Writing Group Members, Véronique L. Roger, Alan S. Go, Donald... Emelia J. Benjamin, Jarett D. Berry, William B. Borden, Dawn... 2012 Update : A Report From the

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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics−−2012 Update : A Report From the
American Heart Association
Writing Group Members, Véronique L. Roger, Alan S. Go, Donald M. Lloyd-Jones,
Emelia J. Benjamin, Jarett D. Berry, William B. Borden, Dawn M. Bravata, Shifan
Dai, Earl S. Ford, Caroline S. Fox, Heather J. Fullerton, Cathleen Gillespie, Susan M.
Hailpern, John A. Heit, Virginia J. Howard, Brett M. Kissela, Steven J. Kittner, Daniel
T. Lackland, Judith H. Lichtman, Lynda D. Lisabeth, Diane M. Makuc, Gregory M.
Marcus, Ariane Marelli, David B. Matchar, Claudia S. Moy, Dariush Mozaffarian,
Michael E. Mussolino, Graham Nichol, Nina P. Paynter, Elsayed Z. Soliman, Paul D.
Sorlie, Nona Sotoodehnia, Tanya N. Turan, Salim S. Virani, Nathan D. Wong, Daniel
Woo and Melanie B. Turner
Circulation 2012, 125:e2-e220: originally published online December 15, 2011
doi: 10.1161/CIR.0b013e31823ac046
Circulation is published by the American Heart Association. 7272 Greenville Avenue, Dallas, TX
72514
Copyright © 2011 American Heart Association. All rights reserved. Print ISSN: 0009-7322. Online
ISSN: 1524-4539
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Permissions: Permissions & Rights Desk, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a division of Wolters
Kluwer Health, 351 West Camden Street, Baltimore, MD 21202-2436. Phone: 410-528-4050. Fax:
410-528-8550. E-mail:
[email protected]
Reprints: Information about reprints can be found online at
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AHA Statistical Update
Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update
A Report From the American Heart Association
WRITING GROUP MEMBERS
Véronique L. Roger, MD, MPH, FAHA; Alan S. Go, MD;
Donald M. Lloyd-Jones, MD, ScM, FAHA; Emelia J. Benjamin, MD, ScM, FAHA;
Jarett D. Berry, MD; William B. Borden, MD; Dawn M. Bravata, MD; Shifan Dai, MD, PhD*;
Earl S. Ford, MD, MPH, FAHA*; Caroline S. Fox, MD, MPH; Heather J. Fullerton, MD;
Cathleen Gillespie, MS*; Susan M. Hailpern, DPH, MS; John A. Heit, MD, FAHA;
Virginia J. Howard, PhD, FAHA; Brett M. Kissela, MD; Steven J. Kittner, MD, FAHA;
Daniel T. Lackland, DrPH, MSPH, FAHA; Judith H. Lichtman, PhD, MPH;
Lynda D. Lisabeth, PhD, FAHA; Diane M. Makuc, DrPH*; Gregory M. Marcus, MD, MAS, FAHA;
Ariane Marelli, MD, MPH; David B. Matchar, MD, FAHA; Claudia S. Moy, PhD, MPH;
Dariush Mozaffarian, MD, DrPH, FAHA; Michael E. Mussolino, PhD;
Graham Nichol, MD, MPH, FAHA; Nina P. Paynter, PhD, MHSc; Elsayed Z. Soliman, MD, MSc, MS;
Paul D. Sorlie, PhD; Nona Sotoodehnia, MD, MPH; Tanya N. Turan, MD, FAHA; Salim S. Virani, MD;
Nathan D. Wong, PhD, MPH, FAHA; Daniel Woo, MD, MS, FAHA; Melanie B. Turner, MPH;
on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee
Table of Contents
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e3
1. About These Statistics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e7
2. American Heart Association’s 2020
Impact Goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e10
3. Cardiovascular Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e21
4. Subclinical Atherosclerosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e45
5. Coronary Heart Disease, Acute Coronary
Syndrome, and Angina Pectoris . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e54
6. Stroke (Cerebrovascular Disease). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e68
7. High Blood Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e88
8. Congenital Cardiovascular Defects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e97
9. Cardiomyopathy and Heart Failure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e102
10. Disorders of Heart Rhythm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e107
11. Other Cardiovascular Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .e122
12. Risk Factor: Family History
and Genetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13. Risk Factor: Smoking/Tobacco Use . . . . .
14. Risk Factor: High Blood Cholesterol
and Other Lipids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15. Risk Factor: Physical Inactivity . . . . . . . .
16. Risk Factor: Overweight and Obesity . . . .
17. Risk Factor: Diabetes Mellitus . . . . . . . . .
18. End-Stage Renal Disease and Chronic
Kidney Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19. Metabolic Syndrome . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20. Nutrition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21. Quality of Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22. Medical Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23. Economic Cost of Cardiovascular Disease
24. At-a-Glance Summary Tables . . . . . . . . .
25. Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .e130
. . . . . . . . .e134
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*The findings and conclusions of this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention.
The American Heart Association makes every effort to avoid any actual or potential conflicts of interest that may arise as a result of an outside
relationship or a personal, professional, or business interest of a member of the writing panel. Specifically, all members of the writing group are required
to complete and submit a Disclosure Questionnaire showing all such relationships that might be perceived as real or potential conflicts of interest.
The American Heart Association requests that this document be cited as follows: Roger VL, Go AS, Lloyd-Jones DM, Benjamin EJ, Berry JD, Borden
WB, Bravata DM, Dai S, Ford ES, Fox CS, Fullerton HJ, Gillespie C, Hailpern SM, Heit JA, Howard VJ, Kissela BM, Kittner SJ, Lackland DT, Lichtman
JH, Lisabeth LD, Makuc DM, Marcus GM, Marelli A, Matchar DB, Moy CS, Mozaffarian D, Mussolino ME, Nichol G, Paynter NP, Soliman EZ, Sorlie PD,
Sotoodehnia N, Turan TN, Virani SS, Wong ND, Woo D, Turner MB; on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics
Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2012 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2012;125:e2– e220.
A copy of the document is available at http://my.americanheart.org/statements by selecting either the “By Topic” link or the “By Publication Date”
link. To purchase additional reprints, call 843-216-2533 or e-mail [email protected]
Expert peer review of AHA Scientific Statements is conducted at the AHA National Center. For more on AHA statements and guidelines development,
visit http://www.my.americanheart.org/statements and select the ⬙Policies and Development⬙ link.
Permissions: Multiple copies, modification, alteration, enhancement, and/or distribution of this document are not permitted without the express
permission of the American Heart Association. Instructions for obtaining permission are located at http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/General/
Copyright-Permission-Guidelines_UCM_300404_Article.jsp. A link to the “Copyright Permissions Request Form” appears on the right side of the page.
(Circulation. 2012;125:e2-e220.)
© 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.
Circulation is available at http://circ.ahajournals.org
DOI: 10.1161/CIR.0b013e31823ac046
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of Kentucky--Lexington on January 31, 2012
e2
Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Summary
Summary
Each year, the American Heart Association (AHA), in
conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and other
government agencies, brings together the most up-to-date
statistics on heart disease, stroke, other vascular diseases,
and their risk factors and presents them in its Heart Disease
and Stroke Statistical Update. The Statistical Update is a
valuable resource for researchers, clinicians, healthcare
policy makers, media professionals, the lay public, and
many others who seek the best national data available on
disease morbidity and mortality and the risks, quality of
care, medical procedures and operations, and costs associated with the management of these diseases in a single
document. Indeed, since 1999, the Statistical Update has
been cited more than 8700 times in the literature (including
citations of all annual versions). In 2010 alone, the various
Statistical Updates were cited ⬇1600 times (data from ISI
Web of Science). In recent years, the Statistical Update has
undergone some major changes with the addition of new
chapters and major updates across multiple areas. For this
year’s edition, the Statistics Committee, which produces
the document for the AHA, updated all of the current
chapters with the most recent nationally representative
data and inclusion of relevant articles from the literature
over the past year and added a new chapter detailing
various disorders of heart rhythm. Also, the 2012 Statistical Update is a major source for monitoring both cardiovascular health and disease in the population, with a focus
on progress toward achievement of the AHA’s 2020
Impact Goals. Below are a few highlights from this year’s
Update.
Rates of Death Attributable to CVD Have
Declined, Yet the Burden of Disease Remains High
attack, and ⬇470 000 will have a recurrent attack. It
is estimated that an additional 195 000 silent first
myocardial infarctions occur each year. Approximately every 25 seconds, an American will have a
coronary event, and approximately every minute,
someone will die of one.
● Each year, ⬇795 000 people experience a new or
recurrent stroke. Approximately 610 000 of these are
first attacks, and 185 000 are recurrent attacks. Mortality data from 2008 indicate that stroke accounted
for ⬇1 of every 18 deaths in the United States. On
average, every 40 seconds, someone in the United
States has a stroke. From 1998 to 2008, the stroke
death rate fell 34.8%, and the actual number of stroke
deaths declined 19.4%.
● In 2008, 1 in 9 death certificates (281 437 deaths) in
the United States mentioned heart failure.
Prevalence and Control of Traditional Risk
Factors Remains an Issue for Many Americans
●
●
●
●
The 2008 overall rate of death attributable to cardiovascular disease (CVD) (International Classification
of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes I00 –I99) was 244.8
per 100 000. The rates were 287.2 per 100 000 for
white males, 390.4 per 100 000 for black males,
200.5 per 100 000 for white females, and 277.4 per
100 000 for black females.
● From 1998 to 2008, the rate of death attributable to
CVD declined 30.6%. Mortality data for 2008 show
that CVD (I00 –I99; Q20 –Q28) accounted for 32.8%
(811 940) of all 2 471 984 deaths in 2008, or 1 of
every 3 deaths in the United States.
● On the basis of 2008 mortality rate data, more than
2200 Americans die of CVD each day, an average of
1 death every 39 seconds. About 150 000 Americans
killed by CVD (I00 –I99) in 2008 were ⬍65 years of
age. In 2008, 33% of deaths due to CVD occurred
before the age of 75 years, which is well before the
average life expectancy of 77.9 years.
● Coronary heart disease caused ⬇1 of every 6 deaths
in the United States in 2008. Coronary heart disease
mortality in 2008 was 405 309. Each year, an estimated 785 000 Americans will have a new coronary
e3
●
●
●
Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2008 indicate
that 33.5% of US adults ⱖ20 years of age have
hypertension (Table 7-1). This amounts to an
estimated 76 400 000 US adults with hypertension.
The prevalence of hypertension is nearly equal
between men and women. African American adults
have among the highest rates of hypertension in the
world, at 44%.
Among hypertensive adults, ⬇80% are aware of their
condition, 71% are using antihypertensive medication, and only 48% of those aware that they have
hypertension have their condition controlled.
Despite 4 decades of progress, in 2010, among
Americans ⱖ18 years of age, 21.2% of men and
17.5% of women continued to be cigarette smokers.
In 2009, 19.5% of students in grades 9 through 12
reported current cigarette use.
The percentage of the nonsmoking population with
detectable serum cotinine (indicating exposure to
secondhand smoke) declined from 52.5% in 1999 to
2000 to 40.1% in 2007 to 2008, with declines
occurring, and was higher for those 3 to 11 years of
age (53.6%) and those 12 to 19 years of age (46.5%)
than for those 20 years of age and older (36.7%).
An estimated 33 600 000 adults ⱖ20 years of age
have total serum cholesterol levels ⱖ240 mg/dL,
with a prevalence of 15.0% (Table 14-1).
In 2008, an estimated 18 300 000 Americans had
diagnosed diabetes mellitus, representing 8.0% of the
adult population. An additional 7 100 000 had undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, and 36.8% had prediabetes, with abnormal fasting glucose levels. African
Americans, Mexican Americans, Hispanic/Latino individuals, and other ethnic minorities bear a strikingly disproportionate burden of diabetes mellitus in
the United States (Table 17-1).
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e4
Circulation
January 3/10, 2012
The 2012 Update Expands Data Coverage of the
Obesity Epidemic and Its Antecedents
and Consequences
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
The estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity
in US adults (ⱖ20 years of age) is 149 300 000,
which represents 67.3% of this group in 2008. Fully
33.7% of US adults are obese (body mass index ⱖ30
kg/m2). Men and women of all race/ethnic groups in
the population are affected by the epidemic of overweight and obesity (Table 16-1).
Among children 2 to 19 years of age, 31.7% are
overweight and obese (which represents 23.6 million
children), and 16.9% are obese (12.6 million children).
Mexican American boys and girls and African American girls are disproportionately affected. Over the past 3
decades, the prevalence of obesity in children 6 to 11
years of age has increased from ⬇4% to ⬎20%.
Obesity (body mass index ⱖ30 kg/m2) is associated
with marked excess mortality in the US population.
Even more notable is the excess morbidity associated
with overweight and obesity in terms of risk factor
development and incidence of diabetes mellitus,
CVD end points (including coronary heart disease,
stroke, and heart failure), and numerous other health
conditions, including asthma, cancer, degenerative
joint disease, and many others.
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing
dramatically over time, in parallel with the increases
in prevalence of overweight and obesity.
On the basis of NHANES 2003–2006 data, the
age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a
cluster of major cardiovascular risk factors related to
overweight/obesity and insulin resistance, is ⬇34%
(35.1% among men and 32.6% among women).
The proportion of youth (ⱕ18 years of age) who
report engaging in no regular physical activity is
high, and the proportion increases with age. In 2009,
among adolescents in grades 9 through 12, 29.9% of
girls and 17.0% of boys reported that they had not
engaged in 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, defined as any activity that increased
heart rate or breathing rate, even once in the previous
7 days, despite recommendations that children engage in such activity ⱖ5 days per week.
Thirty-three percent of adults reported engaging in no
aerobic leisure-time physical activity.
Data from NHANES indicate that between 1971 and
2004, average total energy consumption among US
adults increased by 22% in women (from 1542 to
1886 kcal/d) and by 10% in men (from 2450 to 2693
kcal/d; see Chart 20-1).
The increases in calories consumed during this
time period are attributable primarily to greater
average carbohydrate intake, in particular, of starches,
refined grains, and sugars. Other specific changes related
to increased caloric intake in the United States include
larger portion sizes, greater food quantity and calories per
meal, and increased consumption of sugar-sweetened bev-
erages, snacks, commercially prepared (especially fast
food) meals, and higher energy-density foods.
The 2012 Update Provides Critical Data About
Cardiovascular Quality of Care, Procedure
Utilization, and Costs
In light of the current national focus on healthcare utilization, costs, and quality, it is critical to monitor and
understand the magnitude of healthcare delivery and costs,
as well as the quality of healthcare delivery, related to
CVDs. The Statistical Update provides these critical data
in several sections.
Quality-of-Care Metrics for CVDs
Chapter 21 reviews many metrics related to the quality of
care delivered to patients with CVDs, as well as healthcare
disparities. In particular, quality data are available from
the AHA’s “Get With The Guidelines” programs for
coronary artery disease and heart failure and from the
American Stroke Association/AHA’s “Get With The
Guidelines” program for acute stroke. Similar data from
the Veterans Healthcare Administration, national Medicare
and Medicaid data, and Acute Coronary Treatment and
Intervention Outcomes Network–“Get With The Guidelines” Registry data are also reviewed. These data show
impressive adherence with guideline recommendations for
many, but not all, metrics of quality of care for these
hospitalized patients. Data are also reviewed on screening
for cardiovascular risk factor levels and control.
Cardiovascular Procedure Utilization and Costs
Chapter 22 provides data on trends and current usage of
cardiovascular surgical and invasive procedures. For example, the total number of inpatient cardiovascular operations and procedures increased 22%, from 6 133 000 in
1999 to 7 453 000 in 2009 (National Heart, Lung, and
Blood Institute computation based on National Center for
Health Statistics annual data).
Chapter 23 reviews current estimates of direct and indirect
healthcare costs related to CVDs, stroke, and related conditions using Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data. The total
direct and indirect cost of CVD and stroke in the United
States for 2008 is estimated to be $297.7 billion. This figure
includes health expenditures (direct costs, which include the
cost of physicians and other professionals, hospital services,
prescribed medications, home health care, and other medical
durables) and lost productivity resulting from mortality (indirect costs). By comparison, in 2008, the estimated cost of
all cancer and benign neoplasms was $228 billion ($93 billion
in direct costs, $19 billion in morbidity indirect costs, and
$116 billion in mortality indirect costs). CVD costs more than
any other diagnostic group.
The AHA, through its Statistics Committee, continuously
monitors and evaluates sources of data on heart disease and
stroke in the United States to provide the most current data
available in the Statistics Update.
Finally, it must be noted that this annual Statistical Update is
the product of an entire year’s worth of effort by dedicated
professionals, volunteer physicians and scientists, and outstand-
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Summary
e5
on the census resident population for 2008 because this is the most
recent year of NHANES data used in the Statistical Update.
ing AHA staff members, without whom publication of this
valuable resource would be impossible. Their contributions are
gratefully acknowledged.
Acknowledgments
Véronique L. Roger, MD, MPH, FAHA
Melanie B. Turner, MPH
On behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics
Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee
We wish to thank Thomas Thom, Michael Wolz, Dale Burwen, and
Sean Coady for their valuable comments and contributions. We
would like to acknowledge Karen Modesitt for her administrative
assistance.
Note: Population data used in the compilation of NHANES prevalence estimates is for the latest year of the NHANES survey being
used. Extrapolations for NHANES prevalence estimates are based
K EY W ORDS : AHA Statistical Update 䡲 cardiovascular diseases
䡲 epidemiology 䡲 risk factors 䡲 statistics 䡲 stroke
Disclosures
Writing Group Disclosures
Writing Group
Member
Véronique L.
Roger
Emelia J.
Benjamin
Jarett D. Berry
William B.
Borden
Dawn M. Bravata
Employment
Research Grant
Other Research
Support
Speakers’ Bureau/
Honoraria
Expert Witness
Ownership Interest
Consultant/Advisory
Board
Other
Mayo Clinic
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Boston University
School of Medicine
NIH†
None
None
None
None
NIH†
None
UT Southwestern
Medical School
AHA†; NHLBI†
None
Merck†
None
None
None
None
Weill Cornell Medical
College
None
None
None
None
None
None
The Dr. Robert C.
and Veronica
Atkins Foundation
provided an
educational grant
to develop a
curriculum in
Metabolic
Diseases; Dr
Borden receives
salary support
from that†
University of Iowa
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Shifan Dai
Centers for Disease
Control and
Prevention
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Earl S. Ford
Centers for Disease
Control and
Prevention
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Caroline S. Fox
NHLBI
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
University of
California, San
Francisco
NIH/NINDS†
None
Cincinnati Children’s
Hospital*; Toronto
Hospital for Sick
Children*
None
None
DSMB for Berlin
Heart*
None
Centers for Disease
Control and
Prevention
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Alan S. Go
The Permanente
Medical Group
GlaxoSmithKline†;
Johnson & Johnson†
None
None
None
None
None
None
Susan M.
Hailpern
Independent
Consultant
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Heather J.
Fullerton
Cathleen Gillespie
John A. Heit
Mayo Clinic
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
University of Alabama
at Birmingham School
of Public Health
NIH/NINDS†
None
None
None
None
None
None
Brett M. Kissela
University of
Cincinnati
Nexstim*
None
Allergan*
Expert witness for
defense in 1
stroke-related
case in 2010†
None
Allergan*
None
Steven J. Kittner
University of
Maryland School of
Medicine
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Virginia J.
Howard
(Continued)
Downloaded from http://circ.ahajournals.org/ at University of Kentucky--Lexington on January 31, 2012
e6
Circulation
January 3/10, 2012
Writing Group Disclosures, Continued
Writing Group
Member
Employment
Research Grant
Other Research
Support
Speakers’ Bureau/
Honoraria
Expert Witness
Ownership Interest
Consultant/Advisory
Board
Other
Daniel T.
Lackland
Medical University of
South Carolina
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Judith H.
Lichtman
Yale School of
Medicine
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Lynda D.
Lisabeth
University of Michigan
NHLBI†; NINDS†
None
None
None
None
None
None
Northwestern
University
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
National Center for
Health Statistics, CDC
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
UCSF
Astellas*; Baylis
Medical*
None
None
None
None
None
None
McGill University
Health Center
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
David B. Matchar
Duke-NUS Graduate
Medical School
None
None
None
None
None
Boehringer
Ingelheim*
None
Claudia S. Moy
National Institutes of
Health
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Dariush
Mozaffarian
Division of
Cardiovascular
Medicine, Brigham
and Women’s
Hospital/Harvard
School of Public
Health
NIH†; Genes and
Environment Initiative
at Harvard School of
Public Health†; Gates
Foundation/World
Health Organization†;
GlaxoSmithKline†;
Pronova†; Searle
Scholar Award from
the Searle Funds at
the Chicago
Community Trust†;
Sigma Tau†
None
Aramark*; the
Chicago Council*;
International Life
Sciences Institute*;
Norwegian Seafood
Export Council*;
Nutrition Impact*;
SPRIM*; Unilever*;
UN Food and
Agricultural
Organization*; US
Food and Drug
Administration*;
World Health
Organization*
None
Harvard has filed a
provisional patent application
that been assigned to
Harvard, listing Dr
Mozaffarian as a coinventor
for use of trans-palmitoleic
acid to prevent and treat
insulin resistance, type 2
diabetes, and related
conditions*; royalties from
UpToDate for an online
chapter*
FoodMinds*
None
Michael E.
Mussolino
National Heart, Lung,
and Blood Institute
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
University of
Washington
Asmund S. Laerdal
Foundation for Acute
Medicine†; Medtronic
Inc†; NHLBI†; NIH†
None
None
None
None
Gambro Renal Inc*;
LIFEBRIDGE
Medizintechnik AG*;
Sotera Wireless*
None
Brigham and
Celera Corp†;
NIH/NHLBI†
None
None
None
None
None
None
Donald M.
Lloyd-Jones
Diane M. Makuc
Gregory M.
Marcus
Ariane Marelli
Graham Nichol
Nina P. Paynter
Women’s Hospital
Elsayed Z.
Soliman
Wake Forest
University School of
Medicine
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Paul D. Sorlie
National Heart, Lung
and Blood Institute,
NIH
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Nona
Sotoodehnia
University of
Washington
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Medical University of
South Carolina
NIH/NINDS†
AstraZeneca supplied
drug for SAMMPRIS
study†; Stryker Co
supplied stents for
SAMMPRIS study†
None
None
None
Boehringer
Ingelheim*;
CardioNet*; WL
Gore*
None
Melanie B.
Turner
American Heart
Association
None
None
None
None
None
None
None
Salim S. Virani
Department of
Veterans Affairs
Merck†; NFL
Charities†; NIH†; VA†
None
None
None
None
None
None
Nathan D. Wong
University of
California, Irvine
Bristol-Myers
Squibb†; Merck†
None
None
None
None
Abbott
Pharmaceuticals*
None
University of
Cincinnati
NIH†
None
None
None
None
None
None
Tanya N. Turan
Daniel Woo
This table represents the relationships of writing group members that may be perceived as actual or reasonably perceived conflicts of interest as reported on the Disclosure
Questionnaire, which all members of the writing group are required to complete and submit. A relationship is considered to be “significant” if (a) the person receives $10 000 or more
during any 12-month period, or 5% or more of the person’s gross income; or (b) the person owns 5% or more of the voting stock or share of the entity, or owns $10 000 or more
of the fair market value of the entity. A relationship is considered to be “modest” if it is less than “significant” under the preceding definition.
*Modest.
†Significant.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 1
1. About These Statistics
The American Heart Association (AHA) works with the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS); the National
Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI); the National
Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS); and
other government agencies to derive the annual statistics in
this Heart Disease and Stroke Statistical Update. This chapter
describes the most important sources and the types of data we
use from them. For more details, see Chapter 25 of this
document, the Glossary.
The surveys used are:
●
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)—
ongoing telephone health survey system
Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study
(GCNKSS)—stroke incidence rates and outcomes within
a biracial population
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS)— data on specific health services that Americans use, how frequently
●
●
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 1
AHA
American Heart Association
AP
angina pectoris
ARIC
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study
BP
blood pressure
BRFSS
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
e7
they use them, the cost of these services, and how the costs
are paid
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
(NHANES)— disease and risk factor prevalence and nutrition statistics
National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)— disease and
risk factor prevalence
National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS)— hospital
inpatient discharges and procedures (discharged alive,
dead, or status unknown)
National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS)—
physician office visits
National Home and Hospice Care Survey (NHHCS)—
staff, services, and patients of home health and hospice
agencies
National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey
(NHAMCS)— hospital outpatient and emergency department (ED) visits
Nationwide Inpatient Sample of the Agency for Healthcare
Research and Quality— hospital inpatient discharges, procedures, and charges
National Nursing Home Survey (NNHS)—nursing home
residents
National Vital Statistics System—national and state mortality data
World Health Organization—mortality rates by country
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)—
health-risk behaviors in youth and young adults
CHS
Cardiovascular Health Study
Disease Prevalence
CVD
cardiovascular disease
DM
diabetes mellitus
ED
emergency department
FHS
Framingham Heart Study
GCNKSS
Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study
HD
heart disease
HF
heart failure
ICD
International Classification of Diseases
ICD-9-CM
International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification, 9th
Revision
ICD-10
International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision
MEPS
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey
MI
myocardial infarction
NAMCS
National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey
NCHS
National Center for Health Statistics
NHAMCS
National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey
NHANES
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NHDS
National Hospital Discharge Survey
NHHCS
National Home and Hospice Care Survey
NHIS
National Health Interview Survey
NHLBI
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
NINDS
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Prevalence is an estimate of how many people have a disease
at a given point or period in time. The NCHS conducts health
examination and health interview surveys that provide estimates of the prevalence of diseases and risk factors. In this
Update, the health interview part of the NHANES is used for
the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). NHANES
is used more than the NHIS because in NHANES, angina
pectoris (AP) is based on the Rose Questionnaire; estimates are
made regularly for heart failure (HF); hypertension is based on
blood pressure (BP) measurements and interviews; and an
estimate can be made for total CVD, including myocardial
infarction (MI), AP, HF, stroke, and hypertension.
A major emphasis of this Statistical Update is to present
the latest estimates of the number of people in the United
States who have specific conditions to provide a realistic
estimate of burden. Most estimates based on NHANES
prevalence rates are based on data collected from 2005 to
2008 (in most cases, these are the latest published figures).
These are applied to census population estimates for 2008.
Differences in population estimates based on extrapolations
of rates beyond the data collection period by use of more
recent census population estimates cannot be used to evaluate
possible trends in prevalence. Trends can only be evaluated
by comparing prevalence rates estimated from surveys conducted in different years.
NNHS
National Nursing Home Survey
PAD
peripheral artery disease
Risk Factor Prevalence
YRBSS
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System
The NHANES 2005–2008 data are used in this Update to
present estimates of the percentage of people with high lipid
See Glossary (Chapter 25) for explanation of terms.
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e8
Circulation
January 3/10, 2012
values, diabetes mellitus (DM), overweight, and obesity. The
NHIS is used for the prevalence of cigarette smoking and
physical inactivity. Data for students in grades 9 through 12
are obtained from the YRBSS.
tion of morbidity data. NCHS population estimates for 2008
were used in the computation of death rate data. The Census
Bureau World Wide Web site1 contains these data, as well as
information on the file layout.
Incidence and Recurrent Attacks
Hospital Discharges and Ambulatory Care Visits
An incidence rate refers to the number of new cases of a
disease that develop in a population per unit of time. The unit
of time for incidence is not necessarily 1 year, although we
often discuss incidence in terms of 1 year. For some statistics,
new and recurrent attacks or cases are combined. Our national
incidence estimates for the various types of CVD are extrapolations to the US population from the Framingham Heart
Study (FHS), the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities
(ARIC) study, and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS),
all conducted by the NHLBI, as well as the GCNKSS, which
is funded by the NINDS. The rates change only when new
data are available; they are not computed annually. Do not
compare the incidence or the rates with those in past editions
of the Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics Update (also known
as the Heart and Stroke Statistical Update for editions before
2005). Doing so can lead to serious misinterpretation of time
trends.
Estimates of the numbers of hospital discharges and numbers
of procedures performed are for inpatients discharged from
short-stay hospitals. Discharges include those discharged
alive, dead, or with unknown status. Unless otherwise specified, discharges are listed according to the first-listed (primary) diagnosis, and procedures are listed according to all
listed procedures (primary plus secondary). These estimates
are from the NHDS of the NCHS unless otherwise noted.
Ambulatory care visit data include patient visits to physician
offices and hospital outpatient departments and EDs. Ambulatory care visit data reflect the first-listed (primary) diagnosis. These estimates are from NAMCS and NHAMCS of the
NCHS.
Mortality
Mortality data are presented according to the underlying
cause of death. “Any-mention” mortality means that the
condition was nominally selected as the underlying cause or
was otherwise mentioned on the death certificate. For many
deaths classified as attributable to CVD, selection of the
single most likely underlying cause can be difficult when
several major comorbidities are present, as is often the case in
the elderly population. It is useful, therefore, to know the extent
of mortality attributable to a given cause regardless of whether it
is the underlying cause or a contributing cause (ie, its “anymention” status). The number of deaths in 2008 with any
mention of specific causes of death was tabulated by the NHLBI
from the NCHS public-use electronic files on mortality.
The first set of statistics for each disease in this Update
includes the number of deaths for which the disease is the
underlying cause. Two exceptions are Chapter 7 (High Blood
Pressure) and Chapter 9 (Cardiomyopathy and Heart Failure).
High BP, or hypertension, increases the mortality risks of
CVD and other diseases, and HF should be selected as an
underlying cause only when the true underlying cause is not
known. In this Update, hypertension and HF death rates are
presented in 2 ways: (1) as nominally classified as the
underlying cause and (2) as any-mention mortality.
National and state mortality data presented according to the
underlying cause of death were computed from the mortality
tables of the NCHS World Wide Web site, the Health Data
Interactive data system of the NCHS, or the CDC compressed
mortality file. Any-mention numbers of deaths were tabulated
from the electronic mortality files of the NCHS World Wide
Web site and from Health Data Interactive.
Population Estimates
In this publication, we have used national population estimates from the US Census Bureau for 2008 in the computa-
International Classification of Diseases
Morbidity (illness) and mortality (death) data in the United
States have a standard classification system: the International
Classification of Diseases (ICD). Approximately every 10 to
20 years, the ICD codes are revised to reflect changes over
time in medical technology, diagnosis, or terminology. Where
necessary for comparability of mortality trends across the 9th
and 10th ICD revisions, comparability ratios computed by the
NCHS are applied as noted.2 Effective with mortality data for
1999, we are using the 10th revision (ICD-10). It will be a
few more years before the 10th revision is used for hospital
discharge data and ambulatory care visit data, which are
based on the International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification, 9th Revision (ICD-9-CM).3
Age Adjustment
Prevalence and mortality estimates for the United States or
individual states comparing demographic groups or estimates
over time either are age specific or are age adjusted to the
2000 standard population by the direct method.4 International
mortality data are age adjusted to the European standard.5
Unless otherwise stated, all death rates in this publication are
age adjusted and are deaths per 100 000 population.
Data Years for National Estimates
In this Update, we estimate the annual number of new
(incidence) and recurrent cases of a disease in the United
States by extrapolating to the US population in 2008 from
rates reported in a community- or hospital-based study or
multiple studies. Age-adjusted incidence rates by sex and race
are also given in this report as observed in the study or
studies. For US mortality, most numbers and rates are for
2008. For disease and risk factor prevalence, most rates in
this report are calculated from the 2005–2008 NHANES.
Because NHANES is conducted only in the noninstitutionalized population, we extrapolated the rates to the total US
population in 2008, recognizing that this probably underestimates the total prevalence, given the relatively high prevalence
in the institutionalized population. The numbers and rates of
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 1
hospital inpatient discharges for the United States are for 2009.
Numbers of visits to physician offices, hospital EDs, and
hospital outpatient departments are for 2009. Except as noted,
economic cost estimates are for 2008.
Cardiovascular Disease
For data on hospitalizations, physician office visits, and
mortality, CVD is defined according to ICD codes given in
Chapter 25 of the present document. This definition includes
all diseases of the circulatory system, as well as congenital
CVD. Unless so specified, an estimate for total CVD does not
include congenital CVD. Prevalence of CVD includes people
with hypertension, heart disease (HD), stroke, peripheral
artery disease (PAD), and diseases of the veins.
Race
Data published by governmental agencies for some racial
groups are considered unreliable because of the small sample
size in the studies. Because we try to provide data for as many
racial groups as possible, we show these data for informational and comparative purposes.
e9
Contacts
If you have questions about statistics or any points made in
this Update, please contact the AHA National Center,
Office of Science & Medicine at [email protected]
Direct all media inquiries to News Media Relations at
[email protected] or 214-706-1173.
We do our utmost to ensure that this Update is error free. If we
discover errors after publication, we will provide corrections at
our World Wide Web site, http://www.heart.org/statistics, and in
the journal Circulation.
References
1. US Census Bureau population estimates. http://www.census.gov/popest/
national/. Accessed October 30, 2011.
2. National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2009, With
Special Feature on Medical Technology. Hyattsville, MD: National
Center for Health Statistics; 2010. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/
hus09.pdf. Accessed July 30, 2010.
3. National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid
Services. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision:
Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for
Health Statistics; 1978.
4. Anderson RN, Rosenberg HM. Age standardization of death rates: implementation of the year 2000 standard. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 1998;47:
1–16,20.
5. World Health Organization. World Health Statistics Annual. Geneva,
Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1998.
Downloaded from http://circ.ahajournals.org/ at University of Kentucky--Lexington on January 31, 2012
e10
Circulation
January 3/10, 2012
2. American Heart Association’s 2020
Impact Goals
See Tables 2-1 through 2-4 and Charts 2-1 through 2-9.
After achieving its major Impact Goals for 2010, the AHA
recently created a new set of Impact Goals for the current
decade.1 Specifically, the AHA committed to the following
organizational goals:
of the 7 health behaviors and health factors, for adults
ⱖ20 years of age and children of selected ages
(depending on data availability).
● The prevalences of ideal, intermediate, and poor
levels of each of the 7 cardiovascular health metrics
are shown in Chart 2-1 (for children ages 12–19
years) and Chart 2-2 (for adults ⱖ20 years of age).
— Among children (Chart 2-1), the prevalence (unadjusted) of ideal levels of cardiovascular health
behaviors and factors currently varies from 0%
for the healthy diet score (ie, essentially no
children meet 4 or 5 of the 5 dietary components)
to ⬎80% for the smoking and BP metrics. More
than 90% of US children meet 0 or only 1 of the
5 healthy dietary components.
— Among US adults (Chart 2-2), the agestandardized prevalence of ideal levels of cardiovascular health behaviors and factors currently
varies from 0.1% for having 4 to 5 components of
the healthy diet score up to 75% for the smoking
metric (ie, 75% of US adults have never smoked
or are current nonsmokers who have quit for ⬎12
months).
— In general, the prevalence of ideal levels of health
behaviors and health factors is higher in US
children than in US adults.
By 2020, to improve the cardiovascular health of
all Americans by 20%, while reducing deaths from
cardiovascular diseases and stroke by 20%.1
These goals include a novel concept, “cardiovascular
health,” which encompasses 7 health behaviors and health
factors (Table 2-1). “Ideal cardiovascular health” is defined
by the absence of clinically manifest CVD and the simultaneous presence of optimal levels of all 7 health behaviors
(lean body mass, avoidance of smoking, participation in
physical activity [PA], and healthy dietary intake consistent
with a Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH]–
like eating pattern) and health factors (untreated total cholesterol ⬍200 mg/dL, untreated BP ⬍120/⬍80 mm Hg, and
fasting blood glucose ⬍100 mg/dL). Because the ideal
cardiovascular health profile is known to be rare in the
population, the entire spectrum of cardiovascular health can
also be represented as being “ideal,” “intermediate,” or
“poor” for each of the health behaviors and health factors, as
shown in Table 2-1.1
Beginning in 2011, and recognizing the substantial time lag
in the nationally representative data sets, the annual Statistical
Update began to evaluate and publish metrics and information that gives the AHA directional insights into progress
and/or areas critical for greater concentration, to meet their
2020 goals.
●
— The prevalence of ideal levels of all of the 7
health factors and health behaviors decreases
dramatically from younger to older ages.
Cardiovascular Health
●
Table 2-1 provides the specific definitions for ideal,
intermediate, and poor cardiovascular health for each
●
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 2
AHA
American Heart Association
ARIC
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study
BMI
body mass index
BP
blood pressure
CVD
cardiovascular disease
DASH
Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
DBP
diastolic blood pressure
DM
diabetes mellitus
HD
heart disease
HF
heart failure
HR
hazard ratio
MI
myocardial infarction
NHANES
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
PA
physical activity
SBP
systolic blood pressure
SE
standard error
Age-standardized and age-specific prevalence estimates for ideal cardiovascular health and for ideal
levels of each of its components are shown in Table
2-2.
Chart 2-3 displays the prevalence estimates for the
population of US children meeting different numbers
of criteria for ideal cardiovascular health (out of 7
possible).
— Half of US children ages 12 to 19 years meet 4 or
fewer criteria for ideal cardiovascular health.
— The distributions are similar overall in boys and
girls.
●
Charts 2-4 and 2-5 display the age-standardized
prevalence estimates for the population of US adults
meeting different numbers of criteria for ideal cardiovascular health (out of 7 possible), overall and
stratified by age groups, sex, and race.
— Approximately 2.5% of US adults have 0 of the 7
criteria at ideal levels, with 26% having 3 at ideal
levels and 4% having 6 metrics at ideal levels
(Chart 2-4).
— Compared with younger adults, older adults tend
to have fewer of the 7 metrics at ideal levels; more
than 60% of those ⬎60 years of age have only 2
or fewer metrics at ideal levels (Chart 2-4).
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 2
PA, with 47% having no moderate or vigorous
activity at all.
— 79% of US adults without CVD meet 0 or only 1
of the 5 healthy diet metrics.
— Women tend to have more metrics at ideal levels
than do men (Chart 2-4).
— Approximately 63% of white adults and 71% of
black and Mexican American adults have 3 or
fewer metrics (out of 7) at ideal levels (Chart 2-5).
●
Chart 2-6 displays the age-standardized percentages
of US adults and percentages of children who have 5
or more of the metrics (out of 7 possible) at ideal
levels.
— Only ⬇41% of US children aged 12 to 19 years
have 5 or more metrics at ideal levels, including
somewhat more girls than boys.
— However, only 16% of US adults have 5 or more
metrics with ideal levels, including 12% of men
and 21% of women.
— Whites have approximately twice the percentage
of adults with 5 or more metrics with ideal levels
as Mexican Americans.
●
Chart 2-7 displays the age-standardized percentages
of US adults meeting different numbers of criteria for
poor and ideal cardiovascular health. Meeting the
AHA 2020 Strategic Impact Goals is predicated on
reducing the relative percentage of those with poor
levels while increasing the relative percentage of
those with ideal levels for each of the 7 metrics.
Cardiovascular Disease
●
●
Data from NHANES 2007–2008 reveal that overall,
6.6% of Americans self-reported having some type of
CVD (Table 2-3).
—
—
—
—
●
2.8% reported having coronary heart disease
2.6% reported having a stroke
2.0% reported having congestive heart failure
2.7% reported having a heart attack
Among those with CVD, risk factor prevalence,
awareness, treatment, and control in NHANES 2007
to 2008 were variable (Table 2-3).
— Nearly 48% were current smokers or had quit for
⬍12 months.
— Prevalence of hypertension was estimated to be
45%; 96% were aware of their hypertension, and
89% were treated. Among those with hypertension who were treated, control to goal BP levels
of ⬍140/⬍90 mm Hg was 62%.
— Prevalence of dyslipidemia (defined by total cholesterol ⱖ240 mg/dL or receiving medication)
was 35%; 83% were aware of their dyslipidemia,
and 76% were treated. Among those with dyslipidemia who were treated, 85% had total cholesterol ⬍200 mg/dL.
— Prevalence of obesity was 44%, and prevalence of
overweight or obesity was 71%.
— Prevalence of DM was 17%; 85% were aware of
their DM, and 82% were treated.
— As measured by objective accelerometer data,
74% of adults had intermediate or poor levels of
PA; 66% had no moderate or vigorous activity at
all.
— 70% of US adults without CVD met 0 or only 1 of
the 5 healthy dietary metrics.
The prevalence of risk factors and their awareness,
treatment, and control are displayed in Table 2-3
separately for those with and without self-reported
CVD. Among those without CVD, NHANES 2007–
2008 data indicate the following:
— Approximately 26% of US adults are current
smokers or have recently quit for ⬍12 months.
— Prevalence of hypertension is estimated to be
27%; 71% are aware of their hypertension, and
57% are treated. Among those with hypertension
who are treated, control to goal BP levels of
⬍140/⬍90 mm Hg is 77%.
— Prevalence of dyslipidemia (defined by total cholesterol ⱖ240 mg/dL or receiving medication) is
25%; 63% are aware of their dyslipidemia, and
38% are treated. Among those with dyslipidemia
who are treated, 81% have total cholesterol ⬍200
mg/dL.
— Prevalence of obesity is 33%, and prevalence of
overweight or obesity is 68%.
— Prevalence of DM is 9%; 64% are aware of their
DM, and 63% are treated. Among those with DM
who are treated, 23% have controlled blood glucose levels.
— As measured by objective accelerometer data,
60% of adults have intermediate or poor levels of
In 2007, the age-standardized death rate attributable
to all CVDs was 251.2 per 100 000 (Chart 2-8), down
4.3% from 262.5 in 2006 (baseline data for the 2020
Impact Goals on CVD and stroke mortality).
— Death rates attributable to stroke, heart diseases
(HDs), and other cardiovascular causes were
42.2, 126.0, and 82.9 per 100 000, respectively.
— Approximately 94% of US adults have at least 1
metric at poor levels.
— Approximately 38% of US adults have at least 3
metrics at poor levels.
●
e11
Prognosis of Ideal Cardiovascular Health
●
Folsom et al2 recently published the first examination
of the community prevalence of ideal cardiovascular
health and its association with incident CVD events
in 12 744 white and African American participants of
the ARIC study aged 45 to 64 years at baseline who
were followed up for up to 20 years.
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e12
Circulation
January 3/10, 2012
— Overall, only 0.1% of participants, and fewer
African Americans than whites, had all 7 metrics
at ideal levels, consistent with national data.
— There was a stepwise decrease in the 20-year
incidence of CVD events (defined as stroke, HF,
MI, or fatal coronary disease) with greater numbers of health metrics at ideal levels. Age-, sex-,
and race-adjusted CVD incidence rates per 1000
person-years were 32.1, 21.9, 16.0, 12.0, 8.6, 6.4,
3.9, and 0, respectively, for participants with 0, 1,
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 metrics at ideal levels.
— The corresponding age-, sex-, and race-adjusted
hazard ratios (HRs) for incident CVD were 1.0
(reference), 0.65, 0.46, 0.34, 0.24, 0.18, 0.11, and
0 with increasing numbers of ideal health metrics.
Thus, 20-year CVD incidence rates for those with
6 ideal health metrics were one-tenth those of
participants with 0 ideal health metrics.
— The pattern of outcomes across number of ideal
health metrics was similar for African-Americans
and whites.
— Importantly, both ideal health behaviors and ideal
health factors were associated in a stepwise fashion with lower CVD risk (Chart 2-9).
Implications
●
Taken together, these data continue to indicate the
substantial progress that will need to occur for the
AHA to achieve its 2020 Impact Goals over the next
decade. If the goals can be met, there is evidence
suggesting that CVD event rates could
decrease significantly.
— To achieve improvements in cardiovascular
health, all segments of the population will need to
focus on improved cardiovascular health behaviors, in particular with regard to diet and weight,
as well as on an increase in PA and further
reduction of the prevalence of smoking.
— More children, adolescents, and young adults will
need to learn how to preserve their ideal levels of
cardiovascular health factors and health behaviors
into older ages.
— With regard to reducing the burden of CVD and
stroke morbidity and mortality, renewed emphasis
will be needed on treatment of acute events and
secondary and primary prevention through treatment and control of risk factors.
●
As shown in Table 2-4, relatively modest changes in
population levels of health factors could result in
important changes in the prevalence of overall and
ideal cardiovascular health. For example, NHANES
2007–2008 data indicate that the current prevalence
of ideal levels of BP among US adults is 43.8%. A
20% relative improvement by 2020 would mean the
prevalence of ideal BP would need to increase to
52.6%. NHANES data indicate that a reduction in the
population mean BP by just 2 mm Hg would result in
55.5% of US adults having ideal levels of BP. Further
reductions in BP would mean even more people
would achieve ideal levels. Such modest reductions
could result from decreased salt intake at the population level of as little as 1 to 2 g per day, with
significant projected decreases in CVD rates in US
adults.3
● Future issues of the Statistical Update will track
progress toward the 2020 Strategic Impact Goals.
References
1. Lloyd-Jones DM, Hong Y, Labarthe D, Mozaffarian D, Appel LJ, Van
Horn L, Greenlund K, Daniels S, Nichol G, Tomaselli GF, Arnett DK,
Fonarow GC, Ho PM, Lauer MS, Masoudi FA, Robertson RM, Roger V,
Schwamm LH, Sorlie P, Yancy CW, Rosamond WD. Defining and
setting national goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease
reduction: the American Heart Association’s strategic Impact Goal
through 2020 and beyond. Circulation. 2010;121:586 – 613.
2. Folsom AR, Yatsuya H, Nettleton JA, Lutsey PL, Cushman M,
Rosamond WD; ARIC Study Investigators. Community prevalence of
ideal cardiovascular health, by the American Heart Association definition, and relationship with cardiovascular disease incidence. J Am Coll
Cardiol. 2011;57:1690 –1696.
3. Bibbins-Domingo K, Chertow GM, Coxson PG, Moran A, Lightwood
JM, Pletcher MJ, Goldman L. Projected effect of dietary salt reductions
on future cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:590 –599.
4. Heron M, Hoyert DL, Murphy SL, Xu J, Kochanek KD, Tejada-Vera B.
Deaths: final data for 2006. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2009;57:1–134.
5. Xu J, Kochanek K, Murphy S, Tejada-Vera B. Deaths: final data for 2007.
Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2010;58:1–135.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 2
Table 2-1. Definitions of Poor, Intermediate, and Ideal Cardiovascular Health for Each Metric, in the AHA
2020 Goals
Level of Cardiovascular Health for Each Metric
Poor
Intermediate
Ideal
Current smoking
Adults ⱖ20 y of age
Yes
Former ⱕ12 mo
Never or quit ⬎12 mo
Tried in prior 30 d
...
Never tried; never
smoked whole cigarette
ⱖ30 kg/m2
25–29.9 kg/m2
⬍25 kg/m2
⬎95th percentile
85th–95th percentile
⬍85th percentile
Adults ⱖ20 y of age
None
1–149 min/wk moderate or 1–74 min/wk
vigorous or 1–149 min/wk
moderate⫹2⫻vigorous
ⱖ150 min/wk moderate
or ⱖ75 min/wk vigorous
or ⱖ150 min/wk
moderate⫹2⫻vigorous
Children 12–19 y of age
None
⬎0 and ⬍60 min of moderate or
vigorous every day
ⱖ60 min of moderate or
vigorous every day
Adults ⱖ20 y of age
0–1
2–3
4–5
Children 5–19 y of age
0–1
2–3
4–5
Adults ⱖ20 y of age
ⱖ240
200–239 or treated to goal
⬍200
Children 6–19 y of age
ⱖ200
170–199
⬍170
Adults ⱖ20 y of age
SBP ⱖ140 or
DBP ⱖ90 mm Hg
SBP 120–139 or DBP 80–89 mm Hg or
treated to goal
⬍120/⬍80 mm Hg
Children 8–19 y of age
⬎95th percentile
90th–95th percentile or SBP ⱖ120 or
DBP ⱖ80 mm Hg
⬍90th percentile
Adults ⱖ20 y of age
ⱖ126
100–125 or treated to goal
⬍100
Children 12–19 y of age
ⱖ126
100–125
⬍100
Children 12–19 y of age
BMI
Adults ⱖ20 y of age
Children 2–19 y of age
Physical activity
Healthy Diet Score, no. of
components
Total cholesterol, mg/dL
Blood pressure
Fasting plasma glucose, mg/dL
AHA indicates American Heart Association; . . ., no definition for this stratum; BMI, body mass index; SBP, systolic blood pressure;
and DBP, diastolic blood pressure.
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Table 2-2. Prevalence (%) of US Population With Ideal Cardiovascular Health and With Components of Ideal Cardiovascular Health,
Overall and in Selected Age Strata From NHANES 2007–2008 (Available Data as of June 1, 2011)
Ages 12–19 y
Ideal CV health profile (composite–all 7)
Ages ⱖ20 y*
Ages 20 –39 y
Ages 40 –59 y
Ages ⱖ60 y
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
ⱖ6 Ideal CV health components
9.1
3.8
7.2
2.1
0.1
ⱖ5 Ideal CV health components
41.2
16.2
29.4
9.7
2.5
37.9
14.4
27.5
7.3
1.0
Ideal CV health factors (composite–all 4)
Individual components
Total cholesterol ⬍200 mg/dL (untreated)
75.1
46.8
64.0
37.1
28.4
SBP ⬍120 mm Hg and DBP ⬍80 mm Hg
(untreated)
82.3
43.8
63.8
36.9
14.6
Not current smoker (never or quit ⱖ12 mo)
83.7
72.9
66.4
72.9
86.1
Fasting blood glucose ⬍100 mg/dL
76.2
52.0
67.4
45.6
31.9
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
Physical activity at goal
39.0
39.5
45.6
36.4
33.7
Not current smoker (never or quit ⱖ12 mo)
83.7
72.9
66.4
72.9
86.1
BMI ⬍25 kg/m
62.5
31.9
39.1
28.0
25.3
0.0
0.3
0.3
0.1
0.5
Fruits and vegetables ⱖ4.5 cups/d
7.9
12.3
11.7
11.4
15.8
Fish ⱖ2 3.5-oz servings/wk (preferably oily fish)
9.2
18.3
16.8
19.7
19.4
Ideal health behaviors (composite–all 4)
Individual components
2
4–5 Diet goals met†
Sodium ⬍1500 mg/d
Sugar-sweetened beverages ⱕ450 kcal/wk
Whole grains (1.1 g fiber/10 g carbohydrates)
ⱖ3 1-oz equivalents/d
0.0
0.6
0.6
0.8
0.3
32.0
51.9
41.0
54.6
71.2
3.2
7.3
7.0
7.1
8.4
Other dietary measures
Nuts, legumes, seeds ⱖ4 servings/wk
Processed meats ⱕ2 servings/wk
Saturated fat ⬍7% of total energy intake (kcal)
8.7
21.7
19.6
22.5
24.7
56.3
57.6
54.0
59.7
61.1
4.5
8.7
9.3
8.0
9.0
NHANES indicates National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; CV, cardiovascular; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; and BMI, body
mass index.
*Standardized to the age distribution of the 2000 US standard population.
†Scaled for 2000 kcal/d and in the context of intake with appropriate energy balance and a DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)–like eating plan.
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Table 2–3.
e15
Selected Secondary Metrics for Monitoring Cardiovascular Disease, NHANES 2007–2008
In the Presence of CVD
N*
In the Absence of CVD
%†
(SE)
40.64
(5.20)
N*
%†
(SE)
23.35
(1.42)
Risk factor control
Smoking
13 775 054
Current smoker or smokers who quit ⬍12 mo ago
3 482 092
BP
187 189 147
13 042 362
44 333 396
178 481 116
Prevalence of BP ⱖ140/90 mm Hg or taking medications
8 790 237
44.58
(3.71)
47 737 172
27.18
(0.63)
Awareness among those with hypertension
8 277 582
95.80
(1.50)
36 832 906
70.63
(3.84)
Treatment among those with hypertension
7 739 839
88.72
(2.48)
32 685 394
57.25
(2.14)
BP control to ⬍140/⬍90 mm Hg among treated
4 731 044
62.03
(7.97)
23 440 265
76.97
(2.66)
Cholesterol
12 935 387
177 322 590
Prevalence of total cholesterol ⱖ240 mg/dL or taking medications
6 847 388
34.83
(3.57)
45 453 440
25.44
(1.08)
Awareness among those with hypercholesterolemia
6 218 269
83.43
(6.43)
33 326 995
62.57
(2.36)
Treatment among those with hypercholesterolemia
5 722 826
76.39
(6.01)
22 922 768
38.46
(2.54)
5 110 272
84.61
(7.08)
19 890 862
80.73
(5.43)
Cholesterol control to ⬍200 mg/dL among treated
Weight
13 232 271
Overweight or obese BMI ⱖ25.0 kg/m2
Obese BMI ⱖ30.0 kg/m2
Diabetes mellitus
185 443 123
10 401 572
70.65
(4.93)
125 175 950
67.69
(0.97)
6 221 362
43.73
(6.12)
61 956 664
33.42
(1.11)
14 292 850
188 058 669
Prevalence of fasting glucose ⱖ125 mg/dL or taking medications
5 174 893
17.44
(3.71)
16 987 130
9.26
(0.60)
Awareness among diabetics
3 909 379
84.51
(5.78)
12 446 506
64.28
(4.56)
Treatment among diabetics
3 798 559
82.03
(5.69)
12 028 826
62.54
(4.46)
1 460 295
‡
4 026 301
23.44
(3.74)
Blood glucose control among treated
Physical activity
13 775 054
187 296 417
Physical activity: intermediate or poor§
9 914 277
74.10
(4.77)
111 901 937
59.93
(2.40)
Physical activity: none
9 045 113
65.70
(5.86)
87 091 042
46.70
(2.70)
Diet
12 665 860
161 854 617
Total diet score 0–3 of 5
12 665 860
100.00
(0.00)
161 370 154
99.71
(0.11)
Total diet score 0–1 of 5
9 540 532
70.06
(4.69)
127 156 293
78.84
(1.42)
NHANES indicates National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; CVD, cardiovascular disease; SE, standard error; BP, blood pressure; and BMI, body mass
index.
*Weighted sample size.
†Standardized to the age distribution of the 2000 US Standard population.
‡Estimate suppressed because of instability by National Center for Health Statistics standards (relative SE ⬎30%).
§Moderate ⬍150 min/wk AND Vigorous ⬍75 min/wk AND Combined ⬍150 min/wk.
Table 2-4. Reduction in BP Required to Increase
Prevalence of Ideal BP Among Adults >20 Years of Age,
NHANES 2007–2008
Percent BP ideal among adults, 2007–2008
43.82
20% Relative increase
52.58
Percent who would have ideal BP if population mean BP
were lowered by*
2 mm Hg
55.47
3 mm Hg
59.79
4 mm Hg
61.48
5 mm Hg
65.49
NHANES indicates National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; BP,
blood pressure.
*Reduction in BP⫽observed average systolic BP⫺X mm Hg AND observed
average diastolic⫺X mm Hg.
Standardized to the age distribution of the 2000 US standard population.
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100.0
0.0
8.5
39.0
80.0
62.5
Percentage
60.0
75.1
76.2
82.3
83.7
91.5
40.0
53.9
19.0
20.0
0.0
16.3
20.2
15.7
18.6
7.2
4.6
2.0
1.0
Total
Cholesterol
Blood
Pressure
Fasting
Plasma
Glucose
0.0
Current
Smoking
Body Mass
Index
Physical
Activity
Poor
Healthy Diet
Score
Intermediate
22.8
Ideal
Chart 2-1. Prevalence (unadjusted) estimates for poor, intermediate, and ideal cardiovascular health for each of the 7 metrics of
cardiovascular health in the American Heart Association 2020 goals, US children aged 12 to 19 years, National Health and Nutrition
Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 (available data as of June 1, 2011).
100.0
0.3
20.7
31.9
39.5
80.0
46.8
43.8
52.0
72.9
Percentage
60.0
13.0
34.0
40.0
79.0
39.2
42.0
40.1
3.0
47.5
20.0
34.1
24.1
14.0
14.2
7.9
0.0
Current
Smoking
Body Mass
Index
Physical
Activity
Poor
Healthy Diet
Score
Intermediate
Total
Cholesterol
Blood
Pressure
Fasting
Plasma
Glucose
Ideal
Chart 2-2. Age-standardized prevalence estimates for poor, intermediate, and ideal cardiovascular health for each of the 7 metrics of
cardiovascular health in the American Heart Association 2020 goals, among US adults aged ⱖ20 years, National Health and Nutrition
Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 (available data as of June 1, 2011).
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40
35
30
Percentage
25
20
15
10
5
0
1
2
3
4
Number of Criteria Met
Total
Male
5
6
Female
Chart 2-3. Proportion (unadjusted) of US children meeting different numbers of criteria for ideal cardiovascular health, overall and by
sex, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 (available data as of June 1, 2011). No children meet all 7
criteria.
40
35
30
Percentage
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
1
Total
Age 20-39
2
3
Number of Criteria Met
Age 40-59
Age 60+
4
5
Male
6
Female
Chart 2-4. Age-standardized prevalence estimates of US adults meeting different numbers of criteria for ideal cardiovascular health,
overall and by age and sex subgroups, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 (available data as of
June 1, 2011). No adults meet all 7 criteria.
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40
35
Percentage
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Number of Criteria Met
Total
Whites
Blacks
Mexican-Americans
Other Races
Chart 2-5. Age-standardized prevalence estimates of US adults meeting different numbers of criteria for ideal cardiovascular health,
overall and in selected race subgroups from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 (available data as
of June 1, 2011). No adults meet all 7 criteria.
60
50
Percentage
40
30
20
10
Female, age 1219 y
Male, age 12-19
y
All Children,
Age 12-19 y
Other Races
MexicanAmericans
Blacks
Whites
Female
Male
All adults
0
Chart 2-6. Prevalence estimates of meeting at least 5 criteria for ideal cardiovascular health, US adults (age-standardized), overall
and by sex and race, and US children (unadjusted), by sex, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008
(available data as of June 1, 2011). No adults meet all 7 criteria.
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e19
40
35
30
Percentage
25
20
15
10
5
0
0
1
2
3
Number of Criteria Met
Poor
4
5
6
Ideal
Chart 2-7. Age-standardized prevalence estimates of US adults meeting different numbers of cardiovascular health criteria for ideal
and poor cardiovascular health, among US adults aged ⱖ20 years, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
2007-2008 (available data as of June 1, 2011).
300
262.5
251.2
Deaths per 100,000
250
200
150
135.0
126.0
100
83.9
43.6
50
82.9
42.2
0
Total CVD
Stroke
CHD
Other CVD
Cause of Death
2006
2007
Chart 2-8. US age-standardized death rates attributable to cardiovascular diseases, 2006 and 2007. CVD indicates cardiovascular
disease; CHD, coronary heart disease. Total CVD, International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) I00 –I99; stroke,
ICD-10 I60 –I69; CHD, ICD-10 I20 –I25; other CVD, ICD-10 I00 –I15, I26 –I51, I70 –I78, I80 –I89, I95–I99. Data derived from Heron et al4
and Xu et al.5
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Chart 2-9. Incidence of cardiovascular disease according to the number of ideal health behaviors and health factors. Reprinted from
Folsom et al2 with permission of the publisher. Copyright © 2011, American College of Cardiology Foundation.
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e21
3. Cardiovascular Diseases
Prevalence
ICD-9 390 to 459, 745 to 747, ICD-10 I00 to I99, Q20 to
Q28; see Glossary (Chapter 25) for details and definitions.
See Tables 3-1 through 3-4 and Charts 3-1 through 3-21.
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 3
An estimated 82 600 000 American adults (⬎1 in 3) have 1 or
more types of CVD. Of these, 40 400 000 are estimated to be
ⱖ60 years of age. Total CVD includes diseases listed in the
bullet points below, with the exception of congenital CVD.
Because of overlap across conditions, it is not possible to add
these conditions to arrive at a total.
AHA
American Heart Association
●
AIDS
acquired immune deficiency syndrome
AMI
acute myocardial infarction
AP
angina pectoris
ARIC
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study
BMI
body mass index
BP
blood pressure
BRFSS
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
CABG
cardiac revascularization (coronary artery bypass graft)
CAD
coronary artery disease
CARDIA
Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults
CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CHD
coronary heart disease
CHF
congestive heart failure
CHS
Cardiovascular Health Study
CLRD
chronic lower respiratory disease
CVD
cardiovascular disease
DM
diabetes mellitus
ED
emergency department
FHS
Framingham Heart Study
HBP
high blood pressure
HD
heart disease
HF
heart failure
HIV
human immunodeficiency virus
ICD-9
International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision
ICD-10
International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision
LDL
low-density lipoprotein
MEPS
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey
MESA
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
MI
myocardial infarction
MRFIT
Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial
NAMCS
National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey
NCHS
NHAMCS
National Center for Health Statistics
NHANES
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NHDS
National Hospital Discharge Survey
NHES
National Health Examination Survey
NHIS
National Health Interview Survey
NHHCS
National Home and Hospice Care Survey
NHLBI
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
NIS
National Inpatient Sample
NNHS
National Nursing Home Survey
PA
physical activity
PCI
percutaneous coronary intervention
RR
relative risk
SBP
systolic blood pressure
UA
unstable angina
National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey
●
High BP (HBP)— 6 400 000 (defined as systolic pressure
ⱖ140 mm Hg and/or diastolic pressure ⱖ90 mm Hg, use of
antihypertensive medication, or being told at least twice by
a physician or other health professional that one has HBP).
Coronary heart disease (CHD)—16 300 000
—
—
—
—
—
●
MI (heart attack)—7 900 000
AP (chest pain)—9 000 000
HF—5 700 000
Stroke (all types)—7 000 000
Congenital cardiovascular defects— 650 000 to
1 300 000
The following age-adjusted prevalence estimates from the
NHIS, NCHS are for diagnosed conditions for people ⱖ18
years of age in 20101:
— Among whites only, 11.7% have HD, 6.4% have CHD,
23.6% have hypertension, and 2.5% have had a stroke.
— Among blacks or African Americans, 10.9% have HD,
6.3% have CHD, 33.8% have hypertension, and 3.9%
have had a stroke.
— Among Hispanics or Latinos, 8.1% have HD, 5.2%
have CHD, 22.5% have hypertension, and 2.6% have
had a stroke.
— Among Asians, 7.2% have HD, 4.9% have CHD,
20.5% have hypertension, and 2.0% have had a stroke.
— Among American Indians or Alaska Natives, 12.5%
have HD, 5.9% have CHD, 30.0% have hypertension,
and 5.9% have had a stroke (estimate considered
unreliable). Among Native Hawaiians or other Pacific
Islanders, 20.2% have HD, 19.7% have CHD, 40.8%
have hypertension, and 10.6% have had a stroke.
●
●
Asian Indian adults (9%) are ⬇2-fold more likely than
Korean adults (4%) to have ever been told they have HD,
based on data for 2004 to 2006.2
By 2030, 40.5% of the US population is projected to have
some form of CVD.3
Incidence
● On the basis of the NHLBI’s FHS original and
offspring cohort data from 1980 to 20034:
— The average annual rates of first cardiovascular
events rise from 3 per 1000 men at 35 to 44 years
of age to 74 per 1000 men at 85 to 94 years of age.
For women, comparable rates occur 10 years later
in life. The gap narrows with advancing age.
— Before 75 years of age, a higher proportion of
CVD events attributable to CHD occur in men
than in women, and a higher proportion of events
attributable to stroke occur in women than in men.
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●
Among American Indian men 45 to 74 years of age,
the incidence of CVD ranges from 15 to 28 per 1000
population. Among women, it ranges from 9 to 15
per 1000.5
● Data from the FHS indicate that the subsequent
lifetime risk for all CVD in recipients starting free of
known disease is 2 in 3 for men and ⬎1 in 2 for
women at 40 years of age (personal communication,
Donald Lloyd-Jones, MD, Northwestern University,
Chicago, IL; Table 3-4).
● Analysis of FHS data among participants free of CVD
at 50 years of age showed the lifetime risk for developing CVD was 51.7% for men and 39.2% for women.
Median overall survival was 30 years for men and 36
years for women.6
ICD-10 I00 to I99, Q20 to Q28 for CVD (CVD mortality
includes congenital cardiovascular defects); C00 to C97 for
cancer; C33 to C34 for lung cancer; C50 for breast cancer;
J40 to J47 for chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD);
G30 for Alzheimer disease; E10 to E14 for DM; and V01 to
X59, Y85 to Y86 for accidents.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Mortality
●
●
Mortality data show that CVD (I00 –I99, Q20 –Q28) as the
listed underlying cause of death (including congenital
cardiovascular defects) accounted for 32.8% (811 940) of
all 2 471 984 deaths in 2008, or 1 of every 3 deaths in the
United States. CVD any-mentions (1 354 527 deaths in
2008) constituted 55.0% of all deaths that year (NHLBI;
NCHS public-use data files).7
In every year since 1900 except 1918, CVD accounted for
more deaths than any other major cause of death in the
United States.8,9
On average, ⬎2200 Americans die of CVD each day, an
average of 1 death every 39 seconds. CVD currently claims
more lives each year than cancer, CLRD, and accidents
combined.7
The 2008 death rate attributable to CVD (I00 –I99) was
244.8 (excluding congenital cardiovascular defects)
(NCHS).7 The rates were 287.2 for white males, 390.4 for
black males, 200.5 for white females, and 277.4 for black
females. From 1998 to 2008, death rates attributable to
CVD (ICD-10 I00 –I99) declined 30.6%. In the same
10-year period, the actual number of CVD deaths per year
declined 14.1% (NHLBI tabulation).7 (Appropriate comparability ratios were applied.)
Among other causes of death in 2008, cancer caused
565 469 deaths; CLRD, 141 090; accidents, 121 902; and
Alzheimer disease, 82 435.7
The 2008 CVD (I00 –I99) death rates were 292.6 for males
and 206.1 for females. There were 40 589 deaths due to
breast cancer in females in 2008; lung cancer claimed
70 070 in females. Death rates for females were 22.5 for
breast cancer and 39.0 for lung cancer. One in 31 deaths in
females was attributable to breast cancer, whereas 1 in 6.6
was attributable to CHD. For comparison, 1 in 4.6 females
died of cancer, whereas 1 in 3.0 died of CVD (I00 –I99,
Q20 –Q28). On the basis of 2008 mortality data, CVD
caused ⬇1 death per minute among females, or 419 730
●
●
deaths in females in 2008. That represents more female
lives than were claimed by cancer, CLRD, and Alzheimer
disease combined (unpublished NHLBI tabulation).7
About 150 000 Americans died of CVD (I00 –I99) in 2008
who were ⬍65 years of age, and 33% of deaths attributed
to CVD occurred before the age of 75 years, which is well
below the average life expectancy of 77.9 years.7
According to the NCHS, if all forms of major CVD were
eliminated, life expectancy could rise by almost 7 years. If
all forms of cancer were eliminated, the estimated gain
could be 3 years. According to the same study, the
probability at birth of eventually dying of major CVD
(I00 –I78) is 47%, and the chance of dying of cancer is
22%. Additional probabilities are 3% for accidents, 2% for
DM (unrelated to CVD), and 0.7% for HIV.10
In 2008, the leading causes of death in women ⱖ65 years
of age were diseases of the heart (No. 1), cancer (No. 2),
stroke (No. 3), and CLRD (No. 4). In older men, they were
diseases of the heart (No. 1), cancer (No. 2), CLRD (No. 3),
and stroke (No. 4).7
A study of the decrease in US deaths attributable to CHD
from 1980 to 2000 suggests that ⬇47% of the decrease was
attributable to increased use of evidence-based medical
therapies and 44% to changes in risk factors in the
population attributable to lifestyle and environmental
changes.11
Analysis of data from NCHS was used to determine the
number of disease-specific deaths attributable to all nonoptimal levels of each risk factor exposure, by age and sex.
In 2005, tobacco smoking and HBP were estimated to be
responsible for 467 000 deaths, accounting for ⬇1 in 5 or
6 deaths among US adults. Overweight/obesity and physical inactivity were each estimated to be responsible for
nearly 1 in 10 deaths. High dietary salt, low dietary
omega-3 fatty acids, and high dietary trans fatty acids were
the dietary risks with the largest estimated excess mortality
effects.12
Aftermath
● Among an estimated 45 million people with functional disabilities in the United States, HD, stroke,
and hypertension are among the 15 leading conditions that caused those disabilities. Disabilities were
defined as difficulty with activities of daily living or
instrumental activities of daily living, specific functional limitations (except vision, hearing, or speech),
and limitation in ability to do housework or work at
a job or business.13
Awareness of Warning Signs and Risk Factors
for CVD
● Surveys conducted by the AHA in 1997, 2000, 2003,
and 2006 to evaluate trends in women’s awareness,
knowledge, and perceptions related to CVD found
that in 2006, awareness of HD as the leading cause of
death among women was 57%, significantly higher
than in prior surveys. Awareness was lower among
black and Hispanic women than among white
women, and the racial/ethnic difference has not
changed appreciably over time. In 2006, more than
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 3
twice as many women felt uninformed about stroke
compared with HD. Hispanic women were more
likely than white women to report that there is
nothing they can do to keep themselves from getting
CVD. The majority of respondents reported confusion related to basic CVD prevention strategies.14
● A nationally representative sample of women responded to a questionnaire about history of CVD risk
factors, self-reported actions taken to reduce risk, and
barriers to heart health. According to the study,
published in 2006, the rate of awareness of CVD as
the leading cause of death had nearly doubled since
1997, was significantly greater for whites than for
blacks and Hispanics, and was independently correlated with increased PA and weight loss in the
previous year. Fewer than half of the respondents
were aware of healthy levels of risk factors. Awareness that their personal level was not healthy was
positively associated with preventive action. Most
women took steps to lower risk in family members
and themselves.15
● A total of 875 students in 4 Michigan high schools
were given a survey to obtain data on the perception
of risk factors and other knowledge-based assessment
questions about CVD. Accidents were rated as the
greatest perceived lifetime health risk (39%). Nearly
17% selected CVD as the greatest lifetime risk,
which made it the third most popular choice after
accidents and cancer. When asked to identify the
greatest cause of death for each sex, 42% correctly
recognized CVD for men, and 14% correctly recognized CVD for women; 40% incorrectly chose abuse/
use behavior with a substance other than cigarettes as
the most important CVD risk behavior.16
Awareness of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
● Seventy-nine percent of the lay public are confident
that they know what actions to take in a medical
emergency; 98% recognize an automated external
defibrillator as something that administers an electric
shock to restore a normal heart beat among victims of
sudden cardiac arrest; and 60% are familiar with
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (Harris Interactive
survey conducted on behalf of the AHA among 1132
US residents ⱖ18 years of age, January 8, 2008,
through January 21, 2008).
Risk Factors
Data from the 2003 CDC BRFSS survey of adults
ⱖ18 years of age showed the prevalence of respondents who reported having ⱖ2 risk factors for HD
and stroke was successively higher at higher age
groups. The prevalence of having ⱖ2 risk factors was
highest among blacks (48.7%) and American Indian/
Alaska Natives (46.7%) and lowest among Asians
(25.9%); prevalence was similar in women (36.4%)
and men (37.8%). The prevalence of multiple risk
factors ranged from 25.9% among college graduates
to 52.5% among those with less than a high school
diploma (or its equivalent). People reporting house-
●
e23
hold income of ⱖ$50 000 had the lowest prevalence
(28.8%), and those reporting household income of
⬍$10 000 had the highest prevalence (52.5%).
Adults who reported being unable to work had the
highest prevalence (69.3%) of ⱖ2 risk factors, followed by retired people (45.1%), unemployed adults
(43.4%), homemakers (34.3%), and employed people
(34.0%). Prevalence of ⱖ2 risk factors varied by
state/territory and ranged from 27.0% (Hawaii) to
46.2% (Kentucky). Twelve states and 2 territories
had a multiple risk factor prevalence of ⱖ40%:
Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky,
Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, West Virginia, Guam, and Puerto
Rico.17
● Data from the Chicago Heart Association Detection
Project (1967–1973, with an average follow-up of 31
years) showed that in younger women (18 –39 years
of age) with favorable levels for all 5 major risk
factors (BP, serum cholesterol, body mass index
[BMI], DM, and smoking), future incidence of CHD
and CVD is rare, and long-term and all-cause mortality are much lower than for those who have
unfavorable or elevated risk factor levels at young
ages. Similar findings applied to men in this
study.18,19
● Analysis of several data sets by the CDC showed that
in adults ⱖ18 years of age, disparities were common
in all risk factors examined. In men, the highest
prevalence of obesity (29.7%) was found in Mexican
Americans who had completed a high school education. Black women with or without a high school
education had a high prevalence of obesity (48.4%).
Hypertension prevalence was high among blacks
(41.2%) regardless of sex or educational status.
Hypercholesterolemia was high among white and
Mexican American men and white women regardless
of educational status. CHD and stroke were inversely
related to education, income, and poverty status.
Hospitalization for total HD and acute MI (AMI) was
greater among men, but hospitalization for congestive heart failure (CHF) and stroke was greater
among women. Among Medicare enrollees, CHF
hospitalization was higher among blacks, Hispanics,
and American Indian/Alaska Natives than among
whites, and stroke hospitalization was highest among
blacks. Hospitalizations for CHF and stroke were
highest in the southeastern United States. Life expectancy remains higher in women than in men and in
whites than in blacks by ⬇5 years. CVD mortality at
all ages tended to be highest in blacks.20
● Analysis of 5 cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys from the National Health Examination
Survey (NHES) 1960 to 1962 to the NHANES 1999
to 2000 showed that the prevalence of key risk
factors (ie, high cholesterol, HBP, current smoking,
and total DM) decreased over time across all BMI
groups, with the greatest reductions observed among
overweight and obese groups. Total DM prevalence
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was stable within BMI groups over time; however,
the trend has leveled off or been reversed for some of
the risk factors in more recent years.21
Data from BRFSS 2006 to 2008 demonstrated that
during this 3-year period, 25.6% of non-Hispanic
blacks, non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanics were
obese, but prevalent obesity varied across groups:
35.7% for non-Hispanic blacks, 28.7% for Hispanics,
and 23.7% for non-Hispanic whites.
Data from NHANES 2005 to 2006 showed that
90.4% of US adults exceeded their recommended
target limit of daily dietary sodium intake.22
Analysis of ⬎14 000 middle-aged subjects in the
ARIC study sponsored by the NHLBI showed that
⬎90% of CVD events in black subjects, compared
with ⬇70% in white subjects, appeared to be explained by elevated or borderline risk factors. Furthermore, the prevalence of participants with elevated
risk factors was higher in black subjects; after accounting for education and known CVD risk factors,
the incidence of CVD was identical in black and
white subjects. Thus, the observed higher CVD
incidence rate in black subjects appears to be largely
attributable to a greater prevalence of elevated risk
factors. These results suggest that the primary prevention of elevated risk factors might substantially
impact the future incidence of CVD, and these
beneficial effects would likely be applicable not only
for white but also for black subjects.23
Data from the MEPS 2004 Full-Year Data File
showed that nearly 26 million US adults ⱖ18 years
of age were told by a doctor that they had HD, stroke,
or any other heart-related disease24:
E
— Race/ethnicity-based variations:
E
E
E
E
Moderate to vigorous PA ⱖ3 times per week
varied according to age. Younger people
(18 – 44 years of age) were more likely (59.9%)
than those who were older (45– 64 and ⱖ65
years of age, 55.3% and 48.5%, respectively) to
engage in regular PA.
A greater percentage of those 18 to 44 years of
age had a healthy weight (43.7%) than did those
45 to 64 years of age and ⱖ65 years of age
(31.4% and 37.3%, respectively).
Non-Hispanic whites were more likely than
Hispanics or non-Hispanic blacks to engage in
moderate-to-vigorous PA (58.5% versus 51.4%
and 52.5%, respectively).
Non-Hispanic whites were more likely to have
maintained a healthy weight than were Hispanics or non-Hispanic blacks (39.8% versus
32.1% and 29.7%, respectively).
Hispanics were more likely to be nonsmokers
(84.2%) than were non-Hispanic whites and
non-Hispanic blacks (77.8% and 76.3%,
respectively).
— Sex-based variations:
E
E
E
Men were more likely to have engaged
in moderate-to-vigorous PA ⱖ3 times per
week than women (60.3% versus 53.1%,
respectively).
Women were more likely than men to have
maintained a healthy weight (45.1% versus
31.7%, respectively).
81.7% of women did not currently smoke,
compared with 75.7% of men.
— Variations based on education level:
E
— 38.6% maintained a healthy weight. Among those
told that they had HD, 33.9% had a healthy
weight compared with 39.3% who had never been
told they had HD.
— 78.8% did not currently smoke. Among those ever
told that they had indicators of HD, 18.3% continued to smoke.
— More than 93% engaged in at least 1 recommended behavior for prevention of HD: 75.5%
engaged in 1 or 2; 18% engaged in all 3; and
6.5% did not engage in any of the recommended behaviors.
— Age-based variations:
E
People ⱖ65 years of age were more likely to be
current nonsmokers (89.7%) than were people
18 to 44 years of age and 45 to 64 years of age
(76.1% and 77.7%, respectively).
E
E
●
A greater percentage of adults with at least
some college education engaged in moderateto-vigorous PA ⱖ3 times per week (60.8%)
than did those with a high school education or
less than a high school education (55.3% and
48.3%, respectively).
A greater percentage of adults with at least
some college education had a healthy weight
(41.2%) than did those with a high school or
less than high school education (36.2% and
36.1%, respectively).
There was a greater percentage of nonsmokers among those with a college education
(85.5%) than among those with a high school
or less than high school education (73.8% and
69.9%, respectively).
Participants (18 – 64 years of age at baseline) in the
Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry without a history of MI were investigated to
determine whether traditional CVD risk factors were
similarly associated with CVD mortality in black and
white men and women. In general, the magnitude and
direction of associations were similar by race. Most
traditional risk factors demonstrated similar associations with mortality in black and white adults of the
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 3
same sex. Small differences were primarily in the
strength and not the direction of the association.25
● A study of nearly 1500 participants in the MultiEthnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) study found
that Hispanics with hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and/or DM who speak Spanish at home and/or
have spent less than half a year in the United States
have higher systolic BP (SBP), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose,
respectively, than Hispanics who speak English and
who have lived a longer period of time in the United
States.26
Family History of CVD
● A family history of CVD increases risk of CVD, with
the largest increase in risk if the family member’s
CVD was premature.27
● There is consistent evidence from multiple largescale prospective epidemiology studies for a strong
and significant association of a reported family history of premature parental CHD with incident MI or
CHD in offspring. In the FHS, the occurrence of a
validated premature atherosclerotic CVD event in
either a parent28 or a sibling29 was associated with an
⬇2-fold elevated risk for CVD, independent of other
traditional risk factors.
● Addition of family history of premature CVD to a
model that contained traditional risk factors provided
modestly improved prognostic value in the FHS.28
Family history of premature MI is also an independent risk factor in other multivariable risk models
that contain traditional risk factors in large cohorts of
women30 and men.31
● Parental history of premature CHD is associated with
increased burden of subclinical atherosclerosis in the
coronary arteries and the abdominal aorta.32,33
● In the FHS, a parental history of validated HF is
associated with a 1.7-fold higher risk of HF in
offspring, after multivariable adjustment.34
● A family history of early-onset sudden cardiac death
in a first-degree relative is associated with a ⬎2-fold
higher risk for sudden cardiac death in offspring on
the basis of available case-control studies.35
● The 2004 HealthStyles survey of 4345 people in the
United States indicated that most respondents believe
that knowing their family history is important for
their own health, but few are aware of the specific
health information from relatives necessary to develop a family history.36
● An accurate and complete family history may identify rare mendelian conditions such as hypertrophic
cardiomyopathy (HCM), long-QT syndrome, or familial hypercholesterolemia. However, in the majority of people with a family history of a CVD event, a
known rare mendelian condition is not identified.
● Studies are under way to determine genetic variants
that may help identify individuals at increased risk of
CVD.
e25
Impact of Healthy Lifestyle and Low Risk
Factor Levels
Much of the literature on CVD has focused on factors
associated with increasing risk for CVD and on factors
associated with poorer outcomes in the presence of CVD;
however, in recent years, a number of studies have defined
the potential beneficial effects of healthy lifestyle factors and
lower CVD risk factor burden on CVD outcomes and
longevity. These studies suggest that prevention of risk factor
development at younger ages may be the key to “successful
aging,” and they highlight the need for evaluating the potential benefits of intensive prevention efforts at younger and
middle ages once risk factors develop to increase the likelihood of healthy longevity.
●
●
●
The lifetime risk for CVD and median survival were highly
associated with risk factor presence and burden at 50 years
of age among ⬎7900 men and women from the FHS
followed up for 111 000 person-years. In this study, optimal risk factor burden at 50 years of age was defined as BP
⬍120/80 mm Hg, total cholesterol ⬍180 mg/dL, absence
of DM, and absence of smoking. Elevated risk factors were
defined as stage 1 hypertension or borderline high cholesterol (200 –239 mg/dL). Major risk factors were defined as
stage 2 hypertension, elevated cholesterol (ⱖ240 mg/dL),
current smoking, and DM. Remaining lifetime risks for
atherosclerotic CVD events were only 5.2% in men and
8.2% in women with optimal risk factors at 50 years of age
compared with 68.9% in men and 50.2% in women with
ⱖ2 major risk factors at age 50. In addition, men and
women with optimal risk factors had a median life expectancy ⱖ10 years longer than those with ⱖ2 major risk
factors at age 50 years.6
A recent study examined the association between low
lifetime predicted risk for CVD (ie, having all optimal or
near-optimal risk factor levels) and burden of subclinical
atherosclerosis in younger adults in the Coronary Artery
Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) and MESA
studies of the NHLBI. Among participants ⬍50 years of
age, nearly half had low and half had high predicted
lifetime risks for CVD. Those with low predicted lifetime
risk had lower prevalence and less severe amounts of
coronary calcification and less carotid intima-media thickening, even at these younger ages, than those with high
predicted lifetime risk. During follow-up, those with low
predicted lifetime risk also had less progression of coronary
calcium.37
In another study, FHS investigators followed up 2531
men and women who were examined between the ages of
40 and 50 years and observed their overall rates of survival
and survival free of CVD to 85 years of age and beyond.
Low levels of the major risk factors in middle age were
associated with overall survival and morbidity-free survival to ⱖ85 years of age.38
— Overall, 35.7% survived to the age of 85 years, and
22% survived to that age free of major morbidities.
— Factors associated with survival to the age of 85 years
included female sex, lower SBP, lower total cholester-
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January 3/10, 2012
ol, better glucose tolerance, absence of current smoking, and higher level of education attained. Factors
associated with survival to the age of 85 years free of
MI, unstable angina (UA), HF, stroke, dementia, and
cancer were nearly identical.
— When adverse levels of 4 of these factors were present
in middle age, ⬍5% of men and ⬇15% of women
survived to 85 years of age.
●
●
●
●
●
A study of 366 000 men and women from the Multiple
Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) and Chicago Heart
Association Detection Project in Industry defined low-risk
status as follows: Serum cholesterol level ⬍200 mg/dL,
untreated BP 120/80 mm Hg, absence of current smoking,
absence of DM, and absence of major electrocardiographic
abnormalities. Compared with those who did not have low
risk factor burden, those with low risk factor burden had
between 73% and 85% lower relative risk (RR) for CVD
mortality, 40% to 60% lower relative total mortality rates,
and 6 to 10 years’ longer life expectancy.19
A study of 84 129 women enrolled in the Nurses’ Health
Study identified 5 healthy lifestyle factors, including absence of current smoking, drinking half a glass or more of
wine per day (or equivalent alcohol consumption), half an
hour or more per day of moderate or vigorous PA, BMI
⬍25 kg/m2, and dietary score in the top 40% (which
included diets with lower amounts of trans fats, lower
glycemic load, higher cereal fiber, higher marine omega-3
fatty acids, higher folate, and higher polyunsaturated-tosaturated fat ratio). When 3 of the 5 healthy lifestyle factors
were present, the RR for CHD over a 14-year period was
57% lower; when 4 were present, RR was 66% lower; and
when all 5 factors were present, RR was 83% lower.39
However, data from NHANES 1999 to 2002 showed that
only about one third of adults complied with ⱖ6 of the
recommended heart-healthy behaviors. Dietary recommendations, in general, and daily fruit intake recommendations,
in particular, were least likely to be followed.40
In the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in
Industry, remaining lifetime risks for CVD death were
noted to increase substantially and in a graded fashion
according to the number of risk factors present in middle
age (40 –59 years of age). However, remaining lifetime
risks for non-CVD death also increased dramatically with
increasing CVD risk factor burden. These data help to
explain the markedly greater longevity experienced by
those who reach middle age free of major CVD risk
factors.41
Among individuals 70 to 90 years of age, adherence to a
Mediterranean-style diet and greater PA are associated
with 65% to 73% relatively lower rates of all-cause
mortality, as well as lower mortality rates attributable to
CHD, CVD, and cancer.42
Seventeen-year mortality data from the NHANES II Mortality Follow-Up Study indicated that the RR for fatal CHD
was 51% lower for men and 71% lower for women with
none of 3 major risk factors (hypertension, current smoking, and elevated total cholesterol [ⱖ 240 mg/dL]) than for
those with ⱖ1 risk factors. Had all 3 major risk factors not
●
●
●
occurred, it is hypothesized that 64% of all CHD deaths
among women and 45% of CHD deaths in men could
theoretically have been avoided.43
Investigators from the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry have also observed that risk factor
burden in middle age is associated with better quality of life
at follow-up in older age (⬇25 years later) and lower
average annual Medicare costs at older ages.
The presence of a greater number of risk factors in middle
age is associated with lower scores at older ages on
assessment of social functioning, mental health, walking,
and health perception in women, with similar findings in
men.44
Similarly, the existence of a greater number of risk factors
in middle age is associated with higher average annual
CVD-related and total Medicare costs (once Medicare
eligibility is attained).45
Hospital Discharges, Ambulatory Care Visits, and
Nursing Home Residents
● From 1999 to 2009, the number of inpatient discharges from short-stay hospitals with CVD as the
first-listed diagnosis decreased from 6 344 000 to
6 165 000 (NHDS, NCHS, and NHLBI). In 2009,
CVD ranked highest among all disease categories in
hospital discharges (NHDS, NCHS, and NHLBI).
● In 2009, there were 94 871 000 physician office visits
with a primary diagnosis of CVD (NCHS, NAMCS,
NHLBI tabulation). In 2009, there were 4 761 000
ED visits and 7 261 000 hospital outpatient department visits with a primary diagnosis of CVD (NCHS,
NHAMCS, NHLBI tabulation).
