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HealthMED
Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
EDITORIAL BOARD
Editor-in-chief Mensura Kudumovic
Technical Editor Eldin Huremovic
Members
Address
Editorial Board
Published by
Volume 8
ISSN Paul Andrew Bourne (Jamaica)
Xiuxiang Liu (China)
Nicolas Zdanowicz (Belgique)
Farah Mustafa (Pakistan)
Yann Meunier (USA)
Suresh Vatsyayann (New Zealand)
Maizirwan Mel (Malaysia)
Budimka Novakovic (Serbia)
Diaa Eldin Abdel Hameed Mohamad (Egypt)
Omar G. Baker (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)
Amit Shankar Singh (India)
Chao Chen (Canada)
Zmago Turk (Slovenia)
Edvin Dervisevic (Slovenia)
Aleksandar Dzakula (Croatia)
Farid Ljuca (Bosnia & Herzegovina)
Sukrija Zvizdic (Bosnia & Herzegovina)
Bozo Banjanin (Bosnia & Herzegovina)
Gordana Manic (Bosnia & Herzegovina)
Hamdije Kresevljakovica 7A, 71 000 Sarajevo,
Bosnia and Herzegovina.
e-mail: [email protected] web page: http://www.healthmed.ba
DRUNPP, Sarajevo
Number 2, 2014
1840-2291 e-ISSN 1986-8103
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Sadržaj / Table of Contents
Acute Organophosphate Poisoning in Adults:
A 10-Year Analysis............................................................. 151
Ahmet Baydin, Ali Kemal Erenler, Turker Yardan,
Celal Kati, Latif Duran, Ahmet Dilek
Factors related to the frequency of citation
of the Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports
Physical Therapy .............................................................. 253
Bayram Unver, Fatma U. Kocak, Mehmet Erduran
Founder effect analysis of disease
haplotypes in DFNB23/ USH1F linked
Pakistani families............................................................... 161
Riffat Mehboob, Adnan Shahzad Syed,
Nakhshab Chaudhary, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad
The correlation of a postural status and isometric
endurance with rowers of school age.............................. 264
Sasa Milenkovic, Mladen Zivkovic, Dobrica Zivkovic,
Sasa Bubanj, Zoran Bogdanovic, Sladjan Karaleic
Role of metacognitive beliefs and thought
control strategies in mental health.................................. 172
Hossein Dadashzadeh, Mahdi Vazifeh Zinabad,
Akbar Mohammadi3
Total hip artroplasty with long oblique
subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy in
high developmental dysplasia of hip............................... 180
Bulent Koksal, Ali Terkuran, N. Turgut Karaismailoglu,
Hicabi Sezgin
Species distribution and Caspofungin
susceptibility of Candida spp. isolated
from blood cultures .......................................................... 269
Yesim Cekin, Nevgun Sepin Ozen, Nilgun Gur,
Hamit Yasar Ellidag
Diabetic kidney disease and its associated
complications...................................................................... 272
Azreen Syazril Adnan, Fauziah Jummaat,
Yusra Habib Khan, Amer Hayat Khan
White matter hyperintensities and related
Trends in epidemiology of tuberculosis in
risk factors in Chinese normal aging :
HIV-infected patients........................................................ 188 A community based study................................................. 275
Iosif Marincu, Simona Claudia Cambrea, Adelina Mavrea,
Guoxing Zhu, Shuguang Chu, Ding Ding, Chi-Shing Zee
Mirela Cleopatra Tomescu
Radiological classification of newly formed
ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and serum
alveolar bone: A Cone Beam CT study........................... 282
lipid profile: Is there any association?............................ 194 Usman Haider Uzbek, Shaifulizan Ab. Rahman,
Sepideh Parchami Ghazaee, Hooman Bakhshandeh,
Mohammad Khursheed Alam
Nahid Mehrzad, Shiva Khaleghparast
Relevance of evaluation for quality
A computer vision based system for
assurance in the field of health education
a rehabilitation of a human hand.................................... 199 work - evaluation of midwifery studies........................... 288
Peter Peer, Ales Jaklic, Luka Sajn
Anita Jug Dosler, Metka Skubic
Radiologic assessment of apical periodontitis
Imported visceral Leishmaniasis in
and its relation with root canal filling quality ............... 211 western Romania: Report of four cases ......................... 295
Ehsani Maryam, Abesi Farida, Khafri Soraya,
Iosif Marincu, Nicoleta Bertici, Livius Tirnea
Mirkarimpour Seyed Sobhan
Instructions for the authors.............................................. 298
Effects of berberine on the expression of
AQP-2, IL-1 and IL-6 in a rat model of
streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus ....................... 216
Guo Zhentao, Zhang Huamin, Zhang Yanfeng, Sun Hongri
The prevalence and risk factors associated
with otorhinolaryngologic diseases among
the students of Hakkari City center................................ 223
Huseyin Gunizi, Osman Durgut, Derya Seyman
The prevalence and the nature of violence
directed at the medical staff in psychiatric
health care in Slovenia ..................................................... 228
Branko Gabrovec, Ivan Erzen, Branko Lobnikar
The dependence of explosive strength and
speed on feet posture......................................................... 235
Mladen Zivkovic, Dobrica Zivkovic, Sasa Bubanj,
Sasa Milenkovic, Sladjan Karaleic, Zoran Bogdanovic
Effect of WIN51,708, a NK1 receptor
antagonist, on the signal transmission
between two endings of primary afferent
nerves from adjacent spinal segments*.......................... 242
Qi-Xin Sun, Yan Zhao, Shi-Hong Zhang, Wen-Chun Shi,
Hui-Sheng Wang
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Acute Organophosphate Poisoning in Adults: A
10-Year Analysis
Ahmet Baydin1, Ali Kemal Erenler2, Turker Yardan1, Celal Kati2, Latif Duran2, Ahmet Dilek3
1
2
3
Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Samsun, Turkey,
Corum State Hospital, Corum, Turkey,
Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Intensive Care, Samsun, Turkey.
Abstract
Organophosphate poisoning (OP) is an important medical emergency that may have serious clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was
to report our 10-year experience in patients with
acute OP. This cross-sectional study was designed
retrospectively by examining the files of patients
with OP who were admitted to the emergency
department (ED). Diagnosis was based on a clinical assessment and serum acetylcholinesterase
(AChE) level at the time of hospital admission.
A total of 225 patients poisoned by organophosphates (mean age, 41.6±16.9 years; 53.3% male)
were studied. Most of the poisonings were with
suicidal intent (58.7%). The common symptoms
and complaints on admission were nausea and vomiting (54.7%). The most frequent route of exposure to organophosphates was oral (71.1%). Most
of the poisonings occurred in summer (40.4%).
The mean serum AChE level on admission was
3804.4±3300.2 (normal range: 5400-13200 U/L).
The patients were treated in the emergency medicine ward (78.2%) and intensive care unit (21.8%).
Hemoperfusion was performed in 8.4% of all patients. Intermediate Syndrome developed in 16%
of all patients. The duration of hospitalization was
4.3±3.6 days. Twenty-eight patients (12.4%) died
in the hospital due to complications. The majority
of OP in this study was a result of attempted suicide. Physicians in the ED must be more alert to
the possibility of organophosphates in summer,
when these chemicals are commonly used for pest
control. Prohibition of use of these chemicals by
uneducated and unequipped people will help to
decrease the incidence of OP.
Key words: organophosphate poisoning,
emergency department, acetylcholinesterase, intoxication
Introduction
Organophosphates are toxic substances that
are factors in suicidal, accidental or occupational
poisoning, and they are responsible for the death of hundreds of thousands of people annually
[1,2]. Poisonings with these toxic substances are
frequent among those who are unemployed, uneducated or with lower socioeconomic status and
among farmers [3-6].
Most organophosphates are highly lipid-soluble
agents that are well absorbed by all routes - gastrointestinal, respiratory and skin. Organophosphates
show their toxic effects by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme after entering the body. As
a result of AChE enzyme inhibition, the substrate
acetylcholine accumulates at the cholinergic synapses of the central nervous system, neuromuscular
junction, parasympathetic nerve endings and some
sympathetic nerve endings such as sweat glands
(muscarinic effects), and somatic nerves and ganglionic synapses of autonomic ganglia (nicotinic
synapses). The continued stimulation and eventual
paralysis of the acetylcholine receptors account for
the clinical signs and symptoms of organophosphate poisoning (OP) [2,7]. The onset of symptoms and
signs occur within the first 8 hours and nearly all
within the first 24 hours [8].
Organophosphate poisoning is generally a
serious condition for patients in the emergency
medicine ward or intensive care unit (ICU). Therefore, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment
are often life saving. It is known that physicians
should be on alert for the diagnosis and treatment
of OP. The purpose of this study was to report our
10-year experience in patients with acute OP.
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
151
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Materials and Methods
This cross-sectional study was designed retrospectively by examining the files of patients with OP
who were admitted to Ondokuz Mayis University
Emergency Department (ED) between January 1,
2000 and January 1, 2010. During this period, we
determined that 260 adult patients were admitted to
the ED due to OP. Patients whose medical records
could not be obtained, those with carbamate poisonings, those admitted after 24 hours, and 35 others
with inadequate medical records were excluded
from the study. The patients either admitted primarily to the ED or were referred from other regional
hospitals. The study protocol was approved by the
local ethics committee.
A form was prepared on which the following
information was recorded: demographic data (age,
sex), complaint, pulse rate, respiratory rate, blood
pressure, time elapsed between exposure and admission to the ED, mental status, route of intake
(ingestion, inhalation, skin contact, injection), intent of ingestion, duration of hospital stay, month
of OP occurrence, laboratory findings, therapeutic options, and clinical outcomes. Patients were
subdivided into four age groups as: <25, 25-34,
35-44, and >44 years. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was used to assess the patient’s level of
consciousness.
The diagnosis of acute OP was based on the
presence of the following criteria: (I) history of
exposure to or contact with organophosphates within the last 24 hours (h); (II) characteristic clinical
signs and symptoms of OP; (III) improvement in
signs and symptoms after treatment with atropine and oximes; (IV) definition of responsible organophosphate agents; and (V) decreased serum
cholinesterase activity [9,10].
The patients were divided into two groups
according to the intent of the ingestion (Group
1, suicidal poisoning; Group 2, accidental poisoning). Additionally, the patients were allocated to
two groups according to the severity of their clinical status (Group 1, severe poisoning; Group 2,
mild or moderate poisoning).
The severity of the clinical status was assessed
on admission according to: (I) increased severity
and number of findings and symptoms; (II) decreased blood pressure; and (III) presence of speci152
fic clinical respiratory system and central nervous
system findings [9-15].
Serum pseudocholinesterase activity and other
laboratory parameters such as electrolytes, amylase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate
aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, glucose, and
white blood cell (WBC) count were measured on
admission.
After the diagnosis, all patients received standard treatment for OP, including gastric lavage,
fluid resuscitation, and activated charcoal via nasogastric tubes. Patients received atropine to counteract muscarinic effects, such as hypersecretion, lacrimation and bradycardia, and also Pralidoxime to reactivate AChE enzyme inhibited by
the organophosphates. Atropine was administered
as intravenous infusion (0.02-0.08 mg/kg/h) or intermittent bolus infusions (1-3 mg per 20 minutes). Pralidoxime was administered as a starting
dose of 2 g daily (divided into four doses) up to
100-200 mg/h (continuous infusion) according
to the clinical severity of the condition. Most of
the patients were observed in the emergency medicine ward. Patients who required mechanical
ventilation (MV) were observed in the ICU. The
indications for endotracheal intubation and MV
were as follows: a loss of consciousness; excessive secretions, which cause an inability to protect
the airway; poor gas exchanges unresponsive to
oxygen treatment; cardiorespiratory arrest; and severe metabolic acidosis with hemodynamic instability (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg).
All statistical calculations were made using the
SPSS® for Windows 13.0 (SPSS Inc. Headquarters,
Chicago, IL, USA) software program. Data were
presented as mean ± SD and frequencies. MannWhitney U test was used to compare the groups
according to continuous variables for the data that
were not distributed normally. The discrete variables
were evaluated by Chi-square test. The outcomes
with p values <0.05 were considered significant.
Results
The study group consisted of 120 (53.3%) male
and 105 (46.7%) female patients, with a mean
age of 41.6±16.9 years (45.2±17.2 in males and
37.5±15.8 in females p<0.05). There were two
causes of OP: suicidal attempt (n=132, 58.7%) or
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
accidental exposure (n=93, 41.3%). Of the patients who attempted suicide, the route of exposure
was oral in 129 and intramuscular in 3. The routes of accidental exposure were inhalation, oral
and via the skin in 55 (59.1%), 31 (33.3%) and
7 (7.6%) patients, respectively. The mean ages of
the patients according to groups were as follows:
suicidal attempt group: 38.8±15.1 years, accidental exposure group: 45.8±18.7 years, clinically severe group: 42.3±17.7 years, and clinically mild
or moderate group: 41.7±16.7 years. While there
was no statistically significant difference between the clinically severe and mild groups, the mean
age of the suicidal attempt group was significantly
lower than that of the accidental exposure group
(p<0.01) (Tables 1, 2). The distribution of gender
according to age groups is shown in Table 3.
The most common responsible agents for OP
were Methamidophos and Dichlorvos. The distribution of cases according to responsible organophosphate agents is shown in Table 4.
Table 1. The findings of the study group according to aim of ingestion (mean±SD)
Age (year)
Pseudocholinesterase (U/L)
White Blood Cell (Thousand/uL)
Glucose (mg/dL)
Amylase (U/L)
AST (U/L)
ALT (U/L)
Creatinine (mg/dL)
Sodium (mEq/L)
Potasium (mEq/L)
Calcium (mg/dL)
Arrival time (hour)
Pulse rate (beats/min)
Respiratory rate (breath/min)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
Duration of hospital stay (day)
Suicidal attempt (n=134)
38.8±15.1
3035.9±3213.3
13413.9±7235.9
153.3±98.4
209.0±243.9
55.8±284.2
35.8±148.3
0.8±0.6
137.4±4.3
3.7±0.6
8.8±0.8
3.3±1.0
93.3±23.6
23.1±3.9
117.1±24.5
5.1±4.3
Accidental (n=91)
45.8±18.7
4936.1±3112.1
10764.4±4706.9
119.5±41.5
110.9±76.7
27.8±58.2
26.1±53.1
0.7±0.3
137.5±3.4
3.9±0.4
8.9±0.7
3.6±1.1
83.3±17.3
21.9±2.5
124.1±27.7
2.9±1.8
p Value
<0.01
<0.001
<0.01
<0.01
<0.001
<0.01
>0.05
>0.05
>0.05
<0.01
>0.05
>0.05
<0.001
<0.01
>0.05
<0.001
Table 2. The findings of the study group according to clinical severity (mean±SD)
Age (year)
Pseudocholinesterase (U/L)
White Blood Cell (Thousand/uL)
Glucose (mg/dL)
Amylase (U/L)
AST (U/L)
ALT (U/L)
Creatinine (mg/dL)
Sodium (mEq/L)
Potasium (mEq/L)
Calcium (mg/dL)
Arrival time (hour)
Pulse rate (beats/min)
Respiratory rate (breath/min)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
Duration of hospital stay (day)
Severe (n=61)
42.3±17.7
2277.2±2984.1
15057.4±8650.8
201.5±132.4
272.5±264.1
91.3±419.9
53.4±219.1
0.9±0.7
136.4±5.1
3.7±0.7
8.6±0.9
3.6±0.9
95.2±29.5
22.9±4.4
110.5±30.4
6.5±4.9
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
Mild (n=164)
41.7±16.7
4372.5±3239.2
11332.5±5094.8
119.5±41.5
130.9±154.4
27.1±45.2
23.9±40.4
0.7±0.4
137.8±3.4
3.8±0.5
8.9±0.7
3.3±1.1
87.0±17.8
22.5±3.1
123.5±23.3
3.4±2.6
p Value
>0.05
<0.001
<0.01
<0.001
<0.001
<0.001
>0.05
>0.05
<0.05
>0.05
<0.001
>0.05
>0.05
>0.05
<0.01
<0.001
153
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Table 3. The distribution of gender according to age groups
Age groups (years)
<25
25–34
35–44
>44
Total
Female*
27 (60.0%)
30 (56.6%)
20 (50.0%)
28 (32.2%)
105 (46.7%)
Male*
18 (40.0%)
23 (43.4%)
20 (50%)
59 (67.8%)
120 (53.3%)
Total**
45 (20.0%)
53 (23.6%)
40 (17.8%)
87 (38.7%)
225 (100%)
p
X2=12.8
df=3
p <0.01
* Line percent
** Column percent
Table 4. General characteristics of the study group (n=225)
Characteristics
Gender
Male
Female
Age (years)
25<
25–34
35–44
> 44
Season
Spring
Summer
Autumn
Winter
Mental status
Fully awake
Drowsy or stupor
Coma
Aim of ingestion
Suicidal attempt
Accidental
Route of poisoning
Oral ingestion
Inhalation
Skin contact
Intramuscular
Responsible Agents
Methamidophos
Dichlorvos
Parathion
Dikloro difenol trikloroethan
Malathion
Fenthion
Clinical severity
Severe
Mild
Care unit
Emergency Medicine Ward
Intensive Care Unit
Intermediate syndrome
Developed
Not developed
Clinical outcomes
Survived
Death
154
Number of patients (%)
p value
120 (53.3%)
105 (46.7%)
45 (20.0%)
53 (23.6%)
40 (17.8%)
87 (38.7%)
X2=23.9
df=3
p <0.001
50 (28.0%)
55 (40.4%)
37 (23.4%)
22 (10.3%)
X2=43.1
df=3
p <0.001
128 (56.9%)
49 (21.8%)
48 (21.3%)
X2=56.2
df=2
p <0.001
132 (58.7%)
93 (41.3%)
160 (71.1%)
55 (24.4%)
7 (3.1%)
3 (1.4%)
65 (28.9%)
51 (22.7%)
31 (13.8%)
29 (12.9%)
28 (12.4%)
21 (9.3%)
X2=284.9
df=3
p <0.001
X2=37.7
df=5
p <0.001
61 (27.1%)
164 (72.9%)
176 (78.2%)
49 (21.8%)
36 (16%)
189 (84%)
197 (87.6%)
28 (12.4%)
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
The most common symptoms and complaints
on admission were nausea and vomiting (54.7%),
altered mental status (26.2%), respiratory distress
(9.8%), weakness (4.9%), and headache (4.4%).
The mental status of patients on admission was
generally good. The distribution of patients according to mental status is shown in Table 4.
The mean time lapse from exposure to arrival
at the hospital according to groups was as follows:
suicidal attempt group: 3.3±1.0 hours, accidental
exposure group: 3.6±1.1 hours, clinically severe
group: 3.6±0.9 hours, and clinically mild group:
3.3±1.1 hours. There was no statistically significant difference between groups [suicidal vs. accidental (p>0.05), severe vs. mild (p>0.05)] according to arrival time (Tables 1, 2).
The majority of intoxication cases occurred in
the summer. The seasonal distribution of patients
is shown in Table 4.
One hundred and seventy-six (78.2%) of the
patients were admitted to the emergency medicine
ward, and 49 (21.8%) to the ICU. The mean hospitalization period of the study group was 4.3±3.6
days (range: 1-21 days). The hospitalization periods of the patients according to groups were as
follows: Suicidal attempt group: 5.1±4.3 days, accidental exposure group: 2.9±1.8 days, clinically
severe group: 6.5±4.9 days and clinically mild
group: 3.4±2.6 days. There were statistically significant differences between groups [suicidal vs.
accidental (p<0.001), severe vs. mild (p<0.001)].
The means of systolic pressure, pulse and respiratory rate on admission were 119.9±26.0 mmHg,
89.2±21.8/minute and 22.6±3.5/minute, respectively.
Serum pseudocholinesterase activity was determined in all patients on admission. The mean
serum pseudocholinesterase level on admission
was 3804.4.2±3300.2 (normal range: 5400–13200
U/L). The values in 150 (66.7%) cases were lower
than the normal range. The lowest serum pseudocholinesterase level was 79 U/L. There was a
statistically significant difference between the
suicidal attempt and accidental exposure groups
(p<0.001), and also between the clinically severe and mild groups (p<0.001). Findings of the
patients according to the intent of ingestion and
clinical severity are presented in Tables 1 and 2.
Initial treatment was given to all patients in the
ED. While 49 (21.8%) of the patients needing endo-
tracheal intubation and MV were treated in the ICU,
176 (78.2%) patients were treated in the emergency
medicine ward. The treatment methods were as follows: 176 (78.2%) patients underwent gastrointestinal decontamination, 177 (78.7%) were administered pralidoxime, 197 (87.6%) were administered
atropine, and 19 (8.4%) were administered hemoperfusion. While death occurred in 4 (21.1%) of the
patients who had undergone hemoperfusion therapy,
24 (11.7%) of the patients who had not undergone
hemoperfusion therapy died. There was no statistically significant difference between patients who underwent hemoperfusion or not with respect to mortality. Intermediate syndrome (IS) was observed in
36 (16%) patients. Although frequency of IMS was
found higher in patients with Folidon (29.0%) and
Tamaron (21.5%) poisonings there was no statistically significant difference between the groups those
were poisoned with different organophosphate compounds (X2=9.2, df=5 p>0.05). The mortality rate of
the study group was 12.4% (28 patients) (Table 4).
Discussion
This retrospective study describes the demographic and clinical features and laboratory findings
of patients with OP in Samsun province. Samsun is
located in the northern part of Turkey, with a population of approximately 1.2 million people who
are primarily involved in agriculture. As a result,
organophosphates are widely used to increase production and raise crop quality, and there are many
cases of intoxication, either accidental or with suicidal intent. Our results showed that more poisoning cases were with suicidal intent rather than due
to accidental exposure. Moreover, the majority of
cases in the suicidal attempt group were young females. Previous studies conducted in Turkey also
reported that females were admitted more frequently because of suicidal poisoning [4,5,16,17].
Poisonings due to organophosphate compounds
that are used as pesticide occur frequently in other developing countries as well. The frequency
of poisonings due to this toxic compound varies
between countries and by gender. It was reported
that while males are mostly affected by organophosphate compounds in Australia, Portugal and
Korea [18-20], females are more often affected
in Singapore, Tunisia and Jordan [3,13,21]. Vari-
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
155
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
ous studies from our country have reported that
females are more commonly affected by organophosphate compounds than males [4-6,17]. The
overall male to female ratio was 1.1:1 in our study.
Every year, patients of various age groups are
poisoned due to organophosphate exposure in both
developed and developing countries and some outcomes are fatal. Therefore, OP is a serious public
health problem that must be solved. In a small study
in Crete, Greece, patients’ ages ranged from 13 to
74 years, with the highest number of cases being
over 44 years of age [22]. In their study, Kang et al.
[20] reported that patients’ ages varied between 1691 years, and the mean age was 54.5 years. Lee and
Tai [21] determined the clinical features of 23 patients with OP who required intensive care and reported that the patients’ ages ranged between 19-87
years, with a mean of 40.0±18.5 years. In another
study with 75 patients in South Korea, it was reported that patients’ ages varied between 6-79 years
(mean: 45.0±17.2 years). It was also reported that in
serious OP cases, this average age tends to increase
[23]. In our study, the mean age was 41.6±16.9
years, and the majority of the patients (38.7%) were
older than 44 years. This result is concordant with
the other reports.
In developing third-world countries, it has been
reported that young adults commit suicide using
organophosphate compounds for various reasons,
such as unemployment, low income, depression,
and single status, and for this intent, the oral route is
frequently preferred [3,13,23]. In developed countries, accidental exposures are seen more frequently
[5,18,24]. While suicidal OPs are observed at a
ratio of 90% in third-world countries, this ratio is
13–36% in developed countries [13,18,19,23]. Different studies from Turkey have reported that suicidal attempts with organophosphate compounds
were observed at ratios of 68-84% [4,6,17]. In our
study, we determined that 59.5% of the patients had
suicidal intent, and the majority preferred the oral
route. The ratio of suicidal attempts in our study
was lower than seen in developing countries but
higher than in developed countries. We think that
the high rate of organophosphate compound poisoning in our country can be attributed to the uncontrolled trade of this material, its inappropriate
conservation, and its widespread use by the public
and consequent availability.
156
The duration of hospitalization after poisoning
differs according to the severity of the poisoning,
presence of complications such as cardiovascular
collapse, respiratory failure, aspiration pneumonia,
septic shock, and IS, presence of accompanying
diseases, and developmental levels of the country.
While duration of hospital stay ranges between 2-7
days in developed countries, it can range between
3-12 days in developing countries [18,21,25]. In
our country, this period was reported as 4.1-6.7
days in previous studies. In our study, the average
stay in the hospital was 4.3±3.6 days (range: 1-21
days) [4,6,26]. While the duration of hospital stay
in our study was similar to other results from our
country and developed countries, it was shorter
than that observed in the developing countries. The
longer hospital stay is likely due to the facts that
most cases of suicidal attempt ingest large amounts
of organophosphate compounds and a high percentage of them require MV, and because of the possible
complications that can develop in severely poisoned
patients managed in the ICU. While the percentage
of suicidal attempts was high in our study (59.5%),
the percentage of those who required intensive care
was lower than in developing countries (21.8%).
In studies conducted in Turkey, it was reported
that accidental and suicidal OPs were mostly seen
in July because of the increase in agricultural activities in this month [4,27,28]. Similarly, Soysal
et al. [29] reported that OP was frequently seen in
the summer months. Dippenaar et al. [30] reported
that OPs were frequently seen in January in South
Africa. We determined that poisonings were mostly
seen in summer, especially in June and July. In our
region, organophosphate compounds are widely
used as pesticides both in agriculture and at home.
After exposure to organophosphates, the occurrence of toxic effects is dependent on the amount
of the compound, and this delay until the onset of
effects ranges from 30 minutes to 2 hours [31].
The period between exposure and treatment affects
morbidity and mortality. An increase in this period
negatively affects morbidity and mortality rates.
Thus, the early admission of poisoned patients is of
critical importance. In the literature, it was reported
that the time of admission of poisoned patients varied between 2.4 - 9.4 hours [4-6,17,25,26,32]. The
variety in admission times may be due to the distance between hospitals and city centers; the need
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
to refer the poisoned patients to an advanced center with intensive care unit; delayed referral of patients under follow-up with worsening findings to
an advanced center; and suicidal versus accidental
etiology. In our study, the mean arrival time to the
emergency unit was 3.4±1.0 h (range: 1–24 h) after
the exposure. This finding is similar to that of other
studies in the literature.
In the literature, both in case reports and clinical studies, abnormalities in laboratory findings
of patients with OP have been reported. In many
studies, increases in glucose level and WBC count
were defined as the most common laboratory finding abnormalities after OP. Electrolyte abnormalities such as hyponatremia and hypokalemia, and
increase in AST and ALT enzymes and hyperamylasemia are reported less commonly [5,6,16].
Amanvermez et al. [16] reported that there was a
correlation between the severity of poisoning and
glucose and WBC count levels in their study investigating suicidal poisoning with organophosphates. In another study that compared the initial
laboratory findings of patients who died versus
survived after OP, it was found that mean AST
and ALT levels were higher in the deceased patients than in those who survived, but there was
no statistically significant difference between the
groups [20]. In a study involving 47 patients in the
ICU, Sungur and Guven [17] reported increases in
WBC count in 72.3%, in serum glucose level in
31.9%, in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level in
31.9%, and in AST and ALT levels in 23.4% of the
patients. Ozer et al. [6] reported hyperglycemia in
74.6%, hyperamylasemia in 73.0%, hyponatremia
in 42.8%, and hypokalemia in 41.2%, and increases in LDH in 58.7%, and in ALT levels in 19%
of the patients. In another study, leukocytosis in
68.7%, hyperamylasemia in 36.1%, increase in
AST in 33%, and increase in LDH in 29.8% of
the patients were reported. [32] Naggar et al. [25]
reported that liver function tests were normal in
89.4% of the patients after poisoning but in 8.5%,
both AST and ALT levels were elevated. They also
reported that the most common electrolyte abnormalities were hyponatremia (61.7%) and hypokalemia (61.7%). In our study, we evaluated laboratory findings on admission to the emergency room
as mean values according to both clinical severity
and intent of intake. While there were no statisti-
cally significant differences in ALT and creatine
levels between groups according to clinical severity and intent of intake, there were statistically significant differences in AST, calcium, WBC count,
glucose, amylase, and sodium between the clinically mild and severe groups, and in WBC count,
glucose, amylase, AST, and potassium levels between the suicidal attempt and accidental exposure groups (Tables 1, 2).
Intermediate syndrome (IS), first defined by
Senanayake and Karaliedde, is a clinical situation
resulting from the neurotoxic effects of organophosphates. The frequency of IS varies between
7.7–42.1% [33,34]. It is characterized by respiratory paralysis, proximal muscle weakness and
motor cranial nerve palsies [13,33,35,36]. There
are numerous theories about the etiology of IS,
such as the severity of poisoning, some varieties
of organophosphates (methamidophos, dimethoate), inadequate or delayed initiation of oxime
therapy, and the persistence of organophosphate
in the body [33,35]. In our study, we determined
IS development in 16% of the patients in spite of
general supportive therapy and early Pralidoxime
treatment on admission to the ED. Although there
wasn’t statistically significant difference between
the groups those were poisoned with different organophosphate compounds, it’s thought that IMS
was more likely to develop in patients with highly
toxigenic organophosphate compound poisoning.
The majority of the patients (86.1%) who developed IS were admitted due to suicidal attempt. It
was thought that great amounts of organophosphates ingested to terminate life and the consequent prolonged inhibition of AChE can explain
this result in the patients who attempted suicide.
Lee and Tsai [21], in their study investigating
the clinical features of patients with acute OP who
required ICU follow-up, reported that the serum
cholinesterase level was found to be less than 500
U/L in severely poisoned patients. They divided
patients into three groups according to the degree
of cholinesterase activity repression on admission
as mild, moderate and severe. In another retrospective study of patients with suicidal attempt,
patients were divided into three groups as mild,
moderate and severe according to their clinical
and laboratory findings. It was reported that serum cholinesterase levels in the mild, moderate
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and severe poisoned groups were 2892.4±2458.8
U/L, 1329.0±1250.2 U/L, 593.4±422.5 U/L, respectively, and that serum cholinesterase levels in
the severe poisoned group were significantly more
repressed in comparison with the other groups
[16]. Nouira et al. [13] reported that mean serum
cholinesterase level was 448±409 U/L in patients
with life-threatening poisoning and 611±575 U/L
in the mild and severe groups without life-threatening poisoning. In another study, the mean serum
cholinesterase level was found to be 110.7±167.9
IU/L in patients who died, and it was stated that
the cholinesterase level was an important marker
in estimating prognosis and closely related with
mortality.20 In contrast to the reports of Nouira
[13] and Kang [20], Aygun et al. [9] reported that
decreased levels of serum cholinesterase do not
indicate the severity in acute OP but support the
diagnosis. In another study, it was reported that
the mean serum cholinesterase level in patients
with OP was 1782.5±1965.7 U/L and that serum
cholinesterase levels tended to decrease inversely proportional to the severity of poisoning [26].
Yurumez et al. [32] declared that serum cholinesterase levels on admission were more repressed
in females than males (mean cholinesterase levels were 1592.6±1735 U/L and 1918±2155.4 U/L
in females and males, respectively). In our study,
a significant difference was found in the serum
cholinesterase levels between groups according
to both severity and intent of intake (severe group
2277.2±2984.1 U/L vs. mild group 4372.5±3239.2
U/L; suicidal group 3035.9±3213.3 U/L vs. accidental group 4936.1±3112.1 U/L).
Current therapy for OP consists of airway control, intensive respiratory support, general supportive measures, decontamination, prevention of
absorption, and the administration of antidotes
[7,8]. In addition, hemoperfusion would be considered in the treatment of severe OP; however, its
effectiveness is controversial [10,20]. In our study,
nasogastric irrigation was administered to 78.2%,
pralidoxime to 78.7% and atropine to 88.0% of
the patients, and 19 of them (8.4%) had undergone
hemoperfusion therapy. No statistically significant
difference was found between the patients who
underwent hemoperfusion and those who did not
with respect to mortality, demonstrating that hemoperfusion is ineffective in severe OP patients.
158
In conclusion, OP is a public health problem
that threatens many lives especially in developing
countries. Best way of prevention from OP is to
make concerned people conscious of this product
and make the necessary legal arrangements. Early
and appropriate treatment in ED may prevent development of IS and so reduce mortality and morbidity. The role of cholinesterase level in estimating prognosis is controversial. However results of
our study support the idea that it may be a good
marker in determining the clinical severity. We
believe that, as in all poisonings, economical and
cultural development of countries may reduce the
number of OP cases.
Limitations of the study
Although plasma cholinesterase is more available and easier to assay than red blood cell cholinesterase (ChE), it is less specific than red blood cell
ChE and often impacted by many factors causing
falsely low levels that could confound the magnitude and severity of the poisoning including liver
dysfunction, malnutrition, alcoholism, pregnancy,
chronic therapy with other plasma ChE metabolized drugs, and chronic exposures to organophosphates in farmers and people living in agricultural communities with frequent organophosphate
applications. For we cannot assay the level of red
blood cell ChE at our laboratory we used the level
of plasma cholinesterase as a diagnostic criterion
and that is one of the conditions limited our study.
Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Associate Professor
Ahmet Tevfik Sunter for providing the statistical
advice.
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
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Corresponding Author
Ahmet Baydin,
Ondokuz Mayis University,
Faculty of Medicine,
Emergency Medicine,
Samsun,
Turkey,
E-mail: [email protected]
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Founder effect analysis of disease haplotypes in
DFNB23/ USH1F linked Pakistani families
Riffat Mehboob1, Adnan Shahzad Syed2, Nakhshab Chaudhary1, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad1
1
2
Department of Biomedical Sciences, King Edward Medical Universtiy, Lahore, Pakistan,
Institute of Genetics, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
Abstract
Usher syndromes are a group of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by moderate to profound sensorineural hearing loss and progressive visual loss from retinitis pigmentosa. Clinically they
are classified into three types on the basis of phenotypes. Within each clinical group molecular heterogeneity exists and people with indistinguishable
phenotypes have mutations in different genes. Protocadherin-15 (PCDH15) is one of the five genes
identified as being mutated in Usher 1 syndrome
and defines Usher syndrome type 1F (USH1F).
Mutation in this gene also causenonsyndromic deafness DFNB23. A total of 25 families were collected in which pattern of inheritance was autosomal
recessive and were screened for locus DFNB23
by using fluorescently labeled markers D10S2529,
D10S546, and D10S2522. Three families were found to be linked with DFNB23. Haplotypes of these families were compared with 12 previously linked families obtained from CEMB repository. Seven families divided into two groups shared same
haplotypes while in other eight families, no correlation was found between the haplotypes. Variability
of haplotypes among families indicate presence of
different type of mutations and families with same
haplotypes may have same founder. These results
will lead to better understanding of hearing impairment caused by mutations in PCDH15 and will help
in identification of carriers and genetic counselling.
Key words: Usher syndrome, USH1F, Deafness, Linkage analysis, haplotype analysis, Founder effect analysis.
Introduction
Deafness, partial or complete hearing impairment, is most prevalent sensory deficit in humans
with both genetic and environmental etiologies
[1]. It is estimated that 1 in 1,000 births are affected with serious permanent hearing impairment
[2], of which about 60% are attributed to genetic
factors which in most cases are due to single gene
mutations and the rest are due to environmental
causes. The major pattern of inheritance in deafness is autosomal recessive (over 75%) while
autosomal dominant (12-24%), X linked (1-3%)
and mitochondrial is also involved[3]. Autosomal
recessive forms of hearing loss are the most severe and account for almost all-congenital profound
deafness. They are almost exclusively due to cochlear defects and are fully penetrant and bilateral.
The autosomal dominant form of deafness seems
to be progressive, post-lingual and is often unilateral or mild bilateral associated with conductive
and sensorineural impairments [4].
These monogenic forms of deafness may be
syndromic or non-syndromic[5]. Approximately
70% of prelingual hereditary hearing loss (HL)
is non-syndromic; the remaining 30% is syndromic[6]. Syndromic HL may be conductive, sensorineural, or mixed [7]. Syndromic deafness can be
either Dominant (Wardenburg syndrome, Branchial-oto-renal syndrome, Stickler syndrome), Recessive (Ushers syndrome, Pendred Syndrome) or X
linked (Alport syndrome, Nance syndrome, Hunter syndrome). Presently, there are more than 120
non-syndromic deafness loci and 21 of the corresponding genes have been reported [8]. Usher syndrome (USH) is the most frequent
cause of deafness accompanied by blindness due
to retinitis pigmentosa. Usher syndrome accounts
for more than 50% of individuals who are both
deaf and blind [9], about 18% of retinitis pigmentosa cases, and 3-6%of congenital deafness cases
[10]. Usher syndrome can be classified into three
different clinical subtypes type I (USH I), type II
(USH 2) and type III (USH3) and involves 12 loci
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
(7 for USH1, 3 for USH2 and 2 for USH3). Seven genes have been identified, namely MYO7A,
USH1C, CDH 23, PCDH15, SANS, USH2A and
USH3A (Supplementary table)[11].
Usher Syndrome Type I is further subdivided
into 5 types. Mutations in the MYO7A, USH1C,
CDH23, PCDH15, and USH1G (SANS) genes
cause Usher Syndrome Type 1B, Type 1C, Type
1D, Type 1F and Type 1G respectively. Mutations
in these genes account for most cases of Usher
syndrome Type I. Mutations in MYO7A are the
most common accounting for 39-55% of cases
(Keats and Lentz, 2006).
The last protein known to be involved in USH1 is
related to Otocadherin, and like all the other USH1
genes, the encoding gene is expressed in the retina
and hair cells. This gene is named Protocadherin
15 (PCDH15) and is underlying USH1F (Figure 1
and supplementary Table). In addition to its localization in retina and cochlea, PCDH15 (supplementary Table) is expressed in brain, kidney, lung,
and spleen, but mutations in PCDH15 do not cause
additional dysfunctions despite RP and deafness.
Protocadherins are required for neural development
and synapse formation. The function of PCDH15
in the mammalian inner ear is yet unsolved, but a
role in the formation of stereocilia from microvilli
has been suggested [12].
The mouse model of USH1F is called the Ames
Waltzer mouse (av). Like sh-1 mice, Ames Waltzer
(Table 1) mice do not exhibit an ocular phenotype,
indicating a different retinal function of PCDH15
between men and mice [13]. In conclusion, USH1
has to be considered as a disease entity caused by
impaired development of structural components
of cilia in the receptors of the visual, the auditory,
and the balance system. This impairs the production of the nerve impulse and causes early deafness
and progressing retinal degeneration. USH 1F was
mapped to chromosome 10q21-22 (Figure 1; supplementary Table), in a 15cM interval centromeric
to DFNB12/ USH1D [14]. DFNB23, an autosomal non-syndromic recessive deafness locus, was
also mapped to an interval that overlapped the
location of USH1F. Mutation of novel PCDH15
gene that encodes Protocadherin 15 was found
to be the cause of USH1F (Supplementary Table)
[13]. DFNB23 an autosomal non-syndromic recessive deafness locus was mapped to an interval
162
that overlapped the location of USH1F [15]. The
mouse Ames waltzer (av) phenotype is due to a
recessive mutation and is used as the mouse model
for USH1F [12]. Homozygous mutant mice show
degeneration of the inner ear neuroepithelia and
vestibular dysfunction but not retinal abnormality.
Although hearing loss is a worldwide problem
[7] but mapping of gene responsible for isolated
deafness is hindered due to combination of the
extreme genetic heterogeneity of this disorder, the
absence of clinically distinctive sign and symptoms
for the various gene defects, the high frequency of
unions between deaf people in developed countries.
Mutation in different genes even in the same family
can cause the same clinical phenotype in hearing
impaired individuals. On the other hand, extreme
phenotypic variation between different families can
be due to mutations in the same gene. D i ff e r e n t
mutations in PCDH15 are responsible for non- syndromic recessive deafness of DFNB23 and USH1F.
Therefore, recessive splice site and non-sense mutation of PCDH15, encoding Protocadherin15, is
known to cause deafness and retinitis pigmentosa in
usher syndrome type 1F [11]. Non-syndromic recessive hearing loss is caused by missense mutations
of PCDH15 (supplementary Table).
PCDH15 is one of the five genes identified as
being mutated in Usher 1 syndrome and defines
Usher syndrome type 1F (USH1F). PCDH15 spans
approximately 1. 6 MB of genomic DNA on 10q21.
1. The gene contains 33 exons (Figure 1) of which
only the first 2 are situated in the Usher syndrome
type IF (USH1F; 602803) critical region defined by
one of the Pakistani families studied. The start codon is at 396 bp in exon 2 and the stop codon is at
6,263 bp in exon 33 (Figure 1). PCDH15 encodes a
predicted protein of 1,955 amino acids with a molecular weight of approximately 216 KD [13] reported 2 mutations of the PCDH15 gene in 2 families
segregating Usher syndrome type IF. PCDH15 is
expressed in the retina, and causes retinitis pigmentosa associated with USH1F.
There are six major subclasses of the cadherin
superfamily, including protocadherin, almost all
of which are expressed in the neuronal tissues. A
typical protocadherin have up to seven extracellular calcium binding domains, one transmembranedomian and a unique intracellular domain [16, 17].
Some procadherin genes occur in clusters, which
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Figure 1. Schematic representation of PCDH15 gene and protein. PCDH15 has 33 exons spaced by
several introns and it encodes PCDH15 protein with 11 extracellular domains
may allow the generation of many isoforms. Protocadherin 15 is expressed in the sensory epithelia
of the eye and ear (Supplementary Table).
In higher vertebrates, protocadherins are thought to be involved in a variety of functions including neural circuit formation and synapse formation. It is important inmorphogenesis and cohesion
of sterocilia bundles and retinal photoreceptor cell
maintenance or functions. Abnormal development
of sterocilia results in hair cell and it progresses
to nearly total degeneration of the cochlear neuroepithelium dysfunction. Sensory and supporting
cell pathology is also observed during later stages.
Recessive splice site and nonsense mutations
of PCDH15 (Table 3), encoding Protocadherin15,
are known to cause deafness and retinitis pigmentosa in usher syndrome type 1F [18]. Non-syndromic recessive hearing loss (DFNB23/USH1F) is
caused by missense mutations of PCDH15. This
suggests a genotype-phenotype correlation in
which hypomorphicalleles cause non-syndromic
hearing loss, while more severe mutations of this
gene results in USH1F (Supplementary Table).
Linkage analysis is a powerful method not
only for identification of new gene loci but also
for refining intervals where deafness causing loci
have been previously mapped. This strategy has
helped in gene identification studies of deafness
loci [8]. When a linkage has been obtained, then
other families can be analyzed to check if they link
to these locations. If they have recombination different from the family used to map locus, they can
reduce the candidate interval. By linkage analysis,
we can define the prevalence of particular Usher
Type 1F locus in Pakistani population.
Founder effect is the phenomenon that occurs
within microevolution. Microevolution refers to
small scale changes in gene frequencies in a population over the course of a few generations. Evolution
generally refers to any process of change over time.
However, in the context of the life sciences, evolution is change in the genetic makeup of a group. Such
a population shares a common gene pool and members exhibit a degree of genetic relatedness. Since
1940s, evolution was defined more specifically as
a change in the frequency of alleles from one generation to the next. Founder effects are common
in island ecology, but the isolation need not to be
geographical. For example, the Amish populations
in the United States, which have grown from a very
few founders but have not recruited newcomers,
and tend to marry within the community, exhibit
founder effects: phenomena such as polydactyly
(extra fingers and toes, a symptom of Ellis-van
Creveld syndrome), though still rare absolutely, are
more common in Amish communities than in the
US population at large. In extreme cases, founder
effects may lead to the evolution of new species.
One good aspect of doing this research in Pakistani population is because of traditional consanguineous marriages within the same ethnic groups
[19], which increases the risk of homozygosity, by
descent. Therefore, for this reason, studying deaf
families living in geographic, cultural or religious
isolates or large consanguineous families with
more affected individuals has proved helpful [7].
As a consequence, families with multiple affected
individuals showing clear segregation will be effective for the linkage studies[20]. In such studies
Pakistan can play a vital role. These families pro-
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
vide excellent resource materials for conventional
linkage analysis and refining candidate interval
for positional cloning of gene causing deafness.
Studies of comparison of haplotypes among
different families give us an insight about the type
of mutations in deafness causing gene and help
in founder effect study. The benefits from this research will be applicable to the hearing loss caused
by the mutations in PCDH15. For recessive cases
of deafness it is possible to reduce the incidence
by increasing awareness about the effects of cousin marriages and identification of carriers.
Materials and methods
Enrollment of families
Families with three or more deafness-affected
individuals were contacted through the schools
for deaf and from different hospitals. If a family
had other relatives affected with deafness then
they were also included in the study depending
on their willingness and availability. Informed
consents were obtained from all family members
who participated in the study. Detailed history was
taken from each family to minimize the presence
of other abnormalities and environmental causes
for deafness. Families were questioned about skin
pigmentation, hair pigmentation, and problems relating to balance, vision, night blindness, thyroid,
kidneys, heart, and infectious diseases like meningitis, antibiotic usage, injury, and typhoid. The pedigree structures were based upon interviews with
multiple family members and pedigrees of the enrolled families were drawn, using Cyrillic program
(Cyrillic 2. 1). The families provided convincing
evidence for an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Family members rarely marry outside
the kindred, and consequently consanguineous
reunions were common. All affected individuals
regardless of age displayed profound hearing loss
affecting all frequencies, implying that hearing
impairment in the families was not progressive.
Audiometric testing was performed for all deaf individuals, where possible. Pure tone Audiometry
with air conduction at 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000,
8000 Hz was performed with Siemens, SD-25 or
Beltone 112 audiometer.
164
Blood collection and dna extraction
Blood samples from twenty-five families willing
to participate in the study were collected. 5-10 ml of
venous blood was collected in 50 ml falcon tubes
having 100-200 µl of 0. 5 M EDTA from all participating individuals. Genomic DNA was extracted
by a standard non-organic protocol (Grimberget al.,
1989). For 10 ml of blood 30 ml of lysis buffer TE
(10mM TrisHCl pH8 and 2mM EDTA) was used.
The pellets were washed with NaCl and EDTA buffer (0. 075M and 0. 025M respectively). 0. 5mg
Proteinase K was added along with 200 μl of 10%
SDS (Grimberget al., 1989) for protein digestion.
These were left in incubator shaker for overnight
at 37°C. After overnight incubation 1ml saturated
NaCl was used to precipitate the excess proteins.
DNA was precipitated from the supernatant with
equal volume of isopropanol (Miller et al., 1988).
After washing with 70% ethanol, DNA was dissolved in TE and heated at 70°C for one hour to inactivate any remaining nucleases. DNA concentrations
were determined by spectrophotometric reading at
optical density 260nm & 280nm. Working DNA
concentration was kept at 25 ng/μl and 2μl was
used for10μl PCR reaction.
Swabs collection and dna extraction
Buccal swabs were collected from small children and individuals unwilling to give blood samples. Master Amp Buccal Swab Brush, (Epicentre
Technologies WI, Medical Package Corporation,
CA, USA. www. epicenter. com), was used to
take cheek cells. Each brush was swirled inside
the cheek for 20 times and then stored back in the
container at 4°C. Two swabs were taken from each
individual. DNA was extracted from these cells
by using Master Amp Buccal swab DNA extraction solution from the same company. 500ul of the
MasterAmpBuccal Swab DNA Extraction solution
was aliquoted into an appropriate number of 1. 5
ml micro centrifuge tubes, placed in ice. Buccal brush was placed in a tube containing DNA extraction solution and it was rotated for a minimum of 20
minutes. Brush was pressed against the side of tube
and rotated while removing it from the tube to ensure most of the liquid remains in the tube. Cap was
screwed on the tube tightly and vortex mixed for 10
seconds. Tube was incubated at 60°C for 30 minutes. Vortex mixed for 15 seconds. Tube was tran-
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
sferred to 98°C and incubated for 8 minutes. Again
vortex mixed for 15 seconds and tube was returned
to 98°C and incubated for an additional 8 minutes.
Vortex mixed for 15 seconds and chilled on ice
briefly to reduce the temperature. Cellular debris
was pelleted by centrifugation at 14,000 rpm at 4°C
for 5 minutes. transfered the supernatant containing
the DNA carefully to a clean tube without including
any of the beads. DNA was stored at -20°C, or at
-70°C for long-term storage.
PCR for microsatellites
For PCR amplification of microsatellites, 10μl
reaction volume was used. 3 fluorescently labeled
primers (with forward primer labeled with fluorescent dye FAM was used for linkage analysis of the
locus DFNB23). PCR reaction mixture contained
1X Taq Buffer (50mM KCl, 0. 1X Triton, 1. 5mM
or 2. 0mM MgCl2), 200μl dNTPs (Pharmacia), 0. 5
units of Taq DNA polymerase and 0. 3mMof each
primer. The samples were amplified using following
PCR cycles, first denatured at 96°C for 4 minutes,
then 35 cycles were repeated as denaturation at
95°C for 30 seconds annealing at 54°C for 30 seconds then extension at 60°C for 2 minutes. A post PCR
step for 10 minutes at 72°C was added to extend all
unfinished products. GeneAmp PCR system 9700
and 2700 (Perkin Elmer) were used for PCR. The
markers used for each linkage encompassed the
chromosomal location reported for deafness locus
DFNB23 (http://dnalab-www. uia. ac. be/dnalab/
hhh). The markers were mostly dinucleotide repeats
and were chosen from the Marshfield Comprehensive Human Genetic Maps (http://www. marshmed.
org/genetics/) or Genthon Human Genetic Map for
chromosome 10q. The primer sequences for amplification of each marker were listed in the genome
database (http://gdwww.gdb.org).
Preparation of samples for abi 3100 genetic
analyzer
Fluorescent-labeled markers were used for
screening DFNB23; PCR products of different
sizes labeled with different dyes were pooled by
adding 1μl of each PCR product in 11. 8μl of deionized formamide and 0. 2μl of LIZ size standard
(Perkin Elmer). The samples were denatured at
95°C for 5 minutes before running in the ABI Prism 3100 genetic analyzer.
Genotyping
Alleles in base pairs for each marker were recorded. For initial screening few members from
each family were genotyped for three markers for
this locus. Additional markers from the corresponding regions (http://www. marshmed. org/genetics/) were also typed if some of these markers
were uninformative. Markers were run to define
the region of homozygosity and all family members were genotyped and haplotypes generated to
either include or exclude the linkage region.
Lod score calculations
Lod score calculations were calculated using
different utility program of the FASTLINK computer package (Schaffer, 1996). MLINK was used
for two point lod scores. Multipoint lod scores
were calculated using LINKMAP. A fully penetrant recessive model with no phenocopies and
disease allele frequency of 0. 001 was assumed.
Marker order and map distances were chosen
from the Marshfield genetic map (http://research.marshfieldclinic.org/). Meiotic recombination
frequencies were considered to be equal for males
and females. Allele frequencies for microsatellite
markers were calculated by genotyping 90 randomly collected unaffected individuals from the
same population.
Results
Twenty-five families with autosomal recessive
deafness were collected from different areas of
Pakistan. All affected members of these families
had prelingual, severe to profound sensorineural
deafness. Detailed medical history was taken to
Table 1. Sts markers used for linkage analysis of DFNB23 locus
Locus DFNB23
1
2
3
Marker
D10S2522
D10S2529
D10S546
cM
75. 57
75. 57
75. 57
Dye
FAM
FAM
FAM
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
PCR Program
64-54
64-54
64-54
Conditions
2. 5mM
1. 5mM
1. 5mM
Product Size
243bp
200bp
148bp
165
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
exclude environmental causes. All families were
non-syndromic and had no other medical related
problems except PKDF875, which had history of
night blindness and balance problem.
