Medical Coding Training: CPC® Practical Application Workbook—Instructor

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2013
Medical Coding Training: CPC®
Practical Application Workbook—Instructor
Disclaimer
This course was current when it was published. Every reasonable effort has been made to assure the accuracy of the
information within these pages. The ultimate responsibility lies with readers to ensure they are using the codes, and
following applicable guidelines, correctly. AAPC employees, agents, and staff make no representation, warranty, or
guarantee that this compilation of information is error-free, and will bear no responsibility or liability for the results
or consequences of the use of this course. This guide is a general summary that explains guidelines and principles in
profitable, efficient health care organizations.
Clinical Examples Used in this Book
AAPC believes it is important in training and testing to reflect as accurate a coding setting as possible to students and
examinees. All examples and case studies used in our study guides, exams, and workbooks are actual, redacted office
visit and procedure notes donated by AAPC members.
To preserve the real world quality of these notes for educational purposes, we have not re-written or edited the notes
to the stringent grammatical or stylistic standards found in the text of our products. Some minor changes have been
made for clarity or to correct spelling errors originally in the notes, but essentially they are as one would find them in
a coding setting.
US Government Rights
This product includes CPT®, which is commercial technical data and/or computer data bases and/or commercial
computer software and/or commercial computer software documentation, as applicable, which was developed exclusively at private expense by the American Medical Association, 515 North State Street, Chicago, Illinois, 60610.
U.S. Government rights to use, modify, reproduce, release, perform, display, or disclose these technical data and/or
computer data bases and/or computer software and/or computer software documentation are subject to the limited
rights restrictions of DFARS 252.227-7015(b)(2) (November 1995), as applicable, for U.S. Depart¬ment of Defense
procurements and the limited rights restrictions of FAR 52.227-14 (June 1987) and/or subject to the restricted rights
provision of FAR 52.227-14 (June 1987) and FAR 52.227-19 (June 1987), as applicable, and any applicable agency FAR
Supplements, for non-Department of Defense Federal procurements.
AMA Disclaimer
CPT® copyright 2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
Fee schedules, relative value units, conversion factors and/or related components are not assigned by the AMA, are
not part of CPT®, and the AMA is not recommending their use. The AMA does not directly or indirectly practice
medicine or dispense medical services. The AMA assumes no liability for data contained or not contained herein.
CPT® is a registered trademark of the American Medical Association.
© 2012 AAPC
2480 South 3850 West, Suite B, Salt Lake City, Utah 84120
800-626-CODE (2633), Fax 801-236-2258, www.aapc.com
Printed 091912. All rights reserved.
ISBN 978-1-937348-53-3
CPC®, CPC-H®, CPC-P®, CIRCC®, CPMA®, CPCO™, and CPPM® are trademarks of AAPC.
ii
2013 Medical Coding Training: CPC Practical Application Workbook—Instructor
CPT ® copyright 2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
Acknowledgements
Authors:
Katherine Abel, CPC, CPMA, CPC-I, CRMS
Debra A. Apfel, RN, BA, CPC, CPMA
Carrie Bosela, CPC, CPC-I
Rhonda Buckholtz, CPC, CPC-I, CPMA, CGSC, CPEDC, COBGC, CENTC
Marcella Bucknam, CPC, CPC-H, CPC-P, CPC-I, CCC, COBGC
Shelly Cronin, CPC, CPMA, CANPC, CGIC, CGSC
Kelly Dennis, CPC, CPC-I, CANPC
Mary Divine, CPC, CPC-H, CPC-I, CUC
Brad Ericson, MPC, CPC, COSC
Raemarie Jimenez, CPC, CPMA, CPC-I CANPC, CRHC
Betty Johnson, CPC, CPC-H, CPC-I, CPCD
Dolly Perrine, CPC, CPMA, CPC-I, CUC
Jean Pryor, CPC, CPMA, CPC-I, CIMC
Dorothy Steed, CPC-H, CPMA, CPC-I, CEMC, CFPC
Kate Tierney, CPC, CPC-P, CEDC, CEMC, CGSC, COBGC
G. John Verhovshek, MA, CPC
Susan Ward, CPC, CPC-H, CPC-I, CEMC, CPCD, CPRC
Reviewers: Lynn Anderanin, CPC, CPC-I, COSC
Nicole Benjamin, CPC, CPC-I, CEDC
Glade B. Curtis, MD, MPH, FACOG, CPC, CPC-I, COBGC
Jennifer Hume, CPC, CPMA, CEMC
Lindsay-Anne McDonald Jenkins, CPC, CPC-H, CPC-I, CPMA, CANPC, CIRCC, RN, CRNA (retired)
Vandna Kejariwal, CPC, CPC-H, CPC-I, CEDC
Barbara Pross, CPC, CPMA, CPC-I, CEDC, CEMC, COBGC
Carrie Lynn Rawlings, CPC, CPMA, CPC-I, CCVTC, CEMC
Alice Reybitz, RN, BA, CPC, CPC-H, CPC-I, CHI
Carrie Severson, CPC, CPC-H, CPC-P, CPMA, CPC-I
Kathy Skolnick, CPC, CPC-I
Charleen Yamasato, CPC, CPC-I
Production: Dianne Allred, Designer, Desktop Publishing
Tina M. Smith, Desktop Publishing
CPT ® copyright 2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
www.aapc.com
iii
Contents
The Business of Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1
Exercise 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.1–1.4
Medical Terminology and Anatomy Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1
Questions 1–10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1–2.2
Introduction to ICD-9-CM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1
Exercise 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1–3.4
ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 1–9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1
Case 1–Case 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1–4.11
ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 10–19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1
Case 1–Case 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1–5.11
Introduction to CPT®, Surgery Guidelines, HCPCS, and Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1
Exercise 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1
Exercise 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3
Integumentary System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1
Case 1–Case 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1–7.17
Musculoskeletal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1
Case 1–Case 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1–8.17
Respiratory, Hemic, Lymphatic, Mediastinum, and Diaphragm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1
Case 1–Case 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.1–9.12
Cardiovascular System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1
Case 1–Case 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10.1–10.15
Digestive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1
Case 1–Case 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.1–11.12
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v
Urinary System and Male Genital System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1
Case 1–Case 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1–12.15
Female Reproductive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1
Case 1–Case 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.1–13.15
Endocrine and Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1
Case 1–Case 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14.1–14.19
Eye and Ocular Adnexa, Auditory Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.1
Case 1–Case 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.1–15.14
Anesthesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1
Case 1–Case 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.1–16.13
Radiology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.1
Case 1–Case 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.1–17.13
Pathology and Laboratory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.1
Case 1–Case 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.1–18.12
Evaluation and Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1
Case 1–Case 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.1–19.21
Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.1
Case 1–Case 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.1–20.11
vi
2013 Medical Coding Training: CPC Practical Application Workbook—Instructor
CPT ® copyright 2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
Chapter
1
The Business of Medicine
Exercise 1
1. What type of profession might a skilled coder enter?
Answer: Consultants, educators, medical auditors
2. What is the difference between outpatient and inpatient coding?
Answer: Outpatient coders will focus on learning CPT®, HCPCS Level II, and ICD-9-CM
codes volumes 1 and 2. They will work in physician offices, outpatient clinics, and
facility outpatient departments. Outpatient facility coders will also work with Ambulatory Payment Classifications (APCs).
Inpatient hospital coding focuses on a different subset of skills, where coders will
work with ICD-9-CM volumes 1, 2, and 3. These coders also will assign MS-DRGs for
reimbursement. Outpatient coders usually will have more interaction throughout
the day, and must communicate well with physicians; inpatient coders tend to have
less interaction throughout the day.
3. What is a mid-level provider?
Answer: Mid-level providers include physician assistants (PA) and nurse practitioners (NP). Mid-level providers are known also as physician extenders because they
extend the work of a physician.
4. Discuss the different parts of Medicare and what each program covers.
Answer:
◗◗ Medicare Part A helps to cover inpatient hospital care, as well as care provided in
skilled nursing facilities, hospice care, and home health care.
◗◗ Medicare Part B helps to cover medically-necessary doctors’ services, outpatient
care, and other medical services (including some preventive services) not covered
under Medicare Part A. Medicare Part B is an optional benefit for which the
patient must pay a premium, and which generally requires a yearly co-pay. Coders
working in physician offices will mainly deal with Medicare Part B.
◗◗ Medicare Part C, also called Medicare Advantage, combines the benefits of
Medicare Part A, Part B, and—sometimes—Part D. The plans are managed by
private insurers approved by Medicare, and may include Preferred Provider
Organizations (PPOs), Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs), and others.
CPT ® copyright 2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
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1.1
The Business of Medicine
Chapter 1
◗◗ Medicare Part D is a prescription drug coverage program available to all Medicare
beneficiaries. Private companies approved by Medicare provide the coverage.
5. Evaluation and management services are often provided in a standard format
such as SOAP. What does SOAP represent?
Answer:
S—Subjective—The patient’s statement about his or her health, including
symptoms.
O—Objective—The provider assesses and documents the patient’s illness using
observation, palpation, auscultation, and percussion. Tests and other services
performed may be documented here as well.
A—Assessment—Evaluation and conclusion made by the provider. This is usually
where the diagnosis(es) for the services are found.
P—Plan—Course of action. Here, the provider will list the next steps for the patient,
whether it is ordering additional tests, or taking over the counter medications, etc.
6. What are five tips for coding operative reports?
Answer:
1. Diagnosis code reporting—Use the post-operative diagnosis for coding unless
there are further defined diagnoses or additional diagnoses found in the body or
findings of the operative report. If a pathology report is available, use the findings from the pathology report for the diagnosis.
2. Start with the procedures listed—For the coder who is new to coding a procedure, one way of quickly starting the research process is by focusing on the
procedures listed in the header. Read the note in its entirety to verify the procedures performed. Procedures listed in the header may not be listed correctly and
procedures documented within the body of the report may not be listed in the
header at all; however, it will help a coder with a place to start.
3. Look for key words—Key words may include locations and anatomical structures
involved, surgical approach, procedure method (debridement, drainage, incision,
repair, etc.), procedure type (open, closed, simple, intermediate, etc.), size and
number, and the surgical instruments used during the procedure.
4. Highlight unfamiliar words—Words you are not familiar with should be highlighted and researched for understanding.
5. Read the body—All procedures reported should be documented within the
body of the report. The body may indicate a procedure was abandoned or
compli¬cated, possibly indicating the need for a different procedure code or the
reporting of a modifier.
1.2
2013 Medical Coding Training: CPC Practical Application Workbook—Instructor
CPT ® copyright 2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
Chapter 1
The Business of Medicine
7. What is medical necessity and what tool can you refer to for the medical
necessity of a service?
Answer: The term “medical necessity” relates to whether a proce¬dure or service is
considered appropriate in a given circumstance. Tools to determine medical necessity include National Coverage Determinations (NCDs), Local Coverage Determinations (LCD), and commercial Medical Policies.
8. What are some common reasons Medicare may deny a procedure or service?
Answer:
◗◗ Medicare does not pay for the procedure/service for the patient’s condition
◗◗ Medicare does not pay for the procedure/service as frequently as proposed
◗◗ Medicare does not pay for experimental procedures/services
9. Under the Privacy Rule, the minimum necessary standard does not apply to
what type of disclosures?
Answer:
◗◗ Disclosures to or requests by a health care provider for treatment purposes.
◗◗ Disclosures to the individual who is the subject of the information.
◗◗ Uses or disclosures made pursuant to an individual’s authorization.
◗◗ Uses or disclosures required for compliance with the HIPAA Administrative
Simplification Rules.
◗◗ Disclosures to the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) when
disclosure of information is required under the Privacy Rule for enforcement
purposes.
◗◗ Uses or disclosures that are required by other law.
10. What are the seven key actions of an internal compliance plan?
Answer:
◗◗ Conduct internal monitoring and auditing through the performance of periodic
◗◗
◗◗
◗◗
◗◗
audits.
Implement compliance and practice standards through the development of
written standards and procedures.
Designate a compliance officer or contact(s) to monitor compliance efforts and
enforce practice standards.
Conduct appropriate training and education on practice standards and
procedures.
Respond appropriately to detected violations through the investigation of
allegations and the disclosure of incidents to appropriate government entities.
CPT ® copyright 2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
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1.3
The Business of Medicine
Chapter 1
◗◗ Develop open lines of communication, such as (1) discussions at staff meetings
regarding how to avoid erroneous or fraudulent conduct and (2) community
bulletin boards, to keep practice employees updated regarding compliance
activities.
◗◗ Enforce disciplinary standards through well-publicized guidelines.
1.4
2013 Medical Coding Training: CPC Practical Application Workbook—Instructor
CPT ® copyright 2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
Chapter
2
Medical Terminology and Anatomy Review
1. Diagnosis: Calcification left basal ganglia.
Where are the basal ganglia located?
Answer: Cerebral Cortex
2. Diagnosis: Vesicoureteral reflux.
What is this a reflux of?
Answer: Urine backflow from bladder into ureters.
3. Documentation: The posterior vaginal fornix and outer cervical os were prepped
with a cleansing solution.
In this statement, what does “os” stand for?
Answer: Ostium (Opening)
4. Hysterosalpingogram report: “Right cornual contour abnormality.”
What is the cornua referred to?
Answer: The cornua is where the fallopian tubes connect to the fundus.
5. Surgical Procedure: Myringotomy
What anatomic location is being operated on?
Answer: Ear
6. Documentation: There was no cleft of the uvula or sub mucosal palate by visual
and palpable exam.
What is being examined?
Answer: Oral cavity
7. Documentation: Recession of left inferior rectus muscle, 5 mm.
What anatomic location is being operated on?
Answer: Eye
8. Diagnosis: Kyphosis
What anatomic location does this diagnosis refer to?
Answer: Thoracic Spine
CPT ® copyright 2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
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2.1
Medical Terminology and Anatomy Review
Chapter 2
9. Documentation: Suprapatellar recess showed no evidence of loose bodies or joint
pathology.
What anatomic location does this refer to?
Answer: Knee (above the patella)
10. Colles’ Fracture
What anatomic location does this refer to?
Answer: Wrist
2.2
2013 Medical Coding Training: CPC Practical Application Workbook—Instructor
CPT ® copyright 2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
Chapter
3
Introduction to ICD-9-CM
Exercise 1
Directions: Using the ICD-9-CM codebook, locate the diagnosis codes for the following
conditions.
1. Fever
Answer: 780.60
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases, look up Fever. There is no additional information provided. The default code is 780.60. Review the code in the Tabular List to
verify code accuracy.
2. Migraine headache
Answer: 346.90
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases, look up Headache/migraine. You are
referred to 346.9x. Refer to the code in the Tabular List. There is no mention of
intractable migraine or status migrainosus; therefore, the fifth digit is “0”. Review the
code in the Tabular List to verify accuracy.
3. Otitis Media
Answer: 382.9
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases, look up Otitis/media. There is no additional
information provided. You are referred to 382.9. Review the code in the Tabular List
to verify code accuracy. This is an infection of the middle ear (media).
4. Epigastric pain
Answer: 789.06
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases, look up Pain/epigastric. You are referred to
789.06. Review the code in the Tabular List to verify code accuracy.
CPT ® copyright 2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
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3.1
Introduction to ICD-9-CM
Chapter 3
5. Acute asthma exacerbation
Answer: 493.92
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases, look up Asthma. There is not a subterm for
acute or exacerbation. The default code is 493.9x. The fifth digit is “2” to report the
acute exacerbation. The correct code is 493.92. Review the code in the Tabular List to
verify code accuracy.
6. Acute myocardial infarction
Answer: 410.90
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases, look up the main term Infarct, infarction
and the subterm myocardium, myocardial. You are referred to 410.9x. Refer to the
Tabular List. The fifth digit is determined based on the episode of care which is “0” in
this example because the episode of care is not provided.
7. Hypertensive heart disease
Answer: 402.90
RATIONALE: This code can be located three ways. The first way is check the Index to
Diseases and look up Disease/heart/hypertensive. The second way is to look in the
Hypertension Table under Hypertension/with/heart involvement /Unspecified. Also
listed in the Hypertensive Table is Hypertension/heart/Unspecified. This example
is coded as unspecified because no additional information is provided about the
hypertension. Review the code in the Tabular List to verify code accuracy.
8. Syncope
Answer: 780.2
RATIONALE: Look up Syncope in the Index to Diseases. You are referred to 780.2.
Review the code in the Tabular List to verify code accuracy.
9. Nausea and vomiting
Answer: 787.01
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases, look up Nausea/with vomiting. You are
referred to 787.01. Review the code in the Tabular List to verify code accuracy.
3.2
2013 Medical Coding Training: CPC Practical Application Workbook—Instructor
CPT ® copyright 2012 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
Chapter 3
Introduction to ICD-9-CM
10. GERD
Answer: 530.81
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases, look up GERD. You are referred to 530.81.
Review the code in the Tabular List to verify code accuracy. GERD can also be found
in the Index to Diseases under Reflux/gastroesophageal or simply Reflux also leads
to 530.81.
11. Chlamydia infection
Answer: 079.98
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases, look up Chlamydia. You are referred to “see
condition.” In this example the condition is “Infection.” The subterm is Chlamydia.
You are referred to 079.98. Also listed is, Infection/Chlamydia/specified NEC 079.88.
Review the code in the Tabular List to verify code accuracy. Code 079.88 reports
Other specified Chlamydia infection. Code 078.98 reports Chlamydia infection NOS.
The correct answer is 079.98 because the infection was not specified.
12. Sickle cell anemia
Answer: 282.60
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases look up Anemia/sickle cell. You are referred
to 282.60. Review the code in the Tabular List to verify code accuracy. This can also
be found in the Index under Disease/sickle-cell.
13. Rupture spleen
Answer: 289.59
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases, look up Rupture, ruptured/spleen. You are
referred to 289.59. Review the code in the Tabular List to verify code accuracy. Code
289.59 defaults to nontraumatic ruptured spleen.
14. Cellulitis of the arm
Answer: 682.3
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases, look up Cellulitis/arm. You are referred to
682.3. Review the code in the Tabular List to verify code accuracy.
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3.3
Introduction to ICD-9-CM
Chapter 3
15. Lung mass
Answer: 786.6
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases, look up Mass/lung. You are referred to
786.6. Review the code in the Tabular List to verify code accuracy.
16. H1N1 flu
Answer: 488.12
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases, look up Flu/swine (see Influenza, [novel]
2009 H1N1 influenza virus). You are referred to 488.12. Review the code in the
Tabular List to verify code accuracy.
17. Uncontrolled diabetes with diabetic glaucoma
Answer: 250.52, 365.44
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases, look up Diabetes/glaucoma. You are
referred to 250.5x [365.44]. The code in the brackets is the manifestation code. A fifth
digit is required for 250.5x. The type of diabetes is not documented but we know
that it is uncontrolled. In this case the fifth digit is “2” for unspecified type that is
uncontrolled. The code for glaucoma is 365.44. Review the codes in the Tabular List
to verify code accuracy.
18. Left cheek abrasion
Answer: 910.0
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases, look up Abrasion. You are referred to “see
also Injury, superficial, by site”. Under Injury, superficial by site look for the subterm
cheek. You are referred to 910.x. The fourth digit describes the type of injury. An
abrasion without mention of infection is reported with “0.” The correct code is 910.0.
Review the code in the Tabular List to verify code accuracy.
19. Cholecystitis
Answer: 575.10
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases, look up Cholecystitis. You are referred to
575.10. Review the code in the Tabular List to verify code accuracy.
20. Eyebrow laceration
Answer: 873.42
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases look up Laceration. You are referred to “see
Wound, open, by site.” Under Wound, open, by site, look for the subterm eyebrow.
There is no indication the wound is infected. You are referred to 873.42. Review the
code in the Tabular List to verify code accuracy.
3.4
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Chapter
4
ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 1–9
Case 1
Operative Report
Preoperative Diagnoses: Splenic abscess and multiple intra-abdominal abscess, related to
HIV, AIDS, and hepatitis C.
Postoperative Diagnoses: Splenic abscess and multiple intra-abdominal abscess, related
to HIV, AIDS, and hepatitis C.
1.
Operative Procedure:
2. The location of the abscesses
are located on both sides of
the spleen.
1. Exploratory laparotomy with drainage of multiple intra-abdominal abscesses.
3. Confirms the location of the
abscess.
2. Splenectomy.
3. Vac Pak closure.
Findings: This is a 42-year-old man who was recently admitted to the Medical Service
with a splenic defect and found to have a splenic vein thrombosis. He was treated with
antibiotics and anticoagulation. He returned and was admitted with a CT scan showing
mass of left upper quadrant abscess surrounding both sides of the spleen, as well as
multiple other intra-abdominal abscesses below the left lobe of the liver in both lower
quadrants and in the pelvis. The patient has a psychiatric illness and was difficult to
consent and had been anticoagulated with an INR of 3. Once those issues were resolved
by psychiatry consult and phone consent from the patient’s father, he was brought to the
operating room.
1. Postoperative diagnoses are
reported.
4. Location of abscesses.
2.
Operative Procedure: The patient was brought to operating room, and a time-out procedure was performed. He was already receiving parenteral antibiotics. He was placed in
the supine position and then under general endotracheal anesthetic. Anesthesia started
multiple IVs and an arterial line. A Foley catheter was sterilely inserted with some difficulty requiring a Coude catheter. After the abdomen was prepped and draped in the
sterile fashion, a long midline incision was made through the skin. This was carried
through the subcutaneous tissues and down through the midline fascia using the Bovie.
The fascia was opened in the midline. The entire left upper quadrant was replaced with
an abscess peel separate from the free peritoneal cavity, this was opened, and at least 3
to 4 L of foul smelling crankcase colored fluid was removed. Once the abscess cavity was
completely opened, it was evident that the spleen was floating within this pus as had been 3.
predicted by the CT. This was irrigated copiously and the left lower quadrant subhepatic
4.
and pelvic abscesses were likewise discovered containing the same foul smelling dark
bloody fluid. All of these areas were sucked out, irrigated, and the procedure repeated
multiple times.
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4.1
ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 1–9
Chapter 4
At this point, we thought it reasonable to go ahead with the splenectomy. The anatomic
planes were obviously terribly distorted. There was no clear margin between stomach
spleen, colon spleen, etc, but most of the dense attachments were to the abscess cavity
peel. Using this as a guide, the spleen was eventually rotated up and out to the point
where the upper attachments presumably where the short gastrics used to reside were
taken via Harmonic scalpel. The single fire of a 45 mm stapler with vascular load was
taken across the lower pole followed by 2 firings of the echelon stapler across the hilum.
This controlled most of the ongoing bleeding. Single bleeding site below the splenic artery
was controlled with 2 stitches, one of 3-0 Prolene and the other of 4-0 Prolene. Because of
diffuse ooze in the area and the fact that the patient would be scheduled for a return visit
to the operating room tomorrow to reinspect the abscess cavities, it was elected to leave
two laparotomy pads in the left upper quadrant and Vac Pak the abdomen. The Vac Pak
was created using blue towels and Ioban dressings in the usual fashion with 10 mm fully
perforated flat Jackson-Pratt drains brought out at the appropriate level. The patient was
critical throughout the procedure and will be taken directly to the Intensive Care Unit,
intubated, with a plan for re-exploration and removal of the packs tomorrow. The patient
received 4 units of packed cells during the procedure, as well as, albumin and a large
volume of crystalloid. There were no intraoperative complications noted and the specimen
sent included the spleen. Cultures from the abscess cavity were also taken.
What diagnosis/es code(s) are reported?
ICD-9-CM Codes: 042, 289.59, 567.22, 070.70
RATIONALE: The patient is diagnosed with abscesses on the spleen and intra
abdominal cavity, related to his HIV, AIDS and hepatitis C. According to Official
Coding Guidelines 1.C.1.a.2., if a patient is admitted for an HIV-related condition,
the principal diagnosis should be 042, followed by additional diagnosis codes for
all reported HIV-related conditions. In Volume 2, Index to Diseases, find Human
immunodeficiency virus; you are referred to 042. In the Tabular List, category 042
instructions are to use additional code(s) to identify all manifestations of HIV. The
spleen and abdominal abscesses are HIV-related conditions. In the Index to Diseases,
locate Abscess/spleen and you are referred to 289.59; locate Abscess/abdominal/
cavity and you are referred to 567.22. The diagnosis for hepatitis C is relevant and
should be reported because this is a problem in the patient’s abdomen and hepatitis
C may have an impact on the patient’s recovery. From the Index to Diseases, look up
Hepatitis/viral/type C/unspecified. There is no additional information regarding the
hepatitis which makes 070.70 the only option. Verify all codes in the Tabular List.
4.2
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Chapter 4
ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 1–9
Case 2
Dear Dr. Smith,
1.
Mr. Martin was seen in the office for continued management of his breast cancer. He’s
having some increasing pain in his left iliac crest which is due to the cancer based on a
previous bone scan. He is also complaining of neck pain. It does not seem to be worse at
2.
night; it seems to be worse with activity. He has no other symptoms. Otherwise his review
of systems is unremarkable. He’s had no constitutional symptoms.
On physical exam, he is alert and oriented. Eyes: EOMI, PERLA, no icterus. The heart had
a regular rate and rhythm, S1, S2 within normal limits. The lungs are clear to auscultation
and percussion. The abdomen was soft, without masses or organomegaly. He was tender
to palpation over the left anterior iliac crest where he had previously been radiated.
Otherwise, he had no point tenderness over his musculoskeletal system. Neck: Supple. No
tenderness, no enlarged lymph nodes in the neck.
1. This indicates the patient’s
complaint. The left iliac crest
is curved upper border of the
ilium, the most prominent
bone on the pelvis.
2. Neoplasm related pain.
3. This is the definitive diagnosis
that is reported.
4. This is a male patient.
Assessment: Adenocarcinoma of the left breast, stage IV; Neck pain
3.
Plan: The plan is to continue the Tamoxifen at this time. His laboratory studies were
reviewed and were essentially unremarkable; however we’ll obtain another bone scan to
ascertain the extent of his disease.
4.
Sincerely,
John Smith, M.D.
What diagnosis/es code(s) are reported?
ICD-9-CM Code: 175.9, 338.3, 723.1
RATIONALE: The patient is being seen for the management of adenocarcinoma of
the left breast. In the Index to Diseases, look up Adenocarcinoma, which refers you
to see also Neoplasm, by site. From the Neoplasm Table, look up breast/male and
use the code from the primary column. There is no additional information regarding
the specific site of the breast which makes 175.9 the only option. The provider
documents the pain is due to cancer. From the Index to Diseases, look up Pain/
neoplasm related. You are referred to 338.3. Verify both codes in the Tabular List.
ICD-9-CM Guideline 1.C.6.a.5. states when the reason for the admission/encounter
is management of the neoplasm and the pain associated with the neoplasm is also
documented, code 338.3 may be assigned as an additional diagnosis. Neck pain is
the last diagnosis code to report. In the Index to Diseases, look up Pain/neck NEC
referring you to code 723.1.
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4.3
ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 1–9
Chapter 4
Case 3
Subjective: Low-grade fever at home. She has had some lumps in the abdominal wall and
when she injects her insulin, it does seem to hurt there. She stopped four of her medications including Neurontin, Depakote, Lasix, and Premarin, and overall she feels quite
well. Unfortunately, she has put on 20 pounds since our last visit.
Objective:
Heent: Tympanic membranes are retracted but otherwise clear. The nose shows significant green rhinorrhea present. Throat mildly inflamed with moderate postnasal drainage.
NECK: No significant adenopathy.
LUNGS: Clear.
HEART: Regular rate and rhythm.
ABDOMEN: Soft, obese, and nontender. Multiple lipomas are palpated.
Assessment
1. The definitive diagnoses are
reported.
2. Provider treated the acute
sinusitis.
1.
2.
1. Diabetes mellitus, type I.
2. Diabetic neuropathy.
3. Acute sinusitis.
Plan: At this time I have recommended the addition of some Keflex for her acute sinusitis.
I have given her a chair for the shower. They will not cover her Glucerna anymore so a
note for that will be required.
What diagnosis/es code(s) are reported?
ICD-9-CM Codes: 250.61, 357.2, 461.9
RATIONALE: The patient is diagnosed with Type I diabetes. The patient has diabetic
neuropathy, which is a diabetic manifestation. From the Index to Diseases, look up
Diabetes/neuropathy. You are referred to 250.6x [357.2]. The fifth digit is “1” to indicate the type of diabetes and it is not documented as uncontrolled. When coding for
diabetic manifestations, an additional code is assigned to identify the manifestation.
The code to identify the diabetic neuropathy is indicated in the slanted brackets
when you located for Diabetes/neuropathy (357.2). To locate the code for acute
sinusitis, look up Sinusitis/acute. You are referred to 461.9.
4.4
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Chapter 4
ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 1–9
Case 4
S: The patient presents today for reevaluation and titration of Carvedilol for his coronary
1.
artery disease and hyperlipidemia. His weight is up 7 pounds. He has quit smoking. He
has no further cough and he states he is feeling well except for the weight gain. He states
he doesn’t feel he’s eating more but his wife does state that he’s eating more. We’ve been
attempting to titrate up his Carvedilol to 25 mg twice a day from initially the 6.25. He has
tolerated the titration quite well. He does get cephalgias on occasion. He states he has a
weak spell but this is before he takes his morning medicine. I did update his medical list
here today. I did give him samples of Lipitor.
1. Patient returns for treatment
of CAD and hyperlipidemia.
2. Select the codes for the
definitive diagnoses.
O: Weight is 217, pulse rate 68, respirations 16, and blood pressure 138/82. HEENT examination is unchanged. His heart is a regular rate. His lungs are clear.
A: 1. CAD
2. Hyperlipidemia
2.
P: 1. The plan is samples of Lipitor for two months’ supply that I have.
2. We’ve increased his Coreg to 25 mg bid. He’ll recheck with us in six months.
What diagnosis/es code(s) are reported?
ICD-9-CM Codes: 414.01, 272.4
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases, look up Disease/artery/coronary. You are
instructed to see Arteriosclerosis, coronary which refers you to code 414.00. There
is no indication the patient has had a CABG (Coronary Artery Bypass Graft). When
the provider does not document the patient has had a previous CABG, select
code 414.01. The patient also has hyperlipidemia. In the Index to Diseases, look for
hyperlipidemia. You are referred to 272.4. Validate the codes in the Tabular List.
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4.5
ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 1–9
Chapter 4
Case 5
Preoperative Diagnosis: Bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss.
1. Report the postoperative
diagnosis.
1.
Postoperative Diagnosis: Bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss.
Procedures Performed:
2. The diagnosis is documented
as the indication for the
surgery.
1. Placement of left nucleus cochlear implant.
2. Facial nerve monitoring for an hour.
3. Microscope use.
Anesthesia: General.
2.
Indications: This is a 69-year-old woman who has had progressive hearing loss over
the last 10–15 years. Hearing aids are not useful for her. She is a candidate for cochlear
implant by FDA standards. The risks, benefits, and alternatives of procedure were
described to the patient, who voiced understanding and wished to proceed.
Procedure: After properly identifying the patient, she was taken to the main operating
room, where general anesthetic was induced. The table was turned to 180 degrees and
a standard left-sided postauricular shave and injection of 1% lidocaine plus 1:100,000
epinephrine was performed. The patient was then prepped and draped in a sterile
fashion after placing facial nerve monitoring probes, which were tested and found to be
working well. At this time, the previously outlined incision line was incised and flaps
were elevated. A subtemporal pocket was designed in the usual fashion for placement of
the device. A standard cortical mastoidectomy was then performed and the fascial recess
was opened exposing the area of the round window niche. The lip of the round window
was drilled down exposing the round window membrane. At this time, the wound was
copiously irrigated with Bacitracin containing solution and the device was then placed
into the pocket. A 1 mm cochleostomy was then made and the device was then inserted
into the cochleostomy with an advance-off stylet technique. A small piece of temporalis
muscle was then packed around the cochleostomy and the wound was then closed in
layers using 3-0 and 4–0 Monocryl and Steri-Strips. A standard mastoid dressing was
applied. The patient was returned to the anesthesia, where she was awakened, extubated,
and taken to the recovery room in stable condition.
What diagnosis/es code(s) are reported?
ICD-9-CM Code: 389.18
RATIONALE: The patient has bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. From the Index to
Diseases, look up Loss/hearing/sensorineural/bilateral. You are referred to 389.18.
Refer to the Tabular List to verify the code accuracy.
4.6
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Chapter 4
ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 1–9
Case 6
Preoperative diagnosis: Cataract. Left eye
Postoperative diagnosis: Cataract. Left eye
1.
Procedure:
2. Patient is also diagnosed with
presbyopia.
1. Cataract extraction with IOL implant
2. Correction of presbyopia with lens implantation
1. Report the postoperative
diagnosis.
2.
Procedure detail: The patient was brought to the Operating Room under neuroleptic
anesthesia monitoring. A topical anesthetic was placed within the operative eye and the
patient was prepped and draped in usual manner for sterile ophthalmic surgery A lid
speculum was inserted in the right infrapalpebral space. A 6-0 silk suture was placed
through the episclera at 12 o’clock. A subconjunctival injection of non-preserved lidocaine was given. A peritomy was fashioned from 11 o’clock to 1 o’clock with Westcott scissors. Hemostasis was achieved with the wet-field cauter. A 3 mm incision was made in the
cornea and dissected anteriorly with a crescent blade The anterior chamber was entered at
12 o’clock and 2 o’clock with a Supersharp blade. A non-preserved lidocaine was instilled
into the anterior chamber. Viscoelastic was instilled in the anterior chamber and using a
bent 25-gauge needle, a 360 degree anterior capsulotomy was performed using an Utrata
forceps. The capsulotomy was measured and found to be 5.5 mm in diameter. Using an
irrigating cannula, the lens nucleus was hydrodissected and loosened. Using the phacoemulsification unit, the lens nucleus was divided and emulsified. The irrigating/aspirating
tip was used to remove the cortical fragments from the capsular bag and the posterior
capsule was polished. Using a curette to polish the anterior capsule, cortical fragments
were removed from the anterior lens capsule for 270 degrees The irrigating/aspirating tip
was used to remove the capsular fragments. The anterior chamber and capsule bag were
inflated with viscoelastic and using a lens inserter, a Cystalens was then placed within the
capsular bag and rotated to the horizontal position. The viscoelastic was removed with
the irrigating/aspirating tip and the lens was found to be in excellent position with a slight
posterior vault. The wound was hydrated with balanced salt solution and tested and found
to be watertight at a pressure of 20 mm Hg. Topical Vigainox was applied. The conjunctiva was repositioned over the wound with a wet field cautery. The traction suture and lid
speculum were removed. A patch was applied. The patient tolerated the procedure well
and left the Operating Room in good condition.
What diagnosis/es code(s) are reported?
ICD-9-CM Codes: 366.9, 367.4
RATIONALE: The patient is diagnosed with cataract and presbyopia. From the Index
to Diseases, look up cataract. You are referred to 366.9. For the additional diagnosis,
look up presbyopia which is reported with 367.4. Verify both codes in the Tabular
List.
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4.7
ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 1–9
Chapter 4
Case 7
Progress note
1. Patient’s presenting
complaint.
2. This is reported by the patient
but not documented in the
exam or assessment so it is not
coded.
3. Report the code documented
in the assessment.
This patient is a 50-year-old female who began developing bleeding, bright red blood per
rectum, approximately two weeks ago. She is referred by her family physician. She states
that after a bowel movement she noticed blood in the toilet. She denied any prior history
2. of bleeding or pain with defecation. She states that she has had an external hemorrhoid
that did bleed at times but that is not where this bleeding is coming from. She is presently
concerned because a close friend of hers was recently diagnosed with rectal carcinoma
requiring chemotherapy that was missed by her primary doctor. She is here today for
evaluation for a colonoscopy.
1.
Physical examination, she appears a well appearing, 50-year-old, white female. Abdomen
is soft, nontender, nondistended.
3.
Assessment: 50-year-old female with rectal bleeding
Plan: We’ll schedule the patient for an outpatient colonoscopy. The patient was made
aware of all the risks involved with the procedure and was willing to proceed.
What diagnosis/es code(s) are reported?
ICD-9-CM Code: 569.3
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases, look up Bleeding/rectal. You are referred to
569.3. Verify the code in the Tabular List.
4.8
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Chapter 4
ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 1–9
Case 8
1.
Subjective: Here to follow up on her atrial fibrillation. No new problems. Feeling well.
Medications are per medication sheet. These were reconstituted with the medications that
she was discharged home on.
Objective: Blood pressure is 110/64. Pulse is regular at 72. Neck is supple. Chest is clear.
Cardiac normal sinus rhythm.
1. Patient returns for a follow up
visit for atrial fibrillation.
2. Report a code for the
definitive diagnosis.
3. Status code reported for long
term use of anticoagulants.
Assessment: Atrial fibrillation, currently stable.
2.
Plan:
1. Prothrombin time to monitor long term use of anticoagulant.
3.
2. Follow up with myself in 1 month, sooner as needed if has any other problems in the
meantime. Will also check a creatinine and potassium today as well.
What diagnosis/es code(s) are reported?
ICD-9-CM code: 427.31, V58.61
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases, look up Fibrillation/atrial. You are referred
to 427.31. For the next diagnosis, look up Long-term drug use/anticoagulants. You
are referred to V58.61. Verify both codes in the Tabular List.
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4.9
ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 1–9
Chapter 4
Case 9
1. A presenting problem.
1.
2. Provider documents the
type of diabetes and that it is
controlled.
Follow-up visit: The patient has some memory problems. She is hard of hearing. She is
legally blind. Her pharmacist and her family are very worried about her memory issues.
She lives at home, family takes care of laying out her medications and helping with the
chores but she does take care of her own home to best of her ability.
Exam: Pleasant elderly woman in no acute distress. She has postop changes of her eyes.
TMs are dull. Pharynx is clear. Neck is supple without adenopathy. Lungs are clear. Good
air movement. Heart is regular. She had a slight murmur. Abdomen is soft. Moderately
obese. Nontender. Extremities no clubbing or edema. Foot exam shows some bunion
deformity but otherwise healthy as consequence. Light touch is preserved. There is no
ankle edema or stasis change. Examination of the upper arms reveal good range of
motion. There is significant pain in her shoulder with rotational movements. It localized
mostly over the deltoid. There is no other deformity. There is a very slight left shoulder
discomfort and slight right hip discomfort.
3. Report codes for all definite
diagnoses that were treated.
4. Recommendation for
evaluation to determine the
cause of dementia.
5. Treatment documented for
right shoulder pain.
Impression:
1. Type 2 diabetes good control. Most recent AlC done today 5.9%. Liver test normal.
2.
Cholesterol 199, LDL a little high at 115.
2. Right shoulder pain.
3. Benign hypertensive cardiovascular disease.
4. Dementia
3.
4.
5.
Plans:
1. I offered her and her family neuropsych eval to evaluate for dementia. Her system
complex is consistent with dementia whether it be from small vascular disease or
Alzheimer’s is unknown. At this point they much rather initiate treatment than go
through an exhaustive neuropysch test.
2. For the shoulder we decided on right deltoid bursa aspiration injection. She has had
injection for bursitis in the past and prefers to go this route. She will ice and rest the
shoulder after injection.
3. Follow up in 3 months.
Procedure: Aspiration injection right deltoid bursa. The point of maximal tenderness
was identified, skin was prepped with alcohol. A 25-gauge 1 ½-inch needle was advanced
to the humerus and then aspired. 1 cc of 0.25% Marcaine mixed with 80 mg Depomedrol was deposited. Needle withdrawn. Band-Aid applied. Post injection she had marked
improvement, increased range of motion consistent with good placement of the medication. She was started on cerefolin plus NAC and Aricept starter pack was given with email
away script. Follow up in 3 months and we will reassess her dementia at that time.
What diagnosis/es code(s) are reported?
ICD-9-CM Codes: 250.00, 719.41, 402.10, 294.20
RATIONALE: The patient has multiple diagnoses. It is important to report the
diagnoses that the provider treated during the encounter and any chronic
conditions that affect the care of the patient. The provider documents the patient
has controlled Type II diabetes, which is reported with 250.00. The provider performs
4.10
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Chapter 4
ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 1–9
a joint injection to treatment the patient’s shoulder pain. From the Index to Diseases,
look up Pain/joint/shoulder. You are referred to 719.41. The patient is also diagnosed
with benign hypertensive cardiovascular disease. The provider reviews the labs
(cholesterol and LDL) to monitor this condition. From the Index to Diseases, look up
Hypertension/cardiovascular disease. It is documented as benign. You are referred
to 402.10. The last diagnosis listed is dementia. The provider is not sure of the cause.
Look up Dementia. You are referred to 294.20. Verify the codes in the Tabular List for
accuracy.
Case 10
CC: HTN
Interval history: No new complaints.
Exam: NAD. 130/80, 84, 22. Lungs are clear. Heart RRR, no MRGs. Abdomen is soft,
non-tender. No peripheral edema.
Impression: Stable HTN on current meds. He also has mild OA for which he takes PRN
MOTRIN.
1.
2.
Plan: No changes needed. RTC in six months with labs.
1. Patient is diagnosed with
hypertension.
2. Patient diagnosed with OA
(Osteoarthritis). The site is not
specified.
What diagnosis/es code(s) are reported?
ICD-9-CM Codes: 401.9, 715.90
RATIONALE: From the Index to Diseases look up Hypertension. There are three
options, benign, malignant, or unspecified. The provider did not document the
hypertension as benign or malignant so the only option is unspecified (401.9). OA is
osteoarthritis. The diagnosis is found in the Index to Diseases under Osteoarthritis.
You are referred to 715.9x. A fifth digit is required. Turn to 715.9 in the Tabular List,
the location of the OA is not documented. The fifth digit is “0” site unspecified.
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4.11
Chapter
5
ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 10–19
Case 1
Reason for consult: Acute Renal Failure
HPI: Patient followed in the past by my associate for CKD with baseline creatinine of
1.8 two weeks ago. Found to have severe ARF this morning associated with acidosis and
moderate hyperkalemia after presenting to the ER with “dehydration.” The patient is
currently admitted under observation status to the hospitalist service and the renal team
is called for a consult.
1.
2.
1. Indication for the visit.
2. These conditions were
diagnosed by another
physicia in the emergency
room.
3. Code the defintive diagnoses
documented by the provider.
ROS: Cardiovascular: Negative for CP/PND. GI: Negative for nausea; positive for diarrhea. GU: Negative for obstructive symptoms or documented exposure to nephrotoxins.
All other systems reviewed and are negative.
PFSH: Negative family history of hereditary renal disease and negative history of tobacco
or ETOH abuse.
Exam: Constitutional: 99/52, 18, 102. NAD. Conversant. EYES: anicteric sclerae, no
proptosis, PERRL. ENMT: Normal aside from somewhat dry mucus membranes.
CARDIOVASCULAR: RRR, no MRGs, no edema. RESPIRATORY: Lungs CTA, normal
respiratory effort. GI: NABS, no HSM. SKIN: Warm and dry, decreased turgor. PSYCHIATRIC: A&OX3 with appropriate affect.
Labs: BUN 99, creatinine 3.6, HCO3 14, K 5.9.
Impression
1. New, acute renal failure, due to dehydration
2. Underlying stage III CKD
3. Mild hypotension
3.
Plan
1. Bolus with another liter of NS wide open.
2. Then start D5W with 3 amps of HCO3 at 150 cc/hr.
3. Repeat labs in eight hours.
4. Further diagnostic testing will be ordered if no improvement with volume repletion.
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5.1
ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 10–19
Chapter 5
What diagnosis/es code(s) are reported?
ICD-9-CM codes: 584.9, 276.51, 585.3, 458.9
RATIONALE: The patient is diagnosed with acute renal failure due to dehydration.
From the Index to Diseases, look up Failure/renal/acute. You are referred to 584.9.
Next, look up Dehydration. You are referred to 276.51. The provider documents
Stage III CKD which is located under Disease/kidney/chronic/stage III. You are
referred to 585.3. The last documented diagnosis is hypotension which is reported
with 458.9. Verify all codes in the Tabular List.
Case 2
Progress Note
Chief Complaint: Multiple Ulcers
1. The edema is improving.
2. The ulcers are healing.
S: Jane returns, accompanied by her caregiver, who states that she believes the ulcers have
gotten “about as good as they are going to.” The edema of the leg seems to be much better
controlled.
1.
3. Location of ulcer.
2.
3.
4. Patient had foot pain likely
due to tophaneou deposits
which are an indication of
gout. This is not a definitive
diagnosis documented by the
provider. Code the symptom.
4.
5. Report the codes for the
definitive diagnoses.
Procedure performed for foot
pain.
5.
O: Exam reveals marked improvement of the edema of both lower legs, right better than
left. All of the ulcers are now extremely superficial and seem to almost be partial thickness skin. There is no cellulitis. The only uncomfortable area seems to be on the sole of the
left foot where there is considerable bony abnormality and/or tophaceous deposits which
have distorted the bottom of her foot dramatically. In order to relieve foot pain, a sole
nerve block posterior to the lateral malleolus is carried out with a 50:50 mixture of 1%
Lidocaine with epinephrine and .5% Marcaine. Following this she gets good relief from
the pain of the lateral posterior part of the foot. The legs are cleansed with Hibiclens and
multi-layer compression wraps are reapplied by Samuel Myers, PA.
A: Ulcers on the feet. Edema in the lower extremities. Foot pain treated with nerve block.
Fantastic course to date thanks to her caregiver.
P: Continue with wound care as before, return to the office in six to eight weeks at which
time assuming everything is going well we could set up an OR time for panniculectomy.
She appears to understand and is willing to proceed.
What diagnosis/es code(s) are reported?
ICD-9-CM codes: 707.15, 782.3, 729.5
RATIONALE: The patient is diagnosed with ulcers but there is no indication the ulcers
are pressure ulcers or decubitus ulcers. To locate the code, look up Ulcer/skin/foot.
You are referred to 707.15. Although it is improving, the patient still has edema. From
the Index to Diseases, look up Edema/legs. You are referred to 782.3. The patient
also has foot pain which is treated with a nerve block. From the Index to Diseases,
look up Pain/foot. You are referred to 729.5. Verify all codes in the Tabular List.
5.2
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Case 3
S: The patient presents today after having a cabinet fall on her. She states that the people
that put in the cabinet missed the stud by about two inches. The patient complains of
cephalgias, primarily occipital, extending up into the bilateral occipital and parietal
regions. The patient denies any vision changes, any taste changes, any smell changes. The
patient has marked amount of tenderness across the superior trapezius.
1.
2.
3.
1. This describes how the injury
occured.
2. Patient complaint.
3. Patient complaint.
4. Select codes for definitive
diagnosis.
O: Her weight is 188, which is up 5 pounds from last time, blood pressure 144/82, pulse
rate 70, respirations are 18. She has full strength in her upper extremities. DTRs in the
biceps and triceps are adequate. Grip strength is adequate. Heart is a regular rate. Lungs
are clear.
A:
1. Cephalgia
2. Thoracic somatic dysfunction
4.
P: The plan at this time is to send her for physical therapy three times a week times, four
weeks for cervical soft tissue muscle massage, as well as upper dorsal. We’ll recheck her in
one month.
What diagnosis/es code(s) are reported?
ICD-9-CM codes: 784.0, 739.2, E916
RATIONALE: The patient is diagnosed with cephalgia (headache) and thoracic somatic
dysfunction. From the Index to Diseases, look up Cephalgia. You are referred to 784.0.
ICD-9-CM code 399.20 for Post-traumatic headache is not assigned during the acute
phase of an injury. Because this is not during the acute phase of this injury, 399.20
is not reported for this case. Next, look up Dysfunction/somatic/thoracic. You are
referred to 739.2. An E code is reported to indicate how the injury occurred. In the
Index of External Causes, look up Hit/by/falling object. The correct code is E916. There
is no indication were the accident occurred or the activity being performed, so an E
code to report the place of occurrence or the activity cannot be assigned. Verify the
codes in the Tabular List.
Case 4
Chief Complaint: Right shoulder injury.
1.
Mode of Arrival: Private vehicle.
1. Patient’s complaint.
History of Present Illness: The patient is a 59-year-old male who states that just prior to
arrival he was going into a supermarket when the revolving door suddenly slammed on
him. It caught him across the right side of his chest anteriorly and posteriorly. He was
unable to liberate himself from the door and an employee had to help him out. He denies
any current shortness of breath though did say he had the wind knocked out of him.
He complains of pain in the anterior and posterior chest wall, posteriorly medial to the
scapula. He denies any numbness, tingling, or weakness in his left arm however he does
2. This is the location of the
injury.
2.
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5.3
ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 10–19
Chapter 5
state that it seems to be painful and difficult for him to either lift or even drop his arm.
He again denies any numbness, tingling, or weakness distally. He denies any injury to
his head or neck though he did have a temporary episode of spasms on the left side of his
neck. He has not taken anything for pain.
Review of systems: Negative for fevers, chills, or unintentional weight loss. No neck pain,
numbness, tingling, weakness, nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, hemoptysis, or
cough. All other systems reviewed and negative except as noted.
Physical Examination:
General: The patient is awake and alert, lying comfortably in the treatment bed. He is
nontoxic in appearance.
Vital signs: Temperature 98 3, pulse 81, respirations 16, blood pressure 134/81, pulse
oximetry 95% on room air.
HEENT: The head is normocephalic and Atraumatic.
Neck: Nontender to palpation in the posterior midline. The trachea is midline. There is
no subcutaneous emphysema. There is no tenderness over the paraspinous muscles.
Heart: Regular rate and rhythm without murmurs
Lungs: Clear to auscultation bilaterally without wheezes, crackles or rhonchi. The chest
wall does expand symmetrically.
Thorax/Chest wall: Demonstrates mild tenderness anteriorly and demonstrates distinct
tenderness posteriorly along the medial aspect of the scapula. No bruising or ecchymosis
is noted on the skin of the chest wall. Patient keeps his right shoulder lowered. There is
no deformity noted. There is no tenderness over the right clavicle. No bony deformity is
noted there. There is no subcutaneous emphysema of the chest wall.
Extremities: Warm and dry without clubbing, cyanosis, or edema. Grip strength is
5/5 bilaterally. Patient can flex and extend all fingers without difficulty. He can pronate
and supinate at the elbow. He does complain of pain in the shoulder when he flexes and
extends at the elbow. Normal radial and ulnar pulses are appreciated in the bilateral
upper extremities. Capillary refill is brisk. Sensation is normal in all nerve distributions
in the bilateral arms.
Abdomen: Soft, nondistended. Nontender.
Diagnostics: Two views of the chest, PA and lateral, and three views of the right shoulder
were obtained. ED COURSE: The patient received a total of 2 mg of Dilaudid for pain, 1
mg of sublingual Ativan. His arm was placed in a sling. This was well tolerated and the
patient was discharged home.
Medical decision making: It appears the patient has an anterior chest wall and a posterior
chest wall contusion. The exact reasoning why he has so much difficulty moving the
shoulder is unclear at this time as he is completely neurologically intact from what I can
tell. He can adduct and abduct at the shoulder as I have seen him do it as he was moving
around to be examined. X-rays demonstrate no evidence of fracture or dislocation. At this
5.4
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Chapter 5
ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 10–19
point I am going to discharge the patient home, have him use ice packs, doing prescriptions
for pain medications and have him return for any new or worsening symptoms.
Impression:
1. Anterior and posterior chest wall contusion.
2. Right shoulder injury.
3.
3. Report codes for the definitive
diagnosis.
Plan: Discharge home. Return for new or worsening symptoms. Sling for comfort.
What diagnosis/es code(s) are reported?
ICD-9-CM codes: 922.1, 959.2, E918, E849.6
RATIONALE: The patient is diagnosed with anterior and posterior chest wall contusions and a shoulder injury. From the Index to Diseases, look up Contusion. You
are referred to 922.1. There is no distinction of subterms for posterior and anterior.
Next, look up Injury/shoulder. There is no additional information documented for
the shoulder injury. The only code option is 959.2 based on the documentation
provided. An E code is reported to identify how the injury occurred. From the Index
of External Causes, look up Caught/between/objects. You are referred to E918. An E
code can also be reported to indicate the location of the accident which is a supermarket. From the Index of External Causes, look up Accident/occurring at/store. You
are referred to E849.6. Verify all codes in the Tabular List.
Case 5
1.
HPI: 20-year-old female, estimated gestational age 25.3 weeks, who presents with red
staining after wiping with toilet paper this afternoon. No abdominal pain. Contractions:
Negative; Fetal Movement: Present
2.
1. Patient is pregnant.
2. Patient’s complaint.
ROS:
Constitutional: Negative
Headache: Negative
Urinary: Negative
Nausea: Negative
Vomiting: Negative
Past medical/Family/Social history:
Medical history: Negative
Surgical history: Negative
Social history: Alcohol: Denies; Tobacco: Denies; Drugs: Denies
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5.5
ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 10–19
Chapter 5
Exam:
General appearance: No Acute Distress
Abdominal: Soft. Nontender
Vagina: Blood Clots size: 1.5 cm and amount 2.Discharge: Pink
No Hyphae, BV or TRICH and CX not irritated
Cervix: Deffered
Uterus: Fundal Height: 24 cm
MDM: Labs: FFN, UA R+M, C+S, GC/Chlamydia, CBC, Type and RH, DAU
Labs reviewed and WNL
Ultrasound: Negative for placenta previa
3. Report the definitive
diagnosis.
Notes: Pt continues with contractions mildly, but does not feel it. Pt given Celestone I/M.
D/C and to return tomorrow for repeat Celestone injection.
3.
Diagnosis: Threatened Premature Labor
What diagnosis/es code(s) are reported?
ICD-9-CM Code: 644.03
RATIONALE: The patient is diagnosed with threatened premature labor. According
to the Official Coding Guidelines, when a condition is documented as “threatened,”
look for the condition under the main term Threatened. The condition is indexed
under Threatened/premature/labor. You are referred to 644.0x. The fifth digit is “3”
because the episode of care is antepartum. The patient did not deliver. The correct
code is 644.03. Verify the code in the Tabular List.
Case 6
1. Patient complaint.
Office Note:
2. Definitive diagnosis. The heel
pain is a symptom of a heel
spur.
RE: Injection, strapping of foot and ankle.
1.
Chief complaint: heel pain, 6 months’ duration. No inflammation, no heat.
2.
Diagnosis: Heel spur.
Treatment: Weight reduction, injection of Celestone, Xylocaine plain, Pulses good, DTR,
vibration and temp normal
Orthotics suggested, better shoes suggested. Lawyer by trade. Criminal trial attorney.
Referred by his partner. Discussed diet, orthotic shoes. Return if need be in 61 days.
What diagnosis/es code(s) are reported?
ICD-9-CM Code: 726.73
5.6
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ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 10–19
RATIONALE: The patient is diagnosed with a heel spur. The pain the patient
is complaining of is a symptom of the heel spur and should not be reported
separately. From the Index to Diseases, look up Spur/bone/calcaneal. The calcaneous
is the heel. You are referred to 726.73. Verify the code in the Tabular List.
1. Open wound of the forehead.
2. Open wound of the upper
eyelid.
Case 7
Preoperative diagnosis:
1. 2 cm transverse laceration of right forehead.
1.
2. 3 cm stellate laceration of right upper eyelid.
2.
3. 3 cm trap door laceration of right lower eyelid.
3.
Operative diagnosis:
3. Open wound of the lower
eyelid.
4. The injury is a result of a fall.
5. The forehead laceration is not
indicated as complex.
6. The eyelid lacerations do not
appear to be complicated.
Operation performed: multiple layer closure of above lacerations totalling 8 cm.
Anesthesia: Local.
Preoperative note: This patient is a 64-year-old white female. She has a very difficult time
ambulating, doing so with a walker and intermittently sitting. This evening, unfortu4.
nately, she fell from her motorized wheelchair and struck the right side of her forehead.
She was brought to the emergency department where she was thoroughly evaluated by
Dr. Tim and is in the process of getting C-spine films and is accordingly in a cervical
spine support. I was called to evaluate and treat these lacerations due to their extensive
and complex nature. The lacerations are as described above. Forehead laceration is linear,
deep but otherwise uneventful. The upper right eyelid laceration is approximately 3 cm in 5.
length and the medial aspect of it is somewhat dusky because it is very thin and devoid of
vasculature. The lower eyelid laceration is trap door and somewhat deep. It also becomes
very thin at the medial aspect. However, there appear to be no duskiness. It seems to
be well vascularized. In any event, we chose to immediately repair these with local
6.
anesthesia.
Details of operative procedure: Approximately a total of 6 ml of 2% lidocaine with
1:100,000 epinephrine was then infiltrated into the three wounds. They were then
thoroughly cleansed with soap and closure was begun on the upper eyelid to begin with.
We used 6-0 Vicryl subcutaneous sutures to attack the flap back into position and once
this was accomplished we used individual 6-0 Prolene sutures on the skin to complete the
closure. Attention was then turned to the right lower eyelid laceration where essentially
an identical procedure was done. The wounds were somewhat similar in that they were
flaps pedicled to the lateral towards the medial. Again, 6-0 Vicryl subcutaneous and 6-0
Prolene individual skin sutures. Finally attention was turned to the forehead laceration,
which was similarly closed with these same sutures, 6-0 Vicryl subcutaneous and 6-0
Prolene on the skin. The wounds were then dressed with Bacitracin ophthalmic. Patient
was instructed to keep them moist at all times, do not let crust form. She was also
instructed in the appropriate analgesics to be taken orally and given my office number for
a follow up appointment. At the end of the procedure, she was then sent back to X-ray for
CAT scan of her C-spine.
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5.7
ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 10–19
Chapter 5
What diagnosis/es code(s) are reported?
ICD-9-CM codes: 870.0, 873.42, E884.3
RATIONALE: The patient has multiple lacerations. From the Index to Diseases, look
up laceration. You are referred to Wound, open, by site. Under Wound, open/eyelid
NEC you are referred to 870.8. A review in the Tabular List reveals that 870.0 is a
better code choice because it is specific to an open wound of the skin of the eyelid.
Next, look up Wound, open/forehead, you are referred to 873.42. Although there
are two laceration of the eyelid, both the upper and lower are reported with the
same code and according to the guidelines, it is only reported once. The code for
the eyelids is sequenced first since they were the longest in length. An E code is
reported to indentify how the injury occurred. In the Index of External Causes, look
up Fall/from/wheelchair. You are referred to E884.3. The location where the accident
occurred is not documented so an additional E code is not reported. Verify all the
codes in the Tabular List.
Case 8
Preoperative diagnosis:
Right forearm radial shaft fracture with possible mild distal radioulnar joint subluxation.
Postoperative diagnosis:
1. The postoperative diagnosis
is reported. The subluxation
is described as possible and
should not be coded.
1.
Right forearm radial shaft fracture with possible mild distal radioulnar joint subluxation.
Anesthesia: Axillary block with general.
Operation: Right radius fracture open reduction and internal fixation with closed
reduction distal radioulnar joint.
2. A fracture is confirmed.
Indications: This is a 22-year-old male who sustained a right forearm fracture injury as
indicated above and in the medical records and office notes.
3. Location of the fracture.
Description of procedure: The patient was placed under axillary block in the holding
area followed by general anesthesia in the operating room. Patient identification, correct
procedure, and site were confirmed. Antibiotics were provided in an appropriate fashion
preoperatively.
2.
3.
5.8
A dorsal/posterior approach to the fracture was performed with a standard recommended
incision, location, and technique. The interval between the extensor carpi radialis brevis
and extensor digitorum communis was developed. The extensor pollicis brevis and the
abductor pollicis were gently retracted one way or the other to expose the fracture site
and the fracture was just beneath this area. The radial sensory nerve was identified and
protected throughout the procedure. The fracture was exposed with minimal soft tissue
stripping. The bone holding forceps were placed on either side of the fracture and the
overriding fracture was manipulated with gentle traction and manipulation and the
fracture reduced. This effectively reduced the distal radioulnar joint.
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A small fragment, Synthes DCP locking plate was utilized to fix the fracture. Eight holes
were utilized. Due to the nature of the fracture and the anatomy, there were 3 screws
distal, 4 screws proximal, and the last hole was at the area of the fracture. Initially to
achieve satisfactory bone to plate contact, 3 lag screws were required and these were
placed initially. This was followed by placement of the remaining screws that were utilized
proximal and distal to the fracture site to be locking screws. Intraoperative X-rays
utilizing the C-arm were performed throughout the procedure to guide fracture reduction
and hardware replacement. Final X-rays demonstrated excellent alignment of the fracture
in the distal radioulnar joint. Excellent coaptation of the bony surfaces was obtained.
Final irrigation of the wound was performed. The wound was closed in layers in a standard
fashion. Splints were applied. Total tourniquet time was approximately 60 minutes. The
patient tolerated the procedure well and went to recovery room in satisfactory condition.
Sponge and needle count correct x2. Estimated blood loss minimal.
What diagnosis/es code(s) are reported?
ICD-9-CM Code: 813.21
RATIONALE: In this case, the patient is diagnosed with a radius fracture. The
subluxation is documented as probable and should not be coded. From the Index to
Diseases, look up Fracture/radius/shaft. There is no indication the fracture is open so
it is coded as closed according to the Official Coding Guidelines. You are referred to
813.21. Verify the code in the Tabular List.
Case 9
Preoperative diagnosis: Congenital hydrocephalus.
Postoperative diagnosis: Congenital hydrocephalus.
1.
Clinical history: The patient is a 2-month-old boy who was born and was IUGR.
However, did well for the first several weeks; however, then developed to have a large
head. Mom noticed full fontanelle arid in the last week or so, they have noticed the eyes
have decreased mobility. He tends to stare straight. Has some troubles looking up and
even to the sides bilaterally. Therefore, reported to her pediatrician. Pediatrician got a CT
scan and referred the patient and I saw the patient yesterday in clinic. We ordered an HRI,
2.
HRT was done this morning. PIRI shows the congenital hydrocephalus and cyst in the
posterior fossa; however, it is not a Dandy-Walker. We had a discussion with the family
about risks, benefits, potential complications, and also different procedures. We talked
about a third ventriculostomy; however, given the patient’s age and the fact it was hydrocephalus, he has elected to go with the shunt. Family are comfortable with this, bringing
him to the OR today for shunting.