● In 2005, ⬇1 of every 6 hospital stays, or almost 6
million, resulted from CVD (Agency for Healthcare
Research and Quality, NIS). The total inpatient
hospital cost for CVD was $71.2 billion, approximately one fourth of the total cost of inpatient
hospital care in the United States. The average cost
per hospitalization was ⬇41% higher than the average cost for all stays. Hospital admissions that
originated in the ED accounted for 60.7% of all
hospital stays for CVD. This was 41% higher than the
rate of 43.1% for all types of hospital stays; 3.3% of
patients admitted to the hospital for CVD died in the
hospital, which was significantly higher than the
average in-hospital death rate of 2.1% for all hospitalized patients.46
● In 2004, coronary artery disease (CAD) was estimated to be responsible for 1.2 million hospital stays
and was the most expensive condition treated. This
condition resulted in ⬎$44 billion in expenses. More
than half of the hospital stays for CAD were among
patients who also received percutaneous coronary
intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft
(CABG) during their stay. AMI resulted in $31
billion of inpatient hospital charges for 695 000
hospital stays. The 1.1 million hospitalizations for
CHF amounted to nearly $29 billion in hospital
charges.47
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 3
●
●
●
●
●
In 2003, ⬇48.3% of inpatient hospital stays for CVD
were for women, who accounted for 42.8% of the
national cost ($187 billion) associated with these
conditions. Although only 40% of hospital stays for
AMI and CAD were for women, more than half of all
stays for nonspecific chest pain, CHF, and stroke
were for women. There was no difference between
men and women in hospitalizations for cardiac
dysrhythmias.48
Circulatory disorders were the most frequent reason
for admission to the hospital through the ED, accounting for 26.3% of all admissions through the ED.
After pneumonia, the most common heart-related
conditions (in descending order) were CHF, chest
pain, hardening of the arteries, and heart attack,
which together accounted for ⬎15% of all admissions through the ED. Stroke and irregular heart beat
ranked seventh and eighth, respectively.49
In 2004, 23.7% of nursing home residents had a
primary diagnosis of CVD at admission, and 25%
had CVD as the primary diagnosis at the time of
interview. This was the leading primary diagnosis for
these residents (NCHS, NNHS).49
Among current home healthcare patients in 2007,
18.3% had a primary diagnosis of CVD at admission
and 62.9% had any diagnosis of CVD at the time of
interview (NCHS, NHHCS unpublished data).
Among patients discharged from hospice in 2007,
15.8% had a primary diagnosis of CVD at admission
(NCHS, NHHCS unpublished data).
Operations and Procedures
In 2009, an estimated 7 453 000 inpatient cardiovascular operations and procedures were performed in
the United States; 4.2 million were performed on
males, and 3.3 million were performed on females
(NHLBI tabulation of NHDS, NCHS).
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
●
Cost
● The estimated direct and indirect cost of CVD for
2008 is $297.7 billion (MEPS, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and NHLBI).
● In 2006, $32.7 billion in program payments were
made to Medicare beneficiaries discharged from
short-stay hospitals with a principal diagnosis of
CVD. That was an average of $10 201 per
discharge.50
● Between 2010 and 2030, real (2008$) total direct
medical costs of CVD are projected to triple, from
$273 billion to $818 billion.3
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 3
Table 3-1.
e29
Cardiovascular Diseases
Population Group
Both sexes
Prevalence, 2008 —Age ⱖ20 y
Mortality, 2008 —All Ages*
Hospital Discharges, 2009 —All Ages
Cost, 2008
82 600 000 (36.2%)
811 940
6 165 000
$297.7 Billion
Males
39 900 000 (37.4%)
392 210 (48.3%)†
3 230 000
...
Females
42 700 000 (35.0%)
419 730 (51.7%)†
2 935 000
...
NH white males
37.4%
335 247
...
...
NH white females
33.8%
360 441
...
...
NH black males
44.8%
46 819
...
...
NH black females
47.3%
49 819
...
...
Mexican American males
30.7%
...
...
...
Mexican American females
30.9%
...
...
...
Ellipses (. . .) indicate data not available; NH, non-Hispanic.
*Mortality data are for whites and blacks and include Hispanics.
†These percentages represent the portion of total cardiovascular disease mortality that is attributable to males vs females.
Sources: Prevalence: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2008, National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and National Heart, Lung,
and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Percentages for racial/ethnic groups are age-adjusted for Americans ⱖ20 y of age. Age-specific percentages are extrapolated to the 2008
US population estimates. Mortality: NCHS. These data represent underlying cause of death only. Data include congenital cardiovascular disease mortality. Hospital
discharges: National Hospital Discharge Survey, NCHS. Data include those inpatients discharged alive, dead, or of unknown status. Cost: NHLBI. Data include estimated
direct and indirect costs for 2008.
Downloaded from http://circ.ahajournals.org/ at University of Kentucky--Lexington on January 31, 2012
e30
Circulation
Table 3-2.
January 3/10, 2012
Age-Adjusted Death Rates per 100 000 Population for CVD, CHD, and Stroke by State, 2005–2007
CVD*
State
Rank§
Alabama
Alaska
Death Rate
CHD†
% Change
1999 –2001 to
2005–2007
Rank§
Death Rate
Stroke‡
% Change
1999 –2001 to
2005–2007
Rank§
Death Rate
% Change
1999 –2001 to
2005–2007
51
326.9
⫺16.0
20
116.6
⫺28.9
50
56.3
⫺19.3
6
221.6
⫺22.3
4
87.9
⫺31.7
35
48.1
⫺26.1
5
217.0
⫺24.3
25
121.5
⫺25.7
4
35.3
⫺32.8
Arkansas
45
307.4
⫺19.5
46
159.5
⫺14.8
51
58.0
⫺24.8
California
27
252.9
⫺23.0
33
136.3
⫺28.7
29
44.9
⫺29.4
Colorado
4
216.1
⫺21.8
7
98.2
⫺23.9
11
40.1
⫺29.6
Arizona
Connecticut
14
229.6
⫺23.4
14
110.1
⫺31.4
5
35.7
⫺29.4
Delaware
28
262.2
⫺21.8
39
143.1
⫺28.1
14
41.3
⫺21.3
⫺11.5
District of Columbia
50
325.6
⫺13.4
52
187.6
⫺7.2
18
42.5
Florida
12
227.7
⫺26.4
27
128.5
⫺32.1
6
35.7
⫺27.7
Georgia
41
287.6
⫺23.8
10
107.9
⫺33.6
44
51.5
⫺28.5
Hawaii
2
206.0
⫺24.3
3
82.0
⫺28.4
20
43.0
⫺31.1
Idaho
19
234.4
⫺21.2
11
108.9
⫺26.3
38
48.9
⫺24.8
Illinois
31
264.8
⫺23.9
29
132.8
⫺30.8
30
45.2
⫺26.6
Indiana
39
284.7
⫺21.6
32
136.2
⫺27.4
37
48.6
⫺28.9
Iowa
24
247.6
⫺21.8
37
140.8
⫺24.5
25
44.5
⫺25.7
Kansas
25
252.7
⫺20.9
15
112.4
⫺27.4
34
46.8
⫺23.4
Kentucky
44
304.5
⫺22.3
42
149.6
⫺25.5
42
49.6
⫺26.7
Louisiana
47
311.0
⫺17.9
36
139.6
⫺26.0
45
52.6
⫺19.8
Maine
18
234.2
⫺24.3
16
113.5
⫺30.9
16
41.8
⫺27.7
Maryland
33
269.2
⫺21.2
40
144.9
⫺23.9
22
44.0
⫺29.6
9
224.1
⫺22.6
9
106.9
⫺27.2
10
37.9
⫺24.7
Massachusetts
Michigan
42
293.2
⫺20.9
45
158.0
⫺25.4
32
45.5
⫺26.3
Minnesota
1
193.1
⫺25.9
2
80.5
⫺33.2
12
40.1
⫺28.8
Mississippi
52
349.7
⫺19.3
41
147.2
⫺29.4
46
53.3
⫺25.4
Missouri
43
293.9
⫺21.0
44
154.2
⫺25.1
43
50.4
⫺21.6
Montana
11
226.6
⫺20.9
6
97.6
⫺21.5
19
42.7
⫺29.2
Nebraska
17
232.8
⫺23.0
5
94.4
⫺29.2
28
44.8
⫺22.8
Nevada
40
287.4
⫺16.8
21
117.4
⫺29.1
17
42.3
⫺26.8
New Hampshire
13
229.1
⫺26.9
24
120.9
⫺33.9
2
35.2
⫺36.8
New Jersey
25
252.2
⫺23.7
38
141.1
⫺29.0
7
35.9
⫺23.8
New Mexico
7
222.1
⫺19.8
17
114.7
⫺25.0
9
37.7
⫺26.2
New York
37
278.6
⫺21.1
51
182.1
⫺23.6
1
29.6
⫺27.1
North Carolina
34
270.4
⫺24.4
28
128.7
⫺29.9
47
53.4
⫺30.0
North Dakota
22
241.3
⫺20.3
30
133.5
⫺19.6
24
44.2
⫺26.1
Ohio
38
283.2
⫺22.0
43
151.4
⫺25.3
33
46.5
⫺23.3
Oklahoma
49
322.4
⫺20.6
50
176.2
⫺23.5
49
54.4
⫺20.5
Oregon
15
230.6
⫺22.1
8
98.7
⫺26.8
40
49.3
⫺33.1
Pennsylvania
35
271.4
⫺22.1
34
137.9
⫺28.0
26
44.6
⫺22.6
Puerto Rico¶
8
223.5
⫺15.9
13
109.4
⫺15.8
23
44.1
⫺15.5
Rhode Island
29
260.4
⫺16.8
48
170.6
⫺19.0
3
35.2
⫺26.7
South Carolina
36
274.1
⫺25.2
23
119.8
⫺32.3
48
53.7
⫺33.1
South Dakota
20
238.1
⫺21.2
35
137.9
⫺17.5
31
45.4
⫺21.9
Tennessee
48
315.3
⫺19.4
49
171.1
⫺22.3
52
58.1
⫺23.7
Texas
32
266.9
⫺24.0
31
134.9
⫺30.5
41
49.3
⫺25.1
(Continued)
Downloaded from http://circ.ahajournals.org/ at University of Kentucky--Lexington on January 31, 2012
Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 3
Table 3-2.
e31
Continued
CVD*
State
Utah
Vermont
CHD†
% Change
1999 –2001 to
2005–2007
Rank§
Death Rate
Stroke‡
% Change
1999 –2001 to
2005–2007
Rank§
Death Rate
% Change
1999 –2001 to
2005–2007
Rank§
Death Rate
3
213.2
⫺21.3
1
78.6
⫺30.8
13
40.4
⫺34.0
10
226.3
⫺24.0
26
121.6
⫺26.0
8
37.1
⫺31.2
Virginia
28
254.7
⫺23.1
19
114.8
⫺27.4
36
48.3
⫺28.4
Washington
16
232.4
⫺22.6
22
117.5
⫺26.0
21
43.7
⫺36.8
West Virginia
46
309.1
⫺22.0
47
160.7
⫺27.1
39
49.2
⫺19.9
Wisconsin
23
242.6
⫺24.0
18
114.7
⫺29.9
27
44.7
⫺30.3
Wyoming
21
238.7
⫺19.4
13
109.3
⫺25.1
15
41.4
⫺29.2
262.7
⫺22.6
135.1
⫺27.7
44.1
⫺26.9
Total United States
CVD indicates cardiovascular disease; CHD, coronary heart disease.
*CVD is defined here as International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes I00 –I78.
†CHD is defined here as ICD-10 I20 –I25.
‡Stroke is defined here as ICD-10 I60 –I69.
§Rank is lowest to highest.
¶Percent changes for Puerto Rico are for 2000 to 2005–2007.
Source: Health Data Interactive, 2005–2007. Data provided by personal communication with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has released state-level data for heart disease for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The data are taken
from the congressionally mandated National Healthcare Quality Report (NHQR), available at http://statesnapshots.ahrq.gov/snaps07/index.jsp. In addition, the Women’s
Health and Mortality Chartbook of the National Center for Health Statistics has state-related data for women available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/healthywomen/
womenschartbook_aug2004.pdf. Also, at http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/brfss-smart/index.asp, Metropolitan/Micropolitan Area Risk (MMSA) data are available for 500 such
areas nationwide. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data are also collected within each state (www.cdc.gov/brfss). The Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC) has the Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which provides mortality rates down to the county level, by sex and ethnicity, available at
http://www.cdc.gov/gis/. The 2008 Atlas of Stroke Hospitalizations Among Medicare Beneficiaries (CDC, 2008) is a new resource that provides data down to the county
level, by sex and race (available at http://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/atlas/2008_stroke_atlas/index.htm).
Downloaded from http://circ.ahajournals.org/ at University of Kentucky--Lexington on January 31, 2012
e32
Circulation
January 3/10, 2012
Table 3-3. International Death Rates (Revised May 2011):
Death Rates (Per 100 000 Population) for Total CVD, CHD,
Stroke, and Total Deaths in Selected Countries (Most Recent
Year Available)
CVD
Deaths
CHD
Deaths
Stroke
Deaths
Bulgaria (2008)
1299.2
803.7
706.0
219.4
351.4
218.2
Continued
CVD
Deaths
CHD
Deaths
Stroke
Deaths
Total
Deaths
Poland (2008)
181.5
51.6
50.1
570.0
Czech Republic (2009)
164.3
69.9
34.8
506.6
United States (2008)
129.2
59.5
23.5
544.7
Denmark (2006)
100.0
32.4
32.1
557.8
Germany (2006)
97.8
38.2
20.1
402.4
1554.3
Greece (2009)
97.1
33.3
29.3
319.0
94.4
30.8
24.8
436.3
Total
Deaths
Men ages 35–74 y
Russian Federation
(2006)
Table 3-3.
2683.4
Lithuania (2009)
734.7
444.6
138.3
1842.3
Belgium (2005)
Romania (2009)
677.9
276.4
200.2
1572.4
New Zealand (2007)
89.8
43.9
21.7
418.2
Slovakia (2005)
634.2
320.1
91.8
1528.3
88.1
38.5
22.5
438.5
Hungary (2009)
605.6
319.1
121.1
1652.3
United Kingdom
(2009)
Poland (2008)
495.2
180.0
100.8
1412.7
Ireland (2009)
86.8
40.9
21.9
419.8
Finland (2009)
83.4
36.1
23.0
377.8
Canada (2004)
83.1
42.8
17.3
432.7
Portugal (2009)
76.5
20.0
33.5
377.6
Austria (2009)
75.5
33.7
16.4
368.2
Sweden (2008)
74.6
35.5
18.5
374.1
Netherlands (2009)
74.0
20.6
20.1
416.8
Italy (2007)
67.3
22.2
18.2
326.0
Israel (2007)
65.4
22.2
17.3
388.7
Korea, South (2009)
63.5
41.0
33.2
312.3
Spain (2008)
62.4
18.7
17.8
304.4
Norway (2009)
60.5
26.3
15.2
377.0
Croatia (2009)
419.3
Czech Republic (2009)
386.6
202.2
198.6
113.6
64.4
1184.7
1080.8
Kuwait (2009)
319.6
187.0
62.1
563.9
Finland (2009)
284.4
170.0
43.8
833.2
United States (2008)
Greece (2009)
256.0
251.6
149.2
136.7
30.0
50.8
862.7
721.6
Germany (2006)
242.1
125.3
34.5
788.5
Ireland (2009)
210.0
140.6
29.2
701.3
Belgium (2005)
209.6
Denmark (2006)
206.6
99.5
84.8
35.9
45.6
821.7
865.6
New Zealand (2007)
204.2
135.6
29.1
635.7
United Kingdom
(2009)
202.0
125.8
29.9
687.6
Canada (2004)
198.3
130.8
24.2
26.3
Australia (2006)
60.4
26.8
16.3
327.5
Japan (2009)
54.4
12.8
22.7
266.9
705.3
Switzerland (2007)
54.1
19.4
12.4
327.6
736.3
France (2007)
51.3
12.1
13.9
346.0
Austria (2009)
189.3
110.2
Sweden (2008)
187.8
109.4
31.0
591.8
Portugal (2009)
168.7
61.3
62.1
825.3
Spain (2008)
168.2
77.6
33.7
714.0
Italy (2007)
160.6
75.6
29.9
625.8
Netherlands (2009)
157.9
64.6
24.6
649.4
Israel (2007)
156.3
86.3
32.5
655.9
Norway (2009)
154.4
84.6
29.0
607.0
Switzerland (2007)
150.4
78.2
16.6
587.5
Japan (2009)
145.2
46.5
52.2
605.0
France (2007)
145.0
57.1
26.5
774.6
Australia (2006)
141.3
88.9
22.0
553.4
Korea, South (2009)
138.4
41.0
65.9
783.6
Russian Federation
(2006)
521.4
237.1
189.2
1001.8
Bulgaria (2008)
368.6
70.9
120.6
699.3
Romania (2009)
325.5
109.5
116.2
706.0
CVD indicates cardiovascular disease; CHD, coronary heart disease.
Rates are adjusted to the European Standard population. International
Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes are used for all
countries except Greece, for which International Classification of Diseases, 9th
Revision (ICD-9) codes are used. For countries using ICD-9, the ICD-9 codes
are 390 – 459 for CVD, 410 – 414 for CHD, and 430 – 438 for stroke. ICD-10
codes are I00 –I99 for CVD, I20 –I25 for CHD, and I60 –I69 for stroke.
The following countries have been dropped from the table because data on
number of deaths or population are no longer furnished to the World Health
Organization: Argentina, China, Colombia, and Mexico.
Sources: The World Health Organization, National Center for Health Statistics, and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Women ages 35–74 y
Slovakia (2005)
269.5
129.5
41.9
643.7
Lithuania (2009)
253.9
127.5
73.8
648.6
Kuwait (2009)
246.1
94.8
56.1
568.1
Hungary (2009)
239.2
113.7
56.0
719.4
Croatia (2009)
190.8
71.9
68.7
520.1
(Continued)
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 3
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Table 3-4. Remaining Lifetime Risks for CVD and Other
Diseases Among Men and Women Free of Disease at 40 and 70
Years of Age
Remaining Lifetime Risk
at Age 40 y
Remaining Lifetime
Risk at Age 70 y
Diseases
Men
Women
Men
Women
Any CVD*
2 in 3
1 in 2
1 in 2
1 in 2
6
CHD
1 in 2
1 in 3
1 in 3
1 in 4
AF23
1 in 4
1 in 4
1 in 4
1 in 4
CHF24
1 in 5
1 in 5
1 in 5
1 in 5
Stroke25
1 in 6†
1 in 5†
1 in 6
1 in 5
1 in 5
25
Dementia
...
...
1 in 7
1 in 20
1 in 6
...
...
1 in 1000
1 in 8
...
1 in 14
Prostate
cancer39
1 in 6
...
...
...
Lung cancer39
1 in 12
1 in 17
...
...
Colon cancer39
1 in 16
1 in 17
...
...
Diabetes43
1 in 3
1 in 3
1 in 9
1 in 7
9 in 10†
9 in 10†
9 in 10‡
9 in 10‡
1 in 3
1 in 3
...
...
Hip fracture38
Breast
cancer39,42
Hypertension44
45
Obesity
CVD indicates cardiovascular disease; ellipses (. . .), not estimated; CHD,
coronary heart disease; AF, atrial fibrillation; and CHF, congestive heart failure.
*Personal communication from Donald Lloyd-Jones, based on Framingham
Heart Study data.
†Age 55 y.
‡Age 65 y.
Chart 3-1. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in adults ⱖ20 years of age by age and sex (National Health and Nutrition Examination
Survey: 2005–2008). Source: National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. These data include
coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and hypertension.
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Chart 3-2. Incidence of cardiovascular disease* by age and sex (Framingham Heart Study, 1980 –2003). *Coronary heart disease, heart
failure, stroke, or intermittent claudication. Does not include hypertension alone. Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.4
Chart 3-3. Deaths attributable to diseases of the heart (United States: 1900 –2008). See Glossary (Chapter 25) for an explanation of
“diseases of the heart.” Note: In the years 1900 –1920, the International Classification of Diseases codes were 77– 80; for 1925, 87–90;
for 1930 –1945, 90 –95; for 1950 –1960, 402– 404, 410 – 443; for 1965, 402– 404, 410 – 443; for 1970 –1975, 390 –398, 404 – 429; for
1980 –1995, 390 –398, 402, 404 – 429; and for 2000 –2008, I00 –I09, I11, I13, I20 –I51. Before 1933, data are for a death registration area
and not the entire United States. In 1900, only 10 states were in the death registration area, and this increased over the years, so part
of the increase in numbers of deaths is attributable to an increase in the number of states. Source: National Center for Health
Statistics.
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Chart 3-4. Deaths attributable to cardiovascular disease (United States: 1900 –2008). Cardiovascular disease (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes I00 –I99) does not include congenital. Before 1933, data are for a death registration area and not
the entire United States. Source: National Center for Health Statistics.
Chart 3-5. Percentage breakdown of deaths attributable to cardiovascular disease (United States: 2008). Source: National Heart, Lung,
and Blood Institute from National Center for Health Statistics reports and data sets. *Not a true underlying cause. With any mention
deaths, heart failure accounts for 35% of cardiovascular disease deaths. Total may not add to 100 because of rounding. Coronary
heart disease includes International Classification of Diseases (ICD), 10th Revision codes I20 –I25; stroke, I60 –I69; heart failure, I50;
high blood pressure, I10 –I13; diseases of the arteries, I70 –I78; and other, all remaining ICD I categories.
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Chart 3-6. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths vs cancer deaths by age (United States: 2008). Source: National Center for Health
Statistics. CVD includes International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes I00 –I99, Q20 –Q28; and cancer, C00 –C97.
Chart 3-7. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other major causes of death: total, ⬍85 years of age, and ⱖ85 years of age. Deaths
among both sexes, United States, 2008. CLRD indicates chronic lower respiratory disease. Heart disease includes International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes I00 –I09, I11, I13, I20 –I51; stroke, I60 –I69; all other CVD, I10, I12, I15, I70 –I99; cancer, C00 –
C97 ; CLRD, J40 –J47; Alzheimer disease, G30; and accidents, V01–X59, Y85–Y86. Source: National Center for Health Statistics and
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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Chart 3-8. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other major causes of death in males: total, ⬍85 years of age, and ⱖ85 years of age.
Deaths among males, United States, 2008. CLRD indicates chronic lower respiratory disease. Heart disease includes International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes I00 –I09, I11, I13, I20 –I51; stroke, I60 –I69; all other CVD, I10, I12, I15, I70 –I99; cancer,
C00 –C97; CLRD, J40 –J47; and accidents, V01–X59, Y85–Y86. Source: National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung,
and Blood Institute.
Chart 3-9. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other major causes of death in females: total, ⬍85 years of age, and ⱖ85 years of age.
Deaths among females, United States, 2008. CLRD indicates chronic lower respiratory disease. Heart disease includes International
Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes I00 –I09, I11, I13, I20 –I51; stroke, I60 –I69; all other CVD, I10, I12, I15, I70 –I99; cancer,
C00 –C97; CLRD, J40 –J47; and Alzheimer disease, G30. Source: National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung, and
Blood Institute.
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Chart 3-10. Cardiovascular disease and other major causes of death for all males and females (United States: 2008). A indicates cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes I00 –I99, Q20 –
Q28); B, cancer (C00 –C97); C, accidents (V01–X59, Y85–Y86); D, chronic lower respiratory disease (J40 –J47); E, diabetes mellitus
(E10 –E14); and F, Alzheimer disease (G30). Source: National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Chart 3-11. Cardiovascular disease and other major causes of death for white males and females (United States: 2008). A indicates
cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes I00 –I99,
Q20 –Q28); B, cancer (C00 –C97); C, accidents (V01–X59, Y85–Y86); D, chronic lower respiratory disease (J40 –J47); E, diabetes mellitus
(E10 –E14); and F, Alzheimer disease (G30). Source: National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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Chart 3-12. Cardiovascular disease and other major causes of death for black males and females (United States: 2008). A indicates
cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes I00 –I99,
Q20 –Q28); B, cancer (C00 –C97); C, accidents (V01–X59, Y85–Y86); D, assaults (homicide) (U01–U02, X85–Y09, Y87.1); E, diabetes
mellitus (E10 –E14); and F, nephritis (N00 –N07, N17–N19, N25–N27). Source: National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart,
Lung, and Blood Institute.
Chart 3-13. Cardiovascular disease and other major causes of death for Hispanic or Latino males and females (United States: 2008). A
indicates cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes
I00 –I99, Q20 –Q28); B, cancer (C00 –C97); C, accidents (V01–X59, Y85–Y86); D, diabetes mellitus (E10 –E14); E, assaults (homicide)
(U01–U02, X85–Y09, Y87.1); and F, chronic lower respiratory disease (J40 –J47). Source: National Center for Health Statistics and
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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Chart 3-14. Cardiovascular disease and other major causes of death for Asian or Pacific Islander males and females (United States:
2008). “Asian or Pacific Islander” is a heterogeneous category that includes people at high cardiovascular disease risk (eg, South Asian)
and people at low cardiovascular disease risk (eg, Japanese). More specific data on these groups are not available. A indicates cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes I00 –I99, Q20 –
Q28); B, cancer (C00 –C97); C, accidents (V01–X59, Y85–Y86); D, diabetes mellitus (E10 –E14); E, chronic lower respiratory disease
(J40 –J47); and F, influenza and pneumonia (J09 –J18). Source: National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung, and
Blood Institute.
Chart 3-15. Cardiovascular disease and other major causes of death for American Indian or Alaska Native males and females (United
States: 2008). A indicates cardiovascular disease plus congenital cardiovascular disease (International Classification of Diseases, 10th
Revision codes I00 –I99, Q20 –Q28); B, cancer (C00 –C97); C, accidents (V01–X59, Y85–Y86); D, chronic liver disease (K70, K73–K74);
E, diabetes mellitus (E10 –E14); and F, chronic lower respiratory disease (J40 –J47). Source: National Center for Health Statistics.
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e41
140
120
115.6
115
6
100
Per 100
1 000 Populatio
on
91.9
80
60
53 4
53.4
40.2
38.6
40
36.9
31.1
21
9
21.9
20
0
CHD
Stroke
White Females
Lung Cancer
Breast Cancer
Black Females
Chart 3-16. Age-adjusted death rates for coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and lung and breast cancer for white and black
females (United States: 2008). CHD includes International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes I20 –I25; stroke, I60 –I69; lung
cancer, C33–C34; and breast cancer, C50. Source: National Center for Health Statistics.
Chart 3-17. Cardiovascular disease mortality trends for males and females (United States: 1979 –2008). Cardiovascular disease
excludes congenital cardiovascular defects (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision [ICD-10] codes I00 –I99). The overall
comparability for cardiovascular disease between the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (1979 –1998) and ICD-10
(1999 –2008) is 0.9962. No comparability ratios were applied. Source: National Center for Health Statistics.
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Chart 3-18. Hospital discharges for cardiovascular disease (United States: 1970 –2009). Hospital discharges include people discharged
alive, dead, and “status unknown.” Source: National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Chart 3-19. Hospital discharges for the 10 leading diagnostic groups (United States: 2009). Source: National Hospital Discharge Survey/National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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e43
Chart 3-20. Estimated average 10-year cardiovascular disease risk in adults 50 to 54 years of age according to levels of various risk
factors (Framingham Heart Study). HDL indicates high-density lipoprotein; BP, blood pressure. Data derived from D’Agostino et al,51
with permission of the publisher. Copyright © 2008, American Heart Association.
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Chart 3-21. US maps corresponding to state death rates (including the District of Columbia).
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 4
4. Subclinical Atherosclerosis
See Table 4-1 and Charts 4-1 through 4-6.
Atherosclerosis, a systemic disease process in which fatty
deposits, inflammation, cells, and scar tissue build up within
the walls of arteries, is the underlying cause of the majority of
clinical cardiovascular events. Individuals who develop atherosclerosis tend to develop it in a number of different types
of arteries (large and small arteries and those feeding the
heart, brain, kidneys, and extremities), although they may
have much more in some parts of the body than others. In
recent decades, advances in imaging technology have allowed
for improved ability to detect and quantify atherosclerosis at
all stages and in multiple different vascular beds. Two
modalities, computed tomography (CT) of the chest for
evaluation of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and
B-mode ultrasound of the neck for evaluation of carotid
artery intima-media thickness (IMT), have been used in large
studies with outcomes data and may help define the burden of
atherosclerosis in individuals before they develop clinical
events such as heart attack or stroke. Another commonly used
method for detecting and quantifying atherosclerosis in the
peripheral arteries is the ankle-brachial index (ABI), which is
discussed in Chapter 11. Data on cardiovascular outcomes are
starting to emerge for additional modalities that measure
anatomic and functional measures of subclinical disease,
including brachial artery reactivity testing, aortic and carotid
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 4
ABI
ankle-brachial index
ARIC
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study
BMI
body mass index
BP
blood pressure
CAC
coronary artery calcification
CAD
coronary artery disease
CARDIA
Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults
CHD
coronary heart disease
CHS
Cardiovascular Health Study
CT
computed tomography
CVD
cardiovascular disease
DBP
diastolic blood pressure
DM
diabetes mellitus
FHS
Framingham Heart Study
FMD
flow-mediated dilation
FRS
Framingham Risk Score
HDL
high-density lipoprotein
HD
heart disease
HR
hazard ratio
IMT
intima-media thickness
LDL
low-density lipoprotein
MESA
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
NHLBI
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
RR
relative risk
SBP
systolic blood pressure
e45
magnetic resonance imaging, and tonometric methods of
measuring vascular compliance or microvascular reactivity.
Further research may help to define the role of these techniques in cardiovascular risk assessment. Some guidelines
have recommended screening for subclinical atherosclerosis,
especially by CAC, or IMT may be appropriate in people at
intermediate risk for HD (eg, 10-year estimated risk of 10%
to 20%) but not for lower-risk general population screening
or for people with preexisting HD or most other high-risk
conditions.1,2 However, a recent guideline notes those with
DM who are ⱖ40 years of age may be suitable for screening
of risk by coronary calcium. There are still limited data
demonstrating whether screening with these and other imaging modalities can improve patient outcomes or whether it
only increases downstream medical care costs. A recently
published report in a large cohort randomly assigned to
coronary calcium screening or not showed such screening to
result in an improved risk factor profile without increasing
downstream medical costs.3
Coronary Artery Calcification
Background
●
●
CAC is a measure of the burden of atherosclerosis in the
heart arteries and is measured by CT. Other components
of the atherosclerotic plaque, including fatty (eg, cholesterol-rich components) and fibrotic components, often
accompany CAC and may be present even in the absence
of CAC.
The presence of any CAC, which indicates that at least
some atherosclerotic plaque is present, is defined by an
Agatston score ⬎0. Clinically significant plaque, frequently an indication for more aggressive risk factor
management, is often defined by an Agatston score ⱖ100
or a score ⱖ75th percentile for one’s age and sex. An
Agatston score ⱖ400 has been noted to be an indication for
further diagnostic evaluation (eg, exercise testing or myocardial perfusion imaging) for CAD.
Prevalence
●
The NHLBI’s FHS reported CAC measured in 3238 white
adults in age groups ranging from ⬍45 years of age to ⱖ75
years of age.4
— Overall, 32.0% of women and 52.9% of men had
prevalent CAC.
— Among participants at intermediate risk according to
Framingham Risk Score (FRS), 58% of women and
67% of men had prevalent CAC.
●
The NHLBI’s CARDIA study measured CAC in 3043
black and white adults 33 to 45 years of age (at the
CARDIA year 15 examination).5
— Overall, 15.0% of men and 5.1% of women, 5.5% of
those 33 to 39 years of age and 13.3% of those 40 to 45
years of age, had prevalent CAC. Overall, 1.6% of
participants had an Agatston score that exceeded 100.
— Chart 4-1 shows the prevalence of CAC by ethnicity
and sex. The prevalence of CAC was lower in black
men than in white men but was similar in black and
white women at these ages.
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●
Circulation
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— Chart 4-2 shows the prevalence of CAC by sex and
ethnicity.
— The prevalence and 75th percentile levels of CAC were
highest in white men and lowest in black and Hispanic
women. Significant ethnic differences persisted after
adjustment for risk factors, with the RR of coronary
calcium being 22% less in blacks, 15% less in Hispanics, and 8% less in Chinese than in whites.
— Table 4-1 shows the 75th percentile levels of CAC by
sex and race at selected ages. These might be considered cut points above which more aggressive efforts to
control risk factors (eg, elevated cholesterol or BP)
could be implemented and/or at which treatment goals
might be more aggressive (eg, LDL cholesterol ⬍100
mg/dL instead of ⬍130 mg/dL).
●
●
The prevalence of CAC varies widely according to FRS. In
a report from the MESA study,7 the prevalence of CAC
among individuals with very low FRS (10-year risk ⬍5%)
was low. These findings may have important implications
for population screening for subclinical atherosclerosis.
Investigators from the NHLBI’s CARDIA study examined
the association between neighborhood attributes and subclinical atherosclerosis in younger adult populations. Using
2000 US Census block-group-level data, among women,
higher odds of CAC were associated with higher neighborhood deprivation and lower neighborhood cohesion.
Among all men, neither neighborhood deprivation nor
neighborhood cohesion was associated with CAC, whereas
among men in deprived neighborhoods, low cohesion was
associated with higher odds of CAC.8
CAC and Incidence of Coronary Events
●
to 15% and 16% to 20%), and high-risk (⬎20%) FRS
categories of estimated risk for CHD in 10 years.
Increasing CAC scores further predicted risk in
intermediate- and high-risk groups.
The NHLBI’s MESA study measured CAC in 6814 participants 45 to 84 years of age, including white (n⫽2619),
black (n⫽1898), Hispanic (n⫽1494), and Chinese
(n⫽803) men and women.6
The NHLBI’s MESA study recently reported on the association of CAC scores with first CHD events over a median
follow-up of 3.9 years among a population-based sample of
6722 men and women (39% white, 27% black, 22%
Hispanic, and 12% Chinese).9
●
●
●
●
In a study of healthy adults 60 to 72 years of age who were
free of clinical CAD, predictors of the progression of CAC
were assessed. Predictors tested included age, sex, race/
ethnicity, smoking status, BMI, family history of CAD,
C-reactive protein, several measures of DM, insulin levels,
BP, and lipids. Insulin resistance, in addition to the traditional cardiac risk factors, independently predicts progression of CAC.11 Clinically, however, it is not yet recommended to conduct serial scanning of CAC to measure
effects of therapeutic interventions.
A recent publication from MESA also used CAC, in
particular, and carotid IMT to stratify CHD and CVD event
risk in people with metabolic syndrome and DM; those
with low levels of CAC or carotid IMT have CHD and
CVD event rates as low as many people without metabolic
syndrome and DM. Those with DM who have CAC scores
⬍100 have annual CHD event rates of ⬍1%.12
It is noteworthy, as recently demonstrated in MESA in
5878 participants with a median of 5.8 years of follow-up,
that the addition of CAC to standard risk factors resulted in
significant improvement of classification of risk for incident CHD events, placing 77% of people in the highest or
lowest risk categories compared with 69% based on risk
factors alone. An additional 23% of those who experienced
events were reclassified as high risk, and 13% with events
were reclassified as low risk.13
The contribution of CAC to risk prediction has also been
observed in other cohorts, including both the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study14 and the Rotterdam study.15
CAC Progression and Risk
A recent report in 4609 individuals who had baseline and
repeat cardiac CT found that progression of CAC in predicting future all-cause mortality provided only incremental
information over baseline score, demographics, and cardiovascular risk factors.16
Carotid IMT
— Chart 4-3 shows the HRs associated with CAC scores
of 1 to 100, 101 to 300, and ⬎300 compared with those
without CAC (score⫽0), after adjustment for standard
risk factors. People with CAC scores of 1 to 100 had
⬇4 times greater risk and those with CAC scores ⬎100
were 7 to 10 times more likely to experience a coronary
event than those without CAC.
— CAC provided similar predictive value for coronary
events in whites, Chinese, blacks, and Hispanics (HRs
ranging from 1.15–1.39 for each doubling of coronary
calcium).
●
In another report of a community-based sample, not referred for clinical reasons, the South Bay Heart Watch
examined CAC in 1461 adults (average age 66 years) with
coronary risk factors, with a median of 7.0 years of
follow-up.10
— Chart 4-4 shows the HRs associated with increasing
CAC scores (relative to CAC⫽0 and ⬍10% risk
category) in low-risk (⬍10%), intermediate-risk (10%
Background
●
●
Carotid IMT measures the thickness of 2 layers (the intima
and media) of the wall of the carotid arteries, the largest
conduits of blood going to the brain. Carotid IMT is
thought to be an even earlier manifestation of atherosclerosis than CAC, because thickening precedes the development of frank atherosclerotic plaque. Carotid IMT methods
are still being refined, so it is important to know which part
of the artery was measured (common carotid, internal
carotid, or bulb) and whether near and far walls were both
measured. This information can affect the averagethickness measurement that is usually reported.
Unlike CAC, everyone has some thickness to the layers of
their arteries, but people who develop atherosclerosis have
greater thickness. Ultrasound of the carotid arteries can
also detect plaques and determine the degree of narrowing
of the artery they may cause. Epidemiological data, including the data discussed below, have indicated that high-risk
levels of thickening might be considered as those in the
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 4
●
highest quartile or quintile for one’s age and sex, or
ⱖ1 mm.
Although ultrasound is commonly used to diagnose plaque
in the carotid arteries in people who have had strokes or
who have bruits (sounds of turbulence in the artery),
guidelines are limited as to screening of asymptomatic
people with carotid IMT to quantify atherosclerosis or
predict risk. However, some organizations have recognized
that carotid IMT measurement by B-mode ultrasonography
may provide an independent assessment of coronary risk.17
●
Prevalence and Association With Incident
Cardiovascular Events
●
The Bogalusa Heart Study measured carotid IMT in 518
black and white men and women at a mean age of 32⫾3
years. These men and women were healthy but
overweight.18
— The mean values of carotid IMT for the different
segments are shown in Chart 4-5 by sex and race. Men
had significantly higher carotid IMT in all segments
than women, and blacks had higher common carotid
and carotid bulb IMTs than whites.
— Even at this young age, after adjustment for age, race,
and sex, carotid IMT was associated significantly and
positively with waist circumference, SBP, diastolic BP
(DBP), and LDL cholesterol. Carotid IMT was inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL)
cholesterol levels. Participants with greater numbers of
adverse risk factors (0, 1, 2, 3, or more) had stepwise
increases in mean carotid IMT levels.
●
●
●
In a subsequent analysis, the Bogalusa investigators examined the association of risk factors measured since childhood with carotid IMT measured in these young adults.19
Higher BMI and LDL cholesterol levels measured at 4 to 7
years of age were associated with increased risk for being
⬎75th percentile for carotid IMT in young adulthood.
Higher SBP and LDL cholesterol and lower HDL cholesterol in young adulthood were also associated with having
high carotid IMT. These data highlight the importance of
adverse risk factor levels in early childhood and young
adulthood in the early development of atherosclerosis.
Among both women and men in MESA, blacks had the
highest common carotid IMT, but they were similar to
whites and Hispanics in internal carotid IMT. Chinese
participants had the lowest carotid IMT, in particular in the
internal carotid, of the 4 ethnic groups (Chart 4-6).
The NHLBI’s CHS reported follow-up of 4476 men and
women ⱖ65 years of age (mean age 72 years) who were
free of CVD at baseline.20
— Mean maximal common carotid IMT was
1.03⫾0.20 mm, and mean internal carotid IMT was
1.37⫾0.55 mm.
— After a mean follow-up of 6.2 years, those with
maximal combined carotid IMT in the highest quintile
had a 4- to 5-fold greater risk for incident heart attack
or stroke than those in the bottom quintile. After
adjustment for other risk factors, there was still a 2- to
3-fold greater risk for the top versus the bottom
quintile.
●
A study of 441 individuals ⱕ65 years of age without a
history of CAD, DM, or hyperlipidemia who were exam-
e47
ined for carotid IMT found 42% had high-risk carotid
ultrasound findings (carotid IMT ⱖ75th percentile adjusted
for age, sex, and race or presence of plaque). Among those
with an FRS ⱕ5%, 38% had high-risk carotid ultrasound
findings.21
Conflicting data have been reported on the contribution of
carotid IMT to risk prediction. In 13 145 participants in the
NHLBI’s ARIC study, the addition of carotid IMT combined with identification of plaque presence or absence to
traditional risk factors reclassified risk in 23% of individuals overall, with a net reclassification improvement of
9.9%. There was a modest but statistically significant
improvement in the area under the receiver operating
characteristic curve, from 0.742 to 0.755.22 In contrast, data
reported recently from the Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study observed a net reclassification improvement of
⫺1.4% that was not statistically significant.23
CAC and Carotid IMT
●
In the NHLBI’s MESA study of white, black, Chinese, and Hispanic adults 45 to 84 years of age,
carotid IMT and CAC were found to be commonly
associated, but patterns of association differed somewhat by sex and race.24
— Common and internal carotid IMT were greater in
women and men who had CAC than in those who
did not, regardless of ethnicity.
— Overall, CAC prevalence and scores were associated with carotid IMT, but associations were
somewhat weaker in blacks than in other ethnic
groups.
— In general, blacks had the thickest carotid IMT of
all 4 ethnic groups, regardless of the presence of
CAC.
— Common carotid IMT differed little by race/
ethnicity in women with any CAC, but among
women with no CAC, IMT was higher among
blacks (0.86 mm) than in the other 3 groups
(0.76 – 0.80 mm).
●
In a more recent analysis from the NHLBI’s MESA
study, the investigators reported on follow-up of
6698 men and women in 4 ethnic groups over 5.3
years and compared the predictive utility of carotid
IMT and CAC.25
— CAC was associated more strongly than carotid
IMT with the risk of incident CVD.
— After adjustment for each other (CAC score and
IMT) and for traditional CVD risk factors, the HR
for CVD increased 2.1-fold for each 1-standard
deviation increment of log-transformed CAC
score versus 1.3-fold for each 1-standard deviation increment of the maximum carotid IMT.
— For CHD events, the HRs per 1-standard deviation increment increased 2.5-fold for CAC score
and 1.2-fold for IMT.
— A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis also suggested that CAC score was a better
predictor of incident CVD than was IMT, with
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Circulation
January 3/10, 2012
areas under the curve of 0.81 versus 0.78,
respectively.
— Investigators from the NHLBI’s CARDIA and
MESA studies examined the burden and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis among adults
⬍50 years of age. Ten-year and lifetime risks for
CVD were estimated for each participant, and the
participants were stratified into 3 groups: (1)
those with low 10-year (⬍10%) and low lifetime
(⬍39%) predicted risk for CVD; (2) those with
low 10-year (⬍10%) but high lifetime (ⱖ39%)
predicted risk; and (3) those with high 10-year
risk (⬎10%). The latter group had the highest
burden and greatest progression of subclinical
atherosclerosis. Given the young age of those
studied, ⬇90% of participants were at low 10year risk, but of these, half had high predicted
lifetime risk. Compared with those with low
short-term/low lifetime predicted risks, those with
low short-term/high lifetime predicted risk had
significantly greater burden and progression of
CAC and significantly greater burden of carotid
IMT, even at these younger ages. These data
confirm the importance of early exposure to risk
factors for the onset and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis.26
CT Angiography
CT angiography is widely used by cardiologists to aid in the
diagnosis of CAD, particularly when other test results may be
equivocal. It is also of interest because of its ability to detect
and possibly quantitate overall plaque burden and certain
characteristics of plaques that may make them prone to
rupture, such as positive remodeling or low attenuation.
However, because of the limited outcome data in asymptomatic people, as well as the associated expense and risk of CT
angiography (including generally higher radiation levels than
CT scanning to detect CAC), current guidelines do not
recommend its use as a screening tool for assessment of
cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic people.2
Measures of Vascular Function and Incident
CVD Events
Background
●
●
●
Measures of arterial tonometry (stiffness) are based on the
concept that pulse pressure has been shown to be an
important risk factor for CVD. Arterial tonometry offers
the ability to directly and noninvasively measure central
pulse wave velocity in the thoracic and abdominal aorta.
Brachial flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a marker for
nitric oxide release from the endothelium that can be
measured by ultrasound. Impaired FMD is an early marker
of CVD.
Recommendations have not been specific, however, as to
which, if any, measures of vascular function may be useful
for CVD risk stratification in selected patient subgroups.
Because of the absence of significant prospective data
relating these measures to outcomes, latest guidelines do
not currently recommend measuring either FMD or arterial
stiffness for cardiovascular risk assessment in asymptomatic adults.2
Arterial Tonometry and CVD
●
●
●
The Rotterdam Study measured arterial stiffness in 2835
elderly participants (mean age 71 years27). They found that
as aortic pulse wave velocity increased, the risk of CHD
was 1.72 (second versus first tertile) and 2.45 (third versus
first tertile). Results remained robust even after accounting
for carotid IMT, ankle-brachial index (ABI), and pulse
pressure.
A study from Denmark measured 1678 individuals 40 to 70
years of age and found that aortic pulse wave velocity
increased CVD risk by 16% to 20%.28
The FHS measured several indices of arterial stiffness,
including pulse wave velocity, wave reflection, and central
pulse pressure.29 They found that not only was higher pulse
wave velocity associated with a 48% increased risk of
incident CVD events, but pulse wave velocity additionally
improved CVD risk prediction (integrated discrimination
improvement of 0.7%, P⬍0.05).
FMD and CVD
●
The MESA study measured FMD in 3026 participants
(mean age 61 years) who were free of CVD. As FMD
increased (ie, improved brachial function), the risk of CVD
was 16% lower.30 FMD also improved CVD risk prediction
compared with the FRS by improving net reclassification
by 29%.
References
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P, Guerci AD, Lima JAC, Rader DJ, Rubin GD. Assessment of coronary
artery disease by cardiac computed tomography: a scientific statement
from the American Heart Association Committee on Cardiovascular
Imaging and Intervention, Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and
Intervention, and Committee on Cardiac Imaging, Council on Clinical
Cardiology. Circulation. 2006;114:1761–1791.
2. Greenland P, Alpert JS, Beller GA, Benjamin EJ, Budoff MJ, Fayad ZA,
Foster E, Hlatky MA, Hodgson JM, Kushner FG, Lauer MS, Shaw LJ,
Smith SC Jr, Taylor AJ, Weintraub WS, Wenger NK. 2010 ACCF/AHA
guideline for assessment of cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic adults: a
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3. Rozanski A, Gransar H, Shaw LJ, Kim J, Miranda-Peats L, Wong ND,
Rana JS, Orakzai R, Hayes SW, Friedman JD, Thomson LE, Polk D, Min
J, Budoff MJ, Berman DS. Impact of coronary artery calcium scanning on
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1622–1632.
4. Hoffmann U, Massaro JM, Fox CS, Manders E, O’Donnell CJ. Defining
normal distributions of coronary artery calcium in women and men (from
the Framingham Heart Study). Am J Cardiol. 2008;102:1136 –1141.
5. Loria CM, Liu K, Lewis CE, Hulley SB, Sidney S, Schreiner PJ, Williams
OD, Bild DE, Detrano R. Early adult risk factor levels and subsequent
coronary artery calcification: the CARDIA Study. J Am Coll Cardiol.
2007;49:2013–2020.
6. Bild DE, Detrano R, Peterson D, Guerci A, Liu K, Shahar E, Ouyang P,
Jackson S, Saad MF. Ethnic differences in coronary calcification: the
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Circulation. 2005;111:
1313–1320.
7. Okwuosa TM, Greenland P, Ning H, Liu K, Bild DE, Burke GL, Eng J,
Lloyd-Jones DM. Distribution of coronary artery calcium scores by Framingham 10-year risk strata in the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis): potential implications for coronary risk assessment. J Am
Coll Cardiol. 2011;57:1838 –1845.
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8. Kim D, Diez Roux AV, Kiefe CI, Kawachi I, Liu K. Do neighborhood
socioeconomic deprivation and low social cohesion predict coronary
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9. Detrano R, Guerci AD, Carr JJ, Bild DE, Burke G, Folsom AR, Liu K,
Shea S, Szklo M, Bluemke DA, O’Leary DH, Tracy R, Watson K, Wong
ND, Kronmal RA. Coronary calcium as a predictor of coronary events in
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10. Greenland P, LaBree L, Azen SP, Doherty TM, Detrano RC. Coronary
artery calcium score combined with Framingham score for risk prediction
in asymptomatic individuals [published correction appears in JAMA.
2004;291:563]. JAMA. 2004;291:210 –215.
11. Lee KK, Fortmann SP, Fair JM, Iribarren C, Rubin GD, Varady A, Go
AS, Quertermous T, Hlatky MA. Insulin resistance independently
predicts the progression of coronary artery calcification. Am Heart J.
2009;157:939 –945.
12. Malik S, Budoff MJ, Katz R, Blumenthal RS, Bertoni AG, Nasir K, Szklo
M, Barr RG, Wong ND. Impact of subclinical atherosclerosis on cardiovascular disease events in individuals with metabolic syndrome and
diabetes: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Diabetes Care. 2011;
34:2285–2290.
13. Polonsky TS, McClelland RL, Jorgensen NW, Bild DE, Burke GL, Guerci
AD, Greenland P. Coronary artery calcium score and risk classification for
coronary heart disease prediction. JAMA. 2010;303:1610–1616.
14. Erbel R, Möhlenkamp S, Moebus S, Schmermund A, Lehmann N, Stang A,
Dragano N, Grönemeyer D, Seibel R, Kälsch H, Bröcker-Preuss M, Mann K,
Siegrist J, Jöckel KH; Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study Investigative Group.
Coronary risk stratification, discrimination, and reclassification improvement
based on quantification of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis: the Heinz
Nixdorf Recall study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56:1397–1406.
15. Elias-Smale SE, Proenca RV, Koller MT, Kavousi M, van Rooij FJ,
Hunink MG, Steyerberg EW, Hofman A, Oudkerk M, Witteman JC.
Coronary calcium score improves classification of coronary heart disease
risk in the elderly: the Rotterdam study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56:
1407–1414.
16. Budoff MJ, Hokanson JE, Nasir K, Shaw LJ, Kinney GL, Chow D,
Demoss D, Nuguri V, Nabavi V, Ratakonda R, Berman DS, Raggi P.
Progression of coronary artery calcium predicts all-cause mortality. JACC
Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010;3:1229 –1236.
17. Smith SC Jr, Greenland P, Grundy SM. AHA conference proceedings:
Prevention Conference V: beyond secondary prevention: identifying the
high-risk patient for primary prevention: executive summary. Circulation.
2000;101:111–116.
18. Urbina EM, Srinivasan SR, Tang R, Bond M, Kieltyka L, Berenson GS;
Bogalusa Heart Study. Impact of multiple coronary risk factors on the
intima-media thickness of different segments of carotid artery in healthy
young adults (the Bogalusa Heart Study). Am J Cardiol. 2002;90:
953–958.
19. Li S, Chen W, Srinivasan SR, Bond MG, Tang R, Urbina EM, Berenson
GS. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors and carotid vascular changes in
adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study [published correction appears in
JAMA. 2003;290:2943]. JAMA. 2003;290:2271–2276.
e49
20. O’Leary DH, Polak JF, Kronmal RA, Manolio TA, Burke GL, Wolfson
SK Jr; Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group.
Carotid-artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial
infarction and stroke in older adults. N Engl J Med. 1999;340:14 –22.
21. Eleid MF, Lester SJ, Wiedenbeck TL, Patel SD, Appleton CP, Nelson
MR, Humphries J, Hurst RT. Carotid ultrasound identifies high risk
subclinical atherosclerosis in adults with low Framingham risk scores.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2010;23:802– 808.
22. Nambi V, Chambless L, Folsom AR, He M, Hu Y, Mosley T, Volcik K,
Boerwinkle E, Ballantyne CM. Carotid intima-media thickness and
presence or absence of plaque improves prediction of coronary heart
disease risk: the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities) study.
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55:1600 –1607.
23. Lorenz MW, Schaefer C, Steinmetz H, Sitzer M. Is carotid intima media
thickness useful for individual prediction of cardiovascular risk? Ten-year
results from the Carotid Atherosclerosis Progression Study (CAPS). Eur
Heart J. 2010;31:2041–2048.
24. Manolio TA, Arnold AM, Post W, Bertoni AG, Schreiner PJ, Sacco RL,
Saad MF, Detrano RL, Szklo M. Ethnic differences in the relationship of
carotid atherosclerosis to coronary calcification: the Multi-Ethnic Study
of Atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 2008;197:132–138.
25. Folsom AR, Kronmal RA, Detrano RC, O’Leary DH, Bild DE, Bluemke
DA, Budoff MJ, Liu K, Shea S, Szklo M, Tracy RP, Watson KE, Burke
GL. Coronary artery calcification compared with carotid intima-media
thickness in the prediction of cardiovascular disease incidence: the MultiEthnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) [published correction appears in
Arch Intern Med. 2008;168:1782]. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168:
1333–1339.
26. Berry JD, Liu K, Folsom AR, Lewis CE, Carr JJ, Polak JF, Shea S,
Sidney S, O’Leary DH, Chan C; Lloyd-Jones DM. Prevalence and progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in younger adults with low
short-term but high lifetime estimated risk for cardiovascular disease: the
Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study and MultiEthnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Circulation. 2009;119:382–389.
27. Mattace-Raso FU, van der Cammen TJ, Hofman A, van Popele NM, Bos
ML, Schalekamp MA, Asmar R, Reneman RS, Hoeks AP, Breteler M;
Witteman JC. Arterial stiffness and risk of coronary heart disease and
stroke: the Rotterdam Study. Circulation. 2006;113:657– 663.
28. Willum Hansen T, Staessen JA, Torp-Pedersen C, Rasmussen S, Thijs L,
Ibsen H, Jeppesen J. Prognostic value of aortic pulse wave velocity as
index of arterial stiffness in the general population. Circulation. 2006;
113:664 – 670.
29. Mitchell GF, Hwang SJ, Vasan RS, Larson MG, Pencina MJ, Hamburg
NM, Vita JA, Levy D, Benjamin EJ. Arterial stiffness and cardiovascular
events: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2010;121:505–511.
30. Yeboah J, Folsom AR, Burke GL, Johnson C, Polak JF, Post W, Lima
JA, Crouse JR, Herrington DM. Predictive value of brachial flowmediated dilation for incident cardiovascular events in a
population-based study: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
Circulation. 2009;120:502–509.
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January 3/10, 2012
Table 4-1. CAC Scores for the 75th Percentile of Men and
Women of Different Race/Ethnic Groups, at Specified Ages
75th Percentile CAC Scores*
Age, y
Black
Chinese
Hispanic
White
Women
45
0
0
0
55
0
2
0
0
1
65
26
45
19
54
75
138
103
116
237
Men
45
0
3
0
0
55
15
34
27
68
65
95
121
141
307
75
331
229
358
820
CAC indicates coronary artery calcification.
*The 75th percentile CAC score is the score at which 75% of people of the
same age, sex, and race have a score at or below this level, and 25% of people
of the same age, sex, and race have a higher score. (Source: Multi-Ethnic Study
of Atherosclerosis CAC Tools Web site: http://www.mesa-nhlbi.org/Calcium/
input.aspx.)
Chart 4-1. Prevalence (%) of coronary calcium: US adults 33 to 45 years of age. P⬍0.0001 across race-sex groups. Data derived from
Loria et al.5
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 4
e51
Chart 4-2. Prevalence (%) of coronary calcium: US adults 45 to 84 years of age. P⬍0.0001 across ethnic groups in both men and
women. Data derived from Bild et al.6
Chart 4-3. Hazard ratios (HRs) for coronary heart disease (CHD) events associated with coronary calcium scores: US adults 45 to 84
years of age (reference group: coronary artery calcification [CAC]⫽0). All HRs P⬍0.0001. Major CHD events included myocardial infarction and death attributable to CHD; any CHD events included major CHD events plus definite angina or definite or probable angina followed by revascularization. Data derived from Detrano et al.9
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Chart 4-4. Hazard ratios (HRs) for coronary heart disease events associated with coronary calcium scores: US adults (reference group:
coronary artery calcification [CAC]⫽0 and Framingham Risk Score ⬍10%). Coronary heart disease events included nonfatal myocardial
infarction and death attributable to coronary heart disease. Data derived from Greenland et al.10
Chart 4-5. Mean values of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) for different carotid artery segments in younger adults by race and sex
(Bogalusa Heart Study). Data derived from Urbina et al.18
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 4
Chart 4-6. Mean values of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) for different carotid artery segments in older adults, by race. Data
derived from Manolio et al.24
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— Among American Indian/Alaska Natives ⱖ18 years of
age, it is estimated that 5.9% have CHD, and among
Asians ⱖ18 years of age, the estimate is 4.9% (2010
NHIS, NCHS).1
5. Coronary Heart Disease, Acute Coronary
Syndrome, and Angina Pectoris
Coronary Heart Disease
ICD-9 410 to 414, 429.2; ICD-10 I20 to I25; see Glossary
(Chapter 25) for details and definitions. See Tables 5-1 and
5-2. See Charts 5-1 through 5-8.
●
Prevalence
●
On the basis of data from NHANES 2005–2008 (NCHS;
unpublished NHLBI tabulation; Table 5-1; Chart 5-1), an
estimated 16.3 million Americans ⱖ20 years of age have
CHD:
— Total CHD prevalence is 7.0% in US adults ⱖ20 years of
age. CHD prevalence is 8.3% for men and 6.1% for women.
— Among non-Hispanic whites, CHD prevalence is 8.5%
for men and 5.8% for women.
— Among non-Hispanic blacks, CHD prevalence is 7.9%
for men and 7.6% for women.
— Among Mexican Americans, CHD prevalence is 6.3%
for men and 5.6% for women.
●
On the basis of data from the 2010 NHIS:
— Among Hispanic or Latino individuals ⱖ18 years of
age, CHD prevalence is 5.2% (2010 NHIS, NCHS).1
According to data from NHANES 2005–2008 (NCHS;
unpublished NHLBI tabulation), the overall prevalence for
MI is 3.1% in US adults ⱖ20 years of age. MI prevalence
is 4.3% for men and 2.2% for women.
— Among non-Hispanic whites, MI prevalence is 4.3%
for men and 2.1% for women.
— Among non-Hispanic blacks, MI prevalence is 4.3% for
men and 2.2% for women.
— Among Mexican Americans, MI prevalence is 3.0% for
men and 1.1% for women.
●
●
Data from the BRFSS 2010 survey indicated that 4.2% of
respondents had been told that they had an MI. The highest
prevalence was in Arizona (6.7%) and West Virginia (6.3%).
The lowest prevalence was in Alaska (2.6%) and Utah (2.8%).
In the same survey, 4.1% of respondents were told that they
had angina or CHD. The highest prevalence was in Arizona
(6.8%), and the lowest was in Hawaii (2.3%).2
Projections show that by 2030 an additional 8 million
people could have CHD, a 16.6% increase in prevalence
from 2010.3
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 5
ACC
American College of Cardiology
HDL
high-density lipoprotein
ACS
acute coronary syndrome
HF
heart failure
AHA
American Heart Association
ICD-9
International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision
AMI
acute myocardial infarction
ICD-10
International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision
AP
angina pectoris
LDL
low-density lipoprotein
ARIC
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study
MEPS
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey
BMI
body mass index
MI
myocardial infarction
BP
blood pressure
NAMCS
National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey
BRFSS
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
NCHS
National Center for Health Statistics
CABG
coronary artery bypass graft
NH
non-Hispanic
CAD
coronary artery disease
NHAMCS
National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey
CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
NHANES
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
CHD
coronary heart disease
NHDS
National Hospital Discharge Survey
CHS
Cardiovascular Health Study
NHIS
National Health Interview Study
CI
confidence interval
NHLBI
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
CRUSADE
Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients
Suppress Adverse Outcomes With Early Implementation
of the ACC/AHA Guidelines
NRMI
National Registry of Myocardial Infarction
CVD
cardiovascular disease
NSTEMI
non–ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction
DM
diabetes mellitus
OR
odds ratio
ECG
electrocardiogram/electrocardiographic
PA
physical activity
ED
emergency department
PCI
percutaneous coronary intervention
EMS
emergency medical services
PREMIER
Prospective Registry Evaluating Myocardial Infarction:
Events and Recovery
FHS
Framingham Heart Study
SBP
systolic blood pressure
GRACE
Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events
STEMI
ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction
GWTG
Get With The Guidelines
UA
unstable angina
HD
heart disease
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 5
degree of reduction was more significant in whites than
African Americans.13
Incidence
●
On the basis of unpublished data from the ARIC and CHS
studies of the NHLBI:
— This year, ⬇785 000 Americans will have a new
coronary attack, and ⬇470 000 will have a recurrent
attack. It is estimated that an additional 195 000 silent
MIs occur each year. That assumes that ⬇21% of the
935 000 first and recurrent MIs are silent.4,5
— The estimated annual incidence of MI is 610 000 new
attacks and 325 000 recurrent attacks.
— Average age at first MI is 64.5 years for men and 70.3
years for women.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Mortality
●
●
●
On the basis of the NHLBI-sponsored FHS:
— CHD makes up more than half of all cardiovascular
events in men and women ⬍75 years of age.4
— The lifetime risk of developing CHD after 40 years of
age is 49% for men and 32% for women.6
— The incidence of CHD in women lags behind men by
10 years for total CHD and by 20 years for more serious
clinical events such as MI and sudden death.4
In the NHLBI-sponsored ARIC study, in participants 45 to
64 years of age, the average age-adjusted CHD incidence
rates per 1000 person-years were as follows: white men,
12.5; black men, 10.6; white women, 4.0; and black
women, 5.1. Incidence rates excluding revascularization
procedures were as follows: white men, 7.9; black men,
9.2; white women, 2.9; and black women, 4.9.7
Incidence rates for MI in the NHLBI-sponsored ARIC
study are displayed in Charts 5-3 and 5-4, stratified by age,
race, and sex. The annual age-adjusted rates per 1000
population of first MI (1987–2001) in ARIC Surveillance
(NHLBI) were 4.2 in black men, 3.9 in white men, 2.8 in
black women, and 1.7 in white women.8
Analysis of more than 40 years of physician-validated AMI
data in the FHS study of the NHLBI found that AMI rates
diagnosed by electrocardiographic (ECG) criteria declined
⬇50%, with a concomitant 2-fold increase in rates of AMI
diagnosed by blood markers. These findings may explain
the paradoxical stability of AMI rates in the United States
despite concomitant improvements in CHD risk factors.9
Among American Indians 65 to 74 years of age, the annual
rates per 1000 population of new and recurrent MIs were
7.6 for men and 4.9 for women.10 Analysis of data from
NHANES III (1988 –1994) and NHANES 1999 –2002
(NCHS) showed that in adults 20 to 74 years of age, the
overall distribution of 10-year risk of developing CHD
changed little during this time. Among the 3 racial/ethnic
groups, blacks had the highest proportion of participants in
the high-risk group.11
On the basis of data from the NHDS, since the mid-1990s,
the rate of hospitalization for MI and in-hospital case
fatality rates have decreased.12
From 2002 to 2007, the rates of hospitalization for MI
decreased among Medicare beneficiaries; however, the
e55
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
CHD caused ⬇1 of every 6 deaths in the United States in
2008. CHD mortality was 405 309.14
CHD any-mention mortality was 571 366. MI mortality
was 133 958. MI any-mention mortality was 172 733
(NHLBI tabulation; NCHS public-use data files).14
In 2008, the overall CHD death rate was 122.7. From 1998
to 2008, the annual death rate due to CHD declined 28.7%
and actual number of deaths declined 11.9%. The death
rates were 161.7 for white males and 183.7 for black males;
for white females, the rate was 91.9 and for black females
it was 115.6 (NHLBI tabulation; NCHS public-use data
files).14
Approximately every 25 seconds, an American will experience a coronary event, and approximately every minute,
someone will die of one.
Approximately 34% of the people who experience a
coronary attack in a given year will die of it, and ⬇15%
who experience a heart attack (MI) will die of it (AHA
computation).
Approximately every 34 seconds, an American will have
an MI.
The percentage of CHD deaths that occurred out of the
hospital in 2008 was 70%. According to NCHS mortality
data, 287 000 CHD deaths occur out of the hospital or in
hospital EDs annually (2008, ICD-10 codes I20 to I25)
(NHLBI tabulation of NCHS mortality data).
A study of 1275 health maintenance organization enrollees
50 to 79 years of age who had cardiac arrest showed that
the incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest was 6.0/1000
subject-years in subjects with any clinically recognized HD
compared with 0.8/1000 subject-years in subjects without
HD. In subgroups with HD, incidence was 13.6/1000
subject-years in subjects with prior MI and 21.9/1000
subject-years in subjects with HF.15
Approximately 81% of people who die of CHD are ⱖ65
years of age (NCHS; AHA computation).
The estimated average number of years of life lost because
of an MI is 16.6 (NHLBI tabulation of NCHS mortality
data).
On the basis of data from the FHS of the NHLBI4:
— Fifty percent of men and 64% of women who die
suddenly of CHD have no previous symptoms of this
disease. Between 70% and 89% of sudden cardiac
deaths occur in men, and the annual incidence is 3 to 4
times higher in men than in women; however, this
disparity decreases with advancing age.
— People who have had an MI have a sudden death rate 4
to 6 times that of the general population.
●
Researchers investigating variation in hospital-specific 30day risk-stratified mortality rates for patients with AMI
found teaching status, number of hospital beds, AMI
volume, cardiac facilities available, urban/rural location,
geographic region, hospital ownership type, and socioeco-
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nomic status profile of the patients were all significantly
associated with mortality rates. However, a substantial
proportion of variation in outcomes for patients with AMI
between hospitals remains unexplained by measures of
hospital characteristics.16
mortality rate for NSTEMI dropped from 10.0% in
1999 to 7.6% in 2008.18
●
Temporal Trends in CHD Mortality
●
●
●
●
An analysis of FHS data (NHLBI) from 1950 to 1999
showed that overall CHD death rates decreased by 59%.
Nonsudden CHD death decreased by 64%, and sudden
cardiac death fell by 49%. These trends were seen in men
and women, in subjects with and without a prior history of
CHD, and in smokers and nonsmokers.17
The decline in CHD mortality rates in part reflects the shift
in the pattern of clinical presentations of AMI. In the past
decade, there has been a marked decline in ST-segment–
elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI; from 133 to 50
cases per 100 000 person-years).18
From 1997 to 2007, the annual death rate attributable to
CHD declined 26.3%, and the actual number of deaths
declined 12.9%. (Appropriate comparability ratios were
applied.) In 2007, the overall CHD death rate was 126.0 per
100 000 population. The death rates were 165.6 for white
males and 191.6 for black males; for white females, the rate
was 94.2, and for black females, it was 121.5.14 Ageadjusted death rates attributable to CHD were 122.3 for
Hispanic or Latino males and 77.8 for females, 112.2 for
American Indian or Alaska Native males and 65.6 for females, and 91.7 for Asian or Pacific Islander males and 55.0
for females.14
According to data from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction19:
— From 1990 to 1999, in-hospital AMI mortality declined
from 11.2% to 9.4%.
— Mortality rate increases for every 30 minutes that
elapse before a patient with ST-segment elevation is
recognized and treated.
●
— Secondary preventive therapies after MI or revascularization (11%).
— Initial treatments for AMI or UA (10%).
— Treatments for HF (9%).
— Revascularization for chronic angina (5%).
— Other therapies (12%), including antihypertensive and
lipid-lowering primary prevention therapies.
●
It was also estimated that a similar amount of the reduction
in CHD deaths, ⬇44%, was attributable to changes in risk
factors, including the following22:
—
—
—
—
—
●
Other studies also reported declining case fatality rates
after MI:
— In Olmsted County, Minnesota, the age- and sexadjusted 30-day case fatality rate decreased by 56%
from 1987 to 2006.20
— In Worcester, MA, the hospital case fatality rates,
30-day postadmission case fatality rates, and 1-year
postdischarge case fatality rates for STEMI were
11.1%, 13.2%, and 10.6%, respectively, in 1997 and
9.7%, 11.4%, and 8.4%, respectively, in 2005. The
hospital case fatality rates, 30-day postadmission case
fatality rates, and 1-year postdischarge case fatality
rates for non–ST-segment MI (NSTEMI) were 12.9%,
16.0%, and 23.1%, respectively, in 1997 and 9.5%,
14.0%, and 18.7%, respectively, in 2005.21
— Among enrollees of the Kaiser Permanente Northern
California healthcare delivery system, the age- and
sex-adjusted 30-day mortality rate for MI dropped from
10.5% in 1999 to 7.8% in 2008, and the 30-day
CHD death rates have fallen from 1968 to the present.
Analysis of NHANES (NCHS) data compared CHD death
rates between 1980 and 2000 to determine how much of the
decline in deaths attributable to CHD over that period could
be explained by the use of medical and surgical treatments
versus changes in CVD risk factors (resulting from lifestyle/behavior). After 1980 and 2000 data were compared,
it was estimated that ⬇47% of the decrease in CHD deaths
was attributable to treatments, including the following22:
●
●
Lower total cholesterol (24%).
Lower SBP (20%).
Lower smoking prevalence (12%).
Decreased physical inactivity (5%).
Nevertheless, these favorable improvements in risk
factors were offset in part by increases in BMI and in
DM prevalence, which accounted for an increased
number of deaths (8% and 10%, respectively).
Between 1980 and 2002, death rates attributable to CHD
among men and women ⱖ65 years of age fell by 52% in
men and 49% in women. Among men, the death rate
declined on average by 2.9% per year in the 1980s, 2.6%
per year during the 1990s, and 4.4% per year from 2000 to
2002. Among women, death rates fell by 2.6%, 2.4%, and
4.4%, respectively. However, when stratified by age,
among men 35 to 54 years of age, the average annual rate
of death fell by 6.2%, 2.3%, and 0.5%, respectively.
Among women 35 to 54 years of age, the average annual
rate of death fell by 5.4% and 1.2% and then increased by
1.5%, respectively. This increase was not statistically
significant; however, in even younger women (35– 44 years
of age), the rate of death has been increasing by an average
of 1.3% annually between 1997 and 2002, which is
statistically significant.23
An analysis of 28 studies published from 1977 to 2007
found that revascularization by coronary bypass surgery or
percutaneous intervention in conjunction with medical
therapy in patients with nonacute CAD is associated with
significantly improved survival compared with medical
therapy alone.24
A recent analysis of Centers for Medicare & Medicaid
Services data suggests that between 1995 and 2006, the
30-day mortality rate attributable to MI decreased, as did
hospital variation in mortality attributable to MI.25
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 5
●
Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database suggest that mortality attributable to MI has decreased since
1988.26
●
Risk Factors
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Risk factors for CHD act synergistically to increase CHD
risk, as shown in the example in Chart 5-6.
A study of men and women in 3 prospective cohort studies
found that antecedent major CHD risk factor exposures
were common among those who developed CHD. Approximately 90% of patients with CHD have prior exposure to
at least 1 of these major risk factors, which include high
total blood cholesterol levels or current medication with
cholesterol-lowering drugs, hypertension or current medication with BP-lowering drugs, current cigarette use, and
clinical report of DM.27
According to a case-control study of 52 countries
(INTERHEART), optimization of 9 easily measured and
potentially modifiable risk factors could result in a 90%
reduction in the risk of an initial AMI. The effect of these
risk factors is consistent in men and women across different
geographic regions and by ethnic group, which makes the
study applicable worldwide. These 9 risk factors include
cigarette smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, hypertension, DM, abdominal obesity, a lack of PA, low daily fruit
and vegetable consumption, alcohol overconsumption, and
psychosocial index.28
A study of ⬎3000 members of the FHS (NHLBI) Offspring
Cohort without CHD showed that among men with 10-year
predicted risk for CHD of 20%, both failure to reach target
heart rate and ST-segment depression more than doubled
the risk of an event, and each metabolic equivalent increment in exercise capacity reduced risk by 13%.29
An analysis of data from non-Hispanic white adults 35 to
74 years of age who participated in NHANES III (NCHS)
showed that 26% of men and 41% of women had at least 1
borderline risk factor (smoking, blood pressure, LDL
cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, or glucose intolerance). Additional analyses using data from the FHS (NHLBI) indicated that ⬎90% of hard CHD events over a 10-year period
were projected to occur in non-Hispanic white adults 35 to
74 years of age with at least 1 elevated risk factor and ⬇8%
in adults with only borderline levels of risk factors.30
A recent analysis examined the number and combination of
risk factors necessary to exceed Adult Treatment Panel III
treatment thresholds. In this analysis, relatively high risk
factor levels were required to exceed Adult Treatment
Panel III treatment thresholds in men ⬍45 years of age and
women ⬍65 years of age, which suggests that alternative
means of risk prediction that focus on a longer time horizon
than the 10 years captured by the traditional Framingham
CHD risk score may be necessary to estimate risk in these
individuals.31
Analysis of data from the CHS study (NHLBI) among
participants ⱖ65 years of age at entry into the study
showed that subclinical CVD is prevalent among older
individuals, is independently associated with risk of CHD
(even over a 10-year follow-up period), and substantially
●
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increases the risk of CHD among participants with hypertension or DM.32
On the basis of data from the CDC/BRFSS, it was found
that patients with CHD are less likely to comply with PA
recommendations than are subjects without CHD. Only
32% of CHD patients met moderate PA recommendations,
22% met vigorous PA recommendations, and 40% met
total PA recommendations. In contrast, the percentage of
subjects without CHD who met PA recommendations was
significantly higher, and this percentage almost achieved
the Healthy People 2010 objectives for PA.33
Analysis of data from the PREMIER trial (Prospective
Registry Evaluating Myocardial Infarction: Events and
Recovery), sponsored by the NHLBI, found that in people
with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension, 2 multicomponent behavioral interventions significantly reduced estimated 10-year CHD risk by 12% and 14%, respectively,
compared with advice only.34
Awareness of Warning Signs and Risk Factors for HD
●
●
●
●
Data from the Women Veterans Cohort showed that 42%
of women ⱖ35 years of age were concerned about HD.
Only 8% to 20% were aware that CAD is the major cause
of death for women.35
Among people in 14 states and Washington, DC, participating in the 2005 BRFSS, only 27% were aware of 5 heart
attack warning signs and symptoms (1, pain in jaw, neck,
or back; 2, weak, lightheaded, or faint; 3, chest pain or
discomfort; 4, pain or discomfort in arms or shoulder; and
5, shortness of breath) and indicated that they would first
call 911 if they thought someone was having a heart attack
or stroke. Awareness of all 5 heart attack warning signs and
symptoms and the need to call 911 was higher among
non-Hispanic whites (30.2%), women (30.8%), and those
with a college education or more (33.4%) than among
non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics (16.2% and 14.3%,
respectively), men (22.5%), and those with less than a high
school education (15.7%), respectively. By state, awareness was highest in West Virginia (35.5%) and lowest in
Washington, DC (16.0%).36
A 2004 national study of physician awareness and adherence to CVD prevention guidelines showed that fewer than
1 in 5 physicians knew that more women than men die each
year of CVD.37 Women’s awareness that CVD is their
leading cause of death increased from 30% in 1997% to
54% in 2009.38
A recent community surveillance study in 4 US communities reported that in 2000, the overall proportion of people
with delays of ⱖ4 hours from onset of AMI symptoms to
hospital arrival was 49.5%. The study also reported that
from 1987 to 2000, there was no statistically significant
change in the proportion of patients whose delays were ⱖ4
hours, which indicates that there has been little improvement in the speed at which patients with MI symptoms
arrive at the hospital after symptom onset. Although the
proportion of patients with MI who arrived at the hospital
by emergency medical services (EMS) increased over this
period, from 37% in 1987 to 55% in 2000, the total time
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between onset and hospital arrival did not change
appreciably.39
According to 2003 data from the BRFSS (CDC), 36.5% of
all women surveyed had multiple risk factors for HD and
stroke. The age-standardized prevalence of multiple risk
factors was lowest in whites and Asians. After adjustment
for age, income, education, and health coverage, the odds
for multiple risk factors were greater in black and Native
American women and lower for Hispanic women than for
white women. Prevalence estimates and odds of multiple
risk factors increased with age; decreased with education,
income, and employment; and were lower in those with no
health coverage. Smoking was more common in younger
women, whereas older women were more likely to have
medical conditions and to be physically inactive.40
Individuals with documented CHD have 5 to 7 times the
risk of having a heart attack or dying as the general
population. Survival rates improve after a heart attack if
treatment begins within 1 hour; however, most patients are
admitted to the hospital 2.5 to 3 hours after symptoms
begin. More than 3500 patients surveyed with a history of
CHD were asked to identify possible symptoms of heart
attack. Despite their history of CHD, 44% had low knowledge levels. In this group, who were all at high risk of
future AMI, 43% assessed their risk as less than or the
same as others their age. More men than women perceived
themselves as being at low risk, at 47% versus 36%,
respectively.41
Data from Worcester, MA, indicate that the average time
from symptom onset to hospital arrival has not improved
and that delays in hospital arrival are associated with less
receipt of guidelines-based care. Mean and median prehospital delay times from symptom onset to arrival at the
hospital were 4.1 and 2.0 hours in 1986 and 4.6 and 2.0
hours in 2005, respectively. Compared with those arriving
within 2 hours of symptom onset, those with prolonged
prehospital delay were less likely to receive thrombolytic
therapy and PCI within 90 minutes of hospital arrival.42
In an analysis from ARIC, low neighborhood household
income (odds ratio [OR] 1.46, 95% confidence interval
[CI] 1.09 –1.96) and being a Medicaid recipient (OR 1.87,
95% CI 1.10 –3.19) were associated with increased odds of
having prolonged prehospital delays from symptom onset
to hospital arrival for AMI compared with individuals with
higher neighborhood household income and other insurance providers, respectively.43
— At 45 to 64 years of age, 5% of white men, 9% of white
women, 14% of black men, and 8% of black women
will die.
— At ⱖ65 years of age, 25% of white men, 30% of white
women, 25% of black men, and 30% of black women
will die.
— In part because women have MIs at older ages than
men, they are more likely to die of MIs within a few
weeks.
●
— At ⱖ45 years of age, 36% of men and 47% of women
will die.
— At 45 to 64 years of age, 11% of white men, 18% of
white women, 22% of black men, and 28% of black
women will die.
— At ⱖ65 years of age, 46% of white men, 53% of white
women, 54% of black men, and 58% of black women
will die.
●
●
Depending on their sex and clinical outcome, people who
survive the acute stage of an MI have a chance of illness
and death 1.5 to 15 times higher than that of the general
population. Among these people, the risk of another MI,
sudden death, AP, HF, and stroke—for both men and
women—is substantial (FHS, NHLBI).4
On the basis of pooled data from the FHS, ARIC, and CHS
studies of the NHLBI, within 1 year after a first MI:
— At ⱖ45 years of age, 19% of men and 26% of women
will die.
Of those who have a first MI, the percentage with a
recurrent MI or fatal CHD within 5 years is:
— At 45 to 64 years of age, 15% of men and 22 of women.
— At ⱖ65 years of age, 22% of men and women.
— At 45 to 64 years of age, 14% of white men, 18% of
white women, 22% of black men, and 28% of black
women.
— At ⱖ65 years of age, 21% of white men and women,
33% of black men, and 26% of black women.
●
The percentage of people with a first MI who will have HF
in 5 years is:
— At 45 to 64 years of age, 8% of men and 18% of
women.
— At ⱖ65 years of age, 20% of men and 23% of women.
— At 45 to 64 years of age, 7% of white men, 15% of
white women, 13% of black men, and 25% of black
women.
— At ⱖ65 years of age, 19% of white men, 23% of white
women, 31% of black men, and 24% of black women.
●
The percentage of people with a first MI who will have a
stroke within 5 years is:
— At 45 to 64 years of age, 2% of men and 6% of women.
— At ⱖ65 years of age, 5% of men and 8% of women.
— At 45 to 64 years of age, 2% of white men, 4% of white
women, 3% of black men, and 10% of black women.
— At ⱖ65 years of age, 5% of white men, 8% of white
women, 9% of black men, and 10% of black women.
Aftermath
●
Within 5 years after a first MI:
●
The median survival time (in years) after a first MI is:
— At 55 to 64 years of age, 17.0 for men and 13.3 for
women.
— At 65 to 74 years of age, 9.3 for men and 8.8 for
women.
— At ⱖ75 years of age, 3.2 for men and 3.2 for women.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 5
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A Mayo Clinic study found that cardiac rehabilitation after
an MI is underused, particularly in women and the elderly.
Women were 55% less likely than men to participate in
cardiac rehabilitation, and older study patients were less
likely to participate than younger participants. Only 32% of
men and women ⱖ70 years of age participated in cardiac
rehabilitation compared with 66% of those 60 to 69 years
of age and 81% of those ⬍60 years of age.44
Among survivors of an MI, in 2005, 34.7% of BRFSS
respondents participated in outpatient cardiac rehabilitation. The prevalence of cardiac rehabilitation was higher
among older age groups (ⱖ50 years of age), among men
versus women, among Hispanics, among those who were
married, among those with higher education, and among
those with higher levels of household income.45
A recent analysis of Medicare claims data revealed that
only 13.9% of Medicare beneficiaries enroll in cardiac
rehabilitation after an AMI, and only 31% enroll after
CABG. Older people, women, nonwhites, and individuals
with comorbidities were less likely to enroll in cardiac
rehabilitation programs.46
9.3% of women died in the hospital compared with 6.2% of
men.48
Operations and Procedures
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
The estimated direct and indirect cost of heart disease in
2008 is $190.3 billion (MEPS, NHLBI tabulation).
In 2006, $11.7 billion was paid to Medicare beneficiaries
for in-hospital costs when CHD was the principal diagnosis
($14 009 per discharge for AMI, $12 977 per discharge for
coronary atherosclerosis, and $10 630 per discharge for
other ischemic HD).41,49
Over the next 20 years, medical costs of CHD (real 2008$)
are projected to increase by ⬇200%:
— Indirect costs for all CVD (real 2008$) are projected to
increase 61% (from $171.7 billion to $275.8 billion)
between 2010 and 2030. Of these indirect costs, CHD
is projected to account for ⬇40% and has the largest
indirect costs.3
(See Table 5-1 and Chart 5-7.)
From 1999 to 2009, the number of inpatient discharges
from short-stay hospitals with CHD as the first-listed
diagnosis decreased from 2 270 000 to 1 537 000 (NHLBI
tabulation of NHDS, NCHS).
In 2009, there were 14 044 000 ambulatory care visits with
CHD as the first-listed diagnosis (NCHS, NAMCS,
NHAMCS). There were 12 816 000 physician office visits,
639 000 ED visits, and 589 000 outpatient department
visits with a primary diagnosis of CHD (unpublished data,
NCHS, NHAMCS, NHLBI tabulation). The majority of
these visits (77.7%) were for coronary atherosclerosis.47
Age-adjusted hospitalization rate for MI was 215 per
100 000 people in 1979 to 1981, increased to 342 in 1985
to 1987, stabilized for the next decade, and then declined
after 1996 to 242 during the period from 2003 to 2005.
Rates for men were almost twice those of women. Trends
were similar for men and women. Hospitalization rates
increased with age and were the highest among those ⱖ85
years of age.12
Most hospitalized patients ⬎65 years of age are women.
For MI, 28.4% of hospital stays for people 45 to 64 years
of age were for women, but 63.7% of stays for those ⱖ85
years of age were for women. Similarly, for coronary
atherosclerosis, 32.7% of stays among people 45 to 64
years of age were for women; this figure increased to
60.7% of stays among those ⱖ85 years of age. For
nonspecific chest pain, women were more numerous than
men among patients ⬍65 years of age. Approximately
54.4% of hospital stays among people 45 to 64 years of age
were for women. Women constituted 73.9% of hospital
stays for nonspecific chest pain among patients ⱖ85 years
of age, higher than for any other condition examined. For
AMI, one third more women than men died in the hospital:
In 2009, an estimated 1 133 000 inpatient PCI procedures,
416 000 inpatient bypass procedures, 1 072 000 inpatient
diagnostic cardiac catheterizations, 116 000 inpatient implantable defibrillator procedures, and 397 000 pacemaker
procedures were performed for inpatients in the United
States. (NHLBI, NCHS, unpublished tabulation).
Cost
Hospital Discharges and Ambulatory Care Visits
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Acute Coronary Syndrome
ICD-9 codes 410, 411; ICD-10 I20.0, I21, I22
The term acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is increasingly
used to describe patients who present with either AMI or UA.
(UA is chest pain or discomfort that is accelerating in
frequency or severity and may occur while at rest but does not
result in myocardial necrosis.) The discomfort may be more
severe and prolonged than typical AP or may be the first time
a person has AP. UA, NSTEMI, and STEMI share common
pathophysiological origins related to coronary plaque progression, instability, or rupture with or without luminal
thrombosis and vasospasm.
●
●
A conservative estimate for the number of discharges with
ACS from hospitals in 2009 is 683 000. Of these, an
estimated 399 000 are males and 284 000 are females. This
estimate is derived by adding the first-listed inpatient
hospital discharges for MI (634 000) to those for UA
(49 000; NHDS, NHLBI).
When secondary discharge diagnoses in 2009 were included, the corresponding number of inpatient hospital
discharges was 1 190 000 unique hospitalizations for ACS;
694 000 were males, and 496 000 were females. Of the
total, 829 000 were for MI alone, 357 000 were for UA
alone, and 4000 hospitalizations received both diagnoses
(NHDS, NHLBI).
Decisions about medical and interventional treatments are
based on specific findings noted when a patient presents with
ACS. Such patients are classified clinically into 1 of 3
categories according to the presence or absence of ST-
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segment elevation on the presenting ECG and abnormal
(“positive”) elevations of myocardial biomarkers, such as
troponins, as follows:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
STEMI
NSTEMI
UA
The percentage of ACS or MI cases with ST-segment
elevation varies in different registries/databases and depends
heavily on the age of patients included and the type of
surveillance used. According to the National Registry of
Myocardial Infarction 4 (NRMI-4), ⬇29% of patients with
MI are patients with STEMI.50 The AHA Get With The
Guidelines (GWTG) project found that 32% of the patients
with MI in the CAD module are patients with STEMI
(personal communication from AHA GWTG staff, October 1,
2007). The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events
(GRACE) study, which includes US patient populations,
found that 38% of ACS patients have STEMI, whereas the
second Euro Heart Survey on ACS (EHS-ACS-II) reported
that ⬇47% of patients with ACS have STEMI.51
In addition, the percentage of ACS or MI cases with
ST-segment elevation appears to be declining. In an analysis
of 46 086 hospitalizations for ACS in the Kaiser Permanente
Northern California study, the percentage of MI cases with
ST-segment elevation decreased from 48.5% to 24% between
1999 and 2008.18
●
Prevalence
Analysis of data from the GRACE multinational observational cohort study of patients with ACS found evidence of
a change in practice for both pharmacological and interventional treatments in patients with either STEMI or
non–ST-segment– elevation ACS. These changes have
been accompanied by significant decreases in the rates of
in-hospital death, cardiogenic shock, and new MI among
patients with non–ST-segment– elevation ACS. The use of
evidence-based therapies and PCI interventions increased
in the STEMI population. This increase was matched with
a statistically significant decrease in the rates of death,
cardiogenic shock, and HF or pulmonary edema.52
A study of patients with non–ST-segment– elevation ACS
treated at 350 US hospitals found that up to 25% of
opportunities to provide American College of Cardiology
(ACC)/AHA guideline–recommended care were missed in
current practice. The composite guideline adherence rate
was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality.52
A study of hospital process performance in 350 centers of
nearly 65 000 patients enrolled in the CRUSADE (Can
Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients
Suppress Adverse Outcomes With Early Implementation of
the ACC/AHA Guidelines) National Quality Improvement
Initiative found that ACC/AHA guideline–recommended
treatments were adhered to in 74% of eligible instances.53
After adjustment for clinical differences and the severity of
CAD by angiogram, 30-day mortality after ACS is similar
in men and women.54
Angina Pectoris
ICD-9 413; ICD-10 I20.1 to I20.9. See Table 5-2 and
Chart 5-5.