The caste and ethnicity of all families was recorded to observe any association between particular haplotypes/mutations with ethnic group.
Initially all families were screened through linkage analysis to known deafness loci. Deafness
phenotype in three families showed linkage with
DFNB23/USH1F.
Dfnb23 linked families
Family PKDF875
PKDF875 was enrolled from Joharabad (Punjab)
and belongs to Punjabi ethnic group. PKDF875
had five affected individuals (Figure 2). Ages of all
affected individuals are between three to eighteen
years. All affected individuals displayed bilateral
hearing loss. Tandem gait and Romberg test revealed balance dysfunction in affected individuals.
Affected individuals of pedigree have problem of
night vision loss co-segregating with hearing loss.
Five affected and two normal individuals were genotyped. All the deaf individuals were homozygous
for the marker D10S2522, D10S546 and D10S2529
and the normals were heterozygous. Father (II: 3),
a normal individual (II: 1) were carrier of the mutated alleles of DFNB23/USH1F. Haplotype analysis
of DFNB23/USH1F linked markers of PKDF875,
showed no resemblance with other DFNB23/USH1F haplotypes. This indicates that a new mutated
allele is segregating in PKDF875.
Figure 2. Pedigree Drawing of Family PKDF875
FamilyPKDF756
The family was enrolled from Faisalabad (Punjab) and belongs to cast ‘Malik’. PKDF756, a
small family with three affected individuals in a
single consanguineous loop (Figure 3). 166
The family had three affected individuals with
severe to profound deafness. The family also had
no history of night blindness or any other medical
related problem such as goiter, heart disease and
blood pressure. Three affected (V: 1, V: 2 and V:
3) and three normal individuals (IV: 2, V: 4 and
V: 5) were genotyped (Fig. 12). All deaf were homozygous for markers D10S2522 (75. 57cM),
D10S546 (75. 57cM) and D10S2529 (75. 57cM)
located on chromosome 10. The normal individuals were carriers. This family was therefore linked to DFNB23. The haplotype of this family was
unique and matched with none of previously linked families and probably harbors a novel mutant
allele of DFNB23/USH1F.
Figure 3. Pedigree Drawing of Family PKDF756
Family PKDF801
This family was enrolled from Chiniot (Punjab). A highly consanguineous pedigree having
six affected members with inherited deafness in
eight sibships (Figure 4). The patients were profound deaf with no history of night blindness or other
medical related problems such as goiter, balance
problem, heart disease or blood pressure. On genotyping all the deaf individuals (V: 2, V: 3, V: 10,
V: 15, V: 16 and V: 19) were genotyped and were
found homozygous for the marker D10S2522 (75.
57cM), D10S546 (75. 57cM) and D10S2529 (75.
57cM) used for DFNB23/USH1F screening. Few
normal individuals (IV: 1, V: 17, V: 6, V: 11, V:
12 and V: 13) inherited normal alleles from both
parents while other normal individuals (IV: 2, IV:
3, IV: 4, IV: 5, IV: 8, IV: 6, IV: 7, IV: 9, IV: 11, IV:
12, V: 18, V: 20, V: 1, V: 4, V: 5, V: 7, V: 8 and V:
21) are carriers and inherited one normal and other
mutated allele from their parents (Figure 4).
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Comparison of haplotypes
Twelve families were provided by CEMB
DNA bank, which were previously linked with
DFNB23 to compare haplotypes. Necessary information about the families regarding the city from
where they were enrolled, their ethnic groups and
caste were taken from CEMB Data bank. Comparison of haplotypes revealed that PKSR54a,
PKDF875, PKDF809 and PKDF231 segregate
the same haplotype. Mutation for only PKSR54a
785G>A (G262D, Exon 8) is known, and there is a
high possibility that other three families with same
haplotype might also have same mutation, which
can be confirmed by sequencing. So, it can be anticipated that these families may have common
founder (Table, 2).
Figure 4. Pedigree Drawing of Family PKDF801
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Families PKDF70 and PKDF756 also have
same haplotype. A missense mutation i. e. 400C>G
(R134G) is found in PKDF70. These two families (PKDF70 and PKDF756) have same caste and
ethnic group and same haplotype in all three markers and there are high chances of founder effect
and same mutations in both families.
Eight families (PKDF801, PKDF181, PKDF338,
PKSR17, PKDF248, PKDF627, PKSR8b and
PKDF409) harbor unique haplotypes across the linked interval. This finding shows that eight different
mutant alleles of DFNB23/USH1F are segregating
in these families.
Discussion
Large consanguineous families are a powerful
resource for mapping and identifying deafness loci
and genes that modify deafness phenotype [21, 22].
Pakistan has diverse ethnic groups and marriages
are usually done within families, castes and ethnic
groups, hence, these families have been instrumental in mapping recessive deafness loci and genes.
Twenty-five families belonging to different ethnic groups were screened for a locus DFNB23 and
out of these; three families were linked to PCDH15/
DFNB23. The remaining families were unlinked
to this locus and these families could hopefully be
linked to some other known deafness loci or there
Table 2. Comparison of Haplotype with previously linked families having reported mutations and correlation of haplotypes and mutations
Screening markers for dfnb23
City
Ethnic group Caste
D10S2529 D10S546
D10S2522
Mutation
(Intronic) (Intronic)
Families having similar Haplotypes asPKSR54a
785G>A (G262D,
PKsr54a Rawalpindi
Punjabi
_
199 199
145 145
255 255
Exon8)
Pkdf875 Joharabad
Punjabi
Mohal
199 199
145 145
261 261
Pkdf809
Chaniot
Punjabi
Rajput
199 199
145 145
265 265
NohsheroPkdf231
Sindhi
Jokhio
199 199
145 145
263 263
Feroz
Families having similar Haplotypes asPKDF70
Pkdf70
Lahore
Punjabi
Malik
197 197
155 155
267 267 400C>G (R134G)
Pkdf756 Faisalabad
Punjabi
Malik
197 197
155 155
267 267
1927C>T
Pkdf139
Multan
Urdu speaking Mughal
197 197
155 155
259 259
(R643X)
Families for which no correlation was found
Pkdf801
Chiniot
Punjabi
Bhatti
199 199
155 155
261 261
Pkdf181
Kasur
Punjabi
Kamboh
199 199
155 155
255 255
Pkdf338
Sialkot
Punjabi
Arain
203 203
143 143
261 261
PKsr17
Lahore
Punjabi
_
203 203
143 143
261 261
Pkdf248
Thattha
Sindhi
Palijo
199 199
151 151
257 257
Pkdf627
Pashin
Balochi
Kakar
201 201
155 155
259 259
PKsr8b Faisalabad
Punjabi
_
199 199
157 157
255 255
Pkdf409 Rawalpindi
Pathan
Pashto
197 197
145 145
255 255
Pedigree
No.
Table 3. Haplotypes of Recently linked pedigrees with PCDH15/ DFNB23
Pedigree
City
No.
Pkdf875 Joharabad
Pkdf756 Faisalabad
Pkdf801
Chiniot
168
Ethnic
group
Punjabi
Punjabi
Punjabi
Caste
Mohal
Malik
Bhatti
Screening markers for PCDH15/DFNB23
D10S2459 (Intronic)
199 199
197 197
199 199
D10S546 (Intronic)
145 145
155 155
155 155
D10S2522
261 261
267 267
261 261
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is also a high probability of finding new loci/genes
due to molecular heterogeneity in our population.
Three polymorphic markers D10S2529, D10S546
and D10S2522 were used for screening (Table 1).
By keeping in view the above data in mind it is clear
that, those individuals who are phenotypically normal are genotypically carriers. DFNB23 locus present on chromosome 10 is an allelic form of USH1F.
In the same way some other non-syndromic recessive deafness and Usher syndrome loci are also allelic
variant. These are DFNB2/USH1B, DFNB12/USH1C, DFNB15/USH1B and DFNB18/USH1C. Families linked to these non-syndromic deafness loci
may help in narrowing down the region of the particular locus and identification of genes. Mutation in
the PCDH15 gene cause primary defects in sensory
cells in the inner ear, and probably also in retina of
the eye. In the inner ear PCDH15 gene is involved
in the signaling pathway, which control development
and maintenance of hair bundles of the sensory cells.
In the present study as mentioned earlier, three families were found linked to DFNB23 and these families
are PKDF875, PKDF756 and PKDF801. In addition
to these, PKSR54a, PKDF809, PKDF231, PKDF70,
PKDF139, PKDF181, PKDF338, PKSR17,
PKDF248, PKDF627, PKSR8b and PKDF409 were
provided by CEMB repository.
Linkage analysis and haplotype comparison revealed that PKDF875, PKDF809 and PKDF231
segregate the same haplotypes as PKSR54a, that
has 785G>A (G262D) mutation in exon 8. All of
these families may have the same mutation. Same
haplotype in these families support the idea of the
common founder (Yan et al., 2003 and Yolanda
et al., 2002). Three out of four families belong to
Punjabi ethnic group and fourth belong to Sindhi
ethnic group. Therefore, it is more likely that these families share the same founder haplotype and
mutation. PKDF231 may also have the same founder as that of other three families and may have
migrated from Punjab to Sindh.
The haplotypes of PKDF756 and PKDF70
are similar. Both families are Punjabi Malik and
have same haplotypes in all the three markers,
while PKDF139 is urdu speaking Mughal and the
haplotype is similar to PKDF756 and PKDF70 in
the first two intronic markers while it is different
in 3rd distal marker. PKDF756 is more similar to
PKDF70 for which mutation is already known i.
e. 400C>G (R134G). It is anticipated that they
might have same mutation and a common founder. PKDF139 has mutation 1927C>T (R643X)
which is different from mutation of PKDF70. So,
we can infer from the above study that PKDF139
also had the same founder as that of PKDF756 and
PKDF70. PKDF139 might have migrated and segregated independently from the other two families before the mutational event could occur. That’s
why PKDF139 has different mutation, which has
been acquired independently after separation.
On the other hand, no correlation was found among the families PKDF801, PKDF181,
PKDF338, PKSR17, PKDF248, PKDF627,
PKSR8b and PKDF409. PKDF801 and PKDF181
have the same haplotype and ethnic group (Punjabi), so, they might have same type of mutation and
same founder. As, this haplotype is different from
all other DFNB23 linked families with known
mutations; it is possible that these families might
have a novel mutation, which is responsible for
deafness. PKDF338 and PKSR17 have the same
haplotypes and ethnic group i. e. Punjabi, they
also might have same mutation and same founder.
There are more chances that this mutation may
also be novel mutation because haplotypes of these families is very different from all other families
having known mutations.
PKDF248, PKDF627, PKSR8b and PKDF409
have different haplotypes, castes, locations and ethnic groups. All these families may have different
founders and have no correlation at all with each
other or with any other family linked with DFNB23
for which mutations are already known. These families may also have some novel mutations.
It may be inferred from the above results that
there is a correlation of haplotypes and mutations.
Families having similar haplotypes have same
founder because the investigated markers are
highly polymorphic and the existence of common
haplotypes in the general population is very unlikely. In the present study haplotype sharing extends to D10S2529 and D10S546 in all families.
D7S2522 is not an informative marker in case of
establishing correlation of haplotypes and mutations. To correlate haplotypes and mutations there
should be other markers close to the gene.
Founder mutations are more commonly found
in isolated populations such as Ashkenazi-Jews.
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
One particular mutation of GJB2-35delG is an ancient mutation and the most common cause of deafness in Caucasian. Recent studies demonstrated
that 35delG is probably a founder mutation rather
than a mutational hot spot in GJB2, which was the
prevailing hypothesis for Caucasians [23]. The
conserved haplotype flanking 167delT suggest
that this mutant allele of GJB2 is a founder mutation segregating in Ashkenazi Jews [24]. Mutations of PCDH15 causing USH1 seem to be rare
in most populations, as only four families (Pakistani, Indian and Hutterite) carrying mutations of
PCDH15 have been reported [12, 13]. However
R245X, a nonsense mutation of PCDH15, appears
to be a founder mutation segregating exclusively
among Ashkenazi Jews [24].
It may also be inferred from the results of
the present study that same sets of haplotypes in
different families may have different mutations
in different exons. The same set of haplotypes in
these families might have common founder allele
that has mutated differently in different populations through the process of evolution. It may also
be inferred that same mutations on two different
sets of haplotypes can also appear.
Conclusions
These studies have demonstrated that correlation of haplotypes and mutations is a useful method
for the identification of population specific mutations. This strategy can save time and available
resources in terms of mutational studies. Possible
mutation in family under study can be predicted
from haplotype analysis. Until now three mutations of PCDH15 have been identified. A planned
study is therefore needed for identification of new
mutations in Pakistani families, which will add to
the repository of mutations and help in understanding the nature and function of the PCDH15 gene.
Linkage analysis is done for screening of carrier’s
status, as consanguineous marriages are common
in Pakistan, therefore, it is important to identify
and offer genetic counseling to the families to reduce the incidence of deafness and socioeconomic
burden on the affected families.
Funding
Financial support for this project was provided
by Center for Excellence in Molecular Biology,
Lahore, Pakistan
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Corresponding Author
Riffat Mehboob,
Department of Biomedical Sciences,
King Edward Medical Universtiy,
Lahore,
Pakistan,
E-mail: [email protected]
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Role of metacognitive beliefs and thought control
strategies in mental health
Hossein Dadashzadeh1, Mahdi Vazifeh Zinabad2, Akbar Mohammadi3
1
2
3
Department of Psychiatry, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Clinical Psychiatry Research Center,
Tabriz, Iran,
Department of Psychology, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran,
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.
Abstract
Introduction
Background and Objectives: Nowadays, the
ever-increasing development of societies towards
industrialization, the increase in population, and
intense economic fluctuations are intensifying the
stress and pressure endured by individuals. The
studies conducted into this area are indicative of
the importance and necessity of mental health and
the impact of metacognitions and thought control
strategies on students’ physical and mental health.
This study aims to investigate the role of thought
control strategies and meta-cognitive beliefs on
mental health of students studying at Ardebil Azad
University.
Materials and Method: To this aim, 160 students were selected using cluster-random sampling
from those studying at Bachelor’s and Master’s
levels. They were then assessed using Kumar
Mental Health Checklist (MHC), Metacognitions
Questionnaire (MCQ-30), and Though Control
Questionnaire (TCQ) and were then analyzed with
multiple stepwise regressions.
Findings: There is a negative correlation between metacognitive beliefs (uncontrollability and
danger, poor cognitive self-consciousness, need
to control thoughts) and thought control strategies
(punishment, worry, and reappraisal) and mental
health. In addition, mental health could be predicted by metacognitive beliefs and thought control
strategies in 86% of men and 77% of women.
Conclusion: It could be stated that the students
studied in this research demonstrated poor mental
health and a considerable percentage of the students were using inefficient thought control strategies and metacognitive beliefs.
Key words: Metacognition, Metacognitive Beliefs, Though Control Strategies, Mental Health.
172
The negative effects of industrialization of societies on physical and mental health of people are
known issues. Many cases of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and digestive diseases, which
are known as psychosomatic disorders in today’s
studies, show the effects of mental problems on
body (Weiten, 2003). It is taken for granted that an
effective coping with mental stresses in everyday
life is one the important strategies in preventing
psychosomatic disorders.
Protecting mental health of people to enhance individual’s competence and capability in
everyday life and ensuring people’s welfare are
among the important objectives and activities of
healthcare specialists in human societies.
It is said that an individual is enjoying mental
health if he/she gets rid of anxiety and symptoms
of helplessness, enables to establish a mutual and
effective relationship with others, and cope with
the pressures of life (Kamav, 1992).
Student population is an important part of the
young and active group of a society which play
a determinant role in conducting future of their
own society. Needless to say that the efficiency,
competence, innovation, management and welfare
of these people is dependent on their physical and
psychological health and it is necessary for the
country’s healthcare authorities to pay more attention to the health of this group of people.
As metacognition field and its two important
scopes including Metacognitive Beliefs and Thought Control Strategies are of almost new fields
of psychology and almost a fair amount of studies
have been carried out on it. As this new field in
psychology has shown its abilities in controlling
factors such as stress, anxiety, depression, and
their treatments, it is necessary to help to improve
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
mental health of students by conducting an appropriate research on mental health, metacognition,
and increasing knowledge in this concern.
In a research carried out by Abdi et al. (2012)
there was a positive and significant correlation
between the overall score of metacognitions questionnaire and score of general health questionnaire, and also there was positive and significant
correlation between metacognitive factors such as
uncontrollability and danger, positive beliefs about
anxiety, poor cognitive confidence, and need to
control thoughts. In other words, by increasing an
individual’s score in general factor of metacognitive beliefs and each of the relevant factors, his/her
score in general health questionnaire increased as
well, which indicated worsening of his/her general
condition. As we know, increasing the score of an
individual in a general health questionnaire indicates low degrees of his/her health.
The results of the research carried out by Roussis and Wells (2006) indicate that there is a positive
and significant relationship between metacognitive
negative beliefs about uncontrollability and danger
and continuation of stress. Spada et al. (2008) believe
that activation of metacognitive beliefs, uncontrollability, and danger expose people to emotional stress.
It seems that emotional stress makes those with high
score in uncontrollability and danger aspect engage
maladaptive coping strategies. The use of such strategies causes these threat concepts to be available in
processing and increasing stress and negative emotions. In fact, these processes make people overestimate environmental threats and underestimate their
coping ability, which leads to continuation of mental
disorder. The Results obtained from the research of
Abdi et al. (2012) indicated that among 5 metacognitive factors, metacognitive factor of uncontrollability
and danger is the predictor of a worse situation of general health; in other words, by increasing the score
of this factor, the individual’s mental health decreases. The theoretical studies carried out in this concern
show that coping strategies of punishment and worry
accompany pathological symptoms of psychological
state and there are relationships between metacognitive strategies and vulnerability, and emotional turmoil (Wells, 2000, 2011).
In their studies, Dupuy and Ladouceur (2008)
realized that there is a positive and significant relationship between the scores of people in the as-
pects of uncontrollability and danger, positive beliefs about worry, poor cognitive confidence, need
to control thoughts and the total score of an individual in general health questionnaire in which the
high score indicates many problems and the low
score shows the health degrees of an individual.
In addition, the results obtained from studies
show that there is a positive relationship between
metacognitive beliefs and an individual’s predisposition to pathological worry (Cartwright-Hatton
and Wells, 1997; Wells and Matthews, 1995)
Indeed, the use of maladaptive coping mechanisms leads to formation and continuation of psychological disorders. In this concern, Spada et al. (2008)
believe that metacognitive beliefs play the role of a
mediator between stress perception and incidence
of negative emotions. In addition, the increase of
the score of an individual in the factor of uncontrollability of thought leads to the feeling of “lack of
control”. In this situation, an individual concludes
that he/she has no control over his/her environment.
The positive beliefs about worry cause formation
and increase of second-order worry, which predispose the individual for anxiety. In addition, metacognitive factor of need to control thoughts and negative beliefs about anxiety may lead to formation
of anxiety disorders and depression. In conclusion,
these metacognitive beliefs have negative effect on
general health and increase mental disorders.
In addition, Matthews et al. (1999) that metacognition, emotion-oriented problem solving, and
worry are the indicators by which stress, worry,
irrelevant thought about exam, and physical symptoms associated with test anxiety can be predicted.
Regarding the studies, the importance and necessity of the studies, which are capable of clarifying
the relationships between thought and information
processing in brain and condition of mental health
for behavioral sciences specialists, seem not only
useful but also necessary. The present study aims
to discuss the role of thought control strategies and
metacognitive beliefs in mental health of the students of Ardabil Azad University.
Materials and Method
Due to describing the variables under study and
analyzing relationships between them, the present
research is considered as a cross-sectional study.
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
By one dependent variable and two independent
variables (metacognitive beliefs and thought control strategies) and two moderator variables (gender
and marital status) and a few intervening variables,
including family problems, economic problems,
etc and each unpredicted and uncontrollable factor,
which affect dependent variable (mental health), the
present research was conducted in four groups. The
sample of the present research was selected among
the students of Islamic Azad University of Ardabil
through stratified cluster sampling. There are 160
samples comprising two groups of undergraduate
students and postgraduate students; each group is
divided into two groups of females and males. Ninety-eight students (46 female students and 52 male
students) and 63 students (23 male students and 40
female students) were selected from the undergraduate group and the postgraduate group, respectively.
In this research, data collection was performed
by questionnaires. The questionnaires include (11item) Kumar Mental Health Checklist (MHC)
(Kumar, 1992), which studies health at two levels
of mental and physical. The overall score of mental and physical health is obtained by adding the
scores of both levels, which is between 11 and 44.
The more the score of an individual, the less his/
her mental health is. The (30-item) Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30) that measures metacognitive beliefs within 5 aspects are positive
beliefs about worry, negative beliefs about worry
associated with uncontrollability and danger,
need to control thoughts, poor cognitive confidence, and cognitive self-consciousness (Wells and
Cartwright-Hatton, 2004). Gaining more score
indicates further belief of an individual to that aspect of the metacognitive beliefs. The (30-item)
Thought Control Strategies Questionnaire (TCQ30) that measures strategies within 5 levels, are
punishment, reappraisal, worry, social control,
and distraction. Gaining more score in each of the
strategies indicates further application of thought
strategy. There was also a (10-item) Personal Information Questionnaire (PIQ).
Due to the high education of the participants
and the capability of the questionnaire to be applied in groups, collection of data in groups was performed in one stage in each class simultaneously
with the presence of an examiner and his/her initial explanation on the plan.
174
After data collection, all the obtained data were
used using descriptive statistics methods, inferential statistics methods, including correlation and
stepwise multiple regression to analyze the research hypotheses. Statistical analysis of data was
performed using SPSS statistical software.
Results
According to the results obtained from the metacognitive beliefs questionnaire, in males, the mean
score for the questions related to the positive beliefs
factors about worry was 13.16, uncontrollability
and danger was 15.14, poor cognitive confidence
was 12.55, need to control thoughts was 16.72, and
cognitive self-consciousness was 18.16. In females,
the mean score for the questions related to the positive beliefs factors about worry was 14.99, controllability and danger was 14.19, poor cognitive
confidence was 13.00, need to control thoughts was
16.04, and cognitive self-consciousness was 18.15.
In the thought control strategies questionnaire,
in males, the mean scores for social control, worry,
reappraisal, punishment, distraction were 14.38,
11.76, 14.85, 12.34 and 15.28, respectively. In females, the average scores of social control, worry,
reappraisal, punishment, and distraction were 14.9,
12.69, 15.66, 13.15, and 15.71, respectively.
In males, the mean scores for mental health,
physical health, and overall score of males were
13.41, 9.43, and 22.84, respectively. In females,
the mean scores for mental health, physical health,
and total score of females were 13.59, 9.94, and
23.52, respectively.
Based on the obtained results, values of multiple regressions between mental health and metacognitive beliefs in males and females were 0.68
and 0.69, respectively. Value of F is significant at
the level of 0.01 and it indicates that almost 45
percent of the variance of mental health in males
and 47 percent in females are explained by the metacognition factors.
According to the results (Tables 1 & 2), uncontrollability and danger factors, cognitive selfconsciousness and poor cognitive confidence in
males and uncontrollability and danger in females
respectively can predict mental health, whereas
positive beliefs about worry and need to control
thoughts in females and males and cognitive se-
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
lf-consciousness and poor cognitive confidence in
females cannot predict mental health significantly.
Test of multiple regression analysis was performed to study the relationship between the factors
of thought control strategies and mental health in
males and females (Tables 3 & 4). Based on the
results, multiple regression values for males and
females are 0.64 and 0.54, respectively. Value of F
is significant at the level of 0.01, which shows that
almost 41 percent of variance of mental health in
males and 30 percent in females are explained by
the factors of thought control strategy.
Table 1. Coefficients of test of multiple regression analysis to study the relationship between metacognitive
and mental health factors in males
Non-standard Coefficient
Model
Constant
Positive Beliefs
Uncontrollability and Danger
Cognitive Confidence
Need to Control Thought
Cognitive confidence
B
10.174
0.268
0.521
0.47
0.353
-0.581
Standard Coefficient
Standard Error
4.219
0.162
0.165
0.189
0.203
0.227
Beta
0.152
0.328
0.246
0.183
-0.226
t Value
Significance
level
2.412
1.652
3.161
2.486
1.745
-2.561
0.018
0.102
0.002
0.015
0.085
0.012
Table 2. Coefficients of test of multiple regression analysis to study the relationship between metacognitive
and mental health factors in females
Non-standard Coefficient
Model
Constant
Positive Beliefs
Uncontrollability and Danger
Cognitive Confidence
Need to Control Thought
Cognitive Self-consciousness
B
1.518
0.269
0.847
0.201
0.283
-0.066
Standard Coefficient
Standard Error
4.097
0.165
0.226
0.136
0.227
0.124
Beta
0.16
0.453
1.151
0.142
-0.049
t Value
Significance
level
0.371
1.635
3.743
1.478
1.246
-0.529
0.712
0.107
0.01
0.144
0.218
0.599
Table 3. Coefficients of test of multiple regression analysis to study the relationship between thought
control strategy and mental health factors in males
Model
Constant
Social Control
Worry
Reappraisal
Punishment
Distraction
Non-standard Coefficient
B
18.482
-0.065
7650
-0.11
0.492
-0.528
Standard Coefficient
Standard Error
5.435
0. 207
0.199
0.225
0.243
1700
Beta
-0.027
0.4
-0.044
0.213
-0.267
t Value
Significance level
3.4
-0.314
3.852
-0.506
2.027
-3.107
0.001
0.755
0.001
0.614
0.046
0.003
Table 4. Coefficients of test of multiple regression analysis to study the relationship between thought
control strategy and mental health factors in females
Model
Constant
Social Control
Worry
Reappraisal
Punishment
Distraction
Non-standard Coefficient
B
15.032
-0.165
0.425
0.108
0.64
-0.289
Standard Coefficient
Standard Error
5.262
0.254
0.278
0.281
0.269
0.24
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Beta
-0.078
0.231
0.052
0.352
-0.138
t Value
Significance level
2.857
-0.649
1.53
0.386
2.376
-1.204
0.006
0.519
0.131
0.701
0.021
0.233
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Coefficients of test of multiple regression
analysis were calculated to study the relationship
between the factors of thought control strategies
and mental health in males and females. According to the stipulated results, worry, distraction
and punishment in males and punishment strategy
in females can predict mental health significantly,
while both social control and reappraisal in females and males and distraction and worry in females
cannot predict mental health significantly.
Discussion
Regarding the results obtained and the studies
carried out in data analysis section and with respect
to the moderator variables examined by the personal information questionnaire, an almost significant
difference was observed only in gender and the rest
of moderator variables had either less frequency or
they had not an appropriate effect to change test result. In this study, the scores obtained from Kumar
Mental Health Checklist (MHC) indicate poor quality of health in university students. MHC is divided into two scales of physical health and mental
health and the maximum scores at two scales are
20 and 24, respectively. The mean score for males’
health at physical health scale was 9.43 out of the
maximum score of 20. The same condition is true
for females. This means that both male population
and female population have approximately 50% of
the symptoms of lack of physical health caused by
mental and psychosomatic symptoms.
Such a condition at the scale of mental health is
worse than the scale of physical health. Maximum
score for mental health scale for both genders is
24. Males and females gained 13.41 and 13.59,
respectively out of 24, which exceeds 50% of the
maximum score of this scale.
The mean score of the participants in the overall score of mental health follows this procedure.
Out of the maximum score of this test, that is 24,
the overall score of males and females are 22.85
and 23.53, respectively. In the percentage norm of
Kumar Mental Health Checklist, the overall score of males is close to 90 percent and the overall
score of females is above 90 percent. That is, in
general, the sample used in this research, are under
high psychological stress and they are in pressing
need for more accurate assessment.
176
In a simple statistical review of the application of metacognitive beliefs between females and
males, it can be figured out that there is no considerable difference between these two genders. In
the application of metacognitive beliefs, female
and male population believe more in cognitive self-consciousness and need to control thoughts; the
overall score of these two factors in both genders
exceeds the rest of factors and the rest of factors
are in the following categories.
High scores at the scale of cognitive self-consciousness and need to control thoughts and consistency of these results with the earlier studies indicate that the participants used more appropriate
metacognitive factors.
There is no significant difference between the
strategic factors of thought control in the two groups of females and males. In order of priority, both
groups use strategies of distraction, reappraisal,
social control, punishment, and worry.
In the studies carried out by Wells and Davies (1994) on TCQ-30 test, worry and punishment
strategies were of the most inappropriate strategies of thought control, which had further significant
relationship with symptoms of anxiety, as compared with the rest of factors (Wells and Matthews,
1995). Meanwhile, other strategies such as social
control, reappraisal, and distraction, respectively,
were of the most appropriate methods of thought
control strategy; they were considered as the positive factors to provide psychological health. However, in the present study, priority of application of
safe strategies was changed considerably, that is,
distraction strategy has the highest score. According to the predictions of self regulatory executive
function (S-REF) model, under certain conditions,
some of the thought control strategies (distraction)
may be more harmful for cognitive and emotional
self-regulation (Wells, 2000). In other words, those
who use distraction instead of processing disturbing
thoughts and adapting that to the social controls do
not solve the postulate of disturbing thought and
merely focus on the other issue; whereas, social
control strategy and reappraisal are considered as
the most appropriate methods to solve a disturbing
thought and its mental control.
The results of the present study show that there
is a significant relationship between mental health and metacognitive beliefs in males and fema-
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
les. This significant relationship has more size is
between four metacognitive factors (uncontrollability and danger, poor cognitive confidence, need
to control thought, positive beliefs about worry).
There were no positive relationship between
cognitive self-consciousness and the score of an
individual in the mental health checklist. In other
words, with the increase of the score of an individual in cognitive self-consciousness, his/her
score in mental health checklist did not increase
and it did not lead to his/her lack of mental health.
The results of this research are consistent with the
ones of the earlier studies in this concern (Abdi et
al. (2012); Roussis and Wells (2006), Dupuy and
Ladouceur, 2008; Cartwright-Hatton and Wells,
1997; Wells and Matthews, 1996; Bidi, et al.,
2012; Wells and Papageorgiou, 2001).
Likewise according to the results of the present
study, there is a significant relationship between thought control strategies and mental health in
males and females. This significant relationship is
among 3 factors of thought control strategies in males (including worry, punishment, reappraisal) and
2 factors of thought control strategies in females
(including worry, punishment). There is no significant relationship between distraction and social
control and mental health of males and females.
According to Wells’ theory, worry and punishment strategies are of the most inappropriate strategies of though control, which have a strong and
significant relationship with anxiety and lack of
emotional control (Wells, 2000). It can be concluded that in male and female group, with respect
to the use of worry and punishment strategies, the
sample under study does not have an appropriate
mental health, which is due to the excessive use of
these two inappropriate strategies.
Less application of social control and reappraisal strategies, which are more suitable strategies
than the rest of strategies, caused individuals not
to be successful in dealing with intrusive thoughts
and to suffer stress. This research is consistent
with the studies of Wells and Matthews (1995).
It means that worry and punishment strategies are
the predictors of lack of mental health; since with
the increase of the score of an individual and more
application of this strategy, his/her score in mental
health checklist increases; this indicates the decrease of mental health.
In this research, social control and distraction
have a negative and significant correlation with
the mental health questionnaire; in other words,
with the increase of the score of an individual in
these factors, his/her score in mental health does
not increase. Therefore, they are known as the best
strategy of thought control. Since the increase of
the score in mental health questionnaire indicates
worse situation of mental health. This part of the
finings is consistent with the studies conducted on
TCQ-30 test (Wells, 2000).
The overall objective of the plan was to discuss
the role of thought control strategies and metacognitive beliefs in mental health of students. Concerning the studies and results, there is a significant relationship between thought control strategies and metacognitive beliefs. In other words, 77
to 86 percents of mental health in female and male
students of Ardabil Azad University are explained
by thought control strategies and metacognitive
beliefs; this indicates the role of these strategies
and beliefs in mental health of individuals.
With the increase of the scores of students in
metacognitive beliefs factors and thought control strategies, the score of their mental health
checklist increases as well. As scoring of Kumar
Mental Health Checklist is reversed, having a high
mark in this checklist indicates the low level of
mental health.
The general results of the present research is
consistent with the earlier studies carried out on
metacognitive beliefs (Abdi et al. (2012); Roussis
and Wells, 2006; Dupuy and Ladouceur, 2008;
Cartwright-Hatton and Wells, 1997; Wells and
Matthews, 1996; Bidi et al.,2012; Wells and Papageorgiou, 1998) and the studies conducted by
Wells and Matthews (1995) and the research carried out on the test of Wells’ thought control strategies and thought control strategies (Wells, 2000).
Conclusion
As a general conclusion obtained from the findings of the present research, it can be stated that
among the metacognitive beliefs, “cognitive selfconsciousness” and among thought control strategies, “social control”, “reappraisal” and “distraction” are considered as the appropriate beliefs and
strategies. On the other hand, “negative beliefs
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
about worry” and “poor cognitive confidence”
are considered as the inappropriate metacognitive beliefs. In addition, thought control strategies,
“worry” and “punishment”, are of the inappropriate strategies in both female and male groups.
With respect to the multiple regression analysis
in males’ mental health on metacognitive beliefs
and thought control strategies, up to 45% and 41%
of males’ mental health in this research can be
explained by metacognitive beliefs and thought
control strategies, respectively. In other words,
86% of mental health in male group of students of
Ardabil Azad University is predicted by metacognitive beliefs and thought control strategies.
With respect to the multiple regression analysis
in females’ mental health on metacognitive beliefs and thought control strategies, 47% and 30%
of females’ mental health in this research can be
explained by metacognitive beliefs and thought
control strategies, respectively. In other words,
77% of mental health in female group of students
of Ardabil Azad University is predicted by metacognitive beliefs and thought control strategies.
As 75 percent of the participants were single in
this research, we were unable to study beliefs and
strategies in two groups of single and married. The
present research was conducted on the students
of Ardabil Azad University and cautions should
be exercised to generalize the findings about the
other social classes and the rest of universities (restriction of generalization).
Finally, it is better to consider that the present
research used self-expression inventories. Such
inventories may be influenced by mentality of individuals.
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Corresponding Author
Hossein Dadashzadeh,
Department of Psychiatry,
Tabriz University of Medical Sciences,
Clinical Psychiatry Research Center,
Tabriz,
Iran,
E-mail: [email protected]
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Total hip artroplasty with long oblique
subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy in high
developmental dysplasia of hip
Bulent Koksal, Ali Terkuran, N. Turgut Karaismailoglu, Hicabi Sezgin
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Medical Faculty, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey.
Abstract
Introduction
Objectives: We have conducted a research on
the complications and difficulties in the patients
with developmental dysplasia of hip and undergoing subtrochanteric long oblique shortening osteotomy procedure on femur site as well as total hip
arthroplasty. The success ratios of this treatment
method have been analyzed.
Patients and Methods: 68 hips of 52 patients
with high developmental dysplasia of hip were exposed to subtrochanteric long oblique femoral osteotomy and cementless total hip arthroplasty between May 2000 and May 2008. Of these patients
49 (94.2%) were female and 3 (5.8%) were male
and mean age was determined to be 42 (range 3268). All these patients presented with crowe type
IV dislocation and all of them were operated under
general anesthesia by using posterolateral approach.
Results: These results were clinically and radiologically evaluated. The patient was followed
for 54 months in average (range 36-96 months).
Nonunion was not observed in the osteotomy
line of the patients. In three patients postoperative peroneal nerve disorder developed. 2 patients
(3.8%) experienced dislocation. These patients
were clinically assessed before and after operation
according to Harris hip scoring system. Mean preoperative Harris hip score was detected to be 41.2
(range 29-60) while the mean postoperative value
was increased up to 86.8 (range 65-97).
Conclusion: In subtrocantheric osteotomy total hip prosthesis procedure, hip reduction is facilitated and complication ratios such as sciatic
nerve disorder are reduced. In the subtrocantheric
osteotomy performed in the metaphyseal region,
nonunion probability is minimized.
Key words: Developmental dysplasia of hip,
arthroplasty, osteoarthritis, long oblique femoral
shortening osteotomy.
180
The patients presenting with untreated developmental dysplasia of hip frequently experience osteoarthritis in the 4th and 5th decades of their lives. It is
characterized by pain and walking difficulty. Total
hip prosthesis in the patients with high dysplasia of
hip is an opened surgical intervention complex and
including complication risk. Such patients have numerous anatomic disorders. In such cases, acetabulum bone stock is reduced, anterversion is increased
and anterior wall is thinned and becomes hystoplastic. In the soft tissues of joint periphery chronic
dislocation related contractions have been detected.
As in acetabulum, some modifications have been
detected in femur as well. Femur neck anterversion
increases, femur neck object angle increases and
femoral duct size is reduced and large trochanter
has modified to posterior site (1,2). While applying
hip prosthesis, it has been reported that acetabulum
should be placed in its actual place and these results
are better (3). However, placing the acetabulum in
its anatomic place is difficult and particularly if the
secondary modifications are not intervened, some
complications may occur. In addition, subtrochanteric femoral osteotomies facilitate the prosthesis
reduction and minimize the neurological disorders
that may develop following the athroplasties.
In this retrospective study, the complications,
union ratios and durations detected in the patients
exposed to total hip prosthesis and subthrocantheric long oblique shortening osteotomy due to high
hip dislocation have been examined. Harris hip
scores of the operated patients have been evaluated and success ratios have been researched.
Patients and methods
68 hips of 52 patients with high developmental
dysplasia of hip were exposed to subtrochanteric
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
long oblique femoral osteotomy and total hip arthroplasty without cement between May 2000 and
May 2008. In sixteen (30.7%) patients bilateral
high dysplasia of hip, in thirty six (69.3%) lateral
high dysplasia of hip was detected. Of these patients 49 (94.2%) were female and 3 (5.8%) were
male and mean age was determined to be 42 (range 32-68). Mean follow up period was 54 months
(range 36-96 months). Of these affected 68 hips 29
(42.6%) were right sided and 39 (47.4%) were left
sided. In 11 hips 38 mm, in 51 hips 40 mm and in 6
hips 42 mm acetabular cups were used (Graph 1).
Due to the failure of acetabulum superior wall, in 7
hips (10.2%) exposed to acetabular graft, autograft
taken from femur head was inserted in the superolateral of acetabulum and fixed with screw. In four
patients, femur valgus osteotomy was performed in
another center in advance. All these patients presented with crowe type IV dislocation and all of them
were operated under general anesthesia.
While determining the indication of total hip
prosthesis in the patient, difficulty in daily motions,
difficulty in walking, secondary osteoarthritic modifications and most importantly severe pain were
evaluated. In all the patients, in lateral decubit position, posterolateral incision was performed. Anatomic hip center was restored and acetabular cup was
inserted in its current place. For this, femur head
was dragged to the inferior site. Inferior extension
ratio of hip rotation center was measured. Femoral
osteotomy was performed under trochanter as an
oblique pattern. In order for avoiding the traction
injury of sciatic nerve, not more than 4 cm extension in the lower extremity was performed. Preoperative and postoperative lower extremity differences
were measured. In all the patients, square sectional
femoral sterns exactly filling the femoral duct and
with distal stability were applied. On the PO 3rd day,
partial load was delivered and the patients were mobilized. In the subsequent weeks, load delivery was
increased step by step and exact load was delivered
in the end of 2nd month. Following the hospitalization of the patients for 5 (3-10) days in average, they
were invited to the control in the months 1st,3rd,6th
and 12th in the subsequent year.
Surgical Technique
While the patient was bedding in the supine
position, hip adductors were examined in the hip
abduction. In case of adductor contracture determination, with fine tip scalpel, some points were intervened and adductor tenotomy was performed. With
posterolateral incision, while the patient was in the
lateral position and as positioning the operation site
in the upper direction, the hip site was incised.
Soft tissues in the femur proximal were loosened. Inferior adhesion site of the capsule was observed thereby determining the acetabulum site. Anterior and posterior site of the capsule were separated
from the junction point and it was all excised. Femur head was accordingly incised (Figure 1). With a
long and narrowed curette, medulla was intervened.
Medullar duct was caved with a scrapper. From the
lower site of throcanther minor, femur was exposed
to long oblique osteotomy. Prior to preparing the
acetabulum, as femur was exposed to osteotomy, it
was easily intervened.
In order for preparing the acetabulum, ecators
were inserted in appropriate positions. Afterwards,
osteophyts and capsule wastes were removed. Carving of acetabulum was performed with a 38 mm
sized apparatus. Medial cortex of acetabulum was
tried to be preserved. Following the carving procedure, appropriate sized acetabular shell was inserted in the acetabulum as to be appropriate with
anterversion. It was fixed with two or three screws.
With preoperative radiological planning and
by aligning the intraoperative femur to the lower
section of acetabulum, subtrocantheric femoral
shortening was determined (Figure 1). Following
the femoral shortening, it was scrapped until it
was complying with the size of medullar duct.
Appropriate scrapper was inserted in the femur.
Trial femur head was inserted and hip was reduced. Movement size and stability of the hip were
controlled. Femoral stem was inserted in the femur, appropriate head was inserted and hip was
reduced (Figure 2, 3).
Clinical evaluation
Preoperative and postoperative patients were
clinically evaluated with Harris hip scoring (4). All
the patients in the control were evaluated by considering the criteria of Harris and scored accordingly.
Those total scores were compared with the preoperative scores and thereby determining the success
of the operation. While performing the postoperative scoring, last control values were considered. If
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
the total score acquired according to Harris scale
were 86-100, results were considered to be excellent, 71-85, very good, 61-70 good, 41-60 medium,
and less than 40 poor. In addition, it was considered
whether the patient could raise his/her extremity or
not and resistant against force. If it was resistant,
muscle strength was evaluated according to standard Medical Research Council scale (MRC grade
between 0-5) (5). Length differences in the lower
extremity were measured. Trendelenburg sign was
considered. Abductor muscle strength was evaluated. Early complications were considered.
et al (7). The evaluation was based upon the zones
disclosed by Asetabum Dee Lee and Charnley (8).
Femur is divided into 7 anterior – posterior and 7
lateral sites in total 14 zones in the graph described
by Gruen. That the radiolucent lines in the femur
in these radiological sites were 2 mm and over was
considered to be substantial for the favor of loosening if they were complying with the clinical results
in the end of 1st year.
Figure 1. Oblique femoral subtrochanteric shortening and osteotomy demonstration on a model
Radiological evaluation
Anterior – posterior and lateral femur hip graphs
of the patients were taken during the control. These graphs were compared with those graphs taken
immediately after the operation and the stability
of femoral stem was evaluated by considering the
criteria determined by Gruen et al (6) and divided
into 7 zones and these zones were assessed by Engh
182
Figure 2. (a) Female patient, 14 years old and
experienced valgus osteotomy, 45 years old, hip
graph taken before operation of type 4 hip dislocation. (b) 36 month graph of the patient experiencing subtrochanteric oblique femoral shortening and fracture line fixed with cable.
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
cal replacement, and Kohler line and modification
of cup outer wall distance were considered to be
horizontal replacement. In the control graph, by
considering the operation period, vertical and/or
horizontal replacement over 2 mm was considered
to be instability of acetabular component. Additionally, fracture, dislocation, infection and osteotomy line union results were evaluated.
Results
Figure 3. (a) 52 years old patient, preoperative graph of bilateral type 4 hip dislocation. (b)
Right sided postoperative 45th month and left
sided postoperative 48th month graphs of the patient experiencing subtrochanteric oblique femoral
shortening.
Similarly, on these graphs, the distance between trochanter minor and superomedial margin of
femoral stem was measured. It was kept for use in
the determination of possible stem collapse (vertical migration). Vertical collapses more than 5 mm
were considered to be associated with instability
of femoral component. Modification of acetabular cup and eye tear figure lower margins, verti-
68 hips exposed to subtrochanteric long oblique
osteotomy were followed for 54 months (range
36-96 months) in average. No nonunion was detected in the osteotomy lines of the patients and
union was detected to be exact and mean union
duration was detected to be 3.8 months (range 3-6
months) (Figure 2, 3). In two (2.9%) patients, dislocation was detected. One patient fell down from
bed on the PO 7th day, therefore it developed. The
other case developed in the 2nd month.
Both cases were reduced under general anesthesia with closed reduction, as well. During the
follow up no nonunion was detected in the dislocation and osteotomy line of the patient. Three (4.4%)
patients presented with postoperative peronoal nerve disorder. Two of these patients recovered exactly
within six months. Only one patient did not exactly
recover from peronoal nerve disorder exactly and
in the end of one year tendon transfer was applied
to the patient. Postoperative length differences were
detected to be 3.6 cm (range 2-6 cm) in the patients.
Length difference measurement taken in the postoperative period was detected to be 1.15 cm (range
0-4 cm). Out of sixty eight hips, 59 (86.7%) were
positive, 9 (13.3%) were detected to be negative in
the trendelenburg test performed in preoperative
period. In the postoperative trendelenburg test, of
the patients 6 (8.8%) were detected to be positive
while 62 (91.2%) were detected to be negative. Abductor muscle strength examination was measured
to be 4 (range 3-5) in average.
During the surgical intervention, hip rotation
center was extended to the inferior site 6 cm in
average (range 2.5-11 cm) and placed in the current acetabulum. During the placement in the current acetabulum, it was medialized 2.4 cm (range 1-3.5 cm) in average and arm raising strength
was increased. 4.3 cm (range 3.5-7 cm) shortening
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
from femur site was performed in average. In
addition, 3 cm (range 2-4 cm) extension in average
was performed in the lower extremity. In the sciatic nerve, in order for not causing traction injury,
other extension was avoided. The patients were
clinically evaluated according to postoperative
and preoperative Harris hip scoring. With Harris
Hip Score preoperative average was detected to
be 41.2 (range 29-60), while this value was postoperatively increased up to 86.8 (range 65-97).
In 1 (1.9%) patient medium, and in 10 (19.2%)
patients very good and in 41 (78.8%) patients,
excellent results ware taken (graph 2).
I-II, asymptomatic radiolucent sites and in one patient in zone I focal osteolysis site was detected. In
one patient, in femoral component, 3 mm sized, and
in another patient 4 mm sized vertical migration
was detected. Revision was not performed due to
the fact that all these patients were clinically stabile.
Due to the failure of superior wall of acetabulum 7
(10.2%) patients were exposed to roof graft and of
these 9% (range 5-20%) in average resorption was
detected, as well. With 20% even in the hip with
highest graft resorption ratio, acetabulum coating
was detected to be more than 90%. None of these
patients presented with loosening.
Discussion
Graph 1. Acetabular cup distribution according
Graph 2. Postop. Haris Hip score results to
patients
In the radiographic controls during the postoperative period, in the acetabular component, radiolucent site and migration results were not acquired.
In the femoral site, however, in 3 patients in zones
Those adult patients presenting with hip pathologies but who did not undergo sufficient and
effective treatment might refer with hip osteoarthritis and pains. Most widespread underlying reason of such pathologies is developmental dysplasia of hip (9, 10).
Patient population in the hip osteoarthritis secondary to developmental dysplasia of hip varies
compared to patient population with primary osteoarthritis. This pathology causes joint degeneration
in early ages, and this leads to pain in hip and functional disorder, as well. In addition, mostly in young and active patients, more instant revision need
is seen compared to older and more inactive patients. As a result of the study conducted by Dorr et
al in the 49 hips of the patients under 45 years old,
revision ratios have been detected to be 12% for 5
years, 33% for 9 years, 67% for 16 years (11). In
other studies, it has been reported that revision ratios are 18% and 39% for 5 and 12 years respectively
in the patients under 50 years old (12, 13).
Total hip arthroplasty indication demonstrates
similarity with primary osteoarthritis cases in the
developmental dysplasia of hip. Pain is one of the
most substantial criteria in arthroplasty indication.
Table 1. THA and complication numbers in the patients with high hip dislocation and Harris Hip Scores
Study by
Eskelinen et al. (26)
Kim et al. (34)
Current study
184
Numbers
of hips
75
62
68
Age
Not statated
22-66
32-68
Nerve
Mean Harris
Nonunion Dislocation Fracture
injury
Score
5
5
2
5
84
2
3
3
3
89
3
0
2
0
87
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Extremity length inequality, hobbling and lumbar scoliosis accompanying low back pain do not
establish exact arthroplasty indication (14, 15).
In these cases abductor muscles, iliopsoas, rectus
femoris, gluteus maximus, fascia lata and other
muscle lengths have been shortened and thightness has been increased. Priformis muscle has been
shortened and other external rotators have been
extended. Following the arthroplasty, femur should be regulated to distal site in order for enabling
the sufficient functioning of particularly abductor
muscles, for regulating the trendelenburg hobbling
and for enabling the equal extremity neck in the
lateral dislocations or for reducing the difference
(16). Therefore as in total knee prosthesis, establishing soft tissue balance is of great importance.
In such cases, total hip arthroplasty is a surgical
intervention technically complex and opened to
complications. If soft tissue contractures, insufficient bone stock and hip rotation center are detected in the proximal site, abnormal neurovascular
structures make it difficult for the hip rotation center to be placed in its original location (17). Subtrochanteric osteotomy facilitates the regulation of
hip rotation center in the inferior site and prevents
the traction injury during the complex reduction
of neurovascular structures. However, nonunion
in the osteotomy line may cause some problems
such as insufficient restoring of length difference and shortening of revision duration of femoral
stem. Various femoral shortening osteotomy techniques have been determined. These techniques
include femoral shortening osteotomy and trochanteric developmental osteotomy, step cut, double chevron, oblique and transverse osteotomies
(18, 19). Step cut is more stable than double osteotomy and oblique osteotomy transverse osteotomy
for rotational angle. We have used oblique osteotomy. However, we have extended the duration
of oblique osteotomy. During the operation, other
than plate and screws and cable in three patients,
we have not used any fixation materials. Due to
extra fixation need other than prosthesis and better
rotational stability as well as union of bone within
a short time, we have preferred this osteotomy. In
addition, on the postoperative 3rd day, by delivering partial load, we have mobilized our patients.
Most frequently detected complications of subtrochanteric osteotomy include fracture development
in femur, and postoperative nonunion problem in
the osteotomy line. During the insertion of intraoperative femoral stem, fracture development risk
has been reported to be 5-22% (20). In our patients, no femur fracture has been detected.
Chareancholvanich et al (21) have not reported
nonunion and loosening in 15 cases exposed to
subtrocantheric double chevron osteotomy. Paavilainen et al (22) have not determined any nonunion
in 55 cases exposed to throcantheric developmental osteotomy and femoral shortening from metaphysal region. However, Anwar et al (23) have
solely performed trocantheric osteotomy in 34 patients and in 10 patients nonunion has been detected. In general sense, in subtrocantheric osteotomy
nonunion frequency varies from 8% to 29% (24,
25). We have supported the osteotomy line by inserting the spongious grafts prepared from femur
head if any space is detected between the proximal
and distal parts. In solely three patients, we have
used wire cable. We have not used another fixation material for the stabilization of fracture line. In
none of our patients exposed to such osteotomy
has not presented with nonunion.
With subtrocantheric shortening osteotomy, the
narrowest section of femoral duct may be resected.
This enables us to insert appropriate femoral stem.
It is substantial for ensuring the stability. We generally have used square sectional femoral stems with
more distal stability and which fill the femoral duct
as much as possible in the anatomic structure. If the
femoral duct is so narrowed, fine stem containing
prosthesis has been used. The most substantial disadvantage of oblique osteotomy is that it does not
permit the rotation required for correction of femoral anterversion. We have inserted the acetabulum
as to compensate the femur anterversion. We have
tried to insert the femoral anterversion to reduce
the femoral anterversion anterversion. In none of
the patients, no additional procedure is required to
correct the femoral anterversion.
