony
before
marriage where all
the relations are
entertained
to wish, desire
selfishness
lit. ‘to desire head’
to cause confusion
to be dark
spirit, shadow, shade
holy spirit
evil spirit
name
of
Daika
village
to confuse
irritant, irritation
itchy substance
written
réng1
jiraap
jiraap
b ́lààt
125
worn on the waist while
dancing velang
< Hausa
third
person
singular
masculine
pronoun,
reduced form. cf. wùrí
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
rɨret
rish
rish nang
rish nang
pl.
mo
PoS
adv.
v.
v.
IPA
/r ŕ ɛt/
/ríʃ/
/ríʃ-naŋ/
n.
ritas1
n.
Ritas2
p.n.
/ritas//njàŋjaŋ/
/ritas/
riya
n.
/riya:/
roghop1
roghop2
roghop kong
sham
a.
v.
v.
/rɔgɔp/
/rɔɣɔp/
/r̂ ɔgɔp-kɔŋʃam/
rógò
romji
n.
p.n.
/rɔ́gɔ̀/
/rɔ́mʤi/
ron1
Ron2
ron3
rong kaa
rop
n.
p.n.
a.
v.p.
v.
/rɔ́n/
/rɔ̀n//nrɔ̀n/
/rɔn/
v.
n.
ruko
v.
rum
v.
/rù/
/rùɗɛ́//wúrg
w
ɔ́m/
/rùkɔ̀//rùkw
ɔ̀//rùkɔ̀:/
/rùm/
rùmɓáás
rúrúú
n.
v.
/rùmɓá:s/
/rúrú:/
rwa
rwang
v.
n.
/rwa/
/rwàŋ/
ryang
ryéé
n.
v.
/ryáŋ/
ryéé pee
v.p.
ryeem1
v.
/ryɛ:m/
Ryeem2
p.n.
/ryɛ:m/
ru
rude
rwa
126
Gloss
properly
to sneeze
to wear clothes inside
out
knot used to tie maize
while drying it out
mumps
cf. njàngjang
spirit which causes
mumps
iron anklet, smaller
than nzire
pompous, proud
to break pl.
to kill a person and
bury him for poor
behavioural pattern
cassava plant
slaves originally from
Kulere now referred
to as freed Fulani
madness
Ron people
out of tune
to disperse, go out
to observe the day of
the dead
to embed
cooking porridge
to swim or stay under
water for a long time
to lick powder, flour,
salt etc
guinea-worm
to shout for help,
shout of despair
to embed (plural)
one who starts a case,
causes problems etc
welfare, health, peace
to look at sceptically,
to find fault
to look at sceptically,
to find fault
to
destroy,
demobilise,
render
useless
hunting
festival/expedition
worn by boys while riding
horses
plural of tep
< Hausa
< Hausa
also nron
musical instrument
no-one goes to the farm on
such a day
also wurgwom
also rukwo, rukoo
cf. ru
Pushit
community,
organised to check the
growth of wild animals in
the area that could be
harmful to the community
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
ryeep
pl.
PoS
v.
IPA
/r ɛ̀:p/
Gloss
to mix, jumble
saa
saa a làà píít
saam
saam shiɓut
v.
v.p.
v.
v.p.
/sa:/
sààr
sààs
safiyo
saghan
adv.
n.
n.
n.
/sa:m/
/sa:m-ʃìɓut/
/sà:r/
/sà:s/
/sàfíyɔ̀/
/sàgàn/
pron.
v.
v.p.
n.
v.
/sak/
/sak/
/sak-ma:r/
/sak-ɗar/
/sák/
sak3 kaa
sak poo
sal
v.p.
n.
n.
/sák-ka:/
/sak-pɔ:/
/sàl/
sám
v.
/sám/
to cut (pl.)
to snivel, sniffle
to sleep, to lie down
lie down on one’s
stomach
when it stops raining
animal ribs
surveyor
lineage, section, clan,
part, ward etc
yourself
to farm
act of farming
police
to shave, barb, have a
haircut
to have a haircut
bridle
plain ground, plain
land
to sharpen a knife,
hoe etc., to scratch
sám pyághál
san1
v.p.
n.
/san/
pron.
n.
n.
/san/
/sàndùr/
/sans ŕ ɛ́k/
sansɨrek nshii
n.
/sansɨrɛkn
ʃí:/
sár
sar cii kaat kɨnok
n.
n.p.
sar gaal
n.p.
/sár/
/sár-tʃí:ka:t-k ǹ ɔ̀k/
/sar-gà:l/
sar hɨrit
n.p.
sar ka
n.p.
y
S
sak1
sak2
sak2 maar
sak dar
sak3
san2
sandur
sansɨrek
suk
sun
/sárka/
127
cf. can
< Hausa
cf. der
wùrá
sám
pyághál
kúráshkúrásh she scratched
her thigh, kúráshkúrásh
lit. ‘to scratch the thigh’
to lie
to pour liquid on
someone or away
myself
island
< Hausa
necklace worn by
girls
decorative
chain
worn on the leg by
girls
hand
empty-handed,
inability to meet need
bahama grass
Cynodon dactylon. Hausa
kirikiri
knot to tie up
domestic animals
string used in tying
bow
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
sar kan
sar kul
sar kutut
sar nɨghɨn
pl.
PoS
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
IPA
/sar-kan/
/sar-kùl/
/sar-kútùt/
/sar-nɨgɨn/
sar ran
sar se
sar shak
sar tɨbɨlak yaa
nduu
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
/sar-ràn/
/sar-sɛ/
/sar-ʃàk/
/sar-t b́ ĺ ák
yà:-ndu:/
sát
v.
/sát/
sát lè pàn
v.p.
sat shi kaa1
sat shi kaa2
n.p.
v.p.
/sát-ʃì-ká:/
/sát-ʃì-ká:/
sát yaghal
n.
/sát-yàgàl/
sat
sàt
pron.
n.
/sat/
/sàt/
se3
se1
se2
se lɨbet
n.
v.
v.
v.p.
/sɛ́/
/sɛ/
/sɛ/
/sɛ-l ɓ̀ ɛ̀t/
se lughup
se pee
v.p.
v.p.
se rɨɓet
n.
se rɨɓet ɗimu tar
ɗii poo
se se
se shang
se shel
se teng
se tong ashak
v.p.
v.p.
v.p.
v.p.
v.p.
se yíl
v.p.
/sɛpɛ://mbura
m/
Gloss
wrong side
left hand side
bicycle wheel
best harvest of millet
preserved for use as
seeds during next
farming season
handwriting
right hand
the same
to mistakenly kill s.o.
instead of the one
earlier intended
to inform, say, notify,
preach, tell
to toast (i.e. give recent coinage
good wishes)
memorised verse
to recite off head,
from memory
drink
Usually provided during
(yaghal-maar) early in the
morning between 8:00 a.m.
and 9:00 a.m. to those
working on a farm. A
traditional
way
of
informing farmers that
work has commenced on
the farm.
herself
seat, usually of flat
rock
food
to win
to eat
to eat extra at the
disadvantage
of
others
bribery, bribe
lit. ‘to eat s.t. loose’
gluttony, eat a lot
also mburam
ceremony preparatory
to wedding
new moon festival
recent coinage
/sɛ-sɛ́/
/sɛ-ʃáŋ/
/sɛ-ʃɛ́l/
/sɛ-tɛ́ŋ/
/sɛ-tɔŋaʃàk/
/sɛ-yíl/
128
to eat food
ostentatious living
????
to refuse absolutely
to partake of Holy
communion
to grovel as a mark of lit. ‘to eat earth’
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
seel
v.
/sɛ̀:l/
seen1
seen2
seen2 took
seen3
n.
n.
n.
n.
/sɛ:n/
/sɛ:n/
/sɛ:n-tɔ́:k/
/sɛ̀:n/
seer1
n.
/sɛ:r/
seer2
séét
n.
v.
/sɛ̀:r/
/sɛ́:t//sɛ́:tk /́
/sɛ:t-k /́
/sɛ́:t-sɛ:n/
/sekɔ́d r̀ /̀
/sɛkɔ́p/
/sɛkɔ́p/
sirep
seet kɨ2
seet seen
sekondɨrɨ
sekop1
Sekop2
v.p.
v.p.
n.
v.
p.n.
sekyeen1
sekyeen2
n.
v.
sel
sel
sen
v.
n.
n.
sèp
se-se
seshel
seteng
n.
sháál1
v.
shaar1
shaar2
shaar lek
shaar mwaan
shaar nwor
shaar shak
shaar tong
shaghal1
n.
a.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
v.
n.
mo
shàghàl2
shàghàl2 kipak
n.
n.p.
shàghàl2 wus
n.p.
shagham
a.
Gloss
total submission
to be slimy, like draw
soup
life
roots
vein in the neck
wisdom, knowledge,
cunning
traditional ruler
He does not speak to the
public directly but through
a polap (who amplifies
what he says).
laziness
to buy, sell
also séét kɨ
sell
to risk one’s life
secondary school
to inherit
clan of ruling house
in Panyam
/sɛ-kyɛ:n/
progress
/sɛ-kyɛ:n/
to proceed, continue,
advance
/sɛ́l/
to lead, guide
/sɛ́l/
leader, guide
/sɛ̀n//mà:r- traditional farming,
sɛ̀n/
grass
and
soil
excavated by the hoe
/sɛ̀p/
axe
????
???
gluttony
????
to
be
obstinate,
stubborn,
uncompromising
/ʃá:l/
to become dusk, get
dark/cloudy, to blur
vision
/ʃa:r/
friend
/ʃà:r/
friendly
/ʃà:r-lɛ̀k/
enemy
/ʃà:r-mwa:n/ fellow traveller
/ʃà:r-nwɔ̀r/
customer
/ʃà:r-ʃàk/
friends
/ʃà:r-tɔ̀ŋ/
neighbours
/ʃagal/
method of preparing
food
/ʃàgàl/
money, iron, metal
/ʃàgàlflat metal used in
kɨpák/
decorating horses
/ʃàgàl-wus/ flintstone,
match,
lighter
/ʃágám/
lean, haggard
129
< English
ie (maar-sen)
≠ Hebrew shekel.
lit. ‘iron of fire’
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
shaghat
shak
pl.
