BOOK OF PROCEEDINGS Edited by: Pedro Gil-Monte

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BOOK OF PROCEEDINGS
Edited by:
Pedro Gil-Monte
Jonathan Houdmont
Juliet Hassard
CONTENTS
PREFACE
3
ORGANISING COMMITTEE
5
SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE
6
CONFERENCE SPONSORS
8
DELEGATE FACILITIES
9
CONFERENCE PROGRAMME
ABSTRACTS
KEYNOTE PRESENTATIONS
PAPERS
SYMPOSIA
WORKSHOPS
POSTERS
SPANISH ABSTRACTS
10
36
41
164
234
240
301
2
PREFACE
Welcome to the beautiful city of Valencia and ADEIT, the conference facility of the
University of Valencia that is playing host to the 2008 conference of the European
Academy of Occupational Health Psychology. The Academy’s first conference took
place in 1999 to provide a discussion space to promote the development of research,
education and practice in the emerging field of occupational health psychology. That
inaugural event was held in Lund, Sweden. In the intervening years, conferences
have been held in Nottingham, England (2000), Barcelona, Spain (2001), Vienna,
Austria (2002), Berlin, Germany (2003), Porto, Portugal (2004) and Dublin, Ireland
(2006). It is with great pleasure that we return to Spain for this, the eighth Academy
conference. That the Academy conference has returned to Spain is due in no small
part to the tremendous financial and practical support of our Spanish and
international sponsors.
This conference marks the tenth anniversary of the signing of the enabling document
that facilitated the creation of “an institution urgently needed in Europe to bring
together and support those concerned for research, teaching and practice in relation
to psychological, social and organisational issues in occupational health, and to
promote excellence in such activities” (European Academy of Occupational Health
Psychology, 19981). The discussions that followed led to the Academy’s formal
constitution in 1999. Given that this conference is to be the last large-scale gathering
of interested parties ahead of the tenth anniversary of the Academy’s constitution, it
seems appropriate to mark this milestone with something of a celebration during our
time here in Valencia. One manifestation of this celebration involves the unveiling of
a new logo. The Academy’s first logo, produced in 1998, was intended as a
temporary emblem to be used until funds became available to commission a
corporate insignia. Ten years on and that same logo is still in use! Earlier this year a
graphic designer was tasked with the production of a new logo capable of capturing
the
dynamic
interplay
of
research,
education
and
professional
practice
in
occupational health psychology in a contemporary and fresh manner. A variety of
designs were proffered and, following an overwhelming majority vote of Executive
1
European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology (1998). Enabling Document. Retrieved
1 July
2008, from, http://www.ea-ohp.org
3
Committee members, the logo that graces these pages was chosen to take the
Academy into the second decade of its life.
At this juncture it might also be considered timely to pause to reflect on what has
been achieved and what remains to be achieved in respect of research, education
and practice in our discipline. As the first conference back in 1999 provided a space
for the discussion of how occupational health psychology in Europe might be
structured and framed with a view to the creation of a self-sustaining discipline, we
hope that this conference will likewise stimulate debate on how the discipline might
mature into its second decade. Enormous strides have been made on both sides of
the Atlantic Ocean in recent years, but much remains to be done.
On behalf of the Organising Committee, thank you for attending this conference. We
hope you find that it meets your expectations and stokes your enthusiasm for the
ongoing development of occupational health psychology. Finally, we would like to
thank all of those who have given so generously of their time in helping to make this
event a reality.
Pedro Gil-Monte (Conference Chair)
[email protected]
Jonathan Houdmont (Executive Officer, EA-OHP)
[email protected]
4
ORGANISING COMMITTEE
Pedro Gil-Monte (Conference Chair)
University of Valencia, Spain
Philip Dewe
Birkbeck College, University of London, UK
Hugo Figueiredo
University of Valencia, Spain
Juan A. Gracía-Juesas
University of Valencia, Spain
Juliet Hassard
University of Nottingham, UK
Jonathan Houdmont
University of Nottingham, UK
Aditya Jain
University of Nottingham, UK
Gail Kinman
University of Bedfordshire, UK
Stavroula Leka
University of Nottingham, UK
Víctor Olivares
University of Valencia, Spain
5
SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE
Julian Barling
Queen’s University, Canada
Stacey Conchie
Liverpool University, UK
Hans de Witte
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
Philip Dewe
Birkbeck College, University of London, UK
Maureen Dollard
University of South Australia
Paul Flaxman
City University, UK
Suzy Fox
Loyola University, USA
Sabir Giga
University of Bradford, UK
Pedro Gil-Monte
University of Valencia, Spain
Simone Grebner
Central Michigan University, USA
Birgit Greiner
University College Cork, Ireland
Andy Guppy
University of Bedfordshire, UK
Jonathan Houdmont
University of Nottingham, UK
Michelle Inness
University of Alberta, Canada
Päivi Jalonen
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Finland
Fiona Jones
University of Leeds, UK
Maria Karanika-Murray
University of Nottingham, UK
Kevin Kelloway
St. Mary's University, Canada
Gail Kinman
University of Bedfordshire, UK
6
Anne Kouvonen
University of Nottingham, UK
Michiel Kompier
Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Stavroula Leka
University of Nottingham, UK
Andrew Noblet
Deakin University, Australia
Amparo Oliver
University of Valencia, Spain
Nicola Payne
University of Middlesex, UK
John Rodwell
Deakin University, Australia
Per Oystein Saksvik
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
Norbert Semmer
University of Bern, Switzerland
Arie Shirom
Tel Aviv University, Israel
Johannes Siegrist
University of Dusseldorf, Germany
Noreen Tehrani
Chartered occupational, counselling and health psychologist, UK
Eva Torkelson
Lund University, Sweden
Sturle Tvedt
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
Joanna Wieclaw
Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark
7
CONFERENCE SPONSORS AND COLLABORATORS
The following have
generously supported the 8th conference of the
European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology
Work & Stress
A journal of work, health
and organisations
8
DELEGATE FACILITIES
Venue
University of Valencia conference centre (ADEIT)
Plaza Virgen de la Paz, 3 · E-46001 Valencia
ADEIT is hidden among the medieval narrow winding streets of the historical centre of
Valencia. It can be difficult to find so you are advised to allow plenty of time on your first visit!
The nearest landmark is Plaza de la Reina which is less than one minute walk from the
conference venue.
Internet access
A suite of 18 internet-connected computers is available to delegates at no charge each day of
conference from 08:00-14:00. Room 1.6.
In addition, there is free wi-fi on the ground floor of the conference facility.
Presentations
All oral presentations must be supported by a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation that should
be handed in at the conference registration desk upon arrival. Presentations should be on CD
or USB stick and clearly labelled with (i) the name of the lead author, (ii) title of presentation
and (iii) day, time and room number of the presentation.
Cafeteria
Lunch is included in the delegate fee and refreshments will be available at no cost each
morning and afternoon of the conference. There is a cafeteria on the ground floor of the
conference facility where delegates may purchase additional items.
Exhibition stands
During the conference, you are invited to visit the exhibition stands located in the ground floor
foyer. Books and journals relevant to occupational health psychology from Wiley-Blackwell,
Taylor & Francis and the EA-OHP will be available.
Further assistance
Should you require any assistance during the conference please don’t hesitate to visit the
conference registration desk on the ground floor.
9
CONFERENCE
PROGRAMME
10
WEDNESDAY 12 NOVEMBER
08:00-09:00
Registration
09:00-09:30
Salon de Actos: Opening address (Tom Cox, EA-OHP; Pedro Gil-Monte, University of Valencia)
09:30-11:00
Salon de Actos: Psychosocial work environment and health
Emotional labour and well-being in teaching: The influence of experience and job involvement
Kinman, Hindler & Walsh
Does job complexity predict job strains?: Testing the moderating effects of self-efficacy and job
autonomy
Liu, Wu, Fan & Nauta
Illegitimate tasks: Effects on well-being over time
Jacobshagen, Semmer, Meier & Kälin
Changes in the control of work processes: Are there merely positive consequences for employee
well-being?
Bahamondes Pavez, Wilde, Hinrichs & Schüpbach
Room 1.1/2: Work-family conflict
Stress reduction at the work-family-interface: The role of positive parenting
Holdstein & Hahlweg
Home and work demands-resources and sickness absence: The mediating role of job motivation
and perceived health
ter Hoeven, ten Brummelhuis & Paper
Work-life conflict and musculoskeletal disorders among employees in Switzerland
Knecht, Brauchli, Läubli, Bauer & Hämmig
The Role of Social Support and Work-Family Conflict on Nurses’ Health Distress and Marital
Adjustment
Simães, McIntyre & McIntyre
Effective work-life balance strategies for different family types
Brummelhuis & van der Lippe
Room 3.1: Symposium: Development of a European Psychosocial Risk Management Framework
(PRIMA-EF) (Leka & Kortum)
Introduction to the European framework for psychosocial risk management
Leka, Jain, Cox & Kortum
Policies, Regulations and Social Dialogue in the EU in relation to psychosocial risk management
Ertel, Stilijanow, Sedlatschek, Iavicoli, Natali, Petyx & Deitinger
11
Psychosocial risk management – European framework: a survey about stakeholders’ perceptions
of psychosocial risks
Deitinger, Natali, Petyx, Ertel, Leka & Iavicoli
Developing indicators for psychosocial risk management
Houtman, Van den Bossche, Zwetsloot, Bakhuys Roozeboom, Widerszal-Bazyl, Zolnierczyk-Zreda,
Leka & Jain
Evaluation of best practice interventions for work-related violence and work-related stress
Lindstrom, Vartia, Leka, Pahkin, Sutela, Hassard & Jain
Key issues in policy research for psychosocial risk management and the way forward
Leka, Cox, Zwetsloot, Jain & Kortum
Key issues in policy research for psychosocial risk management and the way forward
Leka, Cox, Zwetsloot, Jain & Kortum
Room 1.4: Violence, bullying and harassment
Teachers’ experience of violence and bullying: An application of stressor-emotion-control/support
theory
Fox & Stallworth
Violence in and from work in a group of teachers at the Universidad del Trabajo del Uruguay
(Polytechnic Institute): A quali-quantitative triangulation study
Silveira
Meta-analysis of the antecedents and consequences of occupational sexual harassment
Topa-Cantisano
Risks and distribution of sexual harassment at the workplace: A representative survey in German
and French-speaking Switzerland
Strub, Schär Moser & Vanis
11:00-11:30
Refreshments
11:30-12:15
Salon de Actos: Taylor & Francis Keynote Presentation: Tores Theorell
12:15-13:45
Salon de Actos: Workshop: Peer assistance in the workplace: Co-worker helping as a basis for
enhancing employee well-being and addressing problematic workplace behavior
Bamberger & Bacharach
Room 1.1/2: Symposium: Putting theory to work in the real world (Tehrani)
Well-being in the Workplace
Berriman & Tehrani
Internet pornography and gambling – punishment or treatment and rehabilitation?
12
Nategh
Moral Harassment – the French solution
Tehrani, Vaughan & Szalajski
Using Psychological Theory to Design Effective Employee Rehabilitation Packages
Wren
Room 3.1: Symposium: The impact of psychological flexibility on health and performance at
work (Bond, van Veldhoven, Biron & Flaxman)
The influence of psychological flexibility on work Redesign: Mediated moderation of a work
reorganisation intervention
Bond, Flaxman & Bunce
Psychological workload, employee job strain and psychological flexibility
van Veldhoven & Biron
Emotional dissonance and well-being in service roles: the role of psychological flexibility
Biron & van Veldhoven
Increasing psychological flexibility at work through Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT)
Flaxman & Bond
Room 1.4: Symposium: Research on burnout: New vistas (Shirom)
Burnout, health status, and permanent work disability: register-based cohort study
Ahola, Toppinen-Tanner, Huuhtanen, Koskinen & Väänänen
The temporal relationship between burnout and prolonged fatigue: a 4-year prospective cohort
study
Leone, Huibers, Knottnerus & Kant
The role of guilt in the process of burnout
Gil-Monte, Ferraz & García-Juesas
Quantification of salivary cortisol profiles in field research: internal structure and stability
Bernhardt, Hölzl & Baerenz
Work demands and well-being: a comparative analysis amongst Swedish and Catalan physicians
Dolan & Díez
Room 2.4: Leadership
Leadership and learning climate
Hetland, Skogstad, Hetland & Mikkelsen
Preconditions of health promoting leadership: An empirical study of supervisors
Wilde, Hinrichs, Bahamondes Pavez & Schüpbach
Supervisors promote safety through intrinsic motivation (…and a little support from the
organization)
Fournier & Conchie
13
13:45-15:15
Lunch & Posters (Room 0.1)
Appreciation at work: Measurement and associations with well-being
Jacobshagen, Oehler, Stettler, Liechti & Semmer
Crying at work: an examination of the beliefs and attitudes of women
Yaghmour & Kinman
Unpaid overtime, perceived job characteristics and burnout: Unpaid overtime as a job motivation and
burnout neutrality factor
Tseng
Transformational leadership and safety performance: The mediating role of meaningful work
Inness, Barling & Turner
An organizational change model
Saksvik
Psychometric properties of a safety climate and attitudes scale
Tomas
Relations between psychological harassment (mobbing) and interpersonal style in handling conflicts with
office and service employees at the University Center for Health Sciences pertaining to the University of
Guadalajara, Mexico
Acosta Fernández
Personality, traumatic symptoms and coping, a comparison between professional and non professional
samples of caregivers
Díaz Martínez, Lanzón Serra, Infanzón Cases & Sellami
Work-related mental and behavioral disorders compensated under industrial accident compensation
insurance in Korea
Ahn & Choi
Occupational stress and life expectancy
Fat
Conflict, no way out? Support climate and consequences on burnout
Guerra, Arenas, Medina & Munduate
Colorectal cancer and employment: An examination of the psychosocial and work-related factors
associated with continued employment and return to work
Bains
Gender differences and psychosocial risks at work in Madrid. Preliminary findings. Ibermutuamur Job
Stress Research Program
Catalina-Romero, C., Sainz-Gutiérrez, J.C., Cortés-Arcas, M.V., Quevedo-Aguado, L., Neyra-Suárez, I.,
Calvo-Bonacho, E. & Román-García, J.
Stress, burnout and emotional disorders in a work context: Creation of a Portuguese instrument
Pereira, Cunha, Machado & Machado
The influence of breast cancer treatment on cognitive ability and employment pathways
Kalawsky, Munir, Yarker, Ahmed, Robertson & Whalley
Job insecurity as a collective phenomenon: Job insecurity climate. A study of its antecedents
Sora, Caballer & Peiró
14
Perceived stress is reduced by group-based stress-management intervention: A randomized controlled
trial
Willert, Thulstrup & Bonde
A tool for evaluating the risk of mobbing in organizational contexts: the “Val.Mob.” scale
Deitinger, Nardella, Bonafede & Aiello
Burnout, engagement and sleep problems in physicians from Spanish emergency hospital staff
Martín-Aragón, Quiles, Quiles,Terol, Núñez & Bernabé
Examining self and observer ratings of personality as predictors of sexual harassment victimization
Milam & Spitzmüller
The role of stress resistance in marine navigators’ occupational activity
Nezavitina & Shafran
The impact of change processes on employees' attitude towards the use of ICT at work
Andersen, Saksvik & Torvatn
Dominating mood as a mediator of the relationship between short-term stress and hardiness
Berezovskaya
Incidence and predictors of workplace violence and aggression
Teed, Kelloway & Barling
Stress at work and impaired sleep: Perseverative cognitions as a mediator
Berset, Lüthy, Elfering & Semmer
Psychosocial factors in construction work: A comparative study
Lorente, Gracia, Cifre & Salanova
The Danish Way: A national strategy for job stress prevention
Lauritzen & Skydsbjerg
The Thai version of effort-reward imbalance questionnaire (Thai ERIQ): A study of psychometric properties
in garment workers
Buapetch
The burnout syndrome in Slovenian P.E. teachers
Markelj & Jankovič
Integrating the assessment of work stress in patients undergoing cardiovascular catheter examination into
routine clinical care
Kopp, Ritelli, Pfaffenberger & Pachinger
Assessment of safety culture in high reliability organizations
Bresó, Latorre, Gracia & Peiró
How efficacy beliefs predict work engagement and performance
Lorente, Salanova, Schaufeli & Martínez
15:15-16:30
Salon de Actos (large side): Individual factors and health
Individual disposition, personal impact, and healthy processes as moderators for stress and
health complaints connected with organizational change
Tvedt & Saksvik
Burnout syndrome: The influence of personality and social factors on teachers’ emotional
exhaustion
15
Cristea
Emotion regulation in demanding classroom situations
Philip & Schüpbach
When do narcissists get stressed? The role of effort-reward imbalance
Meier & Semmer
Salon de Actos (small side): EA-OHP Education Forum (open meeting: all welcome)
Leka
Room 1.1/2: Employer perspectives
Comparing the attributional style of managers and employees when discussing incidents of stress
at work
St-Hilaire, Yarker, Lewis & Donaldson-Feilder
Over the line: Managers' experiences of a labour strike
Kelloway, Frances & Scales
Building a CSR framework to promote occupational health and safety practices in SMEs
Churchill & Leka
Room 3.1: Recovery
Perfectionism and weekend respite effects amongst university academics
Flaxman, Menard, Bond & Kinman
Give and take: Social resources promote recovery among managers
Grebner, Ragsdale & Basler
“A hard day’s night”. A longitudinal study on relations among task characteristics, sleep quality
and fatigue
de Lange, Kompier, Taris, Geurts, Beckers, Houtman & Bongers
16:30-16:45
Refreshments
16:45-18:00
Salon de Actos: Putting research into practice
Working towards a WHO global approach to healthy workplaces through best practices
Kortum & Arredondo
Research-practice partnership for developing health promoting organizations: model and
implementation
Bauer, Jenny, Deplazes, Inauen & Lehmann
Knowledge development and content in occupational health psychology: A systematic analysis of
the JOHP and Work & Stress
Kang, Staniford, Dollard & Kompier
16
Room 1.1/2: Psychosocial interventions
Reduced organizational work stress interventions evaluated
Klein Hesselink, Wiezer, de Kleijn & den Besten
Changing individual coping as a method for the control of job stress: An intervention study
El sheikh, Kamal & Alazab
Emotional dissonance on work family conflict among Chinese service employees
Cheung Yue Lok & So-Kum Tang
Room 3.1: Stress and health: longitudinal relationships
Longitudinal modelling of well-being and mental health in Australian workers
Millear & Poppy
Increasing the probability of finding an interaction in work-stress research: A two wave
longitudinal test of the triple -match principle
Chrisopoulos, de Jonge, Dollard, Winefield & Dormann
Low predictability at work as a predictor of myocardial infarction: An 18-year prospective study
Väänänen, Joensuu, Koskinen, Kivimäki, Vahtera, Kouvonen & Jäppinen
Room 1.4: Safety
The influence of work stressors on safety related events: The mediating role of employee well
being
Fleming
Cognitive and emotional risk perception and its links to safety behaviours
dos Santos Oliveira & Costa Agostinho da Silva
The positive and negative outcomes associated with breach and fulfilment of the psychological
contract of safety in blue and white collar employees
Walker, Earl & Cuddihy
18:00-19:30
Walking tour of historic Valencia (FREE: please register at reception by lunchtime). Departing from
and returning to the conference facility.
19:30-20:30
Wine tasting (please register at reception by lunchtime). Location: conference facility.
17
THURSDAY 13 NOVEMBER
08:30-10:00
Salon de Actos (large side): Burnout and engagement
Role stress and personal resources: a study on burnout and engagement
Garrosa, Moreno-Jiménez, Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rodríguez-Carvajal & Díaz
Exploring burnout and work engagement in diverse occupations: A continuum or two separate
factors?
Millear & Poppy
Engagement in action. Findings from an intervention study in Ireland
Freeney & Tiernan
Salon de Actos (small side): Factors associated with satisfaction and well-being
Discrimination of five different forms of work satisfaction by effort-reward imbalance, work
engagement and control at work
Inauen, Bauer, Jenny & Deplazes
Unemployment, temporary work and perceived job insecurity: A comparison of their association
with health and life satisfaction in Finland
De Witte, De Cuyper, Kinnunen, Nätti, Mauno & Mäkikangas
The positive and negative factors affecting graduate nurses’ health and well-being during their
first year of clinical practice in regional Australia
Walker & Georgiadis
Psychosocial working conditions and well-being among migrant workers in a low skilled job
Hoppe
Room 1.1/2: Safety
Organizational politics and workplace safety
Malka, David, Avery, Mehta & Witt
What about the families? An intensive case study on the impact of work accidents
Gonçalves, Sales & Ribeiro
The influence of work stressors on safety related events: The mediating role of employee well
being
Slaunwhite, Fleming, Wentzell & Gatien
Concern promotes concern: Trust emotions and safety citizenship among workmates
Conchie & Donald
Room 1.3: Health promotion and behaviour change
Health promoting activities in StatoilHydro ASA: A practical example of follow-up at three
intervention levels
Hinna
Behaviour change and worker engagement practices in the United Kingdom’s construction
industry
Lunt, Bates & Bennett
18
Systematic review of preventative behavioural interventions for dermal and respiratory occupational
health hazards
Lunt, Bell, Sheffield & Morris
Stages of health behaviour change in workplace health promotion
Hinrichs, Wilde, Bahamondes Pavez & Schüpbach
Room 1.4: Burnout
The relationship between social comparison, organizational identification and commitment on burnout: Are
there differences among Dutch and Spanish workers?
Carmona, Buunk, Peiro & Dijkstra
Individual and contextual predictors of nurses’ job satisfaction: The mediating role of burnout
Laschinger & Finegan
Burnout development phases among employees who do people work
Putnik, Dorant, de Jong & van der Molen
Physician… heal thyself: The health, strain and burnout of anesthesia residents in Canada
Day, Stevens, Simms & McKeen
10:00-10:45
Salon de Actos (large side): Keynote Presentation: Arnold Bakker
10:45-11:15
Refreshments
11:15-12:30
Salon de Actos (large side): Invited presentation: Eusebio Rial González (European Agency for
Occupational Safety and Health)
Salon de Actos (small side): Sickness absence
Assessing the factors that influence the return to work of employees on sickness absence
Gervais, Weyman & Williamson
Copying co-workers’ sickness absence in teams
ten Brummelhuis & ter Hoeven
Consequences of “part-time sick leave” for colleagues and management
Sieurin, Vingård & Josephson
The influence of psychosocial working conditions on full, partial or no return to work after longterm sickness absence
Josephson, Voss & Vingård
Room 1.1/2: Stress prevention
Helping organizations in preventing occupational stress: From knowledge to practice
Brun, St-Hilaire, Biron & Vézina
19
Do teachers benefit from certain teaching methods regarding their stress? Results of a videobased analysis of stressors during teaching in Germany and Switzerland
Meder, Krause & Schüpbach
Well-being in university teachers: The importance of the triple work profile
Perea & Salanova
Room 1.3: Workshop: Leisure therapy in the workplace: Harnessing the power of escapism via
virtual vacations
Connors & Bloadel
12:30-13:45
Salon de Actos (large side): Manager behaviour
The identification and impact of supportive manager behaviour in UK rail transport staff
Leather, Zarola & Santos
Promoting positive manager behaviour: Developing a stress management competency indicator
tool
Donaldson-Feilder, Yarker & Lewis
First line vs. senior managers: Concurrent influences on job characteristics and employee workrelated outcomes
Karanika-Murray, Mellor & Cox
Salon de Actos (small side): Social capital and social climate
The impact of social capital on sickness absence in the workplace: The moderating role of
perceived health
Lancee & ter Hoeven
The impact of positive and negative events at work on fatigue after work: The moderating role of
social climate
Gross, Semmer, Meier, Kälin, Jacobshagen & Tschan
Humour in the workplace: A mixed blessing?