Compared to standard total hip prosthesis, loosening period of total hip prosthesis is shorter in the
patients presenting with high hip dislocation. Because, in such cases, due to hypoplastic acetabulum
and poor bone quality, relatively smaller acetabular
cup insertion is required (if the hip rotation center is
inserted in its original location). In order for preparing the dysplastic acetabulum, various techniques
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
such as insertion of small cup together with medialization, perforation in the controlled medial wall
and structural graft use have been determined. We
have used small cups (38, 40 and 42 cm sized cups)
in our patients. Small sized acetabular component
use leads to more percentage cup coverage in most
of the patients and less superolateral structural graft
need. In our study, we have inserted the graft acquired from femur head with the help of 2 screws on
the acetabulum in which superolateral region is not
supported in 7 hips. We have experienced 9% graft
resorption in average. Nevertheless, we have not
detected loosening in the acetabular component. On
the other hand, use of small cup has some disadvantages, as well. It requires for the use of fine linear and
22 mm sized head. This may cause linear failure and
proliferation of disclocation risk. Dislocation has
been detected in two patients. One patient fell down
from bed on the PO 7th day, therefore it developed.
The other case developed in the second month.Both
cases were reduced under general anesthesia with
closed reduction, as well. During the follow up, no
dislocation was detected in the patients.
In the hip osteoarthritis developing secondary
to high hip dislocation, modifications in the soft
tissue accompany the pathological bone modifications in the femur proximal (1,10,26). Numerous complications may occur if the acetabulum
is inserted in the original location thereby requiring the extension of femur in the distal section
and the secondary soft tissue modifications are
not intervened. Of these complications the most
important one is the neurological damage developing during the complex reduction. Edward et al
(27) have concluded that for peroneal palsy in the
lower extremity mean 2.7 cm and for nerve palsy
in the lower extremity more than 4.4 cm extension
are required. Eggli et al (28) have reported that neurological damage is not directly associated with
extension in the lower extremity but rather related
to more complex reduction and complex surgical
procedure. In our study, we have endeavored to
extend 2 cm in the lower extremity in the patients
with bilateral hip dislocation but not more than 4
cm in the lower extremity. Preoperative shortening has been considered following the radiological determination while shortening the tensile of
soft tissues in the periphery of intraoperative joint.
By keeping the knee in flexion and hip in exten186
sion postoperatively, we have reduced the sciatic
tensile. Nevertheless, in 3 patients, postoperative
peroneal nerve disorder has developed. Of these
patients two have completely recovered. In one
patient peroneal nerve disorders has not fully recovered and in the end of one year the patient has
been exposed to tendon transfer.
In the clinical evaluation, Harris hip score was
used. Eskeilen et al (20) have reported and published postoperative harris hip score as 84 following a
12 year of follow up of 75 hips, Kim et al (29) as 89
following a 13 and 17 year of follow up of 62 hips.
In another study, in 103 hips Harris score was reported to be increased from 39.3 to 89.5 (30). In our
study, we have detected that preoperative Harris hip
score was 41.2 in average (ranfe 29-60) and this value was detected to be 86.8 (range 65-97) in average.
In conclusion, total joint arthroplasty is a complex and high complication risk containing procedure in the developmental hip dislocation compared to primary total joint arthroplasty. Subtrocantheric osteotomy facilitates the hip reduction
in the total hip prosthesis application and reduces
the complications such as sciatic nerve disorder.
In some patients with very fine femur medulla, it
enables the resection of that piece thereby closing the femur to more normal. In case of subtrocantheric osteotomy performed in the metaphysal
region, nonunion possibility is less. In addition,
oblique osteotomy is of great importance for enabling the rotational stability.
References
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Corresponding Author
Bulent Koksal,
Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology,
Medical Faculty,
Ondokuz Mayis University,
Samsun,
Turkey,
E-mail: [email protected]
187
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Trends in epidemiology of tuberculosis in HIVinfected patients
Iosif Marincu1, Simona Claudia Cambrea2, Adelina Mavrea3, Mirela Cleopatra Tomescu3
1
2
3
Department of Infectious Diseases, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara, Romania,
Department of Infectious Diseases, “Ovidius” Faculty of Medicine, University Constanta, Romania,
Department of Internal Medicine, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara, Romania.
Abstract
Background: Tuberculosis (TB ) is one of the
most common opportunistic infections in patients
with HIV/AIDS. The aim of the study was to assess
the epidemiological and clinical features of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients using two algorithms.
Materials and Methods: HIV infection was
confirmed by Western blot. CD4 counts were determined by flow cytometry. First algorithm identified TB patients using symptoms, chest X-ray and
tuberculosis skin test. Second algorithm comprised
sputum cultures associated with direct microscopy.
Results: A total of 102 HIV-infected patients
were identified. Cough was present in 18 while fever, 20 patients were having pulmonary infiltrates,
6 adenopathy and 3 infiltrates and adenopathy. After applying both algorithms, 5 HIV-infected patients (4.90%) with definite TB were found.
Conclusion: A diagnostic management strategy
using two simple clinical decision rules is effective
in the evaluation and management of HIV-infected
patients with clinically suspected tuberculosis.
Key words: Tuberculosis, HIV-infected patients, tuberculin skin test, CD4.
Introduction
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is
causing the most destructive epidemic of recent
times, having been responsible for the deaths of
more than 25 million people since it was first recognized in 1981 (1). HIV infection remains of
major public health importance in Europe, with an
estimated 802,000 people living with HIV in EU/
EEA countries and more than 30 percent of HIVinfected people are unaware of their infection (2).
In Romania, latest data reported that 16,000
people were living with HIV/AIDS in 2009. Romania is the only country in Central and Eastern
188
Europe providing universal access to treatment
and care for this disease (3).
Dual infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV affects nearly 11 million people
worldwide (4). Co-infection of HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis together with problems
in health care systems and infrastructure, have
an important impact on treatment success. In the
absence of anti-retroviral therapy, HIV-infected
patients with latent tuberculosis infection have
5–10% annual risk of TB in contrast to 10% during the life-time in HIV negative patients (5, 6).
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is conventionally
diagnosed by a combination of symptoms, chest
X-ray (CXR), direct staining of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum, sputum culture or by
nucleic acid amplification techniques, where these
are available (7).
Furthermore, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends cough as the trigger for
tuberculosis screening in HIV-infected patients,
with acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear as the initial
diagnostic test (8). The most commonly used and
reliable specimen for bacteriological examination is sputum for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB,
but when the patient cannot expectorate sputum,
several methods, such as laryngeal swab, sputum
induction, gastric aspiration, and bronchoalveolar
lavage, can be used to obtain specimens for smear
or culture examination for acid-fast bacilli (9).
A great challenge in the diagnostic work-up of
HIV-infected patients with clinically suspected
TB is to accurately and quickly diagnose the presence of TB, for an early treatment. Because of the
very frequent association of tuberculosis and HIV,
it has become necessary to look for tuberculosis in
HIV-infected patients and vice versa (10).
The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological and clinical features of tuberculosis in
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
HIV-infected patients in a 6 months period in 2
infectious diseases centres from Romania and to
propose two simple algorithms for detection of TB
in HIV-infected patients.
Material and methods
The study included all HIV-infected patients,
aged at least 15 years, which received antiretroviral therapy, from the evidence of Infectious
Disease Clinics of Timisoara and Constanta. We
excluded from the study HIV-infected patients
with serious opportunistic infections, sepsis, meningoencephalitis, and coma, cardiac, respiratory,
hepatic, renal or circulatory failure, neoplasm or
hematologic malignancies. Data concerning demographic (age, sex, location) and clinical characteristics (symptoms) were recorded.
Figure 1. First screening algorithm to detect TB
in HIV-infected patients
Diagnosis of HIV status
In all patients, HIV infection was confirmed by
Western blot and HIV-1 env DNA gene detection
by PCR (11). The immune status was evaluated,
and staging of HIV/AIDS was done according to
international criteria, developed by CDC Atlanta,
in 1993. CD4 cell counts were also evaluated by
flow cytometry in all subjects.
Diagnosis of TB
All patients were subjected to chest radiograph
and sputum smear AFB examination of three samples. Mantoux test using 5 TU of purified protein
derivative (PPD) was done and transverse diameter of induration was noted in mm in all patients.
Than, first screening algorithm was applied
to identify TB suspects using a short, structured
screening questionnaire (symptoms), chest X-ray
(CXR) and IDR to tuberculin (TST) (Figure 1). Xray images were scored as showing no abnormalities or abnormalities not suggestive of TB (negative) or abnormalities suggestive of TB (positive).
Then, second screening algorithm that comprised bacteriological investigation was applied to all
HIV-infected patients with positive symptoms and
positive CXR. The bacteriological examination
was based on the detection of BK by sputum cultures (spontaneous or induced sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage), associated with direct microscopy
of AFB stained sputum smear (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Second screening algorithm to detect
TB in HIV-infected patients
Statistical analysis
Data were analysed using statistical computer
software, MedCalc version 12.1.4.0. The descriptive data were given as means ± standard deviation (SD). The differences were considered to be
statistically significant when the p value obtained
is less than 0.05.
Ethical approval
The study was approved by the research ethics
committees of the “Victor Babes” University of
Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara, Romania and
“Ovidius” Faculty of Medicine and University
Constanta, Romania and written informed consent
was obtained from all participants.
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Results
The study included 102 HIV-infected patients
(M = 52, W = 50, mean age = 27.74 ± 12.45 years with a range of 19-65 years), retrospectively
recruited from two centers for infectious diseases,
Timisoara and Constanta from Romania.
The age distribution revealed that the highest
incidence of TB suspects in HIVinfected patients
was found in the groups of age under 20 years
(45%). Most patients (n=65) included in the study
were from urban areas, and the rest (n=37) were
from rural areas (Table 1).
Table 1. Age, sex and location distribution of HIVinfected patients
Age
<20
20-34
35-44
45-54
>55
Total
Male
Female
Total
Rural
Urban
Total
Number
Percentage (%)
46
45
31
30.4
5
5
14
13.8
6
5.8
102
100
Sex
52
51
50
49
102
100
Location
37
36.2
65
63.8
102
100
Cough was the most common symptom present
in 18 patients (17%), followed by fever, weight
loss and sweating present in 5 (5%), 5 (5%) and 3
(3%) patients, respectively.
Following the number of symptoms per patient, we noted that most patients (16) had just a
symptom, 2 patients were registered with two
symptoms, 1 patient experienced three symptoms,
and 2 patients reported four symptoms.
Radiological examination is known as a routine procedure used in identifying patients with TB.
In this study, 20 patients (20%) were having pulmonary infiltrates, 6 (6%) adenopathy, and 3 (3%)
infiltrates and adenopathy. There is no patient with
caseous or ulcerative lesions (cavitations).
Using the algorithm proposed, 51 patients were
categorised as “non TB”, 12 patients with “TB
probably likely” were monitored at the Prevention
Centre for TB, and 39 patients with “TB likely”
continued bacteriological investigation. Bacteriological confirmation was indicated in all potential
positive TB patients. Considering the results of
bacteriological investigation, patients with positive BK results on cultures or microscopy were
diagnosed as “definite TB cases” and referred to
anti-TB treatment. “Non-TB cases” were considered those with negative BK results on cultures
of secretions obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage,
associated with negative BK microscopy.
By all HIV-infected patients studied, 2 patients were found with a positive sputum culture of
spontaneous BK and 3 patients had positive BK
culture from bronchoalveolar lavage. All 5 HIVinfected patients (4.90%) were considered definite
cases with TB.
An association between symptoms and the presence of radiological changes was observed in 5
(5%) patients with severe immunosuppression, in
5 (5%) with moderate immunosuppression, and in
1 (1%) patient with balanced immune status. Although all 15 patients with a history of TB were
under antiretroviral therapy, 2 had severe immunosuppression (Li CD4 < 200/mm3), 7 had moderate immunosuppression (CD4 between 200-499/
mm3 Li), and 6 were in balanced immune status
(Li CD4 > 500/mm3) (Table 2).
Table 2. Association between symptoms, chest X-ray and values of Li CD4
Clinical
Categories
C3
C2
C1
Li CD4
levels
< 200/mm3
200-499/mm3
> 500/mm3
Pacient
number
n (%)
Patients
with
symptoms
Patients with
positive
CXR
Patients with
symptoms and
positive CXR
p value
34 (33%)
15 (15%)
30 (29%)
11 (11%)
8 (8%)
2 (2%)
5 (5%)
9 (9%)
10 (10%)
5 (5%)
5 (5%)
1 (1%)
NS
NS
NS
CXR: Chest X-ray
NS: Nonsignificant (p>0.05)
190
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Discussion
In 1989, Romania experienced a unique, major
nosocomial HIV epidemic in which several thousand institutionalised children contracted HIV
through blood transfusions. Since then, the rates
of diagnosed HIV cases doubled between 2000
and 2009 in countries like Bulgaria, Hungary,
Lithuania, Slovakia and Slovenia, but in Romania,
new HIV cases decreased by more than 20%. The
proportion of eligible patients that received antiretroviral therapy in Romania at the end of 2010 was
about 60-79 % (12, 13).
HIV promotes the progression of latent TB
infection to disease, and TB accelerates the progression of the HIV disease. Delayed diagnosis
and improper management of people with TB and
HIV co-infection may lead to spread of TB within the community, contribute to the development
of drug resistant TB, and lead to poorer health
outcomes for HIV-infected patients. Tuberculosis
co-infection is associated with a doubling of the
mortality rate in HIV-infected people. The most
significant predictor of survival for HIV-infected
patients with coexistent TB is the degree of immunodeficiency (14).
In our study, distribution by age showed the
predominance of people less than 25 years (45%),
confirming that TB coinfection in HIV-infected
patients is more common in sexually active age
group. Given the risk of TB and the unknown risk
of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients, monitorisation should include preliminary
detection of TB in this population.
Tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients may
have unusual clinical features and can cause diagnostic difficulties. Signs and symptoms (fever,
weight loss, and fatigue) can be caused by tuberculosis and other atypical mycobacterium infections (lymphoma, AIDS Wasting syndrome, CMV
infection, etc.). This was confirmed by the results
we obtained in the study group where only 21 patients had symptoms of TB diagnosis oriented.
Therefore, the authors included in the algorithm
for detecting TB in these patients, in addition to
symptoms and radiological changes, the IDR to
tuberculin. Similar with other studies, cough was
the most common symptom, followed by fever,
weight loss and sweating (15, 16).
In people with HIV infection, the diagnosis of
TB may be problematic due to confusion with other
opportunistic infections and other HIV related diseases. Tuberculosis may present as a disseminated
disease or with atypical clinical (or radiological)
presentations, including enlarged hilar and/or mediastinal lymph nodes, pleural effusion, and lower
lobe infiltrates; this is particularly the case in those
with severe immunodeficiency (17-19).
Typical and cavitary lesions are usually observed in patients with higher CD4 counts, and more
atypical patterns are observed in patients with
lower CD4 counts. In patients with symptoms and
signs of TB, a negative chest radiograph result
does not exclude TB (20).
Inour study, 20 patients (20%) were having
pulmonary infiltrates, 6 (6%) adenopathy, and 3
(3%) infiltrates and adenopathy. There is no patient with caseous or ulcerative lesions (cavitations). In The Terry Beirn Community Programs for
Clinical Research on AIDS, pulmonary infiltrates
were seen among 67%, adenopathy in 7%, pulmonary nodule in 20%, cavity in 20% and pleural
effusion in 10% (21).
CD4 count measure the degree of immunosuppression in HIV-infected patients (22). Tuberculosis, unlike other HIV-associated opportunistic
infections may occur at relatively high levels of
CD4, although its frequency markedly increases
in patients with more severe immunosuppression
(23). Clinical symptoms indicative of tuberculosis were more frequent among patients with CD4
<200/mm3, while radiological changes occurred
at a lower frequency among persons with low
CD4 Li, but the differences were not statistically
significant. In our study, stage C of HIV/AIDS was
found in 81(79%) of HIV-infected patients. This
requires the establishment of rigorous monitoring
measures associated with early detection as TB in
these patients. The number of patients with marked immunosuppression (35%) was close to the
number of those with controlled immune status
(29%) due to antiretroviral therapy administered.
Moreover, this feature could explain the selected
group and number of patients (n=5) identified as
definite pulmonary TB. These HIVinfected patients could be clinically and biologically supervised in two traditional university clinics. The clinical experience in this consistent pathology is
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
relatively new and difficult for some hospitals in
other geographic areas, where the application of
this algorithm could lead to other results.
Monitored cases (n=12), respectively negative
symptoms and negative CXR, but positive TST
will be strictly controlled by both TB Prevention
Centres from Timisoara and Constanta, and the Infectious Diseases Clinic where they are in record
time to capture the appearance of clinical or radiological changes. Possible TB cases (n=49) resulting from the combination of three basic elements
- positive symptoms, or positive chest X-ray or
positive TST, will also be closely monitored in parallel clinics by specialists in infectious diseases
and TB for detection of subclinical forms, latent
bacteriological confirmed TB, but will be treated
according to known rules.
Using proposed algorithms, 49 of the 102 HIV/
AIDS patients were identified with suspected TB,
which would not have been possible through a routine examination. It shows that sometimes a single
factor represents the main element of suspicion of
TB. A special attention should be given to HIV-infected patients with a history of pulmonary or extrapulmonary TB (15 patients in the study). In these
patients, due to immunosuppression, the risk of reinfection or relapse is high and has to be early identified, properly monitored, and effectively treated.
In order to avoid false-negative results that
may occur through direct bacterioscopy or sputum
cultures or need for cooperation and compliance
from patients, but also seriously and conscientiously from health professionals involved in the
diagnostic laborious process. We suggest, where possible, to advise and prepare the patient by
health professionals who work with the office of
psychological counseling in the hospital.
Conclusions
A diagnostic management strategy using two
simple clinical decision rules is effective in the
evaluation and management of HIV-infected patients with clinically suspected tuberculosis.
Study limitation
Although sputum cultures remain the gold
standard in diagnosing TB, we met difficulties
192
with patients compliance and collaboration. Some
patients refused bronchoscopy and preferred to
give spontaneous sputum that was saliva leading
to erroneous results and requiring a fresh sample from induced sputum or secretions obtained
by laryngeal-tracheal lavage. Although they had
agreed to participate in the study, the patients had
difficulties in accepting all investigations, which
indicates the need for their psychologically counselling during the study.
Acknowledgments/Funding
We thank leadership, specialists, and staff from
the Centre for Health Policy and Services Bucharest (CPSS) that contributed to this Grant with
funding from the Global Fund against HIV/AIDS,
Tuberculosis, and Malaria through Romanian
Angel Appeal. We thank all laboratory staff and
Infectious Diseases and TB clinics which contributed to complete this project conducted in partnership between specialist clinics in Timisoara
and Constanta from Romania.
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Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
Corresponding Author
Iosif Marincu,
Department of Infectious Diseases, Pneumology and
Parasitology,
“Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy,
Timisoara,
Romania,
E-mail: [email protected]
193
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and serum lipid
profile: Is there any association?
Sepideh Parchami Ghazaee1, Hooman Bakhshandeh1, Nahid Mehrzad2, Shiva Khaleghparast3
1
2
3
Cardiovascular Intervention Research Center, Rajaie Cardiovascular, Medical and Research Center, Iran
University Of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran,
Medical Laboratory Science, Clinical Biochemistry Department, Massoud Clinical Laboratory, Tehran, Iran,
Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Introduction
Abstract
Background: Dyslipidemia acts synergistically with other major risk factors of coronary
artery disease (CAD). Variety in the distribution,
type, and multiplicity of each of the blood groups in the human societies has prompted different
types of investigations into the relationship between ABO blood groups and different diseases. Reducing risk factors constitutes the primary clinical
approach to decreasing the mortality and morbidity of CAD; consequently, we sought to probe
into the relationship between ABO blood groups
and the serum lipid profile in the Iranian population with a view to designing a population strategy
for the primary prevention of CAD.
Method and patients: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 2815 individuals who referred
to Massoud Medical Laboratory and the Medical
Laboratory of Rajaie Cardiovascular, Medical and
Research Center, Tehran. ABO blood groups/ Rhesus and the serum lipid profile were determined after 12-14 fasting hours, and the subjects were classified according to ABO/Rhesus blood typing.
Results: There was no marked correlation
between the serum lipid values and the different
ABO/Rhesus blood groups. Family history of
CAD and family history of hyperlipidemia were
most prevalent in blood group A (p value =0.003),
blood group O+(p value <0.001), and negative
Rhesus factor (p value <0.001).
Conclusion: We suggest that individuals with
phenotype A or O may be more predisposed to
cardiovascular diseases and blood group screening may be an important way to prevent heart
troubles in society.
Key words: Coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, ABO blood group system, Rh factor, Iran.
194
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most
common form of cardiovascular diseases and the
leading cause of mortality, morbidity, and disability
in the Iranian population. The incidence of CAD is
strongly associated with the pattern of distribution
and the number of CAD risk factors (1). It has been
established that dyslipidemia is one of the major
risk factors of CAD and that it acts synergistically
with other major risk factors of this disease (1-2).
The discovery of ABO blood groups in 1900 is one
of the most important events in the medical history.
Variety in the distribution, type, and multiplicity of
each of the blood groups in the human societies has
been previously established (3), and it has prompted
various types of investigations into the relationship
between ABO blood groups and different diseases.
Several studies have revealed a correlation between
ABO blood groups and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (4-5). There are inconsistent results in different studies with respect to the distribution ofABO
blood groups and major cardiovascular risk factors
in different regions (5-6). Nevertheless, in the majority of these investigations, the understudy subjects
have been identified cases of CAD, awaiting coronary artery angiography or bypass graft surgery. Moreover, in some of these studies there is no concrete
information on the association between ABO blood
groups and serum lipids as a major CAD risk factor
and various lipid parameters have not been indicated
objectively and comprehensively.
Since reducing risk factors is the primary clinical
approach to lessening the mortality and morbidity
caused by CAD (2), we sought to clarify the relationship between ABO blood groups and the serum
lipid profile in a sample of the Iranian population in
Tehran with a view to designing a population strategy for the primary prevention of CAD.
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Results
Subjects and Methods
This cross-sectional study was conducted on
2815 consecutive individuals who referred (for
regular occupational or general medical checkup
or according to the physician’s order) to Massoud
Medical Laboratory and the Medical Laboratory
of Rajaie Cardiovascular, Medical and Research
Center, Tehran, Iran, between March and September 2012.
The exclusion criteria were consumption of lipid-lowering agents or existence of liver obstructive diseases. ABO blood groups were determined
via cell typing and back typing methods. Blood
Rhesus was determined using Lorne kits (Germany), and direct Coomb’s test was used to determine D antigen in Rhesus-cases.
Samples for serum lipid profile parameters
[total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein
cholesterol (HDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and triglyceride (TG)]were collected
after 12-14 fasting hours and measured via the
enzymatic colorimetric method with a biochemistry auto analyzer (Hitachi 917). The subjects
were classified according to ABO/Rhesus blood
typing. The normal ranges for serum lipids were
considered as follows: TC <200 mg/dl; LDL-C
<130 mg/dl; HDL-C>50 mg/dl; TG<200 mg/dl;
and VLDLs<38mg/dl (7).
All the participants provided written, informed
consent for participation in the study, and the study
protocol was approved by the institutional Review
Board and the Ethics Committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS
software (SPSS 18.0 for Windows, SPSS Inc.,
Chicago, Illinois). The data are expressed as mean
±SD for the continuous and as percentages for the
discrete variables. The chi-square test was used to
compare the nominal variables, and the Fisher exact test was employed if necessary. The KruskalWallis test was utilized to compare the nominal
variables with the ranked variables. Additionally,
the t-test or one-way ANOVA was used to compare the nominal variables with the numeral variables and the Mann Whitney U test was used if
necessary. A p value<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
A total of 3058 participants from the general
population referring to Massoud Medical Laboratory and the Medical Laboratory of Rajaie, Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Tehran,
Iran, were enrolled in our study. Of this total, 243
subjects were excluded. Consequently, 2815 participants (1251 men and 1564 women) at an average age of 44.5±15.9 years (range =20-84 years)
were considered for analysis.
The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors
for the participants was: diabetes mellitus 17%;
hypertension 17.6%; smoking 16.3%; obesity
(body mass index [BMI]> 25) 49.7%; and family history of CAD 43.3%. According to Rhesus
factor status, 86.7% of the subjects were Rh+ and
13.3% were Rh-. As is illustrated in Figure 1, blood
group O was predominant.
Figure 1. Distribution of blood groups in the
participants
Table 1 depicts the demographic characteristics
of the participants according to ABO blood groups
classification. A family history of CAD and a family history of hyperlipidemia were more likely to be
found in the participants with blood group A (p value
=0.003) and blood group O (p value <0.001). Also,
those in blood group O were more likely to be older
(p value =0.035) and smokers (p value =0.049). The
other characteristics were insignificantly associated
with the different types of blood groups.
There were no reliable statistical changes in the
prevalence of Rh positivity and negativity concerning sex and different ABO blood groups (Table
2).The statistical analyses revealed that as regards
Rhesus factor, there were significant differences in
the prevalence of diabetes (18% in Rh+ vs. 10.7%
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Table 1. Demographic characteristics of the participants according to blood groups
Characteristics
Age
Sex (%)M/F
Diabetes
Hypertension
Family history of CAD
Family history of hyperlipidemia
Current smoking
BMI>25
O a or b
949(33.7)
45.1±16.1†
46.4/ 53.6
168(35.1)
161(32.9)
365(29.8)
159(43.8)
170(37.1)
462(33.3)
A
935 (33.2)
44.5± 16.1
42/58
159(33.2)
174(35.6)
416(34)
118 (32.5)
140(30.6)
460(33.2)
B
683(24.3)
44.6± 15.7
43/57
115(24)
116(23.7)
323(26.4)
61(16.8)
118(25.8)
345(24.9)
AB
248(8.8)
41.8± 14.5†
42.3/ 57.7
37(7.7)
38(7.8)
120(9.8)
25(6.9)
30(6.6)
120(8.7)
P value
0.035
0.257
0.694
0.695
0.003
<0.001
0.049
0.493
Values are expressed as Mean±SD or n(%); CAD: Coronary artery disease; BMI: Body mass index; †: Significantly
different(p value =0.023),
in Rh-; p value <0.001), family history of CAD
(41% in Rh+vs.59.7% in Rh-; p value <0.001), and
family history of hyperlipidemia (13.8% in Rh+vs.
7.2% in Rh-; p value <0.001).
Table 2. Prevalence of Rhesus positivity and negativity according to sex and blood group
Characteristics
Sex
Male
Female
Blood group
A
B
AB
O
Rh+
Rh-
87.3
85.9
12.7
14.1
86.9
84.5
84.7
88.5
13.1
15.5
15.3
11.5
P value
There were no reliable differences in the lipid
profile parameters between the different blood
groups. Similar differences were obtained in the
lipid indices according to Rhesus factor (Table
3). These results were supported by multivariate
analysis after adjustment for different independent
variables, which are mentioned in Table 1.
Discussion
0.266
0.086
Values are expressed as %, Rh: Rhesus factor
The average values of the lipid profile in the
participants were as follows: TC (174.6±42.4 mg/
dl); LDL_C (102.3±32.9 mg/dl); TG (124±72.9
mg/dl); VLDL (21.9± 13.6 mg/dl); and HDL_C
(45.8±13.4 mg/dl).
In our study, the most frequent blood group was
O (33.7%) , followed by blood groups A (33.2),
B (24.3%),and AB(8.8%): this chimes in with the
data on the Iranian population reported by the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, according
to which, blood group O (33.6%) is the most prevalent, followed by blood group A(30.2%) and
blood group B (24.4%),whereas blood group AB
(11.8%) is the least prevalent (5-8).
The main finding of the present study was that
there were no significant differences in terms of the
lipid profile distribution between the different types
Table 3. Serum lipid profile levels according to different blood groups and Rh
Blood
group/Rh
O
A
B
AB
P value
Rh+
RhP value
Number of
patients (%)
949 (33.7)
935 (33.2)
683(24.3)
248(8.8)
2440(86.7)
375(13.3)
TC (mg/dl) LDL_C(mg/dl) HDL_C(mg/dl)
173.5±43.2
176.1±41.4
174.4±43
173.7±40.1
0.222
174.3±42.4
177.3±41.5
0.222
102.1±34.4
103.5±32.1
102.1±33.1
99.7±29.3
0.524
102.2±33.1
103.1±31.6
0.524
45.6±13.6
45.7±12.9
46.2±14
46.2±12.5
0.500
45.9±13.7
45.7±11.4
0.500
TG(mg/dl)
125.5±75.1
122.7±74
123.8±68.4
122.6±71.2
0.242
124.8±74.2
118±62.9
0.242
VLDL(mg/dl)
22.7±15.1
21.6±13.6
21.5±11.9
21.3±12.2
0.063
22.2±13.9
20.2±11.2
0.063
Values are expressed as mean±SD; Rh: Rhesus factor; TC: Total cholesterol; LDL_C: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol;
HDL_C: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TG: Triglyceride; VLDL: Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
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of ABO/Rhesus groups. The literature contains
some evidence on a positive association between
the different blood groups and cardiovascular diseases (9-10). Nonetheless, Amirzadegan and colleagues (8) posited that there was no correlation between the different blood groups and the development
of CAD and the prevalence of major cardiovascular
risk factors in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft. In contrast, the results of another
study on the Iranian population revealed that hyperlipidemia was less frequent in participants with blood group B than in the other groups (6).
Data analysis of the Japanese population demonstrated that the average TC levels were significantly elevated in phenotype A compared to nonA (11). Kanbay et al. (12) reported that in patients
who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery, no
significant differences in the lipid levels between
the different blood types were obtained, although the Rh+ group had a significantly lower mean
HDL-C level than the Rh- group. The latter finding
is not consistent with our finding regarding HDLC levels, which were equal in the different ABO/
Rhesus groups. Another study on patients who underwent coronary angiography in Budapest reported that although the mean serum cholesterol level
was almost identical in the ABO blood groups,
according to Rhesus it was significantly higher in
the Rh- patients (13).
It is necessary to note that we found reliable
differences in the prevalence of some other cardiovascular risk factors, including a family history of CAD, which was more prevalent in the
participants with blood group A, and smoking,
which was more frequent in the subjects with
blood group O. Abdollahi and co-authors (5) demonstrated a significant relationship only between
a family history of CAD and ABO blood groups
among all the cardiovascular risk factors. The authors, however, reported no data on the association
between hyperlipidemia (as a major risk factor for
CAD) and ABO or Rhesus groups.
Our biochemical analysis showed that according to Rhesus factor, although the Rh-subjects
were more likely to have a family history of CAD,
the prevalence of diabetes was more likely to be
in the Rh+ group. The results of various studies on
the prevalence of diabetes mellitus regarding Rhesus groups in different regions are controversial.
Our finding agrees with the results of Kumar et al.
(14), who demonstrated a strong association between the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and Rh+
group in the Indian population. However, Dali
Sahiand and colleagues (15) did not observe any
significant association between ABO/Rh blood
groups and diabetes mellitus in the Algerian population. Given these conflicting reported data on the
possible association between the different blood
groups and the important risk factors of CAD, it is
advisable that sufficient heed be paid to environmental conditions and hereditary factors involved
in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors.
Since the lipid profile is a genetic component,
one of the key risk factors for hyperlipidemia is
family history (16). As much as we found no reliable association between the lipid values andthe
different ABO/Rhesus groups, a family history of
hyperlipidemia was strikingly more likely to be
observed in blood group O+. It seems important
to screen people at increased risk of lipid disturbances. Phenotype O individuals may be more
predisposed to CAD through one of its major risk
factors. There is strong evidence to suggest that
those with a family history of hyperlipidemia require much more aggressive management through
dietary recommendations, change in life style,
and consideration of referral for pharmacological
management for the prevention of CAD (15).
Conclusion
There was no marked correlation between the
serum lipid values and the different ABO/Rhesus
blood groups in our sample of the Iranian general
population. A family history of CAD and a family
history of hyperlipidemia were more prevalent in
our blood group A-and blood group O+ subjects.
We would posit that individuals with phenotype
A or O may be more predisposed to cardiovascular diseases and blood group screening may be an
important way to prevent heart troubles in society.
The data presented herein were collected from
a sample of the Iranian general population by
two clinical laboratory centers. Be that as it may,
further research with particular focus on blood
group AB is required because it had the lowest
prevalence of all the different blood groups in our
study population.
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Acknowledgment
We wish to thank Massoud Medical Laboratory managers and staff.
References
1. Hatmi ZN, Tahvildari S, Gafarzadeh Motlag A, Sabouri Kashani A. Prevalence of coronary artery disease risk factors in Iran: a population based survey.
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders. 2007; 7: 32.
2. Klop B, Elte JW, Cabezas MC. Dyslipidemia in obesity: mechanisms and potential targets. Nutrients.
2013; 5(4): 1218-1240. Doi: 10.3390/nu5041218.
3. Anstee DJ. The relationship between blood groups
and disease. Blood. 2010; 115(23): 4635-4643. Doi:
10.1182/blood-2010-01-261859.
4. Carpeggiani C, Coceani M, Landi P, Michelassi C,
L’abbate A. ABO blood group alleles: A risk factor for
coronary artery disease. An angiographic study. Atherosclerosis. 2010; 211(2): 461-466. Doi: 10.1016/j.
atherosclerosis.
5. Abdollahi AA, Qorbani M, Salehi A, Mansourian M.
ABO Blood Groups Distribution and Cardiovascular
Major Risk Factors in Healthy Population. Iranian J
Publ Health. 2009; 38(3): 123-126.
6. Sotoudeh Anvari M, Boroumand MA, Emami B, Karimi A, SoleymanzadehM, Abbasi SH, et al. ABO
Blood Group and Coronary Artery Diseases in Iranian Patients Awaiting Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
Surgery: A Review of 10,641 Cases. Lab Medicine.
2009; 40(10): 528-530. Doi: 10.1309/LM0XULJ3JAYARH9K.
7. Young DS. Effects of disease on Clinical Lab. Tests.
4rd ed. Washington, DC: AACC; 2001.
11. Wong FL, Kodama K, Sasaki H, Yamada M, Hamilton HB. Longitudinal study of the association between ABO phenotype and total serum cholesterol level
in a Japanese cohort. Genet Epidemiol. 1992; 9(6):
405-418.
12. Kanbay M, Yildirir A, Ulus T, Bilgi M, Kucuk A,
Muderrisoglu H. Rhesus Positivity and Low HighDensity Lipoprotein Cholesterol: A New Link? Asian
Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2006; 14(2): 119-122.
13. Tarján Z, Tonelli M, Duba J, Zorándi A. Correlation
between ABO and Rh blood groups, serum cholesterol and ischemic heart disease in patients undergoing
coronarography. OrvHetil. 1995; 136(15): 767-769.
14. Kumar MV, Sambaia K, Ramesh BN, Manohar B,
Lokesh BR. A comprehensive study on the serum lipid profile and risk factor analysis for cardiovascular diseases in a cross-sectional Indian population. J
Indian Med Assoc. 2010; 108(3): 156, 158-160.
15. Dali Sahi M, Metria A, Belmokhtar F, Belmokhtar
R, Bouazza F. The relationship between ABO/rhesus
blood groups and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Maghnia, western Algeria. S Afr FAM Pract. 2011; 53(6):
568-572.
16. Daniels SR, Greer FR. Committee on Nutrition. Lipid screening and cardiovascular health in childhood. Pediatrics. 2008; 122(1): 198-208. Doi:
10.1542/peds.
Corresponding Author
Shiva Khaleghparast,
Rajaie Cardiovascular,
Medical and Research Center,
Tehran,
Iran,
E mail: [email protected]
8. Amirzadegan A, Salarifar M, Sadeghian S, Davoodi G, Darabian C, Goodarzynejad H. Correlation
between ABO blood groups, major risk factors, and
coronary artery disease. Int J Cardiol. 2006; 110(2):
256-258.
9. Lee HF, Lin YC, Lin CP, Wang CL, Chang CJ, Hsu
LA. Association of blood group A with coronary artery disease in young adults in Taiwan. Intern Med.
2012; 51(14): 1815-1820.
10. Biswas J, Islam MA, Rudra S, Haque MA, Bhuiyan
ZR, Husain M, et al. Relationship between blood
groups and coronary artery disease. Mymensingh
Med J. 2008; 17(2suppl): S22-S27.
198
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
A computer vision based system for a rehabilitation
of a human hand
Peter Peer, Ales Jaklic, Luka Sajn
University of Ljubljana, Computer Vision Laboratory, Faculty of Computer and Information Science,
Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Abstract
Paper presents a rehabilitation system for patients who suffer from arm or wrist injury or similar.
The idea of the rehabilitation using computer and
additional hardware is not new, but our solution
differs significantly. We tried to make it easily accessible and thus started with a limitation that only a
personal computer and one standard web camera is
required. Patient holds a simple object, cuboid, and
moves it around. Camera records his movement
while the software in real-time calculates position
of the object in 3D space on the basis of color information and cuboid model. Object is then placed in
the virtual 3D space, where another similar object
is already present. The patient’s task is to move the
real object in the position, which matches the position of the virtual object. Doing so the patient trains specific movements that speed up the recovery.
Evaluation of the system shows that presented solution is suitable in cases where accuracy is not very
critical and smaller 3D reconstruction deviations do
not thwart the process of rehabilitation.
Key words: computer vision, 3D reconstruction, cuboid model, real time execution, web camera, arm rehabilitation, injury, stroke
Introduction
According to the World Health Organization, 15
million people have a stroke worldwide each year.
Of all people who have a stroke, about a third are
likely to die within the first ten days, about a third
are likely to make a recovery within one month,
and about a third are likely to be left with disabilities and needing rehabilitation. The types and degrees of disability that follow a stroke depend upon
which area of the brain is affected. Generally, stroke
can cause five types of disabilities: paralysis or problems controlling movement; sensory disturbances
including pain; problems using or understanding
language; problems with thinking and memory;
and emotional disturbances. The paralysis is one of
the most common disabilities resulting from stroke. The paralysis is usually on the side of the body
that is opposite to the side of the brain affected by
stroke: it may affect the face, an arm, a leg, or the
entire side of the body. Movement impairments after stroke are typically treated with intensive, hands-on physical and occupational therapy for several
weeks. Unfortunately, due to economic pressures
on health care providers, stroke patients are receiving less therapy and going home sooner [1]-[3].
Additionally, there are various types of physical
injuries, for instance due to car or sport accidents,
where rehabilitation is required. Therefore we developed a system, called FRI Rehab 3D, which would help the patients to continue the rehabilitation
and practice of intensive movement training also
at home without the expense of an always-present
therapist and special expensive equipment.
We explored existing solutions in Section 2,
which are based on computers, robots, sensors and
cameras. Since most of these systems require specialized hardware they can be very expensive, not
always easy to use, and difficult to carry or set up
at home. Thus, the biggest differences between existing systems and our solution are the price and the
availability of required hardware. Whereas some
solutions can cost from few thousand USD (not counting in a personal computer) up to over one hundred thousand USD, the cost of our solution is merely a personal computer and a single web camera,
which people usually already have. Our goal was
therefore to develop a solution that would allow rehabilitation for as many people as possible.
We developed and tested our system on a personal computer with Dual Core 1.86 GHz processor and a Logitech Quickcam Pro 5000 color web
camera. The system was running Windows XP
and the software was developed in Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 in C++ programming language.
We decided for Windows family operating system
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because it is by far the most widely used operating system and thus probably preferred choice for
most users [4]. We extensively used an open source package OpenCV, which offers many useful
algorithms to solve computer vision and graphics
related problems [5]-[8].
In Section 3 we describe how to set the working space environment to achieve best results.
Discussion of segmentation methods can be found in Section 4. Next, the step of moving into 3D
space based on the information from segmentation
process is described in Section 5. In Section 6 the
process of matching the real and virtual object is
presented. Results of the quantitative and qualitative experiments are presented in Section 7 to
demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed solution. Finally, Section 8 gives an overall conclusion
and presents possible directions for improving the
functionality of our system.
Existing solutions
The first examined solution, Rehab 2D, was
also developed at the University of Ljubljana in
Slovenia [9]. This method requires only a personal computer and a monochromatic camera,
which tracks and detects the object that is moved
by the patient. In the environment with sufficient
lightning and under the condition that the object is
not being moved too fast, the system successfully
detects the object even if it is partly occluded. Unfortunately this method works only in two dimensions, so we expanded the basic idea of this solution and moved into three dimensions by using
color information and cuboid model.
The MTi is a miniature size and low weight
3DOF Attitude and Heading Reference System
(AHRS). The MTi contains accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers in 3D. Its internal lowpower signal processor provides real-time and driftfree 3D orientation as well as calibrated 3D acceleration, 3D rate of a turn and 3D earth-magnetic field
data. As such it could also be used for rehabilitation
purposes. The price of the system is about 3,400
USD. According to the specifications the error of
a moving sensor is less than two degrees [10]. This
means that for the cuboid that we used for testing
our system (length 14 cm, width 8 cm, height 6
cm), the error would be less than 5.35 mm.
200
The system Optotrak Certus provides accuracy
of up to 0.1 mm and resolution of 0.01 mm. It can
track up to 512 markers, with a maximum marker frequency of 4,600 Hz. Their motion path is
tracked in 3D by the three infrared cameras. This
system costs about 150,000 USD. It is not limited
though only to rehabilitation, but is used in different industries, biomechanics, universities, and
research institutions around the world [11], [12].
Y. Tao and H. Hu developed a real-time hybrid
solution to 3D arm motion tracking for home-based rehabilitation by combining visual and inertial
sensors. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) [13]
Blackand Particle Filters (PF) [14]Black were used
to fuse the different data modalities from two sensors and exploit complementary sensor characteristics. Due to the non-linear property of the arm motion tracking, upper limb geometry information and
the pin-hole camera model are used to improve the
tracking performance. With additional optimization
algorithms Blackand introduction of additional constraintsBlack they achieved the accuracy of ± 5 cm.
ARMin is a system for robot-aided arm therapy
[15]. A pilot study with ten healthy subjects and six
patients was carried out to analyze comfort, functionality and acceptance of the ARMin training. Using
a scale from 1 to 10 an average mark of 8.5 was
assigned by the patients. In a second pilot study, the
effects of the ARMin training were analyzed with
three chronic stroke patients. After eight weeks of
training there was a reduction in motor impairment
assessed by the upper limb portion of the FuglMeyer Assessment. The improvements in this assessment are in a similar range as in other studies on
arm therapy in chronic stroke patients. Unfortunately, quantitative results are not presented.
Here we can also mention the Stroke Rehabilitation Exerciser from Philips Research, which
uses wireless motion sensors to fully capture the
patient’s upper-body movements. The idea is to
develop a motion sensor exerciser to allow patients
to perform vital rehabilitation exercises at home.
This system is currently in the prototype state and
is being tested and refined in clinical settings [16].
Preparations
One of the major factors that affects the efficiency of our solution, FRI Rehab 3D, is the work
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space arrangement (Figure 1). First, we have to
understand that the only thing that is important on
the picture that the camera captures is the cuboid. Therefore we have to make sure that it is easy
to segment it out from the whole picture. We use
the technique called blue or green screen, which
is commonly used in weather forecast broadcasts,
but with black color [17], [18]. Therefore we use a
black curtain for the background and wear a black
glove on the hand with which we hold the object.
This makes it easy to segment out the cuboid.
Since we are limited to web cameras, which are
quite sensitive to lightning conditions, we have to
pay special attention to the light sources in the
room. Ideally the room should be well lit and the
cuboid should be illuminated evenly from all sides. We noticed that the combination of daylight
and one or two artificial lights work very well. The
lights should not be pointing directly towards the
cuboid but should produce more diffuse light.
The material, that the sides of the cuboid are
made of, plays a big role. The material should be
bright enough, but not too reflective. We used a
wooden cuboid, which sides we precisely covered with colored matt photograph paper. BlackOur
cuboid reconstruction method is based on detection of cuboid corners, thus appropriate uniform
colors of the sides are the easiest and fastest way
to obtain the edges and corners, i.e. the cuboid
framework. The three needed colors are specified in the HSV color space. In this color space the
definition of three as different as possible colors
is quite straightforward: the interval in which the
parameter H is defined has to be split into the three
equal parts. Knowing that, the colors of the sides
were defined as: (H=60, S=100, V=100), (H=180,
S=100, V=100), (H=300, S=100, V=100). Black
Another important aspect of the cuboid is its size
which has to be input before the start of the rehabilitation process. On the basis of cuboid dimensions
and its colors the algorithm can construct a correct
cuboid model and use it for 3D reconstruction.
In the preparation stage the camera’s parameters, such as brightness, contrast, white balance,
exposure, and gain, should also be configured properly. Usually the camera’s driver sets these parameters automatically, but in our experience it was
always better to set and adjust them manually. We
also need to know the camera’s field of view and
its resolution to compute 3D coordinates from the
information obtained from the original, captured
image [19], [20].
Figure 1. Work-space arrangement
Segmentation
Since our approach does not use specialized
external hardware, the computer processor has to
do much more work and therefore our method can
be computationally very demanding. Consequently it is necessary to implement time-efficient
algorithms. Thus, in the first step we crop the image to get only the region of interest (using cvBoundingRect [5]).
As will be described in more detail in the
following sections, we represent the cuboid in
the virtual 3D space with eight corners that are
computed from detected corners in the input image. Therefore, it is important to develop a good
method for identifying the corners in the captured image. Black Figure 2 gives basic steps of the
whole system in a flow-chart.Black
The whole problem of identifying the corners
is split into three subproblems: if one side of the
cuboid is visible, if two sides are visible, and if
three sides are visible. The first step is to determine how many sides are visible – one, two or three.
This is done using the histogram of H values on
the image converted to HSV color space [21].
Then the H interval is split into bins according to
the colors of the cuboid sides, which were input in
the preparation stage. Every pixel of the picture is
then put in proper bin on the basis of its H value.
In our case this method gave very good results. To
reduce the calculation time the picture is resized to
typically one eighth of its original size.
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This speeds up the process but leaves the ratios
between bins practically the same. Ratios between
bins determine which sides are present on the image and consequently which of the three subproblems needs to be solved. BlackThe histogram of
H values in the case where three sides are visible
is shown in Figure 3. Black
Figure 3. Histogram of H values of an image,
where three cuboid sides are visible
One side
This subproblem is solved in two steps. In the
first step we detect approximate corners, which
are then optimized in the second step (Figure 4).
The approximate corners are detected by finding
the smallest bounding rectangle around the visible
cuboids’ side. The bounding rectangle touches the
cuboid side at four points, which are approximate
corners. These corners are further refined with local
optimization in area close to the corner. For every
white pixel in this area the number of white surrounding pixels is calculated. The pixel with the least
white surrounding pixels is most likely the corner.
Figure 4. Upper two figures show approximate
corners, which are optimized with local optimization visible in two lower figures
Figure 2. Basic steps of the whole system
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Figure 5. Obtaining the edge information by
intersecting two cuboid sides after isolating and
processing them
Two sides
In the case when two sides are visible the intersection method is used. Here the edges of the
cuboid are detected first. The original image
is split on the basis of color information in two
images with only one cuboid side per image. Each
image is further processed to remove any non-belonging surface and dilated to make it a bit bigger
and more smooth. Then the intersection of both
images is performed, which leaves only a narrow
line of pixels that represents the edge. This set of
pixels is further narrowed, eroded. On this basis
the line defining the edge is calculated with linear
regression. Figure 5 shows detection of one line
defining the edge on the example where three sides are visible.
Figure 6. Detecting the outer four corners by
analyzing perpendiculars along the edge
From the line defining the edge start and end
points of the edge can be obtained. The line is traced until non-black pixel is found. This is the start
of the edge. Then the line is traced further until a
black pixel is detected. This is the end point of the
edge. Thus, the first two corners are detected.
We continue by detecting the remaining four
corners. In the vicinity of the previously detected
corner (beginning of the edge) n perpendiculars
on the edge are defined. BlackEach perpendicular
starts at the edge and is tracked till the outer edge
of the cuboid.Black If all pixels of a perpendicular
are black, its length is set to zero. If the perpendicular runs across the cuboid, its length is calculated. BlackThe new corner is found when the algorithm detects two consecutive perpendiculars with
big length difference (while both perpendiculars
in the next pair are of the maximal length found
in the vicinity of the already found corner).Black
This new corner is further refined by the already
mentioned local optimization. This method is repeated also for the other three remaining corners.
Figure 6 illustrates this process.
Three sides
The first step of this subproblem is similar to
the subproblem of two cuboid sides. Here though
sides intersection method is performed three times
for the three pairs of sides and so three edges are
detected. Intersection of all three edges defines
one of the corners of the cuboid, let us call it the
central corner.
Figure 7. Left figure shows the first four corners
and three approximately detected corners. The
figure on the right shows the result after local
optimization
Next three corners are detected by following
the three edges. For each of these three corners we
start at the central corner and trace the edge until a black pixel is found. Additional check based
on color information along the edge is performed,
which confirms that the resulting corners are the
right ones; note that the line defining the edge can
be traced in two directions.
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Now, there are only three unknown remaining
corners. These can be obtained by mirroring the
central corner across the middle of the lines defined
by the pairs of in the previous step detected three
corners. After local optimization is applied, these
three corners are usually well detected (Figure 7).
Moving into 3D space
The 3D coordinates are calculated when all the
characteristics, namely sides colors, number of sides and corners are known. To calculate all eight
corners of the cuboid it is theoretically enough if
we detect only four corners of one side. But due to
the fact that the detection is not always very precise, we get better result by including other corners
as well. This is possible of course only when two
or three sides are present. The method for obtaining 3D coordinates is therefore not completely
the same for the three subproblems, though they
are all based on the same idea. To obtain 3D coordinates the following data is required:
- the 2D coordinates of corners,
- the cuboid dimensions,
- the camera resolution,
- the camera field of view or focal length.
The detection of the corners and their 2D coordinates was already described in the previous
section. In addition, it is necessary to know which
side of the cuboid each detected corner belongs
to, so the distances between the corners can be
identified. The resolution of the camera can be
set directly in the software, though we have to
be careful that the camera supports the resolution
that we set. We could not find the specification of
camera’s field of view or focal length so we had to
measure it ourselves.
Figure 8 shows how an object is projected on
the image plane. In this case the object is just one
side of the cuboid. The camera is put in the center
of the 3D coordinate system and is marked with
label o. Points on the image are labeled a, b, c and
d. These represent the corners that are detected on
the captured image. Labels a’, b’, c’ and d’ refer
to the actual corners of the cuboids’ side that we
need. Since focal length f is the distance between
the camera and the image plane, we can extend
the 2D corners a, b, c and d in the following way:
204
(x, y)→(x, y, f)............................. (1)
Thus, the new values of a, b, c and d are:
a=(xa, ya, f)
b=(xb, yb, f)
c=(xc, yc, f)
d=(xd, yd, f)................................ (2)
We introduce four new scalars k1, k2, k3 and k4:
................. (3)
Figure 8. Detailed illustration of how an object
is projected on the image plane
We can see that the scalars k1, k2, k3 and k4 are
uniquely defined if two limitations, which are
based on the cuboid model, are introduced. First
limitation takes into consideration the intersection
of both diagonals of the cuboid side. The first diagonal is defined by a’ and c’, the second diagonal
is defined by b’ and d’:
................ (4)
The second limitation is the length l(a’,b’).
Note that the lengths are given in the preparation
step (Section 3), where we input the dimensions
of the cuboid.