A study of 4 national cross-sectional health examination
studies found that among Americans 40 to 74 years of age,
the age-adjusted prevalence of AP was higher among
women than men. Increases in the prevalence of AP
occurred for Mexican American men and women and
African American women but were not statistically significant for the latter.55
Incidence
●
●
●
Only 18% of coronary attacks are preceded by longstanding AP (NHLBI computation of FHS follow-up since
1986).
The annual rates per 1000 population of new episodes of
AP for nonblack men are 28.3 for those 65 to 74 years of
age, 36.3 for those 75 to 84 years of age, and 33.0 for those
ⱖ85 years of age. For nonblack women in the same age
groups, the rates are 14.1, 20.0, and 22.9, respectively. For
black men, the rates are 22.4, 33.8, and 39.5, and for black
women, the rates are 15.3, 23.6, and 35.9, respectively
(CHS, NHLBI).8
On the basis of 1987 to 2001 data from the ARIC study of
the NHLBI, the annual rates per 1000 population of new
episodes of AP for nonblack men are 8.5 for those 45 to 54
years of age, 11.9 for those 55 to 64 years of age, and 13.7
for those 65 to 74 years of age. For nonblack women in the
same age groups, the rates are 10.6, 11.2, and 13.1,
respectively. For black men, the rates are 11.8, 10.6, and
8.8, and for black women, the rates are 20.8, 19.3, and 10.0,
respectively.8
Mortality
A small number of deaths resulting from CHD are coded as
being attributable to AP. These are included as a portion of
total deaths attributable to CHD.
Cost
For women with nonobstructive CHD enrolled in the Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study of the
NHLBI, the average lifetime cost estimate was ⬇$770 000
and ranged from $1.0 to $1.1 million for women with
1-vessel to 3-vessel CHD.56
References
1. Schiller J, Lucas J, Ward B, Peregoy J. Summary health statistics for U.S.
adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010. Vital Health Stat 10.
In press.
2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. Behavioral Risk
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46. Suaya JA, Shepard DS, Normand SL, Ades PA, Prottas J, Stason WB.
Use of cardiac rehabilitation by Medicare beneficiaries after myocardial
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47. Deleted in proof.
48. Elixhauser A, Jiang HJ. Hospitalizations for Women With Circulatory
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Healthcare Research and Quality; May 2006. http://www.hcupus.
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49. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Medicare & Medicaid Statistical Supplement. Table 5.5: Discharges, total days of care, and
program payments for Medicare beneficiaries discharged from short-stay
hospitals, by principal diagnoses within major diagnostic classifications
(MDCs): calendar year 2006. Baltimore, MD: Centers for Medicare &
Medicaid Services; 2007. http://www.cms.hhs.gov/MedicareMedicaidStat
Supp/downloads/2007Table5.5b.pdf. Accessed July 25, 2011.
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Rogers WJ, Peterson ED; National Registry of Myocardial Infarction
Investigators. Quality of care by classification of myocardial infarction:
treatment patterns for ST-segment elevation vs non-ST-segment elevation
myocardial infarction. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:1630 –1636.
51. Mandelzweig L, Battler A, Boyko V, Bueno H, Danchin N, Filippatos G,
Gitt A, Hasdai D, Hasin Y, Marrugat J, Van de Werf F, Wallentin L,
Behar S; Euro Heart Survey Investigators. The second Euro Heart Survey
on acute coronary syndromes: characteristics, treatment, and outcome of
patients with ACS in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin in 2004. Eur
Heart J. 2006;27:2285–2293.
Table 5-1.
52. Fox KA, Steg PG, Eagle KA, Goodman SG, Anderson FA Jr, Granger
CB, Flather MD, Budaj A, Quill A, Gore JM; GRACE Investigators.
Decline in rates of death and heart failure in acute coronary syndromes,
1999 –2006. JAMA. 2007;297:1892–1900.
53. Peterson ED, Roe MT, Mulgund J, DeLong ER, Lytle BL, Brindis RG,
Smith SC Jr, Pollack CV Jr, Newby LK, Harrington RA, Gibler WB,
Ohman EM. Association between hospital process performance and
outcomes among patients with acute coronary syndromes. JAMA. 2006;
295:1912–1920.
54. Berger JS, Elliott L, Gallup D, Roe M, Granger CB, Armstrong PW,
Simes RJ, White HD, Van de Werf F, Topol EJ, Hochman JS, Newby LK,
Harrington RA, Califf RM, Becker RC, Douglas PS. Sex differences in
mortality following acute coronary syndromes. JAMA. 2009;302:
874 – 882.
55. Ford ES, Giles WH. Changes in prevalence of nonfatal coronary heart
disease in the United States from 1971–1994. Ethn Dis. 2003;13:85–93.
56. Shaw LJ, Merz CN, Pepine CJ, Reis SE, Bittner V, Kip KE, Kelsey SF,
Olson M, Johnson BD, Mankad S, Sharaf BL, Rogers WJ, Pohost GM,
Sopko G; Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation Investigators. The
economic burden of angina in women with suspected ischemic heart
disease: results from the National Institutes of Health–National Heart,
Lung, and Blood Institute–sponsored Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation. Circulation. 2006;114:894 –904.
57. Wilson PW, D’Agostino RB, Levy D, Belanger AM, Silbershatz H,
Kannel WB. Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories. Circulation. 1998;97:1837–1847.
Coronary Heart Disease
Population Group
Prevalence, CHD,
2008 Age ⱖ20 y
Prevalence, MI,
2008 Age ⱖ20 y
New and Recurrent
MI and Fatal CHD,
Age ⱖ35 y
Both sexes
New and
Recurrent MI,
Age ⱖ35 y
Mortality,* CHD,
2008, All Ages
Mortality,* MI,
2008, All Ages
Hospital
Discharges,
CHD, 2009,
All Ages
1 537 000
16 300 000 (7.0%)
7 900 000 (3.1%)
1 255 000
935 000
405 309
133 958
Males
8 800 000 (8.3%)
4 800 000 (4.3%)
740 000
565 000
216 248 (53.4%)†
72 447 (54.1%)†
933 000
Females
7 500 000 (6.1%)
3 100 000 (2.2%)
515 000
370 000
189 061 (46.6%)†
61 511 (45.9%)†
604 000
NH white males
8.5%
4.3%
675 000‡
...
189 354
63 842
NH white females
5.8%
2.1%
445 000‡
...
164 485
53 276
...
NH black males
7.9%
4.3%
70 000‡
...
21 407
6883
...
NH black females
7.6%
2.2%
65 000‡
...
20 491
6908
...
Mexican American
males
6.3%
3.0%
...
...
...
...
...
Mexican American
females
5.6%
1.1%
...
...
...
...
...
...
Hispanic or Latino§
5.2%
...
...
...
...
...
...
Asian§
4.9%
...
...
...
7414
2448
...
55.9%
...
...
...
1777
601
...
American Indian/
Alaska Native§
CHD indicates coronary heart disease; MI, myocardial infarction; and NH, non-Hispanic.
CHD includes people who responded “yes” to at least 1 of the questions in “Has a doctor or other health professional ever told you had coronary heart disease,
angina or angina pectoris, heart attack, or myocardial infarction?” Those who answered “no” but were diagnosed with Rose angina are also included (the Rose
questionnaire is only administered to survey participants ⬎40 years of age). Ellipses indicate data not available. Sources: Prevalence: National Health and Nutrition
Examination Survey 2005–2008 (National Center for Health Statistics) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Percentages for racial/ethnic groups are
age-adjusted for Americans ⱖ20 years of age. Age-specific percentages are extrapolated to the 2008 US population estimates. These data are based on self-reports.
Incidence: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (1987–2004), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Mortality: National Center for Health Statistics (these
data represent underlying cause of death only). Hospital discharges: National Hospital Discharge Survey, National Center for Health Statistics (data include those
inpatients discharged alive, dead, or status unknown).
*Mortality data for the white, black, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native populations include deaths of persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic
origin. Numbers of deaths for the American Indian/Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islander populations are known to be underestimated.
†These percentages represent the portion of total CHD mortality that is for males vs females.
‡Estimates include Hispanics and non-Hispanics. Estimates for whites include other nonblack races.
§National Health Interview Survey, National Center for Health Statistics 2010; data are weighted percentages for Americans ⱖ18 years of age.1
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 5
Table 5-2.
Angina Pectoris
Prevalence,
2008
Age ⱖ20 y
Incidence of
Stable AP,
Age ⱖ45 y
Hospital
Discharges,
2009,*
All Ages
Both sexes
9 000 000 (3.9%)
500 000
34 000
Males
4 000 000 (3.8%)
320 000
19 000
Females
5 000 000 (4.0%)
180 000
15 000
NH white males
3.8%
...
...
NH white females
3.7%
...
...
NH black males
3.3%
...
...
NH black females
5.6%
...
...
Mexican American
males
3.6%
...
...
Mexican American
females
3.7%
...
...
Population Group
AP indicates angina pectoris; NH, non-Hispanic; and ellipses, data not
available.
AP is chest pain or discomfort that results from insufficient blood flow to the
heart muscle. Stable AP is predictable chest pain on exertion or under mental
or emotional stress. The incidence estimate is for AP without myocardial
infarction.
Sources: Prevalence: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
2005–2008 (National Center for Health Statistics) and National Heart, Lung, and
Blood Institute; percentages for racial/ethnic groups are age adjusted for US
adults ⱖ20 years of age. AP includes persons who either answered “yes” to
the question of ever having angina or AP or who were diagnosed with Rose
angina (the Rose questionnaire is only administered to survey participants ⬎40
years of age). Estimates from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
2005–2008 (National Center for Health Statistics) were applied to 2008
population estimates (ⱖ20 years of age). Incidence: AP uncomplicated by a
myocardial infarction or with no myocardial infarction (Framingham Heart Study
1980 to 2001–2003 of the original cohort and 1980 to 1998 –2001 of the
Offspring Cohort, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute). Hospital discharges: National Hospital Discharge Survey, National Center for Health
Statistics; data include those inpatients discharged alive, dead, or status
unknown.
*There were 166 000 days of care for discharges of patients with AP from
short-stay hospitals in 2009.
Chart 5-1. Prevalence of coronary heart disease by age and sex (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 2005–2008).
Source: National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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Chart 5-2. Annual number of adults having diagnosed heart attack or fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) by age and sex (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Surveillance: 1987–2004 and Cardiovascular Health Study: 1989 –2004). These data include myocardial infarction (MI) and fatal coronary heart disease but not silent MI. Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Chart 5-3. Annual rate of first heart attacks by age, sex, and race (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Surveillance: 1987–2004).
Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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e65
Chart 5-4. Incidence of myocardial infarction* by age, race, and sex (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Surveillance, 1987–2004).
*Myocardial infarction diagnosis by expert committee based on review of hospital records. Source: Unpublished data from Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Chart 5-5. Incidence of angina pectoris* by age and sex (Framingham Heart Study 1980 –2002/2003). *Angina pectoris considered
uncomplicated on the basis of physician interview of patient. (Rate for women 45–54 years of age considered unreliable.) Data derived
from National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.8
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Chart 5-6. Estimated 10-year coronary heart disease risk in adults 55 years of age according to levels of various risk factors (Framingham Heart Study). HDL-C indicates high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Data derived from Wilson et al.57
Chart 5-7. Hospital discharges for coronary heart disease by sex (United States: 1970 –2009). Hospital discharges include people discharged alive, dead, and “status unknown.” Source: National Hospital Discharge Survey/National Center for Health Statistics and
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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Chart 5-8. Prevalence of low coronary heart disease risk, overall and by sex (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 1971–
2006). Low risk is defined as systolic blood pressure ⬍120 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure ⬍80 mm Hg; cholesterol ⬍200 mg/dL;
body mass index ⬍25 kg/m2; currently not smoking cigarettes; and no prior myocardial infarction or diabetes mellitus. Source: Personal communication with the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, June 28, 2007.
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6. Stroke (Cerebrovascular Disease)
ICD-9 430 to 438, ICD-10 I60 to I69. See Tables 6-1 and 6-2
and Charts 6-1 through 6-13.
●
Stroke Prevalence
●
An estimated 7 000 000 Americans ⱖ20 years of age have
had a stroke (extrapolated to 2008 using NCHS/NHANES
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 6
AF
atrial fibrillation
AHA
American Heart Association
ARIC
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study
BASIC
Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi
BP
blood pressure
BRFSS
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CHD
coronary heart disease
CHS
Cardiovascular Health Study
CI
confidence interval
CLRD
chronic lower respiratory disease
CREST
Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial
CVD
cardiovascular disease
DM
diabetes mellitus
ED
emergency department
EMS
emergency medical services
FHS
Framingham Heart Study
FRS
Framingham Risk Score
GCNKSS
Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study
HD
heart disease
HDL
high-density lipoprotein
HERS
Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study
HR
hazard ratio
ICD-9
International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision
ICD-10
International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision
MEPS
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey
MI
myocardial infarction
NCHS
National Center for Health Statistics
NH
Non-Hispanic
NHANES
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NHDS
National Hospital Discharge Survey
NHIS
National Health Interview Survey
NHLBI
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
NIHSS
National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale
NINDS
National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
NOMAS
Northern Manhattan Study
OR
odds ratio
PA
physical activity
REGARDS
Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study
RR
relative risk
TIA
transient ischemic attack
WEST
Women’s Estrogen for Stroke Trial
WHI
Women’s Health Initiative
●
●
●
2005–2008 data). Overall stroke prevalence during this
period is an estimated 3.0% (Table 6-1).
According to data from the 2010 BRFSS (CDC), 2.6% of
men and 2.6% of women ⱖ18 years of age had a history of
stroke; 2.4% of non-Hispanic whites, 4.0% of nonHispanic blacks, 1.4% of Asian/Pacific Islanders, 2.5% of
Hispanics (of any race), 5.8% of American Indian/Alaska
Natives, and 4.1% of other races or multiracial people had
a history of stroke (NHLBI tabulation of BRFSS).
The prevalence of silent cerebral infarction is estimated to
range from 6% to 28%, with higher prevalence with
increasing age.1–3 The prevalence estimates also vary
depending on the population studied (eg, ethnicity, sex, risk
factor profile), definition of silent cerebral infarction, and
imaging technique. It has been estimated that 13 million
people had prevalent silent stroke in the 1998 US
population.4,5
The prevalence of stroke-related symptoms was found to be
relatively high in a general population free of a prior
diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). On
the basis of data from 18 462 participants enrolled in a
national cohort study, 17.8% of the population ⬎45 years
of age reported at least 1 symptom. Stroke symptoms
were more likely among blacks than whites, among
those with lower income and lower educational attainment, and among those with fair to poor perceived health
status. Symptoms also were more likely in participants
with higher Framingham stroke risk score (Reasons for
Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study
[REGARDS], NINDS).6
Projections show that by 2030, an additional 4 million
people will have had a stroke, a 24.9% increase in
prevalence from 2010.7
Stroke Incidence
●
●
●
●
●
Each year, ⬇795 000 people experience a new or recurrent
stroke. Approximately 610 000 of these are first attacks,
and 185 000 are recurrent attacks (GCNKSS, NINDS, and
NHLBI; GCNKSS and NINDS data for 1999 provided July
9, 2008; estimates compiled by NHLBI). Of all strokes,
87% are ischemic and 10% are intracerebral hemorrhagic
strokes, whereas 3% are subarachnoid hemorrhage strokes
(GCNKSS, NINDS, 1999).
On average, every 40 seconds, someone in the United
States has a stroke (AHA computation based on the latest
available data).
Each year, ⬇55 000 more women than men have a stroke
(GCNKSS, NINDS).8
Women have a higher lifetime risk of stroke than men. In
the FHS, lifetime risk of stroke among those 55 to75 years
of age was 1 in 5 for women (20% to 21%) and approximately 1 in 6 for men (14% to 17%).9
Women have lower age-adjusted stroke incidence than
men; however, sex differences in stroke risk may be
modified by age.10 Data from FHS demonstrate that compared with white men, white women 45 to 84 years of age
have lower stroke risk than men, but this association is
reversed in older ages such that women ⬎85 years of age
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have elevated risk compared with men.11 Similarly, a
population-based study in Sweden found stroke incidence
to be lower for women than men at ages 55 to 64 years, but
at 75 to 85 years of age, this association reversed, and
women had a higher incidence than men.12 Other studies
report an excess risk of stroke in men compared with
women that persists throughout the life course or diminishes but does not reverse with age.13–15
On average, women are older at stroke onset than men
(⬇75 years compared with 71 years).11
Blacks have a risk of first-ever stroke that is almost twice
that of whites.16
In the national REGARDS cohort, in 27 744 participants
followed up over 4.4 years (2003–2010), the overall ageand sex-adjusted black/white incidence rate ratio was 1.51,
but for ages 45 to 54 years, it was 4.02, whereas for those
ⱖ85 years of age, it was 0.86.17 Similar trends for decreasing incidence rate ratio were seen in the GCNKSS.18
Analysis of data from the FHS suggests that stroke incidence is declining over time in this largely white cohort.
Data from 1950 to 1977, 1978 to 1989, and 1990 to 2004
showed that the age-adjusted incidence of first stroke per
1000 person-years in each of the 3 periods was 7.6, 6.2, and
5.3 in men and 6.2, 5.8, and 5.1 in women, respectively.
Lifetime risk for incident stroke at 65 years of age
decreased significantly in the latest data period compared
with the first, from 19.5% to 14.5% in men and from 18.0%
to 16.1% in women.19
In a similar fashion, data from the most recent GCNKSS
show that compared with the 1990s, when incidence rates
of stroke were stable, stroke incidence in 2005 was decreased for whites. Unfortunately, a similar decline was not
seen in blacks. These changes for whites were driven by a
decline in ischemic strokes for whites. There were no
changes in incidence of ischemic stroke for blacks or for
hemorrhagic strokes in blacks or whites.8
The BASIC (Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi)
project (NINDS) demonstrated an increased incidence of
stroke among Mexican Americans compared with nonHispanic whites in a community in southeast Texas. The
crude 3-year cumulative incidence (2000 –2002) was 16.8
per 1000 in Mexican Americans and 13.6 per 1000 in
non-Hispanic whites. Specifically, Mexican Americans had
a higher cumulative incidence for ischemic stroke at
younger ages (45–59 years of age: RR 2.04, 95% CI
1.55–2.69; 60 –74 years of age: RR 1.58, 95% CI 1.31–
1.91) but not at older ages (ⱖ75 years of age: RR 1.12,
95% CI 0.94 –1.32). Mexican Americans also had a higher
incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid
hemorrhage than non-Hispanic whites, adjusted for age.20
The age-adjusted incidence of first ischemic stroke per
1000 was 0.88 in whites, 1.91 in blacks, and 1.49 in
Hispanics according to data from the Northern Manhattan
Study (NOMAS; NINDS) for 1993 to 1997. Among
blacks, compared with whites, the relative rate of intracranial atherosclerotic stroke was 5.85; of extracranial atherosclerotic stroke, 3.18; of lacunar stroke, 3.09; and of
cardioembolic stroke, 1.58. Among Hispanics (primarily
Cuban and Puerto Rican), compared with whites, the
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relative rate of intracranial atherosclerotic stroke was 5.00;
of extracranial atherosclerotic stroke, 1.71; of lacunar
stroke, 2.32; and of cardioembolic stroke, 1.42.21
Among 4507 American Indian participants without a prior
stroke in the Strong Heart Study in 1989 to 1992, the ageand sex-adjusted incidence of stroke through 2004 was
6.79 per 100 person-years, with 86% of incident strokes
being ischemic.22
A review of published studies and data from clinical trials
found that hospital admissions for intracerebral hemorrhage have increased by 18% in the past 10 years, probably
because of increases in the number of elderly people, many
of whom lack adequate BP control, as well as the increasing use of anticoagulants, thrombolytics, and antiplatelet
agents. Mexican Americans, Latin Americans, blacks, Native Americans, Japanese people, and Chinese people have
higher incidences than do white Americans.23
In the GCNKSS, the annual incidence of anticoagulantassociated intracerebral hemorrhage per 100 000 people
increased from 0.8 (95% CI 0.3–1.3) in 1988 to 1.9 (95%
CI 1.1–2.7) in 1993/1994 and 4.4 (95% CI 3.2–5.5) in 1999
(P⬍0.001 for trend). Among people ⱖ80 years of age, the
rate of anticoagulant-associated intracerebral hemorrhage
increased from 2.5 (95% CI 0 –7.4) in 1988 to 45.9 (95%
CI 25.6 – 66.2) in 1999 (P⬍0.001 for trend). Over this
period of time, incidence rates of cardioembolic ischemic
stroke were similar, whereas warfarin distribution in the
United States quadrupled on a per capita basis. The
increase in incidence is therefore attributable to prescribing
behavior and patterns of care.24
TIA: Prevalence and Incidence
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In a nationwide survey of US adults, the estimated prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed TIA was 2.3%,
which translates into ⬇5 million people. The true prevalence of TIA is greater, because many patients who
experience neurological symptoms consistent with a TIA
fail to report it to their healthcare provider.25
In the GCNKS, using data from 1993 and 1994, the age-,
sex-, and race-adjusted incidence rates for TIA were 0.83
per 10 000. 26 Age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates for
TIA in Rochester, MN, were estimated at 0.68 per 1000 for
the years 1985 through 1989.27
The prevalence of physician-diagnosed TIA increases with
age.25 Incidence of TIA increases with age and varies by
sex and race/ethnicity. Men, blacks, and Mexican Americans have higher rates of TIA than their female and
non-Hispanic white counterparts.20,26
Approximately 15% of all strokes are heralded by a TIA.28
TIAs confer a substantial short-term risk of stroke, hospitalization for CVD events, and death. Of 1707 TIA patients
evaluated in the ED of Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large, integrated healthcare delivery system, 180
(10%) experienced a stroke within 90 days. Ninety-one
patients (5%) had a stroke within 2 days. Predictors of
stroke included age ⬎60 years, DM, focal symptoms of
weakness or speech impairment, and TIA that lasted ⬎10
minutes.29
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Meta-analyses of cohorts of patients with TIA have shown
the short-term risk of stroke after TIA is significant. Risk
has been shown to be as high as 10% at 2 days and as high
as 17% at 90 days.30,31
Individuals who have a TIA and survive the initial highrisk period have a 10-year stroke risk of roughly 19% and
a combined 10-year stroke, MI, or vascular death risk of
43% (4% per year).32
Within 1 year of TIA, ⬇12% of patients will die.26
It is estimated that one third of episodes characterized as
TIA according to the classic definition (ie, focal neurological deficits that resolve within 24 hours) would be considered infarctions on the basis of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging findings.33
Stroke Mortality
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On average, every 4 minutes, someone dies of a stroke
(NCHS, NHLBI).33a
Stroke accounted for ⬇1 of every 18 deaths in the United
States in 2008.33a
When considered separately from other CVDs, stroke ranks
No. 4 among all causes of death, behind diseases of the
heart, cancer, and CLRD (NCHS mortality data). Stroke
mortality in 2008 was 134 148; any-mention mortality in
2008 was 223 841 and the death rate was 40.7.33a See Chart
6-6 for sex and race comparisons.
From 1998 to 2008, the annual stroke death rate decreased
34.8%, and the actual number of stroke deaths declined
19.4% (NHLBI tabulation) (appropriate comparability ratios were applied).33a,34
Conclusions about changes in stroke death rates from 1980
to 2005 are as follows:
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— There was a greater decline in stroke death rates in men
than in women, with a male-to-female ratio decreasing
from 1.11 to 1.03 (age adjusted).
— There were greater declines in stroke death rates in men
than in women among people ⱖ65 years of age than
among younger ages.34
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Approximately 54% of stroke deaths in 2008 occurred out
of the hospital (unpublished NHLBI tabulation of NCHS
2008 Mortality Data Set).
Among people 45 to 64 years of age, 8% to 12% of
ischemic strokes and 37% to 38% of hemorrhagic strokes
result in death within 30 days, according to 1987 to 2001
data from the ARIC study of the NHLBI.35
In a study of people ⱖ65 years of age recruited from a
random sample of Health Care Financing Administration
Medicare Part B eligibility lists in 4 US communities
(CHS), over the time period 1989 to 2000, the 1-month
case fatality rate was 12.6% for all strokes, 8.1% for
ischemic strokes, and 44.6% for hemorrhagic strokes.36
More women than men die of stroke each year because of
the larger number of elderly women. Women accounted for
60.1% of US stroke deaths in 2008.
From 1995 to 1998, age-standardized mortality rates for
ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intracerebral hemorrhage were higher among blacks than whites.
●
Death rates attributable to intracerebral hemorrhage also
were higher among Asians/Pacific Islanders than among
whites. All minority populations had higher death rates
attributable to subarachnoid hemorrhage than did whites.
Among adults 25 to 44 years of age, blacks and American
Indian/Alaska Natives had higher risk ratios than did
whites for all 3 stroke subtypes.37
Age-adjusted stroke mortality rates began to level off in the
1980s and stabilized in the 1990s for both men and women,
according to the Minnesota Heart Study. Women had lower
rates of stroke mortality than did men throughout the
period. Some of the improvement in stroke mortality may
be the result of improved acute stroke care, but most is
thought to be the result of improved detection and treatment of hypertension.38
In 2002, death certificate data showed that the mean age at
stroke death was 79.6 years; however, males had a younger
mean age at stroke death than females. Blacks, American
Indian/Alaska Natives, and Asian/Pacific Islanders had
younger mean ages than whites, and the mean age at stroke death
was also younger among Hispanics than non-Hispanics.39
A report released by the CDC in collaboration with the
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the Atlas of
Stroke Hospitalizations Among Medicare Beneficiaries,
found that in Medicare beneficiaries over the time period
1995 to 2002, 30-day mortality rate varied by age: 9% in
patients 65 to 74 years of age, 13.1% in those 74 to 84 years
of age, and 23% in those ⱖ85 years of age.40
The black/white disparity in stroke mortality varies by age
in a similar fashion to stroke incidence as described above.
There are substantial geographic disparities in stroke mortality, with higher rates in the southeastern United States,
known as the “stroke belt” (Chart 6-7). This area is usually
defined to include the 8 southern states of North Carolina,
South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama,
Louisiana, and Arkansas. These geographic differences
have existed since at least 1940,41 and despite some minor
shifts,42 they persist.43– 45 Within the stroke belt, a “buckle”
region along the coastal plain of North Carolina, South
Carolina, and Georgia has been identified with even a
higher stroke mortality rate than the remainder of the stroke
belt.46 The overall average stroke mortality is ⬇20% higher
in the stroke belt than in the rest of the nation and ⬇40%
higher in the stroke buckle.
Racial and regional patterns in stroke incidence have been
shown to be similar to patterns for stroke mortality, which
suggests that disparities in incidence play a substantial role
in mortality disparities. However, incidence only partly
explains mortality disparities, and differences in case
fatality or other factors likely contribute to racial and
geographic disparities in stroke mortality.47
Stroke Risk Factors
For prevalence and other information on any of these specific
risk factors, refer to the specific risk factor chapters:
y High blood pressure: Chapter 7
y Disorders of heart rhythm (including atrial fibrillation):
Chapter 10
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y
y
y
y
y
Smoking/Tobacco Use: Chapter 13
High blood cholesterol and other lipids: Chapter 14
Physical inactivity: Chapter 15
Diabetes mellitus: Chapter 17
End-stage renal disease and chronic kidney disease:
Chapter 18
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(See Table 6-2 for data on modifiable stroke risk factors.)
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BP is a powerful determinant of risk for both ischemic
stroke and intracranial hemorrhage. Subjects with BP
⬍120/80 mm Hg have approximately half the lifetime risk
of stroke of subjects with hypertension. The treatment and
lowering of BP among hypertensive individuals was associated with a significant reduction in stroke risk.48
In REGARDS (NINDS), black participants were more
aware than whites of their hypertension and more likely to
be undergoing treatment if aware of their diagnosis, but
among those treated for hypertension, they were less likely
than whites to have their BP controlled.49
REGARDS (NINDS) also showed no evidence of a difference between the stroke belt and other regions in awareness
of hypertension, but there was a trend for better treatment
and BP control in the stroke belt region. The lack of
substantial geographic differences in hypertension awareness and the trend toward better treatment and control in
the stroke belt suggest that differences in hypertension
management may not be a major contributor to the geographic disparity in stroke mortality.49
Impaired glucose tolerance nearly doubled the stroke risk
compared with patients with normal glucose levels and
tripled the risks for patients with DM.50
Age-specific incidence rates and rate ratios show that DM
increases ischemic stroke incidence at all ages, but this risk
is most prominent before 55 years of age in blacks and
before 65 years of age in whites. Ischemic stroke patients
with DM are younger, more likely to be black, and more
likely to have hypertension, MI, and high cholesterol than
nondiabetic patients.51
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a powerful risk factor for stroke,
independently increasing risk ⬇5-fold throughout all ages.
The percentage of strokes attributable to AF increases
steeply from 1.5% at 50 to 59 years of age to 23.5% at 80
to 89 years of age.52,53
Because AF is often asymptomatic54,55 and likely frequently clinically undetected,56 the stroke risk attributed to
AF may be substantially underestimated.57 Therefore, although AF is an important stroke risk factor, both patients
and treating physicians may be unaware of its presence. A
related point is that no strategy to pursue normal sinus
rhythm, including cardioversion, antiarrhythmic drug therapy, and/or ablation, has definitively been shown to reduce
the risk of stroke.
Data from the Honolulu Heart Program/NHLBI found that
in Japanese men 71 to 93 years of age, low concentrations
of HDL cholesterol were more likely to be associated with
a future risk of thromboembolic stroke than were high
concentrations.58
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In the FHS, a documented parental ischemic stroke by the
age of 65 years was associated with a 300% increase in
documented ischemic stroke risk in offspring, even after
adjustment for other known stroke risk factors. The absolute magnitude of the increased risk was greatest in those in
the highest quintile of the FRS. By age 65 years, people in
the highest FRS quintile with an early parental ischemic
stroke had a 25% risk of stroke compared with a 7.5% risk
of ischemic stroke for those without such a history.59
The CHS (NHLBI) showed people with creatinine ⱖ1.5
mg/dL were at increased risk for stroke, with an adjusted
HR of 1.77 (95% CI 1.08 –2.91).60 Participants in
REGARDS with a reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were also shown to have increased risk
of incident stroke symptoms.61
Risk Factor Issues Specific to Women
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Analysis of data from the FHS found that women with
natural menopause before 42 years of age had twice the
ischemic stroke risk of women with natural menopause
after age 42.62 Investigators from the Nurse’s Health Study,
however, did not find an association between age at natural
menopause and risk of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke.63
Overall, randomized clinical trial data indicate that the use
of estrogen plus progestin, as well as estrogen alone,
increases stroke risk in postmenopausal, generally healthy
women and provides no protection for postmenopausal
women with established HD.64,65
Among postmenopausal women who were generally healthy,
the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), a randomized trial of
16 608 women (95% of whom had no preexisting CVD),
found that estrogen plus progestin increased ischemic stroke
risk by 44%, with no effect on hemorrhagic stroke.64
In the WHI trial, among 10 739 women with hysterectomy,
it was found that conjugate equine estrogen alone increased
the risk of ischemic stroke by 55% and that there was no
significant effect on hemorrhagic stroke.66
In postmenopausal women with known CHD, the Heart
and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS), a
secondary CHD prevention trial, found that estrogen plus
progestin hormone therapy did not reduce stroke risk.67
The Women’s Estrogen for Stroke Trial (WEST) found that
estrogen alone in postmenopausal women with a recent
stroke or TIA had no significant overall effect on recurrent
stroke or fatality.68
Analysis of data from the FHS found that women with
menopause at 42 to 54 years of age and at ⱖ55 years of age
had lower stroke risk than those with menopause at ⬍42
years of age, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Women with menopause before 42 years of age had
twice the stroke risk of all other women in different age
groups.62
The risk of ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage
during pregnancy and the first 6 weeks after giving birth
was 2.4 times greater than for nonpregnant women of
similar age and race, according to the BaltimoreWashington Cooperative Young Stroke Study. The risk
of ischemic stroke during pregnancy was not increased
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during pregnancy per se but was increased 8.7-fold
during the first 6 postpartum weeks. Intracerebral hemorrhage showed a small RR of 2.5 during pregnancy but
increased dramatically to an RR of 28.3 in the first 6
postpartum weeks. The excess risk of stroke (all types
except subarachnoid hemorrhage) attributable to the
combined pregnancy/postpregnancy period was 8.1 per
100 000 pregnancies.69
In the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2000 to
2001, the rate of events per 100 000 pregnancies was 9.2
for ischemic stroke, 8.5 for intracerebral hemorrhage,
0.6 for cerebral venous thrombosis, and 15.9 for the
ill-defined category of pregnancy-related cerebrovascular events, for a total rate of 34.2 per 100 000, not
including subarachnoid hemorrhage. The risk was increased in blacks and among older women. Death
occurred during hospitalization in 4.1% of women with
these events and in 22% of survivors after discharge to
a facility other than home.70
Analyses of the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample from
1994 to 1995 and from 2006 to 2007 show a temporal
increase in the proportion of pregnancy hospitalizations
that were associated with a stroke, with a 47% increase for
antenatal hospitalizations and 83% increase for postpartum
hospitalizations, but no increase for delivery hospitalizations. Increases in the prevalence of heart disease and
hypertensive disorders accounted for almost all the increase in postpartum stroke hospitalizations but not the
antenatal stroke hospitalizations.71
Preeclampsia is a risk factor for ischemic stroke remote
from pregnancy.72 The subsequent stroke risk of preeclampsia may be mediated by a 3.6- to 6.1-fold higher
later risk of hypertension and a 3.1- to 3.7-fold higher later
risk of DM, depending on whether the preeclampsia was
mild or severe.73
Physical Inactivity as a Risk Factor for Stroke
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In NOMAS, a prospective cohort that included white,
black, and Hispanic men and women in an urban setting
followed up for a median of 9 years, baseline PA was
associated with an overall 35% reduction in risk of ischemic stroke.74
The NOMAS study found that only moderate- to vigorousintensity exercise was associated with reduced stroke
incidence, whereas light exercise (such as walking) showed
no benefit.75
Timing of PA in relation to stroke onset has also been
examined in several studies. In a hospital-based casecontrol study from Heidelberg, Germany, recent activity
(within the prior months) was associated with reduced odds
of having a stroke or TIA, whereas sports activity during
young adulthood that was not continued showed no benefit.76 In a Danish case-control study, ischemic stroke
patients were less physically active in the week preceding
the stroke than age- and sex-matched control subjects, with
the highest activity scores associated with the greatest
reduction in odds of stroke.77
Smoking
(See Chapter 13 for more information.)
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Cigarette smoking is one of the well-established modifiable
risk factors for stroke. This includes ischemic, intracerebral, and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but the data for intracerebral hemorrhage are less consistent.78,79
Smoking is perhaps the most important modifiable risk
factor in preventing subarachnoid hemorrhage, with the
highest population attributable risk of any subarachnoid
hemorrhage risk factor.80
Current smokers have a 2 to 4 times increased risk of stroke
compared with nonsmokers or those who have quit for
more than 10 years.78,79
Data also support a dose-response relationship across old
and young age groups.78,81
Discontinuation of smoking has been shown to reduce
stroke risk across sex, race, and age groups.81
Sleep Apnea
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Sleep apnea is an independent risk factor for stroke,
increasing the risk of stroke or death 2-fold.82– 85
Worsening sleep apnea severity is associated with greater
stroke risk; patients with severe sleep apnea have 3- to
4-fold increased odds of stroke.82,84,85
Continuous positive airway pressure improves a variety of
outcomes after stroke.86 – 88 For example, continuous positive airway pressure reduces the risk of recurrent vascular
events among patients with stroke (relative risk reduction
of 81.4%; number needed to treat of 3.4).87
Sleep apnea is common after stroke, occurring in 60% to
96% of poststroke patients.89 –98
Awareness of Stroke Warning Signs and
Risk Factors
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Correct knowledge of at least 1 stroke warning sign
increased from 48% in 1995% to 68% in 2000, with no
significant improvement to 2005 (68%) on the basis of a
telephone survey conducted in a biracial population in the
greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky region. Knowledge
of 3 correct warning signs was low but increased over time:
5.4% in 1995, 12.0% in 2000, and 15.7% in 2005.
Knowledge of at least 1 stroke risk factor increased from
59% in 1995% to 71% in 2000, but there was no improvement to 2005 (71%). Only 3.6% of those surveyed were
able to independently identify tissue-type plasminogen
activator as an available drug therapy, and only 9% of these
were able to identify a window of ⬍3 hours for treatment.99
In the 2005 BRFSS, among respondents in 14 states, 38.1%
were aware of 5 stroke warning symptoms and would first
call 9-1-1 if they thought that someone was having a heart
attack or stroke. Awareness of all 5 stroke warning symptoms and calling 9-1-1 was higher among whites than
blacks and Hispanics (41.3%, 29.5%, and 26.8%, respectively), women than men (41.5% versus 34.5%), and
people with higher versus lower educational attainment
(47.6% for people with a college degree or more versus
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22.5% for those who had not received a high school
diploma).100
A study was conducted of patients admitted to an ED with
possible stroke to determine their knowledge of the signs,
symptoms, and risk factors of stroke. Of the 163 patients
able to respond, 39% did not know a single sign or
symptom. Patients ⱖ65 years of age were less likely than
those ⬍65 years old to know a sign or symptom of stroke
(28% versus 47%), and 43% did not know a single risk
factor. Overall, almost 40% of patients did not know the
signs, symptoms, and risk factors of stroke.101
In 2004, 800 adults ⱖ45 years of age were surveyed to
assess their perceived risk for stroke and their history of
stroke risk factors. Overall, 39% perceived themselves to
be at risk. Younger age, current smoking, a history of DM,
high BP, high cholesterol, HD, and stroke/TIA were
independently associated with perceived risk for stroke.
Respondents with AF were no more likely to report being
at risk than were respondents without AF. Perceived risk
for stroke increased as the number of risk factors increased;
however, 46% of those with ⱖ3 risk factors did not
perceive themselves to be at risk.102
A study of patients who have had a stroke found that only
60.5% were able to accurately identify 1 stroke risk factor
and that 55.3% were able to identify 1 stroke symptom.
Patients’ median delay time from onset of symptoms to
admission in the ED was 16 hours, and only 31.6%
accessed the ED in ⬍2 hours. Analysis showed that the
appearance of nonmotor symptoms as the primary symptom and nonuse of the 9-1-1 system were significant
predictors of delay ⬎2 hours. Someone other than the
patient made the decision to seek treatment in 66% of the
cases.103
Spanish-speaking Hispanics are less likely to know all
stroke symptoms than English-speaking Hispanics, nonHispanic blacks, and non-Hispanic whites. Lack of English
proficiency is strongly associated with lack of stroke
knowledge among Hispanics.104
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Stroke is a leading cause of serious long-term disability in
the United States (Survey of Income and Program Participation, a survey of the US Bureau of the Census).105
In the NHLBI’s FHS, among ischemic stroke survivors
who were ⱖ65 years of age, these disabilities were observed at 6 months after stroke106:
—
—
—
—
—
—
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50% had some hemiparesis
30% were unable to walk without some assistance
26% were dependent in activities of daily living
19% had aphasia
35% had depressive symptoms
26% were institutionalized in a nursing home
Data from the BRFSS (CDC) 2005 survey on stroke
survivors in 21 states and the District of Columbia found
that 30.7% of stroke survivors received outpatient rehabilitation. The findings indicated that the prevalence of stroke
survivors receiving outpatient stroke rehabilitation was
lower than would be expected if clinical practice guideline
recommendations for all stroke patients had been
followed.107
Black stroke survivors had greater limitations in ambulation than did white stroke survivors, after adjustment for
age, sex, and educational attainment but not stroke subtype,
according to data from the NHIS (2000 –2001, NCHS) as
analyzed by the CDC.108 A national study of inpatient
rehabilitation after first stroke found that blacks were
younger, had a higher proportion of hemorrhagic stroke,
and were more disabled on admission. Compared with
non-Hispanic whites, blacks and Hispanics also had a
poorer functional status at discharge but were more likely
to be discharged to home rather than to another institution
even after adjustment for age and stroke subtype. After
adjustment for the same covariates, compared with nonHispanic whites, blacks also had less improvement in
functional status per inpatient day.109
After stroke, women have greater disability than men. A
cross-sectional analysis of 5888 community-living elderly
people (⬎65 years of age) in the CHS who were ambulatory at baseline found that women were half as likely to be
independent in activities of daily living after stroke, even
after controlling for age, race, education, and marital
status.110 A prospective study from a Michigan-based
stroke registry found that women had a 63% lower probability of achieving independence in activities of daily living
3 months after discharge, even after controlling for age,
race, subtype, prestroke ambulatory status, and other patient characteristics.111
Hospital Discharges/Ambulatory Care Visits
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From 1999 to 2009, the number of inpatient discharges
from short-stay hospitals with stroke as the first-listed
diagnosis remained about the same, with discharges of
961 000 and 971 000, respectively (NHLBI tabulation,
NHDS, NCHS).
Data from 2009 from the Hospital Discharge Survey of the
NCHS showed that the average length of stay for discharges with stroke as the first-listed diagnosis was 5.3
days.
In 2003, men and women accounted for roughly the same
number of hospital stays for stroke in the 18- to 44-year-old
age group. After 65 years of age, women were the majority.
Among people 65 to 84 years of age, 54.5% of stroke
patients were women, whereas among the oldest age group,
women constituted 69.7% of all stroke patients.112
A first-ever county-level Atlas of Stroke Hospitalizations
Among Medicare Beneficiaries was released in 2008 by the
CDC in collaboration with the Centers for Medicare &
Medicaid Services. It found that the stroke hospitalization
rate for blacks was 27% higher than for the US population
in general, 30% higher than for whites, and 36% higher
than for Hispanics. In contrast to whites and Hispanics, the
highest percentage of strokes in blacks (42.3%) occurred in
the youngest Medicare age group (65–74 years of age).40
In 2009, there were 768 000 ED visits and 127 000
outpatient department visits with stroke as the first-listed
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diagnosis. In 2009, physician office visits for a firstlisted diagnosis of stroke totaled 3 327 000 (unpublished
data, NCHS, NHAMCS, NHLBI tabulation).113
Stroke in Children
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On the basis of pathogenic differences, pediatric strokes are
typically classified as either perinatal, occurring at ⱕ28
days of life and including in utero strokes, or (later)
childhood.
Recent estimates of the overall annual incidence of stroke
in US children are 6.4 per 100 000 children (0 –15 years) in
1999 in GCNKSS114 and 4.6 per 100 000 children (0 –19
years) from 1997 to 2003 according to Kaiser Permanente
of Northern California, a large, integrated healthcare delivery system.115 Approximately half of all incident childhood
strokes are hemorrhagic.114 –116
The prevalence of perinatal strokes is 29 per 100 000 live
births, or 1 per 3500 live births in the 1997 to 2003 Kaiser
Permanente of Northern California population.115
A history of infertility, preeclampsia, prolonged rupture of
membranes, and chorioamnionitis were found to be independent risk factors for perinatal arterial ischemic stroke in
the Kaiser Permanente of Northern California population.
The RR of perinatal stroke increased ⬇25-fold, with an
absolute risk of 1 per 200 deliveries, when ⱖ3 antenatally
determined risk factors were present.117
Although children with sickle cell disease and congenital
HD are at high risk for ischemic stroke, the most common
cause in a previously healthy child is a cerebral arteriopathy, found in approximately two thirds of cases.118
Congenital HD accounted for 25% of pediatric arterial
ischemic strokes in a population based study in Utah,
Wyoming, Idaho, and Nevada; it increased the odds of
stroke 16-fold compared with the general population.119
Thrombophilias (genetic and acquired) are risk factors for
childhood stroke, with summary ORs ranging from 1.6 to
8.8 in a recent meta-analysis.120
From 1979 to 1998 in the United States, childhood mortality resulting from stroke declined by 58% overall, with
reductions in all major subtypes.121
The incidence of stroke in children has been stable over the
past 10 years, whereas the 30-day case fatality rates
declined from 18% in 1988 –1989 to 9% in 1993–1994 and
9% in 1999 in the GCNKSS population.114
Compared with girls, boys have a 1.28-fold higher risk of
stroke.122 Compared with white children, black children
have a 2-fold risk of both incident stroke and death
attributable to stroke.121,122 The increased risk among
blacks is not fully explained by the presence of sickle cell
disease, nor is the excess risk among boys fully explained
by trauma.122
Strokes in children can be mistaken for a postictal Todd’s
paresis: 22% of children with acute arterial ischemic stroke
have a seizure on presentation; younger age predicts
presentation with seizures.123
At a median follow-up time of 6.3 years, half of 53
childhood ischemic stroke survivors and two thirds of 80
neonatal ischemic stroke survivors had at least 1 neurolog-
●
ical deficit; only 10% to 20% had mild deficits, whereas the
remainder had moderate or severe deficits.124 Involvement
of deep structures (basal ganglia, posterior limb of the
internal capsule) as opposed to pure cortical lesions predicts motor deficits.125
Despite current treatment, 1 of 10 children with ischemic or
hemorrhagic stroke will have a recurrence within 5
years.126,127 The 5-year recurrence risk is as high as 60%
among children with cerebral arteriopathy. The recurrence
risk after perinatal stroke, however, is negligible.128
Barriers to Stroke Care
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On the basis of NHIS data, the inability to afford medications among stroke survivors increased significantly from
8.1% to 12.7% between 1997 and 2004, totaling 76 000 US
stroke survivors in 2004. Compared with stroke survivors
able to afford medications, those unable to afford them
more frequently reported lack of transportation, no health
insurance, no usual place of care, income ⬍$20 000, and
out-of-pocket medical expenses ⱖ$2000.129
In 2002, ⬇21% of US counties did not have a hospital,
31% lacked a hospital with an ED, and 77% did not have
a hospital with neurological services.130
Of patients with ischemic stroke in the California Acute
Stroke Pilot Registry, 23.5% arrived at the ED within 3
hours of symptom onset, and 4.3% received thrombolysis.
If all patients had called 9-1-1 immediately, the expected
overall rate of thrombolytic treatment within 3 hours would
have increased to 28.6%. If all patients with known onset
had arrived within 1 hour and had been treated optimally,
57% could have received thrombolytic treatment.131
Data from the Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Registry
were analyzed from the 142 hospitals that participated in the
4 registry states. More patients were transported by ambulance
than by other means (43.6%). Time of stroke symptom onset
was recorded for 44.8% of the patients. Among these patients,
48% arrived at the ED within 2 hours of symptom onset.
Significantly fewer blacks (42.4%) arrived within 2 hours of
symptom onset than did whites (49.5%), and significantly
fewer nonambulance patients (36.2%) arrived within 2 hours
of symptom onset than did patients transported by ambulance
(58.6%).132
NHIS data from 1998 to 2002 found that younger stroke
survivors (45– 64 years) self-reported worse access to
physician care and medication affordability than older
stroke survivors. Compared with older patients, younger
stroke survivors were more likely to be male (52% versus
47%), to be black (19% versus 10%), and to lack health
insurance (11% versus 0.4%). Lack of health insurance was
associated with reduced access to care.133
Data from 142 hospitals participating in the Paul Coverdell
National Acute Stroke Registry found that fewer than 48% of
stroke patients arrived at the ED within 2 hours of symptom
onset in 2005 to 2006. Blacks were less likely to arrive within
the 2-hour window than whites (42.4% versus 49.5%).
Among those arriving within 2 hours, 65.2% received imaging within 1 hour of ED arrival; significantly fewer women
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 6
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●
received imaging within 1 hour than men (62.9% versus
67.6%), but no differences were observed by racial group.132
Results from the BASIC project found that women were
less likely to arrive at the ED within 3 hours of stroke
symptom onset than men (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5– 0.9).
Mexican Americans were 40% less likely to arrive by EMS
than non-Hispanic whites, even after adjustment for age,
National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, education,
history of stroke, and insurance status. Language fluency
was not associated with time to hospital arrival or use of
EMS. The receipt of tissue-type plasminogen activator was
low (1.5%) but did not differ by sex or race.134
A national study of academic medical centers found no
change in the proportion of patients with stroke arriving at
hospitals within 2 hours of symptom onset between 2001
and 2004 (37% versus 38%); however, the rate of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator use increased over
this time period (14% to 38%), which suggests systemlevel improvements in the organization of in-hospital care.
In risk-adjusted analyses, black patients were 45% less
likely to arrive within 2 hours than white patients.135
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●
Operations and Procedures
Among stroke or TIA patients with high-grade carotid stenosis, carotid endarterectomy has been the recommended treatment for the prevention of stroke, whereas carotid stenting
has been proposed as a therapeutic option for patients at high
risk for surgical revascularization.
●
●
●
In 2009, an estimated 93 000 inpatient endarterectomy
procedures were performed in the United States. Carotid
endarterectomy is the most frequently performed surgical procedure to prevent stroke (NHDS, NCHS, NHLBI
tabulation).
Although rates of carotid endarterectomy in the Medicare population decreased slightly between 1998 and 2004, the use of
carotid artery stenting increased dramatically136 (Chart 6-12).
The randomized Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial (CREST) compared carotid endarterectomy and stenting for symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis. There was no overall difference in the
primary end point of stroke, MI, or death; however, carotid
endarterectomy showed superiority with increasing age,
with the crossover point at approximately age 70, and was
associated with fewer strokes, which had a greater impact
on quality of life than MI.137
Cost
The direct and indirect cost of stroke in 2008 was $34.3
billion (MEPS, NHLBI tabulation).
●
●
●
The estimated direct medical cost of stroke for 2008 is
$18.8 billion. This includes hospital outpatient or officebased provider visits, hospital inpatient stays, ED visits,
prescribed medicines, and home health care.138
The mean expense per person for stroke care in the United
States in 2007 was estimated at $7657.138
The mean lifetime cost of ischemic stroke in the United States
is estimated at $140 048. This includes inpatient care, rehabilitation, and follow-up care necessary for lasting deficits.
●
●
e75
(All numbers were converted to 1999 dollars by use of the
medical component of the Consumer Price Index.)139
The estimated cost of acute pediatric stroke in the United
States was $42 million in 2003. The mean cost of shortterm hospital care was $20 927 per discharge.140
After adjustment for routine healthcare costs, the average
5-year cost of a neonatal stroke was $51 719 and that of a
childhood stroke was $135 161. Costs among children with
stroke continued to exceed those in age-matched control
children even in the fifth year by an average of $2016.141
In a study of stroke costs within 30 days of an acute event
between 1987 and 1989 in the Rochester Stroke Study, the
average cost was $13 019 for mild ischemic strokes and
$20 346 for severe ischemic strokes (4 or 5 on the Rankin
Disability Scale).142
Inpatient hospital costs for an acute stroke event account
for 70% of first-year poststroke costs.115
The largest components of short-term care costs were room
charges (50%), medical management (21%), and diagnostic costs (19%).143
Death within 7 days, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and stroke
while hospitalized for another condition are associated with
higher costs in the first year. Lower costs are associated
with mild cerebral infarctions or residence in a nursing
home before the stroke.142
Demographic variables (age, sex, and insurance status) are not
associated with stroke cost. Severe strokes (National Institutes
of Health Stroke Scale score ⬎20) cost twice as much as mild
strokes, despite similar diagnostic testing. Comorbidities such
as ischemic HD and AF predict higher costs.143,144
The total cost of stroke from 2005 to 2050, in 2005 dollars,
is projected to be $1.52 trillion for non-Hispanic whites,
$313 billion for Hispanics, and $379 billion for blacks. The
per capita cost of stroke estimates is highest in blacks
($25 782), followed by Hispanics ($17 201) and nonHispanic whites ($15 597). Loss of earnings is expected to
be the highest cost contributor in each race/ethnic group.145
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Stroke
Population Group
Prevalence, 2008:
Age ⱖ20 y
Both sexes
7 000 000 (3.0%)
Males
2 800 000 (2.7%)
Females
New and Recurrent
Attacks All Ages
Mortality, 2008:
All Ages*
Hospital Discharges,
2009: All Ages
Cost, 2008
795 000
134 148
971 000
$34.3 billion
370 000 (46.5%)†
53 525 (39.9%)†
467 000
504 000
4 200 000 (3.3%)
425 000 (53.5%)†
80 623 (60.1%)†
NH white males
2.4%
325 000‡
44 457
NH white females
3.3%
365 000‡
68 787
NH black males
4.5%
45 000‡
7222
NH black females
4.4%
60 000‡
9488
Mexican-American males
2.0%
Mexican-American females
2.7%
Hispanic or Latino
2.6%§
Asian
2.0%§
Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander
American Indian/Alaska Native
10.6%§
5.9% §储
NH indicates non-Hispanic; ellipses (. . .) indicate data not available.
*Mortality data for the white, black, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native populations include deaths of persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic
origin. Numbers of deaths for the American Indian/Alaska Native and Asian or Pacific Islander populations are known to be underestimated.
†These percentages represent the portion of total stroke incidence or mortality that applies to males vs females.
‡Estimates include Hispanics and non-Hispanics. Estimates for whites include other nonblack races.
§National Health Interview Survey (2010), National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS); data are weighted percentages for Americans ⬎18 years of age.146
储This estimate has a relative standard error of ⬎30% but ⬍50%.
Sources: Prevalence: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 to 2008, NCHS and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI). Percentages
for racial/ethnic groups are age adjusted for Americans ⱖ20 years of age. Age-specific percentages are extrapolated to the 2008 US population.
Incidence: Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study/National Institutes of Neurological Disorders and Stroke data for 1999 provided on August 1, 2007.
US estimates compiled by NHLBI. Data include children. Mortality: NCHS. These data represent underlying cause of death only. Mortality data for white and black males
and females include Hispanics. Hospital discharges: National Hospital Discharge Survey, NCHS. Data include those inpatients discharged alive, dead, or status
unknown. Cost: NHLBI. Data include estimated direct and indirect costs for 2008.
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e80
Circulation
Table 6-2.
January 3/10, 2012
Modifiable Stroke Risk Factors
Prevalence, %
Population Attributable
Risk, %*
RR
Overall
19.8
12–14†
1.9 (ischemic stroke)
Men
22.3
Women
17.4
Factor
Cigarette smoking
Hypertension
2.9 (SAH)
‡
Ages 20–34 y
Men
Women
8
13.4
99
6.2
98
Ages 35–44 y
Men
23.2
99
Women
16.5
106
Men
36.2
100
Women
35.9
103
Men
53.7
100
Women
55.8
102
Men
64.7
100
Women
69.6
101
Men
64.1
100
Women
76.4
101
Ages 45–54 y
Ages 55–64 y
Ages 65–74 y
Age ⱖ75 y
Diabetes
High total cholesterol
7.3
5–27
Data calculated for highest quintile
(20%) vs lowest quintile
9.1 (5.7–13.8)
1.5 (95% CI 1.3–1.8)
1.8–6.0
Continuous risk for ischemic
stroke
...
1.25 per 1-mmol/L (38.7
mg/dL) increase
23.7
0.4
Low HDL cholesterol
⬍40 mg/dL
Men
Women
35
15
Data calculated for highest
quintile (20%) vs lowest quintile
⬍35 mg/dL
26
20.6 (10.1–30.7)
2.00 (95% CI 1.43–2.70)
⬇0.5–0.6 for each 1-mmol/L
increase
Continuous risk for ischemic
stroke
Atrial fibrillation (nonvalvular)
Age 50–59 y
0.5
1.5
4.0
Age 60–69 y
1.8
2.8
2.6
Age 70–79 y
4.8
9.9
3.3
Age 80–89 y
8.8
23.5
4.5
2–8
2–7§
2.0
0.25 (of blacks)
...
200–400 储
25 (Women 50–74 y of age)
9
1.4
9.4
2.3
Asymptomatic carotid
stenosis
Sickle cell disease
Postmenopausal hormone
therapy
Oral contraceptive use
13 (Women 25–44 y)
(Continued)
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 6
Table 6-2.
e81
Continued
Factor
Population Attributable Risk,
%*
Prevalence, %
RR
Dietary factors
Na intake ⬎2300 mg
75–90
Unknown
Unknown
K intake ⬍4700 mg
90–99
Unknown
Unknown
Physical inactivity
25
30
2.7
Obesity
1.39 Stroke death per
increase of 5 kg/m2
Men
33.3
Women
35.3
CHD
Men
8.4
5.8
1.73 (1.68–1.78)
Women
5.6
3.9¶
1.55 (1.17–2.07)
Men
2.6
1.4¶
Women
2.1
1.1¶
4.9
3.0¶
Heart failure
Peripheral arterial disease
RR indicates relative risk; SAH, subarachnoid hemorrhage; CI, confidence interval; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; and CHD, coronary
heart disease.
*Population attributable risk is the proportion of ischemic stroke in the population that can be attributed to a particular risk factor
(see Goldstein et al78 for formula).
†Population attributable risk is for stroke deaths, not ischemic stroke incidence.
‡Population attributable risk percent⫽100[(prevalence)(RR⫺1)/((prevalence)(RR⫺1)⫹1)].
§Calculated on the basis of point estimates of referenced data provided in the table. For peripheral arterial disease, calculation was
based on average relative risk for men and women.
储Calculated based on referenced data provided in the table or text.
¶Relative to stroke risk in children without sickle cell disease.
Adapted from Goldstein et al.78
18
16
14.8
14.5
Percent of Population
14
12
10
8.2
8
7.2
6
4
2.4
1.6
2
0.3
0.5
0
20-39
40-59
60-79
80+
Age (Years)
Men
Women
Chart 6-1. Prevalence of stroke by age and sex (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 2005–2008). Source: National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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350
303
250
Incidence per 100,000
294
291
300
241
206
200
179
150
100
54
59
56
50
25
32
30
9
9
15
8
15
20
0
White Ischemic
Black Ischemic
White ICH
1993-94
Black ICH
1999
White SAH
Black SAH
2005
Chart 6-2. Annual age-adjusted incidence of first-ever stroke by race. Hospital plus out-of-hospital ascertainment, 1993–1994, 1999
and 2005. Data derived from Kleindorfer et al.8
35
32.1
30
25
20.2
Per 1,000 Persons
19.6
20
14.7
15
12.5
10
8.4
7.6
5.7
12.5
12.4
7.2
5.6
5.6
4.1
5
2.7 2.2
1.1 0.7
2.7
1.9
0
45-54
55-64
65-74
75-84
≥85
Age (Years)
White Men
White Women
Black Men
Black Women
Chart 6-3. Annual rate of first cerebral infarction by age, sex, and race (Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study: 1999).
Rates for black men and women 45 to 54 years of age and for black men ⱖ75 years of age are considered unreliable. Source: Unpublished data from the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study.
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35
32.1
30
20.9
25
Per 1,000 Persons
19.5
14.7
20
15
13.5
10
6.6
13.6
8.9
8.0
7.7
13.8
6.6
5.3 4.9
5
3.5
2.9
2.9
1.4 1.0
2.2
0
45-54
55-64
65-74
75-84
≥85
Age (Years)
White Men
White Women
Black Men
Black Women
Chart 6-4. Annual rate of all first-ever strokes by age, sex, and race (Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study: 1999). Rates
for black men and women 45 to 54 years of age and for black men ⱖ75 years of age are considered unreliable.
18
16.2
16
15.0
14
13.1
Per 1000 Person Years
12.2
12
10.0
9.7
10
8
9.9
7.2
6.1
6
4.8
4
2.4
2.4
2
0
45 to 54
White Men
55 to 64
White Women
Black Men
65 to 74
Black Women
Chart 6-5. Age-adjusted incidence of stroke/transient ischemic attack by race and sex, ages 45–74 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study cohort, 1987–2001. Data derived from National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Incidence and Prevalence Chart Book,
2006.16
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Chart 6-6. Age-adjusted death rates for stroke by sex and race/ethnicity, 2008. Death rates for the American Indian/Alaska Native and
Asian or Pacific Islander populations are known to be underestimated. Stroke includes International Classification of Diseases, 10th
Revision codes I60 to I69 (cerebrovascular disease). Source: National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung, and Blood
Institute.
New York City
Age-Adjusted
Average Annual
Deaths per 100,000
Number of
Counties
35 - 96
679
97 - 105
624
106 - 114
676
115 - 125
615
126 - 198
544
Insufficient Data
3
Rates are spatially smoothed to enhance
the stability of rates in counties with small
populations.
ICD-10 codes for stroke: I60-I69
Data Source: National Vital Statistics System
and the U.S. Census Bureau
Alaska
Hawaii
Chart 6-7. Stroke death rates, 2000 –2006: adults ⱖ35 years of age, by county. Rates are spatially smoothed to enhance the stability
of rates in counties with small populations. International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes for stroke: I60 –I69. Data
source: National Vital Statistics System and the US Census Bureau.
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30
27.0
25
Estimated 10-Year Rate (%)
22.4
19.1
20
14.8
15
10
8.4
6.3
5.4
4.0
5
3.5
2.6
2.0
1.1
0
A
B
C
Men
Blood Pressure*
Diabetes
Cigarette Smoking
Prior AF
Prior CVD
A
95-105
No
No
No
No
B
138-148
No
No
No
No
D
E
F
Women
C
138-148
Yes
No
No
No
D
138-148
Yes
Yes
No
No
E
138-148
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
F
138-148
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
* - Closest ranges for women are : 95-104 and 115-124.
Chart 6-8. Estimated 10-year stroke risk in adults 55 years of age according to levels of various risk factors (Framingham Heart Study).
AF indicates atrial fibrillation; CVD, cardiovascular disease. Data derived from Wolf et al147 with permission of the publisher. Copyright
© 1991, American Heart Association.
40
35
35
31
29
30
Percent of Patients
27
25
21
19
20
19
16
15
10
5
0
White Men
White Women
45-64 years of age
Black Men
Black Women
≥65 years of age
Chart 6-9. Proportion of patients dead 1 year after first stroke. Source: pooled data from the Framingham Heart Study, Atherosclerosis
Risk in Communities study, and Cardiovascular Health Study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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70
61
58
60
53
52
Percent of Patients
50
42
40
36
31
30
27
20
10
0
White Men
White Women
45-64 years of age
Black Men
Black Women
≥65 years of age
Chart 6-10. Proportion of patients dead within 5 years after first stroke. Source: pooled data from the Framingham Heart Study, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, and Cardiovascular Health Study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
30
25
25
23
23
21
Percent of Patients
20
15
15
13
12
10
6
5
0
White Men
White Women
45-64 years of age
Black Men
Black Women
≥65 years of age
Chart 6-11. Proportion of patients with recurrent stroke in 5 years after first stroke. Source: pooled data from the Framingham Heart
Study, Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, and Cardiovascular Health Study of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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140
Procedures in Thousands
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2009
Year
Chart 6-12. Trends in carotid endarterectomy procedures (United States: 1980 –2009). Source: National Hospital Discharge Survey/National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Chart 6-13. Trends in carotid revascularization procedures. MCBEs indicates Medicare beneficiaries; CEA, carotid endarterectomy; and
CAS, carotid artery stenting. Reproduced with permission from Goodney et al.136 Copyright © 2008, American Medical Association. All
rights reserved.
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7. High Blood Pressure
●
ICD-9 401 to 404, ICD-10 I10 to I15. See Tables 7-1 and 7-2
and Charts 7-1 through 7-5.
Prevalence
●
●
HBP is defined as:
— SBP ⱖ140 mm Hg or DBP ⱖ90 mm Hg or taking
antihypertensive medicine, or
— Having been told at least twice by a physician or other
health professional that one has HBP.
●
●
●
One in 3 US adults has HBP.1
Data from NHANES 1999 –2006 found that ⬇8% of US
adults have undiagnosed hypertension.2
An estimated 76 400 000 adults ⱖ20 years of age have
HBP, extrapolated to 2008 with NHANES 2005–2008 data
(Table 7-1).
●
●
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 7
ARIC
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study
BP
blood pressure
BRFSS
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CHD
coronary heart disease
CHF
congestive heart failure
CHS
Cardiovascular Health Study
CVD
cardiovascular disease
DBP
diastolic blood pressure
DM
diabetes mellitus
FHS
Framingham Heart Study
HBP
high blood pressure
HD
heart disease
HHANES
Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
ICD-9
International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision
ICD-9-CM
International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification,
9th Revision
ICD-10
International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision
LDL
low-density lipoprotein
MEPS
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey
MESA
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
NAMCS
National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey
NCHS
National Center for Health Statistics
NHAMCS
National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey
NHANES
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NHDS
National Hospital Discharge Survey
NHES
National Health Examination Survey
NHIS
National Health Interview Survey
NHLBI
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
NINDS
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
PA
physical activity
REGARDS
REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke study
SBP
systolic blood pressure
SEARCH
Search for Diabetes in Youth Study
NHANES data show that a higher percentage of men than
women have hypertension until 45 years of age. From 45 to
54 and from 55 to 64 years of age, the percentages of men
and women with hypertension are similar. After that, a
higher percentage of women have hypertension than men.3
HBP is 2 to 3 times more common in women taking oral
contraceptives, especially among obese and older women,
than in women not taking them.4
Data from NHANES 2005–2006 found that 29% of US
adults ⱖ18 years of age were hypertensive. The prevalence
of hypertension was nearly equal between men and
women; 7% of adults had HBP but had never been told that
they had hypertension. Among hypertensive adults, 78%
were aware of their condition, 68% were using antihypertensive medication, and 64% of those treated had their
hypertension controlled.5
Data from the 2009 BRFSS/CDC indicate that the percentage of adults ⱖ18 years of age who had been told that they
had HBP ranged from 21.6% in Minnesota to 37.6% in
West Virginia. The median percentage was 28.7%.6
— According to NHANES data 2003–2008, among US
adults with hypertension, 8.9% met the criteria for
resistant hypertension (BP was ⱖ140/90 mm Hg, and
they reported using antihypertensive medications from
3 different drug classes or drugs from ⱖ4 antihypertensive drug classes regardless of BP). This represents
12.8% of the population taking antihypertensive
medication.7
●
●
According to data from NHANES from 1988 –1994 and
2007–2008, HBP control rates improved from 27.3% to
50.1%, treatment improved from 54.0% to 73.5%, and the
control/treated rates improved from 50.6% to 72.3%.8
Projections show that by 2030, an additional 27 million
people could have hypertension, a 9.9% increase in prevalence from 2010.9
Older Adults
●
●
In 2007 to 2008, diagnosed chronic conditions that were
more prevalent among older (ⱖ65 years of age) women
than men included hypertension (58% for women, 53% for
men). Ever-diagnosed conditions that were more prevalent
among older men than older women included HD (38% for
men, 27% for women) and DM (20% for men, 18% for
women) on the basis of data from NHIS/NCHS.10
The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension (both diagnosed and undiagnosed) in 2003 to 2006 was 75% for older
women and 65% for older men on the basis of data from
NHANES/NCHS.11
Children and Adolescents
●
Analysis of the NHES, the Hispanic Health and Nutrition
Examination Survey, and the NHANES/NCHS surveys of
the NCHS (1963–2002) found that the BP, pre-HBP, and
HBP trends in children and adolescents 8 to 17 years of age
moved downward from 1963 to 1988 and upward thereafter. Pre-HBP and HBP increased 2.3% and 1%, respec-
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●
●
●
tively, between 1988 and 1999. Increased obesity (more so
abdominal obesity than general obesity) partially explained
the HBP and pre-HBP rise from 1988 to 1999. BP and HBP
reversed their downward trends 10 years after the increase
in the prevalence of obesity. In addition, an ethnic and sex gap
appeared in 1988 for pre-HBP and in 1999 for HBP: NonHispanic blacks and Mexican Americans had a greater prevalence of HBP and pre-HBP than non-Hispanic whites, and
the prevalence was greater in boys than in girls. In that study,
HBP in children and adolescents was defined as SBP or DBP
that was, on repeated measurement, ⱖ95th percentile.12
A study in Ohio of ⬎14 000 children and adolescents 3 to
18 years of age who were observed at least 3 times between
1999 and 2006 found that 3.6% had hypertension. Of these,
26% had been diagnosed and 74% were undiagnosed. In
addition, 3% of those with hypertension had stage 2
hypertension, and 41% of those with stage 2 hypertension
were undiagnosed. Criteria for prehypertension were met by
485 children. Of these, 11% were diagnosed. In this study,
HBP in children and adolescents was defined as SBP or DBP
that was, on repeated measurement, ⱖ95th percentile.13
A study from 1988 –1994 through 1999 –2000 of children
and adolescents 8 to 17 years of age showed that among
non-Hispanic blacks, mean SBP levels increased by
1.6 mm Hg among girls and by 2.9 mm Hg among boys
compared with non-Hispanic whites. Among Mexican Americans, girls’ SBP increased 1.0 mm Hg and boys’ SBP
increased 2.7 mm Hg compared with non-Hispanic whites.14
Analysis of data from the Search for Diabetes in Youth
Study (SEARCH), which included children 3 to 17 years of
age with type 1 and type 2 DM, found the prevalence of
elevated BP among those with type 1 DM to be 5.9% and
the prevalence of elevated BP among those with type 2 DM
to be 23.7%.15
— Those with the lowest rates are more likely to be
younger but also overweight or obese.
— Those with uncontrolled HBP who are not taking
antihypertensive medication tend to be male, to be
younger, and to have infrequent contact with a physician.
●
●
●
Race/Ethnicity and HBP
●
●
●
The prevalence of hypertension in blacks in the United
States is among the highest in the world, and it is
increasing. From 1988 to 1994 through 1999 to 2002, the
prevalence of HBP in adults increased from 35.8% to
41.4% among blacks, and it was particularly high among
black women at 44.0%. Prevalence among whites also
increased, from 24.3% to 28.1%.16
Compared with whites, blacks develop HBP earlier in life,
and their average BPs are much higher. As a result, compared
with whites, blacks have a 1.3-times greater rate of nonfatal
stroke, a 1.8-times greater rate of fatal stroke, a 1.5-times
greater rate of death attributable to HD, and a 4.2-times
greater rate of end-stage kidney disease (fifth and sixth reports
of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection,
Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure).
Within the black community, rates of hypertension vary
substantially16,17:
— Those with the highest rates are more likely to be
middle-aged or older, less educated, overweight or obese,
and physically inactive and are more likely to have DM.
e89
●
●
●
Analysis from the REGARDS study of the NINDS suggests that efforts to raise awareness of prevalent hypertension among blacks apparently have been successful (31%
greater odds in blacks relative to whites), and efforts to
communicate the importance of receiving treatment for
hypertension have been successful (69% greater odds
among blacks relative to whites); however, substantial
racial disparities remain with regard to the control of BP
(SBP ⬍140 mm Hg, DBP ⬍90 mm Hg), with the odds of
control being 27% lower in blacks than in whites. In
contrast, geographic disparities in hypertension awareness,
treatment, and control were minimal.18
Data from the 2010 NHIS showed that black adults ⱖ18
years of age were more likely (33.8%) to have been told on
ⱖ2 occasions that they had hypertension than white adults
(23.6%) or Asian adults (20.5%); there was no significant
difference between the estimates for American Indian/
Alaska Native adults (30.0%) and black adults.19
The CDC analyzed death certificate data from 1995 to 2002
(any-mention mortality; ICD-9 codes 401– 404 and ICD-10
codes I10 –I13). The results indicated that Puerto Rican
Americans had a consistently higher hypertension-related
death rate than all other Hispanic subpopulations and
non-Hispanic whites. The age-standardized hypertensionrelated mortality rate was 127.2 per 100 000 population for
all Hispanics, similar to that of non-Hispanic whites (135.9).
The age-standardized rate for Hispanic females (118.3) was
substantially lower than that observed for Hispanic males
(135.9). Hypertension-related mortality rates for males were
higher than rates for females for all Hispanic subpopulations.
Puerto Rican Americans had the highest hypertension-related
death rate among all Hispanic subpopulations (154.0); Cuban
Americans had the lowest (82.5).20
Some studies suggest that Hispanic Americans have rates
of HBP similar to or lower than those of non-Hispanic
white Americans. Findings from a new analysis of combined data from the NHIS of 2000 to 2002 point to a health
disparity between black and white adults of Hispanic
descent. Black Hispanics were at slightly greater risk than
white Hispanics, although non-Hispanic black adults had
by far the highest rate of HBP. The racial disparity among
Hispanics also was evident in the fact that higher-income,
better-educated black Hispanics still had a higher rate of
HBP than lower-income, less-educated white Hispanics.21
Data from the NHLBI’s ARIC study found that hypertension was a particularly powerful risk factor for CHD in
black people, especially black women.22
Data from MESA found that being born outside the United
States, speaking a language other than English at home, and
living fewer years in the United States were each associated
with a decreased prevalence of hypertension.23
Filipino (27%) and Japanese (25%) adults were more likely
than Chinese (17%) or Korean (17%) adults to have ever
been told that they had hypertension.24
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Mortality
HBP mortality in 2008 was 61 005. Any-mention mortality in
2008 was 347 689 (NHLBI tabulation of NCHS mortality
data). The 2008 death rate was 18.3.25
●
●
●
●
●
From 1998 to 2008, the death rate caused by HBP increased
20.2%, and the actual number of deaths rose 49.7% (NCHS
and NHLBI; appropriate comparability ratios were
applied).25,25a
The 2008 overall death rate resulting from HBP was 18.3.
Death rates were 16.5 for white males, 50.3 for black males,
14.5 for white females, and 38.6 for black females. When
any-mention mortality for 2008 was used, the overall death
rate was 108.5. Death rates were 108.6 for white males, 228.8
for black males, 90.7 for white females, and 174.8 for black
females (NHLBI tabulation of NCHS mortality data).
Analysis of NHANES I and II comparing hypertensive and
nonhypertensive individuals found a reduction in age-adjusted
mortality rate of 4.6/1000 person-years among people with
hypertension compared with a reduction of 4.2/1000 personyears among those without hypertension.26
Assessment of 30-year follow-up of the Hypertension
Detection and Follow-Up Program identified the long-term
benefit of stepped care, and the increased survival for
hypertensive African Americans.27
Assessment of the Charleston Heart Study and Evans
County Heart Study identified the excess burden of elevated BP for African Americans and its effect on long-term
health outcomes.28
●
— Total life expectancy was 5.1 years longer for normotensive men and 4.9 years longer for normotensive
women than for hypertensive people of the same sex at
50 years of age.
— Compared with hypertensive men at 50 years of age,
men with untreated BP ⬍140/90 mm Hg survived on
average 7.2 years longer without CVD and spent 2.1
fewer years of life with CVD. Similar results were
observed for women.
Hospital Discharges/Ambulatory Care Visits
●
●
●
Risk Factors
●
●
●
●
Numerous risk factors and markers for development of
hypertension, including age, ethnicity, family history of
hypertension and genetic factors, lower education and
socioeconomic status, greater weight, lower PA, tobacco
use, psychosocial stressors, sleep apnea, and dietary factors
(including dietary fats, higher sodium intake, lower potassium intake, and excessive alcohol intake), have been
identified.
A study of related individuals in the NHLBI’s FHS
suggested that different sets of genes regulate BP at
different ages.29
Recent data from the Nurses’ Health Study suggest that a
large proportion of incident hypertension in women can be
prevented by controlling dietary and lifestyle risk factors.30
A meta-analysis identified the benefit of a goal BP of
130/80 mm Hg for individuals with hypertension and type
2 DM but less evidence for treatment below this value.31
●
Approximately 69% of people who have a first heart attack,
77% of those who have a first stroke, and 74% of those
who have CHF have BP ⬎140/90 mm Hg (NHLBI unpublished estimates from ARIC, CHS, and FHS Cohort and
Offspring studies).
Data from FHS/NHLBI indicate that recent (within the past
10 years) and remote antecedent BP levels may be an
From 1999 to 2009, the number of inpatient discharges
from short-stay hospitals with HBP as the first-listed
diagnosis increased from 439 000 to 579 000 (no significant difference; NCHS, NHDS). The number of all-listed
discharges increased from 7 629 000 to 11 591 000
(NHLBI, unpublished data from the NHDS, 2009).
Data from ambulatory medical care utilization estimates
for 2009 showed that the number of visits for essential
hypertension was 55 148 000. Of these, 49 966 000 were
physician office visits, 1 000 000 were ED visits, and
4 182 000 were outpatient department visits (NCHS,
NAMCS and NHAMCS, NHLBI tabulation).
In 2009, there were 372 000 hospitalizations with a firstlisted diagnosis of essential hypertension (ICD-9-CM code
401), but essential hypertension was listed as either a
primary or a secondary diagnosis 9 317 000 times for
hospitalized inpatients (NHLBI, unpublished data from the
NHDS, 2009).
Awareness, Treatment, and Control
●
●
●
Aftermath
●
important determinant of risk over and above the current
BP level.32
Data from the FHS/NHLBI indicate that hypertension is
associated with shorter overall life expectancy, shorter life
expectancy free of CVD, and more years lived with CVD.33
●
●
Data from NHANES/NCHS 2005–2008 showed that of
those with hypertension who were ⱖ20 years of age, 79.6%
were aware of their condition, 70.9% were under current
treatment, 47.8% had their hypertension under control, and
52.2% did not have it controlled (NHLBI tabulation,
NCHS, NHANES data).
Data from NHANES 1999 –2006 showed that 11.2% of adults
ⱖ20 years of age had treated and controlled BP levels.34
Analysis of NHANES/NCHS data from 1999 –2004
through 2005–2006 found that there were substantial increases in awareness and treatment rates of hypertension.
The control rates increased in both sexes, in non-Hispanic
blacks, and in Mexican Americans. Among the group ⱖ60
years of age, awareness, treatment, and control rates of
hypertension increased significantly.5,35
In NHANES/NCHS 2005–2006, rates of control were
lower in Mexican Americans (35.2%) than in non-Hispanic
whites (46.1%) and non-Hispanic blacks (46.5%).5
The awareness, treatment, and control of HBP among those
ⱖ65 years of age in the CHS/NHLBI improved during the
1990s. The percentages of those aware of and treated for
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 7
●
HBP were higher among blacks than among whites. Prevalence rates with HBP under control were similar. For both
groups combined, the control of BP to ⬍140/90 mm Hg
increased from 37% in 1990 to 49% in 1999. Improved
control was achieved by an increase in antihypertensive
medications per person and by an increase in the proportion
of the CHS population treated for hypertension from 34.5%
to 51.1%.36
Data from the FHS of the NHLBI show that:
Prehypertension
●
●
●
— Among those ⱖ80 years of age, only 38% of men and
23% of women had BPs that met targets set forth in the
National High Blood Pressure Education Program’s
clinical guidelines. Control rates in men ⬍60, 60 to 79,
and ⱖ80 years of age were 38%, 36%, and 38%,
respectively; for women in the same age groups, they
were 38%, 28%, and 23%, respectively.37
●
●
●
●
●
●
Data from the WHI observational study of nearly 100 000
postmenopausal women across the country enrolled between 1994 and 1998 indicate that although prevalence
rates ranged from 27% of women 50 to 59 years of age to
41% of women 60 to 69 years of age to 53% of women 70
to 79 years of age, treatment rates were similar across age
groups: 64%, 65%, and 63%, respectively. Despite similar
treatment rates, hypertension control is especially poor in
older women, with only 29% of hypertensive women 70 to
79 years of age having clinic BPs ⬍140/90 mm Hg
compared with 41% and 37% of those 50 to 59 and 60 to
69 years of age, respectively.38
Among a cohort of postmenopausal women taking hormone replacement, hypertension was the most common
comorbidity, with a prevalence of 34%.39
A study of ⬎300 women in Wisconsin showed a need for
significant improvement in BP and LDL levels. Of the
screened participants, 35% were not at BP goal, 32.4%
were not at LDL goal, and 53.5% were not at both goals.40
In 2005, a survey of people in 20 states conducted by the
BRFSS of the CDC found that 19.4% of respondents had
been told on ⱖ2 visits to a health professional that they had
HBP. Of these, 70.9% reported changing their eating
habits; 79.5% reduced the use of or were not using salt;
79.2% reduced the use of or eliminated alcohol; 68.8%
were exercising; and 73.4% were taking antihypertensive
medication.41
On the basis of NHANES 2003–2004 data, it was found
that nearly three fourths of adults with CVD comorbidities
have hypertension. Poor control rates of systolic hypertension remain a principal problem that further compromises
their already high CVD risk.42
According to data from NHANES 2001–2006, nonHispanic blacks had 90% higher odds of poorly controlled
BP than non-Hispanic whites. Among those who were
hypertensive, non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans
had 40% higher odds of uncontrolled BP than nonHispanic whites.43
Cost
●
The estimated direct and indirect cost of HBP for 2008 is
$50.6 billion (MEPS, NHLBI tabulation).
e91
●
●
●
Prehypertension is untreated SBP of 120 to 139 mm Hg or
untreated DBP of 80 to 89 mm Hg and not having been told
on 2 occasions by a physician or other health professional
that one has hypertension.
Data from NHANES 1999 –2006 estimate that 29.7% of
adults ⱖ20 years of age have prehypertension.34
Follow-up of 9845 men and women in the FHS/NHLBI
who attended examinations from 1978 to 1994 revealed
that at 35 to 64 years of age, the 4-year incidence of
hypertension was 5.3% for those with baseline BP ⬍120/
80 mm Hg, 17.6% for those with SBP of 120 to
129 mm Hg or DBP of 80 to 84 mm Hg, and 37.3% for
those with SBP of 130 to 139 mm Hg or DBP of 85 to
89 mm Hg. At 65 to 94 years of age, the 4-year incidences
of hypertension were 16.0%, 25.5%, and 49.5% for these
BP categories, respectively.44
Data from FHS/NHLBI also reveal that prehypertension is
associated with elevated relative and absolute risks for
CVD outcomes across the age spectrum. Compared with
normal BP (⬍120/80 mm Hg), prehypertension was associated with a 1.5- to 2-fold increased risk for major CVD
events in those ⬍60, 60 to 79, and ⱖ80 years of age.
Absolute risks for major CVD associated with prehypertension increased markedly with age: 6-year event rates for
major CVD were 1.5% in prehypertensive people ⬍60
years of age, 4.9% in those 60 to 79 years of age, and
19.8% in those ⱖ80 years of age.37
In a study of NHANES 1999 –2000 (NCHS), people with
prehypertension were more likely than those with normal
BP levels to have above-normal cholesterol levels, overweight/obesity, and DM, whereas the probability of currently smoking was lower. People with prehypertension
were 1.65 times more likely to have 1 or more of these
adverse risk factors than were those with normal BP.45
Assessment of the REGARDS data identified high risk of
prehypertension to be associated with increased age and
black race.46
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13. Hansen ML, Gunn PW, Kaelber DC. Underdiagnosis of hypertension in
children and adolescents. JAMA. 2007;298:874 – 879.
14. Muntner P, He J, Cutler JA, Wildman RP, Whelton PK. Trends in blood
pressure among children and adolescents. JAMA. 2004;291:2107–2113.
15. Rodriguez BL, Dabelea D, Liese AD, Fujimoto W, Waitzfelder B, Liu L,
Bell R, Talton J, Snively BM, Kershnar A, Urbina E, Daniels S,
Imperatore G; SEARCH Study Group. Prevalence and correlates of
elevated blood pressure in youth with diabetes mellitus: the SEARCH for
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16. Hertz RP, Unger AN, Cornell JA, Saunders E. Racial disparities in
hypertension prevalence, awareness, and management. Arch Intern Med.
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17. Collins R, Winkleby MA. African American women and men at high and
low risk for hypertension: a signal detection analysis of NHANES III,
1988 –1994. Prev Med. 2002;35:303–312.
18. Howard G, Prineas R, Moy C, Cushman M, Kellum M, Temple E,
Graham A, Howard V. Racial and geographic differences in awareness,
treatment, and control of hypertension: the REasons for Geographic And
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19. Schiller J, Lucas J, Ward B, Peregoy J. Summary health statistics for U.S.
adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010. Vital Health Stat 10. In
press.
20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Hypertension-related
mortality among Hispanic subpopulations–United States, 1995–2002.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006;55:177–180.
21. Borrell LN. Self-reported hypertension and race among Hispanics in the
National Health Interview Survey. Ethn Dis. 2006;16:71–77.
22. Jones DW, Chambless LE, Folsom AR, Heiss G, Hutchinson RG, Sharrett
AR, Szklo M, Taylor HA Jr Risk factors for coronary heart disease in
African Americans: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study,
1987–1997. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:2565–2571.
23. Moran A, Roux AV, Jackson SA, Kramer H, Manolio TA, Shrager S,
Shea S. Acculturation is associated with hypertension in a multiethnic
sample. Am J Hypertens. 2007;20:354 –363.
24. Barnes PM, Adams PF, Powell-Griner E. Health characteristics of the
Asian adult population: United States, 2004 –2006. Advance Data From
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Health Statistics; 2008.
25. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vital Statistics Public Use
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www.cdc.gov/nchs/data_access/Vitalstatsonline.htm#Mortality_
Multiple. Accessed September 23, 2011.
25a.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health
Statistics. Health Data Interactive. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/hdi.htm.
Accessed July 19, 2011.
26. Ford ES. Trends in mortality from all causes and cardiovascular disease
among hypertensive and nonhypertensive adults in the United States.
Circulation. 2011;123:1737–1744.
27. Lackland DT, Egan BM, Mountford WK, Boan AD, Evans DA, Gilbert
G, McGee DL. Thirty-year survival for black and white hypertensive
individuals in the Evans County Heart Study and the Hypertension
Detection and Follow-up Program. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2008;2:
448 – 454.