PoS
v.
IPA
/sagat/
shak
shakshik
n.
a.
/ʃák/
/ʃákʃí:/
sham
v.
/ʃam/
sham am kaa nfii
v.p.
/ʃam-àm
kà:nfì:/
sham ki kaa
v.p.
sham mwaan
v.p.
sham seen
v.
/ʃam-k -́
ká://sa:mk -́ ká:/
/ʃammwa:n/
/ʃam-sɛ:n/
sham taa
v.p.
/ʃam-tá:/
sham yaghal
sháng1
sháng mwòs
shang aas
v.p.
v.
n.
v.p.
all mid
/ʃáŋ/
/ʃaŋ-a:s/
shang
shang2
shwat
v.
/ʃaŋ/
shang2 aghas
shang nuk
shang2 sar1
shwat ~
shwat ~
shwat
sar
v.p.
/ʃaŋ-àgàs/
???
/ʃaŋsár//ʃwatsár/
/ʃàŋ/
/ʃaŋ-lɛ́:/
????
v.p.
shang2
shang2 léé
shang milom
n.
n.p.
shàng2 pupwap
n.p.
/ʃàŋpʊ́pwáp/
130
Gloss
to close, cover
??
mó yak shak g s̀ hìshash
g s̀ hìshash They held on to
each other g ̀ shìshash
g ̀ shìshash
to sieve
jovial, one who jokes
a lot
to go down, get off,
disembark,
alight,
come in abundance,
get out of, rise from,
take off
insect that lives in the When removed from water,
water
no moisture can be seen on
its body.
to be humble,
also saam ki-kaa
humility
to pay a visit to
others
to establish roots, to
be deep rooted
to fall down, to stop lit. ‘to go down, stand up’
over
to take off (as a bird)
to be sweet
ant sp.
producing flour to be
mixed with water and
served to visitors in
place of gruel
????
kòòk pughal ni doghon
shang mɨghɨn màt funu no
zam har ni kàá wùrá cukcur
yesterday our old woman
danced the Pughal dance so
much that she became very
excited cukcur
to withdraw, pull out,
remove
to extract tooth
to be betrothed
to withdraw from an
action
net, general name
net for carrying loads
net used to carry
cocoyam or sweet
potato
fishing net
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
shang2 sar2
pl.
IPA
/ʃàŋ-sár/
v.p.
Shang shíí nòghòl
shang3
shang3 sar1
PoS
n.
shwat
shwat
sar
v.
v.
/ʃaŋ/
/ʃaŋsár//ʃwatsár/
/ʃaŋ-sár
n
gùrùm
n
kɨpák/
/ʃàŋkwàgàl/
shàng sár gùrùm
kɨpák
v.
shàng kwaghal
n.
sháng-sháng
shash
v.
/ʃáʃ/
shee
v.
/ʃɛ:/
shee ɗi
shee làà
v.p.
v.p.
sheem
n.
???
/ʃɛ:-là://là:k t́ ʃɔ́/
/ʃɛ:m/
Sheemee
shi
p.n.
shi
shi kibwoon
v.
v.p.
shi parci
??
shi tughur
shibal
shiɓil
v.p.
adv.
n.
Shiɓɨlang
p.n.
shiɓut lu
n.
shiɓut pee
n.
shidaar
adv.
Gloss
local
women’s
handbag
lit. ‘to pull out leg from
Ceremonies
performed when a between the legs’ [of
man inherits the wife women implied]
of his brother.
to slap
to slap s.o.
to slap s.o. on the
cheek
riverine animal
???
to pick up, carry a
heavy load
to change, begin
anew, restart, be the
first
change
first delivery
see làà kɨco
potash, made from
ashes after distillation
/ʃɛ:mɛ́:/
ward in Panyam
???
níí ni sù sò nd g̀ ǹ shi yeep
mó kudùnùngkudùnùng the
elephant ran into the trees,
kudùnùngkudùnùng; làà
tum ni yághál mɨrep shi ret
nyit zhìrìkzhìrìk the child
jumped up and down with
excitement zhìrìkzhìrìk
/ʃì/
to use
(can be translated with, by)
/ʃì:-kɨɓwɔ́:n/ to go backwards, in
reverse
/ʃì-pàrcì/
occasionally,
sometimes
/ʃìtúgúr/
long, sloping area
/ʃìɓál/
by force, strongly
/ʃiɓil/
peel, skin of certain
fruits or vegetables
/ʃiɓɨlàŋ /
heaven, paradise
It is believed that when
good people die, they go to
shiɓɨlang
/ʃìɓutwall
also shuɓut lu
lú//ʃùɓutlú/
/ʃìɓut-pɛ/
wall of a trunk, big
rock
/ʃida:r/
daily
131
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
shidaar-shidaar
pl.
PoS
id.
shidyes
n.
IPA
/ʃìdà:rʃìdà:r/
/ʃiɗyɛs/
shii1
shii dughul
n.
n.p.
/ʃí:/
/ʃi:-dùgùl/
shii feer
n.p.
/ʃí:-fɛ́:r/
shii kɨ taa-lung
n.p.
shii lop
n.p.
/ʃí:-k -́ tá:lúŋ/
/ʃi:-lɔ̀p/
shii mwaan
shii naat
shii nɓwoon
shii put nkom
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
n.p.
shii teer
shii teer ɗiisi
n.
n.
shii toghon
shiit
n.p.
v.
/ʃi:-mwa:n/
/ʃí:-nà:t/
/ʃí:-mɓwɔ́:n/
/ʃí:putn
kɔ́m/
/ʃi:-tɛ̀:r/
/ʃi:-tè:rɗí:s /̀
/ʃí:-tɔ́gɔ́n/
/ʃi:t/
shiit mwoor
n.
/ʃi:t-mwɔ̀:r/
shii2
shik1
n.
v.
/ʃì://nʃì:/
ʃik
shik2
shik2 bish
shìk2 màt
n.
n.
n.p.
ʃìk
/ʃìk-biʃ/
shìk l̀ ìng
shiko
shilak
n.
n.
n.
shilip
shilip nfyam
n.
n.
/tiŋ ʃikɔ/
/ʃílák//nʃílá
k/
/ʃìlìp/
/ʃìlìpn y
f àm/
132
Gloss
daily
designated place for
children to pass their
stool
leg
describes s.o. who is
flat footed
motor-vehicle,
anything with four
wheels
limping person
tip you give to a child
for going on an
errand
footstep
bird that eats maize
lit. ‘foot red’
push over
dislocation of the
pelvis, leg
few days
these few days
soldier
to pound, grind, and
thresh
grain
for
cooking
brown colour of
animals (goat)
honey, bee
to germinate millet
for brewing
matter, issue
sin, wrongdoing
The first act in the
process
of
engagement
radio
tree sp.
boiled spinach
lit. ‘pounding oil’
also nshii
lit. ‘issue bad’
lit. ‘matter of women’. A
small amount of beer is sent
to the girl’s relations by the
family of the boy.
recent coinage
also nshilak
raincoat
easily folded local Made from raffia by the
raincoat for men
Fyem community.
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
shilip ngang
n.p.
/ʃìlìp-ngàŋ/
shilip piil
n.p.
/ʃìlìp-pí:l/
shilushilu
shim
id.
n.
/ʃìlú-ʃìlú/
/ʃìm/
shim làà
n.
/ʃìm-là:/
shin
shìnáá
shing1
shing2
shinishini
shinkafa
ship1
pron.
n.
n.
p.u.t.
id.
n.
v.
/ʃin/
/ʃìni-ʃìni/
/ʃìŋ-kafa/
/ʃíp/
ship2
shipeeshipee
shirip
v.
id.
v.
/ʃíp/
/ʃìpɛ-ʃìpɛ:/
/ʃirip/
shirop
shishor
shishwaa
shit
shit bɨrɨng
shit kom
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.p.
n.p.
/ʃìrɔ̀p/
/ʃíʃwɔ́:r/
/ʃìʃwá:/
/ʃit/
/ʃit-b ŕ ŋ́ /
/ʃit-kɔm/
shit long
n.p.
/ʃit-lɔŋ/
/ʃìŋ/
133
Gloss
local raincoat made
from palm leaves
local raincoat for
women made from
tar-grass
from house to house
leather,
skin
of
animals
goat-skin used
to
strap little children to
their mothers back
himself
television
recent coinage
mortar
isn’t it? is it not?
differently
rice
< Hausa
to remove a pot from
the fire
to dismantle, collapse
from place to place
to
pull
down,
demolish,
destroy
building etc
ladies, women
nasal mucus
goose-flesh
grass, generic
hay, fodder
grass worn on both
ears by women as
part of their costume
fodder, forage
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
shit lu
pl.
PoS
n.p.
IPA
/ʃit-lú/
shit pòò
n.p.
/ʃit-pwɔ̀:/
shiyilshiyil
id.
/ʃì-yíl-ʃìyíl/
shon
n.
/ʃɔ́n/
shoop
shoop poo
shoor1
shoor2
n.
n.
v.
v.
shoop pòò
/ʃɔ:r//ʃwɔ́:r/
/ʃɔ:r//ʃwɔ:r/
shoor
shughur
shùrètshùrèt
n.
ideo.
/ʃúgúr/
shuu
shwáá
shwaa1
shwáá aɗuu
n.
n.
n.
n.
/ʃu:/
/ʃwá:/
/ʃwa:/
/ʃwá:-a-ɗù:/
v.
shwaa3
v.
/ʃwa:/
/myas/
/ʃwa:/
shwaa jeel
shwaa kaa
shwaa kut
shwàà làà
v.p.
v.p.
v.p.
v.p.
/ʃwa:-jɛ́:l/
/ʃwa:-ka:/
/ʃwa:-kút/
/ʃwà:-là:/
shwaa liis
shwaa pee
v.p.
v.p.