1. Reort the definitive diagnosis.
2. The diagnosis is confirmed.
What diagnosis/es code(s) are reported?
ICD-9-CM Code: 742.3
RATIONALE: The condition is documented as congenital hydrocephalus. From the
Index to Diseases, look up Hydrocephalus/congenital. You are referred to 742.3.
According to the Official Coding Guidelines, report congenital conditions as long as
they exist. Verify the code in the Tabular List.
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5.9
ICD-9-CM Coding Chapters 10–19
Chapter 5
Case 10
1. The patient presents for a
screening gynecological
exam.
1.
2.
2. Patient also has a complaint.
3. Patient preseted for a
screening exam and also was
treated for a complaint.
This 67-year-old Medicare patient is seen for a screening Pap and pelvic examination
at our office today. She is an established patient and complaining of abnormal vaginal
discharge and bleeding on and off for approximately three weeks. She denied any trauma.
Patient is not sexually active and her LMP was 10 years ago. She denies any chest pain,
shortness of breath, or urinary problems. Patient had Pap and pelvic exam one year ago
and is requesting a Pap and pelvic exam today. Patient was presented with an ABN, which
was signed.
Past medical history: Two vaginal deliveries, one in 1965 and another in 1967. Allergies,
unknown. Medications include Micardis 80 mg for hypertension. She does not smoke or
drink. She is married and lives with her husband.
Examination: Vital Signs: BP 125/70; Pulse 85, Respirations 20. Height 5’ 5”, Weight 135
lb. Well developed, well nourished female in no acute distress.
HEENT: Pupils equal, round and reactive to light and accommodation. Extraocular
muscles are intact:
Neck: Thyroid not palpable. No jugular distention. Carotid pulses are present bilaterally.
Breasts: Manual breast exam reveals no masses, tenderness, or nipple discharge. The
breasts are asymmetrical with no nipple discharge.
Abdomen: No masses or tenderness noted. No hernias appreciated. No enlargement of
the liver or spleen.
Pelvic: Vaginal examination reveals no lesions or masses. Discharge is noted and a sample
was collected for testing and sent to an outside laboratory for testing. No bleeding noted.
Examination of the external genitalia reveals normal pubic hair distribution. The vulva
appears to be within normal limits. There are no lesions noted. A speculum is inserted.
There is no evidence of prolapse. The cervix appears normal. A cervical smear is obtained
and will be sent to pathology. The speculum is removed and a manual pelvic examination
is performed. It appears that the uterus is smooth and no masses can be felt. Rectal examination is within normal limits. Screening occult blood is negative. Uterus is not enlarged.
Urinary: Urethral meatus is normal. No masses noted for urethra or bladder.
3.
5.10
Assessment and plan: Routine Pap and pelvic; Vaginal discharge. Patient had Pap and
pelvic examination one year ago. Patient was sent to our in-house lab for blood draw
today and she is to follow-up in one week for lab results.
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What diagnosis/es code(s) are reported?
ICD-9-CM codes: V72.31, 623.5
RATIONALE: According to the Official Coding Guidelines, when a patient presents
for a screening exam or test, first list the diagnosis code for the screening. If any
problems are diagnosed during the course of the screening, report an additional
diagnosis for the problem. In this case, the first listed diagnosis is located under
Examination/gynecological which is reported with V72.31. Next, look up Discharge/
vaginal which is reported with 623.5. Verify both codes in the Tabular List.
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5.11
Chapter
6
Introduction to CPT®,
Surgery Guidelines, HCPCS, and Modifiers
Exercise 1
Look up the procedures in the CPT® codebook and list the CPT® code. No modifiers are
necessary for this exercise.
1. Pyloroplasty
Answer: 43800
RATIONALE: In the index, look for pyloroplasty.
2. Deep biopsy of soft tissue of the ankle
Answer: 27614
RATIONALE: In the index, look for biopsy/ankle or for ankle/biopsy and you are
directed to 27613–27614, 27620. 27620 is for an anthrotomy. 27613–27614 are both for
biopsies, but one is superficial and the other is deep.
3. Osteotomy, humerus, with internal fixation.
Answer: 24400
RATIONALE: In the index, look for osteotomy/humerus and you are directed to
24400–24410. 24400 indicates “with or without internal fixation.”
4. Renal biopsy, percutaneous, needle
Answer: 50200
RATIONALE: Renal means kidney. In the index, look for kidney/biopsy and you are
directed to 50200–50205. 50200 is for a needle or trocar biopsy. 50205 is for an open
surgical procedure biopsy.
5. Destruction of a malignant lesion on the face with a lesion diameter of 1.2 cm.
Answer: 17282
RATIONALE: In the index, look for destruction/skin/malignant and you are directed
to 17260–17286, 96567. Code range 17260–17286 is for the destruction of a malignant lesion by any method. The codes are further subdivided based on location.
Code range 17280–17286 would be used for lesions on the face. Code selection is
then based on the size. Code 17282 is for a lesion diameter of 1.1 to 2.0 cm.
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6.1
Introduction to CPT®, Surgery Guidelines, HCPCS, and Modifiers
Chapter 6
6. Emergency endotracheal intubation
Answer: 31500
RATIONALE: In the index, look for intubation/endotracheal and you are directed to
code 31500. Verification of 31500 confirms it is for an emergency procedure.
7. Measurement of spirometric forced expiratory flows, before and after bronchodilator, in an infant or child through 2 years of age.
Answer: 94012
RATIONALE: In the index, look for spirometry and you are directed to code range
94010–94070. Reading the descriptors will help you determine correct code
selection.
8. An electrolyte panel performed on an 86-year-old for dizziness.
Answer: 80051
RATIONALE: In the index, look for Panel and you are directed to see Blood Tests;
Organ and Disease-Oriented Panel. Looking at Blood Tests, there is a subterm for
Panels, Electrolyte which directs you to 80051.
9. A frontal and lateral chest X-ray is performed in the office for a patient with
chest pain.
Answer: 71020
RATIONALE: In the index, look for X-ray/chest and you are directed to code range
71010–71035. Viewing the descriptors, code 71020 is for 2 views, frontal and lateral
chest X-ray.
10. The performance measure code for history obtained regarding new or
changing moles.
Answer: 1050F
RATIONALE: In the index, look for performance measures, melanoma, history, moles
and you are directed to 1050F.
6.2
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Chapter 6
Introduction to CPT®, Surgery Guidelines, HCPCS, and Modifiers
Exercise 2
List the CPT® or HCPCS Level II modifier for the definition given.
1. Decision for surgery
Answer: Modifier 57
2. Increased procedural service
Answer: Modifier 22
3. Physical status modifier for a patient with a severe systemic disease
Answer: Modifier P3
4. Right hand, thumb
Answer: Modifier F5
5. Unrelated evaluation and management services by the same physician during
a postoperative period
Answer: Modifier 24
6. Staged or related procedure or service by the same physician during the postoperative period
Answer: Modifier 58
7. Significant, separately identifiable service by the same physician on the same
day of the procedure or other service
Answer: Modifier 25
8. Left foot, great toe
Answer: Modifier TA
9. Waiver of liability statement on file (goes with ABN)
Answer: Modifier GA or GU
GA-Waiver of liability statement issued as required by payer policy, individual case
GU-Waiver of liability statement issued as required by payer policy, routine notice
10. Reduced Services
Answer: Modifier 52
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6.3
Chapter
7
Integumentary System
Case 1
Preoperative diagnosis: Rapidly enlarging suspicious lesion of patient’s right forehead.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Rapidly enlarging suspicious lesion of patient’s right forehead.
Operation performed: Wide local excision with intermediate closure of right forehead.
2.
Indications: The patient is a 78-year-old white male who recently in the last month or so
noticed a rapidly enlarging suspicious lesion on the right side of his forehead.
4.
5.
9.
Description of procedure: The patient was placed in the supine position on the table,
was given no sedation. The area of his right forehead was prepped and draped with
Betadine paint in normal sterile fashion. The area to be excised was on the right side of
the patient’s mid forehead. This had a maximum diameter of 1.1 cm. This had a 0.3 cm
margin designed for total resection of 1.7 cm. This was infiltrated with 1% Lidocaine with
Epinephrine. After waiting for hemostasis, it was excised, tagged, and sent for permanent
pathology. The wound was then irrigated; several bleeders were tied off, and cauterized
and closed in multiple layers with inverted dermises of 3-0 Vicryl, a running subcuticular
stitch of 4-0 Vicryl and a few 5-0 chromics. The total length of this incision was 3 cm.
This was covered with Steri-Strips, gauze, and tape. Patient tolerated this procedure with
no complication and was sent home in stable condition.
Final diagnosis: Skin, right forehead, wide local excision, keratoacanthoma, possible
squamous cell carcinoma, margins are free of tumor.
1. Indications for surgery.
2. An excision with intermediate
closure was performed.
3. Location is the right forehead.
4. Greatest clinical diameter is
1.1 cm.
3.
5. .3 cm margin on both sides
(total .6 cm).
6. Total size of lesion is 1.7 cm.
6.
7.
8.
7. Closure in multiple layers
indicates an intermediate
repair which is reported
separately.
8. Repair length is 3 cm.
9. Location is right forehead.
10.Diagnosis is keroacanthoma.
10.
11.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
11.Squamous cell carcinoma is
possible. Possible diagnoses
are not coded.
ICD-9-CM code: 238.2
CPT® codes: 12052, 11442-51
RATIONALE: CPT® code: This is an excision on the forehead of a 1.7 cm lesion (1.1
cm + 0.3 cm + 0.3 cm = 1.7 cm). To find in the CPT® Index, see excision/lesionskin/
benign (keratoacanthoma is coded to neoplasm of uncertain behavior…unless
specified as a carcinoma, excision in the CPT® is coded as benign). The code range
you are directed to is 11400–11471. The code ranges are divided by location. Code
range 11440–11446 is further divided by size. Code 11442 represents an excised
lesion on the face measuring 1.1 to 2.0 cm. The repair is a layered closure indicating
an intermediate repair. The repair can be reported separately since it is not a simple
repair. In the CPT® Index see repair/skin/wound/intermediate, you are directed to
code range 12031–12057. Code ranges are further defined by location. Code range
12051–12057 reports repairs on the face. This range is further defined by size. An
intermediate repair of a 3 cm incision on the face is coded to 12052. Modifier 51 is
necessary for the second procedure to indicate multiple procedures.
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7.1
Integumentary System
Chapter 7
ICD-9-CM code: The diagnosis is stated as keratoacanthoma, possible squamous
cell carcinoma (SCC). The SCC is considered possible and therefore not coded. To
find the diagnosis code for keratoacanthoma, in the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases
see keratoacanthoma. You are directed to 238.2. Verification of 238.2 in the Tabular
List confirms this is the diagnosis for a neoplasm of uncertain behavior of other
and unspecified sites. Since we know it is on the forehead, in the Neoplasm Table
see Skin/forehead. In the uncertain behavior column (as defined by the index
in ICD-9-CM), forehead is coded to 238.2 as well. By nature, keratoacanthomas
are difficult to distinguish from a squamous cell carcinoma, both clinically and in
histology, making it uncertain behavior.
7.2
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Chapter 7
Integumentary System
Case 2
Preoperative diagnosis: Basal cell carcinoma
Postoperative diagnosis: Same
1.
Operation: Mohs Surgery
2.
Indications: The patient has a biopsy proven basal cell carcinoma on the nasal tip
measuring 8 x 7 mm. Due to its location, Mohs surgery is indicated. Mohs surgical
procedure was explained including other therapeutic options, and the inherent risks of
bleeding, scar formation, reaction to local anesthesia, cosmetic deformity, recurrence,
infection, and nerve damage. Informed consent was obtained and the patient underwent
fresh tissue Mohs surgery as follows.
3.
STAGE I: The site of the skin cancer was identified concurrently by both the patient and
Dr. and marked with a surgical pen; the margins of the excision were delineated with
the marking pen. The patient was placed supine on the operating table. The wound was
defined and infiltrated with 1% Lidocaine with epinephrine 1:100,000. All gross tumor was
completely excised in a debulking stage using aggressive curettage and/or cold steel. With
all visible gross tumor completely excised, an excision was made around the debulking
defect. Hemostasis was obtained by spot electrodessication. A pressure dressing was placed.
Tissue was divided into two tissue blocks which were mapped, color coded at their margins,
and sent to the technician for frozen sectioning. Microscopic tumor was found persisting in
none of the tissue blocks. Following surgery the defect measured as follows: 10 x 13 mm to
the subcutaneous tissue. Closure will be by Burrow’s graft.
5.
4.
1. Post-Operative diagnosis is
the same as pre-operative
diagnosis, which is Basal cell
carcinoma.
2. Mohs surgery is performed.
3. Location is noted as the nasal
tip.
4. The basal cell is 8 x 7 mm.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
5. Stage 1.
6. Local anesthesia was used.
7. Noting the tumor has been
removed, which supports
Stage 1.
8. The tissue is divided into two
tissue blocks.
9. Size and depth of the defect.
10.A Burrow’s graft indicates an
adjacent tissue graft.
Condition at termination of therapy: Carcinoma removed.
Pathology report on file.
What CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes are reported?
CPT® codes: 14060, 17311-51
ICD-9-CM code: 173.31
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: A Burrow’s graft is a graft using adjacent tissue, meaning
an adjacent tissue graft. To code, look in the CPT® Index for Burrow’s Operation and
you are directed to see Skin/Adjacent Tissue Transfer. Under Skin, Adjacent Tissue
Transfer, you are directed to code range 14000–14350. Code selection is based on
location and size. CPT® codes 14060 and 14061 represent an adjacent tissue transfer
on the nose. The size is selected based on sq centimeters. The defect size is 10 x 13
mm. This must be converted to sq centimeters to determine the accurate code. 10
mm = 1 cm. 13 mm = 1.3 cm. To find the sq cm, you will need to multiply the width
x length. 1 cm x 1.3 cm = 1.3 sq cm. The correct code is 14060 for 10 sq cm or less.
In the CPT® Index, see Mohs Micrographic Surgery. You are directed to code range
17311–17315. 17311 reports Mohs of the head, up to five tissue blocks. The report
indicates two tissue blocks were examined. The guidelines in the Mohs section
remind us to code any graft separately. Modifier 51 is appended to report multiple
procedures were performed.
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7.3
Integumentary System
Chapter 7
ICD-9-CM code: The diagnosis is basal cell carcinoma of the nose. Basal Cell Carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm of the skin. In the Neoplasm Table, see nose/skin/
basal cell carcinoma and see the primary column. The correct code is 173.31.
7.4
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Chapter 7
Integumentary System
Case 3
Chief complaint: Cauliflower ear.
1.
History of present illness: The patient is a 15-year-old male who was seen by me two
days ago with a hematoma of the right ear. He underwent incision and drainage and then
bolster placement here. He is here for planned removal of the bolster and follow-up.
2.
Physical examination: Blood pressure is 100/80. Temperature is 97.4. Pulse is 60. HEENT:
The patient’s right ear was examined. The bolster was removed. He was found to have
good resolution of most of the hematoma, however there is a small area of resolution just
3.
posterior to the helical roots. After discussing this with his mother we decided to repeat
4.
the drainage. I attempted to do this through the old incision site, but was unsuccessful;
therefore I took a 20-gauge needle and drained the site with an aspiration of about a ½ cc 5.
of serosanguineous fluid. The patient was not interested in having the bolster replaced. In
addition, it would be difficult to place a bolster, as it is just posterior to the helical root.
Assessment and plan: I advised the patient and his mother that this could reaccumulate.
I want them to call me immediately if it does reaccumulate. They are to monitor it closely.
They were instructed that it is unclear whether he will have permanent injury to his
pinna or not. He may have a cauliflower deformity, however our best chance of avoiding
that is to monitor this closely and to redrain it if he has any reaccumulation. They were
instructed to call me through the answering service immediately this weekend if they
noticed any reaccumulation. Otherwise, he should follow-up with me on Monday.
1. Chief complaint for office
visit.
2. Patient was in two days ago
for a incision and drainage
of a hematoma, it would be
important to know that the
patient is in a global period of
10 days.
3. There was a decision to
repeat the drainage of the
hematoma.
4. There was an unsuccessful
attempt to drain the
hematoma through an old
incision site.
5. The provider performed a
puncture aspiration.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 10160-58
ICD-9-CM code: 998.12
RATIONALE: CPT® code: To appropriately code this medical record, you have to first
know what procedure was performed two days prior. An incision and drainage (I&D)
with a bolster placement is coded by looking in the CPT® Index under Incision and
Drainage/Ear, External. There is no mention of a complication, you look at simple,
referring you to code 69000. CPT® code 69000 has a 10 day global period, we are still
in the global period of the original procedure. Since we are still in the 10 day global
period, this is considered a postoperative visit, the evaluation and management
code is not reported separately. The provider decided to perform a second, related,
procedure. The provider punctured the hematoma with a needle (puncture aspiration) and drained the hematoma. To find the code for drainage of the hematoma,
in the CPT® Index see Drainage/Skin, you are referred to a series of codes, including
code range 10120–10180. Puncture aspiration of a hematoma is correctly reported
with CPT® code 10160. Modifier 58 is appended to indicate it is a planned and
related procedure.
ICD-9-CM code: The patient has a hematoma at the incision site of the prior surgery.
To find the diagnosis code, see the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases for hematoma/postsurgical, you are directed to ICD-9-CM code 998.12. Verification in the Tabular List
confirms 998.12 is for a hematoma complicating a surgery.
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7.5
Integumentary System
Chapter 7
Case 4
Preoperative diagnosis: Segmental obesity of posterior thighs.
1. Postoperative diagnosis is
used for coding.
2. Procedure performed.
3. General anesthesia.
4. Location identified.
5. Liposuction performed.
6. The procedure was also
performed on the left side.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Segmental obesity of posterior thighs.
2.
Operative procedure: Posterior thigh lift with suction-assisted lipectomy of posterior
medial thigh, bilateral.
Clinical note:
This obese patient presents for the above procedure. She understood the potential risks
and complications including, but not limited to, the risk of anesthesia, bleeding, infection,
wound healing problems, unfavorable scarring, and potential need for secondary surgery.
She understood and desired to proceed.
Procedure:
The patient was placed on the operating table in supine position. General anesthesia was
3. induced. She was positioned prone. The buttocks and thigh regions were prepped and
draped in the usual sterile fashion. She had been marked in the awake, standing position,
outlining the area for the incision along the gluteal crease that was in continuity with her
4. medial thigh lift scar and extended to the posterior axillary line. The posterior medial
5. thigh region was infiltrated with tumescent solution utilizing 750 mL. The liposuction
was then accomplished, removing a total of 200 mL. The right side was addressed first.
Then an incision was made along the gluteal crease at the desired site for the final incision. A posterior skin flap was elevated approximately 3 to 4 cm. Hemostasis was assured
by electrocautery.
There was no residual flap or dead space and the fascia was closed at the deep level with
0 PDS and then in layers anatomically the closure was completed with 2-0, 3-0, and 4-0
PDS. Dermabond and Steri-Strips were applied. The medial third was also closed with a
6. running 4-0 plain gut. The same was then accomplished on the left side in similar fashion
and steps, achieving a symmetric result, and closure was accomplished similarly. A
compression garment was applied. The patient was awakened, extubated, and transferred
to the recovery room in satisfactory condition. There were no operative or anesthetic
complications.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 15879-50
ICD-9-CM code: 278.00
7.6
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Chapter 7
Integumentary System
RATIONALE: CPT® code: The patient had a suction-assisted lipectomy, also known as
liposuction. In the CPT® Index see Lipectomy/Suction assisted, or Liposuction, you
are referred to code range 15876–15879. Code selection is based on location. This
procedure was performed on the right and left posterior medial thighs, requiring
use of 15879. The procedure was performed on both the right and left medial thighs
(bilaterally) reported as 15879-50 or 15879-RT, 15879-LT.
ICD-9-CM code: The patient’s diagnosis is Segmental obesity. In the ICD-9-CM
Index see obesity/segmental. Segmental indicates the obesity is in segments
instead of generalized. There is no subterm for segmental, so we default to obesity,
unspecified 278.00.
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7.7
Integumentary System
Chapter 7
Case 5
Preoperative diagnosis: Dermatochalasis of abdomen, diastasis recti.
1. Postoperative diagnosis is
used for coding.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Dermatochalasis of abdomen, diastasis recti.
2.
Procedure performed: Abdominoplasty.
2. Procedure performed is
abdominoplasty.
Anesthesia: General.
Clinical note: The patient presents for the above procedure. She understood the potential
risks and complications including but not limited to the risks of anesthesia, bleeding,
infection, wound healing problems, unfavorable scaring, and potential need for secondary
surgery, and she desired to proceed. She also understood the possibility of impaired circulation to the flaps and hematoma/seroma formation.
3. General anesthesia used.
4. Excessive skin.
5. Separation between the right
and left sides of the rectus
abdominis muscle.
6. Closure of the rectus
abdominis muscle.
7. Excision of excessive skin.
Procedure in detail: The patient was placed on the operating table in supine position.
General anesthesia was induced. The abdomen was prepped and draped in the usual
sterile fashion and marked for abdominoplasty along the suprapubic natural skin crease.
This coursed 36 cm in total. The umbilicus was also marked and the area was infiltrated
with 100 cc of 0.5% Xylocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine. After adrenaline effect, the
incision was made. The flap was elevated to the umbilicus. The umbilicus was circumscribed and dissected free, with care taken to maintain a generous vascular stalk. Dissection was then taken to the subcostal margin as it tapered superiorly and narrowed the
exposure. Hemostasis was obtained by electrocautery. There was still a lot of skin laxity
4. and it appeared that the ellipse of skin could be removed through the superior margin of
the umbilicus. The flap was incised at the midline for greater exposure.
3.
She had significant diastasis recti, which was then closed with interrupted mattress
sutures of 0 Ethibond, followed by a running suture of 0 Ethibond. She was placed in
semi-flexed position and the ellipse of skin was excised to the superior margin of the
7. umbilicus in the midline. This gave an easy fit for the flap without undue tension. The
#15 drains were placed through the mons area and secured with 3-0 Prolene. The skin
was then closed at Scarpa fascia with sutures of 2-0 PDS. The umbilicus site was marked
and a disc of skin was removed. The umbilicus was delivered and sutured with dermal
sutures of 4-0 PDS and the skin with 5-0 fast absorbing plain gut. Deep dermal repair was
completed with reabsorbable staples and the skin was closed with a subcuticular suture of
4-0 PDS. Steri-Strips were applied over Mastisol. An abdominal binder was placed.
5.
6.
The patient was awakened, extubated, and transferred to the recovery room in satisfactory
condition. There were no operative or anesthetic complications. Estimated blood loss was
less than 30 cc.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 15830, 15847
ICD-9-CM code: 728.84
7.8
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Chapter 7
Integumentary System
RATIONALE: CPT® code: The first procedure performed was the removal of excess
skin of the abdomen. An incision was made in the suprapubic natural skin crease,
and the skin flap was elevated to the umbilicus. The umbilicus was dissected from
the skin, and the skin flap continued to be elevated to the subcostal margin. The
excessive skin was excised. Look in CPT® for Panniculectomy and you are referred to
See Lipectomy. Look in the CPT® Index for Lipectomy/Excision and you are referred
to 15830–15839. Code 15830, describes the removal of the excessive skin of the
abdomen. The next procedure was the repair of the diastasis recti, also known as
abdominal separation (right and left sides of the abdominal rectus muscle separate,
because of increased pressure due to pregnancy, or obesity). An abdominoplasty is
the repair of the abdominal muscles. Look in the CPT® Index for Abdominoplasty.
You are referred to See Panniculectomy, and Excision 15830, 15847. You can also look
under Repair/Abdominal Wall, and you are referred to 15830, 15847. Code 15847 is an
add-on code, which is listed in addition to 15830 for the repair of the diastasis recti
(abdominoplasty).
ICD-9-CM code: The term dermatochalasis means extra skin. This terminology
is typically used in relation to the eyelid, not the abdomen. Dermatochalasis of
abdomen is not found in your ICD-9-CM book; however, you can look under excess/
skin/unspecified which codes to 701.9. Excess skin is a sign of Diastatsis recti;
therefore this is the only diagnosis coded. In the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases, look
for diastasis recti and you are directed to ICD-9-CM code 728.84 which, relates to
muscle weakness.
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7.9
Integumentary System
Chapter 7
Case 6
Preoperative diagnosis: Hypoplasia of the breast.
1. Postoperative diagnosis is
used for coding.
2. Breast augmentation
performed bilaterally.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Hypoplasia of the breast.
2.
Operative procedure: Bilateral augmentation mammoplasty.
3.
Anesthesla: General.
3. General anesthesia.
4. Left breast.
5. Prosthetic implant used on
the left breast.
6. Right breast.
4.
7. Prosthetic implant used on
the right breast.
5.
6.
7.
Operative summary: The patient was brought to the operating room awake and placed
in a supine position where general anesthesia was induced without any complications.
The patient’s chest was prepped and draped in the usual sterile fashion. The patient had
previous inframammary crease incisions on both left and right sides. The extent of the
dissection would be to the sternal border within two fingerbreadths of the clavicle and
slightly beyond the anterior axillary line. The left breast was operated upon first. An incision was rnade in the inframammary crease going through skin, subcutaneous tissue,
down to the muscle fascia. Dissection at the subglandular level was then performed
until an adequate pocket was made according to the previous limits. After irrigation
with normal saline and careful hemostasis, a Mentor Allergan silicone filled high profile
textured implant was used and placed into the pocket. It was 300 cc. The skin was then
closed using 4-0 Vicryl in an interrupted fashion for the deep subcutaneous tissue 4-0
Monocryl in an interrupted fashion was used for the superficial subcutaneous tissue
and the skin was closed using 4-0 Monocryl in a subcuticular fashion. Antibiotic ointment and Tegaderm were applied. The right breast was operated in a very similar fashion.
The implant was a 340 cc silicone gel high profile textured implant from Allergan. Skin
closure was the same. Both left and right breasts were very similar in size and shape. The
patient had a bra applied. The patient tolerated this procedure well and left the operating
room in stable condition.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 19325-50 or 19325-RT, 19325-LT
ICD-9-CM code: 611.82
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: In the CPT® Index, look under breast/augmentation and
you are directed to code range 19324–19325. The code selection is dependent upon
whether implants were used. In this case, implants were used in both the right
and left breasts. The correct code is 19325. The procedure was performed on both
breasts necessitating the use of modifier 50 or modifiers RT and LT. If the provider
supplied the breast implants, a HCPCS Level II code is reported (L8600 x 2).
ICD-9-CM code: The patient is diagnosed with hypoplasia of the breast. In the
ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases, see hypoplasia/breast and you are directed to 611.82.
Verification in the Tabular List confirms this is the correct code selection. Although
the diagnosis is for both breasts, it is only reported once.
7.10
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Chapter 7
Integumentary System
Case 7
Preoperative diagnoses: Dysplastic nevus, right chest.
1.
Postoperative diagnoses: Dysplastic nevus, right chest.
4.
Procedures performed:
2. Excision, dysplastic nevus, right chest with excised diameter of 1.2 cm and complex repair
3. of 3 cm wound.
5.
Anesthesia: Local using 20 cc of 1% lidocaine with epinephrine.
1. Post operative diagnosis is
used for coding.
Complications: None.
2. Excised diameter of the lesion
on the chest is 1.2 cm.
Estimated blood loss: Less than 2 cc.
Specimens:
Dysplastic nevus, right chest sutured at superior tip, 12 o’clock for permanent pathology.
6.
Indications for surgery: The patient is a 49-year-old white woman with a dysplastic nevus
of her right chest, which I marked for elliptical excision in the relaxed skin tension lines
of her chest with gross normal margins of around 0.3 cm and I drew my best guess at the 7.
resultant scar and she observed these markings well and we proceeded.
Description of procedure: We started with the patient prone. The area has been infiltrated with local anesthetic. The chest prepped and draped in sterile fashion. I excised the
8. dysplastic nevus as drawn into the subcutaneous fat. Hemostasis achieved using the Bovie
9. cautery. Defects were created at each of the wounds to optimize the primary repair. Thus, 10.
11. I considered a complex repair and the wound is closed in layers using 4-0 Monocryl and
5-0 Prolene. A loupe magnification was used. The patient tolerated the procedure well.
3. Complex repair measured 3
cm.
4. Procedures performed are
documented with size and
type of surgery.
5. Local anesthesia.
6. The provider refers to the
dysplastic nevus of the right
chest.
7. Margins of the lesion were 0.3
cm.
8. The procedure is for excision
of a dysplastic nevus on the
chest.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
9. Defects were created at each of
the wounds.
CPT® codes: 13101, 11402-51
10. Primary repair was used.
ICD-9-CM code: 216.5
11. The wound repair is stated as
complex.
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: The lesion is excision of a dysplastic nevus. A dysplastic
nevus is an atypical mole which is usually benign. It is coded as benign unless
pathology indicates malignant. In the CPT® Index see excision/skin/benign and you
are directed to code range 11400–11471. The code selection is based on location
(chest, which is the trunk) and size (1.2 cm). Code range 11400–11406 is for excisions performed on the trunk. 11402 is the correct code for a 1.2 cm excision on
the trunk. The repair is stated as a complex repair measuring 3 cm using layered
closure. A layered closure typically indicates an intermediate repair. However, the
sentence before the complex repair states, “Defects were created at each of the
wounds to optimize the primary repair,“ According to the guidelines in the repair
section,creating a limited defect to repair a wound is considered a complex repair. To
find in the CPT® Index, see repair/skin/complex and you are directed to13100–13160.
Complex repairs of the trunk are coded with range 13100–13102 and are based on
size of the repair. 13101 is the complex repair of the trunk for a 3 cm repair. Modifier
51 is appended to the second code to indicate more than one procedure is being
performed in the same surgical session.
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7.11
Integumentary System
Chapter 7
ICD-9-CM codes: The diagnosis is a dysplastic nevus, right chest. For the dysplastic
nevus on the chest, look in the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases for nevus and you are
directed to see Neoplasm, benign, by site. Refer to the Neoplasm Table and find
skin/chest. The benign code is 216.5.
1. The postoperative diagnosis is
the same as the pre-operative
diagnosis, so the pre-operative
diagnosis will be used for
coding.
Case 8
Preoperative diagnoses:
1.
2. Right temple malignant
lesion (Basal Cell Carcinoma)
excised diameter of 2.2 cm.
3. Full thickness skin graft is 4
cm2.
4. Excision malignant lesion left
hand.
5. Flap repair of 2.5 cm2.
Postoperative diagnoses: Same
2.
3.
4.
6.
6. Anesthesia local.
7. Margins of temple excision.
8. Margins of hand excision.
9. Lesion on the right temple and
left had were excised.
7.
8.
10. The right temple was excised
outside of the parameters
initially drawn.
11. The decision was made to
repair with a skin graft due to
the size of the wound.
12.Donor site is the right clavicle
making this a free graft (when
the skin is cut free of one area
and moved to another for reattachment).
13. The graft was full-thickness.
14. Skin graft inserted in the
temple.
15. Here, we begin the description
of the closure of the hand.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16. Additional margins were
excised.
17. A rotation flap was used.
7.12
1. Basal cell carcinoma right temple.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma, left hand.
17.
Procedures performed:
1. Excision basal cell carcinoma right temple with excised diameter of 2.2 cm and full
thickness skin graft 4 cm2.
2. Excision squamous cell carcinoma, left hand with rhomboid flap repair 2.5 cm2.
5.
Anesthesia: Local using 8 cc of 1% lidocaine with epinephrine and 3 cc of 1% plain
lidocaine.
Indications for surgery: The patient is a 77-year-old white woman with a biopsy-proven
basal cell carcinoma of right temple that appeared to be recurrent and a biopsy-proven
squamous cell carcinoma of her left hand. I marked the lesion of her temple for elliptical
excision in the relaxed skin tension lines of her face with gross normal margins of around
2–3 mm and I marked my planned rhomboidal excision of the squamous cell carcinoma
of her left hand with gross normal margins of around 3 mm and I drew my planned
rhomboid flap. She observed all these markings with a mirror so she could understand the
surgery and agree on the locations and we proceeded.
Description of procedure: All areas were infiltrated with local anesthetic, that is the
anesthetic with epinephrine. The face and left upper extremity were prepped, draped
in sterile fashion. I excised the lesion of her right temple and left hand as drawn to the
subcutaneous fat. Hemostasis achieved with Bovie cautery. It took a few more passes to
get the margins clear from the basal cell carcinoma right temple. The wound had become
very large by that time around quarter sized and I attempted to close the wound. I began
with a 3-0 Monocryl. It was simply too tight and was deforming her eyelid. Thus I felt that
we would have to close with a skin graft. I marked the area of her right clavicle for the
donor site and this area prepped and draped in a sterile fashion. I infiltrated with a plain
lidocaine. The full-thickness skin graft harvested and defatted using scissors. Meticulous
hemostasis achieved in the donor site using the Bovie cautery. The skin graft inset into the
temple wound using 5-0 plain gut suture. The skin graft was vented and then a Xeroform
bolster was placed using Xeroform and nylon. The donor site was closed in layers using
4-0 Monocryl and 5-0 Prolene. My attention turned to the hand. The margins had been
cleared from that region even though it did take 2 passes. I incised the rhomboid flap and
elevated with a full-thickness subcutaneous fat. Hemostasis achieved in the wound and
the donor site using Bovie cautery. The flap rotated in the defect. The donor site closed
with flap inset in layers using 4-0 Monocryl and 5-0 Prolene. Loupe magnification was
used. The patient tolerated the procedure well.
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Chapter 7
Integumentary System
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 15240, 14040-51, 11643-59
ICD-9-CM codes: 173.31, 173.62
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: The excised lesion on the temple was 2.2 cm. To code, look
in the CPT® Index for Excision/malignant, you are referred to code range 11600–
11646. Narrowing down the location and the size, the correct code is 11643.
After excising the lesion on the temple, the physician performed a full thickness free
graft (moving skin from the clavicle to the temple). To find in the CPT® Index, look
under Skin, Grafts/Free and you are directed to 15157, 15200–15261, 15757. Free skin
graft codes are selected based on the thickness of the graft, location and size. Full
thickness free grafts are coded from range 15200–15261. The temple area is considered the forehead, or cheek area, both code to range 15240–15241 based on the size.
The size in the procedure detail is stated as, “approximately the size of a quarter.”
Size is clarified in the procedures listed at the top as 4 sq cm². The correct code for
this is 15240.
The hand lesion was excised and repaired with an adjacent tissue transfer. The
guidelines for excisions tell us that excisions performed with adjacent tissue transfers should be reported with only the adjacent tissue transfer code (14000–14302).
Adjacent tissue transfers are coded based on location and size. The correct code for
the hand with a 2.5 cm² repair is coded with 14040.
Code 14040 requires modifier 51 to indicate it is a multiple procedure. The excision
of a malignant lesion (11643) is included in an adjacent tissue transfer (14040). A
modifier 59 is required on 11643 to indicate a separate site.
ICD-9-CM codes: The diagnoses listed are basal cell carcinoma right temple, and
Squamous cell carcinoma, left hand.
To find basal cell carcinoma right temple, look in the ICD-9-CM Index for Carcinoma/
Basal cell, you are directed to see Neoplasm/skin/malignant. In the Neoplasm Table,
skin/temple which refers you to see also Neoplasm/skin/face/basal cell 173.31. For
Squamous cell carcinoma, looking in the index squamous cell carcinoma does not
indicate where to look for the code, but you are given a Morphology code M8070/3.
The /3 on the Morphology code indicates to us it is a primary malignancy (Appendix
A). Squamous cells are in the skin (just below the outer layer of the skin). Squamous
cell carcinoma is a primary malignancy of the skin. In the Neoplasm Table, under
skin/hand and you are referred to see also Neoplasm, skin, limb, upper. Skin/limb/
upper/squamous cell carcinoma is coded as 173.62. Looking in the Tabular List verifies these are the correct code choices.
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7.13
Integumentary System
Chapter 7
Case 9
Preoperative diagnosis: Right breast mass.
1. Postoperative diagnosis is
used for coding.
2. Procedure to be performed.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Right breast mass.
2.
Procedure: Right breast lumpectomy.
Anesthesia: A 1% lidocaine with epinephrine mixed 1:1 with 0.5% Marcaine along with
IV sedation.
3. “Appeared to be” would not
be considered a definitive
diagnosis.
4. The procedure was performed
on the right breast.
5. Specific location of the breast
mass.
Indications: The patient is a 23-year-old female who recently noted right breast mass.
This has grown somewhat in size and we decided it should be excised.
3.
Findings at the time of operation: This appeared to be a fibroadenoma.
Operative procedure: The patient was first identified in the holding area and the surgical
site was reconfirmed and marked. Informed consent was obtained. She was then brought
back to the operating room where she was placed on the operating room table in supine
position. Both arms were placed comfortably out at approximately 85 degrees. All pressure points were well padded. A time-out was performed.
6. Depth of incision.
7. Layered closure for
intermediate repair.
4.
5.
6.
7.
The right breast was prepped and draped in the usual fashion. I anesthetized the area in
question with the mixture noted above. This mass was at the areolar border at approximately the outer central to upper outer quadrant. I therefore made a circumareolar incision on the outer aspect of the areola. This was carried down through skin, subcutaneous
tissue and a small amount of breast tissue. I was able to easily dissect down to the mass
itself. Once I was there, I placed a figure-of-eight 2-0 silk suture for traction. I then carefully dissected this mass out from the surrounding tissue. Once it was removed from the
field, the traction suture was removed and the mass was sent in formalin to pathology.
The wound was then inspected for hemostasis, which was achieved with electrocautery.
I then reapproximated the breast tissue deep with interrupted 3-0 Vicryl suture and
then another 3-0 Vicryl suture in the superficial breast tissue. The skin was then closed
in a layered fashion using interrupted 4-0 Monocryl deep dermal sutures followed by a
running 4-0 Monocryl subcuticular suture. Benzoin, Steri-Strips and a dry sterile pressure were then applied. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was taken back to the
short stay area in good condition.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 19301-RT
ICD–9-CM code: 611.72
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: The provider removed a mass from the outer central to
upper outer quadrant. This is considered a lumpectomy. To find this code, look in the
index under lumpectomy and you are guided to 19301–19302. 19301 is the correct
code because a lymphadenectomy is not performed which is required to report
19302. Modifier RT is appended to report the procedure is performed on the right
breast.
7.14
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Integumentary System
ICD-9-CM codes: The diagnosis from the operative report indicated this mass
appeared to be a fibroadenoma. The use of the phrase “appeared to be” indicates
the fibroadenoma is not a confirmed diagnosis. The diagnosis to code is a right
breast mass. To find this in ICD-9-CM, look in the index for mass/breast and you are
directed to code 611.72. Verification in the Tabular List confirms 611.72 is for a lump
or mass in breast.
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7.15
Integumentary System
Chapter 7
Case 10
Preoperative diagnosis: Necrotizing fasciitis.
Postoperative diagnosis: Necrotizing fasciitis.
Procedure: Wound excision and homograft placement with surgical preparation,
exploration of distal extremity.
1. The necrotizing wound was
excised the week before. We
are still in the global period of
the original surgery.
2. A return to the operating
room indicates to look for
possible modifiers.
Findings and indications: This very unfortunate gentleman with liver failure, renal
failure, pulmonary failure, and overwhelming sepsis was found to have necrotizing
2. fasciitis last week. We excised the necrotizing wound. The wound appears to have stabilized; however, the patient continues to be very sick. On return to the operating room, he
appears to have no evidence of significant healing of any areas with extensively exposed
tibia, fibula, Achilles tendon, and other tendons in the foot as well as the tibial plateau
and fibular head without any hope of reconstruction of the lower extremity or coverage
thereof.
1.
3. Debridement of the wound.
4. The wound on the lateral
thigh was excised to prep for
homograft placement.
5. Homograft mesh placed.
6. They plan to return to the
operating room for an above
the knee amputation (AK).
There was an area on the lateral thigh that we thought may be able to be closed with a skin
graft eventually for a viable above-the-knee amputation.
Procedure in detail: After informed consent, the patient was brought to the operating
room and placed in supine position on the operating table. The above findings were noted.
Debridement sharply with the curved Mayo scissors and the scalpel were helpful in demon4. strating the findings noted above. Because of the unviability of this area, it was felt that we
would not perform a homografting to this area. However, the lateral thigh appeared to be
5. viable and this was excised further with curved Mayo scissors. Hemostasis was achieved
without significant difficulty and the homograft meshed 1.5:1 was then placed over the
hemostatic wound on the lateral thigh. This was secured in place with skin staples.
3.
6.
Upon completion of the homografting, photos were also taken to demonstrate the rather
desperate nature of this wound and the fact that it would require above-the-knee amputation for closure.
The wound was then dressed with moist dressing with incorporated catheters. The patient
was taken back to the ICU in satisfactory condition
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 15271-58, 15002-58-51
ICD–9-CM code: 728.86
7.16
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RATIONALE: CPT® codes: A homograft of the lateral thigh was performed. A
homograft is considered a skin substitute. To find this in the CPT® Index, look for
Integumentary System/Skin Replacement Surgery and Skin Substitutes/Grafts/Skin
Substitute Graft and you are referred to code range 15271–15278. The guidelines at
the beginning of the Skin Replacement Surgery subsection confirm homograft is a
type of skin substitute graft.
The code selection is based on the location and size. For the legs, 15271–15274 is the
correct code range. The size is not stated, so you can only code the smallest size,
15271. The preparation of the wound (debriding and excising to prepare a clean and
viable wound for graft placement) can also be coded when performed. There is indication in the note this was performed. To find in the CPT® Index, look for excision/
skin graft/preparation of site and you are directed to code range 15002–15005. The
code selection is based on location and size. The correct code is 15002.
This is a staged procedure. The wounds were excised the week before. They brought
the patient to the operating room on this date to check the progress. They determined a homograft was needed and plan to perform an above the knee amputation
when the wound on the thigh heals. A modifier 58 is appended to both surgery
codes. A modifier 51 is needed on 15002 to indicate a multiple procedure.
ICD-9-CM code: The diagnosis is necrotizing fasciitis. Look in the ICD-9-CM Index for
Fasciitis/necrotizing, you are directed to 728.86. In the tabular index, it states to use
an additional code to identify gangrene or infectious organism. This is not stated as
gangrene and there is no mention of the infecting organism; therefore, 728.86 is the
only diagnosis code listed.
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7.17
Chapter
8
Musculoskeletal System
Case 1
Operative Report
Preoperative diagnosis: Comminuted left proximal humerus fracture
Postoperative diagnosis: Comminuted left proximal humerus fracture
1.
Operative procedure: Open treatment of left proximal humerus.
2.
Anesthesia: General.
3.
Implants: DePuy Global fracture stem size 10 with a 48 x 15 humeral head.
4.
Indications: The patient is a 66-year-old female who sustained a severely comminuted proximal humerus fracture. The risk and benefits of the surgical procedure were
discussed. She stated understanding and desired to proceed.
5.
Description of procedure: On the day of the procedure after obtaining informed consent,
the patient was taken to the main operating room where she was prepped and draped in
the usual sterile fashion in beach chair position after administering general anesthesia.
Standard deltopectoral approach was used; the cephalic vein was taken laterally with
the deltoid. Dissection carried out down to the fracture site. The fracture site was identified. The fragments were mobilized and the humeral head fragments removed. Once
this was done, the stem was prepared up to a size 10. A trial reduction was carried out
with the DePuy trial stem and implant head. This gave good range of motion with good
stability. Sutures were placed in key positions for closure of the tuberosities down to
the shaft including sutures through the shaft. The shaft was then prepared and cement
was injected into the shaft. The implant was placed. Once the cement was hardened, the
head was placed on Morse taper and then reduced. A bone graft was placed around the
area where the tuberosities were being brought down. The tuberosities were then tied
down with a suture previously positioned. This gave excellent closure and coverage of the
significant motion at the repair sites. The wound was thoroughly irrigated. The skin was
closed with Vicryl over a drain and also staples in the epidermis. A sterile dressing and
sling was applied. The patient was taken to recovery in stable condition. No immediate
complications.
1. Postoperative diagnosis is
used for coding.
2. Working procedure until
report is read.
3. General anesthesia is used.
4. This is an indication that a
prosthesis was introduced to
the joint.
5. This is confirmation of
diagnosis. Keep in mind
that the proximal end of the
humerus is the shoulder area.
6.
7.
8.
9.
6. Indicates the approach.
7. This is further explains the
comminuted fracture.
8. This is explaining the
placement of the prosthesis.
9. Bone grafts are common in
prosthetic placement. It gives
a matrix for new bone to
grow on and further stabilize
the prosthesis. These are not
charged separately.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 23616-LT
ICD-9-CM code: 812.00
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8.1
Musculoskeletal System
Chapter 8
RATIONALE: CPT® code: In the CPT® Index, look for Fracture/Humerus/Open
Treatment and you are directed to code range 23615–23616. A humeral prosthetic
treatment is performed to repair the fracture which is reported with 23616. Modifier
LT should be appended to indicate it is the left humerus.
ICD-9-CM code: The diagnosis is listed as a comminuted left proximal humerus fracture. In the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases, look for Fracture/humerus/proximal which
directs you to Fracture/humerus/upper end. There is no mention of this being an
open fracture, so default coding is closed. Verification of code 812.00 in the Tabular
List confirms it is used for a fracture of the proximal end of the humerus.
8.2
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Chapter 8
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Case 2
Preoperative diagnosis: Painful L2 vertebral compression fracture.
Postoperative diagnosis: Painful L2 vertebral compression fracture.
1.
Name of operation: L2 kyphoplasty.
2.
Findings preoperatively:
She had compression fractures at T 11 and L1, which underwent kyphoplasty and she
3.
initially had very good results, but then developed back pain once again. Repeat MRI a
couple of weeks later showed that she had fresh high intensity signal changes in the body
of L2 and some scalping of the superior end plate consistent with a compression fracture
at L2. After some preoperative discussion and some patience to see if she would get better,
she was admitted to the hospital for L2 kyphoplasty when she was not getting better. At
surgery, L2 had some scalloping of the superior end plate. Most of the softness was in the
back part of the vertebral body.
Procedure:
The patient was taken to the operating room and placed under general endotracheal anes- 4.
thesia in a supine position. She was placed prone on the Jackson table and her back was
prepped and draped in the usual sterile fashion. Using biplane image intensifiers, the skin 5.
incision sites were marked out. 0.5 Marcaine with epinephrine was injected. Initially on
the left side, a Xyphon trocar was passed down to the superior lateral edge of the pedicle
and then passed down through the pedicle and into the vertebral body—uneventfully in
the usual fashion. The drill was then placed into the vertebral body and then the Kyphon 6.
bone tamp. In a similar fashion, the same thing was done on the other side. Balloons were
then inflated uneventfully. The balloons were then deflated and removed and the cement
when it was in the doughy state was then injected into the 2 sides in the usual fashion.
This was done carefully and sequentially to make sure that there were no cement extrusions and in fact there were none, there was a good fill to the edges of vertebral body up
towards the superior end plate and across the midline. The bone filling devices were then
removed and the trocars removed. Pressure was applied after which the skin was sutured
with 4-0 nylon. Band-Aids were applied and she was taken to recovery in stable condition.
1. Postoperative diagnosis is
used for coding.
2. Working procedure.
3. Confirmation of diagnosis.
4. General anesthesia was used.
5. This is describing the
approach to the defect. It is
percutaneous using trocars.
6. This is describing how the
area is prepped to be enlarged
and receive the cement that
is placed in a kyphoplasty
procedure.
Complications: There were no complications.
Blood loss: Minimal blood loss.
Counts: Sponge and needle counts were correct.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 22524
ICD-9-CM code: 733.13
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8.3
Musculoskeletal System
Chapter 8
RATIONALE: CPT® code: In the CPT® Index, look for kyphoplasty and you are directed
to the range of codes 22523–22525. The code selection is based on location. 22524
is the correct code for the lumbar spine. If the provider performed and documented
radiologic supervision and interpretation, you would also report 77291 or 77292. It is
not appropriate in this case because it was not documented.
ICD-9-CM code: In the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases, look for fracture/vertebra/
compression and you are directed to 733.13. Verification in the Tabular List confirms
733.13 is for a pathologic fracture of the vertebra. Compression fractures are considered pathological in nature; if there have been no visible injuries. If the pathological
reason has been identified, such as osteoporosis, then that becomes the additional
code. Our report does not mention that however, so the only code reported is
733.13.
8.4
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Chapter 8
Musculoskeletal System
Case 3
Preoperative diagnosis: Comminuted intraarticular distal radial Colles’ fracture left wrist.
Postoperative diagnosis: Comminuted intraarticular distal radial Colles’ fracture left wrist. 1.
Procedure: Application uniplane external fixation and closed reduction of left distal
radial fracture under fluoroscopy.
2.
Anesthesia: General endotracheal.
3.
Description of the procedure:
After induction of adequate general endotracheal anesthesia, the patient’s left upper
extremity was routinely prepped and draped into a sterile field. The extremity was
elevated and exsanguinated with an Esmarch bandage. The tourniquet was inflated to 300
millimeters of mercury. We first placed two half pins distally over the dorsoradial aspect 4.
of the second metacarpal first placing first pin in freehand technique making an incision, spreading with hemostat, and then placing the half pin. The second pin was placed
identically by using the pin guide. Similarly, we placed pins in the dorsoradial aspect of
the distal third of the radius. We then connected these 2 pins with clamps and then under 5.
C-arm control we reduced the fracture. All pins are now attached to the external fixation.
This fracture at both dorsal and volar comminution and intraarticular fractures and was 6.
significantly shortened and telescoped. We obtained the best reduction possible and then
tightened down the clamps to the bars. The pin tracks were dressed with Xeroform and
2 x 2 gauze and volar 3 x 15 plaster splints were applied. The tourniquet was allowed to
deflate during application of the dressing. Total tourniquet time was 14 minutes. There
were no intraoperative complications.
1. Postoperative diagnosis is
used for coding.
2. This will assist in coding the
procedure.
3. General anesthesia used.
4. External fixation.
5. Closed reduction under
fluoroscopy.
6. Comminuted aspect.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 25605-LT, 20690-51-LT
ICD-9-CM code: 813.41
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: This is a repair of a Colles’ fracture. Looking in the index
under Fracture/radius/Colles and you are directed to code range 25600–25605. Code
25605 is correct because a reduction (manipulation) was performed. The codes
for Colles’ fracture repair (25600–25605), do not include the external fixation. Look
in the index for External Fixation/application and you are referred to code range
20690–20692. The codes are differentiated by the type of fixation. In this case, it was
uniplane fixation, making 20690 the correct code to report. Modifier LT should be
appended to indicate it is the left wrist. Fluoroscopy is included in the procedure.
ICD-9-CM code: Look in the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases for fracture/Colles’. You are
directed to ICD-9-CM code 813.41. Verification in the Tabular List verifies 813.41 is for
a Colles’ fracture.
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8.5
Musculoskeletal System
Chapter 8
Case 4
Operative report
Preoperative diagnosis: Dislocation of right elbow.
1. Postoperative diagnosis is
used for coding.
2. Working procedure.
3. General anesthesia used.
4. Backs up diagnosis.
5. This indicates a closed
method of reduction. There
is no indication the skin was
cut.
6. Indicates fluoroscopy.
7. Manipulation of the medial
epicondyle.
8. This is showing the fracture,
reduced and set. No
indication that the skin was
broken.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Dislocation of right elbow with medial epicondyle fracture.
2.
Operative procedure: Closed reduction of elbow dislocation with a closed reduction of
medial epicondyle fracture.
3.
Anesthesia: General.
4.
Indications: This is a 12-year-old male who sustained a dislocation of his right elbow. The
risks and benefits of surgical treatment were discussed with the family who stated understanding and desired to proceed.
Description of procedure: On the day of procedure after obtaining informed consent,
the patient was taken to the main Operating Room where general anesthia was induced.
5. Once he was under adequate anesthesia the reduction maneuver was performed. The
elbow was reduced and was stable. Through a full range of motion there was noted to be
a slight crepitus on the medial elbow and it was felt some mobility in the medial epicon6. dyle. Examination under C-arm imagery revealed a concentric reduction of the elbow
but with mildly unstable medial epicondyle. When the elbow was held in the appropriate 8.
7. position the medial epicondyle was well reduced in acceptable position and it was eleveted
to treat this non-surgically and therefore a long arm splint was applied. The patient was
awakened from anesthesia and taken to Recovery in stable condition with no immediate
complications.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 24565-RT, 24605-51-RT
ICD-9-CM codes: 812.43, 832.00
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: Look in the CPT® Index for Fracture/Humerus/Epicondyle/
Closed treatment and you are directed to code range 24560–24565. The code selection is based on whether manipulation is used. 24565 is the correct code for the
repair of the epicondyle fracture.
The first procedure performed is the reduction of the dislocated elbow. Look in the
CPT® Index for Dislocation/Elbow and you are directed to 24605–24615 and 24640.
24640 is for nursemaid’s elbow. The code selection between codes 24605–24615
is based on whether anesthesia is used. In this case, general anesthesia was used,
making 24605 the correct code choice. Typically the reduction of a dislocation
would be included in the fracture repair. Modifier 51 is appended to show more than
one procedure is performed. Modifier RT would also be used to indicate it was on
the right elbow.
ICD-9-CM codes: The diagnosis is stated as dislocation of right elbow with medial
epicondyle fracture. The fracture is a more severe diagnosis, so it will be coded first.
The medial epicondyle is the bony protrusion on the inside of your elbow and is part
8.6
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Chapter 8
Musculoskeletal System
of the distal end of the humerus. Look in the ICD-9-CM Index for Fracture/humerus/
condyle(s)/medial (internal epicondyle) and you are directed to 812.43. For the dislocation of the elbow, look in the index for Dislocation/elbow and you are directed to
832.00. Verification in the Tabular List confirms this diagnosis selection.
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8.7
Musculoskeletal System
Chapter 8
Case 5
Preoperative diagnosis: Right long finger trigger finger
Left shoulder impingement/subacromial bursitis.
1. Postoperative diagnosis is
used for coding.
1.
Procedures: Right long finger trigger release.
Injection of the left shoulder with Xylocaine, Marcaine, and
Celestone via anterior subacromial approach.
2. General anesthesia used.
3. Shoulder injection.
Postoperative diagnosis:Right long finger trigger finger.
Left shoulder impingement/subacromial bursitis.
2.
Anesthesia: General.
4. The A1 pulley is a flexor
tendon pulley.
Complications: None.
5. The release of the nerve.
Estimated blood loss: Minimal.
Replacement: Crystalloids.
Descripton of procedure: The patient was taken to the operating room where he was
given appropriate anesthesia. The right upper extremity was prepped and draped in the
usual sterile fashion. While the draping was going on, the left shoulder was prepped with
Betadine and using Xylocaine. Marcaine and Celestone, through an anterior subacromial
approach; the left shoulder was injected with 1 cc of Xylocaine, 1 cc of Celestone and 1 cc
3. of Marcaine. The patient tolerated the procedure well.
Meanwhile, the right hand had been prepped and draped. It was exsanguinated with
Esmarch and tourniquet inflated to 250 millimeters of mercury. I made an incision over
4. the A1 pulley in the distal transverse palmar crease, about an inch in length. This was
taken through skin and subcutaneous tissue. The Al pulley was identified and released
5. in its entirety. Care was taken to avoid injury to the neurovascular bundle. The wound
was irrigated with antibiotic saline solution. The subcutaneous tissue was injected with
Marcaine without epinephrine. The skin was closed with 4-0 Ethilon suture. Clean
dressing was applied. The patient was awakened and taken to the recovery room in stable
condition.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 26055-F6, 20610-51-LT
ICD-9-CM codes: 727.03, 726.19
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: The most complicated procedure is the right long finger
trigger release. Look in the CPT® Index for trigger finger repair and you are directed
to 26055. Reading the descriptor, we see tendon sheath incision, (eg, Trigger finger).
For the shoulder injection, look in the CPT® Index for injection/joint, you are directed
to code range 20600-20610. The code selection is based on the joint. The shoulder
is considered a major joint making 20610 the correct code. Modifier 51 should be
appended to indicate multiple procedures. An F6 should be appended to the trigger
finger release and an LT should be appended to the shoulder injection. The proce-
8.8
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Chapter 8
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dures were performed under general anesthesia which is an indication this case was
performed in a facility. The drugs are reported by the facility-not the physician.
ICD-9-CM codes: The diagnoses were stated as right long finger trigger finger and
left shoulder impingement/subacromial bursitis. For the trigger finger, look in the
ICD-9-CM Index for trigger finger and you are directed to 727.03 as the default (there
is no mention of it being congenital). For the shoulder, look for bursitis/subacromial
and you are directed to 726.19. There is no index for impingement of the shoulder.
In the Tabular List, both codes are verified. Bursitis can be a cause of shoulder
impingement (or rub).
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8.9
Musculoskeletal System
Chapter 8
Case 6
Preoperative diagnosis: Painful hardware left foot.
1. Postoperative diagnosis is
used for coding.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Painful hardware left foot.
2.
Procedure performed: Removal of hardware, left foot
2. Stated procedure.
Anesthesia: Sedation and local
3. Confirmation of diagnosis.
Drain: None.
Estimated blood loss: Minimal.
4. Removal of hardware.
3.
Indications for procedure:
The patient had the above-mentioned problems, unresponsive to conservative treatment.
We discussed the above-mentioned surgery, along with the potential risks and complications, and the patient understood and wished to proceed.
Description of procedure:
With the patient supine on the operating table after the successful induction of anesthesia,
the left foot was prepped and draped in the usual sterile fashion, and then I injected 0.5%
Marcaine into the area of the screw heads, both on the lateral side of the foot and then
dorsal midfoot, about 5 mL each area. A small incision through the skin 0.5 cm, and blunt
4. dissection down to the screw head. The screw was removed with the screwdrivers. They
were irrigated and closed with simple 4-0 nylon sutures. A sterile compression dressing
was applied. The patient was taken to the recovery room in satisfactory condition.
Material sent to laboratory: None.
Complications: None.
Condition on discharge: Satisfactory.
Discharge diagnosis: Painful hardware, left foot.
Discharge plan:
Discharge instructions were discussed with the patient. A copy of the instructions was
given to the patient and a copy retained for the medical record. The following items were
discussed: diet, activity, wound care medications if applicable, when to call the physician,
and follow-up care.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 20680-LT
ICD-9-CM code: 996.78
RATIONALE: CPT® code: Look in the CPT® Index for removal/implantation and you
are directed to code range 20670-20680. The code selection is based on whether
the implant (hardware) is superficial or deep. In the description of 20680, you will
see screws are considered deep. The correct code is 20680. Modifier LT should be
appended to indicate it is the left foot.
8.10
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Chapter 8
Musculoskeletal System
ICD-9-CM code: The diagnosis is stated as painful hardware, left foot. In the
ICD-9-CM Index, look for Complications/orthopedic device, implant, or graft or
internal (fixation) (nail) (plate) (rod) NEC 996.78. Verify the code in the Tabular List.
Under subcategory 996.7, Pain due to (presence of) any device, implant, and graft
classifiable to 996.0-996.5 confirms we are in the correct subcategory.
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8.11
Musculoskeletal System
Chapter 8
Case 7
Procedure performed in office.
Preoperative diagnosis: Right-sided thoracic pain.
1. Postoperative diagnosis is
used for coding.
2. Procedure perfomed.
3. Three muscles injected.
4. Secondary diagnosis for the
visit.
5. This verifies the trigger points
injected.
6. This is the amount and name
of of drug used.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Right-sided thoracic pain.
2.
3.
Operation: Trigger point injection into the right-sided thoracic spine musculature, into
the rhomboid major, rhomboid minor, and levator scapular muscles.
Procedure:
The patient was seated on the bed. He was explained the risks, including but not limited
to bleeding, infection, nerve damage and no guarantee of symptom relief. The patient
4. has metastatic lung cancer and has had a right lung resection. The patient agreed and the
informed consent was signed.
I palpated for areas of maximal tenderness. Five spots were marked into the right-sided
thoracic paraspinal musculature. I then cleaned off his back with chlorhexidine x2. Then
a 25 gauge 1.5 inch needle on a 10 cc controlled syringe with Depo-Medrol, 40 mg/mL
5. was used. After negative aspiration, 1 cc was injected into each point. A total of four
6. points were injected. A total of 4 cc (160 mg) was used. The patient tolerated the procedure well. Band-Aids were not placed. The patient was not bleeding.
We are also going to refill the patient’s pain medication. He is seeing an oncologist and
is getting Percocet 7.5/500. He takes four a day. That does provide him with pain relief.
We are going to dispense to him today a three week supply. We are going to dispense #84.
He is to return to the office in two weeks at which time we will get a urine for follow-up.
Emphasized to the patient once again that he had to bring his pills to every appointment
according to the opioid contract.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 20553, J1030 x 4
ICD-9-CM codes: 724.1, 197.0
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: In the CPT® Index, look for Injection/Trigger Point(s). Under
trigger point(s) you have a selection between One or Two Muscles and Three or More
muscles. The documentation states 3 muscles were injected, directing us to 20553.
Verification of 20553 confirms the code selection. The drug used for the procedure
is billable also, looking in the HCPCS Level II codebook at the drug table for DepoMedrol, we are directed to Methylprednisolone acetate, code J1030 each 40 mg. Verifying it in the tabular of the HCPCS Level II codebook, J1030 is billed with 4 units (40
mg x 4 = 160 mg).
ICD-9-CM codes: Look in the index for Pain/thoracic spine and you are directed to
724.1. The patient also has metastatic lung CA. Look at the Neoplasm Table and find
lung. The code in the column for Malignant/Secondary is 197.0. There is no mention
the pain is neoplasm related, so a code from category 338 is not reported.
8.12
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Chapter 8
Musculoskeletal System
Case 8
Operative report
Preoperative diagnosis: Plantar fasciitis left.
Postoperative diagnosis: Same as preoperative diagnosis.
1.
Procedures: Plantar fasciotomy left heel.
2.
For informed consent, the more common risks, benefits, and alternatives to the procedure
were thoroughly discussed with the patient. An appropriate consent form was signed,
indicating the patient understands the procedure and its possible complications.