Both limitations together form four equations,
which uniquely define needed four scalars k1, k2,
k3 and k4:
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......................................... (5)
Thus, the scalars k1, k2, k3 and k4 are calculated
and real cuboid corners a’, b’, c’ and d’ are obtained from Eq. (3).:
a’=(x’a, y’a, z’a)
b’=(x’b, y’b, z’b)
c’=(x’c, y’c, z’c)
d’=(x’d, y’d, z’d)............................ (6)
This concludes the calculation of the 3D coordinates of the four corners of the first side. The remaining four corners are calculated using normalized vector product. With altogether eight corners
we can fully reconstruct the cuboid and visualize
it in the virtual 3D space.
Matching
After obtaining 3D coordinates the cuboid is
placed in the virtual 3D space in which another
cuboid with the same characteristics as the real
one is placed at for therapy appropriate position
and orientation. The goal of the user is to move
the real cuboid and to match it to the virtual cuboid as well as possible. In this way the user trains
specific movements of his hand that assist in the
recovery after the injury.
Figure 9. Successful matching of the virtual and
real cuboid displays a success message. (Live
image is on the left
Detection of the matching of the real and virtual cuboid is a two step process. In the first step
the centers of both cuboids are calculated. If the
two centers are close enough, we move on to the
next step, where distances between corresponding
corners of real and virtual cuboid are calculated.
When these distances are under a predefined limit
(defined by the therapist), matching is detected
and a success message is displayed (Figure 9). The
parameters that define minimal distance can be set
in the initialization file of the system. Setting these
two parameters to higher or lower value the difficulty can be adjusted to fit the user’s needs.
Results
The system was developed and tested on a
personal computer with the Intel Core2 Duo 1.86
GHz processor. Logitech Quickcam Pro 5000 web
camera was used to capture images at resolution of
640×480 pixels. On such equipment the achieved
frame rate of our system was usually somewhere
between four and nine frames per second. This is
not a lot, but we have to keep in mind that the used
equipment was not very fast and that our system at
this point has not been optimized with regards to
the computing time.
Black Furthermore, since lens distortion is not
corrected on images, the reconstructions inherit
its error. Processing undistorted images in general brings better reconstruction results, but in our
solution processing distorted images does not give
the impression of any worse performance to the
end user, which is of main importance in our solution. Having in mind that undistorting image
sequence means that much more processing time
is needed, we should be satisfied with the results
gained using the distorted sequence if we want to
run in real-time. Another drawback of undistorted
images is that they are more blurred in comparison
to distorted originals, which can influence the subsequent processing steps. [22] Black
Two types of tests were performed: a quantitative and a qualitative analysis. But before we describe both of them, let us take a look at commonly
occurring problems.
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Common problems
In some cases the corners were very inaccurately detected due to the environment conditions.
One of the common reasons was the bad lightning
in the room Black (Figure 10) Black. When there is
not enough light the sides are not completely visible
and the result can be quite unpredictable. Fortunately, it is easy to add more light sources and avoid
this problem. But when adding more light, we have
to be careful not to cause another possible problem.
If the light source is too strong and directed towards
the object, a very strong reflection can occur on the
object, making the side appear to be of different color (usually white or very bright) than it actually is
Black (Figure 11) Black.
Figure 10. Inaccurate reconstruction due to bad
lightning
Figure 11. Strong light source is directed towards the object, causing a very strong reflection on
the object, and thus inaccurate reconstruction
Again, the result is incorrect. This can be avoided by careful setting of the light and by using non
reflective material for the cuboid sides. The third
problem occurs when the object is moved too far
206
away from the camera. Here not much can be done,
except using higher resolution. This though is not
a very good solution since it requires much more
computational time. However, if the maximal distance is not more than 85-90 cm (which proved to
be more than acceptable in practice), the accuracy
and stability is good enough.
Quantitative analysis
Black Proper evaluation normally demands that
we test the proposed solution on synthetic and real
scenes, to perform quantitative and qualitative evaluation. As it is very hard (if not even near to impossible, especially without a big budget to buy a
device like Optotrak [11, 12] or at least MTi [10])
to get ground truth information for real scenes of
appropriate quality, but we can assure perfect ground truth information for synthetic scenes, we choose synthetic scenes for quantitative evaluation.
In the case of Tao and Hu system [14], which is
the closest to our system in comparison to the cost
and Blackemployed sensors, the tracking results
from the marker-based system Qualisys (not their
system) are regarded as a ground truth. But the error
of Qualisys system itself is not reported and taken
into account in their evaluation. Furthermore, they
perform the evaluation on simple circular motion
on the desk, which actually is a 2D example.
Some of the real world conditions aren’t taken
into account in the synthetic scenes, but the most
obvious are. All the real world conditions are taken
into account in our qualitative evaluation, where
the user is the one making the judgment, similar as
in the ARMin system [15] evaluation. Black
The quantitative test was performed mainly to
identify the ideal capabilities of the system and to
evaluate the main idea of the 3D reconstruction using
single camera, color information and cuboid model.
To get the perfect conditions, i.e. the ground truth information, we used 3ds Max application and in it we
defined a space very similar to our own workspace
arrangement. We placed a camera, light sources and
a proper cuboid in this virtual space. We rendered the
scenes at the resolution of 640×480 pixels and used
rendered images as an input to our own system. In
the end we compared the coordinates of real corners
(of 3ds Max scene) and calculated corners obtained
by our solution. Two types of errors were defined
in this experiment. A quantitative error was defined
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
as a distance between coordinates of corner in 3ds
Max and a calculated corner. Since this type of error
does not always give a correct feedback about how
the error appears to the user, second error estimator
was defined, which we call approximate qualitative error. This type of error neglects the error on z
axis, because the error on this coordinate is much
less noticeable to the user than the errors on x and y
axes. For both types of errors several metrices were
calculated: average error with standard deviation,
geometric mean and median [23], [24].
Altogether 45 cases with 226 corners (15 cases
with one visible side, 15 cases with two visible sides and 15 cases with three visible sides) were examined. The results are shown in Tables 1 and 2.
Table 1. Calculated errors on the basis of 45 cases and 226 corners
geometric mean median average
quantitative
11.73 mm
11.58 mm 19.38 mm
approx. qual.
2.51 mm
2.34 mm 4.42 mm
Table 2. Average quantitative error expressed in
the percentages of the actual distances
distance from origin
average error ± standard
deviation
3.02 % ± 3.84 %
Figure 13. Distribution of the quantitative and
the approximately qualitative errors
Figure 13 shows the distribution of the error
sizes, where we can notice the difference between the quantitative and the approximate qualitative errors functions. The approximate qualitative
errors function has much narrower area of the
expected errors than the quantitative errors function, which means that the stability from the user
point of view is better than what one would expect
looking only at the quantitative errors function.
Table 3. Comparison of different solutions (see
Section 2 for more details)
reported
cost
error
FRI Rehab 3D 11.58 mm
price of the camera
Optotrak [11, 12] 0.1 mm
approx. 150,000 USD
Xsens MTi [10] max. 5.35 mm approx. 3,400 USD
price of the camera
Tao, Hu [13, 14]
50 mm
and the sensor
Table 3 compares the quantitative errors of
other methods with our solution. We can see that
the more expensive methods with specialized hardware are more accurate, but their cost/error ratio
is not so good.
Figure 12. Graph shows the correlation between
the distance from the origin and the error size
Figure 12 shows the correlation between the
distance of the object from the origin of the coordinate system (camera) and error size for both
types of errors. Both graphs are also modelled
with linear functions which, as we would expect,
show that the error increases with the distance.
Qualitative analysis
The second test was the qualitative analysis
of our system which was performed on real input
from the camera. Before we initiated the test, we
calibrated the colors again and re-adjusted the light sources to get the best conditions and therefore
best results. The test comprised of making three
videos and evaluating each frame. In the first video (2160 frames, 72 seconds) we moved and ro-
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tated the cuboid so that most of the time only one
side was visible at once. In the second video (2677
frames, 89 seconds) we moved and rotated the
cuboid so that mostly two sides were visible, and
in the third video (3477 frames, 116 seconds) we
moved the cuboid so that three sides were visible
at once. Then, we introduced three grades: good
(no deformation), acceptable (Blackthe cuboid is
in the right position, but one of its sides is only
a bit deformedBlack), and bad (very deformed
cuboid). According to them we graded each frame
of all three videos. Table 4 summarizes the results.
Table 4. Qualitative analysis results
video
#1 [frames]
#1 [percentage]
#2 [frames]
#2 [percentage]
#3 [frames]
#3 [percentage]
all [frames]
all [percentage]
good
2107
97.5 %
2553
94.5 %
3307
95.1 %
8314
95.8 %
acceptable
0
0%
93
4.3 %
154
4.4 %
247
3.0 %
bad
53
2.5 %
31
1.2 %
16
0.5 %
100
1.2 %
The results show that of all frames only 4.2 %
were incorrect, i.e. graded acceptable or bad. However, only 1.2 % are bad and other 3 % are acceptable. The results are very satisfactory, especially if
we take into consideration that the algorithms used
can be further optimized, as it will be described in
the next section. These results are possible though
only with proper lightning adjustment, correct color
calibration, good camera settings and can vary from
video to video due to different factors (the distance
of the cuboid from the camera, the speed of movement, the quality of the cuboid etc.).
Conclusion
Our system, FRI Rehab 3D, uses very different approach than other, more expensive systems.
Whereas they use advanced and specific hardware, we limited the requirements to only a single
web camera. This brings both advantages and disadvantages:
Main advantages:
- low price and affordable hardware,
- can be used even at home,
- accuracy will be better with optimized
algorithms and better cameras.
208
Main disadvantages:
- accuracy is lower than in more expensive
systems,
- sensitivity to lightning conditions,
- computationally demanding.
Basically, we can separate our method in two
steps. In the first step as many characteristics as
possible are found in the captured image. The results suggest that this step works quite good, though it would be possible to improve it by additional
analysis of the most commonly occurring errors.
The second step calculates 3D coordinates from
previously detected characteristics, by using color information and the cuboid model. This step is
theoretically easily and uniquely solvable, but as it
turns out in practice, it is not always very accurate.
One of the main reasons is low camera resolution.
This problem could be avoided by using better camera with higher resolution and with more time
efficient algorithms. And, indeed, the errors of tests at resolution of 1,600×1,200 pixels were typically two or three times smaller (but so was the
frame rate). Fortunately, using higher resolution is
not the only possibility to improve the accuracy
and the stability of detection and usability of the
whole system. Here we list a few more ideas:
- The algorithms could be optimized to reduce
computational demands.
- The accuracy of the 3D reconstruction could
be significantly improved by implementing
an algorithm that would use the cuboid
model in a more efficient way. BlackFor
instance, if a correction step of all corners
together is added after detecting eight
corners according to the constraints on
the whole cuboid, the precision could be
improved.Black
- One of the possible improvements comes
from the observation that even a small
change in 2D coordinates of a corner can
cause big changes in 3D reconstruction. This
is especially noticeable at bigger distances.
If, for example, at one moment the corner
is well detected, but at the next moment it
is off by just a pixel, the error can increase
significantly. Therefore, we need subpixel
accuracy [25], [26]. This could be done in
the following way: first, the 2D coordinates
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
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-
-
-
-
would be detected in the same way as they
already are. Then two neighboring sides
would be calculated. Two corners of these
two sides that touch would be compared and
distances between them calculated. Ideally,
the distances would be as low as possible.
Then the 2D coordinates would be slightly
changed and two sides calculated again and
distances between the corners re-evaluated.
This process could be repeated until the
error is small enough, although the number
of iterations would have to be limited to
retain real-time execution.
The system could compare new detection
with previous one and check if the change
is logical. If it is not, it could re-evaluate or
skip the frame.
BlackThe reconstruction results could be
improved by eliminating the lens distortion
problem, i.e. by undistorting the images in
the preprocessing step [22].Black
The stereo reconstruction approach could be
implemented [27], [28].
The system could also include patients
database and their statistics, which could be
analyzed by physiotherapist to evaluate the
improvement of the patient.
Based on presented results and discussion, we
conclude that under the condition that the user is
willing to put in some effort on his own, the presented system serves its purpose good enough despite some faults. The presented system is suitable
mostly in cases, where accuracy is not critical and
smaller deviations of the 3D reconstruction do not
thwart the process of the rehabilitation. Although
the accuracy is already quite good under the right
conditions, if previously suggested improvements
would be implemented the overall performance
would be significantly higher.
References
3. Sucar LE, Azcárate G, Leder RS, Reinkensmeyer D,
Hernández J, Sanchez I, Saucedo P. “Gesture Therapy: A Vision−Based System for Arm Rehabilitation
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opencv.willowgarage.com/wiki/CvReference
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[Online]. Available: http://opencv.willowgarage.com/
wiki/CvAux
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9. Katrašnik J, Veber M, Peer P. “Using computer vision
in a rehabilitation method of a human hand,” in Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing MEDICON 2007; 947–949.
10. Xsens MTi – description and specifications [Online].
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11. Hinesly D. “Technology in Motion – Assessing the
latest motion capture technologies,” in Physical
Therapy Products, 2008; vol. 6.
12. Technology in Motion – description and specifications [Online]. Available: http://www.ndigital.com/
lifesciences/certus.php
13. Tao Y, Hu H. “3D Arm Motion Tracking for Homebased Rehabilitation,” in Proceedings of the 3rd
Cambridge Workshop on universal access and assistive technology, Cambridge, U.K., 2006; 105–111.
14. Tao Y, Hu H. “A hybrid approach to 3D arm motion
tracking,” in Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control, 2008; vol. 30, no. 3/4: 259–273.
15. ETH Zurich, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering (D-MAVT), ARMin – description and
specifications [Online]. Available: http://www.sms.
mavt.ethz.ch/research/projects/armin/therapy
1. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), “Post-Stroke Rehabilitation Fact Sheet,”
in NIH Publication No. 08-4846, 2008.
16. Philips Research, Stroke Rehabilitation Exerciser
[Online]. Available: http://www.research.philips.
com/technologies/projects/strokerehab/
2. American Heart Association, “Heart Disease and
Stroke Statistics − 2009 Update,” in American Heart
Association, 2009.
17. Yamashita H, Agata T, Kaneko. “Every Color Chromakey,” Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Shizuoka University, 2008.
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18. Smith R, Blinn JF. “Blue Screen Matting,” Proc. SIGGRAPH2004, 1996; 259–268.
19. Ryberg A, Christiansson K, Lennartson B, Eriksson K. “Camera Modelling and Calibration – with
Applications,” in Computer vision In-Tech, 2008;
303–333.
20. Alter TD. “3D Pose from 3 Corresponding Points
under Weak-Perspective Projection,” MIT, Artificial
Intelligence Laboratory, 1992; 1–9.
21. Forsyth DA, Ponce J, Computer Vision: A Modern
Approach, Prentice Hall, 2003, 53–94.
22. Black P. Peer, Solina F. Multiperspective panoramic
depth imaging, In: J. X. Liu (Ed.), Computer vision
and robotics, Nova Science, 2006, 135–188. Black
23. Wolfram Research Inc. and Dr. Eric Weisstein,
Encyclopedia Of Mathematics, 2008; 124: 1881.
24. Montgomery DC, Runger GC. Applied Statistics and
Probability for Engineers, John Wiley & Sons, 2003;
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Corresponding Author
Luka Sajn,
Faculty of Computer and Information Science,
Ljubljana,
Slovenia,
E-mail: [email protected]
210
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Radiologic assessment of apical periodontitis and
its relation with root canal filling quality
Ehsani Maryam1, Abesi Farida2, Khafri Soraya3, Mirkarimpour Seyed Sobhan4
1
2
3
4
Dental Materials Research Center, Department of Endodontic, Faculty of Dentistry, Babol University of Medical
Sciences, Babol, Iran,
Dental Materials Research Center, Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Babol
University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran,
Social Medicine Department, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran,
Student Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
Abstract
Introduction: Apical periodontitis (AP) is a
local inflammatory process in the apical periodontal ligament and surrounding bone as a reaction to
pulp necrosis or may be caused by severe periodontal diseases. The aim of the present study was
to radiologic assessment of the rate of AP and its
relation with the quality of root canal filling (RCF).
Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 374 radiographs were selected based on
the following inclusion criteria: 1) presence of >
10 natural teeth; 2) age > 18 years old; 3) root canal treatment performed during the last 2 years; 4)
absence of medical complications; 5) good quality
of radiographs; 6) teeth without periapical surgery.
The quality of RCF was evaluated by two observers who recorded the following parameters: length
and density of RCF, presence or absence of AP and
its size. The type kind and quality of coronal restoration was assessed during clinical and radiographic
examination. Data were statistically analyzed using
the SPSS software version 18 and Chi-Square test.
P-values < 0.05 were considered significant.
Results: The rate of apical periodontitis in
different groups demonstrated that its presence
was increased in improper situations: length, density and coronal restoration quality (39.8%, 35.9%
&39.8 respectively).
In the situation that all the three parameters
were appropriate, apical periodontitis was present
in 6.4% of canals. If only one of these parameters:
filling density, length or coronal restoration, was
inappropriate, apical periodontitis was present in
30.3%, 24.7% and 22.7% of the cases, respectively. When all of them were inappropriate, apical
periodontitis was present in 57% of canals.
Sensitivity and specificity of presence of three
parameters simultaneously: Length, Density and
Coronal restoration quality for predicting apical
periodontitis were 20.3% and 94.3%, respectively.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that
there was a significant relationship between the radiographic quality of RCF and presence of AP. The
higher rate of specificity and lower rate of sensitivity
showed that the absence of three improper parameters simultaneously can predict AP absence strongly,
but in presence of these parameters together; it is not
qualified for predicting of AP presence.
Key words: Apical periodontitis, Panoramic
radiography, Root canal filling quality.
Introduction
The outcome of RCT is determined through the
evaluation of tooth function, presence of signs and
symptoms, radiographic changes or histopathology
examination of the surrounding tissue of the tooth1.
The most important goal of RCF is to prevent re
infection of the root canal system and healing of
the periapical tissues. To determine root canal treatment outcome, clinical and radiographic evaluation of RCF is necessary2. Panoramic radiography
or dental panoramic has become a very popular
technique in dentistry despite of its low resolution
comparing to periapical radiography. And it is the
first choice in initial visit of most of the patients.
The radiologic features of inflammatory lesions are
different and related to the time course of the lesion3. RCT is widely known as a highly complicated
procedure, and epidemiologic studies have reported
a higher rate of low quality RCF4, 5. Failure in RCF
is associated with technical factors and uncorrectable anatomical problems in the root canal system6,7.
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Apical periodontitis is a local inflammatory process in the apical periodontal ligament and surrounding bone as a reaction to pulp necrosis or may also
be caused by severe periodontal diseases. Several
studies have reported different frequency of AP in
root treated teeth on panoramic or periapical radiographs like 48.57% by Kashan8, 46.31% by Kamberi9, 64.5% by Egea 10, 52% by Kirkevang11, 61%
by Weiqer12, 37.99% by Ozbas13, 73.9% by Gencoglu14, 52% by Asgari15, 40.4% by De Moor16 and
25% by Loftus17. Therefore, the aim of the present
study was to radiologic assessment of apical periodontitis and its relation with RCF quality.
Materials and methods
Out of 1052 digital panoramic radiographs of patients who referred to a private Oral & Maxillofacial
Radiographic Center, 437 radiographs were included in the study. The data were collected and assessed from December to May 2012. Inclusion criteria
of studied radiographs were as follows: 1) presence
of > 10 natural teeth; 2) age > 18 years old; 3) RCT
done during the last 2 years; 4) absence of medical complications; 5) radiographs without artifact
related to patient positioning and abnormal anatomical variation; 6) teeth without periapical surgery.
Table 1 showed the parameters were considered in
the study15 (Table 1). Also, the quality of coronal
restoration was evaluated through a clinical and radiographic examination. Two observers, an oral &
maxillofacial radiologist and an endodontist evaluated the radiographs simultaneously in a semi-obscure and quiet room on a 1360x768 pixels resolution
monitor. Density and contrast of the images were
adjusted according to the conditions. The data were
recorded after an agreement between the two specialists. In case of a disagreement between them, the
opinion of a third observer was requested in order to
have a majority coordinated decision. Data were statistically analyzed using the SPSS software version
18 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and Chi-Square
test. P values < 0.05 were considered significant.
Results
Regarding the type of the teeth, apical periodontitis was present in 21.9% of premolars and
78.1% of the molar teeth. The data summarized
in Chart 1 showed that the improper RCF density had the most frequency. Apical periodontitis
was present in 26.73% of teeth. And size 1 apical
periodontitis was more than other sizes (86.1% v.s
10% in size 2 and 4% in size 3).
Chart 1. Rate of appropriate and inappropriate
length, density and coronal restoration
Table 1. Parameters description
Parameters
Apical periodontitis
Size of apical periodontitis
Filling length
Filling density
Coronal restoration
212
1. Absence of apical normal structure or small changes in apical structure
2. Change in bony structure and decrease in mineral part, radiolucent area with
defined border or severe or diffuse periodontitis
1. <3 mm
2. <3 mm − >5 mm
3. >5 mm
1. Appropriate (<2 mm from the radiographic apex)
2. Inappropriate (>2 mm from the radiographic apex)
1. Appropriate (even density and adaptation to canal wall)
2. Inappropriate (lateral space, void in filling and missed canal)
1. Appropriate (marginal adaptation, no sign of leakage)
2. Inappropriate (overhang, recurrent caries, temporary or lack of restoration)
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The rate of apical periodontitis in different
groups demonstrated that its presence was increased in improper situations (Table 2).
When all the three parameters were appropriate, apical periodontitis was present in 6.4% of
canals. When only one of these parameters: filling
density, length or coronal restoration, was inappropriate, apical periodontitis was present in 30.3%,
24.1% and 22.7% of the cases, respectively. When
all of them were inappropriate, apical periodontitis was present in 57% of canals.
According to Table 3, sensitivity and specificity of presence of three parameters simultaneously: Length, Density and Coronal restoration quality for predicting apical periodontitis were 20.3%
and 94.3%, respectively.
Discussion
The general trend of the present study’s findings revealed that the rate of AP (26.73%) was
lower than other similar studies8-16. In contrast, a
lower rate of AP was reported in one study.17 The
lower percentage of AP comparing to others might
be a consequence of the sample size and the radiographs type (digital panoramic or periapical ones).
Also this study showed that in each of the improper RCF length, density and coronal restoration separately, the rate of AP was more than the
appropriate ones. And some studies confirm this
finding.8, 10, 11, 14, 15, 18 In current study, 41% canals
had appropriate filling length, density and coronal
restoration that was significantly more than the
17.2% reported by Egea et al.10
Also, RCF density had the most significant effect on the presence of apical periodontitis in this
study and it maybe due to the effect of filling density on the root canal seal and prevention of canal
re infection.
Regarding to the teeth type, the highest rate
of apical periodontitis was related to mandibular
molar teeth (61.3%), and the lowest rate was observed in mandibular premolars (9.2%). This can be
explained by the complexity of the molar canals.
Also, it should be noted that there is more clarity
associated with mandibular teeth canals compared
Table 2. Comparison of treatment quality according to different parameters in teeth with apical periodontitis
Length
Appropriate
Inappropriate
Density
Appropriate
Inappropriate
Coronal restoration Quality
Appropriate
Inappropriate
Apical periodontitis
P-value
RR(CI95%)
271(18.4)
138(39.8)
0.001<
2.91(2.26-3.76)
128(12.4)
282(35.9)
<0.001
3.96(3.13-5.01)
270(18.4)
140(39.8)
<0.001
2.93(2.28-3.67)
- Values in table are n (%).
Table 3. Sensitivity and specificity of length, density and coronal restoration in predicting apical periodontitis
*Predicting parameter
Absence
Presence
Absence
1331(94.3)
80(5.7)
Presence
326(79.7)
83(20.3)
Apical periodontitis
*Predicting parameter: represents the presence of three improper parameters simultaneously: Length, Density and Coronal
restoration quality
- Values in table are n (%).
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to maxillary ones in radiographs mainly because of
canal morphology and the anatomical structures,
such as the maxillary sinus and zygomatic process.
In addition, the data showed that if all of the parameters were appropriate, the absence of apical
periodontitis could be predicted to up to 94.3%. On
the other hand, if all of them were inappropriate, the
presence of apical periodontitis could be predicted to
up to 20.3%. This demonstrates that the other factors such as proper sterilization, cleaning & shaping,
body defense system, etc., could be involved. As
mentioned earlier, panoramic radiographs were used
in this study because they represent the first radiographs prescribed by dentists in the initial visit. Ordering full mouth periapical radiographs is not economic and moral in first visit for most of the patients.
One of the limitations of this study was the presence of apical scars that radiologically resemble
apical periodontitis and might have been misdiagnosed. However, because of their low prevalence,
they were not considered in this study. Also, the radiographic interpretation might have varied among
the observers due to the different radio-opacity
of canal sealers or cements, different commercial
gutta-percha, bone anatomy, radiographic angle,
two-dimensional nature of radiographs and missed
or additional canal and superimposed canals. The
presence of voids or lack of filling adaptation to
canal wall might be masked with radiopacity of
sealers.19This means that the canals with radiographically appropriate filling length and density
are not essentially clinically appropriate. The higher rate of specificity and lower rate of sensitivity
showed that the absence of three improper parameters simultaneously can predict AP absence strongly, but in presence of these parameters together; it is
not qualified for predicting of AP presence.
At the end of this study, it is suggested that to
perform the study with more samples and different radiographic angle ( periapical) and new techniques like Cone Beam Computed Tomography.
Conclusion
The results of this study showed that there was
a significant relation between radiographic quality
of RCF and the presence of AP. And more specialized training is needed to improve RCF standards
and decrease the frequency of AP.
214
References
1. Salehrabi R, Rotstein I. Endodontic treatment outcomes in a large patient population in the USA: an
epidemiological study. J Endod 2004; 30: 846-50.
2. Moussa-Badran S, Roy B, Bessart du Parc AS, Bruyant M, Lefevere B, Maurin JC. Technical quality of
root fillings performed by dental students at the dental
teaching center in Reims,France.Int Endod J 2008;
41: 679-684.
3. White S, Pharoan M. Oral radiology, 6th ed, Mosbey,
Philadelphia, 2006; 175: 326-337
4. Kirkevang LL, Vaeth M, Horsted-Bindslev P, Bahrami
G, Wenzel A. Risk factors for developing apical periodontitis in a general population. Int Endod J, 2007;
40: 290-299.
5. Kabak Y, Abbott PV. Prevalence of apical periodontitis and the quality of endodontic treatment in an adult
Belarusian population. Int Endod J, 2005; 38(4):
238-245.
6. Abbott PV. The periapical space–a dynamic interface.
Aust Endod J, 2002; 28(3): 96-107.
7. Nair PN. Pathogenesis of apical periodontitis and
the causes of endodontic failures. Crit Rev Oral Biol
Med, 2004; 15(6): 348-381.
8. Kashan A, Neamat H, Yahia E. Pilot study on relation of the periapical status and quality of endodontic
treatment in an adult Sudanese population. Archives
of Orofacial Sciences. 2011; 6(1): 3-8.
9. Kamberi B, Hoxha W, Stavileci M, Dragusha E.
Prevalence of apical periodontitis and endodontic
treatment in a Kosovar adult population. BMC Oral
Health 2011; 11: 32.
10. Segura-Egea JJ, Jime´ nez-Pinzo´ n J, Poyato-Ferrera M, Velasco-Ortega E. Rı´os-Santos JV. Periapical status and quality of root fillings and coronal restorations in an adult Spanish population. Int Endod
J, 2004; 37:; 525-530.
11. Kirkevang LL, Ørstavik D, Hörsted-Bindslev P,
Wenzel A. Periapical status and quality of root fillings and coronal restorations in a Danish population. Int Endod J, 2000; 33: 509-515.
12. Weiger R, Hitzler S, Hermle G, Löst C. Periapical
status, quality of root canal fillings and estimated
endodontic treatment needs in an urban German
population. Endod Dent Traumatol 1997; 13(2):
69-74.
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13. Ozbas H, Aşcı S, Aydın Y. Examination of the prevalence of periapical lesions and technical quality of
endodontic treatment in a Turkish subpopulation.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
2011; 112: 136-142
14. Gencoglu N, Pekiner FN, Gumru B, Helvacioglu D.
Periapical status and quality of root fillings and coronal restorations in an adult Turkish subpopulation.
Eur J Dent. 2010 Jan; 4(1): 17-22.
15. Asgary S, Shadman B, Ghalamkarpour Z, Shahravan A, Ghoddusi J, Bagherpour A, Akbarzadeh
Baghban A, Hashemipour M, Ghasemian Pour M.
Periapical Status and Quality of Root canal Fillings
and Coronal Restorations in Iranian Population.
Iran Endod J. 2010; 5(2): 74-82.
16. De Moor RJG, Hommez GMG, De Boever JG,
Delme KIM, Martens GEI. Periapical health related
to the quality of root canal treatment in a Belgian
population. Int Endod J 2000; 33: 113-120.
17. Loftus JJ, Keating AP, McCartan BE. Periapical status and quality of endodontic treatment in an adult
Irish population. Int Endod J. 2005 Feb; 38(2): 81-6.
18. Georgopoulou MK, Spanaki-Voreadi AP, Pantazis
N, Kontakiotis EG, MorfisAS.Periapical status and
quality of root canal fillings and coronal restorations in a Greek population. Quintessence Int;2008;
39(2): e85-92
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Mosby; Elsevier, Philadelphia, 2011; 349-372.
Corresponding Author
Abesi Farida,
Dental Materials Research Center,
Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Radiology,
Faculty of Dentistry, Babol University of Medical
Sciences,
Babol,
Iran,
E-mail: [email protected]
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215
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Effects of berberine on the expression of AQP-2, IL-1
and IL-6 in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced
diabetes mellitus
Guo Zhentao, Zhang Huamin, Zhang Yanfeng, Sun Hongri
Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, P.R. China.
Abstract
Objectives: Berberine, an extract from traditional medicine herbs, has been used for the management of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. The purpose of this study was to detect
the effects berberine on the renal function and the
expression of aquaporin-2 (AQP-2), interleukin 1
(IL-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in kidney in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Methods: Sprange-Dawley rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50
mg/kg) 10 hours after the deprivation of food and
water. Sixteen animals with blood glucose levels
between 16 and 30 mmmol/L were taken as diabetic rats and assigned into DM group and berberine group with 8 animals in each group. Rats
of the berberine group were given intragastric
administration of berberine (100 mg/kg/day) for
21 days. Urine volume, urinary albumin excretion
and creatinine clearance rate (Ccr) were measured
or calculated. The expression of AQP-2 in kidney
was examined with immunofluorescence staining,
as well as the expression of IL-1 and IL-6 in kidney was respectively measured using ELISA.
Results: The diabetic rats in the DM group had
more urine volume, more urinary albumin excretion, higher expression of AQP-2, IL-1, IL-6 and
lower Ccr than the control rats. The treatment with
berberine significantly decreased the urine volume, urinary albumin excretion, as well as the expression of IL-1 and IL-6 in kidney, and increased
Ccr as compared to the animals in the DM group.
However, berberine had no distinct influence on
the expression of AQP-2 in collecting ducts.
Conclusions: Berberine improved the renal
function of the diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin injection and the drug might exert its effects by inhibiting the local expression of IL-1 and
IL-6 in kidney.
216
Key words: Berberine, diabetes mellitus,
AQP-2, IL-1, IL-6.
Introduction
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders with hyperglycaemia that affect almost 300
million people worldwide (1). Diabetic patients,
regardless of suffering from type 1 diabetes or
type 2 diabetes, may have various complications
developed as the consequence of the metabolic
disorders, such as heart disease, nerve lesion, and
renal dysfunction. Among the multiple complications, diabetic nephropathy (DN) characterized
by basement membrane thickening, glomerular
hypertrophy, disruption of the glomerular permeability barrier, is a serious condition that may lead
to renal failure if not well treated (2).
The pathogenesis of kidney lesion in diabetic
subjects is complex and involves many mechanisms leading to renal damage. Recently, the inflammatory factors are considered to contribute
to the development and exacerbation of diabetesinduced renal damage (3, 4). Some inflammatory
cytokines, such as IL-1 and IL-6 have been demonstrated to play important roles in the pathogenesis of DN (5, 6,7). Clinical and animal studies
showed the subjects with DN usually had high levels of these cytokines, and the levels were reduced
if DN was well treated (8). Therefore, inflammation might be a therapeutic target of DN. Besides,
the aquaporins (AQPs), water channels involved
in the regulation of urinary salt and water excretion, are believed to have a role in the pathophysiology of DN (9, 10,11). Of the AQPs expressed
in kidney, AQP 1 mainly locates in the proximal
tubule and thin descending limb of Henle epithelia, AQP2, AQP 3 and AQP4 locates in the collecting ducts. There is an increasing body of evidence
suggesting that AQP 2 expression sites (in apical
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
membrane or cytoplasm) in principal cells are
controlled by vasopressin, and disrupted function
or regulation of AQP2 may result in nephrogenic
diabetes insipidus. Although the function of AQP2
in DN has been studied, the changes of AQP2
expression in diabetic subjects are still debated.
Some studies showed increased AQP2 expression
in the collecting ducts of the subjects with DN or
diabetes and the AQP2 expression could be inhibited if the hyperglycemia was controlled (10, 12,
13, 14); while some other studies showed hyperglycemia might cause down-regulation of AQP2
expression in the STZ-induced diabetic animals
and the protein expression of AQP2 was restored
to the control level after insulin treatment (15).
Berberine, a Chinese patent medicine, has been
used in the management of diabetes mellitus and
some other inflammatory diseases (16, 17, 18).
But to our knowledge, very limited studies detected the effects of berberine on DN and the mechanisms of its effects on DN remain unclear. This
study intended to investigate whether treatment
of diabetic rats with berberine could prevent the
diabetes-induced renal damage and influence the
expression of some substances that are involved in
pathogenesis of DN.
Methods
Animals
The Animal Research Ethics Committee at the
Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University approved the animal experimental protocols
of the study. All animal experimental protocols
were conducted in strict in accordance with the
Guidelines for Experimental Animal Welfare approved by the Ministry of Science and Technology
of China. Male Sprague–Dawley rats (180-220 g)
purchased from Shandong University were used
for the experiments.
Diabetic Model
In order to induce diabetes, a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) (dissolved in 0.1 M cold citrate buffer, pH 4.5 ) was
given to the Sprague–Dawley rats. Blood glucose
was examined using a glucometer 3 days after
the streptozotocin injection, and rats with blood
glucose less than 16 mmol/L or higher than 30
mmol/L were excluded from this study. The diabetic rats were further randomly divided into DM
group and berberine group with 8 animals in each
group, and another 8 normal Sprague–Dawley rats
were taken as the control group.
Drug treatment
Three days after the administration of streptozotocin, the animals in the berberine group received
intragastric administration of berberine (100 mg/
kg, qd, dissolved in saline) for 21 consecutive days.
The animals of the DM group and the control rats
were treated with the same volume of saline only.
Renal function analysis
After the 21 days’ drug treatment, rats were
placed in metabolic cages for 24 h to collect the
urine (under oil to prevent from evaporation). 24
h urinary albumin excretion and Ccr were calculated using the following equations to assess the
renal function, following the measurements of the
concentrations of urinary albumin and creatinine
in both urine and serum.
24 h urinary albumin excretion= Concentration
of urinary albumin×24 h urine volume
Ccr = (Concentration of urinary creatinine× urine
volume produced per minute)/ Concentration of
Serum creatinine
Immunohistochemistry
After the deep anesthesia, the rats were sacrificed. The right kidneys were removed, washed
in PBS, fixed in 10% phosphate-buffered formalin and embedded in paraffin. Fixed kidneys were
sectioned at 4 μm and attached to class slides.
Following the rehydration protocol, the sections
were incubated in the blocking buffer (1% donkey
serum in 0.01 M PBS) for 10 min to prevent the
non-specific binding to antibody, then incubated
in the anti-AQP 2 antibody (1:100, diluted in PBS.
Boster Company, China) overnight at 4 oC. After
rinsed for 3min in PBS (repeated 3 times), sections were incubated with the secondary antibody
(1:200, diluted in PBS. Boster Company, China)
for 1 h at room temperature, followed by repeated
washing in PBS and incubation with biotinylated
FITC for 30 min in humid dark box. The expression of AQP 2 in kidney was observed immediately after rinsing for 30 minutes with 0.01 M PBS.
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ELISA assays of IL-1 and IL-6
To detect the influence of berberine on the expression of IL-1 and IL-6 in local kidney tissue
which promote the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, 1 gram of kidney tissue containing renal cortex and renal medulla was collected after the
remove of the left kidney, stored at -70 oC and subsequently homogenized in 2 ml saline (4 oC). The
supernatant was collected after the homogenization
and centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 15 min. Specific
ELISA kits (Boster Company, China) were used to
analyze the concentrations of IL-1 and IL-6 in the
supernatant according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.
Statistical analysis
The statistical analyses were performed using
SPSS 13.0. Data were presented as mean ± SD.
The differences between the groups were compared using One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)
followed by Scheffe test. P values less than 0.05
were considered statistically significant.
Results
Effects on renal function
The 24 h urine volume was collected in metabolic cages and the mean values of the volumes
were shown in table 1. A significant increase of
the 24 h urine volume of the rats in the DM group
was seen if compared with that of the controls
(P<0.05). There was a marked reduction in 24
h urine volume of the berberine treated animals
compared to the DM rats (P<0.05), however, still
more than the controls (P<0.05). The difference
of Ccr and 24 h urinary albumin excretion was significant between the DM group and control group
with increased urinary albumin excretion and decreased Ccr in the DM group (both P<0.05). With
the treatment of the Chinese patent medicine, the
diabetic rats of the berberine group had less 24 h
urinary albumin excretion and more Ccr than the
animals of the DM group (both P<0.05). The data
showed streptozotocin induced renal dysfunction
in rats, and berberine had a protective effect on the
renal function of the diabetic rats.
Effects on the expression of AQP 2
Immunofluorescence staining was performed
for the expression of AQP 2 in the kidney, which
plays a role in maintaining body water balance. As
shown in figure 1, the water channel AQP 2 mainly
located in the cells of collecting ducts, with no AQP
2 expression in glomeruli and proximal convoluted
tubules of the rats in all the three groups (Figure
1B, D, F). Figure 1A showed there was faint AQP
2 expression in the collecting duct principal cells
of the control rats. Figure 1C showed much more
AQP 2 expression in the cells of the collecting duct,
largely located in the apical membrane of the cells
and slightly in the cytoplasm, which indicated that
the diabetic rats had increased expression of AQP 2.
AQP 2 expression of the berberine treated rats was
shown in Figure 1E with similar expression level to
that of DM group, suggesting that berberine had no
distinct influence on the AQP 2 expression in kidney of the diabetic rats.
Effects on the expression of IL-1 and IL-6
Some cytokines are considered to be involved
in the pathogenesis of the diabetic nephropathy. To
analyze the effects of berberine on the substances
contributing to the kidney lesion, we determined
levels of IL-1 and IL-6 in kidney tissue by using
ELISA assay. As shown in table 2, a significant
increase of concentrations of IL-1 and IL-6 was
observed in the kidney tissue homogenate of the
diabetic rats in DM group compared to the control
animals (both P<0.05). Berberine management
reduced the levels of IL-1 and IL-6 in kidney in
comparison to the rats of DM group, the differences were statistically significant (both P<0.05).
Table 1. Urine volume, Urinary albumin and Ccr of the rats
Group
Control group
DM group
Berberine group
Urine volume (ml/24 h)
17.02±3.61
85.50±18.95△
46.37±8.03△★
Urinary albumin (mg/24 h)
0.51±0.16
3.29±0.73△
1.85±0.31△★
Ccr (ml/min)
1.25±0.19
0.71±0.12△
0.99±0.15△★
Data were expressed as mean ± SD.
△
P < 0.05 versus Control group; ★P < 0.05 versus DM group.
218
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Figure 1. Immunofluorescence staining for AQP 2 in rat kidneys
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
However, levels of IL-1 and IL-6 in the berberine
treated rats were still much higher than those of
the control rats (both P<0.05), which suggested
that berberine could only partially inhibit the over
expression of those substances.
Table 2. Concentrations of IL-1 and IL-6 in kidney
in rats
Group
IL-1 (pg/ml)
IL-6 (pg/ml)
Control group
35.86±7.13
23.40±4.17
△
DM group
81.27±9.52
59.36±7.89△
△★
Berberine group 51.85±11.70
35.09±5.73△★
Data were expressed as mean ± SD.
△
P < 0.05 versus Control group; ★P < 0.05 versus DM group.
Discussion
The findings in the present study provide evidence for the anti-diabetic-induced renal damage
effects of the Chinese patent medicine berberine
and some possible pathways by which berberine
exerts its protective effects.
We injected streptozotocin to the rats and found
the rats had high blood glucose levels, which showed
the diabetic animal models were successfully established. Then, we measured the urine volume, the
urinary albumin and Ccr of the animals. The results
showed that the rats in the DM group had more urine
volume, more urinary albumin excretion, and lower
Ccr as compared to the control rats, which suggest
that the diabetic rats had damaged renal function.
In order to detect the protective effects of berberine
on the renal function, we administered berberine to
diabetic rats, and our results showed the rats with
berberine treatment had decreased the urine volume,
urinary albumin excretion and increased Ccr. The
results indicated that berberine attenuated the renal
damage of the diabetic rats.
One of the main questions raised by this study
is the mechanism by which berberine attenuates
the renal damage of the diabetic rats. Recent studies have suggested that DN is an inflammatory
process, and the importance of some inflammatory cytokines in the development and progression
of DN has been well documented (3, 4). The renal
expression of IL-1 in experimental models of diabetic nephropathy increased (19). Over-expression
of IL-1 could enhance the synthesis of ICAM-1 and
vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 by glomerular endothelial cells, which could further promote
220
the renal inflammation. IL-1 is also involved in the
development of abnormalities in intraglomerular
hemodynamics. Furthermore, IL-1 could increase
the generation of hyaluronan by renal proximal
tubular epithelial cells and increased production
of glomerular hyaluronan could initiate glomerular hypercellularity (20, 21). IL-6 is another important cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of
diabetic nephropathy. Studies showed the subjects
with diabetes mellitus had high levels of IL-6 than
the healthy controls (22), and more interestingly, a
study showed that patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy had even higher levels of IL-6 than the
diabetic patients without nephropathy (23). Some
other studies demonstrated a significant association
between IL-6 and glomerular basement membrane
thickening which a crucial lesion of diabetic nephropathy and a strong predictor of renal progression (24, 25). In the present study, we measured the
levels of IL-1 and IL-6 in the kidney tissue of the
rats. Similarly to the other reports, we found that
levels of IL-1 and IL-6 of the rats in the DM group
were both higher than those of the control animals.
Our results also showed that levels of IL-1 and
IL-6 of the rats in the berberine group significantly
decreased as compared to those of the rats in the
DM group. The data indicated that berberine could
decrease the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and IL-6 in the kidney tissue.
Some aquaporins also have a role in the pathophysiology of DN. Although the function of AQP2
in DN has been studied (26), the changes of AQP2
expression in diabetic subjects are still debated.
Some studies showed increased AQP2 expression
in the collecting ducts of the subjects with DN or
diabetes and the AQP2 expression could be inhibited if the hyperglycemia was controlled (10, 12,
13, 14); while some other studies showed hyperglycemia might cause down-regulation of AQP2
expression in the STZ-induced diabetic animals
and the protein expression of AQP2 was restored
to the control level after insulin treatment (15). We
detected the expression of AQP2 in kidney of the
rats by immunofluorescence staining. We found
that AQP 2 mainly located in the cells of collecting
ducts, and the rats in the DM group had more AQP
2 expression than the rats in the control group. But
our result showed that the AQP 2 expression of the
berberine treated rats had no significant difference
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
from that of DM group. The data suggested that
berberine had no distinct influence on the AQP 2
expression in kidney of the diabetic rats.
Taken together, we conclude that berberine
improved the renal function of the diabetic rats
induced by streptozotocin injection and the drug
might exert its effects by inhibiting the local expression of IL-1 and IL-6 in kidney. But the drug
had no distinct influence on the AQP 2 expression
in kidney of the diabetic rats.
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6. Navarro-González JF, Mora-Fernández C. The role of
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8. Jung HW, Yoon CH, Kim YH, Boo YC, Park KM, et al.
Extract inhibits the release of inflammatory mediators
from LPS-stimulated mouse macrophages. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007; 114(3): 439-445.
9. Nakamura T, Saito T, Kusaka I, Higashiyama M,
Nagasaka S, Ishibashi S, Ishikawa SE. Decrease in
urinary excretion of aquaporin-2 associated with impaired urinary concentrating ability in diabetic nephropathy. Nephron. 2002; 92(2): 445-448.
10. Choi YE, Ahn SK, Lee WT, Lee JE, Park SH, et al.
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13. HE Cui-e, LI Hua-zhu, LIANG Li-hui. Expression of
aquaporin-2 in renal medulla of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus in rats. Journal of China-Japan Friendship Hospital. 2013; 23(1): 28-30. In Chinese.
14. Satake M, Ikarashi N, Kagami M, Ogiue N, Toda T,
Kobayashi Y, Ochiai W, Sugiyama K. Increases in the
expression levels of aquaporin-2 and aquaporin-3 in
the renal collecting tubules alleviate dehydration
associated with polyuria in diabetes mellitus. Biol
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in the rat vagina. Urology. 2012; 80(3): 737.e7-12.
16. Cao S, Zhou Y, Xu P, Wang Y, Yan J, Bin W, Qiu F,
Kang N. Berberine metabolites exhibit triglyceridelowering effects via activation of AMP-activated
protein kinase in Hep G2 Cells. J Ethnopharmacol.
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17. Xie X, Chang X, Chen L, Huang K, Huang J, et
al. Berberine ameliorates experimental diabetes-induced renal inflammation and fibronectin by
inhibiting the activation of RhoA/ROCK signaling. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013 Jul 26. pii: S03037207(13)00313-4. doi: 10.1016/j.mce. 2013. 07.
019. [Epub ahead of print]
18. Wang M, Wang J, Tan R, Wu Q, Qiu H, Yang J, Jiang
Q. Effect of Berberine on PPAR α /NO activation in
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19. Navarro JF, Milena FJ, Mora C, León C, García J.
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20. Jones S, Jones S, Phillips AO. Regulation of renal
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Corresponding Author
Sun Hongri,
Department of Nephrology,
Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University,
P.R. China,
E-mail: [email protected]
222
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The prevalence and risk factors associated with
otorhinolaryngologic diseases among the students
of Hakkari City center
Huseyin Gunizi1, Osman Durgut1, Derya Seyman2
1
2
Hakkari State Hospital, Department of Otolarngology, Hakkari, Turkey,
Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Department of İnfectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology,
Antalya, Turkey.
Abstract
Objective: To investigate the prevalence and
the risk factors associated with otorhinolaryngologic (ENT) diseases among the students of Hakkari
city center.
Method: A study was made of 1,068 primary
school students in Hakkari city center. The students were given ropharynx, anterior rhinoscopy
and autoscopic examinations, and details were ascertained of their academic success and the economic and educational status of their families. The
results were analyzed using SPSS for Windows 16
software, with chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests
used for the analyses.
Findings: A total of 1,068 primary school students with a mean age of 7.8 ±1.4 were included in
the study. An assessment of their socio-economic
status revealed that 65.3 percent of the students
were of low level, and the remaining 34.7 percent
were of normal or high level. Some 55.1 percent of
the students resided with at least one smoker. During the physical examination, 19.5 percent of the
students were found to have tonsillar hypertrophy,
4.9 percent had asymmetric tonsils, and 19 (1.8%)
had undergone a tonsillectomy. Furthermore, 6
percent of the students were diagnosed with allergic rhinitis and 7.7 percent with rhinosinusitis.
Result: Examinations for otorhinolaryngologic disease should be carried out as part of preventative health measures in this age group due
to the high risk of otorhinolaryngologic disease in
primary school students.
Key words: School, Septum deviation, Allergic rhinitis, Rhinosinusitis, Prevalence.
Introduction
Otorhinolaryngologic (ENT) diseases occur
most frequently in childhood, and if left untreated, may lead to growth and developmental problems, while also being detrimental to academic
success [1]. Otitis media with effusion, chronic
otitis, allergic rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, and OSAS
(obstructive sleep apnea syndrome) are among
the most common ENT diseases, and are known
to cause attention deficit disorders, impaired concentration, sleep disorders, low academic success and a decrease in quality of life, and treatment
can prove to be very expensive [2-3]. As a result,
many studies have been conducted to find ways of
identifying these diseases early [4,5].
Hakkari’s population covers the full length of
the socio-cultural and economic scale, and is characterized by a low level of development due to
terrorism when compared to other regions in Turkey. To date, there have been no studies looking at
the prevalence of otorhinolaryngologic disease in
the region and the risk factors associated with it,
and so it is the intention in this paper to determine its extent, and to make a comparison with the
other regions. In this article, the prevalence and
risks associated with otorhinolaryngologic disease
will be covered in the first part of the paper, while the second part will open a discussion of the
prevalence and risk factors associated with otitis
media with effusion (EOM).
Material and Method
A study was made of 1,086 primary school students aged 5–11 in Hakkari city center between
April and May 2013, all of which underwent an
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
223
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
otorhinolaryngologic examination. Questionnaires were applied to the families of the test subjects
to assess the level of family education and income, smokers in the home, any sleep disorders or
allergies suffered by the students and any previous
operations. Signed consent forms were obtained
from the parents, giving permission for the examination, and the academic ability of each student
was assessed by their teachers. The schools were
visited, and anterior rhinoscopy, oropharynx and
autoscopic examinations were made of each student by one doctor, during which the tonsil sizes
of the students was evaluated using the Brodsky
classification [6]. According to this classification,
Stage 3–4 cases are regarded as obstructive tonsillar hypertrophies. Among the students identified
with allergic symptoms by their families, those
identified with nasal mucosal pallor, congestion
or seromucoide discharge during the examination
were diagnosed with allergic rhinitis.
The results were analyzed using SPSS for Windows 16 software, with chi-square and Fisher’s
exact tests used for the analyses. P values <0.05
were considered to be statistically significant.
Findings
The study was made of 1,068 primary school
students aged 5–11 (mean age: 7.8 ±1.4 years),
610 of which were (57.1%) male, and 458 (42.9%)
were female (Figure 1). Regarding socioeconomic
status, 65.3 percent of the students came from lowlevel families, while the remaining 34.7 percent
came from normal or high-level families. Some
55.1 percent of the students resided with at least
one smoker. During the physical examination,
19.5 percent of the students were found to have
tonsillar hypertrophy, 4.9 percent had asymmetric
tonsils, and 19 (1.8%) students had undergone a
tonsillectomy. In addition, 22 (2.1%) students had
a bifid uvula. During the anterior rhinoscopy examination, mucopurulent or seromucoide secretion
was the most frequent pathological finding, accounting for 18.1 percent of the sample.
Among the 338 (31.6%) students identified with
allergies by their families, 64 (6%) were diagnosed
with allergic rhinitis. During the examinations, 82
(7.7%) students were diagnosed with rhinosinusitis,
and medical treatments were planned; 189 (17.7%)
224
of the students had nasal obstructions; and 94
(8.8%) had septum deviations (Table 1). Rhinosinusitis was more common among the students with
nasal obstructions and passive smokers than those
without (p<0.01, p=0.023), although there was no
correlation with allergic rhinitis.
Prominent ear deformity (10.3%) was the most
frequent congenital head and neck anomaly in the
test subjects, with others being Darwin tubercule
(3.3%), pre-auricular skin tag (1.1%), low-set ear
(0.2%) and pre-auricular sinus (0.2%) (Figure 2).