Dikkers & de Lange
Room 1.1/2: Psychosocial issues, the law and regulation
The personal injury case definition as it applies to work-related stress: Challenges of structure
and application
Houdmont, Cox & Griffiths
Work-related stress: Reforming the law and employer behaviour
Hamilton
Motivation to comply with health & safety regulations: Altruism or pressure from regulatory
bodies? An assessment of the DSE Regulations
Gervais, Williamson, Sanders, Hopkinson, Watson, Hotopp & Lewis
Room 1.3: Work engagement and effectiveness
Fostering work engagement among school teachers: the role of trust in the principal
20
Chughtai & Buckley
Acculturation strategies, multicultural personality traits, and employment Decision
Horverak, Sandal & Timmerman
Risk factors associated with the professional performance of civil servants with impairment
Rando & Anjos
The interactive effects of burnout and personality on physical symptoms: A longitudinal analysis
Malka, Zapf, Rubino, Milam & Spitzmüller
Room 1.4: Individual factors
Self-efficacy and flow at work: a virtuous circle
Salanova, Rodríguez-Sánchez, Cifre & Schaufeli
Social support at work, attachment style, and burnout among geriatric mental health workers
Sochos & Sierra
Development and validation of the “Expectations of policing” scale
Santos, Leather & Zhou
An IPA study of cancer survivorship and work
Bains, Yarker, Munir & Kalawsky
13:45-15:15
Lunch & Posters (Room 0.1)
Study of the psychological factors implicated in medical professionals with high risk levels
Pantelie & Vintilă
The Portuguese Public Administration reforms potential impact in the development of civil servants’ workrelated stress
Baptista & Ferraz
Psychological, material and workplace well-being between Spanish and Moroccan samples
Díaz Martínez, Sellami, Lanzón Serra & Infanzón Cases
Suicide risk of workers with compensated occupational injury in Korea
Ahn & Kim
Coping, burnout and emotional disorders in students and university professors
Cunha, Pereira, Machado & Machado
The different conceptualizations of job insecurity and their influence on employees’ behaviors and
attitudes
Sora, Caballer & Peiró
Social representations of psychosocial risk in a group of workers: Use of a graphic method.
Nardella, Deitinger, Bentivenga, Ghelli, Bonafede, Ronchetti & Aiello
The agent structure of safety climate in the construction sector
Meliá & Becerril
Psychological and physiological methods diagnostics of modern office workers’ work-related stress
Rubtsov
Individual and organizational factors of employees’ well-being: A comparative study
Virga, Sulea & Zaborila
Middle management in change and transition: Health and well-being in the integration process
21
Vestly Bergh & Bakke
A study of cultural facilitators and barriers in the implementation of health & safety systems
Ramos-Sapena, Díaz-Cabrera, Isla Díaz & Hernández-Fernaud
What is a healthy organization at work? Perspectives from different professionals
Gonçalves, Neves & Morin
The observation of natural work meetings as a method to assess safety culture
Latorre
The impact of stress on health-related behaviour: The moderating role of perceived social support
ter Hoeven & Fransen
Prevention of arthalgia pain while caring for aged people
Hakobyan
Personality, workplace bullying and health among Latin-American immigrants
Moreno-Jiménez, Garrosa, Rodríguez-Carvajal, Díaz & Rodríguez
The effects of teamwork on mental welfare of hospital nurses
Yamaguchi
An exploratory study of the factors that lead to burnout in “hobby-Jobs”
Volpone, Perry & Rubino
Organizational practices for learning with work accidents
da Silva, dos Santos Oliveira, Carvalho, Jacinto, Fialho & Soares
Study of the psychological factors involved in the activity of professionals working in the penitentiary
system
Vintilă, Pantelie, Zamosteanu & Flori
A cross-sectional study about mobbing among the finance sector workers in Istanbul-Turkey
Gül, Kay, Çayır, Alçalar, Tezcan & Özgülnar
Occupational injuries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR): The hidden endemic social and health
problem
El-Sayed
Occupational stress in teaching: A study with high school teachers
Gomes & Simães
Working conditions and risks in Latvia
Grinberga
Biographical counselling based on anthroposophy for a deeper understanding of work dissatisfaction,
personal void and promotion of occupational health
Kartic & Bapi
Safety climate and accidents among construction workers: The role of leadership as a mediator
Meliá & Becerril
State of the art of safety climate
Latorre, Bresó, Gracia & Peiró
What does burnout predict? Not turnover: The influence of burnout on organizational attitudes
Weinhardt & Griffeth
Perceived positive impact of workplace factors on the health of nursing staff in long-term care facilities
Reeves, Tuller, Henning, Punnett, Nobrega & Gore
Workplace bullying associated health hazards: Is it lack of quality assurance? A model of organizational
intervention in Egypt
22
Alazab
Differences between native and immigrant workers in Spain: Accidents and well-being
García-Izquierdo & Ramos-Villagrasa
Evaluating the implementation of occupational health and safety policy in Hong Kong schools
Tang & Cox
Similarity and sickness absence: The impact of supervisor and subordinate sex
Volpone, Rubino, Avery, McKay & Wilson
Does the ‘right personality’ protect public safety personnel in incident response?
Perry, Witt, Luksyte & Stewart
15:15-16:00
Salon de Actos (large side): Keynote Presentation: Dolores Díaz Cabrera
16:00-17:30
Salon de Actos (large side): EA-OHP Professional Practice Forum (open meeting: all welcome)
Kelly
Salon de Actos (small side): Individual factors in the stress process
The way optimists cope with stress at work
Torkelson
Does work motivation have any impact on perceived stress among information technology
consultants?
Wallgren
Gimme a Break: Subjective Recovery Mediates the Illegitimate Task-Stressor – Well-being
Relationship
Ragsdale, Grebner, Semmer & Beehr
Room 1.1/2: Symposium: The graying of the American workforce: Implications for occupational
health psychology (Fisher)
Trends in Demographic and Job Characteristics among Older Workers in the U.S
Fisher, Matthews & Grosch
Occupational Differences in Age-related Cognitive Decline
Grosch, Alterman, Li & Fisher
Trends in Demographic and Job Characteristics among Older Workers in the U.S
Fisher, Matthews & Grosch
Occupational Differences in Age-related Cognitive Decline
Grosch, Alterman, Li & Fisher
Age, Health, Fairness and Retirement Perceptions:Comparisons Among Older Black and White
Women
Cleveland, Sawyer, Foo & Jones
How Does the Nature of the Work-Family Interface Influence Planned Retirement Age of Men and
Women?
Barnes-Farrell, Dove-Steinkamp, Golay, Johnson & McGonagle
23
Room 1.3: Symposium: (EA-OHP Research Forum) Experimental research in occupational
health psychology (Wielenga-Meijer & de Lange)
The stress reducing effects of an affiliative type of humor intervention. Results of an innovative
experimental study
de Lange, Dikkers & Hauwen
The influence of job resources in the relation between high job demands and indicators of wellbeing and performance
de Goede & de Lange
Changes in work autonomy: The role of task reflection
Niessen & Volmer
Why and how does autonomy influence learning? An experimental study.
Wielenga-Meijer, Taris, Kompier & Wigboldus
Room 1.4: Workshop: The role of psychosocial occupational risks and work-related stress in
developing countries
Kortum & Leka
17:30-17:45
Refreshments
17:45-19:00
Salon de Actos (large side): Symposium: Managing conflict at work: Roles and interventions for
occupational health psychology (Wren)
Preventing Conflict: How occupational health psychologists can help managers and their
organisations re-align structures and processes that may lead to conflict
Hill-Tout
Fostering competence in managing interpersonal relationships amongst groups of senior medical
staff
Allen
Intervening with Managers to Reduce the Impact of Manager/Employee Conflict
Gething
Mindfulness: Tool to Help Employees Survive Work Conflict?
Schwartz
Developing an Internal Workplace Mediation Service.
Jennings & Thompson
Salon de Actos (small side): Antecedents of stress and well-being
Supervisor Effectiveness and Employee Emotional Exhaustion
Witt, Perry, Rubino & David
Predictors of Occupational Stress in Multinational Companies in India
Mahanta & Chadha
24
Knowledge, risks and actions: A qualitative assessment of behaviours among motor vehicle repair
(MVR) paint sprayers
Gervais, Sanders, Baldwin, Cooke, Piney & Germain
Room 1.1/2: Stress: Organisational outcomes
Workplace stress and productivity: Is there a relationship?
Catano & Kelloway
Productivity, care quality and employees' well-being in public and private service housing for
elderly people
Sinervo, Pekkarinen, Syrjä, Noro, Finne-Soveri, Taimio, Lilja, & Pirttilä
The impact of work hour reduction on sickness absenteeism
Buvik, Tvedt, Torvatn & Saksvik
Room 1.3: Interpersonal relationships
Organizational indicators of employees’ well-being: citizenship behaviours vs. counterproductive
behaviours
Sulea, Zaborila & Virga
Interpersonal conflict as a source of workplace stress
Leon-Perez, Ramirez-Marin & Medina
"Awww poor muffin”: The derogation of health and safety complaints among young workers
Kelloway & Yue
Room 1.4: Symposium: Workplace bullying and health: Organizational and personal
interventions (Escartin & Zapf)
Workplace Bullying and Health: An Introduction
Zapf
Evaluation of a Longitudinal Study of A Risk Management Intervention for Bullying
Dollard
Developing an Anti-Bullying Code of Practice in a Large Public Organization: A Case Study
Escartín, Arrieta, Rodríguez-Carballeira & Zapf
The Mental and Physical Effects of Workplace Bullying: The Use of a National Postal Survey and
Individual Psychological Assessments in the Legal Process
O’Moore
Victims of Workplace Bullying in a Psychosomatic Hospital
Jenderek, Schwickerath & Zapf
Sala de Juntas: EA-OHP Executive Committee Meeting (closed meeting)
20:30Conference dinner: Astoria Palace Hotel
25
FRIDAY 14 NOVEMBER
Note: Throughout Friday the Salon de Actos (large side) will be dedicated to Spanish-language
presentations. See page 30 for details.
09:30-11:00
Salon de Actos (small side): Workshop: Focusing: A learnt tool for promoting well being in the
workplace
Bacharach
Room 1.1/2: Symposium: The British HSE’s Management Standards for Work-Related Stress:
2004-2008: Lessons learnt and future directions
Kelly & Mackay
Room 1.3: Symposium: Work-life balance and a worksite health promotion program for low
qualified workers with regard to gender (Busch)
Family and Work: benefit or burden for low qualified workers?
Staar, Busch & Aborg
Work-Life Balance of low qualified women
Busch & Suhr-Ludewig
Gender Differences in perceptions of stressors and resources among low qualified workers
Kalytta & Ducki
A worksite health promotion program for the low qualified workers: ReSuM
Busch, Roscher, Ducki & Kalytta
Room 1.4: Symposium: Psychosocial Safety Climate and Culture; Building Individual Resilience
through Organisational Resilience (Dollard)
Psychosocial Safety Climate as a Precursor to Demands, Resources, Health, and Engagement in
Humanitarian Aid Workers
Dollard, Taylor, Clark & Dormann
Psychosocial Safety Climate: Longitudinal Impact on Health, Engagement and Sickness Absence
Dollard & Bakker
Policing and Psychosocial Safety Culture
Winwood, Tuckey & Dollard
Building Organisational Resilience
Taylor, Dollard & Clark
Operationalising the construct
Dollard & Kang
Room 2.4: Symposium: Hispanic immigrants working in the United States: Workplace
challenges (Eggerth)
Stress in the Workplace and the Cardiovascular Health of North American Hispanics
James
26
Examining consequences of employment status for stressor exposure in Latino immigrants in the
United States
Spitzmüller, Rivera Minaya, Rubino & Schulze
Psychosocial Predictors of Workplace Accidents: A Qualitative Study
Clark & Quiles
Exploring the feasibility of workplace tuberculosis interventions
Eggerth, Flynn & DeLaney
11:00-11:30
Refreshments
11:30-13:00
Salon de Actos (small side): Psychosocial work environment and organisational outcomes
When time pressure really hurts: The case of performance impairment
Semmer, Kälin & Elfering
From burnout to aggressiveness towards service users: An investigation among social workers
Neveu & Mancebo
Changing the individual coping as a method for control of job stress associated health hazards:
An intervention study
El Sheikh, Kamal & Alazab
Room 1.1/2: Gender and ageing
Menopause, depression and quality of life
Micali, Abbate, Cancellieri & Barbaro
Short narratives as a method to investigate factors that influence women professionals to resign
from their posts
Muhonen
Work, age and flow: An exploration of the relationship between different work aspects, healthand age-related aspects and flow
Brinkhuis & ter Hoeven
Gender sensitive aspects of occupational health analysis and health promotion in public
administrations
Ducki
Mainstreaming gender in interventions for work-related stress and psychosocial issues: European
expert’s perceptions and practices
Hassard, Leka & Griffiths
Room 1.3: Stress: Measurement and evaluation
The design of case definitions for work-related stress in large-scale workforce surveys
Houdmont, Cox & Griffiths
Stress-related job analysis for hospital physicians: Development and validation of an instrument
Keller, Bamberg & Gregersen
27
Use of the outcome rating scale in evaluating the effects of short term psychotherapy on work
related distress
Wieclaw
A framework for evaluating occupational health services: applying the RE-AIM criteria in a
consultancy context
Friedrich & Bauer
Room 1.4: Stress Theory
Expanding the DISC model: Effects of matching coping styles
van den Tooren, de Jonge, Vlerick & Vermeulen
The role of personality and the demand-control model in predicting job satisfaction: A longitudinal
analysis
Rubino, Milam, Spitzmüller, Malka & Zapf
Predicting job strain among nursing personnel using job stress and organizational justice models
Rodwell & Noblet
Identifying the predictors of employee health and satisfaction in a cost-conscious, output-driven
public sector environment: Testing a comprehensive and non-linear demand-control-support
model
Noblet & Rodwell
Room 2.4: Organisational change
Occupational identity as a barrier to successful organisational ICT-based change
Andersen, Buvik & Saksvik
Investigating demographic predictors of change processes perception
Tvedt & Saksvik
Nonlinear dynamics of motivational processes in the workplace
Navarro, Arrieta & Ceja
Quantitative’ versus ‘qualitative’ employability: Associations with employees’ attitudes and wellbeing
De Cuyper & De Witte
13:00-14:15
Lunch & Spanish-language posters (Room 0.1)
Sala de Juntas: ICG-OHP annual meeting (closed meeting)
14:15-15:30
Salon de Actos (small side): Practitioner training and education
The changing roles of occupational health and safety professionals: Threat or opportunity?
Khan, Houdmont, Leka & Griffiths
A participatory approach to promoting psychosocial health at work: Developing the Informing,
Counselling and Advising (ICA) practices of occupational health psychologists
28
Jalonen, Kivistö & Palmgren
Building a systemic model for managing occupational health
Jenny, Bauer, Deplazes, Inauen & Lehmann
Room 1.1/2: Well-being in particular organisations and contexts
PTSD and depression among veterans with special reference to 9/11 and Operation Iraqi Freedom
Karuvannur
Discrimination at work: A cross-sectional study among Nepalese in the UK
Regmi
Psychosocial interventions: Nine Spanish experiences
Vega
Room 1.3: New perspectives
Virtual reality in practice: A new way for organizations to get S.M.A.R.T.
Connors & Bloedel
Well-being versus stress: What advantages does a holistic view of well-being offer that stress
cannot?
Lunt & Fox
Workload and value congruence: Distinct contributors to burnout and work engagement
Leiter
Room 1.4: Symposium: Global changes, work conditions, stress and fatigue in aviation workers:
An international union/researcher study (Greiner)
Background on a global investigation of civil aviation workers: Focus on social and economic
security aspects
Rosskam, Greiner, McCarthy, Smith, Marowsky & Williamson
Temporal Factors and Civil Aviation Workers – an International Collaborative Study
Mc Carthy, Greiner, Rosskam, Smith & Marowsky
Measuring work stress in civil aviation workers in a globalized economy
Siegrist, Rosskam, Mc Carthy, Greiner, Smith & Marowsky
Work conditions, economic and social security, fatigue and burnout in aviation workers
Greiner, Rosskam, Mc Carthy, Smith & Marowsky
15:30-16:15
Salon de Actos (small side): Closing ceremony and presentation of awards
(Fellowship Awards; Andre Bussing Memorial Prize; Work & Stress Best Paper Award)
29
FRIDAY 14 NOVEMBER
SPANISH-LANGUAGE ACTIVITY STREAM
Location: Salon de Actos (large side)
08:00-08:15
Introducción
08:15-09:00
Eusebio Rial González (European Agency for Occupational Safety and Health)
09:00-11:00
Riesgos psicosociales
Factores de riesgo psicosocial intralaborales y su relación con la satisfacción con la vida en los
trabajadores.
I. C. Marulanda y V. M. Gómez
Universidad de los Andes (Colombia).
Intervenciones en desarrollo organizacional y factores de riesgo psicosocial: una perspectiva estructural.
R. A. Medina
Codelco (Chile).
La calidad de vida laboral en relación a otras variables laborales y organizacionales de equipos de trabajo.
M. C. Ramis, M. A. Manassero, E. García y V. A. Ferrer
Universidad de las Islas Baleares (España).
Estudio de factores psicosociales en trabajadores Mexicanos de la industria del petróleo: implicaciones
metodológicas para su evaluación.
J. A. Ramírez, L. Cedillo, A. M. Valencia y J. Santillana
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México-FESI (México).
Condiciones de trabajo y salud en profesores: el papel del bienestar psicológico.
M. A. Adell, Y. Estreder, F. Latorre y J. Ramos
Universidad de Valencia (España).
30
11:00-11:30
Refreshments
11:30-13:00
Simposio: Estrés, burnout, engagement, y variables psicosociales asociadas en población
laboral mexicana. (Coord: Arturo Juárez García).
El estrés laboral como metáfora de procesos de cambio de operadoras telefónicas en México.
J. Ramírez
Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia (México)
Estrés en ejecutivos de medianas y grandes empresas mexicanas: un enfoque de desarrollo humano
organizacional.
P. Mercado y R. Salgado
Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México (México)
Estudiando la otra visión del síndrome del quemado: engagement (entusiasmo laboral) desde un enfoque
mixto.
C. I. Hernández
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (México)
Prevalencia del síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo en académicos mexicanos de instituciones de
educación superior evaluados con el CESQT.
J. I. Sandoval y S. G. Unda
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (México)
Validez de la escala de desgaste profesional (CESQT) y variables psicosociales asociadas en trabajadores
manuales en México.
A. Juárez-García y J. García
Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos (México)
13:00-14:15
Lunch & Posters (Room 0.1)
La administración del conflicto en las organizaciones y su efecto en la salud.
M. Acosta, M. A. Aguilera, y B. E. Pozos
Universidad de Guadalajara (México).
Propiedades psicométricas de la adaptación portuguesa del “Cuestionario para la Evaluación del Síndrome
de Quemarse por el Trabajo (CESQT)”: un estudio trasncultural.
H. Figueiredo, Y. Medeiros, y P. R. Gil-Monte
Universidad de Valencia (España).
31
Estrés asociado a factores psicosociales en el trabajo en personal de enfermería de tercer nivel de
atención del instituto mexicano del seguro social.
*C. Colunga, **C. B. Enríquez, ***M. A González, ***R. Domínguez, *M. L. Preciado, y **M. C. Santes
*Universidad de Guadalajara (México)
**Universidad Veracruzana (México)
***Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (México)
La importancia de la evaluaciín de riesgos psicosociales en el sistema penitenciario.
H. Valdez
Dirección General de Prevención y Readaptación Social (México).
Nuevas estrategias metodológicas en la docencia de postgrados.
M. Ventura, I. Martínez, M. Salanova, S. Llorens, y E. Cifre
Universitat Jaume I (España).
Estrategias formativas de afrontamiento del estrés para docentes. Modelo formativo de competencias
frente a riesgos psicosociales en el ámbito educativo.
*P. R. Gil-Monte, **J. F. Martínez-Losaías, **M. J. Ramos, **D. Pagès, y A. Peña
*Universidad de Valencia (España)
**Audit & Control Estrés (España)
Aplicación del modelo de investigación-acción para el mejoramiento del desempeño de los coadjutores
como tutores académicos.
A. M. Sainz, A. Muñoz & P. Ornelas
Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente (ITESO) (México).
El lado oscuro de las organizaciones y sus efectos en el factor humano.
*Juana Patlán, y **Leonardo Rivera
*Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México (México).
**Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo (México).
La tolerancia al estrés y el desarrollo de competencias de estudiantes universitarios como estrategia
preventiva al burnout.
N. Mancebo
Universitat de Girona (España).
Validez factorial del “Cuestionario para la Evaluación del Síndrome de Quemarse por el Trabajo” (CESQT)
en una muestra de profesionales que trabajan hacia personas con discapacidad chilenos.
V. Olivares, y P. R. Gil-Monte
Universitat de Valencia (España).
Efecto de la falta de retroalimentación en la realización de una tarea de resolución de problema y su
relación con el síndrome burnout.
E. N. Fuentes, y C. Torres
32
Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente (México).
Estresores laborales en pilotos comerciales de avión.
*J. C. Sánchez, **C. Aguirre, y **R. Vauro
* Universidad de Salamanca (España).
** Universidad de Talca (Chile)
Estrés traumático secundario y variables de personalidad en profesionales que laboran en servicios de
emergencias de Jalisco.
*R. M. Meda, **B. Moreno, *E. D. Arias, y *E. C. Chan.
*Universidad de Guadalajara (México).
**Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (España).
14:15-16:00
Violencia en el trabajo
Registro y diario mobb: una herramienta de diagnóstico precoz del mobbing.
*M. Fidalgo, **R. García, ***Y. Gallego, ****G. Pérez, *****R. Ferrer, y *C. Nogareda.
*INSHT (España)
** Departament de Salut (España)
*** MCMutual (España)
****MCPrevención (España)
*****Universidad de Barcelona (España)
Lugares de trabajo saludables en enfermería: antecedentes y consecuencias de la agresión en el trabajo.
Estudio piloto.
*G. Topa-Cantisano, *J. A. Moriano, *F. J. Moreno, *P. Montoro y **S. Moriano.
*UNED (España)
**Hospital Universitario La Paz (España)
La violencia como riesgo psicosocial en profesionales sanitarios.
*S. Gascón, *B. Martínez-Jarreta, *Y. Casalod y **M. A. Santed.
*Universidad de Zaragoza (España)
**UNED (España)
Violencia psicologica y mobbing en Costa Rica.
M. Pando, C. Aranda, S. Franco y T. M. Torres
Universidad de Guadalajara (México).
Inmigración y trabajo en España: factores personales y psicosociales determinantes del síndrome de
Ulises.