This 61-year-old male was brought to the operating room and placed on the surgical
table in a supine position. Following anesthesia, surgical site was prepped and draped
in the normal sterile fashion. Attention was then directed to the left heel where,
utilizing a 61 blade, a stab incision was made, taking care to identify and retract all
vital structures. The incision was deepened to the medial band insertion of the fascia.
The fascia was then incised and avulsed from the calcaneus. The surgical site was then 3.
flushed with saline. 1 cc of Depo-Medrol was injected in the op site. Site was dressed
with a light compressive dressing. Excellent capillary refill to all the digits was observed
without excessive bleeding noted.
1. Postoperative diagnosis is
used for coding. In this case, it
is the same as the preoperative
diagnosis.
2. Listed procedure.
3. Description of the fasciotomy.
Hemostasis: none
Estimated blood loss: minimal
Injectables: Agent used for local anesthesia was 5.0 cc and Marcaine 0.5% with epi
Pathology: No specimen sent.
Dressings: Applied Bacitracin ointment. Site was dressed with a light compressive
dressing.
Condition: Patient tolerated procedure and anesthesia well. Vital signs stable. Vascular
status intact to all digits. Patient recovered in the operating room.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 28008-LT
ICD-9-CM code: 728.71
RATIONALE: CPT® code: Looking in the index under fasciotomy/plantar, we are only
given an endoscopic approach. This was not done with an endoscope. Looking
under fasciotomy/foot we are directed to 28008. Reading the descriptor, it is indeed
an incision into the foot. Modifier LT for the designation of the foot operated on.
ICD-9-CM code: In the ICD-9-CM Index, look for fasciitis/plantar and you are directed
to 728.71. Verification in the Tabular List confirms this is the correct code.
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8.13
Musculoskeletal System
Chapter 8
Case 9
Anesthesia: General anesthesia
Preoperative diagnosis: Left Achilles’ tendon rupture.
1. Postoperative diagnosis is
used for coding.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Left Achilles’ tendon rupture.
2.
Operation performed: Open Left Achilles’ tendon repair.
2. Stated procedure.
Indications: The patient is 25-year-old male who was playing basketball when he was
hit by another player and felt a pop in the back of his ankle approximately two months
ago. Examination reveals a positive Thompson test, but no plantar-flexion on squeezing
the calf. There is a palpable defect in the Achilles’ tendon. There is some swelling in this
region and neurovascular examination is intact. Given these clinical findings the patient
is taken to the operating room for the aforementioned procedure.
3. General anesthesia used.
4. Rupture of Achilles’ tendon
verified.
5. Repair of Achilles’s tendon
with sutures.
6. Short leg cast applied.
Description of procedure: Following induction of general anesthesia the patient was
placed prone on the operating table and all bony prominences were well-padded. The
patient received a dose of one gram of Ancef. Under tourniquet control of 250 mm Hg, a
longitudinal incision was made followed by an opening up the paratenon of the Achilles’
4. tendon. An obvious rupture was noted. The hematoma was evacuated and the ends were
then debrided with a Metzenbaum scissors. Using a #2 FiberWire® this was placed in a
Bunnell type fashion in both the proximal and distal portions of the Achilles’ tendon.
Another #2 Orthocord was then used and placed in a running fashion along the proximal
and distal portions of the Achilles’ tendon. A total of four sutures were used. These were
5. then tied together to re-approximate the tendon with no significant tension on the repair.
3.
A nice secure repair was noted. The ends of the repair were also further augmented with
a 2-0 Vicryl suture. The wound was thoroughly irrigated with antibiotics irrigation solution. The fascial plane was closed with a 2-0 Vicryl suture followed by closing the skin
with a 2-0 in subcuticular fashion. Approximately 10 cc of 0.5% Marcaine was injected
for postoperative pain control. A routine dressing was applied to the extremity and it was
6. then placed into a short leg cast with the foot slightly plantar-flexed. In addition, the anterior aspect of the cast was then univalved. The tourniquet was deflated for a total tourniquet time of 42 minutes.
The patient was then awakened in the operating room breathing spontaneously and taken
to the recovery room in stable condition.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 27650-LT
ICD-9-CM codes: 845.09, E917.0, E007.6
RATIONALE: CPT® code: In the CPT® Index, look for Achilles Tendon/repair and you
are directed to code range 27650–27654. This is a primary repair and no graft was
used. 27650 is the correct code.
ICD-9-CM codes: In the ICD-9-CM Index, look for rupture/tendon/Achilles’ and you
are directed to 845.09. It is coded as traumatic because the diagnosis is a result of an
8.14
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Chapter 8
Musculoskeletal System
injury from the patient playing basketball. Verification in the Tabular List confirms
845.09 is for a sprain or strain of other specified part of the foot. E codes are reported
to describe the circumstances. For the E code, go to the Index to External Causes
of Injury and Poisoning, look for Hit, hitting/other person(s)/in sports and you are
directed to code E917.0. The second E code is under Activity/basketball directing you
to code E007.6. We do not have have the location of the activity, so it is not reported.
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8.15
Musculoskeletal System
Chapter 8
Case 10
Preoperative diagnosis: Right ankle triplane fracture
1. Postoperative diagnosis is
used for coding.
2. Stated procedure.
3. General endotracheal
anesthesia used.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Right ankle triplane fracture
2.
Procedure: Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) right ankle triplane fracture
3.
Anesthesia: General endotracheal
Complications: None
4. Radiologic guidance used.
Specimen: None
5. Confirms fracture and
treatment were of the distal
tibia.
Implant used: Synthes 4.0 mm cannulated screws
Indications for procedure:
The patient is a pleasant 15-year-old male who fell and sustained a right ankle triplane
fracture. This was confirmed on both X-ray and CT scan. Explained to the patient are
indications for ORIF as well as possible risks and complications which include but are
not limited to infection, bleeding, stiffness, hardware pain, need for hardware removal,
no guarantee of functional ambulatory result. The patient and the family understood and
wished to proceed.
6. Fracture reduced.
7. Internal fixation
accomplished with screws.
Procedure in detail:
The patient was brought back to operating room and placed on an operating table, given
a general anesthetic without any complications, given preoperative antibiotics per usual
routine. He had right lower extremity prepped and draped in the usual sterile fashion
with alcohol prep followed by routine Betadine prep.
4.
5.
7.
Under X-ray guidance, a pointed reduction clamp was placed from the anterolateral
6.
corner of the distal tibia to the medial side and reduced the triplane fracture. It was
confirmed on both AP and lateral X-ray images that the gap was reduced. The patient
then had guidewires taken from the Synthes 4.0 mm cannulated screw set, placed one
from medial along the epiphysis on the anterior half of the epiphysis and parallel to the
joint to catch the lateral aspect of the epiphysis. Then one screw was placed above the
physis from anterior to posterior to capture that spike. Once wires were in appropriate
position, length was measured, partially threaded 4.0 mm cancellous screws were selected
so that all threads were across the fracture site. Appropriate length screws were placed,
confirmed by X-ray to be in good position. Fracture was anatomically reduced, and ankle
joint was anatomic. The patient had wounds copiously irrigated out. Closure was done
with interrupted horizontal mattress 3-0 nylon suture. The patient had sterile compressive dressing, was placed into a 3-sided posterior mold splint, was extubated and brought
to recovery room in stable condition. There were no complications. There were no specimens. Sponge and needle counts were equal at the end of the case.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 27827-RT
ICD-9-CM code: 824.8
8.16
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RATIONALE: CPT® codes: In the CPT® Index, look under Fracture/Tibia/Distal and
you are directed to code range 27824–27828. This code range is for open treatment
with internal fixation (ORIF). The treatment was of the distal tibia making 27827 the
correct code selection.
ICD-9-CM code: The diagnosis is stated as a right ankle triplane fracture. A triplane
ankle fracture refers to a fracture in the distal tibia in three planes. In the alphabetic index, look for Fracture/ankle, you are directed to 824.8. Verification of 824.8
confirms it codes to fracture of the ankle, unspecified. There is not a “not otherwise
specified” code for a fracture of the ankle, so this would be correct.
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8.17
Chapter
9
Respiratory, Hemic, Lymphatic,
Mediastinum, and Diaphragm
Case 1
Preoperative diagnosis: Recurrent Pleural effusion, Stage IV lung cancer
Postoperative diagnosis: Recurrent Pleural effusion, Stage IV lung cancer
1.
Procedure performed: Right video assisted thoracoscopy, lysis of adhesions, talc
pleurodesis
2.
Procedure: Patient was brought to the operating room and placed in supine position. IV
sedation and general anesthesia were administered per the Anesthesia Department. A
double-lumen endotracheal tube was placed per Anesthesia. Position was confirmed by
bronchoscopy. The patient was placed in the decubitus position with the right side up.
The chest was prepped in the standard fashion with ChloraPrep, sterile towels, sheets and
drapes. We had excellent isolation of the lung. However, we had poor exposure because
there were a number of fibrous adhesions, a few of which were actually very dense. We
immediately evacuated approximately 700 ml of fluid. However, once we entered the chest 3.
we encountered a number of loculated areas. We did not break down the adhesions. We
gained enough exposure to do a complete talc pleurodesis. After lysing of adhesions, we
4.
were confident that we had access to the entire thoracic cavity. Eight grams of talc were
introduced into the right thoracic cavity and strategically placed under direct vision. The 5.
chest tubes were then placed. The wounds were closed in layers. The patient tolerated the
well and was taken to the recovery room in stable condition.
1. Diagnoses to report if no
further positive findings are
found in the note.
2. Indication the procedure is
being performed by VATS.
3. Indicating pleural effusion
(fluid around the lung, in the
pleural space).
4. Removal of the adhesions to
get to the thoracic cavity to
perform the pleurodesis; is
not reported separately.
5. Pleurodesis.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 32650
ICD-9-CM codes: 511.9,162.9
RATIONALE: CPT® code: For this case the physician is performing a video assisted
surgical thoracoscopy (VATS-examining the inside of the chest cavity through an
endoscope by the use of a video camera). In this case, an irritant (such as the talc
powder) is instilled inside the space between the pleura (the two layers of tissue
lining the lungs) to create inflammation which makes an abnormal connection
bringing the two pleura together. This procedure (pleurodesis) obliterates the space
(pleural cavity) between the pleura and prevents the re-accumulation of fluid. In the
CPT® Index look up Pleurodesis/Endoscopic referring you to 32650.
ICD-9-CM codes: The procedure was performed due to the patient having a
recurrent pleural effusion (fluid around the lung). In the alphabetical index look
up Effusion/pleura guiding you to code 511.9. Pleural effusion is not a disease but
rather a complication of an underlying illness, in this case from lung cancer. In the
alphabetical index in the Neoplasm Table, look up Neoplasm/lung/Malignant/
Primary (column) guiding you to code 162.9.
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9.1
Respiratory, Hemic, Lymphatic, Mediastinum, Diaphragm
Chapter 9
Case 2
Preoperative diagnosis: Malignant neoplasm glottis
1. Diagnosis to report for the
procedure.
2. Procedure being performed.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Malignant neoplasm glottis
Procedure:
An incision is made low in the neck. The trachea is identified in the middle and an
2. opening is created to allow for the new breathing passage; tracheostomy tube is inserted
and secured with sutures. Patient tolerated procedure well and is sent to recovery without
complications.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 31600
ICD-9-CM code: 161.0
RATIONALE: CPT® code: In the CPT® Index look up Tracheostomy/Planned guiding
you to codes 31600–31601. An emergency tracheostomy is reported when the
procedure is performed for a serious medical condition that arises suddenly and
requires immediate care and treatment. An example of when an emergency tracheostomy is performed would be in the Emergency Department in which an unscheduled tracheostomy is performed on a patient who can not breathe and will die if
immediate medical attention to facilitate breathing is not performed.
There is no indication in the note that this was an emergency tracheostomy, so a
planned tracheostomy will be reported. Code 31600 will be reported since there is
no age that was documented in the note.
ICD-9-CM code: In the alphabetical index, in the Neoplasm Table, look up Neoplasm/
glottis/Malignant/Primary (column) referring you to code 161.0.
9.2
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Chapter 9
Respiratory, Hemic, Lymphatic, Mediastinum, Diaphragm
Case 3
Preoperative diagnosis: Pedestrian vs. MVA, left pneumothorax
Postoperative diagnosis: Pedestrian vs. MVA, left pneumothorax
1.
Procedure: Bronchoscopy, Left VATS, wedge resection
2.
Procedure: Patient was brought into the operating room and placed in supine position.
IV sedation and general anesthesia was administered per the Anesthesia Department. A
single lumen endotracheal tube was placed for bronchoscopy. Due to the nature of the
trauma we were interested in ruling out a bronchial tear. The bronchoscope was introduced into the mouth and passed into the throat without difficulty. There was no evidence
of sanguineous drainage or bronchial trauma noted to the left mainstem. There were
copious amounts of secretions noted and removed without difficulty. The right mainstem
was also cannulated and found to be free of any unexpected trauma. The bronchoscopy
was terminated at that time.
A double lumen endotracheal tube was placed per anesthesia. Position was confirmed by
bronchoscopy. The patient was placed in the decubitus position with the left side up. The
chest was prepped in standard fashion with Betadine, sterile towels, sheets and drapes. A
small incision is made between two ribs and a standard port placement was utilized to gain
access to the thoracic cavity. An endoscope is inserted into the chest cavity. Initially we had
excellent exposure with good isolation of the lung. We were able to identify a large bleb at
the apex of the left lung that was likely to be the source of the chronic air leak. We removed
the apex with thoracoscopic green load for therapeutic correction of the patient’s pneumothorax. The wounds were closed in layers. Chest tubes were placed. The patient tolerated
the procedure well and was taken to the recovery room.
1. Diagnosis to report if no
further positive finding are
found in the operative note.
2. Indication of two
procedures being
performed.
3.
3. Traumatic pneumothorax.
4. Diagnostic bronchoscopy.
4.
5. Thoracoscope used.
6. Wedge resection.
5.
6.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 32666-LT, 31622-51
ICD-9-CM codes: 860.0, E814.7
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: There are two procedure codes to report for this case
since there were two different scopes used in two different sites. The first procedure to report is the surgical thoracoscopy removing a wedge section of the left
lung through an endoscope. In the CPT® Index look up Thoracoscopy/Surgical/with
Therapeutic Wedge Resection of Lung guiding you to codes 32666 and 32667. Code
32667 is an add-on code for additional resections. Therefore, the correct code for
this case is 32666. The second procedure code to report is a diagnostic bronchoscopy, which was performed to examine the bronchus for any trauma in that area.
In the CPT® Index look up Bronchoscopy/Exploration guiding you to code 31622.
Modifier 51 is appended to code 31622 to indicate an additional procedure was
performed at the same surgical session by the same physician.
ICD-9-CM codes: The patient had a pneumothorax (air trapped in the space between
the outside of the lung and the inside of the chest wall). Further indication in the
operative note states that this was due to trauma. In the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases
look up Pneumothorax/traumatic guiding you to code 860.0. Documentation in the
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9.3
Respiratory, Hemic, Lymphatic, Mediastinum, Diaphragm
Chapter 9
Pre and Postoperative, headings of the note indicate this was a MVA accident. In the
alphabetical index of to External Causes look up Collision/motor vehicle/pedestrian
guiding you to code E814, your fourth digit being 7 (pedestrian).
Case 4
1. Diagnosis to report if no
further positive findings are
found in the note.
1.
Preoperative diagnosis:
1. Chronic hyperplastic rhinosinusitis
2. Allergies
3. Status post prior polypectomy and sinus surgery
2. Indication that the surgery
will be performed through an
endoscope.
Postoperative diagnosis: Same.
3. Diagnosis to report for the
intranasal polyps.
Operative procedure:
Left sinusotomy (three or more sinuses) to include:
◗◗ Nasal and sinus endoscopy
4. Diagnosis to report for sinus
polyps.
◗◗ Endoscopic intranasal polypectomy
◗◗ Endoscopic total ethmoidectomy
◗◗ Endoscopic sphenoidotomy
◗◗ Endoscopic nasal antral windows, middle meatus, and inferior meatus
◗◗ Endoscopic removal of left maxillary sinus contents
Right sinusotomy (three or more sinuses) to include:
◗◗ Nasal and sinus endoscopy
2.
◗◗ Endoscopic intranasal polypectomy
◗◗ Endoscopic total ethmoidectomy
◗◗ Endoscopic sphenoidotomy
◗◗ Endoscopic nasal antral windows, middle meatus, and inferior meatus
◗◗ Endoscopic removal of right maxillary sinus contents
Specimens sent to pathology:
1. Left ethmoid and sphenoid contents for routine and fungal cultures
2. Right maxillary contents for routine and fungal cultures
3. Left intranasal ethmoid, sphenoid, and maxillary specimens for pathology
4. Right ethmoid, sphenoid, maxillary, and right intranasal contents for pathology
Findings: Complete nasal obstruction by polyps with obscuring of all of the normal
landmarks. The right middle turbinate was found and preserved. The residual bode of the
left middle turbinate was found and preserved. There was thickened hyperplastic mucosa
4. throughout the sinuses with some polyps in the sinuses and the majority of the sinus cavi3.
9.4
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Chapter 9
Respiratory, Hemic, Lymphatic, Mediastinum, Diaphragm
ties were filled with glue-like mucopurulent debris. At the end of the case there were no
visible polyps, the airway was clear and the debris had been removed.
Procedure: The patient was taken to the operating room, placed in the supine position,
and general endotracheal anesthesia adequately obtained. A pharyngeal pack was placed.
The nose was infiltrated with xylocaine with epinephrine and cottonoids soaked in 4%
cocaine were placed. The procedure was performed in a similar manner on the left and
right sides. The cottonoids were removed.
The 30-degree wide-angle sinus telescope with endoscrub and the Stryker Hummer
device were used to remove the polyps starting anteriorly and working posteriorly. This
led to visualization of the middle turbinates.
The middle meati disease was removed. The area of the uncinate process and infundibulum was shaved away and forceps were used to remove portions of bone particle.
Using blunt dissection, the agger nasi cells, ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses were entered
and the contents removed with forceps and suction. The inferior turbinates were infractured, a mosquito clamp placed through the lateral nasal wall into the maxillary sinuses
through the inferior meatus. That opening was opened with forward and backward
biting forceps, sinus endoscopy was performed, and inspissated mucus and debris
cleaned out of the sinuses.
In a similar manner the sinuses were opened from the middle meatus and the sinuses
cleaned. In the above manner, the ethmoid, sphenoid, and maxillary sinuses were cleaned
of debris and inspissated mucus suctioned from the frontal recesses.
5.
5. Endoscope being used for
the surgical excision. A total
excision will be performed
with the op note indicating
removal performed
anteriorly and posteriorly.
6.
6. Diseased tissue removed in
the ethmoid and sphenoid
sinuses.
7.
8.
9.
The patient was then suctioned free of secretions, adequate hemostasis noted. Gelfilm
was soaked, rolled, and placed in the middle meati). Telfa gauze was impregnated with
Bacitracin, folded and placed in the nose. Vaseline gauze was placed between the folds of
Telfa. The pharyngeal pack was removed. He was suctioned free of secretions, adequate
hemostasis noted, and the procedure terminated. He tolerated it well and left the operating room in satisfactory condition.
7. Maxillary antrostomy.
8. Diseased tissue removed in
the maxillary sinus.
9. Indicating this is a bilateral
procedure.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes to report?
CPT® codes: 31255-50, 31267-50-51, 31288-50-51
ICD-9-CM codes: 478.19, 471.8, 471.0
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: For this case, the patient is having removal of diseased
tissue (including polyps) from three different areas of the sinus cavity through an
endoscope. There will be three procedure codes reported for this case. The first code
to report is the ethmoidectomy. In the CPT® Index look up Sinus/ Ethmoid/ Excision/
with Nasal/Sinus Endoscopy guiding you to codes 31254–31255. Code 31255 is the
correct code to report since the operative note documents anterior and posterior.
In the index look up Sinus/Maxillary/Antrostomy guiding you to codes 31256–31267.
Antrostomy means making a surgical opening into the nasal cavity. Code 31267 is
the correct code to report. In the index look up Sinus/Sphenoid/Incision/with Nasal/
Sinus Endoscopy guiding you to codes 31287–31288. Code 31288 is the correct code
to report.
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9.5
Respiratory, Hemic, Lymphatic, Mediastinum, Diaphragm
Chapter 9
Modifier 50 is appended to all three codes since these areas were performed
bilaterally. Modifier 51 will be appended to codes 31267 and 31288 to indicate
additional procedure codes were performed at the same surgical session by the
same physician.
ICD-9-CM codes: Hyperplastic rhinosinusitis is when one has chronic sinus inflammation, which may include polyp formation in the nose and sinuses. In the alphabetical
index look up Hyperplasia/nose guiding you to code 478.19. The “Findings” documented in the operative notes states polyps being in the nose and sinuses. In the
index look up Polyps/sinus guiding you to code 471.8. Polyps/nasal/cavity guiding
you to code 471.0.
9.6
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Chapter 9
Respiratory, Hemic, Lymphatic, Mediastinum, Diaphragm
Case 5
Preoperative diagnoses:
1. Sarcoid
2. New onset paratracheal adenopathy
1.
Postoperative diagnoses:
1. Sarcoid
2. Indication of what
procedure is being
performed.
2. New onset paratracheal adenopathy
Procedure performed:
Mediastinotomy
Description of procedure:
The patient was brought into the OR and placed in supine position. IV sedation and
general anesthesia was administered by the anesthesia department. The neck was prepped
in standard fashion with betadine scrub, sterile towels and drapes. Standard linear incision was made over the trachea. We were able to dissect down to the pretracheal fascia
without difficulty. The extensive adenopathy was immediately apparent just below the
innominate artery on the right paratracheal side. One exceedingly large lymph node
was identified and biopsied extensively. Hemostasis was obtained without difficulty. The
region was impregnated with marcaine, lidocaine, epinepherine mixture. The specimen
was sent to pathology. The wound was closed in layers. The skin was closed with subcu
stitch and covered with Dermabond. The patient tolerated the procedure well and was
taken to the recovery room in stable condition.
1. Diagnoses to report if no
further positive findings are
found in the operative note.
2.
3. Procedure performed with
the cervical approach.
4. Biopsy performed.
3.
4.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 39000
ICD-9-CM codes: 135, 785.6
RATIONALE: CPT®code: For this case a mediastinotomy (an incision into the mediastinum) with a biopsy was performed. In the CPT® Index look up Mediastinotomy/
Cervical Approach referring you to code 39000. The operative note documents
that the neck was prepped with an incision made over the trachea. That indicates
a cervical approach was performed for the procedure. A thoracic approach is if the
physician made an incision across the chest area. Code 39000 is reported for mediastinotomy with the biopsy performed.
ICD-9-CM codes: The first diagnosis to report is sarcoid which is a disease in which
granulomas (nodules of inflamed tissue) form in the lymph nodes, lungs, skin and
other areas. In this case the nodule was identified on a lymph node in the trachea.
In the alphabetical index look up Sarcoid guiding you to code 135. The second diagnosis code is indexed under Adenopathy (lymph gland) guiding you to code 785.6.
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9.7
Respiratory, Hemic, Lymphatic, Mediastinum, Diaphragm
Chapter 9
Case 6
Preoperative diagnosis:
Loculated left pleural effusion, chronic
1. Diagnosis to report for this
procedure.
2. Imaging guidance performed.
3. Placement of the catheter in
the pleural cavity to perform
the thoracentesis.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis:
Loculated left pleural effusion, chronic
Procedure performed:
Attempted, ultrasound guided thoracentesis
Description of procedure:
2. The patient was prepped and draped in the sitting position. Using ultrasound guidance
and 1% lidocaine, the thoracic catheter was introduced into the pleural space where we
3. encountered very thick fibrous type pleura. Catheter was advanced and we were unable to
aspirate any fluid. The catheter was removed. Sterile dressings were applied. Chest X-ray
will be obtained for followup. Patient tolerated the procedure well.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes for this procedure?
CPT® code: 32555-LT
ICD-9-CM code: 511.9
RATIONALE: CPT® code: The physician performed a thoracentesis and attempted to
perform an aspiration (removing fluid) from the pleural cavity (between the lungs
and the chest wall) by puncturing the chest with a needle to drain the fluid (thoracentesis). In the CPT® Index look up Thoracentesis/with Imaging Guidance which
refers you to 32555.This case does not require a modifier to report the inability
to aspirate fluid, because the attempt was made and unsuccessful. The surgeon
completed all requirements of the code specification.
Ultrasound guidance was performed to place the needle in the pleural cavity which
is included when reporting 32555.
ICD-9-CM code: Pleural effusion (too much fluid collected in the plural space) was
the reason for the surgical procedure. In the alphabetical index look up Effusion/
pleura guiding you to code 511.9. Verification in the Tabular List confirms code
selection.
9.8
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Chapter 9
Respiratory, Hemic, Lymphatic, Mediastinum, Diaphragm
Case 7
Preoperative diagnosis:
1. Cardiogenic shock
2. 1 day post op CABG
1.
1. Indication patient is in a
post operative period.
2.
2. Diagnosis to report if no
further positive findings
are found in the operative
note.
Postoperative diagnosis:
1. Cardiac Tamponade
Procedure performed:
Chest exploration and evacuation of clot
Description of procedure:
The patient was prepped and draped in the supine position. The sternotomy was
re-opened. Tamponade is obvious. A large amount of clot was removed from the heart,
which was circumferential. There was diffuse oozing from all surgical sites. An additional
suture was placed at both the proximal anastomotic sites and reinforced with xenograft.
All clot was evacuated from the left pleural space. Two additional 24 French atrium drains
were placed. We place Xeroform gauze over the anterior surface of the heart and then
placed in the mediastinum Kerlix gauze which was soaked in Ancef. Then a Vi-drape was
placed over with a red rubber catheter for decompression. Patient tolerated procedure well
and was transferred to recovery.
3.
4.
5.
6.
3. Indication of a chest
exploration.
4. Previous surgical wound
re-opened.
5. Hematoma removed from
the heart.
6. Hematoma removed from
the pleura.
What CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes should be used for this procedure?
CPT® code: 35820-78
ICD-9-CM codes: 998.12, 423.3, V45.81
RATIONALE: CPT® code: For this case the patient is returning to the operating room
to have a chest exploration for a postoperative hemorrage one day after a Coronary
Artery Bypass Graft (CABG). The previous surgical wound was re-opened in the
chest to control the hemorrhaging and remove the clot. In the index look up Chest/
Exploration/Blood Vessel guiding you to code 35820. Modifier 78 is appended to the
code to indicate an unplanned procedure was performed during the postoperative
period that was related to the initial procedure in which the patient had to go back
to the operating room.
ICD-9-CM codes: There are three diagnoses codes to report for this case. The first
one to report is the clot that was removed from around the heart and lung. This is
indexed under Complications/surgical procedures/hematoma guiding you to code
998.12. The second code to report is for the cardiac tamponade (an emergency
condition in which fluid accumulates in the pericardial sac (the sac in which the
heart is enclosed)). This is indexed under Tamponade heart guiding you to code
423.3. The last code to report is for the post-operative CABG (coronary artery bypass
graft). This is indexed under Status (post)/coronary artery bypass or shunt guiding
you to code V45.81.
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9.9
Respiratory, Hemic, Lymphatic, Mediastinum, Diaphragm
Chapter 9
Case 8
Preoperative diagnosis:
1. Mass, right upper lobe
Postoperative diagnosis:
1. Diagnosis to report if no
further findings are found in
the operative report.
2. Video Assisted Thoracoscopy
(VATS).
3. Tumor in the right lung.
4. Indication to report the right
lobe of the lung as cancerous.
1.
1. Carcinoma, right upper lobe
Procedure performed:
VATS Right superior lobectomy
Description of procedure:
Under general anesthesia, after double-lumen tube intubation, the right lung was
collapsed and the right side up is oriented so the patient is in the left lateral decubitus
position. We prepped and draped the patient in the usual manner and gave antibiotics.
2. Then two 1 cm incisions were made along the posterior and mid axillary line at the ninth
and seventh intercostal spaces. The lung was deflated. A camera was inserted. A longer
(6 cm) incision was made along the fourth intercostal space anteriorly. We then freed up
some adhesions at the top of the lung, both in the superior area away from the tumor
3. and in the anterior mediastinal area. The tumor seemed to be in the right upper lobe.
The dissection was started by ligating the superior pulmonary vein and its branches and
the upper lobe was freed up. The small fissure was incomplete and I proceeded with the
lobectomy. The pulmonary artery branches were then ligated. The bronchus was ligated
as well. The superior branches to the upper lobe was then ligated with Endo GIA. The
lobe was freed up and sent to pathology. The wound was then closed in layers. A chest
tube was placed to suction and patient was sent to recovery in stable condition. Pathology
4. confirmed carcinoma.
What are the procedure and diagnoses codes for this procedure?
CPT® code: 32663-RT
ICD-9-CM code: 162.3
RATIONALE: CPT® code: For this case the physician is removing the upper lobe from
the right lung through an endoscope (video assisted surgical thoracoscopy (VATS)examining the inside of the chest cavity through an endoscope by the use of a video
camera by making an incision between two ribs, and inserting a trocar into the chest
cavity). In the index look up Thoracoscopy/Surgical/with Lobectomy guiding you to
code 32663. The RT modifier is appended to indicate the right lung the procedure is
being performed in.
ICD-9-CM code: You would not code mass of the lung because the report documents pathology confirming carcinoma in the upper lobe of the lung. In the
alphabetical index, in the Neoplasm Table, look up Neoplasm/lung/upper lobe/
Malignant/Primary (column) guiding you to code 162.3.
9.10
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Chapter 9
Respiratory, Hemic, Lymphatic, Mediastinum, Diaphragm
Case 9
Preoperative diagnosis:
1. Grade 3 squamous cell carcinoma of penis with inguinal lymphatic metastasis
Postoperative diagnosis
1. Grade 3 squamous cell carcinoma of penis with inguinal lymphatic metastasis
Procedure performed:
Laparoscopic bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy
Description of procedure:
The patient is placed in supine position with thigh ab­duction. A 1.5 cm incision was made
2 cm distally of the lower vertex of the femoral triangle. The second incision was made 2
cm proximally and 6 cm medially. Two 10 mm Hasson trocars were inserted in these incisions. The last trocar was placed 2 cm proximally and 6 cm laterally from the first port.
Radical endoscopic bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy was perfor­med. The main landmarks—adductor longus muscle medially, the sartorius muscle laterally and the ingui­nal
ligament superiorly—were well visualized. The re­trograde dissection using the harmonic
scalpel was started distally near the vertex of the femoral triangle towards the fossa ovalis,
where safena vein was iden­tified, clipped, and divided, and towards the femoral artery
laterally. After the procedure, one can identify the skeletonized femoral vessels and the
empty femo­ral channel, showing that the lymphatic tissue in this region was completely
resected.
1.
2.
3.
1. Diagnoses to report if no
further positive findings are in
the operative note.
2. Indication procedure is
being performed through a
laprascope.
3. Confirmation the procedure
is being performed through a
laparoscope.
4.
4. Bilateral pelvic
lymphadenectomy.
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The surgical specimen was removed through the first port incision. A suction drain was
placed to prevent lymphocele, and were kept until the drainage reached 50 mL or less in
24 h. Patient tolerated procedure well and was transferred to recovery in stable condition.
What CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes are reported?
CPT® code: 38571
ICD-9-CM codes: 196.5, 187.4
RATIONALE: CPT® code: For this case the surgeon is performing a surgical laparoscopic removal of lymph nodes on both sides of the pelvis. In the CPT® Index look up
Laparoscopy/Lymphadenectomy guiding you to codes 38571–38572. Code 38571 is
the correct code since there is documentation of only the pelvic lymph nodes being
removed.
ICD-9-CM codes: According to ICD-9-CM guidelines: When a patient is admitted
because of a primary neoplasm with metastasis and treatment is directed toward the
secondary site only, the secondary neoplasm is designated as the principal diagnosis
even though the primary malignancy is still present.
The patient has cancer of the penis (primary site) that has metastasized to the
inguinal lymph nodes (secondary site). In this case the secondary site of the cancer
will be listed as the first diagnosis since the procedure to remove the lymph nodes in
the inguinal (pelvic) area.
9.11
Respiratory, Hemic, Lymphatic, Mediastinum, Diaphragm
Chapter 9
In the alphabetic index look up Neoplasm/lymph/inguinal/Malignant/Secondary
(column) guiding you to code 196.5; Neoplasm/penis/Malignant/Primary (column)
guiding you to code 187.4.
Case 10
Preoperative diagnosis: Carcinoma, right lung and bronchus intermedius
1. Indication procedure
being performed with a
bronchoscope.
2. Tumor location.
3. Surgical bronchoscopy of
biopsies and brushings.
Description of procedure:
Two liters of oxygen was supplied nasally. The right nostril was anesthetized with two
applications of 4% lidocaine and two applications of lidocaine jelly. The posterior pharynx
was anesthetized with two applications of Cetacaine spray. The Olympus PF fiberoptic
1. bronchoscope was introduced into the patient’s right nostril. The posterior pharynx
and epiglottis and vocal cords were normal. The trachea and main carina were normal.
The entire tracheobronchial tree was then visually examined and the major airways. No
abnormalities were noted on the left side. There was, however, extrinsic compression
of the posterior segment of the right upper lobe. There also appeared to be submucosal
tumor involving the bronchus intermedius between the right upper lobe and right middle
3.
2. lobe. Multiple washings, brushings, and biopsies were taken from the right upper lobe
bronchus and bronchus intermedius. The specimens were sent for cytology and routine
pathology. The patient tolerated this without any complications.
The CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes to report are:
CPT® codes: 31625-RT, 31623-51-RT
ICD-9-CM code: 162.8
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: For this case two surgical bronchoscopy codes will be
reported. The first code reported is for removing samples of bronchial tissue for
study. In the index look up Bronchoscopy/Biopsy referring you to 31625–31629,
31632–31633. Code 31625 is the correct code since there is no documentation of
going through the bronchial wall (transbronchial) to take the biopsies. The second
code is indexed under Bronchoscopy/Brushing/Protected brushing referring you to
code 31623. Modifier 51 is appended to this code to indicate an
��������������������
additional procedure code was performed at the same surgical session by the same physician. The
RT modifier is appended to indicate the right side of the bronchus.
ICD-9-CM code: The diagnosis is indexed in the alphabetical index, in the Neoplasm
Table, under Neoplasm/lung/contiguous sites with bronchus or trachea/Malignant/
Primary (column) guiding you to code 162.8
9.12
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Chapter
10
Cardiovascular System
Case 1
Preoperative diagnosis: Severe two-vessel coronary artery disease and moderate aortic
stenosis.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Same
Operation: Triple-vessel coronary artery bypass grafting: Left internal mammary artery
to the left anterior descending coronary artery, reverse saphenous vein to the first diagonal branch, and a ramus intermedius. Aortic valve replacement with a 23 mm bovine
pericardial bioprosthesis.
2.
Anesthesia: General
Indications: This is a 66-year-old white male who presented with unstable angina
pectoris. He underwent coronary angiography and was found to have a 70% distal left
main, an 80% proximal LAD, a 95% proximal ramus intermedius, and a 70% lesion in the
proximal diagonal branch. The right coronary artery had no significant lesions. His aortic 3.
valve gradient was 40 mm Hg by cath and echo. Because of his presentation with new
onset of angina pectoris and significant coronary artery disease, surgery was warranted. 4.
Procedure: While monitoring the intra-arterial blood pressure and EKG, the patient was
anesthetized without incident. The entire chest, abdomen, and both legs were prepared and
draped into the usual sterile field. A median sternotomy was performed. The left internal 5.
mammary artery was dissected off the chest wall. Simultaneously, the greater saphenous
6.
vein was harvested from the left leg endoscopically using a small incision. This was then
7.
closed in layers with Vicryl and Dermabond. A sterile compressive dressing was applied.
The pericardium was opened and tacked up to form a cradle. After heparinization, the
ascending aorta and the right atrial appendage were cannulated and connected to cardiopulmonary bypass using a membrane oxygenator with an initial flow of 4.9 liters/min.
8.
Antegrade and retrograde cardioplegia catheters were inserted. On bypass, a left ventricular vent was placed through the right superior pulmonary vein. The coronaries were
dissected out and found to be suitable for grafting although the circumflex branches were
less than 1mm in diameter. The ramus intermedius was identified as well as the diagonal
branch which was small. The heart was then arrested with cold enriched blood cardio9.
plegia given antegrade after cross-clamping the ascending aorta. Once diastolic arrest was
obtained, the heart was cooled with cold blood cardioplegia given initially antegrade and
subsequently retrograde. Additional doses were given retrograde as well as down the vein
graft. At the end, a hot shot was given. Systemic temperature was lowered to 32 degrees.
Myocardial temperature was maintained around 20 degrees.
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1. Two separate diagnoses, the
coronary atherosclerosis
and the aortic stenosis, two
separate areas of the heart,
two separate diagnoses.
2. Three vessels were grafted,
two veins and an artery. The
note goes on to describe the
procedures performed.
3. When vessels have any
blockage, that can cause
ischemia.
4. Referring back to the
blockages.
5. This is describing the
harvesting of the mammary
artery.
6. This is describing the
harvesting of the saphenous
vein.
7. This is the mention of the
endoscopic approach vs. an
open approach.
8. This is the indication that
coronary bypass was used to
complete this procedure.
9. This indicates the coronary
vessels to be grafted and
the number in question.
Although “native” vessel is
not referred to, his symptoms
are new, and there is no
evidence of previous coronary
artery surgery.
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10.1
Cardiovascular System
Chapter 10
10. This is describing one vein
graft.
The ramus intermedius was opened first. This was found to be a 1.5-2.0 mm vessel. An end10. to-end anastomosis using a segment of reverse saphenous vein was then performed with
running 7-0 Prolene suture technique. This was felt to be a good graft with flow of 90 ml/min.
11. This describes another vein
graft.
Next, the first diagonal branch was grafted in a similar manner with a second segment of
11. reverse saphenous vein with a resultant flow of 50 ml/min.
12. This is the third graft, which
is an artery graft.
12.
13. This describes the disorder
with the valve.
14. This describes the valve
replacement procedure. This
note describes the prosthetic
valve being used.
The left internal mammary artery was anastomosed to the left anterior descending coronary artery in an end-to-end fashion using the in situ left mammary with running 8-0
Prolene suture technique. The diagonal branch was a 1.5 mm vessel and the LAD was a
1.5–2.0 mm vessel.
Next, the aorta was opened in an oblique transverse fashion and a moderately calcified
trileaflet aortic valve was encountered. This was excised and the annulus debrided of a
small amount of calcium. The left ventricle was irrigated with saline. The annulus sized to a
14. 23 mm pericardial tissue valve (Model #3000, Serial # 55555555). The valve was sutured in;
in a supra-annular fashion with interrupted 2-Ethibond valve sutures placed in the pledgets on the left ventricular out-flow tract side. The valve was seated and tied down securely.
The aortotomy was then closed in two layers with running 4-0 Prolene reinforced within
the corners pledgets.
13.
During the same cross-clamp time, the proximal vein grafts were then anastomosed to
the ascending aorta to two separate circular openings using 6-0 Prolene suture technique.
After filling the heart with blood and evacuating the air from the apex of the left ventricle
with an 18-gauge needle, the cross-clamp was removed and the vein graft de-aired.
Rewarming had begun while constructing the proximal anastomoses. While rewarming
continued, two temporary atrial, temporary ventricular, and temporary ground pacing
wires were placed as well as two Blake drains for mediastinal drainage.
Once the patient reached a rectal temperature of 36 degrees, he was weaned off cardiopulmonary bypass without any inotropic support and without any difficulties. The venous
cannula was removed; the heparin reversed with protamine, and the aortic cannula was
removed. The mediastinum was irrigated with copious amounts of saline and Bacitracin
solution using the pulse lavage irrigator.
The sternum was reapproximated with the surgical Pioneer Cable System using four
figure-of-eight cables. After pulse irrigating, pulse lavaging and the fascia and subcutaneous tissue, the incision was closed in layers with Vicryl and the skin reapproximated
with a subcuticular closure and Telfa sterile dressing was applied. There were no difficulties and the patient was taken to the ICU in stable condition.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 33405, 33533-51, 33518, 33508
ICD-9-CM codes: 424.1, 414.01
10.2
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Chapter 10
Cardiovascular System
RATIONALE: CPT® Codes: The aortic valve replacement is the most work-intensive
procedure and it is located in the CPT® Index under Replacement/Aortic Valve, which
directs us to 33405–33413. Code 33405 describes a prosthetic aortic replacement
with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. This was not a homograft and there was
no stent. Next, look for CABG and the codebook requires us to see Coronary Artery
Bypass Graft (CABG). The Index lists several codes and ranges of codes. Reading
through the range, 33533 is listed as an arterial graft. The internal mammary artery
is the arterial graft. The Index then directs us to Arterial-Venous codes 33517–33523.
Code 33518 is the add-on code for 2 venous grafts, listed separately in addition to
the arterial graft. Modifier 51 is used because multiple procedures are performed
in two distinct areas of the heart. Neither procedure is related to the other. The
harvesting of the saphenous vein also must be coded. This is performed in a
different area of the body and we have the notes describing the endoscopic method
used. Referring to the CPT® Index, look up Harvesting/Endoscopic/Vein for Bypass
Graft to find 33508. Procedures in which artery and veins are used for the grafts
require a code for each of the veins and each of the arteries.
ICD-9-CM Codes: There are two codes; one for each procedure. Each of the ICD-9
codes provide the medical necessity for the procedures. The aortic valve is replaced
because of calcification of the aortic valve described within the notes. In the Index
to Diseases, find Calcification/heart/valve, see Endocarditis. Look under Endocarditis/aortic (heart) (nonrheumatic) (valve), you are directed to 424.1 Aortic valve
disorders. Referring to 424.1, you see aortic valve disorders includes incompetence,
insufficiency, regurgitation, stenosis NOS of specified cause, except rheumatic. For
the second diagnosis the Index to Diseases listing Disease/coronary, directs you
to see also, Ischemia, heart. Looking under Ischemia, you find heart and coronary
and are directed to 414.9. Code 414.9 is Chronic ischemic heart disease, unspecified.
Subcategory 414.0 describes Coronary atherosclerosis, as evidenced by our blockage
percentages noted earlier. This requires a fifth digit: 414.01 Of native coronary artery.
414.01 is the correct code for the CABG procedure.
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10.3
Cardiovascular System
1. One diagnosis code.
Chapter 10
1.
2.
2. A second diagnosis code.
3. CABG performed; four
vessels.
4. Bypass 1
5. Bypass 2
6. Bypass 3
7. Bypass 4
8. Primary Diagnosis, WHY the
bypass is necessary.
9. Endoscopic harvest of vein of
lower extremity.
10. LIMA (Left Internal
Mammary Artery) and RIMA
(Right Internal Mammary
Artery).
11. Procedure was done with
cardiopulmonary bypass.
12. Reverse saphenous vein grafts
are a method of putting
the vein in reverse to the
arterial blood flow in order
to maintain good blood flow
without clearing all the valves
from the vein before it is
utilized.
13. This describes the first venous
graft.
14. This describes the second
venous graft.
15. This is the first arterial graft.
16. This was the second arterial
graft.
Case 2
Preoperative diagnosis: Coronary artery disease. Hypercholesterolemia
Postoperative diagnosis: Same
3.
4.
6.
7.
Operation: Coronary artery bypass graft X 4. Left internal mammary artery to obtuse
marginal artery, right internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending artery,
reverse saphenous vein to the first diagonal artery and reverse saphenous vein graft to the
right posterior descending artery.
Indications: The patient is a 39-year-old gentleman with a history of hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and mild to moderate obesity, who presents with a positive stress test.
Catheterization revealed the left main, circumflex disease as well as total right coronary
8. artery disease.
Procedure: The patient was brought to the operating room and placed on the operating
table in the supine position. After the induction of general endotracheal anesthesia, the
9. patient was prepared and draped in the usual sterile fashion. We proceeded to harvest
10. vein endoscopically from the left lower extremity. At the same time, the LIMA and then
RIMA were harvested by open technique.
The patient was heparinized. The conduits were prepared for bypass. We proceeded to
open the cardiac cradle, cannulated the ascending aorta and right atrium. Antegrade
and retrograde cardioplegia catheters were placed. At this time, we placed the patient on
11. cardiopulmonary bypass. The targets were examined and they seemed to be graftable. At
this point, we proceeded to place a cross-clamp on the ascending aorta and arrested the
heart with antegrade and retrograde cardioplegia, topical ice, and cooled down to 32C.
12.
13.
14.
15.
At this point, we exposed the territory of the RPDS. It was found to be a modest target.
A reverse saphenous vein graft to right posterior descending artery graft was fashioned
using 7-0 Prolene. Flow was measured at 50 ml/min. Next, we directed our attention to
the first diagonal artery. It was also a modest target. It was opened. The anastomosis was
fashioned using the reverse saphenous vein graft with 7-0 Prolene. Flow was measured
at 60 ml/min. At this point, we exposed the territory of the obtuse marginal. The left
internal mammary was prepared. The LIMA to obtuse marginal graft was performed with
7-0 Prolene. There was excellent hemostasis. We tacked down the wings of the mammary.
The bull-dog was placed on the mammary.
At this point, we proceeded to perform two proximal aortotomies with the 4.0 mm aortic
punch. Two proximal anastomoses were fashioned after the veins were cut to length with
6-0 Prolene. Bull-dogs were placed on each of these veins.
At this point, we proceeded to rewarm the patient. The territory of the left anterior
descending artery was exposed. The RIMA was prepared. The RIMA to LAD anasto16. moses was fashioned using the 7-0 Prolene. Once this was completed, the wings of the
mammary were tacked.
At this point, warm cardioplegia was given in retrograde fashion. The bull-dogs were
removed from both the LIMA and the RIMA. We resumed perfusion of the heart. We
proceeded to de-air the root of the aorta, and at this point proceeded to remove the
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Chapter 10
Cardiovascular System
cross-clamp. The patient resumed a normal sinus rhythm. The sites were oversewn; the
vein grafts were de-aired in the usual fashion.
We examined the proximal and distal anastomoses and there was excellent hemostasis.
Three Blake drains were placed, two into the mediastinum and one into the right pleura
as we did not enter the left pleural space. The patient was weaned off cardiopulmonary
bypass without any difficulty. The sternum was reapproximated with heavy stainless steel
wire in a mattress fashion. The pectoralis fascia and subcutaneous tissue were approximated with 1-Vicryl skin with 4-0 Vicryl as well as Dermabond. The lower extremities
were closed in similar fashion. The instrument counts were correct. The patient was transferred to the SICU in stable condition.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 33534, 33518, 33508
ICD-9-CM codes: 414.01, 272.0
RATIONALE: CPT® Codes: When looking up the codes in the CPT® Index, you first
look at CABG because this was the main procedure. CPT® requires us to see Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG). The Index lists several codes and ranges of codes.
Reading through the range, 33534 is listed as an arterial graft, 2 coronary grafts. The
right and left internal mammary arteries are the arterial grafts. The Index directs
us to Arterial-Venous codes, 33517–33523. When the descriptors are read, 33518 is
the add-on code for 2 venous grafts noted above and listed separately in addition
to the arterial grafts. Modifier 51 is not reported with add-on codes. The procedure
being performed requires three codes. Harvesting of the saphenous vein also must
be coded. This is performed in a different area of the body and we have the notes to
describe the endoscopic method used. Referring to the CPT® Index, see Harvesting/
Endoscopic/Vein for Bypass Graft, code 33508. Procedures in which arteries and
veins are used for the grafts require a code for each of the veins and each of the
arteries.
ICD-9-CM Codes: For the primary diagnosis, look in the Index to Diseases under
Disease/Coronary. You are directed to see also, Ischemia, heart. Looking under Ischemia, you find heart and coronary and are directed to 414.9. When you read the
code for 414.9, it is Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease, unspecified. But, reading the
section for 414, we see subcategory 414.0 as Coronary Atherosclerosis, as evidenced
by our blockage percentages noted earlier. This requires a fifth digit; 414.01 Of native
coronary artery. 414.01 is the correct code for the CABG procedure. For the secondary
diagnosis, Hypercholesterolemia, the Index directs you to 272.0. Reading the Tabular
List, this code indicates “Pure Hypercholesterolemia.”
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10.5
Cardiovascular System
Chapter 10
Case 3
1. These are tertiary diagnoses
that will affect her treatment.
2. Aortic valve replacement.
3. Coronary artery bypass of
two artery grafts.
1.
Postoperative diagnoses: Same
Operation: Aortic valve replacement with a 19 mm St. Jude bioprosthesis. Coronary
artery bypass graft x 2—reverse saphenous vein graft to left anterior descending artery
4. and reverse saphenous vein graft to obtuse marginal artery.
2.
3.
Anesthesia: general
4. Both grafts accomplished
with venous grafts.
5. Here are three diagnoses.
6. This is not considered as
a diagnosis because it is
a symptom of the aortic
stenosis.
5.
6.
8.
9.
9. Endoscopic vein harvest.
10. Here we know
cardiopulmonary bypass was
used.
10.
11. Reverse saphenous vein
grafting is a method of
putting the vein in reverse
to the arterial blood flow in
order to maintain good blood
flow without clearing all the
valves from the vein before it
is utilized.
12. This is the first vein graft.
13. This is the second vein graft.
14. This is the reason for the
aortic valve replacement.
Indications: This is an 80-year-old female with a history of hypertension, diabetes
mellitus, and coronary artery disease who presented to the emergency department with a
syncopal episode. An echo revealed severe to critical aortic stenosis. Cath confirmed this
diagnosis as well as two-vessel coronary artery disease with a tight proximal left anterior
descending artery lesion as well as a tight circumflex lesion, and a 40% right coronary
artery lesion.
Procedure: The patient was brought to the operating room and placed on the table in
the supine position. After induction of general anesthesia, the patient was prepped and
draped in the usual sterile fashion.
7. This is the fourth diagnosis.
8. This is further documentation
of the coronary artery disease.
Preoperative diagnoses: Critical aortic stenosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension,
diabetes mellitus
We proceeded to harvest the vein endoscopically from the left lower extremity. Once we
were ready to divide the conduit, the patient was heparinized. The conduit was divided and
prepared for bypass. A median sternotomy was performed, there was a pericardial cradle.
We cannulated the ascending aorta. Antegrade and retrograde cardioplegia catheters were
placed. The patient was placed on cardiopulmonary bypass with an ACT greater than 400.
We examined the targets and they were deemed to be graftable.
At this point, the pulmonary artery was dissected off the aorta. We placed a vent through
the right superior pulmonary vein. At this point, we proceeded to cross-clamp the
ascending aorta and gave cardioplegia in antegrade and retrograde fashion, as well as
topical ice. We cooled the patient to 32 C.
11.
12.
With an excellent arrest, we exposed the territory of the obtuse marginal. It was opened,
found to be a graftable vessel. A reverse saphenous vein graft to the obtuse marginal was
fashioned using 7-0 Prolene. The flow was measured at 90 ml/min.
At this point, the territory of the LAD was exposed. It was opened, and a reverse saphenous vein graft to left anterior descending artery anastomosis was fashioned using 7-0
13. Prolene. Flow was measured at 110 ml/min. Cardioplegia was given down these grafts as
well as in a retrograde fashion throughout the case, every 20 minutes.
At this point, we proceeded to perform a hockey-stick incision of the aorta approximately
1.5 cm above the right coronary artery. We proceeded to use silk sutures to expose the
14. aortic valve. It was a severely calcified, trileaflet aortic valve. The leaflets were cut out.
The annulus was debrided. We irrigated the ventricle, then we proceeded to size the
valve to a 19 mm valve. Sutures of 2-0 Ethibond were placed in ventriculoaortic fashion
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Chapter 10
circumferentially. They were then passed through the valve. The valve was seated and
tied down without any difficulty. The right and left coronary ostia appeared to be intact
and free of any obstruction. There appeared to be no evidence of weakness around the
annulus.
Cardiovascular System
15.
15. This is the replacement of the
aortic valve.
We proceeded to rewarm the patient. The aorta was closed using two layers of 4-0 Prolene
with two felt strips. We proceeded to perform two proximal aortotomies once the veins
were cut to length. The veins had bull-dogs on them. At this point we proceeded to
remove the cross-clamp and normal sinus rhythm was reinstituted.
Ventricular pacing wires were placed and after de-airing maneuvers, the vent was
removed. We placed Blake drains into the mediastinum x 2.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 33405, 33511-51, 33508
ICD-9-CM codes: 424.1, 414.01, 250.00, 401.9
RATIONALE: CPT® Codes: Modifier 51 is used because multiple procedures are
performed in two distinct areas of the heart. Neither procedure is related to
the other. The aortic valve replacement can be located in the CPT® Index under
Replacement/Aortic Valve, which directs us to 33405–33413. Code 33405 describes
a prosthetic aortic replacement with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. This was
not a homograft and there was no stent. The Coronary Artery Bypass performed
here involved two coronary arteries grafted with two veins. In the Index, Coronary
Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)/Venous gives us 33510–33516. Codes 33510–33516 are for
venous grafting only. Code 33511 describes 2 coronary venous grafts. The harvesting
of the saphenous vein also must be coded. This is performed in a different area of the
body and we have the notes to describe the endoscopic method used. Referring to
the CPT® Index, we see Harvesting/Endoscopic/Vein for Bypass Graft, to find 33508.
ICD-9-CM Codes: There are two codes, one for each procedure. Each of the ICD9-CM codes allow for the medical necessity for the procedure. The aortic valve is
being replaced because of calcification of the aortic valve described within the
notes. Look in the Index to Diseases for Calcification/heart/valve, see Endocarditis.
Looking under Endocarditis/aortic (heart) (nonrheumatic) (valve), you are directed
to 424.1 Aortic valve disorders. Referring to 424.1, you see aortic valve disorders
includes, incompetence, insufficiency, regurgitation, stenosis NOS of specified cause,
except rheumatic. This is the code. For the second diagnosis, look in the Index under
Disease/Coronary. You are directed to see also, Ischemia, heart. Looking under Ischemia, you find heart and coronary and are directed to 414.9. Code 414.9 describes
Chronic ischemic heart disease, unspecified; however, subcategory 414.0 Coronary
atherosclerosis, as evidenced by the blockage percentages noted earlier, describes
the condition. This requires a fifth digit. Code 414.01 Of native coronary artery is the
correct code for the CABG procedure. Code 250.0 Diabetes mellitus without mention
of complication requires a fifth digit 0 for type II or unspecified type. Therefore the
code is 250.00. The hypertension has no details; therefore, the code according to the
Hypertension Table is 401.9 Hypertension, unspecified.
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10.7
Cardiovascular System
Chapter 10
Case 4
1. Working diagnoses. Unless the
report lists these as anything
else, or more information,
these will be the diagnoses to
establish medical necessity.
2. Procedure completed. This
is a short description, but
NEVER code from this, read
the entire report and note and
highlight as needed.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Same
2.
Operation: Insertion of left ventricular epicardial pacemaker lead with generator change.
3.
Indications: Ischemic cardiomyopathy with intraventricular conduction delay in a patient
experiencing congestive heart failure, status post failed attempt at placement of transvenous coronary sinus lead.
Procedure: The patient was brought to the operating room and after having the appropriate monitoring devices placed was intubated and general endotracheal anesthesia was
achieved. The patient was prepared and draped in the usual sterile fashion.
3. More documentation of the
diagnoses.
4. This is the approach used to
access the heart.
4.
5.
5. This is the generator portion
of the procedure.
6.
6. This describes the leads for
the pacemaker and where
they were placed.
7. This describes the new
generator and placement.
8. This is describing the
generator was replaced in
the original pocket; No new
pocket had to be created.
Preoperative diagnosis: Ischemic cardiomyopathy. Intraventricular conduction delay.
Congestive heart failure.
The chest was entered via a small left posterior thoracotomy. The left anterior chest
generator pocket was opened and the generator explanted. The left lung was collapsed.
The pericardium was opened and two unipolar epicardial leads were placed in the
posterolateral left ventricle. Thresholds were checked and found to be adequate. The leads
were tunneled subcutaneously to the generator pocket.
A new St. Jude biventricular pacing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator generator was
then reconnected to the transvenous atrial and ventricular leads as well as to the epicar7. dial lead. The generator was again interrogated and the thresholds and impedances of all
8. leads were found to be adequate. The generator was replaced in the pocket. The pocket
was irrigated with antibiotic saline and closed in layers with Vicryl suture.
A single left pleural drain was placed and a single pericostal suture was utilized to reapproximate the ribs. The fascia and subcutaneous tissue were closed with layered Vicryl
suture and the skin was closed with a subcuticular stitch.
The patient was transferred to the Coronary Care Unit in stable condition having tolerated the procedure well.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 33202, 33224-51
ICD-9-CM codes: 414.8, 426.89, 428.0
RATIONALE: CPT® Codes: This patient already had a cardioverter-defibrillator, and
an attempt was made on a previous occasion, to add a left sinus electrode for left
ventricular pacing. This failed, and the decision was made to place epicardial leads.
Look in the CPT® Index for Heart/Electrode/Insertion 33202–33203. Code 33202
includes open Thoracotomy, and the insertion of the epicardial electrodes. In
addition, the generator was replaced. In the CPT® Index, Pacemaker, Heart/Insertion/
Electrode, gives us several ranges, 33210–33211, 33216–33217, and 33224–33225.
Although this may look like we are repeating ourselves, the first CPT® code is really
only describing the approach used; the second code describes the procedure
performed.
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Chapter 10
Cardiovascular System
As we read through the ranges, 33224 describes the venous insertion of an electrode
for left ventricular pacing, with attachment to a pacing cardioverter-defibrillator
(including revision of pocket, removal, insertion, and/or replacement of an existing
generator). This is not quite the code, because the leads are placed by venous insertion. Look at the notes under code 33224, indicating this code should be used when
epicardial leads are placed, along with 33202. The code we want it 33224. Modifier
51 is used because more than one procedure was performed in this session. The
epicardial lead placement is more work-intensive; therefore, it is first-listed.
ICD-9-CM Codes: Looking in the Index to Diseases, under Cardiomyopathy/ischemic,
we are led to 414.8. The Tabular List verifies the diagnosis. For the conduction
diagnosis, in the Index to Diseases see Disorder/conduction, heart/specified
NEC, and you are referred to 426.89 Other specified conduction disorders, Other.
Our documentation specifies intraventricular conduction delay; therefore, the
unspecified selection 426.9 Conduction disorder, unspecified is incorrect. The last
diagnosis, in the ICD-9-CM Index is found under Failure/heart/congestive, which
leads us to 428.0.
Case 5
Preoperative diagnosis: Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm on the left coronary sinus
1.
1. Working diagnosis unless
report gives different or more
information.
2.
2. Procedure performed. We will
look at the notes to ensure
that this is the procedure.
Postoperative diagnosis: Same
Operation: Repair sinus of valsalva aneurysm with pericardial patch
Procedure: The patient was taken to the operating room and placed supine on the table.
After general endotracheal anesthesia was induced, rectal temperature probe, a Foley
catheter and TEE probe were placed. The extremities were padded in the appropriate
fashion. Her neck, chest, abdomen and legs were prepared and draped in standard
surgical fashion.
3. This describes the approach.
4. Patient was placed on
cardiopulmonary bypass.
The chest was opened through a standard median sternotomy. The patient was fully
3.
heparinized and placed on cardiopulmonary bypass. At this point we started to open
4.
the pericardium. We were met with a large amount of dense adhesions and some fluid
that was blood-tinged, salmon colored and it was cultured. Tonsil clamps were placed on
the inferior portion of the pericardial sac and we used Bovie cautery and Metzenbaum
scissors to take down all the adhesions laterally, exposing the right atrium first and then
the aorta. There were some lighter adhesions over the left ventricle, which were broken
with finger dissection. There was a moderate amount of fluid in different pockets that
were suctioned free. There was no evidence of any frank blood.
After dissecting out the right atrium, we dissected out the aorta circumferentially using
Bovie cautery and Metzenbaum scissors. We then freed up the entire LV and the apex, as
well as the inferior and lateral borders of the heart. After this we then checked the ACT
which was greater than 550. The ascending aorta was cannulated without any difficulty.
A dual stage venous cannula was placed in the right atrium. Retrograde cardioplegia was
placed in the right atrium through the coronary sinus and antegrade cardioplegia was
placed in the ascending aorta.
5. This is describing how the
bypass was performed, not
important to the procedure
itself. Very important from a
legal perspective.
5.
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10.9
Cardiovascular System
6. This is the documentation of
the aneurysm.
7. This is telling you exactly
where the aneurysm is
located.
8. This documentation describes
the patch procedure.
9. This documents that the
entire aneurysm was repaired.
10. The rest of the note explains
that the patient was removed
from the bypass machinery.
Chapter 10
6.
After the patient was on bypass, we completed dissection. We looked through the superior pulmonary vein. It appeared to be densely adhesed, so we opted to vent through the
apex of the LV. We proceeded to flush our lines, cooled to 32 degrees. Once we had a nice
arrest we opened the aorta. An aortotomy was created in standard fashion and the area
was tacked back and we were able to identify the aneurysm in question. There was a large
amount of thrombus and it was removed. There was also some mural thrombus which
was laminar and stuck to the aneurysm and I elected not to debride this area.
This defect apparently took up the entire left of the sinus of Valsalva. The coronary was
probed and there was approximately 2–3 mm rim of tissue beneath the coronary to sew
to, and the valve was intact. The aortic valve was intact and there was a rim of tissue just
lateral to the annulus for us to sew to. After debriding and irrigating, we then proceeded
8. to size a bovine pericardial patch and sutured it in place with 4-0 Prolene suture. This
was done in a running fashion, working from the annulus up towards the coronary artery
underneath the coronary, and then around laterally and superiorly, sewing through the
aortic tissue.
7.
We now successfully excluded the aneurysm and packed the entire sinus. We gave
cardioplegia in a retrograde fashion, with nice flow back from the left main. We inspected
the repair and it was competent. We irrigated one more time and proceeded to close the
aorta, de-aired the heart with standard maneuvers and removed the cross-clamp. We then
weaned the patient off of bypass. There was no aortic insufficiency, good function of the
aortic valve, no flow into the aneurysm anymore, with a nice patch repair. We then closed
the chest with stainless steel wires, the fascia was closed with Vicryl sutures, and subcuta10. neous tissue and skin were closed in similar fashion.