Of the total set, 146 (13.7%) students were diagnosed with plugged ear during the autoscopic
examination, and underwent a tympanometric
examination after clearing the ear. Finally, eight
(0.7%) students had chronic otitis, for which medical treatments were planned, and 119 (11.1%)
were diagnosed with EOM.
Regarding academic achievement, 75 percent
of the students were considered successful, with
the remaining 25 percent considered to be unsuccessful. Students diagnosed with sinusitis generally achieved lower academic success than the
other students, and this difference was statistically
significant (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively).
There was no correlation between nasal obstructions or sleep disorders and academic success.
The families reported that 49.3 percent of the
students had problems sleeping at night (snoring,
sleeping with mouth open, sleep apnea), and students with nasal obstructions experienced more
sleep problems than other students (p<0.01). No
correlation could be identified between sleeping
problems and tonsil hypertrophy .
Discussion
Otorhinolaryngologic diseases are among the
most common ailments in childhood, and differ
in frequency and diversity among different socio-cultural, economic, ethnic and genetic groups.
This has been proven in many epidemiological
studies into the prevalence and risk factors associated with otorhinolaryngologic diseases [3-5],
both nationally and globally, however to date there
has been no study specifically of Hakkari.
With respect to the tonsil size, Stage 3–4 is regarded as obstructive [6]. According to Lam et al.,
Stage 3–4 tonsils are found in 27 percent [7] of
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
cases, while Kara et al. put the figure at 11 percent,
and Egeli and Inankac at 17.6 percent [8-9]. Similarly, the present study identified tonsillar hypertrophy in 19.5 percent of the students.
Upper airway anatomy, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity and neuromuscular tonus are significant factors in the OSAS pathogenesis of children
[10]. Yuen-yu et al. found that AHI was significantly high in children with tonsillar hypertrophy
[7], however several other studies indicate that
there is no correlation between tonsil size and the
clinical findings of OSAS [11]. In this study, 49.3
percent of the students were reported to have experienced sleeping problems at night, although there
was no correlation between the presence of tonsil
hypertrophy and sleep problems, which is conversely associated with the presence of OSAS. The
students with nasal obstructions experienced more
sleep problems when compared to the others, and
this difference was statistically significant (p<0.01).
Benign tumors (papilloma etc.), recurrent infections, lipid storage disorders, granulomatous (tuberculosis, actinomycosis) diseases, and malignity
have been reported to cause unilateral asymmetric
tonsil enlargement, although consensus has not
been reached on the relationship between unilateral
asymmetric tonsil enlargement and malignity. Some
researchers claim that a histopathological examination should be made through a tonsillectomy, and
that the malignity should be excluded in asymmetric tonsil hypertrophy; while others suggest that patients should be monitored due to the low malignity
incidence, and a tonsillectomy should be performed
only if clinical symptoms occur. Berkowitz et al. report that tonsillar lymphoma results in typical rapid
unilateral tonsil enlargement in pediatric age groups; and 86 percent of the pediatric patients experienced neck lymphadenopathies larger than 3 cm [12].
Ridgway et al. identified six cases of lymphoma in
13 years, and recommended that a tonsillectomy be
performed in order to exclude malignity in cases of
unilateral tonsil hypertrophy [13]. In the study of
Reiter et al., 31 of 1,320 adult patients underwent
a tonsillectomy for suspected tonsillar asymmetry
or lymphoma, two (6.5%) of which were found to
have malignity [14]. Younis et al. reported in their study that no malignity was found during their
study of the medical records of 2,099 children that
had undergone an adenotonsillectomy [15]. In the
present study, asymmetric tonsils were observed in
4.9 percent of the students, and their families were
advised to undergo future examinations, as no clinical finding could be made during the examination.
Adenotonsillectomies are the most common
pediatric procedure in many countries, including
the United States, the Netherlands and Scotland
[16-17], with the frequency of the procedure
changing according to geography, the opinions of
experts, socio-cultural differences and access to
health services. Mattila et al. reported the frequency of tonsillectomies in childhood to be 8 percent. [18]; the study of Gedikli and Turan found
that 0.6 percent of students had undergone a tonsillectomy in Isparta city center, and Polat and Demirören reported this rate to be 4.9 percent of 775
children. [19-20]. In the present study, 19 (1.8%)
students had undergone a tonsillectomy, and this
low rate may be due to the underdeveloped socio-economic conditions and health services in
the region. Polat and Demirören reported that the
tonsillectomy rate was higher in students of high
socio-economic status [20], however in this study
we found this rate to be higher in the families of
low socio-economic status, although there was no
statistically significant correlation.
Some 82 (7.7%) students were diagnosed with
rhinosinusitis during the examination, and the academic success was found to be significantly low in
these students among the whole test group (p<0.05).
This led to the conclusion that headaches and nasal
obstructions, which are symptoms of sinusitis, lead
to attention deficit disorders, and consequently, had
a negative effect on perception and academic success. Smoking is known to influence mucociliary activity and increase viral infection frequency, and the
passive smoking students were found to have more
significant levels of rhinosinusitis (p=0.023).
Among the 338 (31.6%) students identified as
having allergies by their families, and found to
have nasal mucosal pallor, congestion and a seromucoide discharge during the examination, 64
(6%) were diagnosed with allergic rhinitis. In literature, studies have shown the prevalence of
allergic rhinitis to be 7 percent in the countries of
Northern Europe, 9–21 percent in South America
and 27.6 percent in Australia [21]. In their study
of childhood, Ones et al. reported allergic rhinitis
in 7.9 percent of cases; while Cakır and Cetinkaya
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225
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
put the figure at 9.1 percent [22-23]. In the present
study, it was found that the regional allergic rhinitis rate was consistent with literature of the pediatric age group, although slightly lower.
Nasal traumas cause microfractures in the nasal roof and septum in developing children, which
lead to permanent nasal and septal deformities in
the recovery period [24]. There are only a limited
number of studies on the frequency and causes of
septum deviation in schoolchildren. In their study of primary school students, Gedikli and Turan
reported septal deviation in 10.2 percent of cases;
while Keles et al. put the figure at 8.1 percent
[19,25]. In world literature, rates vary between
7.58–35 percent [4,26], and in the present study,
189 (17.7%) of the students had nasal obstruction
and 94 (8.8%) had septum deviation, which is in
accordance with the findings of previous literature. The students with nasal obstructions suffered
rhinosinusitis and sleep problems more significantly than those without (p<0.01).
Chronic otitis media is an infection that can lead
to serious intracranial and extracranial complications if not controlled. In developing countries, there is a significant difference in the prevalence of
chronic otitis media among different socio-economic classes, ranging between 1.3 and 17.6 percent,
while it is known to be less than 1 percent in the
United States and United Kingdom [27]. In a study
carried out in Turkey, this rate was reported to be
2.5 percent [19]. Shaheen et al. reported chronic otitis media in 5.2 percent of primary school students,
and was more common in girls and in families of
low socio-economic status [5]. Kuhle et al. found
no correlation between socio-economic status and
chronic otitis media [28]. In the present study, chronic otitis media was observed in eight patients,
which is lower than the rates recorded in previous
literature. There was no correlation between chronic otitis media and gender, while more cases were
identified in students aged 8 and above, and of low
socio-economic status.
Several differences were identified in the prevalence and risks associated with otorhinolaryngologic disease between the students in Hakkari
and those in other regions, although there were similarities. Raising awareness among families can
help ensure diagnosis and treatment.
226
Table 1. Distribution of gender, age and pathological findings
n=1068
Gender
Male
Female
Mean Age
Tonsillar Hypertrophy
Asymmetric Tonsil
Allergic Rhinitis
Sinusitis
Septum Deviation
EOM
610 (57.1%)
458(42.9%)
7.8 ±1.4
208 (19.5%)
52 (4.9%)
64 (6%)
82 (7.7%)
94 (8.8%)
119 (11.1%)
Figure 1. Gender distribution
Figure 2. Distribution of ear anomalies.
References
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2. Robb PJ, Williamson I. Otitis media with effusion in
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Health. 2012; 22(1): 9-12
3. Okur E, Yıldırım I, Akif Kılıç M, Güzelsoy S. Prevalence of otits media with effusion among primary
school children in Kahramanmaraş, in Turkey. Int J
Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2004 May;68(5): 557-62.
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4. Jurkiewicz ZB, Sosinska OO. The nasal septum deformities in children and adolescents from Warsaw,
Polan. İnt. Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
2006; 70: 731-6
18. Mattila PS, Tahkokallio O, Tarkhanen J, Pitkaniemi
J, Karvonen M, Tuomilehto J. Causes of tonsillar disease and frequency of tonsillectomy operations. Arch
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2001; 127: 37-44.
5. Shaheen M, Ahmed Raquib A, Shaikh MA. Chronic
Suppurative Otitis Media and Its Association with Socio-Econonic Factors Among Rural Primary School
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Neck Surg 2012; 64(1): 36–41
19. Gedikli O, Turan A. The incidence of ear nose throat
diseases between primary school children in Isparta
city center. Journal of Ear Nose Throat and Head
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6. Brodsky L. Modern assessment of tonsil and adenoid.
Pediatr Clin North Am 1989; 36: 1551–1569
7. Yuen-yu L, Eric YT, Daniel K, Chung-hong C, Josephine MY, et al. The Correlation Among Obesity,
Apnea-Hypopnea Index, and Tonsil Size in Children
Chest. 2006; 130(6): 1751-6.
8. Kara OC, Ergin H, Koçak G, Kılıç İ, Yurdakul M.
Prevalence of tonsiller hypertrophy and associated
oropharyngeal symptoms in primary schoolchildren
in Denizli, Turkey. İnt. Journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology 2002; 66: 175-9.
9. Egeli E, İrankoç E. Body growth in relation to tonsiller
enlargement. Auris Nasus Larynx 1997; 24: 299-301.
10. Schechter MS. Section on Pediatric Pulmonology,
Subcommittee on Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. Technical report: diagnosis and management of
childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Pediatrics 2002; 109: 69
11. Li AM, Wong E, Kew J, et al. Use of tonsil size in
the evaluation of obstructive sleep apnoea. Arch Dis
child 2002; 87: 156–9.
12. Berkowitz RG, Mahadevan M. Unilateral tonsillar
enlargement and tonsillar lynphoma in children.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1999; 108: 876-9.
13. Ridgway D, Wolff LJ, Neerhout RC, Tilford DL. Unsuspected non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the tonsils and
adenoids in children. Pediatrics. 1987; 79: 399-402.
14. Reiter ER, Randolph GW, Pilch BZ. Microscopic detection of occult malignancy in the adult tonsil. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999;120: 190-4.
15. Younis RT, Hesse SV, Anand VK. Evaluation of the
utility and cost-effectiveness of obtaining histopathologic diagnosis on all routine tonsillectomy specimens. Laryngoscope. 2001; 111: 2166-9.
20. Polat C, Demirören K. Frequency of the tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children in Elazığ province, in the east of Turkey. Dicle Medical Journal
2010; 37(3): 263-6.
21. Van Cauwenberge P, Bachert C, Passalacqua G,
Bosquet J, Canonica GW. Et al. Consensus statement on the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Allergy
2000; 55: 1-19.
22. Öneş U, Sapan N, Somer A, Disci R, Salman N, et al.
Prevalence of childhood asthma in Istanbul, Turkey.
Allergy. 1997; 52: 570-5
23. Çakır M, Çetinkaya F. Prevalence of Bronchial
Asthma and Other Allergic Diseases Among School
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M (Editors), Scott-Brown’s Otolaryngology. 2. Edition, Oxford: Reed educational and professional
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25. Keleş E, Yalçın S, Kaygusuz İ, Karlıdağ T, Alpay C,
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Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
Corresponding Author
Hüseyin Günizi,
Hakkari State Hospital,
Department of Otolarngology,
Hakkari,
Turkey,
E-mail: [email protected]
227
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
The prevalence and the nature of violence
directed at the medical staff in psychiatric health
care in Slovenia
Branko Gabrovec1, Ivan Erzen2, Branko Lobnikar3
1
2
3
Community Health Centre Celje, Slovenia,
University of Ljubljana, Medical Faculty, Slovenia,
University of Maribor, Faculty of Health Sciences & Faculty of Criminal Justice and Security Slovenia.
Abstract
Objective: The degree of violence directed at
medical workers is high, especially in intensive
care units and closed and/or intensive psychiatric
wards. The aim of this study was by using as large
a sample as possible, to define the types and frequency of violence medical staff in psychiatric health care are faced with. Representative results can
serve as the basis for the development of a comprehensive aggression prevention and employee
education program.
Methods:The study of the prevalence of violence directed at the medical staff in psychiatric health care was conducted in psychiatric hospitals in
Slovenia. 5 psychiatric hospitals participated in the
study. 249 questionnaires were distributed among
medical workers in closed and/or intensive wards.
Results: 92.6% of examinees experienced patients’ verbal aggression in the past year. Patients’
physical violence was experienced by 84.2% of examinees in the same period. As many as 63.5% of
medical workers were injured by the patients in the
past. 40.9% were verbally abused by family members. Verbal aggression of co-workers (13.3%) and
superiors (13.8%) is also worth mentioning. Medical
workers are also faced with sexual harassment from
the patients (24.6 %). Significant positive correlations have been discovered between verbal abuse,
physical violence and sexual harassment. The medical workers feel threatened at their workplace (M =
2.52, SD = 0.62, on 3 point scale: 1 = low, 3 = high),
with fear (2.49±0.60) and insecurity (2.36±0.69)
largely present. The understanding of co-workers is
significant (1.34±0.57), whereas that of the superiors is somewhat lower (1.74±0.73). The study has
shown no correlation between aggression and age,
gender, and years of work experience.
228
Conclusion: The occurrence of violence directed at the medical workers in psychiatric health care
is high. There is a positive correlation between verbal abuse, physical violence and sexual harassment.
Medical workers are threatened and faced with fear
and insecurity. The outburst of aggression does not
discern between gender, age and work experience
of the medical workers. The results show that all
medical workers are equally exposed in their work
and they reaffirm the need for the development of
a systematic approach to control the violence directed at medical staff in psychiatric health care.
Key words: Nursing, patient, violence,
psychiatric, hospital.
Introduction
Ensuring the safety of psychiatric patients and
the quality of their treatment is the paramount task
at every level of health care and of every medical
discipline. With the development of modern society and ensuing trends the incidence of psychiatric
disorders is growing. Despite the advancement of
psychiatry, violence and aggression are an integral part of psychiatric treatment. Therefore, acute
psychoses and various other states where aggression is to be expected will continue to occur.
Despite its humanistic role, psychiatry, in contact with the environment, cannot avoid occasional violent behaviour of its patients. Psychiatrists
at times attempt to ignore the potential as well as
the actual violence, however, the general assertion
that there is no violence -free psychiatry tends to
remain valid [1].The phenomenon of violence is
an integral part of psychiatry. As many as 42 %
of nursing staff were exposed to physical violence
and as many as 73 % are of the opinion that more
needs to be done in terms of security [2].Medical
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
workers (especially the nursing staff) are the ones
most frequently faced with psychiatric patients’
violence. However, other groups involved in the
treatment process confront it as well: the police,
security agencies, paramedics, personnel in retirement homes… Between 35 – 80 % of medical
workers were at least once physically assaulted at
their workplace, with nurses being the most exposed group [3].In the USA, as many as 1.7 million
workers are injured as a result of workplace violence, 60% of those in health care (U.S. Bureau
of Justice Statistics). The percentage of injuries
in health care is 6.1 per 10.000, while in other
work fields it is 2.1 per 10.000. Despite statistically high percentage of injured in health care,
the actual numbers are even higher, mainly due to
frequent non-reporting of incidents [4].As many
as 70% of incidents or abuses of nurses remain
non-reported[5].A Swedish study shows that the
majority of the participants (85%) reported having
been exposed to violence during their careers, with
57% being victimized in the past 12 months [10].
Findings from a Swiss study revealed that 72%
of nurses had experienced verbal patient and visitor violence and 42% physical patient and visitor
violence in the past 12 months. Also, 23% were
physically injured and 1.4% took one or more
days of sick leave. Patient and visitor violence was
distressing for the nursing staff [11]. According to
the University of Iowa, violence directed towards
health professionals is at the highest rate ever. For
example, the ratio of violence is more than 100
events per 100 workers in a year in some psychiatric departments [6].According to a study conducted by the Medical System in Virginia, the health
care related violence is getting more dangerous
today in various health organizations. In addition,
the same study concluded that the medical staff
undoubtedly has the highest ratio of attacks in
comparison with all other work fields[6].
Medical staff in psychiatric hospitals and institutions is most frequently exposed to violent
behaviour. They are neither properly trained nor
authorised to manage aggression. However, they
are responsible for providing the safety of the aggressive patient, other patients, the surroundings
and themselves. The nurses and the assistants who
are in direct contact with patients are at the highest
risk of being the victims of violence. Other hos-
pital staff, paramedics and hospital safety officers
are exposed to increased risk of violence as well
[7].Such a situation has been reported in a number of research studies. It was shown that in South
Africa, Britain, France and Japan, employees face
an increasing frequency of violence [8].One of the
studies shows that exposure to violence is frequent in nursing [9]. The mentioned responsibility is
not only important for the providing of safety, but
also for the providing of quality medical services.
The therapeutic treatment, the therapeutic relationship, etc., are all dependent on the quality of the
conduct towards an aggressive psychiatric patient,
which is of paramount importance. A psychiatric
patient is also a user of the service of psychiatric
treatment. Nowadays, users are much more educated and demanding and hence quality-aware.
Due to their medical conditions, confidence with
psychiatric patients is even harder to achieve and
maintain. Those with high degree of confidence in
psychiatry tend to return with ease and there are
fewer complications when recidivism occurs. In
instances of lesser quality and the disruption of the
therapeutic process (institution - patient), patients’
return to a psychiatric institution is more difficult,
rarer and there are more complications.
Studies show that nurses encounter violence
more frequently as opposed to other healthcare
professionals [17, 18].Among the most exposed
are the workers in emergency medical units and
especially those working in closed and intensive
psychiatric wards. The number of (severe) violent
incidents against staff by psychiatric inpatients is
high [13]. Nurses, being health workers, are the
first to meet the victims of ever increasing violence. In addition, nurses suffer damage from social
tolerance of violence [15].
Studies point to a varied but nevertheless high
occurrence of all types of violence directed at nursing staff in psychiatric health care. In Taiwan
19.6% indicated that they had experienced physical violence [12]. In a Turkish study 77.2% of the
nurses were exposed to verbal abuse while 71.4%
were physically assaulted [16]. A Swedish study
shows that the majority of the study participants
(85%) reported having been exposed to violence
during their careers, with 57% being victimized in
the past 12 months [10]. A Swiss study revealed
that 72% of nurses had experienced verbal pati-
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
ent and visitor violence and 42% physical patient
and visitor violence in the past 12 months. Also,
23% were physically injured and 1.4% took one or
more days of sick leave. Patient and visitor violence was distressing for the nursing staff [11].
Description of methods and sample
The most exposed cadre were chosen to participate in the study: nursing staff in closed and/
or intensive psychiatric units. 5 of 6 Slovenian
psychiatric hospitals participated in the study. The
sample included male and female employees with
secondary, vocational, graduate, and postgraduate
education, with varied years of work experience.
The sample is representative.
249 questionnaires were distributed among
the staff. 203 (81.52%) returned and 46 did not
return the questionnaire. The survey was conducted in March and April 2013. The questionnaire
consisted of 80 questions divided into five sets:
your work and workplace related violence, work
management, the influence of various factors on
patient safety and the quality of patient treatment,
education and demographics. The following scales
were utilised in the adopted numerical scale: 1-2x,
3-5x, 6-9x, and more than 10 x. And the following
values with descriptive scale: I don’t agree, I partially agree, I agree. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient
of reliability was 0.77.
While composing the questionnaire, we formed a focus group with the students of the master
of nursing program. Their remarks and suggestions were entered into the questionnaire.
Table 1. Demographics statistics of examinees
Gender
Educational
level
Male
Female
Secondary
Vocational
Graduate
Postgraduate
No.
95
108
136
5
54
8
%
46,8
53,2
67
2,5
26,6
3,9
Results
203 (81.52%) examinees returned the questionnaires. The survey was conducted in March and
April 2013. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of reliability was 0.77.
230
Of all 203 participants, 95 (46.8%) were male
and 108 (53.2%) were female. Such male to female ratio can be attributed to the fact that there
are more men employed in closed and intensive
psychiatric wards than in other wards. Mean age
(± SD) of the participants was 37.5 ± 9 years. The
oldest participant was 58 years old, the youngest
20 years old. Levels of education: secondary 136
(67%), vocational: 5 (2.5%), graduate: 54 (26.6%),
postgraduate: 8 (3.9%). Mean working experience
was 16.7±9.1 years (see Table 1).
In table 2 the frequency of exposure to different
types of violent behaviour is shown. The different
types were defined as verbal abuse, sexual harassment and physical violence, caused either by
patients, relatives, co-workers or superiors. The
frequency of patient inflicted injuries is also being
determined.
Verbal abuse in the past year is the most
common form of violence. It appears with as
many as 92.6% of participants. As many as 84.2%
of participants experienced physical violence by
patients in the past year and 63.5% were injured
by a patient in the past. Verbal abuse by relatives
is also very frequent (40.9%), with verbal abuse
by co-workers (13.3%) and superiors (13.8%) also
worth mentioning. The staff is also confronted
with sexual harassment by the patients (24.6%).
Medical workers feel threatened at work
(2.52±0.62, on 3 point scale: 1 = low, 3 = high),
with fear (2.49±0.60) and insecurity (2.36±0.69)
being largely present. Co-workers sympathize
strongly (1.34±0.57), whereas superiors show less
support (1.74±0.73) (Table 3).
To continue, a correlation analysis for different
types of violence as reported by the study participants was performed. The results are shown in table
1. An important statistic correlation was established
between the following variables: patient verbal
abuse in the past year and patient physical violence
in the past year (r = 0.446; p < 0.01); patient verbal
abuse in the past year and injury at workplace (r
= 0.216; p < 0.01); patient sexual harassment and
patient physical violence (r = 0.216; p < 0.01); patient physical violence and patient induced injuries
(r = 0.290; p < 0.01) and patient verbal abuse and
patient sexual harassment (r = 0.161; p < 0.01). It
is evident from the correlation that different types
of violent behaviour are not independent from each
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Table 2. Work and workplace related violence (n=203)
%
Have you been exposed to verbal abuse by patients at your workplace during the last year?
If so, how often?
1 – 2x
15
3 – 5x
51
Have you been exposed to verbal abuse by patients’ relatives at your workplace during the last year?
If so, how often?
1 – 2x
42
3 – 5x
25
Have you been exposed to verbal abuse by co-workers at your workplace
during the last year?
If so, how often?
1 – 2x
15
3 – 5x
10
Have you been exposed to verbal abuse by superiors at your workplace
during the last year?
If so, how often?
1 – 2x
11
3 – 5x
17
Have you been exposed to sexual harassment by patients at your workplace
during the last year?
If so, how often?
1 – 2x
26
3 – 5x
21
Have you been exposed to sexual harassment by patients’ relatives at your
workplace during the last year?
If so, how often?
1 – 2x
0
3 – 5x
1
Have you been exposed to sexual harassment by co-workers at your workplace during the last year?
If so, how often?
1 – 2x
1
3 – 5x
0
Have you been exposed to sexual harassment by superiors at your workplace during the last year
If so, how often?
1 – 2x
0
3 – 5x
0
Have you been exposed to physical violence by patients at your workplace
during the last year?
If so, how often?
1 – 2x
45
3 – 5x
47
Have you been exposed to physical violence by patients’ relatives at your
workplace during the last year?
If so, how often?
1 – 2x
0
3 – 5x
2
Have you been exposed to physical violence by co-workers at your workplace during the last year?
If so, how often?
1 – 2x
0
3 – 5x
1
Have you been exposed to physical violence by superiors at your workplace during the last year?
If so, how often?
1 – 2x
1
3 – 5x
0
Have you ever been injured by a patient at your workplace?
If so, how often?
1 – 2x
75
3 – 5x
45
YES = 188
6 – 9x
26
92.6%
10 x >
YES = 83
6 – 9x
5
40.9%
10 x >
YES = 27
6 – 9x
1
0
10 x >
1
10 x >
0
10 x >
0
10 x >
1
10 x >
31
10 x >
2
10 x >
1
10 x >
0
1%
10 x >
YES = 1
6 – 9x
0
YES = 129
6 – 9x
4
48
2%
YES = 2
6 – 9x
0
84.2%
YES = 4
6 – 9x
0
0.5%
YES = 171
6 – 9x
0
0.5%
YES = 1
6 – 9x
2
0.5%
YES = 1
6 – 9x
0
24.6%
YES = 1
6 – 9x
1
13.8%
YES = 50
6 – 9x
11
13.3%
YES = 28
6 – 9x
96
0
0.5
10 x >
0
63.5
10 x >
5
Table 3. When treating an aggressive patient medical workers are confronted with:
Claim
Fear
Insecurity
Helplessness
Lack of training
Anger
Despair
Vulnerability
Lack of empathy by co-workers
Lack of Empathy by superiors
I don’t agree
5.9 %
12.3 %
21.2 %
48,3 %
47,8 %
49,3 %
6,9 %
70 %
42,9 %
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
I partially agree
38,9 %
38,4 %
53,7 %
36,5 %
40,4 %
23,6 %
34,0 %
25,1 %
39,4 %
I agree
55,2 %
49,3 %
25,1 %
15,3 %
11,8 %
27,1 %
59,1 %
4,9 %
17,7 %
Mean
2.49
2.36
2.03
1.67
1.64
1.77
2.52
1.34
1.74
Std.dev
.60
.69
.68
.72
.68
.84
.62
.57
.73
231
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
other, but are interconnected in that not only one
form of violent behaviour occurs, but the occurrence of one (e.g. verbal abuse) triggers the occurrence
of another (e.g. sexual harassment).
There are no statistically important correlations
between variables “gender”, “achieved level of
education”, “years of work experience” and work
and violence at workplace variables, which points
to the fact that all workers are exposed to all types
of violence regardless of gender, age and years of
work experience.
Table 4 shows the most important correlations
between emotions and the emotional perception of
medical workers facing patient aggression: fear and
insecurity, despair and the lack of training, helplessness and insecurity, vulnerability and fear, vulnerability and despair, helplessness and fear, vulnerability and insecurity, despair and vulnerability, lack
of empathy by superiors and lack of empathy by coworkers, lack of training and helplessness, lack of
training and fear. A connection between emotions
and the emotional perception of medical workers
facing patient aggression is evident from the correlations. They occur in various forms.
A regression analysis was performed between
the dependant variable “fear” and the independent
variable “vulnerability”. It can be established that
the variable “fear” can account for 26.6% of the
variance of the variable “vulnerability” (Table 5).
Discussion
The prevalence of violence directed at medical
workers, especially nursing staff, is high.
The aim of our study was to determine the actual level of various types of violence directed at
medical workers in psychiatric health care in Slovenia. The following types of violence were defined: verbal abuse, sexual harassment and physical
violence. Patients, relatives, co-workers and superiors were defined as the source of violence.
Based on the study’s representative sample, a
high degree of violence directed at nursing staff
was determined. The rate of verbal abuse in the
past year is a staggering 92.6%. Physical violence by patients was experienced by as many as
84.2% of study participants. 63.5% were injured
by a patient in the past. Verbal abuse by relatives
is also very frequent (40.9%), with verbal abuse
by co-workers (13.3%) and superiors (13.8%) also
worth mentioning. The staff is also confronted
with sexual harassment by the patients (24.6%)
An important positive correlation was established between verbal abuse and physical violence,
verbal abuse and patient induced injuries, verbal
abuse and sexual harassment and physical violence and sexual harassment.
The study also focused on identifying the emotions and emotional perceptions when dealing
Table 4. Correlations between emotions and the emotional perception of medical workers facing patient
aggression
A
Fear
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
,646**
,503**
,325**
,249**
,434**
,519**
,029**
,211**
B
C
Insecurity Helplessness
,598**
,429**
,260**
,485**
,490**
,122**
,269**
,356**
,306**
,453**
,452**
,168**
,315**
D
E
F
G
H
Lack of
training
Anger
Despair
Vulnerability
Lack of empathy
by co-workers
,271**
,256**
,411**
,378**
,510**
,110**
,441**
,027**
,329**
,267**
,612**
,349**
,195**
,260**
,478**
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table 5. Regression analysis
Model
R
1
,059a
R2
,269
∆R 2
,266
Std. Err.
,534
a. Predictors: (Constant), Fear, 1 foranalysis 1
232
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
with an aggressive patient. It was determined that
the staff are predominantly faced with vulnerability, fear, insecurity and helplessness, and to a
lesser extent with lack of empathy by co-workers
and superiors, which points to a high degree of
trust among co-workers and among staff and the
management. Important correlations were determined among nearly all these variables.
No statistically important correlation was established between age, gender and years of work
experience in relation to the occurrence of any
type of aggression directed at medical workers in
psychiatric health care. Thus, outbursts of aggression do not choose gender, age or the years of
work experience of the employees.
The study has shown that the level of violence
directed at the medical staff in psychiatric health
care in Slovenia is higher than reported in previously conducted studies (92.6% of examinees
experienced patients’ verbal aggression in the past
year. Patients’ physical violence was experienced
by 84.2% of examinees in the same time period.
As many as 63.5% of medical workers were injured by the patients in the past). The study is comparable with a Swedish one which shows that the
majority of the participants (85%) reported having
been exposed to violence during their careers, with
57% being victimized in the past 12 months [10].
Conclusion
The conducted study points to one of the highest
rates of aggression directed at medical workers in
psychiatric health care. The results can serve as
the basis for a systematic approach to managing
aggression directed at medical workers.
The occurrence of violence directed at medical
workers in psychiatric health care is high. There is a positive correlation between verbal abuse,
physical violence and sexual harassment. The
staff is faced with vulnerability, fear and insecurity. Outbursts of aggression do not differentiate
among gender, age or the years of work experience of the employees. Medical staff in psychiatric hospitals and institutions are most frequently
exposed to outbursts of violent behaviour. The study confirms that the staff is at risk at many levels.
Medical workers are neither properly trained nor
authorised to manage aggression. However, they
are responsible for providing the safety of the aggressive patient, other patients, the surroundings
and themselves. Current treatment of an aggressive psychiatric patient includes measures within of
framework of inadequate or deficient skills.
A set of instructions, guidelines and training in
how to safely and efficiently perform a physical
restraint of a psychiatric patient are missing for an
adequate response in case of a sudden outburst of
violence.
The employees require a systematic and comprehensive approach to workplace violence management. They are in need of a recurrent theoretical and
practical aggression management training program.
The results of the study can therefore be the basis for
the development of an organizational model for the
control of violence directed at medical workers and
the treatment quality provision with the formation
of written guidelines. A functional approach to permanent medical staff training would be appropriate.
References
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(2): 59 - 67: Jannetti Publications, Inc.
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Health and Safety Execute. London, 1998.
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9. Warshaw LJ, Messite J. Workplace violence: preventive and interventive strategies. J Occup Environ Med.
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violence against psychiatric personnel. Work and
stress. 2000; Vol. 14. Iss. 2.
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violence experienced by nurses in general hospitals
in Switzerland: a cross-sectional survey. Journal of
clinical nursing. 2010; Vol. 19. Iss 23-24.
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in clinical registered nurses in Taiwan. Journal of
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workers in psychiatry: Is prosecution justified? International journal of law and psychiatry. 2011; Vol.
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15. Violence: A world-wide epidemic. http://www.ncbi.
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Corresponding Author
Branko Gabrovec,
Zdravstveni dom Celje,
Celje,
Slovenija,
E-mail: [email protected]
234
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
The dependence of explosive strength and
speed on feet posture
Mladen Zivkovic1, Dobrica Zivkovic1, Sasa Bubanj1, Sasa Milenkovic1, Sladjan Karaleic2, Zoran Bogdanovic3
1
2
3
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Niš, Niš, Serbia,
Faculty for Sport and Physical Education, University of Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia,
University of Novi Pazar, Novi Pazar, Serbia.
Abstract
Introduction: The deformity that most frequently occurs after damage to foot statics are flat
feet, which in the etymology of their occurrence
can be acquired (in a minority of cases) or could
be of a congenital character (occurring under the
influence of various influences). This deformity is
manifested in the loss of normal – physiological
arches of the feet.
Aim: The sample of participants consisted of
114 elementary school children, all males, aged
11 and 12, divided int two sub-samples. The first
sub-sample (E1) consisted of 57 elementary school children suffering from varying degrees of deformities of the foot , while the second sub-sample consisted of 57 school children with normal
arches of the feet. In order to evaluate the status
of their feet, the following was used: Thomson’s
method for the evaluation of the fallen arches
(ATPSS), foot width (AŠIS) and foot length
(ADUS). In order to evaluate the explosive strength of the lower extremities, the following tests
were used: the standing depth jump (MSKUDM),
the triple standing jump (MTRSM), the vertical
jump (MVKS), the high jump with a flying start
(MSUZ), kicking the ball (MSLUD). In order to
evaluate speed the following were used: the 20m
run with a high start (MT20V), the 40 m run with
a high start (MT40V), the 60 m run with a high
start (MT60V), the 4x15 m relay (MT4xl5), and
running in a polygon (MTRUP). For the statistical analysis and interpretation of the results, the
statistical package Statistics 13.0 was used. In order to calculate the significant differences between
the mean values of the two independent groups,
the t-test was used. In order to determine which
variables discriminate between the two groups, a
discriminant function analysis was used.
Results: Participants with normal (healthy) feet
were more successful in the applied motor tests for
determining explosive strength than the participants
with flat feet (difference was statistically significant).
Nevertheless, the participants in the E1 sub-sample
(those suffering from fallen arches, or flat feet), had
better results when completing the motor tests of
speed, as compared to the participants from the E2
sub-sample who had normal (healthy) feet (difference was statistically significant in four of totally five
variables). In the remaining two variables which
defined the longitudinal and transversal dimensionality of the feet (ADUS=-0.071, ASIS= 1.271), the
obtained results do not indicate statistically significant differences between the participants. By gaining insight into the coefficients which determine
the discriminant function, we can note that except
for the variables which define longitudinal dimensionality (ADUS) and transversal dimensionality
(AŠIS), as well as the variables for the evaluation of
speed (MTRUP), in the case of all the remaining variables, coefficients were obtained which accurately
discriminate between the E1 and E2 sub-sample.
Conclusion: The results of the research including participants suffering from fallen arches (the
El sub-sample) which could be described as very
satisfactory in terms of speed, but quite modest in
the case of explosive strength, require further detailed analysis.
Key words: Flat feet, motor abilities, children.
Introduction
From the very first moment that a child takes
its first steps, the foot is susceptible to a variety of
exogenic and endogenic factors, which can lead to
anomalies of the feet, as well as to more complex
structural changes to the locomotor apparatus, all
of which primarily depends on genetic predispo-
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
235
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
sitions. The deformity that most frequently occurs
after damage to foot statics are flat feet, which in
the etymology of their occurrence can be acquired
(in a minority of cases) or could be of a congenital
character (occurring under the influence of various
influences). This deformity is manifested in the loss
of normal – physiological arches of the feet (Živković, 1998, 25). The most frequent risk factors
are obesity and hypokinesis (Pfeiffer et al., 2006).
According to the research of the authors Mihajlović et al. (2010), in the case of children, the arch of
the foot develops past the ages of three and four,
and lasts until become of age for school. Support
for this hypothesis can be found in the results of
the research of the afore mentioned authors which
included 270 children, all females, aged 4-7, among
whom the incidence of the afore mentioned deformity reached values of up to 90%. It has been suggested that abnormal foot morphology contributes
to the excessive occurrence of injuries in athletes
(Burns et al., 2005). According to the authors Nigg
et al. (1993), although the literature suggests that a
relationship exists between the height of the medial
longitudinal arch of the foot and athletic injuries to
the lower extremities, the functional significance of
arch height in relation to injuries has not properly
been investigated. Because the controversy about
the relation of foot morphology and foot function
still persists, authors such as Tudor et al. (2009)
found it surprising that there are very few studies
published dealing with motor skills and athletic
performance of flat-footed school children. Explosive strength represents the ability which allows
an athlete maximum acceleration of his body (or
part of the body), toward an object or a partner. It
is particularly important in the athletic throw, high
jump, long jump and sprint. The amount of manifested explosive strength depends on the percentage and composition of the activated motor units
in the corresponding muscle group (Bubanj, R. &
Branković, M., 1997). Explosive strength is used
in a variety of sports activities, or in other words,
there are different levels of manifestation of this
motor ability in relation to the type of engagement
in sport and gender (Gašić, et al., 2011). “What is
meant by the term speed most often is the ability of
a man to perform a great frequency of movement
at a particular point in time or to perform a single
movement in the shortest possible period of time
236
“ (Berković, 1978, 35). The same author cites that
speed is genetically condition (by approximately 90
%) which leaves relatively little room for its further
development under the influence of the training
process. The aim of this research was to determine
the differences between explosive strength of the
feet and speed among participants suffering from
flat foot and participants with normal feet.
The method
The sample of participants consisted of 114 elementary school children, all males, aged 11 and 12.
After forming the (E1) sub-sample of participants,
which consisted of 57 elementary school children
suffering from varying degrees of deformities of
the foot, another sub-sample (E2) was formed numbering 57 school children with normal arches of the
feet. In order to evaluate the status of their feet, the
following was used: Thomson’s method for the
evaluation of the fallen arches (ATPSS); foot width
(AŠIS); foot length (ADUS). Thomson’s method
presents the extent of fallen arches in percentages
(see Živković, 1998, 232) and is the optimal procedure for its determination. What was also calculated
was the mathematical value of the arithmetic means
between two plantograms of a single foot, and then
the same value between two feet.
Image 1. Thomson’s for the evaluation fallen arches (from 1 to 30% = I degree; from 30 to 60%
= II degree; 60% and upwards = III degree).
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
The measurements of the width of the feet (ASIS)
and length of the feet (ADUS) were carried out
according to the International Biological Program
(IBP), (see Đurašković, 2001, 12). For the width
and length of the feet, 4 anthropometric points were
determined (Đurašković, 2001) including: metatarsale fibulare (the point which is located on the outer
part of the ball of the heel of the metatarsal bone of
the foot); the metatarsale tibiale (the point located
on the inner side of the ball of the first metatarsal
bone); the point located on the back, most prominent part of the foot, in the region of the heel; the point located on the front part of the foot, representing
the most prominent part of the first or second toe. In
order to evaluate the explosive strength of the lower
extremities, the following tests were used: the standing depth jump (MSKUDM), the triple standing
jump (MTRSM), the vertical jump (MVKS), the
high jump with a flying start (MSUZ), kicking the
ball (MSLUD) (according to Kurelić et al., 1975).
In order to evaluate speed the following were used:
the 20m run with a high start (MT20V), the 40 m
run with a high start (MT40V), the 60 m run with
a high start (MT60V), the 4x15 m relay (MT4xl5),
and running in a polygon (MTRUP) (according to
Kurelić et al., 1975). For the statistical analysis and
interpretation of the results, the statistical package
Statistics 13.0 was used. In order to calculate the
significant differences between the mean values of
the two independent groups, the t-test was used. In
order to determine which variables discriminate
between the two groups, a Discriminant function
analysis was used.
Results and discussion
The T-test results shown in the table indicate
that differences exist in most of the variables, so it
Table 1. The results of the applied t-test for each of the variables individually, between the participants
of the E1 and E2 sub-sample.
Sub-sample
E1
MSKUDM
E2
E1
MTRSM
E2
E1
MVKS
E2
E1
MSUZ
E2
E1
MSLUD
E2
E1
MT20V
E2
E1
MT40V
E2
E1
MT60V
E2
E1
MT4xl5
E2
E1
ATPSS
E2
E1
MTRUP
E2
E1
ASIS
E2
E1
ADUS
E2
Mean
133.8182
160.8182
391.7273
441.8182
21.7636
27.8091
67.0909
81.7273
22.7873
27.3491
4.6560
4.2056
8.3555
7.6555
12.5107
11.1642
18.8742
16.9113
20.5255
0.0000
20.1020
20.6684
9.0527
8.8964
23.8782
23.9000
Std.Dv.
22.77026
19.94817
35.76179
58.74745
3.85484
5.06119
10.78798
10.14790
3.64931
4.07489
0.43438
0.31646
0.61178
0.53972
0.81428
0.93685
1.57241
0.78027
16.70614
0.00000
1.56509
14.07694
0.68282
0.54771
1.69178
1.50591
N
Diff.
Std.Dv.
t
df
P
55
-27.000
31.54362
-6.348
54
0.000000
55
-50.091
71.45635
-5.199
54
0.000003
55
-6.045
6.46592
-6.934
54
0.000000
55
-14.636
16.18340
-6.707
54
0.000000
55
-4.562
5.84115
-5.792
54
0.000000
55
0.450
0.54899
6.084
54
0.000000
55
0.700
0.71136
7.298
54
0.000000
55
1.347
1.15297
8.661
54
0.000000
55
1.963
1.82589
7.973
54
0.000000
55
20.525
16.70614
9.112
54
0.000000
55
-0.566
13.81898
-0.304
54
0.762335
55
0.156
0.91242
1.271
54
0.209199
55
-0.022
2.26974
-0.071
54
0.943431
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
237
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Table 2. The results of the discriminant analysis.
MSKUDM
MTRSM
MVKS
MSUZ
MSLUD
MT20V
MT40V
MT60V
MT4xl5
MTRUP
ATPSS
ASIS
ADUS
Wilks*
0.30
0.30
0.30
0.32
0.31
0.30
0.31
0.31
0.32
0.31
0.35
0.30
0.30
Partial
1.00
1.00
0.99
0.95
0.98
0.99
0.98
0.97
0.93
0.97
0.86
1.00
1.00
F-remove
0.03
0.01
0.56
5.70
2.39
1.28
2.39
3.27
7.29
3.35
15.69
0.17
0.06
p-level
0.86
0.93
0.46
0.02
0.13
0.26
0.13
0.07
0.01
0.07
0.00
0.68
0.80
Toler.
0.55
0.70
0.54
0.65
0.71
0.82
0.79
0.77
0.90
0.89
0.93
0.76
0.78
1-Toler.
0.45
0.30
0.46
0.35
0.29
0.18
0.21
0.23
0.10
0.11
0.07
0.24
0.22
Wilks* Lambda: .30 approx. F (13,98)=17.54 pO.OO
can be concluded that the motor skills of the participants with flat and normal (healthy) feet differ
in a statistically significant manner. For each of the
variables which defined explosive strength as a motor skill, statistically significant values of the T-test
were obtained (MSKUDM = -6.348, MTRSM =
-5.199, MVKS = -6.934, MSUZ = -6.707, MLUD
= -5.792), with a negative value, which means that
the participants who made up the E2 sub-sample
achieved better results than the participants from
the E1 sub-sample. In other words, the participants
with normal (healthy) feet were more successful in
the applied motor tests for determining explosive
strength than the participants with flat feet. Nevertheless, by analyzing the values of the T-test for
the second set of motor variables (speed), we can
conclude that statistically significant differences
exist in the case of four of the manifest variables
(MT20V = 6.084, MT40V =7.298, MT60V=8.661,
MT4x 15 =7.973), while in the case of the fifth variable (MTRUP = -0.304), the obtained value is not
statistically significant. The values obtained on the
T-test for the first four variables have a positive value, which means that the participants in the E1 subsample (those suffering from fallen arches, or flat
feet), had better results when completing the motor
tests of speed, as compared to the participants from
the E2 sub-sample who had normal (healthy) feet.
For the variable used to define flat feet, the expected value of the T-test was obtained, which indicates the statistical significance of the difference that
exists between the two sub-samples. The obtained
238
positive value (ATPSS=9.112) confirms that the
participants from the E1 sub-sample suffered from
flat feet, while the participants from the E2 subsample had normal (healthy) feet. In the remaining
two variables which defined the longitudinal and
transversal dimensionality of the feet (ADUS=0.071, ASIS= 1.271), the obtained results do not
indicate statistically significant differences between
the participants. This indicates that irrespective of
the presence of flat feet, no statistically significant
difference exists in terms of the width and length of
the feet of the participants.
Table 3. Matrix structure.
Group Function
MSKUDM
MTRSM
MVKS
MSUZ
MSLUD
MT20V
MT40V
MT60V
MT4xl5
MTRUP
ATPSS
ASIS
ADUS
Root 1
0.42
0.35
0.45
0.46
0.40
-0.38
-0.41
-0.51
-0.53
0.02
-0.57
-0.09
-0.02
Table 4. Group centroids
G 1:1
G2:2
-1.49
1.54
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Tables 2-4 show the results of the canonical discriminant analysis. The obtained statistical significance was at the (p=0.00) level. By means of the
transformation and condensation of the variables in
motor space (explosivity, speed) and in the space
of the variables used to evaluate flat feet (ATPSS,
AŠIS, ADUS), a single discriminant function was
isolated which separates the participants of the E1
and the E2 sub-sample, on the basis of the obtained
dsicriminant coefficients. By gaining insight into
the coefficients which determine the discriminant
function, we can note that except for the variables
which define longitudinal dimensionality (ADUS)
and transversal dimensionality (AŠIS), as well as
the variables for the evaluation of speed (MTRUP),
in the case of all the remaining variables, coefficients were obtained which accurately discriminate
between the E1 and E2 sub-sample. The highest
coefficient was obtained for the flat foot variable
(ATPSS), while in the case of all the remaining
motor variables, high or similar coefficients were
obtained. By analyzing the group centroids, their
extent and value, we can conclude that the sample
of participants which made up the E2 sub-sample
is statistically discriminated in relation to the participants in the E1 sub-sample in motor space, or in
other words in terms of explosive strength, while
the participants from the E1 sub-sample are statistically discriminated in relation to the participants of
the E2 sub-sample in terms of motor skill abilities
and postural deformities such as flat feet.
The results obtained during the current research
are not in accordance with the results of research
conducted by authors Tudor et al. (2009). The afore mentioned authors aimed to determine if there is
a relation between the degree of fallen arches and
several motor skills that are necessary for sport
performance in the research which included of 218
children aged 11 to 15. The value of the arch index
was corrected for the influence of age, and then the
entire sample was categorized into 4 groups according to the flatness of the participants’ feet. The
children were tested for eccentric-concentric contraction and hopping on a Kistler force platform,
speed-coordination polygon (Newtest system),
balance (3 tests), toe flexion (textile crunching),
tiptoe standing angle, and repetitive leg movements. Altogether, 17 measures of athletic performance were measured. No significant correlations
between the arch height and 17 motor skills were
found. Categorizing the sample into 4 groups did
not reveal any differences between the groups in
terms of athletic performance. In addition, several multivariate analyses of variance sets of multiple independent variables referring to a particular
motor ability were not found to be significant. No
difference was found even after comparing only
the 2 extreme groups, meaning children with very
low and children with very high arches, nor a disadvantage in sport performance originating from
flat-footedness were confirmed. Children with
flat and children with “normal” feet were equally
successful at accomplishing all motor tests; thus,
the afore mentioned authors suggested that there is
no need for treatment of flexible flat feet with the
sole purpose of improving athletic performance,
as traditionally advised by many.
Concerning other studies related to the foot postural status and sport activities, the authors Kaufman et al. (1999) tended to determine whether
an association exists between foot structure and
the development of musculoskeletal overuse injuries. The study group was a well-defined cohort of
449 trainees at the Naval Special Warfare Training
Center in Coronado, California. Before beginning
training, measurements were made related to ankle motion, subtalar motion, and the static (standing) and dynamic (walking) characteristics of the
foot arch. The subjects were tracked prospectively
for injuries throughout training. The afore mentioned authors identified the risk factors that predispose people to lower extremity overuse injuries.
These risk factors include dynamic pes planus, pes
cavus, restricted ankle dorsiflexion, and increased
hind foot inversion, all of which are subject to intervention and possible correction.
The authors Nigg et al. (1993) aimed to determine the influence of arch height on kinematic
variables of the lower extremities that have been
associated with the incidence of injury in running
in an attempt to gain some insight into a functional relationship between arch height and injury.
The three-dimensional kinematics of the lower
extremities was measured during running for 30
subjects using high-speed video cameras. A joint
coordinate system was used to calculate the threedimensional orientation of the ankle joint complex
for a single stance phase. Simple, linear regre-
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
ssion analyses showed that arch height does not
influence either maximal eversion movement or
maximal internal leg rotation during running stance. However, assuming that knee pain in running
can result from the transfer of foot eversion to
internal rotation of the tibia, a functional relationship between arch height and injury may exist
in that the transfer of foot eversion to internal leg
rotation was found to increase significantly with
increasing arch height. A substantial (27%), yet
incomplete, amount of the variation in the transfer
of movement between subjects was explained by
arch height, indicating that there must be factors
other than arch height that influence the kinematic
coupling at the ankle joint complex. Additionally,
the transfer of movement is only one factor of
many associated with the etiology of knee pain in
running. Therefore, according to the results of research, it is suggested that a running-injury-related
foot typology based on arch height is not possible.
The authors Živković, D. et al. (1991) carried out
a study on the relations between flat feet and static
balance. The obtained results corresponded with
their assumption of the statistical significance of
the status of the feet for this type of motor skill.
The higher the percentage of the fallen arches, the
more the values of the tests for the evaluation of
static balance indicated “poorer” results. Levajac
(1991) used a sample of preschool children aged
three to seven to study the differences in the level
of postural disorders in relation to gender and age
by using eight variables for the determination of
postural. The research indicated that in the case
of children in this age group, postural deformities
of the spinal column could be found in the frontal
and sagittal plain (to a lesser extent), while the majority of children suffering from postural disorders
had deviations of the feet.
Conclusion
The results of the research including participants suffering from fallen arches (the El subsample) which could be described as very satisfactory in terms of speed, but quite modest in the
case of explosive strength, require further detailed
analysis. The probable cause of such a state could
be sought in the static and dynamics of not only
the muscles of the feet but also of the muscle gro240
ups of the lower and upper leg and pelvic region.
The muscles of the feet evidently play and more
significant part in determining balance, as well as
in motor activities related to explosivity (startability), so the range of motor tests for the evaluation
of explosivity confirmed the significance of the
muscles of the longitudinal arch of the foot and
thus confirmed the lack of explosivity of the participants suffering from this type of weakness (flat
feet). Nevertheless, once speed as a cyclical motor
activity is analyzed, we obtain significantly better
results, and this in turn leads us to consider the degree of significance of the muscles of the feet, their
influence in activities such as running, in relation
to the significance and importance of the muscles
of the m. quadriceps femoris, m. biceps femoris,
m. triceps sure or the flexors and extensors of the
upper leg. It is evident that the afore mentioned
muscles take on a significant function in running
so that their function in cyclical movements of the
lower extremities is more significant than the activity of the muscles of the feet. Thus better results
were obtained for the participants with flat feet on
the motor tests for the evaluation of speed.
References
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Partizan. Barrow, M.H.&, 1978.
2. Bubanj R, Branković M. Athletics-techniques and
methodics (Atletika-tehnika i metodika). Autonomous
edition of authors, Niš, In Serbian, 1997.
3. Burns J, Keenan AM, Redmond A. Foot Type and Overuse Injury in Triathletes. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc,
2005; 95(3): 235-241. http://www.japmaonline.org/
cgi/content/abstract/95/3/235
4. Đurašković R. Biology of human development with
medicine of sport (Biologija razvoja čoveka sa medicinom sporta). Niš: S.I.I.C. In Serbian, 2001.
5. Gašić T, Bubanj S, Živković M, Stanković R, Bubanj
R, Obradović B. Difference in the explosive strength
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their sport activity, type of engagement in sport and
gender. Sport Science, 2011; 4(1): 63-67.