*P. J. Ramos-Villagrasa y **A. L. García-Izquierdo
*Universidad de Barcelona (España)
**Universidad de Oviedo (España)
33
16:00-16:30
Refreshments
16:30-18:00
Síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo
El papel de la culpa en el proceso de desarrollo del síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo(burnout) y su
relación con la depresión.
J. A. García-Juesas, H. Figueiredo y P. R. Gil-Monte
Universidad de Valencia (España)
Estilos de personalidad y presencia o ausencia de burnout: en busca de una relación (estudio realizado en
la Región de Valparaíso, Chile).
C. Quaas
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso (Chile).
Prevalencia del síndrome de burnout y factores asociados en el personal de enfermería del HGR C/MF No.1
de Cuernavaca, Morelos.
*L. M. Rubio, *L. Ávila, *J. Ortiz y **T. Grajales
*Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (México)
**Universidad de Montemorelos (México).
Diagnóstico urgente: la experiencia de evaluar el síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo (SQT) en el
personal de seguridad y custodia del sistema penitenciario de Jalisco, México.
*H. Figueiredo y **H. Valdez
*Universidad de Valencia (España)
**Dirección General de Prevención y Readaptación Social (México).
Estrategias formativas de afrontamiento del estrés para docentes. Estresores percibidos e impacto en la
salud.
*P. R. Gil-Monte, **J. F. Martínez-Losa, **M. J. Ramos, **D. Pagès y **A. Peña
* Universidad de Valencia (España)
** Audit & Control Estrés (España)
18:00-18:15
Cierre
34
ABSTRACTS
35
KEYNOTE
PRESENTATIONS
36
WORK ENGAGEMENT: A GOOD EXAMPLE OF
POSITIVE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH
PSYCHOLOGY
BAKKER, A.
Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands
Work engagement is defined as a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is
characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Thus, engaged employees have high levels
of energy and are enthusiastic about their work. Moreover, they are often fully immersed in
their work so that time flies. Engagement is becoming more and more popular among
scientists and practitioners, because the empirical evidence shows that engagement is
predictive of the bottom line: organizational performance. Engagement can be measured with
the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES; Schaufeli & Bakker, 2003) – and this instrument
is now used in many different countries in Europe, the US, South Africa, China, and Australia.
Recent studies in Western countries have consistently shown that job resources including
social support from colleagues and supervisors, performance feedback, skill variety,
autonomy, and learning opportunities are positively associated with work engagement. In the
presentation, I will discuss my research program on work engagement, and show that job
resources particularly have motivational potential when job demands (e.g., work pressure,
emotional demands) are high. The latter finding suggests that job resources are crucial for
competitive advantage, because work engagement has predictive value for in-role
performance, sickness absence, client satisfaction, and financial returns. Finally, I will show
how the Job Demands – Resources (JD-R) model can be utilized to foster employee
engagement and organizational performance in a wide range of occupations. I will illustrate
how the internet-based JD-R Monitor can be used to intervene simultaneously at the
individual, group, and organizational level to foster employee engagement.
37
SAFETY AND IMPLEMENTATION CULTURE
DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FRAMEWORK OF TWO
EUROPEAN PROJECTS (ADAMS-2 & HILAS)
DÍAZ-CABRERA, D.
University of La Laguna, Spain
This presentation focuses on the field of organisational safety and particularly on safety culture
and organisational paradoxes associated with this concept. Also, it explores a group of critical
culture characteristics that can facilitate organisational changes, implementation culture,
directed to the improvement of the safety and health, and, specifically, safety culture.
Safety Culture
Despite its recent appearance in the organisational safety area, safety culture has begun to
gain acceptance due to its theoretical, empirical and intervention-relevance in organisations.
An organisation that encourages a positive safety culture would have a more holistic and
comprehensive vision of the safety management system, develop more of a group meaning of
safety, encouraging the participation of organisational members in health and risk prevention,
and influence members’ initiatives and behaviours as a group in the face of unforeseen events
and their adherence to standard safety rules and procedures.
Safety culture concerns meanings, interpretations, attitudes, values, beliefs, rules and
procedures related to safety. Nevertheless, safety culture is a recent, polemic and complex
concept that requires considerable theoretical and empirical clarification. There are two main
divergences of opinion relating to safety culture: (1) concerning the relationship between
organisational and safety culture; and (2) concerning two main theoretical approaches and
how to investigate them.
Another area of organisational culture research that is beginning to attract attention is the
existence of paradoxes in organisations. Organisations are considered to be complex,
ambiguous and in some ways paradoxical. In the safety culture field, several researchers have
pointed out the importance of these characteristics.
One approach which highlights the contradictory nature of organisational culture is the
Competing Values Framework (e.g. Cameron and Quinn, 1999). This Framework has
influenced the fields of organisational and safety culture (e.g. Reiman and Oedewald, 2004;
Silva et al., 2004; Van Muijen et al., 1999; Zammuto et al., 2000). This model is elaborated
around two central dimensions: Internal – External, and Flexibility – Control. These two
dimensions form four quadrants representing organisational culture orientations or models
that reflect shared or conflicting values of organisational life: (1) Human Relations model or
Clan culture; (2) Open System model or Adhocracy culture; (3) Internal Process model or
Hierarchy culture; and (4) Rational Goal model or Market culture.
We have developed the Safety Culture Values and Practices Questionnaire (QCS), analyzing
the dimensions of safety culture related to specific organisational practices directed at risk
prevention. The simultaneous presence of several orientations towards safety is assessed by
considering the four cultural orientations indicated by the Competing Values Framework.
A group of seven dimensions describing various organisational practices and their underlying
values was selected. Each dimension is differentiated in relation to its association with these
38
four cultural orientation. The proposed dimensions are training programme content, incident
and accident reporting systems, orientation of safety rules and procedures, performance
appraisal and safety promotion strategies, motivation patterns used, information and
communication systems, and leadership styles.
The results show six dimensions of organisational values and practices and different company
profiles in the organisations studied. The four cultural orientations proposed by the Competing
Values Framework are not confirmed. Nevertheless, a coexistence of diverse cultural
orientations or paradoxes in the companies is observed.
Implementation Culture
Current research into organisational change processes emphasise the key role of
organisational culture as a critical barrier in the implementation of new systems. Therefore, an
important task is to identify and evaluate cultural facilitators and barriers in the development
of a learning organisation and knowledge management system (KMS) directed to health and
safety improvements in order to ensure the success of implementation. However, despite this
list of factors, there is a lack of clear orientations. A main task is to define a clear group of
critical success factors and to develop a model that enables specifying interrelations among
those factors. We have developed a first version of the evaluation and implementation cultural
model. This model has to be tested in a longitudinal study developed in the HILAS project.
The HILAS project (Human Integration into Life-cycle of Aviation Systems - AIP4-CT-2005516181) will develop a model of good practice for the integration of human factors across the
life-cycle of aviation systems. This project will be directed to the improvement of the safety
and operations of airlines, maintenance repair organisations (MROs) and original equipment
manufacturers (OEMs). The implementation of this system will imply organisational changes
processes based on intra- and inter-organizational learning loops that facilitate an improved
Knowledge Management System.
The central theoretical approach of the implementation culture model proposed is that
organisations develop and assume a group of key values related to innovation and learning. In
the first version, we have selected a group of dimensions related to organisational learning
that foment the information distribution and use: Organisational and individual values;
Organisational practices and policies related to innovation and learning; Organisational and
individual behaviour; Organisational Trust; Proactive Climate; and Cohesion.
39
THEORETICAL MODELS IN EUROPEAN
PSYCHOSOCIAL WORK ENVIRONMENT
RESEARCH – A PHYSICIAN´S EXPERIENCES
DURING FIVE DECADES
THEORELL, T.
Karolinska Institute, Sweden
During the late 1960s and early 1970s the Michigan group had developed the Person
Environment Fit model. The overriding idea was that the work environment has to fit the
individual.
The demand control support model was introduced in the 1970s. It has its emphasis on the
environment. During the 1980s the effort reward imbalance model (ERI) was introduced with
focus both on the environment and the individual. The demand control model and the ERI as
well as new combined models (for instance the demand resource model and the demand
coping model) have been used extensively during the past decade. The significance of these
models seems to change when the general work situation changes in society.
During the 1970s and 1980s Sweden had been one of the leading countries in the movement
for an improved psychosocial work environment. In all of Scandinavia new laws were instituted
that regulated employer responsibility for a good work environment. This included
opportunities for employees to decide about their own working conditions. A crisis situation in
Swedish economy during the early 1990s with a marked rise in unemployment and a change
in societal climate has changed this situation.
During this long period there has been a lively development in neurobiological research. We
know much more about the brain´s functions and how they could possibly relate to work
related ill health. We also know much more about how the body regulates endocrine and
immune functions during long lasting stress. Our own studies have shown that the recording
of biological stress indicators adds to our understanding of job stress.
During periods of pronounced changes in the working world management is being challenged
in our work sites. It is therefore logical that research on leadership and employee health has
expanded during later years. Leaders influence employee health both directly and indirectly
(through the work environment). We have recently shown that male employees who describe
their leaders as fair and just have a lower risk of developing myocardial infarctions than
others. Studies on employee health effects of leadership courses have been started.
Work environment research has to be active continuously. This means that theoretical models,
questionnaires, standardised interviews and physiological measures have to be challenged
continuously and also that we need coordinated efforts both nationally and internationally in
order to be updated.
40
PAPERS
41
OCCUPATIONAL IDENTITY AS A BARRIER TO
SUCCESSFUL ORGANISATIONAL ICT-BASED
CHANGE
ANDERSEN, T.K.1, BUVIK, M.P.1, & SAKSVIK, P.Ø.2
1
2
SINTEF Technology and Society, Norway
Department of Psychology, NTNU, Norwary
Objectives: This paper analyses the assumption that one reason for unsuccessful large scale
ICT implementation – shown by the underutilisation of new ICT systems especially by blue
collar workers, is companies' ignorance of the threat to occupational identity this change
represent. ICT has dual characteristics - its mission is to automate, but it also has an inherent
capacity to informate. A consequence of ICT is that tacit and often body-related knowledge
needs to become explicit - not "real" but symbolic. Blue collar employees may experience an
inbuilt ambiguity in learning ICT because 1) it is not institutionalised in their work routines, 2)
the ICT systems are not perceived as corresponding to their working reality, and 3) there is
little focus on shifting from action-oriented to cognitive-based skills.
Methods: From 2003 to 2007, two Norwegian power grid companies have been visited on
several occasions, resulting in 52 interviews and an extensive amount of field notes. Field
observations and interviews conducted through different periods among and with technical
installers (perceived by themselves and the companies as blue collar workers) as well as
project planners, team leaders and grid owner representatives, have been analysed both by
individual researchers and collectively. All interviews were recorded and transcribed.
Results: The analyses show that most blue collar employees do not see the computer as a
primary work tool. As the systems are insufficiently updated, they often encounter unforeseen
challenges in the field. Their work environment is characterised by strong social relations and
a high degree of professional pride, and they express regret for decreasing professional
development/training. Evaluating company policy with increased emphasis on ICT against
employees' view of their job description, job content and working identity, the contours of a
discrepancy between company objectives and employee acceptance of and ability to follow
these emerge. It is a company goal that installers should be as much as possible outdoors,
while planners and project leaders should be indoors, thus increasing the gap between blue
and white collar workers. The results imply that organisational implicit and explicit
structures/functioning favour white collar employees, as blue collar workers lack references
with regard to ICT which the organisations do not respond to. Insufficient training of use, and
the lack of construction of meaning vis-à-vis the systems, mean that employees have not
been equipped with the necessary tools to bridge the gap between symbols and reality.
Conclusions: Working life has become extensively more individualised since the end of the
1950's, but occupational identity is still a strong feature among manual workers today, and
represent a potential source of resistance against ICT-based change, as they experience a
devaluation of what is their professionalism, and thus occupational identity, without a proper
replacement. Moreover, while it can be argued that organisational commitment is declining
due to changed relationship between the organisation and its employees, occupational identity
remains a significant aspect that should not be overlooked in the process of technology
transfer.
42
CHANGES IN THE CONTROL OF WORK
PROCESSES: ARE THERE MERELY POSITIVE
CONSEQUENCES FOR EMPLOYEE WELL-BEING?
BAHAMONDES PAVEZ, C., WILDE, B., HINRICHS, S. & SCHÜPBACH, H.
Work and Organizational Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of Freiburg, Germany
Since the 80s much research has been conducted concerning changes in the control of work
processes. Nowadays the work process is no longer characterized by input-oriented control
mechanisms but by the increasing importance of outcome-orientation. Consequently,
employees are more and more responsible for both the work process itself and the
achievement of the outcome. This implies changes in the demands and working conditions for
employees. However, it is not clear to date, how the concrete changes in working conditions
can be described and what their consequences for employees well-being are. Well known
examples for outcome-oriented forms of work control are “management by objectives” and
“new public management”.
Objectives: This study examines whether characteristics of the control of work processes are
associated with perceived demands, work load and resources originating from the work
situation on the one hand and with consequences for employee well-being on the other hand.
It is expected that changes in the control of work processes are related to a higher task range
as well as more possibilities for learning and development at work and, at the same time, to
increased flexibility requirements and augmented work load. Despite the expected positive
components of the working situation, might such a constellation of working conditions be
associated to a conflict between employees’ work and private life and result in negative
consequences for employee well-being.
Methods: Data of German employees from different sectors were obtained by questionnaire.
The questionnaire assesses characteristics of the control of work processes, perceived working
conditions and employee well-being.
Results: As expected, the results show that employees who work in fields with high outcomeorientation report high values for task range, opportunities for learning and development as
well as high values for the flexibility requirements and work load. The findings also indicate
that there is a tendency towards conflict between work and private life and that there are
impairments in well-being. Furthermore, it can be shown that well-being is highly correlated
with the characteristics of the outcomes employees have to achieve.
Conclusions: Despite important improvements in the perceived working conditions (e.g. a
higher task range) negative values for the well-being of the employees were observed. The
implications of these results will be discussed.
43
AN IPA STUDY OF CANCER SURVIVORSHIP AND
WORK?
BAINS, M.1, YARKER, J.2, MUNIR, F.3 & KALAWSKY, K.E.A.3
1
2
British Psychological Society, United Kingdom
Goldsmiths, University of London, United Kingdom
3
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Objectives: The research objectives were to explore cancer survivors’ experiences of
managing cancer and work utilising an Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis approach (IPA).
The impact of diagnosis and treatment on a cancer survivors’ ability to work is not yet fully
understood. With an estimated 90,000 new cases of cancer diagnosed in people of working
age in the UK each year, this is a key issue for health at work. This study employs an IPA
approach to gain a rich understanding of survivors’ experience of work. The approach is
phenomenological as it is interested in formulating a detailed interpretation of an individual’s
personal perception, as opposed to generating an objective account of the area being
investigated.
Methods: Eleven participants (female n = 5, mean age = 57.4 years) were recruited from a
National Cancer Charity (United Kingdom). All participants had received a cancer diagnosis in
the last 10 years. The researchers sought to gain a rich insight into the experiences of cancer
survivors, including those that successfully returned to, or, resumed work, those who had
difficulties in managing cancer and work, and those who did not return to work. Semistructured interviews comprising of four broad areas (cancer experiences at work,
management, coping and improvements) were conducted and audio-taped.
Data was
transcribed and analysed using Interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA).
Results: All participants were employed at the time of diagnosis, however, at the time of the
interview 8 were employed, one was on long-term sick leave, one had taken ill-health
retirement and one was unemployed.
Analysis generated four higher-order themes:
Disclosure; Support; Management of work; and, Psychological Outlook. Most returned to
work, or attempted to, once their treatment was completed. Disclosing information to
employers about their condition and treatment was important as it was deemed necessary to
gain time off work. Furthermore, disclosure facilitated the introduction of work adjustments.
The majority (n = 9) reported that they received support continuously and were never made
to feel isolated in the workplace due to their cancer, allowing individuals to focus on managing
their cancer. The knowledge and understanding of employers and colleagues appears to be
crucial when interpreting the level and type (positive or negative) of support received. Upon
returning to work, the majority of participants reported that their employer made adequate
adjustments. However, only two participants reported that their return was monitored.
Concerns relating to anxiety regarding recurrence and low quality of life were also expressed.
Encouragingly, a number of participants reported a positive psychological outlook with regard
to managing and coping with their cancer and work.
Conclusions: The findings provide a rich and invaluable insight into cancer survivors’
experiences in managing their cancer and work. It is apparent that many report positive
levels of support and adjustments from employers, however, the knowledge and
understanding that employers and colleagues have of cancer, its treatment and their
implications for work is crucial. It is also plausible to suggest that more appropriate return to
work monitoring is required to aid individuals affected by cancer.
44
RESEARCH-PRACTICE PARTNERSHIP FOR
DEVELOPING HEALTH PROMOTING
ORGANIZATIONS: MODEL AND
IMPLEMENTATION
BAUER, G. F., JENNY, G.J., DEPLAZES, S., INAUEN, A. & LEHMANN, K.
Division Public and Organizational Health, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine,
University of Zurich, and Center for Organizational and Occupational Sciences, ETH Zurich,
Switzerland
Objectives: From a public health perspective, developing health promoting organizations is a
key strategy for achieving a positive public health impact. It requires an intervention research
approach which produces occupational health (OH) interventions which are both effective and
have a high potential for dissemination.
A salutogenic intervention research model is
presented which closely links knowledge creation and practice transfer in each research phase.
The implementation of this model by a research-practice partnership is illustrated.
Methods: Based on the transdisciplinary research approach and systems theory, we
developed a salutogenic intervention research model (TRIP Model) (Bauer 2007). This model
integrates the research system (OH scientific disciplines), the intervention system (OH
consultants and dissemination agents) as well as the target system (companies) into OH
projects. A participatory action cycle is applied for jointly setting targets, assessment, project
planning, implementation, evaluation and dissemination of the research results. To put this
model into practice, our research department consists of an interdisciplinary OH research
group and a separate OH consulting centre closely engaged with companies. The success of
the model implementation is assessed by the potential public health impact of the resulting OH
interventions based on the RE-AIM criteria (Glasgow et al. 2003).
Results: Based on this model, a network of 6 OH providers including our department and 10
pilot companies had developed an evidence-based toolbox for comprehensive OH management
for consultants and companies. A 3-year follow-up survey (Landert 2007) among the 2200
registered users of the freely available, internet-based toolbox showed that about 1/3 of the
registerd companies implemented at least parts of the toolbox. Also, 80% of the respondents
reported positive effects of the toolbox. An in depth effectiveness-study is under way.
Conclusions: The salutogenic intervention research model has proven useful as joint group
action theory for involved stakeholders – researchers, practioners and companies. It increases
accountability towards practice. However, research designs and instruments often have to
concede to practical limitations as well, making it more challenging to publish results in
scientific journals. Overall this approach is promising for meeting its primary aim: producing
evidence-based OH management interventions with a high public health impact.
45
WORK, AGE AND FLOW: AN EXPLORATION OF
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIFFERENT
WORK ASPECTS, HEALTH- AND AGE-RELATED
ASPECTS AND FLOW
BRINKHUIS, C. & TER HOEVEN, C.
University of Twente, the Netherlands
Objective: Optimalizing employees’ productivity and employability, the striving towards a
broad availability during all life phases (Van Buul & Maas, 2004), are important topics in
today’s organizations (Remery, Henkens, Schippers, & Ekamper, 2003). First, it is important
for the performance and survival of organizations (Grant, Christianson, & Price, 2007).
Second, the middle aged and older workers are becoming increasingly prevalent in the work
place (Sterns & Miklos, 1995). In order to cope with the increasing costs due to population
ageing it is determined that the pensionable age has to be raised (European Council of
Barcelona, 2002). Therefore, it is necessary that employees are able and willing to work
longer. Measures aimed at optimalizing the employability and productivity of employees can
prevent early retirement of employees (Remery et al., 2003). According to Schaufeli (2004)
and Demerouti (2006) work flow (i.e. absorption, enjoyment, and intrinsic motivation) can
contribute to optimalizing employability and productivity and therefore it is assumed that
organizations should take measures which contribute to reaching a state of flow within their
employees. The study aims at investigating which personal and work-related aspects
contribute to work flow and builds on the “work-demands-capacity” model conducted by Van
Dijk et al. (1990) and the model of “ageing and physical workload” conducted by De Zwart et
al. (1995). Based on these models, it was hypothesized that the relationship of job demands,
job control, and job resources with flow was mediated by physical workload, physical work
capacity, and perception of ageing.
Method: Questionnaire data were gathered in 2008 from an organization in the Dutch semipublic leisure sector. A total of 103 employees completed the questionnaire (response rate =
59%).
Results: Results of the hierarchical regression analyses only supported the hypotheses
regarding job resources. Flow is positively affected by job resources and this relationship is
mediated by physical work capacity and by perception of ageing. A positive and significant
relationship between perception of ageing and flow was found. Thus, the better the perception
of ageing, the more work flow one is experiencing. This may be due to self-efficacy and
coping. Boehmer (2007) found that people who feel younger than their chronological age had
higher self-efficacy than people who had same or older age identity.
Conclusions: Findings from current research indicate that job resources are beneficial in
reaching a state of flow. Thus, it seems worthwhile for organizations to promote flow by
providing sufficient job resources to all employees.
46
HELPING ORGANIZATIONS IN PREVENTING
OCCUPATIONAL STRESS: FROM KNOWLEDGE
TO PRACTICE
BRUN, J-P.1, ST-HILAIRE, F.1, BIRON, C.2 & VÉZINA, M.1, 3
1
Laval University, Canada
Lancaster University, United Kingdom
Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Canada
2
3
Although the sources of stress in the workplace are quite well-known, the field of intervention
studies to prevent psychosocial risks is still in an embryonic state. Many studies have found
that pathogenic work conditions can lead to poor physical and mental health but most
organizations find that preventing workplace stress in an effective way can be a struggle.
Although the effectiveness of stress interventions at work is still on slippery ground (see Biron,
Bond, & Cooper, 2007), there has been a few recommendations in terms of best practice in
stress prevention (see Giga et al., 2003; Jordan et al., 2003; Tasho et al., 2005). Based on
these and on intervention studies we conducted in Quebec’s public and private organizations
(Brun, Biron and Ivers, forthcoming), we developed practical and specific prevention tools to
guide the intervention process.
Objectives: The present paper describes these tools and shows how they can be used to as
support to decision-making in regard of the development, implementation and evaluation of a
comprehensive stress prevention program. The purpose of this toolkit is to provide guidance at
each step of the risk management cycle (Cox et al., 2000).
Method and results: The program involves five main steps: (1) preparing for changes, (2)
evaluating risks, (3) developing an action plan, (4) reducing risk, and (5) evaluating the
intervention. The toolkit includes 4 main components:
1. Assessing risk
A questionnaire was developed using mainly validated shortened scales of job control, job
demands, rewards, social support, organizational justice, readiness to change, and mental
health indicators.
2. Flyers with guidance on each step
In order to lead an intervention, a guide describes each step of an intervention. Thus, six files
describe the important components of the step (i.e. preparation, indicators, problems,
solutions, implementation, and how to conduct the evaluation process).
3. Assessment of management practices
The grid characterizing management practices assesses risk factors by a collection of data
upon human resource management practices.