/ʃwa:-lí:s/
/ʃwa:-pɛ:/
shwaa2
myas
134
Gloss
grass for thatching
houses
piece of grass worn it was part of the dressing
on the two lips by in vogue in those days
women
from one country to
another or from one
place to another
malevolent spirit of
the dead that returns
to torment others
hair in general
moustache
to beat, blow
to scoop food or soup
with hand or spoon
màt káá nɨ wùrá kɨ baa
ɓɨlang ɗi mme la fra ni ɗéé
wùrá teer shoor a map ɗak
shwetshwet the widow has
lost another child and she
has been crying all night
shwetshwet
rat sp.
describes s.t. that mó bàà wàt putughup ɗi
goes on an on mmat pòò furu ni ku wùrá
happening
ɗéé saa a làà píít ɗak
shùrètshùrèt they upset the
new wife so she is sniffling
continuously;
thread, cotton, boll
maize
to transplant
planting
several
maize seeds in one
hole
to drink
cf. also mis
to determine guilt in Two suspects or their
traditional way
cockerels are forced to
drink a mixture. The first
cock to die confirms that its
owner is guilty. The plant
known as kisom was used.
to suffer
to overcome
to breathe, to stroll
traditional method of Their nostrils are closed by
forcing babies to forcing them to gulp
drink
whatever liquid was offered
to them
to suck the tongue
to drain oneself
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
shwaa sar
shwaghar1
pl.
PoS
v.p.
v.
IPA
/ʃ a:-sar/
/ʃwágár/
shwaghar2
shwagharshwaghar
shwal1
shwàl2
shwàl jép
shwal mat
n.
/ʃwágár/
n.
n.
n.p.
n.p.
/ʃwàl/
shwal mish
n.p.
/ʃwàl-miʃ/
shwal saam
shwan1
shwan2
n.
n.
v.
/ʃwàl-sà:m/
/ʃwàn/
/ʃwan/
shwar shak
v.p.
/ʃwar-ʃàk/
shwat
shwat nkaa
n.
/ʃwat-nká:/
shwat nyit1
shwat nyit2
a.
v.
/ʃwat-nyit/
/ʃwat-nyit/
shwat sar1
shwat sar2
v.
v.
/ʃwat-sár/
/ʃwat-sár/
shwol
n.
/ʃwɔl//ʃɔl/
shwoop
shwoop káá
shwoop nàghàp
n.
n.
n.
shwoop pòò
shwoop yit
shwoor
shyeep
n.
n.
v.
n.
/ʃwɔ:p/
/ʃwɔ:p-ká:/
/ʃwɔ:pnàgàp/
/ʃwɔ:p-pwɔ̀/
/ʃwɔ:p-yit/
??
/ʃyɛ:p/
shyeep-k p
̀ àng
n.
w
/ʃwàl-mat/
shwar
/ʃyɛ:pk p̀ àŋ/
135
Gloss
to suck the finger
to be lean, shrivel,
wrinkle from heat or
cold.
syphilis
?
length
pain, illness
children’s diseases
sexually transmitted (reference by men)
disease
sexually transmitted (reference by women)
disease
sleeping
troublesomeness
cf. tangshwan
to remove, convey
plenty of things,
items
?? laugh
wùrá ji ɗel sò ɓe mó piin
shwar k ś hk ś h she walked
by and they burst out
laughing k ś hk ś h.
to make fun of one
another
????
shampoo-like
head
gear worn
during
dance (cultural)
selective
selfishness, ethnicity,
tribalism,
favouritism,
sectionalism
to exonerate, absolve
to withdraw from an (plural of shang sar)
action ?????
jollof acha, jollof also shol. favourites during
guinea corn, jollof naming ceremonies of
rice
children etc
hair
hair on head
body hair
(usually the armpit)
mouthache
eyelid, eyelash
to hit
wood,
wooden
ladder, wooden cross,
support
logs used to block the
main entrance into
the compound
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
shyeep múút k ̀
Jesu
pl.
PoS
n.
IPA
/ʃyɛ:pmú:t-k -̀
jɛ́sù/
????
siminti
sirep
Siri
n.
v.
p.n.
gunung
long feer
rongong
manjor
dong
ndolcaap
s ́1
sɨ
s 2̀
sɨɓel1
sɨɓel2
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
dem.
dem.
dem.
n.
v.
/gunuŋ/
/lɔŋfɛ:r/
/rɔŋɔŋ/
/manjɔr/
/dɔŋ/
/ndɔltʃa:p/
/s /́
sɨɓel2 pee
?
?
sɨɓel3
sɨɗi
v.
/sɨɓɛl/
sɨghɨm
sɨghɨm híík
sɨghɨn1
n.
n.
v.
/sɨgɨm/
/sɨgɨm-hí:k/
/sɨgɨn/
sɨghɨn2
sɨghɨr1
sɨghɨr2
v.
a.
n.
/sɨgɨn/
/sɨgɨr/
/sɨgɨr/
sɨghɨr3
sɨghɨt
n.
adv.
/sɨgɨr/
/sɨgɨt/
sɨghɨt pòò
siisi
n.
n.
/sɨgɨt-pɔ/
/sí:sì/
sɨlak1
sɨlak ntook
v.
v.p.
/sɨlak/
/sɨlak-ntɔ́:k/
sɨlak2
n.
/sɨlak/
/siri/
/s /̀
/sɨɓɛl/
/s ɓ̀ ɛ̀l/
136
Gloss
cross of Jesus
cement
to buy, sell (pl.)
Spirit that protects
children (kumjep)
recent coinage
< Hausa
cf. séét sg.
Once offended an animal
must be sacrificed to
appease it. These njii are
specific to certain areas.
fwangko – njii-kung
kochaan – njii-kung
yitup – njii-kung
kuzung – njii-kung
kojan – njii-kung
pushit – njii-kung
there
this
here
wild cat
to get oneself into
trouble
person who gets
others into trouble
to stitch
??
wáár nii wal sɨɗi mbut
mbeen ni gùlúnggùlúng the
gruel is making noise in the
gourd, gùlúnggùlúng
cough
whooping cough
to mix meat with salt
and oil
to shake, move
old, not new
in-law (one married
to either your sister or
brother etc)
dew
complete, finally, at d -̀ káá wurí sɨghɨt wéél
last
ntóók jéghérékjéghérék the
man with the big head now
has a a thin neck
jéghérékjéghérék
last born
sixpence (6d) in the < Hausa. No longer legal
former currency
tender
to carve, chisel
to nod the head while A
typical
Mwaghavul
dancing
gesture.
spear with barbs
The third spear to be used.
It has barbs on its edges,
and cannot be easily
removed. cf. kop
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
sm
̀ èn
sɨr1
n.
IPA
n
/s m
̀ ɛ̀n// s ̀
mɛ̀n/
/sɨr/
sɨr2
sɨr3
sɨram
sɨrap
sɨyoon
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
/sɨr/
/s r̀ /
/sɨram/
/s r̀ àp/
????
sɨzáál
sisí
sò
soghom
sóghór
n.
n.
v.
n.
n.
/sɨs /́
/sɔ̀//sɔ̀r/
/sɔgɔm/
/sɔgɔr/
soghot
n.
/sɔgɔt/
sok1
sok2
som
v.
v.
v.
/sɔk/
/sɔk/
/sɔ́m/
somwaan
song
sóó
v.
n.
n.
/sɔ̀mwa:n/
/sɔ́ŋ/
/sɔ́://sɔ́gɔ́/
soo reep
n.
/sɔ:rɛ:p//sɔgɔrɛ:p
soo maar
v.
/sɔ:má:r//sɔgɔmá:r/
sòr
sor ten ndol
v.
v.
sù
su-su
sughul
sughul-sughul
sughun1
sùghùn2
sughup
sughur
suk
pl.
swa
PoS
n.
v.
/sɔr tɛn
n
dɔ́l/
/sù//swa/
a.
/súgúl/
n.
n.
n.
v.
pron.
/sugun/
/sùgùn/
/sugup/
/sugur/
/suk/
137
Gloss
musk-shrew
also
spp.
ns m
̀ èn.
Crocidura
whetstone, smooth,
polished stone used
for sharpening
to paint s.t.
tree sp.
to beat (plural)
cf. nung
boil, pimple
excessive
beating,
harvesting of fruits
internet
recent coinage
to go, proceed
horn
plant used to produce
fire by friction
witch,
wizard,
sorcerer
to save
to hide
to thresh corn, maize
etc
to pay visit to others
branches
traditional
horse
racing
traditional
horse
racing
method of farming
to go, proceed
imprisonment
cf. sòr
cf. pyaghar wus
also sóghó
also sogho-reep. Formerly
organised as part of hunting
expeditions. One objective
was to impress women and
the public in general. A
good jockey, hunter, farmer
and even dancer could
acquire a new wife through
his
impressive
performance.
also sogho-maar
cf. sò
to run
???
tough, strong (of
meat)
?????
dream
revelation
bath, shower
to fry
yourselves (inclusive) wú táp án suk k ́ mùùt k ̀
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
sùl
pl.
sulwang
PoS
v.
IPA
/sùl//sulwaŋ
/
/sulɛ/
sule
n.
suluk
n.
sulwang1
sulwang pòò
v.
v.
sulwang2
súm1
v.
n.
súm cáár1
súm cáár2
n.
n.
sum2
sum aghas
sum po
v.
v.p.
v.
/súm-tʃá:r/
/súmtʃá:r//nsúntʃá:r/
/sum/
/sum-àgàs/
/sum-pwɔ/
sum shwaa
sùn1
v.
n.
/sum-ʃwá:/
/sùn/
sun2
sun3
sùng
sup
susar
pron.
v.
n.
v.
v.
/sun/
/sun/
/sùŋ/
/sup/
/sùsár/
sushii
sut
swa
v.
pron.
v.
/sùʃí:/
/sut/
/swa/
swap
v.
/swap/
táá1
táá kyeen
v.
v.p.
/táá/
/tá:-kyɛ:n/
táá lip
v.p.
/tá:-lip/
táá lung
táá sheem
v.p.
n.
/tá:-lúŋ/
táá sheem
táá tileng
v.p.
v.p.