28. Gazes PC, Lackland DT, Mountford WK, Gilbert GE, Harley RA. Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors for high brachial pulse pressure in
blacks versus whites (Charleston Heart Study, Evans County Study,
NHANES I and II Studies). Am J Cardiol. 2008;102:1514 –1517.
29. Kraft P, Bauman L, Yuan JY, Horvath S. Multivariate variancecomponents analysis of longitudinal blood pressure measurements from
the Framingham Heart Study. BMC Genet. 2003;4(suppl 1):S55.
30. Forman JP, Stampfer MJ, Curhan GC. Diet and lifestyle risk factors
associated with incident hypertension in women. JAMA. 2009;302:
401– 411.
31. Bangalore S, Kumar S, Lobach I, Messerli FH. Blood pressure targets in
subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus/impaired fasting glucose: observations from traditional and bayesian random-effects meta-analyses of
randomized trials. Circulation. 2011;123:2799 –2810.
32. Vasan RS, Massaro JM, Wilson PW, Seshadri S, Wolf PA, Levy D,
D’Agostino RB; Framingham Heart Study. Antecedent blood pressure and
risk of cardiovascular disease: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation.
2002;105:48–53.
33. Franco OH, Peeters A, Bonneux L, de Laet C. Blood pressure in
adulthood and life expectancy with cardiovascular disease in men and
women: life course analysis. Hypertension. 2005;46:280 –286.
34. Ogunniyi MO, Croft JB, Greenlund KJ, Giles WH, Mensah GA. Racial/
ethnic differences in microalbuminuria among adults with prehypertension and hypertension: National Health and Nutrition Examination
Survey (NHANES), 1999 –2006. Am J Hypertens. 2010;23:859 – 864.
35. Ong KL, Cheung BM, Man YB, Lau CP, Lam KS. Prevalence,
awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among United States
adults 1999 –2004. Hypertension. 2007;49:69 –75.
36. Psaty BM, Manolio TA, Smith NL, Heckbert SR, Gottdiener JS, Burke
GL, Weissfeld J, Enright P, Lumley T, Powe N, Furberg CD. Time trends
in high blood pressure control and the use of antihypertensive medications in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Arch Intern
Med. 2002;162:2325–2332.
37. Lloyd-Jones DM, Evans JC, Levy D. Hypertension in adults across the
age spectrum: current outcomes and control in the community. JAMA.
2005;294:466 – 472.
38. Wassertheil-Smoller S, Anderson G, Psaty BM, Black HR, Manson J,
Wong N, Francis J, Grimm R, Kotchen T, Langer R, Lasser N. Hypertension and its treatment in postmenopausal women: baseline data from
the Women’s Health Initiative. Hypertension. 2000;36:780 –789.
39. Hawkins K, Mittapally R, Chang J, Nahum GG, Gricar J. Burden of
illness of hypertension among women using menopausal hormone therapy: a US perspective. Curr Med Res Opin. 2010;26:2823–2832.
40. Sanchez RJ, Khalil L. Badger Heart Program: health screenings targeted
to increase cardiovascular awareness in women at four northern sites in
Wisconsin. WMJ. 2005;104:24 –29.
41. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevalence of actions
to control high blood pressure–20 states, 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal
Wkly Rep. 2007;56:420 – 423.
42. Wong ND, Lopez VA, L’Italien G, Chen R, Kline SE, Franklin SS.
Inadequate control of hypertension in US adults with cardiovascular
disease comorbidities in 2003–2004. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:
2431–2436.
43. Redmond N, Baer HJ, Hicks LS. Health behaviors and racial disparity in
blood pressure control in the National Health and Nutrition Examination
Survey. Hypertension. 2011;57:383–389.
44. Vasan RS, Larson MG, Leip EP, Kannel WB, Levy D. Assessment of
frequency of progression to hypertension in non-hypertensive participants
in the Framingham Heart Study: a cohort study. Lancet. 2001;358:
1682–1686.
45. Greenlund KJ, Croft JB, Mensah GA. Prevalence of heart disease and
stroke risk factors in persons with prehypertension in the United States,
1999 –2000. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:2113–2118.
46. Glasser SP, Judd S, Basile J, Lackland D, Halanych J, Cushman M,
Prineas R, Howard V, Howard G. Prehypertension, racial prevalence and
its association with risk factors: analysis of the REasons for Geographic
And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Am J Hypertens.
2011;24:194 –199.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 7
Table 7-1.
High Blood Pressure
Prevalence,
2008: Age ⱖ20 y
Population Group
Mortality,*
2008: All Ages
Hospital Discharges,
2009: All Ages
Estimated
Cost, 2008
Both sexes
76 400 000 (33.5%)
61 005
579 000
$50.6 billion
Males
36 500 000 (34.1%)
26 776 (43.9%)†
260 000
...
Females
39 900 000 (32.7%)
34 229 (56.1%)†
319 000
...
NH white males
33.9%
19 576
...
...
NH white females
31.3%
26 342
...
...
NH black males
43.0%
6370
...
...
NH black females
45.7%
7002
...
...
Mexican American males
27.8%
...
...
...
Mexican American females
28.9%
...
...
...
Hispanic or Latino‡
24.7%
...
...
...
Asian‡
20.5%
...
...
American Indian/Alaska Native‡
30.0%
...
...
Ellipses (. . .) indicate data not available; NH, non-Hispanic.
*Mortality data for the white, black, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native populations
include deaths among persons of Hispanic and non-Hispanic origin. Numbers of deaths for the American Indian/Alaska
Native and Asian or Pacific Islander populations are known to be underestimated.
†These percentages represent the portion of total high blood pressure mortality that is for males vs females.
‡National Health Interview Survey (2010), National Center for Health Statistics; data are weighted percentages for
Americans ⱖ18 years of age. Source: Schiller et al.19
Sources: Prevalence: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005–2008, National Center for Health
Statistics) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Percentages for racial/ethnic groups are age adjusted for
Americans ⱖ20 years of age. Age-specific percentages are extrapolated to the 2008 US population estimates.
Mortality: National Center for Health Statistics. These data represent underlying cause of death only. Hospital
discharges: National Hospital Discharge Survey, National Center for Health Statistics; data include those discharged
alive, dead, or status unknown. Cost: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data include estimated direct costs for 2007;
indirect costs calculated by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute for 2007.
Hypertension is defined in terms of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey blood pressure measurements
and health interviews. A subject was considered hypertensive if systolic blood pressure was ⱖ140 mm Hg or diastolic
blood pressure was ⱖ90 mm Hg, if the subject said “yes” to taking antihypertensive medication, or if the subject was
told on 2 occasions that he or she had hypertension.
Table 7-2. Hypertension Awareness, Treatment, and Control: NHANES 1988 –1994 and
1999 –2008, by Race and Sex
Awareness, %
Treatment, %
Control, %
1988 –1994
1999 –2008
1988 –1994
1999 –2008
1988 –1994
1999 –2008
NH white male
63.0
73.5
46.2
63.8
22.0
44.1
NH white female
74.7
78.2
61.6
70.0
32.2
42.7
NH black male
62.5
70.8
42.3
60.3
16.6
35.2
NH black female
77.8
85.8
64.6
77.0
30.0
45.3
Mexican American male
47.8
59.5
30.9
46.1
13.5
30.3
Mexican American female
69.3
70.1
47.8
59.9
19.4
34.2
NHANES indicates National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; NH, non-Hispanic.
Sources: NHANES (1988 –1994, 1999 –2008) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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90
78.5
80
69.3
70
66.7
Percent of Population
64.0
60
54.0
53.3
50
40
37.1
30
35.2
25.1
19.0
20
11.1
10
6.8
0
20-34
35-44
45-54
55-64
65-74
75+
Age (Years)
Male
Female
Chart 7-1. Prevalence of high blood pressure in adults ⱖ20 years of age by age and sex (National Health and Nutrition Examination
Survey: 2005–2008). Hypertension is defined as systolic blood pressure ⬎140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ⬎90 mm Hg, taking
antihypertensive medication, or being told twice by a physician or other professional that one has hypertension. Source: National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
50
42.9
45
40.2
38.6
40
38.2
37.5
35
Percent of Population
41.5
30.5
28.3
28.2
30
25
26.9
27.7
25.6
26.8
25.7
24.6
22.9
25.0
25.0
20
15
10
5
0
NH White Men
NH White Women
NH Black Men
1988-1994
NH Black Women
1999-2004
Mexican
American Men
Mexican
American Women
2005-2008
Chart 7-2. Age-adjusted prevalence trends for high blood pressure in adults ⱖ20 years of age by race/ethnicity, sex, and survey
(National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 1988 –1994, 1999 –2004, and 2005–2008). NH indicates non-Hispanic. Source:
National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 7
e95
100
90
Percent of Population With Hypertension
80
79.6
80.2
82.0
70.9
72.0
73.4
67.5
70
57.5
60
47.8
50
49.3
46.1
39.3
40
30
20
10
0
Awareness
Treatment
Total Population
NH Whites
Controlled
NH Blacks
Mexican Americans
Chart 7-3. Extent of awareness, treatment, and control of high blood pressure by race/ethnicity (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 2005–2008). NH indicates non-Hispanic. Source: National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung, and Blood
Institute.
100
90
82.9
80.0
78.4
Percert of Population with Hypertension
80
68.2
70
60.1
60
50.5
48.0
50
42.1
40
35.2
30
20
10
0
Awareness
Treatment
Control
Age (Years)
20-39
40-59
60+
Chart 7-4. Extent of awareness, treatment, and control of high blood pressure by age (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 2005–2008). Source: National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Downloaded from http://circ.ahajournals.org/ at University of Kentucky--Lexington on January 31, 2012
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100
Percent of Population With Hypertension
90
85.8
78.2
80
77.0
73.5
70.8
70.1
70.0
70
63.8
60
59.5
60.3
50
59.9
46.1
40
44.1
45.3
42.7
35.2
34.2
30.3
30
20
10
0
Awareness
NH White Males
NH Black Females
Treatment
Controlled
NH White Females
Mexican-American Males
NH Black Males
Mexican-American Females
Chart 7-5. Extent of awareness, treatment, and control of high blood pressure by race/ethnicity and sex (National Health and Nutrition
Examination Survey: 1999 –2008). NH indicates non-Hispanic. Source: National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung,
and Blood Institute.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 8
8. Congenital Cardiovascular Defects
ICD-9 745 to 747, ICD-10 Q20 to Q28. See Tables 8-1
through 8-4.
Congenital cardiovascular defects, also known as congenital
heart defects, are structural problems that arise from abnormal formation of the heart or major blood vessels. ICD-9 lists
25 congenital heart defects codes, of which 21 designate
specified anatomic or hemodynamic lesions.
Defects range in severity from tiny pinholes between chambers that may resolve spontaneously to major malformations that
can require multiple surgical procedures before school age and
may result in death in utero, in infancy, or in childhood. The
common complex defects include the following:
●
●
●
●
●
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)
Transposition of the great arteries (TGA)
Atrioventricular (AV) septal defects
Coarctation of the aorta
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
Congenital heart defects are serious and common conditions
that have significant impact on morbidity, mortality, and
healthcare costs in children and adults.1– 4
available for new cases detected between birth and the first
year of life, birth prevalence is the best proxy for incident
congenital heart defects. These are typically reported as cases
per 1000 live births per year and do not distinguish between
tiny defects that resolve without treatment and major malformations. To distinguish more serious defects, some studies
also report new cases of sufficient severity to require an
invasive procedure or that result in death within the first year
of life. Despite the absence of true incidence figures, some
data are available and are provided in Table 8-2.
●
●
●
Incidence
The most commonly reported incidence of congenital heart
defects in the United States is between 4 and 10 per 1000,
clustering around 8 per 1000 live births.5,6 Variations in
reported number of incident cases are largely accounted for
by the age at detection and the method of diagnosis. Major
defects may be apparent in the prenatal or neonatal period,
but minor defects may not be detected until adulthood.
Detection rates have increased since the advent of cardiac
ultrasound.4 Thus, true measures of the incidence of congenital HD would need to record new cases of defects that
present from fetal life onward. Because most estimates are
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 8
ASD
atrial septal defect
AV
atrioventricular
CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CHD
coronary heart disease
CI
confidence interval
DM
diabetes mellitus
HD
heart disease
HPLHS
hypoplastic left heart syndrome
ICD-9
International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision
ICD-10
International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision
MACDP
Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program
NCHS
National Center for Health Statistics
NH
non-Hispanic
NHLBI
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
TGA
transposition of the great arteries
TOF
tetralogy of Fallot
VSD
ventricular septal defect
e97
●
●
Using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta
Congenital Defects Program (MACDP) in metropolitan
Atlanta, GA, congenital heart defects occurred in 1 of every
111 to 125 births (live, still, or ⬎20 weeks’ gestation) from
1995 to 1997 and from 1998 to 2005, with variations in sex
and racial distribution of some lesions.4,5
Analysis of contemporary birth cohorts with MACDP data
revealed that the most common defects at birth were
ventricular septal defect (VSD; 4.2/1000), atrial septal
defect (ASD; 1.3/1000), valvar pulmonic stenosis (0.6/
1000); TOF (0.5/1000), aortic coarctation (0.4/1000), AV
septal defect (0.4/1000), and TGA (0.2/1000).5,7
An estimated minimum of 32 000 infants are expected to
be affected each year in the United States. Of these, an
approximate 25%, or 2.4 per 1000 live births, require
invasive treatment in the first year of life.1
Estimates also are available for bicuspid aortic valves,
which occur in 13.7 per 1000 people; these defects may not
require treatment in infancy but can cause problems later in
adulthood.8
Data collected by the National Birth Defects Prevention
Network from 11 states from 1999 to 2001 showed the
average prevalence of 18 selected major birth defects. These
data indicated that there are ⬎6500 estimated annual cases of
5 cardiovascular defects: truncus arteriosus, TGA, TOF, AV
septal defect, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome.9
Prevalence
The 32nd Bethesda Conference estimated that the total
number of adults living with congenital HD in the United
States in 2000 was 800 000.2,3 In the United States, 1 in 150
adults are expected to have some form of congenital HD.3
Nearly 2 decades ago, the estimated number of children with
congenital heart defects in the United States was 600 000.1 In
population data from Canada, the measured prevalence of
congenital cardiac defects in the general population was 11.89
per 1000 children and 4.09 per 1000 adults in the year 2000.10
Extrapolated to the US population in the same year, this yields
published estimates of 859 000 children and 850 000 adults over
a decade ago,7 with expected growth rates of the congenital heart
defects population varying from 1% to 5% per year depending
on the age and distribution of lesions.2,10
Estimates of the distribution of lesions in the congenital
heart defects population using available data vary with
assumptions made. If all those born were treated, there would
be 750 000 survivors with simple lesions, 400 000 with
moderate lesions, and 180 000 with complex lesions; in
addition, there would be 3 000 000 subjects alive with bicus-
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pid aortic valves.11 Without treatment, the number of survivors in each group would be 400 000, 220 000, and 30 000,
respectively. The actual numbers surviving are projected to
be between these 2 sets of estimates as of 1 decade ago.11
Using measurements from population data in Canada, the
prevalence of severe forms of congenital heart defects increased 85% in adults and 22% in children from 1985 to
2000.10 The most common types of defects in children are (at
a minimum) VSD, 620 000 people; ASD, 235 000 people;
valvular pulmonary stenosis, 185 000 people; and patent
ductus arteriosus, 173 000 people.11 The most common lesions seen in adults are ASD and TOF.2
Mortality
Mortality related to congenital cardiovascular defects in 2008
was 3415. Any-mention mortality related to congenital cardiovascular defects in 2008 was 5359.21
●
●
Risk Factors
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Numerous intrinsic and extrinsic nongenetic risk factors
contribute to CHD.12
Attributable risks or fractions have been shown to include
paternal anesthesia in TOF (3.6%), sympathomimetic medication for coarctation of the aorta (5.8%), pesticides for
VSD (5.5%), and solvents for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (4.6%).13
A study of infants born with heart defects unrelated to
genetic syndromes who were included in the National Birth
Defects Prevention Study found that women who reported
smoking in the month before becoming pregnant or in the
first trimester were more likely to give birth to a child with
a septal defect. Compared with the infants of mothers who
did not smoke during pregnancy, infants of mothers who
were heavy smokers (ⱖ25 cigarettes daily) were twice as
likely to have a septal defect.14
Data from the Baltimore-Washington Infant Study reported
that maternal smoking during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with at least a 30% increased risk of
the following lesions in the fetus: ASD, pulmonary valvar
stenosis, truncus arteriosus, and TGA.15
Associations between exposure to air pollutants during firsttrimester pregnancy and risks of congenital heart defects were
documented from 1986 to 2003 by the MACDP that related
carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide measurements to the risk of ASD, VSD, TGA, and TOF.16
The results of a population-based study examining pregnancy obesity found a weak to moderate positive association of maternal obesity with 7 of 16 categories of birth
defects, including heart defects.17
Although folic acid supplementation is recommended during pregnancy to potentially reduce the risk of congenital
heart defects,12 there has been only 1 US population-based
case-control study, performed with the BaltimoreWashington Infant Study between 1981 and 1989, that
showed an inverse relationship between folic acid use and
the risk of TGA.18 A study from Quebec, Canada, that
analyzed 1.3 million births from 1990 to 2005 found a
significant 6% per year reduction in severe congenital heart
defects using a time-trend analysis before and after public
health measures were instituted that mandated folic acid
fortification of grain and flour products in Canada.19
Pregestational DM was significantly associated with cardiac defects, both isolated and multiple. Gestational DM
was associated with a limited group of birth defects.20
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Congenital cardiovascular defects are the most common
cause of infant death resulting from birth defects; ⬎24% of
infants who die of a birth defect have a heart defect.21
The mortality rate attributable to congenital heart defects in
the United States has continued to decline from 1979 to
1997 and from 1999 to 2006. Age-adjusted death rates
attributable to all congenital heart defects declined 21% to
39%, and deaths tended to occur at progressively older
ages. Nevertheless, mortality in infants ⬍1 year of age
continues to account for nearly half of the deaths, with
persistence of ethnicity differences revealing higher mortality rates in non-Hispanic blacks.15,22
When CDC death registry data were used to examine
mortality in cyanotic and acyanotic lesions between 1979
and 2005, all-age mortality rates had declined by 60% for
VSD and 40% for TOF.23
In population-based data from Canada, 8123 deaths occurred among 71 686 congenital HD patients followed up
for nearly 1 million patient-years. Overall mortality decreased by 31%, and the median age of death increased
from 2 to 23 years between 1987 and 2005.24
The 2008 death rate attributable to congenital cardiovascular defects was 1.1. Death rates were 1.2 for white males,
1.5 for black males, 1.0 for white females, and 1.2 for black
females. Infant mortality rates (⬍1 year of age) were 34.9
for white infants and 46.5 for black infants.21
According to CDC multiple-cause death data, from 1999 to
2006, sex differences in mortality over time varied with
age. Between the ages of 18 and 34 years, mortality over
time decreased significantly in females but not in males.25
On the basis of data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project’s Kids’ Inpatient Database from 2000, 2003,
and 2006, male children had more congenital heart defect
surgeries in infancy, more high-risk surgeries, and more
procedures to correct multiple congenital heart defects.
Female infants with high risk congenital heart defects had
a 39% higher adjusted mortality.26
In 2007, 189 000 life-years were lost before 55 years of age
because of deaths attributable to congenital cardiovascular
defects. This is almost as many as life-years as were lost
from leukemia and asthma combined (NHLBI tabulation of
NCHS mortality data).
Data from the Pediatric Heart Network conducted in 15
North American centers revealed that even in lesions
associated with the highest mortality among congenital
lesions, such as hypoplastic left heart syndrome, aggressive
palliation can lead to an increase in the 12-month survival
rate from 64% to 74%.27
Data analysis from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons, a
voluntary registry with self-reported data for a 4-year cycle
(2006 –2009) from 68 centers performing congenital heart
surgery (67 from the United States and 1 from Canada),
showed that for 88 989 total operations, the overall aggregate hospital discharge mortality rate was 3.6%28; specifi-
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 8
●
cally, for neonates (0 –30 days of age), the mortality rate
was 10.2%29; for infants (31 days to 1 year of age), it was
2.8%30; for children (⬎1 year to 18 years of age), it was
1.1%31; and for adults (⬎18 years of age), it was 1.8%.32
Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 1988 –2003, mortality was examined for 12 congenital heart defects procedures. A total of 30 250 operations were identified, which
yielded a national estimate of 152 277⫾7875 operations.
Of these, 27% were performed in patients ⱖ18 years of
age. The overall in-hospital mortality rate for adult congenital heart defect patients was 4.71% (95% CI 4.19% to
5.23%), with a significant reduction in mortality observed
when surgery was performed on adult congenital heart
defect patients by pediatric versus nonpediatric heart surgeons (1.87% versus 4.84%; P⬍0.0001).33
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Hospitalizations
In 2004, birth defects accounted for ⬎139 000 hospitalizations, representing 47.4 stays per 100 000 people. Cardiac
and circulatory congenital anomalies accounted for 34% of
all hospital stays for birth defects. Although the most common congenital lesions were shunts, including patent ductus
arteriosus, VSDs, and ASDs, TOF accounted for a higher
proportion of in-hospital death than any other birth defect.
Between 1997 and 2004, hospitalization rates increased by
28.5% for cardiac and circulatory congenital anomalies.34
●
12.
13.
14.
15.
Cost
●
11.
From 2003 data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization
Project 2003 Kids’ Inpatient Database and information on
birth defects in the Congenital Malformations Surveillance
Report, it was found that the most expensive average neonatal
hospital charges were for 2 congenital heart defects: hypoplastic left heart syndrome ($199 597) and common truncus
arteriosus ($192 781). Two other cardiac defects, coarctation
of the aorta and TGA, were associated with average hospital
charges in excess of $150 000. For the 11 selected cardiovascular congenital defects (of 35 birth defects considered), there
were 11 578 hospitalizations in 2003 and 1550 in-hospital
deaths (13.4%). Estimated total hospital charges for these 11
conditions were $1.4 billion.35
In 2004, hospital costs for congenital cardiovascular defect
conditions totaled $2.6 billion. The highest aggregate costs
were for stays related to cardiac and circulatory congenital
anomalies, which accounted for ⬇$1.4 billion, more than
half of all hospital costs for birth defects.34
References
1. Moller J. Prevalence and incidence of cardiac malformation. In: Moller
JH, ed. Perspectives in Pediatric Cardiology: Surgery of Congenital
Heart Disease: Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium, 1984 –1995.
Armonk, NY: Futura Publishing; 1998:19 –26.
2. Warnes CA, Liberthson R, Danielson GK, Dore A, Harris L, Hoffman JI,
Somerville J, Williams RG, Webb GD. Task force 1: the changing profile
of congenital heart disease in adult life. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;37:
1170 –1175.
3. Warnes CA, Williams RG, Bashore TM, Child JS, Connolly HM, Dearani
JA, del Nido P, Fasules JW, Graham TP Jr, Hijazi ZM, Hunt SA, King
ME, Landzberg MJ, Miner PD, Radford MJ, Walsh EP, Webb GD.
ACC/AHA 2008 guidelines for the management of adults with congenital
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Botto LD, Correa A, Erickson JD. Racial and temporal variations in the
prevalence of heart defects. Pediatrics. 2001;107:E32.
Reller MD, Strickland MJ, Riehle-Colarusso T, Mahle WT, Correa A.
Prevalence of congenital heart defects in metropolitan Atlanta,
1998 –2005. J Pediatr. 2008;153:807– 813.
Roguin N, Du ZD, Barak M, Nasser N, Hershkowitz S, Milgram E. High
prevalence of muscular ventricular septal defect in neonates. J Am Coll
Cardiol. 1995;26:1545–1548.
Marelli AJ, Therrien J, Mackie AS, Ionescu-Ittu R, Pilote L. Planning the
specialized care of adult congenital heart disease patients: from numbers
to guidelines: an epidemiologic approach. Am Heart J. 2009;157:1– 8.
Hoffman JI, Kaplan S. The incidence of congenital heart disease. J Am
Coll Cardiol. 2002;39:1890 –1900.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Improved national
prevalence estimates for 18 selected major birth defects–United States,
1999 –2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006;54:1301–1305.
Marelli AJ, Mackie AS, Ionescu-Ittu R, Rahme E, Pilote L. Congenital
heart disease in the general population: changing prevalence and age
distribution. Circulation. 2007;115:163–172.
Hoffman JI, Kaplan S, Liberthson RR. Prevalence of congenital heart
disease. Am Heart J. 2004;147:425– 439.
Jenkins KJ, Correa A, Feinstein JA, Botto L, Britt AE, Daniels SR,
Elixson M, Warnes CA, Webb CL. Noninherited risk factors and congenital cardiovascular defects: current knowledge: a scientific statement
from the American Heart Association Council on Cardiovascular Disease
in the Young. Circulation. 2007;115:2995–3014.
Wilson PD, Loffredo CA, Correa-Villaseñor A, Ferencz C. Attributable
fraction for cardiac malformations. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;148:414 – 423.
Malik S, Cleves MA, Honein MA, Romitti PA, Botto LD, Yang S, Hobbs
CA. Maternal smoking and congenital heart defects. Pediatrics. 2008;
121:e810 – e816.
Alverson CJ, Strickland MJ, Gilboa SM, Correa A. Maternal smoking and
congenital heart defects in the Baltimore-Washington Infant Study.
Pediatrics. 2011;127:e647– e653.
Strickland MJ, Klein M, Correa A, Reller MD, Mahle WT, RiehleColarusso TJ, Botto LD, Flanders WD, Mulholland JA, Siffel C, Marcus
M, Tolbert PE. Ambient air pollution and cardiovascular malformations
in Atlanta, Georgia, 1986 –2003. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;169:1004 –1014.
Waller DK, Shaw GM, Rasmussen SA, Hobbs CA, Canfield MA,
Siega-Riz AM, Gallaway MS, Correa A; for the National Birth Defects
Prevention Study. Prepregnancy obesity as a risk factor for structural birth
defects. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161:745–750.
Scanlon KS, Ferencz C, Loffredo CA, Wilson PD, Correa-Villaseñor A,
Khoury MJ, Willett WC; Baltimore-Washington Infant Study Group.
Preconceptional folate intake and malformations of the cardiac outflow
tract. Epidemiology. 1998;9:95–98.
Ionescu-Ittu R, Marelli AJ, Mackie AS, Pilote L. Prevalence of severe
congenital heart disease after folic acid fortification of grain products:
time trend analysis in Quebec, Canada. BMJ. 2009;338:b1673.
Correa A, Gilboa SM, Besser LM, Botto LD, Moore CA, Hobbs CA,
Cleves MA, Riehle-Colarusso TJ, Waller DK, Reece EA. Diabetes
mellitus and birth defects. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;199:
237.e231– e239.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vital Statistics Public Use
Data Files - 2008 Mortality Multiple Cause Files. Available at: http://
www.cdc.gov/nchs/data_access/Vitalstatsonline.htm#Mortality_
Multiple. Accessed September 23, 2011.
Boneva RS, Botto LD, Moore CA, Yang Q, Correa A, Erickson JD.
Mortality associated with congenital heart defects in the United States:
trends and racial disparities, 1979 –1997. Circulation. 2001;103:
2376 –2381.
Pillutla P, Shetty KD, Foster E. Mortality associated with adult congenital
heart disease: trends in the US population from 1979 to 2005. Am Heart J.
2009;158:874 – 879.
Khairy P, Ionescu-Ittu R, Mackie AS, Abrahamowicz M, Pilote L, Marelli
AJ. Changing mortality in congenital heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol.
2010;56:1149 –1157.
Gilboa SM, Salemi JL, Nembhard WN, Fixler DE, Correa A. Mortality
resulting from congenital heart disease among children and adults in the
United States, 1999 to 2006. Circulation. 2010;122:2254 –2263.
Marelli A, Gauvreau K, Landzberg M, Jenkins K. Sex differences in
mortality in children undergoing congenital heart disease surgery: a
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United States population-based study. Circulation. 2010;122(suppl):
S234 –S240.
Ohye RG, Sleeper LA, Mahony L, Newburger JW, Pearson GD, Lu M,
Goldberg CS, Tabbutt S, Frommelt PC, Ghanayem NS, Laussen PC,
Rhodes JF, Lewis AB, Mital S, Ravishankar C, Williams IA, DunbarMasterson C, Atz AM, Colan S, Minich LL, Pizarro C, Kanter KR,
Jaggers J, Jacobs JP, Krawczeski CD, Pike N, McCrindle BW, Virzi L,
Gaynor JW; Pediatric Heart Network Investigators. Comparison of shunt
types in the Norwood procedure for single-ventricle lesions. N Engl
J Med. 2010;362:1980 –1992.
Society of Thoracic Surgeons. STS congenital heart surgery data summary: July 2006 –June 2010 procedures: all patients. Society of Thoracic
Surgeons Web site. http://www.sts.org/sites/default/files/documents/
STSCONG-AllPatientsSummary_Fall2010.pdf. Accessed July 18, 2011.
Society of Thoracic Surgeons. STS congenital heart surgery data summary: July 2006 –June 2010 procedures: neonates (0 –30 days). Society of
Thoracic Surgeons Web site. http://www.sts.org/sites/default/files/
documents/STSCONG-NeonatesSummary_Fall2010.pdf. Accessed July
18, 2011.
Society of Thoracic Surgeons. STS congenital heart surgery data summary:
July 2006 –June 2010 procedures: infants (31 days–1 year). Society of
Thoracic Surgeons Web site. http://www.sts.org/sites/default/files/
documents/STSCONG-InfantsSummary_Fall2010.pdf. Accessed July 18,
2011.
Society of Thoracic Surgeons. STS congenital heart surgery data summary: July 2006 –June 2010 procedures: children (⬎1 year to ⬍18 years).
Society of Thoracic Surgeons Web site. http://www.sts.org/sites/default/
Table 8-1.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
files/documents/STSCONG-ChildrenSummary_Fall2010.pdf. Accessed
July 18, 2011.
Society of Thoracic Surgeons. STS congenital heart surgery data summary: July 2006 –June 2010 procedures: adult (18 years⫹). Society of
Thoracic Surgeons Web site. http://www.sts.org/sites/default/files/
documents/STSCONG-AdultsSummary_Fall2010.pdf. Accessed July 18,
2011.
Karamlou T, Diggs BS, Person T, Ungerleider RM, Welke KF. National
practice patterns for management of adult congenital heart disease:
operation by pediatric heart surgeons decreases in-hospital death.
Circulation. 2008;118:2345–2352.
Russo CA, Elixhauser A. Hospitalizations for Birth Defects, 2004. HCUP
Statistical Brief No. 24. Rockville, MD: US Agency for Healthcare
Research and Quality; January 2007. http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/
reports/statbriefs/sb24.pdf. Accessed July 18, 2011.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Hospital stays,
hospital charges, and in-hospital deaths among infants with selected birth
defects–United States, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007;56:
25–29.
Sands AJ, Casey FA, Craig BG, Dornan JC, Rogers J, Mulholland HC.
Incidence and risk factors for ventricular septal defect in “low risk”
neonates. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1999;81:F61–F63.
Larson EW, Edwards WD. Risk factors for aortic dissection: a necropsy
study of 161 cases. Am J Cardiol. 1984;53:849 – 855.
Kids’ Inpatient Database, HCUPnet, Healthcare Cost and Utilization
Project, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. http://www.hcupus.ahrq.gov/kidoverview.jsp. Accessed November 7, 2011.
Congenital Cardiovascular Defects
Population Group
Estimated
Prevalence,
2002: All Ages
Mortality,
2008: All
Ages
Hospital
Discharges,
2009:
All Ages
Both sexes
650 000 to 1.3 million11
3415
52 000
Males
...
1839 (53.9%)*
25 000
Females
...
1576 (46.1%)*
27 000
NH white males
...
1427
...
NH white females
...
1236
...
NH black males
...
335
...
Type of Presentation
NH black females
...
270
...
Fetal loss
Ellipses (. . .) indicate data not available; NH, non-Hispanic.
*These percentages represent the portion of total congenital cardiovascular
mortality that is for males vs females.
Sources: Mortality: National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). These data
represent underlying cause of death only; data for white and black males and
females include Hispanics. Hospital discharges: National Hospital Discharge Survey,
NCHS; data include those inpatients discharged alive, dead, or status unknown.
Table 8-2. Annual Birth Prevalence of Congenital
Cardiovascular Defects in the United States1,4,6,8,36,37
Invasive procedure during
the first year
Detected during first year*
Bicuspid aortic valve
Rate per 1000 Live Births
Estimated N
(Variable With
Yearly Birth Rate)
Unknown
Unknown
2.4
9200
8
36 000
13.7
54 800
*Includes stillbirths and pregnancy termination at ⬍20 weeks’ gestation;
includes some defects that resolve spontaneously or do not require treatment.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 8
Table 8-3. Estimated Prevalence of Congenital Cardiovascular Defects and Percent Distribution by Type, United
States, 2002* (in Thousands)
Prevalence, n
Percent of Total
Type
Total
Children
Adults
Total
994
463
526
Total
VSD†
199
93
106
20.1
20.1
ASD
187
78
109
18.8
16.8
20.6
Patent ductus arteriosus
144
58
86
14.2
12.4
16.3
Valvular pulmonic stenosis
134
58
76
13.5
12.6
14.4
Coarctation of aorta
76
31
44
7.6
6.8
8.4
Valvular aortic stenosis
54
25
28
5.4
5.5
5.2
TOF
61
32
28
6.1
7
5.4
100
Children
100
Adults
100
20.1
Atrioventricular septal defect
31
18
13
3.1
3.9
2.5
TGA
26
17
9
2.6
3.6
1.8
Hypoplastic right heart syndrome
22
12
10
2.2
2.5
1.9
Double-outlet right ventricle
9
9
0
0.9
1.9
0.1
Single ventricle
8
6
2
0.8
1.4
0.3
Anomalous pulmonary venous connection
9
5
3
0.9
1.2
0.6
Truncus arteriosus
9
6
2
0.7
1.3
0.5
HPLHS
3
3
0
0.3
0.7
0
Other
22
12
10
2.1
2.6
1.9
VSD indicates ventricular septal defect; ASD, atrial septal defect; TOF, tetralogy of Fallot; TGA, transposition of the great arteries; and
HPLHS, hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
*Excludes an estimated 3 million bicuspid aortic valve prevalence (2 million in adults and 1 million in children).
†Small VSD, 117 000 (65 000 adults and 52 000 children); large VSD, 82 000 (41 000 adults and 41 000 children).
Source: Reprinted from Hoffman et al,11 with permission from Elsevier. Average of the low and high estimates, two thirds from low
estimate.11
Table 8-4.
Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease
Sample
Surgery for congenital heart disease
Deaths
Mortality rate, %
Population, Weighted
14 888
25 831
736
1253
4.9
4.8
By sex (81 missing in sample)
Males
Deaths
Mortality rate, %
Females
Deaths
Mortality rate, %
8127
14 109
420
714
5.2
5.1
6680
11 592
315
539
4.7
4.6
By type of surgery
ASD secundum surgery
834
1448
Deaths
3
6
Mortality rate, %
0.4
0.4
Norwood procedure for HPLHS
161
286
Deaths
42
72
Mortality rate, %
26.1
25.2
ASD indicates atrial septal defect; HPLHS, hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
In 2003, 25 000 cardiovascular operations for congenital cardiovascular
defects were performed on children ⬍20 years of age. Inpatient mortality rate
after all types of cardiac surgery was 4.8%. Nevertheless, mortality risk varies
substantially for different defect types, from 0.4% for ASD repair to 25.2% for
first-stage palliation for HPLHS. Fifty-five percent of operations were performed
in males. In unadjusted analysis, mortality after cardiac surgery was somewhat
higher for males than for females (5.1% vs 4.6%).
Source: Analysis of 2003 Kids’ Inpatient Database38 and personal communication
with Kathy Jenkins, MD, Children’s Hospital of Boston, MA, October 1, 2006.
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January 3/10, 2012
9. Cardiomyopathy and Heart Failure
See Table 9-1 and Charts 9-1 through 9-3.
Cardiomyopathy
ICD-9 425; ICD-10 I42.
●
Mortality—24 703. Any-mention mortality— 48 579. Hospital discharges—52 000.
●
Since 1996, the NHLBI-sponsored Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry has collected data on all children with newly
diagnosed cardiomyopathy in New England and the Central Southwest (Texas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas).1
— The overall incidence of cardiomyopathy is 1.13 cases
per 100 000 among children ⬍18 years of age.
— Among children ⬍1 year of age, the incidence is 8.34,
and among children 1 to 18 years of age, it is 0.70 per
100 000.
— The annual incidence is lower in white than in black
children, higher in boys than in girls, and higher in New
England (1.44 per 100 000) than in the Central Southwest (0.98 per 100 000).
●
●
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common
inherited heart defect, occurring in 1 of 500 individuals. In
the United States, ⬇500 000 people have HCM, yet most
are unaware of it.2 See Chapter 10, Disorders of Heart
Rhythm, for statistics regarding sudden death in HCM.
In a recent report of the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry, the overall annual incidence of HCM in children was
●
4.7 per 1 million children. There was a higher incidence in
the New England than in the Central Southwest region, in
boys than in girls, and in children diagnosed at ⬍1 year of
age than in older children.3
Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most common form of
cardiomyopathy. The Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry
recently reported an annual incidence of dilated cardiomyopathy in children ⬍18 years of age of 0.57 per 100 000
overall. The annual incidence was higher in boys than in
girls (0.66 versus 0.47 cases per 100 000), in blacks than in
whites (0.98 versus 0.46 cases per 100 000), and in infants
(⬍1 year of age) than in children (4.40 versus 0.34 cases
per 100 000). The majority of children (66%) had idiopathic disease. The most common known causes were
myocarditis (46%) and neuromuscular disease (26%).4
Tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy develops slowly and
appears reversible, but recurrent tachycardia causes rapid
decline in left ventricular function and development of HF.
Sudden death is possible.5
Heart Failure
ICD-9 428; ICD-10 I50.
Prevalence
●
●
●
Abbreviations for Chapter 9
On the basis of data from NHANES 2005–2008, an
estimated 5 700 000 Americans ⱖ20 years of age have HF
(NCHS, unpublished NHLBI tabulation; Table 9-1;
Chart 9-1).
Projections of crude prevalence show that in 2010, ⬇6.6
million US adults ⱖ18 years of age (2.8%) had HF.6
It is estimated that by 2030, an additional 3 million people
will have HF, a 25.0% increase in prevalence from 2010.6
ABC
Aging, Body and Composition
Incidence
ARIC
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study
●
BP
blood pressure
CARDIA
Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study
CHS
Cardiovascular Health Study
CVD
cardiovascular disease
DM
diabetes mellitus
EF
ejection fraction
FHS
Framingham Heart Study
HbA1c
hemoglobin A1c
HCM
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
HF
heart failure
ICD-9
International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision
ICD-10
International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision
MESA
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
MI
Myocardial infarction
NCHS
National Center for Health Statistics
NH
Non-Hispanic
NHAMCS
National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey
NHANES
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NHDS
National Hospital Discharge Survey
NHLBI
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
PAR
Population-attributable risk
Data from the NHLBI-sponsored FHS7 indicate the following:
— HF incidence approaches 10 per 1000 population after
65 years of age.
— Seventy-five percent of HF cases have antecedent
hypertension.
— At 40 years of age, the lifetime risk of developing HF
for both men and women is 1 in 5. At 80 years of age,
remaining lifetime risk for development of new HF
remains at 20% for men and women, even in the face of
a much shorter life expectancy.
— At 40 years of age, the lifetime risk of HF occurring
without antecedent MI is 1 in 9 for men and 1 in 6 for
women.
— The lifetime risk for people with BP ⬎160/90 mm Hg
is double that of those with BP ⬍140/90 mm Hg.
●
The annual rates per 1000 population of new HF events for
white men are 15.2 for those 65 to 74 years of age, 31.7 for
those 75 to 84 years of age, and 65.2 for those ⱖ85 years
of age. For white women in the same age groups, the rates
are 8.2, 19.8, and 45.6, respectively. For black men, the
rates are 16.9, 25.5, and 50.6,* and for black women, the
estimated rates are 14.2, 25.5, and 44.0,* respectively
(CHS, NHLBI).8
*Unreliable estimate.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 9
●
●
●
●
●
●
In MESA, African Americans had the highest risk of
developing HF, followed by Hispanic, white, and Chinese
Americans (4.6, 3.5, 2.4, and 1.0 per 1000 person-years,
respectively). This higher risk reflected differences in the
prevalence of hypertension, DM, and socioeconomic status. African Americans had the highest proportion of
incident HF not preceded by clinical MI (75%).9
In Olmsted County, Minnesota, the incidence of HF did not
decline between 1979 and 2000.10
In the ARIC study of the NHLBI, the age-adjusted incidence rate per 1000 person-years was 3.4 for white women,
less than for all other groups; that is, white men (6.0), black
women (8.1), and black men (9.1). The 30-day, 1-year, and
5-year case fatality rates after hospitalization for HF were
10.4%, 22%, and 42.3%, respectively. Blacks had a greater
5-year case fatality rate than whites (P⬍0.05). HF incidence rates in black women were more similar to those of
men than of white women. The greater HF incidence in
blacks than in whites is explained largely by blacks’ greater
levels of atherosclerotic risk factors.11
Data from Kaiser Permanente indicated an increase in the
incidence of HF among the elderly, with the effect being
greater in men.12
Data from hospitals in Worcester, MA, indicate that during
2000, the incidence and attack rates for HF were 219 per
100 000 and 897 per 100 000, respectively. HF was more
frequent in women and the elderly. The hospital fatality
rate was 5.1%.13
In the CARDIA study, HF before 50 years of age was more
common among blacks than whites. Hypertension, obesity,
and systolic dysfunction are important risk factors that may
be targets for prevention.14
●
●
●
●
●
Mortality
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
In 2008, HF any-mention mortality was 281 437 (124 598
males and 156 839 females). HF was the underlying cause
in 56 830 of those deaths in 2008 (NCHS, NHLBI). Table
9-1 shows the numbers of these deaths that are coded for
HF as the underlying cause.
The 2008 overall any-mention death rate for HF was 84.6.
Any-mention death rates were 98.9 for white males, 102.7
for black males, 75.9 for white females, and 78.8 for black
females (NCHS, NHLBI).
One in 9 deaths has HF mentioned on the death certificate
(NCHS, NHLBI).
The number of any-mention deaths from HF was approximately as high in 1995 (287 000) as it was in 2008
(283 000; NCHS, NHLBI).
Survival after HF diagnosis has improved over time, as
shown by data from the FHS15 and the Olmsted County
Study.10 However, the death rate remains high: ⬇50% of
people diagnosed with HF will die within 5 years.10,16
In the elderly, data from Kaiser Permanente indicate that
survival after the onset of HF has also improved.12
In the CHS, depression and amino-terminal pro-B-type
natriuretic peptide were independent risk factors for CVDrelated and all-cause mortality.17
In the NHLBI-sponsored FHS, hypertension is a common
risk factor for HF, followed closely by antecedent MI.18
B-type natriuretic peptide, urinary albumin-to creatinine
ratio, and elevated serum ␥-glutamyl transferase were also
identified as risk factors for HF.18,19
In the Framingham Offspring Study, among 2739 participants, increased circulating concentrations of resistin were
associated with incident HF independent of prevalent
coronary disease, obesity, insulin resistance, and
inflammation.20
Among 20 900 male physicians in the Physicians Health
Study, the lifetime risk of HF was higher in men with
hypertension; healthy lifestyle factors (normal weight, not
smoking, regular exercise, moderate alcohol intake, consumption of breakfast cereals, and consumption of fruits
and vegetables) were related to lower risk of HF.21
Among 2934 participants in the Health Aging, Body and
Composition (ABC) study, the incidence of HF was 13.6
per 1000 person-years. Men and black participants were
more likely to develop HF. Coronary disease (population
attributable risk 23.9% for white participants, 29.5% for
black participants) and uncontrolled BP (population attributable risk 21.3% for white participants, 30.1% for black
participants) had the highest population attributable risks in
both races. There was a higher overall proportion of HF
attributable to modifiable risk factors in black participants
than white participants (67.8% versus 48.9%). Hospitalizations were higher among black participants.22 Inflammatory markers (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-␣)
and serum albumin levels were also associated with HF
risk.23,24
In the CHS, baseline cardiac troponin and changes in
cardiac troponin levels measured by a sensitive assay were
significantly associated with incident HF.25
In the ARIC study, albuminuria, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)
among individuals without DM, cardiac troponin measured
with a sensitive assay, and socioeconomic position over the
life course were all identified as risk factors for HF.15,26 –28
Left Ventricular Function
●
Data from Olmsted County, Minnesota, indicate that:
— Among asymptomatic individuals, the prevalence of
left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was 21% for mild
diastolic dysfunction and 7% for moderate or severe
diastolic dysfunction. The prevalence of systolic dysfunction was 6%. The presence of any left ventricular
dysfunction (systolic or diastolic) was associated with
an increased risk of developing overt HF, and diastolic
dysfunction was predictive of all-cause death.29
— Among individuals with symptomatic HF, the prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was 6%
for mild diastolic dysfunction and 75% for moderate or
severe diastolic dysfunction.30 The proportion of people
with HF and preserved ejection fraction (EF) increased
over time. Survival improved over time among individuals with reduced EF but not among those with preserved EF.31
Hospital Discharges/Ambulatory Care Visits
●
Risk Factors
●
e103
●
Hospital discharges for HF were essentially unchanged
from 1999 to 2009, with first-listed discharges of 975 000
and 1 094 000, respectively (unpublished data from the
NHDS 2009, NCHS, NHLBI).
In 2009, there were 3 041 000 physician office visits with
a primary diagnosis of HF. In 2009, there were 668 000 ED
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Circulation
January 3/10, 2012
visits and 293 000 outpatient department visits for HF
(NCHS, NHAMCS, NHLBI tabulation).
Among 1077 patients with HF in Olmsted County, Minnesota, hospitalizations were common after HF diagnosis,
with 83% patients hospitalized at least once and 43%
hospitalized at least 4 times. More than one half of all
hospitalizations were related to noncardiovascular causes.32
References
1. Lipshultz SE, Sleeper LA, Towbin JA, Lowe AM, Orav EJ, Cox GF,
Lurie PR, McCoy KL, McDonald MA, Messere JE, Colan SD. The
incidence of pediatric cardiomyopathy in two regions of the United
States. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:1647–1655.
2. Maron BJ, McKenna WJ, Danielson GK, Kappenberger LJ, Kuhn HJ,
Seidman CE, Shah PM, Spencer WH 3rd, Spirito P, Ten Cate FJ, Wigle
ED. American College of Cardiology/European Society of Cardiology
clinical expert consensus document on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a
report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on
Clinical Expert Consensus Documents and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:
1687–1713.
3. Colan SD, Lipshultz SE, Lowe AM, Sleeper LA, Messere J, Cox GF,
Lurie PR, Orav EJ, Towbin JA. Epidemiology and cause-specific
outcome of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in children: findings from the
Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry. Circulation. 2007;115:773–781.
4. Towbin JA, Lowe AM, Colan SD, Sleeper LA, Orav EJ, Clunie S,
Messere J, Cox GF, Lurie PR, Hsu D, Canter C, Wilkinson JD, Lipshultz
SE. Incidence, causes, and outcomes of dilated cardiomyopathy in
children. JAMA. 2006;296:1867–1876.
5. Nerheim P, Birger-Botkin S, Piracha L, Olshansky B. Heart failure and
sudden death in patients with tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy and
recurrent tachycardia. Circulation. 2004;110:247–252.
6. Heidenreich PA, Trogdon JG, Khavjou OA, Butler J, Dracup K, Ezekowitz MD, Finkelstein EA, Hong Y, Johnston SC, Khera A, Lloyd-Jones
DM, Nelson SA, Nichol G, Orenstein D, Wilson PW, Woo YJ; on behalf
of the American Heart Association Advocacy Coordinating Committee,
Stroke Council, Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention,
Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology,
Council on Cardiopulmonary, Critical Care, Perioperative and Resuscitation, Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, Council on the Kidney in
Cardiovascular Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes
Research. Forecasting the future of cardiovascular disease in the United
States: a policy statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123:933–944.
7. Lloyd-Jones DM, Larson MG, Leip EP, Beiser A, D’Agostino RB,
Kannel WB, Murabito JM, Vasan RS, Benjamin EJ, Levy D; Framingham Heart Study. Lifetime risk for developing congestive heart
failure: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2002;106:3068 –3072.
8. Incidence and Prevalence: 2006 Chart Book on Cardiovascular and Lung
Diseases. Bethesda, MD: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute;
2006.
9. Bahrami H, Kronmal R, Bluemke DA, Olson J, Shea S, Liu K, Burke GL,
Lima JAC. Differences in the incidence of congestive heart failure by
ethnicity: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Arch Intern Med.
2008;168:2138 –2145.
10. Roger VL, Weston SA, Redfield MM, Hellermann-Homan JP, Killian J,
Yawn BP, Jacobsen SJ. Trends in heart failure incidence and survival in
a community-based population. JAMA. 2004;292:344 –350.
11. Loehr LR, Rosamond WD, Chang PP, Folsom AR, Chambless LE. Heart
failure incidence and survival (from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study). Am J Cardiol. 2008;101:1016 –1022.
12. Barker WH, Mullooly JP, Getchell W. Changing incidence and survival
for heart failure in a well-defined older population, 1970 –1974 and
1990 –1994. Circulation. 2006;113:799 – 805.
13. Goldberg RJ, Spencer FA, Farmer C, Meyer TE, Pezzella S. Incidence
and hospital death rates associated with heart failure: a community-wide
perspective. Am J Med. 2005;118:728 –734.
14. Bibbins-Domingo K, Pletcher MJ, Lin F, Vittinghoff E, Gardin JM,
Arynchyn A, Lewis CE, Williams OD, Hulley SB. Racial differences in
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incident heart failure among young adults. N Engl J Med. 2009;360:
1179 –1190.
Matsushita K, Blecker S, Pazin-Filho A, Bertoni A, Chang PP, Coresh J,
Selvin E. The association of hemoglobin A1c with incident heart failure
among people without diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities
Study. Diabetes. 2010;59:2020 –2026.
Levy D, Kenchaiah S, Larson MG, Benjamin EJ, Kupka MJ, Ho KK,
Murabito JM, Vasan RS. Long-term trends in the incidence of and
survival with heart failure. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:1397–1402.
van den Broek KC, Defilippi CR, Christenson RH, Seliger SL, Gottdiener
JS, Kop WJ. Predictive value of depressive symptoms and B-type natriuretic peptide for new-onset heart failure and mortality. Am J Cardiol.
2011;107:723–729.
Velagaleti RS, Gona P, Larson MG, Wang TJ, Levy D, Benjamin EJ,
Selhub J, Jacques PF, Meigs JB, Tofler GH, Vasan RS. Multimarker
approach for the prediction of heart failure incidence in the community.
Circulation. 2010;122:1700 –1706.
Dhingra R, Gona P, Wang TJ, Fox CS, D’Agostino RB Sr, Vasan RS.
Serum gamma-glutamyl transferase and risk of heart failure in the community. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:1855–1860.
Frankel DS, Vasan RS, D’Agostino RB Sr, Benjamin EJ, Levy D, Wang
TJ, Meigs JB. Resistin, adiponectin, and risk of heart failure: the Framingham offspring study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53:754 –762.
Djoussé L, Driver JA, Gaziano JM. Relation between modifiable lifestyle
factors and lifetime risk of heart failure. JAMA. 2009;302:394 – 400.
Kalogeropoulos A, Georgiopoulou V, Kritchevsky SB, Psaty BM, Smith
NL, Newman AB, Rodondi N, Satterfield S, Bauer DC, Bibbins-Domingo
K, Smith AL, Wilson PW, Vasan RS, Harris TB, Butler J. Epidemiology
of incident heart failure in a contemporary elderly cohort: the Health,
Aging, and Body Composition Study. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169:
708 –715.
Kalogeropoulos A, Georgiopoulou V, Psaty BM, Rodondi N, Smith AL,
Harrison DG, Liu Y, Hoffmann U, Bauer DC, Newman AB, Kritchevsky
SB, Harris TB, Butler J; Health ABC Study Investigators. Inflammatory
markers and incident heart failure risk in older adults: the Health ABC
(Health, Aging, and Body Composition) study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;
55:2129 –2137.
Gopal DM, Kalogeropoulos AP, Georgiopoulou VV, Tang WW, Methvin
A, Smith AL, Bauer DC, Newman AB, Kim L, Harris TB, Kritchevsky
SB, Butler J; Health ABC Study. Serum albumin concentration and heart
failure risk The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Am
Heart J. 2010;160:279 –285.
deFilippi CR, de Lemos JA, Christenson RH, Gottdiener JS, Kop WJ,
Zhan M, Seliger SL. Association of serial measures of cardiac troponin T
using a sensitive assay with incident heart failure and cardiovascular
mortality in older adults. JAMA. 2010;304:2494 –2502.
Blecker S, Matsushita K, Kottgen A, Loehr LR, Bertoni AG, Boulware
LE, Coresh J. High-normal albuminuria and risk of heart failure in the
community. Am J Kidney Dis. 2011;58:47–55.
Saunders JT, Nambi V, de Lemos JA, Chambless LE, Virani SS, Boerwinkle E, Hoogeveen RC, Liu X, Astor BC, Mosley TH, Folsom AR,
Heiss G, Coresh J, Ballantyne CM. Cardiac troponin T measured by a
highly sensitive assay predicts coronary heart disease, heart failure, and
mortality in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Circulation.
2011;123:1367–1376.
Roberts CB, Couper DJ, Chang PP, James SA, Rosamond WD, Heiss G.
Influence of life-course socioeconomic position on incident heart failure
in blacks and whites: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.
Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172:717–727.
Redfield MM, Jacobsen SJ, Burnett JC Jr, Mahoney DW, Bailey KR,
Rodeheffer RJ. Burden of systolic and diastolic ventricular dysfunction in
the community: appreciating the scope of the heart failure epidemic.
JAMA. 2003;289:194 –202.
Bursi F, Weston SA, Redfield MM, Jacobsen SJ, Pakhomov S, Nkomo
VT, Meverden RA, Roger VL. Systolic and diastolic heart failure in the
community. JAMA. 2006;296:2209 –2216.
Owan TE, Hodge DO, Herges RM, Jacobsen SJ, Roger VL, Redfield
MM. Trends in prevalence and outcome of heart failure with preserved
ejection fraction. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:251–259.
Dunlay SM, Redfield MM, Weston SA, Therneau TM, Hall Long K, Shah
ND, Roger VL. Hospitalizations after heart failure diagnosis: a community perspective. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54:1695–1702.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 9
Table 9-1.
e105
Heart Failure
Population Group
Prevalence,
2008: Age ⱖ20 y
Incidence
(New Cases):
Age ⱖ45 y
Mortality
2008: All Ages*
Hospital
Discharges,
2009: All Ages
Both sexes
5 700 000 (2.4%)
670 000
56 830
1 094 000
Males
3 100 000 (3.0%)
350 000
23 017 (40.5%)†
531 000
Females
2 600 000 (2.0%)
320 000
33 813 (59.5%)†
563 000
NH white males
2.7%
...
20 278
...
NH white females
1.8%
...
30 244
...
...
NH black males
4.5%
...
2391
NH black females
3.8%
...
3068
...
Mexican American males
2.3%
...
...
...
Mexican American females
1.3%
...
...
...
NH indicates non-Hispanic; ellipses (. . .), data not available.
Heart failure includes persons who answered “yes” to the question of ever having congestive heart failure.
*Mortality data are for whites and blacks and include Hispanics.
†These percentages represent the portion of total mortality attributable to heart failure that is for males vs
females.
Sources: Prevalence: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008 (National Center for
Health Statistics) and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Percentages are age adjusted for Americans
ⱖ20 years of age. Age-specific percentages are extrapolated to the 2008 US population estimates. These
data are based on self-reports. Incidence: Framingham Heart Study, 1980 –2003 from National Heart, Lung,
and Blood Institute Incidence and Prevalence Chart Book, 2006. Mortality: National Center for Health
Statistics.
14
11.5
Percent of Population
12
10
11.8
9.0
8
6
5.4
4
1.9
2
0.2
0.3
0.8
0
20-39
40-59
60-79
80+
Age (Years)
Male
Female
Chart 9-1. Prevalence of heart failure by sex and age (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 2005–2008). Source: National
Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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Circulation
January 3/10, 2012
50
45
41.9
40
Per 1000 Person Years
35
32.7
30
25
22.3
20
14.8
15
9.2
10
4.7
5
0
65-74
75-84
85+
Age (Years)
Men
Women
Chart 9-2. Incidence of heart failure (heart failure based on physician review of medical records and strict diagnostic criteria) by age
and sex (Framingham Heart Study: 1980 –2003). Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
700
600
Discharges in Thousands
500
400
300
200
100
0
1979
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2009
Years
Male
Female
Chart 9-3. Hospital discharges for heart failure by sex (United States: 1979 –2009). Note: Hospital discharges include people discharged alive, dead, and status unknown. Source: National Hospital Discharge Survey/National Center for Health Statistics and
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 10
10. Disorders of Heart Rhythm
●
See Table 10-1.
Bradyarrhythmias
ICD-9 426.0, 426.1, 427.81; ICD-10 I44.0 to I44.3, I49.5.
Mortality— 835. Any-mention mortality— 4818. Hospital
discharges—120 000.
●
AV Block
Prevalence and Incidence
●
The prevalence of first-degree AV block in NHANES III is 3.7%
(313 of 8434 participants with ECG data readable for PR
interval).1
●
●
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 10
AHA
American Heart Association
AF
Atrial fibrillation
AMI
Acute myocardial infarction
ARIC
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study
AV
Atrioventricular
BMI
Body mass index
BP
Blood pressure
CAD
Coronary artery disease
CARDIA
Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults
CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CHD
Coronary heart disease
CHS
Cardiovascular Health Study
CI
Confidence interval
CVD
Cardiovascular disease
DM
Diabetes mellitus
ECG
Electrocardiogram
ED
Emergency department
EMS
Emergency medical services
FHS
Framingham Heart Study
GWTG
Get With the Guidelines
●
In a healthy sample of subjects from the ARIC study (mean
age 53 years), the prevalence of first-degree AV block was
7.8% in black men, 3.0% in black women, 2.1% in white
men, and 1.3% in white women.2 Smaller prevalence
estimates were noticed in the relatively younger population
(mean age 45 years) of the CARDIA study at its year-20
follow-up examination: 2.6% in black men, 1.9% in black
women, 1.2% in white men, and 0.1% in white women.3
Mobitz II second-degree AV block is rare in healthy
individuals (⬇0.003%), whereas Mobitz I (Wenckebach) is
observed in 1% to 2% of healthy young people, especially
during sleep.4
The prevalence of third-degree AV block in the general
adult population is ⬇0.02% to 0.04%.5,6
Third-degree AV block is very rare in apparently healthy
individuals. Johnson et al7 found only 1 case among
⬎67 000 symptom-free individuals; Rose et al,8 in their
study of ⬎18 000 civil servants, did not find any cases. On
the other hand, among 293 124 patients with DM and
552 624 with hypertension enrolled with Veterans Health
Administration hospitals, third-degree AV block was present in 1.1% and 0.6% of those patients, respectively.9
Congenital complete AV block is estimated to occur in 1 of
15 000 to 25 000 live births.4
Risk Factors
●
●
Although first-degree AV block and Mobitz type I seconddegree AV block can occur in apparently healthy individuals, presence of Mobitz II second-degree or third-degree
AV block usually indicates underlying HD, including CHD
and HF.4
Reversible causes of AV block include electrolyte abnormalities, drug-induced AV block, perioperative AV block
attributable to hypothermia, or inflammation near the AV
conduction system after surgery in this region. Some
conditions may warrant pacemaker implantation because of
the possibility of disease progression even if the AV block
reverses transiently (eg, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, and neuromuscular diseases).10
Long sinus pauses and AV block can occur during sleep
apnea. In the absence of symptoms, these abnormalities are
reversible and do not require pacing.11
HCM
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
HD
Heart disease
HF
Heart failure
HR
Hazard ratio
ICD-9
International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision
ICD-10
International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision
Prevention
MI
Myocardial infarction
●
NCHS
National Center for Health Statistics
NHANES
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NHDS
National Hospital Discharge Survey
NHLBI
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
OR
Odds ratio
PVT
Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia
RR
Relative risk
SBP
Systolic blood pressure
SVT
Supraventricular tachycardia
TdP
Torsade de pointes
VF
Ventricular fibrillation
VT
Ventricular tachycardia
e107
●
●
Detection and correction of reversible causes of acquired
AV block could be of potential importance in preventing
symptomatic bradycardia and other complications of AV
block.10
In utero detection of congenital AV block is possible by use
of echocardiography.12
Aftermath
●
In the FHS, PR interval prolongation (⬎200 ms) was
associated with an increased risk of AF (HR 2.06, 95% CI
1.36 –3.12),13,14 pacemaker implantation (HR 2.89, 95% CI
1.83– 4.57),14 and all-cause mortality (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.09 –
1.91).14 Compared with individuals with a PR interval
ⱕ200 ms, individuals with a PR interval ⬎200 ms had an
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●
●
●
Circulation
January 3/10, 2012
absolute increased risk per year of 1.04% for AF, 0.55% for
pacemaker implantation, and 2.05% for death.
Patients with abnormalities of AV conduction may be
asymptomatic or may experience serious symptoms related
to bradycardia, ventricular arrhythmias, or both.
Decisions about the need for a pacemaker are influenced by
the presence or absence of symptoms directly attributable
to bradycardia. Permanent pacing improves survival in
patients with third-degree AV block, especially if syncope
has occurred.10 Nevertheless, the overall prognosis depends
to a large extent on the underlying HD.
Although there is little evidence to suggest that pacemakers
improve survival in patients with isolated first-degree AV
block,15 it is now recognized that marked first-degree AV
block (PR ⬎300 ms) can lead to symptoms even in the
absence of higher degrees of AV block.16
Aftermath
●
●
●
Sinus Node Dysfunction
Prevalence and Incidence
●
●
●
The prevalence of sinus node dysfunction has been estimated to be between 403 to 666 per million, with an
incidence rate of 63 per million per year requiring pacemaker therapy.17
Sinus node dysfunction occurs in 1 of every 600 cardiac
patients ⬎65 years of age and accounts for ⬇50% of
implantations of pacemakers in the United States.18,19
Sinus node dysfunction is commonly present with other
causes of bradyarrhythmias (carotid sinus hypersensitivity
in 33% of patients and advanced AV conduction abnormalities in 17%).20,21
●
●
●
Risk Factors
●
●
●
●
●
The causes of sinus node dysfunction can be classified as
intrinsic (secondary to pathological conditions involving
the sinus node) or extrinsic (cause by depression of sinus
node function by external factors such as drugs or autonomic influences).22
Sinus node dysfunction may occur at any age but is
primarily a disease of the elderly, with the average age
being ⬇68 years.18
Idiopathic degenerative disease is probably the most common cause of sinus node dysfunction.23
Collected data from 28 different studies on atrial pacing for
sinus node dysfunction showed a median annual incidence
of complete AV block of 0.6% (range 0%– 4.5%) with a
total prevalence of 2.1% (range 0%–11.9%). This suggests
that the degenerative process also affects the specialized
conduction system, although the rate of progression is slow
and does not dominate the clinical course of disease.24
Ischemic HD can be responsible for one third of cases of
sinus node dysfunction. Transient sinus node dysfunction can complicate MI, which is common during inferior MI, and is caused by autonomic influences. Cardiomyopathy, long-standing hypertension, infiltrative
disorders (eg, amyloidosis and sarcoidosis), collagen
vascular disease, and surgical trauma can also result in
sinus node dysfunction.25,26
The course of sinus node dysfunction is typically progressive, with 57% of patients experiencing symptoms over a
4-year period if untreated, and a 23% prevalence of
syncope over the same time frame.27
Approximately 50% of patients with sinus node dysfunction develop tachy-brady syndrome over a lifetime; such
patients have a higher risk of stroke and death. The survival
of patients with sinus node dysfunction appears to depend
primarily on the severity of underlying cardiac disease and
is not significantly changed by pacemaker therapy.28 –30
In a retrospective study,31 patients with sinus node dysfunction who had pacemaker therapy were followed up for
12 years; at 8 years, mortality among those with ventricular
pacing was 59% compared with 29% among those with
atrial pacing. This discrepancy may well be a result of
selection bias. For instance, the physiological or anatomic
disorder (eg, fibrosis of conductive tissue) that led to the
requirement for the particular pacemaker may have influenced prognosis, rather than the type of pacemaker used.
The incidence of sudden death is extremely low, and sinus
node dysfunction does not appear to affect survival whether
untreated or treated with pacemaker therapy.10
Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) including AF occurs in
47% to 53% of patients with sinus node dysfunction.30,32
On the basis of records from the NHDS, age-adjusted
pacemaker implantation rates increased progressively from
370 per million in 1990 to 612 per million in 2002. This
escalating implantation rate is attributable to increasing
implantation for isolated sinus node dysfunction; implantation for sinus node dysfunction increased by 102%,
whereas implantation for all other indications did not
increase.33
SVT (Excluding AF and Atrial Flutter)
ICD-9 427.0; ICD-10 I47.1.
Mortality—132. Any-mention mortality—1174. Hospital
discharges—23 000.
Prevalence and Incidence
●
●
●
Data from the Marshfield Epidemiological Study Area in
Wisconsin suggested the incidence of documented paroxysmal SVT is 35 per 100 000 person-years. The mean age
at SVT onset was 57 years, and both female sex and age
⬎65 years were significant risk factors.34
A review of ED visits from 1993 to 2003 revealed that
550 000 visits were for SVT (0.05% of all visits, 95% CI
0.04%– 0.06%), or ⬇50 000 visits per year. Of these
patients, 24% (95% CI 15%–34%) were admitted, and 44%
(95% CI 32%–56%) were discharged without specific
follow-up.35
The prevalence of SVT that is clinically undetected is
likely much greater than the estimates from ED visits and
electrophysiology procedures would suggest. For example,
among a random sample of 604 participants in Finland, 7
(1.2%) fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for inappropriate
sinus tachycardia.36
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Of 1383 participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study
of Aging undergoing maximal exercise testing, 6% exhibited SVT during the test; increasing age was a significant
risk factor. Only 16% exhibited ⬎10 beats of SVT, only
4% were symptomatic, and the SVT participants were more
likely to develop spontaneous SVT or AF.37
From the surface ECG, the prevalence of atrial tachycardia
is estimated to be 0.34% in asymptomatic patients and
0.46% in symptomatic patients.38
●
●
Aftermath
●
The primary consequence of SVT for the majority of
patients is a decline in quality of life.39 However, rare cases
of incessant SVT can lead to a tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy,40 and rare cases of sudden death attributed to
SVT as a trigger have been described.41
Specific Types
●
●
●
●
●
●
Among those presenting for invasive electrophysiological
study and ablation, AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (a
circuit requiring 2 AV nodal pathways) is the most common mechanism of SVT42,43 and usually represents the
majority of cases (56% of 1 series of 1754 cases from
Loyola University Medical Center).43
AV reentrant tachycardia (an arrhythmia requiring the
presence of an extranodal connection between the atria and
ventricles or specialized conduction tissue) is the second
most common42,43 (27% in the Loyola series),43 and atrial
tachycardia is the third most common (17% in the Loyola
series).43
In the pediatric population, AV reentrant tachycardia is the
most common SVT mechanism, followed by AV nodal
reentrant tachycardia and then atrial tachycardia.44
AV reentrant tachycardia prevalence decreases with age,
whereas AV nodal reentrant tachycardia and atrial
tachycardia prevalences increase with age.43
The majority of AV reentrant tachycardia patients in the
Loyola series were men (55%), whereas the majority of
patients with AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (70%) or
atrial tachycardia (62%) were women.43
●
Wolff-Parkinson White syndrome, a diagnosis reserved for
those with both ventricular preexcitation (evidence of an
anterograde conducting AV accessory pathway on a 12lead ECG) and tachyarrhythmias,39 deserves special attention because of the associated risk of sudden death. Sudden
death is generally attributed to rapid heart rates in AF
conducting down an accessory pathway and leading to
ventricular fibrillation (VF).45,46 Of note, AF is common in
Wolff-Parkinson White patients, and surgical or catheter
ablation of the accessory pathway often results in elimination of the AF.47
Ventricular preexcitation was observed in 0.11% of 47 358
ECGs in adults participating in 4 large Belgian epidemiological studies48 and in 0.17% of 32 837 Japanese high
school students in ECGs obtained by law before the
students entered school.49
Asymptomatic adults with ventricular preexcitation appear
to be at low risk of sudden death or potentially at no
increased risk compared with the general population,50 –53
although certain characteristics found during invasive electrophysiological study (including inducibility of AV reentrant tachycardia or AF, accessory pathway refractory
period, and the shortest R-R interval during AF) can help
risk stratify these patients.46,54
Symptomatic adult patients with the Wolff-Parkinson
White syndrome are at a higher risk of sudden death. In a
study of 60 symptomatic patients in Olmsted County,
Minnesota, including some who underwent curative surgery, 2 (3.3%) experienced sudden death over a 13-year
period. Of 690 Wolff-Parkinson White syndrome patients
referred to a single hospital in The Netherlands, 15 (2.2%)
had aborted sudden death, and VF was the first manifestation of the disease in 8 patients.55
Although some studies in asymptomatic children with
ventricular preexcitation suggest a benign prognosis,52,56
others suggest that electrophysiological testing can identify
a group of asymptomatic children with a risk of sudden
death or VF as high as 11% over 19 months of follow-up.57
AF and Atrial Flutter
ICD-9 427.3; ICD-10 I48.
Prevalence
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Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome
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e109
Estimates of the prevalence of AF in the United States
range from ⬇2.7 to 6.1 million in 2010, and AF prevalence
is expected to rise to between ⬇5.6 and 12 million in
2050.58,59
Data from a California health plan suggest that compared
with whites, blacks (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.47– 0.52), Asians
(OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.64 – 0.72), and Hispanics (OR 0.58,
95% CI 0.55– 0.61) have significantly lower adjusted
prevalences of AF.60
Data from the NHDS/NCHS (1996 –2001) on cases that
included AF as a primary discharge diagnosis found the
following:
— Approximately 44.8% of patients were men.
— The mean age for men was 66.8 years versus 74.6 years
for women.
— The racial breakdown for admissions was 71.2% white,
5.6% black, and 2.0% other races (20.8% were not
specified).
— Black patients were much younger than patients of
other races.
●
Among Medicare patients ⱖ65 years of age, AF prevalence
increased from 3.2% in 1992 to 6.0% in 2002, with higher
prevalence in older patients.61
Incidence
●
Data from the NHDS/NCHS (1996 –2001) on cases that
included AF as a primary discharge diagnosis found the
following:
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— The incidence in men ranged from 20.6 per 100 000
people per year for patients between 15 and 44 years of
age to 1077.4 per 100 000 people per year for patients
ⱖ85 years of age.
— In women, the incidence ranged from 6.6 per 100 000
people per year for patients between 15 and 44 years of
age to 1203.7 per 100 000 people per year for those
ⱖ85 years of age.
●
Risk Factors
●
— Both ARIC68 and FHS (http://www.framinghamheart
study.org/risk/atrial.html)13,69 have developed risk prediction models to predict new-onset AF. Predictors of
increased risk of new-onset AF include advancing age,
European ancestry, body size (higher height and BMI),
electrocardiography features (left ventricular hypertrophy, left atrial enlargement), DM, BP (SBP and hypertension treatment), and presence of CVD (CHD, HF,
valvular HD).
— Clinical and subclinical hyperthyroidism70,71 and heavy
alcohol consumption also have been identified as risk
factors for AF.72
In Olmsted County, Minnesota:
— The age-adjusted incidence of clinically recognized AF
in a white population increased by 12.6% between 1980
and 2000.59,62
— The incidence of AF was greater in men (incidence
ratio for men over women 1.86) and increased markedly with older age.59
●
●
●
●
In 2008, AF was mentioned on 99 294 US death certificates
and was the underlying cause in 15 383 of those deaths
(NCHS, NHLBI). In adjusted analyses from the FHS, AF
was associated with an increased risk of death in both men
(OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2–1.8) and women (OR 1.9, 95% CI
1.5–2.2).63 Furthermore, there was an interaction with sex,
such that AF appeared to diminish the survival advantage
typically observed in women.
In data from the Nurse’s Health Study, the death rates per
1000 person-years among women without and with AF
were 3.1 (95% CI 2.9 –3.2) and 10.8 (95% CI 8.1–13.5).64
In 1999, the CDC analyzed data from national and state
multiple-cause mortality statistics and Medicare hospital
claims for people with AF. The most common disease
listed as the primary diagnosis for people hospitalized with
AF was HF (11.8%), followed by AF (10.9%), CHD
(9.9%), and stroke (4.9%).65
A study of ⬎4600 patients diagnosed with first AF showed
that risk of death within the first 4 months after the AF
diagnosis was high. The most common causes of CVD
death were CAD, HF, and ischemic stroke, accounting for
22%, 14%, and 10%, respectively, of the early deaths
(within the first 4 months) and 15%, 16%, and 7%,
respectively, of the late deaths.62
E
E
●
●
Participants in the NHLBI-sponsored FHS study were
followed up from 1968 to 1999. At 40 years of age,
remaining lifetime risks for AF were 26.0% for men and
23.0% for women. At 80 years of age, lifetime risks for AF
were 22.7% for men and 21.6% for women. In further
analysis, counting only those who had development of AF
without prior or concurrent HF or MI, lifetime risk for AF
was ⬇16%.66
By 80 years of age, investigators from the NHLBIsponsored ARIC study observed that the cumulative risk of
AF was 21% in white men, 17% in white women, and 11%
in African Americans of both sexes.67
Adjusted for coexistent risk factors, having at least 1
parent with AF was associated with a 1.85-fold
increased risk of AF in the adult offspring (multivariable-adjusted 95% CI 1.12–3.06; P⫽0.02).75
A history of a first-degree relative with AF also was
associated with an increased risk of AF (HR 1.40,
95% CI 1.13–1.74).76 The risk was greater if the
first-degree relative’s age of onset was ⱕ65 years
(HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.49 –2.71) and with each additional affected first-degree relative (HR 1.24, 95% CI
1.05–1.46).76
Genetics
— Mutations in genes coding channels (sodium and potassium), gap junction proteins, and signaling have been
described, often in lone AF or familial AF series, but they
are responsible for few cases of AF in the community.77
— Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies
have revealed single-nucleotide polymorphisms on
chromosomes 4q25 (upstream of PITX2),78 – 80 16q22
(ZFHX3),79,81 and 1q21 (KCNN3).80 Although an
area of intensive inquiry, the causative single-nucleotide polymorphisms and the functional basis of the
associations have not been revealed.
Lifetime Risk and Cumulative Risk
●
Family history
— Although unusual, early-onset familial lone AF has
long been recognized as a risk factor.73,74
— In the past decade, the heritability of AF in the community
has been appreciated. In studies from the FHS:
Mortality
●
Standard risk factors
Awareness
●
In a US national biracial study of individuals with AF,
compared with whites, blacks had approximately one third
the likelihood (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.20 – 0.52) of being
aware that they had AF.82
Prevention
●
Data from the ARIC study indicated that having at least 1
elevated risk factor explained 50% and having at least 1
borderline risk factor explained 6.5% of incident AF cases.
The estimated overall incidence rate per 1000 person-years
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●
●
●
●
at a mean age of 54.2 years was 2.19 for those with optimal
risk, 3.68 for those with borderline risk, and 6.59 for those
with elevated risk factors.83
Hypertension accounted for ⬇14%84 to 22%83 of AF cases.
Observational data from the CHS suggested that moderateintensity exercise (such as regular walking) was associated
with a lower risk of AF (HR 0.72).85 However, data from
many studies suggested that vigorous-intensity exercise 5
to 7 days a week was associated with a slightly increased
risk of AF (HR 1.20, P⫽0.04).86
Secondary end-point analyses from randomized controlled
studies have suggested that the treatment of hypertension87
might prevent the onset of AF.
Although heterogeneous in their findings, modest-sized shortterm studies suggested that the use of statins might prevent
AF; however, larger longer-term studies do not provide
support that statins are effective in AF prevention.88
The NHLBI sponsored a workshop highlighting important
research areas to advance the prevention of AF.89
Aftermath
●
— In individuals with AF in Olmsted County, Minnesota,
the cumulative rate of dementia at 1 and 5 years was
2.7% and 10.5%, respectively.97
●
Cost
Investigators examined Medicare and MarketScan databases
(2004 –2006) to estimate costs attributed to AF in 2008 US
dollars:
●
●
— Hospital discharges— 467 000
E
●
From 1996 to 2001, hospitalizations with AF as the
first-listed diagnosis increased by 34%.90
On the basis of Medicare and MarketScan databases,
annually, individuals with AF (37.5%) are approximately twice as likely to be hospitalized as age- and
sex-matched control subjects (17.5%).91
Heart failure
— AF and HF share many antecedent risk factors, and
⬇40% of individuals with either AF or HF will develop
the other condition.98
— In the community, estimates of the incidence of HF in
individuals with AF ranged from ⬇3.398 to 4.499 per
100 person-years of follow-up.
Hospitalization
E
e111
Annual total direct costs for AF patients were ⬇$20 670
versus ⬇$11 965 in the control group, for an incremental
per-patient cost of $8705.91
Extrapolating to the US population, it is estimated that the
incremental cost of AF was ⬇$26 billion, of which $6
billion was attributed to AF, $9.9 billion to other cardiovascular expenses, and $10.1 billion to noncardiovascular
expenses.91
Tachycardia
ICD-9 427.0, 1, 2; ICD-10 I47.0, I47.1, I47.2, I47.9.
Mortality— 621. Any-mention mortality—5863. Hospital
discharges— 86 000.
Monomorphic VT
Stroke
— Stroke rates per 1000 patient-years declined in AF
patients taking anticoagulants, from 46.7 in 1992 to
19.5 in 2002, for ischemic stroke but remained fairly
steady for hemorrhagic stroke (1.6 –2.9).61
— When standard stroke risk factors were accounted for,
AF was associated with a 4- to 5-fold increased risk of
ischemic stroke.92
— Although the RR of stroke associated with AF did not
vary (⬇3–5-fold increased risk) substantively with
advancing age, the proportion of strokes attributable to
AF increased significantly. In FHS, AF accounted for
⬇1.5% of strokes in individuals 50 to 59 years of age,
and ⬇23.5% in those 80 to 89 years of age.92
— Paroxysmal, persistent, and permanent AF all appeared
to increase the risk of ischemic stroke to a similar
degree.93
— AF was also an independent risk factor for ischemic
stroke severity, recurrence and mortality.94 In one
study, people who had AF and were not treated with
anticoagulants had a 2.1-fold increase in risk for recurrent stroke and a 2.4-fold increase in risk for recurrent
severe stroke.95
Prevalence and Incidence
●
●
●
●
Of 150 consecutive patients with wide-complex
tachycardia subsequently studied by invasive electrophysiological study, 122 (80%) had ventricular tachycardia
(VT; the remainder had SVT).100
Of patients with ventricular arrhythmias presenting for
invasive electrophysiological studies, 11% to 21% had no
structural HD, and the majority of those with structural HD
had CAD.101,102
In 634 patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators
who had structural HD (including both primary and secondary prevention patients) followed up for a mean 11⫾3
months, ⬇80% of potentially clinically relevant ventricular
tachyarrhythmias were attributable to VT amenable to
antitachycardia pacing (implying a stable circuit and therefore monomorphic VT).103 Because therapy may have been
delivered before spontaneous resolution occurred, the proportion of these VT episodes with definite clinical relevance is not known.
Of those with VT in the absence of structural HD, right
ventricular outflow tract VT is the most common form.104
Aftermath
●
Cognition
●
— Individuals with AF have an adjusted 2-fold increased
risk of dementia.96
Although the prognosis of those with VT or frequent
premature ventricular contractions in the absence of structural HD is good,101,104 a potentially reversible cardiomy-
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opathy may develop in patients with very frequent premature ventricular contractions,105,106 and some cases of
sudden death attributable to short-coupled premature ventricular contractions have been described.107,108
Polymorphic VT
Prevalence and Incidence
●
●
●
●
●
The true prevalence and incidence of polymorphic VT
(PVT) in the US general population is not known.
During ambulatory cardiac monitoring, PVT prevalence
ranged from 0.01% to 0.15%109,110; however, among
patients who developed sudden cardiac death during
ambulatory cardiac monitoring, PVT was detected in
30% to 43%.110 –112
A prevalence range of 15% to 19% was reported during
electrophysiological study in patients resuscitated from
cardiac arrest.112–114
In the setting of AMI, the prevalence of PVT ranged from
1.2% to 2%.115,116
Out-of-hospital PVT is estimated to be present in ⬇25% to
26% of all cardiac arrest cases involving VT.117,118
●
●
●
●
Risk Factors
●
●
Risk Factors
●
●
●
PVT in the setting of a normal QT interval is most
frequently seen in the context of acute ischemia or
MI.116,119
Less frequently, PVT with a normal QT interval can occur
in patients without apparent structural HD. Catecholaminergic PVT, which is discussed under inherited arrhythmic syndromes, is one such disorder.
A prolonged QT, whether acquired (drug induced) or
congenital, is a common cause of PVT. Drug-induced
prolongation of QT causing PVT is discussed under torsade
de pointes (TdP), whereas congenital prolonged QT is
discussed under inherited arrhythmic syndromes.
●
●
●
●
The presentation of PVT can range from a brief, asymptomatic, self-terminating episode to recurrent syncope or
sudden cardiac death.120
The overall hospital discharge rate (survival) of PVT has
been estimated to be ⬇28%.121
In the out-of-hospital setting, the existing literature suggests that PVT has a variable response to the standard
antiarrhythmic medications used in such situations.122
●
●
●
Prevention
●
Prompt detection and correction of myocardial ischemia
would potentially minimize the risk of PVT with normal
QT in the setting of AMI.
●
The true incidence and prevalence of drug-induced TdP in
the US general population is largely unknown.
Drug-induced TdP may result in morbidity that requires
hospitalization and in mortality attributable to sudden
cardiac death in up to 31% of patients.124,126
Patients with advanced HF with a history of drug-induced
TdP had a significantly higher risk of sudden cardiac death
during therapy with amiodarone than amiodarone-treated
patients with no history of drug-induced TdP (55% versus
15%).133 Current use of antipsychotic drugs was associated
with a significant increase in the risk of sudden cardiac
death attributable to TdP (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.8 – 6.2).134
Hospitalization was required in 47% and death occurred in
8% of patients with QT prolongation and TdP caused by
administration of methadone.135
Prevention
●
Torsade de Pointes
Prevalence and Incidence
TdP is usually related to administration of QT-prolonging
drugs.128 An up-to-date list of drugs with the potential to
cause TdP may be found at http://www.azcert.org/medicalpros/drug-lists/drug-lists.cfm, a Web site maintained by the
University of Arizona Center for Education and Research
on Therapeutics.
Specific risk factors for drug-induced TdP include prolonged QT, female sex, advanced age, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and conditions that lead to elevated plasma
concentrations of causative drugs, such as kidney disease,
liver disease, drug interactions, or some combination of
these.124,129,130
Predisposition was also noted in patients who had a history
of ventricular arrhythmia and who experienced a recent
symptomatic increase in the frequency and complexity of
ectopy.131
Drug-induced TdP rarely occurs in patients without concomitant risk factors. An analysis of 144 published articles
describing TdP associated with noncardiac drugs revealed
that 100% of the patients had at least 1 risk factor, and 71%
had at least 2 risk factors.132
Aftermath
Aftermath
●
By extrapolating data from non-US registries,123 it has been
estimated that 12 000 cases of drug-induced TdP occur
annually in the United States.124
The prevalence of drug-induced prolongation of QT and
TdP is 2 to 3 times higher in women than in men.125
With the majority of QT-prolonging drugs, drug-induced
TdP may occur in 3% to 15% of patients.126
Antiarrhythmic drugs with QT-interval–prolonging potential carry a 1% to 3% risk of TdP over 1 to 2 years of
exposure.127
●
Keys to reducing the incidence of drug-induced cardiac
arrhythmias include increased awareness among the medical, pharmaceutical, and nursing professions of the potential problems associated with the use of certain agents.
Appropriate monitoring when a QT-prolonging drug is
administered is essential. Also, prompt withdrawal of the
offending agent should be initiated.136
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VF and Ventricular Flutter
Aftermath
ICD-9 427.4; ICD-10 I49.0.
Mortality—1056. Any-mention mortality—9325.
●
Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Adults
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is defined as a sudden and
unexpected pulseless condition attributable to cessation of
cardiac mechanical activity.137 There are wide variations in
the reported incidence of and outcomes for out-of-hospital
cardiac arrest. These differences are due in part to differences
in definition and ascertainment of cardiac arrest data, as well
as differences in treatment after the onset of cardiac arrest.
●
●
Incidence
●
●
●
●
●
●
The incidence of nontraumatic EMS-treated cardiac arrest
and bystander-witnessed VF among individuals of any age
during 2010 in the United States is best characterized by an
ongoing registry from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium. See Table 10-1.
The total resident population of the United States in 2010
was 308 745 538 individuals (www.census.gov). Extrapolation of the mortality rate reported by the Resuscitation
Outcomes Consortium (Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Investigators, unpublished data, June 20, 2011) to the
total population of the United States suggests that each
year, 382 800 (quasi CI 375 400 –390 300) people experience EMS-assessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in the
United States.
Approximately 60% of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests are
treated by EMS personnel.138
Only 33% of those with EMS-treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest have symptoms within 1 hour of death.139
Among EMS-treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, 23%
have an initial rhythm of VF or VT or are shockable by an
automated external defibrillator.140
The incidence of cardiac arrest with an initial rhythm of VF
is decreasing over time; however, the incidence of cardiac
arrest with any initial rhythm is not decreasing.141
●
●
A study conducted in New York City found the ageadjusted incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest per
10 000 adults was 10.1 among blacks, 6.5 among Hispanics, and 5.8 among whites.142
Prior HD is a major risk factor for cardiac arrest. A study
of 1275 health maintenance organization enrollees 50 to 79
years of age who had cardiac arrest showed that the
incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest was 6.0 per 1000
person-years in subjects with any clinically recognized HD
compared with 0.8 per 1000 person-years in subjects
without HD. In subgroups with HD, incidence was 13.6 per
1000 person-years in subjects with prior MI and 21.9 per
1000 person-years in subjects with HF.143
A family history of cardiac arrest in a first-degree relative
is associated with an ⬇2-fold increase in risk of cardiac
arrest.144,145
Survival to hospital discharge, in 2010, of EMS-treated
nontraumatic cardiac arrest was 11.4% (95% CI 10.5–
12.2%; Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Investigators,
unpublished data, June 20, 2011) and that of bystanderwitnessed VF was 32.0% (95% CI 28.5–35.5%).