4. Training trainers for Quebec’s public sectors
The training aims to develop an understanding and a suitability of the strategic approach to
prevent mental health problems at work.
Conclusion: This paper constitutes a good example of knowledge transfer from research to
practice. Although much remains to be done in intervention research, organizations urgently
need to be guided and accompanied in the development, implementation and evaluation of
stress reduction programs.
47
THE IMPACT OF WORK HOUR REDUCTION ON
SICKNESS ABSENTEEISM
BUVIK, M.P.1, TVEDT, S.D.2, TORVATN, H.1 & SAKSVIK, P.Ø.2
1
2
New Praxis, SINTEF Technology and society, Norway
Department of Psychology, Norwegian university of Science and Technology, Norway
Objective: There is an ongoing political debate in Norway on the use of six hour work day as
a means for the reduction of sickness absenteeism. The literature shows no clear evidence for
such an effect. Most qualitative studies indicate that employees perceive positive health
effects, but no quantitative evidence has yet supported this. The present paper reports
findings from two recent case studies in Norway. Both cases have implemented reduced
working hours with wage compensation for part of their staff. The objective of the study is to
demonstrate how the sickness absenteeism in these two cases was affected by work hour
reduction, and to discuss the limitations of absenteeism research.
Methods: Both cases concerned midsized Norwegian enterprises; one was a private
production facility, the other a municipal agency. Data from the enterprises’ records of
sickness absenteeism have been sampled. To test the development in absenteeism, t-tests
have been used to compare statistics for equivalent twelve- month periods before and after
implementation of the work hour reduction. A survey was conducted before, during and after
the implementation in both cases, measuring psychosocial work environment, subjective
health and work stress outcomes, and employees’ subjective evaluation of the 6 hour work
day. Descriptive analyses and group comparisons through t-tests on these data are used to
shed light on the findings.
Results: The results show a significant reduction in sickness absenteeism in one of the cases,
but no significant decrease in the other. The survey data show that employees in both cases
experience intensification of the work day after the implementation. In one of the cases the
employees experienced positive health effects related to the reduction in working hours and
for the other the social relations at work have suffered.
Conclusions: The ambiguous findings demonstrate the complex nature of changes in sickness
absenteeism. The reduction in absenteeism found in one of the cases may be due to several
factors other than reduced working hours. This includes general efforts to improve working
conditions and working environment such as automation of work and general organizational
efforts to improve the working environment. In addition, individual case histories of employees
are a considerable threat to the validity of results in small-scale studies. The need to establish
pre and post measurements and the need to follow the change process over a prolonged
period, with repeated measurements, are discussed.
48
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL
COMPARISON, ORGANIZATIONAL
IDENTIFICATION AND COMMITMENT ON
BURNOUT: ARE THERE DIFFERENCES AMONG
DUTCH AND SPANISH WORKERS?
CARMONA, C.1,2, BUUNK, A.P.2, PEIRO, J.M.1 & DIJKSTRA, A.2
1
2
University of Valencia, Spain
University of Groningen, the Netherlands
Objectives: The present study aimed to study among Dutch and Spanish workers the
relationship between social comparison responses, organizational identification and
commitment on burnout. Previous research has shown that the way individuals identify or
contrast themselves with better-off or worse-off others may play an important role in the
development of burnout, especially the identification with worse-off others. In this study, we
further researched this relationship in two cultures with individualistic and collectivistic
patterns. In addition, we examined how the relationship between social comparison and
burnout was affected by organizational commitment and identification.
Method: Four hundred and four workers from two private and several public organizations
participated in the field study filling a questionnaire. Both private organizations were
multinational manufactory companies, from the automobile sector and from the appliance
sector. And the public organizations were libraries in both cultures. In the private
organizations, the Spanish sample was composed of 101 workers (75.3% males and 24.7%
females) and the Dutch sample consisted of 75 workers (62.2% males and 37.8% females). In
the public organizations, the Spanish sample was composed by 121 workers (25.6% males
and 74.4% females) and 107 workers in the Dutch sample (12.1% males and 87.9%
females). Social comparison responses. To assess the identification and contrast processes of
upward and downward social comparison, participants answered a translated Spanish and
Dutch version of the Identification-Contrast Scale developed by Van der Zee, Buunk,
Sanderman, Botke, & Van den Bergh, (2000). Organizational commitment. The extent to
which respondents experienced commitment to the organization was assessed by using the 9item Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (Mowday, Steers, & Porter, 1979; Janssen,
2004). Organizational identification. To asses identification with the organization, we used the
identification with the organization scale (Mael & Tetrick, 1992). Burnout was assessed with
the Spanish and Dutch version of the widely used Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey
(MBI-GS, Schaufeli, Leiter, Maslach & Jackson, 1996). This instrument consists of a reduced
and adapted version of the original questionnaire (Maslach & Jackson, 1981, 1986), that
contains 16 items.
Results: In general, results on burnout showed country differences on emotional exhaustion
and professional efficacy. In particular, results showed that Spanish who focused on upward
similarities with others scored higher on cynicism and reduced personal accomplishment. In
addition, workers who identified with the organization and were more committed to it, had
higher levels of cynicism and reduced personal accomplishment.
Conclusions: Finally, the present results showed that the way individuals compare
themselves with others may have a relationship with the levels of commitment to and
identification with the organization. However, results showed in part that cultural background
is needed to examine the way individuals compare themselves with others, and how these
comparisons with others may affect their attachment to the organization and levels of
burnout.
49
WORKPLACE STRESS AND PRODUCTIVITY: IS
THERE A RELATIONSHIP?
CATANO, V.M. & KELLOWAY, E.K.
Saint Mary's University, Canada
Objectives: In recognition of the benefits of a healthy workplace, the American Psychological
Association established awards for employers who create healthy workplaces. These programs
seek to improve employee health by reducing risk factors, such as stress, that lead to disease.
These programs carry with them a cost that health promotion professionals argue is offset
through enhanced morale and productivity (O'Donnell, 2007; Lloyd & Foster, 2006). Most
arguments revolve around reduced medical costs, a major concern in the US, and reduced
costs of absenteeism. Hardly any research demonstrates that workplace stress is in fact
associated with lower productivity; part of the difficulty in demonstrating this is to control for
various factors that affect performance. Our primary objective in this study was to show that
in a controlled environment stress levels were higher in units in a heavy manufacturing plant
that were judged by management to be less productive.
Method: We examined differences between day and night shifts within the same plant; the
day shift was more productive. We used structured interviews, focused critical incident
workshops and questionnaires to measure differences between the groups on stress and other
factors. We obtained interview data from nine supervisors/managers and eleven shop floor
workers divided between the two shifts; four workshops with 5-8 participants each were held
with two for managers and two for workers; finally 223 employees completed surveys.
Results: Night shift workers were more critical of organizational climate and task design. They
reported more work stress, role conflict and role ambiguity. Night shift workers were less
satisfied with the performance of their supervisors. Night shift workers perceived the
organization to be less supportive of them than did day shift workers. Employee experiences
of their jobs and supervisors contributed to role stress, motivation and perceptions of
organizational climate. Role stress, in turn, inhibited the development of affect ties to the
organization.
Conclusions: By using two comparable groups of workers in the same plant doing the same
jobs, we were able to control such factors as international competitiveness, technological
sophistication including the availability and the management of technology, company
leadership, demographics of the workforce, pay and benefits, and scheduling. While we cannot
claim a cause and effect relationship, our data show a strong negative relationship between
stress and productivity. The consistency of the findings in both our qualitative and quantitative
data supports this relationship.
50
INCREASING THE PROBABILITY OF FINDING
AN INTERACTION IN WORK-STRESS
RESEARCH: A TWO WAVE LONGITUDINAL TEST
OF THE TRIPLE -MATCH PRINCIPLE
CHRISOPOULOS, S.1, DE JONGE, J.2, DOLLARD, M.F.1, WINEFIELD, A.1 &
DORMANN, C.3
1
2
Work & Stress Research Group, University of South Australia, Australia
Human Performance Management Group, Eindhoven University of Technology, the
Netherlands
3
Psychologisches Institut der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Germany
Objectives: Research into work stress has attempted to identify job resources that can
moderate the effects of job demands on strain. The recently developed triple-match principle,
TMP proposes that job demands, resources and strain contain a cognitive, emotional and
physical component. When a psychological imbalance is induced by job demands, individuals
activate corresponding resources to reduce the effects of the demands. A closer match occurs
when the resources are processed in the same psychological domain as the demands. The
further away from a match, the less likely an interactive effect will become. Put simply, the
likelihood of finding an interactive effect between job demands and job resources is greatest
when demands, resources and strain are based on qualitatively similar dimensions (i.e.
cognitive, emotional and physical). For example, emotional support from colleagues is likely to
buffer the effects of emotional demands on emotional exhaustion.
Methods: The TMP was tested in a sample of 179 Australian police officers in a 2-wave
longitudinal study. Survey packs were sent to participant’s home address by the Police
Association on two occasions, 12 months apart.
Results: The likelihood of finding an interactive effect was related to the degree of match
between job demands, job resources and strain with 33.3% of triple-match interactions
becoming significant, 22.2% when there was a double-match, and 0.0% when there was no
match.
Conclusions: These findings lend support to the triple-match principle as a guiding
framework when exploring possible interactive effects in work stress research.
51
FOSTERING WORK ENGAGEMENT AMONG
SCHOOL TEACHERS – THE ROLE OF TRUST IN
THE PRINCIPAL
CHUGHTAI, A.A. & BUCKLEY, F.
Dublin City University Business School, Ireland
Objective: The recent migration towards positive psychology, which lays stress on human
strengths and well being, has contributed to the rise of the construct of work engagement
within the occupational health psychology literature. Work engagement refers to a ‘positive,
fulfilling work related state of mind that is characterised by vigour, dedication and absorption’
(Schaufeli, Salanova, Gonzalez-Roma and Bakker, 2002, p. 74). The current study strives to
deepen our understanding of work engagement in the school setting by identifying the main
factors that may boost the engagement levels of teachers. Additionally, this study also aims to
investigate the consequences of work engagement for schools.
Methods: More specifically, the current study explores the impact of teachers’ trust in the
school principal on work engagement. Additionally, it highlights the role of organizational
identification in explaining the linkage between trust in the principal and work engagement.
Furthermore, this study analyses the relationship between work engagement and three
organizational outcomes, namely, self-reported in-role job performance, learning orientation
and error communication. Survey data for this study were collected from 130 high school
teachers drawn from six schools located in a large eastern city of Pakistan.
The research model portraying the proposed relationships is presented in figure 1 below:
Figure I Hypothesised Model
Outcomes
Trust in the
Principal
Organizational
Identification
Work
Engagement
In-Role Job
Performance
Learning
Orientation
Error
Communication
Results: Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that organizational identification fully
mediated the relationship between teachers’ trust in the principal and work engagement. In
addition, it was found that work engagement was significantly and positively associated with
all the three outcome variables, namely, in-role job performance, learning orientation and
error communication.
Conclusions: Most of the empirical work on work engagement has been preoccupied with the
role of job resources in cultivating work engagement. This paper makes a contribution to the
growing engagement literature by empirically assessing the effects of trust in the principal on
teachers’ work engagement. Additionally, this study also enumerates one possible process in
the form of organizational identification through which faculty’s trust in their principal can
convert into work engagement. In short, the results of this paper suggest that psychological
variables such as trust and organizational identification can play a key role in augmenting
employees’ work engagement.
52
BUILDING A CSR FRAMEWORK TO PROMOTE
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY
PRACTICES IN SMES
CHURCHILL, J. & LEKA, S.
Institute of Work Health and Organisations, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are of vital importance to the European economy
as they represent the majority of enterprises, employ two thirds of the workforce and
generate over 65% of total business turnover. Hence, occupational safety and health (OSH)
in SMEs represents a priority for OSH promoting organisations. Despite numerous OSH
initiatives targeted at SMEs, their record remains poor with detrimental effects on
organisational and employee health. Recent OSH promotion strategies by the European
Commission (EC) and the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EASHW) have
attempted to link OSH with Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), establishing a business case
of strategic importance for organisations (EC, 2001; 2002). However, reports by EASHW
(2004) and the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI, 2003) recognise difficulties for the
integration of the two concepts and for the engagement of SMEs in CSR activities. A key factor
in both cases is the perceptions and values of SME owner/managers. Examples are now
available in enterprises of different sizes where linking OSH with CSR has resulted in positive
practices (EASHW, 2004). This project aimed at exploring how OSH could be integrated with
CSR in the SME context. During the first phase of this research, semi-structured interviews
were held with a 100+ SMEs in the East Midlands area of the UK, from a variety of sizes and
sectors. Interesting results showed awareness and understanding in relation to CSR and OSH
differed on the basis of the sector and the size; more awareness raising in relation to both
CSR and OSH and how the two areas can be interrelated is needed. Most of the companies
that participated in this research had responsible practices that mapped onto CSR’s internal
and external dimensions however these were perceived as good business practices and not
encapsulated within the CSR framework. In relation to OSH, an overwhelming focus on safety
issues highlighted the need to educate on work-related health issues and employee well-being.
Phase two focused on semi-structured interviews with leading experts in the three areas (CSR,
OSH and SMEs). This identified common themes, thus helping build awareness and best
practice. The experts from across Europe encompassed academic, policy making / legislative
and practitioner areas. Results show an awareness of the problems of small businesses but a
realism regarding the difficulties of voluntary implementation. The benefits of ‘best practice’
and the need for businesses to learn in a more organic/homogenous fashion, particularly from
other businesses, was highlighted as particularly important. Re-iteration of issues surrounding
language and understanding were common. Regulation was deemed necessary for
improvement particularly from the European policy sector. Deriving from these two phases, a
framework and training pack are being developed for phase three, to involve action research
within SMEs implementing OSH initiatives. The driver is to understand what encourages
companies to move beyond a mere focus on legal duties and towards a re-educative approach,
applied to all OSH requirements within an SME. Such learning could prove beneficial in helping
direct policy work in the future.
53
CONCERN PROMOTES CONCERN: TRUST
EMOTIONS AND SAFETY CITIZENSHIP AMONG
WORKMATES
CONCHIE, S.M. & DONALD, I.J.
School of Psychology, The University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
Objective: A number of studies have emphasised the importance of employee safety
citizenship behaviours in lowering workplace accidents (e.g., Griffin & Neal, 2000; 2006).
Safety citizenship behaviours involve helping others, seeking ways to improve safety, and
reporting potential problems or violations in safety (Hofmann & Morgeson, 1999). Studies
have shown that these behaviours typically increase as supervisors become more supportive
and trusted by employees, and employees’ safety climate perceptions become more positive
(e.g., Barling et al., 2001). A possible additional influence on safety citizenship behaviours,
which research has yet to consider, is that of workmates. As many acts of citizenship (e.g.,
helping and looking out for the safety of others) are directed towards co-workers, it would
seem reasonable that the quality of workmate relationships would impact on the occurrence
and frequency of these behaviours. The current study tested this possibility by investigating
the effect of trust in workmates on employees’ safety citizenship behaviours. We predicted
that trust between co-workers would be associated with higher levels of citizenship behaviours
directed towards workmates (helping, stewardship and whistle blowing) (H1). Further, of two
dimensions of trust: beliefs and emotions (McAllister, 1995), we predicted that trust emotions
would be a stronger predictor of citizenship behaviours than would trust beliefs (H2). This is
consistent with the observation that trust emotions extend relationships beyond formal
economic principles to ones where social exchanges are central (Dirks & Ferrin, 2002). Within
these social exchanges, employees are likely to engage in citizenship behaviours as a way to
reciprocate favourable behaviours that generated the trust emotions.
Method: These two predictions were tested and supported using data collected from a sample
of 148 UK petrochemical employees.
Results: The results of a correlation analysis showed that trust beliefs and trust emotions
were significantly and positively related to the three citizenship behaviours (average trust
belief correlation, r = .27; average trust emotion correlation, r = .40). The results of
regression analyses also showed that trust emotions, but not trust beliefs, predicted the
citizenship behaviours of helping, stewardship and whistle blowing.
Conclusion: These results show the important influence that workmate relationships have on
safety and emphasize the importance of considering the role of trust in safety.
54
VIRTUAL REALITY IN PRACTICE: A NEW WAY
FOR ORGANIZATIONS TO GET S.M.A.R.T.
CONNORS, M. & BLOEDEL, J.
Iowa State University, USA
Objective According to the Health and Safety Executive, millions of workers are stressed out at
work. Research has laid a very rich foundation by identifying, describing, and defining
workplace stress. However, new advancements in technology now enable researchers and
practitioners to build upon this rich foundation and put knowledge into more effective
practices. Stress Management using Advanced Research and Technology or S.M.A.R.T. can be
a new way forward for organizations. It encompasses the technology of Virtual Reality or VR to
provide a new dimension via realistic vacation-like environments in an animated 3D-movie-like
fashion. This inspires the user to physically and cognitively interact with the dynamics of the
environment in a way that they become a participant rather than a spectator. The Wii game
and Second Life online virtual world are already harnessing the powerful attributes of VR
rather lucratively. However, this trend is now being translated into scientific research to help
improve mental health practices.
Methods In a trial study to investigate the effectiveness of VR to combat stress and anxiety led
by Dr. Giuseppe Riva at the Istituto Auxologico Italiano, a sample size of 60 students ages
21-28 were assigned to 3 groups. Stress was induced. Group one was given Virtual Reality
Personal Computer-based Software Application or VRPCA in which users are immersed in a 3D
animated virtual landscape while navigating with a joystick and exploring their world via a
head-mounted display. The second group watched a basic DVD movie. These two were
instructed to use their distraction intervention for relief. The third group was the control
group.
Results The parameters used for measurement were heart rate, respiration rate, skin
conductance, and amplitude electromyography. In addition, self reports of emotional state,
anxiety as well as a sense of presence in a virtual environment were assessed. By all
measurements the group receiving the VR condition favored better than the DVD condition
and control group at achieving a sense of relief and relaxation.
Conclusion The implication is that being immersed in a virtual vacation-like environment can
induce an effective state of stress relief and relaxation that can improve workers motivation,
attitude, and productivity. The most important attribute of VR technology, unlike traditional
methods of stress relief such as meditation, is the dynamic of the environment quickly grab
users’ attention and can hold it until they achieve relief. Nevertheless, the user can still use
those individualized traditional methods of stress management techniques. In fact, for a more
comprehensive experience within their virtual vacation, a worker could, for example, meditate
on top of virtual Mt Everest. Since most workplaces are equipped with personal computers or
laptops, a VRPCA is attainable potentially at most sites. By getting S.M.A.R.T. about workplace
stress, organizations can potentially reduce stress-related costs associated with insurance
claims, absenteeism, presenteeism or showing up to work in ill-health, building or joining
wellness centers, as well as other well-intentioned long-acting stress management programs.
55
BURNOUT SYNDROME – THE INFLUENCE OF
PERSONALITY AND SOCIAL FACTORS ON
TEACHERS’ EMOTIONAL EXHAUSTION
CRISTEA, M.
University la Sapienza, Italy
Objective: The main objective of this research study is the investigation of the burnout
syndrome in the Romanian professional workplace, more specifically, the educational system.
The purpose of this study was evaluating the level of burnout in a specific workplace and of
identifying possible factors that might influence the level of emotional exhaustion such as
personality traits and social indicators (age, sex, study level, type of undertaken work).
Method:
Participants. The participants involved in the study were teachers from primary, secondary
school and from high schools situated in the county of Iaşi or in the areas closed to the city.
Variables.
Dependent: burnout syndrome, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, professional
efficiency
Independent:
a) Social indicators – gender (female vs. male)
- Type of undertaken activity (physical vs. intellectual)
- Educational level (secondary, high school, university)
- Monthly income (up to 250 Euros, between 250- 500 Euros, over 500
Euros)
b) Personality traits – F factor (openness – quietness);
- I factor (rationality– emotionality);
- L factor (trusting others –suspiciousness);
- Q4 factor (high level of energy vs. low level of energy);
Instruments.
A) BURNOUT SYNDROME QUESTIONNNAIRE is an instrument with 31 items, structured on
three dimensions: Professional efficiency Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization. The
participants had to answer on a Likert scale in 5 points. C) THE CATTELL INVENTORY OF
PERSONALITY– we extracted from the initial inventory only the items referring to the
following personality traits or factors : F, I, L and, Q 4.
Results: The statistical data have underlined the existence of a certain level of emotional
burnout experienced by the teachers that work in the Romanian educational system. The data
suggested some specific statistical differences between subjects if we take in consideration the
social indicators previously mentioned: the males manifest more often than women behaviors
indicating a high level of depersonalization. In addition, the data point out the fact that
personality traits correlate in negative/positive manners with the scores on the three
dimensions of the burnout syndrome,
Conclusions: The results of this study are considered to be important and, could be valued if
employers are willing to admit the existence of the burnout syndrome and would have
sufficient availability to design intervention projects in that regard.
56
PHYSICIAN… HEAL THYSELF: THE HEALTH,
STRAIN, AND BURNOUT OF ANESTHESIA
RESIDENTS IN CANADA
DAY, A.1, STEVENS, S.1, SIMMS, M.2 & McKEEN, D.2
1
St. Mary’s University, Canada
Dalhousie University, Canada
2
Anesthesiologists experience a high degree of stress (Nyssen et al., 2004) and negative
outcomes associated with this stress (e.g., substance abuse, suicide; Sargent et al., 2004).
However, little research has examined the health and stress of anesthesia residents (ARs).
General research on residents indicates that medical residency is a period of intense training
that can be mentally and physically burdensome (Cohen & Patten, 2005). Residents
experience many stressors, including long hours, lack of sleep, and increased expectations
(Toews et al., 1997). Therefore, ARs may be particularly prone to strain outcomes because of
the demands associated with their profession and the intense training conditions, compounded
by a lack of experience, knowledge, and control. Negative outcomes may arise from these
increased demands and increased stress. For example, long call shifts can substantially
increase the risk of medical error and adverse events (Barger et al., 2006). Despite these
negative outcomes, little research has examined the institutional and individual factors that
help reduce stress and improve AR health.
Therefore, there were 3 goals of the current study: (a) to examine the impact of job and life
demands (i.e., role conflict, ambiguity, overload, expectations, training, and life hassles) on
psychosocial outcomes (i.e., strain, burnout, and conflict) of ARs across Canada; (b) to
compare ARs strain and burnout levels to normative burnout levels in other occupations; and
(c) to examine the organizational and interpersonal factors (i.e., job control, support from
staff, residency program, family, spouse, coworker) that may decrease negative outcomes and
mitigate the negative impact of job demands.
We surveyed anesthesiology residents in all Canadian programs using a web-based survey
(N=241). With only 3 exceptions, all of the job and life demands were significantly correlated
with the psychosocial outcomes. When examined jointly, demands explained 20.7% - 47.6%
of the variance in the outcomes (p<.01), with hassles having the greatest unique impact ( s
= .17 to .56, p<.05) in most of the analyses.
Compared to normative levels of burnout, residents reported significantly more emotional
exhaustion and cynicism than nurses and management professionals (t=2.18, p<.05 to 7.71,
p<.001). Conversely, residents reported significantly more professional efficacy than nurses
(t= 6.38, p<.05) and psychiatric workers (t=8.73, p<.05).