/tá:-ʃɛ:m/
/tá:t ĺ ɛ̀ŋ/
/sùlùk//nsùl
ùk/
/sulwaŋ/
/sulwaŋpwɔ̀/
/sùlwàŋ/
/súm/
Gloss
nɨghɨn fuu ni. Don’t
indulge in self-pity over the
death of your mother
to pierce, penetrate
shilling in former < Hausa
currency
uncircumcised person also nsuluk
to pierce, penetrate
to make insulting
comments, statements
trouble
name, heroism, fame,
reputation
plant sp. used in soup
swallow (bird spp.)
plural of sul
lit. ‘to pierce mouth’
(see pumbwan)
cf. nsún cáár
to eat grains
to gnash teeth
to utter proverbs, cf. nyam.
wise sayings
to eat maize
iburu variety
planted near the stream cf.
kusuk
ourselves
dry up, evaporate
cocoyam variety
to cover, invert
to multiply (of an
enterprise)
to run
also nsushii
themselves
to run (pl.), rush, plural of su
scramble, hurry
to share out, give
freely, be generous
T
138
to fall, drop
to precede, to spearhead
to collect lip powder
from the stream
to swim
plant used to make
potash
produce potash
through distillation of ashes
to
precede,
spearhead, to lead, to
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
táá2
taa-doo
v.
n.
Taal
p.n.
tààn1
v.
/tà:n/
taan1 fiit
v.p.
taan njweng
taan2
v.p.
v.
/tà:fi:t//pi:t/
/tà:-njwɛ́ŋ/
/ta:n//ta:/
taan ging
tààn
tááp
taat
taat kaa
v.p.
v.
n.
v.
v.p.
/tà:-g ŋ̀ /
/tà:n//tà:/
/tá:p/
/ta:t/
/ta:t-ká:/
taat nàghàp
taghal
tagham s ̀
tàghàs
v.p.
v.
adv.
v.
/ta:t-nàgàp/
/tagal/
/tagam-s /̀
/tàgàs/
tájì
tak
v.a.
v.
/tájì/
/ták/
takarda
tàk bwagham
n.
n.
tal1
tal-tal
tal2
Tal3
tàl4
tàl dúng
a.
/tákardà/
/tàkbwàgàm/
/tal/
v.
p.n.
v.
v.
/tál/
/tal/
tam1
tam2
tan
tándúk
tang
tang1
tang2
v.
v.
v.
n.
v.
v.
v.
/tam/
/tam/
/tàn/
/tiŋ tándúk/
????
/tàŋ/
/tàŋ/
tang2 bar
v.
/tàŋ-bár/
tang2 pee
v.
/tàŋ-pɛ:/
/tá:/
/tá:-ɗɔ́://tá:ɗɔ́gɔ́/
/tal-dúŋ/
139
Gloss
arrive earlier, to be a
forerunner
to stop over
cock-crow
also táádóghó
Hunting festival in
Mangun and Bwanpe
to blow a wind
instrument
to whistle
also taan piit
to play the flute
to beat the drum, play
the xylophone and
other
musical
instruments
to beat drum
to sew
antelope sp.
to shake
to shake the head to
indicate disagreement
to express happiness
to chew
this year
to taste bad, smell
bad
do not
to pour out liquid
from a jar
book
local soup
hot, heat
to pluck fruit
Tal people
to ask a question
to ask or asking from
the
nyem-dung
(owner of the river)
to dance
to simmer
to play
tree sp.
to sprout
to count
to search, seek, look
for
to survive, to seek
salvation
to search for an
opportunity
also taa
also taaging
also tàà
< Hausa
cf. Hausa turbunuwa
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
tàng ɗok
tang ran
tang san
tang shwan
pl.
PoS
n.
v.p.
v.p.
v.p.
IPA
/tàŋ-ɗɔ̀k /
/tàŋ-ràn/
/tàŋ-sán/
/tàŋ-ʃwàn/
v.
/táp/
v.p.
???
táp ki waar
v.p.
táp lee
táp pee
v.p.
v.p.
/táp-k -́
wà:r/
/táp-lɛ:/
/tap-pɛ:/
táp sheen
n.
tár1
tár2
tár3
tar3 ɓum
tar3 kom
tar4
tar4 lok
n.
n.
n.
n.p.
n.p.
n.
n.p.
/tiŋ táp
ʃɛ:n/
/tár/
/tár/
/tár/
/tàr ɓúm/
/tár kɔ́m/
/tar/
???
tar4 lughun
n.p.
???
tar4 neen
n.
/tar-nɛ:n/
tar4 pas
n.p.
tar4 waap
n.p.
tás
tát
tát sár
n.
v.
v.p.
tás
tát
/tát-sár/
tát shuu
v.p.
/tát-ʃu:/
taway
v.
/tawai/
tawaza
tee
teel
n.
v.
a.
/tiŋ dɛ̀p/
/tɛ:/
/tɛ́:l/
táp
táp ɓít
kram
nfùng
140
Gloss
young locust
to read
troublesomeness
trouble
seeker,
trouble shooter
to be meticulous, take
time to prepare, be
careful, to watch out
for, to indulge in, to
protect
to be punctual, on lit. ‘watch for daybreak
time
through an opening in the
room’.
to adhere to the tenets
of the law
to be careful
to oversee, keep
watch over a place
tree sp.
month, moon
madness
grass sp.
grass sp.
grass sp.
season, period
early wet season,
March – May
dry
season,
December-February
Period of hunger in This was between the
the
Mwaghavul months of June and
community
September when none of
the farm crops were ripe.
rainy season, JuneAugust
harvest
season,
September
–
November
mushroom
cf. ntas
???
to give a typical hand
shake
to
close
friends, to snap one’s
fingers
to spin cotton to
produce thread
to revolt, protest,
associated with mad
dogs
tree sp.
to tear, rip
foolish,
arrogant,
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
teer1
teer1
teer2
pl.
yem
ten1
tén2
PoS
IPA
v.
adv.
n.
/tɛ:r/
/tɛ:r/
/tɛ̀:r/
adv.
n.
/tɛ̀n/
/tɛ́n/
ten1
tɨreng
v.
/tɛ̀n/
ten2
tɨreng
v.
/tɛ̀n/ tɨreng
n.
v.p.
/tɛn-ndɔ́l/
/tɛ̀n-pɔ̀:-lú/
tèn sát
part.
/tɛ̀n-sát/
teng
n.
/tɛ́ŋ/
teng ngwaghar
n.
/tɛŋngwágár
/
Teng Kwàt
p.n.
Teng Lwaa
p.n.
ten dol
tèn pòò lú
tɨreng po
lu
v.
/tɛp/
v.p.
/tɛp-ká:/
tep nk ́ráng
tep ntook
n.
n.
/tɛp-nk ŕ áŋ/
/tɛp-ntɔ́:k/
tep po
n.
/tɛp-pɔ̀:/
tet1
tet pee
v.
n.
/tɛ́t/
??
tet po
tet2
n.
v.
??
/tɛ́t/
teghel
tɨbarna
tiding
Tidiu
a.
n.
n.
p.n.
/tɛ́gɛ́l//tɛ́:l/
/t b̀ àrná/
/tídìŋ/
/tidiu/
tighis
tiip
tiip tu
a.
n.
n.p.
/tɨgɨs/
/tí:p/
/tí:p-tù/
tep
tep-tep
tep kaa
tirep
141
Gloss
claiming to know all,
pompous
to spend the night
late in the night
day of twenty-four
hours
already
mahogany tree
Khaya senegalensis Hausa
maɗaacii
to press, iron clothes,
tread on
to lock door
because you had to press
the lock
prison
to lock door, car
already
stated,
already
mentioned
said
rope, twine, string,
cord
Mwaghavul
wellknown rope
Hunting festival of
Jipal people
Hunting festival of
Chakfem people
to break
???
to plait, braid a
woman’s hair
logical, diplomatic
cerebrospinal
meningitis
parable, figure of
speech, to speak
figuratively
fun, joke, humour
joker,
humorous
person
metaphor
to disgrace, cause to
be ashamed
arrogant
mat
deaf and dumb
hunting expedition of
Kombun community.
big (place)
shock
death as a result of
shock
otherwise known as yar
sura, don sura
roghop is second plural
also teel
< Hausa
Occasions to display good
horsemanship,
bravery
were exhibited
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
tiis
pl.
PoS
n.
IPA
/tì:s/
tiit
tììt
v.
n.
til
til maar
n.
n.
/til-má:r/
tim1
v.
/tim/
Tim2
p.n.
/tìm/
tɨnen
ting1
ting2
ting3
n.
n.
v.a.
v.
/t ǹ ɛ̀n/
/tíŋ/
/tiŋ/
/tíŋ/
tip1
n.
/tìp/
tip2
tɨris-wus
num.
v.
/tìp/
/t r̀ ìs/
t ́sék
tish
tish puk
n.
n.
n.
/t ś ɛ́k/
/tìʃ/
/tìʃ-pùk/
tish bwar
v.p.
títík
titira
adv.
n.
/tíʃbwà:r//t b́ wà
:r/
/títík/
/titira/
tiyoor
v.
tɨɓen
n.
/tiyɔ:r//tuw
ɔ:r/
/t ɓ̀ ɛ̀n/
tɨbɨlak
tɨdok
n.
adv.
/t b̀ ɨlák/
/t d́ ɔ́k/
tɨdok si
adv.
/t d́ ɔ́k-s /̀
tɨfil
n.
/t f́ íl/
tɨghɨr1
tɨghɨr yit
tɨghɨr2
v.
v.p.
n.
/tɨgɨriŋ/
/t g̀ r̀ -yit/
/tɨgɨr/
142
Gloss
shrub, tree sp.
Piliostigma reticulatum &
P. thonningii The bark is
used to bind bundles of
firewood.
to scatter
traditional clothing
worn by girls
ridge
ridges
(singular/plural)
to slow down, to lack
enthusiasm,
be
apathetic
area
in
Kerang,
Chakfem
liver
tree, shrub generic
compulsory, a must
to
be
standing,
upright
jute bag for keeping A good example could hold
foodstuffs
water for days without
leaking.
hundred
to reduce soot from
ngyam fire (local
candle)
chain
nest, sponge
spongy remnant of
draw soup
to lie on one’s back
also tɨbwaar
quietly, silently
portion of millet
given to the most
elderly person in
family.
to
mention,
to also tuwoor
intimate
wooden handle of a
hoe
lizard
recently, a few days
ago
recently, a few days
ago
foam, air bubbles,
froth, lather
to focus on an object
to focus one’s eye
anthill
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
tɨghɨrɨng
pl.