A study conducted in New York City found the ageadjusted survival to 30 days after discharge was more than
twice as poor for blacks as for whites, and survival among
Hispanics was also lower than among whites.142
Seventy-nine percent of the lay public are confident that
they know what actions to take in a medical emergency;
98% recognize an automated external defibrillator as something that administers an electric shock to restore a normal
heart beat among victims of sudden cardiac arrest; and 60%
are familiar with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (Harris
Interactive survey conducted on behalf of the AHA among
1132 US residents ⱖ18 years of age, January 8, 2008,
through January 21, 2008).
Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Children
●
●
●
Risk Factors
●
e113
The incidence of nontraumatic EMS-treated cardiac arrest
and bystander-witnessed VF among individuals ⬍18 years
of age in the United States are best characterized by an
ongoing registry (Table 10-1). Survival to hospital discharge among children with EMS-treated, non-traumatic
cardiac arrest: 8.6% (95% CI, 4.9% to 12.2%) (Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Investigators, unpublished data,
June 20, 2011) and of bystander-witnessed VF: 62.5%
(95% CI, 29.0% to 96.0%).
Most sudden deaths in athletes were attributable to CVD
(56%). Of the cardiovascular deaths that occurred, 29%
occurred in blacks, 54% in high school students, and 82%
with physical exertion during competition/training, and
only 11% occurred in females, although this proportion has
increased over time.148
A longitudinal study of students 17 to 24 years of age
participating in National Collegiate Athletic Association
sports showed that the incidence of nontraumatic out-ofhospital cardiac arrest was 1 per 22 903 athlete participantyears. The incidence of cardiac arrest tended to be higher
among blacks than whites and among men than women.149
In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
●
●
●
Extrapolation of the incidence of in-hospital cardiac arrest
reported by GWTG-Resuscitation to the total population of
hospitalized patients in the United States suggests that each
year, 209 000 (quasi CIs 192 000 –211 000) people are
treated for in-hospital cardiac arrest.150
35.0% of children and 23.1% of adults who experience
in-hospital cardiac arrest survive to discharge (GWTGResuscitation unpublished data).
17.1% of adults (14.3% of children) had VF or pulseless
VT as the first recorded rhythm. Of these, 43.3% (41.4% of
children) survived to discharge (GWTG-Resuscitation unpublished data).
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hydroquinidine. During a median follow-up of 64 months,
2 patients received an appropriate implantable
cardioverter-defibrillator shock, and 1 patient experienced
syncope. Nonsustained polymorphic VT was recorded in 3
patients.161
For additional details on out-of-hospital and in-hospital arrest
treatment and outcomes, please refer to Chapter 21, Quality
of Care.
Monogenic Inherited Syndromes Associated With
Sudden Cardiac Death
Long-QT Syndrome
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
The hereditary long-QT syndrome is a genetic channelopathy characterized by prolongation of the QT interval
(typically ⬎460 ms) and susceptibility to ventricular
tachyarrhythmias that lead to syncope and sudden cardiac
death. Investigators have identified mutations in 13 genes
leading to this phenotype (LQT1 through LQT13). LQT1
(KCNQ1), LQT2 (KCNH2), and LQT3 (SCN5A) mutations
account for the majority (⬇80%) of the typed
mutations.151,152
Prevalence of long-QT syndrome is estimated at 1 per 2000
live births from ECG-guided molecular screening of
⬇44 000 mostly white infants born in Italy.153 A similar
prevalence was found among nearly 8000 Japanese school
children screened by use of an ECG-guided molecular
screening approach.154
Long-QT syndrome has been reported among those of
African descent, but its prevalence is not well assessed.155
There is variable penetrance and a sex-time interaction for
long-QT syndrome symptoms. Risk of cardiac events is
higher among boys than girls (21% among boys and 14%
among girls by age 12 years). Risk of events during
adolescence is equivalent between sexes (⬇25% for both
sexes from ages 12–18 years). Conversely, risk of cardiac
events in young adulthood is higher among women than
men (39% among women from ages 18 – 40 years and 16%
among men).152
In addition to age and sex, the clinical course is influenced
by prior syncope or aborted cardiac arrest, family history,
QT-interval duration, genotype, number of mutations, and
congenital deafness.151,152,156
Risk of cardiac events is decreased during pregnancy but
increased during the 9-month postpartum period.157
The mainstay of therapy and prevention is ␤-blockade
treatment.152,156 Implantable defibrillators are considered
for high-risk individuals.158
The Brugada Syndrome
●
●
●
●
Catecholaminergic PVT
●
●
●
Short-QT Syndrome
●
●
●
Short-QT syndrome is a recently described inherited mendelian condition characterized by shortening of the QT
interval (typically QT ⬍320 ms) and predisposition to AF
and ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death. Mutations in 5 ion channel genes have been described
(SQT1–SQT5).159
In a population of 41 767 young, predominantly male
Swiss transcripts, 0.02% of the population had a QT
interval shorter than 320 ms.160
Among 53 patients from the European Short QT Syndrome
Registry (75% males, median age 26 years), a familial or
personal history of cardiac arrest was present in 89%.
Twenty-four patients received an implantable cardioverterdefibrillator, and 12 received long-term prophylaxis with
The Brugada syndrome is an inherited channelopathy
characterized by persistent ST-segment elevation in the
precordial leads (V1–V3), right bundle-branch block, and
susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.162
Mutations in several ion channel–related genes have been
identified that lead to Brugada syndrome.162
Prevalence is estimated at 1 to 5 per 10 000 individuals.
Prevalence is higher in South East Asian countries, including Thailand and Philippines. There is a strong male
predominance (80% male).162–167
Cardiac event rates for Brugada syndrome patients followed up prospectively in northern Europe (31.9 months)
and Japan (48.7 months) were similar: 8% to 10% in
patients with prior aborted sudden death, 1% to 2% in those
with history of syncope, and 0.5% in asymptomatic patients.168,169 Predictors of poor outcome included family
history of sudden death and early repolarization patter on
ECG.168,169
●
●
Catecholaminergic PVT is a familial condition characterized by adrenergically induced ventricular arrhythmias
associated with syncope and sudden death. It is associated
with frequent ectopy, bidirectional VT, and polymorphic
VT with exercise or catecholaminergic stimulation (such as
emotion, or medicines such as isoproterenol).
Mutations in genes encoding the ryanodine type 2 receptor
(RYR2)170,171 are found in the majority, and mutations in
genes encoding calsequestrin 2 (CASQ2)172,173 are found in
a small minority.174 However, a substantial proportion of
individuals with catecholaminergic PVT do not have an
identified mutation.
Statistics regarding catecholaminergic PVT are primarily
from case series. Of 101 patients with catecholaminergic
PVT, the majority had experienced symptoms before 21
years of age.174
In small series (n⫽27 to n⫽101) of patients followed up
over a mean of 6.8 to 7.9 years, 27% to 62% experienced
cardiac symptoms, and fatal or near-fatal events occurred
in 13% to 31%.174 –176
Risk factors for cardiac events included younger age of
diagnosis and absence of ␤-blocker therapy. A history of
aborted cardiac arrest and absence of ␤-blocker therapy
were risk factors for fatal or near-fatal events.174
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy
●
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is a
form of genetically inherited structural HD that presents
with fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium, with clin-
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 10
●
●
●
●
ical presentation of palpitations, syncope, and sudden
death.177
Twelve arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy
loci have been described (ARVC1–ARVC12). Diseasecausing genes for 8 of these loci have been identified, the
majority of which are in desmosomally related proteins.177
Prevalence is estimated at 2 to 10 per 10 000 individuals.177,178 Of 100 patients reported on from the Johns
Hopkins Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia
Registry, 51 were men, and 95 were white, with the rest
being of black, Hispanic, or Middle Eastern origin.
Twenty-two percent of index cases had evidence of the
familial form of arrhythmogenic right ventricular
cardiomyopathy.179
The most common presenting symptoms were palpitations
(27%), syncope (26%), and sudden cardiac death (23%).179
During a median follow-up of 6 years, 47 patients received
an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, 29 of whom received appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
shocks. At the end of follow-up, 66 patients were alive.
Twenty-three patients died at study entry, and 11 died
during follow-up (91% of deaths were attributable to
sudden cardiac arrest).179 Similarly, the annual mortality
rate was 2.3% for 130 patients with arrhythmogenic right
ventricular cardiomyopathy from Paris, France, who were
followed up for a mean of 8.1 years.180
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
(Please refer to Chapter 9, Cardiomyopathy and Heart Failure,
for statistics regarding the general epidemiology of HCM.)
●
●
●
●
●
●
Over a mean follow-up of 8⫾7 years, 6% of HCM patients
experienced sudden cardiac death.181
Among 1866 sudden deaths in athletes between 1980 and
2006, HCM was the most common cause of cardiovascular
sudden death (in 251 cases, or 36% of the 690 deaths that
could be reliably attributed to a cardiovascular cause).148
The risk of sudden death increases with increasing maximum left ventricular wall thickness,182,183 and the risk for
those with wall thickness ⱖ30 mm is 18.2 per 1000
patient-years (95% CI 7.3–37.6),182 or approximately twice
that of those with maximal wall thickness ⬍30 mm.182,183
Of note, an association between maximum wall thickness
and sudden death has not been found in every HCM
population.184
Nonsustained VT is a risk factor for sudden death,185,186
particularly in younger patients. Nonsustained VT in those
ⱕ30 years of age is associated with a 4.35-greater odds of
sudden death (95% CI 1.5–12.3).185
A history of syncope is also a risk factor for sudden death
in these patients,187 particularly if the syncope was recent
before the initial evaluation and not attributable to a
neurally mediated event.188
The presence of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction
ⱖ30 mm Hg appears to increase the risk of sudden death
by ⬇2-fold.189,190 The presence of left ventricular outflow
tract obstruction has a low positive predictive value (7%–
8%) but a high negative predictive value (92%–95%) for
predicting sudden death.189,191
●
●
e115
The rate of malignant ventricular arrhythmias detected by
implantable cardioverter-defibrillators appears to be similar between those with a family history of sudden death in
ⱖ1 first-degree relatives and those with at least 1 of the risk
factors described above.192
The risk of sudden death increases with the number of risk
factors.193,194
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Peters S, Trümmel M, Meyners W. Prevalence of right ventricular
dysplasia-cardiomyopathy in a non-referral hospital. Int J Cardiol. 2004;
97:499 –501.
Dalal D, Nasir K, Bomma C, Prakasa K, Tandri H, Piccini J, Roguin A,
Tichnell C, James C, Russell SD, Judge DP, Abraham T, Spevak PJ,
Bluemke DA, Calkins H. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: a
United States experience. Circulation. 2005;112:3823–3832.
Hulot JS, Jouven X, Empana JP, Frank R, Fontaine G. Natural history
and risk stratification of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 2004;110:1879 –1884.
Maron BJ, Olivotto I, Spirito P, Casey SA, Bellone P, Gohman TE,
Graham KJ, Burton DA, Cecchi F. Epidemiology of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy–related death: revisited in a large non–referral-based
patient population. Circulation. 2000;102:858 – 864.
Spirito P, Bellone P, Harris KM, Bernabo P, Bruzzi P, Maron BJ.
Magnitude of left ventricular hypertrophy and risk of sudden death in
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1778 –1785.
183. Elliott PM, Gimeno Blanes JR, Mahon NG, Poloniecki JD, McKenna
WJ. Relation between severity of left-ventricular hypertrophy and
prognosis in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Lancet. 2001;
357:420 – 424.
184. Olivotto I, Gistri R, Petrone P, Pedemonte E, Vargiu D, Cecchi F.
Maximum left ventricular thickness and risk of sudden death in patients
with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:
315–321.
185. Monserrat L, Elliott PM, Gimeno JR, Sharma S, Penas-Lado M,
McKenna WJ. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia in hypertrophic
cardiomyopathy: an independent marker of sudden death risk in young
patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42:873– 879.
186. Adabag AS, Casey SA, Kuskowski MA, Zenovich AG, Maron BJ.
Spectrum and prognostic significance of arrhythmias on ambulatory
Holter electrocardiogram in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll
Cardiol. 2005;45:697–704.
187. Kofflard MJ, Ten Cate FJ, van der Lee C, van Domburg RT. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a large community-based population: clinical
outcome and identification of risk factors for sudden cardiac death and
clinical deterioration. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:987–993.
188. Spirito P, Autore C, Rapezzi C, Bernabò P, Badagliacca R, Maron MS,
Bongioanni S, Coccolo F, Estes NA, Barillà CS, Biagini E, Quarta G,
Conte MR, Bruzzi P, Maron BJ. Syncope and risk of sudden death in
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation. 2009;119:1703–1710.
189. Maron MS, Olivotto I, Betocchi S, Casey SA, Lesser JR, Losi MA,
Cecchi F, Maron BJ. Effect of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction
on clinical outcome in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med.
2003;348:295–303.
190. Elliott PM, Gimeno JR, Tomé MT, Shah J, Ward D, Thaman R,
Mogensen J, McKenna WJ. Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction
and sudden death risk in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Eur
Heart J. 2006;27:1933–1941.
191. Efthimiadis GK, Parcharidou DG, Giannakoulas G, Pagourelias ED,
Charalampidis P, Savvopoulos G, Ziakas A, Karvounis H, Styliadis IH,
Parcharidis GE. Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction as a risk factor
for sudden cardiac death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol.
2009;104:695– 699.
192. Bos JM, Maron BJ, Ackerman MJ, Haas TS, Sorajja P, Nishimura RA,
Gersh BJ, Ommen SR. Role of family history of sudden death in risk
stratification and prevention of sudden death with implantable defibrillators in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 2010;106:
1481–1486.
193. Elliott PM, Poloniecki J, Dickie S, Sharma S, Monserrat L, Varnava A,
Mahon NG, McKenna WJ. Sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: identification of high risk patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;36:
2212–2218.
194. Maron BJ, Spirito P, Shen WK, Haas TS, Formisano F, Link MS,
Epstein AE, Almquist AK, Daubert JP, Lawrenz T, Boriani G, Estes NA
3rd, Favale S, Piccininno M, Winters SL, Santini M, Betocchi S, Arribas
F, Sherrid MV, Buja G, Semsarian C, Bruzzi P. Implantable
cardioverter-defibrillators and prevention of sudden cardiac death in
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy [published correction appears in JAMA.
2007;298:1516]. JAMA. 2007;298:405– 412.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 10
Table 10-1.
Incidence and Outcome of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in United States
Incidence per 100 000 Resident Population, Mean (95% CI)
EMS-assessed
EMS treated, non-traumatic
cardiac arrest
Bystander-witnessed VF
Overall
Adults
Children
124.0 (121.6, 126.4)
140.9 (138.0, 143.8)
13.8 (12.2, 15.4)
67.2 (65.5, 68.9)
85.2 (82.9, 87.5)
10.5 (9.1, 11.9)
8.0 (7.4, 8.6)
10.5 (9.7, 11.3)
0.4 (0.1, 0.6)
CI indicates confidence interval; EMS, emergency medical services; VF, ventricular fibrillation.
Source: Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Investigators, unpublished data, June 20, 2011.
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11. Other Cardiovascular Diseases
●
See Table 11-1.
Mortality and any-mention mortality in this section are for
2008. “Mortality” is the number of deaths in 2008 for the
given underlying cause. Prevalence data are for 2006. Hospital discharge data are from the NHDS/NCHS; data include
inpatients discharged alive, dead, or status unknown. Hospital
discharge data for 2009 are based on ICD-9 codes.
●
Valvular Heart Disease
●
ICD-9 424; ICD-10 I34 to I38.
Mortality—21 824. Any-mention mortality— 45 062. Hospital discharges—92 000.
●
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 11
AAA
abdominal aortic aneurysm
ABI
ankle-brachial index
AHA
American Heart Association
ARIC
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study
BMI
body mass index
CARDIA
Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults
CHD
coronary heart disease
CHS
Cardiovascular Health Study
CKD
chronic kidney disease
CI
confidence interval
CT
computed tomography
CVD
cardiovascular disease
DM
diabetes mellitus
DVT
deep vein thrombosis
ECG
electrocardiogram/electrocardiographic
FHS
Framingham Heart Study
FRS
Framingham Risk Score
HD
heart disease
HLA
human leukocyte antigen
ICD
International Classification of Diseases
ICD-9
International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision
ICD-10
International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision
IE
infective endocarditis
MESA
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
MI
myocardial infarction
NCHS
National Center for Health Statistics
NH
non-Hispanic
NHANES
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NHDS
National Hospital Discharge Survey
NHLBI
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
OR
odds ratio
PA
physical activity
PAD
peripheral arterial disease
PE
pulmonary embolism
RR
relative risk
VTE
venous thromboembolism
VHD
valvular heart disease
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Three important factors have contributed to the changing
epidemiology of valvular heart disease (VHD) in the United
States and other industrialized countries over the past 3
decades: the aging population, the increase in degenerative
VHD, and the increased ability to ascertain VHD by cardiac
ultrasound before it becomes clinically manifest.
Epidemiological challenges, including uniform definitions
of VHD-linked wide variations in disease severity and
latency between disease onset on clinical presentation,
make estimation of the growing burden of VHD difficult.1
A large population-based epidemiological study performed
with cardiac ultrasound in a representative US population
of 11 911 patients showed an overall age-adjusted prevalence of VHD of 2.5% (95% CI 2.2–2.7%).2,3
Echocardiographic data from the CARDIA study (4351),
the ARIC study (2435), and the CHS (5125) were pooled to
assess the age-dependent prevalence of VHD. The prevalence increased from 0.7% (95% CI 0.5–1.0) in participants
18 to 44 years of age to 13.3% (95% CI 11.7–15.0) in
participants ⱖ75 years of age (P⬍0.0001).2
The adjusted mortality risk ratio associated with valve
disease was 1.36 (95% CI 1.15–1.62; P⫽0.0005).1
Doppler echocardiography data in 1696 men and 1893
women (54⫾10 years of age) attending a routine examination of the FHS were used to assess the prevalence of
valvular regurgitation. Mitral regurgitation and tricuspid
regurgitation of more than or equal to mild severity were
seen in 19.0% and 14.8% of men and 19.1% and 18.4% of
women, respectively. Aortic regurgitation of more than or
equal to trace severity was present in 13.0% of men and
8.5% of women.3
Aortic Valve Disorders
ICD-9 424.1; ICD-10 I35.
Mortality—14 337. Any-mention mortality—29 246. Hospital discharges— 60 000.
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The prevalence of moderate aortic stenosis in patients aged
70 to 80 years is estimated to be 2%.2,4,5
Calcific aortic stenosis on a trileaflet valve or bicuspid
aortic valve is the most common cause of aortic stenosis.6
In the MESA study of 5880 participants aged 45 to 84
years, aortic valve calcium was quantified with serial CT
images. During a mean follow-up of 2.4 years, 210 subjects
(4.1%) of the 5142 with no aortic valve calcium had a mean
incidence rate of progression of 1.7% per year, which
increased significantly with age. The incident aortic valve
calcium risk was associated with several traditional cardiovascular risk factors, specifically age, male sex, BMI, and
smoking.7
In the Euro Heart Survey, which included 4910 patients in
⬎25 countries, aortic stenosis was the most frequent lesion,
accounting for 43% of all patients who had VHD.8
Among men and women ⱖ65 years of age enrolled in the
CHS who underwent echocardiography, the aortic valve was
normal in 70% of cases, sclerotic without outflow obstruction
in 29%, and stenotic in 2%. Aortic sclerosis was associated
with an increase of ⬇50% in the risk of death of cardiovas-
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cular causes and the risk of MI.9 Clinical factors associated
with aortic sclerosis and stenosis were similar to risk factors
for atherosclerosis.4 These data largely exclude patients with
congenital HD, a group that is expected to increasingly
contribute to the prevalence of valve disease.
Degenerative disease of the aortic valve and root is the
most common cause of aortic regurgitation in industrialized countries.5
The congenital bicuspid aortic valve is more often associated with aortic stenosis than regurgitation but was found to
be the most common cause of aortic regurgitation in the
Euro Heart Survey.10
Mitral Valve Disorders
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ICD-9 424.0; ICD-10 I34.
●
Mortality—2372. Any-mention mortality—5477. Hospital
discharges—27 000.
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Prevalence
●
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In pooled data from the CARDIA, ARIC, and CHS studies,
mitral valve disease was the most common valvular lesion.
At least moderate mitral regurgitation occurred at a frequency of 1.7% as adjusted to the US adult population of
2000, increasing from 0.5% to 9.3% in those between 18
and ⱖ75 years of age.1
Isolated mitral stenosis is more common in women and occurs
in 40% of all patients presenting with rheumatic HD.11
The NHLBI-sponsored FHS reports that among people 26
to 84 years of age, prevalence of mitral valve disorders is
⬇1% to 2% and equal between women and men.12
The prevalence of mitral valve prolapse in the general
population was evaluated with the use of echocardiograms
of 1845 women and 1646 men who participated in the fifth
examination of the Offspring Cohort of the FHS. The
prevalence of mitral valve prolapse was 2.4%. The frequencies of chest pain, dyspnea, and ECG abnormalities were
similar among subjects with and those without prolapse.12
ICD-9 421.0; ICD-10 I33.0.
Mortality—1143. Any-mention mortality—2420. Hospital
discharges—28 000, primary plus secondary diagnoses.
●
ICD-9 424.3; ICD-10 I37.
Mortality—12. Any-mention mortality—38.
ICD-9 424.2; ICD-10 I36.
●
Mortality—14. Any-mention mortality—70.
Rheumatic Fever/Rheumatic HD
●
ICD-9 390 to 398; ICD-10 I00 to I09.
Mortality—3141. Any-mention mortality—5881. Hospital
discharges—38 000.
●
Rheumatic HD is most common in developing countries,
where estimates vary from 2% to 3% with use of cardiac
ultrasound screening.5
The incidence of acute rheumatic fever has decreased in the
United States.13
Although localized outbreaks have occurred, the overall
incidence of acute rheumatic fever remains very low in
most areas of the United States.14,15
The incidence of rheumatic fever remains high in blacks,
Puerto Ricans, Mexican Americans, and American
Indians.16
In 1950, ⬇15 000 Americans (adjusted for changes in ICD
codes) died of rheumatic fever/rheumatic HD compared
with ⬇3100 today (NCHS/NHLBI).
From 1996 to 2006, the death rate attributable to rheumatic
fever/rheumatic HD fell 8.3%, and actual deaths declined
26.2% (NCHS/NHLBI).
The 2007 overall death rate for rheumatic fever/rheumatic HD
was 1.0. Death rates were 0.8 for white males, 0.7 for black
males, 1.2 for white females, and 0.9 for black females.17
Immune risk factors have been linked with rheumatic HD.
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing was performed in
120 black patients with severe chronic rheumatic HD
requiring cardiac surgery; HLA-DR 1 antigen was present
in 12.6% of patients compared with 2.7% of normal control
subjects, and the HLA-DRw6 antigen was present in 31.1%
of patients compared with 15% of control subjects, which
suggests that genetically determined immune response
factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of severe
chronic rheumatic HD.18
Bacterial Endocarditis
Pulmonary Valve Disorders
Tricuspid Valve Disorders
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The 2007 AHA guidelines on prevention of infective
endocarditis (IE)15 state that IE is thought to result from the
following sequence of events: (1) Formation of nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis on the surface of a cardiac
valve or elsewhere that endothelial damage occurs; (2)
bacteremia; and (3) adherence of the bacteria in the
bloodstream to nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis and
proliferation of bacteria within a vegetation. Viridans
group streptococci are part of the normal skin, oral,
respiratory, and gastrointestinal tract flora, and they cause
ⱖ50% of cases of community-acquired native valve IE not
associated with intravenous drug use.19
The best estimates of the incidence of IE in the general
population come from a prospective study of 16 million
people in France conducted in 1999. The annual age- and
sex-standardized incidence was 31 cases per million.20
In studies comparing the exposure to bacteremia from various
sources, the cumulative exposure during 1 year from routine
daily activities such as tooth brushing and food chewing may
be as much as 5.6 million times greater that that occurring as
a result of a single tooth extraction, the procedure associated
with the highest risk of bacteremia.21
Although the absolute risk for IE from a dental procedure
is impossible to measure precisely, the best available
estimates are as follows: If dental treatment causes 1% of
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all cases of viridans group streptococcal IE annually in the
United States, the overall risk in the general population is
estimated to be as low as 1 case of IE per 14 million dental
procedures. The estimated absolute risk rates for IE from a
dental procedure in patients with underlying cardiac conditions are as follows21:
—
—
—
—
—
●
●
●
Mitral valve prolapse: 1 per 1.1 million procedures;
CHD: 1 per 475 000;
Rheumatic HD: 1 per 142 000;
Presence of a prosthetic cardiac valve: 1 per 114 000; and
Previous IE: 1 per 95 000 dental procedures
Venous Thromboembolism Epidemiology
(Including Deep Vein Thrombosis and
Pulmonary Embolism)27
Pulmonary Embolism
ICD-9 415.1; ICD-10 I26.
Mortality—7158. Any-mention mortality—28 852. Hospital discharges—158 000.
Deep Vein Thrombosis
ICD-9 451.1; ICD-10 I80.2.
Mortality—2352. Any-mention mortality—12 296.
Although these calculations of risk are estimates, it is likely
that the number of cases of IE that result from a dental
procedure is exceedingly small. Therefore, the number of
cases that could be prevented by antibiotic prophylaxis,
even if prophylaxis were 100% effective, is similarly small.
One would not expect antibiotic prophylaxis to be near
100% effective, however, because of the nature of the
organisms and choice of antibiotics.21
Patients with congenital HD present a particular set of risk
factors related to the presence of cyanosis, the use of prosthetic material for repair of HD, and the presence of residual
defects at the site of previous repair.10 In adults with congenital HD, the presence of multiple heart defects and previous
endocarditis are significant predictors of endocarditis.22
Although IE occurs less often in children than in adults, the
incidence of IE in children is increasing with the increasing
numbers of children with repaired congenital HD. IE accounts
for 1 of every 1280 pediatric admissions per year.23
Incidence
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Endocarditis, Valve Unspecified
ICD-9 424.9; ICD-10 I38.
Mortality—5089. Any-mention mortality—10 443.
Kawasaki Disease
ICD-9 446.1; ICD-10 M30.3.
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Venous thromboembolism (VTE) consists of deep vein
thrombosis (DVT; typically involving deep veins of the leg
or pelvis) and its complication, pulmonary embolism (PE).
VTE average annual incidence among whites is 108 per
100 000 person-years, with ⬇250 000 incident cases occurring annually among US whites.
VTE incidence appears to be similar or higher among
African-Americans and lower among Asian and Native
Americans.
After adjustment for the different age and sex distribution
of African Americans, VTE incidence is ⬇78 per 100 000,
which suggests 27 000 incident VTE cases occur annually
among African Americans.
Modeling suggests that ⬎900 000 incident or recurrent
VTE events occur annually in the United States, of which
approximately one third are fatal.
VTE incidence has not changed significantly over the past
25 years.
Incidence rates increase exponentially with age for both
men and women and for both DVT and PE.
Incidence rates are higher in women during childbearing
years, whereas incidence rates after 45 years of age are
higher in men.
PE accounts for an increasing proportion of VTE with
increasing age for both sexes.
Mortality— 6. Any-mention mortality—7.
Survival
Kawasaki disease is more prevalent in the United States
than in Japan, where outbreaks occurred in 1979, 1982, and
1986, and where the majority of cases occurred in those
under the age of 2 years and predominantly in males.24
An estimated 4248 hospitalizations for Kawasaki disease
occurred in the United States in 2000, with a median
patient age of 2 years. Race-specific incidence rates indicate that Kawasaki disease is most common among Americans of Asian and Pacific Island descent (32.5/100 000
children ⬍5 years of age), occurs with intermediate frequency in non-Hispanic blacks (16.9/100 000 children ⬍5
years of age) and Hispanics (11.1/100 000 children ⬍5
years of age), and is least common in whites (9.1/100 000
children ⬍5 years of age).25 In the United States, Kawasaki
disease is more common during the winter and early spring
months; boys outnumber girls by ⬇1.5:1 to 1.7:1; and 76%
of children with Kawasaki disease are ⬍5 years of age.26
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Observed survival after VTE is significantly worse than
expected survival for age and sex, and survival after PE is
much worse than after DVT alone.
For almost one quarter of PE patients, the initial clinical
presentation is sudden death.
Thirty-day VTE survival is 74.8% (DVT alone, 96.2%; PE
with or without DVT, 59.1%).28
PE is an independent predictor of reduced survival for up to
3 months.
Because most PE deaths are sudden and usually attributed
to underlying disease (eg, cancer, other chronic heart, lung,
or renal disease), secular trends in VTE survival are
confounded by autopsy rates.
Recurrence
●
VTE is a chronic disease with episodic recurrence; ⬇30%
develop recurrence within the next 10 years.
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The hazard of recurrence varies with the time since the
incident event and is highest within the first 6 to 12 months.
Independent predictors of recurrence include increasing
patient age and BMI; neurological disease with leg paresis;
active cancer; lupus anticoagulant or antiphospholipid antibody; antithrombin, protein C, or protein S deficiency;
and persistently increased plasma fibrin D-dimer.
Idiopathic incident VTE, incident PE, and male sex may
predict a higher risk of recurrence, but reports are
conflicting.29 –31
Complications
●
●
●
VTE complications include venous stasis syndrome (or
postthrombotic syndrome) and venous ulcer, as well as
chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.
The 20-year incidence of cumulative venous stasis syndrome and venous ulcer after proximal DVT is ⬇40% and
3.7%, respectively.
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension incidence is 6.5 per million person-years; ⬇1400 incident
chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension cases
occur annually among US whites.
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Independent VTE risk factors include increasing patient
age, surgery, trauma/fracture, hospital or nursing home
confinement, active cancer, central vein catheterization or
transvenous pacemaker, prior superficial vein thrombosis,
varicose veins and neurological disease with leg paresis,
and among women, oral contraceptives, pregnancy/postpartum, and hormone therapy.
Together, these risk factors account for ⬎75% of all
incident VTE occurring in the community.
Compared with residents in the community, hospitalized
residents have more than a 130-fold higher VTE incidence
(71 versus 9605 per 100 000 person-years).32
Hospitalization and nursing home residence together account for almost 60% of incident VTE events that occur in
the community.
Among cancer patients beginning chemotherapy, tumor
site, BMI, hemoglobin, platelet and white blood cell count,
and plasma D-dimer and soluble P-selectin levels are
predictors of VTE in the next 6 months.33
Physical inactivity is a risk factor for PE among women.34
Use of injectable depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate as
contraception is a risk factor for DVT.35
Pregnancy-associated VTE incidence is 200 per 100 000
woman-years; compared with nonpregnant women of
childbearing age, the relative risk is increased ⬇4-fold.
VTE risk during the postpartum period is ⬇5-fold higher
than during pregnancy.
VTE is highly heritable and follows a complex mode of
inheritance that involves environmental interaction.
Inherited thrombophilias (eg, inherited antithrombin, protein C, or protein S deficiency; factor V Leiden; prothrombin G20210A; ABO blood type non-O) interact with such
clinical risk factors (ie, environmental “exposures”) as oral
contraceptives, pregnancy, hormone therapy, and surgery
to compound VTE risk.
Similarly, genetic interaction compounds the risk of incident and recurrent VTE.
Arteries, Diseases of
ICD-9 440 to 448; ICD-10 I70 to I79. Includes PAD.
Mortality—27 765. Any-mention mortality— 89 924. Hospital discharges—331 000.
Aortic Aneurysm
ICD-9 441; ICD-10 I71.
Mortality—11 079. Any-mention mortality—17 816. Hospital discharges— 84 000.
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Risk Factors
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Although the definition varies somewhat by age and body
surface area, generally an abdominal aortic aneurysm
(AAA) is considered to be present when the anteroposterior
diameter of the aorta reaches 3.0 cm.36
The prevalence of AAAs 2.9 to 4.9 cm in diameter ranges
from 1.3% in men 45 to 54 years of age to 12.5% in men
75 to 84 years of age. For women, the prevalence ranges
from 0% in the youngest to 5.2% in the oldest age group.36
Factors associated with increased prevalence of AAA
include older age, male sex, family history of AAA,
tobacco use, hypertension, and manifest atherosclerotic
disease in other vascular beds, including the coronary and
peripheral arteries.36,37 The association of dyslipidemia
with AAA is mixed.38
Patients with DM are approximately half as likely as
patients without DM to have an AAA.39,40
Male sex, older age, and smoking are important risk factors
for incident AAA in the next 7 years.41
Large AAAs tend to expand more rapidly than small AAAs,
and large AAAs are at substantially higher risk for rupture.36
— Average annual expansion rates are ⬇1 to 4 mm for
aneurysms ⬍4.0 cm in diameter, 4 to 5 mm for AAAs
4.0 to 6.0 cm in diameter, and as much as 7 to 8 mm for
AAAs ⬎6.0 cm in diameter.
— Absolute risk for eventual rupture is ⬇20% for AAAs
⬎5.0 cm, ⬇40% for AAAs ⬎6.0 cm, and ⬎50% for
AAAs ⬎7.0 cm in diameter.
— Rupture of an AAA may be associated with death rates
as high as 90%.
Peripheral Arterial Disease
ICD-9: 440.20 to 440.24, 440.30 to 440.32, 440.4, 440.9,
443.9, 445.02; ICD-10: I70.2, I70.9, I73.9, I74.3, I74.4.
Mortality—14 501. Any-mention mortality— 68 849. Hospital discharges—166 000.
●
PAD affects ⬇8 million Americans and is associated with
significant morbidity and mortality.42 Prevalence increases
dramatically with age, and PAD disproportionately affects
blacks.42
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PAD affects 12% to 20% of Americans ⱖ65 years of age.43
Despite its prevalence and cardiovascular risk implications,
only ⬇70% to 80% of patients with PAD undergo recommended antiplatelet therapy or lipid-lowering therapy.44
In the general population, only ⬇10% of people with PAD
have the classic symptom of intermittent claudication.
Approximately 40% do not complain of leg pain, whereas
the remaining 50% have a variety of leg symptoms different from classic claudication.45,46 In an older, disabled
population of women, however, as many as two thirds of
individuals with PAD had no exertional leg symptoms.47
The risk factors for PAD are similar but not identical to
those for CHD. DM and cigarette smoking are stronger risk
factors for PAD than for CHD.36 ORs for associations of
DM and smoking with symptomatic PAD are ⬇3.0 to 4.0.
Most studies suggest that the prevalence of PAD is similar
in men and women.48
Pooled data from 11 studies in 6 countries found that PAD
is a marker for systemic atherosclerotic disease. The ageand sex-adjusted RR of all-cause death was 2.35; for CVD
mortality, it was 3.34; and for CHD fatal and nonfatal
events combined, it was 2.13. The findings for stroke were
slightly weaker but still significant, with a pooled RR of
1.86 for fatal and nonfatal events combined.49
A recent meta-analysis of 24 955 men and 23 339 women
demonstrated that the association of the ABI with mortality
has a reverse J-shaped distribution in which participants
with an ABI of 1.11 to 1.40 are at lowest risk for
mortality.50 Furthermore, an ABI ⬍0.90 added meaningfully to the FRS in predicting 10-year risk of total mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and major coronary events.
An ABI ⬍0.90 approximately doubled the risk of total
mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and major coronary
events in each FRS category.50
Among 508 patients (449 men) identified from 2 vascular
laboratories in San Diego, CA, a decline in ABI of ⬎0.15
within a 10-year period was associated with a subsequent
increased risk of all-cause mortality (RR 2.4) and CVD
mortality (RR of 2.8) at 3 years’ follow-up.51
Among 440 patients with PAD, male sex and smoking
were more associated with aortoiliac (proximal) disease
than with infrailiac (distal) disease. In addition, aortoiliac
disease was associated with an increased risk of mortality
or cardiovascular events compared with infrailiac disease
(adjusted HR 3.28, 95% CI 1.87–5.75).52
Men and women with PAD have higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers than individuals without PAD. Elevated
levels of C-reactive protein were associated with an increased risk of developing PAD among men in the Physicians’ Health Study.53 The OR for developing PAD 5 years
after C-reactive protein measurement was 2.1 for those in
the highest versus lowest baseline quartile of C-reactive
protein. Among participants in the Women’s Health Study,
12 years after soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1
measurement, women in the highest baseline tertile for
levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 had a
2-fold increased risk of developing PAD compared with
women in the lowest baseline tertile.54 Among individuals
with PAD, higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers are
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular
mortality rates and increased risk of failure of lowerextremity revascularization procedures.55–57
Data from the NHANES 1999 –2004 cohort demonstrated an
inverse association between bilirubin levels and prevalence of
PAD. A 0.1-mg/dL higher level of bilirubin was associated
with a 6% reduction in the odds of PAD (OR 0.94, 95% CI
0.90 – 0.98) after adjustment for PAD risk factors.58
People with PAD have impaired function and quality of
life. This is true even for people who do not report leg
symptoms. Furthermore, patients with PAD, including
those who are asymptomatic, experience a significant
decline in lower-extremity functioning over time.59 – 61
Data from NHANES 1999 –2000 (NCHS) show that high
blood levels of lead and cadmium are associated with an
increased prevalence of PAD. Exposure to these 2 metals
can occur through cigarette smoke. The risk was 2.8 for
high levels of cadmium and 2.9 for high levels of lead. The
OR of PAD for current smokers was 4.13 compared with
people who had never smoked.62
Results from NHANES 1999 –2000 (NCHS) and the CHS
showed a remarkably high prevalence of PAD among
patients with renal insufficiency.63,64 In addition, chronic
kidney disease (CKD) is common among communitydwelling older men and women with a high ABI.64
Available evidence suggests that the prevalence of PAD in
people of Hispanic origin is similar to or slightly higher
than that in non-Hispanic whites.42,65
Among patients with established PAD, higher PA levels
during daily life are associated with better overall survival
rate, a lower risk of death because of CVD, and slower
rates of functional decline.66,67 In addition, better 6-minute
walk performance and faster walking speed are associated
with lower rates of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular
mortality, and mobility loss.68,69
A cross-sectional, population-based telephone survey of
⬎2500 adults ⱖ50 years of age, with oversampling of
blacks and Hispanics, found that 26% expressed familiarity
with PAD. Of these, half were not aware that DM and
smoking increase the risk of PAD. One in 4 knew that PAD
is associated with increased risk of heart attack and stroke,
and only 14% were aware that PAD could lead to amputation. All knowledge domains were lower in individuals
with lower income and education levels.70
Other Diseases of Arteries
ICD-9 440 to 448, excluding AAA and PAD; ICD-10 I70 to
I79, excluding AAA and PAD.
Mortality— 8850. Any-mention mortality—30 290. Hospital discharges— 81 000.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 11
Table 11-1.
Rheumatic Fever/Rheumatic Heart Disease
Mortality, 2008:
All Ages*
Hospital Discharges,
2009: All Ages
Both sexes
3141
38 000
Males
1025 (32.6%)†
16 000
Females
2116 (67.4%)†
22 000
Population Group
NH white males
NH white females
NH black males
NH black females
882
...
1873
...
97
...
166
...
NH indicates non-Hispanic; ellipses (. . .), data not available.
*Mortality data are for whites and blacks and include Hispanics.
†These percentages represent the portion of total mortality that is for males
vs females.
Sources: Mortality: National Center for Health Statistics; data represent
underlying cause of death only. Hospital discharges: National Hospital Discharge Survey, National Center for Health Statistics, and National Heart, Lung,
and Blood Institute; data include those inpatients discharged alive, dead, or of
unknown status.
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Circulation
January 3/10, 2012
12. Risk Factor: Family History
and Genetics
(NHANES 2007–2008; tabulation by Donald Lloyd-Jones,
MD, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL):
Biologically related first-degree relatives (siblings, offspring
and parents) share roughly 50% of their genetic variation with
one another. This constitutes much greater sharing of genetic
variation than with a randomly selected person from the
population, and thus, when a trait aggregates within a family,
this lends evidence for a genetic risk factor for the trait.
Similarly, racial/ethnic minorities are more likely to share
their genetic variation within their demographic than with
other demographics. Familial aggregation of CVD may be
related to aggregation of specific behaviors (eg, smoking,
alcohol use) or risk factors (eg, hypertension, DM, obesity)
that may themselves have environmental and genetic contributors. Unlike classic mendelian genetic risk factors, whereby
usually 1 mutation directly causes 1 disease, a complex trait’s
genetic contributors may increase risk without necessarily
always causing the condition. The effect size of any specific
contributor to risk may be small but widespread throughout a
population, or may be large but affect only a small population, or may have an enhanced risk when an environmental
contributor is present. Although the breadth of all genetic
research into CVD is beyond the scope of this chapter, we
present a summary of evidence that a genetic risk for CVD is
likely, as well as a summary of evidence on the most
consistently replicated genetic markers for HD identified to
date.
— For non-Hispanic whites, 14.9% for men, 16.7% for
women.
— For non-Hispanic blacks, 10.0% for men, 12.4% for
women.
— For Mexican Americans, 8.8% for men, 12.3% for
women.
— For other races, 11.4% for men, 13.6% for women.
Prevalence
●
—
—
—
—
●
●
Among adults ⱖ20 years of age, 13.3% reported a parent or
sibling with a heart attack or angina before the age of 50
years. The racial/ethnic breakdown is as follows
●
●
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 12
ABI
ankle-brachial index
BMI
body mass index
CAC
coronary artery calcification
CARDIoGRAM
Coronary ARtery DIsease Genome-wide
Replication And Meta-analysis
CI
confidence interval
CVD
cardiovascular disease
DBP
diastolic blood pressure
DM
diabetes mellitus
FHS
Framingham Heart Study
HbA1c
glycosylated hemoglobin
HD
heart disease
HDL
high-density lipoprotein
LDL
low-density lipoprotein
MI
myocardial infarction
NHANES
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
OR
odds ratio
SBP
systolic blood pressure
SNP
single-nucleotide polymorphism
Age 20 to 39 years, 10.3% for men, 11.6% for women.
Age 40 to 59 years, 14.1% for men, 18.4% for women.
Age 60 to 79 years, 12.4% for men, 15.5% for women.
Age ⱖ80 years, 11.2% for men, 9.2% for women.
In the multigenerational FHS, only 75% of participants
with a documented parental history of a heart attack before
age 55 years reported that history when asked.1
Impact of Family History
Family History of HD
●
HD occurs as people age, and those without a family
history of HD may survive longer, so the prevalence of
family history will vary depending on the age at which it is
assessed. The breakdown of reported family history of
heart attack by age in the US population as measured by
NHANES is as follows (NHANES 2007–2008; tabulation
by Donald Lloyd-Jones, MD, Northwestern University,
Chicago, IL):
Premature paternal history of a heart attack has been shown
to approximately double the risk of a heart attack in men
and increase the risk in women by ⬇70%.2,3
History of a heart attack in both parents increases the risk
of heart attack, especially when 1 parent has had a
premature heart attack4 (Table 12-2).
Sibling history of HD has been shown to increase the odds
of HD in men and women by ⬇50%.5
Genetics
●
●
●
The increased risk of HD seen in people with a family
history of a heart attack is likely caused in part by shared
genetics. The full genetic basis for CVD has not yet been
determined, and genetic markers discovered thus far have
not been shown to add to cardiovascular risk prediction
tools beyond current models that incorporate family
history.6
Heritability is the ratio of genetically caused variation to
the total variation of a trait or measure. Table 12-2 presents
heritability estimates for standard CVD risk factors using
data generated from the FHS. These data suggest that most
CVD risk factors have at least moderate heritability.
Genome-wide association is a robust technique to identify
associations between genotypes and phenotypes. Table
12-3 presents results from the CARDIoGRAM (Coronary
ARtery DIsease Genome-wide Replication And Meta-analysis) consortium, which represents the largest genetic study
of MI to date, with 22 233 MI case subjects and 64 762
control subjects and with independent validation in an
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 12
●
●
●
additional 56 682 individuals.7 Altogether, there are 23
well-replicated loci for MI. The ORs are modest, ranging
from 1.06 to 1.51 per copy of the risk allele (individuals
may harbor up to 2 copies of a risk allele). However, these
are common alleles, which suggests that the attributable
risk may be substantial.
The most consistently replicated genetic marker for HD in
European-derived populations is located at 9p21.3. At this
single-nucleotide polymorphism, ⬇27% of the white population is estimated to have 0 risk alleles, 50% is estimated
to have 1 risk allele, and the remaining 23% is estimated to
have 2 risk alleles.8
The 10-year HD risk for a 65-year-old man with 2 risk
alleles at 9p21.3 and no other traditional risk factors is
⬇13.2%, whereas a similar man with 0 alleles would have
a 10-year risk of ⬇9.2%. The 10-year HD risk for a
40-year-old woman with 2 alleles and no other traditional
risk factors is ⬇2.4%, whereas a similar woman with 0
alleles would have a 10-year risk of ⬇1.7%.8
Variation at the same 9p21.3 region also increases the risk
of stroke,9 as well as the risk of aortic aneurysms,10 –12
intracranial aneurysms,11 heart failure,13 and sudden
death.14 Associations have also been observed between the
9p21.3 region and CAC.15,16 Additionally, stronger associations have been found between variation at 9p21.3 and
earlier17,18 and more severe19 heart attacks. The biological
mechanism underpinning the association of genetic variation in the 9p21 region with disease outcomes is still under
investigation.
8.
9.
10.
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Table 12-2.
Heritability of CVD Risk Factors From the FHS
Trait
Heritability
ABI
0.2120
SBP
0.4221
DBP
0.3921
Left ventricular mass
0.24 to 0.3222
BMI
0.37 (mean age 40 y) to
0.52 (mean age 60 y)23
Waist circumference
0.4124
Visceral abdominal fat
0.3625
Subcutaneous abdominal fat
0.5725
Table 12-1. OR for Combinations of Parental Heart
Attack History
Fasting glucose
0.3426
HbA1c
0.2726
Parental Heart Attack History
Triglycerides
0.4827
1.00
HDL cholesterol
0.5227
1.67 (1.55–1.81)
Total cholesterol
0.5727
One parent with heart attack at ⬍50 y of age
2.36 (1.89–2.95)
LDL cholesterol
0.5927
Both parents with heart attack at ⱖ50 y of age
2.90 (2.30–3.66)
0.3328
Both parents with heart attack, 1 at ⬍50 y of age
3.26 (1.72–6.18)
Estimated glomerular
filtration rate
Both parents with heart attack, both at ⬍50 y of age
6.56 (1.39–30.95)
No family history
One parent with heart attack at ⱖ50 y of age
OR indicates odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
Data derived from Chow et al.4
OR (95% CI)
CVD indicates cardiovascular disease; FHS, Framingham Heart Study; ABI,
ankle-brachial index; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood
pressure; BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; HDL,
high-density lipoprotein; and LDL, low-density lipoprotein.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 12
Table 12-3. Validated SNPs for MI, the Nearest Gene, and the OR From the
CARDIoGRAM Consortium
SNP
rs599839
Chromosomal Region
Gene
Effect Size (OR)
Minor Allele Frequency
1p13.3
SORT1
1.11
0.22
rs17465637
1q41
MIA3
1.14
0.26
rs17114036
1p32.2
PPAP2B
1.17
0.09
rs11206510
1p32.3
PCSK9
1.08
0.18
rs6725887
2q33
WDR12
1.14
0.15
rs2306374
3q22.3
MRAS
1.12
0.18
rs17609940
6p21.31
ANKS1A
1.07
0.25
rs12526453
6p24.1
PHACTR1
1.10
0.33
rs12190287
6q23.2
TCF21
1.08
0.38
6q25
LPA
1.51
0.02
7q32.2
ZC3HC1
1.09
0.38
rs4977574
9p21.3
CDKN2A, CDKN2B
1.29
0.46
rs579459
9q34.2
ABO
1.10
0.21
rs1746048
10q11
CXCL12
1.09
0.13
rs12413409
10q24.32
CYP17A1-CNNM2-NT5C2
1.12
0.11
rs964184
11q23.3
ZNF259-APOA5-A4-C3-A1
1.13
0.13
rs3184504
12q24
Sh2b3
1.07
0.44
rs4773144
13q34
COL4A1-COL4A2
1.07
0.44
rs2895811
14q32.2
HHIPL1
1.08
0.43
rs798220
rs11556924
rs3825807
15q25.1
ADAMTS7
1.07
0.43
rs216172
17p13.3
SMG6-SRR
1.07
0.37
rs12936587
17p11.2
RASD1-SMCR3-PEMT
1.07
0.44
rs46522
17q21.32
UBE2Z-GIP-ATP5G1-SNF8
1.06
0.47
rs1122608
19q13.2
LDLR
1.14
0.23
rs9982601
21q22.11
MRPS6
1.18
0.15
SNPs indicates single-nucleotide polymorphisms; MI, myocardial infarction; OR, odds ratio; and CARDIoGRAM
Consortium, Coronary ARtery DIsease Genome-wide Replication And Meta-analysis Consortium.
Data derived from Schunkert et al.7
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increased from 1991 to 1999 and then declined from
16.8% in 1999 to 7.3% in 2009.
13. Risk Factor: Smoking/Tobacco Use
See Table 13-1 and Charts 13-1 and 13-2.
●
Prevalence
Youth
●
In 2009, in grades 9 through 12, 19.5% of students reported
current cigarette use (on at least 1 day during the 30 days
before the survey), 14.0% of students reported current cigar
use, and 8.9% of students reported current smokeless
tobacco use. Overall, 26.0% of students reported any
current tobacco use (YRBSS).1
In 2009, in grades 9 to 12, male and female students were
equally likely to report current cigarette use (19.8% compared with 19.1%); however, male students were more
likely than female students to report current cigar use
(18.6% compared with 8.8%) and current smokeless tobacco use (15.0% compared with 2.2%; YRBSS).1
In 2009, in grades 9 through 12, non-Hispanic white
students were more likely than Hispanic or non-Hispanic
black students to report any current tobacco use, which
includes cigarettes, cigars, or smokeless tobacco (30.3%
compared with 20.8% for Hispanic students and 16.2% for
non-Hispanic black students; YRBSS).1
Among youths 12 to 17 years of age in 2009, 2.9 million
(11.6%) used a tobacco product (cigarettes, cigars, or
smokeless tobacco) in the past month, and 2.2 million
(8.9%) used cigarettes. Cigarette use in the past month in
this age group declined from 13.0% in 2002 to 8.9% in
2009 (National Survey on Drug Use and Health
[NSDUH]).2,3
Data from the YRBSS4,5 for students in grades 9 to 12
indicated the following:
●
●
●
●
Adults
●
●
●
●
●
— The percentage of students who reported ever trying
cigarettes remained stable from 1991 to 1999 and then
declined from 70.4% in 1999 to 46.3% in 2009.
— The percentage who reported current cigarette use (on
at least 1 day in the 30 days before the survey)
increased between 1991 and 1997 and then declined
from 36.4% in 1997 to 19.5% in 2009.
— The percentage who reported current frequent cigarette
use (smoked on ⱖ20 of the 30 days before the survey)
●
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 13
AMI
acute myocardial infarction
BRFSS
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
CHD
coronary heart disease
CVD
cardiovascular disease
MEPS
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey
NH
non-Hispanic
NHANES
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NHIS
National Health Interview Survey
NSDUH
National Survey on Drug Use and Health
YRBSS
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System
In 2009, 50.8% of students in grades 9 to 12 who currently
smoked cigarettes had tried to quit smoking cigarettes
during the previous 12 months. The prevalence of this
behavior was higher among female student smokers
(54.2%) than among male student smokers (48.0%) and
among white males (47.0%) and Hispanic males (52.2%)
than among black males (36.5%; YRBSS).1
●
●
From 1998 to 2010, the percentage of US adults ⱖ18 years
of age who were current cigarette smokers declined from
24.1% to 19.3%. The percentage who were current smokers
did not change significantly between 2005 and 2009, but
there was a small but significant decline between 2009 and
2010 (NHIS).6 – 8
In 2010, among Americans ⱖ18 years of age, 21.2% of
men and 17.5% of women were current cigarette smokers
(NHIS).
From 1998 to 2007, cigarette smoking prevalence among
adults ⱖ18 years of age decreased in 44 states and the
District of Columbia. Six states had no substantial changes
in prevalence after controlling for age, sex, and race/
ethnicity (BRFSS).9
In 2010, among adults ⱖ18 years of age, the states with the
highest percentage of current cigarette smokers were West
Virginia (26.8%), Kentucky (24.8%), and Oklahoma
(23.7%). Utah, the state with the lowest percentage of
smokers (9.1%), has met the Healthy People 2010 target for
reducing adult smoking prevalence to 12%, and California
has almost met the target, with a 2010 smoking rate of
12.1% (BRFSS).10
In 2007 to 2009, among adults ⱖ18 years of age, Asian
men (15.4%) and Hispanic men (17.9%) were less likely to
be current cigarette smokers than non-Hispanic black men
(23.8%), non-Hispanic white men (24.1%), and American
Indian or Alaska Native men (26.8%) on the basis of
age-adjusted estimates (NHIS). Similarly, in 2007 to 2009,
Asian women (5.4%) and Hispanic women (9.3%) were
less likely to be current cigarette smokers than nonHispanic black women (17.2%), non-Hispanic white
women (21.0%), and American Indian or Alaska Native
women (19.9%).11
In 2004 to 2006 data, adult cigarette smoking varied among
Asian subgroups. Most Asian adults had never smoked,
with rates ranging from 65% of Korean adults to 84% of
Chinese adults. Korean adults (22%) were approximately 2
to 3 times as likely to be current smokers as Japanese
(12%), Asian Indian (7%), or Chinese (7%) adults on the
basis of age-adjusted estimates (NHIS).12
In 2007 to 2009, among people ⱖ65 years of age, 9.3% of
men and 8.6% of women were current smokers. In this age
group, men were more likely than women to be former
smokers (54.7% compared with 29.6%) on the basis of
age-adjusted estimates (NHIS).11
In 2008 to 2009, among women 15 to 44 years of age,
past-month cigarette use was lower for those who were
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 13
●
pregnant (15.3%) than among those who were not pregnant
(27.4%). This pattern was found for women 18 to 25 years
of age (22.0% versus 32.0% for pregnant and nonpregnant
women, respectively) and for women 26 to 44 years of age
(10.8% versus 27.7%, respectively). Among adolescents 15
to 17 years of age, past-month cigarette use was higher for
those who were pregnant (20.6%) than for those who were
not pregnant (13.9%; NSDUH).2
In 2009, an estimated 69.7 million Americans ⱖ12 years of
age were current (past month) users of a tobacco product
(cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, or tobacco in pipes).
The rate of current use of any tobacco product in this age
range declined from 2007 to 2009 (from 28.6% to 27.7%;
NSDUH).2
●
●
●
In 2009, ⬇2.5 million people ⱖ12 years of age smoked
cigarettes for the first time within the past 12 months,
which was similar to the estimate in 2008 (2.4 million). The
2009 estimate averages out to ⬇6900 new cigarette smokers every day. Most new smokers (58.8%) in 2009 were
⬍18 years of age when they first smoked cigarettes
(NSDUH).2
In 2009, among people ages 12 to 49 years who had started
smoking within the past 12 months, the average age of first
cigarette use was 17.5 years, similar to the average in 2008
(17.4 years).2
Data from 2002 to 2004 suggest that ⬇1 in 5 nonsmokers
12 to 17 years of age is likely to start smoking. Youths in
the Mexican subpopulations were significantly more susceptible (28.8%) to start smoking than those in nonHispanic white (20.8%), non-Hispanic black (23.0%), Cuban (16.4%), Asian Indian (15.4%), Chinese (15.3%), and
Vietnamese (13.8%) subpopulations. There was no significant difference in susceptibility to start smoking between
boys and girls in any of the major populations or subpopulations (NSDUH).13
●
●
●
●
●
Mortality
●
●
●
●
●
During 2000 to 2004, cigarette smoking resulted in an
estimated 443 000 premature deaths each year caused by
smoking-related illnesses, and ⬇49 000 of these deaths
were attributable to secondhand smoke. In adults ⱖ35
years of age, a total of 32.7% of these deaths were related
to CVD.14
Each year from 2000 to 2004, smoking caused 3.1 million
years of potential life lost for males and 2.0 million years
for females, excluding deaths attributable to smokingattributable residential fires and adult deaths attributable to
secondhand smoke.14
From 2000 to 2004, smoking during pregnancy resulted in
an estimated 776 infant deaths annually.14
During 2000 to 2004, cigarette smoking resulted in an
estimated 269 655 deaths annually among males and
173 940 deaths annually among females.14
On average, male smokers die 13.2 years earlier than male
nonsmokers, and female smokers die 14.5 years earlier than
female nonsmokers.15
Current cigarette smoking is a powerful independent predictor of cardiac arrest in patients with CHD.16
Secondhand Smoke
Incidence
●
e135
The national prevalence of households with smoke-free
home rules increased from 43.2% during 1992 to 1993 to
72.2% in 2003 on the basis of data from the “Tobacco Use
Supplement” to the Current Population Survey (a continuing monthly survey of the Bureau of Labor Statistics
conducted by the US Census Bureau). During this period,
the prevalence of such rules increased from 9.6% to 31.8%
among households with at least 1 smoker and from 56.8%
to 83.5% among households with no smokers. Approximately 126 million children and nonsmoking adults were
still exposed to secondhand smoke in the United States as
of 1999 to 2002.17
In 2008, data from 11 states showed that the majority of
people surveyed in each state reported having smoke-free
home rules, ranging from 68.8% in West Virginia to 85.6%
in Arizona (BRFSS).18
As of December 31, 2010, 25 states and the District of
Columbia had laws that prohibited smoking in indoor areas
of worksites, restaurants, and bars; no states had such laws
in 2000. As of December 31, 2010, an additional 10 states
had laws that prohibited smoking in 1 or 2 but not all 3
venues.19
The percentage of the US nonsmoking population with
detectable serum cotinine declined from 52.5% in 1999 to
2000 to 40.1% in 2007 to 2008, with declines occurring for
children and adults. During 2007 to 2008, the percentage of
nonsmokers with detectable serum cotinine was higher for
those 3 to 11 years of age (53.6%) and those 12 to 19 years
of age (46.5%) than for those ⱖ20 years of age (36.7%);
the percentage was also higher for non-Hispanic blacks
(55.9%) than for non-Hispanic whites (40.1%) and Mexican Americans (28.5%; NHANES).20
Data from a 2006 report of the US Surgeon General on the
consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke21
indicate the following:
— Nonsmokers who are exposed to secondhand smoke at
home or at work increase their risk of developing CHD
by 25% to 30%.
— Short exposures to secondhand smoke can cause blood
platelets to become stickier, damage the lining of blood
vessels, and decrease coronary flow velocity reserves,
potentially increasing the risk of an AMI.
Aftermath
●
A 2010 report of the US Surgeon General on how tobacco
causes disease summarizes an extensive body of literature
on smoking and CVD and the mechanisms through which
smoking is thought to cause CVD. Among its conclusions
are the following:
— There is a sharp increase in CVD risk with low levels
of exposure to cigarette smoke, including secondhand
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January 3/10, 2012
smoke, and a less rapid further increase in risk as the
number of cigarettes per day increases.
— Smoking cessation reduces the risk of cardiovascular
morbidity and mortality for smokers with and without
CHD.
— There is no evidence to date that reducing the amount
smoked by smoking fewer cigarettes per day reduces
the risk of CVD.22
●
In 2007, 66.0% of adult current smokers 18 to 64 years of
age with a checkup during the preceding year reported that
they had been advised to quit, which was not significantly
different from 2002 (62.6%; MEPS).23
Cost
Direct medical costs ($96 billion) and lost productivity costs
($97 billion) associated with smoking totaled an estimated
$193 billion per year between 2000 and 2004.14
References
1. Eaton DK, Kann L, Kinchen S, Shanklin S, Ross J, Hawkins J, Harris
WA, Lowry R, McManus T, Chyen D, Lim C, Whittle L, Brener ND,
Wechsler H; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth risk
behavior surveillance—United States, 2009. MMWR Surveill Summ.
2010;59:1–142.
2. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results
From the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National
Findings. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services
Administration, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies; 2010. NSDUH series H-38A, HHS
publication No. SMA 10-4586.
3. Results from the 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: national
findings, detailed tables. US Department of Health and Human Services
Administration, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. http://oas.samhsa.gov/NSDUH/
2K9NSDUH/tabs/toc.htm. Accessed July 11, 2011.
4. Healthy Youth! YRBSS: national trends in risk behaviors. US Department of
Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.
http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/yrbs/pdf/us_tobacco_trend_yrbs.pdf.
Accessed November 15, 2011.
5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cigarette use among
high school students—United States, 1991–2009. MMWR Morb Mortal
Wkly Rep. 2010;59:797– 801.
6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Cigarette smoking
among adults and trends in smoking cessation—United States, 2008.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58:1227–1232.
7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vital signs: current
cigarette smoking among adults aged ⱖ18 years—United States,
2005–2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60:1207–1212.
8. Schiller J, Lucas J, Ward B, Peregoy J. Summary health statistics for U.S.
adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010. Vital Health Stat 10. In
press.
9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State-specific prevalence and trends in adult cigarette smoking—United States, 1998 –2007.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58:221–226.
10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevalence and trends
data, tobacco use: 2010. In: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
survey data. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services,
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. http://apps.nccd.cdc.
gov/brfss/list.asp?cat⫽TU&yr⫽2010&qkey⫽4396&state⫽All.
Accessed June 14, 2011.
11. Health Data Interactive. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
National Center for Health Statistics Web site. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/
hdi.htm. Accessed July 19, 2011.
12. Barnes PM, Adams PF, Powell-Griner E. Health Characteristics of the
Asian Adult Population: United States, 2004 –2006. Advance Data From
Vital and Health Statistics; No. 394. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for
Health Statistics; 2008.
13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Racial/ethnic differences among youths in cigarette smoking and susceptibility to start
smoking—United States, 2002–2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.
2006;55:1275–1277.
14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Smoking-attributable
mortality, years of potential life lost, and productivity losses—United
States, 2000 –2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57:1226 –1228.
15. The 2004 United States Surgeon General’s Report: The Health Consequences of Smoking. N S W Public Health Bull. 2004;15:107.
16. Goldenberg I, Jonas M, Tenenbaum A, Boyko V, Matetzky S, Shotan A,
Behar S, Reicher-Reiss H. Current smoking, smoking cessation, and the
risk of sudden cardiac death in patients with coronary artery disease. Arch
Intern Med. 2003;163:2301–2305.
17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State-specific prevalence of smoke-free home rules—United States, 1992–2003. MMWR
Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007;56:501–504.
18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State-specific secondhand smoke exposure and current cigarette smoking among adults—
United States, 2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009;58:
1232–1235.
19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State smoke-free laws
for worksites, restaurants, and bars—United States, 2000 –2010. MMWR
Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60:472– 475.
20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vital signs: nonsmokers’ exposure to secondhand smoke—United States, 1999 –2008.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:1141–1146.
21. US Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences
of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon
General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services,
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for
Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and
Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2006.
22. US Department of Health and Human Services. A Report of the Surgeon
General: How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and
Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease. Atlanta, GA: US
Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and
Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2010.
23. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. 2010 National healthcare
quality & disparities reports. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health
and Human Services, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2011.
http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/qrdr10.htm. Accessed June 16, 2011.
24. Preventing tobacco use among young people: a report of the Surgeon
General: executive summary. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1994;43:1–10.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 13
Table 13-1.
e137
Cigarette Smoking
Prevalence, 2010:
Age ⱖ18 y*
Cost24
Both sexes
44 114 000 (19.3%)
$193 Billion per year
Males
23 725 000 (21.2%)
...
Females
20 389 000 (17.5%)
...
NH white males
23.0%
...
NH white females
20.5%
...
NH black males
23.4%
...
NH black females
16.7%
...
Hispanic or Latino males
15.2%
...
Population Group
Hispanic or Latino females
9.0%
...
Asian only (both sexes)
9.3%
...
American Indian/Alaska
Native only (both sexes)
26.6%
...
Ellipses (. . .) indicate data not available; NH, non-Hispanic.
Percentages are age adjusted. Estimates for Asian only and American
Indian/Alaska Native only include non-Hispanic and Hispanic persons.
*Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Health
Statistics/National Health Interview Survey.7
Chart 13-1. Prevalence (%) of students in grades 9 to 12 reporting current cigarette use by sex and race/ethnicity (Youth Risk Behavior
Surveillance System, 2009). NH indicates non-Hispanic. Data derived from MMWR: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.1
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e138
Circulation
January 3/10, 2012
Chart 13-2. Prevalence (%) of current smoking for adults ⬎18 years of age by race/ethnicity and sex (National Health Interview Survey:
2007–2009). All percentages are age adjusted. NH indicates non-Hispanic. *Includes both Hispanics and non-Hispanics. Data derived
from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Health Statistics, Health Data Interactive.11
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 14
14. Risk Factor: High Blood Cholesterol and
Other Lipids
See Table 14-1 and Charts 14-1 through 14-3.
●
●
Prevalence
For information on dietary cholesterol, total fat, saturated fat,
and other factors that affect blood cholesterol levels, see
Chapter 20 (Nutrition).
Among children 4 to 11 years of age, the mean total blood
cholesterol level is 164.5 mg/dL. For boys, it is 163.8
mg/dL; for girls, it is 165.2 mg/dL. The racial/ethnic
breakdown is as follows (NHANES 2005–2008, NCHS
and NHLBI; unpublished analysis):
— For non-Hispanic whites, 163.9 mg/dL for boys and
165.6 mg/dL for girls.
— For non-Hispanic blacks, 165.7 mg/dL for boys and
162.3 mg/dL for girls.
— For Mexican Americans, 160.7 mg/dL for boys and
161.5 mg/dL for girls.
●
●
●
●
●
●
Among adolescents 12 to 19 years of age, the mean total
blood cholesterol level is 159.2 mg/dL. For boys, it is 156.3
mg/dL; for girls, it is 162.3 mg/dL. The racial/ethnic
breakdown is as follows (NHANES 2005–2008, NCHS
and NHLBI; unpublished analysis):
— For non-Hispanic whites, 155.9 mg/dL for boys and
162.3 mg/dL for girls.
— For non-Hispanic blacks, 157.7 mg/dL for boys and
163.6 mg/dL for girls.
— For Mexican Americans, 156.9 mg/dL for boys and
161.3 mg/dL for girls.
●
The prevalence of abnormal lipid levels among youths 12
to 19 years of age is 20.3%; 14.2% of normal-weight
youths, 22.3% of overweight youths, and 42.9% of obese
youths have at least 1 abnormal lipid level (NHANES
1999 –2006, NCHS).1
●
●
●
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 14
BRFSS
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CHD
Coronary heart disease
CVD
Cardiovascular disease
DM
Diabetes mellitus
HD
Heart disease
HDL
High-density lipoprotein
LDL
Low-density lipoprotein
Mex. Am.
Mexican American
NCHS
National Center for Health Statistics
NH
Non-Hispanic
NHANES
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NHLBI
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Approximately 8.5% of adolescents 12 to 19 years of age
have total cholesterol levels ⱖ200 mg/dL (NHANES
2005–2008, NCHS and NHLBI; unpublished analysis).
Fewer than 1% of adolescents are eligible for pharmacological treatment.1,2
Adults
Youth
●
e139
●
An estimated 33.5 million adults ⱖ20 years of age have
total serum cholesterol levels ⱖ240 mg/dL (extrapolated to
2008 by use of NCHS/NHANES 2005–2008 data), with a
prevalence of 16.2% (Table 14-1; NCHS and NHLBI,
unpublished analysis).
Data from NHANES 1999 –2006 showed that ⬇8% of adults
ⱖ20 years of age have undiagnosed hypercholesterolemia.3
Data from the BRFSS study of the CDC in 2009 showed
that the percentage of adults who had been screened for
high blood cholesterol in the preceding 5 years ranged from
67.5% in Utah to 85.3% in the District of Columbia. The
median percentage among all 50 states was 77.0%.4
The percentage of adults who reported having had a
cholesterol check increased from 68.6% during 1999 to
2000 to 74.8% during 2005 to 2006.5
Data from NHANES 1999 –2002 (NCHS) showed that
overall, 63.3% of participants whose test results indicated
high blood cholesterol or who were taking a cholesterollowering medication had been told by a professional that
they had high cholesterol. Women were less likely than
men to be aware of their condition; blacks and Mexican
Americans were less likely to be aware of their condition
than were whites. Fewer than half of Mexican Americans
with high cholesterol were aware of their condition.6
Between the periods 1988 to 1994 and 1999 to 2002
(NHANES/NCHS), the age-adjusted mean total serum
cholesterol level of adults ⱖ20 years of age decreased from
206 to 203 mg/dL, and LDL cholesterol levels decreased
from 129 to 123 mg/dL.7
Data from NHANES 2003–2008 (NCHS) showed the
serum total crude mean cholesterol level in adults ⱖ20
years of age was 195 mg/dL for men and 201 mg/dL for
women.8
Data from the Minnesota Heart Survey (1980 –1982 to
2000 –2002) showed a decline in age-adjusted mean total
cholesterol concentrations from 5.49 and 5.38 mmol/L for
men and women, respectively, in 1980 to 1982 to 5.16 and
5.09 mmol/L, respectively, in 2000 to 2002; however, the
decline was not uniform across all age groups. Middle-aged
to older people have shown substantial decreases, but
younger people have shown little overall change and
recently had increased total cholesterol values. Lipidlowering drug use rose significantly for both sexes among
those 35 to 74 years of age. Awareness, treatment, and
control of hypercholesterolemia have increased; however,
more than half of those at borderline-high risk remain
unaware of their condition.9
Data from the BRFSS (CDC) survey in 2009 showed that
among adults screened for high blood cholesterol, the
percentage who had been told that they had high blood
cholesterol ranged from 32.9% in Tennessee to 41.8% in
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e140
●
●
●
●
●
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January 3/10, 2012
South Carolina. The median percentage among states was
37.5%.4
Among adults with hypercholesterolemia, the percentage
who had been told that they had high cholesterol increased
from 42.0% during 1999 to 2000 to 50.4% during 2005 to
2006.5
According to data from NHANES 2005–2006, between the
periods 1999 to 2000 and 2005 to 2006, mean serum total
cholesterol levels in adults ⱖ20 years of age declined from
204 to 199 mg/dL. This decline was observed for men ⱖ40
years of age and for women ⱖ60 years of age. There was
little change over this time period for other sex/age groups.
In 2005 to 2006, ⬇65% of men and 70% of women had
been screened for high cholesterol in the past 5 years, and
16% of adults had serum total cholesterol levels of 240
mg/dL or higher.10
Self-reported use of cholesterol-lowering medications increased from 8.2% during 1999 to 2000 to 14.0% during
2005 to 2006.5
According to data from NHANES, from 1999 to 2006, the
prevalence of elevated LDL cholesterol levels in adults
⬎20 years of age has decreased by ⬇33%.11
From 1999 to 2006, 26.0% of adults had hypercholesterolemia, 9% of adults had both hypercholesterolemia and
hypertension, 1.5% of adults had DM and hypercholesterolemia, and 3% of adults had all 3 conditions.3
●
●
Lipid Levels
LDL (Bad) Cholesterol
Youth
●
●
Adults
●
●
●
●
On the basis of data from the Third Report of the Expert
Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High
Blood Cholesterol in Adults12:
Data from NHANES 2005–2006 indicate that among those
with elevated LDL cholesterol levels, 35.5% had not been
screened previously, 24.9% were screened but not told they
had elevated cholesterol, and 39.6% were treated
inadequately.11
High levels of LDL cholesterol occurred in 8.4% of male
adolescents and 6.8% of female adolescents during 1999 to
2006.1
Adults
●
— Fewer than half of all people who qualify for any kind
of lipid-modifying treatment for CHD risk reduction
are receiving it.
— Fewer than half of even the highest-risk people (those
with symptomatic CHD) are receiving lipid-lowering
treatment.
— Only approximately one third of treated patients are
achieving their LDL goal; ⬍20% of patients with CHD
are at their LDL goal.
There are limited data available on LDL cholesterol for
children 4 to 11 years of age.
Among adolescents 12 to 19 years of age, the mean LDL
cholesterol level is 88.5 mg/dL. For boys, it is 87.1 mg/dL,
and for girls, it is 89.9 mg/dL. The racial/ethnic breakdown
is as follows (NHANES 2005–2008, NCHS and NHLBI;
unpublished analysis):
— Among non-Hispanic whites, 87.6 mg/dL for boys and
89.8 mg/dL for girls.
— Among non-Hispanic blacks, 88.8 mg/dL for boys and
92.6 mg/dL for girls.
— Among Mexican Americans, 88.4 mg/dL for boys and
88.8 mg/dL for girls.
Adherence
Youth
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends screening
for dyslipidemia in children and adolescents who have a
family history of dyslipidemia or premature CVD, those
whose family history is unknown, and those youths with risk
factors for CVD, such as being overweight or obese, having
hypertension or DM, or being a smoker.1
Analysis of data from NHANES 1999 –2006 showed that
the overall prevalence of abnormal lipid levels among youths
12 to 19 years of age was 20.3%.1
NHANES data on the treatment of high LDL cholesterol
showed an increase from 28.4% of individuals during 1999
to 2002 to 48.1% during 2005 to 2008.13
There were 33.2% of adults overall during 2005 to 2008 in
NHANES who achieved LDL cholesterol goals. Among
adults without health insurance, only 22.6% achieved LDL
cholesterol goals; however, 82.8% of those adults with
uncontrolled LDL cholesterol did have some form of health
insurance.13
The mean level of LDL cholesterol for American adults
ⱖ20 years of age was 115.2 mg/dL in 2008.11 Levels of
130 to 159 mg/dL are considered borderline high, levels of
160 to 189 mg/dL are classified as high, and levels of ⱖ190
mg/dL are considered very high.
According to NHANES 2005–2008 (NCHS and NHLBI;
unpublished data):
— Among non-Hispanic whites, mean LDL cholesterol
levels were 114.5 mg/dL for men and 115.8 mg/dL for
women.
— Among non-Hispanic blacks, mean LDL cholesterol
levels were 114.6 mg/dL for men and 111.5 mg/dL for
women.
— Among Mexican Americans, mean LDL cholesterol
levels were 121.2 mg/dL for men and 113.6 mg/dL for
women.
●
The age-adjusted prevalence of high LDL cholesterol in US
adults was 26.6% in 1988 to 1994 and 25.3% in 1999 to
2004 (NHANES/NCHS). Between 1988 to 1994 and 1999
to 2004, awareness increased from 39.2% to 63.0%, and
use of pharmacological lipid-lowering treatment increased
from 11.7% to 40.8%. LDL cholesterol control increased
from 4.0% to 25.1% among those with high LDL choles-
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 14
●
terol. In 1999 to 2004, rates of LDL cholesterol control
were lower among adults 20 to 49 years of age than among
those ⱖ65 years of age (13.9% versus 30.3%, respectively), among non-Hispanic blacks and Mexican Americans than among non-Hispanic whites (17.2% and 16.5%
versus 26.9%, respectively), and among men than among
women (22.6% versus 26.9%, respectively).14
Mean levels of LDL cholesterol decreased from 126.1
mg/dL during 1999 to 2000 to 114.8 mg/dL during 2005 to
2006. The prevalence of high LDL cholesterol decreased
from 31.5% during 1999 to 2000 to 21.2% during 2005 to
2006.11
— Among non-Hispanic blacks, mean HDL cholesterol
levels were 52.3 mg/dL for men and 61.3 mg/dL for
women.
— Among Mexican Americans, mean HDL cholesterol
levels were 46.0 mg/dL for men and 54.2 mg/dL for
women.
Triglycerides
Youth
●
●
HDL (Good) Cholesterol
Youth
●
Among children 4 to 11 years of age, the mean HDL
cholesterol level is 54.7 mg/dL. For boys, it is 55.6 mg/dL,
and for girls, it is 53.6 mg/dL. The racial/ethnic breakdown
is as follows (NHANES 2005–2008, NCHS and NHLBI;
unpublished analysis):
— Among non-Hispanic whites, 54.7 mg/dL for boys and
52.8 mg/dL for girls.
— Among non-Hispanic blacks, 61.4 mg/dL for boys and
58.1 mg/dL for girls.
— Among Mexican Americans, 53.6 mg/dL for boys and
51.1 mg/dL for girls.
●
●
●
High levels of triglycerides occurred in 11.4% of male
adolescents and 8.8% of female adolescents during 1999 to
2006.1
Adults
Among adolescents 12 to 19 years of age, the mean HDL
cholesterol level is 51.6 mg/dL. For boys, it is 49.3 mg/dL,
and for girls, it is 54.0 mg/dL. The racial/ethnic breakdown
is as follows (NHANES 2005–2008, NCHS and NHLBI;
unpublished analysis):
●
E
E
Low levels of HDL cholesterol occurred in 11% of male
adolescents and 4% of female adolescents during 1999 to
2006.1
An HDL cholesterol level below 40 mg/dL in adult males
and below 50 mg/dL in adult females is considered low and
is a risk factor for HD and stroke. The mean level of HDL
cholesterol for American adults ⱖ20 years of age is 53.3
mg/dL (NHANES 2005–2008, NCHS and NHLBI; unpublished analysis).
According to NHANES 2005–2008 (NCHS and NHLBI;
unpublished analysis):
— Among non-Hispanic whites, mean HDL cholesterol
levels were 47.2 mg/dL for men and 58.8 mg/dL for
women.
A fasting triglyceride level ⬎150 mg/dL in adults is
considered elevated and is a risk factor for HD and stroke.
The mean level of triglycerides for American adults ⱖ20
years of age is 137.6 mg/dL (NHANES 2005–2008, NCHS
and NHLBI; unpublished analysis).
— Among men, the mean triglyceride level is 149.9
mg/dL (NHANES 2005–2008, NCHS and NHLBI;
unpublished analysis). The racial/ethnic breakdown is
as follows:
E
150.2 mg/dL for white men.
120.1 mg/dL for black men.
169.4 mg/dL for Mexican American men.
— Among women, the mean triglyceride level is 125.5
mg/dL, with the following racial/ethnic breakdown:
Adults
●
There are limited data available on triglycerides for children 4 to 11 years of age.
Among adolescents 12 to 19 years of age, the mean
triglyceride level is 87.8 mg/dL. For boys, it is 87.2 mg/dL,
and for girls, it is 88.5 mg/dL. The racial/ethnic breakdown
is as follows (NHANES 2005–2008, NCHS and NHLBI;
unpublished analysis):
— Among non-Hispanic whites, 92.7 mg/dL for boys and
90.9 mg/dL for girls.
— Among non-Hispanic blacks, 68.8 mg/dL for boys and
63.0 mg/dL for girls.
— Among Mexican Americans, 94.5 mg/dL for boys and
90.2 mg/dL for girls.
— Among non-Hispanic whites, 48.1 mg/dL for boys and
53.3 mg/dL for girls.
— Among non-Hispanic blacks, 54.6 mg/dL for boys and
56.9 mg/dL for girls.
— Among Mexican Americans, 48.3 mg/dL for boys and
53.5 mg/dL for girls.
●
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E
E
E
●
●
128.8 mg/dL for white women.
97.0 mg/dL for black women.
139.0 mg/dL for Mexican American women.
Approximately 33% of adults ⱖ20 years of age had a
triglyceride level ⱖ150 mg/dL during 1999 to 2004.15
Fewer than 3% of adults with a triglyceride level ⱖ150
mg/dL received pharmacological treatment during 1999 to
2004.15
References
1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevalence of
abnormal lipid levels among youths—United States, 1999 –2006 [pub-
Downloaded from http://circ.ahajournals.org/ at University of Kentucky--Lexington on January 31, 2012
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Circulation
January 3/10, 2012
lished correction appears in MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:78].
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:29 –33.
Ford ES, Li C, Zhao G, Mokdad AH. Concentrations of low-density
lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol among children and adolescents in the United States. Circulation. 2009;119:1108 –1115.
Fryar CD, Hirsch R, Eberhardt MS, Yoon SS, Wright JD. Hypertension,
high serum total cholesterol, and diabetes: racial and ethnic prevalence
differences in U.S. adults, 1999 –2006. NCHS Data Brief. 2010;(36):1– 8.
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: prevalence and trends data.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. http://apps.nccd.
cdc.gov/brfss/index.asp. Accessed July 5, 2011.
Ford ES, Li C, Pearson WS, Zhao G, Mokdad AH. Trends in hypercholesterolemia, treatment and control among United States adults. Int
J Cardiol. 2010;140:226 –235.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State-specific cholesterol screening trends—United States, 1991–1999. MMWR Morb
Mortal Wkly Rep. 2000;49:750 –755.
Carroll MD, Lacher DA, Sorlie PD, Cleeman JI, Gordon DJ, Wolz M,
Grundy SM, Johnson CL. Trends in serum lipids and lipoproteins of
adults, 1960 –2002. JAMA. 2005;294:1773–1781.
National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2010: With
Special Feature on Death and Dying. Hyattsville, MD: National Center
for Health Statistics; 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus10.pdf.
Accessed July 5, 2011.
Arnett DK, Jacobs DR Jr, Luepker RV, Blackburn H, Armstrong C, Claas
SA. Twenty-year trends in serum cholesterol, hypercholesterolemia, and
Table 14-1.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
cholesterol medication use: the Minnesota Heart Survey, 1980 –1982 to
2000 –2002. Circulation. 2005;112:3884 –3891.
Schober SE, Carroll MD, Lacher DA, Hirsch R; Division f Health and
Nutrition Examination Surveys. High serum total cholesterol: an indicator
for monitoring cholesterol lowering efforts: US adults, 2005–2006. NCHS
Data Brief. 2007;(2):1– 8.
Kuklina EV, Yoon PW, Keenan NL. Trends in high levels of low-density
lipoprotein cholesterol in the United States, 1999 –2006. JAMA. 2009;
302:2104 –2110.
National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on
Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in
Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation,
and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment
Panel III) final report. Circulation. 2002;106:3143–3421.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Vital signs: prevalence, treatment, and control of high levels of low-density lipoprotein
cholesterol—United States, 1999 –2002 and 2005–2008. MMWR Morb
Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60:109 –114.
Hyre AD, Muntner P, Menke A, Raggi P, He J. Trends in ATP-III-defined
high blood cholesterol prevalence, awareness, treatment and control
among U.S. adults. Ann Epidemiol. 2007;17:548 –555.
Ford ES, Li C, Zhao G, Pearson WS, Mokdad AH. Hypertriglyceridemia
and its pharmacologic treatment among US adults. Arch Intern Med.
2009;169:572–578.
High Total and LDL Cholesterol and Low HDL Cholesterol
Prevalence of Total
Cholesterol ⱖ200 mg/dL,
2008: Age ⱖ20 y
Prevalence of Total
Cholesterol ⱖ240 mg/dL,
2008: Age ⱖ20 y
Prevalence of LDL
Cholesterol ⱖ130 mg/dL,
2008: Age ⱖ20 y
Prevalence of HDL
Cholesterol ⬍40 mg/dL,
2008: Age ⱖ20 y
Both sexes*
98 800 000 (44.4%)
33 600 000 (15.0%)
71 300 000 (31.9%)
41 800 000 (18.9%)
Males*
45 000 000 (41.8%)
14 600 000 (13.5%)
35 300 000 (32.5%)
30 800 000 (28.6%)
Females*
11 000 000 (9.7%)
Population Group
53 800 000 (46.3%)
19 000 000 (16.2%)
36 000 000 (31.0%)
NH white males, %
41.2
13.7
30.5
29.5
NH white females, %
47.0
16.9
32.0
10.1
NH black males, %
37.0
9.7
34.4
16.6
NH black females, %
41.2
13.3
27.7
6.6
Mexican-American males, %
50.1
16.9
41.9
31.7
Mexican-American females, %
46.5
14.0
31.6
12.2
LDL indicates low-density lipoprotein; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; and NH, non-Hispanic.
Prevalence of total cholesterol ⱖ200 mg/dL includes people with total cholesterol ⱖ240 mg/dL. In adults, levels of 200 to 239 mg/dL are considered borderline
high. Levels of ⱖ240 mg/dL are considered high.
*Total data for total cholesterol are for Americans ⱖ20 y of age. Data for LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and all racial/ethnic groups are age adjusted for age
ⱖ20 y.
Source for total cholesterol ⱖ200 mg/dL, total cholesterol ⱖ240 mg/dL, LDL, and HDL: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005–2008), National
Center for Health Statistics, and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Estimates from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008 (National
Center for Health Statistics) applied to 2008 population estimates.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 14
e143
Chart 14-1. Trends in mean total serum cholesterol among adolescents 12 to 17 years of age by race, sex, and survey year (National
Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 1988 –1994,* 1999 –2004, and 2005–2008). Values are in mg/dL. NH indicates non-Hispanic;
Mex. Am., Mexican American. *Data for Mexican Americans not available. Source: National Center for Health Statistics and National
Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Chart 14-2. Trends in mean total serum cholesterol among adults ⱖ20 years of age by race and survey year (National Health and
Nutrition Examination Survey: 1988 –1994, 1999 –2004, and 2005–2008). Values are in mg/dL. NH indicates non-Hispanic. Source:
National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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Circulation
January 3/10, 2012
Chart 14-3. Age-adjusted trends in the prevalence of total serum cholesterol ⬎200 mg/dL in adults ⱖ20 years of age by sex, race/ethnicity, and survey year (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004, 2005–2006, and 2007–2008). NH indicates nonHispanic; Mex. Am., Mexican American.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 15
15. Risk Factor: Physical Inactivity
Activity Recommendations
See Table 15-1 and Charts 15-1 through 15-4.