When examined jointly, support explained 10.1% - 24.7% of the variance in psychosocial
outcomes (p<.01). Staff support had the strongest unique impact on health ( s = .16 to .35,
p<.05). Job control was related to all outcomes (r’s = .19 to .34, p<.05). Support and job
control buffered some of the relationships between job and life demands and psychosocial
outcomes.
These results have implications not only for the health of ARs, but also for their training. By
understanding the factors that may exacerbate or alleviate stress, anesthesia programs may
help improve resident health and performance by tailoring the training and support that they
provide their residents. Future research should examine these relationships and buffering
effects in other types of residents, and examine the effectiveness of existing programs
designed to support residents (e.g., MD Financial Management, Counseling & Psychological
Services).
57
‘QUANTITATIVE’ VERSUS ‘QUALITATIVE’
EMPLOYABILITY: ASSOCIATIONS WITH
EMPLOYEES’ ATTITUDES AND WELL-BEING
DE CUYPER, N. & DE WITTE, H.
Organizational and Personnel Psychology, K.U.Leuven, Belgium
Objectives: The present study aims to investigate the relationship between employability and
job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, well-being and turnover intention. In
line with earlier studies, employability concerns ‘the individual’s perception of his or her
chances to achieve a new job’. Unlike earlier studies, employability may concern (1) a job on
the external (i.e. external employability) versus the internal (i.e. internal employability) labour
market, or (2) a job (i.e. quantitative employability) or a better (i.e. qualitative employability)
job. The combination results in four distinct types.
Hypotheses are based on social exchanges principles: external quantitative employability
relates to favourable outcomes, while external qualitative employability relates to
unfavourable outcomes. Unlike external quantitative employability, the employee may
interpret external qualitative employability negatively as a signal that the current employer’s
investments fall short: the employee perceives opportunities elsewhere that the current
employer is unwilling or unable to provide. This may cause relative deprivation, and hence,
strain. Moreover, the employee might reciprocate limited investments on the part of the
employer with withdrawal. Furthermore, internal employability, be it quantitative or
qualitative, is hypothesized to relate to overall favourable outcomes: internal employability
may develop, at least partly, from the employer’s investments. This likely leads the workers to
develop feelings of loyalty and, possibly, increased well-being.
Method: Results are based on a sample of 389 Belgian workers. Hierarchical regression
analyses with listwise deletion were used to investigate the relationships.
Results: We established a positive relationship between external quantitative employability
and job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment and well-being, and a negative
relationship between external quantitative employability and turnover intention. External
qualitative employability related negatively to job satisfaction, affective organizational
commitment and well-being, and it related positively to turnover intention. Finally, internal
quantitative and qualitative employability related to overall favourable outcomes.
Conclusion: The introduction of different employability types has important implications for
employers and employees alike. Some employers are concerned about potential turnover or
reduced loyalty among highly employable workers. However, turnover and commitment are
conditional upon the quality of job opportunities elsewhere. Moreover, employers may develop
a retention policy by investing in the employees’ internal employability. Furthermore,
employability relates to overall favourable results for employees. One exception is the
situation where employees perceive a discrepancy between the quality of their current job and
possible other jobs elsewhere. Plausibly, these employees will act upon their perceptions and
will eventually end up in better jobs, implying that their dissatisfaction is transitory.
58
“A HARD DAY’S NIGHT” A LONGITUDINAL
STUDY ON RELATIONS AMONG TASK
CHARACTERISTICS, SLEEP QUALITY AND
FATIGUE
DE LANGE, A.H.1, KOMPIER, M.A.J.2, TARIS, T.W.1, GEURTS, S.1, BECKERS,
D.1, HOUTMAN, I.L.D.2 & BONGERS, P.M.2,3
1
Department of Social and Organizational Psychology, University of Groningen, the
Netherlands
2
Department of Work and Organizational Psychology, University of Nijmegen, the Netherlands
3
TNO Work and Employment, the Netherlands
4
[email protected], research center on physical activity, work and health TNO-VU, The Netherlands
Objectives: The aim of this prospective 4-wave study was twofold, namely: i) to examine the
causal direction of the longitudinal relations among job demands, job control, sleep quality
and fatigue, and ii) to examine the effects of stability and change in demand-control history on
the development of sleep quality and fatigue.
Method and results: Based on results of a unique 4-wave complete panel study among 1163
Dutch employees, we found significant effects of job demands and job control on sleep quality
and fatigue across a 1-year time lag (in line with the strain-hypothesis of the Demand-Control
model (Karasek & Theorell, 1990)). No reversed or reciprocal causal patterns were detected.
Furthermore, our results revealed that cumulative exposure to a high strain work environment
(characterized by high job demands and low job control) is associated with elevated levels of
sleep related complaints. Moreover, cumulative exposure to a low strain work environment
(i.e., low job demands and high job control) is associated with the highest sleep quality and
lowest level of fatigue. Our results also revealed that changes in exposure history are related
to meaningful changes in reported sleep quality and fatigue across time. A negative change
from a Non-high strain to a High strain job is associated with a significant increase in sleep
related complaints, but a positive change in exposure history is not related to a subsequent
positive effect in sleep related problems.
Conclusions: From a theoretical point of view it is important to see that psychosocial work
characteristics can explain the development of sleep related problems across time. Our results
suggest that working in a high strain job over a prolonged period of time can have detrimental
effects for sleep quality and fatigue. Job redesign should therefore especially be focused on
those who hold a high strain job or on those who transfer to a high strain job. Workers who
transfer to a high strain job or who work in a high strain job may need extra attention to
improve their health.
59
UNEMPLOYMENT, TEMPORARY WORK AND
PERCEIVED JOB INSECURITY: COMPARISON OF
THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH HEALTH AND LIFE
SATISFACTION IN FINLAND
DE WITTE, H.1, DE CUYPER, N.1, KINNUNEN, U.2, NÄTTI, J.3, MAUNO, S.4 &
MÄKIKANGAS, A.4
1
Research Group for Work, Organization and Personnel Psychology, K.U.Leuven, Belgium
2
Department of Psychology, University of Tampere, Finland
3
Department of Social Policy and Social Work, University of Tampere, Finland
4
Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
Objectives: Research shows that unemployment is associated with decreased psychological
and physical health (see e.g. McKee-Ryan, Song, Wanberg, & Kiniciki, 2005, for a review). In
addition, research also shows that job insecure workers report lower metal well-being and
physical health (see e.g. Sverke, Hellgren & Näswall, 2002). Finally, temporary work is
supposed to be associated with negative consequences for health and well-being too, even
though findings regarding this issue are mixed (e.g. De Cuyper, De Jong, De Witte, Isaksson,
Rigotti, & Schalk, R, 2008). The aim of this study is to contrast various employed and
unemployed groups in order to compare the consequences of (perceived) job insecurity,
working on a permanent versus temporary contract and unemployment.
Methods: The Living Conditions Survey was used, conducted in 1994 by Statistics Finland (N
= 4,485). Of the respondents, 77% were employees and 23% unemployed persons. Six
groups were created. Employed respondents were grouped according to their job contract and
perceived job insecurity (3 items). The unemployed were divided into two groups: short-term
unemployed (1–12 months of unemployment) versus long-term unemployed (more than 12
months). The following groups were distinguished: (1) employees with permanent work and
no perceived insecurity (n = 2,257); (2) employees with permanent work and perceived
insecurity (n = 713); (3) employees with temporary work and no perceived insecurity (n =
158); (4) employees with temporary work and perceived insecurity (n = 344); (5) short-term
unemployed persons (n = 662); (6) long-term unemployed persons (n = 345). Four outcome
variables were measured: psychological symptoms (9 items, alpha = .82), somatic symptoms (8
items, alpha = .63), self-rated health (1 item), and life satisfaction (1 item). The data were
analysed using covariance analysis adjusted for background variables to examine the
differences in the outcomes (psychological and somatic symptoms, self-rated health and life
satisfaction) between the six groups of employment circumstances.
Results: The results show that insecure permanent employees and long-term unemployed
persons had the highest level of psychological and somatic symptoms, and the lowest level of
self-rated health. Life satisfaction was lowest among both unemployed groups.
Conclusion: Our results suggest job insecurity and unemployment to be equally detrimental
for mental and physical health. This finding aligns with Lazarus’ suggestion that “the
anticipation of harm can have effects as potent as experiencing the harm itself” (Lazarus,
1966). Temporary work was not associated with specific health related problems. Also this
finding is in line with recent findings in the field of temporary employment (De Cuyper,
Isaksson & De Witte, 2005).
60
“HUMOUR IN THE WORKPLACE: A MIXED
BLESSING?”
DIKKERS, J.S.E.1, & DE LANGE, A. H.2
1 VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands
2 University of Groningen, the Netherlands
Objective: The aim of this cross-sectional field study among Dutch employees is to test the
psychometric quality and multidimensional nature of a relatively new measure of humour
styles.
The available research on relations between humour and well-being show several serious
limitations. First of all, there is evidence that a good sense of humour plays a positive role in
physical and mental health (e.g., Boyle & Joss-Reid, 2004; Szabo, 2003). In contrast, there
are also studies finding no or even negative effects of humour (e.g., Kerkkänen, Kuiper &
Martin, 2004; Martin, 2004). In short, previous studies are inconclusive with regard to the
association between humour and well-being.
A second shortcoming is the lack of consistency regarding the conceptualization and
operationalization of humour. Some authors point to the multidimensional nature of the
construct, whereas other researchers operationalize the construct with one-dimensional
measures. Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray and Weir (2003) have developed a
multidimensional measure of humour, differentiating among affiliate (humour used to enhance
one’s relationships with others in a benign way), self-enhancing (use of humour to enhance
the self), aggressive (humour used at the expense of one’s relationships with others), and
self-defeating (use of humour at the expense and detriment of the self) humour styles.
However, consensus on the underlying dimensions of humour is lacking.
Methods: In order to address these unresolved issues, a field study will be conducted among
a sample of Dutch employees. The survey will include the Humour Styles Questionnaire (HSQ;
Martin et al., 2003), measuring four types of humour (i.e., affiliate, aggressive, selfenhancing, and self-defeating). In order to test the psychometric quality and multidimensional
nature of this instrument in a Dutch work setting, Confirmatory Factor Analyses will be
performed in LISREL. In addition, the associations of these different humour styles with
employees’ wellbeing (i.e., burnout and engagement) will be examined to test the external
validity of the measure.
Preliminary results: Based on previous psychometric assessment of the HSQ instrument by
Martin et al. in 2003, we expect to find four different humour styles (Hypothesis 1a). In
addition, we believe that these four styles can be appointed to two underlying dimensions
(Hypothesis 1b): i) favourable (i.e., affiliate and self-enhancing), and ii) unfavourable (i.e.,
aggressive and self-defeating) humour.
Following the dual-process mechanism – which relates job demands and resources to wellbeing – underlying the Job Demands-Resources Model (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, &
Schaufeli, 2001), we expect that the two favourable humour styles will be associated
positively with resources (e.g., social support) and, subsequently, with engagement
(Hypothesis 2a), and that the two unfavourable humour styles will be associated positively
with demands (e.g., workload) and, subsequently, with burnout (Hypothesis 2b).
Preliminary results obtained with a pilot sample of 58 Dutch university students show a factorstructure supporting the multidimensional structure of humour comprised of four humour
styles, and good reliability scores (Cronbach’s alpha’s ranging from .76 to .84).
Conclusions: Final results and conclusions will be presented at the EA-OHP conference.
61
PROMOTING POSITIVE MANAGER BEHAVIOUR:
DEVELOPING A STRESS MANAGEMENT
COMPETENCY INDICATOR TOOL
DONALDSON-FEILDER, E.1, YARKER, J.2 & LEWIS, R.2
1
2
Affinity Health at Work, United Kingdom
Goldsmiths, University of London, United Kingdom
Objectives: The research set out to build on previous research that identified the
management behaviours associated with the effective prevention of stress at work. There
were three specific aims: to refine the management competency framework for preventing
and reducing stress at work; to develop a questionnaire tool to measure the behaviours
covered by the competency framework; and to explore the ways in which the research
findings can be used in practice.
Methods: The research built on a qualitative phase (previously reported at EA-OHP) that
incorporated interviews and focus groups with 216 employees, 166 line managers and 54 HR
practitioners regarding effective and ineffective stress management behaviours. A combined
qualitative and quantitative approach was employed to develop a ‘Stress management
competency indicator tool’. Behavioural statements were extracted from the earlier qualitative
phase and were piloted qualitatively with an expert sample (n=21) and quantitatively with a
snowball sample of employees (n=292). A preliminary reliability analysis was conducted and
a revised questionnaire comprised of 112 items was administered in 22 organisations. Both
self-report data from managers (n=152), and upward feedback data from employees about
their managers behaviour (n=656) was gathered. Data was analysed using reliability analysis
and exploratory factor analysis to explore the psychometric properties of the indicator tool. To
further validate this solution, two workshops of stress experts (n=38) explored the framework
and named each factor. In addition, a qualitative approach was used to explore the usability of
the indicator tool. 47 managers, 6 stakeholders (OH/HR) and 38 stress experts contributed to
interviews and focus groups. Data was transcribed and content analysis was used to extract
themes.
Results: Exploratory factor analysis revealed four factors and a final ‘Stress management
competency indicator tool’ comprised of 66 items. The workshop participants named the four
factors: a) Respectful and responsible: managing emotions and having integrity; b) Managing
and communicating existing and future work; c) Reasoning/ managing difficult situations; and
d) Managing the individual within the team. The four factors were clustered into 12 subcompetencies. The usability analysis provided positive feedback on potential uses for both the
framework and the tool. Two particular uses for the tool were identified: in a stress
management context to provide information at the local level; and in a general management
development or appraisal context to provide feedback information to aid identification of
development needs.
Conclusions: This research has generated a four-factor competency framework that defines
the behaviours managers need to show in order to prevent and reduce stress in the
workplace, together with a questionnaire tool to measure the behaviours identified. Usability
findings suggest that these tools can be usefully applied in workplaces in both management
development and stress management contexts. This research hopes to provide an alternative
perspective and additional tools from which practitioners can draw to tackle stress in the
workplace.
This paper summarises applied research presented in two research reports for the UK Health
and Safety Executive (Yarker et al, 2007; Yarker et al, 2008).
62
COGNITIVE AND EMOTIONAL RISK
PERCEPTION AND ITS LINKS TO SAFETY
BEHAVIOURS
DOS SANTOS OLIVEIRA, M. & COSTA AGOSTINHO DA SILVA, S.
CIS, Portugal
In the safety literature risk perception has been large studied, as an individual factor that
influences behaviour and perceptions on workplace. Risk perception is a subjective individual
assessment about risk exposure that differs from the technician assessments (e.g. Lima,
2005). Some studies revealed that risk perception is influenced by individual’s workplace
accidents experience and by safety climate (e.g. Cree & Kelloway, 1997). Additionally, risk
perception also influences safety behaviours (e.g. Cree & Kelloway, 1997; Arezes, 2006),
suggesting that higher risk perception is associated with more safety behaviours. Rundmo
(2000) distinguished two risk perception components: cognitive and emotional. Cognitive risk
perception focus on information processing and emotional risk perception focus on emotions
felt about identified risk source. There are a few studies approaching simultaneously cognitive
and emotional risk perception and its links with others psychosocial factors. Existent research
(e.g. Rundmo, 2000; 2001) suggests a stronger association between cognitive risk perception
and safety behaviours compared to emotional risk perception.
Objectives: Our study aimed to analyse the differences between the two kinds of risk
perception (i.e. cognitive and emotional) and other behavioural and psychosocial variables
(i.e. accidents experience; safety climate; safety behaviours).
The following hypotheses were tested:
1) Workplace accidents experience and cognitive and emotional risk perception are positively
related.
2) Safety climate and cognitive and emotional risk perception are negatively related.
3) Cognitive and emotional risk perceptions are positively related to safety behaviours.
Moreover, we expected to obtain differences for cognitive and emotional risk perceptions.
Methods: We conducted a correlational study with 84 workers from three SME (moulds
sector) companies. All the data was collected with a self-reported questionnaire. Risk
perception was operationalized with a cognitive and an emotional scale (adapted from
Rundmo, 2000; Lima & Castro, 2005), six items per scale, covering specific risks. Safety
climate was operationalized with 20 items of the “organizational safety practices” scale from
OSCI (Silva et al, 2004). Safety behaviours was operationalized by two adapted scales from
Burke et al (2002) instrument: “using personal protective equipment” scale, with seven items;
and “communicating health and safety information” scale, with three items. Workplace
accidents experience was measured with two self-reported measures (i.e. two accidents rates:
frequency and severity). Answers were given in a seven point Likert type scale, except the
workplace accidents experience. All scales revealed good internal consistency.
Results: Results confirmed all hypotheses and also revealed some differences between
cognitive and emotional risk perceptions. For instance, workplace accidents (i.e. self-reported
frequency) are a good predictor of cognitive risk perception, explaining 21% of its variance
(β=.48). Safety climate predicts both types of risk perception: cognitive (β=-.32), explaining
10% of its variance; and emotional (β=-.28), explaining 8% of its variance. Cognitive risk
perception predicts the use of personal protective equipment explaining 15% of its variance
(β=.36).
Conclusions: Our results suggest the relevance of distinguishing the two risk perception
components (i.e. cognitive and emotional) and further implications will be discussed.
63
GENDER SENSITIVE ASPECTS OF
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH ANALYSIS AND
HEALTH PROMOTION IN PUBLIC
ADMINISTRATIONS
DUCKI, A.
TFH Berlin, Germany
Objectives: Following the European gender mainstreaming principles a gender sensitive
analysis of the relationship of working conditions, stress and health on the one hand and the
conception of gender sensitive interventions on the other hand becomes more and more
important. The aim of this study was to investigate gender-specific differences in the working
conditions and health outcomes of public civil servants. Consequences for interventions are
presented.
Methods: Data on health, working and living conditions were gathered with a selfadministered questionnaire. Stressors, resources and different health outcomes (somatic and
psychosomatic complains, irritation; job satisfaction) were measured by using a short form of
the DiGA instrument (Ducki, 2000). A number of 136 female and 132 male civil servants of
Berlin senate department of the interior and sports participated. Reliability and validity of the
instrument are good or sufficient. In order to analyse the relationship between working
conditions and health outcomes, correlations were calculated. To predict specific health
outcomes, regression analysis (stepwise) were conducted. Results of gender differences were
based on t-tests.
Results: A lot of similarities between male and female ratings were found. For example no
gender differences were found with regard to the negative rating of information problems,
work interruptions, transparency of supervisor decisions and time pressure. Moreover decision
latitude, social support of colleagues and appreciation from the supervisor were positively
rated by males and females. Regression analyse show that the most important predictors for
job satisfaction were transparency of supervisor decisions, work complexity, appreciation and
decision latitude. About 52% of total variance can be predicted on the basis of these variables.
In spite of these similarities a number of important gender differences emerged. Women
significantly reported stronger somatic and psychosomatic complains than men. Stressors and
resources are more strongly associated with psychosomatic complaints and job satisfaction for
women. E.g. correlation between mobbing and psychosomatic disorders for men was r=.29*,
for women r=.44**.
Conclusions: Results show that the combination of social and task-related resources like
transparency of supervisors decisions, appreciation, work complexity and decision latitude are
very important for the health of male and female civil servants. The quality of working
conditions has particularly a stronger impact on women’s health. In other words:
Enhancement of social and task-related resources promises to be a very effective intervention
- especially for women.
64
CHANGING THE INDIVIDUAL COPING AS A
METHOD FOR CONTROL OF JOB STRESS
ASSOCIATED HEALTH HAZARDS. AN
INTERVENTION STUDY
EL SHEIKH, R., KAMAL, I. & ALAZAB, R.
Public health & Occupational medicine department, Faculty of medicine, Alazhar University,
Cairo, Egypt.
Job stress is a worldwide workplace health hazard. Although the organizational factors are
considered as the determinant factors of job stress in the different workplaces, Coping might
be a cornerstone factor in management of job stress. Coping is the direct practice of the
workers towards the stressors inside the different workplaces. Different kinds of coping were
picked up among the workers; these kinds might determine the magnitude of job stress
associated health hazards.
Objectives: to find out the relation between the style of individual coping and job stress
associated health hazards among the studied group and to assess the value of changing the
style of coping on the prevalence rate of job stress associated health hazards among the
selected group.
Methodology: Cross - Sectional study was conducted among 587workers. The workers were
subjected to an interview sheet to investigate job stress. All subjects were medically examined
to explore the health hazards. The stressed workers were again subjected to an interview
sheet to assess the style of their coping in dealing with job stress. Health education sessions
followed by training courses were conducted for the stressed workers to modify their individual
coping against job stress. Reassessment of health hazards was done after 6 months to
investigate the value of the intervention.
Results: The most prevalent health hazards among the stressed workers were: aggressive
mood, unclassified chest pain, migraine, insomnia, generalized body ache, drug abuse and
depression. These hazards were reported among workers with reconcillation and/or seeking
support style of coping. The intervention of individual coping had led to some decrease of the
proportion of health hazards.
Conclusion: The style of individual coping is a promising way for control of job stress
associated health hazards.
Recommendation: Individual coping might be addressed as a method for prevention and
control of job stress.
65
PERFECTIONISM AND WEEKEND RESPITE
EFFECTS AMONGST UNIVERSITY ACADEMICS
FLAXMAN, P.1, MÉNARD, J.1, BOND, F.2 & KINMAN, G.3
1
2
City University, London, United Kingdom
Goldsmiths, University of London, United Kingdom
3
University of Bedfordshire, United Kingdom
In recent years, occupational health researchers have begun to examine the extent to which
employees are able to recover from work during their leisure time, along with the impact of
recovery and respite experiences on psychological health and well-being (e.g., Eden, 2001;
Sonnentag, 2001; Fritz & Sonnentag, 2005). The present study sought to expand on previous
work in this area by investigating the extent to which UK academic employees recovered from
work pressures over a bank holiday Easter weekend.
Objectives:
•
To investigate whether employee burnout and fatigue improve during and after a long
(bank holiday) weekend
•
To investigate the extent to which academics are able to switch off (psychologically
detach) from work during the weekend, along with the impact of poor detachment on wellbeing
•
To examine whether academics with higher levels of maladaptive perfectionism
experience poorer respite effects
Method: Ninety academic staff at two UK Universities completed questionnaires on four
occasions before and after the Easter bank holiday weekend. The questionnaires included
measures of perfectionism, time pressure, burnout, fatigue, and weekend experiences. The
measurement time points are listed below.
Time 1: A working week before the Easter weekend
Time 2: Immediately following the Easter weekend
Time 3: A working week one or two weeks after the Easter weekend
Time 4: A working week four weeks after the Easter weekend
Results: Initial results indicate a strong respite effect for academics as a result of the long
Easter weekend. Specifically, high levels of burnout and fatigue reported by participants at T1
reduced significantly at T2 (reflecting improved well-being over the weekend). There was a
slight increase in fatigue and burnout between T2 and T3, but the respite effect was generally
maintained at T4. There was also some evidence of a link between perfectionism and respite
effects. Specifically, academics who experienced excessive doubts about actions (a component
of maladaptive perfectionism) obtained lower respite effects than those low in perfectionism.