PoS
n.
IPA
/tɨgɨr ŋ̀ /
tɨkan
tɨleng1
tɨleng2
tɨleng3
tɨlong
adv.
adv.
n.
loc.
n.
/t ḱ àn/
/t ĺ ɛ̀ŋ/
/t l̀ ɛŋ/
/t ĺ ɛ̀ŋ/
/t l̀ ɔ̀ŋ/
tɨzɨk1
n.
/t ź ɨk/
tizik2
tóghól
n.
n.
/t ź ɨk/
/tɔ́ɣɔ́l/
toghom3
loc.
/tɔɣɔm/
tòghòm1
tòghòm2
toghon
toghon-toghon
toghos
toghot
n.
n.
a.
/tɔ̀ɣɔ̀m/
/tɔ̀ɣɔ̀m/
/tɔ́ɣɔ́n/
n.
v.
/tɔɣɔs/
/tɔ̀ɣɔ̀t/
tòk1
tòk2
tòk3
tok dun
tok ɗyeel
v.
v.
v.
v.p.
v.p.
/tɔ̀k/
/tɔ̀k/
/tɔ̀k/
/tɔ̀k dùn/
/tɔ̀k ɗyɛ́:l/
tok kum
v.p.
/tɔ̀k kùm/
tok long
tok pee
tong1
v.p.
v.p.
v.
/tɔ̀k lɔŋ/
/tɔ̀k pɛ:/
/tɔŋ/
tong ashak
n.
/tɔŋ-aʃàk/
toghot kyal
143
Gloss
tripod
local
for
cooking
wrongly
long time
outside
front, fore, ahead
penis sheath
Made from raffia leaves to
cover the penis and tied
round the waist. The
Mwaghavul used it only
when offering sacrifices to
the nji. Sometimes the
horns of smaller animals
were used.
emotion while crying
which often prolongs
one’s cry
bird sp.
place outside the The main fireplace for
compound
where elders
was
properly
people sit
protected by well arranged
stones to shield them from
wind. Important decisions
are taken here and erring
members are reprimanded.
Women do not stay here at
all.
weeding preparatory
to maar-sen
right in front of
someone
guinea-fowl
blood
weighty, heavy
grass sp.
to pluck, remove
forcefully, dismantle
to greet
to gossip
to judge
to stammer, stutter
to
deliver
a
judgement, verdict
to diagnose illness
through herbalists
to despise
to gossip about others
to sit down, stay, get
established,
reside,
become
holy
communion,
meeting with elders
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
tong ɗirem
pl.
PoS
n.
IPA
/tɔŋ-ɗ ŕ ɛ́m/
tong dyen
tong pong
n.
n.p.
/tɔŋ-ɗyɛn/
????
tong ryang
tong2
tong3
tong4
tong5
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
/tɔŋ-ryáŋ/
/tɔŋ/
/tɔŋ/
/tɔŋ//ntɔŋ/
tóngzileng
took1
took2
took2 maar
took2 shwal
tù1
n.
n.
n.
n.
n.
v.
/tɔ́ŋ-zɨlɛŋ/
/tɔ́:k/
/tɔ́:k/
/tɔ:k-má:r/
/tɔ́:k-ʃwal/
/tù/
tù ɗik
v.p.
/tù-ɗik/
tù kaa
tù kwak
tù lee
n.
v.p.
v.p.
/tùká:/
/tùkwak/
/tù-lɛ̀:/
tù pòò
v.p.
/tù-pɔ̀:/
tù shíít
tù wus
tu2
v.p.
v.p.
v.
/tù-ʃí:/
/tù-wus/
/tù/
túbaa
n.
tùbaal
tuɓook
n.
n.
tùɓùk
tùɓut
túbwoor
túbwoor shaar
tong
n.
n.
n.
n.
/túba://túm
a://t b́ a:/
/tùba:l/
/túɓɔ̀:k//tá:
ɓɔ̀:k/
/tùɓùk/
/tùɓút/
/túbwɔr/
????
tùɓwòòr
v.
/tùɓwɔ̀:r//tà
ŋ-ngɔn/
to glean
tughul
n.
????
pot, pottery, generic
twa
twa lee
144
Gloss
staying up late at
night
discussing
family issues
loyalty
improvement
in
illness,
recovery,
remission
peace, peaceful living
a while ago
seat
probable
way of life, way
things are
eye shadow
friend
neck
edge of a farm
neck pain
to
kill,
destroy,
extinguish,
exterminate
to divorce, to dissolve
a marriage
homicide, murder
to demoralise
to inscribe tattoos on
fiancees by suitors
also ntong
< Hausa tozali
also ntóók
also ǹtù
divorce
was
very
uncommon in the past
to warn other men to keep
off hardly did such girls
ever marry some one else
(tattoo)
to resolve an issue by lit. ‘kill mouth’
offering a bribe
to pound foodstuff
to extinguish a fire
to thresh grains, to
pound items in a
mortar
tobacco, cigarette
< Hausa. Also túmaa,
t ́baa
vaccination
watery (food or soil)
also taaɓook
brain
spring (water)
mancala, board game
game
Played by parents with their
children which teaches
them the rules of the
Mwaghavul community.
also
tang ngong (the
practice of searching for
grains that were left over
after harvest by others)
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
tughul làà
n.
/tugul-là:/
tughul lú
n.
/tugul-lú/
tughul njirem
n.
/tuguln
jìrɛ̀m/
tughul pee
tughul po dwat1
n.
tughul po-dwat2
n.
tughul took
n.
tughul tut lwaa
n.
tughul tuwa
tughum1
tughum2
tughun1
tughun2
twagha
m
twagha
m
all mid
/tugul-pɔ̀:ɗwat/
/tugul-pɔ̀:ɗwat/
/tugul-tɔ́:k/
n.
v.
/tùgùm/
v.
/tùgùm/
n.
n.
/tugun/
/tugun/
tughun3
twaghan
v.
/tugun/
twaghan
tughun kom
twaghan
kom
twaghan
kop
v.p.
v.p.
/tugunkɔm/
/tugun-kɔ̀p/
v.
/túgúp/
tughup2
n.
/tugup/
túghúr1
tughur sár
túghúr shwal
tughur2
n.
n.p.
n.
v.
/túgúr/
/tugur-sár/
/túgúr-ʃwal/
/tugur/
tughun kop
tughup1
145
Gloss
term
small pot used to boil
water for babies etc
??????
lit. ‘pot of the house’.
Culture demands that any
drink prepared in the house,
the head of the family has a
reserve, it is a right which
nobody violates or tampers
with, unless with his
exclusive permission.
placenta or afterbirth It was usually kept inside a
of a child
pot and buried in an
identifiable place. It was
believed that if the pot was
properly protected, evil
spirits would not disturb the
child.
?
stomach
another name for
pot with narrow
mouth
traditional pot for
fetching water with
long neck
traditional pot for
cooking meat
pottery bowl of a pipe
to disappear
to invert, to hold up
side down
small portion
pit, trench, bunker,
hole in ground
to pinch, to slice a bit
or take a bit and give
out
ear-piercing
to swear an oath
to
complete,
conclude,
finish,
terminate
anger,
annoyance,
temper, moodiness
chest
tied hands
chest pain
to be exhausted, fedup
anything that enters does
not come out
It prevents water from
splashing between the
stream and the house
also timaa
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
tughur3
tughur kop
PoS
n.
p.n.
IPA
/tugur/
/tugur-kɔ́p/
tughus1
n.
/tugus/
tùghùs2
tùghùs3
n.
n.
/tùgùs/
/tùgùs/
tùghùs4
Tugwang
n.
p.n.
tùgùs
/tugwaŋ/
tùk
tùkyal
n.
n.
/tùk/
/tùkyál/
túl
túl kwát
v.
n.
/túl/
/túl kwát/
tùl
n.
/tùl/
tùlú
n.
/tùlú/
tùlù kaam
n.
/tùlù-kà:m/
v.
????
n.
v.
v.
v.
v.
n.
v.
v.
/tum/
/túŋ/
/túŋ//twa:s/
/túŋ-pɛ:/
/túŋ/
/túŋgwɔm//wa:r
-̃gwɔm/
/túp/
/tùp/
n.
/turuk/
v.
/tùs//twas/
tum
tum
tum
tung1
túng2
tung pee
tung3
tung gwom
túp1
tùp2
pl.
twam
twas
twak
tup-tup
turuk
tùs
twas
146
Gloss
tiredness
feast
held
every
seven
years
to
remember
the
ancestors
hunch-back,
hump
(of cow)
swine, pig, boar
stump of maize left
over on the farm after
harvest
bad behaviour
area close to Panyam considered as muddy as a
fish farm
quicksand and, where many
people got stuck (see
guliya)
acreage of farm
clearing of farm prior
to the actual farming
to contribute
fund-raising to settle it served as notification of
bridewealth
proposed
wedding
to
relations far and near
shrub sp.
Isoberlinia doka. Hausa
dóókàà
home, house
Mwaghavul people live in
compounds. Home in this
context, comprises the
extended patrilineal family
chief’s house or the
house
of
an
influential person
to boil s.t. violently
????
làà tum ni yaghal mɨrep shi
ret nyit zhìrìkzhìrìk the
child jumped with
excitement zhìrìkzhìrìk
sheep
to drive a car
to touch
to move, respond
to stir
cooking tuwo
also waar gwoom
to push
to be black, dark,
obscure
???
flour
left
after
separating it from the
chaff
spit
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
tus lii
tuwaas1
twaas2
tuwan
pl.
PoS
v.
n.
v.
n.
tuwap
v.
tuwoor pòò
tùzúk
twa
twaar
v.p.
n.
v.
n.
twaas1
twaas2
twagham
n.
v.
v.
tughum
twàghán mwáán
v.p.
twaghap
v.
twàk1
twàk2
v.
v.
twam
v.
twas
twet-twet
v.
id.
tyoon
tyoon
n.
n.
tyoop
v.