6. Kaufman K, Brodine S, Shaffer R, Johnson C, Cullison C. The Effect of Foot Structure and Range of
Motion on Musculoskeletal Overuse Injuries. Am J
Sports Med, 1999; 27(5): 585-593.
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7. Kurelić N, Momirović K, Stojanović M, Sturm J, Radojević Đ, Viskić-Stalec N. Structure and development
of morphologic and motor dimensions in youth
(Struktura i razvoj morfoloških i motoričkih dimenzija omladine). Beograd Institut za naučna istraživanja
fakulteta za fizičku kulturu. In Serbian, 1975.
8. Levajac R. Razlike u nivou motoričkih sposobnosti,
morfoloških karakteridtika i posturalnih devijacija
predškolske dece s obzirom na pol i uzrast. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Niš: Faculty of Physical
Culture, University of Niš, 1991.
9. Mihajlović I, Smajić M, Sente J. Frequency of foot
deformity in preschool girls. Vojnosanit Pregl, 2010;
67(11): 923-927.
10. Nigg BM, Cole GK, Nachbauer W. Effects of arch
height of the foot on angular motion of the lower extremities in running. J Biomech, 1993; 26(8): 909-916.
11. Pfeiffer M, Koty R, Ledl T, Hauser G, Sluga M. Prevalence of flat foot in percolated children. Pediatrics
2006; 118 (2): 634–639.
12. Tudor A, Ružić L, Sestan B, Sirola L, Prpić T. FlatFootedness Is Not a Disadvantage for Athletic Performance in Children Aged 11 to 15 Years. Pediatrics, 2009; 123(3): e386-e392.
13. Živković D. Theory and methodics of corrective
gymnastics (Teorija i metodika korektivne gimnastike).
Autonomous edition of authors. Niš, In Serbian, 1998.
14. Zivković D, Petrović M, Petković D. Relations
between flat foot and static balance (Relacije između
ravnog stopala i statičke ravnoteže). X Letnja škola
pedagoga fizičke kulture Jugoslavije. Ohrid. In Serbian. Book of proceedings, 1991.
Corresponding Author
Mladen Zivkovic,
University of Nis,
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education,
Nis,
Serbia,
E-mail: [email protected]
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Effect of WIN51,708, a NK1 receptor antagonist,
on the signal transmission between two endings
of primary afferent nerves from adjacent spinal
segments*
Qi-Xin Sun1, Yan Zhao2, Shi-Hong Zhang3, Wen-Chun Shi2, Hui-Sheng Wang2
1
2
3
Department of Biological Medical Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong
University, Xi’an, China;
Department of Physiology, Medical College, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, China;
Pharmacological Department of Pharmacological School, Zhejiang University.
Abstract
WE reported previously that the signal transmission between the endings of adjacent spinal
segments could produced by the electric stimulation across spinal segments and proposed the involvement of the endogenous SP through evoking
NK1 receptor in peripheral nerve and other tissue.
The present study aimed to determine the possible
involvement of the NK1 receptor in the process of
signal transmission between the endings of adjacent spinal segments. The discharge increase of Afibers, used as the index of the signal transmission between endings of adjacent spinal segments,
were induced by the antidromic electric stimulation of nerve stem from adjacent spinal segment
and observed. The signal transmission was significantly attenuated a micro-injection of WIN51,708
(0.57micromol/L, 10ml), a selective non-peptide
antagonist of NK1 receptors into the receptive
fields of recorded A-units recorded. Before the
blockage of NK1 receptor, a moderate increase of
the discharge of A-fibers was evoked by a microinjection of SP (0.74micromol/L, 10ml), a NK1 receptor agonist, showing a facilitating effect of SP
on the signal transmission. WIN51,708, administered i.c. 30 min prior to SP micro-injection into
receptive field antagonized the facilitating effect
of SP on the signal transmission. The blockage
duration of WIN51,708 on the signal transmission
was longer than 67.16±8.33min. These findings
suggest that the effects of both of endogenous SP
released from endings of nerve stem stimulated
antidromically, and exogenous SP injected into
receptive field of recorded A-fibers are mediated
242
through NK1 receptive sites. Endogenous SP and
its receptor bond mechanism may be an essential
principle of the signal transmission between peripheral endings from adjacent spinal segments.
That may also be an important neurobiological
base of sensory transmission along meridian.
Key words: WIN 51,708; antagonist; NK1
Receptor; Primary Afferent A-fibers; Discharge;
Signal Transmission between Peripheral Endings
from Adjacent Spinal Segments; Meridian
1. Introduction
Substance P (SP) is widely distributed in the
central and peripheral nerve system. There is
growing body of evidence that support the implication of tachykinin involvement in the signal transmission among peripheral nerve. After stimulation
of nociceptive-peptidergic afferents, SP is released
peripherally and exerts various pro-inflammatory
effects such as vasodilation, increased vascular
permeability and the release of some inflammatory
substances [35]. The contribution of SP to peripheral
nerve was shown to be mediated by the neurokinin-1 (NK1) tachykinin receptor [18,25]. By cutting
dorsal root and stimulating the distal end, the content of SP in the dermic perfusing liquid on the stimulated side was markedly higher than that on the
control side while the contents of other kind of transmitters were much lower than that on control side
[21]
. Similarly, with a radioimmunoassay of method,
SP was revealed significantly increased release under the condition of dorsal root reflex in receptive
field of dorsal cutaneous nerve stimulated [4]. By the
efferent and local effector function of primary affe-
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
rent nerve, some vasoactive peptide transmitters
or modulators were released from the peripheral
endings and a following neurogenic inflammation
wad found in the receptive field of stimulated nerves. It has also been turned out that in this way the
released bioactive substances can activate the endings of adjacent spinal segment, and finally, cause
the discharge change there. That is called the signal transmission between peripheral endings from
adjacent spinal segments or the signal transmission
across spinal segments [8, 15, 40]. Without any involvement of central nerve system, a significant change
of mechanical and electro-physiological properties
of primary afferent A-fibers was evoked by an antidromical electrical stimulation of cutaneous nerve
stem from adjacent spinal cord [28]. This could be
verified by some research results of morphology:
SP-like immunoreactivity (SP-LI) was observed
in Ad-fibers in dorsal root ganglia of cats [30]. A
synapse-like connection between SP-containing
axon endings and mast cell was found in human
skin [34]. The gap between SP-ergic or calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)- ergic fiber ending and
mast cell is less than 100 nm in periphery, similar to
that of synapse [6]. But up to now, the mechanism of
signal transmission across spinal segments is maintained unknown. The present study aimed to determine the effect of WIN 51,708, a selective nonpeptide NK1 receptor antagonist, on the discharge
and signal transmission between peripheral endings
of A-fibers from dorsal cutaneous branch of spinal
nerve from adjacent spinal segments in anaesthetized rats and to assess the involvement of local SP
release and its mechanism in the signal transmission across spinal segments on the meridian in the
Traditional Chinese Medicine.
2. Methods and materials
2.1. Animals
The experiments were carried out in sixty-two
Sprague–Dawley rats from experimental animal
center of Xi’an Jiaotong University in China. These animals, without sexual distinguish weighing
200 ~ 230g, were kept under standard laboratory
conditions (12:12 h light: dark cycle at 22 ± 2° C)
and given free access to food and water before the
experiment.
2.2. Surgery
The animals were deeply anesthetized with
urethane (1.0 g/kg, i.P.). Supplemental doses were
given to maintain constant anaesthesia and to
prevent any reaction to electrical or mechanical
stimulation. A paramedian incision on back skin
was made longitudinally to separate the cutaneous branch of dorsal ramus (CBDR) of T9 and T10
spinal nerves for 2.5~3.5 cm from the surrounding
tissues. With the exposed tissues kept at 37°C in
liquid paraffin, the separated nerve branches of T9
and T10 CBDR were transected proximally and
the discharge of single Aδ- and Ab-fibers of the
distal branches responding to mechanical stimulation were selected for recording by the use of
conventional teased-filament techniques [3].
Figure 1. Schematic drawing of the experimental
set-up in the experiment. Cross-excitation between
two intact neighboring spinal nerves was studied
by recording the spontaneous discharge of single
Ad- and Ab-fibers in the cutaneous branch of the
dorsal ramus (CBDR) of T10, and antidromically
electronical stimulating the neighbor spinal nerve of T9 CBDR (20 Hz for 10 sec, at a strength
of 1.0mA, 0.2ms in shock duration). Since both
nerves were cut proximally, any change in the recorded activity must be due to a cross-talk in the
periphery. The scheme shows our hypothesis: activated antidromically traveling action potentials of
T9 CBDR caused the release of SP and other peptide from their peripheral terminals. SP diffused to
neighboring mechanoceptive Ad-fibers and Ab-fibers, binding to NK-1 receptors, sensitizing the
terminals of Ad-fibers in T10 CBDR and causing
them to increase their spontaneous discharge.
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Both of the filaments and nerve branches of
adjacent spinal segment, T9 and T10 CBDR were
put on platinum bipolar electrodes in proper order
for discharge recording of A-fibers of T10 and antidromical electrical stimulation. Schematic drawing
of the experimental set-up in the experiment is
shown in Figure 1.
2.3. Recording and Stimulation
The recording was started when the unit activity had become stable 1h after surgery. The adaptation characteristic was measured by a set of calibrated von Frey’s hair (0.02~16.6 milli-Newton,
mN). On the basis of their adapting speed to
mechanical stimulus, the units were divided into
two types: rapidly adapting (RA) units and slowly
adapting (SA) units.
The recording electrode was connected to a
VC-10 Oscilloscope (Nihon Kohden) to display
the bioelectric signal of the units and take photos.
The signal was synchronously fed to a desktop
computer (Apple II) that sketched the sequence
histogram with 1 min spontaneous firing as control. The discharge change following antidromical
electrical stimulation (0.45 mA, 0.1 ms, 20 Hz,
for 10 s) to the nerve stem of adjacent spinal segment was recorded for 3 min or longer to record
a response of recorded unit as a indicator of signal
transmission between peripheral endings from
adjacent spinal segments.
Before an experimental order on a unit was finished, a single pulse with progressively increased
intensity was delivered to the center of the receptive field of the unit to read out its electrical stimulation threshold and the latency of action potential
to calculate the conduction velocity (CV) of the
unit. The units with the CVs 2.1m/s to 29.9m/s
were put under primary afferent Aδ-fibers while
the ones with CV faster than 30m/s were put in
the group of primary afferent Ab-fibers. The body
temperature of animals was kept at 38~39 ºC.
2.4. Drug administration
The NK-1 receptor antagonist, WIN 51,708
(from Sigma RBI, St. Louis. MO) was administrated via subcutaneous micro-injection into the
skin of the receptive field of recorded unit after
244
the introduction of signal transmission between
peripheral endings from adjacent spinal segments.
Shortly before subcutaneous micro-injection,
WIN51, 708 was dissolved in a solution of phosphate buffered saline (PBS; PH 7.2) containing
0.3% dimethylsulfoxide at a concentration of 0.57
micromol/L. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS; PH
7.2) containing 0.3% dimethylsulfoxide was used
as vehicle. A volume of 10ml of WIN, 51,708 solution or its vehicle was injected into the receptive
filed of recorded unit over 8 min. An antidromical
electrical stimulation was delivered to the cutaneous nerve stem from adjacent spinal segment
again to observe the effect of WIN51,708 on the
signal transmission between peripheral endings
from adjacent spinal segments.
SP (0.74micromol/L, 10ml), a NK1 receptor
agonist, was injected into same point to confirm
the facility role of NK1 receptor on the signal transmission between peripheral endings from adjacent spinal segments before and after the microinjection of WIN51,708.
A minimum time of 40 min was allowed between micro-injection of WIN51,708 and SP as our
earlier study showed that the interval is adequate
for evoked changes in afferent activity to return to
control level [26].
2.5. Statistical analysis and illustration
The Spearman Rank Order Correlation of SigmaStat.2.03 software was employed to analyze
all experiment data. All values are given as mean ±
S.E. P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The SigmaPlot 8.02 and Photoshop 6.0 were
used to treat all figures illustrated in the paper.
3. Results
3.1. The mechanical receptive properties of
A-fibers
Of all 66 recorded units, 58 Aδ-fibers and 8
Ab-fibers, there were 77.3% (51/66) SA units and
22.7% (15/66) FA units. The adapting duration of
all A-units lasted for one second to a few minutes that mean value was 16.82 ± 3.12s. The duration was significantly shorter than that of C-fiber
(Wilcoxon signed rank test, P<0.05) [26]. Except
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9 units having a high mechanoceptive threshold
from 1.2 mN to 16.6 mN, the rest 57 A-fibers
belonged to low-threshold A-mechanoreceptors
fibers and nociceptors having a lower mechanoceptive threshold ranging from 0.01 mN to 0.7
mN (mean 0.31 ± 0.08) than that of C-fibers [ 39 ].
Similar to the reported result [ 26, 28 ], most receptive
fields of A-fibers were smaller than that of C-fibers. 8.7% (4/46) of them were even only a single dot and 65.2% (30/46) were ellipse. The rest
26.1% (12/46) were circle. The area of receptive
fields varied in a range from 0.28 mm2 to 150.75
mm2. The mean value was 17.75 ± 4.11 mm2. There were one to two dots within each receptive field at which a number of immediately increasing
discharges could be induced by a suprathreshold
mechanical stimulation. That was so-called the
center, or the sensitive point of receptive field.
79.0% (60/76) of the sensitive points distributed
along the belt between two branches of the Bladder meridian of Foot Taiyang on the dorsum.
3.2. The spontaneous discharge of all recorded
A-units and the changes evoked by the
micro-injection of WIN51,708
Sixty-six units, 58 Aδ-fibers and 8 Ab-fibers, were
observed. A spontaneous discharge was recorded at
39.4% (n=66) A-units in a single, scattered and irregular pattern with a mean of 4.98 ± 1.08 per 30s.
Figure 2. An example of mechanoceptive Adfibers in T10 CBDR that were cross-excited by
antidromically electrical stimulating the neighbor
spinal nerve of T9 CBDR, whose conduction
velocity is 8.9 m/s. Con. is the spontaneous discharge level record of the unit control discharge
level for 1 minute before antidromically electrical
stimulating of T9 CBDR. Black bar indicates the
onset and duration of tetanus (stimulus intensity
- 1.0 mA, pulse width - 0.2 ms, shock frequency
– 20 Hz, tetanus duration - 10 sec). A following
evoked discharge was recorded for 4 minutes to
show the recovering process of the unit.
The amplitude of spikes was bigger than that
of C-fibers [39]. The electrical stimulation threshold
of A-fibers was 0.08 to 0.2 mA and the mean was
0.14 ± 0.01 mA. These electro-physiological properties were similar to those previous reports [ 27 ~
28]
. The spontaneous discharge and change of an
Ad-fiber of T10 CBDN reduced by an antidromically electric stimulation on T9 CBDN was shown
in Figure 2. The average discharge changes of all
recorded units induced by antidromical electrical
stimulation on T9 CBDN were shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3. The time course of firing frequency
changes of mechanoceptive A-fibers in T10
CBDR that were cross-excited by tetanization of
T9 CBDR in intact rats (n=90 units). The break
on the abscissa indicates the onset and duration
of antidromically electrical stimulating (stimulus
intensity - 1.0mA, pulse width - 0.2 ms, shock
frequency – 20 Hz, tetanus duration - 10 sec). **
indicates P < 0.01 compared to control level and
* represent P < 0.0, respectively.
Immediately WIN51, 708 or vehicle was injected into the center of receptive field of recorded
units, an appreciable increasing discharge was found at A-units at varies level. Having been given
a micro-injection of WIN51,708, 33.3% (22/66)
units displayed a exciting firing for 3 s to 5 min
(mean 3.12 ± 0.68 min). The mean values of discharge numbers were significantly higher than
that of its control level for 3 min. Similar response occurred at the units that were given a vehicle
micro-injection. But there is a lack of any significant difference between discharge mean values of
per minute of two groups units that were treated
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
with WIN51,708 or the vehicle. The discharge
number changes of all recorded units caused by
the micro-injection of vehicle or WIN51,708 was
illustrated in Figure 4.
a)
b)
Figure 4. The time course of firing frequency
changes of mechanoceptive A-fibers in T10 CBDR
following local intradermal microinjection of
Win51,708 (A, n =46 ) and its vehicle (B, n = 23)
into the center of the RFs. The zero point of abscissa indicates the onset of microinjection and its duration (5min). ** and * represent P < 0.01 and P
< 0.05, respectively, when compared to the spontaneous discharge lever before microinjection.
3.3. The introducing of the signal
transmission between peripheral endings
from adjacent spinal segments before and
after the micro-injection of WIN51,708
With 1 min recording of spontaneous discharge
for control, an antidromical electrical stimulation
(0.45 mA, 0.1 ms, 20 Hz, for 10 s) was delivered
246
continuously to T9 CBDR. A notable increasing
spike was found in 81.8% (54/66) A-fibers. Meanwhile, the activity of the rest 18.9% units was
unaffected or inhibited. The mean number of discharge of all A-fibers reached at peak during 0~30s
and then, declined gradually and retuned to its
control level 90s after the antidromical electrical
stimulation of T9 CBDR. The spike number of the
units increased significantly from the control level of 4.98 ± 1.08 to 8.24 ± 1.89, 7.21 ± 1.53 and
6.33 ± 1.27 respectively during 0 ~ 30 s, 30 ~ 60
s and 60 ~ 90 s after the stimulation (Wilcoxon
signed rank test, P < 0.01, 0.05). There is a significant change evoked by antidromical electrical
stimulation of T9 CBDR before microinjection of
WIN51,708 like illustrated in Figure 3.
On the background of exciting discharge after
the micro-injection of WIN51,708, an antidromical
electrical stimulation of T9 CBDR did not produce a increasing discharge of A-fibers. Only 30.3%
(20/66) A-fibers was slightly activated, 24.2%
(16/66) was inhibited and the rest 45.5% (30/66)
remained unchanged.
Figure 5. The time course of firing frequency
changes of mechanoceptive A-fibers in T10 DBCR
following the antidromically electrical stimulating
of T9 CBDR after the local intradermal microinjection of WIN 51,708, a non-peptide NK-1
receptor antagonist (n = 46 units) into the RFs.
The break on the abscissa indicates the onset and
duration of antidromically electrical stimulating
(stimulus intensity - 1.0 mA, pulse width - 0.2 ms,
shock frequency – 20 Hz, tetanus duration - 10
sec). ** and * represent P <0.01 and P <0.05, respectively, when compared to the control level.
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
No more significant increasing discharge was
seen in discharge numbers of the units treated with
the micro-injection of WIN51,708. The mean values of discharge per 30s were mild higher than
the control level. As illustrated in Figure 5B, WIN
51,708 had significantly attenuated the signal transmission between peripheral endings from adjacent spinal segments. Discharge number of most
A-fibers was not increased again following a antidromical electrical stimulation of T9 CBDR. The
exiting of antidromical electrical stimulation of T9
CBDR on discharge of A-fibers was blocked by the
WIN51708 microinjection. But vehicle did not produce the attenuating effect.
3.4. The effect of SP on the signal
transmission between peripheral endings
from adjacent spinal segments before and
after the micro-injection of WIN51,708
When a SP microinjection (0.74micromol/L,
10ml, i.c., n =49) was given into the RFs, the discharge of units increased significantly. Similar to
our previous report [26], the discharge of primary
afferent nerve was significantly activated for 9
minutes and the signal transmission between peripheral endings from adjacent spinal segments
was promoted for 120 s by the micro-injection of
SP in the receptive field of recorded T10 CBDR.
The evoked discharge changes of A-fibers induced
by SP microinjection are illustrated in Figure 6.
On the background of increasing discharge induced by SP microinjection, an antidromical electrical
stimulation of T9 CBDR was delivered. A facilitating effect of SP was detected on the activating
effect of an antidromical electrical stimulation of T9
CBDR. The facilitating effect is shown in Figure 7.
After a pre-treatment of Win51,708 microinjection, SP microinjection was given into the centre of
RFs, antidromical electrical stimulation of T9 CBDR
did not evoke any significant exciting change of Afibers. The discharge number was found only a transient increase and then gradually recovering to its’
control level. The facilitating effect of SP on the signal transmission between peripheral endings from
adjacent spinal segments was significantly attenuated by the pre-treatment of NK1 receptor antagonist
WIN51,708. The blocking effect of WIN51,708 on
NK1 receptor is shown in Figure 8.
Figure 6. The time course of firing frequency
changes of mechanoceptive A-fibers in T10
CBDR following local intradermal microinjection of substance P (n =46 ) into the center of the
RFs. The zero point of abscissa indicates the onset of microinjection and its duration (5min). **
and * represent P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively, when compared to the spontaneous discharge lever before microinjection.
Figure 7. The time course of firing frequency
changes of mechanoceptive A-fibers in T10
CBDR following antidromical electrical stimulation of T9 CBDR after a local intradermal
microinjection of substance P (n = 46 units for
each group) into the center of the RFs. The black
bar indicates the onset of antidromical electrical
stimulation of T9 CBDR. ** and * represent P
<0.01 and P <0.05, respectively, when compared
to the control level of spontaneous discharge.
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Figure 8. The blocking effect of WIN51,708 on
NK1 receptor. The time course of firing frequency changes of mechanoceptive A-fibers in T10
DBCR following an antidromical stimulation of
T9 CBDR after the local intradermal microinjection of WIN 51,708 and substance P, (n=46 units)
into the RFs. The facilitating effect of substance P
on the exciting action of tetanization of T9 CBDR
was blocked. The break on the abscissa indicates
the onset and duration of tetanus (stimulus intensity - 1.0 mA, pulse width - 0.2 ms, shock frequency – 20 Hz, tetanus duration - 10 sec). ** and
* represent P <0.01 and P <0.05, respectively,
when compared to its’ control level.
Discussion
The present study showed that WIN51, 708,
belongs to the heterosteroid series of selective
non-peptide antagonist of NK1 receptors, did not
markedly affect the spontaneous firing activity of
primary afferent A-fibers in anaesthetized rats while the antagonist suppressed apparently the signal
transmission between peripheral endings from
adjacent spinal segments. The results reveal the involvement of endogenous SP in the process of signal transmission between peripheral endings from
adjacent spinal segments and also substantiate our
hypothesis about the mechanism of the signal transmission between peripheral endings from adjacent
spinal segments without any influence of central
nervous system that endogenous SP released from
primary afferent endings induced by electrical stimulation, evokes the signal transmission between
peripheral endings from adjacent spinal segments
mainly through its NK1 receptor [ 4, 8, 12, 21, 28, 35 ~ 37, 40].
248
WIN51,708 possesses moderate affinity for the
rat NK1 receptor, interacting competitively with the
receptor, and blocks the excitatory action of SP and
neurokinin A (NKA) [29]. It has shown species-selective interaction with this receptive site, being more
potent in rat than in human or guinea pig tissue in
binding to and blocking of the tachykinin NK1 receptor [2]. Thus, with regard to the receptor-specificity of the antagonist it is likely that the observed
facilitating effect of endogenous or exogenous SP
on the signal transmission between peripheral endings from adjacent spinal segments are mediated
through NK1 receptive sites. When NK1 receptor
was blocked by WIN51, 708 micro-injection in
same point, an exogenous SP micro-injection failed in inducing the signal transmission between
peripheral endings from adjacent spinal segments.
This was significantly different from the facilitating effect of exogenous SP or NKA before the treatment of WIN51,708. These inhibitory effects of
WIN51,708 were identical with the latest reports [5].
SP has been speculated as a transmitter of
mechanical and chemical signal transmission and
was proved an excitatory effect on the potential of
A-fibers through the mediating of NK1 receptor [20,
24, 37]
. There exists widely NK1 receptor in peripheral nervous tissue [9, 16, 19~20, 22~23]. By the studies
of immunocytochemical methods with light and
electron microscopy, NK1 receptor, a receptor preferentially activated by SP, was found in peripheral
tissue, not only dorsal root ganglia, nerve endings
and primary afferent fibers partially or completely
covered by a Schwann cell sheath, but also throughout various cells in the connective tissue (endothelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages) at invaginations of the plasma membrane and in vesicular and
granular structures that are probably endosomes
and are found close to both the plasma membrane
and the nucleus [16]. Repetitive, low-frequency group I/II Ab-fiber stimulation evoked a novel wind-up
response after NGF injection. The novel Ab-fiberevoked wind-up response was reduced by selective
NK1 receptor antagonist RP67580 [11, 31].
Ab sensory neurons appeared to contribute to
inflammatory allodynia in the rats and cats. The
number of Ab neurons with spontaneous firing
was enhanced significantly and DRG Ab neurons
were less depolarized 2-4 h following carrageenan
injection. SP-LI was then detected at Ab sensory
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
neurons. Repeated application of SP depolarized
the membrane potential in most Ab neurons and
did not induce obvious desensitization of Ab neurons. The SP-induced responses was completely
blocked by L668,169, another antagonist of SP
receptor, suggesting that peripheral inflammation
increased the excitability, SP level and sensitivity
of SP receptor of Ab neurons [20, 36].
A number of details have been given to show
the function mechanism of tachykinin NK1 receptor, existing widely in Ab- and Ad-fibers [10, 29, 32]. By
using whole-cell patch-clamp methods, NKA and
SP caused an inward current in a concentration-dependent manner. These excitatory effects, producing inward currents, were reduced by non-selective peptide antagonist Spantide or selective nonpeptide antagonist CP-99,994 for NK1 receptor.
The inward current produced by tachykinins was
associated with decrease in K+ conductance. They
suppressed both a voltage-dependent K+ current
and a voltage-independent background K+ current.
Depletion of intracellular ATP depressed the inward
current. These results suggest that the tachykinininduced inward current is mediated through the
NK1 receptor that mainly couples to pertussis toxininsensitive G-protein in bullfrog primary afferent
neurons [1]. Superfusion of SP depolarized 42% of
tonic neurons and inhibited afterhyperpolarizations in 66% of long afterhyperpolarizing of dorsal
root ganglion neurons without significant desensitization. These effects of SP were abolished by
the selective NK1 receptor antagonist, SR140333,
suggesting that exogenous SP activated a receptor
with NK1 pharmacology. All neurons responding to
SP had SP immunoreactive fibers within one cell
diameter, indicating good spatial matching between SP release sites and target neurons [13]. SP depolarizes peripheral nerve endings, also possibly
through inositol trisphosphate-gated Ca2+ influx,
followed by induction of action potentials in the
peripheral axons of primary afferent neurons [11,
19]
. WIN51,708 could antagonize SP effects mainly
through blocking NK1 receptor in this mechanism.
Some evidences were given to reveal that NK1
tachykinin receptor antagonists produce an inhibitory effect by blocking NK1 receptor cooperating
with other transmitters and their receptors [13, 21].
They attenuated the suppressant effect of the a2adrenoceptor agonist clonidine on the firing acti-
vity of serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA)
neurons. These findings suggest that NK1 receptor
antagonists affect markedly the NA system via an
attenuation of the function of a2-adrenoceptors on
the cell body of NA neurons and, consequently,
may also modulate 5-HT neurotransmission [7].
The triple combination of NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801, the NK1 tachykinin
receptor antagonist GR-205,171 and the NK2
tachykinin receptor antagonist SR-144,190 reduced significantly the nucleus tractus solitarii
response to intragastric HCl, showing that glutamate acting via NMDA receptors and tachykinins
acting via NK1 and NK2 receptors cooperation in
the vagal afferent input from the acid-threatened
stomach to the nucleus tractus solitarii and participate in the processing of afferent input to the AP
in a different and complex manner [14]. Intrathecal
administration of RP67580 attenuated the flexor
reflex evoked in adjuvant-treated animals. Intravenous or intraplantar injection of RP67580 did not
affect the flexor reflex in adjuvant-treated animals
indicating a spinal action of the drug following
intrathecal administration. But these effects were
not mediated entirely by its action at NK1 receptors [23]. NK1, NK2, and NMDA receptor antagonists also significantly reduced the summated ventral root potential responses evoked by repeated
A-fiber stimulation in UV-treated animals. The
evoked response and the expression of an NK1
receptor component were associated with behavioral hyperalgesia to thermal and mechanical
stimuli. The enhanced ventral root responses and
changes in receptor sensitivity may contribute to
the phenomenon of central sensitization and may
be directly related to the behavioral hyperalgesia
observed [32]. The cooperation manner of several
transmitters and their receptors can be employed
to explain that only part of the discharge of A-fibers involving in the signal transmission was blocked by WIN51,708 in present experimental data,
indicating the existence of other mechanism.
The expression of NK1 receptors was studied
in the primary afferent nerves of young rats using
immunohistochemical and electrophysiological
techniques. Use of a specific immunoserum raised
against the C-terminal fragment of rat NK1 receptor revealed immunoreactivity in 32% of dorsal
root ganglion neurons. The diameter of the majo-
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
rity of the NK1 receptor immunostained neurons
was smaller than 30 mm. Double immunohistochemical labeling using NK1 receptor and SP antibodies revealed that about 1/3 of the NK1 receptor
expressing neuron contains SP. Likewise, about
1/3 of the SP producing DRG cells expressed the
NK1 receptor. Superfusion of SP to an in vitro preparation of the fourth lumbar dorsal root ganglion
induced a reversible long-lasting depolarization
as measured by extracellular suction electrodes
attached to the dorsal roots. This response to SP
was only partially antagonized by the selective
NK1 receptor antagonist RP67580. Intracellular
recordings distinguished between Aa-/b-, Ad- and
C-sub-types of ganglion neurons. Superfusion of
SP evoked excitatory responses in Ad- and C-type
neurons. These results demonstrate the expression of functional NK1 receptors on a subpopulation of Ad- and C-type sensory ganglion neurons,
suggesting the possible physiological importance
of peripheral NK1 receptors located on dorsal root
ganglion neurons and primary afferent fibers [1, 10].
Some morphological data was shown that A-fibers were involved in the composing and activation
of meridian[34, 38]. In present work, both of nerves
stimulated electrically and A-fibers recorded in the
experiment distributed along the Bladder Meridian
of Foot-Taiyang. The responding latency of A-fibers to electrical stimulation across spinal segment
was a few seconds to a minute, similar to the speed
of sensory transmission along meridian (1~10
cm/s), a special phenomenon in human body according to the Traditional Chinese Medicine [4, 21, 28~29,
38~40]
. According to the evidence mentioned above,
we inferred the signal transmission between endings of primary afferent nerves can be an important
neurobiological basis of the sensory transmission
along meridian. A-fibers is an important part of the
neurobiological basis. Primary afferent A-fibers,
Ad- and Ab-fibers recorded belong to low- threshold mechanoceptor and nociceptors, were proposed to be the essential morphological proportion involving the process of the meridian action [17, 21, 28, 40].
Conclusion
Overall, primary afferent A-fibers were involved in the process of the signal transmission
between the endings of adjacent spinal segments
250
through the release of endogenous SP induced by
the antidromical electric stimulation of adjacent
spinal nerve. This effect of endogenous SP could
be enhanced by the micro-injection of exogenous SP and was essentially blocked by the microinjection of WIN51, 708, a selective non-peptide
antagonist of NK1 receptors, indicating that SP
induces the signal transmission across spinal segments mainly through NK1 receptor in primary
afferent A-fibers. That may also be an important
neurobiological base of some endogenous nervous disease and the sensory transmission along meridian in the Traditional Chinese Medicine.
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Corresponding Author
Yan Zhao,
Department of Physiology,
Medical school of Xi’an Jiaotong University,
Xi’an,
Shaanxi,
The People’s Republic of China
E-mail: [email protected]
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Factors related to the frequency of citation of the
Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy
Bayram Unver1, Fatma U. Kocak2, Mehmet Erduran3
1
2
3
Department of Orthopedic Physiotherapy, School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, University of Dokuz
Eylul, Izmir, Turkey,
School of Sports Sciences and Technology, University of Pamukkale, Kinikli, Denizli, Turkey,
Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, University of Dokuz Eylul, Balcova-Izmir, Turkey.
Abstract
Objective: We conducted a review of the
highest impact physical therapy journal [Journal
of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy (JOSPT)] to determine the factors associated with subsequent citations within five years of publication.
Methods: We conducted the citation counts for
all the original articles published in JOSPT 2006
(12 issues). We used a logistic regression analysis
to identify the factors associated with the citation
counts.
Results: We identified 76 original articles in
the JOSPT. There were 878 subsequent citations
within five years of publication of these articles.
The type of the article and the participant, the level
of evidence and the number of the authors were
the variables associated with the subsequent citation rate. The research reports, the topical reviews,
the studies made with the asymptomatic adults,
the studies not including any participants, the level A studies, the multi-centered articles and those
with more authors articles are citated more.
Conclusions: We found significant correlations between the citation rates and the type of the
article and the participant, the level of evidence,
and the number of the authors. We consider that
this information may help the readers of the JOSPT, the authors, the reviewers, the librarians and
the promotion committees to plan their studies,
and also to analyze and evaluate the articles.
Key words: Citation analysis, citation, bibliometrics, sports, orthopedics, physical therapy
(specialty).
Introduction
The article that has been referenced by another
peer-reviewed article receives what is known as a
citation [1]. An important part of the research process is the publication in the peer-reviewed journals. An equally important outcome, however, is
the use and the citation of these published articles
by other researchers and authors [2]. One way to
measure the academic importance of a journal, or
the articles within it, is the rate at which the work
is quoted or referenced by the other authors [3]. Citation analyses within specific journals and specific subject areas have become a popular method of
assessing the citation impact of a journal, an article,
or an author [1-4]. The citation and the other academic impact information have been collected by and
available from the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI; Philadelphia, PA, USA) since 1945, and
electronically since 1979 [1-4]. In 1955, the impact
factor (IF) was proposed by Eugene Garfield as a
simple method to calculate the relative frequencies
of the citations between the journals. Subsequently,
the IF was used to select the journals for the Science
Citation Index (SCI), a commercial property of the
ISI and founded by Garfield in 1961 [4].
The citation analyses were performed to assist
the librarians, authors, practitioners, and others in
identifying the important journals for acquisition,
publication, and reference. Citation analysis is also
widely used for impact assessment of the individual
scientists, clinicians, institutions, and entire nations
for the determination of awards, rankings, and even
promotion and tenure decisions [2,5-8]. Moreover,
to increase the visibility of their research, the researchers want to have their work published in highimpact journals. Publishing manuscripts with high
citation potential is also of interest to scientific journals, as doing this can improve the journal’s credibility, relevance, and financial independence. In this
regard, it seems to be very important to identify the
manuscript characteristics associated with a higher
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
number of citations, as well as more views from the
journal readers [9].
The Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical
Therapy Journal (JOSPT) strives to be the premier
journal for orthopaedic and sports physical therapy
research, and is the official journal of the Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy Sections of the
American Physical Therapy Association (APTA)
[10-12]. It has been published since 1979 [10-12],
and it is one of the most widely circulated (The
Journal reaches more than 32,000 individuals and
institutions in the United States and 55 countries
around the world. The Journal’s website, www.
jospt.org, receives more than 47,000 unique visitors each month and the readers rank JOSPT first
in usefulness among 12 leading journals) [11], and
is currently the most frequently cited clinical specialty physical therapy journal [10,11,13,14], with
a reported impact factor of 3.000 [11]. JOSPT is
the top specialty physical therapy journal [10,14],
and listed in the rehabilitation category in SCI
journal lists [11,13,15,16].
The studies investigated the citation analysis
and the factors affecting the citation rates have
been conducted in various fields of medicine
[1-7,9,17-44]. There is also citation studies related to the physical therapy field in the literature
[8,10,13,14,45]. However, the factors affecting
the citation rates have not been investigated in the
top specialty physical therapy journal (JOSPT).
Therefore, we undertook a study to determine
what factors were associated with an increased
rate of citation using a cohort of articles published
in 2006 in JOSPT.
Methods
We included all original scientific articles published in the JOSPT in 2006. All research or
review articles were considered for the analysis,
whereas the studies of the editorials, the letters to
the editor, the report of the expert committee, and
the congresses proceedings were excluded. From
each eligible article, we evaluated the articles
using a standardized evaluation form the included variables that have been previously reported
to predict the rates of citations in similar studies
[2,3,6,8,9,17,18,20-28,31-35,37-39,41,43,44,4648]. These were:
254
1) the month of the publication (January to June,
July and December); 2) Type of the article (research
report, topical review and case report); 3) level of
evidence (level A: consistent level 1 studies, Level
B: consistent level 2 or 3 the studies or extrapolations from level 1 studies, Level C: level 4 the studies
or extrapolations from level 2 or 3 studies, Level
D: level 5 evidence or troublingly inconsistent or
inconclusive studies of any level); 4) geographical location of the study in which the research was
performed (defined as the country or countries in
which the research participants were recruited or,
for research which did not use research participants,
e.g., systematic review, the country of the corresponding author); 5) sample size of the study (None:
no participants included in the study, 1-25, 26-99,
≥ 100); 6) Type of the participant (Symptomatic
adults: Includes or refers to humans aged 18 and
older with a current symptomatic clinical condition,
Asymptomatic adults: Includes or refers to normal
or asymptomatic human adults, Combined adults;
Includes both a clinical and healthy adult cohort, Tissue: Includes or refers to removed tissue or fluid,
None: no participants included in study; 7) Number
of authors (1-3, 4-6, >6); 8) Number of institutions
(1, >1); 9) Number of pages (1-10, >10); 10) First
citation time (the number of months from the date
of publication to the first citation); 11) Language of
the first author (from English speaking countries,
from non- English speaking countries); 12) Number of references (1-46, >47); and 13) the length of
the title; title word counts (1-13, >14).
Citation counts
Using the first author’s name, both of us (BU,
FUK) queried the ISI Web of Science database
(http: //isiknowledge.com) to ascertain, as of December 31, 2011, the number of the subsequent citations for each article after publication. If entering the
first author’s name failed to yield any citations for an
article, we searched for the second and last author to
limit misclassification of an article as having zero
subsequent citations. We chose a 5-year period after
publication (2006–2011) to assess citations, on the
basis of previous reports (see Okike K, et al) [39].
Two independent reviewers performed the data
extraction and compared their results. There was
good agreement between the reviewers for their
results (ICC values were between 0.98 and 1.00).
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Data analysis
We analysed categorical variables using proportions and continuous variables using the median and interquartile range (IQR). We further performed Mann-Whitney U test, kruskal-wallis test,
and binary logistic regression analysis to assess
for associations between predictor and outcome
variable. We included variables in the logistic regression analysis if their level of significance was
p <0.05. p-values less than 0.05 were accepted as
significant.
36 (47.4)
16(21.0)
7 (9.2)
1-25
26-100
>100
Type of the participants
Symptomatic adults
Asymptomatic adults
Combined adults
Tissue
None
Number of the authors
33 (43.4)
40 (52.6)
3 (3.9)
1-3
Results
4-6
We identified 76 original articles in JOSPT published in 2006. The characteristics of the studies
are presented in Table 1.
Table 1. Sample Characteristics
Characteristics
N (%)
>6
Number of the institutions
July to December
>1
Number of the pages
Topical review
Case report
>10
First citation time
First year
45 (59.2)
16 (21.1)
15 (19.7)
Second year
Third year and after
Not cited
Level of evidence
Level B
Level C
Level D
English speaking countries
Non- English speaking countries
>47
The length of the title
36 (47.4)
40 (52.6)
1-13 words
Sample size of the study
>14 words
17 (22.4)
None
42 (55.3)
34 (44.7)
1-46
58 (76.3)
18 (23.7)
Other
66 (86.8)
10 (13.2)
Number of the references
Geographical location of the study
North America
22 (28.9)
34 (44.7)
16 (21.1)
4 (5.3)
Language of the first author
10 (13.2)
30 (39.5)
7 (9.2)
29 (38.2)
Level A
51 (67.1)
25 (32.9)
1-10
33 (43.4)
43 (56.6)
Type of the article
Research report
14 (18.4)
62 (81.6)
1
The month of the publication
January to June
29 (38.2)
14 (18.4)
12 (15.8)
4 (5.3)
17 (22.4)
Table 2. Results of binary logistic regression analysis
Level of evidence
Type of the participants
Type of the article
Number of the authors
Sig. Exp(B) ,004
,006
,004
,018
,151
2,077
10,800
2,712
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95,0% C.I.for EXP(B) Lower
,042
1,231
2,105
1,186
Upper
,538
3,502
55,412
6,202
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Table 3. Median citation rates by study characteristics
Variables
The month of the publication
January to June
July to December
Type of the article
Research report
Topical review
Case report
Level of evidence
Level A
Level B
Level C
Level D
Geographical location of the study
America
Europe
Australia/New-Zealand
Asia
Sample size of the study
None
1-25
26-100
>100
Type of the participants
Symptomatic adults
Asymptomatic adults
Combined adults
Tissue
None
Number of the authors
1-3
4-6
>6
Number of the institutions
1
>1
Number of the pages
1-10
>10
First citation time
First year
Second year
Third year and after
Language of the first author
English speaking countries
Non- English speaking countries
Number of references
1-46
>47
The length of the title
1-13 words
>14 words
Median citation (IQR)
10 (4-18.5)
9 (2-14)
9 (4-20)
13 (8-14)
2 (0-10)
19 (7-25)
9,5 (4-18)
10 (4-16)
6 (2-13)
10(4-16)
5 (2,5-12,5)
14 (4-23)
7 (5-9)
13 (9.5-15)
4.5 (2-14)
11 (4-19)
9 (5-28)
5.5 (2-15)
14 (6.5-21.5)
9 (4-21)
3 (1-4)
13 (9.5-15)
5 (2-13)
12 (5.5-19)
14 (10-20)
4 (2-10)
11(4-16)
8 (3-14)
13 (4.5-16)
13 (7-20)
13 (6-18)
2 (1.5-4)
10(4-16)
7 (5-12)
6 (3-14)
11.5 (6-16)
9 (3.5-14.5)
10 (4-17)
P value
0.183
0.023
0.069
0.696
0.369
0.005
0.011
0.049
0.199
0.000
0.465
0.130
0.658
IQR: Interquartile range
256
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Subsequent citations
We identified 878 citations of the 76 original
articles. The first citation time after the publication ranged from 1 to 49 months (mean 17.2). The
number of the citations after the publication ranged
from 0 to 53 (mean 11.5); of these, 4 articles (5.3%)
had received no citations up to December 31, 2011.
The result of the logistic regression, the type of
the article, the type of the participant, the level of
evidence, and the number of the authors were the
variables associated with subsequent citation rate
(Table 2).
The research report and the topical review articles have been citated more in a statistically meaningful level compared to the case report studies
(p=0,023). There was not a statistically meaningful
difference between the number of the citations of
the research report and the topical review articles.
There was not a meaningful difference between the
numbers of the citations of the studies made with
the asymptomatic adults, and the studies not including any participants; however, the numbers of the
citations of the studies made with the asymptomatic
adults and the studies not including any participants
were meaningfully more than the numbers of the
citations made to the other studies (Symptomatic
adults, combined adults and tissue) (p=0,005). The
studies with more number of authors (> 3 authors)
have received statistically more citations compared
to the studies with fewer number of authors (< 3
authors), (p=0.011). The numbers of the citations
made to the multi-centered studies were more in a
statistically meaningful level than the numbers of
the citations made to the studies performed with a
single center (p=0,049). There is a meaningful difference between the numbers of the citations made to
the studies whose time slice when it was first citated is different (p=0,000). The studies which received their first citation in the 1st and 2nd year after they were published have received statistically
more citations in a meaningful level compared to
the articles that were citated in the 3rd year and later
(p=0,000). There was not a statistically meaningful
difference between the numbers of the citations of
the studies which were citated in the 1st and 2nd year
after they were published, (Table 3).
The studies which were citated most were the
level A studies, and the studies which were citated least were the level D studies (median 19 and
6 respectively). The articles that received the first
citation in the first year and the articles that were citated first in the second year were citated more than
the articles citated first in the third year and later
(median 13, 13 and 2 respectively). The topical reviews and the research report articles were the most
received citations (median 13 and 9 respectively),
whereas the case report articles were the least (median 2). Whereas the asymptomatic adults and the
studies not including any participants were citated
most (median 14 and 13 respectively), the symptomatic adults and the tissue articles were those that
were citated least (median 5.5 and 3 respectively).
The articles with more numbers of authors were
citated more than the articles with fewer numbers
of authors (median 14 and 5 respectively). The articles with more numbers of institutions were citated more than the articles with fewer numbers of
institutions (median 11 and 4, respectively). There
was no significant difference between the citation
rates in terms of the level of evidence, the language of the first author, the geographical location, the
number of the pages, the sample size, the number of
the references, the length of the title and the month
of publication (Table 3).
Discussion
The prestige and standing of a scientific journal
within its discipline can be judged in a number of
ways. However, the first and the foremost effective
peer-review of all submitted manuscripts is the paramount to guarantee the quality and validity of the
work eventually published [29]. Second, the bibliometric methods (such as the journal citation rates,
the impact factors, the circulation, the manuscript
acceptance rate, and indexing on MEDLINE) may
be useful in evaluating the quality of a journal [33].
Therefore, we investigated the parameters affecting
the citation rate in peer-reviewed JOSPT indexed
in SCI which is one of the most cited journals in
physical therapy field with the highest impact factor, and the most circulation rate. The results of this
study show which factors were associated with an
increased rate of citation in JOSPT. According to
our results, the type of the article, the type of the
participant, the level of the evidence, and the number of the authors were the variables associated
with the subsequent citation rate.
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Evidence-based medicine continues to guide
clinical decision making based on the best available evidence in the literature [15]. In the hierarchy of the research study designs, the prospective
randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and the metaanalysis of several RCTs are considered to provide
the highest quality of evidence [15]. Recently, there has been a progressive effort by the researchers
and the journal editors to assess and improve the
quality of the published studies [15]. One obvious
factor that affects the citations of an article is the
level of evidence [26]. The studies evaluating the
influence of the level of evidence of the study on
the citation rates have reported conflicting results
[2,3,6,8,18,33-35,38,39,44,48]. Some studies found that the articles of higher level of evidence
with clearly documented research methods did
receive more citations [18,33-35,38,39,44]. Other
studies found that the level of evidence or the quality of the studies has been shown to be very poor
or moderately related to citation counts [2,3,6,48].
Also, Shadgan et al, when they analyzed the topcited articles in rehabilitation, reported that there
was no correlation between the number of citations and the level of evidence [8]. We did find a
correlation between the level of evidence and the
number of citations (Table 2). The studies which
were citated most were the level A studies, and
the studies which were citated least were the level
D studies (median 19 and 6 respectively). Hence, increasing the level A studies and decreasing
the level D studies (4 of which have not received
any citations in a 5-year period) might affect the
number of citations positively. Review articles
(such as; meta-analysis, systematic reviews) are
all recognized as having a higher average rate
of citations than the original research papers
[7,18,22,24,32,43]. Our results also supported the
idea that the systematic reviews and the topical reviews were the most citated articles (Table 3). The
review articles often have a greater impact on the
physical therapists than the other types of articles.
Physical therapists can reduce the time required to
find and read the evidence by reading systematic
reviews instead of individual trials. A systematic
review summarizes the results of multiple studies
that address a particular question. Unlike narrative literature reviews, however, the systematic reviews use explicit methods designed to minimize
258
bias. The systematic reviews also frequently use a
statistical method called meta-analysis to combine the results of multiple similar studies to give a
single summary result [49]. Also, authors of such
reviews, naturally, may prefer to submit their reviews to journals with large circulation and impact [37]. In addition to this, editors may have a
tendency to publish systematic reviews and RCTs
because they are cited more often than the other
study designs [33], thereby positively influencing
their own journal’s IF. Accordingly, increasing the
number of meta-analysis and systematic reviews
could affect the number of citations positively.
The textbooks of the medical statistics require
that the sample size should be large enough (or as
large as possible), and that some justification for
the size chosen should be given [38]. It has been
claimed that the researchers prefer to cite large studies rather than small ones [2,6,39,44]. Our data
did not support this hypothesis: the sample size
was not associated with the frequency of the citations (Table 3). Nieminen et al. came to the same
conclusion when they analyzed a set of psychiatric
articles [38]. Although larger sample size does not
necessarily indicate better research, it may serve
as a surrogate for the sample size sufficiency (i.e.,
power of the study), which could be considered a
quality measure [39].
The studies made with asymptomatic adults
and those without any participants have been citated most, and the studies made with symptomatic
adults, combined adults and the tissue studies have
been citated the least (Table 3). Due to the fact that
the studies made with asymptomatic adults rather
contain metric (reliability and validity studies) and
diagnostic studies, they might have attracted the
attention of the readers more. Nevertheless, the studies that do not contain any participants comprise
of review articles, hence they are citated more. Therefore, the authors should be encouraged in terms
of presenting metric, diagnostic and review articles.
Authorship on scientific publications has become the issue on modern science and a measure
of a scientist’s participation in the international
scientific community [19]. In a competitive environment where appointments, promotions, and
grant applications are strongly influenced by the
publication and citation records, the scientists are
under intense pressure to publish. Undoubtedly,
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
academic careers are to a great extent related to
the number of publications and citations [19]. The
studies evaluating the relation between the number
of the authors and the citation rates have reported
conflicting results [6,20,22,24,26,31,32,34,35,39,
44,47]. A number of studies found that multi-authorship increases, above all, the probability to be
cited by others [6,20,22,24,26,31,32,34,35]. The
other studies did not find a statistically significant
correlation between the number of the authors and
the citation counts [39,44,47]. In our study, we did
find a significant relationship between the citation
rate and the number of the authors (Tables 2 and
3). In theory, the more authors a paper have the
higher number of citations of this paper that can be
expected. Bornmann et al. suggested four reasons
for this association; first, each additional author
increases the probability of self-citations, second,
the papers with many authors are most probably
multidisciplinary papers, so citations in various
disciplines can be expected, third; the more authors a paper has, the larger the network in which
the paper will become known through personal
contacts, and fourth, not only informal, but also
formal communication in the scientific community
can contribute to the greater visibility (and thus to
a higher citation count) of a multi-authorship paper [47]. The articles with many authors are most
probably multidisciplinary articles, so citations in
various disciplines can be expected [20]. Figg et
al [20], Lokker et al [34], Okike et al [39], and
Willis et al [44] reported that the number of times
an article was cited correlated significantly with
the number of institutions. In contrast, Loonen et
al [36] did not find any correlation between the
citation counts and the number of the institutions.
Contrary to Loonen et al [36], but similar to Figg
et al [20], Lokker et al [34], Okike et al [39]. and
Willis et al [44], we did find a significant relationship between the citation rate and the number of
institutions (Table 3). Okike et al [39] suggest that
the authors who are open to collaboration with investigators from other institutions may be able to
produce articles that have a higher impact on the
field. We agree with the suggestions of Okike et al;
if the researchers who will send articles to JOSPT
perform multidisciplinary studies and those carried out with various centers, their studies might be
citated more.
It is not possible to publish new material whatever is its quality without demonstrating a minimal
overlap with the status quo by including relevant
references to reach this aim [47]. Therefore, references are essential components of the published
articles [16]. The articles with a long reference list
may have several attributes that promote the citation impact [26]. As Webster et al [43], Bornmann et
al [47], Lokker et al [34], Haslam and Koval [26]
showed, there was a positive correlation between
the citation counts and the number of the cited references: the more cited references a paper contains, the higher the citation counts a paper will be
expected to have. Webster et al [43] concluded
that one of the reasons for this connection was that
“the tit-for-tat nature of ‘I cite you, you cite me,’
may be at work (/may be at issue): the more people
you cite in your paper, the more people are likely
to cite your paper (the paper they were cited in) in
the future. We did not find a significant relationship
between the number of references and the citation
rates in our study (Table 3). Another possible predictor of article citation impact is the length. Long
articles have been found to receive more citations
[19,22,26,41,46], because they have more opportunities than the short articles to develop arguments
and present replicated and integrated findings [26].