Employees with higher perfectionism experienced a reduction in burnout between T1 and T2,
but then experienced a significant increase in burnout between T2 and T3. Hierarchical
regression analyses revealed that worry and rumination about work (but not positive thoughts
about work) over the Easter weekend was a significant predictor of burnout at T3 and T4
(controlling for burnout at T1, demographics, and time pressure).
Conclusion: As far as we are aware, this is the first study to take advantage of a bank holiday
weekend in the UK to investigate employee respite effects. The results generally support
previous research that has demonstrated the importance of weekend and vacations for
employee recovery and well-being (cf. Eden, 2001). Our findings further suggest that
perfectionist employees are prone to poorer respite and recovery experiences, and higher
levels of burnout and fatigue. Finally, this study demonstrates that poor psychological
detachment from work during leisure time is particularly detrimental when it takes the form of
work-related worry and rumination.
66
SUPERVISORS PROMOTE SAFETY THROUGH
INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
(…AND A LITTLE SUPPORT FROM THE
ORGANIZATION)
FOURNIER, C.M.1 & CONCHIE, S.M.2
1
Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
2
School of Psychology, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
Objective: An important influence on employees’ safety behaviours, and consequently
workplace accidents, is supervisor support (Barling et al., 2001; Hofmann et al., 2003;
Kelloway et al., 2006). A number of studies have shown that as supervisors become more
supportive of safety; employees’ increase their engagement in safety. However, what is less
clear are the causal processes involved in this relationship. This study addressed this issue by
examining the role of employee motivation in the relationship between supervisor support and
employee safety behaviour. In accordance with safety climate research (Neal & Griffin, 2000;
2006), we expected supervisor support of safety to increase employees’ motivation to engage
in safety, and this motivation to increase employees’ safety compliance and citizenship
behaviours. Drawing on the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), we conceptualised
motivation as having four dimensions: amotivation, extrinsic, identified regulation, and
intrinsic. We hypothesised that supervisor support would influence employee citizenship
behaviours through identified regulation and intrinsic motivation (H1); and that supervisor
support would influence employee safety compliance through extrinsic motivation (H2).
Method: These predictions were tested on data collected from eighty-one UK construction
employees drawn from a single industrial work site.
Results: The results of regression analyses showed some support for H1, but failed to support
H2. Specifically, the result showed that supervisors’ influence on employees’ citizenship
behaviours were partially mediated by intrinsic motivation, while their influence on employees’
safety compliance was moderated by employees’ integrated regulation. When integrated
regulation was high, supervisor support increased employees’ safety compliance. However,
when this motivation was low, supervisors had no influence on employees’ behaviour. The
main predictor of employees’ integrated regulation was the organization’s level of support for
safety. In summary, this suggests that organizational support for safety promotes employees’
integrated regulation, which combines with supervisor support to influence employees’ safety
compliance.
Conclusions: In conclusion, our results support motivation as one of the processes involved
in supervisors’ influence on employee safety. However, they suggest that motivation may not
be the main mechanism through which supervisors have their effect (at least within the
construction industry), and that research should continue to search for other, more powerful,
processes.
67
TEACHERS’ EXPERIENCE OF VIOLENCE AND
BULLYING: AN APPLICATION OF STRESSOREMOTION-CONTROL/SUPPORT THEORY
FOX, S. & STALLWORTH, L.E.
Institute of Human Resources and Employment Relations, Loyola University Chicago, U.S.A
Objective: An online survey tapped public schoolteachers’ perceptions of their work
environments, including violence and bullying they experience at school, their administrations’
responses to violence, and their personal responses to stress. Teacher stress is viewed within
the stressor-emotion-control/support theoretical framework. Stress is conceptualized as a
process linking employee perceptions of stressors (violence, bullying, and job conditions) to
physical, psychological, and behavioral strains (job satisfaction, attachment, burnout, and
physical symptoms), mediated by emotional responses and moderated by relevant forms of
control or support.
H1. Violent acts and bullying will be associated positively with negative emotion, burnout, and
physical symptoms, and negatively with job satisfaction and attachment.
H2. Favorable job conditions will be associated negatively with negative emotion, burnout, and
physical symptoms, and positively with satisfaction and attachment.
H3. Negative emotion will mediate relations between the stressor and strain variables.
H4. Satisfaction with the school administration’s handling of violence will moderate relations
between acts of violence and strains.
H5. Coworker social support will moderate relations between bullying by the principal and
strains.
Methods: This study was developed with the cooperation of the teachers’ union of an urban
public school system. Participants were solicited with notices on the Union’s website, an email
blast to the Union membership, and meetings between the researcher and union officials and
delegates. 779 teachers completed the online survey. Measures included established scales of
job satisfaction, physical symptoms, burnout, job-related emotions, and bullying. New scales
were developed together with union officers to tap specifically relevant aspects of conditions
experienced at school, support and control, and the occurrence and handling of acts of
violence.
Results: The results largely supported hypotheses 1-4. Almost 65% of the respondents
reported being targets of pervasive bullying (“quite” or “extremely often”); 45.6% reported
being targets of pervasive bullying by their administrators/principals. 21.4% had been the
target of at least one violent act during the prior academic year. All relations of bullying and
job conditions with strains were partially mediated by negative emotions (except with burnout,
which was fully mediated). Moderator analysis revealed that for job attachment, satisfaction,
negative emotions, and physical symptoms (but not burnout), there were significant
interactive effects of violent acts with satisfaction in the handling of violence by the school.
Experiencing violent acts predicted strains, but only when satisfaction with how violence was
handled was low. However, interactions of social support with principal bullying was supported
only for job attachment and negative emotions, and, surprisingly in opposite the predicted
direction.
Conclusions: These results support many predictions of the Stressor-EmotionControl/Support framework. Effects of pervasive bullying, particularly by principals, are
significantly greater than actual acts of violence. The importance of serious attention to
organizational, educational, and public policy on workplace violence is highlighted by the
findings linking administrative handling of violence with violence itself in accounting for strain.
Development of effective policies to protect teachers and address the violence they
experience, and consistent implementation of these policies, may go a long way in
ameliorating teachers’ distress.
68
ENGAGEMENT IN ACTION: FINDINGS FROM AN
INTERVENTION STUDY IN IRELAND
FREENEY, Y. & TIERNAN, J.
University College Dublin, Ireland
Objective: The aim of this study was to address a considerable gap in the literature, to
investigate the usefulness of a mixed-methods work engagement intervention. In the
literature, engagement is couched as the opposite to burnout and while there have been
intervention studies that have sought to reduce burnout, none to date has attempted to foster
engagement.
Method: A two-wave study was conducted over an 18-month time period in an international
financial services organisation with 200 employees. Employees were assessed on measures of
engagement, burnout, organisational climate, social support and desired areas of change. This
showed that the employees were burnt-out, with low levels of energy and identification as well
as low levels of professional efficacy. A tailored intervention based on the survey results and
subsequent in-depth qualitative analysis was implemented to help the company through a
difficult period of immense structural change. A series of participatory planning workshops
involving employees and management resulted in a number of changes.
Results: While the results at Time 2 did not demonstrate statistically significant
improvements on Time 1, there were strong indications that the intervention had served as an
important stabilising and supportive function for employees. Furthermore, employees reported
a number of improvements in the work environment, particularly in the area of training.
Conclusions: Reasons for the non-significant findings are probably due to the confounding
effects of the upheaval caused by the extensive organisational change brought about by a
major restructuring of the organisation as well as an insufficient time lapse following the
workshops. The key strength of this study lies in the bespoke approach, where the
intervention was adapted to accommodate the needs of both the employees and management
while at the same time being able to give due consideration to the climate of the organisation.
Thus, the findings from this study have important implications for best practice guidelines in
the implementation of interventions that aim to bring about genuine and lasting positive
change in organisations.
69
A FRAMEWORK FOR EVALUATING
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH SERVICES: APPLYING
THE RE-AIM CRITERIA IN A CONSULTANCY
CONTEXT
FRIEDRICH, V. & BAUER, G.
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich
Objectives: To bridge the research-practice gap, we need not only to test an occupational
health (OH) intervention’s efficacy, but moreover provide evidence for it’s ability to reach
intended participants, be adopted by organisations, implemented as intended, and maintained
over time. In this work, we apply the RE-AIM criteria (Reach, Efficacy–Adoption,
Implementation, Maintenance; Glasgow et al., 1999) to an OH consultancy context. We show
how we use this framework to evaluate the dissemination and implementation of a multidimensional OH intervention, which is provided by an occupational health management (OHM)
consulting agency.
Methods: Unlike many traditional intervention research studies, we established a researchpractice partnership that allows us studying interventions in a naturally occuring service
delivery situation, where OHM consultants acquire customers demanding OH services. The
intervention consists of an acquisition phase, where bulk mailings, information events, and
telephone marketing are used to inform companies about the services. To analyse interest in
using the services, questionnaires are enclosed in the mailings, and data on event
participation and success of phone calls are collected in a customer database. In the
implementation phase, a number of OH measures are being carried out that address multiple
health issues. An intervention monitoring system was developed to record process and
maintenance data (e.g. participation rates, duration and retention of interventions). Outcomes
are assessed at different levels: Employee surveys provide data on individual, team and
company level (e.g. health behaviour or job satisfaction). Further, data can be aggregated
across companies to study overall effects.
Results: Adhering to the logic of the natural service delivery process, the RE-AIM criteria
must be adapted: Since recruitment stands at the beginning of the process, a three-stepped
adoption measure is the first criterium (proportion of companies showing interest in services,
proportion of companies that receive consultancy, proportion of companies that eventually
adopt measures). When delivering services, reach (proportion of employees taking part) and
implementation (quantitative and qualitative process measures) are relevant dimensions. After
completing the interventions, efficacy and maintenance can be assessed on individual,
organizational and cross-organizational level.
Conclusions: The RE-AIM framework was conceptualised in the context of clinical and
community counseling or preventive services. It suggests focussing not only on efficacy, but
also on other evaluation criteria that determine public health impact. Applied to the OHM
consultancy context, these criteria are equally important, linking the complex service delivery
process to consecutive evaluative steps, thus guiding the alignment of intervention and
evaluation processes.
70
ROLE STRESS AND PERSONAL RESOURCES: A
STUDY ON BURNOUT AND ENGAGEMENT
GARROSA, E., MORENO-JIMÉNEZ, B., RODRÍGUEZ-MUÑOZ, A., RODRÍGUEZCARVAJAL, R. & DÍAZ, L.
Faculty of Psychology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain
Objectives: The experience of role stress has been linked to burnout as an important job
stressor, but the impact of this stressor in the context of engagement has not yet been
sufficiently studied. Personal resources also seem to influence the process of burnout and
engagement. The aim of the present study is to examine the interaction of the processes of
job-demands and personal resources in relation to burnout end engagement dimensions. For
this purpose, the effects of role stress and three personal resources were analyzed: optimism,
hardy personality, and emotional competence.
Methods: This study examines the influence of role stress and personal resources (optimism,
hardy personality and emotional competence) on burnout and engagement dimensions. The
main and interactive effects of role stress and personal resources on burnout and engagement
were tested using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Socio-demographic characteristics
were controlled and entered in the first step. Role stress was entered in the second step, and
personal resources the third step, in order to investigate their relative importance. The
interaction terms of role stress with each of the three personal resources were then entered in
the fourth step to test for the hypothesized moderating effect of personal resources on the
relation between role stress and burnout, and role stress and engagement.
Results: Data from 470 nurses from general hospitals in Madrid (Spain) showed that both role
stress and personal resources were related to burnout and engagement dimensions, although
role stress was more closely related to burnout, whereas personal resources were more closely
related to engagement. In addition, optimism as a personal resource, showed a moderator
effect on exhaustion and the three dimensions of engagement.
Conclusions: The study provides additional support about role stress as an important
predictor of burnout and engagement, even after controlling for personal resources and sociodemographic variables.
71
AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE AND
SAFETY CLIMATE PERCEPTIONS
GATIEN, B., FLEMING, M., SLAUNWHITE, J. & WENTZELL, N.
Department of Psychology, Saint Mary’s University, Halifax Nova Scotia, Canada
Objectives: This study investigated the possible predictive relationship between
organizational justice and safety climate. Safety climate research is a primary example of
psychosocial concepts being applied to the occupational safety research domain. The amount
of research conducted on the predictive validity of safety climate exceeds the amount of
research conducted on the factors that influence the development of safety climate
perceptions, highlighting an important gap in the literature. Our knowledge and understanding
of safety climate antecedents is lacking and researchers have only just started to investigate
possible precursors or antecedents of safety climate. Organizational justice is a
multidimensional social construct that attempts to explain how we perceive fairness in the
work place. The purpose of this study is to test the extent to which, procedural, informational
and interpersonal justice will be directly and positively predictive of safety climate perceptions.
Method: Survey data was collected from frontline employees from a large Canadian
construction company (Listwise N=288). Multiple regression analyses were performed to
examine the predictive relationship between procedural, interpersonal and informational
justice and safety climate perceptions. The survey consisted of items measuring safety climate
perceptions and organizational justice perceptions.
Results: Results of the study indicated that safety climate perceptions were significantly
correlated with all types of organizational justice perceptions. Regression analyses indicated,
procedural, interpersonal and informational justice were significant positive predictors of
safety climate, and explained fifty percent of the variance (Adjusted R square = .50, F (3,
287) = 95.82, p <.001.
Conclusions: This study has implications in academic and applied work settings by adding to
our understanding and depth of knowledge within the safety climate and organizational justice
research domains. This study addresses the lack of safety research that investigates the
antecedents or predictors of safety climate. Furthermore this study adds to the organizational
justice literature by contributing linking justice with safety. This study also has significant
practical implications for organizations seeking to improve the functioning and safety climate
of their organization.
72
KNOWLEDGE, RISKS AND ACTIONS: A
QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF BEHAVIOURS
AMONG MOTOR VEHICLE REPAIR (MVR) PAINT
SPRAYERS
GERVAIS, R.L.1, SANDERS, V.1, BALDWIN, P.1, COOKE, J.1, PINEY, M.2 &
GERMAIN, J.2
1
Health and Safety Laboratory, United Kingdom
Health and Safety Executive, United Kingdom
2
Objectives: Occupational asthma is an ongoing concern in the United Kingdom (HSE, 2006).
Isocyanate exposure accounts for approximately 20% of this total (Piney, 2004), with motor
vehicle repair (MVR) paint sprayers 80 times more likely to suffer from asthma (HSE, 2005). The
HSE used Safety and Health Awareness Days (SHADs) to educate employees and owners of MVR
body shops on the dangers of isocyanate exposure and to change work practices. This follow-up
study assessed this intervention’s impact on 12 MVR businesses that attended a SHAD.
Methods: A longitudinal design allowed follow-up visits nine months after the event. The
sprayers (N = 36) were observed in their natural environment and interviewed to determine any
changes to their behaviours and work practices since the SHAD. An observation sheet and a
semi-structured questionnaire were used to collect the data. Thematic analysis was used on the
interview data and content analysis on the observation data.
Results: The sprayers’ spraying experience ranged from 6 months to 48 years. The majority
were aware that isocyanate exposure could cause occupational asthma. They worked with
limited supervision with most not feeling at risk. Those who felt at risk were especially concerned
about the dust and noise generated within a body shop, but felt that work practices and
equipment significantly lowered the risks. Many sprayers left the spray booth inappropriately as
they detached the airline in the booth and walked to the exit, exposing themselves to
isocyanates. Although they did not lift their visors whilst observed, nearly half of them when
interviewed admitted to doing this as a regular occurrence, before the clearance times had
elapsed. They were aware this could have a deleterious effect on their health, but were concerned
about the quality of their work.
Conclusions: The intervention increased knowledge and changed behaviours. The majority of
sprayers were aware that isocyanate exposure could cause occupational asthma. They were
not overly concerned about exposure to isocyanates with using the latest equipment and
water-based paint, but this perception may contribute to a more relaxed atmosphere at the
workplace and may result in unintentional exposure to risk. They understood the dangers of
lifting their visors while in the booth, but their main concern of ensuring a high standard of
work, overrode their commitment to continuous safe practices. Further research is needed.
73
ASSESSING THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE
THE RETURN TO WORK OF EMPLOYEES ON
SICKNESS ABSENCE
GERVAIS, R.L.1, WEYMAN, A.2 & WILLIAMSON, J.3
1
Health & Safety Laboratory, United Kingdom
2
University of Bath, United Kingdom
3
Department for Work and Pensions, United Kingdom
Objectives: Sickness absence is a major concern for many organizations as work-related
accidents and ill-health impact directly on employees and can incur indirect costs: e.g. staff
substitution/replacement staff; lost productivity; reduced quality of service. Due to these,
employees may return to work from sickness absence before they are fully recovered. The
current research will explore the factors that influence employees in returning to work
following short-term (≤ 7 days) and long-term (≥ 7 days) periods of sickness absence.
Methods: The data were gathered in the Health & Safety Executive’s Survey of Workplace
Sickness Absence and (ill) Health (SWASH) - 2005/06. An independent research organization
administered the survey using telephone interviews (N = 10, 193). The respondents were
interviewed at home to encourage more open responses. They were asked to think about a
period of sickness absence and to state their concern about six issues in relation to their
current job. The data were subjected to analyses of covariance to control for age, gender and
size of organisations.
Results: The participants averaged 6.4 days sickness absence per year. Other findings
showed individuals are more likely to return to work before fully recovered if they have
concerns about loss of pay, loss of job, their future employment prospects, the effect on their
employers’ business, their boss’s reaction (i.e. if their boss is more sympathetic), and the
extra burden on colleagues. These were in respect of short and long-term sickness absence.
Conclusions: The present research found employees return to work before they are fully
recovered, when on sickness absence, suggesting that ‘wellness’ may not be the main driver
prompting a return to the workplace when individuals experience ill-health. The results
support previous research where employees may use presenteeism (coming to work ill or
when not fully recovered) rather than absenteeism as a way to cope with ill-health (see
Caverley et al., 2007), which may lead to negative consequences for the organization, such as
reduced productivity (see Chatterji & Tilley, 2002). One factor that has been seen to influence
return to work is adjustment latitude (Johansson, Lundberg & Lundberg, 2006), which may
need to be explored by organisations. While presenteeism may not be the most desirable and
effective option for organizations, the concept of adjustment latitude may assist individuals
and organizations to arrive at an acceptable working situation.
74
MOTIVATION TO COMPLY WITH HEALTH &
SAFETY REGULATIONS: ALTRUISM OR
PRESSURE FROM REGULATORY BODIES? AN
ASSESSMENT OF THE DSE REGULATIONS
GERVAIS, R.L.1, WILLIAMSON, J.2, SANDERS, V.1, HOPKINSON, J.1,
WATSON, N.4, HOTOPP, U.3 & LEWIS, D.4
1
2
Health & Safety Laboratory, United Kingdom
Department for Work and Pensions, United Kingdom
3
BERR, United Kingdom,
4
Health & Safety Executive, United Kingdom
Objectives: Britain implemented the European Directive 90/270/EEC on working with display
screen equipment by the Health and Safety Display Screen Equipment Regulations 1992
(amended 2002), which aims to reduce the risks of ill health associated with Display Screen
Equipment (DSE) work, notably musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), stress and visual fatigue.
The present paper explores the motives of employers in implementing changes in the
workplace to manage the health and safety risks associated with DSE use.
Method: A cross-sectional study was used to generate self-report data from a stratified
sample of employers in Great Britain (N = 1241). The questionnaire covered issues such as:
the use of DSE, perceived risks, alterations to workstations, provision of eyesight tests and
costs and benefits. A sub-contractor administered the questionnaire using either CATI or online access, and collated the data. The data were analysed using tests of association and
descriptive statistics.
Results: Employers were more likely to engage in actions regarding display screen equipment
in order to follow good practice (91%), improve the comfort of the employee (91%), protect
employees from risks (89%), and comply with the Regulations (85%). They were less likely to
engage in actions to reduce the costs of absence (53%), to act on pressure from employees or
safety representatives (34%), or to act on pressure from the HSE or local authority inspectors
(19%). These results were comparable across industry, size of organisation or sector
(public/private). Additionally, most employers noted staff reacted positively to the changes
they introduced (69%), they thought that the benefits to the organisation of compliance with
the Regulations outweighed the costs (65%) and complying with the Regulations was not
onerous (54%).
Conclusions: The present research showed that employers were motivated into acting for
somewhat altruistic reasons, and to ensure compliance. Conversely, the regulatory elements
of implementing changes were afforded a fairly low priority. The issue of social desirability
needs to be considered, as well as their obligation to ensure the well-being of employees. As
altruism is considered one of the elements of displaying organizational citizenship behaviour
(OCB; Organ, 1988), the employers’ behaviours could be considered as essential in promoting
a positive work environment. Research has shown the relationship between public service
motivation and altruism (Kim, 2006). Further research is needed to explore the underlying
causes of such behaviour.
75
WHAT ABOUT THE FAMILIES? AN INTENSIVE
CASE STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF WORK
ACCIDENTS
GONÇALVES, S.1, SALES, C.2 & RIBEIRO, M.T.3
1
Centro de Investigação e Intervenção Social (CIS/ISCTE); Associação Portuguesa de Terapia
Familiar e Comunitária (APTEFC); Instituto Piaget de Almada; Instituto de Investigação
Pluridisciplinar da Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa (IIPUAL); Portugal.
2
Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa (UAL); Instituto de Investigação Pluridisciplinar da
Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa (IIPUAL); Centro de Investigação e Intervenção Social
(CIS/ISCTE); Associação Portuguesa de Terapia Familiar e Comunitária, Portugal
3
Faculdade de Psicologia e Ciências da Educação da Universidade de Lisboa; Associação
Portuguesa de Terapia Familiar e Comunitária, Portugal
Objective: Work accidents constitute an extremely serious problem in our society with several
consequences for the injured, colleagues and family. This study tries to fill out an unexplored
field concerning work accidents’ consequences for the family. Previous studies (e.g.,
Gonçalves, 2007) revealed that a work accident is an unexpected event with a traumatic load
that can be associated with the development of several psychological disorders, namely,
posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression, at an individual level. There are
practical and theoretical evidences supporting the idea that, in general, traumatic and stressor
events affect not only the victim but also the family and significant others (Dembe, 2001). In
this context, the present study aims to understanding the impact of work accidents in families,
i.e., identify the consequences (negative and, eventually, positive changes) of work accidents
within the family and couple systems and to analyse how families and couple cope with these
changes. A second goal is to conciliate research purposes with counselling support to families,
based in the action-research perspective.
Method: Data collection started by a quantitative approach, with questionnaire
administration: F-COPES (McCubbin, Olson, & Larsen, 1981; Garcia & Ribeiro, 2007); Love
attachment (Matos & Costa, 1997); Marital satisfaction (Narciso & Costa, 1996); PCL-C
(Weathers et al., 1993), and Secondary posttraumatic stress disorder (adapted from
Buchanan et al., 2006). In a second moment, further data was collected by means of a semistructured interview. Besides data collection, this interview did intended to provide active
counselling support to families, and eventually screening and referring for clinical intervention.
The sample was composed by 4 couples in which one of the members had a work accident.
Results & Conclusions: Results reveal the perceived changes due to the work accident, from
the point of view of each couple member. Based on the findings, guidelines for evaluation and
intervention with families affected by work accidents are proposed.