IPA
/tùs-lì:/
/twa:s/
/twa:s/
/tuwan/
Gloss
spit saliva
plant fig tree
to touch (pl.)
plural of tung
place where blocks
for buildings were
moulded
/tùwáp/
repentance, apology,
to
repent,
to
apologize
/tuwɔ:r-pɔ̀:/ to mention
/tùzúk/
measles
/twa/
to kill (pl.)
plural of tu
/twà:r//ntwà:r side buds
Hausa saje. also ntwaar
/
/twa:s/
fig tree sp.
Hausa ɓaure
/twa:s/
to touch
/twagam/
to disappear, hold
upside down
to walk slowly, or
majestically
/twàgàp/
to
mix
either
food/mud clumsily
/twàk/
to thrust
/twàk/
to mix food, mash
with hand
???
to boil s.t. violently cf. tum sg.
pl.
/twas/
to spit (pl.)
plural of tus
/twɛ́t-twɛ́t/
first,
only
one,
singled out, unique
/tyɔ́:n/
bunch
y
/tíŋ t ɔ́:n/
creeping/climbing
This plant was of great
plant similar to yam, significance
to
the
but not a tuber, the Mwaghavul community and
fruits are produced on was used in determining
the plant.
when the rains would set in.
They would commence
clearing their farms. This
plant does not grow
anyhow, no matter the
amount of water poured on
it. If spring is not
approaching it will not
sprout.
y
/t ɔ̀:p/
to jumble, mix up
147
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
U
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
úlù
n.
/úlù/
woollen thread
ushira
n.
/úʃírá/
Practice where the
landowner
would
give out part of a
farm
to
another
person to farm
vaat
n.
/va:t//nva:t/
vel
n.
/vɛ̀l//nvɛ̀l/
Velang
p.n.
/vɛláŋ/
tribal mark of the
Ngas
kernel of Canarium
nut
traditional dance of
the
Mwaghavul
people
velang
n.
/vɛláŋ//nvɛl
áŋ/
148
< Hausa. worn from the
shoulder down to the waist
and the gwodo was worn
over it to the chest level
covering the breast
also wushira. < Hausa . At
the end of the season he
would give back ten percent
of the produce to the
original owner in return and
in appreciation of the
gesture. It also means the
continuous recognition of
the original owner over
what belongs to him.
V.
also nvaat
also nvel
also nvelang. To organize
the dance the transverse
clarinet is made from corn
stalk cut in different sizes.
A plant called kargung is
used to bore a hole in the
cornstalk. A small cut is
made where it is blown.
Each player has a special
melodic fragment he plays
and together they make up
a complete tune. The
dancers have costumes that
they wear which include the
mbum (cap), the dakwal
the rasa, the mbanti, fwaat
di piya. Velang is played
after harvest i.e between
November and January.
Once crops have been
harvested it must stop.
Mwaghavul have the belief
that such dances would
encourage
food
to
disappear. A good velang
dancer could earn himself a
wife.
transverse
clarinet also
made from guinea- nvelang2
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
víí
n.
víí
víí m ́lóm
vít
n.
adv.
/ví:-m ĺ ɔ́m/
/vít/
vɨlak
vɨlang
v.
v.
/vɨlak/
/v l̀ àŋ
vɨlash
a.
/v l̀ àʃ// /
vɨng
Voghot nii
v.
p.n.
/v ŋ́ /
/vɔ̀gɔ̀t-ní:/
vós
v.
/vɔ́s/
vuram
v.
vuram
vurem
n.
vurɛm
vureng
v.
vùk
v.
vul
vum
vurat
vurci
num.
a.
v.
n.
vuruk
v.
vùt
v.
vùtul
vuu
vuun1
n.
n.
a.
vuun
vuun2
vùùn3
n.
n.
v.
vwààt
vwán
v.
Gloss
corn stalk made in
large tuned sets
sett, seed part of a
tuber
cocoyam sett
continuously, for a
long time to come
to work lazily
to go bad, to taste bad
(of meat)
plentiful,
excess,
surplus
to skirmish, fight
rivulet
where
elephants were once
seen (Pushit area)
to fill to the brim
(liquid)
to scratch using nails
or claws
plant sp.
not good to eat
also vùlàʃ
also name of Mararaban
Pushit
thorny bark used to scratch
tattoos and tribal marks
/vurɛŋ/
to struggle of a dying vɨreng
organism, be in death
throes
to sprain one’s foot, cf. vùt
leg etc
/vul/
two (2)
/vùm/
blind
/vùràt/
to spray mud, clay etc
/vùrʃì//kàvù vulture
kavurshii
rʃì/
/vuruk/
to
jumble,
mix
together
to sprain one’s foot, cf. vùk
leg etc
/vùtul/
flute
????
rizga tuber
also nvuu
/vu:n/
foggy, cloudy, ash applied to a horse
colour
????
fog, mist
/vu:n/
fungus sp.
/vù:n//vwá to persist
n/
to remove feathers
from a bird
149
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
vwààt
pl.
PoS
v.
IPA
vwàghàp
vwàm
vwán
vwang
vwang sar
v.
v.
v.
v.
v.
/vwàgàp/
/vwàm/
/vwán/
/vwaŋ/
/vwaŋ-sár/
vwang sar
n.
/vwaŋ-sár/
vwap
vwáp màt
vwàt
vwe
v.
v.
v.
a.
/vwáp/
/vwáp-màt/
/vwàt/
/vwɛ̀/
vweghen
n.
vwen
vweng
vwet
v.
v.
n.
/vwɛgɛn//vw
ɛgɛl/
/vwɛn/
????
/vwɛ̀t/
n.
/vyaŋ/
wá
int.
/wá/
waa1
waa2
v.
v.
/wa:/
/wa:/
wàà
v.
/wà:/
wááli
n.
/wá:li/
waam
v.
/wa:m/
wáám pee
waap
v.p.
n.
/wá:-pɛ:/
/wá:p/
waar1
n.
waar2
n.
/wa:r//nwa:r
/
/wa:r/
wáár3
n.
/wá:r/
vyang
car
Gloss
to remove the roof
from a house
to mess things up
to scramble for things
to persist (pl.)
to wash, cleanse
to
wash
hand
(literally)
last drink given to
farmers who worked
on your farm (yaghal
maar)
???
to rape a woman
to spray mud, clay etc
description
of
anything very hot,
water, iron, metal etc
loss of voice by way
of cold, cough etc
to choke, strangle
to do extremely well
to
throw
away
indiscriminately, drop
one-eyed person or
animal
plural of vuun
lit.
‘to
wash
hand’.
indicating that would be
their last drink from him for
the day and that occasion
plural of ten
cf. tiring mat, reep.
also vweghel
but cf. fwo
W
150
polar question marker Sentence final position. cf.
anticipating
assent mé, àà
fromthe hearer
to escape
to wear out, wear
away, erode
to go home, come
home
new cocoyam
Xanthosoma
mafaffa.
Imported
from
Fyem
neighbours in the mid
fifties. < Hausa
to be discouraged,
lacking in enthusiasm
shameful act
period of harvest
Falls between September
and November
necklace (flat type)
also nwaar
fart,
gas-pollution,
eructation
to mix flour with Hausa kunu
water
prior
to
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
wààr4
wààr4
wààr5
n.
v.
v.
/wà:r/
wààr góór
n.
/wà:r-gɔ́:r/
Wààr shaar
p.n.
/wà:r-ʃa:r/
Waash
Waay
Waaza
excl.
excl.
p.n.
/wa:ʃ/
/wa:y/
/wá:-za:/
wàghà
waghar1
waghar²
pron.
v.
v.
/wágár/
/wagar/
wak1
n.
/wak/
wak2
n.
/wák/
151
Gloss
preparing kunu
law, prohibition
to forbid s.t. by law
to
marry
your
brother’s widow
goose flesh, goosepimples
annual
festival
organized by girls
according to their age
groups
no
no
female dance
you sg. masculine
to select
to cook Canarium
fruit in warm water
residue
of
dirt,
garbage as a result of
flooding
to abuse using fingers
or lips
7-8 years, 9-10 year, 11-12
years, 13-14 years, 15-16
years, 17-19 years.it is
usually organized between
the months of march – april
to
cement
existing
relationship between the
members. to successfully
celebrate
the
week,
members. to successfully
celebrate
the
week,
members would contribute
items such as millet, acha,
and money with which to
buy a ram or two. they
would agree on selected
houses that would serve as
bases. they would organize
dances when they share
their drinks and food with
their well-wishers, such
occasions also provide
young men the opportunity
to scout for girls whom
they would eventually
propose marriage to. it is at
such occasions that “mat
shee: could be proposed.
immediately
after
this
festival, Mwaghavul people
will begin to clear their
farms ready for the next
farming season.
during velang (taa-waazaa)
beside a chosen dancer
Also ghà, a.
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
wál1
wál2
pl.
PoS
v.
v.
IPA
/wál/
/wál/
wal
wal juu
walaa
n.
n.
n.
?
/wál-juu/
/wala:/
wam1
wàm2
wán¹
n.
v.
pron.
/wam/
/wàm/
/wán/
Wan làghàm o!
excl.
/wan-làgàm
ɔ/
wan
wando
n.
n.
wang
wang
Wàngkàng
v.
v.
p.n.
/wan/
/wandɔ//mu
rdù/
/wáŋ/
/wàŋ/
/njí://wàŋkà
ŋ/
wap1
wap1 as
wáp2
wariya
n.
n.
n.
n.
/wàp/
/wàp-as/
/wáp/
/wúríyá//w
úr-yá:/
wàshwàsh
id.
/wàʃ-wàʃ/
wát1
n.
/nwát/
wát1
wat laa1
n.
n.
/wát/
/wàt-là:/
wat2
v.
/wat/
wàt3
wàt pee
v.
v.p.
/wàt/
wàt pee
wat putughup
v.p.
wat kwar
n.