●
Prevalence
Youth
●
Inactivity
●
●
●
●
●
●
The proportion of adolescents (12–19 years old) who report
engaging in no regular PA is high and varies by sex
and race.1
Nationwide, 23.1% of adolescents were inactive during the
previous 7 days, indicated by their response that they did
not participate in ⱖ60 minutes of any kind of PA that
increased their heart rate and made them breathe hard on
any 1 of the previous 7 days.1
Girls were more likely than boys to report inactivity
(29.9% versus 17.0%).1
The prevalence of inactivity was highest in black (43.6%)
and Hispanic (30.5%) girls, followed by white girls
(25.4%), black boys (20.6%), Hispanic boys (17.4%), and
white boys (15.9%; CDC).1
Nationwide, 24.9% of adolescents used a computer for
activities other than school work (eg, videogames or other
computer games) for ⱖ3 hours per day on an average
school day.1
A greater proportion of black and Hispanic students used
computers or watched television ⬎3 hours per day than
white students.1
●
●
●
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 15
The proportion of students who met activity recommendations of ⱖ60 minutes of PA on ⱖ5 days of the week was
37.0% nationwide and declined from 9th (39.7%) to 12th
(31.6%) grades, and at each grade level, the proportion was
higher in boys than in girls.1
More high school boys (45.6%) than girls (27.7%) selfreported having been physically active at least 60 minutes
per day on ⱖ5 days; self-reported rates of activity were
higher in white (39.9%) than in black (32.6%) or Hispanic
(33.1%) adolescents.1
A total of 15.3% of high school students met the recommendations for aerobic activity, 51.0% met the recommendations for muscle-strengthening activity, and 12.2% met
the recommendations for both aerobic and musclestrengthening activities.2 There was a marked discrepancy
between the proportion of youth (ages 6 –11 years) who
reported engaging in ⱖ60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous
PA on most days of the week and those who actually
engaged in moderate-to-vigorous PA for ⱖ60 minutes
when activity was measured objectively with accelerometers (ie, portable motion sensors that record and quantify
the duration and intensity of movements) in the NHANES
2003–2004 survey.3
On the basis of accelerometer counts per minute ⬎2020,
42% of 6- to 11-year-olds accumulated ⱖ60 minutes of
moderate-to-vigorous PA on 5 of 7 days per week, whereas
only 8% of 12- to 15-year-olds and 7.6% of 16- to
19-year-olds achieved similar counts.3
More boys than girls met PA recommendations (ⱖ60
minutes of moderate to vigorous activity on most days of
the week) as measured by accelerometry.3
CARDIA
Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults
CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Structured Activity Participation
CHD
coronary heart disease
●
CI
confidence interval
CVD
cardiovascular disease
DBP
diastolic blood pressure
DM
diabetes mellitus
EF
ejection fraction
FMD
flow-mediated dilation
HbA1c
glycosylated hemoglobin
HBP
high blood pressure
HDL
high-density lipoprotein
HF
heart failure
HR
hazard ratio
LDL
low-density lipoprotein
MEPS
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey
MET
metabolic equivalent tasks
MI
myocardial infarction
NH
non-Hispanic
NHANES
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NHIS
National Health Interview Survey
PA
physical activity
PAD
peripheral arterial disease
RR
relative risk
●
●
●
e145
Despite recommendations from the National Association
for Sport and Physical Education that schools should
require daily physical education for students in kindergarten through 12th grade, only 33.3% of students attended
physical education classes in school daily (34.6% of boys
and 31.9% of girls).1,4
Physical education class participation declined from the 9th
through the 12th grades among boys and girls.1
Among children 9 to 13 years old, 61.5% do not participate
in any organized PA during nonschool hours and 22.6% do
not engage in any free-time PA, according to 2002 data
from the Youth Media Campaign Longitudinal Study of the
CDC.5
Little more than half (58.3%) of all students played on at
least 1 school or community sports team in the previous
year; however, the prevalence declined with increasing
grade level, from 61.6% in the 9th grade to 51.1% in the
12th grade.1
Adults
Inactivity
●
●
Thirty-three percent of adults (ⱖ18 years of age) do not
engage in leisure-time PA according to 2010 data from the
NHIS (“no leisure-time physical activity/inactivity” refers
to no sessions of light/moderate or vigorous PA of at least
10 minutes’ duration).6
Inactivity in 2010 was higher among women than men
(35.2% versus 29.7%, age adjusted) and increased with age
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●
●
●
●
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January 3/10, 2012
from 27.1% to 32.7%, 42.2%, and 57.2% among adults 18
to 44, 45 to 64, 65 to 74, and ⱖ75 years of age,
respectively.6
Non-Hispanic black and Hispanic adults were more likely
to be inactive (43.2% and 44.7%, respectively) than were
non-Hispanic white adults (31.0%) on the basis of ageadjusted estimates from the 2010 NHIS.6
Forty-nine percent of adults who responded to the 2010
NHIS survey did not meet either aerobic or strengthening
guidelines of the 2008 Federal guidelines for PA.6
Women (54.1%) were more likely than men (43.9%) to not
meet the 2008 Federal PA guidelines on the basis of
age-adjusted estimates from the 2010 NHIS.6
The proportion of respondents who did not meet the
Federal PA guidelines increased with age from 43.1% in
18- to 44-year-olds to 70.3% in adults ⱖ75 years of age in
the 2010 NHIS.6
Blacks (58.5%), American Indians/Alaska Natives
(53.9%), and Asians (51.7%) were more likely to not meet
the Federal PA guidelines than whites (47.7%), and Hispanic/Latino adults were more likely not to meet the
Federal PA guidelines (60.1%) than non-Hispanic/nonLatino adults (47.3%) according to age-adjusted estimates
from the 2010 NHIS.6
The probability of not meeting the Federal PA guidelines
was inversely associated with education; participants with
no high school diploma (69.9%), a high school diploma
(59.1%), some college (48.8%), or a bachelor’s degree or
higher (36.1%), respectively, did not meet the Federal PA
guidelines on the basis of the 2010 NHIS.6
●
— Among adults 20 to 59 years of age, 3.8% of men and
3.2% of women met recommendations to engage in
moderate-to-vigorous PA (accelerometer counts
⬎2020/min) for 30 minutes (in sessions of ⱖ10 minutes) on ⱖ5 of 7 days.
— Among people ⱖ60 years of age, adherence was 2.5%
in men and 2.3% in women.
●
●
●
●
The proportion of adults reporting levels of PA consistent with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for
Americans remains low and decreases with age.6,7
Thirty-three percent of respondents in a study examining
awareness of current US PA guidelines had direct
knowledge of the recommended dosage of PA (ie,
frequency/duration).8
The age-adjusted proportion of adults ⱖ18 years of age
who reported engaging in regular moderate or vigorous
PA as defined by the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines
for Americans was 47.2% on the basis of the 2010
NHIS; 52.1% of men and 42.6% of women met the
recommendations. Prevalence for non-Hispanic whites
was 51.4%, 37.3% for non-Hispanic blacks, and 36.3%
for Hispanics.6
The percentage of adults reporting at least 150 minutes of
moderate PA or 75 minutes of vigorous PA decreased with
age from 53.8% for adults 18 to 24 years of age to 23.9%
for those ⱖ75 years of age on the basis of the 2010 NHIS.6
In 2010, 24.4% of adults met the 2008 Federal PA
guidelines for strengthening activity, an important component of overall physical fitness.6 This estimate includes
adults who met the strengthening guideline only or met it in
combination with the aerobic guideline.
— The percentage of men who engaged in any leisuretime strengthening activities decreased with age, from
47% at age 18 to 24 years to 16% at age ⱖ75 years. The
percentage of women who engaged in leisure-time
strengthening activities also decreased with age, from
28% at age 18 to 24 years to 11% at age ⱖ75 years, on
the basis of the 2008 NHIS.9
In a review examining self-reported versus actual measured
PA (eg, accelerometers, pedometers, indirect calorimetry,
double-labeled water, heart rate monitor), 60% of respondents self-reported higher values of activity than what was
measured by use of direct methods.
— Among men, self-reported PA was 44% greater than
actual measured values; among women, self-reported
activity was 138% greater than actual measured PA.10
Trends
Youth
●
A study of 3068 youths between the ages of 14 and 24
years from 1999 to 2006 found that the prevalence of
inactivity went up with age in both boys and girls.
— Across ages, girls had a higher prevalence of physical
inactivity than boys.11
— In a study of 12 812 youth ages 9 to 18 years, the PA
level in boys and girls declined starting at the age of 13,
with a significantly greater decline in activity among
girls.12
Activity Recommendations
●
Adherence to PA recommendations was much lower when
based on PA measured by accelerometer in NHANES
2003–20043:
Adults
●
●
●
●
●
Between NHANES III (1988 –1994) and NHANES 2001–
2006, the proportion of adults who engaged in ⬎12 bouts
of PA per month declined from 57% to 43% in men and
from 49% to 43% in women.12
In non-Hispanic whites, the activity level has decreased
from 55.3% to 45.2%; for non-Hispanic blacks, it has
decreased from 41.2% to 34.6%; and for Hispanics, the
decline has been from 40.9% to 36.2%.12
Accelerometry data from NHANES 2003–2006 shows that
men engaged in 35 minutes of moderate activity per day,
whereas for women, it was 21 minutes. More than 75% of
moderate activity was accumulated in 1-minute bouts. No
sex or race group had ⬎1 bout of vigorous activity per day
that lasted at least 10 minutes. Levels of activity declined
sharply after the age of 50 years in all groups.13
The proportion of adults meeting the 2008 Federal PA
guidelines for aerobic activity (at least 150 minutes of
moderate PA or 75 minutes of vigorous PA or an equivalent combination) in the 2010 NHIS was positively associated with education level: 60.4% of people with a college
degree or higher met the PA guidelines compared with
27.0% of adults with less than a high school diploma.6
Annual estimates of the percentage of US adults who met
the muscle-strengthening criteria ranged from 17.7%
(1998) to 24.4% (2010), and estimates of the percentage
who met both the muscle-strengthening and aerobic criteria
ranged from 14.4% (1998) to 20.7% (2010).6,7
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 15
CHD Risk Factors
is associated with a substantial reduction in risk of total
and ischemic stroke.25
Youth
●
●
●
●
More girls (67.9%) than boys (55.7%) reported having
exercised to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight.1
White girls (72.2%) were more likely than black (54.2%)
and Hispanic (66.3%) girls to report exercising to lose
weight or to keep from gaining weight.1
Total and vigorous PA are inversely correlated with body
fat and the prevalence of obesity.14
Physical inactivity was positively correlated with CHD risk
factors (eg, mean arterial pressure, triglycerides, LDL,
HDL, and fasting plasma glucose) in youths. Findings were
similar for boys and girls.15
●
●
●
●
Participants in the Diabetes Prevention Project randomized
trial who met the PA goal of 150 minutes of PA per week
were 44% less likely to develop DM, even if they did not
meet the weight-loss target.16
As a weight-loss intervention, exercise alone was associated with significant reductions in DBP (⫺2 mm Hg; 95%
CI ⫺4 to ⫺1 mm Hg), triglycerides (⫺0.2 mmol/L; 95%
CI ⫺0.3 to ⫺0.1 mmol/L), and fasting glucose
(⫺0.2 mmol/L; 95% CI ⫺0.3 to ⫺0.1 mmol/L).17
A total of 120 to 150 minutes per week of moderateintensity activity can reduce the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and its individual components (ie, abdominal adiposity, HBP, low HDL cholesterol, high
triglycerides, or high glucose).18
In CARDIA, women who maintained high activity through
young adulthood gained 6.1 fewer kilograms of weight and
3.8 fewer centimeters in waist circumference in middle age
than those with lower activity. Highly active men gained
2.6 fewer kilograms and 3.1 fewer centimeters than their
lower-activity counterparts.19
CHD Events and Mortality
●
The PA guidelines for adults cite evidence that ⬇150
minutes per week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity
can reduce the risk of CVD.20
— Adherence to PA guidelines for both aerobic and
muscle-strengthening activities reduces all-cause mortality risks by 27% among adults without existing
chronic conditions such as DM, cancer, MI, angina,
CVD, stroke, or respiratory diseases and by 45.9%
among people with chronic comorbidities.21
— The RR of CHD associated with physical inactivity
ranges from 1.5 to 2.4.22
— Physical inactivity is responsible for 12.2% of the
global burden of MI after accounting for other CVD
risk factors such as cigarette smoking, DM, hypertension, abdominal obesity, lipid profile, no alcohol intake,
and psychosocial factors.23
— A 2.3% decline in physical inactivity between 1980 and
2000 prevented or postponed ⬇17 445 deaths (⬇5%)
attributable to CHD in the United States.24
— The Nurse’s Health Study of ⬎72 000 female nurses
indicated that moderate-intensity PA, such as walking,
Longitudinal studies commonly report a graded, inverse
association of PA amount and duration (ie, dose) with
incident CHD and stroke.26
— In the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, PA
“dose” was inversely associated with the incidence of
CHD over time, with rates declining from 46.3, 39.3,
35.9, 32.2, and 25.8 cases per 10 000 person-years
according to quintiles of activity. The adjusted HR
comparing the uppermost quintile of activity with the
lowest was 0.72 (95% CI 0.61– 0.85).27
— Metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) levels ⬎6 were
associated with a statistically significantly lower RR
(RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.74 – 0.97 versus MET intensity of
1–3.9) of developing incident CHD in the Health
Professionals Follow-Up Study of men.27
— In a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies among
women, RRs of incident CHD were 0.83 (95% CI
0.69 – 0.99), 0.77 (95% CI 0.64 – 0.92), 0.72 (95% CI
0.59 – 0.87), and 0.57 (95% CI 0.41– 0.79) across increasing quintiles of PA compared with the lowest
quintile.28
— A 2003 meta-analysis of 23 studies on the association
of PA with stroke indicated that compared with low
levels of activity, high (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.69 – 0.91)
and moderate (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.80 –1.05) levels of
activity were inversely associated with the likelihood of
developing total stroke (ischemic and hemorrhagic).29
— In the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, for every
3-hour per week increase in vigorous-intensity activity,
the multivariate RR of MI was 0.78 (95% CI 0.61–
0.98) in men. This 22% reduction of risk can be
explained in part by beneficial effects of PA on HDL
cholesterol, vitamin D, apolipoprotein B, and hemoglobin A1c.30
— In a 20-year study of older male veterans, an inverse,
graded, and independent association between impaired
exercise capacity and all-cause mortality risk was
found. For each 1-MET increase in exercise capacity,
mortality risk was 12% lower (HR 0.88, 95% CI
0.86 – 0.90). Unfit individuals who improved their fitness status had a 35% lower mortality risk (HR 0.65,
95% CI 0.46 – 0.93) than those who remained unfit.31
Adults
●
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Secondary Prevention
●
●
PA improves inflammatory markers in people with existing
stable CHD. After a 6-week training session, C-reactive
protein levels declined by 23.7% (P⬍0.001), and plasma
vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 levels declined by
10.23% (P⬍0.05); there was no difference in leukocyte
count or levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1.32
In a randomized trial of patients with PAD, supervised
treadmill exercise training and lower-extremity resistance
training were each associated with significant improvements in functional performance and quality of life compared with a usual-care control group. Exercise training
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was additionally associated with improved brachial artery
FMD, whereas resistance training was associated with
better stair-climbing ability versus control.33
The benefit of intense exercise training for cardiac rehabilitation in people with HF was tested in a trial of 27 patients
with stable, medically treated HF. Intense activity (an
aerobic interval-training program 3 times per week for 12
weeks) was associated with a significant 35% improvement
in left ventricular EF and decreases in pro-brain natriuretic
peptide (40%), left ventricular end-diastolic volume (18%),
and left ventricular end-systolic volume (25%) compared
with control and endurance-training groups.34
Costs
●
●
The economic consequences of physical inactivity are
substantial. In a summary of World Health Organization
data sources, the economic costs of physical inactivity were
estimated to account for 1.5% to 3.0% of total direct
healthcare expenditures in developed countries such as the
United States.35
The 1996 MEPS was linked to self-reported activity in the
1995 NHIS. On the basis of a self-reported prevalence of
inactivity of 47.5% and a prevalence of CVD of 21.5%, the
direct expenditures for CVD associated with inactivity
were estimated to be $23.7 billion in 2001.36
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Physical activity levels and determinants of change in young adults: a
longitudinal panel study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2010;7:2.
12. Kahn JA, Huang B, Gillman MW, Field AE, Austin SB, Colditz GA,
Frazier AL. Patterns and determinants of physical activity in U.S. adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2008;42:369 –377.
13. Luke A, Dugas LR, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Cao G, Cooper RS. Assessing
physical activity and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors:
NHANES 2003–2006. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:387.
14. Kim Y, Lee S. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth. Appl
Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009;34:571–581.
15. Katzmarzyk PT, Malina RM, Bouchard C. Physical activity, physical
fitness, and coronary heart disease risk factors in youth: the Quebec
Family Study. Prev Med. 1999;29:555–562.
16. Hamman RF, Wing RR, Edelstein SL, Lachin JM, Bray GA, Delahanty
L, Hoskin M, Kriska AM, Mayer-Davis EJ, Pi-Sunyer X, Regensteiner J,
Venditti B, Wylie-Rosett J. Effect of weight loss with lifestyle intervention on risk of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:2102–2107.
17. Shaw K, Gennat H, O’Rourke P, Del Mar C. Exercise for overweight or
obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(4):CD003817.
18. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention. Physical activity for everyone: physical activity and
health:thebenefitsofphysicalactivity.http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/
everyone/health/index.html#ReduceCardiovascularDisease. Accessed
August 1, 2011.
19. Hankinson AL, Daviglus ML, Bouchard C, Carnethon M, Lewis CE,
Schreiner PJ, Liu K, Sidney S. Maintaining a high physical activity level
over 20 years and weight gain. JAMA. 2010;304:2603–2610.
20. Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA,
Macera CA, Heath GW, Thompson PD, Bauman A. Physical activity and
public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American
College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association.
Circulation. 2007;116:1081–1093.
21. Schoenborn CA, Stommel M. Adherence to the 2008 adult physical
activity guidelines and mortality risk. Am J Prev Med. 2011;40:514 –521.
22. Pate RR, Pratt M, Blair SN, Haskell WL, Macera CA, Bouchard C,
Buchner D, Ettinger W, Heath GW, King AC, Kriska A, Leon AS,
Marcus BH, Morris J, Paffenbarger RS Jr, Patrick K, Pollock ML, Rippe
JM, Sallis J, Wilmore JH. Physical activity and public health: a recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the
American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA. 1995;273:402– 407.
23. Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, Dans T, Avezum A, Lanas F, McQueen
M, Budaj A, Pais P, Varigos J, Lisheng L; INTERHEART Study Investigators. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with
myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): casecontrol study. Lancet. 2004;364:937–952.
24. Ford ES, Ajani UA, Croft JB, Critchley JA, Labarthe DR, Kottke TE,
Giles WH, Capewell S. Explaining the decrease in U.S. deaths from
coronary disease, 1980 –2000. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:2388 –2398.
25. Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Ascherio A, Rexrode KM, Willett WC,
Manson JE. Physical activity and risk of stroke in women. JAMA. 2000;
283:2961–2967.
26. Carnethon MR. Physical activity and cardiovascular disease: how much is
enough? Am J Lifestyle Med. 2009;3(suppl):44S– 49S.
27. Tanasescu M, Leitzmann MF, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, Hu
FB. Exercise type and intensity in relation to coronary heart disease in
men. JAMA. 2002;288:1994 –2000.
28. Oguma Y, Shinoda-Tagawa T. Physical activity decreases cardiovascular
disease risk in women: review and meta-analysis. Am J Prev Med.
2004;26:407– 418.
29. Lee CD, Folsom AR, Blair SN. Physical activity and stroke risk: a
meta-analysis. Stroke. 2003;34:2475–2481.
30. Chomistek AK, Chiuve SE, Jensen MK, Cook NR, Rimm EB. Vigorous
physical activity, mediating biomarkers, and risk of myocardial
infarction. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43:1884 –1890.
31. Kokkinos P, Myers J, Faselis C, Panagiotakos DB, Doumas M, Pittaras A,
Manolis A, Kokkinos JP, Karasik P, Greenberg M, Papademetriou V,
Fletcher R. Exercise capacity and mortality in older men: a 20-year
follow-up study. Circulation. 2010;122:790 –797.
32. Ranković G, Milicić B, Savić T, Dindić B, Mancev Z, Pesić G. Effects of
physical exercise on inflammatory parameters and risk for repeated acute
coronary syndrome in patients with ischemic heart disease. Vojnosanit
Pregl. 2009;66:44 – 48.
33. McDermott MM, Ades P, Guralnik JM, Dyer A, Ferrucci L, Liu K,
Nelson M, Lloyd-Jones D, Van Horn L, Garside D, Kibbe M, Domanchuk
K, Stein JH, Liao Y, Tao H, Green D, Pearce WH, Schneider JR,
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 15
McPherson D, Laing ST, McCarthy WJ, Shroff A, Criqui MH. Treadmill
exercise and resistance training in patients with peripheral arterial disease
with and without intermittent claudication: a randomized controlled trial.
JAMA. 2009;301:165–174.
34. Wisløff U, Støylen A, Loennechen JP, Bruvold M, Rognmo Ø, Haram
PM, Tjønna AE, Helgerud J, Slørdahl SA, Lee SJ, Videm V, Bye A,
Smith GL, Najjar SM, Ellingsen Ø, Skjaerpe T. Superior cardiovascular
effect of aerobic interval training versus moderate continuous training in
Table 15-1.
for Adults
heart failure patients: a randomized study. Circulation. 2007;115:
3086 –3094.
35. Oldridge NB. Economic burden of physical inactivity: healthcare costs
associated with cardiovascular disease. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil.
2008;15:130 –139.
36. Wang G, Pratt M, Macera CA, Zheng ZJ, Heath G. Physical activity,
cardiovascular disease, and medical expenditures in U.S. adults. Ann
Behav Med. 2004;28:88 –94.
Met 2008 Federal Physical Activity Guidelines
Prevalence, 2010
(Age ⱖ18 y), %
Population Group
Both sexes
20.7
Males
25.1
Females
16.4
NH white only
21.3
Males
26.7
Females
19.1
NH black only
17.2
Males
24.6
Females
11.2
Hispanic or Latino
14.4
Mexican American
13.2
American Indian/Alaska Native only
12.5
Asian only
17.8
e149
NH indicates non-Hispanic.
“Met 2008 federal physical activity guidelines for adults” is defined as
engaging in at least 150 minutes of moderate or 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic
leisure-time physical activity per week (or an equivalent combination) and
engaging in leisure-time strengthening physical activities at least twice a week.
Data are age adjusted for adults ⱖ18 years of age.
Source: National Health Interview Survey 2010 (National Center for Health
Statistics).6
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Chart 15-1. Prevalence of students in grades 9 through 12 who met currently recommended levels of physical activity during the past
7 days by race/ethnicity and sex (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance: 2009). “Currently recommended levels” was defined as activity that
increased their heart rate and made them breathe hard some of the time for a total of at least 60 minutes per day on 5 of the 7 days
preceding the survey. NH indicates non-Hispanic. Data derived from MMWR Surveillance Summaries.1
Chart 15-2. Prevalence of meeting the 2008 Federal physical activity guidelines among adults ⱖ18 years of age by race/ethnicity and
sex (National Health Interview Survey: 2010). NH indicates non-Hispanic. Percents are age adjusted. Meeting the 2008 Federal physical
activity guidelines is defined as engaging in moderate leisure-time physical activity for at least 150 minutes per week or vigorous activity at least 75 minutes per week or an equivalent combination. Source: Schiller et al.6
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 15
e151
Chart 15-3. Prevalence of students in grades 9 to 12 who did not participate in at least 60 minutes of physical activity on any day by
race/ethnicity and sex (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance: 2009). NH indicates non-Hispanic. Data derived from MMWR Surveillance
Summaries.1
Chart 15-4. Prevalence of children 6 to 19 years of age who attained sufficient moderate-to-vigorous physical activity to meet public
health recommendations (ⱖ60 minutes per day on 5 or more of the 7 days preceding the survey), by sex and age (National Health and
Nutrition Examination Survey: 2003–2004). Source: Troiano et al.3
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16. Risk Factor: Overweight and Obesity
See Table 16-1 and Charts 16-1 through 16-3.
Prevalence
Youth
●
●
According to nutritional surveys from the World Health
Organization’s Global Database on Child Growth and
Malnutrition, in 2010, 43 million preschool children were
either overweight or obese worldwide, and an additional 92
million were at risk of becoming overweight. Worldwide,
the prevalence of childhood obesity increased from 4.2% in
1990 to 6.7% in 2010. By region, the estimated prevalence
of overweight and obesity was as follows: Africa, 8.5%;
Asia, 4.9%; Latin America and the Caribbean, 6.9%;
Oceania 3.5%; developed countries (Europe, North America, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan), 11.7%; and
developing countries, 6.1%.1
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children 2 to
5 years of age, on the basis of a BMI-for-age value ⱖ85th
percentile of the 2000 CDC growth charts, was 16% for
non-Hispanic white boys and 20% for non-Hispanic white
girls, 28% for non-Hispanic black boys and 24% for
non-Hispanic black girls, and 32% for Mexican American
boys and 23% for Mexican American girls according to
2007 to 2008 data from NHANES (NCHS). In children 6 to
11 years of age, the prevalence was 35% for non-Hispanic
white boys and 34% for non-Hispanic white girls, 36% for
non-Hispanic black boys and 39% for non-Hispanic black
●
●
●
Abbreviations for Chapter 16
BMI
body mass index
BP
blood pressure
BRFSS
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
CAD
coronary artery disease
CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CHD
coronary heart disease
CI
confidence interval
CVD
cardiovascular disease
DM
diabetes mellitus
FHS
Framingham Heart Study
HDL
high-density lipoprotein
HR
hazard ratio
MESA
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
NCHS
National Center for Health Statistics
NH
non-Hispanic
NHANES
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NHDS
National Hospital Discharge Survey
NHIS
National Health Interview Survey
NHLBI
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
NINDS
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
NOMAS
Northern Manhattan Study
OR
odds ratio
PA
physical activity
RR
relative risk
●
girls, and 44% for Mexican American boys and 39% for
Mexican American girls. In children 12 to 19 years of age,
the prevalence was 33% for non-Hispanic white boys and
30% for non-Hispanic white girls, 33% for non-Hispanic
black boys and 46% for non-Hispanic black girls, and 46%
for Mexican American boys and 42% for Mexican American girls.2
The prevalence of obesity in children 2 to 5 years of age, on
the basis of BMI-for-age values ⱖ95th percentile of the
2000 CDC growth charts, was 7% for non-Hispanic white
boys and 12% for non-Hispanic white girls, 11% for
non-Hispanic black boys and 12% for non-Hispanic black
girls, and 19% for Mexican American boys and 8% for
Mexican American girls according to 2007 to 2008 data
from NHANES (NCHS). In children 6 to 11 years of age,
the prevalence was 21% for non-Hispanic white boys and
17% for non-Hispanic white girls, 18% for non-Hispanic
black boys and 21% for non-Hispanic black girls, and 27%
for Mexican American boys and 22% for Mexican American girls. In children 12 to 19 years of age, the prevalence
was 17% for non-Hispanic white boys and 15% for
non-Hispanic white girls, 20% for non-Hispanic black boys
and 29% for non-Hispanic black girls, and 27% for
Mexican American boys and 17% for Mexican American
girls.2
Overall, 19% of US children and adolescents 6 to 19 years
of age have BMI-for-age values ⱖ95th percentile of the
2000 CDC growth charts for the United States (NHANES
[2007–2008], NCHS).2
NHANES 2003–2006 found that 11.3% of children and
adolescents 2 to 19 years of age were at or above the 97th
percentile of the 2000 BMI-for-age growth chart, 16.3%
were ⱖ95th percentile, and 31.9% were ⱖ85th percentile.3
Data from NHANES in the 2008 National Healthcare
Quality Report4 found the following:
— During 2003 to 2006, 39.4% of overweight (ⱖ95th
percentile of the 2000 BMI-for-age growth chart)
children and teens 2 to 19 years of age were told by a
doctor or health professional that they were overweight.
— During 2003 to 2006, overweight children 2 to 5 years
of age (22.3%) and 6 to 11 years of age (35.70%) were
less likely than overweight children 12 to 19 years of
age (47.5%) to be told by a provider that they were
overweight.
●
●
A study of ⬎8500 4-year-olds in the Early Childhood
Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (National Center for
Education Statistics) found that 1 in 5 were obese. Almost
13% of Asian children, 16% of white children, nearly 21%
of black children, 22% of Hispanic children, and 31% of
American Indian children were obese. Children were considered obese if their BMI was ⱖ95th percentile on the
basis of CDC BMI growth charts. For 4-year-olds, that
would be a BMI of ⬇18 kg/m2. Researchers did not
examine reasons for the disparities.5
Overweight adolescents have a 70% chance of becoming
overweight adults. This increases to 80% if 1 or both
parents are overweight or obese.6
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Childhood sociodemographic factors may contribute to sex
disparities in obesity prevalence. A study of data from the
National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health found
that parental education consistently modified sex disparity
in blacks. The sex gap was largest in those with low
parental education (16.7% of men compared with 45.4% of
women were obese) and smallest in those with high
parental education (28.5% of men compared with 31.4% of
women were obese). In whites, there was little overall sex
difference in obesity prevalence.7
The obesity epidemic is disproportionally more rampant
among children living in low-income, low-education, and
higher-unemployment households, according to data from
the National Survey of Children’s Health.8
In boys and girls, on the basis of NHANES data, the
prevalence of childhood obesity increases across all ranges
of household education levels, although it is substantially
higher among those with less education. Among boys,
households headed by college graduates increased from
4.5% to 11.8% from 1998 –1994 to 2005–2008, whereas
those headed by individuals with less than a high school
education increased from 15.3% to 21.1% over the same
time period. For girls, those with a college graduate as the
head of the household increased from 5.4% to 8.3% over
the same time period, whereas those whose household head
had less than a high school education increased from 11.4%
to 20.4%.9
According to the US National Longitudinal Study of
Adolescent Health, 1.0% of adolescents were severely
obese in 1996; the majority (70.5%) maintained this weight
status into adulthood. Obese adolescents had a 16-fold
increased risk of becoming severely obese adults compared
with those with normal weight or those who were
overweight.10
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Adults
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Overall, 68% of US adults were overweight or obese (72%
of men and 64% of women).11
Among men, Mexican-Americans (80%) and non-Hispanic
whites (73%) were more likely to be overweight or obese
than non-Hispanic blacks (69%) according to NHANES
2007–2008.11
Among women, non-Hispanic blacks (78%) and MexicanAmericans (77%) were more likely to be overweight or
obese than non-Hispanic whites (61%).11
Of US adults, 34% were obese (32% of men and 36% of
women) according to NHANES 2007–2008.11
Among men, non-Hispanic blacks (37%) and MexicanAmericans (36%) were more likely to be obese than
non-Hispanic whites (32%).11
Among women, non-Hispanic blacks (50%) and MexicanAmericans (45%) were more likely to be obese than
non-Hispanic whites (33%).11
When estimates were based on self-reported height and
weight in the BRFSS/CDC survey in 2010, the prevalence
of obesity ranged from 21.4% in Colorado to 34.5% in
Mississippi. The median percentage by state was 27.6%.12
Additionally, no state met the Healthy People 2010 goal of
reducing obesity to 15% of adults.13
●
●
e153
The county-level prevalence of obesity in the United States
ranged from 12.4% to 43.7%, with a median of 28.4%
according to BRFSS/CDC 2007.14
In 1998 and 1999, surveys of people in 8 states and the
District of Columbia by the BRFSS study of the CDC
indicated that obesity rates were significantly higher
among people with disabilities, especially blacks and those
45 to 64 years of age.15
Blacks ⱖ18 years of age (28.3%), American Indians or
Alaska Natives (29.6%), and whites (36.5%) were less
likely than Asians (55.0%) to be at a healthy weight on the
basis of self-reported height and weight data from the 2010
NHIS.16
On the basis of self-reported weights and heights, data
showed that blacks ⱖ18 years of age (36.9%) and American Indians or Alaska Natives (39.6%) were more likely to
be obese than were whites (26.8%) and Asians (11.6%),
according to 2010 data from the NHIS.16
Most adults in Asian subgroups were in the healthy weight
range, with rates ranging from 51% for Filipino adults to
68% for Chinese adults. Although the prevalence of obesity
is low within the Asian adult population, Filipino adults
(14%) were more than twice as likely to be obese (BMI
ⱖ30 kg/m2) as Asian Indian (6%), Vietnamese (5%), or
Chinese (4%) adults.17
From 1999 to 2004, obese adults 45 to 64 years of age
(73%) and ⱖ65 years of age (73.6%) were more likely than
those 20 to 44 years of age (59.5%) to be told by a doctor
or health professional that they were overweight. Obese
adults 45 to 64 years of age and ⱖ65 years of age were
more likely to receive advice about exercise than those 18
to 44 years of age.4
Approximately 64.8% of obese adults were told by a doctor
or health professional that they were overweight, according
to the 2008 National Healthcare Disparities Report (on the
basis of NHANES 2003–2006).18
The proportion of obese adults told that they were overweight was significantly lower for non-Hispanic blacks
(60.5%) and Mexican Americans (57.1%) than for nonHispanic whites (66.4%), for middle-income people than
for high-income people (62.4% versus 70.6%), and for
adults with less than a high school education than for those
with any college education (59.2% versus 70.3%).18
A large proportion of white, black, and Hispanic participants were overweight (60% to 85%) or obese (30% to
50%), whereas fewer Chinese American participants were
overweight (33%) or obese (5%), as judged by an analysis
of data from MESA. These findings may be indicators of
potential future increases in vascular disease burden and
healthcare costs associated with the obesity epidemic.19
Trends
Youth
●
The prevalence of BMI-for-age values ⱖ95th percentile of
the 2000 CDC growth charts in children 6 to 11 years of
age was 20% in 2007 to 2008 compared with 4.0% in 1971
to 1974. The prevalence of BMI-for-age values ⱖ95th
percentile in adolescents 12 to 19 years of age was 18% in
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2007 to 2008 compared with 6% in 1971 to 1974 in
NHANES. No statistically significant linear trends in high
weight for recumbent length or high BMI were found over
the time periods 1999 to 2000, 2001 to 2002, 2003 to 2004,
2005 to 2006, and 2007 to 2008 among girls and boys
except among the very heaviest 6- through 19-year-old
boys.2
Among infants and children between 6 and 23 months
years of age, the prevalence of high weight for age was 7%
in 1976 to 1980 and 12% in 2003 to 2006 (NHANES,
NCHS).20
The obesity epidemic in children continues to grow on the
basis of recent data from the Bogalusa Heart Study.
Compared with 1973 to 1974, the proportion of children 5
to 17 years of age who were obese was 5 times higher in
2008 to 2009.21
●
Morbidity
●
Adults
●
●
●
●
●
Using 2009 self-reported BRFSS data, overall obesity
prevalence was 26.7% in the United States, with rates of
27.4% in men and 26.0% in women. By race/ethnicity, the
prevalence of obesity among non-Hispanic whites was
25.2%, whereas it was 36.8% among non-Hispanic blacks
and 30.7% among Hispanics. There was an inverse association by education level: College graduates had a 20.8%
rate of obesity, whereas those who attained less than a high
school education had an obesity prevalence of 32.9%.22
Analysis of the FHS, 1971 to 2001 (NHLBI), showed that
among normal-weight white adults between 30 and 59
years of age, the 4-year rates of developing overweight
varied from 14% to 19% in women and from 26% to 30%
in men. The 30-year risk was similar for both sexes, with
some variation by age. Overall, the 30-year risk for
“overweight or more” exceeded 1 in 2 people, 1 in 4 for
obesity, and 1 in 10 for stage II obesity (BMI ⱖ35 kg/m2)
across different age groups. The 30-year estimates correspond to the lifetime risk for “overweight or more” or
obesity for participants 50 years of age.23
The age-adjusted prevalence of obesity among adults increased between 1976 to 1980 and 1988 to 1994 and again
between 1988 to 1994 and 1999 to 2000, on the basis of
NHANES data. Over the 10-year period of 1999 to 2008,
obesity showed no significant trend among women. For men,
there was a significant linear trend. Obesity prevalence for
men was 28% in NHANES 1999 –2000 (NCHS) and 32% in
NHANES 2007–2008; for women, obesity prevalence was
33% in 1999 –2000 and 36% in 2007–2008.11
Thirty-five percent of noninstitutionalized women 65 to 74
years of age and 27% of women ⱖ75 years of age were
obese on the basis of NHANES/NCHS data in 2007 to
2008. This is an increase from 1988 to 1994, when 27% of
women 65 to 74 years of age and 19% of women ⱖ75 years
of age were obese. For men, in 1988 to 1994, 24% of those
65 to 74 years of age and 13% of those ⱖ75 years of age
were obese compared with 40% of those 65 to 74 years of
age and 26% of those ⱖ75 years of age in 2007 to 2008.24
The prevalence of obesity increased by 5.6% or ⬇2.7
million people from 1997 to 2002 among Medicare beneficiaries. By 2002, 21.4% of beneficiaries and 39.3% of
disabled beneficiaries were obese compared with 16.4%
and 32.5%, respectively, in 1997. The rise in obesity, along
with expansions in treatment coverage, could greatly increase obesity-related Medicare spending.25
The World Health Organization estimates that by 2015, the
number of overweight people globally will increase to 2.3
billion, and 700 million will be obese. Globally, at least 20
million children ⬍5 years of age were overweight in 2005.
Once considered a problem only in high-income countries,
overweight and obesity are now dramatically on the rise in
low- and middle-income countries, particularly in urban
settings.26
Overweight children and adolescents are at increased risk
for future adverse health effects, including the following27:
— Increased prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk
factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and DM.
— Poor school performance, tobacco use, alcohol use,
premature sexual behavior, and poor diet.
— Other associated health conditions, such as asthma, hepatic steatosis, sleep apnea, stroke, some cancers (breast,
colon, and kidney), musculoskeletal disorders, and gallbladder disease.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
According to data from the Bogalusa Heart Study and the
Young Finns study, adolescents with high BMI in the
overweight or obese range are at a 2.5-fold increased risk
of developing metabolic syndrome, a 2.2-fold increased
risk of high carotid IMT, and a 3.4-fold increased risk of
DM in adulthood.28
According to data from the Staff Periodic Examination
Center of the Israeli Army Medical Corps, elevated BMI
during adolescence was associated with DM (HR 2.76) and
CHD diagnosed via angiography (HR 5.43); only the
association with CHD persisted after BMI adjustment.29
The increasing prevalence of obesity is driving an increased incidence of type 2 DM. Data from the FHS
indicate a doubling in the incidence of DM over the past 30
years, most dramatically during the 1990s and primarily
among individuals with a BMI ⬎30 kg/m2.30
Obesity was the most powerful predictor of DM in the
Nurses’ Health Study. Women with a BMI of ⱖ35 kg/m2
had an RR for DM of 38.8 compared with women with a
BMI of ⬍23 kg/m2.31
Overweight and obesity were associated with increased
risk for CVD in the FHS. The age-adjusted relative risk for
CVD was increased by 21% in men and 20% in women
among those who were overweight and by 46% in men and
64% in women among those who were obese.32
Abdominal obesity is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke in all race/ethnic groups. This effect is larger for
those ⬍65 years of age (OR 4.4) than for those ⬎65 years
of age (OR 2.2; NOMAS, NINDS).33
A recent comparison of risk factors in both the Honolulu
Heart Program and the FHS (NHLBI) showed that a BMI
increase of ⬇3 kg/m2 raised the risk of hospitalized
thromboembolic stroke by 10% to 30%.34
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Obesity is also a strong predictor of sleep-disordered
breathing, itself strongly associated with the development
of CVD, as well as with myriad other health conditions,
including numerous cancers, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, gallbladder disease, musculoskeletal disorders, and
reproductive abnormalities.35
A recent meta-analysis of 15 prospective studies demonstrated the increased risk for Alzheimer disease or vascular
dementia and any dementia was 1.35 and 1.26 for overweight, respectively, and 2.04 and 1.64 for obesity,
respectively.36
A randomized clinical trial of 130 severely obese adult
individuals randomized to either 12 months of diet and PA
or only 6 months of PA resulted in 12.1 and 9.9 kg,
respectively, of weight loss at 1 year, with improvements in
waist circumference, visceral fat, BP, and insulin
resistance.37
A meta-analysis of 58 prospective studies demonstrated
associations with BMI, waist circumference, and waist-tohip ratio with CHD (HR 1.29 –1.30), stroke (HR 1.20 –
1.25), and CVD (HR 1.23–1.25) per 1-standard deviation
higher values, although risk prediction was not improved
with the inclusion of adiposity variables.38
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Mortality
●
●
●
●
●
Elevated childhood BMIs in the highest quartile were
associated with premature death as an adult in a cohort of
4857 American Indian children during a median follow-up
of 23.9 years.39
Among adults, obesity was associated with nearly 112 000
excess deaths (95% CI 53 754 –170 064) relative to normal
weight in 2000. Grade I obesity (BMI 30 to ⬍35 kg/m2)
was associated with almost 30 000 of these excess deaths
(95% CI 8534 – 68 220) and grade II to III obesity (BMI
ⱖ35 kg/m2) with ⬎82 000 (95% CI 44 843–119 289).
Underweight was associated with nearly 34 000 excess
deaths (95% CI 15 726 to 51 766). As other studies have
found,40 overweight (BMI 25 to ⬍30 kg/m2) was not
associated with excess deaths.41
Overweight was associated with significantly increased
mortality resulting from DM or kidney disease and was not
associated with increased mortality resulting from cancer
or CVD in an analysis of 2004 data from NHANES.
Obesity was associated with significantly increased mortality caused by CVD, some cancers, and DM or kidney
disease. Obesity was associated with 13% of CVD deaths
in 2004.42
Data from NHANES 1988 –1994 were studied to determine
estimates of excess deaths associated with BMI and other
anthropometric variables. Estimates for all-cause mortality,
obesity-related causes of death, and other causes of death
showed no statistically significant or systematic differences
between BMI and other variables.43
In a collaborative analysis of data from almost 900 000
adults in 57 prospective studies, mostly in western Europe
and North America, overall mortality was lowest at ⬇22.5
to 25 kg/m2 in both sexes and at all ages, after exclusion of
early follow-up and adjustment for smoking status. Above
●
●
●
e155
this range, each 5-kg/m2-higher BMI was associated with
⬇30% higher all-cause mortality, and no specific cause of
death was inversely associated with BMI. Below 22.5 to 25
kg/m2, the overall inverse association with BMI was
predominantly related to strong inverse associations for
smoking-related respiratory disease, and the only clearly
positive association was for ischemic heart disease.44
In a meta-analysis of 1.46 million white adults, over a mean
follow-up period of 10 years, all-cause mortality was
lowest at BMI levels of 20.0 to 24.9 kg/m2. Among
women, compared with a BMI of 22.5 to 24.9 kg/m2, the
HR for death was as follows: BMI 15.0 to 18.4 kg/m2, 1.47;
18.5 to 19.9 kg/m2, 1.14; 20.0 to 22.4 kg/m2, 1.0; 25.0 to
29.9 kg/m2, 1.13; 30.0 to 34.9 kg/m2, 1.44; 35.0 to 39.9
kg/m2, 1.88; and 40.0 to 49.9 kg/m2, 2.51. Similar estimates were observed in men.45
Overweight and obesity were associated with large decreases in life expectancy in an analysis of data from the
FHS (NHLBI). Forty-year-old female nonsmokers lost 3.3
years and 40-year-old male nonsmokers lost 3.1 years of
life expectancy because of overweight. Among 40-year-old
nonsmokers, women lost 7.1 years and men lost 5.8 years
because of obesity. Obese female smokers lost 7.2 years
and obese male smokers lost 6.7 years compared with
normal-weight nonsmokers.46
Recent calculations based on NHANES data from 1978 to
2006 suggest that the gains in life expectancy from smoking cessation are beginning to be outweighed by the loss of
life expectancy from obesity.47
As a result of the increasing prevalence of obesity, the
number of quality-adjusted life years lost as a result of
obesity is similar to or greater than that lost as a result of
smoking, according to data from the BRFSS.48
Recent estimates suggest that reductions in smoking, cholesterol, BP, and PA levels resulted in a gain of 2 770 500
life-years; however, these gains were reduced by a loss of
715 000 life-years caused by the increased prevalence of
obesity and DM.49
Cost
●
●
●
●
●
Among children and adolescents, annual hospital costs related
to obesity were $127 million between 1997 and 1999.50
According to 1 study, overall estimates show that the
annual medical burden of obesity has increased to almost
10% of all medical spending and could amount to $147
billion per year in 2008 (in 2008 dollars).51
If current trends in the growth of obesity continue, total
healthcare costs attributable to obesity could reach $861 to
$957 billion by 2030, which would account for 16% to
18% of US health expenditures.52
According to NHANES I data linked to Medicare and
mortality records, obese 45-year-olds had lifetime Medicare costs of $163 000 compared with $117 000 among
those with normal weight by the time they reached 65 years
of age.53
The total excess cost related to the current prevalence of
adolescent overweight and obesity is estimated to be $254
billion ($208 billion in lost productivity secondary to
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January 3/10, 2012
premature morbidity and mortality and $46 billion in direct
medical costs).54
Bariatric Surgery
●
●
●
●
●
Patients with BMI ⬎40 kg/m2 or ⬎35 kg/m2 with an
obesity-related comorbidity are eligible for gastric bypass
surgery, which is typically performed as either a Rouxen-Y gastric bypass or a biliopancreatic diversion.
According to the 2006 NHDS, the incidence of bariatric
surgery was estimated at 113 000 cases per year, with costs
of ⬇1.5 billion dollars annually.55
Among obese Swedish patients undergoing bariatric surgery and followed up for up to 15 years, maximum weight
loss was 32%. The risk of death was 0.76 among those who
underwent bariatric surgery compared with matched control subjects.56 Among 641 patients followed up for 10
years compared with 627 matched control subjects, after 2
years of follow-up, 72% of the surgically treated patients
versus 21% of the control patients had remission of their
DM; at 10 years of follow-up, results were 36% and 13%,
respectively. Similar results have been observed for hypertension, elevated triglycerides, and low HDL cholesterol.57
According to retrospective data from the United States,
among 9949 patients who underwent gastric bypass surgery, after a mean of 7 years, long-term mortality was 40%
lower among the surgically treated patients than among
obese control subjects. Specifically, cancer mortality was
reduced by 60%, DM mortality by 92%, and CAD mortality by 56%. Death rates attributable to accidents and
suicide were higher (58%) in the surgery group.58
A recent retrospective cohort from the Veterans Affairs
medical system showed that in a propensity-matched analysis, bariatric surgery was not associated with reduced
mortality compared with obese control subjects (timeadjusted HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.64 –1.39).59
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Circulation
Table 16-1.
January 3/10, 2012
Overweight and Obesity
Population Group
Prevalence of Overweight
and Obesity in Adults,
2005–2008: Age ⱖ20 y
Prevalence of Obesity
in Adults, 2005–2008:
Age ⱖ20 y
Prevalence of Overweight
and Obesity in Children,
2007–2008: Ages 2–19 y
Prevalence of Obesity
in Children, 2007–2008:
Ages 2–19 y
Cost, 2008*
Both sexes, n (%)
149 300 000 (67.3)
75 000 000 (33.7)
23 600 000 (31.7)
12 600 000 (16.9)
$147 Billion
Males
78 000 000 (72.4)
34 900 000 (32.4)
12 200 000 (32.1)
6 800 000 (17.8)
...
Females
71 300 000 (62.3)
40 100 000 (35.2)
11 400 000 (31.3)
5 800 000 (15.9)
...
NH white males, %
72.3
32.1
29.5
15.7
...
NH white females, %
59.3
32.8
29.2
14.9
...
NH black males, %
70.8
37.0
33.0
17.3
...
NH black females, %
77.7
51.0
39.0
22.7
...
Mexican American males, %
77.5
31.4
41.7
24.9
...
Mexican American females, %
75.1
43.4
36.1
16.5
...
NH indicates non-Hispanic; ellipses (. . .), data not available.
Data for white and black males and females are for non-Hispanics. Overweight and obesity in adults is defined as body mass index (BMI) ⱖ25 kg/m2. Obesity
in adults is defined as BMI ⱖ30 kg/m2. In children, overweight and obesity are based on BMI-for-age values at or above the 85th percentile of the 2000 Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts. In children, obesity is based on BMI-for-age values at or above the 95th percentile of the CDC growth charts.
In January 2007, the American Medical Association’s Expert Task Force on Childhood Obesity recommended new definitions for overweight and obesity in children
and adolescents62; however, statistics based on this new definition are not yet available.
*Data from Health Affairs.51
Sources: Age-adjusted National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2008 (National Center for Health Statistics), National Heart, Lung, and
Blood Institute, and unpublished data. Estimates from NHANES 2005–2008 (National Center for Health Statistics) were applied to 2008 population estimates. In
children, age-adjusted NHANES 2007–2008 data were applied to 2006 population estimates.2,11
25
23.3
19.7
20
18.9
18.7
19.5
Percent of Population
17.5
15
13.9 13.8
13.2
12.6
11.1
10
6.2
5
0
NH White Males
NH White
Females
NH Black Males
Overweight
NH Black
Females
Hispanic Males
Hispanic
Females
Obese
Chart 16-1. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among students in grades 9 through 12 by sex and race/ethnicity. NH indicates nonHispanic. Data derived from Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance–United States, 2009, Table 90.60
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 16
e159
40
36.2
35
33.3
30
Percent of Population
34.0
28.1
26.0
25
20.6
20
16.8
17.1
15.7
15
12.2
12.8
10.7
10
5
0
Men
1960-62
Women
1971-74
1976-80
1988-94
1999-2002
2005-08
Chart 16-2. Age-adjusted prevalence of obesity in adults 20 to 74 years of age by sex and survey year (National Health Examination
Survey: 1960 –1962; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 1971–1974, 1976 –1980, 1988 –1994, 1999 –2002, and 2005–
2008). Obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30.0 kg/m2. Data derived from Health, United States, 2010 (National Center for
Health Statistics).61
20
16.0
15.9
16
Percent of Population
17.9
17.4
18
14
12
11.3
10.5
10
8
6.5
6.1
6
5.0
4.0
4
2
0
6-11
1971-1974
Age (Years)
1976-1980
1988-1994
1999-2002
12-19
2005-2008
Chart 16-3. Trends in the prevalence of obesity among US children and adolescents by age and survey year (National Health and
Nutrition Examination Survey: 1971–1974, 1976 –1980, 1988 –1994, 1999 –2002 and 2005–2008). Data derived from Health, United
States, 2010 (National Center for Health Statistics).61
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Circulation
January 3/10, 2012
17. Risk Factor: Diabetes Mellitus
ICD-9 250; ICD-10 E10 to E14. See Table 17-1 and Charts
17-1 through 17-4.
Prevalence
Youth
●
In SEARCH, the prevalence of DM in youths ⬍20 years of
age in 2001 in the United States was 1.82 cases per 1000
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 17
ACS
acute coronary syndrome
AMI
acute myocardial infarction
ARIC
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study
BMI
body mass index
BP
blood pressure
BRFSS
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
CDC
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CHD
coronary heart disease
CHS
Cardiovascular Health Study
CI
confidence interval
CVD
cardiovascular disease
DM
diabetes mellitus
ECG
electrocardiographic
ESRD
end-stage renal disease
FHS
Framingham Heart Study
HbA1c
glycosylated hemoglobin
HD
heart disease
HDL
high-density lipoprotein
HR
hazard ratio
ICD-9
International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision
ICD-10
International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision
LDL
low-density lipoprotein
MEPS
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey
MESA
Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
MI
myocardial infarction
NAMCS
National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey
NCHS
National Center for Health Statistics
NH
non-Hispanic
NHAMCS
National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey
NHANES
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NHIS
National Health Interview Survey
NHLBI
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
NSTEMI
non–ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction
OR
odds ratio
PA
physical activity
PAR
population-attributable risk
RR
relative risk
SBP
systolic blood pressure
SEARCH
Search for Diabetes in Youth Study
STEMI
ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction
UA
unstable angina
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youths (0.79 per 1000 among youths 0 –9 years of age and
2.80 per 1000 among youths 10 –19 years of age). NonHispanic white youths had the highest prevalence (1.06 per
1000) in the younger group. Among youths 10 to 19 years
of age, black youths (3.22 per 1000) and non-Hispanic
white youths (3.18 per 1000) had the highest rates, followed by American Indian youths (2.28 per 1000), Hispanic youths (2.18 per 1000), and Asian/Pacific Islander
youths (1.34 per 1000). Among younger children, type 1
DM accounted for ⱖ80% of DM; among older youths, the
proportion of type 2 DM ranged from 6% (0.19 per 1000
for non-Hispanic white youths) to 76% (1.74 per 1000 for
American Indian youths). This translates to 154 369 youths
with physician-diagnosed DM in 2001 in the United States,
for an overall prevalence estimate for DM in children and
adolescents of ⬇0.18%.1
Approximately 186 000 people ⬍20 years of age have DM.
Each year, ⬇15 000 people ⬍20 years of age are diagnosed
with type 1 DM. Healthcare providers are finding more and
more children with type 2 DM, a disease usually diagnosed
in adults ⱖ40 years of age. Children who develop type 2
DM are typically overweight or obese and have a family
history of the disease. Most are American Indian, black,
Asian, or Hispanic/Latino.2
Among adolescents 10 to 19 years of age diagnosed with
DM, 57.8% of blacks were diagnosed with type 2 versus
type 1 DM compared with 46.1% of Hispanic and 14.9% of
white youths.3
According to the Bogalusa Heart Study, a long-term
follow-up study of youths aging into adulthood, youths
who were prediabetic or who had DM are more likely to
have a constellation of metabolic disorders in young
adulthood (19 – 44 years of age), including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, all of
which predispose to CHD.4
Adults
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On the basis of data from NHANES 2005–2008 (NCHS;
unpublished NHLBI tabulation; Table 17-1), an estimated
18.3 million Americans ⱖ20 years of age have physiciandiagnosed DM. An additional 7.1 million adults have
undiagnosed DM, and ⬇81.5 million adults have prediabetes (eg, fasting blood glucose of 100 to ⬍126 mg/dL).
The prevalence of prediabetes in the US adult population is
nearly 37%.
Data from NHANES 2005–2006 (NCHS) showed the prevalence of diagnosed DM in adults ⱖ65 years of age to be
17.0%. The prevalence of undiagnosed DM was 14.6% (based
on fasting glucose or oral glucose tolerance testing).5
Among Americans ⱖ20 years of age, 11.3% have diagnosed DM. Men ⱖ20 years of age have a slightly higher
prevalence (11.8%) than women (10.8%).6
After adjustment for population age differences, 2007 to
2009 national survey data for people ⱖ20 years of age
indicate that 7.1% of non-Hispanic whites, 8.4% of Asian
Americans, 11.8% of Hispanics, and 12.6% of nonHispanic blacks had diagnosed DM.6
Compared with non-Hispanic white adults, the risk of
diagnosed DM was 18% higher among Asian Americans,
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66% higher among Hispanics/Latinos, and 77% higher
among non-Hispanic blacks.6
In 2004 to 2006, the prevalence of diagnosed DM was
more than twice as high for Asian Indian adults (14%) as
for Chinese (6%) or Japanese (5%) adults.7
Type 2 DM accounts for 90% to 95% of all diagnosed cases
of DM in adults.6
The prevalence of DM increased by 8.2% from 2000 to
2001. From 1990 to 2001, the prevalence of those diagnosed with DM increased 61%.8
On the basis of 2010 BRFSS (CDC) data, the prevalence of
adults who reported ever having been told by a physician
that they had DM ranged from 5.3% in Alaska to 13.2% in
Alabama. The median percentage among states was 8.7%.9
The CDC analyzed data from 1994 to 2004 collected by the
Indian Health Service that indicated that the age-adjusted
prevalence per 1000 population of DM increased 101.2%
among American Indian/Alaska Native adults ⬍35 years of
age (from 8.5% to 17.1%). During this time period, the
prevalence of diagnosed DM was greater among females
than males in all age groups.10
On the basis of projections from NHANES/NCHS studies
between 1984 and 2004, the total prevalence of DM in the
United States is expected to more than double from 2005 to
2050 (from 5.6% to 12.0%) in all age, sex, and race/
ethnicity groups. Increases are projected to be largest for
the oldest age groups (for instance, increasing by 220%
among those 65–74 years of age and by 449% among those
ⱖ75 years of age). DM prevalence is projected to increase
by 99% among non-Hispanic whites, by 107% among
non-Hispanic blacks, and by 127% among Hispanics. The
age/race/ethnicity group with the largest increase is expected to be blacks ⱖ75 years of age (increase of 606%).11
According to NHIS data from 1997 to 2008, the prevalence
of DM was higher among Asian Americans (4.3% to 8.2%)
than whites (3.8% to 6.0%), despite lower BMI levels (23.6
versus 26.1 kg/m2 in the earliest time period) among
Asians.12
The prevalence of DM for all age groups worldwide was
estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and is projected to be 4.4%
in 2030. The total number of people with DM is projected
to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030.13
According to international survey and epidemiological data
from 2.7 million participants, the prevalence of DM in
adults increased from 8.3% (in men) and 7.5% (in women)
in 1980 to 9.8% (men) and 9.2% (women) in 2008. The
number of individuals affected with DM increased from
153 million in 1980 to 347 million in 2008.14
Adults
●
●
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●
DM mortality in 2008 was 70 553. Any-mention mortality in
2008 was 231 402 (NHLBI tabulation of NCHS mortality
data).
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●
The 2007 overall underlying-cause death rate attributable
to DM was 22.5. Death rates per 100 000 people were 24.6
for white males, 45.9 for black males, 17.2 for white
females, and 40.2 for black females (NCHS, Health Data
Interactive17).
According to data from the National Diabetes Information
Clearinghouse, the National Institute of Diabetes and
Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and the National Institutes
of Health:
— At least 68% of people ⬎65 years of age with DM die
of some form of HD; 16% die of stroke.
— HD death rates among adults with DM are 2 to 4 times
higher than the rates for adults without DM.6
●
●
In the SEARCH study, the incidence of DM in youths
overall was 24.3 per 100 000 person-years. Among children ⬍10 years of age, most had type 1 DM, regardless of
race/ethnicity. The highest rates of incident type 1 DM
were observed in non-Hispanic white youths (18.6, 28.1,
and 32.9 per 100 000 person-years for age groups of 0 – 4,
5–9, and 10 –14 years, respectively). Overall, type 2 DM
was relatively infrequent, with the highest rates (17.0 – 49.4
per 100 000 person-years) seen among 15- to 19-year-old
minority groups.3
A total of 1.9 million new cases of DM were diagnosed in
people ⱖ20 years of age in 2006.6
Data from Framingham, MA, indicate a doubling in the
incidence of DM over the past 30 years, most dramatically
during the 1990s. Among adults 40 to 55 years of age in
each decade of the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, the ageadjusted 8-year incidence rates of DM were 2.0%, 3.0%,
and 3.7% among women and 2.7%, 3.6%, and 5.8% among
men, respectively. Compared with the 1970s, the age- and
sex-adjusted OR for DM was 1.40 in the 1980s and 2.05 in
the 1990s (P for trend⫽0.0006). Most of the increase in
absolute incidence of DM occurred in individuals with a
BMI ⱖ30 kg/m2 (P for trend⫽0.03).15
DM incidence in adults also varies markedly by race. Over
5 years of follow-up in 45- to-84-year-olds in the MESA,
8.2% of the cohort developed DM. The cumulative incidence was highest in Hispanics (11.3%), followed by black
(9.5%), Chinese (7.7%), and white (6.3%) participants.16
Mortality
Incidence
Youths
e161
●
In a collaborative meta-analysis of 820 900 individuals
from 97 prospective studies, DM was associated with the
following risks: all-cause mortality, HR 1.80 (95% CI
1.71–1.90); cancer death, HR 1.25 (95% CI 1.19 –1.31);
and vascular death, HR 2.32 (95% CI 2.11–2.56). In
particular, DM was associated with death attributable to the
following cancers: liver, pancreas, ovary, colorectal, lung,
bladder, and breast. A 50-year-old with DM died on
average 6 years earlier than an individual without DM.18
FHS/NHLBI data show that having DM significantly
increased the risk of developing CVD (HR 2.5 for women
and 2.4 for men) and of dying when CVD was present (HR
2.2 for women and 1.7 for men). Diabetic men and women
ⱖ50 years of age lived an average of 7.5 and 8.2 years less
than their nondiabetic equivalents. The differences in life
expectancy free of CVD were 7.8 and 8.4 years,
respectively.19
Analysis of data from NHANES 1971–2000 found that
men with DM experienced a 43% relative reduction in the
age-adjusted mortality rate, which was similar to that of
nondiabetic men. Among women with DM, however,
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mortality rates did not decrease, and the difference in
mortality rates between diabetic and nondiabetic women
doubled.20
During 1979 to 2004, DM death rates for black youths 1 to
19 years of age were approximately twice those for white
youths. During 2003 to 2004, the annual average DM death
rate per 1 million youths was 2.46 for black youths and
0.91 for white youths.21
Analysis of data from the FHS from 1950 to 2005 found
reductions in all-cause and CVD mortality among men and
women with and without DM; however, all-cause and CVD
mortality rates among individuals with DM remain ⬇2fold higher than for individuals without DM.22
●
— During 1997 to 2005, the estimated number of people
ⱖ35 years of age with DM with a self-reported cardiovascular condition increased 36%, from 4.2 million in
1997 to 5.7 million in 2005; however, the age-adjusted
prevalence of self-reported CVD conditions among
people with diagnosed DM ⱖ35 years of age decreased
11.2%, from 36.6% in 1997 to 32.5% in 2005.
— During 1997 to 2005, age-adjusted CVD prevalence
was higher among men than women, among whites
than blacks, and among non-Hispanics than Hispanics.
Among women, the age-adjusted prevalence decreased
by 11.2%; among men, it did not decrease significantly.
Among blacks, the age-adjusted prevalence of selfreported CVD decreased by 25.3%; among whites, no
significant decrease occurred; among non-Hispanics,
the rate decreased by 12%. No clear trends were
detected among Hispanics. If the total number of people
with DM and self-reported CVD increased over this
period but proportions with self-reported CVD declined, the data suggest that the mean age at which
people have been diagnosed is decreasing, or the higher
CVD mortality rate among older diabetic individuals is
removing them from ability to self-report CVD. These
and other data show a consistent increase over time in
the United States of the number of people with DM and
CVD.
Awareness
●
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The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and
Kidney Diseases estimates that 25.8 million Americans
(8.3% of the population) have DM.6
Analysis of NHANES/NCHS data from 1988 –1994 to
2005–2006 in adults ⱖ20 years of age showed that 40% of
those with DM did not know they had it.5 Although the
prevalence of diagnosed DM has increased significantly
over the past decade, the prevalences of undiagnosed DM
and impaired fasting glucose have remained relatively
stable. Minority groups remain disproportionately
affected.23
Analysis of NHANES/NCHS data collected during 2005
to 2008 indicated that the prevalence of DM was 8.2%
among people ⱖ20 years of age. Prevalence of DM was
defined as people who were told by a physician or other
health professional that they have DM. Of the estimated
18.3 million adults with DM, 73.3% were told they had
DM or were undergoing treatment and 26.7% (5.7
million) were unaware of the diagnosis. Of 7 895 000
people being treated (37.3% of the diabetic population),
one third (2 604 000) had their DM under control (ie,
they were undergoing treatment and had fasting plasma
glucose ⬍126 mg/dL), and 25.0% (5.3 million) were
being treated but did not have their DM under control
(fasting plasma glucose ⱖ126 mg/dL). An estimated
13.3 million individuals with DM are not treated. The
untreated and unaware population (5.6 million) was
26.7% of the diabetic population (NHLBI tabulation of
NHANES 2003–2006; Chart 17-4).
●
Aftermath
●
●
Although the exact date of DM onset can be difficult to
determine, duration of DM appears to affect CVD risk.
Longitudinal data from Framingham, MA, suggest that the
risk factor–adjusted RR of CHD is 1.38 (95% CI 0.99 –
1.92) times higher and the risk for CHD death is 1.86 (95%
CI 1.17–2.93) times higher for each 10-year increase in
duration of DM.24
DM increases the risk of stroke, with the RR ranging from
1.8 to almost 10.0.25,26 DM increases ischemic stroke
incidence at all ages, but this risk is most prominent before
55 years of age in blacks and before 65 years of age in
whites.26
Ischemic stroke patients with DM are younger, more likely
to be black, and more likely to have hypertension, MI, and
high cholesterol than nondiabetic patients.26 On the basis of
data from the NCHS/NHIS from 1997 to 200527:
●
Statistical modeling of the use and effectiveness of specific
cardiac treatments and of changes in risk factors between
1980 and 2000 among US adults 25 to 84 years of age
showed that the age-adjusted death rate for CHD decreased
from 543 to 267 deaths per 100 000 population among men
and from 263 to 134 deaths per 100 000 population among
women. Approximately 47% of this decrease was attributed to treatments, and ⬇44% was attributed to changes in
risk factors, although reductions were offset in part by
increases in BMI and the prevalence of DM, which
accounted for an increased number of deaths (8% and 10%,
respectively).28 An analysis from the Cooper Clinic in
Dallas, TX, of exercise ECG responses and CVD mortality
in 2854 men with DM reported 441 deaths (210 CVD and
133 CHD) over a follow-up of 16 years. That analysis
showed that equivocal and abnormal exercise ECG responses were associated with higher risk of all-cause,
CVD, and CHD mortality. Across normal, equivocal, and
abnormal exercise ECG groups, age- and examination
year–adjusted CHD mortality rates per 10 000 person-years
were 23.0, 48.6, and 69.0, respectively (P for trend
⬍0.001), and risk factor–adjusted HRs were 1.00, 1.68
(95% CI 1.01–2.77), and 2.21 (95% CI 1.41–3.46; P for
trend ⬍0.001), respectively.29
A subgroup analysis was conducted of patients with DM
enrolled in randomized clinical trials that evaluated ACS
therapies. The data included 62 036 patients from Throm-
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●
bolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) studies (46 577
with STEMI and 15 459 with UA/NSTEMI). Of these,
17.1% had DM. Modeling showed that mortality at 30 days
was significantly higher among patients with DM than
among those without DM who presented with UA/
NSTEMI (2.1% versus 1.1%; Pⱕ0.001) and STEMI (8.5%
versus 5.4%; P⫽0.001), with adjusted risks for 30-day
mortality in DM versus no DM of 1.78 for UA/NSTEMI
(95% CI 1.24 –2.56) and 1.40 (95% CI 1.24 –1.57) for
STEMI. DM was also associated with significantly higher
mortality 1 year after UA/NSTEMI or STEMI. By 1 year
after ACS, patients with DM presenting with UA/NSTEMI
had a risk of death that approached that of patients without
DM presenting with STEMI (7.2% versus 8.1%).30
Data from the ARIC study of the NHLBI found that DM
was a weaker predictor of CHD in blacks than in whites.31
Data from Framingham, MA, show that despite improvements in CVD morbidity and mortality, DM continues to
elevate CVD risk. Participants 45 to 64 years of age from
the FHS original and offspring cohorts who attended
examinations in 1950 to 1966 (“earlier” time period) and
1977 to 1995 (“later” time period) were followed up for
incident MI, CHD death, and stroke. Among participants
with DM, the age- and sex-adjusted CVD incidence rate
was 286.4 per 10 000 person-years in the earlier period and
146.9 per 10 000 person-years in the later period, a 35.4%
decline. HRs for DM as a predictor of incident CVD were
not significantly different in the earlier (risk factor–adjusted HR 2.68, 95% CI 1.88 –3.82) versus later (HR 1.96,
95% CI 1.44 –2.66) periods.32 Thus, although there was a
50% reduction in the rate of incident CVD events among
adults with DM, the absolute risk of CVD remained 2-fold
greater than among people without DM.32
— Data from these earlier and later time periods in
Framingham also suggest that the increasing prevalence of DM is leading to an increasing rate of CVD,
resulting in part from CVD risk factors that commonly
accompany DM. The age- and sex-adjusted HR for DM
as a CVD risk factor was 3.0 in the earlier time period
and 2.5 in the later time period. Because the prevalence
of DM has increased over time, the PAR for DM as a
CVD risk factor increased from 5.4% in the earlier time
period to 8.7% in the later time period (attributable risk
ratio 1.62; P⫽0.04). Adjustment for CVD risk factors
(age, sex, hypertension, current smoking, high cholesterol, and obesity) weakened this attributable risk ratio
to 1.5 (P⫽0.12).33
— Other data from Framingham show that over 30 years,
CVD among women with DM was 54.8% among
normal-weight women but 78.8% among obese women.
Among normal-weight men with DM, the lifetime risk
of CVD was 78.6%, whereas it was 86.9% among
obese men.34
●
Other studies show that the increased prevalence of DM is
being followed by an increasing prevalence of CVD
morbidity and mortality. New York City death certificate
data for 1989 to 1991 and 1999 to 2001 and hospital
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e163
discharge data for 1988 to 2002 show increases in all-cause
and cause-specific mortality between 1990 and 2000, as
well as in annual hospitalization rates for DM and its
complications among patients hospitalized with AMI
and/or DM. During this decade, all-cause and causespecific mortality rates declined, although not for patients
with DM; rates increased 61% and 52% for diabetic men
and women, respectively, as did hospitalization rates for
DM and its complications. The percentage of all AMIs
occurring in patients with DM increased from 21% to 36%,
and the absolute number more than doubled, from 2951 to
6048. Although hospital days for AMI fell overall, for
those with DM, they increased 51% (from 34 188 to
51 566). These data suggest that increases in DM rates
threaten the long-established nationwide trend toward reduced coronary artery events.35
In an analysis of provincial health claims data for adults
living in Ontario, Canada, between 1992 and 2000, the rate
of patients admitted for AMI and stroke decreased to a
greater extent in the diabetic than the nondiabetic population (AMI, ⫺15.1% versus ⫺9.1%, P⫽0.0001; stroke,
⫺24.2% versus ⫺19.4%, P⫽0.0001). Diabetic patients
experienced reductions in case fatality rates related to AMI
and stroke similar to those without DM (⫺44.1% versus
⫺33.2%, P⫽0.1; ⫺17.1% versus ⫺16.6%, P⫽0.9, respectively) and similarly comparable decreases in all-cause
mortality. Over the same period, the number of DM cases
increased by 165%, which translates to a marked increase
in the proportion of CVD events occurring among patients
with DM: AMI, 44.6%; stroke, 26.1%; AMI deaths, 17.2%;
and stroke deaths, 13.2%.36
In the same data set, the transition to a high-risk category
(an event rate equivalent to a 10-year risk of 20% or an
event rate equivalent to that associated with previous MI)
occurred at a younger age for men and women with DM
than for those without DM (mean difference 14.6 years).
For the outcome of AMI, stroke, or death resulting from
any cause, diabetic men and women entered the high-risk
category at 47.9 and 54.3 years of age, respectively. The
data suggest that DM confers a risk equivalent to aging 15
years. In North America, diverse data show lower rates of
CVD among diabetic people, but as the prevalence of DM
has increased, so has the absolute burden of CVD, especially among middle-aged and older individuals.37
DM accounted for 44% of the new cases of end-stage renal
disease (ESRD) in 2007. According to data from the US
Renal Data System and BRFSS from 1996 to 2007, the
incidence rate of ESRD attributed to DM decreased from
304.5 per 100 000 to 199.1 per 100 000).38
According to NHANES data, the prevalence of diabetic
kidney disease has increased from 2.2% in NHANES III to
3.3% in NHANES 2005–2008. These increases were observed in direct proportion to increases in DM.39
HbA1c levels ⱖ6.5% can be used to diagnose DM.40 In the
population-based ARIC study, HbA1c levels ⱖ6.5% had a
14-year follow-up, multivariable-adjusted HR of 16.5
(95% CI 14.2–19.1) for diagnosed DM and 1.95 (95% CI
1.53–2.48) for CHD relative to those with HbA1c ⬍5.0%.41
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According to data from the ARIC study and NHANES III,
the sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing DM (compared with a single fasting glucose measurement of at least
126 mg/dL) were 47% and 98%, respectively.
to be prescribed aspirin (0.63; P⬍0.0001). Women
with DM and CHD were less likely than men to be
prescribed aspirin (0.70, P⬍0.0001) and, when treated
for hypertension or hyperlipidemia, were less likely to
have BP levels ⬍130/80 mm Hg (0.75, P⬍0.0001) or
LDL cholesterol levels ⬍100 mg/dL (0.80,
P⫽0.006).45
Risk Factors
●
Data from the 2004 National Healthcare Disparities Report
(Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, US Department of Health and Human Services) found that only
approximately one third of adults with DM received all 5
interventions to reduce risk factors recommended for comprehensive DM care in 2001. The proportion receiving all
5 interventions was lower among blacks than whites and
among Hispanics than non-Hispanic whites.42
— In multivariable models that controlled for age, sex,
income, education, insurance, and residence location,
blacks were 38% less likely and Hispanics were 33%
less likely than their respective comparison groups to
receive all recommended risk factor interventions in
2001.42
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●
Between NHANES III 1988 –1994 (NCHS) and NHANES
1999 –2002 (NCHS), considerable differences were found
among ethnic groups in glycemic control rates among
adults with type 2 DM. Among non-Hispanic whites, the
control rates were 43.8% in 1988 to 1994 and 48.4% in
1999 to 2002. For non-Hispanic blacks, the rates were
41.2% and 36.5%, respectively. For Mexican Americans,
the respective rates were 34.5% and 34.2%.43
In 1 large academic medical center, outpatients with type 2
DM were observed during an 18-month period for proportions of patients who had HbA1c levels, BP, or total
cholesterol levels measured; who had been prescribed any
drug therapy if HbA1c levels, SBP, or LDL cholesterol
levels exceeded recommended treatment goals; and who
had been prescribed greater-than-starting-dose therapy if
these values were above treatment goals. Patients were less
likely to have cholesterol levels measured (76%) than
HbA1c levels (92%) or BP (99%; P⬍0.0001 for either
comparison). The proportion of patients who received any
drug therapy was greater for above-goal HbA1c (92%) than
for above-goal SBP (78%) or LDL cholesterol (38%;
P⬍0.0001 for each comparison). Similarly, patients whose
HbA1c levels were above the treatment goal (80%) were
more likely to receive greater-than-starting-dose therapy
than were those who had above-goal SBP (62%) and LDL
cholesterol levels (13%; P⬍0.0001).44
— Data from the same academic medical center also
showed that CVD risk factors among women with DM
were managed less aggressively than among men with
DM. Women were less likely than men to have HbA1c
⬍7% (without CHD: adjusted OR for women versus
men 0.84, P⫽0.005; with CHD: 0.63, P⬍0.0001).
Women without CHD were less likely than men to be
treated with lipid-lowering medication (0.82; P⫽0.01)
or, when treated, to have LDL cholesterol levels ⬍100
mg/dL (0.75; P⫽0.004) and were less likely than men
●
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●
In 2001 to 2002, among adults ⱖ18 years of age with DM,
50.2% were not at goal for HbA1c (⬍7%), 64.6% were not
at goal for LDL cholesterol (⬍100 mg/dL), and 53% were
not at goal for BP (⬍130/80 mm Hg). Moreover, 48.6%
were not at recommended levels of triglycerides (⬍150
mg/dL in women). Only 5.3% of men and 12.7% of women
were simultaneously at goal for HbA1c, LDL cholesterol,
and BP.46
Analysis of data from the CHS of the NHLBI found that
lifestyle risk factors, including PA level, dietary habits,
smoking habits, alcohol use, and adiposity measures, assessed late in life, were each independently associated with
risk of new-onset DM. Participants whose PA level and
dietary, smoking, and alcohol habits were all in the
low-risk group had an 82% lower incidence of DM than all
other participants. When absence of adiposity was added to
the other 4 low-risk lifestyle factors, incidence of DM was
89% lower.47
Aggressive treatment of hypertension is recommended for
adults with DM to prevent cardiovascular complications.
Between NHANES III (1984 –1992) and NHANES 1999 –
2004, the proportion of patients with DM whose BP was
treated increased from 76.5% to 87.8%, and the proportion
whose BP was controlled nearly doubled (from 15.9% to
29.6%).48
According to 2007 data from the BRFSS, only 25% of
adults with DM achieved recommended levels of total PA
based on the 2007 American Diabetes Association
guidelines.49
Hospitalizations
Youth
●
Nationwide Inpatient Sample data from 1993 to 2004 were
analyzed for individuals 0 to 29 years of age with a
diagnosis of DM. Rates of hospitalizations increased by
38%. Hospitalization rates were higher for females (42%)
than for males (29%). Inflation-adjusted total charges for
DM hospitalizations increased 130%, from $1.05 billion in
1993 to $2.42 billion in 2004.50
Hypoglycemia
●
●
Hypoglycemia is a common side effect of DM treatment,
typically defined as a blood glucose level ⬍50 mg/dL;
severe hypoglycemia is additionally defined as patients
needing assistance to treat themselves.
In the ADVANCE (Action in Diabetes and Vascular
Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation) trial, 2.1% of patients had an episode of
severe hypoglycemia. Severe hypoglycemia was associated
with an increased risk of major macrovascular events (HR
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 17
2.88, 95% CI 2.01– 4.12), cardiovascular death (HR 2.68,
95% CI 1.72– 4.19), and all-cause death (HR 2.69, 95% CI
1.97–3.67), including nonvascular outcomes. The lack of
specificity of hypoglycemia with vascular outcomes suggests that it might be a marker for susceptibility. Risk
factors for hypoglycemia included older age, DM duration,
worse renal function, lower BMI, lower cognitive function,
multiple glucose-lowering medications, and randomization
to the intensive glucose control arm.51
Cost
●
●
●
In 2007, the direct ($116 billion) and indirect ($58 billion)
cost attributable to DM was $174 billion.6 These estimates
include not just DM as a primary diagnosis but also
DM-related long-term complications that are attributed to
DM.52
A study of data from NHANES 2003–2006, Ingenix
Research DataMart, 2003–2005 NAMCS, the 2003–2005
NHAMCS, the 2004 –2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample,
and the 2003–2005 MEPS found that the estimated economic cost of undiagnosed DM in 2007 was $18 billion,
including medical costs of $11 billion and indirect costs of
$7 billion.53
According to 2003–2005 MEPS data (household component data), reductions in DM and hypertension of 5% could
save ⬇9 billion dollars annually in the short-term. Longer
term, savings could total nearly 25 billion dollars.54
Type 1 DM
●
●
●
●
●
●
Type 1 DM constitutes 5% to 10% of DM in the United
States.55
A long-term study of patients with type 1 DM from 1966
showed that risk of mortality was 7 times greater than that
of the general population.56
According to 30-year mortality data from Allegheny
County, PA, those with type 1 DM have a mortality rate 5.6
times higher than the general population.57
The leading cause of death among patients with type 1 DM
is CVD, which accounted for 22% of deaths among the
Allegheny County, PA, type 1 DM registry, followed by
renal (20%) and infectious (18%) causes.58
Long-term follow-up data from the Diabetes Control and
Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study Research Group showed
that intensive versus conventional treatment in the Diabetes
Control and Complications Trial was associated with a
42% reduced risk of CVD (P⫽0.02) and a 57% reduced
risk of the composite end point (P⫽0.02; included nonfatal
MI, stroke, and CVD death).59
Observational data from the Swedish National Diabetes Register showed that most CVD risk factors were more adverse
among patients with HbA1c between 8.0% and 11.9% than
among those with HbA1c between 5.0% and 7.9%. Per 1%
unit increase in HbA1c, the HR of fatal and nonfatal CHD
was 1.30 in multivariable adjusted models and 1.27 for
fatal and nonfatal CVD. Among patients with HbA1c 8.0%
to 11.9% compared with those with HbA1c 5.0% to 7.9%,
●
e165
the HR of fatal/nonfatal CHD was 1.71 and the risk of
fatal/nonfatal CVD was 1.59.60
Among 2787 patients from the EURODIAB Prospective
Complications Study, age, waist-hip ratio, pulse pressure,
non-HDL cholesterol, microalbuminuria, and peripheral
and autonomic neuropathy were risk factors for all-cause,
CVD, and non-CVD mortality.61
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58. Secrest AM, Becker DJ, Kelsey SF, Laporte RE, Orchard TJ. Causespecific mortality trends in a large population-based cohort with longstanding childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2010;59:3216 –3222.
Table 17-1.
59. Nathan DM, Cleary PA, Backlund JY, Genuth SM, Lachin JM, Orchard
TJ, Raskin P, Zinman B; Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC)
Study Research Group. Intensive diabetes treatment and cardiovascular
disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:
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60. Eeg-Olofsson K, Cederholm J, Nilsson PM, Zethelius B, Svensson AM,
Gudbjörnsdóttir S, Eliasson B. Glycemic control and cardiovascular disease
in 7,454 patients with type 1 diabetes: an observational study from the
Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR). Diabetes Care. 2010;33:
1640–1646.
61. Soedamah-Muthu SS, Chaturvedi N, Witte DR, Stevens LK, Porta M,
Fuller JH; EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study Group. Relationship between risk factors and mortality in type 1 diabetic patients in
Europe: the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study (PCS).
Diabetes Care. 2008;31:1360 –1366.
Diabetes
Population
Group
Prevalence of
Physician-Diagnosed
DM, 2008:
Age ⱖ20 y
Prevalence of
Undiagnosed
DM, 2008:
Age ⱖ20 y
Prevalence of
Prediabetes, 2008:
Age ⱖ20 y
Incidence of
Diagnosed
DM: Age ⱖ20 y
Both sexes
18 300 000 (8.0%)
7 100 000 (3.1%)
81 500 000 (36.8%)
1 600 000§
Males
8 300 000 (7.9%)
4 400 000 (4.1%)
48 100 000 (44.9%)
375 000
Females
e167
Mortality (DM),
2008†: All Ages
Hospital
Discharges, 2009
All Ages
Cost, 2007‡
70 553
688 000
$174 Billion
35 346 (50.1%)*
313 000
10 000 000 (8.2%)
2 700 000 (2.3%)
33 400 000 (28.8%)
35 207 (49.9%)*
NH white
males
6.8%
3.9%
45.4%
28 598
NH white
females
6.5%
1.9%
27.9%
27 295
NH black
males
14.3%
4.8%
31.6%
5457
NH black
females
14.7%
4.0%
27.1%
6607
Mexican
American
males
11.0%
6.3%
44.9%
Mexican
American
females
12.7%
3.8%
34.3%
DM indicates diabetes mellitus; and NH, non-Hispanic.
Undiagnosed DM is defined as those whose fasting glucose is ⱖ126 mg/dL but who did not report being told by a healthcare provider that they had DM. Prediabetes
is a fasting blood glucose of 100 to ⬍126 mg/dL (impaired fasting glucose); prediabetes includes impaired glucose tolerance.
*These percentages represent the portion of total DM mortality that is for males vs females.
†Mortality data are for whites and blacks and include Hispanics.
‡Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2011.6
Sources: Prevalence: Prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2008, National Center for Health
Statistics (NCHS), and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Percentages for racial/ethnic groups are age-adjusted for Americans ⱖ20 years of age. Age-specific
percentages are extrapolations to the 2008 US population estimates. Incidence: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases estimates. Mortality:
NCHS. These data represent underlying cause of death only. Hospital discharges: National Hospital Discharge Survey, NCHS; data include those inpatients discharged
alive, dead, or status unknown.
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e168
Circulation
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16
14.7
14.3
14
12.7
12
Percent of Population
11.0
10
8
6.8
6.5
6
4
2
0
Male
NH White
Female
NH Black
Mexican American
Chart 17-1. Age-adjusted prevalence of physician-diagnosed diabetes mellitus in adults ⱖ20 years of age by race/ethnicity and sex
(National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 2005–2008). NH indicates non-Hispanic. Source: National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
18
16.3
16.6
16
14
13.1
Percent of Population
12.4
12
10.3
10
8
10.2
9.6
7.0
5.6
6
4
2
0
NH Whites
Less than high school
NH Blacks
High school
Mexican Americans
More than high school
Chart 17-2. Age-adjusted prevalence of physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults ⱖ20 years of age by race/ethnicity and
years of education (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 2005–2008). NH indicates non-Hispanic. Source: National Center
for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 17
e169
9
8.2
7.9
8
Percent of Population
7
6
5.4
5.4
5
4.1
4
3.4
3
2.5
2.3
2
1
0
Physician Diagnosed 1988-94
Undiagnosed 1988-94
Male
Physician Diagnosed 2005-08
Undiagnosed 2005-08
Female
Chart 17-3. Trends in diabetes mellitus prevalence in adults ⱖ20 years of age by sex (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 1988 –1994 and 2005–2008). Source: National Center for Health Statistics, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
25.8%
22.7%
Treated and Controlled
Treated and Uncontrolled
Not Treated, but Aware
8.3%
Not Treated and Undiagnosed
43.2%
Chart 17-4. Diabetes mellitus awareness, treatment, and control (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 2005–2008).
Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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18. End-Stage Renal Disease and Chronic
Kidney Disease
ICD-10 N18.0. See Tables 18-1 through 18-3.
ESRD is a condition that is most commonly associated with
DM and/or HBP, occurs when the kidneys are functioning at
a very low level, and is currently defined as the receipt of
chronic renal replacement treatment such as hemodialysis,
peritoneal dialysis, or kidney transplantation. The ESRD
population is increasing in size and cost as those with CKD
transition to ESRD and as a result of changing practice
patterns in the United States.
●
●
●
●
●
●
Data from the 2010 annual report of the US Renal Data
System showed that in 2008, the prevalence of ESRD was
547 982, with 70% of these prevalent cases being treated
with hemodialysis.1
In 2008, 112 476 new cases of ESRD were reported.1
In 2008, 17 413 kidney transplants were performed.1
Data from a large cohort of insured patients found that in
addition to established risk factors for ESRD, lower hemoglobin levels, higher serum uric acid levels, self-reported
history of nocturia, and family history of kidney disease are
independent risk factors for ESRD.2
Data from a large insured population revealed that among
adults with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ⬎60 mL 䡠
min⫺1 䡠 1.73 m⫺2 and no evidence of proteinuria or hematuria
at baseline, risks for ESRD increased dramatically with higher
baseline BP level, and in this same patient population,
BP-associated risks were greater in men than in women and in
blacks than in whites3 (Table 18-1).
Compared with white patients with similar levels of kidney
function, black patients are much more likely to progress to
●
Age, Sex, Race, and Ethnicity
●
●
●
body mass index
BP
blood pressure
CHD
coronary heart disease
CHF
congestive heart failure
CI
confidence interval
CKD
chronic kidney disease
CVD
cardiovascular disease
DM
diabetes mellitus
eGFR
estimated glomerular filtration rate
ESRD
end-stage renal disease
GFR
glomerular filtration rate
HBP
high blood pressure
HF
heart failure
ICD-10
International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision
JNC V
fifth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention,
Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure
MI
myocardial infarction
NCHS
National Center for Health Statistics
NHANES
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
PAD
peripheral arterial disease
RR
relative risk
The median age of the population with ESRD in 2008
varied across different racial/ethnic groups: 57.4 years for
blacks, 58.0 years for Native American, 59.3 years for
Asians, and 60.6 years for whites.1
Treatment of ESRD is more common in men than in
women.1
Blacks, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and Native Americans have significantly higher rates of ESRD than do
whites/Europeans. Blacks represent nearly 32% of treated
patients with ESRD.1
Chronic Kidney Disease
Prevalence
●
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 18
BMI
ESRD and are on average 10 years younger when they
reach ESRD.4,5
Results from a large community-based population showed
that higher BMI also independently increased the risk of
ESRD. The higher risk of ESRD with overweight and
obesity was consistent across age, sex, and race and in the
presence or absence of DM, hypertension, or known
baseline kidney disease6 (Table 18-2).