9.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 33720
ICD-9-CM code: 747.29
RATIONALE: CPT® Code: Looking in the CPT® Index under Repair/Sinus of Valsalva, or
directly under Sinus of Valsalva/Repair, we are given a range of codes, 33702–33722.
Reading through these selections, we see 33720 Repair sinus of Valsalva Aneurysm,
with cardiopulmonary bypass.
ICD-9-CM Code: Looking in the Index to Diseases under Aneurysm/sinus aortic
(of Valsalva), we are lead to 747.29. Verifying it in the Tabular List, Sinus of Valsalva
Aneurysm is listed in the smaller print.
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Chapter 10
Cardiovascular System
Case 6
Preoperative Diagnosis: 6.7 cm descending thoracic aortic aneurysm. Type B aortic
dissection, chronic.
Postoperative Diagnosis: Same
1.
2.
Operation: Left thoracotomy. Repair of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm with a
34 mm Gelweave graft.
3.
Bypass Time: 1 hour, 15 minutes
4.
Procedure: The patient was brought to the operating room, placed on the table in the
supine position. A blocker was placed on the left main stem bronchus and we isolated the
left lung. We proceeded to place the patient in the right lateral decubitus position. He was
padded and secured with all pressure points relieved and we proceeded at this point to
prepare and drape the patient in the usual sterile fashion.
At this point we proceeded to perform a left posterolateral thoracotomy, dividing the
muscles the fourth intercostal space was entered. The lung was completely deflated. At
the same time we proceeded to expose the left common femoral vein as well as the left
common femoral artery and at this point heparinized the patient. These vessels were
isolated and prepared for cannulation.
1. Working diagnosis, until
report is reviewed.
2. Surgical approach.
3. Surgical procedure.
5.
A venous line was placed into the right atrium through the common femoral vein and
this was secured. The patient was placed on partial bypass maintaining a blood pressure
in the lower extremities of around 50 mm Hg. We continued at this point with our dissection. The esophagus was plastered against the aorta. It was peeled off. Intercostals were
controlled and divided. At this point, we proceeded to place an aortic cross-clamp proximally and distally and we entered the aneurysm. We identified two lumens and these were 6.
resected and proximally we identified the true lumen and resected the false lumen after
obtaining control of the subclavian artery. Distally we fenestrated the wall between the
true and false lumen to prevent any malperfusion.
4. Our first indication
cardiopulmonary bypass was
used.
5. This is our approach to this
surgery.
6. Here we note the aneurysm.
7. Here is the description of the
graft used for the repair.
At this point, we proceeded to size the aorta to a 34 mm aortic graft and we proceeded
7.
to fashion the proximal anastomosis using 3-0 Prolene with a large needle in a running
fashion. We proceeded to nerve hook this suture line and proceeded to tie this down.
The posterior suture line of the proximal anastomosis was reinforced with 4-0 Prolene
pledgeted stitches. At this point, we removed the cross-clamp and pressurized the anastomoses. Areas of leak were controlled with 4-0 Prolene. At this point, the graft was cut to
length and after examining our distal aorta and making sure an appropriate fenestration
had been performed we proceeded to fashion an anastomosis again using 3-0 Prolene
with a large needle. Before removing the proximal cross-clamp we proceeded to de-air the
graft with a 25 gauge needle. We very slowly removed the proximal cross-clamp as well as
the distal cross-clamp and flow was reinstituted down the aorta. We weaned the patient
off bypass and examined our distal and proximal anastomoses. All incisions were closed
and the patient tolerated the procedure well.
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10.11
Cardiovascular System
Chapter 10
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 33875
ICD-9-CM code: 441.2
RATIONALE: CPT® Code: Looking in the CPT® Index under Graft/Aorta, we are
directed to ranges 33840–33851, and 33860–33877. Reading through the codes,
33875 describes our descending thoracic aortic graft, with or without bypass. Partial
bypass was used in this procedure; however, it is included in 33875. Therefore, 33875
describes our procedure.
ICD-9-CM Code: Looking in the Index to Diseases under Aneurysm/thorax, thoracic,
we are directed to 441.2. Verifying in the Tabular List, we see 441.2 Thoracic aneurysm
without mention of rupture. This fits our description; 441.2 is our diagnosis.
Case 7
1. Working Diagnosis, until the
note is read.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Same
2. This is the working procedure
note. The tricuspid valve.
3. This is the approach used.
2.
6. This documents the valve is in
the correct place and fits well.
Operation: Re-replacement of 10–year-old tricuspid valve using a 31 mm CarpentierEdwards pericardial bioprosthesis
Procedure: The patient was brought to the operating room and after having the appropriate monitoring devices placed, he was intubated and general endotracheal anesthesia
was achieved. The patient was prepared and draped in the usual sterile fashion.
4. This documents the use of
cardiopulmonary bypass.
5. This was the removal of the
old valve. And the placement
of the new one.
Preoperative diagnosis: Prosthetic valve endocarditis
The chest was entered via a median sternotomy incision. Simultaneous to this, the right
common femoral vein was dissected. The pericardium was opened, the patient was given
systemic heparin, and the ascending aorta and superior vena cave were cannulated. Simi4. larly, the right common femoral vein was cannulated. The patient was started on bypass.
3.
5.
Caval snares were placed, and the right atrium was opened. An intra-atrial thrombus
excised and cultured. The prosthetic valve was excised and the annulus debrided, and any
thrombus debrided and irrigated. The valve was sized and a 31 mm valve was selected.
6.
Pledgeted 2-0 Ethibond sutures were passed circumferentially around the annulus in a
ventriculoatrial fashion. These sutures were tied and the valve was inspected. The valve
was found to be well-seated, and the atrium was closed with running 4-0 Prolene sutures.
The patient was rewarmed, de-aired, and then weaned from bypass with low-dose
inotropic support. Temporary drains were placed and the mediastinum was policed for
hemostasis and the sternum reapproximated with stainless steel wire. The femoral vein
and groin wounds were closed with layered Vicryl sutures. The patient was taken back to
the Cardiac Surgical Unit in stable condition after tolerating the procedure well.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 33465, 33530
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Chapter 10
Cardiovascular System
ICD-9-CM code: 996.61, 397.0
RATIONALE: CPT®Codes: Looking in the CPT® Index under Replacement/Tricuspid
valve, we are lead to 33465 Replacement, tricuspid valve, with cardiopulmonary bypass.
This is our code. The documentation states this is a re-replacement indicating
a re-operation. CPT® 33530 is an add-on code found in the CPT® Index under
Reoperation/Coronary Artery Bypass/Valve Procedure.
ICD-9-CM Code: Look in the Index to Diseases under Endocarditis/due to prosthetic cardiac valve 996.61. We also have the disease of the valve to code (that is
the complication). In the Index, under Endocarditis/tricuspid or under Endocarditis/
tricuspid or under Disease/Valve/tricuspid, we are led to 397.0 Diseases of tricuspid
valve. This is our secondary code.
Case 8
Preoperative diagnosis: Multiple varicose veins with severe pain in the leg.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Same
Procedure: Removal of multiple varicose veins, right lower leg involving both the greater
2.
and lesser saphenous systems.
Anesthesia: General.
1. Working diagnosis.
2. Working procedure until note
is reviewed.
3. This is the documentation of
removal. Reading the long
and the shorter saphenous
veins as those that were done.
Procedure: With the patient prepped and draped in the usual sterile manner, multiple
small incisions were made over the patient’s varicose veins in the right leg. Through
these incisions multiple clusters and branches from the greater saphenous vein and lesser
saphenous veins were removed. Dilated tortuous segments of the greater saphenous vein 3.
and lesser saphenous vein were also removed. Most of the greater saphenous vein was
removed. Meticulous hemostasis was achieved. All perforators associated with these clusters were ligated with 3-0 Vicryl suture. The patient’s leg was wrapped in sterile Webril
and Ace wrap. There were no complications.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 37722-RT, 37718-51-RT,
ICD-9-CM code: 454.8
RATIONALE: CPT® Codes: Looking in the CPT® Index under Removal/Vein/Saphenous, we are directed to a range, 37718–37735, and 37780. There is also an entry for
Varicose, 37765–37766. Looking at the Varicose vein entries, we see these are stab
phlebotomies of the extremities. When we read the entries for the saphenous veins,
we see that 37718 is the short saphenous vein, and 37722 is the long (greater) saphenous vein. There is no note excluding the coding of both, so we use 37722 with
modifier RT to designate the right side, and 37718 for the lesser (short) saphenous,
with modifier RT for the right side of the body. Modifier 51 denotes additional procedures during the same session.
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10.13
Cardiovascular System
Chapter 10
ICD-9-CM Code: Looking in the Index to Diseases under Varicose/Vein, (lower
extremity), we are directed to 454.9; however, upon careful reading of our diagnosis
documentation, we see that pain is mentioned. It should be noted that pain is NOT
necessarily a symptom of varicose veins, but when it is experienced it becomes a
complication of the condition and warrants the medical necessity of their removal.
Check the Tabular List for 454.9 Asymptomatic varicose veins. This is not correct;
however, we see that 454.8 is the code for complications, and pain is listed below
this code. The Index does list Varicose/vein/with/complications NEC 454.8; therefore,
454.8 is our diagnosis.
Case 9
1. Working diagnosis until note
is read.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Same
2. Working procedure code,
until report is read.
2.
3. Approach used to gain access,
may or may not be important
for coding purposes.
3.
4. All body fluids retrieved
during any procedure are sent
to the lab for pathological
workup.
5. This tells us the tube was left
in place.
Preoperative diagnosis: Cardiac tamponade secondary to malignant effusion
4.
5.
Procedure: Tube pericardiostomy via subxiphoid approach
Details: The patient was positioned supine on the table and prepped and draped. A low
midline incision approximately 5 cm in length was made over the sternum and xiphoid.
This was carried down to the linea alba, which was opened. The xiphoid was divided. We
then found the pericardium and opened the pericardium again with electrocautery. We
enlarged the site so it was easily 1cm across. At this time there was a gush of fluid under
pressure. It was serosanguinous fluid. It was not turbid, nor was there any odor. We
suctioned this fluid for approximately 500 ml in the suction container. There was probably an additional 100 ml of spill on the drapes. Approximately 100 ml was also sent for
cytology and culture.
After we felt we had fully drained the pericardium and had had a significant hemodynamic improvement, we then made a small transverse incision to the right of her lower
sternal incision and through this and across the fascia, we passed a #20-French Blake
drain. This was placed on the diaphragmatic surface of the heart and was tied in place
using 2-0 Ethibond sutures. We then closed the fascia with 0 Vicryl and the subcutaneous
tissue with 0 Vicryl, these were all interrupted, and the skin with staples. At the end of the
procedure the patient’s condition remained stable.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 33015
ICD-9-CM codes: 423.8, 423.3
RATIONALE: CPT®Code: Looking in the CPT® Index under Pericardiostomy/Tube, we
are directed to 33015. The descriptor reads Tube pericardiostomy.
ICD-9-CM Codes: Looking in the Index to Diseases under Tamponade/heart, we are
directed to see also pericarditis 423.3. When we look at this in the Tabular List we
see 423.3 Cardiac tamponade, Code first the underlying cause. We are given malignant effusion in the diagnostic statement. When we look at Effusion/pericardial,
in the Index, we again are directed to see also pericarditis 423.9. When we look at
10.14
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Cardiovascular System
Pericarditis, (with effusion) we are directed to 423.9. This is an unspecified code,
according to the descriptor, whereas our documentation specifies malignant effusion. Code 423.8 describes other specified diseases of the pericardium; this is our
primary code.
Case 10
Preoperative diagnosis: Acute renal failure
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Same
Indication: Patient is a 23-year-old critically ill woman who went to the operating room
for a lung transplant. A Vas-Cath was indicated to proceed with CVVHD upon arrival in 2.
the ICU.
Procedure: Left subclavian Vas-Cath placement
3.
The left chest was draped and prepped in the usual sterile fashion and the patient was
placed in the Trendelenburg position. The subclavian vein was readily located with a
4.
needle and the Seldinger technique was used to place a Vas-Cath for dialysis. Excellent
5.
flow was returned through both lumens. The catheter was secured in place and a sterile
dressing applied. The patient is to be transported to the ICU where a postprocedural X-ray
will be taken.
1. Working diagnosis until
report is read.
2. Catheter.
3. Working description of
procedure.
4. Entry directly into the
subclavian vein indicates a
non-tunneled catheter.
5. This is the description of the
placement.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 36556
ICD-9-CM code: 584.9
RATIONALE: CPT® Code: Looking in the CPT® Index under Placement, we cannot find
an entry that will help. Insertion is a term for placement, and under Insertion/Catheter/Venous we see a long list of ranges. The procedure described is a central line,
because the catheter is placed in the subclavian vein. Check the notes under Central
Venous Access Procedures and you see the subclavian vein is a central vein. Looking
in the Index for Catheterization/Central, we are directed to 36555–36566. Upon
reading through the selections given, code 33556 describes catheter placement in
the subclavian vein for a 23-year-old patient.
ICD-9-CM Code: Looking in the Index to Diseases under Failure/renal/acute, we are
directed to code 584.9. Verifying this in the Tabular List we see 584.9 Acute kidney
failure, unspecified.
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10.15
Chapter
11
Digestive System
Case 1
Preoperative diagnosis: History of Rectal carcinoma
Postoperative diagnosis: History of Rectal carcinoma
Procedure performed: Closure of loop ileostomy with small bowel resection and enteroenterostomy with intraoperative flexible sigmoidoscopy.
Description of procedure: After induction of adequate general endotracheal anesthesia,
the patient was carefully positioned in the supine modified lithotomy position in Allen
stirrups. Great care was taken to carefully pad and protect all areas of potential bodily
injury. Digital rectal examination revealed a widely patent circumferentially intact
pouch anal anastomosis within 1 cm of the dentate line. Flexible sigmoidoscopy was
performed revealing healthy pink mucosa. The abdomen was prepped and draped in the
usual sterile manner and a parastomal incision was made and carried down sharply into
the peritoneal cavity. Meticulous hemostasis was obtained with electrocautery. A 360
degree subfascial mobilization was undertaken until approximately 40 cm of each the
afferent and efferent limb reached above the skin in a tension-free manner. Betadine was
insufflated down each limb to verify that no enterotomies or seromyotomies were made.
The mesentery was scored and vessels divided with a 10 mm LigaSure Impact. The bowel
was circumferentially cleared of fat proximally and distally and each end divided with a
GIA 100 mm stapling device with blue cartridge. The field was protected with blue towels
and the antimesenteric border of each staple line was excised. A side-to-side functional
end- to-end anastomosis was fashioned with a GIA 100 mm stapling device. The staple
line was reinforced for hemostasis with 3-0 PDS 2 suture where necessary and the afferent
limb was secured to the efferent limb with 3-0 PDS 2 seromuscular Lembert type sutures.
After verification of the meticulous hemostasis, the apical enterotomy was secured with
a GIA 100 mm stapling device. The anastomosis was healthy pink and widely patent
and circumferentially intact and easily returned into the peritoneal cavity. After copious
irrigation and verification of meticulous hemostasis.
1.
2.
3.
4.
1. General Anesthesia.
2. Lying on back with legs in
stirrups.
3. Cutting around the outlet to
release it from the abdomen
and surrounding area.
4. Verification that the colon is
without injury or puncture
from the dissection.
5. Reattachment of the two ends
of the colon.
5.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 44625
ICD-9-CM codes: V55.2, V10.06
RATIONALE: CPT® code: The operative note heading helps us to understand this
patient had a surgical operation in which there is an attachment of the ileum to the
abdominal wall at a stoma (ileostomy), thereby diverting waste to a colostomy bag.
The stoma is closed. A portion of the small intestines is removed (resection). The
severed ends of the remaining intestine are joined to form a continuous channel
(anastomosis) in the bowl. In the CPT® Index, look up Enterostomy/closure. This
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11.1
Digestive System
Chapter 11
guides you to 44625–44626; 44626 includes colorectal anastomosis (reconnection of
the colon and rectum). This note supports only the bowel reconnection, as reported
using 44625.
ICD-9-CM codes: The indication for the surgery is closure of a loop ileostomy.
In the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases, look up Attention to/ileostomy, which refers
you to V55.2. The second code describes history of rectal carcinoma. In the Index
to Diseases look under History/malignant neoplasm (of)/rectum, which guides
you to V10.06.
Case 2
Preoperative diagnosis: Right-sided colonic polyps
Postoperative diagnosis: Right-sided colonic polyps
Procedure: Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy with ileocolic anastomosis.
1. General anesthesia.
2. Positioning and draping the
patient is standard of care—
not billable.
3. Type of Laparoscopic
instrument.
4. Placement of the trocars
for visualization into the
abdominal cavity.
5. These instruments slide into
the post on the trocar.
6. Pulled to outside the cavity
thru the extended incision.
7. The division of the colon.
8. Device used to seal or divide.
9. Reattachment of the two ends
of the colon; ileocolostomy.
10. The externalized colon is
reinserted into the abdominal
cavity.
11.2
Procedure as follows: After induction of adequate general endotracheal anesthesia, the
patient was carefully positioned in the supine modified-lithotomy position and Allen
stirrups. Great care was taken to carefully pad and protect all areas of potential bodily
2. injury. The abdomen was prepped and draped in the usual sterile manner.
1.
Using a supra-umbilical vertical incision, a Hasson technique was employed to carefully
place a 10 mm canula. Carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum of 15 mm Hg was achieved,
after which a 30-degree telescope was carefully introduced. Under direct vision, two leftsided ports were placed, one in the left lower quadrant, one in the left upper quadrant,
4. each lateral to the epigastric vessels through horizontal stab wounds. With a combination
of head up, head down, and right side up, the entire right colon was mobilized from the
duodenum, pancreas, and right ureter, using 10 mm diameter Babcock grasping forceps
5. and 5 mm diameter harmonic scalpel.
3.
After complete mobilization and copious irrigation and verification of meticulous hemostasis, the supraumbilical port was lengthened to 4 cm, through which an Alexis wound
6. protector was placed. The entire right colon was withdrawn. High ligation of the ileocolic
7. arcade and the right branch of the middle colic were undertaken using 10 mm diameter
8. LigaSure Atlas. The Atlas was used for the remaining mesentery. The bowel was circumferentially cleared of fat proximally and distally, and each end divided with a GIA 100
mm stapler with blue cartridge. The field was draped with blue towels, and the antimesenteric border of each staple line was excised along with the terminal ileum. A side-to-side,
functional end-to-end anastomosis was fashioned with a GIA 100 mm stapling device
9. with blue cartridge between the remaining ileum and colon. The staple line was verified for hemostasis, after which the afferent limb was secured to the efferent limb with
3-0 PDS II seromuscular Lembert-type sutures. After verification of anastomotic hemostasis, the apical enterotomy was secured with a GIA 100 mm stapling device with blue
cartridge. The anastomosis was healthy, pink, widely patent, circumferentially intact, and
10. easily returned into the peritoneal cavity.
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After copious irrigation and verification of meticulous hemostasis, the fascia was
closed with interrupted #1 Vicryl plus figure-of-eight sutures. The subcutaneous layers
were irrigated and verification of meticulous hemostasis. Port sites were closed in a
11.
similar manner. The skin was closed, and covered by dry dressings, and the patient was
discharged to the recovery room in stable condition, without having suffered any apparent
operative complications.
11. After the trocars are removed
the stab sites are sutured
closed.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 44205
ICD-9-CM code: 211.3
RATIONALE: CPT® code: The surgeon removes a portion of the colon laparoscopically and performs ileocolostomy (surgical anastomosis that brings the end of the
ileum to the colon). From the CPT® Index, look up Colectomy/Partial/with Ileocolostomy Laparoscopic, which leads to 44205.
ICD-9-CM code: Indication for the surgery is colonic polyps. In the Index to Diseases,
look up Polyp/colon, which refers you to 211.3
Case 3
Procedure: Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty.
Indication: A 63-year-old with obstructive sleep apnea. He is intolerant of CPAP.
Procedure: I identified the patient and he was brought to the operating room.
General endotracheal anesthesia was induced without complication. Tonsillar pillars
and palate were injected with 0.25% Marcaine. The right tonsil was grasped with
an Allis forceps and dissected from the tonsillar fossa with a combination of blunt
and cautery dissection. The posterior pillar remained intact as I proceeded to do the
similar mobilization of the left tonsil. I then made a mucosa incision across the base
of the palate approximately 0.5 cm from the base of the uvula, connecting the anterior
tonsillar incisions. Muscular portion of the uvula and edge of the soft palate was then
opened. Posterior pillar was opened inferiorly on the right tonsil fossa, and extended
through the palate to include the uvula, and then extended inferiorly on the left side.
The uvula, edge of the soft palate, and both tonsils were removed en toto. Hemostasis
was achieved with electrocautery. The mucosal incision was then closed with
interrupted Vicryl sutures. The oral cavity was irrigated with Clindamycin solution.
1.
2.
1. Rt tonsillectomy; not billable
included in the primary
procedure.
2. Left tonsillectomy; not billable
included in the primary
procedure—cannot be
unbundled.
The patient was returned to Anesthesia, extubated, and brought safely to the recovery
room.
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11.3
Digestive System
Chapter 11
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 42145
ICD-9-CM code: 327.23
RATIONALE: CPT® code: This is a surgical procedure in which the airway at the back
of the throat is widened by the removal of excess soft tissue (including the uvula,
tonsils, and part of the soft palate), for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. In the
CPT® Index, look for Uvula/Excision, which guides you to 42140–42145. The operative note heading indicates uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, as reported by 42145. The
operative note documents that the uvula, edge of the soft palate, and both tonsils
were removed, which also points to 42145.
ICD-9-CM code: Indication for the surgery was for obstructive sleep apnea. In the
Index to Diseases, look up Apnea, apneic/obstructive. The Tabular List verifies that
327.23 (rather than the sleep apnea codes found under subcategory 780.5x) is
correct for obstructive sleep apnea.
Case 4
Preoperative diagnosis: Morbid obesity. BMI 40.
Postoperative diagnosis: Morbid obesity. BMI 40.
1. Longitudinal—Sleeve.
1.
Procedure performed: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Intraoperative
esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Intraoperative endoscopy.
2. Laparoscopic procedure.
Anesthesia: General endotracheal anesthesia.
3. Gas is used to extend the
abdomen to improve the
visual field.
Operative Procedure: The patient was brought to the operating room and placed on the
OR table in supine position. Once general endotracheal anesthesia was achieved and
preop antibiotics were given, the abdomen was prepped and draped in the standard
surgical fashion. Access to the abdominal cavity was through a 1 cm supraumbilical
incision with an Optiview trocar. CO2 was insufflated to achieve an intraabdominal
pressure of approximately 15 mm Hg. Accessory trocars were placed in the subxiphoid,
right, mid and left upper quadrants of the abdomen, as well as in the right and left lower
quadrants of the abdomen. All this was done under appropriate videoscopic observation.
4. This is done to verify there is
not bleeding, punctures, etc
and is not reported separately.
2.
The pyloric channel is then identified and approximately 4 cm proximal to it, the short
gastric vessels of the greater curvature are taken down all the way up to the GE junction
with the harmonic scalpel. A 38 French bougie is passed into the stomach into the pyloric
channel and with the help of the linear cutter; the stomach is transected in a vertical
fashion creating a gastric tube which is approximately 100 mL in diameter. The staple line
is then oversewn with a running 2-0 Vicryl suture. Good hemostasis was achieved.
4.
11.4
Then I proceeded to perform intraoperative esophagogastroduodenoscopy. The scope was
advanced through the oropharynx and under direct vision it was taken down through
the esophagus and into the sleeve. There was no evidence of leak, bleeding, or any other
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Chapter 11
Digestive System
abnormalities. A patent sleeve was seen all the way down to the pylorus. The scope was
then retrieved carefully.
A placement of a drain through the subhepatic space and extraction of the specimen
through a right lower quadrant incision was done. All trocars were removed under appropriate videoscopic observation. There was no evidence of bleeding from any of the trocar
5.
sites. All the trocar sites were sutured closed and injected with local anesthesia. The
patient tolerated the procedure well. He was extubated on the table and transferred to the
recovery room in stable condition. There were no complications.
5. The small incisions are
closed—and the anesthetic
helps with pain control post
operatively.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 43775
ICD-9-CM codes: 278.01, V85.41
RATIONALE:
CPT® codes: A laparoscopic gastric restrictive procedure (sleeve gastrectomy) is
performed to treat morbid obesity. In the CPT® Index, look up Gastrectomy/Sleeve,
which directs you to 43775. The intraoperative esophagogastroduodenoscopy is
performed to make sure that there is no post-op bleeding or leakage in the upper GI
and is included in the primary procedure.
ICD-9-CM codes: The indication for the surgery is morbid obesity. In the Index to
Diseases, look up Obesity/morbid, which guides you to 278.01. The next code is for
the body mass index (BMI) of the patient. A color prompt note with subcategory
code 278.0X states, “Use additional code to identify Body Mass Index (BMI), if known
(V85.0–V85.54).” Code V85.41 describes a BMI of 40.
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11.5
Digestive System
Chapter 11
Case 5
Preoperative diagnosis: Cholelithiasis, Chronic Cholecystitis and acute pancreatitis
Postoperative diagnosis: Cholelithiasis, Chronic Cholecystitis and acute pancreatitis,
pathology pending
Procedure performed: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, with intra-operative fluoroscopic
cholangiography
Anesthesia: General Anesthesia and 0.5% Marcaine (10 cc/s)
Estimated blood loss: minimal
Drains: None
Specimen: Gallbladder
Operative indications: This is a 49-year-old female with the above diagnosis who presents
for elective Laparoscopy, Cholecystectomy and Intra-operative Cholangiography.
1. Pneumatic antiembolism
stockings—these are
compression stockings to help
prevent blood clots during and
after surgery.
1.
2. Brand of Laparoscopic
instrument.
2.
3. Head up.
4. This is a fluoroscopic look at
the bile ducts to verify proper
functioning.
3.
4.
11.6
Operative procedure: The patient was brought to the OR suite with PAS stocking in
place. They were transferred to the operative table, given a general anesthetic, positioned
supine on the table, and the operative field was sterilely prepped and draped.
A vertical incision was made in the base of the umbilicus and deepened through the
fascia. Stay sutures of 0-proline were placed and the abdomen was entered under direct
vision. A Hassan canula was anchored in place with the stay sutures and the abdomen
was insufflated to 15 mm Hg with CO2 gas.
A 10 mm, 30-degree scope was assembled, focused, white-balanced and placed into the
abdomen. Cursory evaluation revealed no other obvious pathology with the exception
of the gallbladder. Under direct vision, 3-5 mm ports were placed in the epigastrium,
right upper quadrant, and right lower quadrant. The patient was placed in reverse
Trendelenberg position with right side up.
The fundus of the gallbladder was grasped and retracted over the dome of the liver.
Adhesions to the gallbladder were taken down with sharp and blunt dissection while
carefully maintaining hemostasis with electrocautery. The ampulla of the gallbladder
was grasped with a second instrument and retracted downward and laterally displaying
the angle of Calot distracted from the portal structures. The cystic duct and artery were
dissected circumferentially. A single clip was placed on the distal cystic duct and an
opening created just proximal to it. The cholangiogram apparatus was introduced into
the abdomen via the 5 mm RUQ port and the 5-french whistle-tip ureteral catheter
was threaded into the common bile duct through the opening in the cystic duct. The
cholangiogram was performed under fluoroscopy and was normal, demonstrating
filling of the duct with defects and prompt flow into the duodenum. The cholangiogram
apparatus was withdrawn from the abdomen, and the cystic duct was clipped twice
proximally and divided. The cystic artery was clipped once distally, twice proximally and
divided. The cystic duct and artery were dissected circumferentially, clipped once distally,
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Chapter 11
Digestive System
twice proximally and divided. Care was taken not to encroach upon the common bile
duct or portal structures.
The gallbladder was taken down from the liver using the hook-dissector and cautery carefully maintaining hemostasis during the process. The right upper quadrant was irrigated
with saline and suctioned dry. Hemostasis was confirmed. There was no bile drainage
from the gallbladder bed in the liver. A 5 mm, 30-degree scope was assembled, focused,
white-balanced, and placed into the epigastric port. The gallbladder was removed under
direct vision through the umbilical port. The other ports were removed under direct
vision and were hemostatic.
The abdomen was de-insufflated. The fascia in the umbilical incision was closed with a
figure of eight suture of 0 Vicryl. The wounds were infiltrated with a total of 10 cc’s of
0.5% Marcaine. The skin incisions were closed with subcuticular sutures of 4.0 Vicryl.
Steri-strips and sterile dressings were applied. After a correct sponge, instrument, and
needle count, the patient was awakened, extubated and taken to the recovery room in
good condition.
5.
5. Gas is released from the
abdomen.
6. This one code includes
the procedure and the
cholangiogram.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 47563
6.
ICD-9-CM codes: 574.10, 577.0
RATIONALE: CPT® code: The gallbladder is removed laparoscopically. X-ray examination, including injection of a contrast dye in to the bile ducts to visualize its course
(cholangiography), is performed. In the CPT® Index, look up Cholecystectomy/Any
Method/with Cholangiography. This refers you to 47563, 47605, 47620. Code 47563 is
correct because the surgery was performed laparoscopically.
ICD-9-CM codes: The indication for the surgery is cholelithiasis, chronic cholecystitis,
and acute pancreatitis. In the Index to Diseases, look up Cholelithiasis/with/cholecystitis/chronic, which directs you to 574.10. Your second code may be found under
Pancreatitis/acute (577.0).
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11.7
Digestive System
Chapter 11
Case 6
1. Demonstrates medical
necessity.
1.
Preoperative diagnosis: Severe obesity. Hypertension. BMI 53
Postoperative diagnosis: Severe obesity. Hypertension. BMI 53
2. This is a laparoscopic
procedure.
Procedure performed: Laparoscopic antecolic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with 150 alimentary limb, and a 40 cm biliopancreatic limb.
3. Where the stomach connects
to the esophagus.
Anesthesia: General endotracheal anesthesia.
4. The angle of His is the acute
angle created between the
cardia at the entrance to the
stomach, and the esophagus.
It forms a valve, preventing
reflux of duodenal bile,
enzymes and stomach
acid from entering the
esophagus where it can cause
inflammation.
5. Gastroentestinal tube used
for analysis and emptying the
stomach names after the man
who designed it.
6. Useful landmark for finding
the beginning of the jejunum.
7. A blue dye is sent thru the
connected limbs to look for
leakage.
8. This is significant because the
code is different for over 150
cm.
Operative procedure: The patient was brought to the operating room, placed on the OR
table in supine position. Once endotracheal anesthesia was achieved and preop antibiotics
were given, the abdomen was prepped and draped in the standard surgical fashion. Access
to the abdominal cavity was through a 1 cm supraumbilical incision with an Optiview
trocar. CO2 was insufflated to achieve an intraabdominal pressure of approximately 15
mm Hg. Accessory trocars were placed in the subxiphoid, right, mid and left upper quadrants of the abdomen, as well as in the right and left lower quadrants of the abdomen. All
2. this was done under appropriate videoscopic observation.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
The procedure begins with identification of the GE junction and dissection of the angle of
His. On the lesser curvature of the stomach, a window is dissected into the lesser sac. A
linear stapler is passed, and the stomach is transected. Reinforcement of the staple line was
done with Steri-Strips, creating a pouch, which is approximately 50 cc in diameter. An Ewald
tube is used to calibrate the pouch. At this point, the ligament of Treitz is identified and 40
cm from the ligament of Treitz, the small bowel was transected. The distal limb of the small
bowel is then brought to the upper abdomen, and a side-to-side gastrojejunostomy between
the pouch and the alimentary limb is performed with a linear stapler. The gastrojejunostomy
site is then suture closed with a double layer of running 2-0 Vicryl sutures. The anastomosis
was observed for leakage with air and Methylene blue. There was no evidence of leakage.
I then proceeded 150 cm distal from the gastrojejunostomy. A side-to-side jejunojejunostomy was created between the biliopancreatic limb and alimentary limb. This was
performed using two applications of the linear stapler. The jejunojejunostomy site is
closed with several applications of the linear stapler. Hemoclips were applied to the suture
line for hemostasis. Good hemostasis was evident. A 19 French Blake drain was placed
over the gastrojejunal anastomosis. All trocars were removed under appropriate videoscopic observation. There was no evidence of bleeding from any of the trocar sites. The
trocar sites were suture closed and injected with local anesthesia. The patient tolerated the
procedure well. She was extubated on the OR table and transferred to the recovery room
in stable condition. There were no complications.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 43644
ICD-9-CM codes: 278.01, 401.9, V85.43
RATIONALE: CPT® code: Laparoscopic gastric bypass is performed by partitioning
the stomach and performing a small bowel division with anastomosis to the
proximal stomach (Roux-en-Y gastroenterostomy). In the CPT® Index, look up
11.8
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Chapter 11
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Laparoscopy/ Gastrectomy/Gastric Restrictive Procedures. This refers you to 43644–
43645; 43770–43775. Code 43644 is the correct.
ICD-9-CM codes: The indication for this surgery is for severe obesity, hypertension,
and BMI of 53. The first code is found in the Index to Diseases, under Obesity/severe
(278.01). The second code is indexed under Hypertension/Unspecified (column)
(401.9). The last code is for the body mass index (BMI), as required with 278.xx.
V85.43 is the code for a BMI of 53.
Case 7
Extent of examination: Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Reason(s) for examination: GERD
Description of procedure: Informed consent was obtained with the benefits, risks, and
alternatives to upper GI endoscopy explained, including the risk of perforation, and the
patient agreed to proceed. No contraindications were noted on physical exam. Anesthesia
administered by Intensive Care Unit Staff. (See Anesthesiologist report) Monitored anesthesia care (MAC) was administered. The procedure was performed with the patient in
the left lateral decubitus position. The instrument was inserted to the Second part of the
duodenum. The patient tolerated the procedure well. There were no complications. The heart
rate was normal. The oxygen saturation and skin color were normal. Upon discharge from
the endoscopy area, the patient will be recovered per established procedures and protocols.
Findings: The esophagus was examined and no abnormalities were seen. The gastroesophageal junction (upper level of gastric folds) was located 40 cm from the incisors. The
stomach was examined and no abnormalities were seen. The small bowel was examined
and no abnormalities were seen.
1.
1. The highlighted areas were
seen and constitute 43235.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 43235
ICD-9-CM code: 530.81
RATIONALE: CPT® code: An endoscope enters through the patient’s mouth into the
esophagus. The esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and sometimes the jejunum are
viewed to determine if bleeding, ulcers, tumors, or other abnormalities are present
(diagnostic endoscopy). This is indexed under Endoscopy/Gastrointestinal/Exploration (43235). Code 43235 is correct code for this case.
ICD-9-CM code: The indication for this procedure is gastroesophageal reflux (GERD).
In the Index to Diseases, look for Reflux/gastroesophageal (530.81).
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11.9
Digestive System
Chapter 11
Case 8
Extent of examination: Terminal ileum
Reason(s) for examination: Anemia, Fe Deficiency
1. MAC is IV anesthesia with
multiple drugs—not general
anesthesia.
2. Lying on his left side—semi
fetal position.
3. Scope inserted in rectal area
to ileum.
4. Biopsy taken from two
locations.
1.
2.
3.
Description of procedure: Informed consent was obtained with the benefits, risks, and
alternatives to colonoscopy explained, including the risk of perforation, and the patient
agreed to proceed. No contraindications were noted on physical exam. Monitored
anesthesia care (MAC) was administered. The bowel was prepared with GO-LYTELY
Prep. The quality of the prep is based on the Ottawa bowel preparation quality scale. Total
Score: Right: 1 + Middle: 1 + Left: 1 + Fluid: 0 = 3/14. Prior to the exam a digital exam was
performed and hemorrhoid is noted.
The procedure was performed with the patient in the left lateral decubitus position. The
instrument was inserted to the terminal ileum. The cecum was identified by the following:
the ileocecal valve, the appendiceal orifice. In the rectum, a retroflex was performed. The
patient tolerated the procedure well. There were no complications.
Findings: In the rectum, a few medium-size uncomplicated internal hemorrhoids
were seen. The internal hemorrhoids were not bleeding. There was no evidence of
4. inflammation, friability or granularity. Biopsy was taken. In the ascending colon and
cecum there was mild granularity and red spots that were nonspecific and possibly due to
air insufflation. No friability or ulcerations. Biopsy was taken. The remainder of the colon
was normal. The terminal ileum was normal.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 45380
ICD-9-CM codes: 280.9, 455.0
RATIONALE: CPT® code: A colonoscope is performed for an internal examination of
the colon and rectum, with tissue samples (biopsy). In the CPT® Index, look up Colonoscopy/Biopsy, which refers you to 45380, 45392. Code 45380 is correct in this case.
ICD-9-CM codes: The indication for this procedure is for iron [Fe] deficiency anemia.
This is found in the Index to Diseases under Anemia/iron [Fe] deficiency (280.9). The
operative note documents that internal hemorrhoids were seen in the examination.
This is indexed under hemorrhoids/internal (455.0).
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Chapter 11
Digestive System
Case 9
Extent of examination: Terminal ileum
Reason(s) for examination: Hx of Rectal Cancer s/p LAR and colonic J pouch for closure
of loop ileostomy
1.
Description of procedure: Informed consent was obtained with the benefits, risks, and
alternatives to colonoscopy explained, including the risk of perforation, and the patient
agreed to proceed. No contraindications were noted on physical exam. Monitored
anesthesia care (MAC) was administered. The bowel was prepared with Fleets enemas. 2.
The quality of the prep was fair. Prior to the exam a digital exam was performed and
it was unremarkable. The procedure was performed with the patient in the left lateral
decubitus position. The cecum was identified by the following: the ileocecal valve. The 3.
withdrawal time from the Cecum was 7 minutes. The patient tolerated the procedure
well. There were no complications. The exam was limited by poor preparation.
Findings: At the splenic flexure, moderate inflammation with erythema, granularity,
friability, hypervascularity was seen. There was no mucosal bleeding. In the proximal
descending colon, moderate segmental inflammation with erythema, granularity,
friability, hypervascularity was seen. In the rectum, an abnormality was noted:
4.
Anastomosis—patent and normal. No evidence of polyp. Just proximal to anastomosis— 5.
significant diffuse colitis.
6.
1. Patient has had previous
surgical procedure—this is
a “look-see” for any further
problems.
2. IV anesthesia with
medications—not general
anesthesia.
3. Lying on left side in semi-fetal
position.
4. This is important because the
code is selected by the level of
colon examined.
5. Area with sutures placed
previously is normal.
6. Some inflammation.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 45378
ICD-9-CM codes: 558.9, V10.06
RATIONALE: CPT® code: Colonoscopy is performed for a “look-see” on a previous
surgery (closure loop ileostomy), to make sure there are no problems. A colonoscope is inserted in the anus and the scope advances through the colon past the
splenic flexure to examine the lumen of the rectum and colon. The operative note
documents the colon was examined to the splenic flexure, and into the proximal
descending colon. In the CPT® Index, look for Colon/Endoscopy/ Exploration (44388,
45378, 45381, 45386). Code 45378 is correct for this case.
ICD-9-CM codes: The operative report documents that diffuse colitis was found
proximal to the anastomosis. This is found in the Index to Diseases under Colitis
(558.9). The second code is for the history of rectal cancer. This is indexed under
History/malignant neoplasm (of)/rectum (V10.06).
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11.11
Digestive System
Chapter 11
Case 10
Extent of examination: Proximal sigmoid colon
Reason(s) for examination:
Proctitis
Postoperative assessment
Proctitis
1. This is important for the
anesthesiologist.
2. This is pertinent as the correct
code is selected by the level of
exam in the colon.
1.
2.
3. These are the symptoms of
proctitis—only use symptoms
in the absence of a definitive
diagnosis.
Description of procedure: Informed consent was obtained with the benefits, risks, and
alternatives to sigmoidoscopy explained, including the risk of perforation, and the patient
agreed to proceed. No contraindications were noted on physical exam. Patient re-examined; and no interval changes noted from preoperative History & Physical. After being
placed on the table, patient identification was verified prior to the procedure. Immediately
prior to sedation for endoscopy the patients ASA Classification was Class 2: Mild systemic
disease. Monitored anesthesia care (MAC) was administered. The quality of the prep was
Adequate. Prior to the exam a digital exam was performed and it was unremarkable.
The procedure was performed with the patient in the left lateral decubitus position. The
sigmoidscope was inserted to the proximal sigmoid colon. In the rectum, a retroflex was
performed. The withdrawal time from the Proximal sigmoid colon was 8 minutes. The
patient tolerated the procedure well.
There were no complications. The heart rate was normal. The oxygen saturation and skin
color were normal. IV moderate sedation was administered under direct supervision of
physician. Upon discharge from the endoscopy area, the patient will be recovered per
established procedures and protocols.
3.
Findings: In the rectum, mild segmental inflammation with erythema was seen. There
was no mucosal bleeding.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 45330
ICD-9-CM code: 569.49
RATIONALE: CPT® code: A sigmoidoscope is inserted into the anus and advanced
into the sigmoid colon. The sigmoid colon and rectum are visualized. In the CPT®
Index, look for Sigmoidoscopy/Exploration (45330, 45335). Code 45330 is correct for
this case.
ICD-9-CM code: The indication for the procedure is for Proctitis. This is in the Index
to Diseases under Proctitis (569.49).
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Chapter
12
Urinary System and Male Genital System
Case 1
Operative Report
Preoperative diagnosis: Transitional cell carcinoma in the bladder
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Transitional cell carcinoma in the bladder
Procedure:
Cystoscopy; Excision bladder tumor—1 cm
Bilateral retrograde pyelogram
Cytology of bladder
Anesthesia:
General
Estimated blood loss:
10 cc
Complications:
None
Counts:
Correct
2.
1. Diagnosis to report, if no
further positive findings are
found in the report.
2. Anesthesia, local or general,
is usually not reported by
the physician performing the
procedure. This information
is for documentation
purposes only.
3. The surgery will be performed
through a cystourethroscopy.
4. The location of the tumor
to report as the definitive
diagnosis.
Indications: The patient is a 58-year-old male status post partial cystectomy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. He understood the risks and benefits of today’s
procedure, and elected to proceed.
Procedure description: The patient was brought to the operating room and placed on the
operating room table and placed in the supine position. After adequate LMA anesthesia
was accomplished he was put in the dorsal lithotomy position and prepped and draped in
the usual sterile fashion.
A 21-French rigid cystoscope was introduced through the urethra and a thorough
cystourethroscopy was performed. A 1 cm tumor was noted on the posterior bladder
wall. The tumor was resected without complications.
3.
4.
We obtained bladder cytology and performed a retrograde pyelogram which showed no
filling defects or irregularities.
The bladder was emptied and lidocaine jelly instilled in the urethra. He was extubated
and taken to the recovery room in good condition.
Disposition. The patient was taken to the post anesthesia care unit and then discharged
home.
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12.1
Urinary System and Male Genital System
5. Retrograde radiological
imaging (supervision &
interpretation) of the kidneys
and ureters.
Chapter 12
Bilateral Retrograde Pyelogram
5.
A bilateral retrograde pyelogram was performed which showed no filling defects or
irregularities.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 52234, 74420-26
ICD-9-CM code: 188.4
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: A Cystoscopy, excision of a 1 cm bladder tumor, bilateral
retrograde pyelogram and cytology were performed. In the CPT® Index, see Tumor/
Bladder, 52234–52240. Code 52234 is correct, it reports resection of small bladder
tumors, .5 up to 2.0 cm. This tumor is reported as 1 cm.
Retrograde pyelogram also was performed. In the CPT® Index, see Pyelogram (see
Urography). Go to Urography/Retrograde, which directs you to 74420. The radiographic imaging was performed in a facility location, so modifier 26 is appended.
When appending modifier 26 (supervision and interpretation) of the retrograde pyelogram, there must be documentation within the record of the findings.
Within this note, the surgeon states the retrograde pyelogram showed no filling
defects or irregularities.
ICD-9-CM code: In the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases, see Carcinoma/transitional cell.
The /3 morphology code indicates this is malignancy of a primary site. The operative
note states, “a 1 cm tumor was on the posterior bladder wall.” Look at the Neoplasm
Table and locate bladder/wall/posterior referring you to code 188.4.
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Chapter 12
Urinary System and Male Genital System
Case 2
Operative Note
Preoperative diagnosis: Gross Hematuria
Postoperative diagnosis: Bladder/prostate tumor
Operation:
Transurethral resection bladder tumor (TURBT) large (5.3 cm)
Anesthesia:
General
1.
Findings: The patient had extensive involvement of the bladder with solid and edematous-appearing hemorrhagic tumor completely replacing the trigone and extending into
the bladder neck and prostatic tissue. The ureteral orifices were not identifiable.
Digital rectal examination revealed nodular, firm mass per rectum.
1. Diagnosis if no other positive
findings are found in the
operative note.
2. Indication that the surgical
procedure will be performed
through a cystoscope.
3. Transurethral resection of the
bladder tumor.
Procedure description: The patient was placed on the operating room table in the supine
position, and general anesthesia was induced. He was then placed in the lithotomy position and prepped and draped appropriately.
Cystoscopy was done which showed evidence of the urethral trauma due to the traumatic 2.
removal of the Foley catheter (patient stepped on the tubing and the catheter was pulled
out). The bladder itself showed extensive clot retention. Papillary and necrotic-appearing
nodular tissue mass extensively involving the trigone and the bladder neck and the prostate area. The ureteral orifices were not identified.
After consulting with the patient’s wife and obtaining an adjustment to the surgical
consent, the tumor was resected from the trigone, bladder neck and prostate. Obvious
edematous and hemorrhagic tissue was removed. Extensive electrocauterization was done 3.
of bleeding vessels. Several areas of necrotic-appearing tissue were evacuated. Care was
taken to avoid extending resection into the area of the external sphincter.
Digital rectal examination revealed the firm, nodular mass in the anterior rectum. No
impacted stool was identified.
At the end of the procedure hemostasis appeared good. Tissue chips were evacuated from
the bladder. Foley catheter was inserted.
Patient was taken to the recovery room in satisfactory condition.
Addendum: The patient has had a previous partial prostatectomy and had been found to
have T2b N0 MX prostate cancer. On the physical examination today and on the endoscopic exam it was unclear as to whether the tumor mass was related to the bladder or
recurrent prostate cancer.
Pathology revealed bladder carcinoma in the trigone and bladder neck and recurrent
prostate cancer
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12.3
Urinary System and Male Genital System
Chapter 12
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 52240
ICD-9-CM codes: 188.0, 188.5, 185
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: The patient is having a large bladder tumor removed by
excision through a cystoscope. In the CPT® Index, go to Bladder/Excision/Tumor
(52234–52240).
Transurethral resection procedures of bladder tumors are reported according to the
size of the tumor resected. If there is no documentation of the size of the tumor, the
coder must use code 52224; however, this note clearly states that the tumor resected
was 5.3 cm, which reports using 52240.
Catheter insertion is not a reportable procedure within cystoscopy procedures,
unless otherwise stated.
ICD-9-CM codes: The postoperative heading in the operative report has the
diagnosis as Bladder/prostate tumor. In the operative note the pathology report
confirmed cancer. These diagnoses will be reported instead because the cancer has
been proven by the pathology report. In the ICD-9-CM Neoplasm Table, look up
Neoplasm/bladder/trigone/Malignant/Primary (column), which guides you to 188.0
Neoplasm/bladder/neck/Malignant/Primary (column) (188.5), and finally Neoplasm/
prostate/Malignant/Primary (column) (185). The sites are reported as primary
because there is no indication that these sites are secondary or metastasized from a
primary site.
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Chapter 12
Urinary System and Male Genital System
Case 3
Operative Note
Preoperative diagnosis: Ta grade 3 transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) bladder CA in
January 2010
Postoperative diagnosis: Ta grade 3 transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) bladder CA in
January 2010; now 2 new bladder lesions
Operation:
Cystoscopy
Anesthesia:
Local
1.
2.
2.Diagnosis to report if no further
findings are found in the
operative note.
3. Indication of a diagnostic
cystoscopy.
Findings: There were 2 tiny papillary lesions in the poster wall of the bladder; otherwise
the cystoscopy was negative.
Procedure description: A flexible cystoscope was introduced into the patient’s urethra.
A thorough cystoscopic examination was done. Bilateral ureteral orifices were visualized 3.
effluxing clear yellow urine. All sides of the bladder were inspected, and retroflexion was
performed. Cytology was sent.
Plan: We will schedule the patient for a bladder biopsy at the next-available date.
1. TCC = transitional cell
carcinoma
4. Indication that a surgical
endoscopy was not
performed.
4.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 52000
ICD-9-CM codes: 596.9, V10.51
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: This procedure note is very straight-forward. A diagnostic
cystoscopy (only examining the urethra, bladder, and ureteric openings in the
bladder) was performed. In the CPT® Index, look up Cystoscopy (52000).
ICD-9-CM codes: Because there were findings of new bladder lesions, you will report
the bladder lesion as your diagnosis. In the Index to Diseases, look up, Lesion/
bladder (596.9). This is an unspecified code, but because the note clearly states
“lesion,” you will report 596.9. Do not report a bladder cancer code because that
diagnosis has yet to be proven.
Patient had bladder cancer in January. In the Index to Diseases, look up History/
malignant neoplasm (of)/bladder (V10.51).
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12.5
Urinary System and Male Genital System
Chapter 12
Case 4
Operative Note
1.
1. Diagnosis to report for this
surgery if there are no further
findings in the operative note.
2.
2. Age of the patient.
3. Type of penile nerve block
provided for the circumcision.
4. Surgical incision being made,
instead of using a clamp or
device.
3.
4.
Preoperative diagnosis: Desire for circumcision
Postoperative diagnosis:
Desire for circumcision
Procedure:
Circumcision
Anesthesia:
General
Indications: The patient is a 19-year-old white male, sexually active for 2 years. He
requests circumcision. He understands the risks and benefits of circumcision.
Procedure description: The patient was brought to the operating room and placed on
the operating room table in the supine position. After adequate LMA anesthesia was
accomplished he was given a dorsal penile block and a modified ring block with 0.25%
Marcaine plain.
Two circumferential incisions were made around the patient’s penis to allow for the
maximal aesthetic result. Adequate hemostasis was then achieved with the Bovie, and
the skin edges were reapproximated using 4-0 chromic simple interrupted sutures with a
U-stitch at the frenulum.
The patient was extubated and taken to the recovery room in good condition.
Disposition: The patient was taken to the post anesthesia care unit and then discharged
home.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 54161
ICD-9-CM code: V50.2
RATIONALE: CPT® code: Circumcision is another very straight-forward procedure. In
a surgical setting, you have only to decide the age of the patient to determine the
appropriate CPT® code. In the CPT® Index, look up Circumcision/Surgical Excision
(54161). This is the correct because this patient is not a newborn (less than 28 days
old). Penile block would not be reported because this is inclusive in the surgical
services.
ICD-9-CM code: In the Index to Diseases, see Circumcision/in the absence of medical
indication. Verify in the Tabular List.
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Chapter 12
Urinary System and Male Genital System
Case 5
Operative Report
Preoperative diagnosis: Rt ureteral stones
Postoperative diagnosis: Rt ureteral stones
1.
Operation: Open right ureterolithotomy
1. Diagnosis to be reported if no
further positive findings are
found in the operative note.
Intraoperative findings: The patient had marked inflammatory reaction around the
proximal ureter just below the renal pelvis. Multiple stone fragments were embedded in
the edematous ureteral lining.
2. Indication that this surgery
was performed by open
approach.
Procedure: The patient was placed on the operating room table in the supine position.
General anesthesia was induced. He was then placed in a right flank up position. An incision was made off the tip of the 12th rib and dissection carried down through skin, fat, and
fascia to open the lumbodorsal fascia entering the retroperitoneal space. The peritoneum 2.
was swept anteriorly.
3. Surgical removal of the stone
from the ureter.
Careful dissection was then carried down in the retroperitoneal space to first identify the
vena cava and then identify the renal vein and then with these structures localized, the
ureter was identified.
Careful dissection was done to mobilize the ureter and identify the area of the stone
impaction by palpation.
The ureter was then opened longitudinally and ureteral stent was identified. The multiple
stone fragments were then removed from the ureteral lumen. The ureteral lumen was then 3.
irrigated copiously and no other stone fragments were identifiable.
The ureterotomy was then reapproximated with interrupted sutures of 5-0 chromic.
Inspection showed good hemostasis.
Sponge and needle counts were correct, and closure was begun after placement of a Blake
drain through separate inferior stab wound. Marcaine 0.5% with no epinephrine was
used to infiltrate the intercostal nerves. The wound was then closed in layers with muscle
and fascial approximation with #1 Vicryl. The skin was closed with staples. Sterile dressings were applied.
The patient returned to recovery area in satisfactory condition.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported for this procedure?
CPT® code: 50610-RT
ICD-9-CM code: 592.1
RATIONALE: CPT® code: In the CPT® Index, look up Ureterolithotomy. You are
referred to codes 50610–50630; Laparoscopy-50945; Transvesical-51060. For this
operative report, the surgeon makes an incision in the ureter to remove the stone
from the ureter. This guides you to codes 50610–50630. The descriptions of these
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12.7
Urinary System and Male Genital System
Chapter 12
codes are specific to the upper (proximal) one-third (50610), middle one-third
(50620) and lower (distal) one-third (50630) of the ureter. You will notice in the
“Intraoperative Findings” that the surgeon states the proximal ureter is the area
of concern. Therefore, you would code this procedure 50610. There are no other
reportable procedures within this report.
ICD-9-CM code: In the Index to Diseases, look up Calculus/ureter, which guides you
to 592.1.
Case 6
Operative Report
Preoperative diagnosis: Prostate Cancer
1. Diagnosis to report for the
surgery if there are no further
positive findings found in the
operative note.
2. Indication that the surgery
is performed by an open
approach into the retropubic
area.
3. Bilateral pelvic
lymphadenectomy.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Prostate Cancer
Procedure: Radical retropubic prostatectomy with bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection.
Statement of medical necessity: The patient is a very pleasant 58-year-old gentleman
with Gleason 7 prostate cancer. He understood the risks and benefits of radical retropubic
prostatectomy including failure to cure, recurrence of cancer, need for future procedures,
impotence, and incontinence. He understood these risks and he elected to proceed.
Statement of operation: The patient was brought to the operating room and placed on the
operating table in the supine position. After adequate general endotracheal anesthesia was
accomplished, he was put in the dorsal lithotomy position and he was prepped and draped
in the usual sterile fashion. A 20 French Foley catheter was introduced in the patient’s
urethra and the balloon was inflated with 20 ml of sterile water.
We made a midline infraumbilical incision and dissected down to the rectus fascia. We
then transected the rectus fascia between the bellies of the rectus muscle and dissected
2. into the retropubic space. We placed a Bookwalter retractor to aid in visualization and to
3. protect the surrounding structures. We did bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection, taking
care to avoid the obturator nerves bilaterally. The node packets were sent off the field for
permanent section and frozen section. We then dissected the prostate free from its lateral
side wall and dorsal attachments superficially and placed a right angle clamp behind the
dorsal venous complex and tied off the dorsal venous complex with 2 free ties of #1 Vicryl.
We sewed some back bleeding sutures over the prostate and we placed a right angle again
behind the dorsal venous complex and then transected it with a long handled blade. We
carefully inspected the dorsal venous complex for any bleeding and no bleeding was
noted. We then placed a right angle clamp behind the urethra and transected the anterior
aspect of the urethra, exposing the Foley catheter. We grasped this with a tonsil and then
cut off the Foley catheter at the urethral meatus and pulled the Foley catheter into the
urethral incision that had been made. We then transected the posterior urethra, freeing
the prostate from its apical attachment. This allowed us to apply upward retraction to
the prostate and dissect it free from the rectal anterior wall. We then clipped and cut the
lateral pedicles to free the prostate up to the level of the bladder neck. We then transected
Denonvilliers’ fascia and identified the bilateral vas deferens, which were clipped and cut
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Chapter 12
Urinary System and Male Genital System
accordingly. We also dissected the seminal vesicles leaving the tips of the seminal vesicles
in place in the hopes of improving his continence.
Once this was complete, we dissected the prostate free from the bladder neck using
4.
electrocautery. Once we had opened the anterior aspect of the bladder, we were able to
identify the bilateral ureteral orifices effluxing indigo carmine that had been administered about 10 minutes earlier by the anesthesiologist. Once the prostate was sent off the
field for permanent section, we turned our attention to recapitulating the bladder neck.
We everted the bladder mucosa with 4-0 Monocryl and then closed the bladder neck in
a tennis racquet closure using 2-0 Vicryl. We then placed a Roth sound in the patient’s
urethra after ensuring adequate hemostasis in the pelvis and placed 5 anastomotic sutures
of 2-0 Monocryl surrounding the urethra. We then placed them in the corresponding
location in the bladder neck after a Foley catheter, 20 French in size, had been placed
through the urethra and into the bladder and the balloon was inflated with 20 ml of
sterile water. We then cinched down these anastomotic sutures and tied them off. We irrigated the Foley catheter and ensured that there was no bladder leak. We then placed a JP
drain in the patient’s left lateral quadrant, taking care to avoid the epigastric vessels. We
stitched the drain in place with a 2-0 silk. We closed the fascia with #1 Vicryl in a running
fashion and closed the subcutaneous tissues with 3-0 Vicryl. The skin was stapled closed
and a sterile dressing was applied and his catheter was again irrigated with return of blue
urine. No clots.
4. Radically removing the entire
prostate.
The patient was extubated, taken to the recovery room in good condition.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 55845
ICD-9-CM code: 185
RATIONALE: CPT® code: In the index, look up Prostatectomy. The operative note
documents that a radical prostatectomy was performed via an incision in the
retropubic space, which guides you to 55840–55845, 55866. Code 55845 is correct
because there was a bilateral lymphadenectomy performed with the radical
prostatectomy.
ICD-9-CM code: In the Neoplasm Table, look up Neoplasm/prostate/Malignant/
Primary (column) (185).
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12.9
Urinary System and Male Genital System
Chapter 12
Case 7
Operative Note
Preoperative diagnosis: Left renal calculus
1. Diagnosis to report if no
further positive findings are
found in the operative note.
2. Lithotripsy.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Left renal calculus
Procedure: ESWL 2300 shocks at 22kV.
Description of procedure: After the KUB was reviewed revealing a lower caliceal calculi
on the left, the patient was anesthetized and positioned on the lithotripsy table. The stone
was targeted and treated with 60 shocks for 2 minutes and then a 2 minute pause was
carried out. We then resumed at 60 slowly working up to 120, for a total of 1800 shocks on
2. the lower pole, which completely disappeared. We then shocked the tip of the stent with
500 shocks as calcification was seen there on the prior KUB, but it was unclear on today’s
KUB where with fluoro whether that was still present. The patient appeared to tolerate the
procedure well and was brought to recovery room in stable condition. He will follow up in
1 week for possible stent removal, KUB prior to procedure.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 50590-LT
ICD-9-CM code: 592.0
RATIONALE: CPT® code: Shock waves are used to pulverize the kidney stone. In the
index, look up Shock Wave Lithotripsy (50590). The amount of shocks used or time
spent has no bearing on the description of the procedure. Modifier LT is reported to
indicate the procedure was performed on the left kidney.
ICD-9-CM code: In the Index to Diseases look for Calculus/kidney (592.0).
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Chapter 12
Urinary System and Male Genital System
Case 8
Operative Note
Preoperative diagnosis: Prostate cancer
Postoperative diagnosis: Prostate cancer
1.
Procedure: Ultrasound guidance of gold fiducial markers
Description of procedure: The patient is a 62-year-old male with prostate cancer. He is
to undergo external beam radiation therapy, and radiation oncology asked me to place
the fiducial gold markers. Informed consent was obtained. The patient was brought to
the procedure room. He received oral sedation prior to the procedure. Ultrasound was
performed and utilizing 20 ml of lidocaine, the prostate were numbed with lidocaine.
Next, position markers were placed at the right and left bases, as well as the left apex of
the prostate gland without difficulty. He had an excellent appearance and ultrasound.
The patient did not suffer any pain or other problems during the procedure. The hospital
ultrasound department assisted me in imaging.
1. Diagnosis to report if no
further positive findings are
found in the operative note.
2. Placement of markers for
radiation therapy.
3. Indication not to code for the
radiology service.
2.
3.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 55876
ICD-9-CM code: 185
RATIONALE: CPT® code: The CPT® Index does not list “fiducial” or “marker” to identify
this code; however, CPT® does list “Placement.” In reading through the “Placement”
codes, you find “Interstitial Device” with “prostate” (55876). An interstitial device is
used to administer radiation therapy. When reviewing the description of CPT® 55876,
you find this is the code needed to report this procedure.
Had there been no documentation that the ultrasound department assisted in the
ultrasound imaging, you also would report 76942 with modifier 26 appended. The
radiology department would report 76942, with modifier TC appended. The documentation here does show the ultrasound department assisting with the imaging,
indicating that the Radiology department will report 76942 without any modifier
appended to show that they performed the full procedure.
ICD-9-CM code: The diagnosis is stated several times as prostate cancer. Go to the
Neoplasm Table in the Index to Diseases and look for Prostate. Use the code from
the Malignant/Primary column, 185. Verify in the Tabular List.
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12.11
Urinary System and Male Genital System
Chapter 12
Case 9
Operative Note
Preoperative diagnosis:
1. Large right inguinal hernia
2. Bilateral undescended testes
Postoperative Diagnosis:
1. Bilateral inguinal hernias
1. Diagnoses to report if no
further positive findings are
found in the operative note.
1.
Procedure performed: Bilateral orchiopexy and bilateral inguinal hernia repairs as well
as circumcision on a 10 year-old-patient
2. The anatomical area that will
be cut into for choosing the
CPT® code.
Estimated blood loss: Less than 5 ml
Complications: None
3. Indication the surgical
procedure will be performed
by an open approach.
4. Fixation of the right
undescended testicle.
5. Hernia repair.
2.
6. Left side is indicated as being
surgically preformed, making
it a bilateral procedure.