/wàtputugup/
/wát-kwar/
152
Gloss
to love
to cry, make noise,
vibrate
noise
snake sp.
beans
used
for
sacrifices to Rum
rotten object
to decompose, to rot
myself, I, me
first
person
singular
masculine pronoun. Also
án
shout for help, shout
of despair, I am in
trouble!
mud, laterite
shorts, ‘short knicker’ also murdù. < Hausa
to open, widen
???
spirit which brought To appease it a sacrifice
success
during must be offered.
harvest and threshing
of millet.
gravy, meat sauce
sauce from dog meat
tax collection
termite sp.
also wuryaa. (bigger than
nluwash, tiwash type that
flies)
describes performing
a task actively
thievery,
stealing,
theft
to steal
child kidnapper, child
stealing
to shake off, sprinkle
water, liquid
to spoil something etc
to mess things up,
disorganise things
to upset
entrails of an animal
The intestines, particularly
the
large
one,
after
slaughter. It derives from
the attitude of the thief who
has no time for entrails (the
time consuming nature of
its treatment) so he discards
that so that he can escape
with the good meat
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
wat laa2
PoS
v.
IPA
/wát-là:/
we…ye
wéél
int.
v.
wɛ
/wɛ́:l/
wéélwéél
wéét
wèèt
a.
pron.
id.
/wɛ́:lwɛ́:l/
/wɛ́:t/
wel weet
n.
wen
v.
/wɛl/wɛ:t//wul:lɛ
l/
/wɛ́n/
v.
/wɛ́t/
wét
pl.
yem
wìì
pron.
wiip
v.
/wí:p/
wiit sar
v.p.
wii wor
v.
/wí:t
sár//wí:psár
/
/wi:wɔr//cʃɨ
gɨr-tʃiŋtʃiŋ/
wìt
wogha
n.
pron.
wong1
wong2
wong goghor1
v.
n.
n.
Wong goghor2
p.n.
wòò1
v.
/wɔ̀:/
wòò pee
v.
/wɔ̀:-pɛ:/
wòò2
wor
n.
v.
/wɔ̀://nwɔ̀:/
/wɔ̀r//nwɔ̀r/
wor nfyam
n.p.
/wɔ̀r
/wɔga//wàg
à//wuga/
/wɔ̀ŋ/
/nwɔŋ/
/nwɔ̀ŋgɔ̀gɔ̀r/
/nwɔ̀ŋgɔ̀gɔ̀r/
153
Gloss
to
remove
the
foreskin of the penis
during circumcision
Who?
to be slim, slender,
thin
very thin
both, in pairs, in twos
describes s.t. that is
finished completely
and faster than you
expected
intestine
lááréép ni wura fes wéél
zám The girl is very slim
cf. kwààk
also wulilel
to
finish,
be
exhausted,
lack
something
to spend all day, to do
something
continuously
you sg. f.
second person singular
feminine pronoun, reduced
form. Also yi. cf. wun
(plural)
to brandish, dangle,
wave
to wave hand
also wiip sar
to rotate
also cɨghɨr cingcing
second
you (of a male)
recent coinage
also wagha, wugha
warm
spirit of reincarnation
echo
also nwong
Hell
It was believed that when
bad people die they go to
Wong goghor, while the
good go to Shɨbɨlang
to reveal, disclose,
unearth, dig up
to reveal secrets, to
disclose confidential
matters
snake, generic
also nwoo
trade,
business, also nwor
marketing, commerce
trade
with
the also nwor-nfyam. This was
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
f àm//nwɔ̀r
n y
f àm/
n y
wor pal
n.
/wɔ̀rpàl//nwɔ̀rpàl/
wú
pron.
wu
wu tap
v.
v.p.
/wu táp/
wu yaa
Wugam
v.p.
p.n.
/wu yà:/
/wugam/
wùg ́l
wúk1
n.
v.
/wùg ĺ /
/wúk/
wuk2
wuk pee
wul
v.
n.
v.
/wúk/
/wúl/
wùlám
wulung
wum1
n.
v.
n.
/wùlám/
/wuluŋ/
/wum/
wum2
v.
/wúm/
wún1
pron.
wun2
wun3
n.
v.
/wun/
/wùn/
wup1
wup2
wup am
n.
v.
n.
/wup/
/wup/
/wup-àm/
154
Gloss
neighbouring Fyem barter trade. The Fyem
people
would bring puk kam and
sometimes a puppy in
exchange for fonio, millet
etc
also nwor pal. Business
where profit making is not
a prime consideration
you pl.
second
person
plural
pronoun, reduced form. cf.
wún
to hear ???
to be careful, be (plural)
watchful
to catch thief
one of the biggest
rocks/mountains in
Panyam
plant sp.
(see pumbwan)
communal farming
members of the group
would collectively work on
each other’s farm be it
clearing, harvest, threshing
etc
to frighten s.o.
s.t. frightening
to arrive, reach a
destination
spinach sp.
cf. pumbwan
to sprain leg
burial
Mwaghavul are believed to
have come from further
east, and someone dies they
are buried with the head
facing east. The spirit can
thus easily find its way
back to its source. The dead
were buried in a sitting
position.
to cover or bury with
soil, powder, grain
etc
you pl.
second
person
plural
pronoun. cf. wú
sweat, to sweat
to work hard to merit
something
,
to
persevere
grasscutter, cane rat
Thryonomys swinderianus
to swell, expand
traditional
way
of
controlling water in a basin
or wide container with
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
calabash so that it does not
spill while being conveyed
over a distance
wur1
wúr gwóm
wur2
wur3
wur4
wùrá
v.
v.p.
n.
v.
v.
pron.
wùráá
pron.
wurang
wurang-wurang
wùrí
v.
/wúráŋ/
pron.
/wùrí//wùɗí
//rí/
wùrii
pron.
he, him
wùrín
pron.
he, him
wurung-wurung
wurwur1
id.
/wúr-wúr/
wurwur2
id.
/wùr-wùr/
wus1
Wus2
n.
p.n.
/wus/
/wus/
wus cijeng
n.p.
/wùs-tʃíjɛŋ/
wus lantarki
n.p.
wus ngaas
n.p.
/wùs-làntár-ki/
/wus-
/wúr/
/wúr-gwɔ́m/
/wur/
/wùr/
/wúr/
/wùrá//wùɗ
á//rá/
to prepare food
to prepare food
breast, breast milk
to forget
to heap
she, her
she, her
155
be tall, be height
???
he, him
third
person
singular
feminine pronoun. cf. also
rá
third
person
singular
feminine
pronoun,
progressive aspect. cf. also
rá
third
person
singular
masculine pronoun. cf. also
rí. cf. wuɗi
third
person
singular
masculine
pronoun,
completive aspect
third
person
singular
masculine pronoun, future,
incomplete aspect
???
straight
without
turning
describes
busying
oneself
fire, flame, spark
festival marking start
of the hunting season,
marked by starting
fire without matches
electricity,
light
warming
Yaghal wus is a Panyam
hunting expedition. Usually
the first of all Mwaghavul
festivities
organised
annually to check the
growth of wild animals in
the rocky area of sekop,
bwor and jwak within the
longfeer and wugam rocks.
Good horsemen, hunters,
farmers and even dancers
easily earned themselves
wives at such occasions
Practice where a piece of
broken pot was heated until
red hot then inserted in
draw soup to warm it up,
also applied to beer.
electric et. ‘fire + electricity’.
left-over also wong-ngaas. It was
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
gá:s//wɔŋn
gá:s/
n
wus poo
n.p.
/wus-mpɔ̀:/
wushat
n.
/wuʃàt/
wút
n.
wúwek
wùwún
wúzhìì
n.
pron.
n.
/wúwɛk/
/wùwún
/wútʒì:/
wuzmi
n.
/tiŋ wuzmi/
v.
v.p.
/yà:/
/yà:-ɓut/
yaa kaa
yaa long
yaa màt shee
v.
v.
n.
/yà:-ká:/
/yà:-lɔŋ/
/yà:-màtʃɛ̀:/
yaa njweet
yaa pupwap
v.p.
v.
Gloss
porridge.
roasted in the morning for
children.
Draw soup
would usually be warmed
by the using cijeng
?????
one may enjoy an object
but for every good thing
there is a corresponding
problem or bad aspect
communal farming
to assist newly married
couples to enable them set
up their home
custard-apple tree and Annona senegalensis Hausa
fruit
gwandan daji
bird sp.
night heron?
them (you inclusive)
leaf of plant used to it was planted on the edges
protect the farm of the farm (see naan (12)
against evil spirits.
ndukum for more details)
tree sp.
Y
yàà
yaa but
yak
yaa sak
Yaa yaa
v.
excl.
/yà:-njwɛ:t/
/yà:púpwáp/
/yà:-sak/
???
yagha
yaghal1
v.
/yágál/
yaghal
yaghal ating
v.n.
v.
yakpupwap
/yagal-atíŋ/
156
to catch, hold, snag
restraint while eating
so that other/young
ones
could
be
satisfied
to hold one’s head
act of restitution
payment with an animal
????
Occurs when the girl earlier
betrothed shows signs of
insincerity. Consequently
the parents in-law are
forced to take her by that
method since they have
paid the appropriate bride
wealth etc and they are not
ready to forfeit such
expenses already incurred
on her
to catch red-handed
to catch fish
to be restrained
What do we do about
this?
????
to get up, start doing
s.t., jump up, begin,
commence, initiate
rising up
to stand up
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
Yaghal kɨ yil
yaghal mwaan
yaghal2
yaghal maar
pl.
PoS
p.n.
v.p.
v.
n.
yaghar
yaghazem
yak1
yak
n.
adv.
yak2
yak yoghom
v.
v.
yak kaghan
yak shii
yaksi1
yàksí2
yakyit
v.
n.
adv.
conj.
n.
IPA
???
????
/yàgàl/
/yagalmá:r/
/yágázɛm/
/yàk/
v.
/yak/
/yakyɔ́gɔ́m/
/yak-kágán/
/yak-ʃı̋ :/
/yàksi/
/yàksí/
/yakyit//nyakyit/
/yal/
yam
yang1
adv.
n.
/yàm/
/yaŋ/
yáng2
n.
/yáŋ/
yáng kas
n.
yang kas
n.
yángyáng
ye
adv.
int.
yéé
yéé ɗen
v.
n.p.
yee pee
adv.
yal
yilang
yeep
yem1
yèm2
yèm3
adv.
v.
n.