●
CKD, defined as reduced GFR, excess urinary protein
excretion, or both, is a serious health condition and a
worldwide public health problem. The incidence and prevalence of CKD are increasing in the United States and are
associated with poor outcomes and a high cost to the US
healthcare system. Controversy exists about whether CKD
itself independently causes incident CVD, but it is clear
that people with CKD, as well as those with ESRD,
represent a population at very high risk for CVD events. In
fact, individuals with CKD are more likely to die of CVD
than to transition to ESRD. The US Renal Data System
estimates that by 2020, ⬎700 000 Americans will have
ESRD, with ⬎500 000 requiring dialysis and ⬎250 000
receiving a transplant.
The National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcome
Quality Initiative developed guidelines in 2002 that provided a standardized definition for CKD. Prevalence estimates may differ depending on assumptions used in obtaining estimates, including which equation is used to
estimate GFR and methods for measuring proteinuria.7 The
most recent US prevalence estimates of CKD, with the use
of Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative guidelines,
come from NHANES 1999 –2004 (NCHS) in adults ⱖ20
years of age8:
— The prevalence of CKD (stages I to V)9 is 16.8%.8 This
represents an increase from the 14.5% prevalence estimate
from NHANES 1988 –1994 (NCHS; recalculated).8
— The prevalence of GFR ⱖ90 mL 䡠 min⫺1 䡠 1.73 m⫺2 with
kidney damage (ie, presence of albuminuria) is 5.7%.
— The prevalence of stage II CKD (estimated glomerular
filtration rate [eGFR] 60 – 89 mL 䡠 min⫺1 䡠 1.73 m⫺2
with kidney damage) is 5.4%.
— The prevalence of stage III CKD (eGFR 30 –59
mL 䡠 min⫺1 䡠 1.73 m⫺2) is 5.4%.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 18
— The prevalence of stages IV and V CKD (eGFR ⬍29
mL 䡠 min⫺1 䡠 1.73 m⫺2) is 0.4%.
●
Nearly 26 million people (13%) in the United States have
CKD, and most are undiagnosed.10 Another 20 million are
at increased risk for CKD.11
— Individuals with less severe forms of kidney disease are
also at significantly increased CVD risk independent of
typical CVD risk factors.17
— CKD is a risk factor for recurrent CVD events.18
●
Demographics
●
Using current definitions, the prevalence of CKD is higher
with older age1:
●
— 6.0% for those 20 to 39 years of age
— 11.6% for those 40 to 59 years of age
— 38.8% for those ⱖ60 years of age
●
●
CKD prevalence was greater among those with DM
(43.8%) and hypertension (29.4%) than among those without these chronic conditions.1
The prevalence of CKD was slightly higher among Mexican Americans (18.7%) and non-Hispanic blacks (19.9%)
than among non-Hispanic whites (16.1%). This disparity
was most evident for those with stage I CKD; non-Hispanic
whites had a CKD prevalence of 4.2% compared with
prevalences among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic
blacks of 10.2% and 9.4%, respectively.8
●
●
Many traditional CVD risk factors are also risk factors for
CKD, including older age, male sex, hypertension, DM,
smoking, and family history of CVD.
Recent evidence suggests that BMI is associated with
worsening CKD.
— In a cohort of 652 African American individuals with
hypertensive nephrosclerosis, BMI was independently
associated with urine total protein and albumin
excretion.12
●
●
In addition, both the degree of CKD (ie, eGFR) and urine
albumin are strongly associated with the progression from
CKD to ESRD. In addition, urine albumin level is associated with progression to CKD across all levels of reduced
eGFR.13
Other risk factors include systemic conditions such as
autoimmune diseases, systemic infections, and drug exposure, as well as anatomically local conditions such as
urinary tract infections, urinary stones, lower urinary tract
obstruction, and neoplasia. Even after adjustment for these
risk factors, excess CVD risk remains.14
ESRD/CKD and CVD
●
CVD is the leading cause of death among those with ESRD,
although the specific cardiovascular cause of death may be
more likely to be arrhythmic than an AMI, end-stage heart
failure, or stroke.
— CVD mortality is 5 to 30 times higher in dialysis
patients than in subjects from the general population of
the same age, sex, and race.15,16
Studies from a broad range of cohorts demonstrate an association between reduced eGFR and elevated risk of CVD,
CVD outcomes, and all-cause death17,19 –24 that appears to be
largely independent of other known major CVD risk factors.
Although clinical practice guidelines recommend management of mineral and bone disorders secondary to CKD, a
recent meta-analysis suggests that there is no consistent
association between calcium and parathyroid hormone and
the risk of death or cardiovascular events.25
Any degree of albuminuria, starting below the microalbuminuria cutpoint, has been shown to be an independent risk
factor for cardiovascular events, CHF hospitalization,
PAD, and all-cause death in a wide variety of cohorts.26 –31
— A recent meta-analysis of 21 published studies of
albuminuria involving 105 872 participants (730 577
person-years) from 14 studies with urine albumin/creatinine ratio measurements and 1 128 310 participants
(4 732 110 person-years) from 7 studies with urine
dipstick measurements showed that excess albuminuria
or proteinuria is independently associated with a higher
risk of CVD and all-cause mortality.32
— People with both albuminuria/proteinuria and reduced
eGFR are at particularly high risk for CVD, CVD
outcomes, and death.33
— The exact reasons why CKD and ESRD increase the
risk of CVD have not been completely delineated but
are clearly multifactorial and likely involve pathological alterations in multiple organ systems and pathways.
Risk Factors
●
e171
Cost: ESRD
●
●
The total annual cost of treating ESRD in the United States
was $26.8 billion in 2008, representing nearly 6% of the
total Medicare budget.1
The total annual cost associated with CKD has not been
determined accurately to date.
Cystatin C: Kidney Function and CVD
Serum cystatin C, another marker of kidney function, has been
proposed to be a more sensitive indicator of kidney function than
serum creatinine and creatinine-based estimating formulas at
higher levels of GFR. It is a low-molecular-weight protein
produced at a constant rate by all nucleated cells and appears not
to be affected significantly across age, sex, and levels of muscle
mass. Cystatin C is excreted by the kidneys, filtered through the
glomerulus, and nearly completely reabsorbed by proximal
tubular cells.34 Several equations have been proposed using
cystatin C alone and in combination with serum creatinine to
estimate kidney function.35,36
All-Cause Mortality
Elevated levels of cystatin C have been shown to be associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality in studies from
a broad range of cohorts.37–39
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●
Circulation
January 3/10, 2012
In addition to GFR and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio,
cystatin C provides incremental information for the prediction of ESRD and mortality.
— In a recent analysis of 26 643 US adults, the addition of
cystatin C to the combination of creatinine and albumin-to-creatinine ratio resulted in a significant improvement in the prediction of both all-cause mortality
and the development of ESRD.40
Cardiovascular Disease
●
●
●
Data from a large national cohort found higher values of
cystatin C to be associated with prevalent stroke, angina,
and MI,41 as well as higher BMI.42
Elevated cystatin C was an independent risk factor for
HF,43,44 PAD events,45 clinical atherosclerosis, and subclinical measures of CVD in older adults,46 as well as for
cardiovascular events among those with CHD.37,47
In several diverse cohorts, elevated cystatin C has been
found to be associated with CVD-related mortality,39,48,49
including sudden cardiac death.50
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Sika M, Wang X; AASK Collaborative Research Group. Relationship
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15. Sarnak MJ, Coronado BE, Greene T, Wang SR, Kusek JW, Beck GJ,
Levey AS. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in chronic renal insufficiency. Clin Nephrol. 2002;57:327–335.
16. Weiner DE, Tabatabai S, Tighiouart H, Elsayed E, Bansal N, Griffith J,
Salem DN, Levey AS, Sarnak MJ. Cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause
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18. Weiner DE, Tighiouart H, Stark PC, Amin MG, MacLeod B, Griffith JL,
Salem DN, Levey AS, Sarnak MJ. Kidney disease as a risk factor for
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19. Mann JF, Gerstein HC, Pogue J, Bosch J, Yusuf S. Renal insufficiency as
a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes and the impact of ramipril: the
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20. Fried LF, Shlipak MG, Crump C, Bleyer AJ, Gottdiener JS, Kronmal RA,
Kuller LH, Newman AB. Renal insufficiency as a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in elderly individuals. J Am Coll
Cardiol. 2003;41:1364 –1372.
21. Shlipak MG, Fried LF, Cushman M, Manolio TA, Peterson D,
Stehman-Breen C, Bleyer A, Newman A, Siscovick D, Psaty B. Cardiovascular mortality risk in chronic kidney disease: comparison of traditional and novel risk factors. JAMA. 2005;293:1737–1745.
22. Ruilope LM, Salvetti A, Jamerson K, Hansson L, Warnold I, Wedel H,
Zanchetti A. Renal function and intensive lowering of blood pressure in
hypertensive participants of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT)
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23. Manjunath G, Tighiouart H, Ibrahim H, MacLeod B, Salem DN, Griffith
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25. Palmer SC, Hayen A, Macaskill P, Pellegrini F, Craig JC, Elder GJ,
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calcium and risks of death and cardiovascular disease in individuals with
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26. Arnlöv J, Evans JC, Meigs JB, Wang TJ, Fox CS, Levy D, Benjamin EJ,
D’Agostino RB, Vasan RS. Low-grade albuminuria and incidence of
cardiovascular disease events in nonhypertensive and nondiabetic individuals: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2005;112:969 –975.
27. Klausen K, Borch-Johnsen K, Feldt-Rasmussen B, Jensen G, Clausen P,
Scharling H, Appleyard M, Jensen JS. Very low levels of microalbuminuria are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and death
independently of renal function, hypertension, and diabetes. Circulation.
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28. Gerstein HC, Mann JF, Yi Q, Zinman B, Dinneen SF, Hoogwerf B, Hallé
JP, Young J, Rashkow A, Joyce C, Nawaz S, Yusuf S; HOPE Study
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29. Yuyun MF, Adler AI, Wareham NJ. What is the evidence that microalbuminuria is a predictor of cardiovascular disease events? Curr Opin
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30. Wattanakit K, Folsom AR, Criqui MH, Kramer HJ, Cushman M, Shea S,
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32. Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium; Matsushita K, van der
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Grubb A. Cystatin C as a marker of GFR: history, indications, and future
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Stevens LA, Coresh J, Schmid CH, Feldman HI, Froissart M, Kusek J,
Rossert J, Van Lente F, Bruce RD 3rd, Zhang YL, Greene T, Levey AS.
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Kidney Dis. 2008;51:395– 406.
Schwartz GJ, Muñoz A, Schneider MF, Mak RH, Kaskel F, Warady BA,
Furth SL. New equations to estimate GFR in children with CKD. J Am
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AB. Kidney function as a predictor of noncardiovascular mortality. J Am
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Shlipak MG, Wassel Fyr CL, Chertow GM, Harris TB, Kritchevsky SB,
Tylavsky FA, Satterfield S, Cummings SR, Newman AB, Fried LF.
Cystatin C and mortality risk in the elderly: the Health, Aging, and Body
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Peralta CA, Shlipak MG, Judd S, Cushman M, McClellan W, Zakai NA,
Safford MM, Zhang X, Muntner P, Warnock D. Detection of chronic
kidney disease with creatinine, cystatin C, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and association with progression to end-stage renal disease and
mortality. JAMA. 2011;305:1545–1552.
Muntner P, Mann D, Winston J, Bansilal S, Farkouh ME. Serum cystatin
C and increased coronary heart disease prevalence in US adults without
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e173
42. Muntner P, Winston J, Uribarri J, Mann D, Fox CS. Overweight, obesity,
and elevated serum cystatin C levels in adults in the United States. Am J
Med. 2008;121:341–348.
43. Djoussé L, Kurth T, Gaziano JM. Cystatin C and risk of heart failure in
the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS). Am Heart J. 2008;155:82– 86.
44. Sarnak MJ, Katz R, Stehman-Breen CO, Fried LF, Jenny NS, Psaty BM,
Newman AB, Siscovick D, Shlipak MG. Cystatin C concentration as a
risk factor for heart failure in older adults. Ann Intern Med. 2005;142:
497–505.
45. O’Hare AM, Newman AB, Katz R, Fried LF, Stehman-Breen CO, Seliger
SL, Siscovick DS, Shlipak MG. Cystatin C and incident peripheral arterial disease events in the elderly: results from the Cardiovascular Health
Study. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:2666 –2670.
46. Shlipak MG, Katz R, Kestenbaum B, Fried LF, Siscovick D, Sarnak
MJ. Clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease and kidney function
decline in the elderly. Atherosclerosis. 2009;204:298 –303.
47. Koenig W, Twardella D, Brenner H, Rothenbacher D. Plasma concentrations of cystatin C in patients with coronary heart disease and risk for
secondary cardiovascular events: more than simply a marker of glomerular filtration rate. Clin Chem. 2005;51:321–327.
48. Keller T, Messow CM, Lubos E, Nicaud V, Wild PS, Rupprecht HJ,
Bickel C, Tzikas S, Peetz D, Lackner KJ, Tiret L, Münzel TF, Blankenberg S, Schnabel RB. Cystatin C and cardiovascular mortality in
patients with coronary artery disease and normal or mildly reduced
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50. Deo R, Sotoodehnia N, Katz R, Sarnak MJ, Fried LF, Chonchol M,
Kestenbaum B, Psaty BM, Siscovick DS, Shlipak MG. Cystatin C and
sudden cardiac death risk in the elderly. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes.
2010;3:159 –164.
Table 18-1. BP and the Adjusted Risk of ESRD Among
316 675 Adults Without Evidence of Baseline Kidney Disease
JNC V BP Category
Adjusted RR (95% CI)
Optimal
1.00 (Reference)
Normal, not optimal
1.62 (1.27–2.07)
High normal
1.98 (1.55–2.52)
Hypertension
Stage 1
2.59 (2.07–3.25)
Stage 2
3.86 (3.00–4.96)
Stage 3
3.88 (2.82–5.34)
Stage 4
4.25 (2.63–6.86)
BP indicates blood pressure; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; JNC V, fifth
report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation,
and Treatment of High Blood Pressure; RR, relative risk; and CI, confidence
interval.
Table 18-2. Multivariable Association Between BMI and Risk
of ESRD Among 320 252 Adults
BMI, kg/m2
Adjusted RR (95% CI)
18.5–24.9 (Normal weight)
1.00 (Reference)
25.0 –29.9 (Overweight)
1.87 (1.64–2.14)
30.0–34.9 (Class I obesity)
3.57 (3.05–4.18)
35.0–39.9 (Class II obesity)
6.12 (4.97–7.54)
ⱖ40.0 (Extreme obesity)
7.07 (5.37–9.31)
BMI indicates body mass index; ESRD, end-stage renal disease; RR, relative
risk; and CI, confidence interval.
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Circulation
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Table 18-3. Adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% CI) for Death of Any
Cause, Cardiovascular Events, and Hospitialization Among
1 120 295 Ambulatory Adults, According to the Estimated GFR*
Estimated GFR,
mL 䡠 min⫺1 䡠 1.73 m⫺2
Death of
Any Cause
Any
Cardiovascular
Event
Any
Hospitalization
ⱖ60†
1.00
1.00
1.00
45–59
1.2 (1.1–1.2)
1.4 (1.4–1.5)
1.1 (1.1–1.1)
30–44
1.8 (1.7–1.9)
2.0 (1.9–2.1)
1.5 (1.5–1.5)
15–29
3.2 (3.1–3.4)
2.8 (2.6–2.9)
2.1 (2.0–2.2)
⬍15
5.9 (5.4–6.5)
3.4 (3.1–3.8)
3.1 (3.0–3.3)
CI indicates confidence interval; GFR, glomerular filtration rate.
*The analyses were adjusted for age, sex, income, education, use or nonuse
of dialysis, and presence or absence of prior coronary heart disease, prior
chronic heart failure, prior ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, prior
peripheral arterial disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, a
serum albumin level of ⱕ3.5 g/dL, dementia, cirrhosis or chronic liver disease,
chronic lung disease, documented proteinuria, and prior hospitalizations.
†This group served as the reference group.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 19
atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated BP, elevated glucose,
and/or prothrombotic state that are common to people with
metabolic syndrome. A multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals is desirable to adequately address these
multiple issues in patients with the metabolic syndrome.2
19. Metabolic Syndrome
●
Metabolic syndrome refers to a cluster of risk factors for
CVD and type 2 DM. Although several different definitions for metabolic syndrome have been proposed, the
International Diabetes Federation, NHLBI, AHA, and
others recently proposed a harmonized definition for
metabolic syndrome.1 By this definition, metabolic syndrome is diagnosed when ⱖ3 of the following 5 risk
factors are present (most but not all people with DM will
be classified as having metabolic syndrome by this
definition because they will have at least 2 other factors
besides the glucose criterion; many will prefer to separate those with DM into a separate group for risk
stratification or treatment purposes):
— Fasting plasma glucose ⱖ100 mg/dL or undergoing
drug treatment for elevated glucose.
— HDL cholesterol ⬍40 mg/dL in men or ⬍50 mg/dL in
women or undergoing drug treatment for reduced HDL
cholesterol.
— Triglycerides ⱖ150 mg/dL or undergoing drug treatment for elevated triglycerides.
— Waist circumference ⱖ102 cm in men or ⱖ88 cm in
women in the United States.
— BP ⱖ130 mm Hg systolic or ⱖ85 mm Hg diastolic or
undergoing drug treatment for hypertension or antihypertensive drug treatment in a patient with a history of
hypertension.
●
e175
Adults
The following estimates include many of those who have DM, in
addition to those with metabolic syndrome without DM.
●
●
●
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome varies by the definition
used, with definitions such as that from the International
Diabetes Federation that suggest lower thresholds for
defining central obesity in European whites, Asians, and
Hispanics resulting in higher prevalence estimates.3
On the basis of NHANES 2003–2006 data and National
Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III
guidelines, ⬇34% of adults ⱖ20 years of age met the
criteria for metabolic syndrome.4
Also based on NHANES 2003–2006 data4:
— The age-adjusted prevalence was 35.1% for men and
32.6% for women.
— Among men, the age-specific prevalence ranged from
20.3% among people 20 to 39 years of age to 40.8% for
people 40 to 59 years of age and 51.5% for people ⱖ60
years of age. Among women, the age-specific prevalence ranged from 15.6% among people 20 to 39 years
of age to 37.2% for people 40 to 59 years of age and
54.4% for those ⱖ60 years of age.
— The age-adjusted prevalences of people with metabolic
syndrome were 37.2%, 25.3%, and 33.2% for nonHispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican
American men, respectively. Among women, the percentages were 31.5%, 38.8%, and 40.6%, respectively.
— The age-adjusted prevalence was ⬇53% higher among
non-Hispanic black women than among non-Hispanic
black men and ⬇22% higher among Mexican American women than among Mexican American men.
Identification of metabolic syndrome represents a call to
action for the healthcare provider and patient to address the
underlying lifestyle-related risk factors, including abdominal obesity, physical inactivity, and atherogenic diet, as
well as clinical management to address the characteristic
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 19
AHA
American Heart Association
ARIC
Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities
BMI
body mass index
BP
blood pressure
CHD
coronary heart disease
CI
confidence interval
CVD
cardiovascular disease
DM
diabetes mellitus
FRS
Framingham Risk Score
HDL
high-density lipoprotein
HR
hazard ratio
Children/Adolescents
HF
heart failure
●
LDL
low-density lipoprotein
NCHS
National Center for Health Statistics
NHANES
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NHLBI
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
OR
odds ratio
PA
physical activity
RR
relative risk
●
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●
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is also high among
immigrant Asian Indians, ranging between 26.8% and
38.2% depending on the definition used.5
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among pregnant
women increased to 26.5% during 1999 –2004 from 17.8%
during 1988 to 1994.6
Despite its prevalence, the public’s recognition of metabolic syndrome is limited.7
An AHA scientific statement about metabolic syndrome in
children and adolescents was released in 2009.8
Metabolic syndrome should be diagnosed with caution in
children and adolescents, because metabolic syndrome
categorization in adolescents is not stable. Approximately
half of the 1098 adolescent participants in the Princeton
School District Study diagnosed with pediatric Adult
Treatment Panel III metabolic syndrome lost the diagnosis
over 3 years of follow-up.9
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January 3/10, 2012
Additional evidence of the instability of the diagnosis of
metabolic syndrome in children exists. In children 6 to 17
years of age participating in research studies in a single
clinical research hospital, the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was unstable in 46% of cases after a mean of 5.6
years of follow-up.10
On the basis of NHANES 1999 –2002 data, the prevalence
of metabolic syndrome in adolescents 12 to 19 years of age
was 9.4%, which represents ⬇2.9 million people. It was
13.2% in boys, 5.3% in girls, 10.7% in whites, 5.2% in
blacks, and 11.1% in Mexican Americans.11
In 1999 to 2004, ⬇4.5% of US adolescents 12 to 17 years
of age had metabolic syndrome according to the definition
developed by the International Diabetes Federation.12 In
2006, this prevalence would have represented ⬇1.1 million
adolescents 12 to 17 years of age with metabolic syndrome.
It increased from 1.2% among those 12 to 13 years of age
to 7.1% among those 14 to 15 years of age and was higher
among boys (6.7%) than girls (2.1%). Furthermore, 4.5%
of white adolescents, 3.0% of black adolescents, and 7.1%
of Mexican American adolescents had metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome remained
relatively stable during successive 2-year periods: 4.5% for
1999 to 2000, 4.4% to 4.5% for 2001 to 2002, and 3.7% to
3.9% for 2003 to 2004.
In 1999 to 2002, among overweight or obese adolescents,
44% had metabolic syndrome.11 In 1988 to 1994, two
thirds of all adolescents had at least 1 metabolic
abnormality.13
Of 31 participants in the NHLBI Lipid Research Clinics
Princeton Prevalence Study and the Princeton Follow-Up
Study who had metabolic syndrome at baseline, 21 (68%)
had metabolic syndrome 25 years later.14 After adjustment
for age, sex, and race, the baseline status of metabolic
syndrome was significantly associated with an increased
risk of having metabolic syndrome during adulthood (OR
6.2, 95% CI 2.8 –13.8).
In the Bogalusa Heart Study, 4 variables (BMI, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, ratio of triglycerides to HDL cholesterol, and mean arterial pressure)
considered to be part of the metabolic syndrome clustered
together in blacks and whites and in children and adults.15
The degree of clustering was stronger among adults than
children. The clustering of rates of change in the components of the metabolic syndrome in blacks exceeded that in
whites.
Cardiovascular abnormalities are associated with metabolic
syndrome in children and adolescents.16,17
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Risk
Adults
●
Consistent with 2 earlier meta-analyses, a recent metaanalysis of prospective studies concluded that metabolic
syndrome increased the risk of developing CVD (summary
RR 1.78, 95% CI 1.58 –2.00).18 The risk of CVD tended to
be higher in women (summary RR 2.63) than in men
(summary RR 1.98; P⫽0.09). On the basis of results from
3 studies, metabolic syndrome remained a predictor of
●
cardiovascular events after adjustment for the individual
components of the syndrome (summary RR 1.54, 95% CI
1.32–1.79). A more recent meta-analysis among 87 studies
comprising 951 083 subjects showed an even higher risk of
CVD associated with metabolic syndrome (summary RR
2.35, 95% CI 2.02–2.73), with significant increased risks
(RRs ranging from 1.6 to 2.9) for all-cause mortality, CVD
mortality, MI, and stroke, as well as for those with
metabolic syndrome without DM.19
In one of the earlier studies among US adults, mortality
follow-up of the second NHANES showed a stepwise
increase in risk of CHD, CVD, and total mortality across no
disease, metabolic syndrome (without DM), DM, prior
CVD, and those with CVD and DM, with an HR for CHD
mortality of 2.02 (95% CI 1.42–2.89) associated with
metabolic syndrome. Increases in risk were also seen
across the number of metabolic syndrome risk factors.20
Several studies suggest that the FRS is a better predictor of
incident CVD than metabolic syndrome.21–23 In the San
Antonio Heart Study, the area under the receiver-operating
characteristic curve was 0.816 for the FRS and 0.811 for
the FRS plus the metabolic syndrome.21 Furthermore, the
sensitivity for CVD at a fixed specificity was significantly
higher for the FRS than for the metabolic syndrome. In
ARIC, metabolic syndrome did not improve the risk
prediction achieved by the FRS.22 In the British Regional
Heart Study, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for the FRS was 0.73 for incident CHD
during 10 years of follow-up, and the area under the
receiver-operating characteristic curve for the number of
metabolic syndrome components was 0.63.23 For CHD
events during 20 years of follow-up, the areas under the
receiver-operating characteristic curves were 0.68 for the
FRS and 0.59 for the number of metabolic syndrome
components.
Estimates of relative risk for CVD generally increase as the
number of components of metabolic syndrome increases.23
Compared with men without an abnormal component in the
Framingham Offspring Study, the HRs for CVD were 1.48
(95% CI 0.69 –3.16) for men with 1 or 2 components and
3.99 (95% CI 1.89 – 8.41) for men with ⱖ3 components.24
Among women, the HRs were 3.39 (95% CI 1.31– 8.81) for
1 or 2 components and 5.95 (95% CI 2.20 –16.11) for ⱖ3
components. Compared with men without a metabolic
abnormality in the British Regional Heart Study, the HRs
were 1.74 (95% CI 1.22–2.39) for 1 component, 2.34 (95%
CI 1.65–3.32) for 2 components, 2.88 (95% CI 2.02– 4.11)
for 3 components, and 3.44 (95% CI 2.35–5.03) for 4 or 5
components.23
The cardiovascular risk associated with the metabolic
syndrome varies on the basis of the combination of
metabolic syndrome components present. Of all possible
ways to have 3 metabolic syndrome components, the
combination of central obesity, elevated BP, and hyperglycemia conferred the greatest risk for CVD (HR 2.36, 95%
CI 1.54 –3.61) and mortality (HR 3.09, 95% CI 1.93– 4.94)
in the Framingham Offspring Study.25
Data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study indicate
that risk for CVD mortality is increased in men without
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 19
●
●
DM who have metabolic syndrome (HR 1.8, 95% CI
1.5–2.0); however, among those with metabolic syndrome,
the presence of DM is associated with even greater risk for
CVD mortality (HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.7–2.6).26 Analysis of
data from NCHS was used to determine the number of
disease-specific deaths attributable to all nonoptimal levels
of each risk factor exposure by age and sex. The results of
the analysis of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors
show that targeting a handful of risk factors has large
potential to reduce mortality in the United States.27
In addition to CVD, the metabolic syndrome has also been
associated with incident AF28 and HF.29
The metabolic syndrome is associated with increased
healthcare use and healthcare-related costs among individuals with and without DM. Overall, healthcare costs
increase by ⬇24% for each additional metabolic syndrome
component present.30
Children
●
●
●
●
low HDL cholesterol,35,49,53,54,56 oxidized LDL,64 uric
acid,60,65 ␥-glutamyltransferase,60,66,67 alanine transaminase,60,66,68,69 plasminogen activator inhibitor-1,70 aldosterone,70 leptin,71 C-reactive protein,72,73 adipocyte–fatty acid
binding protein,74 and free testosterone index.75
The following factors have been reported as being inversely associated with incident metabolic syndrome, defined by 1 of the major definitions, in prospective or
retrospective cohort studies: muscular strength,76 change in
PA or physical fitness,38,43 alcohol intake,36,42 Mediterranean diet,77 dairy consumption,47 insulin sensitivity,54 ratio
of aspartate aminotransferase to alanine transaminase,68
total testosterone,75,78,79 sex hormone– binding globulin,75,78,79 and ⌬5-desaturase activity.80
Furthermore, men were more likely than women to develop
metabolic syndrome,33,35 and blacks were shown to be less
likely to develop metabolic syndrome than whites.33
References
Few prospective pediatric studies have examined the future
risk for CVD or DM according to baseline metabolic
syndrome status. Data from 771 participants 6 to 19 years
of age from the NHLBI’s Lipid Research Clinics Princeton
Prevalence Study and the Princeton Follow-Up Study
showed that the risk of developing CVD was substantially
higher among those with metabolic syndrome than among
those without this syndrome (OR 14.6, 95% CI 4.8 – 45.3)
who were followed up for 25 years.14
Another analysis of 814 participants of this cohort showed
that those 5 to 19 years of age who had metabolic syndrome
at baseline had an increased risk of having DM 25 to 30
years later compared with those who did not have the
syndrome at baseline (OR 11.5, 95% CI 2.1– 63.7).31
Additional data from the Princeton Follow-Up Study, the
Fels Longitudinal Study, and the Muscatine Study suggest
that the absence of components of the metabolic syndrome
in childhood had a high negative predictive value for the
development of metabolic syndrome or DM in adulthood.32
Risk Factors
●
●
e177
In prospective or retrospective cohort studies, the following
factors have been reported as being directly associated with
incident metabolic syndrome, defined by 1 of the major
definitions: age,31,33–35 low educational attainment,33,36 low
socioeconomic status,37 smoking,36 –39 low levels of PA,36 – 42
low levels of physical fitness,40,43– 45 intake of soft drinks,46
intake of diet soda,47 magnesium intake,48 energy intake,42
carbohydrate intake,33,38,49 total fat intake,33,49 Western dietary
pattern,47 meat intake,47 intake of fried foods,47 heavy alcohol
consumption,50 abstention from alcohol use,33 parental history
of DM,31 long-term stress at work,51 pediatric metabolic
syndrome,31 obesity or BMI,33,34,38,42,52 childhood obesity,53
waist circumference,35,49,54 –57 intra-abdominal fat,58 gain in
weight or BMI,33,59 change in weight or BMI,35,38,60 weight
fluctuation,61 BP,35,49,56,62 heart rate,63 homeostasis model
assessment,54,64 fasting insulin,54 2-hour insulin,54 proinsulin,54 fasting glucose or hyperglycemia,35,54,56 2-hour glucose,54 impaired glucose tolerance,54 triglycerides,35,49,52,54 –56
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68. Hanley AJ, Williams K, Festa A, Wagenknecht LE, D’Agostino RB Jr,
Haffner SM. Liver markers and development of the metabolic syndrome:
the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Diabetes. 2005;54:
3140 –3147.
69. Schindhelm RK, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, Stehouwer CD, Bouter LM,
Heine RJ, Diamant M. Alanine aminotransferase and the 6-year risk of
the metabolic syndrome in Caucasian men and women: the Hoorn Study.
Diabet Med. 2007;24:430 – 435.
70. Ingelsson E, Pencina MJ, Tofler GH, Benjamin EJ, Lanier KJ, Jacques
PF, Fox CS, Meigs JB, Levy D, Larson MG, Selhub J, D’Agostino RB Sr,
Wang TJ, Vasan RS. Multimarker approach to evaluate the incidence of
the metabolic syndrome and longitudinal changes in metabolic risk factors: the Framingham Offspring Study. Circulation. 2007;116:984 –992.
71. Galletti F, Barbato A, Versiero M, Iacone R, Russo O, Barba G, Siani A,
Cappuccio FP, Farinaro E, della Valle E, Strazzullo P. Circulating leptin
levels predict the development of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged
men: an 8-year follow-up study. J Hypertens. 2007;25:1671–1677.
72. Laaksonen DE, Niskanen L, Nyyssönen K, Punnonen K, Tuomainen TP,
Valkonen VP, Salonen R, Salonen JT. C-reactive protein and the development of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in middle-aged men.
Diabetologia. 2004;47:1403–1410.
73. Hassinen M, Lakka TA, Komulainen P, Gylling H, Nissinen A, Rauramaa
R. C-reactive protein and metabolic syndrome in elderly women: a
12-year follow-up study. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:931–932.
74. Xu A, Tso AW, Cheung BM, Wang Y, Wat NM, Fong CH, Yeung DC,
Janus ED, Sham PC, Lam KS. Circulating adipocyte-fatty acid binding
protein levels predict the development of the metabolic syndrome: a
5-year prospective study. Circulation. 2007;115:1537–1543.
75. Rodriguez A, Muller DC, Metter EJ, Maggio M, Harman SM, Blackman
MR, Andres R. Aging, androgens, and the metabolic syndrome in a
longitudinal study of aging. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:
3568 –3572.
76. Jurca R, Lamonte MJ, Barlow CE, Kampert JB, Church TS, Blair SN.
Association of muscular strength with incidence of metabolic syndrome
in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37:1849 –1855.
77. Tortosa A, Bes-Rastrollo M, Sanchez-Villegas A, Basterra-Gortari FJ,
Nuñez-Cordoba JM, Martinez-Gonzalez MA. Mediterranean diet
inversely associated with the incidence of metabolic syndrome: the SUN
prospective cohort. Diabetes Care. 2007;30:2957–2959.
78. Laaksonen DE, Niskanen L, Punnonen K, Nyyssönen K, Tuomainen TP,
Valkonen VP, Salonen R, Salonen JT. Testosterone and sex hormonebinding globulin predict the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in
middle-aged men. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:1036 –1041.
79. Kupelian V, Page ST, Araujo AB, Travison TG, Bremner WJ, McKinlay
JB. Low sex hormone-binding globulin, total testosterone, and symptomatic androgen deficiency are associated with development of the metabolic syndrome in nonobese men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:
843– 850.
80. Warensjö E, Risérus U, Vessby B. Fatty acid composition of serum lipids
predicts the development of the metabolic syndrome in men. Diabetologia. 2005;48:1999 –2005.
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20. Nutrition
See Tables 20-1 and 20-2 and Charts 20-1 through 20-3.
This chapter of the update highlights national nutritional
intake data, focusing on foods, nutrients, dietary patterns, and
other dietary factors that are related to cardiometabolic
health. It is intended to examine current intakes, trends and
changes in intakes, and estimated effects on disease to
support and further stimulate efforts to monitor and improve
dietary habits in relation to cardiovascular health.
●
Prevalence
Foods and Nutrients: Adults
See Table 20-1; NHANES 2005–2008; personal communication with D. Mozaffarian (July 2011).
The dietary consumption by US adults of selected foods
and nutrients related to cardiometabolic health is detailed in
Table 20-1 according to sex and race or ethnic subgroups:
●
●
●
Average consumption of whole grains by white and black
men and women was between 0.5 and 0.8 servings per day,
with only between 3% and 5% of white and black adults
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 20
ALA
␣-linoleic acid
BMI
body mass index
BP
blood pressure
BRFSS
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
CHD
coronary heart disease
CI
confidence interval
CVD
cardiovascular disease
DASH
Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
DBP
diastolic blood pressure
DHA
docosahexaenoic acid
DM
diabetes mellitus
EPA
eicosapentaenoic acid
GISSI
Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza
nell’Infarto miocardico
GFR
glomerular filtration rate
HD
heart disease
HDL
high-density lipoprotein
HEI
Healthy Eating Index
LDL
low-density lipoprotein
NA
not available
NH
non-Hispanic
NHANES
NAtional Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
PA
physical activity
PREMIER
Prospective Registry Evaluating Myocardial Infarction:
Events and Recovery
PUFA
polyunsaturated fatty acid
RR
relative risk
SBP
systolic blood pressure
SD
standard deviation
WHI
Women’s Health Initiative
●
●
●
●
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●
meeting guidelines of ⱖ3 servings per day. Average whole
grain consumption by Mexican Americans was ⬇2 servings per day, with 21% to 27% consuming ⱖ3 servings per
day.
Average fruit consumption ranged from 1.1 to 1.8 servings
per day in these sex and race or ethnic subgroups; 9% to
11% of whites, 6% to 7% of blacks, and 8% to 10% of
Mexican Americans met guidelines of ⱖ2 cups per day.
When 100% fruit juices were included, the number of
servings consumed and the proportions of adults consuming ⱖ2 cups per day approximately doubled.
Average vegetable consumption ranged from 1.3 to 2.2
servings per day; 6% to 7% of whites, 3% of blacks, and
3% of Mexican Americans consumed ⱖ2 1⁄2 cups per day.
The inclusion of vegetable juices and sauces generally
produced little change in these consumption patterns.
Average consumption of fish and shellfish was lowest
among white women (1.2 servings per week) and highest
among black men and women (1.7 servings per week);
⬇75% to 80% of all adults in each sex and race or ethnic
subgroup consumed ⬍2 servings per week. Approximately
10% to 13% of whites, 14% to 15% of blacks, and 12% of
Mexican Americans consumed ⱖ250 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid per day.
Average consumption of nuts, legumes, and seeds was ⬇2
to 3 servings per week among white and black men and
women and 6 servings per week among Mexican American
men and women. Approximately 20% of whites, 15% of
blacks, and 40% of Mexican Americans met guidelines of
ⱖ4 servings per week.
Average consumption of processed meats was lowest
among Mexican American women (1.8 servings per week)
and highest among black men (3.6 servings per week).
Between 36% (Mexican American women) and 66%
(black men) of adults consumed ⱖ1 serving per week.
Average consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages
ranged from ⬇7 servings per week among white women to
16 servings per week among Mexican American men.
Approximately 50% and 33% of white men and women,
73% and 65% of black men and women, and 76% and 62%
of Mexican American men and women, respectively, consumed ⬎36 oz (4.5 8-oz servings) per week.
Average consumption of sweets and bakery desserts ranged
from ⬇4 servings per day (Mexican American men) to 7
servings per day (white men). Approximately two thirds of
white and black men and women and half of all Mexican
American men and women consumed ⬎2.5 servings per
week.
Between 33% and 50% of adults in each sex and race or
ethnic subgroup consumed ⬍10% of total calories from
saturated fat, and between 58% and 70% consumed ⬍300
mg of dietary cholesterol per day.
Only 4% to 7% of whites, 2% to 4% of blacks, and 9% to
11% of Mexican Americans consumed ⱖ28 g of dietary
fiber per day.
Only 8% to 11% of whites, 9% to 11% of blacks, and 13%
to 19% of Mexican Americans consumed ⬍2.3 g of sodium
per day. In 2005, the US Department of Health and Human
Services and US Department of Agriculture recommended
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 20
that adults in specific groups, including people with hypertension, all middle-aged and older adults, and all blacks,
should consume ⱕ1.5 g of sodium per day. In 2005 to
2006, the majority (69.2%) of US adults belonged to ⱖ1 of
these specific groups in whom sodium consumption should
be ⬍1.5 g/d.1
Foods and Nutrients: Children and Teenagers
See Table 20-2; NHANES 2005–2008; personal communication with D. Mozaffarian (July 2011).
The dietary consumption by US children and teenagers of
selected foods and nutrients related to cardiometabolic health
is detailed in Table 20-2:
●
●
●
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●
Average whole grain consumption was low, ranging from
0.4 to 0.6 servings per day, with ⬍4% of all children in
different age and sex subgroups meeting guidelines of ⱖ3
servings per day.
Average fruit consumption was low and decreased with
age: ⬇1.5 servings per day in younger boys and girls (5–9
years of age), 1.3 servings per day in adolescent boys and
girls (10 –14 years of age), and 0.9 servings per day in
teenage boys and girls (15–19 years of age). The proportion
meeting guidelines of ⱖ2 cups per day was also low and
decreased with age: ⬇8% in those 5 to 9 years of age, 7%
to 8% in those 10 to 14 years of age, and 4% in those 15 to
19 years of age. When 100% fruit juices were included, the
number of servings consumed approximately doubled or
tripled, and proportions consuming ⱖ2 cups per day were
29% to 36% of those 5 to 9 years of age, 22% to 26% of
those 10 to 14 years of age, and 21% to 22% of those 15 to
19 years of age.
Average vegetable consumption was low, ranging from 0.9
to 1.1 servings per day, with ⬍2% of children in different
age and sex subgroups meeting guidelines of ⱖ2 1⁄2 cups
per day.
Average consumption of fish and shellfish was low, ranging between 0.5 and 0.7 servings per week in all age and
sex groups. Among all ages, only 10% to 13% of children
and teenagers consumed ⱖ2 servings per week.
Average consumption of nuts, legumes, and seeds ranged
from 1.3 to 1.4 servings per week among 5- to 9-year-olds,
1.4 to 2.1 servings per week among 10- to 14-year-olds,
and 0.8 to 1.1 servings per week among 15- to 19-yearolds. Only between 7% and 14% of children in different
age and sex subgroups consumed ⱖ4 servings per week.
Average consumption of processed meats ranged from 2.1
to 3.2 servings per week; was uniformly higher than the
average consumption of nuts, legumes, and seeds; and was
up to 6 times higher than the average consumption of fish
and shellfish. Between 40% and 54% of children consumed
ⱖ2 servings per week.
Average consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was
higher in boys than in girls and was ⬇8 servings per week
in 5- to 9-year-olds, 11 to 13 servings per week in 10- to
14-year-olds, and 14 to 18 servings per week in 15- to
19-year-olds. This was generally considerably higher than
the average consumption of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, fish and shellfish, or nuts, legumes, and seeds. Only
between 17% (boys 15–19 years of age) and 42% (boys and
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e181
girls 5–9 years of age) of children consumed ⬍4.5 servings
per week.
Average consumption of sweets and bakery desserts was
⬇8 to 10 servings per week in 5- to 9-year-olds and 10- to
14-year-olds and 6 to 8 servings per week in 15- to
19-year-olds. From 82% (girls 5–9 years of age) to 58%
(boys 15–19 years of age) of youths consumed ⬎2.5
servings per week.
Average consumption of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid was low, ranging from ⬇45 to 75 mg/d in
boys and girls at all ages. Only between 3% and 7% of
children and teenagers at all ages consumed ⱖ250 mg/d.
Average consumption of saturated fat was between 11%
and 12% of calories, and average consumption of dietary
cholesterol was ⬇230 mg/d. Approximately one fifth to
one third of children consumed ⬍10% energy from saturated fat, and ⬇80% consumed ⬍300 mg of dietary
cholesterol per day.
Average consumption of dietary fiber ranged from 12 to 14
g/d. Less than 2% of children in all different age and sex
subgroups consumed ⱖ28 g/d.
Average consumption of sodium ranged from 3.1 to 3.4
g/d. Between 7% and 12% of children in different age and
sex subgroups consumed ⬍2.3 g/d.
Energy Balance
Energy balance, or consumption of total calories appropriate
for needs, is determined by the balance of average calories
consumed versus expended, with this balance depending on
multiple factors, including calories consumed, PA, body size,
age, sex, and underlying basal metabolic rate. Thus, one
individual may consume relatively high calories but have
negative energy balance (as a result of even greater calories
expended), whereas another individual may consume relatively few calories but have positive energy balance (because
of low calories expended). Given such variation, the most
practical and reasonable method to assess energy balance in
populations is to assess changes in weight over time (Trends
section).
●
●
Average daily caloric intake in the United States is ⬇2500
calories in adult men and 1800 calories in adult women
(Table 20-1). In children and teenagers, average caloric
intake is higher in boys than in girls and increases with age
in boys (Table 20-2). Trends in energy balance are described below. The average US adult gains approximately
1 lb per year. In an analysis of ⬎120 000 US men and
women followed up for up to 20 years, changes in intakes
of different foods and beverages were linked to long-term
weight in very different ways.2 Foods and beverages most
strongly linked to weight gain included potatoes, sugarsweetened beverages, processed meats, red meats, refined
grains (eg, white bread, low-fiber breakfast cereals), and
sweets/desserts. In contrast, increasing the intake of several
foods was linked to relative weight loss over time, including nuts, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and yogurt.
Other nutritional determinants of positive energy balance
(more calories consumed than expended), as determined by
adiposity or weight gain, include larger portion sizes3,4 and
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greater consumption of fast food and commercially prepared meals.5–9
Preferences for portion size are associated with BMI,
socioeconomic status, eating in fast food restaurants, and
television watching.10,11 Portion sizes are larger at fast food
restaurants than at home or at other restaurants.12
In 1999 to 2000, 41% of US adults consumed ⱖ3 commercially prepared meals per week.6 Between 1999 and
2004, 53% of Americans consumed an average of 1 to 3
restaurant meals per week, and 23% consumed ⱖ4 restaurant meals per week.13 Spending on food away from home,
including restaurant meals, catered foods, and food eaten
during out-of-town trips, increased from 26% of average
annual food expenditures in 1970% to 42% in 2004.13
Macronutrient composition of the overall diet or of specific
foods, such as percent calories from total fat, does not
appear to be strongly associated with energy balance as
ascertained by weight gain or loss.2,14 –16 In contrast, dietary
quality, as characterized by higher or lower intakes of
specific foods and beverages, is strongly linked to weight
gain (above).2
Preliminary evidence suggests that consumption of trans
fat may be associated with energy imbalance as assessed by
changes in adiposity or weight, as well as more specific
adverse effects on visceral adiposity, but such data are still
emerging.17–19
Other individual factors associated with positive energy
balance (weight gain) include greater television watching
(particularly as related to greater food consumption)2,20 –24
and lower average sleep duration.2,25
Randomized controlled trials of weight loss in obese
individuals generally show modestly greater weight loss
with low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diets at 6 months, but
at 1 year, such differences diminish, and a diet that focuses
on dietary quality and whole foods may be most
successful.26 –28
A comparison of BRFSS data in 1996 and 2003 suggested
a shift in self-reported dietary strategies to lose weight,
with the proportion focusing on calorie restriction increasing from 11.3% to 24.9% and the proportion focusing on
restricting fat consumption decreasing from 41.6% to
29.1%.29
A 2007 to 2008 national survey of 1082 retail stores in 19
US cities found that energy-dense snack foods/beverages
were present in 96% of pharmacies, 94% of gas stations,
22% of furniture stores, 16% of apparel stores, and 29% to
65% of other types of stores.30
Societal and environmental factors independently associated with energy imbalance (weight gain), via either
increased caloric consumption or decreased expenditure,
include education, income, race/ethnicity, and local conditions such as availability of grocery stores, types of
restaurants, safety, parks and open spaces, and walking or
biking paths.31–33 PA is covered in Chapter 15 of this
update.
Dietary Patterns
In addition to individual foods and nutrients, overall dietary
patterns can be used to assess more global dietary quality.
Different dietary patterns have been defined, including the
Healthy Eating Index (HEI), Alternative HEI, Western versus
prudent dietary patterns, Mediterranean dietary pattern, and
DASH-type diet.
●
●
●
In 1999 to 2004, only 19.4% of hypertensive US adults
were following a DASH-type diet (based on intake of fiber,
magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium, protein, total fat,
saturated fat, and cholesterol). This represented a decrease
from 26.7% of hypertensive US adults in 1988 to 1994.34
Among older US adults (ⱖ60 years of age) in 1999 to
2002, 72% met guidelines for dietary cholesterol intake,
but only between 18% and 32% met guidelines for the HEI
food groups (meats, dairy, fruits, vegetables, and grains).
On the basis of the HEI score, only 17% of older US adults
consumed a good-quality diet. Higher HEI scores were
seen in white adults and individuals with greater education;
lower HEI scores were seen in black adults and smokers.35
Nearly 75 000 women 38 to 63 years of age in the Nurses’
Health Study without a history of CVD or DM were
followed up from 1984 to 2004. It was found that a greater
adherence to the Mediterranean diet, as reflected by a
higher Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score, was associated
with a lower risk of incident CHD and stroke in women.36
Dietary Supplements
Use of dietary supplements is common in the United States
among both adults and children:
●
●
●
More than half (53%) of US adults in 2003 to 2006 used
dietary supplements, with the most common supplement
being multivitamins and multiminerals (40% of men and
women reporting use).37 It has been shown that most
supplements are taken daily and for at least 2 years.
Supplement use was associated with older age, higher
education, greater PA, wine intake, lower BMI, and white
race.38
One third (32%) of US children (birth to 18 years of age)
used dietary supplements in 1999 to 2002, with the highest
use (48.5%) occurring among 4- to 8-year-olds. The most
common supplements were multivitamins and multiminerals (58% of supplement users). The primary nutrients
supplemented (either by multivitamins and/or individual
vitamins) included vitamin C (29% of US children), vitamin A (26%), vitamin D (26%), calcium (21%), and iron
(19%). Supplement use was associated with higher family
income, a smoke-free home environment, lower child BMI,
and less screen time (television, video games, or
computers).39
In a 2005 to 2006 telephone survey of US adults, 41.3%
were making or had made in the past a serious weight-loss
attempt. Of these, one third (33.9%) had used a dietary
supplement for weight loss, with such use being more
common in women (44.9%) than in men (19.8%) and in
blacks (48.7%) or Hispanics (41.6%) than in whites
(31.2%); in those with high school education or less
(38.4%) than in those with some college or more (31.1%);
and in those with household income ⬍$40 000 per year
(41.8%) than in those with higher incomes (30.3%).40
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 20
●
Multiple trials of most dietary supplements, including
folate, vitamin C, and vitamin E, have generally shown no
significant effect on CVD risk. The major exceptions are
long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil), for which 3 large
randomized controlled trials that included populations with
and without established HD have shown significant reductions in risk of CVD events at doses of 1 to 2 g/d (Gruppo
Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto
miocardico [GISSI]-Prevenzione, Japan Eicosapentaenoic
Acid Lipid Intervention Study, and GISSI-HF).41– 43 A few
other smaller trials of fish oil have not shown significant
effects on CVD risk, perhaps related to insufficient statistical power.44 Another multicenter randomized trial conducted in a population with diabetic nephropathy found
that B vitamin supplementation containing folic acid (2.5
mg/d), vitamin B6 (25 mg), and vitamin B12 (1 mg/d)
resulted in a greater decrease in GFR and an increase in MI
and stroke compared with placebo.45
●
Macronutrients
●
Energy Balance
Energy balance, or consumption of total calories appropriate
for needs, has been steadily worsening in the United States
over the past several decades, as evidenced by the dramatic
increases in overweight and obesity among both children and
adults across broad cross sections of sex, race/ethnicity,
geographic residence, and socioeconomic status.46,47
●
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●
Although trends in total calories consumed are difficult to
quantify exactly because of differing methods of serial
national dietary surveys over time, multiple lines of evidence indicate that average total energy consumption has
increased by at least 200 kcal/d per person in the past 3
decades.
Data from NHANES indicate that between 1971 and 2004,
average total energy consumption among US adults increased by 22% in women (from 1542–1886 kcal/d) and by
10% in men (from 2450 –2693 kcal/d; Chart 20-1). These
increases are supported by data from the Nationwide Food
Consumption Survey (1977–1978) and the Continuing
Surveys of Food Intake (1989 –1998).12
The increases in calories consumed during this time period
are attributable primarily to greater average carbohydrate
intake, particularly of starches, refined grains, and sugars
(Foods and Nutrients section). Other specific changes
related to increased caloric intake in the United States
include larger portion sizes, greater food quantity and
calories per meal, and increased consumption of sugarsweetened beverages, snacks, commercially prepared
(especially fast food) meals, and higher-energy-density
foods.6,12,48 –52
Between 1977 to 1978 and 1994 to 1996, the average
portion sizes for nearly all foods increased at fast food
outlets, other restaurants, and home. These included a 33%
increase in the average portion of Mexican food (from 408
to 541 calories), a 34% increase in the average portion of
cheeseburgers (from 397 to 533 calories), a 36% increase
in the average portion of French fries (from 188 to 256
calories), and a 70% increase in the average portion of salty
snacks such as crackers, potato chips, pretzels, puffed rice
cakes, and popcorn (from 132 to 225 calories).12
Among US children 2 to 7 years of age, an estimated
energy imbalance of only 110 to 165 kcal/d (the equivalent
of one 12- to 16-oz bottle of soda/cola) was sufficient to
account for the excess weight gain between 1988 to 1994
and 1999 to 2002.53
Foods and Nutrients
Several changes in foods and nutrients have occurred over
time. Selected changes are highlighted:
●
Trends
e183
Starting in 1977 and continuing until the most recent
dietary guidelines revision in 2005, a major focus of US
dietary guidelines was reduction of total dietary fat.52
During this time, average total fat consumption declined as
a percent of calories from 36.9% to 33.4% in men and from
36.1% to 33.8% in women (Chart 20-1).
Dietary guidelines during this time also emphasized carbohydrate consumption (eg, as the base of the Food Guide
Pyramid),54 which increased from 42.4% to 48.2% of
calories in men and from 45.4% to 50.6% of calories in
women (Chart 20-1). Evaluated as absolute intakes, the
increase in total calories consumed during this period was
attributable primarily to the greater consumption of carbohydrates, both as foods (starches and grains) and as
beverages.55,56
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
●
●
●
Between 1965 and 2002, the average percentage of total
calories consumed from beverages in the United States
increased from 11.8% to 21.0% of energy, which represents an overall absolute increase of 222 cal/d per person.51
This increase was largely caused by increased consumption
of sugar-sweetened beverages and alcohol: Average consumption of fruit juices went from 20 to 39 kcal/d; of milk,
from 125 to 94 kcal/d; of alcohol, from 26 to 99 kcal/d; of
sweetened fruit drinks, from 13 to 38 kcal/d; and of
soda/cola, from 35 to 143 kcal/d (Chart 20-2).
In addition to increased overall consumption, the average
portion size of a single sugar-sweetened beverage increased by ⬎50% between 1977 and 1996, from 13.1 to
19.9 fl oz.12
Among children and teenagers (2–19 years of age), the
largest increases in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages between 1988 to 1994 and 1999 to 2004 were seen
among black and Mexican American youths compared
with white youths.52
Fruits and Vegetables
●
Between 1994 and 2005, the average consumption of fruits
and vegetables declined slightly, from a total of 3.4 to 3.2
servings per day. The proportions of men and women
consuming combined fruits and vegetables ⱖ5 times per
day were low (⬇20% and 29%, respectively) and did not
change during this period.57
Morbidity and Mortality
Effects on Cardiovascular Risk Factors
In randomized controlled trials, dietary habits affect multiple
cardiovascular risk factors, including both established risk
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January 3/10, 2012
factors (SBP, DBP, LDL cholesterol levels, HDL cholesterol
levels, glucose levels, and obesity/weight gain) and novel risk
factors [eg, inflammation, cardiac arrhythmias, endothelial
cell function, triglyceride levels, lipoprotein(a) levels, and
heart rate]:
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●
A DASH dietary pattern with low sodium reduced SBP by
7.1 mm Hg in adults without hypertension and by
11.5 mm Hg in adults with hypertension.58
Compared with the low-fat DASH diet, DASH-type diets
that increased consumption of either protein or unsaturated
fat had similar or greater beneficial effects on CVD risk
factors. Compared with a baseline usual diet, each of the
DASH-type diets, which included various percentages
(27%–37%) of total fat and focused on whole foods such as
fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fish, as well as
potassium and other minerals and low sodium, reduced
SBP by 8 to 10 mm Hg, DBP by 4 to 5 mm Hg, and LDL
cholesterol by 12 to 14 mg/dL. The diets that had higher
levels of protein and unsaturated fat also lowered triglyceride levels by 16 and 9 mg/dL, respectively.59
In a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, consumption of 1% of calories from trans fat in place of
saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, or polyunsaturated fat
increased the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol by 0.031,
0.054, and 0.67; increased apolipoprotein B levels by 3, 10,
and 11 mg/L; decreased apolipoprotein A-1 levels by 7, 5, and
3 mg/L; and increased lipoprotein(a) levels by 3.8, 1.4, and
1.1 mg/L, respectively.60
In meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials, consumption of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for
ⱖ12 weeks lowered SBP by 2.1 mm Hg61 and lowered
resting heart rate by 2.5 beats per minute.62
In a pooled analysis of 25 randomized trials totaling 583
men and women both with and without hypercholesterolemia, nut consumption significantly improved blood
lipid levels.63 For a mean consumption of 67 g/d of nuts,
total cholesterol was reduced by 10.9 mg/dL (5.1%),
LDL cholesterol by 10.2 mg/dL (7.4%), and the ratio of
total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol by 0.24 (5.6%
change; P⬍0.001 for each). Triglyceride levels were also
reduced by 20.6 mg/dL (10.2%) in subjects with high
triglycerides (ⱖ150 mg/dL). Different types of nuts had
similar effects.63 A review of cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies suggests that higher intake of sugarsweetened beverages is associated with greater visceral fat
and higher risk of type 2 DM.64 In the PREMIER study, a
prospective analysis of the 810 participants indicated that a
reduction in sugar-sweetened beverages of 1 serving per
day was associated with a reduction in SBP of 1.8 mm Hg
(95% CI 1.2–2.4) and a reduction in DBP of 1.1 mm Hg
(95% CI 0.7–1.4).65
In a randomized controlled trial, compared with a low-fat
diet, 2 Mediterranean dietary patterns that included either
virgin olive oil or mixed nuts lowered SBP by 5.9 and
7.1 mm Hg, plasma glucose by 7.0 and 5.4 mg/dL, fasting
insulin by 16.7 and 20.4 pmol/L, the homeostasis model
assessment index by 0.9 and 1.1, and the ratio of total to
HDL cholesterol by 0.38 and 0.26 and raised HDL choles-
terol by 2.9 and 1.6 mg/dL, respectively. The Mediterranean dietary patterns also lowered levels of C-reactive
protein, interleukin-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1,
and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1.66
Effects on Cardiovascular Outcomes
Because dietary habits affect a broad range of established and
novel risk factors, estimation of the impact of nutritional
factors on cardiovascular health by considering only a limited
number of pathways (eg, only effects on lipids, BP, and
obesity) will systematically underestimate or even misconstrue the actual total impact on health. Randomized controlled
trials and prospective observational studies can better quantify the total effects of dietary habits on clinical outcomes:
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In the WHI randomized clinical trial (n⫽48 835), reduction
of total fat consumption from 37.8% energy (baseline) to
24.3% energy (at 1 year) and 28.8% energy (at 6 years) had
no effect on incidence of CHD (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.88 –
1.09), stroke (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.90 –1.15), or total CVD
(RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.92–1.05) over a mean of 8.1 years.67
This was consistent with null results of 4 prior randomized
clinical trials (below) and multiple large prospective cohort
studies (below) that indicated little effect of total fat
consumption on risk of CVD.68
In 3 separate meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies,
the largest of which included 21 studies with up to 2
decades of follow-up, saturated fat consumption overall
had no significant association with incidence of CHD,
stroke, or total CVD.69 –71 However, in a pooled individuallevel analysis of 11 prospective cohort studies, the specific
exchange of polyunsaturated fat consumption in place of
saturated fat was associated with lower CHD risk, with
13% lower risk for a 5% energy exchange (RR 0.87, 95%
CI 0.70 – 0.97).72 These findings are consistent with a
meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in which
increased polyunsaturated fat consumption in place of
saturated fat reduced CHD risk, with 10% lower risk for a
5% energy exchange (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83– 0.97).73
In a pooled analysis of individual-level data from 11
prospective cohort studies in the United States, Europe, and
Israel that included 344 696 participants, each 5% higher
energy consumption of carbohydrate in place of saturated
fat was associated with a 7% higher risk of CHD (RR 1.07,
95% CI 1.01–1.14).72 Each 5% higher energy consumption
of monounsaturated fat in place of saturated fat was not
significantly associated with CHD risk.72
In a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies, each 2%
of calories from trans fat was associated with a 23% higher
risk of CHD (RR 1.23, 95% CI 1.11–1.37).74
In meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies, each daily
serving of fruits or vegetables was associated with a 4%
lower risk of CHD (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93– 0.99) and a 5%
lower risk of stroke (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92– 0.97).75,76
In a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies, greater
whole grain intake (2.5 compared with 0.2 servings per
day) was associated with a 21% lower risk of CVD events
(RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.73– 0.85), with similar estimates for
specific CVD outcomes (HD, stroke, fatal CVD) and in
sex-specific analyses. In contrast, refined grain intake was
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 20
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not associated with lower risk of CVD (RR 1.07, 95% CI
0.94 –1.22).77
In a meta-analysis of 16 prospective cohort studies that
included 326 572 generally healthy individuals in Europe,
the United States, China, and Japan, fish consumption was
associated with significantly lower risk of CHD mortality.78 Compared with no consumption, an estimated 250 mg
of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids per day was associated
with 35% lower risk of CHD death (P⬍0.001). In a
meta-analysis of 17 prospective cohort studies and 3
case-control studies that included ⬎1.2 million participants
from multiple countries, consumption of unprocessed red
meat was not significantly associated with incidence of
CHD or DM. In contrast, each 50-g serving per day of
processed meats (eg, sausage, bacon, hot dogs, deli meats)
was associated with higher incidence of both CHD (RR
1.42, 95% CI 1.07–1.89) and DM (RR 1.19, 95% CI
1.11–1.27).79
In a meta-analysis of 6 prospective observational studies,
higher consumption of nuts was associated with significantly lower incidence of CHD (comparing higher to low
intake: RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.57– 0.82).70
Higher consumption of dairy or milk products is associated
with lower incidence of DM and trends toward lower risk
of stroke.70,80,81 Some limited evidence suggests that these
associations are stronger for low-fat dairy or milk than for
other dairy products. Dairy consumption is unassociated
with risk of CHD.70,81
Higher estimated consumption of dietary sodium was not
associated with lower CVD mortality in NHANES,82 although such findings may be limited by changes in behaviors that result from underlying risk (reverse causation). In
a post hoc analysis of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention, participants randomized to low-sodium interventions
had a 25% lower risk of CVD (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.57–
0.99) after 10 to 15 years of follow-up after the original
trials.83
Among 88 520 generally healthy women in the Nurses’
Health Study who were 34 to 59 years of age in 1980 and
were followed up from 1980 to 2004, regular consumption
of sugar-sweetened beverages was independently associated with higher incidence of CHD, with 23% and 35%
higher risk with 1 and ⱖ2 servings per day, respectively,
compared with ⬍1 per month.84 Among the 15 745 participants in the ARIC study, the OR for developing CKD was
2.59 for participants who had a serum uric acid level ⬎9.0
mg/dL and who drank ⬎1 sugar-sweetened soda per day.85
In a cohort of 380 296 US men and women, greater versus
lower adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern, characterized by higher intakes of vegetables, legumes, nuts,
fruits, whole grains, fish, and unsaturated fat and lower
intakes of red and processed meat, was associated with a
22% lower cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.78, 95% CI
0.69 – 0.87).86 In a cohort of 72 113 US female nurses, a
dietary pattern characterized by higher intakes of vegetables, fruits, legumes, fish, poultry, and whole grains was
associated with a 28% lower cardiovascular mortality (RR
0.72, 95% CI 0.60 – 0.87), whereas a dietary pattern characterized by higher intakes of processed meat, red meat,
●
e185
refined grains, French fries, and sweets/desserts was associated with a 22% higher cardiovascular mortality (RR
1.22, 95% CI 1.01–1.48).87 Similar findings have been seen
in other cohorts and for other outcomes, including development of DM and metabolic syndrome.88 –92
In one report that used consistent and comparable risk
assessment methods and nationally representative data, the
mortality effects in the United States of 12 modifiable
dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors were assessed.
High dietary salt consumption was estimated to be responsible for 102 000 annual deaths, low dietary omega-3 fatty
acids for 84 000 annual deaths, high dietary trans fatty
acids for 82 000 annual deaths, and low consumption of
fruits and vegetables for 55 000 annual deaths.93
Cost
The US Department of Agriculture forecast that the Consumer Price Index for all food would increase 4.5% to 5.5%
in 2008 as retailers continued to pass on higher commodity
and energy costs to consumers in the form of higher retail
prices. The Consumer Price Index for food increased 4.0% in
2007, the highest annual increase since 1990. Prices for foods
eaten at home increased 4.2% in 2007, whereas prices for
foods eaten away from home increased by 3.6%.52
●
●
●
●
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●
The proportion of total US food expenditures for meals
outside the home, as a share of total food dollars, increased
from 25% in 1957 to 38% in 1977 to 49% in 200754 (Chart
20-3).
The proportion of sales of meals and snacks from fast food
restaurants compared with total meals and snacks away
from home increased from 5% in 1958 to 28% in 1977 to
37% in 2007.94
As a proportion of income, food has become less expensive
over time in the United States. As a share of personal
disposable income, average (mean) total food expenditures
by families and individuals have decreased from 23.5%
(1947) to 18.4% (1957) to 13.4% (1977) to 9.8% (2007).
For any given year, the share of disposable income spent on
food is inversely proportional to absolute income: The
share increases as absolute income levels decline.94
Among 154 forms of fruits and vegetables priced with
ACNielsen Homescan data, more than half were estimated
to cost 25 cents per serving. Consumers could meet a
recommendation of 3 servings of fruits and 4 servings of
vegetables daily for a total cost of 64 cents per day.94
An overview of the costs of various strategies for primary
prevention of CVD determined that the estimated costs per
year of life gained were between $9800 and $18 000 for
statin therapy, ⱖ$1500 for nurse screening and lifestyle
advice, $500 to $1250 for smoking cessation, and $20 to
$900 for population-based healthy eating.95
Each year, ⬎$33 billion in medical costs and $9 billion in
lost productivity resulting from HD, cancer, stroke, and
DM are attributed to poor nutrition.96 –100
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 20
e189
Table 20-1. Dietary Consumption (MeanⴞSD) in 2005–2008 Among US Adults >20 Years of Age of Selected Foods and Nutrients
Related to Cardiometabolic Health96 –99
NH White Men
Average
Consumption
NH White Women
% Meeting
Guidelines*
Average
Consumption
% Meeting
Guidelines*
NH Black Men
Average
Consumption
NH Black Women
% Meeting
Guidelines*
Average
Consumption
% Meeting
Guidelines*
Mexican American Men
Average
Consumption
% Meeting
Guidelines*
Mexican American Women
Average
Consumption
% Meeting
Guidelines*
Foods
Whole grains, servings/d
0.7⫾0.7
4.6
0.8⫾0.7
5.3
0.5⫾0.5
3.1
0.6⫾0.6
4.1
2.1⫾1.6
27.4
1.7⫾1.4
21.0
Fruits, servings/d
1.3⫾1.3
8.9
1.6⫾1.4
10.7
1.1⫾1.4
6.2
1.2⫾1.3
7.0
1.4⫾1.3
8.0
1.8⫾1.5
10.4
Fruits including 100%
juices, servings/d
2.4⫾2.3
23.3
2.5⫾2.1
24.9
2.8⫾0.9
26.6
2.9⫾1.2
26.7
2.8⫾2.3
23.9
3.2⫾2.6
28.7
Vegetables including
starch, servings/d
1.9⫾1.1
6.3
2.2⫾1.1
7.2
1.6⫾0.9
3.2
1.8⫾1.0
3.6
1.3⫾0.7
2.6
1.6⫾0.7
2.5
Vegetables including
starch and juices/
sauces, servings/d
2.2⫾1.2
8.8
2.5⫾1.3
9.6
1.7⫾0.9
3.9
1.9⫾1.1
4.9
1.7⫾0.8
3.9
1.9⫾0.7
4.8
Fish and shellfish,
servings/wk
1.5⫾1.4
22.0
1.2⫾0.6
19.1
1.7⫾1.3
23.0
1.7⫾0.9
25.2
1.6⫾1.3
20.0
1.4⫾1.3
19.7
Nuts, legumes, and
seeds, servings/wk
2.7⫾2.0
20.3
2.4⫾1.9
19.9
2.3⫾1.5
15.9
1.8⫾0.4
14.5
6.3⫾6.8
41.2
5.8⫾3.6
39.9
Processed meats,
servings/wk
3.2⫾1.9
46.1
2.0⫾1.0
60.1
3.6⫾2.2
43.8
2.7⫾2.2
52.1
2.1⫾2.2
60.8
1.8⫾2.2
64.2
Sugar-sweetened
beverages, servings/wk
9.9⫾11.6
50.0
6.6⫾10.9
66.7
13.8⫾9.0
27.2
11.8⫾8.9
34.8
15.6⫾10.3
24.2
10.0⫾8.8
37.9
Sweets and bakery
desserts, servings/wk
6.5⫾4.8
35.4
7.4⫾4.5
32.2
6.0⫾4.1
42.0
6.8⫾3.5
38.6
3.7⫾2.9
55.1
5.5⫾0.9
48.4
Nutrients
Total calories, kcal/d
2520⫾659
NA
1757⫾455
NA
2371⫾722
NA
1749⫾568
NA
2400⫾703
NA
1798⫾528
NA
EPA/DHA, g/d
0.129⫾0.138
13.0
0.109⫾0.138
10.2
0.146⫾0.131
15.2
0.146⫾0.102
13.8
0.146⫾0.102
12.1
0.119⫾0.102
12.0
1.35⫾0.33
25.5
1.52⫾0.50
72.2
1.32⫾0.38
23.4
1.43⫾0.33
68.0
1.21⫾0.23
16.5
1.34⫾0.27
64.1
7.1⫾1.2
NA
7.5⫾1.6
NA
7.3⫾1.6
NA
7.6⫾1.5
NA
6.7⫾0.9
NA
6.9⫾1.4
NA
11.4⫾2.2
33.3
11.4⫾2.1
36.0
10.8⫾1.7
39.8
10.6⫾2.0
43.3
10.1⫾2.0
50.4
10.4⫾1.7
48.5
ALA, g/d
n-6 PUFA, % energy
Saturated fat, % energy
Dietary cholesterol, mg/d
277⫾90
66.9
274⫾83
69.5
303⫾123
61.8
317⫾106
57.7
323⫾142
58.8
310⫾120
61.2
Total fat, % energy
34.1⫾5.1
54.2
33.9⫾4.7
53.6
33.8⫾4.7
51.1
33.5⫾4.6
54.2
31.6⫾5.1
65.7
31.8⫾4.9
65.4
Carbohydrate, % energy
47.3⫾7.2
NA
49.7⫾6.6
NA
48.6⫾6.2
NA
50.7⫾6.3
NA
50.3⫾6.7
NA
52.3⫾6.5
NA
Dietary fiber, g/d
15.0⫾5.0
4.2
17.2⫾5.8
7.0
13.1⫾4.6
2.4
14.2⫾5.0
3.8
17.7⫾6.1
9.3
18.9⫾4.7
11.2
3.3⫾0.6
10.5
3.5⫾0.6
8.3
3.2⫾0.5
11.3
3.4⫾0.5
8.9
3.0⫾0.7
19.4
3.2⫾0.6
12.7
Sodium, g/d
SD indicates standard deviation; NH, non-Hispanic; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; ALA, ␣-linoleic acid; n-6-PUFA, ␻-6-polyunsaturated
fatty acid; and NA, not available.
Based on data from NHANES 2005–2006 and 2007–2008, derived from two 24-hour dietary recalls per person, with population SDs adjusted for within-person
vs between-person variation. All values are energy-adjusted using individual regressions or percent energy, and for comparability, means and proportions are reported
for a 2000-kcal/d diet. To obtain actual mean consumption levels, the group means for each food or nutrient can be multiplied by the group-specific total calories
(kcal/d) divided by 2000 kcal/d.
*Guidelines adjusted to a 2000-kcal/d diet. Whole grains (characterized as minimum 1.1 g of fiber per 10 g of carbohydrate), 3 or more 1-oz equivalent (1 oz of
bread; 1 cup of dry cereal; 1/2 cup of cooked rice, pasta, or cereal) servings per day (Dietary Guidelines for Americans98); fish or shellfish, 2 or more 100-g (3.5-oz)
servings per week98; fruits, 2 cups per day99; vegetables, 2 1/2 cups per day, including up to 3 cups per week of starchy vegetables99; nuts, legumes, and seeds,
4 or more 50-g servings per week98; processed meats (bacon, hot dogs, sausage, processed deli meats), 2 or fewer 100-g (3.5-oz) servings per week (1/4 of
discretionary calories)99; sugar-sweetened beverages (defined as ⱖ50 cal/8 oz, excluding whole juices), ⱕ36 oz per week (⬇1/4 of discretionary calories) 98,99;
sweets and bakery desserts, 2.5 or fewer 50-g servings per week (⬇1/4 of discretionary calories)98,99; EPA/DHA, ⱖ0.250 g/d101; ALA, ⱖ1.6/1.1 g/d (men/women)100;
saturated fat, ⬍10% energy99; dietary cholesterol, ⬍300 mg/d99; total fat, 20% to 35% energy99; dietary fiber, ⱖ28/d99; and sodium, ⬍2.3 g/d.99
Downloaded from http://circ.ahajournals.org/ at University of Kentucky--Lexington on January 31, 2012
e190
Circulation
January 3/10, 2012
Table 20-2. Dietary Consumption (MeanⴞSD) in 2005–2008 Among US Children and Teenagers of Selected Foods and Nutrients
Related to Cardiometabolic Health
Boys (5–9 y)
Average
Consumption
Girls (5–9 y)
% Meeting
Guidelines*
Average
Consumption
Boys (10 –14 y)
% Meeting
Guidelines*
Average
Consumption
% Meeting
Guidelines*
Girls (10 –14 y)
Average
Consumption
% Meeting
Guidelines*
Boys (15–19 y)
Average
Consumption
% Meeting
Guidelines*
Girls (15–19 y)
Average
Consumption
% Meeting
Guidelines*
Foods
Whole grains, servings/d
0.5⫾0.5
2.7
0.5⫾0.3
1.1
0.6⫾0.6
4.0
0.5⫾0.4
1.8
0.4⫾0.4
1.6
0.5⫾0.5
2.6
Fruits, servings/d
1.5⫾1.1
8.3
1.5⫾0.8
8.5
1.2⫾1.0
6.9
1.4⫾1.1
8.4
0.9⫾0.8
3.9
0.9⫾0.8
4.6
Fruits including 100%
juices, servings/d
3.3⫾1.7
35.7
3.1⫾1.4
28.5
2.4⫾1.7
21.7
2.8⫾1.9
26.0
2.2⫾1.7
21.1
2.4⫾1.7
21.7
Vegetables including
starch, servings/d
0.9⫾0.4
0.5
1.0⫾0.5
0.9
1.0⫾0.6
1.1
1.1⫾0.6
1.6
1.0⫾0.1
1.1
1.1⫾0.2
1.1
Vegetables including
starch and juices/
sauces, servings/d
1.1⫾0.4
0.8
1.1⫾0.6
1.3
1.1⫾0.6
1.2
1.3⫾0.6
1.9
1.3⫾0.9
1.5
1.3⫾0.4
2.4
Fish and shellfish,
servings/wk
0.5⫾0.7
9.9
0.7⫾0.7
11.7
0.9⫾0.7
13.5
0.6⫾0.7
10.3
0.7⫾0.9
11.0
0.7⫾0.9
12.2
Nuts, legumes, and
seeds, servings/wk
1.4⫾0.4
12.5
1.3⫾2.5
9.6
2.1⫾2.8
14.1
1.4⫾1.0
10.1
1.1⫾1.0
9.4
0.8⫾1.0
6.8
Processed meats,
servings/wk
2.3⫾1.1
55.5
2.1⫾1.0
60.0
2.6⫾1.0
54.9
2.3⫾1.0
52.1
3.2⫾1.5
45.6
2.4⫾1.0
55.8
Sugar-sweetened
beverages, servings/wk
8.5⫾5.9
38.6
8.3⫾5.1
37.9
13.3⫾7.0
23.5
10.9⫾7.3
31.6
18.2⫾11.1
16.7
13.9⫾10.1
32.4
10.1⫾2.1
19.5
9.3⫾2.1
18.3
9.0⫾2.1
23.5
8.1⫾2.0
30.2
6.0⫾5.2
41.9
8.2⫾5.2
31.5
Total calories, kcal/d
1946⫾328
NA
1743⫾330
NA
2139⫾403
NA
1849⫾432
NA
2670⫾903
NA
1845⫾453
NA
EPA/DHA, g/d
0.045⫾0.025
3.1
0.056⫾0.025
5.9
0.074⫾0.030
7.3
0.052⫾0.030
4.7
0.071⫾0.022
5.2
0.065⫾0.021
5.7
1.12⫾0.15
9.5
1.15⫾0.20
46.3
1.11⫾0.20
9.7
1.19⫾0.28
49.1
1.14⫾0.18
13.2
1.34⫾0.18
59.2
Sweets and bakery
desserts, servings/wk
Nutrients
ALA, g/d
n-6 PUFA, % energy
Saturated fat, % energy
6.4⫾1.1
NA
6.5⫾1.0
NA
6.5⫾1.0
NA
6.7⫾0.9
NA
6.4⫾0.6
NA
7.1⫾1.3
NA
11.7⫾1.4
24.9
11.8⫾0.8
21.3
11.6⫾0.7
27.8
11.5⫾1.8
28.6
11.8⫾1.4
24.8
11.3⫾1.7
34.1
Dietary cholesterol, mg/d
225⫾69
81.6
239⫾57
78.4
245⫾57
76.6
226⫾114
81.6
244⫾114
76.9
240⫾114
77.7
Total fat, % energy
33.0⫾3.3
67.6
33.3⫾3.0
66.6
33.1⫾2.6
65.6
33.1⫾4.2
61.6
33.6⫾3.1
58.9
33.3⫾4.9
57.0
Carbohydrate, % energy
54.5⫾4.1
NA
53.8⫾3.7
NA
53.1⫾3.6
NA
53.8⫾4.9
NA
51.4⫾4.1
NA
52.9⫾6.3
NA
Dietary fiber, g/d
13.6⫾2.3
0.2
13.9⫾2.2
0.7
13.3⫾3.4
1.1
13.9⫾3.3
1.8
11.9⫾2.4
0.6
13.3⫾2.9
1.9
3.1⫾0.3
8.2
3.2⫾0.4
8.7
3.2⫾0.2
9.8
3.3⫾0.2
7.4
3.2⫾0.4
11.9
3.4⫾0.5
9.1
Sodium, g/d
SD indicates standard deviation; NA, not available; EPA, eicosapentaenoic acid; DHA, docosahexaenoic acid; ALA, ␣-linoleic acid; and n-6-PUFA, ␻-6polyunsaturated fatty acid.
Based on data from NHANES 2005–2006 and 2007–2008, derived from two 24-hour dietary recalls per person, with population SDs adjusted for within-person
vs between-person variation. All values are energy-adjusted using individual regressions or percent energy, and for comparability, means and proportions are reported
for a 2000-kcal/d diet. To obtain actual mean consumption levels, the group means for each food or nutrient can be multiplied by the group-specific total calories
(kcal/d) divided by 2000 kcal/d.
*See Table 20-1 for food group, serving size, and guideline definitions. For different age and sex subgroups here, the guideline cutpoints are standardized to a
2000-kcal/d diet to account for differences in caloric intake in these groups.
Downloaded from http://circ.ahajournals.org/ at University of Kentucky--Lexington on January 31, 2012
Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 20
Fat
Carbohydrate
Total Calories
50
2500
40
2000
30
1500
20
1000
10
500
0
Ttoal calories (kcal per day)
Percent energy from protein, fat, or carbohydrate
Protein
e191
0
1971-1974
2001-2004
1971-1974
Men
2001-2004
Women
Chart 20-1. Age-adjusted trends in macronutrients and total calories consumed by US adults (20 –74 years of age), 1971–2004. Data
derived from National Center for Health Statistics.13
Whole-fat milk
Low-fat milk
Coffee
Tea
Sweetened fruit drinks
100% Fruit juice
Alcohol
Regular soda/cola
Per capita calories per day
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
1965
1977
1988
2002
Chart 20-2. Per capita calories consumed from different beverages by US adults (19 years of age), 1965–2002. Data derived from
Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys (1965, 1977–1978), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988 –1994, 1999 –2002),
and Duffey and Popkin.51
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1977
1%
2007
Sales
5%
2%
2%
4%
2%
23%
36%
3%
4%
51%
2%
3%
62%
Eang and drinking places
Foods at home
All other foods away from home
Retail stores, direct selling
Hotels and motels
Schools and colleges
Recreaonal places
Chart 20-3. Total US food expenditures away from home and at home, 1977 and 2007. Data derived from US Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service.54
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 21
21. Quality of Care
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 21
See Tables 21-1 through 21-13.
ACC
The Institute of Medicine defines quality of care as “the
degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and
are consistent with current professional knowledge.”1 The
Institute of Medicine has defined 6 specific domains for
improving health care, including care that is safe, effective,
patient-centered, timely, efficient, and equitable.
In the following sections, data on quality of care will be
presented based on the 6 domains of quality as defined by the
Institute of Medicine. This is intended to highlight current care
and to stimulate efforts to improve the quality of cardiovascular
care nationally. Where possible, data are reported from recently
published literature or standardized quality indicators from
quality-improvement registries (ie, those consistent with the
methods for quality performance measures endorsed by the
ACC and the AHA).2 Additional data on aspects of quality of
care, such as adherence to ACC/AHA clinical practice guidelines, are also included to provide a spectrum of quality-of-care
data. The data selected are meant to provide examples of the
current quality of care as reflected by the Institute of Medicine
domain and are not meant to be comprehensive given the sheer
number of publications yearly.
●
The safety domain has been defined as avoiding injuries to
patients from the care that is intended to help them. The
following are several publications that have focused on
safety issues:
— In a small, single-center study conducted over a
2-month period in the cardiac care unit of a tertiary
center, Rahim et al3 demonstrated that iatrogenic adverse events were common (99 of 194 patients), of
which bleeding (27%) was the most common preventable iatrogenic adverse event.
— Using the National Cardiovascular Data Registry CathPCI registry, Tsai et al4 found that almost one fourth of
dialysis patients undergoing PCI (n⫽22 778) received a
contraindicated antithrombotic agent, specifically
enoxaparin, eptifibatide, or both. Patients who received
a contraindicated antithrombotic agent had an increased
risk of in-hospital bleeding (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.35–
1.98) and a trend toward increased mortality (OR 1.15,
95% CI 0.97–1.36).4
— Using data from the Acute Coronary Treatment and
Intervention Outcomes Registry-GWTG (ACTION
Registry-GWTG), Mathews and colleagues developed
a contemporary model to stratify in-hospital bleeding
risk for patients after STEMI and NSTEMI.5 The 12
factors associated with major bleeding in the model
were heart rate, baseline hemoglobin, female sex,
baseline serum creatinine, age, electrocardiographic
changes, HF or shock, DM, PAD, body weight, SBP,
and home warfarin use. The risk model discriminated
well in the derivation (C statistic⫽0.73) and the validation (C statistic⫽0.71) cohorts, and the risk score for
major bleeding corresponded well with observed
bleeding.5
e193
American College of Cardiology
ACEI
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
ACS
acute coronary syndrome
ACTION
Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Registry
ADP
adenosine diphosphate
AHA
American Heart Association
AMI
acute myocardial infarction
ARB
angiotensin receptor blocker
BMI
body mass index
BP
blood pressure
CABG
coronary artery bypass grafting
CAD
coronary artery disease
CI
confidence interval
COURAGE
Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and AGgressive
drug Evaluation trial
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CRUSADE
Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients
Suppress Adverse Outcomes With Early Implementation of the
ACC/AHA Guidelines
D2B
door-to-balloon
DM
diabetes mellitus
DVT
deep venous thrombosis
ECG
electrocardiogram
ED
emergency department
EF
ejection fraction
EMS
emergency medical services
GP
glycoprotein
GWTG
Get With The Guidelines
HbA1c
hemoglobin A1c
HF
heart failure
HIQR
Hospital Inpatient Quality Reporting Program
IV
intravenous
LDL
low-density lipoprotein
LV
left ventricular
LVEF
left ventricular ejection fraction
LVSD
left ventricular systolic dysfunction
N/A
not applicable
NHANES
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NM
not measured
NSTEMI
non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction
OR
odds ratio
PAD
peripheral arterial disease
PCI
percutaneous coronary intervention
ROC
Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium
RR
relative risk
SBP
systolic blood pressure
SCD-HeFT
Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial
SD
standard deviation
STEMI
ST-elevation myocardial infarction
tPA
tissue-type plasminogen activator
UFH
unfractionated heparin
VF
ventricular fibrillation
VHA
Veterans Health Administration
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— In a random sample of medical and surgical long-term
care adult patients in Massachusetts hospitals, López et
al6 assessed the association between disclosure of an
adverse event and patients’ perception of quality of
care. Overall, only 40% of adverse events were disclosed. Higher quality ratings were associated with
disclosure of an adverse event. Conversely, lower
patient perception of quality of care was associated
with events that were preventable and with events that
caused discomfort.6
— The AHA published a scientific statement7 about medication errors in acute cardiovascular and stroke patients and classified medication errors into the following categories:
E
E
E
Improper dosing or timing, or delivery of an incorrect
or unnecessary medication.
Administration to the wrong patient (errors of
omission).
Failure to prescribe appropriate medication therapy
or needed monitoring of medication therapy (errors
of omission).
— Recommendations were also made that could improve
medication safety in cardiovascular care.
●
Effective care has been defined as providing services based
on scientific knowledge to all who could benefit and
refraining from providing services to those not likely to
benefit. It also encompasses monitoring results of the care
provided and using them to improve care for all patients.1
There are many quality-improvement registries that have
been developed for inpatient cardiovascular/stroke care,
and the data on these are provided in subsequent tables.
Similar efforts are under way for quality-of-care registries
in the outpatient setting. In 2011, the AHA published a
policy statement for expanding the applications of existing
and future clinical registries.8 This statement discusses
recommendations on ensuring high-quality data, linking
clinical registries with supplemental data, integrating registries with electronic health records, safeguarding privacy,
securing adequate funding, and developing a business
model to initiate and sustain these registries.
— In the CRUSADE registry, 1 in 10 patients (10.3%) had
a documented contraindication to reperfusion. Primary
reasons for contraindications were identified as absence
of an ischemic indication (53.8%), bleeding risk
(16.7%), patient-related reasons (25.3%), and other
(4.2%). Conversely, 7.2% of patients with STEMI
without a reperfusion contraindication did not have
reperfusion therapy administered, and this was associated with greater in-hospital mortality.9
— According to data from NHANES 1988 –1994 and
1999 –2008, rates of hypertension have increased from
23.9% in 1988 to 1994 to 29.0% in 2007 to 2008, and
hypertension control has increased from 27.3% in 1988
to 1994 to 50.1% in 2007 to 2008. In addition, among
patients with hypertension, BP has decreased from
143.0/80.4 to 135.2/74.1 mm Hg.10
— The AHA and the ACC Foundation Task Force on
Performance Measures published a scientific statement
that provides new insights into the methodology of
performance measures. It covers topics such as the use
of exceptions in performance measures, modification
and retirement of performance measures, new insights
into the implementation of performance measures, use
of composite measures, and the challenges associated
with the concept of shared accountability.11
— The National Quality Forum is a nonprofit organization
that aims to improve the quality of health care for all.