3.
7. Hernia repair.
4.
5.
6.
7.
12.12
2. Undescended testes
Description of procedure: After informed consent had been obtained previously and
reviewed again in the preoperative area, the patient was brought back to the OR, placed
supine and general anesthesia was induced without problems. It was somewhat difficult
to find an IV site, because of the patient’s body habitus. However, there were no complications with anesthesia. The patient was then appropriately padded and prepped and draped
in sterile fashion. 0.25% Marcaine plain was used for bilateral inguinal blocks as well as
injected in the sub-q in the inguinal crease. I began on the right hand side where he had
an intermittent right inguinal bulge for several months. A scalpel was used to make a skin
incision following the creases and this was extended down through very generous subcutaneous fat and Scarpa’s to expose the external oblique aponeurosis. The external ring
was identified as was the ilioinguinal ligament. The ring was opened for a short distance.
The testis was high in the scrotum and was brought through. The gubernaculum was then
divided. A very large hernia sac was carefully opened and then very carefully dissected
down to the level of the internal ring. There did not appear to be any abdominal contents
within the hernia sac. It was then twisted and suture ligated at the base. The hernia sac
was then sent to pathology. The testis was pink and viable. A dartos pouch was created
and the testis brought through it. The neck of the pouch was tightened with a few interrupted sutures of 3-0 Vicryl. Care was taken to make sure it did not twist the testicle that
the testis lay in a normal anatomical position. The scrotal incision was then closed with
5-0 plain gut. The external ring was recreated by approximating the aponeurosis of the
external oblique. The underlying ilioinguinal nerve was identified and spared. Scarpa’s
was approximated with 3-0 Vicryl and the skin closed with 5-0 Monocryl in a running
subcuticular stitch. Steri-Strips and dressing were placed over this.
On the left hand side initially his testis was felt to be almost nonpalpable but on exam
under anesthesia it again was within the high scrotum. With gentle pressure, I could
make this essentially disappear into his abdomen suggesting a large communicating
hydrocele. Therefore, I made the decision to proceed with inguinal hernia repair and
exploration. Again, he had a Marcaine inguinal block and the skin was also anesthetized
with 0.25% Marcaine. A matching incision was made with a scalpel following the skin
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Chapter 12
Urinary System and Male Genital System
creases. This was extended down through subcutaneous tissues and Scarpas to expose the
external oblique and the external ring. It was then twisted and suture ligated at the base
with 3-0 Vicryl. The hernia sac was also sent to pathology. At this point, there was sufficient length to easily bring the testis into the scrotum. A Dartos pouch was created and
8.
the testis was brought into it with care taken to make sure we did not twist the cord structures. The neck of the pouch was tightened with 3-0 Vicryl and then the scrotal incision
closed with 5-0 plain gut in an identical fashion. The external oblique was approximated
with a few interrupted sutures of 3-0 Vicryl to recreate the ring. Again, care was taken to
preserve the underlying ilioinguinal nerve. Scarpa’s was approximated 3-0 Vicryl as well
and the skin closed with Monocryl. Steri-Strips and dressing were placed over this as well.
0.25% Marcaine plain was then used for a penile block. A circumcising incision was
made approximately 3 mm below the coronal margin and the penis partially degloved.
Meticulous hemostasis obtained with Bovie cautery. The excess prepuce was trimmed. It
was then discarded. The skin edges were approximated with 5-0 plain gut in a running
fashion x 2. Hemostasis was excellent. The glans head appeared normal. A dressing of
conform and Vaseline gauze was applied. The patient was then extubated and sent to the
recovery in stable condition. No complications.
8. Fixation of the left
undescended testicle.
9. Surgical circumcision being
performed.
9.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 54640-50, 49505-50-51, 54161-51
ICD-9-CM codes: 752.51, 550.92, V50.2
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: Three procedures were performed: Bilateral orchiopexy,
bilateral hernia repair, and circumcision. In the index, look for Orchiopexy. The codes
are listed by the type of anatomical incision made. CPT® 54640 is the appropriate
code. You also will note that the code descriptor states “with or without” hernia
repair. Looking further into the parenthetical information, you are instructed to
report inguinal hernia repair in addition to the orchiopexy codes. Therefore, in
reporting the bilateral orchiopexy and bilateral hernia repair, you would report
codes 54640 and 49505 with modifier 50 appended to both codes.
Circumcision codes are 54150–54163. By reading the descriptions of the circumcision
procedures, you would immediately disregard code 54150 because the circumcision
was not performed using a clamp; you would disregard code 54160 because of the
patient’s age. Report 54161.
Modifier 51 is appended to 49505 and 54161 to indicate additional procedures
performed in the same surgical session by the same surgeon.
ICD-9-CM codes: In the Index to Diseases, look up Undescended/testis (752.51). In
the Index to Diseases, look up Hernia/inguinal (550.9X). Your fifth digit will be “2.” In
the Index to Diseases, look up Circumcision guides you to V50.2.
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12.13
Urinary System and Male Genital System
Chapter 12
Case 10
Operative Note
Preoperative diagnosis:
1. Intrinsic sphincter deficiency
2. Incontinence
Postoperative diagnosis:
1. Diagnoses to report if no
further positive findings are
found in the operative note.
1.
1. Intrinsic sphincter deficiency
2.
2. Incontinence
Procedure: Cystoscopy with Durasphere injection
2. This is a symptom of the ISD,
will not be reported as an
ICD-9-CM code diagnosis.
Estimated blood loss: Less than 5 cc
Complications: None
3. Indication that the procedure
will be performed through a
scope entering the urethra.
Counts: Correct
Indications: This is a very pleasant female with intrinsic sphincter deficiency causing
urinary incontinence. She understood the risks and benefits of the procedure and she
elected to proceed.
4. Injection of the synthetic
material into the urethra
and bladder neck, helping to
prevent urinary incontinence.
Procedure description: The patient was brought to the operating room and placed on the
operating room table in the supine position. After adequate LMA anesthesia was accomplished she was prepped and draped in the usual sterile fashion.
3.
4.
A 21-French cystoscope was introduced in the patient’s urethra. Her urethra was fairly
pale, not well approximated, and was patulous. We injected 2½ syringes of Durasphere
material into the urethra but were unable to get anymore than that amount into the
tissue. There was moderate approximation of the urethral mucosa.
The bladder was emptied and lidocaine jelly instilled. She was extubated and taken to the
recovery room in good condition.
Disposition: The patient was taken to the post anesthesia care unit and then discharged
home.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 51715
ICD-9-CM code: 599.82, 788.30
RATIONALE: CPT® code: For this procedure there is an endoscopic injection of
synthetic material in the urethra and bladder neck to prevent urinary incontinence.
In the index, look for Urethra/Endoscopy/Injection of Implant Material. This guides
you to 51715. The cystoscopy (52000) would not be reported separately because this
code is a separate procedure. Codes with the “separate procedure” designation are
normally not reported when another related procedure is performed at the same
12.14
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Chapter 12
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time. Durasphere is a “bulking” agent used to relieve the symptoms of incontinence.
It is injected into the tissues of the urethra. The Durasphere is not reported by the
physician; however, it is appropriate for the facility to report the Durasphere on their
claim.
ICD-9-CM code: In the Index to Diseases, look to Deficiency/intrinsic (urethral)
sphincter (ISD), which guides you to 599.82. There is a note under 599.8 to “Use
additional code to identify urinary incontinence…” 788.30 is used to identify the
urinary incontinence.
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12.15
Chapter
13
Female Reproductive System
Case 1
Diagnoses: Stage III cystocele, stage II uterine prolapse.
1.
Procedure: Pessary fitting.
Indications: A 75-year-old, gravida 2, para 2, female with pelvic organ prolapse. She had
atrophic vaginitis so we had her use Premarin vaginal cream twice a week for 6 weeks.
She is back for a pessary fitting today.
2.
Findings: She has a third-degree cystocele, and now third-degree uterine prolapse.
Her vaginal tissues are improved, although still atrophic, but much less thin than prior
appointment. She has a stage I, rectocele.
3.
Description of procedure: After her exam, I started with a #4 ring pessary with support.
This was clearly not large enough and the cystocele was coming around it. I then went to
a #5 ring pessary with support with the same problem. I went to the #6 ring pessary with 4.
support. It did not lodge behind her pubic bone very well, but it definitely reduced all of
her prolapse. She mentioned earlier in the appointment that she could not void when she
came in today. She has not tried reducing it. I am hopeful that the pessary may help with
that. The #6 was comfortable for her. I stood her up and put her through some maneuvers
and it stayed nicely in place. Then she went walking with it in for 10 or 15 minutes and
went up and down the stairs. She definitely was able to void easily with that in. It was
comfortable and she did not really notice it was in.
1. Do not code the cystocele
separately as it is included
in the diagnosis code for the
uterine prolapse.
2. This information indicates
that the patient has had two
pregnancies with two term
births.
3. The diagnosis is cystocele
with uterine prolapse. Stage 3
uterine prolapse is considered
a complete prolapsed.
4. The provider indicates the
size of the pessary that he is
fitting.
5. If the provider supplied the
pessary, a HCPCS Level II
code would be reported.
On recheck it still seemed like she had a little more room in the pelvis. I removed the #6
and went up to a #7 size. This seemed to reduce the prolapse a bit better, but was a little
uncomfortable for her. We went back to the #6 ring pessary with support. She was able to
remove it and place it with instruction in our clinic today.
5.
Disposition: We have ordered the #6 ring pessary with support and it will be sent to her.
After she gets the pessary, she will remove it once a week and leave it out over night. She will
continue to use the Premarin vaginal cream twice a week. She will return to clinic after she
has used the pessary for 2 or 3 weeks, so we can check her tissues. She is to report if she has
vaginal discharge or bleeding, as she is at risk for getting ulceration from the pessary.
I answered all of her questions about her condition of pelvic organ prolapse and treatment
with estrogen and pessary. She will call if she has any bleeding.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 57160
ICD-9-CM code: 618.3
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Chapter 13
RATIONALE: CPT® code: The procedure performed is a pessary fitting. From the CPT®
Index, look up Pessary/insertion. You are referred to 57160. A review of the code
description verifies 57160 is for fitting and insertion of pessary which is the correct
code.
ICD-9-CM code: The patient is diagnosed with a cystocele and uterine prolapse.
In the diagnosis, it is referred to as stage II; however, in the findings it is stage III
prolapse. From the Index to Diseases, look up Cystocele/with uterine prolapse.
There is an option for complete or incomplete. A stage III prolapse is considered a
complete prolapse. You are referred to 618.3. Verify the code accuracy in the Tabular
List.
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Chapter 13
Female Reproductive System
Case 2
Diagnoses:
1. Complete procidentia
2. Recurrent urinary tract infections
3. Postmenopausal vaginal bleeding
1.
2.
3.
1. Procidential means prolapse.
2. UTI.
3. Select codes for the definitive
diagnoses.
Procedures:
1. Vaginal hysterectomy
2. Anterior and posterior colporrhaphy
3. Cystoscopy
4. Vaginal vault suspension
4. All of these problems will be
addressed in the body of the
note below.
Specimens: Uterus and cervix.
Findings: A thick hypertrophic ulcerated cervix was noted. The adnexa were small and
atrophic. Complete procidentia with cystocele and rectocele. Cystoscopy done after indigo 4.
carmine, at the end of the case, revealed bilateral strong ureteral jets.
5.
Indications: Pt. with history of postmenopausal vaginal bleeding, anemia and recurrent
urinary tract infections, although she denied any urinary incontinence. Her cervix was
found to be ulcerated, erythematous and hypertrophic. Cervical biopsy was negative for
neoplasia but the endometrial biopsy showed evidence of active endometritis. She desires
surgical management of these problems.
Operation: The patient was taken to the operating room and placed in lithotomy position while awake. The patient has a history of bilateral knee replacements and cannot
bend her legs so we did put her in lithotomy position using Yellofin stirrups, but kept
her legs without any bend and positioned her while she was awake in a comfortable way. 6.
7.
The patient was then placed under general anesthesia. An exam under anesthesia was
done with findings of a complete procidentia with ulcerations posteriorly. The vagina and
perineum was prepped in the usual sterile fashion. A tenaculum was then placed on the
right and left lateral cervix. A circumferential incision was made at the cervicovaginal
junction using Bovie cautery. The vesicovaginal fascia was then dissected anteriorly using
a combination of sharp dissection with Metzenbaum scissors and blunt dissection.
5. Indigo carmine is a
dye injected during
urogynecologic procedures
for better visualization of
structures/fluids etc.
6. Lithotomy is typically supine
with the knees bent and legs
elevated in stirrups but this
unusual position does not
change the coding.
7. An exam cannot be billed
separately if a therapeutic
procedure is performed
during the same encounter.
8. This is the completion of
the vaginal hysterectomy.
Note that the uterus was not
weighed which will limit the
code to be chosen.
9. Note that the ovaries were not
removed, only examined. The
final code choice includes this
information.
Attention was then turned posteriorly. The posterior peritoneum was grasped with a
half curve, identified a then incised using Mayo scissors. A weighted speculum was then
placed in the posterior cul de sac. The uterosacral ligaments were identified and clamped
bilaterally with Heaney clamps, and a transection suture using 0 Vicryl suture was placed
at the tip of the clamp system in both the right and left side. The uterocervical ligaments
were then tagged and held for use during the vaginal vault suspension.
Attention was then turned to the anterior peritoneum. A finger was placed in the posterior cul de sac up around the uterine fundus distending the anterior vaginal epithelium
and allowing the anterior peritoneum could be entered safely using Mayo scissors. The
cardinal ligaments were clamped and cut bilaterally. The utero-ovarian were identified
cut, suture-ligated, and then free tied bilaterally. The uterus was then removed from the
vagina and sent to pathology. All pedicles were then inspected and were found to be
hemostatic. We could not visualize the ovaries but were palpated and felt to be atrophic.
8.
9.
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13.3
Female Reproductive System
10.Control of bleeding is included
in surgical procedures and
cannot be billed separately
unless it is performed at a
separate surgical session.
11.Anterior colporrhaphy.
12.Posterior colporrhaphy.
13.Colpopexy using uterosacral
ligaments by vaginal
approach.
14.Cystoscopy performed only
to verify that there was no
damage to the bladder during
the procedure cannot be
billed separately but in this
case the patient’s recurrent
infections support the
separate medical necessity
allowing the procedure to be
billed.
15.This is a thickening of the
bladder muscle.
Chapter 13
At this point, we began the vaginal vault suspension. There was some oozing from the
patient’s left side near the vaginal cuff area. This was controlled with a figure-of-eight
10. suture of 0 Polysorb. Other small areas along the cuff were touched with the Bovie,
and hemostasis was very good at this point. The uterosacral ligament remnant was put
under pressure to palpate the ligament through its course to near the ischial spine. The
bladder was drained with a Foley. A long Allis clamp was placed on the uterosacral near
the ischial spine by tugging gently on the remnant that was stretched out and using the
more inferior fibers. A suture of 0 Polysorb was placed through the ligament with care to
drive the needle from superior to inferior, to avoid the ureter. A second suture was placed
slightly more distal with 0 Maxon and then more distal again a 0 Polysorb. These were all
held while a similar procedure was repeated on the left side with palpation of the ligament
and the ischial spine and taking the inferior fibers.
All of the sutures were held while the anterior and posterior repairs were made. The anterior vagina was then inspected and the cystocele identified. The vaginal wall was trimmed
anteriorly. The posterior vagina was also inspected and excessive tissue was excised. At
this point the vaginal cuff appeared hemostatic and was closed by first taking the 0 Polysorb, which is the distal uterosacral stitch and making an angle stitch to close the vagina.
11. The anterior and posterior vaginal walls were closed as well as the pubocervical fascia
12. anteriorly and the rectovaginal fascia posteriorly to get fascia to fascia closure. Once
each of the angle stitches had been placed, they were held and not tied down yet. The
0 Maxon were then placed in a similar fashion through the anterior vaginal fascia and
mucosa and the posterior fascia and mucosa. Lastly the 0 Prolene, which were the most
superior stitches, were placed through the anterior posterior vaginal cuff, but these were
taken slightly away from the cut edge so that the knots could be buried but again taking
fascia and vaginal mucosa. Then a 0 Polysorb figure-of-eight suture was placed across the
midline and vaginal mucosa so that we could completely bury the Prolene sutures at the
end of the case. At this point, all of the sutures were tied except the Polysorb to close the
13. mucosa in the midline. There appeared to be excellent vaginal support at this point.
The Foley catheter was removed. The 17-French cystoscope sheath was placed through the
urethra. The 70 degree lens was used with sterile water infusing to inspect the bladder.
15. There was moderate trabeculation of the bladder. There were no mucosal lesions to
explain her infections. There were no stones, stitches or other lesions. A quarter of an
ampule of indigo carmine had been given about 10 minutes earlier IV. Strong ureteral jets
were observed from both sides, although the right side concentrated the dye faster than
the left side by about 5 minutes. The bladder was drained and the urethra was inspected
with the 0 degree lens and there were no urethral lesions. The bladder was drained and
the Foley catheter replaced.
14.
The last midline 0 Polysorb suture was closed over the midline to bury the Prolene. All
the sutures were cut and the cuff had been irrigated with the cystoscopy fluid. A rectal
exam was done, which did not yield any sutures. The vagina was then irrigated and was
found to be hemostatic. A vaginal pack was then placed. The patient was awakened from
general anesthesia and brought to the PACU in stable condition.
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Chapter 13
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What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes?
CPT® code: 58260, 57260-51, 57283-51, 52000-51
ICD-9-CM code: 618.3, 627.1, 599.0, 596.89
RATIONALE: CPT® code: A vaginal hysterectomy where the uterus is not weighed
must be coded to the lesser weight, which is reported with 58260. From the CPT®
Index, look at Hysterectomy/vaginal. The peritoneal approach to perform the
vaginal colpopexy is reported with 57283. From the index, look for colpopexy/intraperitoneal. The provider also performed an anterior and posterior colporrhaphy
which can be found in the CPT® Index under Colporrhaphy/anterioposterior. The
correct code is 57260. Code 52000 reports the cystoscopy. This would usually be
bundled into the other procedures when it is performed only to verify that there is
no damage to the bladder during the procedure but in this case the patient’s recurrent bladder infections (UTIs) support the separate medical necessity allowing the
procedure to be billed. Modifier 51 is appended to all procedure codes except 58260
because multiple procedures are performed during the same operative session, in
the same anatomical location via a shared access.
ICD-9-CM code: The patient is diagnosed with a cystocele and the uterine prolapse.
From the Index to Diseases, look up Cystocele/with uterine prolapse. You have a
choice between complete or incomplete. This is stated as complete. You are referred
to 618.3. Verify the code accuracy in the Tabular List. Next, look for the code for
postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. From the Index to Diseases, look up Bleeding/
postmenopausal which is reported with 627.1. The patient is also diagnosed with
a recurrent UTI which is found in the Index to Diseases under Infection/urinary
(tract) and is reported with 599.0. The patient is diagnosed with trabeculation of the
bladder which is found in the index under Trabeculation/bladder and is reported
with 596.89. Verify code selection in the Tabular List.
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13.5
Female Reproductive System
Chapter 13
Case 3
1. Patient has been pregnant
3 times, has given birth to a
term infant one time, has had
2 abortions/miscarriages and
has 1 living child.
2. Abnormal cervical Pap smear
would be the diagnosis.
3. Low-Grade Squamous
Intraepithelial Lesion is
documented as possible so it
would not be coded.
4. Pap test is performed.
5. Loop Electrocautery Excision
Procedure biopsy.
1.
3.
Indications: 21-year-old, G3, P1-0-2-1, found to have an abnormal cervical Pap test with
possible LGSIL. She presents for follow up Pap and colposcopy
Exam: Pubic hair is shaved. Negative inguinal adenopathy. The urethra, the introitus
and anus grossly normal. Vagina is long, need extra long Pederson speculum. Cervix is
posterior, parous. Uterus anteverted, normal size. Some tenderness of the adnexa to deep
4. palpation. No cervical motion tenderness. Normal discharge. Pap test was performed.
Colposcopic procedure: Speculum was inserted for the colposcopy. An extra long,
narrow Pederson speculum was required and the cervix was visualized. 3% acetic acid
was placed and the T-zone is large and bleeds to touch. The 3% acetic acid was placed,
and several aceto-white lesions were noted, particularly at the 12 and 11 o’clock positions.
Lugol solution was placed, and there was no uptake at the 6 and 11 o’clock portions of the
cervix. 4% topical lidocaine was placed without epinephrine, followed by 1 cc of 1% lido5. caine also without epinephrine. LEEP biopsy was taken of the cervix without difficulty
and this also cauterized the bleeding.
Instructions given to the patient that she must refrain from intercourse for at least 1 week.
She is aware to call if any severe pain, bleeding that does not stop, foul odor, or fever.
She is aware the results will take approximately 1–2 weeks and she will receive direct
notification.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes?
CPT® code: 57460
ICD-9-CM code: 795.00
RATIONALE: CPT® code: The provider performs a LEEP biopsy and Pap smear. From
the CPT® Index, look up LEEP. You are referred to 57460. Review the code description
to verify the code accuracy.
ICD-9-CM code: The indication for the procedure is an abnormal Pap smear. The
provider documents possible LGSIL which is not coded because it has not been
confirmed. Look in the Index to Diseases for Abnormal/Pap (smear)/cervix which is
795.00. Verify code selection in the Tabular List.
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2.
Chapter 13
Female Reproductive System
Case 4
Chief complaint: Contraceptive placement of IUD
1.
1. This is the reason for the visit.
Indications: Ms. Barrett is a 29-year-old, gravida 1, para 1-0-0-1 who is status post a
normal spontaneous vaginal delivery of a male infant weighing 4086 grams. She has not
had intercourse since delivery. She is interested in a Mirena IUD at this time.
2.
2. This patient has been
pregnant once having recently
given birth to her first child
who is currently alive.
Procedure: After obtaining consent, the patient is placed in the dorsal lithotomy position. A speculum was placed in the vagina to visualize the cervix. The cervix was cleaned
3 times with Betadine. Following this, a single-tooth tenaculum was placed on the
anterior lip of the cervix. The uterus was sounded to approximately 6.5 cm. The Mirena
3.
IUD was then placed in the usual fashion and the strings cut to 2.5 cm. The lot number
is TU003SL. The patient tolerated the procedure well, and hemostasis was noted at the
tenaculum site after removal.
3. This is the insertion of
intrauterine birth control
device.
The patient tolerated the procedure well and was given instructions to return if she should
have any difficulties.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes?
CPT® code: 58300
ICD-9-CM code: V25.11
RATIONALE: CPT® Code: The provider inserts an IUD. To locate the code, look up
Insertion/Intrauterine Device (IUD). Review of the code description verifies that
58300 is the correct code.
ICD-9-CM Code: To locate the code, look up Intrauterine contraceptive device/insertion. You are referred to V25.11. Verify the code accuracy in the Tabular List.
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13.7
Female Reproductive System
Chapter 13
Case 5
ABC Hospital
1. This woman has never been
pregnant.
1.
2.
2. Clomid is a fertility drug
known as an ovulatory
stimulant. IUI stands for
intrauterine insemination.
3. This describes the
hysterosalpingogram and
injection procedure which
allows for examination of the
uterus and fallopian tubes
for any abnormalities or
blockages.
4. This documentation reports
the findings of the HSG.
Indication: A 30-year-old G0P0Ab0 with irregular periods and mild male factor. She is
infertile and would like to start a clomid/iui cycle and requires hysterosalpingogram for
evaluation.
Procedure Note: The patient was brought to the outpatient surgical suite. After written
consent was obtained and written final verification, the cervix was visualized with a
Pedersen speculum, anesthetized with Cetacaine spray and swabbed with 3 swabs of Betadine scrub and an endocervical prep.
3.
A single-tooth tenaculum was placed on the anterior lip of the cervix without problems.
An HSG catheter was introduced through the cervix. At this point the balloon was
insufflated with 1 mL of normal saline within the cervix, speculum was then removed.
Ethiodol contrast, approximately 8 ml, was insufflated under fluoroscopic guidance.
Under fluoroscopic guidance, the uterus shape was found to be normal. The tubes filled
and spilled on the left. The right tube filled normally but no spill could be documented
4. due to exuberant spill from the left. The patient was instructed to roll completely for two
revolutions. An additional film was taken which showed normal dispersion.
Plan: Follow-up as scheduled.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes?
CPT® code: 58340, 74740-26
ICD-9-CM code: 628.9
RATIONALE: CPT® Codes: The procedure performed is a hysterosalpingogram. To
locate the code, look up Hysterosalpingography/Injection Procedure which refers
you to 58340. When you review the code description there is a parenthetical statement which informs us to use code 74740 for the S&I of a hysterosalpingography.
This procedure is performed in the outpatient hospital setting. Modifier 26 is
appended to 74740 to report the professional component.
ICD-9-CM Codes: Indexing for the diagnosis code begins by looking in the Index to
Diseases under Infertility/female. You are referred to 628.9. Verify the code in the
Tabular List.
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Chapter 13
Female Reproductive System
Case 6
Procedure performed: Amniocentesis.
1.
3.
Indications: The patient is a 28-year-old G4 P2103 at 36 2/7, here in the office today
for amniocentesis for FLM secondary to Rh isoimmunization to D antigen. Following
informed consent she elected to proceed with the amniocentesis.
2.
4.
Procedure: An ultrasound was carried out that revealed a single intrauterine gestation of
36+2 weeks in vertex presentation. A site for amniocentesis was identified in the left upper
uterine segment, which did not transgress the placenta and an image was retained for the
record. The amniocentesis site was sterilely prepped and draped with a sterile towel and
an alcohol based solution. Following this using direct ultrasound guidance a 22 gauge
5.
amniocentesis needle was sharply inserted in the amniotic fluid cavity. This returned
6.
clear amniotic fluid. 20 cc was easily aspirated and 10 cc sent for FLM and 10 cc held for
possible OD450 if needed. The patient tolerated the procedure very well and fetal cardiac
activity was seen following the procedure. The patient was sent for a follow-up NST.
Rhogam is not indicated as the patient is already sensitized.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes?
CPT® codes: 59000, 76946
ICD-9-CM codes: 656.13, V23.89
RATIONALE: CPT® Codes: The provider performs amniocentesis with ultrasound
guidance in the office. To locate the code, look up Amniocentesis in the CPT® Index.
You are referred to 59000. There is a parenthetical statement under code 59000,
which instructs you to report code 76946 for radiologic S&I. This procedure was
performed in the provider’s office so modifier 26 is not reported on the radiologic
guidance code.
1. This patient has been
pregnant 4 times (counting
her current pregnancy),
She has had a term birth 2
times. One of the deliveries
produced twins the other
was a single birth thus
she currently has 3 living
children.
2. Procedure performed in the
office.
3. Fetal lung maturity, an
important measure for
patients who may need to
deliver early.
4. Although there is no
diagnosis specified in this
note we can pull the diagnosis
and medical necessity from
the indications. If this
information was not present
here the service could not be
billed without amendment.
5. Ultrasound guidance
can be billed with this
procedure as the guidance
requirements (retained
image and description of the
localization) are met.
ICD-9-CM Codes: The indication for the amniocentesis is pregnancy complicated
by Rh immunization. In the Index to Diseases, look up Pregnancy/complicated by/
Rh immunization which directs us to code 656.1. The episode of care is antepartum
which is reported with 656.13. A patient with Rh isoimmunization is a high risk pregnancy patient. In the Index to Diseases, see Pregnancy/supervision/high-risk/specified problem NEC V23.89. Confirm code selection in the Tabular List.
6. This is the description that
supports the code. This is a
diagnostic amniocentesis.
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13.9
Female Reproductive System
Chapter 13
Case 7
OB Delivery Note
1. This is a woman who has been
pregnant 3 times and has one
term delivery.
2. Routine antepartum care.
3. Spontaneous rupture of
membranes.
4. Monitoring fetal heart
tones (FHT) is standard for
hospital-based deliveries.
5. This is an additional
diagnosis.
6. This is an occipital posterior
presentation with the cord not
around the baby’s neck.
7. This is a measure of the
health of the baby at birth. 10
is perfect. The first number
is the rating at one minute
and the second number is
the rating after 5 minutes
following delivery. This is a
healthy infant.
8. Repair after delivery of either
tear or an episiotomy is
included in the delivery and
cannot be billed separately by
the delivering physician. 2nd
degree laceration makes this
delivery complicated and code
650 cannot be used.
9. This represents the physician
will be providing the
postpartum care as well.
1.
2.
Indications: 31 y/o G3P1 at 39 and 4/7 weeks admitted in labor. She has been followed in
the OB clinic with 12 normal antenatal visits.
Stage I: Patient was admitted with a cervical exam of 3/c/-1. She slowly progressed to 5 cm
dilation. She had SROM at 0330 which showed light meconium. She continued to labor
and reached the end of stage I at 1000, a period of 10 hours. FHTs showed some periods of
4. reactivity but responded to stimulation.
3.
Stage II: Duration of Stage II (from pushing to delivery) was approximately 3 hours.
A pediatric team was present. There was slight meconium staining present at delivery.
6. Presentation was OP with right shoulder anterior shoulder. There was no nuchal cord. The
cord was clamped x2 and cut and the baby was handed to the pediatric team.
5.
Gender: Male
7.
Weight: 3772 grams. Apgars 8 /9
Stage III: Placenta delivered spontaneously with gentle traction and fundal massage
and was intact. Vagina and cervix examined for lacerations. Inspection revealed a small
8. 2nd degree perineal laceration which was repaired with 3.0 Polysorb in the usual sterile
fashion in layers. Another small lateral cutaneous tear was repaired with 3.0 polysorb and
a figure of 8 stitch. Good hemostasis was noted.
9.
Patient will return to clinic for follow up in 6 weeks.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes?
CPT® code: 59400
ICD-9-CM code: 664.11, 656.81, V27.0
RATIONALE: CPT® Code: The stages indicate the patient is in labor and delivers vaginally. There is no mention of an incision made for a Ceserean delivery. Code 59400
represents routine obstetric care antepartum and postpartum and the vaginal
delivery. To locate the code in CPT® Index, look up Vaginal Delivery/routine care.
ICD-9-CM Code: This is a complicated pregnancy by the 2nd degree perineum
laceration and the meconium in the amniotic fluid. In the Index to Diseases, look
up Delivery/complicated/laceration/perineum/second degree. You are referred to
664.11. Also documented is meconium in the amniotic fluid which is located under
Delivery/complicated by/meconium which is reported with 656.81. According to
ICD-9-CM Guidelines, Section I.C.11. b.5 “A V27.X “outcome of delivery” code must
be included on every maternal record when a delivery has occurred.” In the Index to
Diseases, look for Outcome of delivery/single/liveborn. A single live birth is V27.0.
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Chapter 13
Female Reproductive System
Case 8
Diagnosis: Intrauterine pregnancy at 20-5/7 weeks with multiple fetal anomalies.
Procedure: D&E
1.
Anesthesia: Moderate sedation.
Indications: The patient is a 29-year-old gravida 1 at 20-5/7 weeks with multiple fetal
anomalies, who desires a termination of pregnancy. She has previously had dilators
placed.
2.
3.
Description of procedure: The patient was brought to the operating room, and moderate 4.
sedation was administered. The patient then placed in the dorsal lithotomy position and 5.
was prepped and draped in usual sterile fashion.
1. Dilation and evacuation.
2. Gravida represents number of
pregnancies the woman has
had. Thus, gravida 1 means
this is her first pregnancy.
3. Placement of cervical dilators
may be separately billed with
code 59200 if not performed
on the day of another
procedure performed through
vaginal approach.
6.
The dilators were removed. The patient’s cervix was dilated to 5–6 cm. There was a
bulging bag that ruptured during vaginal prep. A speculum was attempted to be placed,
but the fetus was already delivering into the vagina. The umbilical cord was severed at
this time, and no fetal heart beat was noted on ultrasound. Ultrasound guidance was used 7.
for the entire procedure. Gentle traction was applied and the fetus delivered intact. There 8.
was no respiratory or cardiac effort noted. Bierer forceps were then used to remove the
placenta intact. A speculum was placed, and an atraumatic tenaculum was placed on the
anterior lip of the cervix and a standard D&C was then performed until the characteristically gritty texture was noted on the endometrium. There was a small amount of bleeding
noted from the lower uterine segment; 20 units of Pitocin was added to the patient’s IV
fluids and pressure was held against lower uterine segment for 5 minutes. At this time,
hemostasis was noted to be excellent. The speculum was then removed, and the patient
was taken out of the dorsal lithotomy position after her perineum was cleansed.
4. Although the abortion codes
do not include conscious
sedation, MAC anesthesia
implies that this was handled
by an anesthesiologist, who
will bill separately for their
services.
The patient’s anesthesia was discontinued and she was brought to the recovery room in
stable condition. There were no complications to this procedure. The patient tolerated the
procedure well.
7. In order to bill for ultrasound
guidance a permanent
image must be retained in
the medical record. There
must also be a description
of the images requiring
the ultrasound guidance.
Although this physician
did keep an image there is
no description of anything
visualized through the
ultrasound other than the
fetal heartbeat. Without this
description the service is not
separately billable.
Specimen(s): The products of conception were sent to pathology for cytogenetics and
pathologic evaluation.
Plan: The patient will follow up in the outpatient clinic
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes?
CPT® code: 59841
ICD-9-CM code: 635.91, 655.93
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5. This position is common
in female reproductive
procedures. The patient is
lying supine with legs bent
at the knees and elevated in
stirrups.
6. This indicates the dilation was
performed.
8. This is the evacuation of the
uterus. The fetus and placenta
were removed separately
due to the size of the fetus
and then the uterus was
curettaged to remove any
retained products.
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13.11
Female Reproductive System
Chapter 13
RATIONALE: CPT® Code: The procedure performed is an induced abortion with
dilation and evacuation due to the management of the mother caused by fetal
abnormalities. From the CPT® Index, look up Abortion/induced/by dilation and
evacuation.
ICD-9-CM Code: The encounter is for an induced legal abortion due to fetal abnormalities. From the Index to Diseases, look up Abortion/legal. You are directed to
635.9. The fifth digit of 1 indicates the abortion is “incomplete.” According to the
Chapter 11 Guidelines (Section I.C. 11.k.1) for code categories 634–637: Fifth digit,
assignment is based on the status of the patient at the beginning (or start) of the
encounter. Fifth digit 1, incomplete, indicates that all of the products of conception
have not been expelled from the uterus at the beginning of the procedure. Code
655.93 represents a known or suspected fetal abnormality affecting the management of the mother. Look in the Index to Diseases for Pregnancy/management
affected by/fetal/abnormality (655.93). Chapter 11 guidelines (Section I.C.11.k.2) for
code categories 640–648 and 651–659: Fifth digit 3 is assigned with codes from
these categories when used with an abortion code because the other fifth digits will
not apply.
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Chapter 13
Female Reproductive System
Case 9
Anesthesia: General with LMA.
Preoperative diagnosis: Sterilization
Postoperative diagnosis: Sterilization
1.
Procedure performed: Tubal ligation with bilateral Falope ring application.
2.
Counts: Needle, sponge and instrument counts were correct.
Intraoperative medications: 0.25% Marcaine with epinephrine.
2. Indicates method of the tubal
ligation.
3. The incision is made below
the navel.
Operative findings: The left ovary was mildly adhered to the side of the uterus. The right
ovary appeared normal. Both tubes appeared normal. The upper abdomen appeared
normal. There was a small subserosal fibroid approximately 1 to 1.5 cm on the left upper
aspect of the uterus.
Description of procedure: After informed consent, Ms. Mathews was taken to operating suite #4 and a general anesthetic was administered. She was placed in the dorsal
lithotomy position. She was sterilely prepped and draped in the usual manner. A sponge
stick was placed vaginally. An infraumbilical incision was made and a non-bladed trocar
and sheath were placed. Proper placement was confirmed with insufflation performed.
A suprapubic incision was then made and the suprapubic trocar and sheath were placed
under direct visualization. Findings were made as noted above and the right tube was
ligated with the Falope ring, and then the left. Pictures were taken to document proper
placement.
1. Select a code for the
postoperative diagnosis.
4. Indication the procedure is
performed laparoscopically.
5. The procedure is performed
on the right and left side.
3.
4.
5.
All instruments were removed and gas was allowed to escape. The sheaths were removed.
Marcaine with epinephrine were placed again at the incision sites and they were closed
with Monocryl in a subcuticular manner.
The patient was allowed to emerge from the anesthetic and was transferred to the Postanesthesia Care Unit in stable condition.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes?
CPT® Code: 58671
ICD-9-CM Code: V25.2
RATIONALE: CPT® Code: The method of the tubal ligation is placement of Falope rings
on the right and left tubes. The method dictates the proper code selection. In the
CPT® Index, look up Fallopian tube/occlusion/endoscopy. You are referred to 58671.
ICD-9-CM Code: The indication for the procedure is sterilization. From the Index to
Diseases, look up Admission/for/sterilization. You are referred to V25.2. Verify the
code description in the Tabular List.
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13.13
Female Reproductive System
Chapter 13
Case 10
Preoperative diagnosis: Severe cervical dysplasia
Postoperative diagnosis: Severe cervical dysplasia
1. A cold knife conization is a
biopsy performed to sample
abnormal tissue from the
cervix.
1.
Procedure performed: Cold knife conization.
Anesthesia: General.
Complications: None.
2. A vaginal approach is
performed.
Estimated Blood Loss: 25 cc.
Fluids: 500 cc crystalloid.
3. The cervical biopsy is
performed.
Drains: Straight catheter x 1.
Indications: All risks, benefits, and alternatives of this procedure were discussed with the
patient and informed consent was obtained.
Description of procedure: The patient was taken to the operating room where general
anesthesia was obtained without difficulty. She was prepped and draped in the normal
sterile fashion after being placed in the dorsal lithotomy position.
Attention was turned to the patient’s pelvis where a weighted speculum was placed inside
2. the patient’s vagina. The anterior lip of the cervix was grasped with a single-tooth tenaculum and a paracervical block was performed using 10 units of Pitressin and 20 cc of
normal saline. A #2-0 Vicryl stitch was used at the three o’clock and nine o’clock positions
on the cervix to ligate the cervical branch of the uterine artery.
3.
Procedure (continued): A #11 blade was then used to incise in a circumferential fashion.
This incision was carried down to the cervix using a cone shape. The cervical biopsy was
removed and marked at the twelve o’clock position using a silk suture.
The cervical bed was cauterized using the Bovie cautery with good hemostasis noted. The
FloSeal was placed into the cervical bed and the cervical stitches were tied together in the
midline. Good hemostasis was noted.
All instruments were removed from the patient’s vagina. All sponge, needle and instrument counts were correct x 2.
The patient was taken out of the dorsal lithotomy position and taken to the recovery room
awake and in stable condition.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® Code: 57520
ICD-9-CM Code: 233.1
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Chapter 13
Female Reproductive System
RATIONALE: CPT® Code: The procedure performed is a conization of the cervix
using a cold knife. In the CPT® Index, look up Conization/cervix. You are referred to
57461, 57520–57522. The approach and method will determine the proper code. The
method is a cold knife which is reported with 57520.
ICD-9-CM Code: The indication for the procedure is severe cervical dysplasia. From
the Index to Diseases, look up Dysplasia/cervix/severe. You are referred to 233.1.
Verification of the code in the Tabular List confirms code selection.
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13.15
Chapter
14
Endocrine and Nervous System
Case 1
Preoperative diagnosis: Right thyroid follicular lesion.
Postoperative diagnosis: Right thyroid follicular lesion.
1.
Operative procedure: Right thyroid lobectomy.
1. Diagnosis to report if no
further positive findings are
found in the note.
Findings: A large thyroid mass in the inferior aspect of the right thyroid. The right recur- 2.
rent laryngeal nerve was identified intact and there were bilateral movements of vocal
cords post procedure.
2. Findings used for diagnosis.
Description of operative procedure:
The patient was identified as and taken to the operating room. She was placed in a supine
reverse Trendelenburg position on the operating table. Once adequate sedation was
given the patient was intubated. The neck was the prepped and draped in a standard
surgical fashion. Using a #15 blade, a linear incision was made approximately two centimeters above the sternal notch. This incision was carried through subcutaneous tissues
and through the platysma until the anterior jugular veins were identified. Superior and
inferior flaps were then created using electrocautery. A midline incision was then made
separating the strap muscles. Once the thyroid was encountered, the right thyroid lobe
was dissected free from the surrounding tissues. Using the harmonic scalpel, the superior, medial and inferior vessels were divided. Using the harmonic scalpel, the isthmus
3.
was then divided free from the left thyroid lobe. The recurrent laryngeal nerve on the
right side was identified and not touched during the case. The left thyroid lobe was
explored revealing a single nodule. The right thyroid was then completely removed from 4.
the trachea and the surrounding tissues. It was marked and then sent off the table as a
specimen. The cavity was then irrigated with saline and hemostasis was achieved using
electrocautery. The fascia and the strap muscles were then approximated using 3-0 Vicryl
suture and a drain was placed into the cavity exiting the left aspect of the incision. The
platysma was then reapproximated using 3-0 Vicryl suture. The skin was then reapproximated using 4-0 Monocryl suture in 8, running subcuticular closure and covered with
Dermabond. By the end of the procedure, the sponge, needle and instrument counts were
correct. The patient was extubated observing bilateral movement of the vocal cords.
4. Right thyroid lobectomy.
3. Isthmus was removed with
the right thyroid lobe.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 60220
ICD-9-CM code: 241.0
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14.1
Endocrine and Nervous System
Chapter 14
RATIONALE: CPT® code: In the CPT® Index, look under lobectomy/thyroid/total and
you are directed to 60220–60225. The code selection depends on whether a contralateral subtotal lobectomy was performed. In this case, a contralateral subtotal
lobectomy is not performed making 60220 the correct code. The code description
states with or without isthmusectomy.
ICD-9-CM code: In the thyroid, a mass is considered a nodule. Look in the ICD-9-CM
Index to Diseases under nodule(s)/thyroid. You are directed to 241.0. Verification of
241.0 in the Tabular List shows it is the correct code for a thyroid nodule.
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Chapter 14
Endocrine and Nervous System
Case 2
Preoperative diagnosis: Papillary thyroid cancer.
Postoperative diagnosis: Papillary thyroid cancer.
1.
Operative procedure: Near total thyroidectomy.
Anesthesia: General endotracheal.
Findings: Nodular right thyroid with parathyroids visualized.
Estimated blood loss: Approximately 100 cc.
1. Diagnosis to report if no
further positive findings are
found in the note.
2. Right thyroid lobe removed.
3. Two-thirds of the thyroid is
removed.
Description of operative procedure:
The patient was identified and taken to the operating room. She was placed in the supine
position on the operating table. Once adequate sedation was given, the patient was intubated. A towel was placed behind the patient’s shoulder blades and the neck slightly
extended. The neck was prepped and draped in the standard surgical fashion. Using a
#15 blade, the patient’s old incision was excised. The incision was carried down through
subcutaneous tissue. The superior and inferior flaps were created and using electrocautery, a midline incision was made. Once the strap muscles were identified, using blunt
dissection, a plane was developed in between the strap muscle, and the right thyroid.
The right thyroid appeared nodular. Using blunt dissection and electrocautery, the right
thyroid lobe was freed from surrounding tissues and removed. Using the harmonic
2.
scalpel, two-thirds of the left thyroid lobe was removed sparing the parathyroids and
staying clear from the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Once this was completed, hemostasis 3.
was achieved using electrocautery and Surgicel. Due to some bleeding around the parathyroid gland, Gelfoam and thrombin were placed over this area and the bleeding had
subsided. A round JP drain was then placed around the remaining thyroid tissue. The
strap muscles were reapproximated using interrupted 3-0 Vicryl suture. The platysma
was reapproximated using interrupted 3-0 Vicryl suture and the skin was reapproximated using 4-0 Monocryl suture in an interrupted fashion and covered with Dermabond. By the end of the procedure, the sponge, needle and instrument counts were
correct. The patient was then transferred to the recovery room in stable condition.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 60225
ICD-9-CM code: 193
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14.3
Endocrine and Nervous System
Chapter 14
RATIONALE:
CPT® code: Look in the CPT® Index for Thyroid gland/Excision/for malignancy. You
have an option between a limited neck dissection and a radical neck dissection. A
radical neck dissection includes removal of all of the lymph nodes on one side of
the neck. A limited neck dissection includes removal of a limited number of lymph
nodes. There is no mention of lymph node removal. Thyroidectomy/partial directs
you to codes 60210–60225. The right lobe was removed with part of the left lobe.
This is best described with code 60225 for a total thyroid lobectomy, unilateral
(right); with contralateral subtotal lobectomy (left), including isthusectomy.
ICD-9-CM code: The patient has papillary thyroid cancer. Look in the Neoplasm
Table for thyroid, thyroid gland and you are directed to 193. Verification of 193 in the
Tabular List confirms this is the correct code.
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Chapter 14
Endocrine and Nervous System
Case 3
Operative report
Preoperative diagnosis: Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
Postoperative diagnosis: Papillary carcinoma of the left thyroid
Lymph nodes exhibiting metastasis
1.
2.
Procedure: 85% thyroidectomy (subtotal)
Indications:
The patient is a 43-year-old white female patient who was referred with a history of having
3.
been diagnosed in the fall of 2006 with a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Thyroidectomy was recommended to her; however due to the fact that she had no insurance,
it became quite obvious that she was going to have a difficult time being cared for in
another state where she was at the time. She returned to this area and came to the office.
We completed her workup including PET scanning, sestamibi scan for metastatic disease,
etc. I recommended to her that we proceed with a subtotal thyroidectomy, i.e. 85% resection of the thyroid; however if we could isolate any parathyroids and preserve them, then
we would to a total thyroidectomy. She appears to understand and is amenable to this and
is willing to proceed.
1. Diagnosis to report if no
further positive findings are
found in the note.
2. This is a working diagnosis,
there is no confirmation of
this in this record.
3. Confirmation of diagnosis.
4. Lymph node attached to
gland is removed with the
gland.
5. Several large lymph nodes
removed as well.
6. Left lobe removed.
Procedure:
The patient was placed on the operating room table in the supine position, neck slightly
hyperextended and the table tilted in reverse Trendelenburg. The neck and anterior chest
were prepped and draped in the usual sterile fashion. The incision was to be made two
fingerbreadths above the sternal notch. Actually there was a fold in her skin at this level
and we simply followed this natural fold from the anterior border of the left sternocleidomastoid around to the anterior border on the right. This was deepened down through the
subcutaneous tissue through the platysma muscle and then flaps were created both superior and inferior to the incision, inferiorly to the sternal notch and superiorly well over
and above the thyroid cartilage. At this point, it was quite apparent that the left lobe of the
thyroid was rock hard, entirely a different feel from that of the right lobe.
We began on the left side with mobilization of the interior pole. Vessels were serially
clamped, cut, ligated, on the thyroid side. Sutures were placed for traction at the point of
clamping, staying inside these vessels. The vessels were closed with a suture ligature of
3-0 Silk. As the thyroid was mobilized, the recurrent laryngeal nerve was identified and
avoided throughout the course of the dissection. There was a small lymph node attached
to the side of the gland which frankly appeared to be metastatic disease. This was obviously included with the specimen. We also removed several enlarged lymph nodes. The
inferior pole was entirely mobilized, and then the middle thyroid vessels were dealt with
as well, staying well away from the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Then the superior pole
vessels were likewise clamped, cut, and ligated. This allowed us to divide the isthmus on
the right lobe side of the midline and then removed the left lobe without difficulty. There
was one small bleeding vessel on or immediately adjacent to the recurrent laryngeal
nerve, therefore a Surgicel packing was applied to this area and bleeding controlled.
4.
5.
6.
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14.5
Endocrine and Nervous System
7. Biopsy negative for
parathyroid cancer.
8. Part of the right lobe
removed.
Chapter 14
7.
8.
Then dissection began on the right side where we encountered a lesion toward the trachea
which was half the size of a yellow pencil eraser and could have passed for a parathyroid.
Biopsies of this were taken; however they returned simply fatty tissues. We mobilized the
right lobe of the thyroid and left approximately 10% of the right lobe of the thyroid intact
at the superior end of the right thyroid lobe. When the portion of the lobe was amputated,
we controlled the bleeding from the raw edge of the thyroid with multiple suture ligatures
of 3-0 silk. Once hemostasis was secure, the procedure was terminated.
Hemostasis was secure throughout the wound. A 10 mm Jackson-Pratt drain was placed
through a separate stab wound and left to lay in the midline or slightly to the left of the
midline in the thyroid cavity. Strap muscles were closed in the midline with multiple
interrupted figure-of-eight sutures of 2-0 Vicryl. The platysma muscle was closed with
2-0 Vicryl and the skin closed with a continuous running subcuticular closure of 3-0
Monocryl. Dermabond was applied to the wound, drain secured with a 0 silk and a small
gauze dressing.
Prior to leaving the operating room the patient was extubated and with the help of the
anesthesia personnel, the “glide scope” was inserted into the hypopharynx and the
larynx and vocal cords visualized, showing symmetric movement of the cords. This was
confirmed by multiple observers. The procedure was terminated. The patient tolerated
the procedure well and she was taken to the recovery area in stable condition. Estimated
blood loss was 80cc. Sponge and needle counts were correct times two.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 60252
ICD-9-CM code: 193
RATIONALE: CPT® code: Look in the CPT® Index for Thyroid gland/Excision/for malignancy. You have an option between a limited neck dissection and a radical neck
dissection. A radical neck dissection includes removal of all of the lymph nodes on
one side of the neck. A limited neck dissection includes removal of a limited number
of lymph nodes. This procedure included a limited number of lymph nodes making
60252 the correct code.
ICD-9-CM code: The patient has papillary thyroid cancer. Look in the Neoplasm
Table for thyroid, thyroid gland and you are directed to 193. Verification of 193 in the
Tabular List confirms this is the correct code. If the lymph nodes appearing metastatic are confirmed by pathology before coding, it would be coded as a secondary
CA in addition to the thyroid CA.
14.6
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Endocrine and Nervous System
Case 4
Preoperative diagnosis: Post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus.
Postoperative diagnosis: Post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus.
1.
Operation: 1. Insertion of left frontal ventriculoperitoneal shunt.
2. Removal of right frontal external ventricular drain.
2.
Primary surgeon and Assistant Surgeon used.
Operative indication: Patient is an 8-year-old boy who suffered a significant head trauma
with intraventricular hemorrhage. He previously had an external ventricular drain
4.
placed. He failed clamp trial. Plan was made for permanent shunt implantation. The
risks and benefits of surgery were discussed in detail with the patient and family. Risks
include bleeding, infection, stroke, paralysis, seizure, coma, and death. All questions were
answered in detail. I believe the patient and family understand the risks and benefits of
surgery and wish to proceed.
Operative account: Patient was brought in the operating room and placed under general
endotracheal anesthesia. His head was turned to the right, and a shoulder roll was placed.
He was then clipped, prepped, and draped in the usual sterile fashion. Using the micropoint electrocautery, a half-moon incision was carried out over the patient’s left coronal
suture at the mid-pupillary line. The galea was divided and the scalp flap retracted. A 2nd
incision was created above and behind the pinna of the ear.
Attention was turned to the abdomen where a 2 cm incision was carried out just to the
left and superior to the umbilicus. Using the micropoint electrocautery, subcutaneous
dissection was carried down to the superficial rectus fascia. The fascia was secured with
hemostats, elevated, and opened sharply in a vertical fashion. This allowed dissection of
the underlying muscular fibers. We secured then the deep rectus fascia with hemostats,
elevated this, and opened this sharply. The underlying peritoneum was visible. This was
secured and opened, allowing passage easily of a #4 Penfield into the peritoneal cavity.
2. There is no documentation to
support the removal.
3. This tells us we are still in the
post op period of the EVD.
Anesthesia: General endotracheal.
3.
1. Diagnosis to report if no
further positive findings are
found in the note.
4. This was a planned procedure.
5. Peritoneal portion of the
ventriculo-peritoneal shunt.
6. Burr hole created, but is
included in placement of the
shunt.
7. Ventricular portion of the
ventriculo-peritoneal shunt.
8. Insertion of
ventriculoperitoneal shunt.
5.
A subcutaneous tunneler was then used to bring a Medtronic BioGlide catheter from the
abdominal to the retroauricular incisions. This was then brought to the anterior incision. It was secured to the distal end of the Medtronic Delta valve, performance level
1, with 3-0 silk tie. The Midas perforator was then used to create a burr hole. The brain
6.
needle was then placed to the dura and electrocautery applied, creating a small durotomy,
through which the brain needle was advanced. This was advanced into the ventricle with 7.
excellent return of cerebrospinal fluid under elevated pressure. We observed slightly stiff
ependymal walls at the time of passage.
The brain needles were removed and a new Medtronic BioGlide ventricular catheter
advanced down this track with excellent return of cerebrospinal fluid. This catheter was
trimmed and secured to the proximal end of the valve with 3-0 silk suture. Spontaneous
flow of cerebrospinal fluid was observed at the distal end of the peritoneal catheter prior
to placement within the peritoneum. All wounds were then thoroughly irrigated with
8.
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14.7
Endocrine and Nervous System
Chapter 14
vancomycin-containing saline, and 1 mL of vancomycin-containing saline was injected
into the bulb of the shunt.
At the 2 cranial incisions, the galea was reapproximated with inverted 3-0 Vicryl suture.
Skin edges were approximated with a running 5-0 Monocryl stitch. At the abdominal
incision, the peritoneum and deep rectus fascia were closed with a 3-0 Vicryl pursestring.
Superficial rectus fascia was closed with interrupted 3-0 Vicryl suture. Subcutaneous
tissue was reapproximated with interrupted and inverted 3-0 Vicryl suture. Skin edges
were reapproximated with a running 5-0 Monocryl stitch. That wound was washed and
dried, and a sterile dressing was applied. At the cranial wound, the patient’s hair was
shampooed and bacitracin ointment applied to the wounds. The patient was awakened,
extubated, and taken to the recovery room in stable condition.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported for the primary surgeon?
CPT® code: 62223-58
ICD-9-CM code: 331.4
RATIONALE: CPT® code: In the CPT® Index, look for Shunt/Brain/Creation and you are
directed to 62180–62223. Creation of a ventricular shunt is reported from the code
range 62220–62223. Catheters were run from the peritoneal cavity to the ventricle,
creating a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt which is reported with 62223. Modifier 58
should be used to indicate it is a related, more extensive procedure.
ICD-9-CM code: The diagnosis is post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus. In the ICD-9-CM
Index to Diseases, look for hydrocephalus. There is no subterm for post-hemorrhagic. You are directed to 331.4. In the Tabular List, 331.4 is used to report obstructive hydrocephalus.
14.8
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Chapter 14
Endocrine and Nervous System
Case 5
Preoperative diagnosis: Acute epidural hematoma
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: As above
Anesthetic agent: General Endotracheal
Operation: Left craniotomy for evacuation of epidural hematoma (emergent)
2.
Indications: The patient presented with a history of a motor vehicle accident. He
presented to the emergency room neurologically intact but while there became gradually less responsive and required intubation. An urgent CT scan revealed a large epidural
hematoma and the patient was taken emergently to the operating room for evacuation.
3.
4.
Procedure/techniques/description of findings/condition of patient: The patient was
brought to the operating room and after induction of adequate general anesthesia,
prepped and draped in the usual sterile fashion for a left frontotemporal parietal crani5.
otomy. A curvilinear incision was made beginning just anterior to the left ear curving
posteriorly than upward and anteriorly to and at the hair line just off the midline. The
resulting musculocutaneous flap was then reflected anteriorly. Multiple burr holes were
6.
then placed and connected using the high-speed drill to create a large free bone flap. This
was removed from the immediate operative field. Directly beneath the bone flap was a
large well-formed clots which delivered itself from the epidural space. A bleeding point
was found in the region of the middle meningeal artery. This was carefully and thoroughly coagulated using bipolar correlation. A small opening was then made in the dura
to ensure that there was not an underlying blood clot. There was not. This opening was
primarily closed using 4-0 Nurolon. Additional meticulous hemostasis was then obtained.
The bone flap was then replaced and held in place using multiple K LS fixation devices.
Skin was then reapproximated using 2-0 Vicryl for the subcutaneous tissues and 5-0
Monocryl for the skin. The patient was then awakened from anesthesia at which time his
vital signs were stable and he was neurologically improved from preoperatively.
1. Postoperative diagnosis is
indicated as same as preoperative diagnosis.
2. The location of the hematoma
will assist in CPT® code
selection.
3. The patient is in the acute
phase of treatment for injuries
caused by the MVA requiring
an E code.
4. Indicating loss of
consciousness.
5. Procedure performed.
Knowing this is a parietal
craniotomy will assist in code
selection.
6. Burr holes created but are
included in the primary
procedure.
Estimated blood loss: 100 cc
Specimens: None
Labs ordered: None
Diagnostic procedures ordered: None
Complications: None
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 61312
ICD-9-CM codes: 852.41, E819.9
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14.9
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Chapter 14
RATIONALE: CPT® code: Look in the CPT® Index for Hematoma/Brain/Evacuation and
you are directed to code range 61312–61315. First, the code selection is narrowed
by knowing if the craniotomy is supratentorial or infratentorial. The tentorium lies
in between the occipital lobes and the cerebellum. Supratentorial is above the
tentorium and infratentorial is below the tentorium. This is a parietal craniotomy
indicating it is supratentorial (or above the tentorium). Then the code selection is
based on where the hemotoma is located. In this case, it is epidural making 61312
the correct code.
ICD-9-CM codes: In the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases, look for Hematoma/brain
(traumatic—indicated by MVA)/extradural or epidural and you are guided to 852.4.
The fifth digit identifies if there is a loss of consciousness and for how long. The
patient became less responsive, but there is no statement of loss of consciousness.
With no loss of consciousness, a fifth digit of 1 is used.
The patient was brought in after a motor vehicle accident, requiring an E code. In
the Index to External Causes, look for Accident/motor vehicle and the default code is
E819. A fourth digit is required to indicate the role of the injured person. In this case,
it is unspecified. E819.9 is the correct code.
14.10
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Case 6
Preoperative diagnoses:1. Low back pain.
2.Degenerative lumbar disc.
Postoperative diagnoses: 1.Low back pain.
2.Degenerative lumbar disc.
1.
Procedure performed:1. Bilateral facet joint injection of steroid at the L4–L5 and L5–S1
with fluoroscopic guidance.
Description of procedure: The patient was transferred to the operative suite and placed
in the prone position with a pillow under the abdomen. A smooth IV sedation was given
with midazolam and fentanyl. The patient’s back was prepped with Betadine in a sterile
fashion, and we used lidocaine, 1% plain as a local anesthetic at the injection site. With
the use of fluoroscopy assistance, first to the right and then to the left 20-degree, the
2.
scotty-dog view was identified, and we were able to place the spinal 22-gauge needle first
3.
to the right L4–L5, then right L5–S1, then to the left L4–L5, and then to left L5–S1. We
used a lateral X-ray to assess the proper placement of the needle. We proceeded to inject a
mixture of 4 mL of 0.25% Marcaine plain plus 80 mg of methylprednisolone and divided
between the four joints. The needles were removed. The patient’s back was cleaned, and a
Band-Aid was applied. The patient was transferred to the recovery area with no apparent
procedural complications.
1. Diagnosis to report if no
further positive findings are
found in the note.
2. Fluoroscopic guidance used.
3. Injection points.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 64493-50, 64494-50
ICD-9-CM Code: 722.52
RATIONALE: CPT® Codes: In the CPT® Index, look for Injection/Paravertebral facet
joint/nerve/image guidance and you are directed to code range 64490–64495.
The code selection is dependent on the location of the injection and how many
levels are injected. Code range 64493–64495 are for the lumbar or sacral. 64493 is
reported for the first level (L4–L5). 64494 is reported for the second level (L5–S1).
Modifier 50 is appended since both levels were bilateral. Flouroscopy is included and
therefore, not reported separately.
ICD-9-CM Codes: The diagnoses listed are low back pain and degenerative lumbar
disc. Low back pain is a symptom of degenerative lumbar disc and would not be
coded separately. Look in the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases for degeneration/disc
disease and you are directed to see Degeneration/intervertebral disc. Under this
subterm, you have a selection of the location. In this case, it is lumbar so you are
directed to 722.52. Verification in the Tabular List confirms the code selection.
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14.11
Endocrine and Nervous System
Chapter 14
Case 7
Operation performed: Right-sided hemicraniectomy with duraplasty.
Complications: None.
Anesthesia: General endotracheal.
Estimated blood loss: Approximately 400 mL
1. Ischemic infarct is the initial
diagnosis.
1.
3.
2. MCA is the Middle Cerebral
Artery.
3. The infarct converted to a
hemorrhage.
4. Hemicraniectomy
documentation.
5. Duraplasty performed.
4.
5.
Indications: is a 56-year-old male with significant past medical history who came
in this evening with an ischemic infarct to his right MCA territory which converted
to hemorrhagic transformation. The significant shift was following commands on
the right side and hemiplegic on the left side. After a thorough discussion with the
family, we explained to them that this would be a life saving procedure and we could
not ensure that there would be any further neurological improvement from the state
that he was in. They understood these risks and wanted to proceed ahead.
Operation performed: After informed consent was obtained, the patient was taken
to the operating room and induced under general endotracheal anesthesia without
incident. TEE monitor was placed due to the patients significant cardiac history; at
this point, a roll was placed underneath the right shoulder and the head was placed
in a horseshoe reverse question mark incision was taken through midline. This area
was sterilely prepped and draped in usual fashion. A#1O blade was used to make an
incision sharply. Raney clips were applied to the skin edges. The temporalis fascia
and muscle was then resected with the cutaneous flap anteriorly. This was done until
the keyhole could be identified. The musculocutaneous flap was then retracted with
towel hooks, rubber bands and Allis clamps. The perforator was then used to make
several burr holes approximately 6 and a footplate was then put on to perform the
hemicraniectomy. We ensured that we were off midline to ensure that we did not get
into the sagittal sinus or any draining veins associated with this. Once the bone was
removed, hemostasis was obtained and the dura was opened in the C-shaped fashion.
and a large piece of Durepair was placed underneath this. There was a small subdural
which was also evacuated and a large piece of Durepair was then used to create a
duraplasty. This was stitched in several points with 4.0 nylon. Hemovac was then
tunneled through as well.