In contrast, Lokker et al compared the citation counts of the journal articles and the Cochrane reviews and Health Technology Assessment reports
which are typically lengthy articles. They found
that there is a negative correlation between the citation counts and the number of pages [34]. Also,
Haslam examined the publications from three major psychology journals for the number of citations
and the length of the article. He found that although
longer articles received more citations on average,
the shorter articles received more citations per page
than the longer articles [27]. In our study, we did
not find a relationship between the citation rates and
the number of the pages (Table 3).
The titles hold a special place of prominence in
the scientific literature. They hold a place on top
of every article; they are searchable by every major indexing service. The titles inform the readers
exactly what information will be presented in the
paper. The titles attract the readers to a paper and
weigh strongly in the computer-based literature searches and information retrieval [50]. It is generally
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
the first information obtained from the published
article [9]. Perneger reported that the readers judge
the scientific value of an article from the title and
the abstract, and if this assessment is favorable,
they access the full paper and then use it for their study [41]. Jacques and Sebire investigated the
effect of the length of the title on the citation rate in
three medical journals (Lancet, BMJ and Journal of
Clinical Pathology) [28]. They found that the number of citations was positively correlated with the
length of the title, with the highest-scoring articles
having more than twice as many words in the title than the lowest-cited articles. Also, Habibzadeh
and Yadollahie showed that the articles with longer
titles obtained more citations. They think that the
longer titles are mainly those which include the study methodology and/or the results in more details
and thus, attract more attention and citations [25].
In contrast, Paiva et al found that the short-titled
articles had higher viewing and citation rates than
those with the longer titles [9]. In our study, we did
not find a relationship between the citation rate and
the length of the title (Table 3).
The scientific quality of a publication can be determined not only based on the number of the citations, but also based on the citation speed [46].
Whereas the citation count is a bibliometric standard indicator in the assessment of the research, the
amount of time up to the first citation is an indicator
which has been scarcely used in the bibliometric
studies. The time at which an article receives its first
citation (t1) is important for an article since at this
time, the article shifts its status from the ‘unused’
to the ‘used’, and the smaller t1 is, the more we can
say – in general – that the article under study is important and visible early in the scientific world [46].
Bornmann et al reported that there was a correlation
between the first citation time and the citation rate
[46]. Our results also supported this idea. The articles that received the first citation in the first year
and in the second year were citated more than the
articles citated first in the third year or later (Table
3). Another important challenge in examining the
citations is the effect of time. The calendar time
can affect the citation of an article in two important ways. First, the articles published in the first
month or in the first issue of the year compared to
the last month or the last issue of the year become
advantageous almost with an extra year to come to
260
the attention of the authors, and being also citated
in that extra year, the citation counts or the impact
factors of the journal are affected [4,21]. Second,
there is a latency period between the decision to cite
an article and the publication of the citing article.
This latency period can be highly variable, depending on the number of times the article is submitted,
different review times, and the duration of the ‘in
press’ period [21]. We did not find a significant relationship between the citation rate and the calendar
time (Table 3).
In some studies, it was indicated that the articles which were citated more originated from
North America [5,8,21,26,30,32,40]. This can be
explained by the large girth of the American scientific community, their higher research budgets
[5,8] and the fact that the American authors tend
to cite the American articles preferably, and tend
to publish their works in the American journals
[17]. The latter might be related to a preference
of the American reviewers to accept the American
articles [8,30,40]. Unlike these findings, Willis et
al [44] reported that there is no correlation between the citation rate and the continent of origin. In
our study, we found that the 76.3 % of the articles
published in JOSPT originated from North America whereas 23.7 % from other countries (Europe,
Asia and Australia -New Zealand). In our study,
similar to the findings of Willis et al [44] we did
not find a relationship between the citation rate
and the income level of the corresponding author’s
country (Table 3). The reason for this might be the
fact that a great majority of the articles published
at JOSPT are published by the countries of North
America (USA, Canada).
The fact that English is the lingua franca of
today’s science is an indisputable fact. Publication in English in the international journals is a prerequest for a research paper to gain visibility in
academia [42]. An article written by the authors
from the countries where English is a national language attract significantly more citations than do
the articles written by the authors from non-native English speaking countries [23,26,32]. It is an
indisputable fact that poor writing skills may be
considered the Achilles’s heel of many non-native
English-speaking scientists [42]. Also, eloquence
and English language fluency may also improve
the chances of the research being ranked more
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
highly by the reviewers and the editors [17]. In
the JOSPT, the majority of the papers came from
English-speaking countries (86.8 %), with Netherlands, Swiss, Spain, Finland, Taiwan, Japan, Hungary, and Sweden being the only other representatives. In our study we did not find a relationship
between the citation rate and the language of the
corresponding author (Table 3). The reason for
this might be the fact that a great majority of the
articles published at JOSPT are published by the
English-speaking countries.
There are several implications for preparing articles for JOSPT, based on the findings from this
study. The studies which were citated more were
the level A articles, the review articles and the research articles. If the researchers want their studies to be read more and citated more, they should
prepare well-designed and high quality research
articles and review articles. Case reports are the least citated studies (4 of these were never citated in
a 5-year period), therefore, decreasing the number
of these might affect the number of the citations
positively. The studies made with the asymptomatic adults and the studies not including participants
are citated the most. However, the studies of the
symptomatic adults, the combined adults and the
tissues have been citated the least. Due to the fact
that the studies made with asymptomatic adults
rather contain metric (reliability, validity studies)
and diagnostic studies, they might have attracted
the attention of the readers more. Consequently,
the authors should incline towards metric and
diagnostic studies more. The articles with many
authors and the multi-centered ones are citated
more. If the physiotherapists carry out their studies related to orthopedics and sports injuries with
different professional groups (such as doctors, dieticians, nurses, psychologists, coaches, athletics
trainers) and different centers in a multidisciplinary way, their studies can be citated more.
Limitations
There are limitations to consider when interpreting the results of this bibliometric study. First, we
did not assess self-citation, which has been associated with an increased frequency of subsequent
citation [3,4,31]. Second, we evaluated only the
level of evidence of the study and the quality asse-
ssment (such as the clear reporting of the research
question, presence or absence of controlling, blinding, prospectiveness and appropriateness of data
analysis) of the articles was not performed.
Conclusion
In our study in which we investigated the factors affecting the citation rates in JOSPT, we found
significant correlations between the citation rates
and the type of the article, the type of the participant, the level of evidence, and the number of the
authors. We consider that this information could
be used by the readers of JOSPT, the authors, the
reviewers, the librarians and the promotion committees to plan the studies, and also to analyze and
evaluate the articles. Furthermore, JOSPT editors
may consider citation potential when deciding
which manuscript to accept in order to maintain or
increase the overall impact of their journal.
Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Assistant Professor Dr.
Sinan Aytekin from Balıkesir University for the
support he has given to the statistics in this study.
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Corresponding Author
Bayram Unver,
Dokuz Eylul University,
School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation,
Department of Orthopedic Physiotherapy,
Izmir,
Turkey,
E-mail: [email protected]
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Predictors of citations in the urological literature.
BJU Int. 2011; 107(12): 1876-80.
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The correlation of a postural status and isometric
endurance with rowers of school age
Sasa Milenkovic1, Mladen Zivkovic1, Dobrica Zivkovic1, Sasa Bubanj1, Zoran Bogdanovic2, Sladjan Karaleic3
1
2
3
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia,
University of Novi Pazar, Novi Pazar, Serbia,
Faculty for Sport and Physical Education, Univesity of Kosovska Mitrovica, Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia.
Abstract
By measuring of a postural status in children
who practice rowing it was concluded that out of
their total number of 30, even 16 participants have
a postural disorder (53.3%). 6 participants in the
research have kyphotic incorrect body posture
(20%), 7 participants have lordotic body posture
(23.3%), and there were 3 cases of scoliotic body
posture (10%). Other participants had results which
are within normal ranges. A certain negative correlation was noticed by correlating a postural status
and isometric endurance of abdominal and lumbar
muscles, which indicates that a higher degree of deformity causes lower isometric endurance results.
A statistic value exists only between scoliotic body
posture and trunk flexors. In this particular case
this would mean that the higher result of isometric
trunk flexor endurance, the lower or even degree of
deformity. Sport activities help the development of
motor skills and thus the maintenance of the correct
postural status. This is valid only if children work
with experts who would be able to introduce suitable corrective exercises in order to remove the
deficiencies of a certain sport, so that a complete
muscular structure would be properly engaged.
Key words: A postural status, isometric endurance, rowers.
Introduction
Rowing exercise may be an important strategy to promote bone health and reduce vertebral
fracture risk (McNamara, 2005), or a rehabilitation
exercise used after injuries (Hagerman, Lawrence and Mansfield, 1998). Morris, Smith, Payne,
Galloway and Wark, (2000) completed a test to
exhaustion on a rowing ergometer simulating competition, in order to estimate the shear and com264
pressive forces experienced by the spine. They found that the spinal forces vary according to forces
applied on the oar and that the peak compressive
force on the spine was approximately four to five
times body weight. Rowing exercise is also related to increased back strength in rowers compared
to non-athletes. This outcome is important considering that an imbalance of trunk muscles strength and the strength of back muscles influences a
lumbar lordosis and may be one of the risk factors
for a lumbar syndrome (Ho-Jun Kim et al., 2006;
Alexiev, 1994). Contrary to expectations, McGregor, Anderton and Gedroyc (2002) suggested that
lower back pain in rowers’ isn’t the consequence
of the muscle weakness. While investigating the
trunk strength in elite rowers with reported back
pain, they found no differences between oarside
and non-oarside in terms of muscle cross sectional
area and no left-right asymmetries were noticed.
While working with young rowers, trainers must
possess the knowledge about the structure of basic
sport movements and the way of training procedures application, for if otherwise, they can consciously or unconsciously provoke scoliosis and
kyphosis spine deformities and speed up the very
processes of further deformations (Kosinec et al.,
2001). A muscular imbalance is one of the basic
causes of spinal column instability, according to
the latest researches (Norris, 2000). Shortening
or weakening of a certain musculature leads to a
muscular imbalance and presents the main cause of the incidence and development of incorrect
body postures or body deformities (Dejanović and
Bošnjak, 2005). Past researches have shown that
during isometric endurance testing the relation of
the left and right lateral trunk musculature must
not be higher than 0.05, and the relationship of
lumbar extensors and abdominal flexors during
isometric endurance testing must be in a 1:1 ra-
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
tio (McGill, 2002). According to Dejanović and
Fratrić (2007), correct and healthy posture is that
state of a body which can hold an upright posture for a longer period of time without effort, pain
or fatigue. Physical activity influences changes in
the basic motoric and anthropometric areas, and
especially in postural disorders area (Milenković,
2000). The main aim of actual study was to determine the correlation of a postural status and isometric endurance with rowers of school age.
Materials and methods
The method used for the evaluation of a postural
status in a sagittal and frontal plane was developed
at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education,
University of Belgrade. It is a modified Smout and
McDomel method for which application is needed: a ruler, a dermographic pen, a plummet and a
level. For variables that define incorrect postures
evaluation a somathoscopy method was used (anthroscopy- an observation method) and somathometry (anthropometry-a measuring method). The
evaluation of an isometric endurance was performed by measuring the time that an examinee spent
doing a certain task (with a stopwatch). The data
procession was performed in a statistic package
SPSS (Version 17). Basic descriptive statistics and
a correlation analysis were made.
The examinees sample
The examinees sample was composed of male
children rowers of a rowing club ``Smederevo``
from Smederevo. The examinees are members of
a junior club team, and 30 members have undergone the testing. The examinees were 14 years ±
6 months old.
Variables sample
The following postural disorders were examined:
-- Kyphotic incorrect posture (KYPH)-the
deviation from the seventh cervical vertebra
and the rope was measured, which is 2.5-4cm
in the case of a normal physiology kyphosis.
-- Lordic incorrect posture (LOR), the distance
in the area of lumbar curve is measured ,
from the centre of the curve to the plummet
rope, which is 3.5-4.5 in the case of a normal
physiological lordosis.
-- Scoliotic incorrect posture (SCO)-it is
determined by the deviation of spinal
extensions from the rope and by measuring
the angle of shoulder blades by a level.
The state of isometric endurance of a trunk was
also evaluated:
-- trunk flexors (T.F) –Out of a starting position
(laying on their back), an examinee bends
till the angle of 60° and tries to keep that
position as long as possible
-- trunk extensors (T.E)-out of the starting
position (laying on their stomach), an
examinee bends backwards and tries to keep
that position as long as possible
-- left lateral trunk flexors (LLTF)-Out of the
starting position of laying on his left hip, an
examinee lifts his body in that way that he
pushes off the floor with his left forearm,
his right arm is besides his body, legs are
together and he tries to keep the position.
-- right lateral trunk flexors (RLTF)- Out of
the starting position of laying on his right
hip, an examinee lifts his body in that way
that he pushes off the floor with his right
forearm, his left arm is besides his body, legs
are together and he tries to keep the position.
Results and discussion
Out of the total number of examinees of the
rowing club “Smederevo” that were the subjects
of examination, 16 of them (53.3%) had some of
the researched postural disorder. Six examinees
had kyphotic incorrect body posture (20%), seven
examinees had a lordotic incorrect body posture
(23.3%), and 3 cases of scoliotic incorrect body
posture were notified (10%). The rest of the examinees had results that are within a normal range.
The results of a descriptive statistics calculated
on the sample of 30 rowers (Table 1) show a normal distribution according to the achieved results
(Skewnees and Kurtosis). The results of a Correlation Analysis show how the postural disorders
correlate with the results of isometric endurance
(Table 2). There is a negative correlation between
postural disorders and isometric endurance, which
indicates that higher degrees of deformity cause
lower values of isometric endurance. That pattern
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Table 1. Descriptive Statistics
Sport internship
KIPH.
LOR.
SCO.
T.F.(s)
E.T.(s)
L.L.T.F(s)
D.L.T.F(s)
Valid N
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
Mean
193.37
3.90
2.53
3.37
209.77
136.10
92.57
103.80
Min
30.00
2.00
0.00
1.00
88.00
20.00
26.00
15.00
Max
730.00
8.00
8.00
7.00
330.00
728.00
138.00
167.00
Variance
35707.1
1.52
3.98
3.34
4342.60
15401.20
1068.60
1509.89
Std.Dev
188.96
1.23
2.00
1.83
65.90
124.10
32.69
38.86
Skewness
1.50
1.39
1.40
-0.04
0.42
3.95
-0.46
-0.40
Kurtosis
1.37
3.20
1.90
-0.94
-0.49
18.75
-1.04
-0.40
Table 2. Correlation Analysis
T.F.
T.E.
L.L.T.F.
D.L.T.F.
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
KYPH.
-.116
.543
30
-.040
.833
30
-.284
.128
30
-.278
.137
30
is present in all variables. The statistic value exists
only between scoliotic incorrect posture and trunk
flexors. In this particular case it means that the
higher result of isometric trunk flexors endurance
is, the degree of deformity is lower or even absent.
The results of a somatic examination of 27 junior rowers and 24 younger junior rower competitors conducted by Kosinec et al. (2001) showed
that paramorphic changes of a spinal column, chest
and feet are more frequent with younger junior
rowers. About 26% younger junior rowers have laterally curved spine with the following symptoms
of asymmetry of certain body parts, while junior
rowers usually have a kyphotically curved spine
(37%). A predictor set of 11 indicators of a body
posture significantly explains the impact of the way
of rowing on a deviation of orthostatic and body
postures, so it can be a base for a prediction of its
impact on the spine paramorphosis incidence in a
phase of a rapid growth. The results achieved during this research provided a completely plausible
explanation of a complex mechanism functioning
during a specific strain in rowing, concerning a
266
LOR.
-.161
.396
30
-.106
.576
30
-.197
.296
30
-.238
.206
30
SCO.
-,368*
.045
30
-.256
.173
30
.128
.501
30
.071
.709
30
rowing method and the etiology of paramorphic
incidences with rowers in a growing-up period. It
is a devastating fact that a high percentage of primary school children in Serbia do not participate
in sporting activities, and it is known that a rapid
and asymmetric growth in a childhood period with
other environmental factors are extremely important elements in spinal column deformity incidence.
The reasons for non-participation are mostly a high
club membership fee and a distance of a child’s residence from the sports centre where chosen sport
disciplines are practiced (Bogdanović and Marković, 2010). Certainly, a modern life-style that includes a lowered locomotor’s apparatus activity has a
negative impact on a correct body posture as well
as on a correct development of a spinal column.
Kyphosis, lordosis and scoliosis are the direct consequences of unhealthy habits and life conditions.
(Karalejić, 2006). But how to explain such an incidence of mentioned postural deformities found in
actual study among rowers who are actively engaged in sport activities for a relatively long period?
No matter how high the intensity of rowing in the
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
population of school-age children is, rowing loads
repeated in a longer duration seem to be of high
enough intensity to offset the postural deformities.
There is a strong need for the experts who would be
able to introduce suitable corrective exercises in order to remove the deficiencies of a certain sport, so
that a complete muscular structure in children would be properly engaged. The ideal situation would
be if already nursery teachers would notice the first
indicators of an incorrect body posture (Milošević
and Obradović, 2008). Stable head position maintenance with children during various activities is
followed by complex motor skills that are gradually
developed during a growing-up period. Balance is
very important for keeping a correct body posture, and it depends on a body’s ability to harmonize body movements with a required balance, and
all this in order to achieve the most efficient performance of a certain task (Assainte et al., 2005).
Kosinec (1994) suggested that in domain of motor
skills, people without scoliosis achieve better results
on tests which are influenced by synergetic regulation mechanism. It leads to a conclusion that people
with a functional scoliosis in puberty have notable
disharmony in controlling mechanism functioning.
Conclusion
Out of the total number of examinees from the
rowing club ``Smederevo``, a postural disorder was
detected with 16 of them, which certainly indicates
that they need to be engaged in a program of corrective exercises. By correlating a postural status and
isometric endurance we came to a conclusion that
with a higher value of isometric endurance lower
values of postural disorders were notified, but in this
particular case, the most important correlation was
between trunk flexors and scoliotic incorrect body
posture. It is possible to lower the risk of postural
disorder incidence by strengthening of abdominal
and lumbar musculature. It is particularly evident in
the case of isometric trunk endurance and scoliotic
incorrect body posture.
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Corresponding Author
Mladen Zivkovic,
University of Nis,
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education,
Nis,
Serbia,
E-mail: [email protected]
268
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Species distribution and Caspofungin susceptibility
of Candida spp. isolated from blood cultures
Yesim Cekin1, Nevgun Sepin Ozen1, Nilgun Gur1, Hamit Yasar Ellidag2
1
Antalya Antalya Reseach and Training Hospital, Clinical Microbiology, Antalya, Turkey,
2
Antalya Reseach and Training Hospital, Central Laboratory, Antalya, Turkey.
Abstract
Candidemia remains associated with high mortality rates and with increased costs of care and duration of hospitalization. This study aims to determine the distribution and caspofungin susceptibility of candida species isolated from blood cultures
in Antalya Training and Research Hospital. Between June 2011 to December 2012, totally 71 candida
spp isolates of 68 patients were included into the
study. Candida albicans is the most prevelant isolated species (% 40,9) from blood cultures followed
by Candida tropicalis (% 17,9), Candida glabrata
(% 17,9), Candida parapsilosis (% 17,9), Candida
lusitaniae (% 17,9), Candida krusei (% 17,9). Caspofungin susceptibilities of all isolates were determined by E test method. E-test minimal inhibitory
concentration values of caspofungin for C. albicans
isolates were 0.002 and 0.125 mg/L, respectively.
All of 71 candida spp isolates were susceptible to
caspofungin. This study demonstrates that C. albicans remains the predominant species isolated from
candida blood stream infections and caspofungin
demonstrated an excellent potency against Candida
spp isolates. Using knowledge of local epidemiologic trends in Candida spp to establish therapeutic
and preventive strategies.
Key words: Candida, Candidemia, Caspofungin.
Introduction
Nosocomial blood stream infections (BSI) due
to Candida spp are important cause of mortality
and morbidity in hospitalized patients [1, 2]. Candida spp is reported between the fourth and the sixth
common cause of BSI and Candida albicans is the
most responsible pathogen [1-5]. However non albicans Candida spp has been documented increasingly from different geographical locations [3, 5].
For appropriate control measures it is important to
understand the differences in the epidemiology of
candidemia between different regions, the need for
continuous surveillance in incidence, species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profiles [6, 7].
This study aims to determine the species distribution and caspofungin susceptibility of Candida spp.
isolated from blood cultures in Antalya Research
and Trainig Hospital respectively.
Materials and Methods
A total of 71 candida spp isolates recovered
from blood cultures were collected from 68 patient
(35 male and 33 female) between 01 June 2011 to
31 December 2012. Identification of Candida spp.
was performed with conventional microbiological
procuderes and Phoenix (Becton Dickinson, US)
automated system. The MICs of caspofungin were
performed by using E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweeden)
method according to manufacturers recommendations. MIC data are presented as the range, MIC50
and MIC90 for each species. Statistical data were
analysed by using Kruskal Wallis test. Quality
control was ensured by testing C.albicans ATCC
90028 ve C.parapsilosis ATCC 22019 strain.
Results
From June-2011 to December 2012, totally 71
Candida spp isolates (29 Candida albicans, 14 Candida tropicalis, 14 Candida glabrata, 11 Candida
parapsilosis, 2 Candida lusitaniae, 1 Candida krusei) of 68 patients were included into the study. 35
male (51,5%) and 38 female (48,5%) patients mean
age was 58,5±16,5. Table 1 summarizes the species distribution and in vitro activities of caspofungin
against 71 candida isolates. Overall all isolates were
classified as susceptible to caspofungin.
In our study the most common isolate was C.
albicans (29%) in accordance with recent reports
and the average MIC range is less than other Candida spp. (p=0.004).
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Table 1. Distribution of Candida species and caspofungin susceptibility
Sample
number (%)
C. albicans
C. parapsilosis
C. tropicalis
C. galbrata
C. krusei
C.lusitaniae
29 (40.9)
11 (15.5)
14 (19.7)
14 (19.7)
1 (1.4)
2(2.8)
Caspofungin (mg/L)
Range
0.002-0.125
0.002-0.500
0.002-0.230
0.002-0.500
MIC50
0.010
0.120
0.050
0.120
0.030
0.050
MIC90
0.034
0.274
0.128
0.278
0.064
0.125
Avarage range
25.19
47.27
40.50
37.75
p
0.004*
*statistical analysis performed by using Kruskal Wallis test, except C. krusei and C. lusitaniae (because of the insufficient
number of these organisims)
Discussion
Candidemia infections increase patient mortality, both the length of stay and cost associated
with hospitalization. Approximately 95% of candidaemia is caused by 4 species: C. albicans, C.
glabrata, C. parasilosis and C. tropicalis especially in Europe and United States [8, 9]. The distribution of species and susceptibility patterns of
Candida isolates play an important role on the management of invasive candidiasis and surveillance
strategies for epidemiological evaluation of antifungal resistance. [1, 6, 7]. Despite a wide range
of antifungal agents, emerging resistance paterns
are reporting from all over the world. A new novel
of ecinocandin, caspofungin is water-soluble glucan synthesis inhibitor that was approved by FDA
(Food Drug Administration) for the management
of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis.
The reference tests internationally accepted standarts for caspofungin are broth dilution methods
(BMD) developed by the CLSI (Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute) and European Committee
on Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST)
[10]. These reference methods are expensive,
time consuming and poorly suitable for clinical
laboratories. Caspofungin E-test is commercially agar-based diffusion method which is easy to
perform and reliable for susceptibility testing of
Candida spp [3] But there is insufficient data at
present for interpretive breakpoints for caspofungin [5]. Many investigators showed that E-test
results for caspofungin demonstrated good correlation between BMD recommended by CLSI and
EUCAST [11-13]. In a study which 726 candida
isolates were used by Pfaller et al, the agreement
between the Etest and microdilution MICs was
270
found >90 % for all species except C. tropicalis
and C. parapsilosis [9]. The E-test MIC50 values
reported in this study are in agreement with those reported previously [5-7,12]. Arendrup et al.
showed that caspofungin E-test results of 65/496
echinocandin- susceptible isolates (13.1%) were
misclassified as intermediate or resistant where as
misclassifications were most commonly observed
for C. krusei (73.1% misclassified as I) and for C.
glabrata (31.6% misclassified as intermediate and
1.5% as resistant), but only a single C. albicans
isolate (0.4%) was misclassified as intermediate
and no isolates belonging to the other species were
misclassified [13]. Lockhart et al found echinocandin resistance was low (1% of isolates) but was
higher for C. glabrata isolates [7]. In our study
no resistance was determined for caspofungin and
C. albicans (40,9%) is the most prevelant isolate responsible for candidiasis in accordance with
many reports. There were differences in species
distribution between the regions. C. parapsilosis
and C. glabrata was significantly more frequently
isolated non candida albicans isolate published
from all over the world [1, 5-7, 14]. C. glabrata
and C. tropicalis were isolated at the same percent
(19,7%) in our study.
This report has some limitations. Clinical isolates were collected from only one hospital and thus
do not represent the general antifungal distribution
and susceptibility pattern in our country. However
antifungal susceptibility is a rapidly changing field
of knowledge. Owing to this surveillance studies
must perform to follow the epidemiologic changes, changing levels of resistance and use these
data to update future treatment managements.
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References
1. Conde-Rosa A, Amador R, Pérez-Torres D, Colón E,
Sánchez-Rivera C, Nieves-Plaza M, et al. Candidemia
Distribution, Associated Risk Factors, and Attributed
Mortality at a University-Based Medical Center. P R
Health Sci J. 2010; 29: 26–29.
2. Manual of Clinical microbiology. 9th Edition. Patrick
R Murray, Ellen Jo Baron, James H Jorgensen, Marie
Louise Landry, Michael A Pfaller. Candida, Cryptococcus ve Tibbi Onemi Olan Diger Mayalar.
3. Belet N, Ciftçi E, Aysev D, Güriz H, Uysal Z, Taçyildiz
N, et al. Invasive Candida infections in children: the
clinical characteristics and species distribution and
antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. Turk J Pediatr. 2011; 53: 489-98.
4. Bassetti M, Ansaldi F, Nicolini L, Malfatto E, Molinari MP, Mussap M, et al. Incidence of candidaemia and
relationship with fluconazole use in an intensive care
unit. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009; 64: 625-629.
5. Tan TY, Tan AL, Tee NW, Ng LS. A retrospective
analysis of antifungal susceptibilities of Candida bloodstream isolates from Singapore hospitals. Ann Acad
Med Singapore. 2008; 37: 835-840.
11. Pfaller MA, Messer SA, Mills K, Bolmström A, Jones
RN. Evaluation of Etest method for determining caspofungin (MK-0991) susceptibilities of 726 clinical
isolates of Candida species. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;
39: 4387-4389.
12. Serefko A, Los R, Biernasiuk A, Malm A. Comparison of microdilution method and E-test procedure in
susceptibility testing of caspofungin against Candida non-albicans species. New Microbiol. 2008; 31:
257-262.
13. Arendrup MC, Pfaller MA. Danish Fungaemia
Study Group. Caspofungin Etest susceptibility testing of Candida species: risk of misclassification
of susceptible isolates of C. glabrata and C. krusei
when adopting the revised CLSI caspofungin breakpoints. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012; 56:
3965-3958.
14. Çekin Y, Pekintürk N, Çekin AH. Evaluation of Species Distribution and Antifungal Resistance of Candida Isolates From Hospitalized Patients. J Clin Anal
Med. 2013 March 01. Doi:10.4328/JCAM.1638
6. Bassetti M, Taramasso L, Nicco E, Molinari MP, Mussap M, Viscoli C. Epidemiology, species distribution,
antifungal susceptibility and outcome of nosocomial
candidemia in a tertiary care hospital in Italy. PLoS
One. 2011; 6(9): e24198.
Corresponding Author
Yesim Cekin,
Antalya Reseach and Training Hospital,
Clinical Microbiology,
Antalya,
Turkey,
E-mail: [email protected]
7. Lockhart SR, Iqbal N, Cleveland AA, Farley MM,
Harrison LH, Bolden CB, et al. Species identification
and antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida bloodstream isolates from population-based surveillance
studies in two U.S. cities from 2008 to 2011. J Clin
Microbiol. 2012 ;50: 3435-3442.
8. Comert F, Kulah C, Aktas E, Eroglu O, Ozlu N. Identification of Candida species isolated from patients in
intensive care unit and in vitro susceptibility to fluconazole for a 3-year period. Mycoses. 2007; 50: 52-57.
9. St-Germain G, Laverdie M, Pelletier R, René P, Bourgault AM, Lemieux C, et al. Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of 442 Candida isolates from blood
and other normally sterile sites: results of a 2-year
(1996 to 1998) multicenter surveillance study in Quebec, Canada. J Clin Microbiol. 2001; 39: 949-953.
10. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Reference method for broth dilution antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts. Approved standard M27-A3,
3rd ed. Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute,
Wayne, Pa. 2008.
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Diabetic kidney disease and its associated
complications
Azreen Syazril Adnan1, Fauziah Jummaat2, Yusra Habib Khan3, Amer Hayat Khan3
1
2
3
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Resource Center, School of Medical Sciences, University Science Malaysia,
Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia,
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota
Bharu, Malaysia,
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang,
Malaysia.
Abstract
Chronic kidney disease secondary to diabetic
nephropathy is referred as diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The progression of DKD to end stage
renal failure has been shown to increase dramatically over the past few years. However, this progression can be slowed or reserved by providing
adequate treatment at early stages with a special
focus on clinical complications.
Following is a case of DKD patient diagnosed
with acute kidney failure and uncontrolled hypertension accompanied by complications like anaemia and oedema. Treatment goal in such patient
is to control blood pressure by eliminating oedema and maintaining kidney function. Such patients’ need extra care to control blood sugar level
as fluctuations in blood sugar level will aggravate
secondary complications.
Key words: Diabetic kidney disease, hypertension, anaemia, oedema
Introduction
Chronic kidney disease secondary to diabetic
nephropathy is referred as diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Diabetic kidney disease is the leading
cause of End stage renal failure with a prevalence
of 35 to 40 % among diabetic patients [1].
Diabetic nephropathy is a pathological condition in which albumin (a blood protein) begins to
leak into urine. Initially kidneys filtration function
remains normal and only small amount of albumin
is present in urine. This stage is known as microalbuminuria. As disease progresses, more amount of albumin becomes evident in urine leading
to macroalbuminuria. At this stage, kidneys are
272
unable to filter waste products [2]. As a result of
poor kidney function, arterial blood pressure rises
significantly leading to uncontrolled blood pressure. High blood pressure along with elevated blood
glucose and hyperlipidemia is the main cause of
diabetic nephropathy which leads to diabetic kidney disease. In diabetic kidney disease high blood
glucose level damages blood vessels in the kidneys, thus affecting ability of kidneys to filter blood properly. Without any treatment, kidneys will
eventually fail resulting in oedema and numerous
other complications especially uncontrolled blood
pressure and anaemia [3].
Case presentation
A 61 years old Malay male diagnosed with Diabetes mellitus (DM) 2 was admitted to Hospital
Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). Patient has
been suffering from DM 2 for past 7 years but his
condition was quite stable all this while until he
started to experience generalized oedema (noted
especially on lower limbs), scrotum swelling with
facial puffiness and abdominal distension. Patient
complained of breathlessness and orthopnoea (shortness of breath while lying straight) to his General
practitioner and was given Tablet Furosemide 60
mg OD (taken once daily). His condition became
better for few days but symptoms of oedema recur.
Within one week, he was admitted to hospital due
to severe nausea, vomiting. Patient was lethargic
with clear signs of oedema with shortness of breath.
Upon admission to hospital, physical examination of patient showed presence of ascites in abdomen
with pedal oedema up to knee especially on lower
right limb. Examination of lower limbs revealed
chronic bilateral ulcer. Vitals of patient showed nor-
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Table 1. Renal Functioning tests
Parameters
Sodium, Na+
Potassium, K+
Urea
Creatinine
Creatinine clearance (CrCl)
Normal value
136-146 mmol/L
3.5 – 5.1 mmol/L
2.8 – 7.2 mmol/L
72 – 127 μmol/L
105 – 150 ml/min
Day 1
135
3.3
13.5
278
26.17
Day 2
135
3.2
12.7
274
26.55
Day 3
134
3.6
12.3
180
37.72
Table 2. Hydration status of patient
Day
Day 1
Day 2
Day 3
Day 4
Intake (ml)
250
400
800
600
Output (ml)
500
1500
900
2600
Balance (ml)
- 250
-1100
- 100
-2000
Table 3. Medical profile of patient
Drug
T. Felodipine 10mg stat then OD
T. Calcium carbonate 500mg BD
IV Metoclopramide 10mg stat, then TD
T. Unasyn 375 mg stat then BD
T. Losartan 100mg OD
S/C Actrapid 8 unit TD
T. Vitamin B complex 1/1 OD
IV Furosemide 60 mg TDS
T. Fe Fumarate 200mg OD
T. Folate 1/1 OD
T. Perindopril 4 mg OD
T. Felodipine 15 mg OD
Indication
Calcium-channel blocker. Used to manage uncontrolled hypertension
As an electrolyte supplement
Anti-emetic
Treatment of diabetic dermopathy
Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Treatment of diabetic
nephropathy in Type 2 diabetes & HTN
Insulin. Used to manage the diabetes mellitus.
Supplement
Loop diuretic. Used to remove excess fluid (oedema)
Prevention and treatment of iron-deficiency anemia
Treatment of megaloblastic and macrocytic anemia due to folate
deficiencies
ACE inhibitor. Used to manage high blood pressure.
Calcium-channel blocker. Used to manage uncontrolled hypertension
OD: once daily, BD: bis in die (twice daily), TD: thrice daily, stat: , T: tablet, HTN: hypertension, stat: medication to be
administered immediately
mal body temperature and pulse rate but blood pressure was quite high 185/115 mmHg. Next haematological, renal and liver tests were done. Reports of
haematological test showed abnormally high uric
acid 622 mmol/L (normal value: 98-106mmol/L).
Furthermore Activated partial thromboplastin time
(aPTT) was very high i.e. 96.2 s (normal value: 2642 s). Liver profile of patient showed slightly low
albumin i.e. 32 (normal value: 35-52 g/L). The renal profile and hydration status of patient is shown
in Table 1. and Table 2. respectively.
After being admitted to ward and all basic tests, patient was prescribed following medications:
(Table 3)
Discussion
A diabetic patient (type 1) was admitted to
HUSM due to his complain of breathlessness,
severe oedema and pain in lower limbs. After
physical examination and detailed blood tests, patient was diagnosed with chronic kidney disease
(CKD) stage IV secondary to diabetic nephropathy, uncontrolled hypertension, anaemia secondary to CKD and generalized oedema secondary
to decompensate heart failure.
Patient suffered from uncontrolled high blood
pressure. Initially he was given Tablet Felodipine
10 mg stat but his hypertension remained uncontrolled. Thus, the dose of felodipine was increased to 15mg OD and other anti-hypertensive agent
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Tablet Losartan 100mg OD was added to the regimen on second day. Still on fourth day, patient
blood pressure was 180/107 mmHg and so physician decided to add Tablet Perindopril 4mg to control high blood pressure. Meanwhile diuretic (I.V
Furosemide 60 mg) was given to patient to drain
out excess water from the body as a result of oedema. As evident from patient hydration profile,
patient was able to urinate excess fluid out of his
body but still physician were unable to control his
blood pressure. High blood pressure worsen diabetic nephropathy that is evident from higher level of albumin (3+) in urine. Moreover patients’
haemoglobin and hematocrit level was lower than
normal range clearly indicating anaemia secondary to chronic kidney disease stage IV.
One of the functions of kidney is to filter blood
and to produce red blood cells by generating hormone erythropoetin. However, in stage 4 kidney disease, 85% to 90% of kidney function is lost. Thus, the
kidneys become unable to filter blood and produce
red blood cells that ultimately results in anaemia [4].
In order to treat anaemia in this patient, Tablet Folate
and Ferrous fumarate were prescribed by physician.
As seen by renal functioning test reports, extremely high urea level suggests careful intake of
protein. This would help to decrease work load on
kidney and ultimately slows progression of CKD
by controlling uremia.
Lastly patient was suffering from diabetic dermopathy. It is a type of skin lesions (cutaneous)
seen in patients with DM and results due to poor
supply of oxygenated blood to the effected part.
Deoxygenated blood will pool in effected part and
leads to painful cutaneous skin lesions [5].
References
1. Reutens A, Atkins R. “Epidemiology of diabetic nephropathy.” Contributions to Nephrology, 2011; 170: 1-7.
2. Ayodele OE, Alebiosu CO, et al. “Diabetic nephropathy--a review of the natural history, burden, risk
factors and treatment.” Journal of the National Medical Association, 2004; 96(11): 1445-1454.
3. Dronavalli S, Duka I, et al. “The pathogenesis of
diabetic nephropathy.” Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2008; 4(8): 444-452.
4. Rahman M, Smith MC. “Chronic Renal Insufficiency.
A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approach.” Arch Intern Med, 1998; 158(16): 1743-1752.
5. Adams SP. “Dermacase. Diabetic dermopathy.” Can
Fam Physician. 2001 April; 47: 725–729.
Corresponding Author
Azreen Syazril Adnan,
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Resource Center,
School of Medical Sciences,
University Science Malaysia,
Kota Bharu,
Malaysia,
E-mail: [email protected]
Conclusion
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a complicated
medical condition that itself increases risk of other
complications. As seen in our patient uncontrolled
hypertension, oedema and extremely low creatinine clearance clearly shows end stage renal failure.
Treatment of all these complications requires extreme care by physician as far as dosage adjustment,
selection of drug and appropriate diet plan is concerned. Main priority in this case is to control blood pressure by eliminating oedema and to maintain
blood sugar level to avoid further complications.
274
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White matter hyperintensities and related risk
factors in Chinese normal aging : A community
based study
Guoxing Zhu1, Shuguang Chu2, Ding Ding3, Chi-Shing Zee4
1
2
3
4
Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, P.R. China,
Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, P.R. China,
Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Institute of Neurology, Fudan University, Shanghai, P.R. China,
Department of Neuroradiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
Abstract
Background: White Matter Hyperintensity
(WMH) -related findings in normal aging are rarely reported in China. This study investigated the
prevalence and anatomical location of WMH and
related risk factors in Chinese population of normal aging.
Methods: A resident group of 156 healthy subjects aged over 60 years old were enrolled in a
community in Shanghai. All participants received
physical and neurological examinations and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Fazekas rating scales
were used to describe the severity of periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) and deep white matter
hyperintensity (DWMH). Multivariate logistic
regression model were performed to examine the
association of WMH and potential related factors.
Results: PVH and DWMH appeared in 77.6%
and 88.5% of the subjects respectively. Adjusted
by other variables, increasing age (OR, 1.102;
P=0.003) and hypertension (OR, 2.707; P=0.015)
were found as the independent risk factors of
PVH. Independent risk factors for DWMH were
increasing age (OR, 1.189; P<0.001), obesity
(OR, 2.977; P=0.015), and cigarette smoking (OR,
4.125; P=0.049).
Conclusions: Among Chinese normal aging,
WMH are common and are associated with increasing age. Consistent with numerous prior studies,
vascular risk factors such as hypertension, obesity and cigarette smoking were also significantly
associated WMH burden suggesting a possible
vascular etiology.
Key words: aging, white matter hyperintensity, magnetic resonance imaging
Introduction
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) refer to
areas of hyperintense signal on T2- or proton density-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI). They are thought to reflect ischemic brain
changes [1], but advancing age and other etiologies
may also contribute [2]. Magnetic resource-pathologic studies suggest that deep white matter and periventricular hyperintensities represent primarily ischemic tissue damage, although Wallerian degeneration secondary to a degenerative process such as
Alzheimer’s disease as well as blood-brain barrier
dysfunction are likely to contribute as well [3-6].
Increasing evidence supports the view that
WMH have detectable clinical implications even
in healthy elderly subjects [7-11]. In western countries, WMH are reported to occur in 30%-96%
of the elderly population [12,13], and the incidence of these lesions even approaches 100% by the
age of 85 [14]. Significant risk factors for more
severe WMH include older age, history of hypertension, stroke, smoking, and clinically silent stroke on MRI [15]. One study found an association
between severity of WMH and history of diabetes
[16], but others have not [12,17].
In China and even in Asia in general, WMH-related findings in normal aging are rarely reported.
The aim of the current study was to investigate the
prevalence and anatomical location of WMH in a
community-living population of normal elderly.
Furthermore, we also examined the risk factors
related to WMH in this population.
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Methods
Subject population
Subjects were recruited using a government
maintained “name list”, which includes the name,
sex, age, address and telephone number of every
resident in Jing’an Temple community in urban
Shanghai. This list is kept current by the neighborhood administration office, which keeps track of
all individuals living in that neighborhood, including in- and out-migration, as well as deaths. We
enrolled subjects focusing on a resident group in
a defined geographic area, consisting of five resident units in the community. Potential participants
were approached at the door. The recruitment rate
in the community was 81.6%.
The inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) age
over 60 years old; 2) neurologically asymptomatic by comprehensive neurological evaluation; 3)
without history of stroke; 4) education-adjusted
Chinese Mini-Mental State Exam score >=26;
5) without any contraindications to MR scanning
(pacemakers or other metal objects).
All the participants were requested to provide
their written informed consent after reading the
study information. This study was approved by
the Medical Ethics Committee of Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai.
Clinical Evaluation
All participants received physical and neurological examinations in Huashan Hospital, Fudan
University. Besides age and gender, height and
weight were also measured for each enrolled participants. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated as a person’s weight in kilograms (kg) divided by their height in meters (m) squared. BMI of
≥25 was defined abnormal according to the WHO
standard. Blood pressure was measured with the
subject in the sitting position for over 5 min. Risk
factors, such as history of diabetes mellitus (DM),
hypertension, atrial fibrillation (AF), hyperlipidemia, and coronary artery diseases (CADs) were
recorded. DM was defined as type I or II DM treated with antidiabetic therapy. Hypertension was
defined as a systolic/diastolic blood pressure of
≥140/90 mm Hg or self-reported hypertension
that was being treated with antihypertensive therapy. Patients were considered to have hyperlipi276
demia based on self-report and if they exhibited
any of the following criteria: 1) total cholesterol
(TC) level ≥ 5.9 mmol/l; 2) low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level ≥ 2.6 mmol/l; 3)
high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level < 0.9 mmol/l (male), HDL-C < 1.0 mmol/l (female); or 4) triglyceride (TG) level ≥ 1.8 mmol/l.
CADs included stable angina, unstable angina,
and myocardial infarction.
MRI Acquisition
Brain images were obtained at Huashan Hospital in Shanghai. For MRI acquisition, we used a
series of image acquisition protocols developed at
the UCD Imaging of Dementia & Aging Laboratory (IDeA Lab), which are suitable for the GE 1.5T
MRI system. Imaging parameters were as follows:
1) Axial spin echo, T2 weighted double echo image
with TE1 equal to 20 ms, TE2 equal to 90 ms, TR
equal to 2420 ms, a field of view of 24 cm and a
slice thickness of 3 mm. 2) Coronal 3D spoiled gradient recalled echo (IR-prepped SPGR) acquisition,
T1 weighted image with TR equal to 9.1 ms a flip
angle of 15 degrees, a field of view of 24 cm and a
slice thickness of 1.5 mm. 3) Axial high resolution Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR)
image with a TE of 120 ms, a TR of 9000 ms, a TI
2200 ms, a 24 cm field of view, and a slice thickness
of 3 mm. The scan was checked and stored at the
Radiology Department of Huashan Hospital.
Image analysis
A modification of suggested Fazekas rating
scales was used to describe the severity of hyperintense signal abnormalities surrounding the
ventricles and in the deep white matter [18]. Periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) was graded as
0=absence, 1 (mild)= “casps” or pencil-thin lining,
2 (moderate)=smooth “halo”, 3 (severe)=irregular
PVH extending into the deep white matter. Periventricular caps are hyperintense regions around the anterior and posterior pole of the lateral
ventricles and are associated with myelin pallor
and dilated perivascular spaces. Periventricular
bands or ‘rims’ are thin linear lesions along the
body of the lateral ventricles and are associated
with subependymal gliosis. Separate deep white matter hyperintense signals (DWMH) were
rated as 0=absence, 1 (mild)=punctuate foci, 2
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(moderate)=beginning confluence of foci, 3 (severe)= large confluent areas. The presence of lacunar
infarct, defined as small cavitated lesions no larger than 2 cm in diameter, were assessed on T1weighted and T2-weighted FLAIR images. Image
analysis was performed by an experienced rater
(Dr. Chu) who was blinded to age, gender, and
other risk factors.
Data analysis
Data analysis was performed with SPSS 10.0
(SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA). Prevalence of hyperintense signal abnormalities were described as
percentage stratified by gender and age group.
Differences in hyperintense signal abnormalities
between risk factor subgroups were compared by
chi-squared test or fisher’s exact test. To examine
the association of potential risk factors with PVH
and DWMH, we performed multivariate logistic
regression models, with age, gender, BMI, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, hypertension, DM,
AF, hyperlipidemia, and CADs as independent
co-variables. In the model, participants who had
grade 0 or 1 PVH and grade 0 or 1 DWMH were
regarded as hyperintense signal normality. Participants who had grade 2 or 3 PVH and grade 2 or 3
DWMH were regarded as hyperintense signal abnormality. Adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) along with
95% CI was presented as the risk measurement for
the hyperintense signal abnormality. All P values
and CIs were estimated in a two-tailed fashion.
Difference was considered to be statistically significant at P < 0.05.
Results
Characteristics of enrolled study subjects
We recruited 156 subjects (61 male and 95 female) with mean age of 69.4±6.2 years (range, 6083). The average BMI of the subjects was 24.3±3.6
(range, 16.6-35.4). High BMI (≥25) was observed
in 38.3% of the patients. Subjects with habit of
cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking were 23
(14.7%) cases and 20 (12.8) cases. Hypertension,
hyperlipidemia and DM were found respectively
in 48.1%, 45.5% and 11.5% of subjects. Patients
with AF and CADs accounted 2.6% and 10.3%.
Lacunar infarct was detected on MRI in 6 (3.8%)
subjects without any clinical symptoms (Table 1).
Prevalence of hyperintense signal
abnormality
The prevalence of each grade of PVH and
DWMH in study subjects is shown in Table 2.
Among 156 sujects, 35 (22.4%) and 60 (38.5%)
were evaluated as Fazekas grade 0 and 1 of PVH;
18 (11.5%) and 87 (55.8%) were evaluated as Fazekas grade 0 and 1 of DWMH. Fifty eight (37.2%)
and 3 (1.9%) subjects were evaluated as Fazekas
grade 2 and 3 of PVH, whereas 36 (23.1%) and 15
(9.6%) subjects were evaluated as Fazekas grade 2
and 3 of DWMH. Individuals older than 70 years
old had more WMH burden than those aged 60-69
(p<0.05). WMH burden did not differ by gender.
Table 1. Demographic and clinical characteristics of study subjects
Variable
Gender [male,n (%)]
Age, years (mean±SD)
BMI (mean±SD)
Smoking [n (%)]
Alcohol drinking [n (%)]
Medical history
Hypertension [n (%)]
Diabetes mellitus [n (%)]
Hypercholesterolaemia [n (%)]
Atrial fibrillation [n (%)]
Coronary artery diseases [n (%)]
Lacunar infarct on MRI [n (%)]
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
Study subjects (n=156)
61(39.1)
69.4±6.2 (60-83)
24.3±3.6 (16.6-35.4)
23(14.7)
20(12.8)
75(48.1)
18(11.5)
71(45.5)
4(2.6)
16(10.3)
6(3.8)
277
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Risk factors related to hyperintense signal
abnormality
Univariate analysis showed that cigarette smoking (p=0.006), alcohol consumption (p=0.004),
hypertension (p<0.001), CAD (p=0.043), and lacunar infarct on MRI (p=0.024) were related to
PVH abnormality; lacunar infarct (p=0.001) were
also related to DWMH abnormality (Table 3).
Multivariate logistic regression model indicated
that, adjusted by other variables, increasing age
(OR, 1.102; 95% CI, 1.033 to 1.177; P=0.003) and
hypertension (OR, 2.707; 95% CI, 1.211 to 6.050;
P=0.015), were found as the independent risk factors of PVH; while alcohol consumption (OR,
0.137; 95% CI, 0.024 to 0.771; P=0.024) was found to be an independent protective factor of PVH
(Table 4). Independent risk factors for DWMH
were increasing age (OR, 1.189; 95% CI, 1.101
to 1.284; P<0.001), high BMI (OR, 2.977; 95%
CI, 1.236 to 7.166; P=0.015), as well as cigarette
smoking (OR, 4.125; 95% CI, 1.007 to 16.893;
P=0.049).
Table 2. Prevalence of hyperintense signal abnormalities among study subjects stratified by gender and
agegroup
0
Male
Female
60-69
Age(yrs)
>=70
Total
Gender
1
16(26.2)
19(20.0)
30(41.7)
5(6.0)
35(22.4)
Fazekas scale of PVH
Fazekas scale of DWMH
n (%)
n (%)
2
3
p
0
1
2
3
p
26(42.6) 18(29.5) 1(1.6)
7(11.5) 35(57.4) 15(24.6) 4(6.6) 0.798
0.754
34(35.8) 40(42.1) 2(2.1)
11(11.6) 52(54.7) 21(22.1) 11(11.6)
24(33.3) 18(25.0) 0(0)
14(19.4) 47(65.3) 10(13.9) 1(1.4) <0.001
<0.001
36(42.9) 40(47.6) 3(3.6)
4(4.8) 40(47.6) 26(31.0) 14(16.7)
60(38.5) 58(37.2) 3(1.9)
18(11.5) 87(55.8) 36(23.1) 15(9.6)
Table 3. Univarate analysis of hyperintense signal abnormalities
Variable
BMI abnormal [n=58]
Cigarette smoking [n=23]
Alcohol drinking [n=20]
Medical history
Hypertension [n =75]
Diabetes mellitus [n=18]
Hypercholesterolaemia [n =71]
Atrial fibrillation [n=4]
Coronary artery diseases [n=16]
lacunar infarct on MRI [n=6]
PVH*
26 (44.8)
3(13.0)
2(10.0)
p
0.260
0.006
0.004
DWMH*
23(39.7)
8(34.8)
4(25.0)
p
0.154
0.817
0.195
40(53.3)
9(50.0)
30(42.3)
2(50.0)
10(62.5)
5(83.3)
<0.001
0.314
0.461
0.651
0.043
0.024
30(40.0)
6(33.3)
22(31.0)
1(25.0)
6(37.5)
6(100)
0.061
0.951
0.678
0.740
0.665
0.001
* Fazekas scale grade 2 or 3
Table 4. Odd ratios (OR) for hyperintense signal abnormalities among study subjects associated with
different risk factors
Age
Gender (female)
BMI (>=25)
Cigarette smoking
Alcohol drinking
Hypertension
Diabetes mellitus
Hypercholesterolaemia
lacunar infarct
Atrial fibrillation
Coronary artery diseases
278
OR
1.102
1.009
1.777
0.417
0.137
2.707
2.029
0.911
13.747
2.406
1.521
PVH
95% CI
1.033
1.177
0.405
2.513
0.783
4.030
0.089
1.942
0.024
0.771
1.211
6.050
0.651
6.329
0.407
2.040
0.521
362.880
0.192
30.073
0.427
5.414
P
0.003
0.985
0.169
0.265
0.024
0.015
0.223
0.821
0.117
0.496
0.518
OR
1.189
0.627
2.977
4.125
0.232
1.705
1.328
0.545
0.000
0.763
0.674
DWMH
95% CI
1.101
1.284
0.229
1.713
1.236
7.166
1.007
16.893
0.046
1.158
0.707
4.111
0.385
4.582
0.228
1.306
0.000
0.000
0.060
9.682
0.184
2.472
P
<0.001
0.362
0.015
0.049
0.075
0.235
0.654
0.173
0.999
0.834
0.552
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Discussion
The current study provides evidence suggesting that WMH are common among cognitively
normal Chinese aged 60 and older. Increasing
age was significantly associated with severity of
WMH. In addition, hypertension was significantly
associated with risk of PVH, whereas high BMI
and cigarette smoking were significantly associated with risk of DWMH, after adjusting for the
effects of gender and other risk factors.