Recognizing that adherence can impact the effectiveness of therapies, the National Quality Forum has
adopted several performance measures related to medication adherence/persistence, including angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor
blocker use and persistence among patients with CAD
who are at high risk for coronary events, persistence of
␤-blocker treatment after a heart attack for patients with
AMI, and adherence to lipid-lowering medication.12
— Outcome measures of 30-day mortality and 30-day
readmission after hospitalization for AMI or HF have
been developed that adjust for patient mix (eg, comorbidities) so that comparisons can be made across
hospitals.13–16 Using national Medicare data from July
2005 through June 2008, the median (10th, 90th percentile) hospital risk-standardized mortality rate was
16.6% (14.7%, 18.4%) for AMI and 11.1% (9.4%,
13.1%) for HF. The median risk-standardized readmission rate was 19.9% (18.8%, 21.1%) for AMI and
24.4% (22.3%, 27.0%) for HF. For various hospital
characteristics (number of beds, ownership, teaching
status, bypass surgery facility), there were high- and
low-performing hospitals in all categories.13
— A study of 30 947 patients admitted with ischemic
strokes showed that admission to a designated stroke
center compared with admission to a nondesignated
hospital was associated with more frequent use of
thrombolytic therapy (4.8% versus 1.7%, P⬍0.001)
and lower 30-day all-cause mortality (10.1% versus
12.5%, P⬍0.001).17
— A study of 458 hospitals participating in the Society of
Thoracic Surgeons National Cardiac Database showed
that an intervention of receiving quality-improvement
educational material designed to influence the prescription rates of 4 medication classes (aspirin, ␤-blockers,
lipid-lowering therapy, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) after CABG discharge in addition to
site-specific feedback reports led to a significant improvement in adherence for all 4 secondary prevention
medications at the intervention sites compared with the
control sites.18
— Inpatient ACS, HF, and stroke quality-of-care measures
data, including trends in care data, where available
from national registries, are given in Tables 21-1
through 21-6.
— In 2011, ACC Foundation/AHA/American Medical
Association–Physician Consortium for Performance
Improvement performance measures for CAD and hy-
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 21
pertension were published.19 The 9 performance measures for CAD care included BP control, lipid control,
symptom and activity assessment, symptom management, tobacco use (screening, cessation, and intervention), antiplatelet therapy, ␤-blocker therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor
blocker therapy, and cardiac rehabilitation patient referral from an outpatient setting. For hypertension care,
the performance measures included BP control. This set
was an update to the 2005 ACC Foundation/AHA
performance measures for CAD and hypertension and
included modifications to 7 of the 2005 performance
measures. Screening for DM was retired from the CAD
set published in 2005, whereas symptom management
and cardiac rehabilitation referral were added to the
2011 CAD set.
— Selected outpatient quality-of-care measures from the
National Committee for Quality Assurance for 2009
appear in Table 21-7.
— Quality-of-care measures for patients who had out-ofhospital cardiac arrest and were enrolled in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC) cardiac epistry in
2010 (ROC Investigators, unpublished data, June 20,
2011) are given in Table 21-8 for individuals of any age
and in Table 21-9 for children.
●
Patient-centered care has been defined as the provision of
care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient
preferences, needs, and values and that ensures that
patient values guide all clinical decisions. Dimensions
of patient-centered care include the following: (1) Respect for
patients’ values, preferences, and expressed needs; (2) coordination and integration of care; (3) information, communication, and education; (4) physical comfort; (5) emotional
support; and (6) involvement of family and friends. Studies
focusing on some of these aspects of patient-centered care are
highlighted below.
— The Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and
AGgressive drug Evaluation (COURAGE) trial,20
which investigated a strategy of PCI plus optimal
medical therapy versus optimal medical therapy alone,
demonstrated that both groups had significant improvement in health status during follow-up. By 3 months,
health status scores had increased in the PCI group
compared with the medical therapy group to 76⫾24
versus 72⫾23 for physical limitation (P⫽0.004),
77⫾28 versus 73⫾27 for angina stability (P⫽0.002),
85⫾22 versus 80⫾23 for angina frequency (P⬍0.001),
92⫾12 versus 90⫾14 for treatment satisfaction
(P⬍0.001), and 73⫾22 versus 68⫾23 for quality of life
(P⬍0.001). The PCI plus optimal medical therapy
group had a small but significant incremental benefit
compared with the optimal medical therapy group early
on, but this benefit disappeared by 36 months.
— In the Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial
(SCD-HeFT)21 of single-lead implantable cardioverterdefibrillator versus amiodarone for moderately symptomatic HF, patients with implantable cardioverter-
—
—
—
—
e195
defibrillators had improvement in quality of life
compared with medical therapy patients at 3 and 12
months but not at 30 months. Implantable cardioverterdefibrillator shocks in the month preceding a scheduled
assessment were associated with a decrease in quality
of life in multiple domains. The authors concluded that
the presence of a single-lead implantable cardioverterdefibrillator was not associated with any detectably
adverse quality of life during 30 months of follow-up.
Peikes et al22 reported on 15 care-coordination programs as part of a Medicare demonstration project for
patients with congestive HF, CAD, DM, and other
conditions. Thirteen of the 15 programs did not show a
difference in hospitalization rates, and none of the
programs demonstrated a net savings. The interventions
tested varied significantly, but the majority of the
interventions included patient education to improve
adherence to medication, diet, exercise, and self-care
regimens and improving care coordination through
various approaches. These programs overall had favorable effects on none of the adherence measures and
only a few of the many quality-of-care indicators
examined. The authors concluded that programs with
substantial in-person contact that target moderately to
severely ill patients can be cost-neutral and improve
some aspects of care.
Hernandez et al23 showed that patients with outpatient
follow-up within 7 days of discharge for an HF hospitalization were less likely to be readmitted within 30
days in the GWTG-HF registry of patients who were
ⱖ65 years of age. The median length of stay was 4 days
(interquartile range 2– 6 days), and 21.3% of patients
were readmitted within 30 days. At the hospital level,
the median percentage of patients who had early
follow-up after discharge from the index hospitalization
was 38.3% (interquartile range 32.4%– 44.5%).
Smolderen et al24 assessed whether health insurance
status affects decisions to seek care for AMI. Uninsured
and insured patients with financial concerns were more
likely to delay seeking care during AMI and had
prehospital delays of ⬎6 hours (48.6% of uninsured
patients and 44.6% of insured patients with financial
concerns compared with 39.3% of insured patients
without financial concerns). Lack of health insurance
and financial concerns about accessing care among
those with health insurance were each associated with
delays in seeking emergency care for AMI.
Using a cohort (n⫽192) nested within a randomized
trial at a university-affiliated ambulatory practice, Murray et al25 demonstrated that refill adherence of ⬍40%
was associated with a 3-fold higher incidence of hospitalization for HF than a refill adherence of ⱖ80%
(P⫽0.002). In multivariable analysis, prescription label–reading skills were associated with a lower incidence of HF-specific emergency care (incidence rate
ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.19 – 0.69), and participants with
adequate health literacy had a lower risk of hospitalization for HF (incidence rate ratio 0.34, 95% CI
0.15– 0.76).
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The timely care domain relates to reducing waits and
sometimes harmful delays for both those who receive and
those who give care. Timeliness is an important characteristic of any service and is a legitimate and valued focus of
improvement in health care and other industries.
analysis, (3) no or minimal incentive to provide poorquality care, and (4) no or proper attribution of the
measure. In the statement, 4 examples were provided of
hospital-based efficiency measures, as well as information
on how each of the measures fared within the 4 domains
recommended. The examples were length of stay, 30-day
readmission, hospitalization costs, and nonrecommended
imaging tests.30a
— At an urban, tertiary care, academic medical center ED,
elements of departmental work flow were redesigned to
streamline patient throughput before implementation of a
fully integrated ED information system with patient tracking, computerized charting and order entry, and direct
access to patient historical data from the hospital data
repository. Increasing the clinical information available at
the bedside and improving departmental work flow
through ED information system implementation and process redesign led to decreased patient throughput times
and improved ED efficiency (eg, the length of stay for all
patients [from arrival to time patient left the ED] decreased by 1.94 hours, from 6.69 [n⫽508] before the
intervention to 4.75 [n⫽691] after the intervention;
P⬍0.001).31
— Himmelstein et al 32 analyzed whether morecomputerized hospitals had lower costs of care or
administration or better quality to address a common
belief that computerization improves healthcare quality,
reduces costs, and increases administrative efficiency.
They found that hospitals that increased computerization faster had more rapid administrative cost increases
(P⫽0.0001); however, higher overall computerization
scores correlated weakly with better quality scores for
AMI (r⫽0.07, P⫽0.003) but not for HF, pneumonia, or
the 3 conditions combined. In multivariate analyses,
more-computerized hospitals had slightly better quality.
The authors concluded that hospital computing might
modestly improve process measures of quality but does
not reduce administrative or overall costs.
— Data from the CRUSADE national qualityimprovement initiative showed that median delay from
onset of symptoms to hospital presentation for patients
presenting with NSTEMI was 2.6 hours and was
significantly associated with in-hospital mortality but
did not change over time from 2001 to 2006.26
— Bradley et al27 demonstrated that participation in the
Door-to-Balloon (D2B) Alliance led to a reduction in
door-to-balloon time to within 90 minutes for patients with STEMI. By March 2008, ⬎75% of
patients had door-to-balloon times of ⱕ90 minutes
compared with only approximately one fourth of
patients in April 2005.
— Using data between 2005 and 2007 from the National
Cardiovascular Data Catheterization PCI registry,
Wang et al demonstrated that among STEMI patients,
only 10% of the transfer patients received PCI within
ⱕ90 minutes (versus 63% for direct-arrival patients;
P⬍0.0001).28
— Data on time to reperfusion for STEMI or ischemic
stroke are provided from national registries in Table
21-10.
— Among patients who experienced in-hospital cardiac
arrest and were enrolled in the AHA National Cardiopulmonary Registry (now GWTG-Resuscitation):
E
E
E
●
Chan et al29 demonstrated significant variation in
timely defibrillation (⬍2 minutes) for patients with
in-hospital cardiac arrest among 200 hospitals participating in the National Registry of Cardiopulmonary
Resuscitation. Adjusted rates of delayed defibrillation varied from 2.4% to 50.9% of in-hospital cardiac
arrests. The variations in defibrillation rates were
largely unexplained by traditional hospital factors.
Survival did not improve with use of an automated
external defibrillator compared with a manual
defibrillator.30
Among those who experienced pulseless in-hospital
cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm in
2010 (GWTG Investigators, unpublished data, June
20, 2011), 90.5% of adults and 87.5% of children
received a defibrillation attempt within 3 minutes.
Efficiency has been defined as avoiding waste, in particular
waste of equipment, supplies, ideas, and energy. In an
efficient healthcare system, resources are used to get the
best value for the money spent.
— The AHA and ACC have jointly developed a scientific
statement that outlines standards for measures to be used
for public reporting of efficiency in health care. The group
identified 4 standards important to the development of any
efficiency performance measure, including (1) integration
of quality and cost, (2) valid cost measurement and
●
Equitable care means the provision of care that does not vary
in quality because of personal characteristics such as sex,
ethnicity, geographic location, and socioeconomic status. The
aim of equity is to secure the benefits of quality health care for
all the people of the United States. With regard to equity in
caregiving, all individuals rightly expect to be treated fairly by
local institutions, including healthcare organizations.
— Chan et al33 demonstrated that rates of survival to discharge were lower for black patients (25.2%) than for
white patients (37.4%). Lower rates of survival to discharge for blacks reflected lower rates of both successful
resuscitation (55.8% versus 67.4%) and postresuscitation
survival (45.2% versus 55.5%). Adjustment for the hospital site at which patients received care explained a
substantial portion of the racial differences in successful
resuscitation (adjusted RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.88 – 0.96;
P⬍0.001) and eliminated the racial differences in postresuscitation survival (adjusted RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.92–1.06;
P⫽0.68). The authors concluded that much of the racial
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 21
—
—
—
—
difference was associated with the hospital center in
which black patients received care.
Cohen et al34 demonstrated that among hospitals engaged
in a national quality monitoring and improvement program, evidence-based care for AMI appeared to improve
over time for patients irrespective of race/ethnicity, and
differences in care by race/ethnicity care were reduced or
eliminated. They analyzed 142 593 patients with AMI
(121 528 whites, 10 882 blacks, and 10 183 Hispanics) at
443 hospitals participating in the GWTG-CAD program.
Overall, defect-free care was 80.9% for whites, 79.5% for
Hispanics (adjusted OR versus whites 1.00, 95% CI
0.94 –1.06; P⫽0.94), and 77.7% for blacks (adjusted OR
versus whites 0.93, 95% CI 0.87– 0.98; P⫽0.01). A
significant gap in defect-free care was observed for blacks
during the first half of the study but was no longer present
during the remainder of the study. Overall, progressive
improvements in defect-free care were observed regardless of race/ethnic groups.
According to NHANES 1999 –2006, 45% of adults had at
least 1 of 3 chronic conditions (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, or DM), 13% had 2 of these conditions, and
3% of adults had all 3 conditions. Non-Hispanic black
people were more likely than non-Hispanic white and
Mexican-American people to have at least 1 of the 3
conditions. In 15% of US adults, ⱖ1 of the 3 conditions is
undiagnosed.35
Thomas et al36 analyzed data among hospitals that
voluntarily participated in the AHA’s GWTG-HF program from January 2005 through December 2008. They
demonstrated that relative to white patients, Hispanic
and black patients hospitalized with HF were significantly younger (median age 78, 63, and 64 years,
respectively) but had lower EFs (mean EF 41.1%,
38.8%, and 35.7%, respectively) with a higher prevalence of DM (40.2%, 55.7%, and 43.8%, respectively)
and hypertension (70.6%, 78.4%, and 82.8%, respectively). The provision of guideline-based care was
comparable for white, black, and Hispanic patients.
Black (1.7%) and Hispanic (2.4%) patients had lower
in-hospital mortality than white patients (3.5%). Improvement in adherence to all-or-none HF measures
increased annually from year 1 to year 3 for all 3
racial/ethnic groups.36
GWTG data by race, sex, and ethnicity are provided in
Tables 21-11 through 21-13.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
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Table 21-1.
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Acute Coronary Syndrome Quality-of-Care Measures, 2010
Quality-of-Care Measure
VHA*
National Data From
HIQR Program†
ACTION-GWTG
STEMI‡
ACTION–GWTG
NSTEMI‡
Aspirin within 24 h of admission
99
98.6
98
96
Aspirin at discharge
99
98.6
99
97
␤-blockers within 24 h of admission, among AMI
and angina patients
97
R
NM
NM
␤-blockers at discharge
99
98.3
97
95
Lipid-lowering medication at discharge
NM
NM
95§
90§
Lipid therapy at discharge if LDL cholesterol ⬎100 mg/dL
98储
NM
NM
NM
ARB/ACEI at discharge for patients with LVEF ⬍40%
98
94.7
89
84
ACEI at discharge for AMI patients
NM
NM
78
70
Adult smoking cessation advice/counseling
99
98.5
99
98
Cardiac rehabilitation referral for AMI patients
NM
NM
82
70
VHA indicates Veterans Health Administration; HIQR, Hospital Inpatient Quality Reporting; ACTION-GWTG, Acute Coronary Treatment
and Intervention Outcomes Registry–Get With The Guidelines; STEMI, ST-elevation myocardial infarction; NSTEMI, non–ST-elevation
myocardial infarction; R, retired in 2009; AMI, acute myocardial infarction; NM, not measured; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; ARB,
angiotensin receptor blocker; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; and LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction.
Values are percentages.
*VHA: AMI patients.
†HIQR Program includes data from all payers, including Medicare and Medicaid.
‡ACTION Registry: STEMI and NSTEMI patients are reported separately. Patients must be admitted with acute ischemic symptoms
within the previous 24 hours, typically reflected by a primary diagnosis of STEMI or NSTEMI. Patients who are admitted for any other
clinical condition are not eligible.
§Denotes statin use at discharge. Use of any other lipid-lowering agent was 11% for STEMI patients and 14% for NSTEMI patients.
储Lipid-lowering therapy among patients with LDL cholesterol ⬎130 mg/dL.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 21
Table 21-2.
e199
HF Quality-of-Care Measures, 2010
National Data From
HIQR Program*
Quality-of-Care Measure
AHA GWTG-HF
VHA
LVEF assessment
97.8
98†
ARB/ACEI at discharge for patients with LVSD
94.7
94.2†
100
96
Complete discharge instructions
88.9
93.3†
97
Adult smoking cessation advice/counseling
98.5
99.3†
99
␤-blockers at discharge for patients with LVSD, no contraindications
NM
94.8†
NM
Anticoagulation for AF or atrial flutter, no contraindications
NM
70.2
95
HF indicates heart failure; HIQR, Hospital Inpatient Quality Reporting; AHA GWTG-HF, American Heart Association’s Get With The
Guidelines–Heart Failure; VHA, Veterans Health Administration; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; ARB/ACEI, angiotensin receptor
blocker/angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; LVSD, left ventricular systolic dysfunction; NM, not measured; and AF, atrial
fibrillation.
Values are percentages.
In the GWTG registry, mechanical ventilation was required in 3.0% of patients. In-hospital mortality rate was 3.0%, and mean length
of hospital stay was 5.5 days (median 4.0 days).
*HIQR Program includes data from all payers, including Medicare and Medicaid.
†Indicates the 5 key performance measures targeted in GWTG-HF. The composite quality-of-care measure for 2010 was 95.7%.
The composite quality-of-care measure indicates performance on the provision of several elements of care. It is computed by
summing the numerators for each key performance measure across the population of interest to create a composite numerator (all
the care that was given), summing the denominators for each measure to form a composite denominator (all the care that should
have been given), and reporting the ratio (the percentage of all the needed care that was given).
Table 21-3.
Time Trends in GWTG-ACS Quality-of-Care Measures, 2006 –2010
Quality-of-Care Measure
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010*
Aspirin within 24 h of admission
94.7
92.8
91.2
90.9
97
Aspirin at discharge
94.4
95.8
94.9
95.5
98
96
␤-blockers at discharge
92.8
94.6
94.5
94.9
Lipid-lowering medication at discharge
84.5
85.6
81.6
86.8
92
Lipid therapy at discharge if LDL cholesterol ⬎100 mg/dL
89.1
90.7
91.9
92.5
NM
ARB/ACEI at discharge for patients with LVEF ⬍40%
87.3
91.1
91.9
91.9
86
ACEI at discharge for AMI patients
72.6
71.0
66.6
65.9
73
Adult smoking cessation advice/counseling
94.3
97.4
98.4
98.4
98
Cardiac rehabilitation referral for AMI patients
71.1
63.6
52.0
49.1
75
GWTG-ACS indicates Get With The Guidelines–Acute Coronary Syndrome; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; NM, not measured; ARB/ACEI, angiotensin receptor
blocker/angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; and AMI, acute myocardial infarction.
Values are percentages.
*Measures from 2006 –2009 are from the American Heart Association (AHA) GWTG-Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) registry. 2010 Measures are from the AHA
ACTION registry (Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Registry; the AHA’s GWTG-CAD has now merged into the ACTION registry).
In the ACTION registry, the unadjusted in-hospital mortality rate for 2010 was 4.8% (95% confidence interval 4.6% to 4.9%; excludes transfer-out patients).
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Circulation
Table 21-4.
January 3/10, 2012
Time Trends in GWTG-HF Quality-of-Care Measures, 2006 –2010
Quality-of-Care Measure
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
LVEF assessment*
93.8
96.2
96.8
98.2
98
94.2
ARB/ACEI at discharge for patients with LVSD*
85.5
89.1
91.6
93.0
Complete discharge instructions*
78.8
84.8
88.5
90.9
93.3
Adult smoking cessation advice/counseling*
90.8
94.7
97.1
97.6
99.3
␤-blockers at discharge for patients with LVSD, no contraindications*
89.9
90.2
92.5
92.7
94.8
Anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, no contraindications
62.9
61.6
60.7
68.9
70.2
GWTG-HF indicates Get With The Guidelines–Heart Failure; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; ARB/ACEI, angiotensin receptor blocker/angiotensin-converting
enzyme inhibitor; and LVSD, left ventricular systolic dysfunction.
Values are percentages.
In the GWTG registry, mechanical ventilation was required in 3.5% of patients. In-hospital mortality was 3.0%, and mean length of hospital stay was 5.5 days
(median 4.0 days).
*Indicates the 5 key achievement measures targeted in GWTG-HF. The composite quality-of-care measure for 2010 was 95.7%. The composite quality-of-care
measure indicates performance on the provision of several elements of care. It is computed by summing the numerators for each key achievement measure across
the population of interest to create a composite numerator (all the care that was given), summing the denominators for each measure to form a composite denominator
(all the care that should have been given), and reporting the ratio (the percentage of all the needed care that was given).
Table 21-5.
Time Trends in GWTG-Stroke Quality-of-Care Measures, 2006 –2010
Quality-of-Care Measure
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
IV tPA in patients who arrived ⱕ2 h after symptom onset, treated in ⱕ3 h*
55.8
60.2
63.9
73.1
76.2
IV tPA in patients who arrived ⬍3.5 h after symptom onset, treated in
ⱕ4.5 h†
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
42.5
IV tPA door-to-needle time ⱕ60 min
22.5
24.9
25.9
28.0
29.5
Thrombolytic complications: IV tPA and life-threatening, serious systemic
hemorrhage
20.8
17.3
16.1
15.1
13.1
Antithrombotics ⬍48 h after admission*
94.8
95.8
96.0
96.2
96.3
DVT prophylaxis by second hospital day*
85.3
88.9
92.2
92.7
92.2
Antithrombotics at discharge*
94.1
95.1
97.0
97.8
97.7
Anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation at discharge*
88.2
89.5
93.1
93.5
93.5
Therapy at discharge if LDL cholesterol ⬎100 mg/dL or LDL cholesterol not
measured or on therapy at admission*
70.3
76.3
82.1
86.2
88.1
Counseling for smoking cessation*
86.1
92.2
94.3
96.2
96.7
Lifestyle changes recommended for BMI ⬎25 kg/m2
42.5
45.7
51.7
57.3
57.8
Composite quality-of-care measure
85.9
88.9
91.7
93.3
93.7
GWTG-Stroke indicates Get With The Guidelines–Stroke; IV, intravenous; tPA, tissue-type plasminogen activator; N/A, not applicable; DVT, deep venous thrombosis;
LDL, low-density lipoprotein; and BMI, body mass index.
Values are percentages.
In-hospital mortality for the 2010 patient population was 6.6% percent, and mean length of hospital stay was 4.9 days (median 3.0 days).
*Indicates the 7 key achievement measures targeted in GWTG-Stroke.
†New quality measure subsequent to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study III.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 21
Table 21-6. Additional ACTION-GWTG Quality-of-Care Metrics
for ACS Care (2010)
Quality Metrics
Overall
STEMI
NSTEMI
ECG within 10 min of
arrival
61
73
55
Aspirin within 24 h of
arrival
97
98
96
Any anticoagulant use*
93
95
91
UFH dose
54
55
54
Enoxaparin dose
e201
Table 21-7. National Committee for Quality Assurance Health
Plan Employer Data and Information Set Measures of Care
Commercial
Medicare
Medicaid
74.4
82.6
76.6
AMI
␤-blocker persistence*
Cholesterol management
for patients with
cardiovascular disease
Dosing error
Cholesterol screening
88.4
88.4
80.7
LDL cholesterol control
(⬍100 mg/dL)
59.2
55.7
41.2
64.1
59.8
55.3
12
12
12
GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor
dose
8
8
8
ADP receptor inhibitor†
on discharge
82
93
74
HbA1c testing
89.2
89.6
80.6
Prescribed statins on
discharge
92
95
90
HbA1c ⬎9.0%
28.2
28
44.9
Adult smoking
cessation
advice/counseling
98
98
Eye examination
performed
56.5
63.5
52.7
LDL cholesterol screening
85
87.3
74.2
LDL cholesterol ⬍100
mg/dL
47
50
33.5
Hypertension
BP ⬍140/90 mm Hg
99
Cardiac rehabilitation
referral
75
82
70
In-hospital mortality‡
(95% CI)
4.8 (4.6–4.9)
5.9 (5.7–6.2)
4 (3.8–4.1)
ACTION-GWTG indicates Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Registry–Get With The Guidelines; ACS, acute coronary syndrome;
STEMI, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; NSTEMI, non–ST-segment
elevation myocardial infarction; UFH, unfractionated heparin; GP, glycoprotein;
ADP, adenosine diphosphate; and CI, confidence interval.
Values are percentages.
*Includes UFH, low-molecular-weight heparin, bivalirudin, or fondaparinux
use.
†Includes clopidogrel or prasugrel.
‡Excludes transfer-out patients.
DM
Monitoring nephropathy
82.9
88.6
76.9
BP ⬍130/80 mm Hg
33.9
33.3
32.2
BP ⬍140/90 mm Hg
65.1
60.5
59.8
Advising smokers to quit
79.5
77.9
74.3
BMI percentile assessment
in children and adolescents
35.4
N/A
30.3
Nutrition counseling (children
and adolescents)
41
N/A
41.9
Counseling for physical
activity (children and
adolescents)
36.5
N/A
32.5
BMI assessment for adults
41.3
38.8
34.6
Physical activity discussion
in older adults (ⱖ65 y)
N/A
51.3
N/A
AMI indicates acute myocardial infarction; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; BP,
blood pressure; DM, diabetes mellitus; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; BMI, body mass
index; and N/A, not available or not applicable.
Values are percentages.
*␤-Blocker persistence: Received persistent ␤-blocker treatment for 6
months after AMI hospital discharge.
Table 21-8.
Quality of Care for Out-of-Hospital Resuscitation
Bystander CPR,
% (95% CI)
Time to First EMS
Defibrillator Turned
On, Mean (SD), min
EMS-treated, nontraumatic
cardiac arrest
41.0 (39.7– 42.3)
8.7 (4.6)
Bystander-witnessed VF
60.2 (56.6–63.9)
7.6 (3.2)
CPR indicates cardiopulmonary resuscitation; CI, confidence interval; EMS,
emergency medical services; SD, standard deviation; and VF, ventricular
fibrillation.
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Circulation
Table 21-9.
of Children
January 3/10, 2012
Quality of Care for Out-of-Hospital Resuscitation
Bystander CPR,
% (95% CI)
Time to First EMS
Defibrillator Turned
On, Mean (SD), min
EMS-treated, nontraumatic
cardiac arrest
56.3 (49.8 – 62.8)
8.8 (3.6)
Bystander-witnessed VF
75.0 (45.0–100)
7.2 (1.2)
CPR indicates cardiopulmonary resuscitation; CI, confidence interval; EMS,
emergency medical services; SD, standard deviation; and VF, ventricular
fibrillation.
Table 21-10.
Timely Reperfusion for ACS and Stroke 2010
VHA*
National Data From
HIQR Program†
ACTION-GWTG STEMI‡
GWTG-Stroke
tPA within 30 min
58§
57.1
62
N/A
Percutaneous coronary intervention within 90 min
67
90.4
91
N/A
IV tPA in patients who arrived ⱕ2 h after
symptom onset, treated in ⱕ3 h
N/A
N/A
N/A
76.2
IV tPA in patients who arrived ⬍3.5 h after
symptom onset, treated in ⱕ4.5 h
N/A
N/A
N/A
42.5
IV tPA door-to-needle time ⱕ60 min
N/A
N/A
N/A
29.5
Quality-of-Care Measure
STEMI
Stroke
ACS indicates acute coronary syndrome; VHA, Veterans Health Administration; HIQR, Hospital Inpatient Quality Reporting; ACTION-GWTG, Acute Coronary Treatment
and Intervention Outcomes Registry–Get With The Guidelines; STEMI, ST-elevation myocardial infarction; GWTG-Stroke, Get With The Guidelines–Stroke; tPA,
tissue-type plasminogen activator; N/A, not applicable; and IV, intravenous.
Values are percentages.
*VHA: acute myocardial infarction patients.
†HIQR Program includes data from all payers, including Medicare and Medicaid.
‡ACTION Registry: STEMI and NSTEMI patients are reported separately. Patients must be admitted with acute ischemic symptoms within the previous 24 hours,
typically reflected by a primary diagnosis of STEMI or NSTEMI. Patients who are admitted for any other clinical condition are not eligible.
§Indicates low number.
Table 21-11.
Quality of Care by Race/Ethnicity and Sex in the ACTION Registry, 2010
Quality-of-Care Measure
Aspirin at admission
White
Black
Other
Men
Women
98
97
97
98
97
Aspirin at discharge
98
97
97
98
97
␤-blockers at discharge
96
95
95
96
95
Time to PCI ⱕ90 min for STEMI patients
93
88
91
93
91
ARB/ACEI at discharge for patients with LVEF ⬍40%
86
86
86
86
86
Statins at discharge
98
97
98
98
97
ACTION indicates Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; STEMI, ST-elevation myocardial
infarction; ARB/ACEI angiotensin receptor blocker/angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; and LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction.
Values are percentages.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 21
Table 21-12.
e203
Quality of Care by Race/Ethnicity and Sex in the GWTG-HF Program
Quality-of-Care Measure
White
Black
Hispanic
Men
Women
Complete set of discharge instructions*
92.8
93.8
93.3
93.6
92.9
Measure of LV function*
98.9
97.0
98.3
98.0
97.9
ACEI or ARB at discharge for patients with LVSD, no contraindications*
93.2
95.5
94.9
93.8
94.4
Smoking cessation counseling, current smokers*
99.2
99.6
99.3
99.3
99.3
␤-blockers at discharge for patients with LVSD, no contraindications*
94.7
95.3
94.7
95.1
94.5
13.5†
10.7†
Anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, no contraindications
74.7
68.2
69.2
72.0
68.1
Composite quality-of-care measure
95.9
95.9
95.8
95.7
95.6
Hydralazine/nitrates at discharge for patients with LVSD, no contraindications
12.5
GWTG-HF indicates Get With The Guidelines–Heart Failure; LV, left ventricular; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker;
and LVSD, LV systolic dysfunction.
Values are percentages.
*Indicates the 5 key achievement measures targeted in GWTG-HF.
†For black patients only.
Table 21-13.
Quality of Care by Race/Ethnicity and Sex in the GWTG-Stroke Program
Quality-of-Care Measure
White
Black
Hispanic
Male
Female
IV tPA in patients who arrived ⱕ2 h after symptom onset, treated in ⱕ3 h*
76.0
75.4
77.5
76.0
76.4
IV tPA in patients who arrived ⬍3.5 h after symptom onset, treated in ⱕ4.5 h
41.6
43.1
47.8
43.3
41.7
IV tPA door-to-needle time ⱕ60 min
29.3
27.3
32.8
31.8
27.3
Thrombolytic complications: IV tPA and life-threatening, serious systemic
hemorrhage
12.3
16.0
15.2
13.5
12.8
Antithrombotics ⬍48 h after admission*
96.6
95.9
95.5
96.7
96.1
DVT prophylaxis by second hospital day*
92.2
92.4
91.1
92.5
91.9
Antithrombotics at discharge*
97.9
97.2
96.9
98.0
97.4
Anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation at discharge*
93.6
92.9
93.4
94.0
93.1
Therapy at discharge if LDL ⬎100 mg/dL or LDL not measured or on therapy
at admission*
88.0
88.6
87.9
90.2
86.3
Counseling for smoking cessation*
96.8
96.7
95.6
96.7
96.6
Lifestyle changes recommended for BMI ⬎25 kg/m2
57.5
57.9
61.3
58.2
57.4
Composite quality-of-care measure
93.8
93.8
93.0
94.4
93.1
GWTG-Stroke indicates Get With The Guidelines–Stroke; IV, intravenous; tPA, tissue-type plasminogen activator; DVT, deep venous thrombosis; LDL, low-density
lipoprotein; and BMI, body mass index.
Values are percentages.
*Indicates the 7 key performance measures targeted in GWTG-Stroke.
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22. Medical Procedures
— Adjusted for age and sex, the overall rate for coronary
revascularization declined from 382 to 358 per
100 000. PCI rates during hospitalization increased
from 264 to 267 per 100 000, whereas CABG rates
declined from 121 to 94.
See Tables 22-1 and 22-2 and Charts 22-1 through 22-3.
●
The total number of inpatient cardiovascular operations
and procedures increased 22%, from 6 133 000 in 1999 to
7 453 000 in 2009 (NHLBI computation based on NCHS
annual data). Data from the NHDS were examined for
trends from 1990 to 2004 for use of PCI and CABG and
in-hospital mortality rate attributable to PCI and CABG by
sex.1
— Discharge rates (per 10 000 population) for PCI increased 58%, from 37.2 in 1990 to 1992 to 59.2 in 2002
to 2004.
— Discharge rates for CABG increased from 34.1 in 1990
to 1992 to 38.6 in 1996 to 1998, then declined to 25.2
in 2002 to 2004.
— In 1990 to 1992, discharge rates for CABG were 53.5
for males and 18.1 for females; these rates increased
through 1996 –1998, then declined to 38.8 and 13.6,
respectively, in 2002 to 2004. The magnitude of these
declines decreased by age decile and were essentially
flat for both men and women 75 years of age.
— PCI discharge rates increased from 54.5 for males and
23.0 for females to 83.0 and 38.7 over the 15-year time
interval. In 2002 to 2004, discharge rates for men and
women 65 to 74 years of age were 135.1 and 64.0,
respectively. For those 75 years of age, the rates were
128.7 and 69.0, respectively.
— In-hospital mortality rate (deaths per 100 CABG discharges) declined from 4.3 to 3.5 in 2002 to 2004
despite an increase in Charlson comorbidity index. The
mortality rate declined in all age and sex subsets, but
especially in women.
●
Data from the Acute Care Tracker database were used to
estimate the population-based rates per 100 000 population
for PCI and CABG procedures from 2002 to 2005, standardized to the 2005 US population2:
●
— In 1992, among women, the age-standardized rates of
carotid endarterectomy were 1.59 per 1000 enrollees
for whites and 0.64 per 1000 enrollees for blacks. By
2002, the rates were 2.42 per 1000 enrollees among
white women and 1.15 per 1000 enrollees among black
women. For men, the difference in rates between whites
and blacks remained the same. In 1992, the rates were
3.13 per 1000 enrollees among white men and 0.82 per
1000 enrollees among black men; in 2001, the rates
were 4.42 and 1.44, respectively.
Cardiac Catheterization and PCI
●
●
●
●
●
●
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 22
AHA
American Heart Association
CABG
coronary artery bypass graft
CHF
congestive heart failure
D2B
door-to-balloon
GWTG-CAD
Get With The Guidelines–Coronary Artery Disease
HD
heart disease
ICD-9-CM
International Classification of Diseases, 9th
Revision, Clinical Modification
NCHS
National Center for Health Statistics
NHDS
National Hospital Discharge Survey
NHLBI
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
PCI
percutaneous coronary intervention
STEMI
ST-elevation myocardial infarction
TOF
tetralogy of Fallot
Data from men and women enrolled in Medicare from 1992
to 2001 suggest that efforts to eliminate racial disparities in
the use of high-cost cardiovascular procedures (PCI,
CABG, and carotid endarterectomy) were unsuccessful.3
From 1999 to 2009, the number of cardiac catheterizations
decreased slightly, from 1 271 000 to 1 072 000 annually
(NHLBI tabulation, NHDS, NCHS).
In 2009, an estimated 596 000 patients underwent PCI
(previously referred to as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, or PTCA) procedures in the United States
(NHLBI tabulation, NHDS, NCHS).
In 2009, ⬇66% of PCI procedures were performed on men,
and ⬇53% were performed on people ⱖ65 years of age
(NHDS, NCHS).
In-hospital death rates for PCI have remained stable although comorbidities increased for patients who received
the procedure.1
In 2006, ⬇76% of stents implanted during PCI were
drug-eluting stents compared with 24% that were baremetal stents.4
In a study of nontransferred patients with STEMI treated
with primary PCI from July 2006 to March 2008, there was
significant improvement over time in the percentage of
patients receiving PCI within 90 minutes, from 54.1% from
July to September 2006 to 74.1% from January to March
2008, among hospitals participating in the GWTG-CAD
program. This improvement was seen whether or not
hospitals joined the D2B Alliance during that period.5
Cardiac Open Heart Surgery
The NHDS (NCHS) estimates that in 2009, in the United
States, 242 000 patients underwent a total of 416 000 coronary artery bypass procedures (defined by procedure codes).
CABG volumes have declined nationally since 1998. Riskadjusted mortality for CABG has declined significantly over
the past decade.
●
Data from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons’ National
Adult Cardiac Database, which voluntarily collects data
from ⬇80% of all hospitals that perform CABG in the
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 22
●
United States, indicate that a total of 158 008 procedures
involved CABG in 2010.6
Data from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons’ National
Adult Cardiac Database document a 50% decline in the
risk-adjusted mortality rate despite a significant increase in
preoperative surgical risk.7
Congenital Heart Surgery, 2006 to 2010 (From the
Society of Thoracic Surgeons)
There were 103 664 procedures performed from July 2006 to
June 2010. The in-hospital mortality rate was 3.2% in 2010.
The 5 most common diagnoses were the following: patent
ductus arteriosus (7.4%); hypoplastic left heart syndrome
(6.9%); ventricular septal defect, type 2 (6.3%); cardiac, other
(5.3%); and TOF (4.9%).8
Congenital Heart Surgery, 1998 to 2002 (From
Society of Thoracic Surgeons)
There were 16 920 procedures performed from 1998 to 2002
at 18 centers. In 2002, there were 4208 procedures performed.
The in-hospital mortality rate ranged from 5.7% in 1998 to
4.3% in 2002. Of these procedures, ⬇46% were performed in
children ⬎1 year old, ⬇32% in infants between 29 days and
1 year of age, and ⬇22% in neonates (⬍29 days old). The
conditions for which these procedures were most commonly
performed were the following: patent ductus arteriosus
(6.5%), ventricular septal defect (6.4%), and TOF (6.0%).
Heart Transplantations
In 2010, 2333 heart transplantations were performed in the
United States. There were 272 transplant hospitals in the United
States, 132 of which performed heart transplantations (based on
Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data as of
June 8, 2011).
●
●
Of the recipients in 2010, 73.0% were male, and 67.0%
were white; 19.9% were black, whereas 8.5% were Hispanic; 25.0% were ⬍35 years of age, 18.4% were 35 to 49
years of age, and 56.6% were ⱖ50 years of age.
As of June 3, 2011, for transplants that occurred between
1997 and 2004, the 1-year survival rate for males was
88.0%, and for females, it was 86.2%; the 3-year rates were
79.3% for males and 77.2% for females; and the 5-year
rates were 73.2% for males and 69.0% for females. The 1-,
3-, and 5-year survival rates for white cardiac transplant
patients were 87.6%, 79.7%, and 73.3%, respectively. For
black patients, they were 86.2%, 73.1%, and 64.0%,
respectively. For Hispanic patients, they were 88.9%,
78.7%, and 73.1%, respectively.
●
e205
As of June 8, 2011, 3183 patients were on the transplant
waiting list for a heart transplant, and 66 patients were on
the list for a heart/lung transplant.
Cardiovascular Healthcare Expenditures
An analysis of claims and enrollment data from the Continuous Medicare History Sample and from physician claims
from 1995 to 2004 was used to evaluate the conditions that
contributed to the most expensive 5% of Medicare
beneficiaries.9
●
Ischemic HD, CHF, and cerebrovascular disease, respectively, constituted 13.8%, 5.9%, and 5.7% of the conditions
of all beneficiaries in 2004. In patients in the top 5%
overall for all expenditures, the respective figures were
39.1%, 32.7%, and 22.3% for these cardiovascular
conditions.
References
1. Holmes JS, Kozak LJ, Owings MF. Use and in-hospital mortality associated with two cardiac procedures, by sex and age: national trends,
1990 –2004. Health Aff (Millwood). 2007;26:169 –177.
2. Nallamothu BK, Young J, Gurm HS, Pickens G, Safavi K. Recent trends
in hospital utilization for acute myocardial infarction and coronary revascularization in the United States. Am J Cardiol. 2007;99:749 –753.
3. Jha AK, Fisher ES, Li Z, Orav EJ, Epstein AM. Racial trends in the use
of major procedures among the elderly. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:
683– 691.
4. US Food and Drug Administration, Circulatory System Devices Panel.
Meeting minutes, December 8, 2006, Washington, DC. http://www.fda.gov/
ohrms/dockets/ac/06/transcripts/2006-4253t2.rtf. Accessed July 25, 2011.
5. Nallamothu BK, Krumholz HM, Peterson ED, Pan W, Bradley E, Stern
AF, Masoudi FA, Janicke DM, Hernandez AF, Cannon CP, Fonarow GC;
D2B Alliance and the American Heart Association Get-With-TheGuidelines Investigators. Door-to-balloon times in hospitals within the
Get-With-The-Guidelines registry after initiation of the Door-to-Balloon
(D2B) Alliance. Am J Cardiol. 2009;103:1051–1055.
6. Society of Thoracic Surgeons. STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database: executive
summary: 10 years. http://www.sts.org/sites/default/files/documents/2011%
20-%20Adult%20Cardiac%20Surgery%20-1stHarvestExecutiveSummary.
pdf. Accessed July 25, 2011.
7. Ferguson TB Jr, Hammill BG, Peterson ED, DeLong ER, Grover FL; STS
National Database Committee. A decade of change: risk profiles and
outcomes for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting procedures,
1990 –1999: a report from the STS National Database Committee and the
Duke Clinical Research Institute. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;73:480 – 489.
8. Society of Thoracic Surgeons. STS congenital heart surgery data
summary, July 2006 –June 2010 procedures, all patients. http://www.sts.
org/sites/default/files/documents/STSCONG-AllPatientsSummary_Fall
2010.pdf. Accessed July 18, 2011.
9. Riley GF. Long-term trends in the concentration of Medicare spending.
Health Aff (Millwood). 2007;26:808 – 816.
10. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. HCUPnet. http://www.hcup.ahrq.gov/HCUPnet.jsp.
Accessed July 25, 2011.
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Table 22–1. 2009 National Healthcare Cost and Utilization
Project Statistics: Mean Hospital Charges and In-Hospital
Death Rates and Mean Length of Stay for Various
Cardiovascular Procedures
Procedure
Total vascular and cardiac
surgery and procedures
Cardiac revascularization
(bypass)
Mean Hospital
Charges, $
In-Hospital
Death Rate, %
Mean Length
of Stay, d
66 703
2.89
6.0
124 404
1.75
9.1
PCI
60 309
0.95
2.9
Diagnostic cardiac
catheterization
36 905
0.90
3.7
Pacemakers
Implantable defibrillators
Endarterectomy
61 015
1.21
4.9
134 904
0.62
5.1
32 689
0.38
2.5
Valves
171 270
3.90
11.0
Heart transplantations
540 125
4.81
44.0
PCI indicates percutaneous coronary intervention.
Data derived from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality,
Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project.10
Table 22–2. Estimated* Inpatient Cardiovascular Operations, Procedures, and Patient Data by Sex and Age: United States, 2009
(in Thousands)
Sex
Operation/Procedure/Patients
Valves
Angioplasty
PCI (patients)
PCI
Male
Age, y
139
36.0, 00.66
1133
745
388
...
55
471
608
36.06, 36.07, 00.66
596
394
202
...
29
249
319
58
3†
15– 44 y
12
45– 64 y
ⱖ65 y
All
35.1, 35.2, 35.99
81
Female
⬍15 y
ICD-9-CM Procedure Codes
34
89
00.66
605
400
205
...
29
255
321
36.06, 36.07
528
345
183
...
26
216
287
Cardiac revascularization‡
36.1–36.3
416
305
111
...
14
162
240
Cardiac revascularization (patients)
36.1–36.3
242
175
67
...
91
144
PCI with stents
Cardiac catheterization
8†
37.21–37.23
1072
622
449
5†
80
450
537
37.7, 37.8, 00.50, 00.53
397
193
204
4†
18
47
328
Pacemaker devices
(37.8, 00.53)
174
83
91
2†
19
149
Pacemaker leads
(37.7, 00.50)
223
110
113
2†
28
179
37.94–37.99, 00.51, 00.54
116
86
30
2†
38.12
93
52
41
...
7453
4154
3299
252
Pacemakers
Implantable defibrillators
Endarterectomy
Total vascular and cardiac surgery and
procedures§㛳
35–39, 00.50–00.51, 00.53–00.55, 00.61–00.66
4†
14
8†
43
65
...
21
72
715
2600
3886
ICD-9-CM indicates International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; and ellipses (. . .), data not
available.
These data do not reflect any procedures performed on an outpatient basis. Many more procedures are being performed on an outpatient basis. Some of the lower
numbers in this table compared with 2006 probably reflect this trend. Data include procedures performed on newborn infants.
*Breakdowns are not available for some procedures, so entries for some categories do not add to totals. These data include codes for which the estimated number
of procedures is ⬍5000. Categories with such small numbers are considered unreliable by the National Center for Health Statistics and in some cases may have been
omitted.
†Estimate should be used with caution because it may be unreliable or does not meet standards of reliability or precision.
‡Because ⱖ1 procedure codes are required to describe the specific bypass procedure performed, it is impossible from these (mixed) data to determine the average
number of grafts per patient.
§Totals include procedures not shown here.
㛳This estimate includes angioplasty and stent insertions for noncoronary arteries.
Data derived from the National Hospital Discharge Survey/National Center for Health Statistics, 2009. Estimates are based on a sample of inpatient records from
short-stay hospitals in the United States.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 22
e207
2,500
2,363
2,333
2,199
2,125
2,107
Number of Transplants
2,000
1,500
1,000
719
500
22
57
0
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
Years
Chart 22-1. Trends in heart transplantations (United Network for Organ Sharing: 1975–2010). Source: United Network for Organ Sharing,
scientific registry data.
1400
1200
Procedures in Thousands
1000
800
600
400
200
0
1979
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2009
Years
Catheterizations
Bypass
PCI
Carotid Endarterectomy
Pacemakers
Chart 22-2. Trends in cardiovascular procedures, United States: 1979 –2009. PCI indicates percutaneous coronary intervention. Note:
Inpatient procedures only. Source: National Hospital Discharge Survey, National Center for Health Statistics, and National Heart, Lung,
and Blood Institute.
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Obstetrical 72-75
7.3
Cardiovascular 35-39
6.7
Digestive System 42-54
6.1
Musculoskeletal 76-84
4.9
Female Genital Organs 65-71
1.7
Integumentary System 85-86
1.4
Respiratory System 30-34
1.3
Nervous System 01-05
1.3
Urinary System 55-59
1.1
Hemic and Lymphatic 40-41
0.4
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Millions of Discharges
Chart 22-3. Number of surgical procedures in the 10 leading diagnostic groups, United States: 2009. Source: National Hospital
Discharge Survey/National Center for Health Statistics and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 23
23. Economic Cost of Cardiovascular Disease
See Tables 23-1 and 23-2 and Charts 23-1 through 23-4.
The annual direct and indirect cost of CVD and stroke in the
United States is an estimated $297.7 billion (Table 23-1;
Chart 23-1). This figure includes $179 billion in expenditures
(direct costs, which include the cost of physicians and other
professionals, hospital services, prescribed medication, and
home health care, but not the cost of nursing home care) and
$118.5 billion in lost future productivity attributed to premature CVD and stroke mortality in 2008 (indirect costs).
The direct costs for CVD and stroke are the healthcare
expenditures for 2008 available on the Web site of the
nationally representative MEPS of the Agency for Healthcare
Research and Quality.1 Details on the advantages or disadvantages of using MEPS data are provided in the Heart
Disease and Stroke Statistics–2011 Update.2 Indirect mortality costs are estimated for 2008 by multiplying the number of
deaths that year attributable to CVD and strokes, in age and
sex groups, by estimates of the present value of lifetime
earnings for those age and sex groups as of 2008. Mortality
data are from the National Vital Statistics System of the NCHS.3
The present values of lifetime earnings are unpublished estimates furnished by the Institute on Health and Aging, University
of California at San Francisco, by Wendy Max, PhD, on April
18, 2011. Those estimates have a 3% discount rate, the recommended percentage.4 The discount rate removes the effect of
inflation in income over the lifetime of earnings. The estimates
are for 2007, inflated to 2008 by 3% to account for the 2007 to
2008 change in hourly worker compensation in the business
sector reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.5
The indirect costs exclude lost productivity costs attributable to CVD and stroke illness during 2008 among workers,
people keeping house, people in institutions, and people
unable to work. Those morbidity costs were substantial in
very old studies, but an adequate update could not be made.
Most Costly Diseases
CVD and stroke accounted for 16% of total health expenditures in 2008, more than any major diagnostic group.1,6 That
is also the case for indirect mortality costs. By way of
comparison, CVD total direct and indirect costs shown in
Table 23-1 are higher than the official National Cancer
Institute estimates for cancer and benign neoplasms in 2008,
which were cited as $228 billion total ($93 billion in direct
Abbreviations Used in Chapter 23
AHA
American Heart Association
CHD
coronary heart disease
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CVD
cardiovascular disease
HBP
high blood pressure
HD
heart disease
HF
heart failure
MEPS
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey
NCHS
National Center for Health Statistics
e209
costs, $19 billion in indirect morbidity costs, and $116 billion
in indirect mortality costs).7
Table 23-2 shows direct and indirect costs for CVD by sex
and by 2 broad age groups. Chart 23-2 shows total direct costs
for the 14 leading chronic diseases in the MEPS list. HD is
the most costly condition.1
Projections
The AHA developed methodology to project future costs of
care for HBP, CHD, HF, stroke, and all other CVD.8 By
2030, 40.5% of the US population is projected to have some
form of CVD.8 Between 2012 and 2030, total direct medical
costs of CVD are projected to triple, from $309 billion to
$834 billion. Indirect costs (attributable to lost productivity)
for all CVDs are estimated to increase from $185 billion in
2012 to $284 billion in 2030, an increase of 53%. Charts 23-3
and 23-4 show further detail of projected total costs of CVD.
These data indicate that CVD prevalence and costs are projected
to increase substantially. It is important to underscore that
differences exist between these estimates and those stated above.
These apparent discrepancies largely reflect methodological
differences and emphasize that the importance of cost projections resides in the documentation of profoundly adverse
trends, which constitute an urgent call to action and must be
reversed, rather than in the calculation of precise numbers.
References
1. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel
Survey. Table 3: total expenses and percent distribution for selected conditions by type of service: United States, 2008. http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/
mepsweb/data_stats/tables_compendia_hh_interactive.jsp?_SERVICE⫽
MEPSSocket0&_PROGRAM⫽MEPSPGM.TC.SAS&File⫽HCFY2008&
Table⫽HCFY2008%5FCNDXP%5FC&_Debug⫽. Accessed May 16, 2011.
2. Roger VL, Go AS, Lloyd-Jones DM, Adams RJ, Berry JD, Brown TM,
Carnethon MR, Dai S, de Simone G, Ford ES, Fox CS, Fullerton HJ,
Gillespie C, Greenlund KJ, Hailpern SM, Heit JA, Ho PM, Howard VJ,
Kissela BM, Kittner SJ, Lackland DT, Lichtman JH, Lisabeth LD, Makuc
DM, Marcus GM, Marelli A, Matchar DB, McDermott MM, Meigs JB, Moy
CS, Mozaffarian D, Mussolino ME, Nichol G, Paynter NP, Rosamond WD,
Sorlie PD, Stafford RS, Turan TN, Turner MB, Wong ND, Wylie-Rosett J;
on behalf of the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke
Statistics Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics–2011 update: a report
from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123:e18–e209.
3. National Center for Health Statistics. Public use data sets for final US
2008 mortality tabulated by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Mortality multiple cause-of-death public use record. http://www.cdc.gov/
nchs/data/dvs/Record_Layout_2008.pdf. Accessed November 23, 2011.
4. Gold MR, Siegel JE, Russell LB, Weinstein MC, eds. Cost-Effectiveness
in Health and Medicine. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1996.
5. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Compensation Levels and Trends.
Employment Cost Index, Historical Listing: Continuous Occupational and
Industry Series: September 1975–March 2011 (December 2005⫽100). Table
4: employment cost index for total compensation, for civilian workers, by
occupation and industry: Continuous Occupational and Industry Series.
http://www.bls.gov/web/eci/ecicois.pdf. Accessed May 31, 2011.
6. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Medical Expenditure Panel
Survey. Household component summary tables. Table 1: total health
services: median and mean expenses per person with expense and distribution of expenses by source of payment: United States, 2008. http://www.meps.
ahrq.gov/mepsweb/data_stats/tables_compendia_hh_interactive.jsp? Accessed
November 23, 2011.
7. American Cancer Society. Economic impact of cancer. http://www.cancer.org/
Cancer/CancerBasics/economic-impact-of-cancer. Accessed May 25, 2011.
8. Heidenreich PA, Trogdon JG, Khavjou OA, Butler J, Dracup K, Ezekowitz
MD, Finkelstein EA, Hong Y, Johnston SC, Khera A, Lloyd-Jones DM,
Nelson SA, Nichol G, Orenstein D, Wilson PW, Woo YJ. Forecasting the
future of cardiovascular disease in the United States: a policy statement from
the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123:933–944.
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January 3/10, 2012
Table 23-1.
Estimated Direct and Indirect Costs (in Billions of Dollars) of CVD and Stroke: United States, 2008
Heart
Disease*
Stroke
Hypertensive
Disease†
Other Circulatory
Conditions
Total Cardiovascular
Disease
54.0
9.1
6.2
10.4
79.7
7.3
0.9
1.7
0.9
10.8
36.4
Direct costs‡
Hospital inpatient stays
Hospital emergency department visits
Hospital outpatient or office-based provider visits
16.9
1.8
13.0
4.7
Home health care
7.6
5.8
5.1
0.9
19.4
Prescribed medicines
9.7
1.2
21.3
0.7
32.9
95.5
18.8
47.3
17.6
179.2
Total expenditures
Indirect costs§
Lost productivity/mortality㛳
Grand totals
94.8
15.5
3.3
4.9
118.5
190.3
34.3
50.6
22.5
297.7
CVD indicates cardiovascular disease.
Numbers do not add to total because of rounding.
*This category includes coronary heart disease, heart failure, part of hypertensive disease, cardiac dysrhythmias, rheumatic heart
disease, cardiomyopathy, pulmonary heart disease, and other or ill-defined heart diseases.
†Costs attributable to hypertensive disease are limited to hypertension without heart disease.
‡Medical Expenditure Panel Survey healthcare expenditures are estimates of direct payments for care of a patient with the given
disease provided during the year, including out-of-pocket payments and payments by private insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, and
other sources. Payments for over-the-counter drugs are not included. These estimates of direct costs do not include payments
attributed to comorbidities. Total cardiovascular disease costs are the sum of costs for the 4 diseases but with some duplication.
§The Statistics Committee agreed to suspend presenting estimates of lost productivity attributable to morbidity until a better
estimating method can be developed.
㛳Lost future earnings of persons who died in 2008, discounted at 3%.
Sources: Estimates from the Household Component of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey of the Agency for Healthcare Research
and Quality for direct costs (2008).1 Indirect mortality costs are based on 2008 counts of deaths by the National Center for Health
Statistics and an estimated present value of lifetime earnings furnished for 2007 by Wendy Max (Institute for Health and Aging,
University of California, San Francisco, 2011) and inflated to 2008 from change in worker compensation reported by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics.5
All estimates prepared by Thomas Thom and Michael Mussolino, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Table 23-2. Costs of Total CVD in Billions of Dollars by Age
and Sex: United States, 2008
Cost
Total
Male
Female
Age ⬍65 y
Age ⱖ65 y
Direct
179.2
88.6
90.7
86.1
93.2
Indirect mortality
118.5
88.5
30.0
102.5
16.0
Total
297.7
177.1
120.7
188.6
109.2
CVD indicates cardiovascular diseases and stroke.
Numbers may not add to total because of rounding.
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2008 (direct costs), and mortality
data from the National Center for Health Statistics, present value of lifetime
earnings from the Institute for Health and Aging, University of California, San
Francisco, and hourly compensation data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics
(indirect costs).
All estimates prepared by Thomas Thom and Michael Mussolino, National
Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 23
e211
200
190.3
180
160
Billions of Dollars
140
120
100
80
60
50.6
40
34.3
22.5
20
0
Heart disease
Hypertension
Stroke
Other CVD
Chart 23-1. Direct and indirect costs (in billions of dollars) of major cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and stroke (United States: 2008).
Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
Heart conditions
95.6
Trauma-related disorders
74.3
Cancer
72.2
Mental disorders
72.1
Osteoarthritis
57.0
COPD, asthma
53.7
Hypertension
47.4
Diabetes mellitus
45.9
Hyperlipidemia
38.6
Back problems
35.0
Normal live births
34.6
Disorders of the upper GI
27.2
Skin disorders
24.2
Other central nervous system disorders
20.4
Kidney disease
19.9
Stroke
18.8
Systemic lupus/connective tissue disorders
18.8
Residual codes
18.4
Other circulatory
17.6
Infectious diseases
16.2
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Billions of Dollars
Chart 23-2. The 20 leading diagnoses for direct health expenditures, United States, 2008 (in billions of dollars). COPD indicates chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease; GI, gastrointestinal tract. Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; estimates are from the
Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and exclude nursing home costs.
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January 3/10, 2012
1200
1117.6
Total Dollars (in Billions)
1000
800
886.2
704.7
564.9
600
408.5
400
320.0
245.2
223.8
194.1
153.2
143.0
97.0
156.9
200
121.1
250.5
186.7
132.4
111.2
74.1
44.6
57.0
197.8
87.1
69.1
0
All CVD
Hypertension
CHD
2015
2020
HF
2025
Stroke
Other CVDs
2030
Chart 23-3. Projected total costs of cardiovascular disease (CVD), 2015–2030 (in billions 2008$) in the United States. CHD indicates
coronary heart disease; HF, heart failure. Data derived from Heidenreich et al8 with permission of the publisher. Copyright © 2011,
American Heart Association.
Chart 23-4. Projected total (direct and indirect) costs of total cardiovascular disease by age (2010 $ in billions). Unpublished data tabulated by American Heart Association using methods described in Heidenreich et al.8
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 24
24. At-a-Glance Summary Tables
See Tables 24-1 through 24-4.
Sources: See the following summary tables and charts for
complete details:
●
●
●
Total cardiovascular disease–Table 3-1.
Coronary heart disease–Table 5-1.
Stroke–Table 6-1.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
High blood pressure–Table 7-1.
Congenital heart defects–Table 8-1.
Heart failure–Table 9-1.
Smoking–Table 13-1.
Blood cholesterol–Table 14-1.
Physical activity–Table 15-1.
Overweight/obesity–Table 16-1; Chart 16-1.
Diabetes mellitus–Table 17-1.
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Table 24-1.
January 3/10, 2012
Males and CVD: At-a-Glance Table
Diseases and Risk Factors
Total CVD
Prevalence, 2008*
Mortality, 2008†
CHD
Prevalence, CHD, 2008*
Prevalence, MI, 2008*
Prevalence, AP, 2008*
New and recurrent CHD‡§
New and recurrent MI§
Incidence, AP (stable angina)储
Mortality, 2008, CHD†
Mortality, 2008, MI†
Stroke
Prevalence, 2008*
New and recurrent strokes†
Mortality, 2008†
HBP
Prevalence, 2008*
Mortality, 2008†
HF
Prevalence, 2008*
Mortality, 2008†
Smoking
Prevalence, 2010¶
Blood cholesterol
Prevalence, 2008
Total cholesterol ⱖ200 mg/dL*
Total cholesterol ⱖ240 mg/dL*
LDL cholesterol ⱖ130 mg/dL*
HDL cholesterol ⬍40 mg/dL*
PA**
Prevalence, 2010¶
Overweight and obesity
Prevalence, 2008
Overweight and obesity, BMI
ⱖ25.0 Kg/m2*
Obesity, BMI ⱖ30.0 Kg/m2*
DM
Prevalence, 2008
Physician-diagnosed DM*
Undiagnosed DM*
Prediabetes*
Incidence, diagnosed DM*
Mortality, 2008†
Both Sexes
Total Males
White
Males
Black
Males
Mexican
American Males
82.6 M (36.2%)
811.9 K
39.9 M (37.4%)
392.2 K
37.4%
335.2 K
44.8%
46.8 K
30.7%
N/A
16.3 M (7.0%)
7.9 M (3.1%)
9.0 M (3.9%)
1.26 M
935.0 K
500.0 K
405.3 K
133.0 K
8.8 M (8.3%)
4.8 M (4.3%)
4.0 M (3.8%)
740.0 K
565.0 K
320.0 K
216.2 K
71.7 K
8.5%
4.3%
3.8%
675.0 K
N/A
N/A
189.4 K
63.0 K
7.9%
4.3%
3.3%
70.0 K
N/A
N/A
21.4 K
6.9 K
6.3%
3.0%
3.6%
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
7.0 M (3.0%)
795.0 K
134.1 K
2.8 M (2.7%)
370.0 K
53.5 K
2.4%
325.0 K
44.5 K
4.5%
45.0 K
7.2 K
2.0%
N/A
N/A
76.4 M (33.5%)
61.0 K
36.5 M (34.1%)
26.8 K
33.9%
19.6 K
43.0%
6.4 K
27.8%
N/A
5.7 M (2.4%)
56.8 K
3.1 M (3.0%)
23.0 K
2.7%
20.3 K
4.5%
2.4 K
2.3%
N/A
44.1 M (19.3%)
23.7 M (21.2%)
23.0%
23.4%
15.2%#
98.8 M (44.4%)
33.6 M (15.0%)
71.3 M (31.9%)
41.8 M (18.9%)
45.0 M (41.8%)
14.6 M (13.5%)
35.3 M (32.5%)
30.8 M (28.6%)
41.2%
13.7%
30.5%
29.5%
37.0%
9.7%
34.4%
16.6%
50.1%
16.9%
41.9%
31.7%
20.7%
25.1%
26.7%
24.6%
N/A
149.3 M (67.3%)
78.0 M (72.4%)
72.3%
70.8%
77.5%
75.0 M (33.7%)
34.9 M (32.4%)
32.1%
37.0%
31.4%
18.3 M (8.0%)
7.1 M (3.1%)
81.5 M (36.8%)
1.6 M
70.6 K
8.3 M (7.9%)
4.4 M (4.1%)
48.1 M (44.9%)
N/A
35.3 K
6.8%
3.9%
45.4%
N/A
28.6 K
14.3%
4.8%
31.6%
N/A
5.5 K
11.0%
6.3%
44.9%
N/A
N/A
CVD indicates cardiovascular disease; M, millions; K, thousands; N/A, data not available; CHD, coronary heart disease (includes heart attack, angina pectoris chest
pain, or both); MI, myocardial infarction (heart attack); AP, angina pectoris (chest pain); HBP, high blood pressure; HF, heart failure; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HDL,
high-density lipoprotein; PA, physical activity; BMI, body mass index; and DM, diabetes mellitus.
*Age ⱖ20 y.
†All ages.
‡New and recurrent MI and fatal CHD.
§Age ⱖ35 y.
储Age ⱖ45 y.
¶Age ⱖ18 y.
#Hispanic.
**Met 2008 Federal PA guidelines for adults.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 24
Table 24-2.
e215
Females and CVD: At-a-Glance Table
Diseases and Risk Factors
White
Females
Black
Females
Mexican American
Females
42.7 M (35.0%)
33.8%
47.3%
30.9%
419.7 K
360.4 K
49.8 K
N/A
5.6%
Both Sexes
Total Females
82.6 M (36.2%)
811.9 K
Total CVD
Prevalence, 2008*
Mortality, 2008†
CHD
Prevalence, CHD, 2008*
16.3 M (7.0%)
7.5 M (6.1%)
5.8%
7.6%
Prevalence, MI, 2008*
7.9 M (3.1%)
3.1 M (2.2%)
2.1%
2.2%
1.1%
Prevalence, AP, 2008*
9.0 M (3.9%)
5.0 M (4.0%)
3.7%
5.6%
3.7%
New and recurrent CHD‡§
1.26 M
515.0 K
445.0 K
65.0 K
N/A
New and recurrent MI§
935.0 K
370.0 K
N/A
N/A
N/A
Incidence, AP (stable angina)储
500.0 K
180.0 K
N/A
N/A
N/A
Mortality, 2008, CHD†
405.3 K
189.1 K
164.5 K
20.5 K
N/A
Mortality, 2008, MI†
133.0 K
61.3 K
52.9 K
7.1 K
N/A
7.0 M (3.0%)
4.2 M (3.3%)
3.3%
4.4%
2.7%
New and recurrent strokes†
795.0 K
425.0 K
365.0 K
60.0 K
N/A
Mortality, 2008†
134.1 K
80.6 K
68.8 K
9.5 K
N/A
76.4 M (33.5%)
39.9 M (32.7%)
31.3%
45.7%
28.9%
61.0 K
34.2 K
26.3 K
7.0 K
N/A
5.7 M (2.4%)
2.6 M (2.0%)
1.8%
3.8%
1.3%
56.8 K
33.8 K
30.2 K
3.1 K
N/A
44.1 M (19.3%)
20.4 M (17.5%)
20.5%
16.7%
9.0%#
Total cholesterol ⱖ200 mg/dL*
98.8 M (44.4%)
53.8 M (46.3%)
47.0%
41.2%
46.5%
Total cholesterol ⱖ240 mg/dL*
33.6 M (15.0%)
19.0 M (16.2%)
16.9%
13.3%
14.0%
LDL cholesterol ⱖ130 mg/dL*
71.3 M (31.9%)
36.0 M (31.0%)
32.0%
27.7%
31.6%
HDL cholesterol ⬍40 mg/dL*
41.8 M (18.9%)
11.0 M (9.7%)
10.1%
6.6%
12.2%
20.7%
16.4%
19.1%
11.2%
N/A
149.3 M (67.3%)
71.3 M (62.3%)
59.3%
77.7%
75.1%
75.0 M (33.7%)
40.1 M (35.2%)
35.2%
51.0%
43.4%
18.3 M (8.0%)
10.0 M (8.2%)
6.5%
14.7%
12.7%
7.1 M (3.1%)
2.7 M (2.3%)
1.9%
4.0%
3.8%
81.5 M (36.8%)
33.4 M (28.8%)
27.9%
27.1%
34.3%
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
35.2 K
27.3 K
6.6 K
N/A
Stroke
Prevalence, 2008*
HBP
Prevalence, 2008*
Mortality, 2008†
HF
Prevalence, 2008*
Mortality, 2008†
Smoking
Prevalence, 2010¶
Blood cholesterol
Prevalence, 2008
PA**
Prevalence, 2010¶
Overweight and obesity
Prevalence, 2008
Overweight and obesity, BMI ⱖ25.0 Kg/m2*
Obesity, BMI ⱖ30.0 Kg/m2*
DM
Prevalence, 2008
Physician-diagnosed DM*
Undiagnosed DM*
Prediabetes*
Incidence, diagnosed DM*
Mortality, 2008†
1.6 M
70.6 K
CVD indicates cardiovascular disease; M, millions; K, thousands; N/A, data not available; CHD, coronary heart disease (includes heart attack, angina pectoris chest
pain, or both); MI, myocardial infarction (heart attack); AP, angina pectoris (chest pain); HBP, high blood pressure; HF, heart failure; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HDL,
high-density lipoprotein; PA, physical activity; BMI, body mass index; and DM, diabetes mellitus.
*Age ⱖ20 y.
†All ages.
‡New and recurrent MI and fatal CHD.
§Age ⱖ35 y.
储Age ⱖ45 y.
¶Age ⱖ18 y.
#Hispanic.
**Met 2008 Federal PA guidelines for adults.
Downloaded from http://circ.ahajournals.org/ at University of Kentucky--Lexington on January 31, 2012
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Table 24-3.
January 3/10, 2012
Race/Ethnicity and CVD: At-a-Glance Table
Diseases and Risk Factors
Both
Sexes
Males
Mexican
Americans
Hispanics/
Latinos
Females
Males
Females
Males
Females
Males
Females
Asians:
Both
Sexes
Whites
Blacks
American Indian/
Alaska Native:
Both Sexes
Total CVD
Prevalence, 2008*
Mortality, 2008†
82.6 M (36.2%)
37.4%
33.8%
44.8%
47.3%
30.7%
30.9%
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
811.9 K
335.2 K
360.4 K
46.8 K
49.8 K
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
CHD
Prevalence, CHD, 2008*
16.3 M (7.0%)
8.5%
5.8%
7.9%
7.6%
6.3%
5.6%
3.9%储
4.1%储#
Prevalence, MI, 2008*
7.9 M (3.1%)
4.3%
2.1%
4.3%
2.2%
3.0%
1.1%
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Prevalence, AP, 2008*
9.0 M (3.9%)
3.8%
3.7%
3.3%
5.6%
3.6%
3.7%
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
New and recurrent CHD‡§
5.8%储
1.26 M
675.0 K
445.0 K
70.0 K
65.0 K
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Mortality, CHD, 2008†
405.3 K
189.3 K
164.5 K
21.4 K
20.5 K
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Mortality, MI, 2008†
133.0 K
63.0 K
52.9 K
7.0 K
7.1 K
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Stroke
Prevalence, 2008*
7.0 M (3.0%)
2.4%
3.3%
4.5%
4.4%
2.0%
2.7%
1.3%储
N/A
New and recurrent strokes†
795.0 K
325.0 K
365.0 K
45.0 K
60.0 K
N/A
N/A
N/A
2.0%储
N/A
N/A
N/A
Mortality, 2008†
134.1 K
44.4 K
68.8 K
7.2 K
9.5 K
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
76.4 M (33.5%)
33.9%
31.3%
43.0%
45.7%
27.8%
28.9%
19.4%储
21.8%储
61.0 K
19.6 K
26.3 K
6.4 K
7.0 K
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
HBP
Prevalence, 2008*
Mortality, 2008†
21.5%储
HF
Prevalence, 2008*
Mortality, 2008†
5.7 M (2.4%)
2.7%
1.8%
4.5%
3.8%
2.3%
1.3%
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
56.8 K
20.3 K
30.2 K
2.4 K
3.1 K
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
44.1 M (19.3%)
23.0%
20.5%
23.4%
16.7%
15.2%
9.0%
9.3%
Smoking
Prevalence, 2010储
12.0%
26.6%
Blood cholesterol
Prevalence, 2008
Total cholesterol ⱖ200 mg/dL*
98.8 M (44.4%)
41.2%
47.0%
37.0%
41.2%
50.1%
46.5%
N/A
N/A
N/A
Total cholesterol ⱖ240 mg/dL*
33.6 M (15.0%)
13.7%
16.9%
9.7%
13.3%
16.9%
14.0%
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
LDL cholesterol ⱖ130 mg/dL*
71.3 M (31.9%)
30.5%
32.0%
34.4%
27.7%
41.9%
31.6%
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
HDL cholesterol ⬍40 mg/dL*
41.8 M (18.9%)
29.5%
10.1%
16.6%
6.6%
31.7%
12.2%
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
PA¶
Prevalence, 2010储
20.7%
21.3%
17.2%
13.2%
14.4%
17.8%
12.5%
Overweight and obesity
Prevalence, 2008
Overweight and obesity,
BMI ⱖ25.0kg/m2*
149.3 M (67.3%)
72.3%
59.3%
70.8%
77.7%
77.5%
75.1%
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Overweight and obesity,
BMI ⱖ30.0kg/m2*
75.0 M (33.7%)
32.1%
32.8%
37.0%
51.0%
31.4%
43.4%
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
18.3 M (8.0%)
6.8%
6.5%
14.3%
14.7%
11.0%
12.7%
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
7.1 M (3.1%)
3.9%
1.9%
4.8%
4.0%
6.3%
3.8%
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
81.5 M (36.8%)
45.4%
27.9%
31.6%
27.1%
44.9%
34.3%
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
28.6 K
27.3 K
5.5 K
6.6 K
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
DM
Prevalence, 2008
Physician-diagnosed DM*
Undiagnosed DM*
Prediabetes*
Incidence, diagnosed DM*
Mortality, 2008†
1.6 M
70.6 K
CVD indicates cardiovascular disease; M, millions; N/A, data not available; K, thousands; CHD, coronary heart disease (includes heart attack, angina pectoris chest
pain, or both); MI, myocardial infarction (heart attack); AP, angina pectoris (chest pain); HBP, high blood pressure; HF, heart failure; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HDL,
high-density lipoprotein; PA, physical activity; BMI, body mass index; and DM, diabetes mellitus.
*Age ⬎20 y.
†All ages.
‡New and recurrent MI and fatal CHD.
§Age ⱖ35 y.
储Age ⱖ18 y.
¶Met 2008 Federal PA guidelines for adults.
#Figure not considered reliable.
Downloaded from http://circ.ahajournals.org/ at University of Kentucky--Lexington on January 31, 2012
Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 24
Table 24-4.
e217
Children, Youth, and CVD: At-a-Glance Table
NH Whites
Diseases and Risk Factors
NH Blacks
Mexican
Americans
Both Sexes
Total Males
Total Females
Males
Females
Males
Females
Males
Females
3.4 K
1.8 K
1.6 K
1.4 K
1.2 K
0.3 K
0.3 K
N/A
N/A
Congenital cardiovascular defects
Mortality, 2008*
Smoking, %
High school students, grades 9–12
Current cigarette smoking, 2009
19.5
19.8
19.1
22.3
22.8
10.7
8.4
19.4†
16.7†
Current cigar smoking, 2009
14.0
18.6
8.8
21.0
8.0
13.9
11.5
15.8†
9.5†
Ages 4–11 y
164.5
163.8
165.2
163.9
165.6
165.7
162.3
160.7
161.5
Ages 12–19 y
159.2
156.3
162.3
155.9
162.3
157.7
163.6
156.9
161.3
Ages 4–11 y
54.7
55.6
53.6
54.7
52.8
61.4
58.1
53.6
51.1
Ages 12–19 y
51.6
49.3
54.0
48.1
53.3
54.6
56.9
48.3
53.5
88.5
87.1
89.9
87.6
89.8
88.8
92.6
88.4
88.8
37.0
45.6
27.7
47.3
31.3
43.3
21.9
41.3†
24.9†
Children and adolescents, ages 2–19 y,
overweight or obese
23.6 M (31.7%)
12.2 M (32.1%)
11.4 M (31.3%)
29.5%
29.2%
33.0%
39.0%
41.7%
36.1%
Children and adolescents, age 2–19 y,
obese§
12.6 M (16.9%)
6.8 M (17.8%)
5.8 M (15.9%)
15.7%
14.9%
17.3%
22.7%
24.9%
16.5%
Blood cholesterol, mg/dL
Mean total cholesterol
Mean HDL cholesterol
Mean LDL cholesterol
Ages 12–19 y
PA‡
Prevalence, grades 9–12, 2009§
Met currently recommended
levels of PA, %
Overweight and obesity
Prevalence, 2008
CVD indicates cardiovascular disease; NH, non-Hispanic; K, thousands; N/A, data not available; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; PA,
physical activity; and M, millions.
Overweight indicates a body mass index in the 95th percentile of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth chart.
*All ages.
†Hispanic.
‡Regular leisure-time PA.
§Data derived from Eaton DK, Kann L, Kinchen S, Shanklin S, Ross J, Hawkins J, Harris WA, Lowry R, McManus T, Chyen D, Lim C, Whittle L, Brener ND, Wechsler
H; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2009. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2010;59:1–142.
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25. Glossary
●
●
●
●
●
Age-adjusted rates—Used mainly to compare the rates of
ⱖ2 communities or population groups or the nation as a
whole over time. The American Heart Association (AHA)
uses a standard population (2008), so these rates are not
affected by changes or differences in the age composition
of the population. Unless otherwise noted, all death rates in
this publication are age adjusted per 100 000 population
and are based on underlying cause of death.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)—A
part of the US Department of Health and Human Services, this
is the lead agency charged with supporting research designed
to improve the quality of health care, reduce the cost of health
care, improve patient safety, decrease the number of medical
errors, and broaden access to essential services. AHRQ
sponsors and conducts research that provides evidence-based
information on healthcare outcomes, quality, cost, use, and
access. The information helps healthcare decision makers
(patients, clinicians, health system leaders, and policy makers)
make more informed decisions and improve the quality of
healthcare services. AHRQ conducts the Medical Expenditure
Panel Survey (MEPS; ongoing).
Bacterial endocarditis—An infection of the heart’s inner
lining (endocardium) or of the heart valves. The bacteria
that most often cause endocarditis are streptococci, staphylococci, and enterococci.
Body mass index (BMI)—A mathematical formula to assess body weight relative to height. The measure correlates
highly with body fat. It is calculated as weight in kilograms
divided by the square of the height in meters (kg/m2).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center
for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS)—CDC is an agency within
the US Department of Health and Human Services. The CDC
conducts the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
(BRFSS), an ongoing survey. The CDC/NCHS conducts or
has conducted these surveys (among others):
— National Health Examination Survey (NHES I, 1960 –
1962; NHES II, 1963–1965; NHES III, 1966 –1970)
— National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I
(NHANES I; 1971–1975)
— National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II
(NHANES II; 1976 –1980)
— National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III
(NHANES III; 1988 –1994)
— National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
(NHANES; 1999 to …) (ongoing)
— National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (ongoing)
— National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) (ongoing)
— National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS)
(ongoing)
— National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey
(NHAMCS) (ongoing)
— National Nursing Home Survey (periodic)
— National Home and Hospice Care Survey (periodic)
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Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), formerly Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA)—
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The federal agency that administers the Medicare, Medicaid, and Child Health Insurance programs.
Comparability ratio—Provided by the NCHS to allow timetrend analysis from one International Classification of Diseases (ICD) revision to another. It compensates for the
“shifting” of deaths from one causal code number to another.
Its application to mortality based on one ICD revision means
that mortality is “comparability modified” to be more comparable to mortality coded to the other ICD revision.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) (ICD-10 codes I20–I25)—
This category includes acute myocardial infarction (I21–
I22), other acute ischemic (coronary) heart disease (I24),
angina pectoris (I20), atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (I25.0), and all other forms of chronic ischemic CHD
(I25.1–I25.9).
Death rate—The relative frequency with which death
occurs within some specified interval of time in a population. National death rates are computed per 100 000 population. Dividing the total number of deaths by the total
population gives a crude death rate for the total population.
Rates calculated within specific subgroups, such as agespecific or sex-specific rates, are often more meaningful
and informative. They allow well-defined subgroups of the
total population to be examined. Unless otherwise stated,
all death rates in this publication are age adjusted and are
per 100 000 population.
Diseases of the circulatory system (ICD codes I00–I99)—Included as part of what the AHA calls “cardiovascular disease.”
(“Total cardiovascular disease” in this Glossary.)
Diseases of the heart—Classification the NCHS uses in
compiling the leading causes of death. Includes acute
rheumatic fever/chronic rheumatic heart diseases (I00 –
I09), hypertensive heart disease (I11), hypertensive heart
and renal disease (I13), CHD (I20 –I25), pulmonary heart
disease and diseases of pulmonary circulation (I26 –I28),
heart failure (I50), and other forms of heart disease (I29 –
I49, I50.1–I51). “Diseases of the heart” are not equivalent
to “total cardiovascular disease,” which the AHA prefers to
use to describe the leading causes of death.
Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA)—See Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS).
Hispanic origin—In US government statistics, “Hispanic”
includes people who trace their ancestry to Mexico, Puerto
Rico, Cuba, Spain, the Spanish-speaking countries of
Central or South America, the Dominican Republic, or
other Spanish cultures, regardless of race. It does not
include people from Brazil, Guyana, Suriname, Trinidad,
Belize, or Portugal, because Spanish is not the first language in those countries. Most of the data in this update are
for Mexican Americans or Mexicans, as reported by
government agencies or specific studies. In many cases,
data for all Hispanics are more difficult to obtain.
Hospital discharges—The number of inpatients (including
newborn infants) discharged from short-stay hospitals for
whom some type of disease was the first-listed diagnosis.
Discharges include those discharged alive, dead, or “status
unknown.”
International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes—A
classification system in standard use in the United States.
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Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: Chapter 25
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The International Classification of Diseases is published
by the World Health Organization. This system is reviewed
and revised approximately every 10 to 20 years to ensure
its continued flexibility and feasibility. The 10th revision
(ICD-10) began with the release of 1999 final mortality
data. The ICD revisions can cause considerable change in
the number of deaths reported for a given disease. The
NCHS provides “comparability ratios” to compensate for
the “shifting” of deaths from one ICD code to another. To
compare the number or rate of deaths with that of an earlier
year, the “comparability-modified” number or rate is used.
Incidence—An estimate of the number of new cases of a
disease that develop in a population, usually in a 1-year
period. For some statistics, new and recurrent attacks, or
cases, are combined. The incidence of a specific disease is
estimated by multiplying the incidence rates reported in
community- or hospital-based studies by the US population. The rates in this report change only when new data are
available; they are not computed annually.
Major cardiovascular diseases—Disease classification
commonly reported by the NCHS; represents ICD codes
I00 to I78. The AHA does not use “major cardiovascular
diseases” for any calculations. See “Total cardiovascular
disease” in this Glossary.
Metabolic syndrome—The metabolic syndrome is defined*
as the presence of any 3 of the following 5 diagnostic
measures: Elevated waist circumference (ⱖ102 cm in men
or ⱖ88 cm in women), elevated triglycerides (ⱖ150 mg/dL
[1.7 mmol/L] or drug treatment for elevated triglycerides),
reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (⬍40
mg/dL [0.9 mmol/L] in men, ⬍50 mg/dL [1.1 mmol/L] in
women, or drug treatment for reduced HDL cholesterol),
elevated blood pressure (ⱖ130 mm Hg systolic blood
pressure, ⱖ85 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure, or drug
treatment for hypertension), and elevated fasting glucose
(ⱖ100 mg/dL or drug treatment for elevated glucose).
Morbidity—Incidence and prevalence rates are both measures of morbidity (ie, measures of various effects of
disease on a population).
Mortality—Mortality data for states can be obtained from
the NCHS Web site (http://cdc.gov/nchs/), by direct communication with the CDC/NCHS, or from the AHA on
request. The total number of deaths attributable to a given
disease in a population during a specific interval of time,
usually a year, are reported. These data are compiled from
death certificates and sent by state health agencies to the
NCHS. The process of verifying and tabulating the data
takes ⬇2 years.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)—An
institute in the National Institutes of Health in the US
Department of Health and Human Services. The NHLBI
conducts such studies as the following:
— Framingham Heart Study (FHS; 1948 to …) (ongoing)
— Honolulu Heart Program (HHP) (1965–1997)
— Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS; 1988 to …) (ongoing)
*According to criteria established by the American Heart Association/
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and published in Circulation
(Circulation. 2005;112:2735–2752).
e219
— Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study
(1985 to …) (ongoing)
— Strong Heart Study (SHS) (1989 –1992, 1991–1998)
— The NHLBI also published reports of the Joint National
Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and
Treatment of High Blood Pressure and the Third Report
of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and
Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult
Treatment Panel III, or ATP III).
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National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
(NINDS)—An institute in the National Institutes of Health of
the US Department of Health and Human Services. The
NINDS sponsors and conducts research studies such as these:
— Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study
(GCNKSS)
— Rochester (Minnesota) Stroke Epidemiology Project
— Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS)
— Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC)
Project
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Physical activity—Any bodily movement produced by the
contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level. Physical activity generally refers
to the subset of physical activity that enhances health.
Physical fitness—The ability to perform daily tasks with
vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue, and with ample
energy to enjoy leisure-time pursuits and respond to emergencies. Physical fitness includes a number of components
consisting of cardiorespiratory endurance (aerobic power),
skeletal muscle endurance, skeletal muscle strength, skeletal muscle power, flexibility, balance, speed of movement,
reaction time, and body composition.
Prevalence—An estimate of the total number of cases of a
disease existing in a population during a specified period.
Prevalence is sometimes expressed as a percentage of
population. Rates for specific diseases are calculated from
periodic health examination surveys that government agencies conduct. Annual changes in prevalence as reported in
this statistical update reflect changes in the population size.
Changes in rates can be evaluated only by comparing
prevalence rates estimated from surveys conducted in
different years. Note: In the data tables, which are located
in the different disease and risk factor categories, if the
percentages shown are age adjusted, they will not add to
the total.
Race and Hispanic origin—Race and Hispanic origin are
reported separately on death certificates. In this publication, unless otherwise specified, deaths of people of Hispanic origin are included in the totals for whites, blacks,
American Indians or Alaska Natives, and Asian or Pacific
Islanders according to the race listed on the decedent’s
death certificate. Data for Hispanic people include all
people of Hispanic origin of any race. See “Hispanic
origin” in this Glossary.
Stroke (ICD-10 codes I60–I69)—This category includes
subarachnoid hemorrhage (I60); intracerebral hemorrhage (I61); other nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage
(I62); cerebral infarction (I63); stroke, not specified as
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Circulation
January 3/10, 2012
hemorrhage or infarction (I64); occlusion and stenosis of
precerebral arteries not resulting in cerebral infarction
(I65); occlusion and stenosis of cerebral arteries not
resulting in cerebral infarction (I66); other cerebrovascular diseases (I67); cerebrovascular disorders in diseases classified elsewhere (I68); and sequelae of cerebrovascular disease (I69).
Total cardiovascular disease (ICD-10 codes I00–I99,
Q20–Q28)—This category includes rheumatic fever/rheumatic heart disease (I00 –I09); hypertensive diseases (I10 –
I15); ischemic (coronary) heart disease (I20 –I25); pulmonary heart disease and diseases of pulmonary circulation
(I26 –I28); other forms of heart disease (I30 –I52); cerebrovascular disease (stroke) (I60 –I69); atherosclerosis (I70);
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other diseases of arteries, arterioles, and capillaries (I71–
I79); diseases of veins, lymphatics, and lymph nodes not
classified elsewhere (I80 –I89); and other and unspecified
disorders of the circulatory system (I95–I99). When data
are available, we include congenital cardiovascular defects
(Q20 –Q28).
Underlying cause of death or any-mention cause of death—
These terms are used by the NCHS when defining mortality.
Underlying cause of death is defined by the World Health
Organization as “the disease or injury which initiated the train
of events leading directly to death, or the circumstances of the
accident or violence which produced the fatal injury.” Contributing cause of death would be any other disease or
condition that the decedent may also have had.
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Correction
In the article by Roger et al, “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2012 Update: A Report From the
American Heart Association,” which published ahead of print on December 15, 2011, in Circulation
(10.1161/CIR.0b013e31823ac046), a correction is needed.
On page e15, in the Writing Group Disclosures table, for William B. Borden, the disclosure entries under
the “Research Grant,” “Other Research Support,” “Speakers’ Bureau/Honoraria,” and “Ownership
Interest” columns read “NIH†.” The disclosure entries in these columns should read, “None.”
The online version of the article is available at:
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/early/2011/12/15/CIR.0b013e31823ac046
© 2011 American Heart Association, Inc.
Circulation is available at http://circ.ahajournals.org
Downloaded from http://circ.ahajournals.org/ at University of Kentucky--Lexington on January 31, 2012

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