At this point the galea and the temporalis fascia was then reapproximated with 0
Vicryl interrupted fashion, overlying galea was reapproximated 0 Vicryl interrupted
fashion. The overlying skin was closed with staples and the Hemovac drain was
secured with 2-0 nylon. At the end of the case all counts of the needles and sponges
were correct.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 61322
ICD-9-CM code: 431
14.12
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Chapter 14
Endocrine and Nervous System
RATIONALE: CPT® code: The surgeon is performing a decompressive craniectomy
with duraplasty. Burr holes are placed to perform the decompressive craniectomy.
A dural opening is made to remove the clot. Then, a reconstructive operation on
the dura mater (duraplasty) is performed using the Durepair for closure. This procedure is indexed under Craniectomy/Decompression. Code 61322 is the correct code
choice.
ICD-9-CM code: The diagnosis is ischemic infarct to the middle cerebral artery
territory. However, this converted to a hemorrhage. Look in the ICD-9-CM Index to
Diseases for Hemorrhage/artery/brain and you are directed to 431. Verification of
code 431 in the Tabular List confirms it is for an intracerebral hemorrhage.
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14.13
Endocrine and Nervous System
Chapter 14
Case 8
Preoperative diagnosis: Dorsal column stimulator battery expiration.
Postoperative diagnosis: Dorsal column stimulator battery expiration.
1.
1. Battery.
Procedure performed: Replacement of dorsal column stimulator generator.
Attending: MD
2. Device malfunction is the
reason for the surgery.
Anesthesia: Monitored anesthetic coverage with local.
3. The old battery is taken out
and replaced with a new
battery.
Estimated blood loss: Less than 5 mL
4. The same leads are used.
Drains: None.
Specimens: None.
Complications: None.
Implants: Medtronics prime advanced nonreconstructable generator.
2.
3.
4.
Indications: This woman has a dorsal column stimulator in place and has benefited from
the therapy. Her current device began malfunctioning approximately a month prior to
this procedure and she has gradually noticed declining effectiveness. The device was
interrogated approximately a week prior to this procedure and no telemetry was obtainable, indicating a failure of the battery. On this basis, revision of the device was offered
and accepted.
Procedure in brief: After extensive preoperative counseling, informed consent was
obtained. The patient was brought to the operating room, positioned on the table in the
left lateral decubitus position. Sedation was induced and a dose of antibiotics was administered IV. A wide area of the right lateral flank region surrounding her existing scar
was prepped and draped in standard fashion and infiltrated with 0.5% Marcaine with
1:200,000 epinephrine. The skin was incised. The pouch housing the existing battery
was entered. The battery was explanted, a new prime advanced generator was prepared.
The leads were disconnected from the old generator and connected to the new generator
in the same orientation. An impedance test was performed, which yielded acceptable
results. The generator was implanted and secured to the fascia using 0 Ethibond suture.
The wound was irrigated copiously and closed in layers using interrupted 0 and 3-0 Vicryl
sutures followed by Mastisol and Steri-Strips to reapproximate the skin. Sterile dressing
was applied. The patient was aroused from sedation and taken to recovery area in good
condition. All final needle arid sponge counts were correct. There were no apparent
complications.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 63685
ICD-9-CM code: 996.2
14.14
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RATIONALE: CPT® code: A dorsal column stimulator is a spinal cord stimulator. Look
in the CPT® Index for Replacement/Neurostimulator/Pulse generator/Receiver/Spinal
and you are directed to code 63685, which is the correct code. The removal of the
original pulse generator is included and should not be reported separately.
ICD-9-CM code: The battery needs to be replaced on a stimulator. Look in the
ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases for Complication/mechanical/device NEC/nervous
system and you are directed to 996.2. Verification of the code in the Tabular List
confirms it is used for complications of dorsal column stimulators.
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14.15
Endocrine and Nervous System
Chapter 14
Case 9
Preoperative diagnosis: Spinal stenosis at L4–L5
Postoperative diagnosis: Spinal stenosis at L4–L5
Operation performed: Right L4–L5 laminotomy, foraminotomy, decompression, bilateral
decompression of the lateral recess
Operative anesthesia: General endotracheal tube anesthesia.
Estimated blood loss: Minimal.
Operative complications: None apparent.
1. Confirmation of postoperative
diagnosis.
2. Neurogenic claudication.
3. Intra-operative fluoroscopy
used.
4. Laminotomy.
1.
Operative indications:
The patient is a 51-year-old gentleman. He has had ongoing lower extremity pain with
2. numbness and tingling on the right hand side more so than the left side. He has had
paresthesias. He has had progressive loss of strength. He has had very little back pain,
however. The patient is brought to the operating room for operative decompression
with an MRI scan that shows tight spinal stenosis at L4–L5, having failed conservative
measures to date.
5. Foraminotomy.
6. Decompression.
7. Decompression of the left and
right sides.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
14.16
Operative findings: Tight stenosis at L4–L5 from ligament hypertrophy and facet
arthropathy.
Description of procedure:
The patient was given 1 gm of Kefzol preoperatively. He was taken to the operating room
where he underwent general endotracheal tube anesthesia without complications. All appropriate anesthetic monitors and lines were placed. He was placed prone onto a Wilson frame
which was padded in the usual fashion. All pressure points were checked and padded appropriately. The patient’s back was then outlined with a marking pen through the L4–L5 level in
a vertical direction. He was then prepped using Prevail solution and allowed to dry. He was
draped using sterile technique. Marcaine 0.25% with 1:200,000 units of epinephrine was
instilled in the proposed incision for a total of 10 cc of injection. Using a #10 blade scalpel,
a vertical midline incision was made. The soft tissues were dissected down to the thoracolumbar fascia using Bovie coagulation. The fascia was incised on the right hand side and the
paraspinal muscles were stripped off the lamina and spinous processes of L4 and L5 on the
right. A self-retaining Taylor retractor was placed into the wound and intraoperative fluoroscopy revealed the L4–L5 level. The soft tissue in the interlaminar space was then resected
with a rongeur. The ligamentum flavum was resected with Kerrison punches and cervical
curets. The laminotomy was performed on the superior aspect of L5 and the undersurface of
L4. The laminotomy was taken out to the medial edge of the pedicle. A foraminotomy was
performed with a #3 Kerrison punch for the exiting right L5 nerve root. The lateral recess
was now decompressed. The disc was inspected and found not to be ruptured. We then
decompressed the patient’s left side by slightly depressing the thecal sac with cottonoids
and under-cutting the interspinous ligament with Kerrison punches so that the right lateral
recess was also decompressed from overgrowth of the ligamentum flavum. The wound was
copiously irrigated using warm bacitracin solution. Depo-Medrol 40 mg in 1 cc was placed
epidurally. A piece of Gelfoam was placed over the laminotomy defect to try to preserve
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the epidural space, and the wound was ready for closure. During all areas of closure, bacitracin irrigation was used in copious amounts. The fascia was closed with #0 Vicryl in an
interrupted fashion. The subcutaneous tissue was closed with #30 Vicryl in an interrupted
fashion. The skin was closed with #40 Vicryl in an interrupted fashion to the subcuticular
space. Steri-Strips were placed on the wound. A sterile dressing was placed. The patient was
taken to the recovery room in stable condition with sponge and needle counts correct times
three.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 63030-50 or 63030-RT, 63030-LT
ICD-9-CM code: 724.03
RATIONALE: CPT® code: The main procedure performed is the laminotomy between
L4–L5. A laminotomy is partial removal of the lamina, also referred to as a hemilaminectomy. In the CPT® Index, look for Hemilaminectomy and you are directed
to codes 63020–63044. The code selection is based on the location. This was
performed on the lumbar spine making 63030 the correct code choice. This code
also includes the decompression and the foraminotomy. The decompression was
performed on both sides, so a modifier 50 is indicated or modifiers RT and LT.
ICD-9-CM code: For spinal stenosis, look in the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases for
Stenosis/spinal/lumbar/with neurogenic claudication (numbness, tingling, and pain)
and you are directed to 724.03. Verification in the Tabular List confirms the code
selection.
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Endocrine and Nervous System
Chapter 14
Case 10
Preoperative diagnosis: Left L5 radiculopathy; left L5–S1 neural foraminal narrowing.
1. Postoperative diagnosis used
for coding.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Left L5 radiculopathy; left L5–S1 neural foraminal narrowing.
Procedure performed: Left L5–S1 foraminotomy; microsurgical technique.
2. Indicates a re-exploration.
Anesthesia: General endotracheal.
3. Laminotomy.
Estimated blood loss: 25 mL.
4. Use of surgical microscope.
Specimens: None.
5. Decompression.
Drains: None.
6. Surgical microscope again.
Complications: None.
7. Confirmation of
foraminotomy.
Indications: This woman has a history of left lower extremity L5 radicular pain. She has
2. had previous surgery in the lumbar region for a herniated disk. Her preoperative exam
was remarkable for subjective complaints in an L5 pattern on the left. Her MRI scan
showed high-grade neural foraminal narrowing on the left due to facet arthropathy.
Based on these findings, treatment options were discussed including ongoing conservative
therapy and surgical intervention. After contemplating alternatives, the patient elected to
proceed with surgery.
Description of procedure: After extensive preoperative counseling, informed consent
was obtained. The patient was brought to the operating room, intubated, placed under
general anesthesia, and positioned in the prone position. A wide area of the lumbar region
was prepped and draped in standard fashion. A midline incision was marked overlying
the L5–S1 spinous processes and infiltrated with 0.5% Marcaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine, A standard surgical timeout was performed wherein the patient was identified and
the surgical site and procedure were confirmed. Preop dose of antibiotics was administered IV. The skin was incised, subcutaneous bleeding points were controlled. The subcutaneous fat was transgressed to the lumbodorsal fascia, which was incised in the midline
from the top of the spinous process of L5 through the bottom of the spinous process of S1.
Paraspinous musculature was elevated subperiosteally and reflected laterally towards the
patient’s left. A high speed osteotome was used to create a trailing edge laminotomy of L5
3. and a leading edge laminotomy of S1, encompassing the medial 3rd of the facet complex.
4. Microscope was then employed for magnification and illumination. A variety of curettes
and rongeurs were then used to complete the laminotomy. The bone resection was carried
laterally until the medial edge of the pedicle was encountered. As the bone resection and
ligamentous resection was conducted, a large fragment of synovium type material with
5. admixed scar tissue was extracted, resulting in marked decompression of the thecal sac
and root sleeve. A probe could then be admitted through the neural foramen. For this
6. aspect of the procedure, the microscope was utilized for magnification and illumination.
A confirmatory X-ray was obtained with the probe inserted through the L5–S1 foramen,
both the L5 and S1 root sleeves were directly visualized and were completely without
7. impingement. Hemostasis was achieved with bipolar coagulation. A bulging of the disk
was appreciated, but the decision was made to forego a diskectomy. A pledget of fat was
harvested from the subcutaneous tissue and tucked in the laminotomy defect. A layered
14.18
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Chapter 14
Endocrine and Nervous System
closure was then conducted using interrupted 0 Vicryl sutures. The lumbodorsal fascia
was closed using interrupted 0 Vicryl sutures in watertight fashion. The skin was closed
using interrupted buried subcuticular 3-0 Vicryl sutures followed by Mastisol and SteriStrips. Sterile dressing was applied. The patient was aroused from anesthesia and extubated without difficulty. All final needle and sponge counts were correct. There were no
perioperative complications.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 63042-LT
ICD-9-CM codes: 724.4, 724.02
RATIONALE: CPT® code: The main procedure performed is the laminotomy between
L4–L5. A laminotomy is partial removal of the lamina, also referred to as a hemilaminectomy. In the CPT® Index, look for Hemilaminectomy and you are directed
to codes 63020–63044. Code range 63040–63044 are for re-explorations. The code
selection is further defined by location. 63042 is the correct code. The use of the
microscope is included in this procedure and should not be reported separately.
Although code 63042 does not appear in the list of procedure codes following
69990, according to NCCI the microscope is bundled. Add a note in your codebook
next to 69990 that codes 63001–63066 are bundled according to NCCI.
ICD-9-CM codes: Spinal stenosis is narrowing of the spine. Look in the ICD-9-CM
Index to Diseases for Stenosis/spine/lumbar and you are directed to 724.02 if there is
no indication of claudication. Then look for radiculopathy which directs you to radiculitis. Under radiculitis, lumbar, you are directed to 724.4. Verification in the Tabular
List confirms code selection.
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14.19
Chapter
15
Eye and Ocular Adnexa, Auditory Systems
Case 1
Anesthesia: Laryngeal mask anesthesia.
Preoperative diagnosis: Retinal detachment, right eye.
Postoperative diagnosis: Retinal detachment, right eye.
1.
Procedure: Scleral buckle, cryoretinopexy, drainage of subretinal fluid, C3F8 gas in the
right eye.
2. Exam reveals the location of
the tears.
Procedure: After the patient had received adequate laryngeal mask anesthesia, he was
prepped and draped in usual sterile fashion. A wire lid speculum was placed in the right eye.
A limbal peritomy was done for 360 degrees using 0.12 forceps and Westcott scissors.
Each of the intramuscular quadrants was dissected using Aebli scissors. The muscles were
isolated using a Gass muscle hook with an 0 silk suture attached to it. The patient had an
inspection of the intramuscular quadrants and there was no evidence of any anomalous
vortex veins or thin sclera. The patient had an examination of the retina using an indirect
ophthalmoscope and he was noted to have 3 tears in the temporal and inferotemporal
quadrant and 2 tears in the superior temporal quadrant. These were treated with
cryoretinopexy. Most posterior edge of each of the tears was marked with a scleral marker
followed by a surgical marking pen. The patient had 5-0 nylon sutures placed in each
of the 4 intramuscular quadrants. The 2 temporal sutures were placed with the anterior
bite at about the muscle insertion, the posterior bite 9 mm posterior to this. In the nasal
quadrants the anterior bite was 3 mm posterior to the muscle insertion and the posterior
bite was 3 mm posterior to this. A 240 band was placed 360 degrees around the eye and
a 277 element from approximately the 5-1 o’clock position. The patient had another
examination of the retina and was noted to have a moderate amount of subretinal fluid, so
a drainage sclerotomy site was created at approximately the 9:30 o’clock position incising
the sclera until the choroid was visible. The choroid was then punctured with a #30-gauge
needle. A moderate amount of subretinal fluid was drained from the subretinal space. The
eye became relatively soft and 0.35 ml of C3FS gas was injected into the vitreous cavity 3.5
mm posterior to the limbus. The superior temporal and inferior temporal and superior
nasal sutures were tied down over the scleral buckle. The 240 band was tightened up and
excessive scleral buckling material was removed from the eye. The inferior nasal suture
was tied down over the scleral buckle and all knots were rotated posteriorly. The eye was
reexamined. The optic nerve was noted to be nicely perfused. The tears were supported
on the scleral buckle. There was a small amount of residual subretinal fluid. The patient
received posterior sub-Tenon Marcaine for postoperative pain control. The 0 silk sutures
were removed from the eye. The conjunctiva was closed with #6-0 plain gut suture. The
patient received subconjunctival Ancef and dexamethasone. The patient was patched with
atropine and Maxitrol ointment.
1. The postoperative diagnosis is
used for coding.
3. Cryoretinopexy is the use of
intense cold to close the tear
in the retina.
4. A sclerotomy is performed to
drain subretinal fluid.
5. Sclera buckling is performed.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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15.1
Eye and Ocular Adnexa, Auditory Systems Chapter 15
The patient tolerated the procedure well and returned to the postoperative recovery room.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 67107-RT
ICD-9-CM code: 361.00
RATIONALE: CPT® code: Multiple procedures are performed to repair the retinal
detachment. From the CPT® Index, look up Retina/Repair/Detachment. Refer to the
code descriptions that are referred to in the index. All components of the procedure
are described with code 67107.
ICD-9-CM code: The indication for the surgery is retinal detachment. The physician
documents retinal tears when he examines the retina. To determine the ICD-9-CM
code, look up Tear, retinal (recent) (with detachment). You are referred to 361.00.
Review the code description for accuracy. The code selection is determined by 1) is
the detachment recent or old, 2) is the detachment partial, total or subtotal. Because
we do not have this information in the report, we cannot use any of the codes from
361.01–361.07. The word “unspecified” in 361.00 indicates we do not know if the
detachment is recent/old or partial/total/subtotal.
Case 2
Preoperative diagnosis: Dacryostenosis, both eyes.
Postoperative diagnosis: Dacryostenosis, both eyes.
Procedure performed: Nasolacrimal duct probing, both eyes.
Anesthesia: General.
Condition: To recovery, satisfactory.
Counts: Needle count correct.
Estimated blood loss: Less than 1 mL.
Informed consent: The procedure, risks, benefits, and alternatives were thoroughly
explained to the patient’s parent who understands and wants the procedure done.
1. General anesthesia is used for
this procedure.
2. This indicates the procedure
is performed on the right eye.
1.
3. This indicates the
nasolacrimal duct is probed.
3.
2.
4. The same procedure is
performed on the left eye.
4.
15.2
Procedure: The patient was prepped and draped in the usual sterile manner under
general anesthesia. Starting on the right eye the upper punctum was dilated with doubleended punctal dilator, and starting with a 4-0 probe, increasing up to a 2-0 probe, the
nasolacrimal duct was probed patent. Then using a curved 23- gauge punctal irrigator
0.125 ml of sterile fluorescein stained saline was easily irrigated down the nasolacrimal
duct into the nostril where it was carefully collected with a clear #8 catheter. Then instruments were removed and an identical procedure was done on the opposite eye nasolacrimal duct. TobraDex eye drops were placed in each lower cul-de-sac. The eyelids were
closed. The patient left the operating room for recovery in satisfactory condition.
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Chapter 15 Eye and Ocular Adnexa, Auditory Systems
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 68811-50 or 68811-RT, 68811-LT
ICD-9-CM code: 375.56
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: During this encounter, the provider probes the
nasolacriminal duct on the right and left eye. When this procedure is performed
using general anesthesia, the proper code selection is 68811. There is a parenthetical
note to append modifier 50 if the procedure is performed bilaterally.
ICD-9-CM code: The patient is diagnosed with dacryostenosis. From ICD-9-CM Index
to Diseases, look up dacryostenosis. There is no indication the condition is congenital. The correct code is 375.56. Verify the code accuracy in the Tabular List.
Case 3
Preoperative diagnosis: Bilateral protruding ears.
Postoperative diagnosis: Bilateral protruding ears.
Procedure: Bilateral otoplasty.
Anesthesia: General.
Estimated blood loss: Minimal.
Complications: None.
Procedure is as follows: The patient was placed in the supine position. She was prepped
and draped in the usual sterile fashion. Measurements were taken from the helix to the
mastoid at the superior, mid, and inferior portions and they were within 1 to 2 mm of
the same bilaterally and were approximately 17 mm superior, 24 mm middle, and 25 mm
inferior. The right ear was begun first. A curved incision was made just anterior to the
sulcus of the posterior ear. This was done with a 15-blade scalpel. Electrocautery was used
for hemostasis and further dissection. An iris scissors was used to dissect the soft tissues
off of the mastoid region and the posterior ear. The concha was shut back and sutured
in place with clear 4-0 nylon suture and in a horizontal mattress pattern. Three tacking
sutures were used. This brought the ear back approximately 2 to 3 mm. However, greater
correction was needed and, therefore, Mustarde’ sutures were placed.
The mid and superior portions of the antihelical fold were placed. These were spaced
widely on either side of the helical fold. They were then sutured in place, tacking the
fold more acutely to a point that was deemed acceptable and held in that position. So in
this, a margin of skin was excised along the posterior ear and closure of the wound was
performed with 5-0 chromic suture. Prior to closure, full hemostasis had been obtained
with electrocautery. Both ears were done in the exact same fashion; therefore, only one is
dictated in detail.
1.
2.
1. Procedure is performed on the
right ear.
2. An incision is made.
3.
4.
5.
3. The concha which is the
external part of the ear is
sutured in place.
4. This is a suturing technique
used to perform otoplasty.
5. There are a total of three
portions of the external
ear that are repaired in this
otoplasty.
6.
The patient was then checked very carefully for symmetry. Postoperative measurements
were approximately 14 mm superior, 15 mm mid, and 16 mm lower.
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6. This indicates that a bilateral
procedure is performed.
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15.3
Eye and Ocular Adnexa, Auditory Systems Chapter 15
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 69300-50
ICD-9-CM code: 744.29
RATIONALE: CPT® code: In this case an otoplasty is performed with is a surgical fixation of the external ear. The patient has protruding ears which are being corrected.
From the CPT® Index, look up Otoplasty. You are referred to 69300. The code
description matches the procedure performed. There is a parenthethical note that
states if performed bilaterally to append modifier 50.
ICD-9-CM code: To determine the diagnosis code, look up Protrusion/ear, congenital. You are referred to 744.29 which reports a congenital condition. The cause of
protruding ears develops at birth and the appearance of the protrusion can be seen
later in life.
Case 4
Preoperative diagnosis: Right otosclerosis.
Postoperative diagnosis: Right otosclerosis.
Type of procedure: Right stapedectomy.
Anesthesia: General endotracheal.
Findings: There was otosclerosis on the anterior footplate of the stapes with preoperative
conductive hearing loss in the right ear.
1. Location of otosclerosis.
1.
2. A graft of ear cartilage is
obtained for the procedure.
2.
15.4
Description of procedure: The patient was taken to the OR and placed in the supine position. Following induction of general endotracheal anesthesia, the head was turned to the
left and the right ear was prepped and draped in the usual fashion. Then 1% Xylocaine
with 1:100,000 epinephrine was infiltrated in the skin along the posterior ear canal wall
and the skin over the tragus.
After a short waiting time, an incision was made over the tragus, and a piece of posterior
tragal perichondrium was harvested for a graft and set aside to dry. A speculum was then
placed in the canal. The canal was quite large. An incision was made along the posterior
canal wall, and a tympanomeatal flap was elevated and laid forward to include the fibrous
annulus without perforation. The middle ear was inspected. The ossicular chain was
palpated, and otosclerosis appeared to be fixing the stapes. The chorda tympani nerve
was very carefully preserved and not manipulated and was kept moist throughout the
procedure. No curetting of bone was necessary in order to access the footplate. A control
hole was made in the footplate with a straight pick. The incudostapedial joint was separate
with an IS joint knife. The stapedius tendon was severed, and the superstructure of the
stapes was fractured over the promontory and removed. The footplate was then picked
out with a 45-degree pick, completely removing all fragments. Great care was taken not
to suction in the vestibule. The distance between the incus and the oval window was then
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Chapter 15 measured. The tragal perichondrial graft was then taken and laid over the oval window
with complete coverage. A 3.75 Shea platinum Teflon cup piston was then chosen. The
platinum wires were opened and the shaft was placed down against the graft and into
the oval window niche. The cup was placed under the long process of the incus by gently
lifting the incus, and the platinum wires were snugly crimped around the long process of
the incus. An excellent round window reflex was achieved upon palpation of the ossicular
chain at this point.
Small dry pressed Gelfoam pledgets were then placed around the shaft of the prosthesis
and over the graft. The tympanomeatal flap was replaced. The lateral surface of the drum
was covered with Gelfoam, and the canal was filled with antibiotic ointment. The incision over the tragus was closed with running, interlocking 5-0 plain, fast-absorbing gut. A
cotton ball was placed in the canal, and the patient was awakened, extubated, and returned
to recovery in satisfactory condition. He will be discharged when fully awake and will
return to my office in two weeks. He will avoid strenuous activity, keep the ear dry, keep a
clean cotton ball in the ear, apply antibiotic ointment to the tragal incision, avoid driving
while dizzy, and he was given prescriptions for Lorcet Plus, Keflex, and Xanax.
Eye and Ocular Adnexa, Auditory Systems
3.
4.
5.
3. The stapes is removed.
4. The graft is placed.
5. A prosthesis is used.
6. Ossicular continuity is
achieved.
6.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 69660-RT, 21235-51
ICD-9-CM codes: 387.8, 389.05
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: In this case the stapes is removed and replaced with a prosthesis. A cartilage graft is also placed. From the CPT® Index, look up stapedectomy.
You are referred to 69660–69662. When you review the code descriptions, there are
two options. 69661 includes footplate drill out. The footplate was picked out. Sometimes, the footplate bone is too thick for a laser or pick to be effective. When the
footplate bone is too thick, a drill is required (footplate drillout). This is not the case.
69660 is the correct code. Modifier 50 is appended to the procedure code to report
the procedure is performed on the right ear. To report the harvesting of the cartilage graft, use 21235. Modifier 51 is appended to the lesser value RVU code when
multiple procedures are performed.
ICD-9-CM codes: The indications for the surgery are otosclerosis and conductive
hearing loss. From the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases, look up /Otosclerosis. You are
referred to 387.9 which is an unspecified code. From the note we know that the
otosclerosis is located on the anterior footplate of the stapes which is a specified
type that does not have a specific code. The more appropriate code in this case is
387.8. Next look up Loss/hearing/conductive/unilateral. You are referred to 389.05.
Verify the code description in the Tabular List for accuracy.
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15.5
Eye and Ocular Adnexa, Auditory Systems Chapter 15
Case 5
Preoperative Diagnosis: Serous otitis media with effusion and adenoidal hypertrophy.
1.
1. Two diagnoses to report.
Name of Procedure: Bilateral ventilation tube placement, Donaldson-Activent type,
Adenoidectomy.
2. General anesthesia is used.
3. Age of the patient.
4. Indication of which ear the
tube will be placed.
2.
3.
6. Placement of the ventilating
tube.
8. Adenoidectomy.
Anesthesia: General
Estimated Blood Loss: Less than 5 mL.
5. Tympanostomy.
7. Placement of tube performed
on the left side.
Postoperative Diagnosis: Serous otitis media with effusion, and adenoidal hypertrophy.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Findings: Patient s a 1 ½ -year-old white male with a history of the above noted diagnosis.
Operative findings included bilateral thickened drums. He had a right serous effusion.
The left was aerated for the most part. He had an intact palate and a 3-4 + adenoid pad.
Technique: Patient was brought into the operative suite and comfortably positioned on
the table. General mask anesthesia was induced. Appropriate drapes were placed. Attention was turned to the right ear. The external canal was cleaned of cerumen and irrigated
with alcohol. A radial incision was made in the right tympanic membrane. Middle ear
was evacuated of effusion and Donaldson-Activent tube was followed by Ciprodex otic
drops. The same procedure was performed on the contralateral side. The bed was turned
30° m clockwise fashion. The Crowe-Davis mouth gag was inserted and suspended. The
palate was palpated and felt to be intact. The soft palate was elevated and under direct
nasopharyngoscopy the adenoid was removed with powered adenoidectomy blade taking
care to avoid injury to the eustachian tube orifice. The base was cauterized with Bovie
suction cautery and a pack was placed. After several minutes the packs were removed. The
nasopharynx and oral cavity was irrigated and suctioned free of debris. The stomach was
evacuated with orogastric tube. Reevaluation showed no further active bleeding. Further
drapes and instruments were removed. The patient was returned to the care of Anesthesia, allowed to awaken, extubated and transported in stable condition to the recovery
room having tolerated the procedure well.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 42830, 69436-50-51
ICD-9-CM codes: 474.12, 381.4
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: Two procedures were performed for this case. The first
procedure reported is for the removal of the adenoids. In the Index, look up
Adenoids/Excision referring you to codes 42830-42836. Code 42830 is the correct
code to report due to the age of the patient. A secondary adenoidectomy was
not performed since documentation does not indicate that adenoid tissue had
grown back since an initial adenoidectomy. The second procedure reported is the
insertion of the ventilating tubes. An incision is made in the tympanum to insert the
tubes. In the Index, look up Tympanostomy referring you to codes 69433-69436.
The difference between the two codes is what type of anesthesia was used to
perform the procedure. General Anesthesia was used which makes code 69436 the
correct one to report. The procedure is performed on both the left and right ear
15.6
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Chapter 15 Eye and Ocular Adnexa, Auditory Systems
which requires appending modifier 50. Some payers may prefer modifier LT and RT
instead of modifier 50. In that case, the codes are 69436-RT and 69436-LT. For exam
purposes, follow CPT® guidelines and append modifier 50. Modifier 51 is appended
to indicate more than one procedure was performed.
ICD-9-CM codes: Two diagnosis codes are reported. The first code is for the adenoid
hypertrophy. In the Index to Diseases look for Hypertrophy, hypertrophic/adenoids
(infectional) referring you to code 474.12. The second diagnosis code is for the
serous otitis media with effusion. This means the patient has fluid in the middle ear
that cannot drain. This is supported in the documentation in which the note states:
Middle ear was evacuated of effusion. In the Index to Diseases, look for Otitis/with
effusion/serous referring you to code 381.4. Verify codes in the Tabular List.
Case 6
Preoperative diagnosis:
Tympanic membrane perforation, conductive hearing loss in the right ear.
Postoperative diagnosis: Tympanic membrane perforation, conductive hearing loss in
the right ear.
1.
Name of procedure: Right tympanoplasty via the postauricular approach.
1. Code the postoperative
diagnosis. Two codes are
required to fully describe the
patient’s diagnosis.
Anesthesia: General.
Estimated blood loss: Less than 20 ml.
2. The findings include
additional diagnosis
information.
Complications: None.
Specimens: None.
Indications: This is a 9-year-old white female with the above diagnoses and now presents
for surgical intervention.
Intraoperative findings: Intraoperative findings revealed tympanosclerosis posteriorly
with a central eardrum perforation of approximately 30% of the surface of the eardrum.
There was no cholesteatoma. The ossicular chain is intact.
2.
Description of operattve procedure: Under satisfactory general anesthesia the patient
was given preoperative intravenous antibiotic. The right ear was prepared and draped
in the usual sterile fashion. A postauricular incision was made and the temporalis fascia
graft was harvested. The posterior ear canal skin was elevated and tympanomeatal flap
3.
was developed. The Rosen needle was used to freshen the edge of the perforation. Gelfoam
was placed in the middle ear space. The graft was cut into the appropriate size and laid
medial to the remnant of the tympanic membrane anteriorly, posteriorly, inferiorly and
superiorly. Antibiotic ointment and Gelfoam were placed in the ear canal. Closure of the
4.
wound was done in layers with 4-0 Vicryl for the subcutaneous tissue and 4-0 Prolene for
skin. Pressure dressing was placed around the right ear. The patient tolerated the procedure well.
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3. This is the approach.
Postauricular incision is made
behind the auricle of the ear.
A graft is harvested from the
temporalis fascia to repair
the perforated tympanic
membrane.
4. The graft is cut to size and
placed.
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15.7
Eye and Ocular Adnexa, Auditory Systems Chapter 15
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 69620-RT
ICD-9-CM code: 384.21, 389.05, 385.00
RATIONALE: CPT® code: In this case, the patient has a perforated tympanic
membrane which requires repair. The physician uses a graft which is obtained from
the temporalis fascia. The surgery is performed on the tympanic membrane only.
The physician does not perform a procedure on the middle ear or a mastoidectomy.
In the CPT® Index, look up Tympanoplasty. All the code references include other
surgical procedures. There is an instruction to “see myringoplasty”. Myring/o means
tympanic membrane and plasty means surgical fixation. You are referred to 69620.
The description includes “confined to drum head and donor area” which describes
our procedure. 69610 is not correct because a patch (which is made of paper) was
not placed, a graft was placed. All other tympanoplasty codes include additional
surgical procedures which is not appropriate in this case. Modifier RT is appended to
identify the procedure was performed on the right ear.
ICD-9-CM code: The indication for the surgery is tympanic membrane perforation
and conductive hearing loss. In the findings section, the physician documents the
perforation is center and the patient also has tympanosclerosis. From the ICD-9-CM
Index to Diseases, look up Perforation/tympanum/central. You are referred to 384.21.
From the report we know the hearing loss is on the right side which means it is
unilateral. For the next diagnosis code, look up Loss/hearing/conductive/unilateral.
You are referred to 389.05. For the last diagnosis, look up Tympanosclerosis. There
is no indication if the tympanic membrane is the only structure involved. The code
selected is 385.00. Verify all code descriptions in the Tabular List for accuracy.
15.8
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Chapter 15 Eye and Ocular Adnexa, Auditory Systems
Case 7
Operative Report
Preoperative diagnosis:
Foreign body, right external ear canal.
Anesthetic: General. TIME BEGAN: 1015 TIME ENDED: 1035
Postoperative diagnosis: Foreign body, right external ear canal.
1.
Pathology Specimen: None.
1. The postoperative diagnosis is
used for coding.
Operation: Removal of foreign body using the microscope.
Date of procedure: 05/12/xx TIME BEGAN: 1021 TIME ENDED: 1022
2. General anesthesia is used.
Description of operation:
Under general anesthesia with the microscope in place, a pearly white plastic ball was
seen virtually obstructing the entire ear canal. Gently with a curette, this was teased out
of the ear canal atraumatically. The ear canal and eardrum were perfectly intact.
3. The foreign body is removed.
2.
3.
The patient tolerated the procedure well and was returned to the recovery room in satisfactory condition.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 69205-RT
ICD-9-CM code: 931
RATIONALE: CPT® code: When coding removal of a foreign body in the external
auditory canal, there are two choices. 69200 reports the removal without anesthesia
and 69205 reports with anesthesia. In this case, anesthesia is used which makes
69205 the correct answer. Modifier RT is appended to report the procedure was
performed on the right ear.
ICD-9-CM code: To locate the diagnosis code, look up Foreign body/entering
through orifice/auditory canal. You are referred to 931. Verify the code description in
the Tabular List for accuracy.
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15.9
Eye and Ocular Adnexa, Auditory Systems Chapter 15
Case 8
Preoperative diagnosis: Left lower eyelid basal cell carcinoma
1. The postoperative diagnosis is
used for coding.
2. Listed procedure.
3. MAC anesthesia used.
4. 3 mm margin is excised in
addition to the lesion.
5. The size of the lesion is 1/3 of
the left lower eyelid.
6. An additional 2 mm is
excised.
7. A flap is used to close the
defect.
8. A FTSK from the upper eyelid
is used to repair the defect of
the lower eyelid.
9. A tarsorrhaphy is performed.
1.
Postoperative diagnosis: Left lower eyelid basal cell carcinoma
Operation: Excision of left lower eyelid basal cell carcinoma with flaps and full thickness
2. skin graft and tarsorrhaphy.
Indication for surgery: The patient is a very pleasant female who complains of a one year
history of a left lower eyelid lesion and this was recently biopsied and found to be basal
cell carcinoma. She was advised that she would benefit from a complete excision of the left
lower eyelid lesion. She is aware of the risks of residual tumor, infection, bleeding, scarring and possible need for further surgery. All questions have been answered prior to the
day of surgery. She consents to the surgery.
Operative procedure:
The patient was placed on the operating room table in the supine position and an intravenous line was established by hospital staff prior to sedation and analgesia. Throughout the
3. entire case the patient received monitored anesthesia care. The patient’s entire face was
prepped and draped in the usual sterile fashion with a Betadine solution and topical tetracaine and corneal protective shields were placed over both corneas. A surgical marking
4. pen was used to mark the tumor. 3 mm markings were obtained around the tumor. The
5. tumor was noted to encompass approximately 1/3 of the left lower eyelid. A wedge resection was performed and this was marked and 2% Xylocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine,
0.5% Marcaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine was infiltrated around the lesion. This was
excised with a #15 blade. This was sent for intraoperative fresh frozen sections. Intraoperative fresh frozen sections revealed persistent basal cell carcinoma at the medial margin.
6. Another 2 mm of margin was discarded and a revised left lower eyelid medial margin
was sent for permanent sections. The area could not be closed primarily thus a tarsocon7. junctival advancement flap was advanced from the left upper eyelid to fill the defect. This
was sutured in place with multiple 5-0 Vicryl sutures. The anterior lamella defect of skin
was closed by harvesting a full-thickness skin graft from the left upper eyelid and placing
8. it in the left lower eyelid defect. This was sutured in place with multiple interrupted 5-0
chromic gut sutures. The eyelids were sutured shut both on the medial aspect of the
9. Hughes flap as well as the lateral aspect of the Hughes flap with a 4-0 silk suture. A pressure dressing and TobraDex ointment were applied. The patient tolerated the procedure
well and was transported back to the recovery area in excellent condition
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 67966-E2, 67971-51-E2, 67875-51-LT
ICD-9-CM code: 173.11
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: In this case an excision of a basal cell carcinoma is
performed. More than 1/3 of the lower eyelid is excised. A full thickness graft as
well as a flap (adjacent tissue transfer) is required for the closures. From the CPT®
Index, look up Excision/Lesion/Eyelid. Refer to the codes referenced in the index.
Under code 67840 there is a parenthetical note which states “For excision and
repair of eyelid by reconstructive surgery, see 67961, 67966.” 67961 is the code
15.10
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Chapter 15 Eye and Ocular Adnexa, Auditory Systems
for an excision and repair of a full thickness flap involving up to one-fourth of the
lid margin. In this case the excision is larger. Code 67966 reports the excision and
reconstruction with a flap or an excision over one-fourth of the lid margin which is
one of the correct codes for this case. A full thickness skin graft from one eyelid to
another is also performed. In the CPT® Index, look up Reconstruction/Eyelid. Refer
to the codes referenced in the index. Code 67971 reports the full thickness skin graft
from one eyelid to another which is performed in this scenario. A tarsorrhaphy is
performed. When looked up in the CPT® Index you are referred to 67875. Review the
code description for accuracy. When multiple procedures are performed, they are
sequenced in order from the most labor intensive (highest RVUs) to the lowest. In
this case, the proper sequence is 67966, 67971, 67875. The procedure codes 67966
and 67971 are performed on the left lower eyelid which is reported with modifier E2. Code 67875 is reported with an LT modifier to indicate the sutures placed
in the upper and lower eyelids to shut the left eye. When multiple procedures are
performed, modifier 51 is appended to the procedure codes that are listed after the
first listed CPT® code.
ICD-9-CM code: To determine the ICD-9 code, look up carcinoma/basal cell. There is
guidance to “see also neoplasm/skin/malignant”. From the Neoplasm Table, look at
skin/eyelid/basal cell carcinoma in the malignant column. You are referred to 173.11.
Refer to the Tabular List to verify the code accuracy.
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15.11
Eye and Ocular Adnexa, Auditory Systems Chapter 15
Case 9
Preoperative diagnosis:
1. Phacomorphic cataract, right eye.
Postoperative diagnosis:
1. The postoperative diagnosis is
used for coding.
1.
Cataract, right eye.
Procedure:
2. Topical anesthesia is used.
1. Complex phacoemulsification with manual stretch of the iris, right eye.
3. The procedure begins in the
right eye.
2. Peripheral iridectomy, right eye.
2.
4. This describes the approach.
Indications: The patient was seen in the Ophthalmology office with a complaint of
decreased vision in the right eye and was diagnosed with a cataract, right eye. The patient
was symptomatic and therefore given the option of cataract surgery for improved vision
or observation. The details of the procedure were discussed at length as well as the potential risks which include but are not limited to permanent decrease of vision from infection, inflammation, bleeding, retinal detachment and need for reoperation. The patient
understood the above and desired to proceed with cataract surgery.
5. Manual iris expansion.
6. A capsulorrhexis tear is
created.
7. Phacoemulsification is used to
break up the lens so it can be
removed.
8. An intraocular lens is
inserted.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
15.12
Anesthesia: Topical.
Description of procedure: The patient received dilating drops and anesthesia in the
preoperative area and was later brought into the operating room. The patient was sedated
by the anesthesia staff. The patient was then prepped and draped in the usual sterile
manner. The microscope was focused onto the right eye and the speculum was inserted
to separate the eyelids. The tip of the 2.8 mm keratome blade was used at the 6:00 o’clock
position to create the paracentesis that after which Amvisc plus was injected into the anterior chamber to create a deep anterior chamber. The same blade was used at 1:00 o’clock
to create the main clear corneal wound into the anterior chamber. A two hand technique
using iris expansion devices was used to expand the size of the pupil. The instruments
were used at the sites directly opposite of one another to stretch the iris. They were then
rotated 180 degrees to stretch the iris in that new meridian. The cystotome needle on the
balanced salt solution syringe was used to initially create the capsulorrhexis flap and the
capsulorrhexis forceps were used to create the continuous capsulorrhexis tear. A flat tip
hydrodissection cannula on the balanced salt solution syringe was used to hydrodissect
and hydrodelineate the lens. The phacoemulsification unit was used to remove the nucleus
and irrigation and aspiration was used to remove the residual cortex. The bag was inflated
with Amvisc plus and a lens of 27.5 diopter model SI40MB was injected into the bag and
then dialed into place. The Amvisc plus was removed with irrigation and aspiration mode.
The anterior chamber was then inflated to the appropriate firmness using balanced salt
solution. After the globe was inflated to the appropriate firmness, 0.1 cc of Vancomycin
was injected into the anterior chamber. The wounds were checked for leakage and none
was found. The globe was checked for appropriate firmness and found to be desirable. The
speculum was disinserted and the patient was brought into the postoperative area where
postoperative instructions for surgical eye care were given, including the use of topical eye
drops and the need for subsequent follow-up.
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Chapter 15 Eye and Ocular Adnexa, Auditory Systems
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 66982-RT
ICD-9-CM code: 366.9
RATIONALE: CPT® code: This case is coded as an extracapsular cataract removal
because phacoemulsification is performed. The physician also uses devices
to expand the iris and a capsulorrhexis tear is created making this a complex
procedure. In the CPT® Index, look for Removal/Cataract/with Replacement/
Extracapsular and you are referred to 66982, 66984. The procedures performed
are reported with 66982. Modifier RT is appended to report the procedure was
performed on the right eye.
ICD-9-CM code: The patient is diagnosed with a cataract. From the Index to
Diseases, look up Cataract. There are no subterms that pertain to this case. You are
referred to 366.9.
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15.13
Eye and Ocular Adnexa, Auditory Systems Chapter 15
Case 10
1. IV Sedation and local
anesthesia is used.
2. The postoperative diagnosis is
used for coding.
3. Indicates the type of IOL.
4. The surgeon performs a
block and sedation which
is included in the surgical
package.
5. The left eye is prepped for the
surgery.
6. An incision is made.
7. The physician performs a
capsulotomy.
8. Phacoemulsification is
performed.
9. The intraocular lens is
inserted in the capsular bag.
1.
IV Sedation and Local
Preoperative diagnosis: Cataract of the Left Eye
2.
Postoperative diagnosis: Cataract of the Left Eye
3.
Procedure performed:Cataract Extraction, Foldable Posterior Chamber Intraocular
Lens of the Left Eye
Procedure: The patient was brought to the Operating Room and placed on the operating
table in the supine position. An intravenous line was started in the patient’s left arm. After
4. appropriate sedation, a left O’Brien and left retrobulbar block were administered, which
consisted of a 50/60 mixture of 0.75% Bupivacaine and 2% lidocaine. The Honan balloon
was then placed over the operative eye. While the surgeon scrubbed for 5 minutes the
patient was prepped and draped in the usual sterile fashion including instillation of 5%
5. Betadine solution to the left cornea and cul-de-sac, which was irrigated with balanced
6. salt solution and the use an eyelid drape. A limbal incision was performed with the
super sharp blade. Provisc was injected into the anterior chamber. A capsulotomy was
7. performed with a cystitome and Utrata forceps such that it was 6 mm and oval in shape.
Hydrodissection was performed with balanced salt solution. The nucleus was removed
8. using the phacoemulsification mode of the Alcon 20,000 Legacy Series System by divide
and conquer technique under Viscoat control. The cortex was removed using the irrigation aspiration mode. The anterior chamber was then filled with Proviso and the AcrySof
9. foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens was then inserted into the capsular bag and
rotated into position such that the optic was well centered. The Proviso was removed
using the irrigation and aspiration mode. Miochol was injected to constrict the pupil. The
wound was checked and deemed to be watertight. A collagen shield soaked in Ciloxan
and Pred Forte was applied. The standard postoperative patch and shield were placed and
the patient was transferred to the Recovery Room in stable condition.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 66984-LT
ICD-9-CM code: 366.9
RATIONALE: CPT® code: This is an extracapsular cataract removal. Phacoemulsification is performed to remove the cataract. The IOL is inserted into the capsular bag.
In the CPT® Index, look for Removal/Cataract/with Replacement/Extracapsular and
you are referred to 66982, 66984. This procedure is reported with Modifier LT is
appended to report the procedure is performed on the left eye.
ICD-9-CM code: The indication of the surgery is cataract. In the Index to Diseases,
look up Cataract. You are referred to 366.9. There is no additional information
provided to select a more specific diagnosis code.
15.14
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Chapter
16
Anesthesia
Case 1
CRNA performed anesthesia
1.
Anesthesiologist medically directing two cases
2.
Anesthesia Time: 9:30 to 10:06
Physical Status 3
3.
1. Use Modifier QX to indicate
CRNA services with medical
direction by a physician.
2. Use modifier QK to indicate
medical direction of two
cases.
3. Physical status 3—use P3
modifier.
Preoperative diagnosis: Cyst on knee
Postoperative diagnosis: Baker’s Cyst
4.
4. Use post-operative diagnosis.
Procedure: Excision of Baker’s Cyst, knee
5.
5. Excision is an open procedure
and is performed on the knee.
Anesthesia: Monitored Anesthesia Care
6.
6. MAC services require QS
modifier.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM Codes reported for the Anesthesiologist?
CPT® Codes: 01400-QK-QS-P3
ICD-9-CM Code: 727.51
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM Codes reported for the CRNA?
CPT® Code: 01400-QX-QS-P3
ICD-9-CM Code: 727.51
What is the time reported for this service?
36 minutes
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: Look in the CPT® Index for Anesthesia/Knee. You are referred
to a large selection of codes. Other than 00400 (used for Integumentary), the codes
directed fall within the range 01320–01444 (Knee and Popliteal Area). An excision is
an open procedure, so you would find the code specific to open procedures on the
knee. There is not a specific anesthesia code for excision of a Baker’s cyst, so CPT®
01400 is reported. The physical status is reported as level 3 (P3). QK is used to indicate the anesthesiologist is directing 2–4 concurrent cases. QX is used to indicate the
services reported by the CRNA. QS reports Monitored Anesthesia Care (MAC) services.
ICD-9-CM code: The post-operative diagnosis is Baker’s Cyst. In the ICD-9-CM Index
to Diseases, you can either look for Baker’s/cyst (knee) or Cyst/Baker’s (knee), both
options direct you to 727.51.
Time: The anesthesia time is noted as 9:30–10:06, which is 36 minutes.
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16.1
Anesthesia
Chapter 16
Case 2
1.
Anesthesiologist personally performed
2.
Anesthesia Time: 7:12 to 10:08
3.
Physical Status 2
Preoperative diagnosis: Suspected Prostate Cancer
1. Personally performed by
anesthesiologist—use AA
modifier.
4.
Postoperative diagnosis: Prostate Carcinoma
5.
Procedure: Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy
2. Time is 176 minutes.
6.
Anesthesia: General
3. Physical status 2, use P2
modifier.
4. Post-operative diagnosis 185.
5. Procedure performed.
Make note the procedure is
“radical.”
6. General anesthesia.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM Codes reported for the Anesthesiologist?
CPT® Code: 00865-AA-P2
ICD-9-CM Code: 185
What is the time reported for this service?
176 minutes
RATIONALE: CPT® code: The procedure performed is a radical retropubic prostatectomy. The prostate is considered extraperitoneal in the lower abdomen. Look in the
CPT® Index for Anesthesia/Prostatectomy/Radical which refers you to CPT® 00865. P2
is used to report the physical status level 2. AA is used to report the anesthesiologist
personally performed the anesthesia.
ICD-9-CM code: In the Neoplasm Table, look for Prostate. Carcinoma indicates a
malignancy. ICD-9-CM code 185 from the primary malignancy column is reported.
Time: The start time is 7:12. The end time is 10:08. This calculates to 2 hours and 56
minutes, or 176 minutes.
16.2
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Chapter 16
Anesthesia
Case 3
Non-medically directed CRNA performed anesthesia and documented intra-operative
placement of continuous femoral nerve catheter for post operative pain.
1.
Anesthesia Time: 7:18 to 9:10
3.
Physical Status 3
4.
2.
Preoperative diagnosis: Left Knee Osteoarthosis
Postoperative diagnosis: Left Knee Osteoarthrosis, localized primary, Acute postoperative pain
5.
6.
Procedure: Total knee arthroplasty
7.
Anesthesia: General anesthesia provided for surgery, Surgeon requested post-operative
pain management via continuous femoral catheter
8.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM Codes reported for the CRNA?
CPT® Codes: 01402-QZ-P3, 64448-59
ICD-9-CM Codes: 715.16, 338.18
What is the time reported for this service?
112 minutes
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: Look in the CPT® Index under Anesthesia/Arthroplasty/
Knee and you are directed to CPT® 01402. P3 indicates a physical status level 3. Modifier QZ is used to indicate the services were performed by a CRNA without medical
direction.
1. CRNA services without
medical direction require
modifier QZ.
2. Anesthesia and intraoperative placement of
continuous femoral nerve
catheter.
3. Time calculates to 1 hour 52
minutes, or 112 minutes.
4. Physical status 3 requires P3
modifier.
5. Primary diagnosis is specified
as Left Knee Osteoarthrosis,
localized, primary.
6. Diagnosis of Acute posoperative pain gives medical
necessity for the intraoperative placement of
continuous femoral nerve
catheter.
7. The procedure is total
knee arthroplasty NOT
Arthroscopy, which carries a
lower base value.
8. Anesthesia provided is
general.
The intra-operative placement of continuous femoral nerve catheter is separate
from the general anesthesia used for the surgery; therefore, it is reported separately.
The catheter is placed for management of the post-operative pain via continuous
femoral catheter. To find the CPT® code to report this, look in the index under
Femoral Nerve/Injection/Anesthetic, this directs you to 64447–64448. CPT® code
64448 is for the continuous infusion by catheter and includes the catheter placement, so a separate code for the placement would not be reported. Modifier 59 is
appended to indicate it is a separate procedure from the general anesthesia used for
the surgery.
ICD-9-CM codes: The diagnosis for the general anesthesia is Left Knee
Osteoarthrosis, localized, primary. Look in the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases under
Osteoarthrosis/localized/primary to find 715.1, then select the fifth digit 6 for the
knee (lower leg).
Time: The start time is 7:18, the end time is 9:10. This calculates to 1 hour 52 minutes,
or 112 minutes.
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16.3
Anesthesia
Chapter 16
Case 4
1. Total anesthesia time 3 hours
26 minutes, or 206 minutes.
1.
Anesthesia Start: 14:07 Anesthesia End: 17:33
2.
Physical Status 3 Anesthesiologist: Michael D, MD
2. Physical status 3, use modifier
P3.
Operative Report
Preoperative diagnosis: Lumbar spinal stenosis
Personally performed by the
anesthesiologist, use modifier
AA.
3. Post-operative diagnosis of
lumbar (L4-L5) stenosis.
4. The following procedures
were performed: L4-5
laminectomy, removal
of synovial cyst, bilateral
medial facetectomy and
posterolateral fusion L4-L5
with vertebral autograft,
bone morphogenic protein,
chip allograft, all with
intraoperative somatosensory
evoked potentials,
electromyographies and
loupe magnification. The
Laminectomy is more
complex and carries a higher
base value.
5. Type of anesthesia is general.
3.
Postoperative diagnosis: L4–L5 spinal stenosis
Procedure:
L4–L5 laminectomy, removal of synovial cyst, bilateral medial facetectomy and posterolateral fusion L4–L5 with vertebral autograft, bone morphogenic protein, chip allograft,
all with intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials, electromyographies and loupe
4. magnification.
5.
Anesthesia: General endotracheal anesthesia.
Description of Procedure:
The patient was taken to the operating room and underwent intravenous anesthetic and
orotracheal intubation. Her head was placed in the three-pin Mayfield headrest. She was
turned into the prone position on a four-poster frame. All pressure points were carefully
padded. The fluoroscope was brought in and sterilely draped to help localize the incision.
A midline incision was made between L4 and L5 through skin and subcutaneous tissue
and the paraspinal muscles were dissected free of the spinous process, lamina, facets and
L4, L5 transverse processes. Self-retainers were placed more deeply. We proceeded to use
the double-action rongeur to remove the L4–L5 spinous process lamina. 3 and 4 millimeter Kerrison punches were used to complete the laminectomy including removing the
hypertrophied ligamentum flavum. We made sure that we decompressed from the top of
the L4 pedicle to the bottom of the L5 pedicle, which was confirmed with intraoperative
fluoroscopy. The medial facets were drilled and then we undercut over the nerve roots
with a 3 millimeter Kerrison punch. Hemostasis was achieved with powdered Gelfoam.
We irrigated the wound. We decorticated the L4 and L5 transverse processes. We placed
our vertebral autograft, bone morphogenic protein and chip allograft in the posterolateral
gutters. Hemovac drain was placed. We closed the muscle with 0 Vicryl. Fascia was closed
with 0 Vicryl. Subcutaneous tissue was closed with 2-0 Vicryl and the skin was closed
with staples.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM Codes reported for the Anesthesiologist?
CPT® Code: 00630-AA-P3
ICD-9-CM Code: 724.02
What is the time reported for this service?
206 minutes.
16.4
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Chapter 16
Anesthesia
RATIONALE: CPT® code: The following procedures were performed: L4–L5
laminectomy, removal of synovial cyst, bilateral medial facetectomy and
posterolateral fusion L4–L5 with vertebral autograft, bone morphogenic
protein, chip allograft, all with intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials,
electromyographies and loupe magnification. According to the CPT® Index,
Anesthesia/Spine and Spinal Cord/Lumbar refers you to codes 00630–00635,
00640, 00670. The most complex procedure performed is the laminectomy which
is reported with 00630 Anesthesia for procedures in lumbar region; not otherwise
specified. Modifier AA is used to indicate the anesthesia service was personally
performed by the Anesthesiologist. Modifier P3 is used to indicate a level 3 Physical
Status. Anesthesia modifiers always precede physical status modifiers.
ICD-9-CM code: The postoperative diagnosis is L4–L5 Spinal Stenosis. L4–L5 is
located in the lumbar region. To locate the ICD-9-CM code, look in the Index to
Diseases for Stenosis/spinal/lumbar. There is no indication of neurogenic claudication, so ICD-9-CM code 724.02 is reported.
Time: The start time is 14:07 (2:07 pm) and the end time is 17:33 (5:33 pm). This time
calculates to 3 hours and 26 minutes, or 206 minutes.
Case 5
CRNA directly supervised by anesthesiologist who is directing two other cases.
1.
CRNA inserted Swan-Ganz catheter, a separate CVP, and an A-line
2.
Patient has a severe systemic disease that is a constant threat to life
3.
Anesthesia Time: 11:43 to 15:26
4.
5.
Name of procedure: Coronary artery bypass graft x 3, left internal mammary artery
to the LAD, saphenous vein graft to the obtuse marginal, saphenous vein graft to the
diagonal.
Anesthesia: General
Anesthesiologist was
directing two cases, this
supports the use of modifier
QK.
2. Swan-Ganz is reported
separately by the CRNA.
Preoperative diagnosis: Multivessel coronary artery disease.
Postoperative diagnosis: Coronary artery disease, native artery
1. CRNA directly supervised by
the Anesthesiologist supports
modifer QX.
6.
Brief history: This 77-year-old patient who was found to have a huge aneurysm. Preoperative cardiac clearance revealed a markedly positive stress test and cardiac catheterization showed critical left-sided disease. Coronary revascularization was recommended. The
patient has multiple medical illnesses including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
with emphysema and chronic renal insufficiency. I discussed with the patient and the
family, the risks of operation including the risk of bleeding, infection, stroke, blood transfusion, renal failure, and death. At operation, we harvested a vein from the left leg using
an endoscopic technique that turned out to be a very good conduit. Her obtuse marginal
vessel was a 1.5 mm diffusely diseased vessel that was bypassed distally as it ran in the
left ventricular muscle. The diagonal was a surprisingly good vessel at 1.5 mm in size. The
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CVP is reported separately by
the CRNA.
A-line (Arterial line) is
reported separately by the
CRNA.
3. Supports modifier P4 for
physical status 4.
4. Time calculates to 3 hours 43
minutes or 223 minutes.
5. Post-operative diagnosis
should be used for diagnosis
reporting.
6. Anesthesia is general.
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16.5
Anesthesia
Chapter 16
LAD was bypassed in the mid aspect of the LAD and there was distal disease though a
1.5 mm probe passed quite easily. Good flow was measured in the graft. The patient came
off bypass very nicely. Note should be made that her ascending aorta was calcified and we
used a single clamp technique.
7. Verifies line placement by the
Anesthesiology department.
8. A bypass machine was
used indicating the “pump
oxygenator.”
Description of Operative Procedure: Following delivery of the patient to the operating
room, the patient was placed under general anesthetic, was prepped and draped in the
usual sterile manner. Arterial line, Right Pulmonary Artery Catheter and a Left Subcla7. vian central lines were placed by the Anesthesia Department. A median sternotomy was
made and the left internal mammary artery was harvested from the left chest wall, the
saphenous vein was harvested from the left leg. The patient was heparinized and cannu8. lated and placed on cardiopulmonary bypass with an aortic cannula on the undersurface
of the aortic arch and a venous cannula through the right atrial sidewall. Note should
be made that the upper aorta was very heavily calcified, but the area that we cannulated
was felt to be disease free. The aorta was cross clamped and the heart was stopped with
antegrade and retrograde cardioplegic solution. The heart was retracted out of the pericardial sac and then displaced into the right chest which afforded good access to the
lone marginal vessel which was bypassed with a reversed saphenous vein graft using
a running 7-0 Prolene suture. Cold cardioplegic solution was then instilled down this
graft. Note should be made that during the mammary artery harvest, the left lung was
completely adherent to the left chest wall, most likely from old episodes of pneumonia.
Next, a second saphenous vein segment was placed to the diagonal vessel and then the
left internal mammary artery was placed to the mid LAD. As noted, there was diffuse
calcification distally in this artery just beyond the anastomosis, but the 1.5 mm probe
passed very nicely and we felt that it was not necessary to double jump this LAD. With
the cross clamp in place, two proximal aortotomies were made and the two proximal
anastomoses were formed using 6-0 Prolene in a running fashion. Just prior to completion of the second anastomosis, appropriate de-airing maneuvers were performed and
then the suture lines were tied as the cross clamp was removed. The patient was allowed
to rewarm completely and was weaned from bypass. The cannulas were removed and the
cannulation sites were secured with pursestring sutures. Once hemostasis was secured,
chest tubes were placed and the wound was closed. Final needle, instrument, and sponge
counts were reported as correct. The patient tolerated the procedure well and returned to
the recovery room in stable condition.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM Codes reported for the Anesthesiologist?
CPT® Code: 00567-QK-P4, 99100
ICD-9-CM Code: 414.01
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM Codes reported for the CRNA?
CPT® Codes: 00567-QX-P4, 93503, 36620, 36556-59
ICD-9-CM Code: 414.01
What is the time reported for this service?
223 minutes
16.6
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Chapter 16
Anesthesia
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: The procedure performed was a CABG (Coronary Artery
Bypass Graft). To locate the service in the CPT® Index, look under Anesthesia/Heart/
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting and you are directed to 00566, 00567. Selecting
between the two codes depends on the use of a pump oxygenator. The documentation states “…the patient was placed on a cardiopulmonary bypass…” indicating
with pump oxygenator. 00567 is the correct anesthesia code. The patient is identified as having severe systemic disease that is a constant threat to life, supporting a
P4 modifier.
For the CRNA, modifier QX is used to report the CRNA service with medical direction. Anesthesia modifiers precede physical status modifiers. The CRNA also inserted
a Swan-Ganz catheter in the right pulmonary artery (93503) and placed a central
venous catheter in the left subclavian (36556). Anesthesia modifiers are not used on
surgical procedure codes. A central line 36556 is bundled with 93503. A Swan-Ganz
catheter is a central line with multiple lumens which is flow-directed into the pulmonary artery. Modifier 59 is required with 36556 to indicate that this central line is in
another site and totally separate from 93503. Code 93503 is modifier 51 exempt. The
CRNA also inserted an A-Line (arterial line) which is coded separately with 36620.
For the anesthesiologist, modifier QK indicates the medical direction of 2–4 concurrent cases. The anesthesia modifiers precede physical status modifiers. Code 99100
is also reported due to the patient being 77-years-old.
ICD-9-CM code: The diagnosis is stated as Coronary Artery Disease, Native Artery.
To find the ICD-9-CM code, look in the Index to Diseases under Disease/artery/
coronary and you are directed to “see Arteriosclerosis, coronary.” Looking under
Arteriosclerosis/coronary (artery)/native artery, you are directed to 414.01.
Time: The anesthesia time is stated as 11:43 to 15:26 (3:26 pm), which calculates to 3
hours 43 minutes, or 223 minutes.
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16.7
Anesthesia
Chapter 16
Case 6
1. QX (CRNA service with
medical direction by a
physician).
2. QK (Medical direction of
two, three, or four concurrent
anesthesia procedures
involving qualified
individual).
3. Anesthesia time is 42
minutes.
4. Physical status 1, musee
modifier P1.
5. Postoperative diagnosis is
used for coding.
6. Circumcision (6 month old
child, don’t forget about age
Qualifying Circumstances).
7. Monitored Anesthesia Care
(Requires QS modifier.).
1.
CRNA performed anesthesia under medical direction of anesthesiologist
2.
Anesthesiologist medically directing three cases
3.
Anesthesia time: 8:52 to 9:34
4.
Physical status 1
Preoperative diagnosis: Phimosis, congenital
5.
Postoperative diagnosis: Phimosis, congenital
6.
Procedure: Circumcision on six-month-old boy
7.
Anesthesia: Monitored anesthesia care
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM Codes reported for the Anesthesiologist?
CPT® Codes: 00920-QK-QS-P1, 99100
ICD-9-CM Code: 605
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM Codes reported for the CRNA?
CPT® Code: 00920-QS, QX, P1
ICD-9-CM Code: 605
What is the time reported for this service?