The use of visual rating scales is the most
common approach to quantifying WMH on MRI
[19]. Such scales yield ordinal-level data at best,
and are beset by variable inter- and intra-rater reliability, ambiguous terminology, and inconsistent
analyses of lesion size/quantity, location, and configuration [20-23]. Visual rating of WMH, however, is easy, and several scales are available with
good reproducibility [24]. A study of 3 established rating scales (Manolio; Fazekas and Schmidt;
Scheltens) studied reflect the actual volume of age
related white matter changes well from 5 European centers [25]. Although visual scales often do
not detail size and location, and most are not linear, they may still be preferable to other, more timeconsuming quantitative measurements in epidemiologic studies with relatively large sample size,
especially in developing areas with scarce resources of computer-relied image analysis software.
The prevalence of WMH is varied with different
target population and age spectrum [12, 26-31].
The Framingham Offspring Study reported 12% of
extensive WMH prevalence among stoke-free subjects, among which only 52% of the study subjects
were over 60 years old [12]. The LADIS study reported that 56% of European subjects aged 65-84
years old were evaluated as Fazekas score 2 or 3
[31], and 27% of moderate and severe white matter
lesions were reported among 111 subjects aged 6584 years old in Roterdam study. However, these
studies did not exclude subjects with the history of
stroke [27]. Moreover, data from Asian populations is sparse. Cerebral WMH was found in about
65% of healthy Korean subjects over 60 years old
even subjects with stroke and lacunar infarct were
excluded [30]. The current study reported 35% of
the prevalence of moderate to severe WHM. The
data of Chinese elderly subjects is lower than that
of the Korean study. The Korean study, however,
was based on the retrospective review of brain MRI
and had no predefined criteria for cerebral WMH.
The presence of traditional cardiovascular risk
factors (eg, increasing age, smoking, hypertension) have a well-recognized impact on vascular
function and have been associated with increased
WMH [29]. Interestingly in the current study, besides increasing age, hypertension was found as
an independent risk factor for PVH, while high
BMI and smoking were found as independent risk
factors for DWMH, suggesting that PVH may arise from an underlying vascular cause, rather than
DWMH. Presence of PVH may have more value
to predict further occurrence of cerebrovascular
diseases as well as neurodegenerative diseases.
Lacunar infarcts are attributed most commonly
to deep penetrating arterial occlusion of the lenticulostriate arteries, anterior choroidal artery, paramedian branches of the basilar artery, and thalamoperforator branches of the posterior cerebral
artery [32]. Lacunar infarcts are seen relatively
commonly, and it is thought that most of these
infarcts are thrombotic manifestations of atheromatous disease. In two large cohorts, approximately 20% of people with a mean age in the early
70s were found to have one or more silent brain
infarcts [33,34] Compared to Westen studies, we
found a lower prevalence (6%) of lacunar infarct
on MRI in our stroke-free subjects. MRI infarcts
were also found within 83.3% of subjects with
PVH and 100% of subjects with DWMH (table
3). Since cerebrovascular risk factors, such as
hypertension, DM, CAD, etc., were found to be
significant associated with the prevalence of MRI
infarcts, the impact of cerebrovascular risk factors
should be adjusted to measure the net risk of MRI
infarct to hyperintense signal abnormalities. Although a significant p value was undetected within
this study population, we still found 13.747 of OR
(Table 4), which means adjusted for other factors,
an individual with MRI infarct would have 13.7 times of risk of WMH than one without MRI infarct.
Similar to studies in Japan, Austria, and America
[35-37], a significant association between MRI infarct and severity of WMH would be expected in
Chinese population with larger sample size, and
suggest that lacunar infarction and WMH share a
common etiologic background.
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The current cross-sectional study illustrated the
prevalence data of WMH and related risk factors.
A longitudinal study with large sample of study population will provide an opportunity to clarify the
incidence and long-term outcome related to WMH.
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Corresponding Author
Shuguang Chu,
Department of Radiology,
Huashan Hospital, Fudan University,
Shanghai,
China,
E-mail: [email protected]
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Radiological classification of newly formed
alveolar bone: A Cone Beam CT study
Usman Haider Uzbek1, Shaifulizan Ab. Rahman1, Mohammad Khursheed Alam2
1
2
Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia,
Orthodontic Unit, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Abstract
Objectives: To evaluate the bone density using
cone beam computed tomography scans in the region of maxillary sinus augmentation carried out
using an-organic bovine bone graft and to compare the bone density values with the radiological
classification of alveolar bone in the same region
proposed by Norton and Gamble 2001.
Methods: Sterile freeze dried bovine bone
graft produced by National Tissue Bank, Universiti Sains Malaysia was used for 1-stage implant
placement with maxillary sinus augmentation in a
total of 19 subjects with 19 implants. After a period of one and a half year, all subjects underwent
a follow up CT scan using Planmeca Promax 3D
®
Cone beam computed tomography scanner .The
collected data was then analyzed to evaluate bone
density in Hounsfield Units using Planmeca Romexis™ Imaging Software 2.2 ®
Results: There was bone formation at the site of
the augmented sinus. Bone quality had improved
one grade based upon the radiological classification by Norton and Gamble 2001 from grade 4 to
grade 2/3.
Conclusion: An-organic bovine bone graft is
a viable osteoconductive grafting material which
forms a better quality of bone from what previously existed in the posterior maxillary region.
Key words: Cone beam CT, An-organic bovine bone graft, Bone density, Hounsfield Units.
Introduction
Maxillary sinus is the largest of the 4 paranasal
sinuses. Its growth is progressive as the skull matures. Due to the presence of teeth, they prohibit
the inferior growth of the sinus (1,2). Studies have
shown that the maxillary sinus undergoes pneumatization in adults after extraction of posterior
282
teeth (3,4). Prosthetic rehabilitation of a severely
atrophic maxilla poses a challenging therapeutic
problem, because bone augmentation is required to
enable placement and ensure stability of a sufficient
number and length of implants. To provide primary
anchorage, and installation of dental implants in the
posterior maxillary region where there is a lack of
bone to accommodate the implants, the procedure
of maxillary sinus augmentation is carried out.
There are different materials that can be used
for maxillary sinus augmentation. Grafting with
autogenous bone has shown the best results and a
high success rate. They are often used as a baseline for the comparison of other grafting materials
(5,6). The absolute biocompatibility of autogenous bone avoids the issue of graft rejection within
the sinus, and exhibits osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties and vital osteogenic cells (7).
Its limitations however are patient discomfort, use
of general anaesthesis in cases, donor site morbidity, increased surgical time and frequently the reconstruction of large osseous defects like bilateral
maxillary sinus lift may require large amounts of
bone graft material (8).
This has led researchers to consider alternate
grafting materials including allografts; materials
derived from the same species however with a
different genetic composition, xenografts; materials derived from a different species and alloplastic materials; inorganic materials such as metal,
ceramic or plastic which are biocompatible, with
varying degrees of success (9).
An-organic bovine bone is a xenograft which
has a chemical composition and architectural
geometry similar to that of human bone and can
support new bone formation in direct contact to
the graft An-organic bovine bone graft or Bovine
bone mineral (BBM) (Bio-Oss®, Geistlich Biomaterials, Wolhusen, Switzerland) is an excellent
biocompatible and osteoconductive material (10-
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
14), and has proved to be an appropriate scaffold
in ridge deficiencies, periimplant destruction, and
sinus augmentation procedures (15-24).
Studies have shown that an organic bovine bone
mineral is a material with osteoconductive properties (16,18). In numerous experimental studies, it has
been shown to facilitate growth of new bone and it
has also been used successfully in humans to repair defects, augment ridges, and to raise the floor of
the sinus. Host bone quality can be a decisive factor
to ensure long-term clinical success of dental implants. In dental practice the surrounding bones can
be qualitatively classified into four distinct classes
(25). Norton and Gamble, (26) have upgraded this
classification of Lekholm and Zarb, (25) by utilizing computed tomography to establish a quantitative range in Hounsfield units (HU). Details of both
classifications are described in tble 1.
Although these classifications exist in literature
but there is no radiological study that relates the
density of new bone formed as a result of osteoconduction by the xenograft with these existing
classifications. Cone-beam computed tomography has to be considered as a giant leap forward
with regards to the field of dental radiology. Cone
beam computed tomography provides us a medium through which we can evaluate this new bone
without any invasive procedure.
Materials and Methods
Our study consisted of a total of 19 subjects
with the mean age of 51±4.70. There were 11
male and 8 female patients. All patients had undergone a maxillary sinus augmentation using the
bovine bone xenograft carried out with immediate placement of dental implants in the region of
the augmented sinus. All subjects were indicated
for dental implants and each patient had a missing tooth in the posterior maxillary region with a
bone height of less than 4mm. A total of 19 implants were placed in our region of interest in the
posterior maxilla with one implant per patient. All
implants had a uniform length of 10 mm
A Single/1- stage surgical protocol was carried
out in which the implant placement was done in
conjunction with the maxillary sinus augmentation
(27). After a graft maturation period of 6 months
the implant was loaded with the prosthesis. Follow up CT scans using Planmeca Promax 3D ®
(Planmeca Oy, Finland) were taken 18 months after placement of the dental implant housed in the
grafted region. The scanning conditions were: tube
voltage 84kV, tube current 12 mA, and slice thickness 1 mm. CT images were stored in DICOM format. Patient scans analyzed using the Cone Beam
CT machines computer based software; Planmeca
Romexis™ Imaging Software 2.2 ® by which the
data is analyzed in all 3 dimensions. The scans are
analyzed in the 3D X-ray volume view mode.
Pre-measurement preparations included a 30
min warm-up time for the liquid crystal display
(LCD) screen to attain its maximum performance,
room lighting control to eliminate reflections on
the screen having comfortable seat in place for the
examiners (Practice guideline for digital radiography, The American College of Radiology 2007).
Our region of interest was divided into 2 sections the grafted region and the existing alveolar
bone below the grafted region. The implant was
divided into 2 parts of 5 mm each using the length
measurement tool of the software by drawing a 10
mm line from neck of the implant embedded the
alveolar bone towards the apical end of the implant embedded in the grafted region. Since a One
stage /single stage sinus augmentation was carried
out, 5 mm of residual bone was already present
at the site on top of which the grafting material
was placed to lift the maxillary sinus. Hence the
measurement above 5 mm of the embedded im-
Table 1. Classification of bone density in the jaw bone according to (Lekholm and Zarb 1989) and
(Norton and Gamble, 2001)
Quality
(Lekholm & Zarb)
Quality 1
Quality 2/3
Quality 4
Quality 4 *
Bone density range (HU)
( Norton & Gamble )
> + 850
+ 500 to + 800
0 to + 500
<0
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
Region of interest
Anterior Mandible
Posterior mandible/Anterior Maxilla
Posterior Maxilla
Tuberosity region
283
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
plant apically (towards the maxillary sinus) is considered to be alveolar bone formed as a result of
osteoconduction by the graft and was termed as
the grafted region. To standardize the cut on which
every time the measurement is taken on different
subjects, a set of steps are to be made for each implant in every case. The axial view is set to the
level where all implants are seen, the coronal and
the sagittal reference lines are adjusted to intersect
at the center of the implant to be measured. The
implant then is adjusted by rotation of the view
in order to obtain an image of the implant of its
long axis parallel to sagittal and coronal reference
lines in coronal and sagittal views respectively. In
the coronal and sagittal using the length measurement tool in the software a 10 mm tangential line
is drawn along the long axis of the implant. In the
coronal and sagittal views the axial line is set at the
3 levels (10, 9 & 8 mm) for the grafted region. The
radiographic measurements were taken at these 3
different lengths per Implant with 4 readings (palatal, buccal, mesial and distal) per point making a
total of 12 readings per subject. The mean and SD
of these 12 readings were then calculated.
The bone density was measured in Hounsfield
unit displayed on the screen was made using the
automatic option for density measurement incorporated in the software. The bone densities at the
buccal and palatal bone surfaces are measured on
the sagittal view screen. While the bone densities
at the mesial and distal surfaces are measured on
the coronal view screen.
Statistical analysis
For statistical analysis the latest version of
IBM® SPSS® 20 was used. Data are presented as
Mean ± standard deviation (SD). All the recorded
density readings were in Hounsfield units.
Results
In the grafted region for each subject the bone
density values ranged of 600 HU to 900 HU. The
highest mean bone density was 832 ± 169.73 HU
whereas the lowest bone density was 605 ± 226.76
HU, illustrated in Table 2. According to these values the bone quality in the grafted region of all the
subjects was classified as type 2/3 bone, shown in
Table 3.
284
Table 2. Mean Bone density of the grafted region
for each subject in Hounsfield Unit (HU)
Patient
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Mean (HU) SD
648 ± 128.43
680 ± 241.23
659 ± 174.35
773 ± 147.20
809 ± 199.68
537 ± 174.09
754 ± 170.74
832 ± 169.73
765 ± 173.95
815 ± 235.78
722 ± 222.26
730 ± 178.78
605 ± 226.76
693 ± 162.22
699 ± 158.18
718 ± 245.27
710 ± 325.80
821 ± 276.18
710 ± 209.56
*Hounsfield Unit
Table 3. Bone quality classification of the grafted region based on the jaw bone classification by
(Norton and Gamble 2001)
Patient
(HU)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
*Hounsfield Unit
Density
648
680
659
773
809
537
754
832
765
815
722
730
605
693
699
718
710
821
710
Mean = 720
SD = ±76.22
Quality
Classification
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
2/3
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Discussion
An-organic bovine bone is widely used in
dentistry for the purpose of sinus augmentation.
Various authors have reported the material to be
suitable for sinus augmentation (28,29).The most
commonly used product that has been reported
in literature comes under the proprietary name
of Bio-Oss ® (Geistlich Pharma Switzerland)
(30,31). Mainly studies on the an-organic bovine
bone graft have focused primarily on histomorphometric analysis of biopsy specimens (23,32).
Cone beam computed tomography is an emerging tool and is being used in dentistry for the determination of bone density in the implant recipient
sites. The mainstay of studies conducted previously
focused on the evaluation of bone density prior to
implant placement (33). The assessment of jaw
bone tissue for the purpose of dental implant serves
the purpose of being a diagnostic tool to assess
whether there exist sufficient amount of bone for
implant treatment and as a prognostic tool to predict the probability of success or failure, as alveolar bone quality, quantity and density are important
with regard to the outcome of the procedure.
A classification system for jaw bone quality
referred to in frequent publications on dental implant treatment was proposed by Lekholm & Zarb
(25). The system is presented as drawings of the
jaws accompanied by text, and assessment methods. There also exist other classification systems
that have been used for the purpose of bone assessment with regards to dental implants (34,35).
These differing classification systems for bone tissue characteristics may lead to confusion and interfere with attempts to compare the results of various studies. One of the most frequently referred
and compared to publication is a classification system proposed by Norton and Gamble (26). Many
recent publications that have studied the alveolar
bone and reported on bone density in Hounsfield
unit using computed tomography scans have compared their results with this publication (36-38).
We chose to compare our results with the Norton
and Gamble (26) study, the reason being that it is a
publication that is frequently used as reference in
literature and that the authors utilized a interactive
software program to measure the bone density in
Hounds field units. The author’s also established
quantitative ranges are applied to the subjective
quality classification as previously described (25).
Based upon the Norton and Gamble classification system the bone density range for the posterior maxilla is 0 to +500 Hounsfield Units which is
classified as Type 4 bone. Our results are in agreement to these findings as our recorded bone density values for the alveolar bone that lies beneath
the augmented region with the graft was between
261 & 398 Hounsfield Units. Clinical studies have
also indicated that region of the posterior maxilla
exhibits the highest failure rate for dental implantation due to the fact that this region frequently
lacks adequate volume and/or has a lower density
of bone compared to other regions of the human
jaw (39,40). In our study although the sample size
had the limitation of being relatively small, there
was no implant failure. This can be attributed to
one of the fact that the one part of the implant was
embedded in the existing alveolar bone of low
density and the other half was embedded in the
new bone formed as a result of the osteoconduction nature of our graft. The bone density of this
‘newly formed alveolar bone’ was recorded to be
in the range of 537 and 832 Hounsfield Units. This
is our pilot finding, and according to the classification of Norton and Gamble it falls in the category of Type 2/3 bone that is present in the posterior mandible and anterior maxilla. Irrespective of
gender, age group or the implant diameter used the
bone quality improved vastly in the region of the
augmented sinus. The bone density ranged jumped
up from a quality 4 to a quality 2/3 at the same site
i.e. the posterior maxillary bone. Bone density is
a key factor to take into account when predicting
implant stability. This improvement of quality can
be related to the success rate of our study as all 19
subjects had functioning, osseointegrated dental
implants. Osseointegration is the mode of tissue
integration around a healed functioning implant in
which the primary load bearing tissue at the interface is bone (41).
These results agree with a recent study by
(42)2011 on the relation between bone density
and primary implant stability which reports that a
higher bone density value (HU) leads to a higher
primary implant stability, Hounsfield Units are
considered to be a valid diagnostic parameter to
possibly predict the stability of implants.
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Conclusion
In the posterior maxillary region, the existing alveolar bone was of a low quality as compared to the
rest of the human jaw bone as proposed by the Norton and Gamble classification. However, post maxillary augmentation by the xenograft has significantly
produced a higher bone quality in the posterior maxillary region irrespective of the existing bone quality
which translates into a better implant stability.
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Corresponding Author
Mohammad Khursheed Alam,
Senior Lecturer, Orthodontic Unit,
School of Dental Sciences,
Universiti Sains Malaysia,
Kelantan,
Malaysia,
E-mails: [email protected],
[email protected]
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Relevance of evaluation for quality assurance in
the field of health education work - evaluation of
midwifery studies
Anita Jug Dosler, Metka Skubic
Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Midwifery, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Abstract
Introduction
The article gives an overview and theoretical
foundations about the relevance of evaluation in the
field of health education work and presents empirical research that deals with the existing practice in
the field of midwifery education at university level.
Evaluation survey is based on an empirical survey
research approach and quantitative research paradigms. An causal and non-experimental method of
empirical research is used. The quantitative data
analysis has been carried out on the descriptive statistics level. Factor analysis has been used to examine the relationship between the observed variables.
Results show that a relatively large percentage of
students suggested to change the study programme,
especially in the following areas: (1) carrying out
practical work and internships at the clinic, (2) organisation of studies, (3) integration of students in
research activities at the Faculty of Health Sciences
and at the clinic, (4) giving feedback on personal
progress (5) preparing students on how to deal with
psychological consequences and effects of traumatic experiences, (6) interdisciplinary approach in the
midwifery education process. The research presents that evaluation in the field of health education
work is important and efficient in supporting and
improving teachers‘ s educational work and their
professional development, especially on a process
level, fields and quality indicators. In the field of
health education work, a system of internal and external evaluating of educational programs could be
one of the future options, where educational institutions could evaluate their education programs and
clinical practices for students from the perspective
of different target groups in different fields and in
different quality levels.
Key words: Education, evaluation, studies,
midwife.
288
Developing the ability of “deliberate learning”
from practical work, self-questioning and selfreflexion, developing the ability of examining and
coping with subjective theories, ideas and concepts
about one’s own position and the integration of all
these subjects into new findings in the profession
and research achievements is becoming an ever
more important task in the process of ensuring
higher quality in the field of health education work
for future midwives/nurses and must begin already
during their studies. The long tradition of midwifery education in Slovenia and the clearly defined
role of a midwife, according to international definitions in the public and the private health care sector, present a good starting point for examining and
researching the quality and efficiency of midwifery
education in Slovenia. The evaluation of educational programmes and educators, which was in our
case done, can show educators ability to overcome
traditional educational methods and introduce new,
modern approaches in the process of midwifery students’ education, irrespective of health policy and
educational system. In that way evaluation allows
us the internal quality control of an institution and
reflection on the extent to which the goals and objectives have been achived, and provides feedback
on the implementation of the educational program,
enabling further actions to be planned.
Goal
The article gives an overview and an analysis
of theoretical foundations and definitions about
the evaluation process and presents an empirical
research which is focused on the students’ view
and their perception of midwifery studies with the
existing clinical and education practice in the field
of midwifery education at university level. The
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
research presents that evaluation in the field of
health education work is important and efficient in
supporting and improving teachers‘ s educational
work and their professional development.
Relevance of evaluation in the field of health
education work
Different definitions of the word evaluation
can be found in literature. Many of them, which
are presented in this article, define evaluation as a
systematic collection of data about a phenomenon
with the aim to evaluate it. Some authors added to
this definition by saying that an evaluation is a systematic and critical analysis with the basic intention
of assessment, planning and improvement (Patton,
1987; Norris, 1993; Fereday, Collins, Turnbull,
Pincombed, Osterd, 2009). Information gathering
is linked to individual criteria, measurements and
statistic procedures with the purpose of developing
a rational basis for judgement in crucial situations
(Stufflebeam, Madaus, Scriven, 2000; Dunt 2009;
Busari, 2012). Evaluation in the field of health
education work is usually part of any learning
programme or education, as it is a part of the midwifery/nursing care process cycle (Sekelani, 2008;
Dunt, 2009; Busari, 2012; Fawcett, 2009; Fereday,
Collins, Turnbull, Pincombed, Osterd, 2009).
Quality and education of health professionals is
one of the important concerns in health worldwide (Busari, 2012; WHO, 2011; Knapp, Bennett,
Plumb, Robinson, 2000). Studies (Busari, 2012;
McCann et al., 2012; Fentahun and Molla, 2012;
WHO, 2011; McClain et al., 2012; Engbers, De Caluwé, Stuyt, Fluit, Bolhuis, 2013) in the wider international context have shown that reforms in education must be informed by community health and
education needs and evaluated with respect to how
well they serve these needs. Stronger collaboration
between the education and health sectors, other national authorities, and the private sector can improve the match between health professional education
and the realities of health service delivery. Educational institutions need to increase capacity and reform recruitment, teaching methods and curricula
in order to improve the quality and the social accountability of graduates (Sekelani, 2008; Barrow,
Lyte, Butterworth, 2002; McCann et al., 2012). The
international community has an important role to
play by partnering to support country-led efforts.
This can bring about a new era for health professional education (WHO, 2011).
To raise the quality of health education work
with the help of an evaluation, it is necessary to
examine the work of a health education institution
as a whole from the perspective of different target
groups (the medical, higher management and educational staff, health education service users, public and private health care etc.), in different fields
and in different quality levels. The purpose of an
evaluation is to have an influence on the following fields based on data that has been collected as
objectively as possible: (1) decision making, formulation of rules and functioning of institutions;
(2) evaluation of the health and socioeconomic
efficiency of the programmes carried out by an
institution; and (3) quality assurance of health
education work (Licqurish and Seibold, 2008;
Hughes and Fraser, 2011; Dykeman and Cruttenden, 2009). The first phase encompasses an
examination of the situation in an establishment
or an institution (e.g. where are the problems arising and in which areas and levels of health education work quality are they arising). Afterwards we
define the research problem (what is going to be
pursued). Quality assurance, in a narrower sense
is only possible when we have evaluated the situation and acquainted ourselves with the whole topic
from different points of view. Due to the fact that
the evaluation object is adapting itself to the sociocultural context in which the evaluation is taking
place, it is difficult to precisely define universally
applicable standards for its planning and evaluation implementation in advance. The explicitness
of planning and evaluating the effects of our own
health education work requires us to have the cognitive capabilities of planning, tracking and selfevaluating the quality of our own activities. In this
way an evaluation process is also very important
for medical staff ‘s own professional development.
Methods
The study was based on an empirical survey
research approach and quantitative research paradigms. An causal and non-experimental method of
empirical research was used.
In our evaluation survey we especially focused
on the students’ perception of midwifery studies
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
and therefore, the following assertions and research questions have been addressed: (1) What is
the students’ overall evaluation of the educational
programme?, (2) How do students feel about and
evaluate the study programme, its organisation and
realisation, its content and quality?, (3) Advantages and disadvantages of the study programme, or
of such types of education for future midwives.
Instrument description
Beside general data about the respondents the
evaluation questionnaire contained a total of 30
Likert-type statements and one descriptive evaluation scale. The evaluation scales had five response
categories, where category 1 meant I disagree completely, category 2 mostly disagree, category 3 neither disagree nor agree, category 4 mostly agree and
category 5 completely agree. In the course of this
evaluation, experts have, on the ground of previous theories and findings, evaluated whether if the
categories or questions were clear, comprehensive
and unambiguous (Polit et al., 2001; Dunt, 2009;
Dykeman and Cruttenden, 2009).
Measured on the basis of Cronbach’s alpha
coefficient, the evaluation scales have a sufficient reliability rate (the internal consistency coefficient ranges from 0.70 to 0.87) and validity
(in all cases a minimum of 27.74 % variance was
explained with the first factor). Reliability was
also controlled with a factor analysis. According
to the equation rtt≥√h2 the aforementioned part of
the questionnaire reached a good reliability rate (rtt
> 0.71). Validity has also been achieved with the
method of expert evaluations. Objectiveness was
achieved by giving the respondents clear instructions prior to filling out the questionnaire.
Ethical aspects of the study
The students voluntarily participated in the
study on the basis of a declaration of voluntary participation and personal data protection. In line with
the confidentiality agreement, the researchers have
bound themselves to use the collected data for research purposes only. The study was approved by
the departmental faculty ethics committee.
Sample description
The questionnaire was completed by 52 fulltime degree students (100.0 %) in their second
290
(n=28) and third (n=24) year of Midwifery at the
Faculty of Health Sciences in Ljubljana (Slovenia). Five (9.6 %) of the sample were male and 47
(89.4 %) were female. The average age was 20.3
years (standard deviation 1.31). 22 (42.3%) were
single, 26 (50.0 %) lived in a cohabitation relationship and 4 (7.7%) were married.
The midwifery study programme at the Faculty
of Health Sciences in Ljubljana is the only midwifery study programme in Slovenia. Each year
the number of students admitted to the programme
is limited to 30.
Data processing
Data have been processed with the SPSS 20.0
software package. The quantitative data analysis
has been carried out on the descriptive statistics
level, where the frequency distribution (f. f %) for
attributive variables and the basic descriptive statistic for numeric variables (measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion) has been used. To
determine the validity of the measure instrument a
factor analysis has been used (% of explained variance by the first factor) and for the determination
of reliability, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient has been
applied. Factor analysis has also been used to examine the relationship between the observed variables. It has been carried out with variables that met
the criteria of factorisation. We used the Varimax
rotation method. The adequacy of a correlation matrix for factorisation was assessed with the KMO
test that has a value of 0.807 and the Bartlett’s test
(a value of 743.432, g=465, p=0.000) that is of high
statistical importance. Both test results showed that
a factor analysis is reasonable.
Results and Discussion
We wanted to find out if the relationships between the observed variables could be explained
by a smaller number of directly observed variables
or factors, and on this basis, explain the content
of common factors, which best explain the relationships between the observed variables. Factors
were determined by different numbers of questions that bring to light the chosen aspects of each
concept. Factor analysis results were also incorporated in the findings presentation and proved that
the questionnaire terms were well defined.
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
In the factor analysis, six factors have been defined: (1) carrying out practical work and internships at the clinic (explained variance 27.7%),
(2) organisation of studies (explained variance
19.7%), (3) integration of students in research activities at the Faculty of Health Sciences and at the
clinic (explained variance 9.8%), (4) giving feedback on personal progress (explained variance
6.1%), (5) preparing students on how to deal with
psychological consequences and effects of traumatic experiences in form of individual therapies
and supervisions (explained variance 4.3%), (6)
interdisciplinary approach in the midwifery education process (explained variance 2.6%). These
explain 70.3 % of the common variance, where by
communalities for most variables are higher than
0.65 and no variable value is lower than 0.60. If
the condition is set that the eigenvalues have to be
higher than 1, the variables form 6 factors with a
70.3 % common variance explanation rate.
In the following discussion, an overview of
factors is given according to the average score
height, as well as a content analysis of the results
according to corresponding factors that have been
conducted through the factor analysis.
New variables or factors were arranged into
three categories according to the average score
height into three categories. Table 1 shows that
in category I, which has the highest average score
(M > 4.40), the factors “interdisciplinary approach
in the midwifery education process” and “organisation of studies” are listed. Category II, with
an average score of 3.90 < M < 4.40, comprises
three factors: preparing students on how to deal
with psychological consequences and effects of
traumatic experiences in form of individual thera-
pies and supervisions, carrying out practical work
and internships at the clinic and giving feedback
on personal progress. In category III, the interval
with the lowest average score (3.00 < M < 3.90),
the factor “integration of students in research activities at the Faculty of Health Sciences and at the
clinic” is listed.
Table 2 shows that most students are of the
opinion that, in the framework of the study programme, more foreign and reputable professors
from the midwifery field and other related medical disciplines should be invited to hold lectures
(M=4.59, R=1).
Table 3 shows that in the category II, second
and third year full-time degree students gave the
highest score to the variable: My wish is that the
practical work at the clinic would be organised in
one unit (e. g. in one semester) (M=4.39, R=1).
Data shown in table 4 indicate that, out of all
observed variables ranked in category III on the
basis of the factor analysis results, midwifery students prefer to see themselves in the field of research activities at the Faculty of Health Science
(M=3.87, R=1).
Conclusions
What our study exposes in the nursing/midwifery education and nursing/midwifery practice in
the international context?
In our research we have measured how second
and third year full-time degree students evaluated
the undergraduate Midwifery study programme at
the Faculty of Health Science, which is the only
study programme in Slovenia. Our goal was to
examine how students feel about and evaluate the
Table 1. Overview of the results and factors according to the average score height
Category
Average (mean)
score interval
I
more than 4.40
II
from 3.90 to 4.40
III
from 3.00 to 3.90
Factors
6
2
5
1
4
3
interdisciplinary approach in the midwifery education process
organisation of studies
preparing students on how to deal with psychological
consequences and effects of traumatic experiences in form of
individual therapies and supervisions
carrying out practical work and internships at the clinic
giving feedback on personal progress
integration of students in research activities at the Faculty of
Health Sciences and at the clinic
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Table 2. Variables distribution of frequencies that according to the average score interval have been classified as category I: interdisciplinary approach in midwifery educational process and organisation of studies
Statement
Mean
The published learning programme contains insufficient information.
4.40
It bothers me that professors who do not give lectures are listed in the
4.41
learning programme.
At enrolment the midwifery profession was presented as an established
4.45
profession regulated by law.
I am of the opinion that all midwifery studies candidates should be
4.41
obliged to take aptitude or admission tests.
It is necessary to define clear rules about the fulfilment of study
4.52
obligations, non-attendance at courses, practical work and internships.
In the framework of the study programme more foreign and reputable
professors from the midwifery field and other related medical disciplines 4.59
should be invited to hold lectures.
I would like to have more information about further education possibilities
in Slovenia or abroad and get more support from the coordinator for 4.42
international affairs concerning working abroad during my studies.
Std. deviation
1.174
Rank
7
1.236
5.5
1.340
3
1.098
5.5
0.874
2
0.863
1
1.257
4
Table 3. Variables distribution of frequencies that according to the average score interval have been
classified as category II: preparing students on how to deal with psychological consequences and effects
of traumatic experiences in form of individual therapies and supervisions, carrying out practical work
and internships at the clinic, giving feedback on personal progress
Statement
Mean
Students should be prepared on how to deal with possible psychological
consequences or effects of traumatic experiences before the start of 4.32
practical work and internships at the clinic.
Each student should be given more opportunities for independent work under
4.38
the supervision of a mentor during practical work and internship at the clinic.
Individual therapies in form of inter- and supervisions should be provided
3.94
for students who need or wish it.
I would like to have more feedback on my personal progress from
4.31
university lecturers – professors.
I would like to have more feedback on my personal progress from my
4.35
mentor at the clinic.
I would like to have more feedback on my personal progress from the
4.02
university staff – assistants.
My wish is that the practical work at the clinic would be organised in one
4.39
unit (e. g. in one semester)
I think that the mentors at the clinic are not well informed about the
3.95
newest approaches in midwifery.
I wish the premises with simulation machines would be better equipped. 4.24
Std. deviation
Rank
0.913
4
0.776
2
1.789
9
1.326
5
1.034
3
1.210
7
1.377
1
1.265
8
1.256
6
Table 4. Variables distribution of frequencies that according to the average score interval have been classified as category III: integration of students in research activities at the Faculty of Health Sciences and
at the clinic
Statement
I wish to be integrated into research activities at the Faculty of Health Science.
I wish to be integrated into research activities at the clinic.
I wish to do more research work
292
Mean Std. deviation Rank
3.87
0.762
1
3.09
0.983
3
3.01
1.334
2
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
programme, its organisation and implementation,
its content and quality and how they experience
the approachability and responsiveness of professors and clinical mentors. The reasons to research
this topic were findings of some foreign surveys
(Barrow, Lyte, Butterworth, 2002; Fawcett, 2005;
Fereday, Collins, Turnbull, Pincombed, Osterd,
2009) that, as opposed to our research, focused
on specific aspects of midwifery studies and not
directly on the student population. Key findings
of such surveys have shown that the authors were
too much focused on theories and models, clinical experiences, programme contents, students’
stress and problems of inequality. They paid too
little attention on understanding the viewpoints,
positions, interests and wishes of students in the
educational process itself. Therefore, our survey
contains a wide variety of themes and presents an
attempt to describe the experiences with, and the
evaluation of, the educational system in Slovenia
from the viewpoint of students undergoing midwifery education at the time of the evaluation. At
the same time, we point out that although our survey sample is not representative, a certain trend
regarding students’ evaluation can nevertheless be
observed. Results have shown that a high percentage of students suggest programme changes referring to: (1) carrying out practical work and internships at the clinic, (2) organisation of studies, (3)
integration of students in research activities at the
Faculty of Health Sciences and at the clinic, (4)
giving feedback on personal progress (5) preparing students on how to deal with psychological
consequences and effects of traumatic experiences
in form of individual therapies and supervisions,
(6) interdisciplinary approach in the midwifery
educational process. The present findings represent a starting point for the preparation of a new
educational programme for midwives in Slovenia.
They show the necessity for a more detailed implementation of positive changes. Ability to critically evaluate the education programme and use
evidence in practice was regarded highly. Student
outcomes are showing some evidence of possible
divergence of grades in the study programme. All
these changes have been pointed out by students
and recognised by evaluation and analysis as well
as a wider discussion about this topic, that would
lead to the profession in form of the preparation
of a new Midwifery bachelor study programme in
Slovenia. The manner and context of implementation of the educational change may have important
implications for students’ learning experiences and
also has the potential to contribute to the profession by providing evaluation information for educatiors, about how to provide an optimal education and clinical learning environment. So, in the
field of health education work, a system of internal
and external evaluating of educational programs
could be one of the future options, where educational institutions could evaluate their education
programs and clinical practices for students from
the perspective of different target groups in different fields and in different quality levels.
Based on our results the evaluation research
have several possibilities for further investigation
and interpretation in the international context. Research of nursing/midwifery education and practice is one of the important factors for establishing
and ensuring the quality of educational process.
This is one of the main reasons why the evaluation
is have to be formally recognized and standardized. It (1) allows us the internal quality control of
an institution and reflection on the extent to which
the goals and objectives have been achived, and
(2) provides feedback on the implementation of
the educational program (education and practice),
enabling further actions to be planned. The effectiveness of teaching would be substantially improved if teaching were a research-based profession and if educational practioners were to play an
active role in carrying out evaluation process. The
discourse of the reflective practitioner emphasizes
the particular skills needed to reflect constructively upon ongoing experience as a way of improving
the quality and effectiveness of one’s work. The
discourse encourages teachers to take into account
the whole picture – analysing the effectiveness of
study programme through an attempt to evaluate what was learned, by whom, and how more
effective nursing/midwifery education and nursing/midwifery practice might take place in the future. In conjunction with this, our results of the
evaluation research have also shown on factors of
»hidden curriculum« in correlation to the quality
of educational process, which can simply not be
disregarded. They must be professionally devised
and regularly as well as reflectively applied to the
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
course of planning, implementation and evaluation of educational process. We can concluded that
evaluation in the field of health education work is
important and efficient in supporting and improving teachers‘ s educational work and their professional development, especially on a process level,
fields and quality indicators.
References
1. Barrow JE, Lyte G, Butterworth T. An evaluation of
problem based learning in a nursing theory and practice module. Nurse Education in Practice. 2002; 2:
55-62.
2. Busari JO. Comparative analysis of quality assurance
in health care delivery and higher medical education.
Adv Med Educ Pract. 2012; 3: 121-127.
3. Dunt D. Levels of project evaluation and evaluation
study design. In: Jirojwong S, Liamputtong P (Eds). Population Health, Communities and Health Promotion.
Melbourne: Oxford University Press; 2009; 267-283.
11. McCann E, Higgins A, Maguire G, Alexander J,
Watts M, et al. A survey of pedagogical approaches
and quality mechanisms used in education programs
for mental health professionals. Journal of Interprofessional Care. 2012; 26: 383-389.
12. McClain EK, Babbott SF, Tsue TT, Girod DA, Clements D, et al. Use of a structured template to facilitate practice-based learning and improvement
projects. J Grad Med Educ. 2012; 4: 215-219.
13. Licqurish S, Seibold C. Bachelor of Midwifery
studentsʼ experiences of achieving competencies:
The role of the midwife preceptor. Midwifery. 2008;
24: 480-489.
14. Norris N. Understanding Educational Evaluation.
London: Kogan Page; 1993; 9-52.
15. Patton M. How to Use Qualitative Methods in Evaluation. London, New Delhi: Sage Publications;
1987; 8-49.
16. Polit DF, Beck CT, Hungler BP. Essentials of nursing research: methods, appraisals and utilization.
Philadelphia: Lippen-cott; 2001; 7-42.
4. Dykeman M, Cruttenden K. Frameworks of project
Evaluation. In: Jirojwong S, Liamputtong P (Eds).
Population Health, Communities and Health Promotion. Melbourne: Oxford University Press; 2009;
253-267.
17. Sekelani SB. Teaching and Teacher Education for
Health Professionals: Perspectives on Quality and
Outlook of Health Professionals Education in Zambia. Medical Journal of Zambia. 2008; 35: 70-74.
5. Engbers R, De Caluwé LI, Stuyt PM, Fluit CR, Bolhuis S. Towards organizational development for sustainable high-quality medical teaching. Perspect Med
Educ. 2013; 2: 28-40.
18. Stufflebeam DL, Madaus GF, Scriven M. Evalvation models: Viewpoints on Educational and Human
Services Evaluation. Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff Publishing; 2000; 24-45.
6. Fawcett J. Contemporary nursing knowledge:
Analysis evaluation of nursing models and theories.
Philadelphia: UPA; 2009; 13-49.
19. World Health Organization. Transformative scale up
of health professional education. Switzerland: WHO
Press; 2011; 1-20.
7. Fentahun N, Molla A. Determinants of and opportunities for continuing education among health care professionals in public health care institutions in Jimma
township, Southwest Ethiopia. Adv Med Educ Pract.
2012; 18: 89-96.
8. Fereday J, Collins C, Turnbull D, Pincombed J, Osterd
C. An evaluation of Midwifery group practice and educational process. Women and Birth. 2009; 22: 11-16.
Corresponding Author
Anita Jug Dosler,
Faculty of Health Sciences,
Department of Midwifery,
University of Ljubljana,
Ljubljana,
Slovenia,
E-mail: [email protected]
9. Hughes A, Fraser DM. The experience of newly qualified midwives in England. Midwifery. 2011; 27: 382-386.
10. Knapp ML, Bennett NM, Plumb JD, Robinson JL.
Community-based quality improvement education
for the health professions: balancing benefits for
communities and students. Journal of Interprofessional Care. 2000; 14: 119-130.
294
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
Imported visceral Leishmaniasis in western
Romania: Report of four cases
Iosif Marincu, Nicoleta Bertici, Livius Tirnea
Department of Infectious Diseases, Pneumology and Parasitology, „Victor Babes” University of Medicine and
Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania.
Abstract
The imported tropical pathology is frequently
associated with diagnosis and treatment difficulties. We present 4 cases of imported visceral leishmaniasis (VL) from Western Romania within the
period 2004-2011. The diagnoses were made on
epidemiologic elements, clinical symptoms and
biological tests. The confirmation of the clinical
diagnoses was performed by Giemsa-stained blood smears obtained via bone marrow biopsy. The
period between the first medical consultation and
confirmation of VL diagnosis was 4–10 weeks. It
requires the application of rigorous epidemiological control measures and early diagnosis of import
diseases from all patients returning to the country
from different geographical areas.
Key words: Visceral leishmaniasis, amastigotes, diagnosis, symptoms.
Introduction
Leishmaniasis is an important vector-borne disease and is the only tropical disease that has been
endemic to 88 countries worldwide and southern
European regions for decades. In southern Europe, most reported cases are due to zoonotic VL,
which is the most dangerous form and proves lethal when left untreated (1).
VL is endemic in more than 60 countries in
tropical and subtropical areas and in Mediterranean
countries (2). About 350 million people are at risk
of contracting leishmaniasis, one of the most neglected tropical diseases (3). It is known that VL is
a broad clinical spectrum disease, so atypical forms
of presentation are relatively frequent (4).
In Romania, the imported tropical pathology is
associated with diagnosis and treatment difficulties
and doctors have no experience in this field. The
increase in the number of Romanians travelling after the year 2000 throughout the Mediterranean has
led to a growing number of imported leishmaniasis
cases. Here we report the clinical and epidemiological peculiarities of imported VL from Western Romania within the period 2004-2011.
Cases report
The authors have retrospectively studied 4 cases of imported visceral leishmaniasis investigated
in the Infectious Disease Clinic of Timiş County,
Romania within the period 2004-2011. The positive diagnosis was based on epidemiological (cases
of leishmaniasis in specific geographical regions),
clinical (fever, sweating, headache, asthenia, loss of
appetite, dizziness, abdominal discomfort, weight
loss, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, jaundice, etc.)
and laboratory (erytrocyte sedimentation rate
(ESR), blood counts, alanine transaminase (ALT),
aspartate aminotransferase (AST), conjugated bilirubin, total bilirubin, electrophoresis, alkaline phosphatase, Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), etc)
characteristics. The final laboratory confirmation
of the disease was by Giemsa-stained blood smears
obtained by bone marrow biopsy which revealed
the presence of amastigotes. Data of the epidemiological survey were collected from the Institute of
Public Health from Timisoara. The data was statistically processed using Epi Info software.
Of the 4 VL cases investigated (3 men and 1
woman; average values ± standard deviation (±
SD) of age = 31.75 ± 4.75 years), 3 patients were
from rural areas and one was from an urban area.
All possessed rudimentary knowledge of sanitation
and individual hygiene, having completed only primary level of education. All worked as agricultural
labourers in Spain (3 patients) and southern Italy
(1 patient) over a period of 2–6 years during which
they returned to Romania for 3–5 months/year.
All patients presented with fever, sweating, headache, asthenia, anorexia and dizziness. In addition, 2
patients complained of abdominal pain and polyarthralgia. Objective examinations identified 3 patients
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
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HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
with tegumentary pallor and facial hyperpigmentation, 1 patient with red–violet nodes in the calves, 2
patients with tachycardia, 1 patient with jaundice and
1 patient with necrotizing vasculitis of the left fifth
toe. All patients had hepatomegaly and splenomegaly and experienced severe weight loss (Table 1).
Results of biological tests were as follows: average values ± SD of white blood cell count, 5.775
± 8.55 × 103/µL; haemoglobin concentration, 9.37
± 1.25 g/dL; platelets, 61.250 ± 19.31 × 103/µL;
alanine aminotransferase, 134.25 ± 145.85 U/L
and gamma globulin, 2.03 ± 0.57 g/dL. All patients
tested negative for human immunodeficiency virus
(HIV). The confirmation of the clinical diagnoses
in all the patients was performed by Giemsa-stained
blood smears obtained via bone marrow biopsy
which revealed the presence of amastigotes.
A positive diagnosis is challenging for majority
of specialists confronted with such cases, and the
period between the first medical consultation and
confirmation of VL diagnosis was 4–10 weeks.
The confirmation of VL diagnosis in the first
case took 6 weeks. The patient was admitted twice
to our infectious disease clinic and then subsequently transferred to the haematology department. Here the patient’s condition worsened and
he fell into a coma and died two days later.
The second patient was diagnosed while in ambulatory care in Spain with prolonged fever syndrome. After arriving back in Romania, he was
hospitalised in Bucharest and treated with corticosteroids; however, his general condition worsened
and was admitted to the infectious disease clinic
of Timişoara. A confirmation of VL was made after 4 weeks of hospitalisation.
The third patient was initially admitted to the
Department of Rheumatology and treated with corticoids. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with peritoneal tuberculosis and treated with tuberculostatic
agents for 4 weeks; however,2 months later he was
admitted again at the infectious disease clinic.
The fourth patient was previously examined at
a private healthcare facility and intended to follow
the recommended treatment prior to admission at
our hospital. Two patients were treated with amphotericin-B, with favourable evolution; however,
one patient refused further treatment and the second
patient fell into coma 2 days after admission and
eventually died. An autopsy revealed blood stasis
in the lungs, a reddish–brown liver, splenomegaly
(mass, 2 kg; area, 29×17×7 cm) and blood stasis in
the kidneys with infarcts.
Discussion
Reportedly, there has been a sharp increase in
imported leishmaniasis cases over the past decade
in industrialized, non-endemic countries and in
association with increasing international travel,
military activities and immigration (5).
Data from the German Surveillance System for
Imported Diseases collected during 2001–2004 indicated that the vast majority (81%) of VL infections were acquired in southern European countries
(6). Similarly, cases of imported VL to the UK during 1985–2004 had reportedly contracted the disease in Italy, Spain, Greece, Cyprus and Malta (7).
Visceral leishmaniasis is a severe and potentially fatal vector-borne disease (8). Typically, the
patient develops fever, weakness, anorexia, weight
loss, pallor, hepatosplenomegaly (predominantly
splenomegaly), lymphadenopathy and progressive deterioration (9). In VL, anaemia, leucopenia
or thrombocytopenia and hypergammaglobulinaemia are characteristically observed (10).
The clinical symptoms and the biological test
parameters in these cases were specific to VL and
we noted the presence of polyarthralgia in 2 patients
Table 1. Reported symptoms and physical signs
Symptom
Fever
Sweating
Headache
Asthenia
Loss of appetite
Dizziness
Abdominal pain
Polyarthralgia
296
No of cases
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
Physical signs
Hepatomegaly
Splenomegaly
Jaundice
Tegumentary pallor
Facial hyperpigmentation
Red–violet nodes in the calves
Tachycardia
Necrotizing vasculitis of the left fifth toe
No of cases
3
3
1
2
2
1
2
1
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
and jaundice in the third patient. The persistence of
the prolonged fever syndrome, associated with polymorphic symptoms led to multiple diagnosis errors
(poliarticular rheumatism, fibromialgy, peritoneal
tuberculosis) and also to the delayed diagnosis confirmation. Furthermore, not even one patient didn’t
bring any medical letter from the medical personnel
of those geographic areas, letters that could help the
Romanian doctors with no clinical experience concerning the tropical infectious pathology.
The first Romanian VL case was reported by
Manicatide in 1912. In 1934, 24 VL cases were
reported in the province of Oltenia (11). During
the period between 1999 and 2006, the ‘’Dr. V.
Babes’’ Clinic of Infectious and Tropical Diseases
(Bucharest, Romania) reported 5 VL cases diagnosed in Romanian agricultural labourers returning from Spain, Italy and Greece (12).
Notably, the patients were young (average values of age = 31.75 ± 4.75 years) and left the country for employment. None of the patients contacted their family physician or any specialist before
leaving Romania, indicating that they were not
aware of the risk of VL infections in epidemic areas. Furthermore, they were not aware of the risks
presented by daily exposure to unsanitary working
and living conditions for several years.
All patients lived in rural agricultural areas under unsanitary conditions in highly infectious, risk
areas inhabited by many stray dogs. Further, all
had limited sanitary knowledge, failed to comply
with individual or collective hygiene standards
and did not have medical insurance. When they
were ill, they interrupted their work and returned
to Romania for diagnosis and treatment.
The extended period of time necessary to diagnose VL was due to differentially diagnosing VL
from other disorders that are characterized by fever of an undetermined aetiology, particularly in
tourists returning from countries in the Mediterranean Basin. It requires the application of rigorous
epidemiological surveillance, along with early diagnosis of import diseases in all patients returning
home from various geographic areas.
References
1. Dujardin JC, Campino L, Capavate C, Dedet JP, Gradoni L, Soteriadou K, et al. Spread of vector-borne
diseases and neglect of leishmaniasis, Europe. Emerg
Infect Dis. 2008; 14: 1013–8.
2. Maltezou HC. Leishmaniasis. In: Maltezou HC, Gikas A, editors. Tropical and emerging infectious diseases. Research Signpost. 2010; 163–85.
3. Lima IP, Müller MC, Holanda TA, Harhay M, Costa
CHN, Costa DL. Human immunodeficiency virus/
Leishmania infantum in the first foci of urban American visceral leishmaniasis: clinical presentation from
1994 to 2010. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, 2013: 00-00.
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infection in travelers. Int J Infect Dis. 2010; 14(12):
e1032-e1039.
6. Weitzel T, Muhlberger N, Jelinek T, Schunk M, Ehrhardt
S, Bogdan C, et al. Imported leishmaniasis in Germany
2001–2004: data of the SIMPID surveillance network.
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7. Stark D, van Hal S, Lee R, Marriott D, Harkness J. Leishmaniasis an Emerging Imported Infection: Report of 20
Cases From Australia. J Travel Med 2008; 15: 351–354.
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Xavier CC. Neurological involvement in visceral leishmaniasis: case report. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical. 2010; 43: 743-745.
9. Kafetzis DA, Maltezou HC. Visceral leishmaniasis in
paediatrics. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2002; 15: 289–294.
10. Murray HW, Berman JD, Davies CR, Saravia NG.
Advances in leishmaniasis. Lancet 2005; 366:
1561–1577.
11. Găman A, Dobrea C, Găman G. A case of visceral
leishmaniasis in Oltenia region (Romania).Rom J
Morphol Embryol. 2010; 51: 391–394.
12. Florescu S, Popescu C, Cotiga M, Raduta L, Botgros
R, Voinea C, et al. Visceral leishmaniasis cases in
Romania. ESCMID, 2007; Abstract number: 1733.
Acknowledgements
The authors would also like to thank Enago
(www.enago.com) for the English language review.
Journal of Society for development in new net environment in B&H
Corresponding Author
Iosif Marincu,
Department of Infectious Diseases,
Pneumology and Parasitology,
“Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy,
Timisoara,
Romania,
E-mail: [email protected]
297
HealthMED - Volume 8 / Number 2 / 2014
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1. Sakane T, Takeno M, Suzuki N, Inaba G. Behcet’s disease. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 1284–1291.
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