/yáŋ-yáŋ/
Gloss
end-time, rapture
to travel, journey
to go to farm
communal farming
(see yaghal maar)
????
ostrich
soon
???
mó yak shak g s̀ hìshash
g s̀ hìshash They held on to
each other g ̀ shìshash
g ̀ shìshash
to fetch
to fetch firewood
wrestling, to wrestle
explanation, details
now
and, then
plant sp. with burs
nyakyit easily sticks to
one’s clothes while walking
through the bush
to dissect, tear open,
rip apart
some time ago
bunch of threshed
millet
demarcation
for
ridges before the final
making of the ridges
levelling
ridges
where millet has been
harvested for growing
fonio
millet stalks after
harvest
excessive, so much
question marker
shortened form ’e. Occurs
in sentence-final position.
to wait for s.t.
long
wait
for Personal name for a male
something
child cf. riye pee
/yɛ́:ɗɛn//ryɛ́:pɛ:/
/yɛ́:pɛ://ryɛ́:pɛ:/
?????
?????
/yɛ́m/
/yɛ̀m/
/yɛ̀m//nyɛ̀m
several days
to disturb, provoke
people
157
Christian usage
long
wait
something
for also riye pee
níí ni sù sò nd g̀ ǹ shi yeep
mó kudùnùngkudùnùng the
elephant ran into the trees,
kudùnùngkudùnùng
also nyèm
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
/
/yɛ̀mdúŋ//nyèmn
dúŋ/
yèm dúng
n.p.
yem gween
n.
yem lek
n.
yen
n.
/yɛ̀ m
̣ gwɛ:n//nyɛ̀m
-ngwɛ:n/
/yɛ̀mlɛ̀k//nyɛ̀mlɛ̀k/
/yɛn/
yen d p
̀ yél
1
yer
yèr2
yer jet
n.
n.
n.
n.
/yɛn-d p̀ yɛ́l/
/yɛr/
/yɛ̀r//nyɛ̀r/
/yɛ̀r-jɛt/
yer paa
yer peng
n.
n.
yet
yet maar
n.
n.
yi
pron.
/yɛ̀r-pá:/
/yɛ̀rpɛ́ŋ//nyɛ̀rpɛ́ŋ/
/yɛ́t//nyɛt/
/yɛ̀tmá:r//nyɛ̀:tmá:r/
/yi/
yìgút
yil
n.
/yìgút/
Gloss
river spirits
???
fighters, soldiers
drug,
medicine,
antidote, remedy
onion
pumpkin
bird (generic)
bird sp. that eats
maize
bird sp.
injury on the toe but
the pain is transferred
to the groin
worm
earthworm
you sg. (feminine)
plant sp.
??? worship
????
yil
yil
yil pyáá
n.
n.
/yíl/
/yíl-pyá:/
yim
n.
//yìm//nyìm
/
yíndek1
n.
/yín-dɛk/
158
also
nyem-dung.
The
Mwaghavul believed that
river
spirits
provided
human
beings
with
extraordinary abilities. To
see yèm dúng was the
exclusive
preserve
of
individuals with
special
talents (kaawang).
nyem-gween plural of
ngungween
nyemlek
cf. nyèr
nyerpeng
nyet
nyet maar
second person singular
feminine pronoun. Also
wìì. cf. wun (plural)
ni rét kú wu se yil Naan
shìdààrshìdààr It is good for
you to worship God every
day
mee lwaa yil kɨ so sɨ
ròòjòròòjò A really tall
animal is moving over there
area, country, land
soil type, sandy and
rich
leaves
used
by also nyim
women to cover
themselves prior to
modern clothing
lightening, thunder.
Mwaghavul believe that
some people have personal
thunder which enables them
to perform
impossible
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
feats.
An offender was struck by
lightening.
Yíndek2
p.n.
/yíndɛk/
lightening spirit
Yinder
p.n.
/yindɛ̀r/
yingying1
a.
/yíŋ-yiŋ/
yìngyìng2
a.
/yìŋ-yìŋ/
yirakbul
n.
/yírákbul//yílák
m
bul/
yist
n.
/yist/
yit1
yìt lwáán
yit maar
n.
n.p.
n.
/yit/
/yìt-lwá:n/
/yit-ma:r/
yit mwaan
n.
/yit-mwà:n/
yìt naa jeel
n.p.
yit shwal
yit2
n.
v.
/yìt-na:jɛ:l/
/yit-ʃwal/
/yit/
tall,
evil
spirit
(soghot)
which
appears in the night
worthless,
lazy
person
describes person with not madness
deviant
or
idiosyncratic
behaviour
plant-eating worm
also yilak mbul. they
usually
appear
after
planting when there is a
break in rain fall
yeast, substance used < E.
in baking bread
eye
shy, shyness
boundary
between
farms
tears, tribal marks
that look like tears
grace, compassion
yitup
yiyar
n.
n.
/yìtup/
/yiyar/
yóghóm
yoghon
yoghop
n.
v.
v.
/yɔ́gɔ́m/
/yɔ̀gɔ̀n/
/yɔ̀gɔ̀p/
yon
v.
/yɔn/
yong
v.
/yɔ́ŋ/
yughur
yughur pee
yuu
v.
v.p.
v.
/yúgúr/
/yúgúr-pɛ:/
/yú:/
159
eye problem
to suspend an action,
skip, defer
black soil
a clan in Panyam
?????
In the past, during the
harmattan period those who
could not afford pomade or
ointment to rub on their
bodies had skin cracks.
Sometimes blood would
ooze out.
firewood
to shake
to slacken, shift a
heavy object
multiply in number,
reproduce
and
increase in number
to
move
about
aimlessly
to intoxicate
intoxication
cf. mbi – yughur pee
to answer a call
(women)
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
Z.
pl.
PoS
IPA
zaal
n.
/zá:l/
záál
zàghàt yóghóm
n.
n.
zài
n.
zak
zàlele guuk
adv.
n.
zam
adv.
/zàk/
/zàlɛ́lɛ́gu:k//nlɛ́:gú:k/
/zam/
zamani
zan
zan-zan
zang
zar
Zar arkun
n.
v.
????
/zan/
n.
n.
p.n.
/zaŋ/
/zàr/
/zàr-árkún/
zar direm
p.n.
/zàr-ɗírɛ́m/
zar kɨɓɨn
zar kwangzughut
n.
n.
zarati
v.
/zàr-kɨɓɨn/
/zàr-kwáŋzúgút/
/zarati/
zàrgong
n.
zat
v.
/zàrgɔŋ//nzàrgɔŋ/
zàt
zeel
zeenee
n.
n.
/zɛ:l/
????
zéénzèèn
adv.
/ʒɛ́:n-ʒɛ̀:n/
zem
zɨdyak
n.
n.
zem
/ziɗyák/
ziik
n.
/zi:k//nzi:k/
Gloss
deck-chair
/zàgàtyɔ́gɔ́m/
/zài/
160
suitable
for
people
suffering from backache
plant sp.
bundle of firewood
small wall erected to except through the main
block
intruders entrance the small walls are
entering a compound found between two separate
buildings
also, again
swing for a child
also nléé-gúúk
too
much, follows the verb it qualifies
excessively
time
< Hausa
to straighten
??
below the chin
star
constellation
these
are
close
to
consisting of three Kwangzughut. They are
normally seen at about 3.00
stars
am depending on the period
or season
stars seen mostly at
the early hours of the
morning
star (unidentified)
star (unidentified)
to wear something
wrongly i.e. back to
front
frog sp.
also nzàrghong
to properly arrange
items like firewood
etc
saliva
(particularly the slimy one)
wrapper, cloth worn < Hausa
by women
truly, really, actually mó k ́ sòr wàà a zéénzèèn
They are really going home
oil from a plant
bridle
used
in
controlling
movement of horses when
the rope is pulled
bass
Also nziik. Low pitched
voice in music.
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
zik
zik kaa
pl.
PoS
v.
a.
IPA
/zík/
/zík-ká:/
zilang
zɨmen
n.
n.
zing
v.
/z l̀ àŋ/
n
/z m
̀ ɛ́n// z ̀
mɛ́n/
/zíŋ//nzíŋ/
zininin
n.
zɨre
n.
ziyáál
n.
zok
zongo
v.
n.
zonzon
zoo
v.
v.
zɔ̀nzɔ̀n
/zɔ:/
zor
n.
/zɔr/
zughum1
zughum2
zughum-zughum
zùghùm
n.
a.
/zugum/
/zùgùm/
n.
zughum laa
n.
zughur
zùk1
zùk2
a.
n.
n.
zum
zum pukyeen
v.
v.p.
zung
zung lughut
n.
n.p.
/zum/
/zumpùkyɛ:n//zu
mpɨkyɛ:n/
/zuŋ/
????
zungzung
id.
????
zut
zutur
v.
n.
/zut/
/zutur/
/zininin//nzi
ninin/
/z ŕ ɛ́//nz ŕ ɛ́/
/ziyá:l//zá:l
/
/zɔk/
/zùgùmlá://nzùgùm
-lá:/
/zùgùr/
/zùk/
/zùk/
161
Gloss
to shake
to nod one’s head
indicating agreement
young man, youth
millipede
also nzimen. Iule spp.
to watch carefully or also nzing
steadily
hippopotamus
also nzininin
iron anklet worn on also nzɨre
the legs by horseriders to increase
speed
woven cloth
also zal
to hide something
patch of hair left after
a hair cut
to walk aimlessly
to emigrate from
rural to urban area
fonio variety
planted near the stream. cf.
kusuk
generosity, generous
cold (weather, drink)
talent, skill, aptitude,
gift
ant sp.
also nzughum-laa
jealous
fireplace for elders
heap of objects, such
as vegetables, for sale
in a market
to stoop, bend down
method of Muslim also zumpikyeen
prayer
chest
undulating area on
top of a rock
describes
the
undulating movement
of a bird like a
swallow
to pour out liquid
bed-bug
Mwaghavul-English dictionary: trial edition
Mwaghavul
ZH.
pl.
PoS
IPA
Gloss
zhak
Zharwa
zhira
v.
p.n.
n.
zhàk
/tʒarwa/
/ntʒira/
contemptuous remark
Izere people
communal farming
zhwaar
zhwaar
n.
v.
ʒwáár
ʒwáár
frog sp.
to treat a sprain with
hot water, to massage
162
also Jarawa
also nzhira. Specifically
for the chief

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