42 Minutes
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: The procedure is circumcision. Look in the CPT® Index
under Anesthesia for Genitalia/male and you are directed to code range 00920–
00938. There is not a code specific to circumcision, so 00920 Anesthesia for procedures on male genitalia is used. The patient is 6-months-old so you would add the
qualifying circumstance for extreme age (99100). The qualifying circumstance is
only reported for the physician. The physical status is stated as 1, so modifier P1 is
appended. Modifier QS is appended to indicate Monitored Anesthesia Care (MAC).
Modifier QK is appended to the anesthesiologist’s code to indicate medical direction of two, three, or four concurrent anesthesia procedures involving qualified
individuals. Modifier QX is appended to the CRNA’s services to indicate the CRNA
is performing under the medical direction of an anesthesiologist. The anesthesia
modifier is placed first, followed by QS, with the physical status modifier placed last.
ICD-9-CM Code: The diagnosis is phimosis. Look in the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases
for phimosis (congenital) and you are directed to code 605. Verification of this code
in the Tabular List confirms code selection.
Time: The anesthesia time is noted as 8:52–9:34, which is 42 minutes.
16.8
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Chapter 16
Anesthesia
Case 7
CRNA performed anesthesia under medical direction of anesthesiologist
1.
Anesthesiologist medically directing one case
2.
CRNA placed arterial line
3.
Anesthesia Time: 10:43 to 12:50
4.
Physical Status 3
5.
Preoperative Diagnosis: Left Renal Mass
Postoperative Diagnosis: Same
6.
Procedure: Left Partial Nephrectomy, Laparoscopic
7.
Anesthesia: General
Procedure Description: Abdominal wall insufflated. The laparoscope was placed through
the umbilical port and additional trocars were placed into the abdominal cavity. Using
the fiberoptic camera, the renal mass was identified and the diseased kidney tissue was
removed using electrocautery. Minimal bleeding is noted. Instruments were removed
and the abdominal incisions were closed by suture. Patient tolerated surgery well and was
transferred to the Post Anesthesia Care Unit in satisfactory condition.
1. QX (CRNA with medical
direction by a physician).
2. QY (medical direction
of one CRNA by an
anesthesiologist).
3. 36620 - Arterial line placed by
CRNA.
4. Time reported is 2 hours 7
minutes or 127 minutes.
5. Use physical status modifier
P3.
6. Postoperative diagnosis is
the same as the preoperative
diagnosis—Left Renal Mass.
7. Procedure performed.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM Codes reported for the Anesthesiologist?
CPT® Code: 00862-QY-P3
ICD-9-CM Code: 593.9
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM Codes reported for the CRNA?
CPT® Codes: 00862-QX-P3, 36620
ICD-9-CM Code: 593.9
What is the time reported for this service?
2 hours and 7 minutes, or 127 minutes
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: Look in the CPT® Index for Anesthesia/nephrectomy
and you are guided to 00862. Verification of the code confirms this code is for
anesthesia for renal procedures. The anesthesiologist was medically directing one
CRNA; therefore, QY is appended to 00862. The medically directed CRNA service is
reported with modifier QX. The anesthesia modifiers always precede the physical
status modifier. The CRNA also inserted an A-Line (arterial line) which is coded
separately with 36620.
ICD-9-CM Code: The post operative diagnosis is Kidney Mass (Do not code mass as
neoplasm—coding instructions indicate to see disease of specified organ when not
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16.9
Anesthesia
Chapter 16
listed under mass). Look in the ICD-9-CM Index for Mass/kidney and you are directed
to 593.9.
Time: The start time is listed as 10:43. The end time is listed as 12:50. This calculates
to 2 hours and 7 minutes or 127 minutes.
Case 8
1. Use modifier AA to indicate
the Anesthesiologist
personally performed the case.
2. Anesthesia time is 37
minutes.
3. Physical status 3 ‑ use P3
modifier.
4. Post-operative diagnosis
confirmsl RLL CA.
5. Procedure performed.
6. Use modifier QS to indicate
monitored anesthesia care
was used.
1.
Anesthesiologist personally performed case
2.
Anesthesia time: 13:04 to 13:41
3.
Physical status 3
Preoperative diagnosis: RLL Lung Cavity, possible CA of lung
4.
Postoperative diagnosis: Right Lower Lobe Lung Carcinoma
5.
Procedure: Bronchoscopy
6.
Anesthesia: Monitored anesthesia care
Procedure description: With the patient under satisfactory anesthesia, a flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope was introduced via oral cavity and advanced past the larynx for
visualization of the bronchus. Cell washings were obtained and sent to pathology. The
bronchoscope was then removed. Patient tolerated procedure well.
Cell washings obtained from the right lower lobe were confirmed by pathology as malignant carcinoma.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM Codes reported for the Anesthesiologist?
CPT® Code: 00520-AA-QS-P3
ICD-9-CM Code: 162.5
What is the time reported for this service?
37 minutes.
RATIONALE: CPT® code: Look in the CPT® Index under Anesthesia/Bronchoscopy
and you are directed to code 00520. Modifier AA is used to indicate the anesthesia
service was personally performed by the anesthesiologist. Modifier QS is used to
indicate MAC was used. Modifier P3 is used to indicate the patient is physical status
3. Anesthesia modifiers are always listed first, followed by the MAC modifier QS.
Physical status modifiers are listed last.
ICD-9-CM code: The diagnosis is confirmed as RLL CA, look in the Neoplasm Table
for lung/lower lobe and the Malignant, Primary column indicates 162.5 is the correct
code.
Time: The start time is 13:04. The end time is 13:41. The time calculates to 37 minutes.
16.10
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Chapter 16
Anesthesia
Case 9
Anesthesia services personally provided by Anesthesiologist
1.
Physical Status 2
2.
Anesthesia Start: 10:03—Anesthesia Stop: 11:06
3.
1. Use modifier AA to
indicate the anesthesia was
personally performed by the
anesthesiologist.
2. Physical status 2, use modifier
P2.
Preoperative diagnosis: Sternal wound hematoma.
Postoperative diagnosis: Complicated upper abdominal wall wound.
4.
Name of procedure: Sternal wound exploration and wound vac placement.
5.
Anesthesia: Monitored Anesthesia Care
6.
Brief history: He is a 52-year-old patient who is two weeks out from re-do sternotomy
and aortic valve replacement for critical aortic stenosis in the setting of heart failure. He
had a postoperative coagulopathy and required sternal re-exploration with open packing. 7.
He was closed the next day. He had serous discharged prior to going home but this was
culture negative and the wound looked very good. He continued to have serous discharge
in the clinic and it was felt he had a retained hematoma. He was scheduled for evaluation
of the hematoma and wound vac placement. This was done without incident. He did not
have any evidence of infection. There was no evidence of any sternal instability.
Description of operative procedure: Following delivery of the patient to the operating
room, the patient was placed on the operating table, prepared and draped in the usual
sterile manner. His upper abdominal wound was explored. There was hematoma at the
base of the wound which was very carefully evacuated and the wound was irrigated with 8.
antibacterial solution. A wound vac was then placed with the assistance of the wound care
nurse. The patient was returned to the PCU in stable condition.
9.
3. Anesthesia time is 1 hour and
3 minutes, or 63 minutes.
4. Postoperative diagnosis
used for coding if no other
indication is found in the
operative note.
5. Procedure performed.
6. Use modifier QS to indicate
MAC is used.
7. The wound is a post-operative
complication.
8. Confirms a postoperative
hematoma.
9. Wound vac placed by a wound
care nurse.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM Codes reported for the Anesthesiologist?
CPT® Code: 00700-AA-QS-P2
ICD-9-CM Code: 998.12
What is the time reported for this service?
63 minutes.
RATIONALE: CPT® code: In the CPT® Index, look for Anesthesia/Abdomen,
Abdominal Wall and you are directed to a range of codes. This is an upper
abdominal wound from a sternal (anterior) procedure. 00700 Anesthesia for
procedures on upper anterior abdominal wall is the correct code. Anesthesia modifier
AA indicates that the anesthesiologist personally performed the anesthesia care.
Anesthesia modifiers are always placed first. The QS modifier indicates MAC, and the
physical status P2 is listed last.
ICD-9-CM code: The diagnosis is listed as a complicated abdominal wound; however,
the body of the note indicates it is a retained hematoma from the procedures two
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16.11
Anesthesia
Chapter 16
weeks prior. Look in the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases for Hematoma/postoperative
and you are guided to 998.12.
Time: The start time is 10:03. The end time is 11:06. This calculates to 1 hour and 3
minutes, or 63 minutes.
1. Time reported is 1 hour 13
minutes, or 73 minutes.
2. Modifier QZ used to indicate
sesrvices are performed by
a CRNA with no medical
direction.
1.
2.
3.
3. Physical status 3—use
modifier P3.
4. Postoperative diagnosis is the
same as preoperative which
is stricture of the left ureter,
postoperative.
Case 10
Anesthesia start: 12:18
Anesthesia end: 13:31
CRNA: John Sleep, CRNA (Non-Medically Directed)
ASA Physical status-III
Operative Report
4.
Preoperative diagnosis: Stricture of the left ureter, postoperative
Postoperative diagnosis: SAME
Procedure:
5. Modifier QS is used to
indicate MAC.
1. Cystoscopy of ileal conduit.
5.
2. Exchange of left nephroureteral catheter.
Anesthesia: Monitored anesthesia care.
Description of procedure: The patient is identified in the holding area, marked, taken
to the operating room. Subsequently, she was given monitored anesthesia care. She was
prepped and draped in the usual sterile fashion in the supine position. Next, using a flexible cystoscope, the ileal conduit was entered. Cystoscopy was performed, which showed
the ureteroileal anastomosis on the left with a stent protruding from it. There were no
calcifications seen on the stent. Thus, the cystoscope was removed from the ileal conduit
and then a super stiff wire was advanced through the nephroureteral catheter, up into the
kidney. Once it was up there, then the catheter was taken off of the wire and then a new
8-French x 28-centimeter, nephroureteral ureteral catheter was advanced fluoroscopically into the level of the kidney. Once this was done and its position was confirmed fluoroscopically, the wire was pulled. A good curl was there fluoroscopically in the kidney,
as the wire was pulled. A good curl was seen in the bladder and then the distal end was
protruding out from the ileal conduit. This was placed in the ostomy bag and the patient
was taken in stable condition to the recovery room.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM Codes reported for the CRNA?
CPT® Code: 00860-QS, QZ, P3
ICD-9-CM Code: 593.3
16.12
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Anesthesia
What is the time reported for this service?
73 minutes.
RATIONALE: CPT® code: Both a cystoscopy and exchange of ureteral stent via ilealoconduit were performed. The ureteral stent was more complex and carries a higher
base value. The ureter is part of the urinary system. Look in the index for Anesthesia/
urinary tract, and you are directed to 00860 Anesthesia for extraperitoneal procedures
in lower abdomen, including urinary tract; not otherwise specified. Anesthesia modifier
QZ indicates the CRNA was without medical direction. Modifier QS is reported to
show MAC. The physical status was 3.
ICD-9-CM code: The diagnosis is a stricture of the left ureter, postoperative. Look in
the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases under Stricture/ureter (postoperative) and you are
directed to 593.3. Verification in the Tabular List confirms code selection.
Time: The start time is 12:18. The end time is 13:31. This calculates to 73 minutes.
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16.13
Chapter
17
Radiology
Case 1
Location: Regional Hospital
1.
CT thorax w/contrast, CT abdomen w/contrast, CT pelvis w/contrast, low osmolar
contrast
2.
2. Three separate CT scan
performed:
Exam: CT chest with contrast; CT abdomen with contrast; CT pelvis with contrast
August 5, 20XX.
Thorax (chest)
Abdomen
Comparison: CT chest Regional Hospital 7/8/20XX.
History: Non-small-cell lung cancer.
Technique: Axial images of the chest, abdomen pelvis with oral and 125 cc
Omnipaque-300 intravenous contrast.
Pelvis
3.
4.
5.
6.
Findings: Chest CT shows left upper lobe and pulmonary mass which appear centrally
necrotic abutting the posterior pleural surface and mediastinum without definitive invasion, 83 x 64 mm, prior 76 x 56 mm, image 15. Stable lingular and left basilar, right middle
lobe and right lower lobe superior segment pleural-parenchymal opacity suggesting
scarring. New mild subsegmental infiltrate left upper lobe. No pneumothorax or pleural
fluid. No thoracic adenopathy. Heart size normal, no pericardial effusion. Left coronary
arteriosclerotic calcification present. No osseous neoplasm. Abdomen CT shows normal 7.
liver, gallbladder, biliary ducts, pancreas, spleen, adrenal glands and kidneys. Stomach
and duodenum within normal limits. Aortoiliac arterial sclerosis without aneurysm. No
retroperitoneal adenopathy. Pelvis CT shows no mass, adenopathy or ascites. No bowel
8.
obstruction. No hernia. No osseous neoplasm. Lumbar spine degenerative change present.
Left-sided muscle atrophy and brace noted.
Conclusion: 1. Increasing size left upper lobe pulmonary mass with central cavitation
suggested. 2. No thoracic adenopathy or distant metastatic disease demonstrated.
3. Coronary arteriosclerosis.
1. Performed at the hospital, the
radiologist will only code for
the professional component.
3. Pt has non-small cell lung
CA.
4. Contrast used.
5. Chest CT findings.
6. Mass is in the left upper lobe.
7. Abdomen CT findings.
8. Pelvis CT findings.
9. The mass is part of the lung
CA.
10. Secondary diagnosis of
coronary arteriosclerosis.
9.
10.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 74177-26, 71260-26
ICD-9-CM codes: 162.3, 414.01
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: In the CPT®, look in the Index for CT Scan/with Contrast/
Thorax (71260), Abdomen (74160), and Pelvis (72193). When you look at the codes
for CT abdomen and CT pelvis, there are parenthetical instructions referring you to
combination codes. Modifier 26 is appended to show the professional component
only, the hospital will report the technical component.
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17.1
Radiology
Chapter 17
ICD-9-CM codes: The patient has non-small cell lung cancer. The mass/tumor is specified in the report as being in the upper lobe. In the Neoplasm Table, lung/upper
lobe/Primary is 162.3. The radiologist also notes a secondary diagnosis of coronary
arteriosclerosis, there is no mention of prior bypass. Look in the ICD-9-CM Index to
Diseases under Arteriosclerosis/coronary/native artery (no mention of prior bypass,
so we use native artery) (414.01).
Case 2
1.
Location: Independent Diagnostic Testing Facility, radiologist employed by the facility.
CT brain/head w/wo contrast exam: CT head, without and with contrast August 5, 20XX
1. Radiologist is employed by the
facility, the IDTF will bill for
global component.
2. Patient has non-small-cell
lung cancer, not specified to
location in lung.
Comparison: None available.
2.
History: Non-small-cell lung cancer.
3.
Technique: Axial images of the calvarium without and with 125 cc Omnipaque-300
intravenous contrast.
4.
Findings: The calvarium is intact. Imaged upper portions of the maxillary antra show
minimal mucosal thickening. The sphenoid ethmoid and frontal sinuses are clear bilaterally.
No hydrocephalus, mass effect, brain shift, abnormal extra-axial fluid collection or mass.
Calcification left basal ganglia without mass effect, nonspecific, likely benign. Abnormal
but nonspecific decreased density in the periventricular and subcortical white matter of the
cerebral hemispheres bilaterally without mass effect or enhancement, most consistent with
remote microvascular ischemic change present to mild degree. Bilateral intracavernous
carotid and vertebral arteriosclerotic calcification. Probable anterior communicating artery
aneurysm 6 x 5 mm. Recommend intracranial CT angiography to further characterize.
3. CT performed without and
with contrast.
4. Contrast was intravenous.
5. Aneurysm is probable and
would not be coded.
6. Additional diagnosis
of cerebrovascular
arteriosclerosis.
7. Additional diagnosis of
cerebral lesions.
8. Additional diagnosis of
calcification left basal ganglia.
Conclusion: 1. No finding suggestive of metastatic disease. 2. Probable 6 x 5 mm anterior
communicating artery aneurysm. Recommend intracranial CT angiography to further
7. characterize. 3. Cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis. 4. Nonspecific cerebral white matter lesions
most consistent with remote microvascular ischemic change. 5. Calcification left basal
8. ganglia, likely benign; however, recommend continued imaging follow-up.
5.
6.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 70470
ICD-9-CM codes: 162.9, 437.0, 348.89.
RATIONALE: CPT® code: In the CPT® Index, CT Scan/without and with Contrast/Brain
gives you 70470 and 70496. 70496 reports a CTA (Computed Tomography Angiography). This service is reported with 70470.
17.2
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Chapter 17
Radiology
ICD-9-CM codes: The ICD-9-CM guidelines IV.L. state, “For outpatient encounters
for diagnostic tests that have been interpreted by a physician, and the final report is
available at the time of coding, code any confirmed or definitive diagnosis(es) documented in the interpretation. Do not code related signs and symptoms as additional
diagnoses.”
In the Neoplasm Table, lung/Primary directs you to ICD-9-CM code 162.9. Further
location within the lung is unknown. For the cerebrovascular arteriosclerosis, look in
the Index to Diseases under Arteriosclerosis/cerebrovascular (437.0). Cerebral lesions
are found by locating lesion/brain (348.89). Basal ganglia are located in the cerebral
cortex. In the index, calcification/cerebral (cortex) directs you to 348.89. Because the
cerebral lesions and the basal ganglia calcification are coded to the same diagnosis,
it is only reported once.
Case 3
Location: Imaging center; radiologist employed.
1.
Study: Mammogram bilateral screening, all views, producing direct digital image
2.
Reason: Screen
Bilateral digital mammography with computer-aided detection (CAD)
3.
2. Screening bilateral
mammogram.
No previous mammograms are available for comparison.
Clinical history: The patient has a positive family history of breast cancer.
4.
Mammogram was read with the assistance of GE iCAD (computerized diagnostic)
system.
3. Use of CAD.
4. Family history of breast CA.
Findings: Residual fibroglandular breast parenchymal tissue is identified bilaterally. No
dominant spiculated mass or suspicious area of clustered pleomorphic microcalcifications
are apparent. Skin and nipples are seen to be normal. The axilla are unremarkable.
Impression: BIRADS 1—Negative
1. Radiologist is employed
by the imaging center, the
imaging center should report
the global component.
5. Negative screening.
5.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 77057, 77052
ICD-9-CM codes: V76.11, V16.3
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: Look in the CPT® Index for Mammography/Screening
(77057) and also look in the same column for Computer-Aided Detection (77051–
77052). The parenthetical note under 77057 states, “use 77057 in conjunction with
77052 for computer-aided detection applied to a screening mammogram). Both
77057 and 77052 are reported. Because the services are performed by an imaging
center, and the radiologists are employed, the global service is reported (no
modifiers 26 or TC).
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17.3
Radiology
Chapter 17
ICD-9-CM codes: This is a screening mammogram. Look in the Index to Diseases
for Screening, mammogram NEC. Screening mammogram is V76.12, and for a highrisk patient V76.11. High risk factors include family history of breast cancer which is
noted in the report. V76.11 is also reported. A secondary diagnosis of family history
of breast cancer is also reported. To locate the history code, look in the Index to
Diseases under History/family/malignant neoplasm/breast (V16.3).
Case 4
1. Radiologist is employed by the
imaging center, the imaging
center should report the global
component.
1.
Location: Imaging center, radiologist employed.
2.
Study: Femur AP and Lateral
Reason: Left leg pain
2. 2 views taken.
Left Femur:
3. Findings are normal, the
reason for the study is used
for the diagnosis.
Comparison: There are no prior studies for comparison.
Findings: There is no fracture or dislocation of the left femur. The femoral head is concentrically
seated within the acetabulum without deformity of the femoral head.
3.
Impression: Normal views of the left femur.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 73550
ICD-9-CM code: 729.5
RATIONALE: CPT® code: In the CPT® Index, look for X-ray/Femur and you are directed
to 73550. 73550 Radiologic examination, femur, 2 views is supported by the AP and
lateral views in the report. The X-ray was taken at an imaging center, which employs
the radiologists. The global procedure is reported with no modifiers (26 or TC).
ICD-9-CM code: Look in the Index to Diseases for Pain/leg and you are directed to
729.5. 729.5 is for pain in limb.
1. Provided at the hospital, the
radiologist will report the
professional component.
2. The surgical procedure
has been performed.
The ultrasound is being
performed after a surgical
procedure for evaluation of
continued reflux.
3. Kidney evaluatied.
17.4
Case 5
1.
Location: Regional hospital.
Study: Ultrasound Urinary Tract
2.
Indications: Status ureteral reimplantation to evaluate for continued vesicoureteral reflux.
3.
Left Kidney:
Length: 7.0 cm
Prior length: 7.4 cm
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Chapter 17
Radiology
Parenchyma: Cortical scarring.
Pelvic dilatation: Normal
4. Ureters evaluated.
Calyceal dilatation: Normal
5. Bladder evaluated.
Hydronephrosis grade: Normal
6. Diagnosis—right renal
growth.
Interval hydronephrosis change: None
Ureters: Not Seen.
4.
Bladder: Almost empty and difficult to evaluate.
5.
Impression:
1. Interval right renal growth without hydronephrosis.
2. Stable asymmetric small left renal size likely to represent diffuse cortical scarring.
6.
7. Secondary diagnosis—small
left renal size.
7.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported for this service?
CPT® code: 76770-26
ICD-9-CM codes: V58.76, 593.70
RATIONALE: CPT® code: In the CPT® Index, ultrasound/bladder directs you to
51798. Ultrasound/kidney directs you to the code range 76770–76776. 51798 is for
measurement of post-voiding residual urine which is not appropriate. 76770–76775
are for ultrasound, retroperitoneal, complete or limited. The examination of the
complete urinary tract (kidney, ureters, and urinary bladder) indicate a complete
retroperitoneal ultrasound exam and is reported with 76770. Modifier 26 is used to
report the professional component only because this was performed at a hospital.
The hospital will report the technical component.
ICD-9-CM codes: The patient had a surgical ureteral implantation for vesicoureteral
reflux. According to the ICD-9-CM Guidelines I.C.18.7, “Aftercare visit codes cover
situations when the initial treatment of a disease or injury has been performed
and the patient requires continued care during the healing or recovery phase, or
for the long-term consequences of the disease.” To find the diagnosis code, look in
the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases for Aftercare/following surgery/of urinary system
(V58.76). Aftercare codes are listed as the first-listed diagnosis. The secondary
diagnosis is vesicoureteral reflux. Look in the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases for Reflux/
vesicoureteral (593.70). Right renal growth is indexed under Growth—see also
Neoplasm, by site, unspecified nature. In the Neoplasm Table, look under renal/
Unspecified column referring you to code 239.5. Small left renal size found in the
Index under Small/kidney, unknown cause/unilateral referring you to code 589.0.
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17.5
Radiology
Chapter 17
Case 6
1. Procedure performed at a
hospital, only the professional
component will be reported by
the physician.
2. CT Abdomen with contrast.
3. CT Pelvis with contrast.
4. Reason for exam to be used
if no definitive diagnosis is
made.
5. The contrast is administered
via IV.
6. Conscious sedation was used.
7. Fluoroscopic guidance used.
8. A tube placed through
the nasal opening to
the duodenum would
be considered a long
gastrointestinal tube.
1.
Location: Regional Hospital
Examination:
2.
1. CT enteroclysis (fluoro enteroclysis with CT abdomen—neutral enteral with iv
contrast—2D reformats)
3.
2. CT enteroclysis (fluoro enteroclysis with CT pelvis—neutral enteral with IV
contrast—2D reformats)
4.
Clinical indication: Unexplained abdominal pain and diarrhea, as well as weight loss.
Normal colonoscopy.
Comparison: None.
Procedure: In accordance with policy and procedure standard medication reconciliation
5. was performed by the radiologic technologist prior to IV contrast administration. No
contraindication was identified.
The examination was performed in accordance with the standard protocol.
6.
Following preprocedure assessment, informed consent was obtained. Conscious sedation
was monitored by the radiology nursing section (see separate notes) monitored by the
attending radiologist for 60 minutes. Vital signs, pre- and post-procedure monitoring
were done by nurse in attendance with radiologists supervision. A transnasal intubation
was done following a nasal drop of a local anesthetic.
Under fluoroscopic guidance, using guidewire and positional maneuvers, the
enteroclysis catheter was advanced and the tip anchored at the distal horizontal
8. duodenum.
7.
Neutral enteral contrast was infused and monitored to a total of approximately 3.5 L. 0.6
mg Glucagon was administered IV prior to IV contrast administration. CT acquisition
was done during continued infusion of enteral contrast following a 45 to 50 seconds delay.
Intravenous administration of 100 ml lsovue 370 at 4 ml/second infusion rate. CT parameters used were 40 x 0.625 mm collimation reconstructed at 2 mm section thickness
reconstructed at 1 mm intervals. The source images were transferred to an independent
workstation (EBW) and cross referenced multiplanar interactive 2D interpretation was
done by the radiologist. Images were reviewed using soft tissue window settings.
Following completion of the infusion, the catheter was withdrawn into the stomach and
refluxed contrast removed prior to catheter removal.
No acute adverse events occurred.
Findings: There is no evidence of transmural inflammatory disease changes involving
the small bowel or the colorectum. There is, however, mild prominence of the vasa recta
in the right lower abdomen, mild increased attenuation of the cecum and ascending
colon and adjacent distal small bowel. Suggest biopsy at the ascending colon to exclude
microscopic colitis. If the patient has a history of blood in the stools, air double-contrast
17.6
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Chapter 17
Radiology
enteroclysis would be of value to exclude aphthous ileitis. CT enteroclysis may not be able
to assess for early Crohn’s until transmural involvement is seen. The rest of the colon also
appears normal.
There are no fold changes to suggest adult celiac disease.
There is no evidence of a small bowel mass. The mesentery appears normal.
Solid abdominal organs are grossly unremarkable.
Impression:
1. No evidence of transmural inflammatory disease changes involving the small bowel
or colorectum. No fold abnormalities to suggest sprue.
2. Prominence of vasa recta of cecum and ascending colon and distal ileum with
question of mild increased attenuation. Consider microscopic colitis. See discussion 9.
and recommendation above.
If there is strong clinical suspicion of Crohn’s disease, consider air DC barium enteroclysis to exclude or confirm early aphthoid changes.
3. Reproduction of abdominal pain during contrast infusion, thus, correlated for
visceral hypersensitivity.
9. No definitive diagnosis—
questionable diagnosis are not
coded.
10. Abdominal pain should be
coded.
10.
4. Solid abdominal organs grossly unremarkable.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 74177-26, 74340-26, 44500
ICD-9-CM codes: 789.00, 787.91, 783.21
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: To find the code for tube placement, look in the CPT® Index
for Placement/Nasogastric Tube and you are directed to 43752; however, when you
look at the parenthetical instructions under 43752, you are directed to CPT® codes
44500 and 74340 for enteric (pertaining to the small intestines) tube placement.
Placement of a long gastrointestinal tube is reported with 44500. In looking at the
parenthetical instructions, the supervision and interpretation of the tube placement
is reported with 74340. To report the CT scans, look in the CPT® Index for CT Scan/
with contrast/Abdomen (74160) and Pelvis (72193). When you verify the CT codes,
there are parenthetical instructions indicating a combination code is used when a
CT of the abdomen and a CT of the pelvis are performed reported with code 74177.
Modifier 26 is used on the radiological codes to report the professional component
only. Moderate sedation was given; however, the bulls eye next to code 44500 indicates that moderate sedation is included.
ICD-9-CM codes: There is no definitive diagnosis in the impression; therefore, the
reason for the study is used. In this case, code unexplained abdominal pain. Look
in the Index to Diseases for (Pain/abdominal 789.0x. The fifth digit 0 indicates
unspecified site. Also look in the Index to Diseases for Diarrhea (787.91), as well as
Weight loss (783.21).
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17.7
Radiology
Chapter 17
Case 7
1. The location is the hospital, so
the radiologist will report the
professional component only.
2. Hysterosalpingogram is
procedure performed.
1.
2.
3.
4.
3. The procedure was performed
by the radiologist.
Location: Regional Hospital
Fluoro Hysterosalpingogram
Examination: Hysterosalpingogram (procedure performed by radiologist)
Indication: Infertility for 15 years. Patient had one child 15 years ago. Last menstrual
period was 1/13/20XX.
No history of pelvic infection or surgery.
4. Reason for test is infertility.
Comparison: None
5. Catheter inserted.
Procedure: The examination and anticipated discomfort was discussed with the patient.
A plastic vaginal speculum was introduced with the patient’s legs in the stirrups following
preliminary vaginal examination and lubrication. The posterior vaginal fornix and outer
cervical os were prepped with a cleansing solution. A 5-F hysterosalpingogram catheter
was used. The catheter balloon was inflated in the lower uterine segment. Fluoroscopic
and radiographic assessments were done.
6. Fluoroscopy and X-rays were
utilized.
7. Contrast used.
5.
6.
The patient tolerated the procedure well.
7.
Findings: Contrast was administered through the catheter and multiple images were
taken. There is a possible abnormal contour to the right cornua with patchy contrast
opacification which may represent intramural contrast with intravasation.
No definite spillage of contrast from either fallopian tube was identified
Impression: 1. Possible right cornual contour abnormality manifested by focal extravasation and minimal intravasation of undetermined etiology. Recommend
endovaginal ultrasound for further evaluation.
2. No contrast filling of either tubes and no spill into pelvic peritoneal space.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 58340, 74740-26
ICD-9-CM code: 628.9
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: In the CPT® Index, look for Hysterosalpingography. You
are given the radiology code 74740, and for the catheterization, you are directed
to 58345. There is also a code listed for Injection Procedure 58340. 58340 reports
the catheterization and injection of contrast material for a hysterosapingography.
In reading the parenthetical instructions, you are instructed to use 74740 for the
supervision and interpretation of the hysterosalpingography. A Modifier 26 is
used to report the professional component only. Do not report 58345 because the
catheter was not placed in the fallopian tubes.
ICD-9-CM code: The procedure was performed for infertility. In the Index to
Diseases, find Infertility/female and you are referred to 628.9. On exam, the
radiologist found extravasation and minimal intravasation of undetermined
etiology, but it is not noted this is the cause of infertility; therefore, not reported.
17.8
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Chapter 17
Radiology
Case 8
Location: Regional Hospital
Exam:
Renal and bladder ultrasound dated 10/01/20XX
Renal artery Doppler evaluation dated 10/01/20XX
1.
Comparison: Renal MRA dated 04/01/20XX
History: 80-year-old renal artery stenosis.
Findings: Multiple grayscale sonographic and color Doppler images of the kidneys and
renal vasculature were submitted for interpretation.
2.
The right kidney measures 10.1 cm without evidence of pelvic caliectasis.
There is a small 8 mm cyst noted within the lower pole of the right kidney. There is relatively normal internal architecture and echogenicity. The left kidney measures 10.4 cm
with no evidence of pelvicaliectasis. There are at least 3 renal cysts identified, the largest
measuring 2 cm in diameter. There is normal internal architecture and echogenicity. The
bladder is distended with urine and appears within normal limits.
3.
The aorta demonstrates peak systolic velocity of 1.07 m/sec.
The right renal artery origin demonstrates peak systolic velocity of 3.0 m/sec with a
resistive index of 0.92. The midportion of the right renal artery demonstrates a peak
systolic velocity of 1.1 m/sec with resistive index of 0.8. The right renal hilum has a peak
systolic velocity of 0.64 m/sec with resistive index of 0.85. The inferior pole has a systolic
velocity of 0.16 m/sec with resistive index of 0.54. The midpole has a systolic velocity of
0.18 m/sec and resistive index of 0.70.
2. Indicates this provider only
provided an interpretation
supporting the use of modifier 26.
3. Renal and bladder ultrasound.
4. Renal Artery Doppler
evaluation.
The superior pole has a velocity peak of 0.22 m/sec the resistive index of 0.77.
The left renal artery origin demonstrates a peak systolic velocity of 2.0 m/sec with a
resistive index of 0.87. The mid portion of the left renal artery demonstrates a peak
velocity at 0.42 m/sec and a resistive index of 0.80. The left renal hilum has a peak systolic
velocity of 0.47 m/sec and a resistive index of 0.82. The inferior pole has a systolic velocity
of 0 16 m/sec and a resistive index of 0.67. The midpole has a systolic velocity of 0.17 m/sec
and a resistive index of 0.63.
The superior pole has a velocity peak of 0.13 m/sec with a resistive index of 0.69.
1. Renal artery is a “visceral
artery.”
5. Stenosis of the renal artery
will be used as the diagnosis.
6. Probable diagnosis should not
be coded.
4.
Impression: Renal artery Doppler study:
1. Moderate stenosis of the right renal artery origin.
2. Mild to moderate left renal artery origin stenosis.
5.
Renal and bladder ultrasound:
1. Bilateral probable renal cysts.
6.
2. Normal appearing bladder
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17.9
Radiology
Chapter 17
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 93975-26, 76770-26
ICD-9-CM code: 440.1
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: In the CPT® Index, Ultrasound/Bladder directs you to 51798.
Ultrasound/Kidney directs you to the code range 76770–76776. 51798 is for measurement of post-voiding residual urine which is not appropriate. 76770–76775 are for
ultrasound, retroperitoneal, complete or limited. The examination of the complete
urinary tract (kidney, ureters, and urinary bladder) indicates a complete retroperitoneal ultrasound exam and is reported with 76770. Modifier 26 is used to report
the professional component only. In addition to the ultrasound, the provider also
interpreted a renal artery Doppler study. The renal artery is considered a visceral
(pertaining to an internal organ of the body) artery. Look in the CPT® Index for
Duplex Scan/Arterial Studies/Visceral Arteries and you are directed to code range
93975-93979. 93975 is the correct code.
ICD-9-CM code: The history indicates renal artery stenosis. The impression indicates stenosis of both renal arteries. To find the ICD-9-CM code, look in the Index to
Diseases for Stenosis/artery/renal artery and you are directed to 440.1. 440.1 is for
atherosclerosis of the renal artery. The “probable” renal cysts indicated on the renal
and bladder ultrasound should not be coded because it is a probable and not definitive diagnosis (ICD-9-CM Guideline IV.I.).
Case 9
1. The hospital will report the
technical component. Only
the professional component
should be reported.
2. Reason for the MRI, also
known as Lumbago.
3. Sagittal and axial images were
taken.
4. Location—lumbar spine.
1.
Location: Regional Hospital
MRI of the lumbar spine
2.
History: Low back pain.
Technique: On a 1.5 Tesla magnet multiple sagittal and axial images were performed
4. through the lumbar spine using variable pulse sequences.
3.
Findings: There is normal lumbar alignment. The conus is in normal position at the
thoracolumbar junction. No suspect bone marrow lesions are present. There is mild
anterior wedging of the L3 vertebral body. I am uncertain whether this is an acute or
chronic finding.
At the T12–L1 level, there is a small posterior disc bulge. There is no central canal
stenosis. There is no neural foraminal stenosis.
At the L1–L2 level, there is no disc bulge or protrusion. There is no central canal or neural
foraminal stenosis.
At the L2–L3 level, there is moderate loss of disc height. There is 106s of T2 signal. There
is a focal area of increased T1 signal involving the L2–L3 disc. This could be related to
17.10
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Chapter 17
Radiology
disc calcification or possibly blood product. There is a small posterior disc bulge. There is
no central canal stenosis. There is no neural foraminal stenosis.
At the L3–L4 level, there is a minimal posterior disc bulge. There is no central canal
stenosis. There is no neural foraminal stenosis.
At the L4–L5 level, there is mild loss of disc height and loss of T2 disc signal. There is
a moderate size right paracentral disc protrusion impinging the anterior aspect of the
thecal sac. There is mild central canal stenosis. There is no central canal stenosis. There is
no neural foraminal stenosis.
At the L5–S1 level, there is no disc bulge or disc protrusion. There is no central or neural
foraminal stenosis.
Impression: Mild anterior wedging of the L3 vertebral body. It is uncertain whether this is 5.
acute or chronic finding. There is increased T1 signal involving the L2–L3 disc which could
be related to calcification or possible hemorrhage although this is felt to be less likely.
6.
Moderate size right paracentral disc protrusion at L4–L5. Multilevel degenerative disc
disease.
7.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
5. Wedging of vertebrae is
considered Osteoporosis.
6. Disc protrusion is coded
as intervertebral disc
displacement and is in the
lumbar region.
7. Degenerative Disc Disease
covers more than one level in
the lumbar spine.
CPT® code: 72148-26
ICD-9-CM codes: 733.00, 722.10, 722.52
RATIONALE: CPT® code: MRIs can be performed with or without contrast. This record
shows no indication of contrast material being used. To find the code, look in the
CPT® Index under Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)/Spine/Lumbar and you are
directed to code range 72148–72158. The code is determined based on whether
or not contrast is used. 72148 is an MRI of the lumbar spinal canal and contents,
without contrast material. Modifier 26 is used to report the professional component
only. The technical component is reported by the hospital.
ICD-9-CM codes: In the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases, wedging vertebra directs you
to 733.00, and “see also Osteoporosis. Verifying in the Tabular List, 733.00 is Osteoporosis, unspecified with “wedging of vertebra, NOS” included. Look in the Index
to Diseases “see Displacement/intervertebral disc.” Displacement/intervertebral
disc displays entries for the location of the spine. The disc protrusion is at L4–L5 so
look for lumbar, directing you to 722.10. Degenerative disc is found in the Index to
Diseases under Degeneration/intervertebral disc/lumbar, lumbosacral 722.52.
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17.11
Radiology
Chapter 17
Case 10
1. The hospital will report the
technical component. Only
the professional component
should be reported.
1.
Type of procedure:
1. Abdominal aortic angiogram
2. Mesenteric artery angiogram
2. Reason for the angiogram.
3. The abdominal aorta is
commonly accessed through
the common femoral artery.
2.
6. The findings were normal, the
reason for the angiogram will
be used for the diagnosis.
History: Mesenteric ischemia.
Informed consent: The procedure was discussed with the patient and his wife. The
risks, including bleeding, infection, and vascular injuries such as dissection, perforation,
thrombus, and embolus were outlined. Informed consent was obtained.
4. Selective catheterization of
the SMA (Superior Mesenteric
Artery). From the Aorta, this
is a first order.
5. Selective catheterization of
the IMA (Inferior Mesenteric
Artery). From the aorta, this
is a first order.
Location: Regional Hospital
Contrast: 123 mL Ultravist 370.
Conscious sedation: Under continuous hemodynamic monitoring, 1 mg of Versed and 50
mcg of Fentanyl were given intravenously.
Description of procedure: The patient’s right groin was sterilely prepped and draped. The
skin and subcutaneous tissues were anesthetized with 2% lidocaine. The right common
femoral artery was then percutaneously accessed and a wire advanced into the abdominal
3. aorta under fluoroscopic visualization. A 5-French vascular sheath was placed into the
right groin. An Omni Flush catheter was advanced to the upper abdominal aorta. Digital
subtraction angiography of the abdominal aorta was performed. It demonstrates mild
tortuosity of the aorta. The caliber is normal. A single renal artery is seen bilaterally
without stenosis. The common iliac vessels are patent.
The Omni Flush catheter was then exchanged for a Cobra 2 catheter. The superior
4. mesenteric artery was then selectively catheterized. Digital subtraction angiography was
performed in multiple obliquities. The origin is patent. No focal stenosis or branch occlusions are identified. Next, the celiac artery was selectively catheterized. Digital subtraction
angiography was performed in 2 obliquities. The origin is normal. No focal stenosis or
branch occlusions are present.
5.
6.
17.12
Next, attempts were made to catheter the inferior mesenteric artery with the Cobra 2
catheter. This was unsuccessful. Selective catheterization of the inferior mesenteric artery
was achieved with a Simmons 2 catheter. Digital subtraction angiography was then
performed in 2 obliquities. The origin is patent. No stenosis or branch occlusions are
present. The Simmons 2 catheter was removed as was the right groin sheath over a wire.
Hemostasis in the right groin was then achieved using an Angio-Seal closure device.
Impression: Normal abdominal aortic angiogram and mesenteric angiogram of selective
catheterization of the celiac, superior mesenteric and inferior mesenteric arteries.
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What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® codes: 3 6245, 36245-59, 36245-59, 75726-26, 75726-26-59, 75726-26-59,
OR
36245, 36245-59 x 2, 75726-26, 75726-26-59 x 2
ICD-9-CM code: 557.9
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: Catheter placement into the aorta is coded with CPT®
code 36200; however, because the physician went on to selective catheterization,
the selective catheterizations are coded and 36200 is inclusive (not billed separately). Selective catheterization from the aorta of the superior mesenteric artery
is first order. The selective catheterization from the aorta of the celiac and inferior
mesenteric arteries are also first order (refer to appendix L in your CPT® codebook).
36245 is coded for each first order (SMA, celiac & IMA). The mesenteric arteries are
considered visceral arteries. The imaging supervision and interpretation (S&I) code
reported is 75726 is found in the CPT® Index under Angiography/visceral/selective for the first mesenteric artery. The aortography 75625-26 is bundled with the
visceral angiography. Do not report 75774, Angiography, selective, each additional
vessel studied after basic examination. Each vessel was examined; therefore 75726 is
reported x3 for the superior mesenteric, the celiac, and the inferior mesenteric. The
Angio-Seal device placement is included in the selective catheterization procedures.
Code 75774 would be used if, for example, selective catheterization was performed
in the celiac artery (36245) and angiography (75726-26) was performed. Next the
catheter was advanced passed the common hepatic artery (36246) into the left
hepatic artery, third order (36247), and angiography was performed (75774-26). The
first order (36245) is now dropped and replaced with the highest order (36247). Only
report 75774 when after the basic examination of a visceral artery (75726), the artery
is further investigated. In this case there was no further examination of the three
arteries. Modifier 26 should be used to show only the professional component.
ICD-9-CM code: The angiogram is ordered for mesenteric ischemia. The findings
were normal, so mesenteric ischemia will remain the diagnosis. To find in the
ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases, look for Ischemia. Mesenteric ischemia is a type of
intestinal ischemia. In the index, under ischemia, there is an entry for intestinal
ischemia. Mesenteric ischemia can be acute or chronic. There is no indication in the
record of either acute or chronic, so we are left with unspecified 557.9. There is an
entry under ischemia/intestine for “due to mesentery artery insufficiency, but there
is no indication in this record to suggest the insufficiency. If mesentery insufficiency
were documented, it would be coded as chronic intestinal ischemia (577.1).
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17.13
Chapter
18
Pathology and Laboratory
Case 1
R/O MRSA—Central line catheter
Clinical Indications: Patient with fever not responsive to antibiotics
Collected: 03/30/XX 17:45
Accession Num: TXXXXX
1.
Status:
Authenticated
Method: Single nucleic acid sequence
2.
Culture: Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated
3.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes?
1. Clinical indications provide
medical necessity when there
are no other findings.
2. Note the method used to
identify the infectious agent
and/or resistance.
3. Select the diagnosis code
based on the findings.
CPT® Code: 87641
ICD-9-CM Code: 041.12
RATIONALE: CPT® Code: The test is performed to detect if the patient has MRSA.
The method used is nucleic acid sequence. From the CPT® Index, look up Infectious
Agent/detection/by nucleic acid/Staphylococcus Aureus. You are referred to 87640–
87641. The findings confirm it is Methicillin resistant which is coded with 87641.
ICD-9-CM Code: The diagnosis is MRSA. From the Index to Diseases, look up
Methicillin/resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). You are referred to 041.12. Verify
code accuracy in the Tabular List.
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18.1
Pathology and Laboratory
Chapter 18
Case 2
Surgical pathology report: Requested by Dr. Steve Smith
1. This describes the specimens
received.
2. There are slides from two
surgical specimens, a cervical
mass and a jugular lymph
node.
3. The patient presents for
consultation and review of
previous slides.
4. Clinical indications will
be used to support medical
necessity with normal
findings.
5. This is a definitive diagnosis
of primary cancer of the
cervical (Neck) Region.
6. This is a definitive diagnosis
of cancer of the lymph node.
7. This is the test that is
performed.
8. One probe is performed.
9. Epstein Barr virus is
suspected but not found.
1.
Materials Received for Consultation, the pathologist is an employee of the lab
2.
Two referred slides described as left deep cervical mass, left jugular lymph node
3.
Clinical data: The slides are reviewed in conjunction with the patient being referred for
care. Patient with complaints of new mass and extreme fatigue.
4.
5.
Final diagnosis:
Lymph node, left deep cervical mass, biopsy: Squamous cell carcinoma with basaloid
features in fibrotic soft tissue possibly representing replaced lymph node.
Lymph node left deep internal jugular, biopsy. Sections show a central focus of a basaloid
appearing squamous cell carcinoma within primarily fibrotic tissue likely representing
a lymph node replaced by carcinoma. The carcinoma focally involves the inked margin
of the specimen. An immunohistochemical stain for p16 performed at outside lab and
6. reviewed by us reveals uniformly positive staining in the neoplastic cells.
7.
Comment:
Per clinician request, EBV by in situ hybridization (FISH) is also performed
In situ hybridization report:
Deparaffinized sections are incubated with biotinylated cDNA probe to the EBER1
8. mRNA of Epstein-Barr virus. Localization is via a three step procedure employing mouse
anti-biotin, biotinylated anti-mouse, and the avidin biotin complex using nickel chloride
enhanced 3,3’-diaminobenzidine as chromogen. Results are listed below:
Block (Original label): A (AS10-3084) Population: Neoplastic cells
Label
Marker for
Results
EBV
PROBE
EBV probe, in situ
hybridization
Negative
Special Pattern or Comments
Comment:
Lymph node, left deep cervical mass: No evidence of Epstein Barr Virus infection is identified within the neoplasm on in situ hybridization studies. The remainder of the above
9. diagnosis remains unchanged.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes?
CPT® Codes: 88321, 88365
ICD-9-CM Codes: 195.0, 196.0, 780.79
18.2
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Chapter 18
Pathology and Laboratory
RATIONALE: CPT® Codes: The patient presents for a consultation with the pathologist and two slides are reviewed and discussed. From the Index, look up Consultation/Surgical Pathology. The slides were prepared elsewhere which makes 88321 the
proper code. It is reported one time only per surgical case regardless of the number
of specimens reviewed. During the encounter the provider performed an FISH (In
Situ Hybridization). There is one probe used for the test. In the Index, look up Nucleic
acid probe/In Situ Hybridization. Review all the codes listed to determine the proper
code. The correct code is 88365.
ICD-9-CM Codes: There are three diagnoses for this patient. The biopsy of the
cervical mass is positive for cancer. From the Neoplasm Table, look up cervical
region/Malignant/Primary (column), referring you to code 195.0. The lymph node
biopsy performed is also confirmed as cancerous. From the Neoplasm Table, look up
Lymph/gland/cervical and refer to the code in the secondary malignancy column.
The correct code is 196.0. The patient is complaining of fatigue which is reported as
an additional diagnosis to support the reason the Epstein Barr test performed. From
the Index to Diseases, look up Fatigue. You are referred to 780.79. Verify all codes in
the Tabular List for accuracy.
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18.3
Pathology and Laboratory
Chapter 18
Case 3
Requesting provider: CI, MD
Surgical pathology report: Collected: Received: 3/4/2011, the pathologist providing the
service is an employee of the lab.
1.
Materials received for consultation: Three referred specimens described as left base of
tongue, left tonsil and right tonsil
2.
Clinical data:
Slides are prepared and reviewed in conjunction with the patient being seen for Radiation
Oncology consultation for carcinoma of base of tongue
1. There are three specimens.
2. Use this diagnosis as
consultation on referred
materials is negative.
Final diagnosis:
Eight slides prepared and reviewed A–H
3. A total of eight slides are
prepared and reviewed.
Left base of tongue (part A) and right tonsil, biopsies (parts B, C, G): Squamous mucosa
and tonsillar tissue; no carcinoma identified.
3.
Left tonsil, biopsies (parts D, E, F, H): Tonsillar tissue with no carcinoma identified.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes?
CPT® Codes: 88323
ICD-9-CM Code: 141.0
RATIONALE: CPT® code: A consultation and slide preparation is performed. In the
Index, see Consultation/Surgical Pathology. This is reported with 88323. Consultation and report on referred material requiring preparation of slides is reported per
surgical case, not by the number of specimens. Only one unit is reported.
ICD-9-CM codes: Cancer is not found in the tonsillar tissue but the patient is diagnosed with cancer in the base of the tongue. In the Neoplasm Table, look up tongue/
base in the primary column. You are referred to 141.0. Verify the code accuracy in the
Tabular List.
18.4
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Chapter 18
Pathology and Laboratory
Case 4
Clinical Indications: The patient is a 28 y.o. female for routine lab tests.
Collected: 04/14/XX 13:29
Patient number:xxxxxxxxxxx
Site: right antecubital venipuncture
ID: verified
Disposition: outpatient, fasting
Tests: metabolic & CBC
1.
2.
Results:
1. Metabolic Panel is a set of
tests performed as a panel
in CPT. Review the two
metabolic panels to see if one
includes the tests performed.
Sodium Blood: 141 mEq/L (135–145)
Potassium Blood: 4.0 mEq/L (3.3–4.8)
Chloride Blood: 105 mEq/L (95–105)
2. CBC is not included in either
metabolic panels and is
reported separately.
Carbon Dioxide Blood: 24 mmol/L (23–30)
Urea Nitrogen Blood: 12 mg/dL (5–25)
3. The calcium is total instead of
ionized.
Creatinine Blood: 0.86 mg/dL (0.70–1.50)
Glucose Blood: 93 mg/dL (70–110)
Calcium Blood (total): 9.3 mg/dL (8.5–10.5)
3.
CBC: (automated)
4.
WBC: 6.9 thou/uL (3.9–10.3)
4. CBC is automated with no
differential.
Hemoglobin Blood: 14.5 g/dL (11.8–16.0)
Platelet Count: 235 thou/uL (135–370)
Red Blood Cells: 5.02 mil/uL (4.00–5.50)
Impression: normal labs
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes for the pathologist?
CPT® Codes: 80048, 85027
ICD-9-CM Code: V72.62
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: All elements of a basic metabolic panel are performed. In
the Index, see Blood tests/Metabolic Panel, Basic. The calcium is indicated as “total,”
not listed as ionized.
The CBC is Complete Blood Count. In the Index, see Complete Blood Count. Since
there is not WBC differential, 85027 is the correct code.
ICD-9-CM code: The blood work performed is for routine lab tests. In the Index
to Diseases, look up Examination/laboratory/ordered as part of a routine general
medical examination. This refers you to code V72.62.
The results of the lab tests are normal.
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18.5
Pathology and Laboratory
Chapter 18
Case 5
Requested by R Simon, MD
1. Report indicates type of
procedure performed.
1.
Specimen source:
A. Peritoneal Fluid
2. Use clinical diagnostic
information to assign ICD9-CM codes because the
findings are negative.
3. Cytology is performed on the
fluid obtained.
Cytology report: Collected: 1/26/2011 Received: 1/27/2011, Pathologist performing the
service is an employee of the lab.
Specimen description: 100 mls yellow fluid
Cytopreparation: 2 ccf
Pertinent clinical data and clinical diagnosis:
26-year-old female with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to type I diabetes presents for
2. elective kidney transplant.
3.
Cytologic impression:
Peritoneal dialysis drain fluid: No cytologically malignant cells are identified.
Comment: 100 mls yellow fluid is received from which two Papanicolaou stained cytocentrifuged slides are made. Slides contain mesothelial cells with a spectrum of reactive
changes and histiocytes. No malignant cells are identified.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes?
CPT® Code: 88104
ICD-9-CM Codes: 250.41, 585.6
RATIONALE: CPT® Code: The test performed is cytopathology on the peritoneal fluid.
From the CPT® Index, look up Cytopathology/Fluids. Review of the code descriptions
verifies 88104 is the correct code.
ICD-9-CM Codes: The patient is diagnosed with type I diabetes and end-stage renal
disease (ESRD). The patient presents for a kidney transplant but the procedure has
not been performed yet. The ESRD is a manifestation of the diabetes. Diabetes
codes are found in category 250. Read the guidelines and notes associated with this
category. Type I diabetes not stated as uncontrolled with a renal manifestation is
reported with code with 250.41. An additional code is reported to identify the ESRD
(585.6). Read the notes under 250.4x, “Use additional code to identify manifestations,
as...”
18.6
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Chapter 18
Pathology and Laboratory
Case 6
Requested by R Williams, MD
Surgical pathology report collected: 2/1/2011 Received: 2/2/2011. The pathologist is
employed by the lab providing the service.
Clinical data: 26-year-old with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to type 1 diabetes,
status post kidney, pancreas transplant with subsequent pancreas allograft removal, now
with disseminated intravascular coagulation and decreased urine output and kidney
allograft showing no flow to the kidney.
Gross description:
A)Received fresh designated “ureteral stent–gross only” is a 15 cm x 0.2 cm piece of
plastic tubing with a 1.5 cm hairpin turn at either end. There are 0.05 cm holes at
every 2 cm of the device.
B) Received fresh in a container labeled “removed kidney” is a 138 gram, 11 x 7 x 3 cm
kidney. The specimen has a smooth, glistening, pink capsule with lightly adherent
fibrous tissue. There are multiple surgical clips within the hilum and perihilar fat.
The specimen is bivalved to reveal a sharp but irregular demarcation at the cortex
and the medullary interface. No masses, nodules or lesions are grossly appreciated.
There is probable intravascular thrombus. Representative sections are submitted as
follows: B1—renal vein, renal artery and ureteral margins; B2–B5—representative
sections of kidney parenchyma in relation to capsule.
Final diagnosis:
A)Medical device, removal: Pigtail catheter (gross only).
B) Kidney, allograft resection:
1. Widespread acute coagulative necrosis/infarct of renal parenchyma in the setting
of multifocal microvascular thrombi (clinical history of disseminated intravascular
coagulation).
2. Focal renal arterial thrombosis.
3. No evidence of humoral or cellular rejection.
1.
1. Specimen 1.
2. Specimen 2.
2.
3. Although the specimen is
split into several sections, it
only represents one specimen
so can only be billed once.
4. Use this data to assign a
diagnosis code.
3.
4.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes?
CPT® Codes: 88307, 88300
ICD-9-CM Codes: 996.81, 593.81
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: There are two specimens examined, the ureteral stent and
the kidney. In the index, look up Pathology/Surgical/Gross and Micro Exam. The
gross and microscopic exam of the kidney is reported with 88307. Only a gross exam
of the ureteral stent is performed. In the CPT® Index, look up Pathology/Surgical/
Gross Exam. This procedure is reported with 88300.
ICD-9-CM codes: The patient is status post kidney transplant with a complication.
In the Index to Diseases, look up Complications/transplant/organ/kidney. You are
referred to 996.81. An additional code is selected to report the renal artery thrombosis. In the Index to Diseases look up Thrombosis/renal/artery. You are referred to
593.81. Verify all the codes in the Tabular List.
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18.7
Pathology and Laboratory
Chapter 18
Case 7
1. Used for diagnoses coding.
2. Note the substance the
specimen was collected from.
3. Since no fungus has been
found in the analyte, the
clinical indication must be
used. Link this service to the
hematuria diagnosis.
4. This specimen is from
sputum. The information is
needed to select the correct
code.
5. Since no fungi have been
identified assign the
pneumonia code for this
service.
6. This result is too limited to
assign a diagnosis code.
7. Again, the source material is
required to code the service
and the clinical indications
are used for the diagnosis
since there are no findings.
8. The analysis using blood can
be billed twice since there are
two different source locations.
1.
Clinical Indications: Inpatient day 32 in ICU with fever, hematuria, generalized edema,
pneumonia
2.
Urine Fungal Culture: Urine
3.
Special Requests: None
Culture: No fungus isolated in 30 days
4.
Lower Resp Fungal W/Dir. Exam: Sputum
Special Requests: None
Stain for Fungus: No fungi seen
6. Culture: One colony Candida albicans
5.
7.
Blood Fungal Culture: Blood Arm, Right
Special Requests: Aerobic bottle
Culture: No fungus isolated in 4 weeks
8.
Blood Fungal Culture: Blood Right IJ Catheter SWAN
Special Requests: Aerobic bottle
Culture: No fungus isolated in 4 weeks
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes?
CPT® Codes: 87102 x 2, 87103 x 2
ICD-9-CM Codes: 486, 782.3, 599.70
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: There are several specimens obtained (urine, sputum and
blood) to perform cultures. In the CPT® Index, look up Culture/Fungus/Other for
the sputum and urine. Code 87102 is reported twice (urine, sputum). Next, locate
the code for the blood specimen. In the CPT® Index, look up Culture/Fungus/Blood.
Code 87103 is reported twice because blood samples are taken from two different
sites.
ICD-9-CM codes: The patient is stated as having fever, hematuria, generalized
edema and pneumonia. Pneumonia indexes to 486 in the Index to Diseases and is
listed first. The fever (780.60) is a symptom of the pneumonia and is not reported
separately. Look up hematuria in the index and you are directed to 599.70. Look up
edema in the index. There is no subterm for generalized edema, so the default code
is used (782.3). All codes are confirmed in the Tabular List.
18.8
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Chapter 18
Pathology and Laboratory
Case 8
Requested by D Freeman, MD
Surgical Pathology Report: Collected: 4/20/2011 Received: 4/20/2011. The pathologist
providing the service is an employee of the lab.
Clinical Data: Post-heart transplant, rule out rejection.
Gross Description:
A)Received in a scant amount of formalin labeled “right ventricle endomyocardium”
are seven tan-brown, irregular soft tissues averaging 0.1 cm in greatest dimension.
The specimen is submitted in toto in cassette A1.
B) Received in a vial of immunofluorescence fixative labeled “right ventricle endomyocardium” are two tan, irregular soft tissues averaging 0.1 cm in greatest dimension.
Specimen is entirely submitted for immunofluorescence.
1.
2.
1. Two specimens are
received, one for gross and
microscopic and one for
immunofluorescence.
3.
2. Specimen 1
3. Specimen 2
4. Indicates direct
immunofluorescence.
Microscopic Description:
A)Sections of the paraffin-embedded material show six fragments of myocardium
which are adequate to evaluate. There are few mononuclear cells present within the
tissue, but these are beneath the threshold required to diagnose biologically meaningful rejection.
5. Note that indirect
immunfluorescence is coded
separately.
No cell injury is seen and no inclusion bodies are noted.
B) Sections of the frozen myocardium demonstrate two fragments of myocardium and
one fresh blood clot. There is no inflammatory cell infiltrate.
Immunofluorescence Report:
Tissue, received in transport media, is washed in buffer and snap frozen in liquid
nitrogen-cooled isopentane. Acetone-fixed frozen sections of the snap-frozen tissue are
incubated with fluorescein-conjugated polyclonal antibodies to IgG, IgM, IgA, C3, C1q,
fibrinogen, and albumin. Localization is thus via direct immunofluorescence. Indirect
immunofluorescence staining of peritubular capillaries for C4d.
4.
5.
Results are as indicated below:
Block (Original Label): B Population: Microvascular endothelium
Label Marker For
Results
Special Pattern or Comments
C4d (Quidel Clone A213),
Venule staining with high interstitial
C4d
2+
background
immunofluorescence
Block (Original Label): B1 Population: Microvascular endothelium
Label
Marker For
Results
Special Pattern or Comments
IgG IF
IgG, immunofluorescence
Negative Interstitial staining
IgA IF
IgA, immunofluorescence
Negative
IgM IF IgM, immunofluorescence
2+
Capillary and venule staining
C3 IF
C3, immunofluorescence
2+
Venule staining
C1q IF
C1q, immunofluorescence
2+
Venule staining
FIB IF
Fibrinogen, immunofluorescence
Negative
Diffuse interstitial staining
ALB IF
Albumin, immunofluorescence
Negative
Diffuse interstitial staining
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18.9
Pathology and Laboratory
6. Use this information to
choose diagnosis code.
Chapter 18
6.
Final diagnosis:
A, B) Right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy:
1. No significant cellular rejection.
2. Immunofluorescence studies positive for humoral/vascular rejection (IgM and
complement present). Please see comment.
Comment:
A, B) This is the fourth biopsy since transplant. Compared to his most recent biopsy, the
current specimen shows no change in the degree of cellular rejection.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes?
CPT® Codes: 88307 x 2, 88346 x 7, 88347
ICD-9-CM Codes: 996.83
RATIONALE: CPT® Code: Two tissue specimans from the endomyocardium were
separately identified and are sent for a gross and microscopic exam as well as a
separate specimen for immunofluorescence. In the CPT® Index, look up Pathology/
Surgical/Gross and Micro Exam. This lists the possible levels, Level II-VI. It is necessary
to look at the lists with these different codes. Code 88307, Level V, lists “Myocardium,
biopsy.” The gross and microscopic exam for this tissue is reported with 88307 x 2.
In the CPT® Index look up Immunofluorescent study. You are referred to 88346 and
88347. In this case direct and indirect immunofluorescence is performed. Direct, 7
antibodies are tested, so it is reported as 88346 x 7, and 88347 (for C4d, indirect, so
the code is listed once). Notice, in the code descriptor it says: “each antibody.”
ICD-9-CM Code: The patient is diagnosed with rejection of the heart transplant. In
the Index to Diseases look up Rejection/transplant/organ/heart. You are referred to
996.83. Verify the code in the Tabular List.
18.10
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Chapter 18
Pathology and Laboratory
Case 9
Requested by P Norris, MD
Surgical Pathology Report
Materials received:
Referred slides of inguinal lymph node
1.
Clinical data: History of Merkel cell carcinoma.
Final diagnosis:
Lymph node, left inguinal, excision:
1. High grade neuroendocrine carcinoma involving one of four lymph nodes (1/4); see
Comment.
2. No extranodal extension identified.
1. Consultation on referred
slides.
2. This is the only definitive
diagnosis reported.
2.
Comment:
The neoplasm consists of sheets of small round blue cells with powdery chromatin, scant
cytoplasm, and indistinct cell borders. Numerous mitotic figures and areas of single cell
necrosis are seen. The morphologic findings are consistent with a high grade neuroendocrine carcinoma and the differential diagnoses include metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma or small cell carcinoma. Given the patient’s reported history (slides not reviewed at 3.
UMMM), the features are consistent with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. Correlation
with clinical findings is advised.
3. Even though these diagnoses
are given in the differential
diagnoses, the final diagnosis
indicates a specific malignant
carcinoma so this is coded.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes?
CPT® Code: 88321
ICD-9-CM Code: 209.30
RATIONALE: CPT® Code: In the CPT® Index, look up Pathology/Surgical/Consultation
88321–88325. A consultation with review of slides prepared elsewhere is reported
with 88321. Only one specimen is reviewed so the code is only reported once.
ICD-9-CM Code: The differential diagnoses are not reported until they are confirmed.
The only definitive diagnosis documented is metastatic high grade neuroendocrine
carcinoma. In the Index to Diseases, look up Carcinoma/neuroendocrine. You are
referred to 209.30. Note, neuroendocrine carcinoma is listed under “final diagnosis.”
Verify the code in the Tabular List.
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18.11
Pathology and Laboratory
Chapter 18
Case 10
Requested by D Smith, MD. The pathologist providing the service is an employee of the lab.
Surgical Pathology Report
Clinical data: Chronic infected skin ulcer status post amputation of first and third toes,
current mid transmetatarsal amputation.
1. The specimen that is received.
2. Bone specimen is also sent for
testing.
3. Decalcification is reported
separately.
4. Use this information to
choose diagnosis codes.
5. Although there are no specific
listings for amputations,
the skin margins had to be
examined for viability.
6. The bone fragments were
examined for pathologic
components and should be
treated similar to pathologic
fracture fragments.
7. Special treatment by
decalcification is coded
separately.
Gross description:
1. A) Received in formalin designated “right mid transmetatarsal amputation” is a distal
right foot including second, fourth, and fifth toes, measuring 9.0 x 9.0 x 4.0 cm. Also in
2. the container is a piece of tan bone measuring 2.4 x 1.3 x 1.3 cm. The skin and subcutaneous tissue recedes up to 4.0 cm from the smooth bony margins of resection. The skin
is tan-white. The first and third toes are missing. The remaining toes are slightly flexed
and with a thickened irregular nail of the second toe. There is a round, deep ulcer at the
plantar surface of the foot proximal to the second toe, measuring 1.5 x 1.5 x 0.7 cm. No
3. other lesions are identified. The piece of bone is submitted for decalcification. Representative sections are submitted in A1 and A2, including skin and soft tissue margins.
Final diagnosis:
A) Right foot, mid-transmetatarsal amputation:
1. Right foot with ulceration
4.
2. Status post amputation of first and third toes.
5.
3. Skin and soft tissue margins histologically viable.
6.
4. Bone section pending decalcification, addendum report to follow.
Comment: Geographic fibrinoid necrosis associated with ulcer raises the possibility of a
rheumatoid nodule.
7.
Findings of decalcified specimen (A3).
Sections of the bone demonstrate chronic reactive changes. No evidence of active osteomyelitis is identified.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes?
CPT® Codes: 88307, 88305, 88311
ICD-9-CM Codes: 707.15
RATIONALE: CPT® Code: The specimens received include soft tissue and bone of the
toes. In the CPT® Index, look up Pathology/Surgical/Gross and Micro Exam. Look
at the lists of the different levels, Levels II-VI. On Level V, code 88307 is listed “Bone
fragment(s), pathologic fracture. The bone biopsy specimen is reported with 88307. The
code for the toes is found the same way in the CPT® Index. Although more than one toe
is sent, the description for code 88305 includes “toes” (look under Fingers/toes, amputation, non-traumatic) which means no matter how many toes are sent for examination,
the code is reported once. Decalcification is reported separately. In the CPT® Index, look
up Pathology/Surgical/Decalcification Procedure 88311. It is reported with 88311.
ICD-9-CM Code: The patient is diagnosed with an ulcer of the right foot. In the Index
to Diseases, look up Ulcer/foot. You are referred to 707.15. Verify the code in the
Tabular List.
18.12
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Chapter
19
Evaluation and Management
Case 1
1.
3.
5.
7.
Mark is a 45-year-old male and is here as a new patient to have several lipomas removed.
He has had these for many years. He has had about 12 removed. They get bigger slowly
over time. Some of them are tender to touch. They get irritated when he is handling
people as a firefighter.
2.
4.
1. New patient
6.
2. Chief complaint
3. HPI: Duration
Past medical history: None.
4. ROS: Integumentary
Allergies: None.
5. HPI: Quality
Medications: None.
6. HPI: Severity
Past surgical history: Nasal surgery, knee surgery.
8.
Social history: Cigarettes: None.
9.
Family history: He does have a family history of melanoma in his paternal grandfather
who died from it.
10.
Physical examination: On examination, he has subcutaneous masses of his left forearm
and two spots of his left posterior arm. That is the biggest of those three. It is about 1.3
cm. He has four on his right upper extremity, two on his lower forearm and two on his
posterior arm. He has some on his belly.
7. HPI: Modifying factors
8. Past medical history
9. Social history
10. Family history
11.Organ: Skin
12.Diagnosis
11.
13.Elective surgery
Medical decision making: The patient has multiple lipomas, which are tender. He would 12.
like them removed. With his permission, I have drawn how we would incise the skin over
these and about how long the scar would be. There is really no alternative to treatment
other than surgery. Some plastic surgeons will do this with liposuction, but I have found
that personally the recurrence rate is quite high when I have tried to do it with liposuc13.
tion, so I generally just excise them. Risks would include infection and bleeding. We do
not know why people get these, so this is something that Mark will have to deal with
forever. We will do that here in the office. We will do about three at a time. We are going
to start with his left upper extremity. It will be a privilege to take care of Mark.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® Code: 99201
ICD-9-CM Code: 214.1
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19.1
Evaluation and Management
Chapter 19
RATIONALE: CPT® codes: Subcategory, office visit, new patient (3 of 3 key
components must be met)
History—Expanded problem focused (4 HPI, 1 ROS, Complete PFSH)
Exam—Problem focused (1 organ system)
Medical Decision Making—Moderate complexity (New problem, no additional
work-up planned, Risk moderate—minor surgery with identified risk factors).
ICD-9-CM Code: Diagnosis is multiple lipomas on the skin. Look in the ICD-9-CM
Index to Diseases for lipoma/skin and you are directed to 214.1. Verification in the
Tabular List confirms diagnosis code selection.
19.2
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Chapter 19
Evaluation and Management
Case 2
Susan is a 67-year-old female and is referred by Dr. R with a suspicious neoplasm of her
left arm. She has had it for about a year but it has grown a lot this last few months. I had
the privilege of taking a skin cancer off her forearm in the past.
1.
2.
3.
2. Related to surgery.
3. Established patient.
Past medical history: Hypertension, arthritis.
4. Related to surgery.
Allergies: None.
5. Possible diagnosis are not
coded.
Medications: Benicar and Vytorin.
6. Punch biopsy performed.
Social history: Cigarettes: None.
Physical examination: On examination, she has a raised lesion. It is a little bit reddish
and is on her left proximal arm. It has a little bumpiness on its surface.
1. Chief complaint.
4.
Medical decision making: Suspicious neoplasm, left arm.
My guess is this is a wart, but it may be a keratoacanthoma as Dr. R thinks it is. After
obtaining consent, we infiltrated the area with 1 cc of 1% lidocaine with epinephrine,
performed a 3 mm punch biopsy of the lesion, and then I shaved the rest of the lesion off
and closed the wound with 3-0 Prolene. We will see her back next week to go over the
results.
5.
6.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® Code: 11300
ICD-9-CM Codes: 239.2, V10.83
RATIONALE: CPT® code: In the CPT® Index, look for Shaving/Skin Lesion and you are
directed to code range 11300–11313. CPT® 11300 is correct for the shaving of a single
lesion of the arm. According to CPT®, directions for biopsy during excision, destruction, or shave removals, “The obtaining of tissue for pathology during the course of
these procedures is a routine component of such procedures;” therefore, 11100 is not
reported. The documentation does not support a separate evaluation and management service.
ICD-9-CM codes: The medical decision making has a suspicious lesion, left arm.
There are possible diagnoses of a wart or kertoacanthoma, but neither is confirmed.
A suspicious lesion would be coded as a Neoplasm/skin/arm/Unspecified (column)
to code 239.2. For this case, the patient is coming in for a suspicious lesion on the
skin of the left arm. It is documented that she had skin cancer in the past on the skin
of her forearm. Reporting the history code, V10.83, as an additional code is important information to further support the biopsy and shaving of the suspicious lesion
as it indicates the potential for recurrence of skin cancer.
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19.3
Evaluation and Management
Chapter 19
Case 3
Identification: The patient is a 37-year-old Caucasian lady.
1. Established patient &
established problem.
1.
Chief complaint: The patient is here today for follow-up of lower extremity swelling.
5.
History of present illness: A 37-year-old with a history of dyslipidemia and chronic pain. 3.
The patient is here for follow-up of bilateral lower extremity swelling. The patient tells me 4.
the swelling responded to hydrochlorothiazide.
2. Chief complaint.
3. Past medical history.
Exam: Very pleasant, NAD. Vitals: P: 67, R: 18, Temp 98.6, BP: 130/85.
4. HPI: Location.
6. Lab reviewed.
Data review: I did review her labs, and echocardiogram. The patient does have moderate
pulmonary hypertension.
7. EKG review.
Assessment:
5. HPI: Modifying factor.
8. Possibly due to pulmonary
hypertension, but not certain,
so code separately.
6.
8.
1. Bilateral lower extremity swelling: This has resolved with diuretics, this may be
secondary to problem #2.
2. Pulmonary hypertension: Etiology is not clear at this time, will do a work up and
possible referral to a pulmonologist.
Plan: I think we will need to evaluate the etiology of the pulmonary hypertension. The
patient will be scheduled for a sleep study.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® Code: 99212
ICD-9-CM Code: 729.81, 416.8
RATIONALE: CPT® Codes: Subcategory—office, established patient (requires 2 out of
3 key components)
History—Problem focused (2 HPI, 0 ROS, 1 PFSH)
Exam—Problem focused
Medical Decision Making—Moderate complexity (1 problem stable, 1 problem
worsening, Lab & EKG reviewed, risk moderate.)
ICD-9-CM Code: The bilateral lower extremity swelling is possible due to the
pulmonary hypertension, but it is not confirmed so it would be coded separately.
In the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases, look for swelling/extremity and you are directed
to 729.81. For the pulmonary hypertension, look in the Hypertension Table for
pulmonary and you are directed to 416.8. Verification of both codes in the Tabular
List confirms code selection.
19.4
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7.
Chapter 19
Evaluation and Management
Case 4
Age: 33 YRS—Established patient
Vital signs: TEMPERATURE: 98.9°F Tympanic, PULSE: 97 Right Radial, Regular, BP:
114/70 Right Arm Sitting, PULSE OXIMETRY: 98%, WEIGHT: 161 lbs
Current allergy list: Lortab
Current Medication List:
◗◗ Lunesta Oral Tablet 3 Mg, 1 Every Day at Bedtime, As Needed
◗◗ Prozac Oral Capsule Conventional 40 Mg, 1 Every Day
◗◗ Levothyroxine Sodium Oral Tablet 100 Mcg, 1 Every Day for Thyroid Meloxicam
Oral Tablet 15 Mg, 1 Every Day For Joint Pain
◗◗ Imitrex Oral Tablet 100 Mg, 1 Tab Po As Directed, Can Repeat After 2 Hours, Max 2
Per Day Phenergan 25 Mg, 1 Every 4–6 Hours, As Needed For Nausea
Chief complaint: Here for a comprehensive annual physical and pelvic examinations.
History of present illness: Pt here for routine Pap and physical. Pt reports episode of
syncope 2 weeks ago. Pt went to ER and had EKG, CXR and labs and says she was sent
home and per her report everything was normal. She denies episodes since that time.
She does occasionally have mild mid-epigastric discomfort but no breathing problems or
light-headedness. Good compliance with her thyroid meds.
1.
1. Patient is seen for a routine
Pap smear and comprehensive
physical exam. This will be a
preventive visit.
2.
Past medical history: Depression.
Family history: No cancer or heart disease, mother has hypertension.
2. Discussion of meds for
thyroid. This is not sufficient
enough to bill a problem visit
along with the preventive
visit.
3. Comprehensive physical
exam.
Social history: Tobacco Use: Currently smokes 1 1/2 PPD, has smoked for 15 to 20 years.
Review of systems: Patient denies any symptoms in all systems except for HPI.
Physical Exam:
3.
Constitutional: Well developed, well nourished individual in no acute distress.
Eyes: Conjunctivae appear normal. PERRLA
ENMT: Tympanic membranes shiny without retraction. Canals unremarkable. No abnormality of sinuses or nasal airways. Normal oropharynx.
Neck: There are no enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, no enlargement, tenderness, or
mass in the thyroid noted.
Respiratory: Clear to auscultation and percussion. Normal respiratory effort. No
fremitus.
Cardiovascular: Regular rate and rhythm. Normal femoral pulses bilaterally without
bruits. Normal pedal pulses bilaterally. No edema.
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19.5
Evaluation and Management
4. Breast exam.
Chapter 19
4.
Chest/Breast: Breasts normal to inspection with no deformity, no breast tenderness or
masses.
5. Thin prep Pap smear
collection.
GI: Soft, non-tender, without masses, hernias or bruits. Bowel sounds are active in all four
quadrants.
6. Pelvic exam.
GU: external/vaginal: Normal in appearance with good hair distribution. No vulvar
irritation or discharge. Normal clitoris and labia. Mucosa clear without lesions. Pelvic
support normal.
5.
Cervix: The cervix is clear, firm and closed. No visible lesions. No abnormal discharge.
Specimens taken from the cervix for thin prep pap smear.
6.
Uterus: Uterus non-tender and of normal size, shape and consistency. Position and
mobility are normal.
Adnexa/Parametria: No masses or tenderness noted.
Lymphatics: No lymphadenopathy in the neck, axillae, or groin.
Musculoskeletal exam: Gait intact. No kyphosis, lordosis, or tenderness. Full range of
motion. Normal rotation. No instability.
Extremities: Bilateral Lower: No misalignment or tenderness. Full range of motion.
Normal stability, strength and tone.
Skin: Warm, dry, no diaphoresis, no significant lesions, irritation, rashes or ulcers.
Neurologic: CNS II-XII grossly intact.
Psychiatric: Mood and affect appropriate.
Labs/Radiology/Tests: The following labs/radiology/tests results were discussed with the
patient: Alb, Bili, Ca, Cl, Cr, Glu, Alk Phos, K, Na, SGOT, BUN, Lipid profile, CBC, TSH,
Pap smear.
Assessment/Plan:
Unspecified acquired hypothyroidism
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® Code: 99395—for some insurance carriers, also code G0101 for the pelvic and
breast exam.
ICD-9-CM Code: V70.0, V72.31, 244.9
19.6
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Chapter 19
Evaluation and Management
RATIONALE: CPT® Codes: Subcategory—Preventive Medicine Services, established
patient
Age 33—code 99395
Some insurance carriers will also allow reporting of HCPCS Level II code G0101 for
the pelvic and breast exam. The Pap smear results were discussed with the patient
during the visit indicating the Pap analysis was performed in the office. If we had a
Pap report, we could also bill for the Pap smear.
ICD-9-CM Codes: In the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases, look for Examination/annual
and you are directed to V70.0. There is also a code for Examination/pelvic, which is
V72.31. The provider also has documented unspecified acquired hypothyroidism.
Since the provider confirmed her medication compliance, this can be listed as an
additional code. In the Index to Diseases, see Hypothyroidism. Note: Some payers
will require specific ICD-9-CM codes be reported with screening pelvic and breast
exams. Check your payer policies.
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19.7
Evaluation and Management
Chapter 19
Case 5
1.
The patient is a 32-year-old male here for the first time.
2. Chief complaint.
2.
4.
3. HPI: Severity.
5.
8.
Chief complaint: Left knee area is bothersome, painful moderate severity. The patient also 3.
notes swelling in the knee area, limited ambulation, and inability to perform physical activi- 6.
ties such as sports or exercises. The patient first noticed symptoms approximately 4 months 7.
ago. Problem occurred spontaneously. Problem is sporadic. Patient has been prescribed
hydrocodone and meloxicam. Patient has had temporary pain relief with the medications.
The meloxicam has caused digestion problems so patient has avoided using it.
1. New patient.
4. HPI: Associated Signs &
Symptoms.
9.
Past medical history: Patient denies any past medical problems.
5. HPI: Location.
Surgeries: Patient has undergone surgery on the appendix.
6. HPI: Severity again (not
counted twice).
Hospitalizations: Patient denies any past hospitalizations that are noteworthy.
7. HPI: Duration.
8. HPI: Timing.
9. HPI: Modifying factors and
their effects.
10. PFSH: Past Medical History.
Medications: Hydrocodone
10.
Allergies: Patient denies having allergies.
11.
Family history: Mother: No serious medical problems; Father: No serious medical
problems.
12.
Social history: Patient is married. Occupation: Patient is a chef.
11. PFSH: Family History.
Review of Systems:
12. PFSH: Social History.
Constitutional: Denies fevers. Denies chills. Denies rapid weight loss.
13. ROS: Complete.
Eyes: Denies vision problems.
Ears, Nose, Throat: Denies any infection. Denies loss of hearing. Denies ringing in the
ears. Denies dizziness. Denies a sore throat. Denies sinus problems.
Cardiovascular: Denies chest pains. Denies an irregular heartbeat.
Respiratory: Denies wheezing. Denies coughing. Denies shortness of breath.
Gastrointestinal: Denies diarrhea. Denies constipation. Denies indigestion. Denies any
blood in stool.
Genitourinary: Denies any urine retention problems. Denies frequent urination. Denies
blood in the urine. Denies painful urination.
Integumentary: Denies any rashes. Denies having any insect bites.
Neurological: Denies numbness. Denies tremors. Denies loss of consciousness.
Hematologic/Lymphatic: Denies easy bruising. Denies blood clots.
13.
19.8
Psychiatric: Denies depression. Denies sleep disorders. Denies loss of appetite.
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Chapter 19
Evaluation and Management
Review of previous studies: Patient brings an MRI which is reviewed. Large knee effusion.
No lateral meniscal tear. No ACL/PCL tear. No collateral fracture. Medial meniscus tear
with grade I signal.
14.
Vitals: Height: 6’0”, Weight: 160
Physical examination: Patient is alert, appropriate, and comfortable. Patient holds a
normal gaze. Pupils are round and reactive. Gait is normal. Skin is intact. No rashes,
17. abrasions, contusions, or lacerations. No venous stasis. No varicosities. Reflexes are
19. normal patellar. No clonus.
15.
16.
18.
19. Exam: Neuro.
21.
Impression:
Assessment and plan: A discussion is held with the patient regarding his condition and
possible treatment options. Patient has GI upset. Patient is recommended to take Motrin
400 two to three times a day, discussion is held regarding proper use and precautions.
23. Patient is given a prescription for physical therapy. We will obtain an MRI to rule out
potential medial meniscus tear. Patient is instructed to follow up with PMD with labs.
Patient is referred to Dr. XYZ. Patient may need arthroscopy if patient does have medial
meniscus tear and repeat effusion.
16. Exam: Musculoskeletal.
18. Exam: Cardiovascular.
Hip: Exam is unremarkable. Normal range of motion, flexion approximately 105 degrees,
extension approximately 10 degrees, abduction approximately 25 degrees, adduction
approximately 30 degrees, internal rotation approximately 30 degrees, external rotation
20.
approximately 30 degrees.
1. Synovitis of the left knee
2. Contracture of the left knee
3. Possible medial meniscal tear of right knee
15. Exam: Eyes.
17. Exam: Skin.
Knee: Range of motion is approximately from 5 to 100 degrees. Pain with motion. No
localized pain. Negative mechanical findings. There is an effusion. Patella is tracking well.
No tenderness. Patient feels pain especially when taking stairs or squatting.
Neck: Neck is supple. No JVD.
14. Previous studies reviewed
used in MDM.
20. Exam: Musculoskeletal.
21. Exam: Neck.
22. Uncertain diagnosis.
23. Physical therapy prescribed.
24. Additional test ordered.
22.
24.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® Code: 99203
ICD-9-CM Code: 727.09, 718.46
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19.9
Evaluation and Management
Chapter 19
RATIONALE: CPT® Codes: Subcategory—Office Visit, New Patient (3 of 3 key components required)
History—Comprehensive (HPI—extended, ROS—complete, PFSH—complete)
Exam—Detailed (5 organ systems—detailed knee and hip exam)
MDM—Moderate complexity—(New problem, add work up, previous MRI
reviewed, ordered MRI) Risk is moderate (undiagnosed new problem with uncertain
prognosis.))
ICD-9-CM Codes: In the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases, look for Synovitis, and you are
directed to see tenosynovitis. Under tenosynovitis/knee, you are directed to 727.09.
Verification in the Tabular List indicates this is other synovitis and tenosynovitis.
Next, look for Contracture/joint/knee and you are directed to 718.46. Verification
in the Tabular List confirms 718.4 is for contracture of a joint and the fifth digit of
6 is for the lower leg (which includes the knee). The medial meniscal tear is only a
possible diagnosis, so it should not be coded.
19.10
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Chapter 19
Evaluation and Management
Case 6
Established patient
Chief complaint: Thoracic spine pain
1.
Problem List:
1.
2.
3.
4.
2.
4.
6.
7.
2. HPI: Quality.
Rheumatoid arthritis.
Compression fracture of the thoracic spine T11.
Alcoholism.
Depression/anxiety.
3. HPI: Location.
4. HPI: Associated Signs and
Symptoms.
Review of systems: His pain is significantly improved in his thoracic spine. He does have 3.
low back pain. He has a history of chronic low back pain. He is still wearing a thoracic
support brace. He is going to follow up with Dr. X’s office in about six weeks or so. Since 5.
I have seen him last he had a small flare of arthritis after his Humira injection. This
resolved after 2–3 days. He had pain and stiffness in his hands. Currently he denies any
pain and stiffness in his hands. He has one cystic mass on his left hand, second distal pad
that is bothersome.
8.
Current medications: Vasotec 20 mg a day, Folic Acid 1mg a day, Norvasc 5 mg a day,
Pravachol 40 mg a day, Plaquenil 400 mg a day, Humira 40 mg every other week, Celexa
20 mg,a day, Klonopin .5 mg as needed, aspirin 81 mg a day, Ambien 10 mg as needed,
Hydrocodone as needed.
5. ROS: Musculoskeletal.
6. HPI: Modifying factor with
affect.
7. HPI: Duration.
8. ROS: more Musculoskeletal.
9. PFSH: Past Medical History.
9.
Physical exam: He is alert and oriented in no distress. Gait is unimpaired. He is wearing
10. the thoracic brace. Spine ROM is not assessed. Lungs: Clear. Heart: Rate and rhythm are 11.
regular.
12.
Musculoskeletal exam: There is generalized swelling of the finger joints without any
significant synovitis or tenderness. There is a cystic mass on the pad of his second left
finger, which is tender. Remaining joints are without tenderness or synovitis.
1. Chief complaint.
10.Exam: Musculoskeletal.
11.Exam: Respiratory.
12.Exam: Cardiovascular.
13.Exam: Detailed
Musculoskeletal.
13.
14.DEXA of the spine.
Review of DEXA scan: (performed in office today) There is low bone density with a total
T-score of -1.1 of the lumbar spine. Compared to previous it was -0.8. There has been a
reduction by 3.6%. T-score of the left femoral neck -1.1, Ward’s triangle -2.4, total T-score
is -0.8 compared to previous there has been a 7% reduction from 2005.
14.
15.Primary diagnosis.
16.Second and tertiary diagnoses.
Assessment:
1. Rheumatoid arthritis. He is doing fairly well. He does have a cystic mass, which
15.
seems to be a synovial cyst of the left second digit. He was wondering if he could
have this aspirated.
2. Compression fracture and low bone density. He is being treated for osteoporosis
16.
because of this. He is tolerating Fosamax well. He is also using Miacalcin nasal spray
temporarily to help with the pain and it seems to have been effective.
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19.11
Evaluation and Management
Chapter 19
Plan:
17. Decision to aspirate the cyst is
after full workup.
18. Second finger—F1 modifier.
19. Aspiration of joint.
20.Injection of joint.
17.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Continue current therapy.
Aspirate the synovial cyst in the left second finger.
Follow up in about 6–8 weeks.
Repeat labs prior to visit.
Procedure note: With sterile technique and Betadine prep, the radial side of the second
finger is anesthetized with 1 cc 1% Lidocaine for a distal finger block. Then the synovial
19. cyst is punctured and material was expressed under the skin. I injected it with 10 mg of
20. Depo-Medrol. He will keep it clean and dry. If it has any signs or symptoms of infection,
he will let me know.
18.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® Code: 99213-25, 20600-F1, 77080, J1020
ICD-9-CM Code: 714.0, 727.40, 733.13, 733.00
RATIONALE: CPT® code: Subcategory—Office visit, established patient (requires 2 of
3 key components)
History—Expanded Problem Focused (HPI—Extended, ROS—Problem pertinent,
PFSH—pertinent)
Exam—Detailed (3 organ systems, musculoskeletal is detailed)
MDM—Low complexity (2 diagnoses-stable, risk-moderate (two stable chronic
conditions))
During the office visit, a DXA scan of the spine (axial skeleton) was performed. In the
CPT® Index, look for Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA)/Axial Skeleton and you are
directed to 77080.
There was also a decision to aspirate the cyst on the second finger. Look in the CPT®
Index for Joint/Aspiration and you are directed to 20600–20610. The code selection is based on the joint size. 20600 is the correct code selection for a small joint
(finger). Modifier F1 is appended to indicate it is the left hand, second digit. Modifier 25 is appended to the office visit to indicate it is separately identifiable from the
procedure. Depo-Medrol was injected. Look in the HCPCS Table of Drugs for DepoMedrol, J1020. J1020 reportes Deoo-Medrol, 20 mg.
ICD-9-CM Codes: Rheumatoid arthritis is the first listed diagnosis in the Assessment.
In the Index to Diseases, look up Arthritis/rheumatoid, referring you to code 714.0.
The second diagnosis is for the synovial cyst that was identified and a procedure
was performed. This is indexed under Cyst, synovial referring you to code 727.40.
The next diagnosis to report is the compression fracture of the thoracic spine. This
is indexed under Fracture/vertebra/compression/not due to trauma. This refers
you to code 733.13. Low bone density will be reported with 733.00, indexed under
Osteoporosis.
19.12
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Chapter 19
Evaluation and Management
Case 7
XYZ Nursing Home
1.
2.
Subjective: The patient appears to be a little more altered than normal today. He is in
some obvious discomfort. However, he is not able to communicate due to his mental
status. Patient does appear fairly anxious.
Physical exam: Glucoses have been within normal limits. Patient has had poor p.o.
intake, however, over the last 2–3 days. Temperature is 97, pulse is 79, respirations 20,
blood pressure 152/92, and oxygen saturation 97% on room air. Patient is arousable.
8. Extraocular movements are intact. Oral pharynx is clear. Lungs are clear to auscultation
10. bilaterally. Heart has a regular rate and rhythm. Abdomen is nontender and nondis12. tended. Patient is able to move all extremities. He does have some mild bruising over the
apex of his right shoulder and over the lateral ribcage on the right side over approximately
T8 to T10. No crepitus is noted. Patient indicates he hurts everywhere.
4.
6.
Ancillary studies: A.M. labs—none new this morning. X-ray shows no evidence of fracture with definitive arthritis. Patient has chronic distention of bowels. This is always
atypical exam. Telemetry shows no significant new arrhythmias.
1. HPI: quality.
3.
5.
7.
9.
11.
13.
2. HPI: Severity.
3. The physician is unable to
obtain a history due to the
patient’s mental status.
4. ROS: Endocrine.
5. HPI: Quality again.
6. HPI: Duration.
7. Exam: Constitutional.
14.
15.
8. Exam: Eye.
9. Exam: Mouth and throat.
Assessment & Plan:
16.
1. Patient is an 84-year-old Caucasian male who presented after a fall with rib contusion, shoulder pain and uncontrolled pain since. He has been on Tramadol.
However, I believe this is making him more altered. Thus, we will back of on medications and see if he comes back more to himself. We may try a different medication at a low dose later today if patient’s mental status improves significantly. We
will have patient out of bed three times a day. Physical therapy is working with the
patient for significant deconditioning.
10.Exam: Respiratory.
17.
12.Exam: Abdomen.
13.Exam: Musculoskeletal.
14.Reviewed X-ray.
2. Patient with elevated blood pressures upon admission and still running a little bit
high. Cardizem has been added to the medication regimen recently. We will follow
this and see what it does for his blood pressure in the long run. He is in no immediate danger currently.
18.
3. Very advanced dementia, will follow, continue on home medications.
19.
15.Reviewed telemetry.
16.Primary diagnosis.
4. Coronary artery disease and history of congestive heart failure. These appear stable 20.
at this time.
5. History of atrial fibrillation, sounds to be in regular rhythm currently and appears
to be doing well on telemetry monitor. Again, cardizem has been added for better
control and blood pressure control.
11.Exam: Cardiovascular.
21.
6. Type II diabetes mellitus. Glycemic control has been good. However, patient has had 22.
poor p.o. intake over the last 2–3 days, which may be due to pain. Thus, we will hold
glipizide for now to prevent hypoglycemia.
17.Condition is not stable.
18.Additional diagnosis.
19.Additional diagnosis.
20.Additional diagnosis.
21.Additional diagnosis.
22.Additional diagnosis.
7. We will follow the patient closely and adjust medications as necessary.
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19.13
Evaluation and Management
Chapter 19
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® Code: 99309
ICD-9-CM Code: 922.1, 719.41, 796.2, 294.20, 414.01, 428.0, 427.31, 250.00
RATIONALE: CPT® Code: Subcategory—Subsequent Nursing Facility Care (2 of 3 key
components)
History: Expanded problem focused (3 HPI, 1 ROS)
Exam: Detailed (7 Organ systems with musculoskeletal detailed)
MDM: Moderate complexity (Extensive diagnosis, 2 items reviewed (X-ray &
Telemetry), Moderate Risk)
ICD-9-CM Codes:
1.Rib Contusion causing pain. In the Index to Diseases, locate Contusion/rib cage
and you are referred to 922.1.
2.Shoulder pain. In the index, locate Pain/ joint/ shoulder and you are referred to
719.41.
3.The elevated blood pressure is not stated as hypertension. Since the patient
had high blood pressure upon admission and it is still a little high, you will
want to query the physician to see if this is high blood pressure, or hypertension. In the index, locate Elevation//blood pressure/reading(incidental) (isolate)
(nonspecific), no diagnosis of hypertension, and you are referred to 796.2. It
is coded since there was a medication change and the blood pressure will be
monitored.
4.Dementia is coded since it’s being followed and the home meds will be
continued. In the index, locate Dementia and you are referred to 294.20.
5.Patient has history of atrial fibrillation, currently controlled with telemetry
monitor. In the index, locate Fibrillation/atrial (established) (paroxysmal) and
you are referred to 427.31.
6.Blood glucose is reviewed for Type II DM. In the index locate Diabetes, 250.0
with fifth digit ‘0’ to indicate type II not stated as uncontrolled.
19.14
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Chapter 19
Evaluation and Management
Case 8
3.
6.
7.
9.
10.
Hospital Admission
1.
Chief complaint: Nausea, weakness
2.
HPI: The patient is a 78-year-old Hispanic female with a history of diabetes, hypertension,
and osteoporosis who was just discharged after hospitalization for gastroenteritis three
days ago. She went home and was feeling fine, was tolerating regular diet until yesterday.
She stated she feels nauseated, feels like she needs to throw up but cannot vomit. Her last
bowel movement was yesterday. She stated it was diarrhea and states she has extreme
weakness. No melena or hematochezia. No shortness of breath, no chest pain.
4.
5.
8.
11.
1. Choose from Initial Hospital
Care Subcategory.
2. Chief complaint.
3. HPI: Timing.
4. HPI: Quality.
5. HPI: Timing.
6. HPI: Severity.
Medical history: Diabetes mellitus type 2. Hypertension. Osteoporosis.
Surgical history: None
7. ROS: GI.
Medicines: Benadryl 25 mg daily, Diovan 320/25 one daily, calcium 600 daily, vitamin C
500 daily, multivitamin 1 tablet daily, Coreg CR 20 mg daily, Lipitor 20 mg at bedtime,
metform 1000 mg/day.
8. HPI: Severity.
9. HPI: Associated Sign &
Symptom.
Allergies: Morphine
12.
Social history: No tobacco, alcohol or drugs. She is a widow. She lives in Marta. She is
retired.
13.
Family history: Mother deceased after childbirth. Father deceased from asphyxia.
14.
12.PFSH: Personal History.
ROS: Negative for fever, weight gain, weight loss. Positive for fatigue and malaise.
15.
13.PFSH: Social History.
Ears, Nose, Throat: Negative for rhinorrhea. Negative for congestion.
16.
14.PFSH: Family History.
Eyes: Negative for vision changes.
17.
Pulmonary: Negative for dyspnea.
18.
Cardiovascular: Negative for angina.
19.
11.ROS: Respiratory.
15.ROS: Constitutional.
16.ROS: ENT.
17.ROS: Eyes.
Gastrointestinal: Positive for diarrhea, positive for constipation, intermittent changes
between the 2. Negative for melena or hematochezia.
20.
Neurologic: Negative for headaches. Negative for seizures.
21.
Psychiatric: Negative for anxiety. Negative for depression.
22.
Integumentary: Positive for rash for which she takes Benadryl.
23.
Genitourinary: Negative for dysfunctional bleeding. Negative for dysuria.
24.
18.ROS: Respiratory.
19.ROS: Cardiovascular.
20.ROS: GI.
21.ROS: Neurologic.
22.ROS: Psychiatric.
Objective:
23.Integumentary.
Vital signs: Show a temperature max of 98.1, T-current 97.6, pulse 62, respirations 20,
blood pressure 168/65. O2 sat 95% on room air. Accu-Chek, 135.
Generally: No apparent distress, oriented x 3, pleasant Spanish speaking female.
10.ROS: GI.
24.ROS: GU.
25.
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25.Exam: Constitutional.
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19.15
Evaluation and Management
26. Exam: Head, including face.
27. Exam: Mouth (ENMT).
28. Exam: Eye.
Chapter 19
26.
Head, ears, eyes, nose, throat: Normocephalic, atraumatic. Oropharynx is pink and
moist. No scleral icterus.
29.
Neck: Supple, full range of motion.
30.
Lungs: Clear to auscultation bilaterally.
29. Exam: Neck.
30. Exam: Respiratory.
Cardiovascular: Regular rate and rhythm. No murmurs, gallops, rubs.
32.
Abdomen: Soft, nontender, nondistended. Normal bowel sounds. No hepatosplenomegaly. Negative Murphy’s sign.
33.
Back: Costovertebral angle tenderness
34.
Extremities: No clubbing, cyanosis or edema.
31. Exam: Cardiovascular.
32. Exam: Gastrointestinal.
33. Exam: GU (CVA tenderness
is check for signs of kidney
infection).
34. Exam: Cardiovascular.
35. Labs reviewed.
36. Ultrasound and CT reviewed.
37. IV Hydration with additives.
38. Ordered additional lab.
Laboratory Studies.
Shows a sodium 125, potassium 3.1, chloride 90, CO2 27, glucose 103, BUN 13, creatinine
0.7, white count 8.3, hemoglobin and hematocrit 12.6, 37.1, platelets 195, 000. Differential
shows 76% neutrophils. Amylase 42, CK-MB 1.7, troponin 0.05, CPK 59. PTT 26.9. PT and
INR 12.9 and 1.09. UA shows 500 leukocyte esterase, negative nitrite, 15 of ketones, 10 to
35. 25 WBCs.
Gallbladder sonogram shows a 1.24 x 1 cm echogenic focus in the gallbladder, possibly
representing gallbladder polyp or gallbladder mass. CT abdomen and pelvis shows cholelithiasis, small left pleural effusion, small indeterminate nodules both lung masses, no
36. acute bowel abnormality and sclerotic appearance of right greater trochanter, no free air.
Assessment
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
37.
38.
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, likely gastroenteritis
Cystitis
Hyperkalemia
Hyponatremia
Cholelithiasis
Diabetes mellitus type 2
Hypertension
Plan: Will admit patient for IV hydration, add Levaquin 500 mg IV q 24 hours. Will ad
20 mg KCl per L to IV fluid. Get a general surgery consult for cholelethiasis. Will check
studies, fecal white blood cells, C. dif toxin and fecal stool culture and sensitivity.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® Code: 99222
ICD-9-CM Codes: 787.01, 787.91, 595.9, 276.7, 276.1, 574.20, 250.00, 401.9
19.16
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27.
28.
31.
Chapter 19
Evaluation and Management
RATIONALE: CPT® code: Subcategory—Initial Hospital Care (3 of 3 key components)
History—Comprehensive (HPI—Extended, ROS—Complete, PFSH—Complete)
Exam—Comprehensive (8 organ systems)
MDM—Moderate Complexity (Extensive diagnoses, Limited data (reviewed radiology & labs, ordered labs), Risk—Moderate)
ICD-9-CM Codes:
1. Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, likely gastroenteritis (gastroenteritis is only a possible
diagnosis, Nausea and Vomiting are symptoms, but the cause is undetermined,
so it is coded). Look in index for Nausea/with vomiting—787.01, and for Diarrhea
787.91
2. Cystitis—Found under Cystitis in the index, no other descriptors, use 595.9
3. Hyperkalemia—Found under Hyperkalemia in the index, use 276.7
4. Hyponatremia—Found under Hyponatremia in the index, use 276.1
5. Cholelithiasis—Found under Cholelithiasis (no mention of obstruction) in the
index, use 574.20
6. Diabetes mellitus type 2—look for Diabetes mellitus/type 2, not stated as uncontrolled, use 250.00
7. Hypertension—found in Hypertension Table, unspecified, use 401.9
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19.17
Evaluation and Management
Chapter 19
Case 9
Hospital Progress Note
1. HPI: Quality
2. ROS: GI
3. ROS: Respiratory
4. ROS: Cardiovascular
Subjective: Patient is without complaint. She states she feels much better. No vomiting or
2. diarrhea. She did have bowel movement yesterday. No shortness of breath, no chest pain.
1.
The patient and daughter were questioned again about her cardiac history. She denies any
cardiac history. She has no orthopnea, no dyspnea on exertion, no angina in the past and
4. she has never had any heart problems in the past.
6. Exam: Head, including face
Case discussed yesterday with Dr. Williams and I am waiting to find out on her
surgery date.
7. Exam: ENMT
Objective:
8. Exam: Eyes
Vital signs: Shows a T-max of 99.6, T-current 98, pulse 72, respirations 18. Blood pressure
154/65, 02 sat 96% on room air. Accu-cheks, 113, 132, 96, 98.
5. Exam: Constitutional
9. Lab tests reviewed
5.
General: No apparent distress, oriented x 3, pleasant English-speaking female.
Head, Ears, Eyes, Nose, Throat: Normocephalic, atraumatic. Oropharynx pink
and moist. Left eye has sclera erythema. Pupils equal, round, and reactive to light
8. accommodation.
6.
7.
9.
Laboratory data: Shows C Dif toxin negative. Sodium 129, potassium 3.4, chloride 96,
CO2 27, glucose 72, BUN 12, creatinine 0.6. Urine culture positive for E. coli, sensitive to
Levaquin.
Assessment:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Cholelithiasis
Cystitis
Conjunctivitis
Hyponatremia
Hypokalemia
Diabetes mellitus type 2
Hypertension
If the patient is not to go to surgery today, will feed the patient and likely discharge her if
she tolerates regular diet. Will add Norvasc 5 mg p.o. daily. Also pleural effusion, small.
Will repeat a chest X-ray PA and lateral this morning to evaluate that.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® Code: 99232
ICD-9-CM Codes: 574.20, 595.9, 372.30, 276.1, 276.8, 250.00, 401.9
19.18
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3.
Chapter 19
Evaluation and Management
RATIONALE: CPT® Code: Subcategory: Subsequent Hospital Care (2 of 3 components)
History—Expanded problem focused (HPI—Brief, ROS—Extended, PFSH—none)
Exam—Expanded problem focused (3 organ systems—limited exams of all three)
MDM—Moderate Complexity (Extensive diagnosis, Review labs, Moderate Risk)
ICD-9-CM Codes:
1. Cholelithiasis—Found under Cholelithiasis (no mention of obstruction) in the
index, use 574.20.
2. Cystitis—Found under Cystitis in the index, no other descriptors, use 595.9.
3. Conjunctivitis—Found under Conjunctivitis in the index, use 372.30.
4. Hyponatremia—Found under Hyponatremia in the index, use 276.1.
5. Hypokalemia—Found under Hypokalemia in the index, use 276.8.
6. Diabetes mellitus type 2—look for Diabetes mellitus/type 2, not stated as uncontrolled, use 250.00.
7. Hypertension—found in Hypertension Table, unspecified, use 401.9.
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19.19
Evaluation and Management
Chapter 19
Case 10
1. This indicates the provider
is discharging the patient.
Review the note to make
sure discharge services
where performed. Look for
documented time in the note.
1.
Hospital course:
The patient was hospitalized two days ago with nausea and vomiting. She had an
uneventful hospital course. She was diagnosed with cholelithiasis. General surgery was
consulted. Dr. General thought this was perhaps causing her upper GI symptoms. She
was scheduled for surgery on Monday. She was tolerating a regular diet. Her nausea and
vomiting resolved and she desired to be dismissed home. She was found to have a bladder
infection. She was started on Levaquin and she also had left eye conjunctivitis and she
was given Ciloxan eye ointment for that.
2. Select a diagnosis code for all
discharge diagnoses.
3. This is confirmation the
patient is being discharged to
their home.
4. The patient is scheduled for
surgery in one week.
Discharge Summary
2.
Discharge Diagnoses:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Cholelithiasis
Cystitis
Conjunctivitis
Hyponatremia
Diabetes mellitus type 2
Hypertension
Discharge Medications:
1. Levaquin 500 mg p.o. daily x2 days
2. Ciloxan ointment, apply b.i.d.to left eye x 4 days/
3. Zofran 4 mg p.o. q. 4 hours p.r.n. nausea, vomiting #20
4. Benadryl 25 mg p.o. daily p.r.n. rash
5. Diovan 320 p.o. daily
6. Calcium 600 mg p.o. daily
7. Vitamin C 500 mg p.o. daily.
8. Metformin 1000 mg p.o. daily
9. Lipitor 20 mg p.o. at bedtime
10.Coreg CR 20 mg p.o. daily.
Discharge Diet: Cardiac
Activities: ad lib
Discharge instructions: Patient to be NPO after midnight Sunday.
3.
Dismiss: Home
Condition: Good
4.
19.20
Follow-up: Follow up with me in 1 week. Follow up on Monday morning for cholecystectomy. NPO after midnight on Sunday.
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Chapter 19
Evaluation and Management
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® Code: 99238
ICD-9-CM Codes: 574.20, 595.9, 372.30, 276.1, 250.00, 401.9
RATIONALE: CPT® code: This is a discharge summary from a hospital. Discharge
services are coded based on time. There is no time documented in the medical
record, so the lowest time is selected. 99238 is the correct code. Remember, when
reporting the discharge based on time, you would include all time spent by that
physician on that date of service, whether it is continuous or not.
ICD-9-CM Codes:
1. Cholelithiasis—Found under Cholelithiasis (no mention of obstruction) in the
index, use 574.20
2. Cystitis—Found under Cystitis in the index, no other descriptors, use 595.9
3. Conjunctivitis—Found under Conjunctivitis in the index, use 372.30
4. Hyponatremia—Found under Hyponatremia in the index, use 276.1
5. Diabetes mellitus type 2—look for Diabetes mellitus/type 2, not stated as
uncontrolled, use 250.00
6. Hypertension—found in Hypertension Table, unspecified, use 401.9
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19.21
Chapter
20
Medicine
Case 1
1.
A 10-year-old established patient presents today for well child check with mother with
complaints of frequent urination during the day.
2.
1. The patient is established
2. Patient presents for a preventive exam.
The patient has two sisters and sees dad sporadically. Lives in a smoke free environment. 1
dog, 1 rabbit.
Denies dysuria, abdominal pain, or rashes; all other systems are reviewed and negative.
3. Preventive exam and
problems treated.
Patient going into fourth grade with good grades. No parental concerns. Patient cooperates but does tend to back talk. Doing well on Concerta.
4. Wart is destroyed.
5. Vaccination is administered.
Exam
General: Normal
Head: Normal
Eyes: Normal
Ears: Normal
Nose: Normal
Mouth/throat: Normal
Neck: Normal
Abdomen: Normal
Rectal: Not examined
Genitals: Normal
Skin: 3 mm papule on dorsal R hand without disruption of creases
Urinalysis: Ketones, nitrite, leukocytes normal; trace blood, low specific gravity.
Counseled patient on the use of seat belts, bicycle/skate helmets, gun safety, water/sun
safety.
Assessment: Well Child Check, ADHD, Wart, Frequent Urination
3.
Refill Concerta 18 mg PO q AM
Wart cleansed with alcohol. Histofreeze x 25 seconds was performed to destroy the wart. 4.
Varicella Vaccine #2 administered without any complications.
5.
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20.1
Medicine
Chapter 20
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® Codes: 99393-25, 17110, 90471, 90716, 81002
ICD-9-CM Codes: V20.2, 078.10, 314.01, 788.41
RATIONALE: CPT® Codes: The patient presents for a well child check which is a
preventive exam. The code is selected based on whether the patient is new or
established and the age of the patient. The patient is established and 10-years-old
which is reported with 99393. Modifier 25 is appended to report a separate and
significant E/M is reported in addition to other procedures (wart destruction and
vaccination). Next select the code for the wart destruction. In the CPT® Index,
look up Destruction/warts/flat. You are referred to 17110–17111. The correct code
is selected based on the number of warts destroyed. In this case it is one which
is reported with 17110. A varicella vaccination is administered via an injection.
Two codes are required, one for the administration and one for the vaccine. In
the CPT® Index, look up Administration/immunization/one vaccine/toxoid. There
is no indication that counseling for the vaccination was performed which makes
90471 the correct code. Next select the code for the vaccine which is located under
Vaccines/varicella. You are referred to 90716. A urinalysis is also performed. Look
in the CPT® Index for Urinalysis/without microscopy and you are referred to code
81002.
ICD-9-CM Codes: The patient presents for a well child check. From the Index to
Diseases, look up Examination/health of/child. You are referred to V20.2. According
to the Official Coding Guidelines, when additional conditions are treated during
a screening exam, report the additional diagnoses. The patient is diagnosed with
ADHD for which a prescription is renewed and a wart. From the Index to Diseases
look up Wart. You are referred to 078.10. From the Index to Diseases, look up
Disorder/attention deficient/with hyperactivity. You are referred to 314.01. Look up
Urination/frequent. You are referred to 788.41. Verify all codes in the Tabular List for
accuracy.
20.2
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Chapter 20
Medicine
Case 2
Pre-procedure diagnosis: Asthma
Post-procedure diagnosis: Asthma
1.
Procedure: Psychophysiological Therapy Biofeedback
The patient returned to clinic with daily diary documenting home peak flow readings
and asthma symptoms. Diary was assessed and discussed with patient. Patient reports
reduced dosing with inhaled steroids and fewer asthmatic episodes. Lungs and respiratory
2.
resistance assessed. Lungs clear, no wheezes or rhonchi noted.
1. Post procedural diagnosis
used for coding.
2. Psychophysiological training.
3. Biofeedback documentation.
4. Biofeedback time.
HRV biofeedback was performed using a physiograph. ECG data were collected from the 3.
left arm and right leg, and were digitized at 510 Hz. EEG biofeedback equipment attached
and baroreflex gain was assessed with beat-to-beat BP recordings and digitized at a rate
of 252 samples per second. The sensor was placed on the participant’s right middle finger,
and the hand was elevated on a table to approximately the level of the heart.
Respiratory system impedance (Zrs) [between 2 and 32 Hz with 2-Hz increments] was
measured using a pseudorandom noise forced oscillation system. It was presented in 40,
2-second bursts spaced equally throughout.
In order to minimize the effects of possible partial glottal closure during exhalation, each
burst was triggered by the beginning of an inhalation.
Post procedure, inspirometer readings were recorded. Asthma symptoms were scored
with the patient. Biofeedback procedure lasted approximately 28 minutes.
4.
The patient is to return to clinic in two weeks with daily diary. It is expected the patient
will continue with reduced regiment and asthmatic episodes.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 90875
ICD-9-CM code: 493.90
RATIONALE: CPT® code: Biofeedback is found in the index under Training/biofeedback. Code selection is between 90901–90911. Under the heading for Biofeedback,
there is a parenthetical instruction for psychophysiological therapy incorporating
biofeedback, see 90875, 90876. The code selection is based on minutes. 28 minutes
is coded with 90875. 90901 is not reported separately. 90875 also includes the
psychotherapy for behavior modification.
ICD-9-CM code: The patient has asthma. Look in the Index to Diseases for
asthma and you are directed to 493.9x. The asthma is not stated as having status
asthmaticus or acute exacerbation, so the fifth digit is 0.
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20.3
Medicine
Chapter 20
Case 3
Performed in the office
Pre-procedure diagnosis: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Heartburn
1. Post procedure diagnosis used
for coding.
1.
Post-procedure diagnosis: GERD
2.
Procedure: Esophageal pH monitoring with Bravo pH Capsule
Pt was placed in supine position on examining bed, IV moderate sedation was administered. Visualization of esophagus with anatomic markers located during endoscopy.
Endoscopy was removed and the Bravo pH Capsule delivery system was passed into the
esophagus using the oral passage until the attachment site was obtained at approximately
5 cm proximal to the upper margin of the LES. The external vacuum pump was activated
pulling the adjacent esophageal mucosa into the fastening well. Vacuum guage at 600 mm
Hg and held for 10 seconds.
2. Acid reflux testing.
3. Placement of electrode
placement.
3.
The plastic safety guard on handle was then removed and the activation button was
depressed and turned attaching the pH capsule to the esophageal wall. The activation
button on handle was then twisted 90 degrees and re-extended, releasing the pH capsule.
Esophagoscopy was repeated to verify capsule attachment.
Prior to procedure, the Bravo pH capsule was activated and calibrated by submersion in
pH buffer solutions.
The patient tolerated the procedure well and was transferred into the recovery room.
The patient returned to the office two days later for download of the recording. The information was analyzed and interpreted.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 91035
ICD-9-CM code: 530.81
RATIONALE: CPT® code: Esophageal pH monitoring with Bravo pH Capsule is a test
performed for acid reflux. In the CPT® Index, look for Esophagus/Acid Reflux Test and
you are directed to code range 91034–91038. The test is performed for by attaching
a telemetry electrode to the esophageal mucus making 91035 the correct code. The
rest of the codes are performed by nasal catheter.
ICD-9-CM code: GERD is found in the Index to Diseases by looking under Disease/
Gastroesophageal Reflux (530.81). Verification in the Tabular List confirms code
selection.
20.4
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Chapter 20
Medicine
Case 4
Pre-procedure diagnosis: Sleep Apnea
Post-procedure diagnosis: Obstructive sleep apnea
Procedure: Overnight Sleep Study
The 35-year-old patient in a Hospital Sleep Lab for attended, overnight polysomnogram. 1.
Patient oriented to room and changed into overnight clothing brought into lab by patient.
1. Polysomnogram performed.
Latency to sleep onset slightly prolonged at 32.3 minutes. During the first 82 minutes of
sleep, 80 obstructive apneas were manifested. The lowest SpO2 during the non-supplemented sleep period was 73%. CPAP was then applied at 5 cm H2, and sequentially
titrated to a final pressure of 18 cm H2O. The Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) changed from
60 events/hr to 4 events/hr. SpO2 increased to 90%.
The sleep study with and without CPAP shows severe obstructive sleep apnea with
improvement with CPAP settings at 18 cm H20. Based on the improved SpO2 levels with
CPAP, it is recommended this patient use a BIPAP machine during sleep hours due to
obstructive sleep apnea events.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 95808
ICD-9-CM code: 327.23
RATIONALE: CPT® code: In the index, look for polysomnography and you are
directed code range 95808–95811. The codes are based on sleep staging parameters. The code selection is based on parameters of sleep as defined in the sleep
testing guidelines. For this case, there are less than four additional parameters
performed. The additional parameters are the following: Oxyhemoglobin saturation
(SpO2) and sleep latency.
ICD-9-CM code: The patient is diagnosed as having obstructive sleep apnea. In the
Index to Diseases, look at Apnea/sleep/obstructive 327.23. Verification of the code in
the Tabular List confirms code selection.
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20.5
Medicine
Chapter 20
Case 5
Pre-procedure diagnosis: Aortic insufficiency; hypertension
1. Post-procedure diagnosis used
for coding.
1.
2. Indicates severity.
3.
5.
3. 2D echo, M-Mode.
4. Spectral Doppler.
5. Doppler Color Flow.
Post-procedure diagnosis: Borderline Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, Mild Aortic Insufficiency, Left ventricular Ejection Fraction 80%
Procedure: 2D with M-mode Echocardiogram with pulsed continuous wave with spectral 4.
display and Doppler color flow mapping
Patient positioned in supine position on exam table.
Echocardiogram proceeded without incidence.
Findings:
1. Borderline left ventricular hypertrophy.
2. Mild aortic insufficiency.
3. Left ventricular ejection fraction 80%.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 93306
ICD-9-CM code: 429.3, 424.1
RATIONALE: CPT® code: Transthoracic echocardiogram is also known as a standard
echocardiogram. It is obtained by applying an ultrasound transducer to the front
of the chest. Look in the CPT® Index under Echocardiography/Transthoracic and
you are directed to code range 93303–93317. 93306 includes the 2D, M-Mode,
spectral Doppler, and Doppler color flow.
ICD-9-CM code: In the ICD-9-CM Index to Diseases, look for Hypertrophy/Ventricular
and you are directed to see Hypertrophy/Cardiac. Hypertrophy/Cardiac directs you
to 429.3. Then look for Insufficiency/aortic and you are directed to 424.1. Verification
in the Tabular List confirms code selection.
20.6
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Chapter 20
Medicine
Case 6
Pre-procedure diagnosis: Persistent Right and Left Leg pains; Extensive varicose vein
disease
Post-procedure diagnosis: Varicose vein disease with inflammation, venous insufficiency,
1.
leg pains due to varicose veins
Procedure: Peripheral Vascular Duplex Ultrasound Evaluation of the Venous Anatomy of
the Lower Extremities
2.
5.
3.
Patient’s right and left leg venous anatomy was examined in the standing position
4.
utilizing a B-Mode Duplex ultrasound machine with a 12 MHz probe. The focus was to
determine the location and flow characteristics of both the deep and superficial venous
systems. The evaluations included dynamically focused gray-scale and color imaging
supplemented by Doppler spectroanalysis. Valsalva maneuver as well as calf and thigh
6.
compressions were performed to determine the patency and direction of blood flow, the
exact paths of venous reflux in the major venous trunks, tributaries, and perforator veins.
Ultrasonic mapping included images of major deep veins of the leg, saphenofemoral junction, the great saphenous vein above and below the knee, and the short saphenous vein
system below the knee. Measurements and flow characteristics were obtained and listed
on venous map in chart.
1. Post procedural diagnosis is
used for coding.
2. Bilateral.
3. Venous study.
4. Duplex.
5. Spectral Doppler.
6. Maneuvers performed.
Bilaterally, the great saphenous veins were absent beginning at the saphenofemoral junction, due to previous surgery. Noted was venous reflux and enlargement of neovascular
and tributary portions of the vein systems in the upper and lower legs. Abnormalities and
associated perforator veins were documented on venous map in chart. The internal diameters of the leg varicosities varied to 5 and 3.8 mm in diameter, bilaterally. No evidence
of deep venous reflux or thrombosis noted within the femoral, popliteal, gastrocnemius,
or posterior tibial vessels. Photocopies were taken of the venous abnormalities and are
included in the medical record.
Findings:
1. Varicose vein disease with inflammation
2. Venous insufficiency
3. Leg pains due to varicose veins
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 93970
ICD-9-CM codes: 454.1, 459.81
RATIONALE: CPT® code: In the index, look for Duplex Scan/Venous/Studies/
Extremities and you are referred to 93970–93971. Duplex scan for bilateral lower
extremities is coded with 93970.
ICD-9-CM codes: Look for varicose vein/with inflammation and you are directed to
454.1. Venous insufficiency is found under insufficiency/venous (459.81). Leg pain is
not coded because it is a symptom of the varicose veins.
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20.7
Medicine
Chapter 20
Case 7
Pre-procedure diagnosis: Excessive Daytime Sleepiness, Snoring, Epworth Score 18
Post-procedure diagnosis: Sleep Study
Procedure: Polysomnogram, attended
1. Parameter 1.
2. Parameter 2.
3.
2.
6.
3. Parameter 3.
4. Parameter 4.
5. Parameter 5.
6. Parameter 6.
7. Parameter 7.
8. Post-procedure diagnosis.
8.
1.
This 25-year-old patient underwent overnight polysomnogram with the recording of
4.
5.
EEG, EOG, submental and anterior tibialis EMG, respiratory effort, nasal and oral
airflow, EKG, continuous pulse oximetry. Total time in bed of 386 minutes and a total of 7.
sleep time of 221 minutes. The sleep latency was 24 minutes and the REM sleep latency
was 18 minutes. Throughout the night, the patient had a total of 256 episodes of arousals
and 6 awakenings. Sleep efficiency was 56%. No apparent parasomnia noted. The average
oxygen saturation was reported to be 95% with the lowest saturation being 84%. There
were no periodic leg movements for an Index of 0.0 and cardiac arrhythmias were not
present.
Impression: Mild sleep apnea/hypopnea
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 95810
ICD-9-CM codes: 780.57, 780.59
RATIONALE: CPT® code: In the index, look for polysomnography and you are
directed to codes 95808–95811. There are 7 parameters indicated making the
correct code choice 95810.
ICD-9-CM codes: In the Index to Diseases, look for Apnea/sleep and you are directed
to 780.57. Hypopnea is shallow breathing when you are sleeping. There is no code
for hypopnea, code with 780.59 (other sleep disturbances).
20.8
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Chapter 20
Medicine
Case 8
Pre-procedure diagnosis: Epilepsy with history of seizures, VNS Implant
Post-procedure diagnosis: Epilepsy with history of seizures, VNS Implant
1.
1. Post procedural diagnosis
Procedure: Vagal Nerve Stimulator Analysis
Patient here for VNS implant analysis with possible adjustments.
The programming head was placed over the implanted neurostimulator located within
the patient’s neck-left side. Impedance was verified insuring parameters within normal
limits. Parameters charted on flowchart within medical record. Operating status of
neurostimulator reflects “on”. Estimated time for analysis/interrogation was 20 minutes in
duration.
Patient denies questions at this time. Will repeat analysis in three months.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 95970
ICD-9-CM code: 345.90
RATIONALE: CPT® code: Look in the CPT® Index for Neurostimulator/Analysis. You are
referred to 0317T, 95970–95982. The vagus nerve us a cranial nerve. The correct code
is 95970 for without reprogramming.
ICD-9-CM code: In the Index to Diseases, look under epilepsy to guide you to 345.9.
A fifth digit of 0 is used because there is no mention of intractable epilepsy.
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20.9
Medicine
Chapter 20
Case 9
Pre-procedure diagnosis: Extensive keratosis lesions of left anterior neck
1. Post procedure diagnosis.
2. External application.
3. Photodynamic therapy.
4. Topical agent applied.
1.
Post-procedure diagnosis: keratosis lesions left anterior neck
2.
Procedure: Blue Light Photodynamic Therapy with topical skin sensitizing agent
Patient here for photodynamic therapy. Verbal instruction of procedure given to patient
with patient verbalizing understanding.
Patient positioned self in supine position on exam table. Safety goggles applied to
eyes, noting patent seal and full coverage of ocular orbital areas. Application of topical
4. 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) applied to left anterior neck ketatosis lesions. Blue light
lamp adjusted to reflect on left anterior neck. Phototherapy duration: 15 minutes.
Post procedure skin was slightly reddened, no swelling noted. Post-procedure instructions
were discussed with patient. Patient to return to office in eight weeks for assessment and
possible repeat treatment.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 96567, J7308
ICD-9-CM code: 701.1
RATIONALE: CPT® code: In the CPT® Index, look for Photodynamic Therapy and
you are directed to 96567. The code is reported once per session. Some insurance
carriers will allow you to bill the topical anesthetic, which would be reported with
J7308. The anesthetic is indexed in the HCPCS II codebook in the Table of Drugs
under Aminolevalinic acid HCI.
ICD-9-CM code: In the Index to Diseases, look for keratosis. Without any further
description, use code 701.1.
20.10
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3.
Chapter 20
Medicine
Case 10
Pre-procedure diagnosis: Palpable Pulsating Abdominal Mass
Post-procedure diagnosis: AAA
1.
1. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.
Procedure: Abdominal Aorta Duplex Ultrasound by ultrasound technician
2.
2. Duplex ultrasound used.
The patient was placed on the examining table in a supine position.
3. Hospital service.
Conductive gel was applied to the abdomen. The transducer was gently moved over the
abdomen. An aortic mass was identified within the inferior aorta at approximately the
3.2 cm mark. Measurements were marked and recorded. Anterior-posterior measurement
equaled 4.8 cm and transverse measurement equaled 5.7 cm.
Report views and results were given to the ER physician caring for the patient by the radiologist who interpreted the ultrasound.
3.
What are the CPT® and ICD-9-CM codes reported?
CPT® code: 93979–26
ICD-9-CM code: 441.4
RATIONALE: CPT® code: Patient has a duplex scan of the abdominal aorta. Look
in the CPT® Index for Duplex Scan/Arterial Studies/Aorta and you are directed to
93978–93979. This was a limited study of the aorta; therefore the correct code is
93979. This was performed on a patient through the ED indicating it was performed
at the hospital. Modifier 26 should be appended to the code to indicate it is the
professional component only.
ICD-9-CM code: Look in the Index to Diseases for Aneurysm/abdominal (aorta) and
you are directed to 441.4. Verification in the Tabular List confirms code selection.
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20.11

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