76
GIVE AND TAKE: SOCIAL RESOURCES PROMOTE
RECOVERY AMONG MANAGERS
GREBNER, S.1, RAGSDALE, J.1 & BASLER, J.2
1
Department of Psychology, Central Michigan University, USA
2
Wider & Morcian, Switzerland
Objectives: There exists ample evidence that perceived social support can contribute to wellbeing. In addition, recovery is essential for well-being. Nevertheless, the relationship of social
support with recovery from work demands is hardly investigated. Moreover, it is not known
whether providing support in terms of pro-social success contributes positively to subjective
recovery among providers. We assume that perceived support as well as pro-social success
promote feelings of recovery that in turn contribute positively to well-being.
Methods: Data analyses are based on a sample of 125 Swiss managers. The overall response
rate was 69 per cent. Subjective recovery was measured using a 4-item faces scale (e.g.,
‘How well do you recover in general after work?’, ‘… over night?’, ‘… on days off work?’, and ‘…
on holidays / in vacations?’). Perceived support was measured using the Caplan et al. (1975)
items. Giving support was assessed using the pro-social success scale (Grebner, et al. 2008,
e.g., ‘I helped others to succeed’). Seven indicators of well-being were used: psychosomatic
complaints, irritation, and inability to switch off one’s mind after work (Mohr, 1991),
exhaustion and disengagement (Demerouti & Nachreiner, 1998), and resigned attitude
towards the job and job satisfaction (Oegerli, 1984; Baillod & Semmer 1994).
Results: Mediator effects were tested following the procedure of Baron and Kenny (1986).
The indirect effect of the IV on the DV via the mediator was tested using Sobel’s test (1982).
Recovery fully mediated the negative relationship between supervisor support and resigned
attitude, exhaustion, disengagement, inability to switch off, and feelings of resentment.
Moreover, the positive relationship between supervisor support and job satisfaction was
partially mediated by recovery. The relationship between co-worker support and well-being
failed to yield any mediator effects.
Moreover, recovery fully mediated the negative
association between pro-social success and psychosomatic complaints, resigned attitude, and
disengagement. Finally, two partial mediator effects of recovery were found for job satisfaction
and feelings of resentment.
Conclusions: To give support and to perceive that one can get support when it is needed can
be beneficial for well-being. In addition, perceived supervisor support as well as providing
support to other people promotes feelings of recovery after work, over night, and during
vacation. Moreover, recovery carries the influence of social support and pro-social success on
well-being among managers. In general, resources that promote recovery should receive more
attention in research on occupational stress.
77
THE IMPACT OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE
EVENTS AT WORK ON FATIGUE AFTER WORK:
THE MODERATING ROLE OF SOCIAL CLIMATE
GROSS, S.1, SEMMER, N.K.1, MEIER, L.L.1, KÄLIN, W.1, JACOBSHAGEN, N.1
& TSCHAN, F.2
1
2
University of Bern, Switzerland
University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland
Objectives: In the past few years occupational stress research has become increasingly
interested in (lack of) recovery as a possible mechanism linking daily stress with long term
health impairments. Furthermore, occupational health psychology has come to emphasize not
only negative but also positive experiences. To better understand the mechanisms involved,
diary studies are needed. The current study focuses on daily positive and negative work
events as predictors of fatigue at the end of the work day. We predicted that both positive and
negative events would affect fatigue, but that the effect of negative events would be stronger.
Since the experience of emotions always occurs in an environmental context, this study also
investigates how the psychological team climate affects the association of fatigue with
negative as well as positive events. We predicted that daily events would have stronger effects
under conditions of a poor team climate, as compared to a good team climate.
Methods: The analyses are based on a diary study (6 work days) of 76 white-collar workers.
Participants were instructed to report every stressful and pleasant situation they experienced.
At the end of each working day they filled in a short questionnaire that included a measure of
fatigue by Apenburg (1986). Furthermore, participant completed a questionnaire that asked
for more chronic circumstances such as social climate using a scale by Frese and Zapf (1987).
General exhaustion was assessed as a control variable.
Results & Conclusions: Multilevel analysis showed that fatigue at the end of work was
predicted by the number of negative (sign.) and positive events (marginally sign.).
Psychological team climate had no main effect on daily fatigue when general exhaustion was
controlled, but it moderated the effects of events in line with our hypotheses. The impact of
negative events on fatigue was stronger for people in unfavorable teams, as compared to
people in favorable teams. Moreover, the (attenuating) effect on fatigue of positive event was
stronger for employees in poor teams, as compared to employees in good teams. These
results are important in at least three ways. (1) They show effects of an accumulation of
experiences over the day on fatigue at the end of work, corresponding to a mechanism of
depleting (negative events) and building (positive events) resources; the stronger effect for
negative experiences corresponds to the negativity bias typically found with regard to positive
and negative emotions (cf. Fredrickson, 2005). (2) They illustrate the importance of
background characteristics for understanding reactions to daily experiences. (3) They
specifically underscore the importance of social aspects of work. It seems particularly
noteworthy in this respect that not only do negative experiences increase fatigue in an
especially strong way when the social climate is poor; but that positive experiences have an
especially strong fatigue-reducing effect under these circumstances.
78
WORK-RELATED STRESS: REFORMING THE LAW
AND EMPLOYER BEHAVIOUR
HAMILTON, J.
Bradford & Bingley, United Kingdom
Objectives: Work-related stress is a major cause of absence for British employers yet their
legal obligations for managing it are complex and multi-faceted, supported by guidance that is
fragmented. By contrast other health hazards benefit from specific regulations supported by
either guidance or an approved code of practice. This study attempted to identify a process for
regulatory reform that would (i) gain stakeholder consensus, (ii) provide a concise reference
point for employers' duties for managing work-related stress, (iii) facilitate effective
enforcement of legal obligations, and (iv) maintain redress for claimants suffering
psychological injury due to work-related stress.
Methods: The study considered the development of both the civil and statutory aspects of the
law regarding work-related stress in Britain. This revealed the diverse and complex nature of
the legal obligations that employers have to their employees across a range of areas of law,
including health and safety, employment, harassment, disability discrimination, as well as
through the tort of negligence. The study also gave consideration to the clinical aspects of
stress, such as challenges in creating a definition of a case of stress (Cox, Griffiths, Houdmont,
2006). The study then utilised a qualitative research method to develop the studies proposals.
A series of semi-structured interviews were undertaken with representatives of the various
stakeholders in the process, including the (i) judiciary and legal profession, (ii) regulatory
policy makers and enforcers, (iii) employers and their representative groups, (iv) academics,
(v) health, safety and HR professionals, and (vi) trade union representatives. Information
from these interviews was analysed and interpreted using template analysis (King, 1998) and
mapped on to an initial coding template that was iterated through the process.
Results: Although a common consensus amongst participants was reached about the broad
principles of regulating work-related stress, a number of issues were identified including (i)
defining an organisational and individual trigger to take action, (ii) the need for specific
regulation, (iii) the extent of an employer's duty of care, and (iv) future ownership of national
policy and promotion in this area.
Conclusions: The results highlighted that the current legal framework for work-related stress
may not be proving effective at controlling its effects on employee health. Reform should
consolidate the current preventative, protective and compensatory features into a single
entity.
79
MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN INTERVENTIONS
FOR WORK-RELATED STRESS AND
PSYCHOSOCIAL ISSUE: EUROPEAN EXPERT’S
PERCEPTIONS AND PRACTICES
HASSARD, J., LEKA, S. & GRIFFITHS, A.
Institute of Work, Health and Organisations, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
Strong gender segregation within the labour market can be observed; men and women tend
to work in very different jobs and in different occupational sectors, resulting in differential
exposure to workplace hazards and impacts on occupational health and wellbeing (Messing et
al., 2003). The European Commission (2002) in the ‘Community Strategy on Health and
Safety at Work 2002-2006’ included the integration of gender (i.e. gender mainstreaming) into
occupational health and safety activities as a key objective and priority for future action. The
European Agency of Health and Safety (2002) further emphasis the need to mainstream
gender into risk assessment for occupational health and safety; reinforcing this issue as a key
priority for future action. Currently, within the context of the EU, gender issues and differences
have been ignored in policy, strategies, and actions (European Agency, 2002).
Objective: The objective of the current research endeavour is threefold: namely, to examine
the degree and extent to which gender is addressed in strategies to manage and prevent
psychosocial issues and work-related stress; yield an assessment of intervention experts’
perceptions surrounding issues of gender and their ascribed importance; and the identification
of key gender differences needing to be addressed in psychosocial risk management, as
indicated by experts.
Method: A systematic review of best-practice interventions (including primary, secondary and
tertiary) from across Europe was conducted. Authors of identified interventions were recruited
via email to participate in a semi-structured interview. Experts identified had a concentrated
expertise and knowledge in the design, implementation and evulation of interventions. Experts
were asked “Has the intervention [you have designed, implemented, and/or evaluated] been
useful in addressing gender issues? If so how?”, “Do you think that gender differences are
important to address in work-related stress interventions? If so, how?”, and “What gender
issues do you think are important to address in work-related stress interventions?” Telephone
interviews were conducted, recorded, and subsequently transcribed.
Results: A total of 32 interviews were conducted (47% female; n=10 primary -, n=12
secondary -, and 10= tertiary – level intervention experts) from 15 European countries: U.K.,
Germany, Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Poland, Italy, Portugal, International,
Finland, Ireland, Switzerland, Spain, and Belgium. Discourse analysis will be used to analyze
the collected data. The analysis of the data is currently ongoing and results pending
Conclusion: Results and implications will be discussed.
80
LEADERSHIP AND LEARNING CLIMATE
HETLAND, H.1, SKOGSTAD, A.1, HETLAND, J.1 & MIKKELSEN, A.2
1
2
University of Bergen, Norway
University of Stavanger, Norway
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between leadership and
psychological learning climate.
Methods: A sample consisting of 1061 participants completed the Learning Climate
Questionnaire (LCQ) and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). Leadership
dimensions used in the study were the following: transformational, transactional and passiveavoidant leadership. Transformational leadership implies the leader being an inspirational role
model, using inspirational motivation and intellectual stimulation, and considering the needs of
each individual follower. Transactional leadership consists of exchange of rewards between
leader and follower, while passive-avoidant is characterized by neglect or avoidance of
leadership responsibilities. Based on theory and prior research, the following aspects of
learning climate were chosen for further investigation; Time, autonomy, team style,
opportunities to develop and guidelines.
Results: The results from a path analyses revealed several interesting findings. Significant
paths were found between Transformational leadership and autonomy (ß .45), team style (ß
.15), opportunities to develop (ß .48) and guidelines (ß .13). Significant paths were also
revealed between Transactional leadership and time (ß .15), autonomy (ß -.21), team style (ß
.16), and guidelines (ß .20). Finally, significant paths were found between Passive-avoidant
leadership and time (ß -.40), autonomy (ß -.08), team style (ß -.30), opportunities to develop
(ß -.12) and guidelines (ß -.21).
Conclusions: The findings revealed different patterns of relationships between
Transformational, Transactional and Passive-avoidant leadership and aspects of the learning
climate. Implications of the findings will be discussed.
81
HEALTH PROMOTING ACTIVITIES IN
STATOILHYDRO ASA – A PRACTICAL EXAMPLE
OF FOLLOW-UP AT THREE INTERVENTION
LEVELS
HINNA, S.
StatoilHydro, Norway
Objectives: Spring 2005, the Vice President in a unit of 120 employees found several causes
of concern: The employee’s well-being was declining, several employees and managers were
on sick-leave due to work-related stress and turn-over was high. Occupational Health
Personnel (OHP) agreed to start a health promoting project in the unit with interventions at
several levels. The Annual work environment survey (Nov. 2004) indicated the following focus
areas: competence development, workload, work/private life balance and well-being
Methods and results: A steering group controlled the process.
Primary level: The OHP team conducted in-depth interviews on a representative selection (1)
and found further focus: Uneven spread of tasks, Insufficient/non-systematic training of
personnel, Non-compliance to internal requirements. The OHP team then facilitated Focus
Groups (1) that created action plans: Implement system for prioritization of work tasks,
Implement systematic training program for new employees, Systematic competence and
carrier development, Mandatory training program on internal requirements The Management
Team was followed closely during the following year. Secondary level: Presentations:
psychosocial hazards and work-related stress – with main focus on awareness of signals and
importance of communication with surroundings, ergonomics - with main focus on training
and learning with individual follow-up. Folder: Burn-out. Tertiary level: The best available
office equipment fit to special work tasks was provided. To encourage physical activity, a
weekly work-out program was initiated. All employees was invited to fill out the Bergen
Burnout Indicator (2,3) (Norwegian adaptation of MBI) to ensure that the ones in danger of
burnout was followed up. Employees at Risk were followed up by the company doctor
individually.
Evaluation: The interventions initiated by the focus groups were evaluated with focus on the
process of implementation during the first year (4).
Final evaluation was conducted by the management team spring 2007 and showed progress in
the areas that initially had been the cause of concern:
1.
Well-being increased
2.
Decreased workload and spillover effect into private life
3.
Systematic competence development was implemented
4.
It was accepted to address problems due to workload and work-related stress.
Conclusions: The long term commitment from the management team was key success factor
of this project. This was based on the fact that the OHP team followed them closely at all
intervention levels, and gave them an assurance that what they did added value, through the
evaluation processes and follow-up of risk groups.
82
STAGES OF HEALTH BEHAVIOUR CHANGE IN
WORKPLACE HEALTH PROMOTION
HINRICHS, S., WILDE, B., BAHAMONDES PAVEZ, C. & SCHÜPBACH, H.
Work and Organizational Psychology, Institute of Psychology University of Freiburg, Germany
Stage theories are used to investigate stage-specific interventions for health-protective
behaviour. Stage theories of health behaviour change construe discrete, qualitatively different
stages. Interventions can either be matched or mismatched for each stage. Compared with
mismatched interventions matched interventions are more successful to promote movement
into the next stage. Mismatched interventions have either no effect or give irrelevant
information that might cause reactance or incomprehension in the individual. Frequently used
stage theories like the Transtheoretical Model of Behaviour Change (TTM) or the Precaution
Adoption Process Model (PAPM) focus on the classification of individuals regarding their current
stages and individual-specific interventions. However, workplace health promotion
predominantly focuses on target groups or whole organisations and uses “one-size-fits-all”
interventions. Therefore, workplace health promotion often fails due to inadequate
interventions. Stage theories, however, might have the ability to categorise work groups
regarding their stage and promote successful stage-based interventions. This study is a first
step towards an investigation of stages of health behaviour change in workplace health
promotion.
Objectives: Stages of health behaviour change, employees’ and supervisors’ readiness to
modify health behaviour in their workplace as well as their request for organisational relief
depending on the individual’s current stage of health behaviour change were examined.
Method: A questionnaire study was carried out to measure the current stage of health
behaviour change (precontemplation, contemplation, action, maintenance) of employees in
different fields of health behaviour. The questionnaire also assesses the readiness to modify
health behaviour in the workplace. A second questionnaire was applied to measure the current
stage of behaviour change of supervisors. The questionnaire also contains the current stage of
behaviour change to promote their employees` health.
Result: As expected, stages of health behaviour change predict readiness for behaviour
modification and the request of organizational relief. E.g. employees in the contemplationstage want organisational relief whereas employees in the action-stage don’t. Most supervisors
are either in the action- or in the maintenance-stage to promote their employee’s health.
Conclusion: The results show that stages of health behaviour change should be recognised as
an important factor for workplace health promotion. Companies should pursue target groupspecific strategies for planning health promotion programs in the workplace.
83
STRESS REDUCTION AT THE WORK-FAMILYINTERFACE: THE ROLE OF POSITIVE
PARENTING
HOLDSTEIN, D. & HAHLWEG, K.
Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany
Objectives: Working parents encounter a variety of conflicting duties in their work and family
lives which often results into stress and a reduced quality of life. The present study examined
the efficacy of a parenting program (Workplace Triple P) especially designed for the needs of
employed parents, covering topics such as positive parenting, stress management, and
balancing work and family life. The program is a group training and aims to reduce conflicts
and stress at the work-family interface by targeting family risk and protective factors and
assisting parents to better manage competing work and family demands.
Methods: More than 100 working parents with children aged between 2 and 10 years (M =
5.7; SD = 2.2) signaled interest in our study. 117 parents (92 mothers and 25 fathers) were
randomly assigned to the treatment (Workplace Triple P) or waitlist-control condition. On
average, the participating parents were 38.8 years old (SD = 5.3) and worked 27.6 hours per
week (SD = 10.3). 102 parents lived together with their children and a spouse or partner,
whereas 13 lived alone with their children. The German short version of the Depression
Anxiety Stress Scales was used to measure individual stress. Work-related stress was
assessed with the use of the subscale ‘work overload’ of the Trierer Inventory for the
Assessment of Chronic Stress. Parenting style was measured with the German Version of the
Parenting Scale consisting of the three subscales overreactivity, laxness, and verbosity.
Moreover, parenting self-efficacy was surveyed with the German version of the efficacy
subscale of the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale. Additionally, we assessed occupational
self-efficacy.
Results: After the intervention, parents from the treatment condition, compared to those
from the waitlist-control condition, reported a significant reduction in individual and workrelated stress. Additionally, they reported a significant improvement in parenting (reduced
overreactivity and verbosity) and a significant higher level of self-efficacy concerning the
management of home and work responsibilities.
Conclusions: This study shows that Workplace Triple P helps parents to enhance their workfamily balance by strengthening parenting competence and the parents’ ability to cope with
stress in different life domains. This cost-effective group training can easily be implemented
into family friendly organizational resources and thus contributes to workplace health
promotion and human resource development.
84
PSYCHOSOCIAL WORKING CONDITIONS AND
WELL-BEING AMONG IMMIGRANT WORKERS IN
A LOW SKILLED JOB
HOPPE, A.
University of Hamburg, Germany
Objective: Within the last decades, labour migration movements have strongly affected
Europe. While empirical studies have demonstrated an increased risk of poor physical and
mental health for immigrants, to date few studies have focused on psychosocial working
conditions and immigrant worker’s well-being. The aim of this study was, first, to investigate
whether immigrant workers experienced poorer psychosocial working conditions and wellbeing than their German coworkers and, second, to test differences in the association of
psychosocial working conditions with well-being.
Method: Immigrant (n=89) and German workers (n=146) who performed equivalent tasks in
a German mail service company were surveyed. To investigate psychosocial working
conditions, we applied scales of the German instrument for stress-related job analysis (ISTA),
which assesses task-related stressors and resources, e.g., uncertainty, time pressure and job
control. In addition, daily hassles, social isolation, customer stressors, and coworker and boss
support were measured. To assess well-being two scales on job strain and psychosomatic
complaints were applied.
Results: In both groups, the majority of workers were men with a mean age of 36 years. On
average, they had worked for the company for 10 months. Most immigrant workers had a
Turkish background (37%), followed by Eastern Europeans (18%) and Africans (15%). When
testing our first question, ANCOVAS showed that immigrant workers experienced more daily
hassles, social isolation, and customer stressors than their German coworkers. Yet, they did
not report poorer well-being. When testing our second question, hierarchical regressions
revealed that the association of stressors with well-being is generally stronger for German
workers. On part of the resources boss support was more positively associated with well-being
for immigrant workers. Moderated regressions indicate differences in the role of resources,
e.g., with job control being only relevant for German workers and coworker support being
more effective for immigrant workers.
Conclusions: Findings revealed that despite higher levels of social resources, immigrant
workers did not report poorer well-being. This ‘healthy immigrant effect’ has been found in
earlier studies and could result from different expectations or a high amount of personal
resources among immigrant workers. The results suggest that intercultural stress
management interventions should focus primarily on the improvement of the social work
environment, for example through team interventions. Prevention strategies should aim at
targeting the entire workforce, but at the same time address the specific needs of immigrant
workers.
85
ACCULTURATION STRATEGIES,
MULTICULTURAL PERSONALITY TRAITS, AND
EMPLOYMENT DECISION
HORVERAK, J.G.1, SANDAL, G.M.1 & TIMMERMAN, M.2
1
Society and Workplace Diversity Research group, Faculty of psychology, University of
Bergen, Norway
2
Heymans Institute for Psychology, DPMG, the Netherlands
Objectives: A number of studies have suggested that hiring decisions tend to be biased
against applicants with minority backgrounds. The present study investigated if Norwegian
managers were more willing to hire a Norwegian applicant when given a choice between a
foreign and two Norwegian equally qualified applicants. Further, we investigated if the
judgements of managers were influenced by the foreign applicants` acculturation strategy. We
also investigated whether the personality characteristics of the managers were related to their
willingness to hire the foreign applicant.
Methods: A total of 436 Norwegian managers participated in the study. The managers were
introduced to a resume from the interview of three applicants. One of these applicants was
slightly manipulated into three different versions. The text describing the manipulated
candidate was designed in order to reflect the applicants’ nationality, acculturation style, and
the five dimensions of the five-factor model for personality. The description of the candidates
was also designed in such a way aiming at evoking latent biases against immigrant applicants
in the participants. The managers were asked to rank the best suited and second best suited
candidate for a job in their own organization. All managers also completed the Multicultural
Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Five personality factors are assessed with the MPQ: Cultural
Empathy, the capacity to identify with the feelings, thoughts and behaviour of individuals from
other cultures. Open-mindedness, the capacity to be open and unprejudiced, Social Initiative,
the tendency to approach social situations actively and to take initiative, and Emotional
stability, the degree to which people tend to remain calm in stressful situations (Van der Zee &
Oudenhoven, 2001). The MPQ scales have shown meaningful correlations with the five factor
model measured by the NEO-PI (Van der Zee & Oudenhoven, 2001).
Results: There were no differences in the managers’ willingness to rank the Norwegian
applicant, and the Turkish applicant who seemed integrated in the Norwegian society, as the
best suited candidate. However, the managers’ willingness to rank the Turkish applicant who
seemed less integrated in the Norwegian society was significantly lower. The study suggests
that managers’ perceptions of the foreign applicants’ acculturation style influence the
applicants’ chances of being hired. Further, we found that the personality dimensions like
Cultural Empathy, Open-mindedness and Emotional Stability in managers were related to their
willingness to hire a foreign applicant in their own work unit.
Conclusions: The findings are relevant for understanding discrimination in multicultural
employment settings.
86
THE DESIGN OF CASE DEFINITIONS FOR
WORK-RELATED STRESS IN LARGE-SCALE
WORKFORCE SURVEYS IN BRITAIN:
IMPLICATIONS FOR POLICY AND PRACTICE
HOUDMONT, J., COX. T. & GRIFFITHS, A.
Institute of Work, Health & Organisations, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
Objectives: The British government uses findings from large-scale, nationally representative,
workforce surveys on work-related stress to shape policy and practice on tackling this
challenge to occupational health. At the same time, the findings from such surveys are
important for measuring progress toward national improvement targets. Both these
applications highlight the importance of reliability across surveys in terms of the prevalence
estimate that they generate. To achieve a reliable indication across surveys of the scale of the
problem, it is important that a consistent approach is taken not only in relation to survey
design and administration but also in relation to the design and operationalisation of case
definitions used in surveys as the basis for measurement. The objective of this study was to
investigate i) consistency in reported prevalence rates for work-related stress identified
through such surveys and ii) the theoretical foundations of case definitions for work-related
stress used in those surveys as the basis for measurement.
Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted of large-scale, nationally
representative workforce surveys in Britain published between 1997 and 2007. The review
methodology captured published studies using the PsychINFO, EMBASE, ASSIA and Web of
Science electronic databases. Data were extracted on prevalence rates obtained and case
definitions used as the basis for measurement.
Results: Fifteen surveys met the inclusion criteria. Across the surveys, considerable variability
was found in terms of prevalence: rates ranged from less than 1% to 27%. The surveys
clustered into three categories in terms of the prevalence rates they generated. Category
membership appeared to be broadly contingent upon the type of case definition used. The
surveys used a variety of different case definitions for work-related stress informed by a host
of contrasting theoretical models or, in some cases, no theoretical model.
Conclusions: It was concluded that inconsistencies in case definitions for work-related stress
employed in the surveys, in tandem with methodological differences in survey design and
administration, are likely to account for the variance in prevalence estimates. This
inconsistency makes it difficult to assess whether government targets for the alleviation of the
burden of work-related stress are likely to be met. It may also contribute to stakeholder
disagreement on the scale of the work-related stress problem and hinder policy initiatives on
tackling the challenge to occupational health presented by work-related stress. Overall, the
findings highlight the imperative for the development of theory-based case definitions for
work-related stress that are acceptable across stakeholder groups for use in future large-scale
surveys.
87
THE ENGLISH PERSONAL INJURY CASE
DEFINITION AS IT APPLIES TO WORK-RELATED
STRESS: CHALLENGES OF STRUCTURE AND
APPLICATION
HOUDMONT, J., COX, T. & GRIFFITHS, A.
Institute of Work, Health & Organisations, University of Nottingham
Objectives: Personal injury litigation for work-related stress in England has been identified as
an important influence upon organisational activities on tackling work-related stress. However,
the case definition used in claims for work-related stress has been identified as confusing,
difficult to apply in practice and in need of reform. This study attempted to identify
problematic aspects of the case definition with a view to the generation of (i)
recommendations for its development and, (ii) guidance for stakeholders on its interpretation
and application.
Methods: Court judgments from personal injury claims for work-related stress provided the
source of evidence. These revealed detailed information on the views of the judiciary as well
as the defendant and claimant counsel on the interpretation and application of the case
definition. Judgments were considered as a source of evidence where (i) they pertained to a
claim for injury arising out of work-related stress in which an English court had passed
judgment and (ii) judgment had been passed in the period 2002-2007. Judgments were
identified through interrogation of online legal databases including those of the British and
Irish Legal Information Institute (BAILII) and Lawtel using keyword search terms. Problematic
aspects of the case definition were defined as those where the judgment revealed (i)
disagreement between parties, (ii) disagreement between different courts, (iii) explicit
reference by the judge to an aspect of the case definition as being problematic and (iv)
contrasting opinion within the judgment on how the courts had dealt with a previous claim.
Results: 28 claims met the inclusion criteria. Analysis revealed a host of issues associated
with three components of the case definition: foreseeability, breach and causation.
Conclusions: The results highlighted the imperative for the development of guidance for
stakeholders on interpretation and application of the case definition. Moreover, they pointed to
the need for case definition reform. In view of the case definition’s psycho-legal status (i.e.,
both psychological and legal factors must be present for a successful case assessment), it is
recommended that research evidence from occupational health psychology and related fields
could usefully be applied in these endeavours.
88
DISCRIMINATION OF FIVE DIFFERENT FORMS
OF WORK SATISFACTION BY EFFORT-REWARD
IMBALANCE, WORK ENGAGEMENT, AND
CONTROL AT WORK
INAUEN, A., BAUER, G.F., JENNY, G.J. & DEPLAZES, S.
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich and Center for Organizational
and Occupational Sciences, Switzerland
Objectives: Work or job satisfaction is a popular measure in work related research and
practice, and a common element in employee surveys. Mostly, short scales are used assessing
overall work satisfaction, but they tend to provide little specific guidance for work related
interventions, which aim to increase work satisfaction levels. As a promising alternative, the
model of Bruggemann (1976) proposes five different forms of work satisfaction: Progressive
work satisfaction, stabilized work satisfaction, resigned work satisfaction, fixated work
dissatisfaction, and constructive work dissatisfaction. Yet, empirical research on this model is
limited. Therefore, the main research question of this study is to explore whether the five
forms of work satisfaction can be discriminated by effort-reward imbalance and control at work
as selected key health determinants at work by work engagement as a key predictor of
individual job performance. The overarching aim of this study was to search for key indicators
that can guide occupational health management interventions. Implementing occupational
health management in companies requires indicators on both health relevant working
conditions to be improved and on performance related job attitudes as key outcomes from a
company perspective.
Methods: Data has been collected with a cross-sectional survey in nine companies (n=390).
The employee survey contains items on working conditions and items on effort-reward
imbalance (ERI, Siegrist, 1998), work engagement (Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, UWES,
Schaufeli & Bakker, 2003), control at work and work satisfaction (according to Bruggemann,
1976). The five types of work satisfaction are going to be discriminated by discriminant
analysis, investigating differences between the types.
Results: First results will be available at the conference.
Conclusions: If the five types of work satisfaction according to Bruggemann can be well
discriminated by effort-reward imbalance, control at work and work engagement, it could
serve as important and meaningful indicator for the planning of interventions in the context of
occupational health management.
89
ILLEGITIMATE TASKS: EFFECTS ON WELLBEING OVER TIME
JACOBSHAGEN, N., SEMMER, N.K., MEIER, L. & KÄLIN, W.
University of Bern, Switzerland
Objective: Illegitimate tasks are a new stressor concept. It refers to tasks that violate norms
about what can reasonably be expected from a person in a given job (Jacobshagen, 2006). We
postulate that illegitimate tasks, representing a special case of unfairness, offend one’s
professional identity, and thus, the self (Semmer, Jacobshagen, Meier, & Elfering, 2007). Our
goal was to show the usefulness of the new concept by going beyond existing cross-sectional
evidence (Semmer, Jacobshagen, & Meier, 2008), demonstrating that illegitimate tasks predict
well-being over time.
Methods: 167 Public sector employees in Switzerland were asked to fill in a questionnaire
three times, with a time lag of 6 months each. Illegitimate tasks were assessed with the Bern
Illegitimate Tasks Scale (9 items; Jacobshagen, 2006), which asks to what extent participants
have to carry out tasks they consider unreasonable or unnecessary. Well-being indicators were
a) Feelings of Resentment towards the organization (Geurts, Schaufeli, & Rutte, 1999), b)
resigned attitude towards work (Bruggemann, 1974), and c) organisation-based self-esteem
(Pierce, Gardner, Cummings, & Dunham, 1989). Data were analyzed with multiple regression
analysis, controlling for age, gender, and the dependent variable at baseline.
Results: Illegitimate tasks display considerable stability (r12 = .68, r23 = .69, r13 = .57).
Feelings of resentment were predicted for each 6 months time lag, with betas = .26 and .28,
respectively; resigned attitude towards work was predicted for each time lag (betas = .22,
.24, .22), and organisation-based self-esteem was predicted for the 12-month time lag (beta
= -.17).
Conclusions: Illegitimate tasks predict a) an indicator of high emotional arousal (feelings of
resentment) over a rather short time frame of 6 months, b) diminished organization-based
self-esteem over a longer time frame of 12 months, and c) a resigned distancing from one’s
work over all time frames. These longitudinal results confirm the existing cross-sectional
evidence and indicate that illegitimate tasks are a powerful stressor that should be considered
in future research. As all three dependent variables involve feelings and attitudes toward one’s
work, the effects of illegitimate tasks are not confined to the individual but are damaging for
the organization as well. Our results therefore have clear practical implications as well, arguing
for considering the legitimacy of the demands involved in tasks that are being assigned.
90
A PARTICIPATORY APPROACH TO PROMOTING
PSYCHOSOCIAL HEALTH AT WORK –
DEVELOPING THE INFORMING, COUNSELLING
AND ADVISING (ICA) PRACTICES OF
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PSYCHOLOGISTS
JALONEN, P., KIVISTÖ, S. & PALMGREN, H.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Finland
Objectives: Informing, counselling and advising (ICA) in Occupational Health Services (OHS)
refers to the educational activities by which occupational health personnel facilitate the
learning of individuals and organizations on health and safety issues. This study deals with
developing ICA practices by OHS in the context of an action research.
Methods: The action research conducted in co-operation with six OHS units and their client
organizations in 2006-2007. The study consisted of development processes containing learning
sessions for the OH personnel and researchers, and the tasks to be carried out in-between the
sessions by the OH personnel and their clients. The data included questionnaires and
interviews before and after the process, minutes of sessions and the good ICA practice
developed in the process. Here we focus on the ICA development process of an occupational
health psychologist (OHP) and her client organization; the nursing staff at a university
hospital.
Results: During the process, OHP developed an ICA matrix for planning health education on
all levels of the client organization. She and the nursing staff also drew up a list of ICA
contents that help to understand the meaning of ageing for work ability and enhance
interaction between different generations in the work community.
Conclusions: The results confirmed that the focus of health education and communication in
the work of OHPs is on individual employees, although often the impact of ICA would be more
significant if it also reached those organizational stakeholders with discretion in decisionmaking. Action research, as a method, helped the clients to perceive and define their health
needs and to understand the role of the OHP.
91
BUILDING A SYSTEMIC MODEL FOR MANAGING
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH
JENNY, G.J., BAUER, G.F., DEPLAZES, S., INAUEN, A. & LEHMANN, K.
Division. Public & Organizational Health / Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine,
University of Zurich & Center for Organizational and Occupational Sciences, Switzerland
Objectives: Occupational Health Management (OHM) is the continuous participatory analysis
and optimisation of organisational structures and processes that have a direct or indirect
impact on the health of the employees and thus influence the organisation’s business
outcomes (Bauer & Jenny, 2007). To advance OHM in the field and win companies for this
salutogenic optimisation process, researchers and practioners need to connect better to the
existent organisational structures and processes. Therefore, OHM should ground on an explicit
model of a salutogenic organisation.
Methods: We drafted an organisational model as frame of reference for companies,
practitioners and researchers collaborating in OHM projects (Bauer & Jenny, 2007). The model
builds on the knowledge of occupational (health) psychology and emphasises the key role of
optimising organisational management practices for developing health at work. OHM should be
an integral part of an organisational system sustaining and developing itself in continuous
interaction with its environment and within itself, just like individuals. This idea of selfmanaging organisational systems corresponds to the New Management Model of St. Gallen
(Rüegg-Stürm, 2006), which is committed to structuration theory, a systemic viewpoint, social
constructivism and organisational ethics. Based on this generic management model, we focus
on those elements relevant to health and OHM, and drafted a systemic-salutogenic Model of
OHM.
Results: The model selects those factors particularly relevant to the on-going salutogenic
development of the organisation and of its members, called salutogenic practices. Salutogenic
practices can be explicit or implicit, being associated to health directly or indirectly (Bauer &
Jenny, 2007). In order to build up the capacities for becoming a salutogenic organisation
ready for continuous improvement, OHM should be conducted by the company itself,
supported by external OHM consultants only as needed.
Conclusions: Depending on the status of the organisational system, implementation of OHM
can be a profound reorganisation, introducing new structures and processes as well as cultural
change, or it can be a focused optimisation of the system, building on existing quality circles
and optimisation processes (Rüegg-Stürm, 2006). Particularly in the first case, support by
OHM consultants is needed to facilitate change. As external intervention system, they are
temporary agents that make the system aware of health issues and their connection to
performance outcomes.
92
THE INFLUENCE OF PSYCHOSOCIAL WORKING
CONDITIONS ON FULL, PARTIAL OR NO
RETURN TO WORK AFTER LONG-TERM
SICKNESS ABSENCE
JOSEPHSON, M.1, VOSS, M.2 & VINGÅRD, E.1
1
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Section of Personal Injury Prevention, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
2
Objective: Partial return to work (RTW), after an initial period of full-time sick leave, has
become more common in Sweden during recent years. The expectations of partial RTW are
that employees with reduced work ability can return to active work, and that partial RTW will
promote and lead to early full-time RTW. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency
of full, partial and no return to work (RTW) after long-term sick leave and to ascertain the
influence of mental work demands, decision latitude and social exclusion at the workplace,
reported before the onset of sick leave, on RTW.
Method: The study group consisted of 853 employees in the public sector in Sweden, mainly
women, with at least one sick-leave spell lasting 28 days or more. The most common
disorders were musculoskeletal problems, especially neck/shoulder pain and low back pain and
mental distress, especially depression and burnout syndromes. The proportion of full-time,
partial or no RTW was recorded two years after the onset of sick-leave. Self-rated health, work
ability and psychosocial working conditions were assessed by questionnaire before the onset of
sick leave.
Results: With respect to disorders, 74% of those with musculoskeletal disorders, 77% of
those with mental disorders, and 85% of those with other disorders, were back in work, fulltime or partially within two years. The lowest rate of full-time RTW, 56%, was observed for
those with mental disorders. On the other hand, those with mental disorders had the highest
rate, 21%, of partial RTW. A relaxed work situation, a combination of low demands and high
decision latitude, reported before the onset of sick leave, increased the odds for full RTW (OR
2.72) and for partial RTW (OR 2.42). Social exclusion, social support and poor leadership
reported before the onset of sick leave were not associated with full or partial RTW.
Conclusion: Partial RTW is one way back to full RTW, but also operates as a long-term
solution for remaining in active work. Promoting a relaxed work situation, a combination of low
demands and high decision latitude, presumably supports both full and partial RTW after long
spells of sick leave.
93
KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT AND CONTENT IN
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY: A
SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF THE JOHP AND
WORK & STRESS
KANG, S.Y.1, STANIFORD, A.K.1, DOLLARD, M.F.1 & KOMPIER, M.2
1
University of South Australia, Australia
2
Radboud University Nijmegen
Objective: The nature of work has changed rapidly in the past decade due to economic and
social developments such as globalisation of economic and business practices, workforce
diversity, and rapid advancement of technology. Out of these changes, a fundamental
question arises: “is our knowledge up-to-date and able to accommodate these changes and
their implications for occupational health”?
Method: With this question in mind we assessed the scope and content of knowledge in OHP
by systematically analyzing all of the journal articles in the most influential journals, Journal of
Occupational Health Psychology (N = 302) and Work & Stress (N = 280) from 1996-2007.
Results: We found OHP research primarily focused on work factors (15.1%, JOHP; 8.8%,
W&S), e.g. workload, individual influences (16.8%, JOHP; 12.5%, W&S), e.g. motivation, and
a combination of work and individual contextual factors (36.8%, JOHP; 35.0%, W&S). Most
studies were conducted in industrialised nations (e.g. North America 56.2% in JOHP, 17.1% in
W&S; Europe 34.2% in JOHP, 67.7% in W&S), with urban participants (69.5% in JOHP, 69.7%
in W&S). Cross-sectional designs were the most dominant (59.9%, JOHP; 67.7%, W&S), with
longitudinal studies less common (22.8%, JOHP; 14.8%, W&S). Finally intervention studies
only accounted for 7.5% of studies in JOHP, and 6.1% in W&S. These patterns of research and
knowledge development highlight the socio-geographically located nature of knowledge
development in OHP, and the propensity to look at the individual and job context rather than
up-stream factors such as the influence of government policies.
Conclusions: We hope that this up-to-date account of knowledge development will lead to
valuable new insights for OHP researchers and policy makers to utilize to improve the scope of
research and quality of workers’ lives.
94
FIRST LINE VS. SENIOR MANAGERS:
CONCURRENT INFLUENCES ON JOB
CHARACTERISTICS AND EMPLOYEE WORKRELATED OUTCOMES
KARANIKA-MURRAY, M.1, MELLOR, N.2 & COX, T.1
1
Institute of Work, Health & Organisations, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
2
Health & Safety Laboratory, UK
Objectives: A lot of attention to-date has been directed towards the role of the line manager
for employee work-related health and well-being (Nielsen et al., 2008; Yarker et al., 2007,
2008; Nyberg et al., 2005). This is well-justified, since line managers are the most immediate
and salient persons in employees’ work environment and most likely to have a direct influence
on employee behavior (O’Driscoll & Beehr, 1994; Kozlowski & Doherty, 1989). However,
research has overlooked the possible concurrent impact of senior management. Organizational
practice has recognized senior management as a key driver for promoting occupational health
(Cox et al., 2007b; Kohler & Munz, 2006; Kompier et al., 2000), because it has the power to
influence the organizational agenda, policy and strategy. The Corporate Culture Health
Transaction Model (Bernin, 2002) places top management as an indirect influence on
employee outcomes, due to its impact on organisational norms, values, and structure. This
study examined the extent to which the relationship between managerial behaviours impacts
on perceived job characteristics and work-related health outcomes, concurrently for line and
senior managers.
Method: Non-managerial male shop floor workers (N=311, M age=45.33, sd=9.41, M
tenure=19.61, sd=11.81) completed a cross-sectional survey on managerial behaviours
(simultaneously assessing line and senior managers), work characteristics (job control, job
demands, relationships with colleagues, physical work environment, work-life balance,
bullying), and work-related outcomes (job satisfaction, self-reported health, worn-out, days of
absence). Structural equation modelling was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of
managerial behaviours on work-related outcomes through job characteristics, and the unique
effects of first line and senior manager behaviours.
Results: First, a full mediation model was fitted, with the managerial behaviors predicting the
job characteristics which predicted the three work-related outcomes. This provided good fit to
the data (χ2(46)=54.13, p=0.19). A model of partial mediation did not provide an
improvement (∆χ2(2)=5.11, p=0.95). The full mediation model was retained (RMSEA=0.02,
GFI=0.97, TLI=0.96, CFI=0.99). Line manager behaviors had indirect effects on worn-out (via
bullying), absence (via job demands) and job satisfaction (via job control). Senior manager
behaviors impacted on worn-out (via work-life balance) and job satisfaction (via job control)
explaining between 7 and 21% of the variance in the outcomes. Two unique effects models
were tested separately for line and senior manager behaviors (∆χ2(2)=31.06, p<0.00). Model
fit was acceptable but far from optimal. Overall, line manager behaviors explained more
variance in job characteristics and outcomes than senior manager behaviors.
Conclusions: This study enriches our understanding of the role of managerial behaviors on
employee work-related health. It (i) shows that both line and senior manager behaviors
together influence bottom-line employee work-related outcomes, through different
mechanisms, (ii) provides some support for the Corporate Culture Health Transaction Model
(Bernin, 2002), (iii) indicates that a sole focus on the line manager may not be the most
effective way of utilizing resources for improving work-related health. The results suggest the
need for integrating leadership theory with occupational health theory.
95
PTSD AND DEPRESSION AMONG VETERANS
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO 9/11 AND
OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM
KARUVANNUR, S.
VAMC, U.S.A.
The veteran population has a higher incidence of PTSD and depression than the general
population. Visions and details of national or worldwide war stirs up an internal war in
veterans, manifested as nightmares, panic attacks, anger, emotional withdrawal, somatic
symptoms and depression.
Objective: To examine the incidence of PTSD and depression in male & female veterans with
special reference to the September 11th World Trade Center attack and Operation Iraqi
Freedom. This is a retrospective descriptive study utilizing aggregated data from the period of
September 11, 2000 to April 1, 2003.
Method: New patients enrolled in the primary care internal medicine clinics at VAMC,
Northport,NY. There were 156 female and 6119 male primary care patients enrolled in our
center from September 2000 to September 2001; 148 female and 4326 male primary care
patients enrolled from September 2001 to September 2002; and 105 female and 2700 male
primary care patients enrolled from September 2002 to April 1, 2003. We compared the
incidence of depression, anxiety and PTSD in the year preceding the WTC collapse to that
following 9/11 and the start of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
Results: Of the six thousand one hundred and nineteen males seen in the year September
11, 2000 to September 11, 2001, 3604 (59%) males were diagnosed with depression, 1402
(23%) with anxiety, and 1337 (22%) with PTSD. Of the 156 females seen in the same year,
148 (95%) were diagnosed with depression, 52 (33%) with anxiety and 32 (21%) with PTSD.
Of the 4326 males seen in the October 2001 to September 30, 2002, 3781 (87%) males were
diagnosed with depression, 1479 (34%) with anxiety, and 1396 (32%) with PTSD. Of the 148
females seen in the same year, 130 (88%) were diagnosed with depression, 70 (47%) with
anxiety, and 46 (31%) with PTSD. From October 2002 to April of 2003, 2700 males and 105
females were seen at the VAMC Northport. 2679 males (99%) were diagnosed with
depression, 1279 (47%) with anxiety and 1204 (45%) with PTSD. Among females 103 had
depression (98%), 39 (37%) had anxiety, and 44 (42%) had PTSD. Of note, talk of war
started around November 2002 and by January 2003 Operation Iraqi Freedom was a certainty.
Conclusions: The incidence of depression and ,PTSD
among veterans is higher than
previously thought. There is a significant increase in the incidence of depression, PTSD, and
anxiety in veterans since the advent of 9/11. War seems to have aggravated symptoms more
in male veterans than female veterans probably because although women are trained in
combat, few are actually placed on the front line in battle. Both events were highly publicized
through newspaper, radio and television, with graphic photography and veterans were unable
to remain ignorant to either event . Our study conclusively shows that there should be
strategies in place during wartime events, natural disasters, and terrorist attacks to protect
veterans at such times.
96
STRESS-RELATED JOB ANALYSIS FOR
HOSPITAL PHYSICIANS: DEVELOPMENT AND
VALIDATION OF AN INSTRUMENT
KELLER, M.1, BAMBERG, E.1 & GREGERSEN, S.2
1
Department for Work and Organisational Psychology, University of Hamburg, Germany
2
Berufsgenossenschaft für Gesundheitsdienst und Wohlfahrtspflege, Germany
Empirical studies have revealed a variety of stressors and resources related to the working
conditions of hospital physicians, such as long working hours, the interaction with desperately
ill and dying patients as well as social support from colleagues and supervisors. These
stressors and resources have an impact on the physicians' health, their job performance, and
the quality of patient care.
Objective: The aim of this study was to develop and validate an instrument for stress-related
job analysis which may help to improve physicians’ psychosocial work environment in the long
term.
Method: The study has been conducted in multiple steps using different qualitative and
quantitative approaches. First, the current situation of hospital physicians was analysed in 13
interviews and 3 job observations with physicians from different medical fields (e.g.
gynaecology, anaesthesia and radiology). Based on these preliminary analyses, an instrument
– a self-report questionnaire and a measurement for job observation – was developed and
further refined in 13 interviews and 18 job observations with a heterogeneous group of
physicians. In a pilot study 45 physicians were surveyed. Currently, the main study with about
1000 physicians is being conducted.
Results: The results of the interviews and observations of the first steps of the study reveal
various stressors and resources. Some of them are well-known from previous studies, e.g.
time pressure and interruptions. However, there are several other stressors which are
particularly important for the work situation of physicians, e.g. deficits in the complex labour
organisation and communication lines in hospitals, as well as an imbalance between the
physicians' high responsibility and a shortage of organisational resources. Furthermore,
participation, respect, unfairness and further education are relevant issues. Initial statistical
analyses have shown the following results: The reliability for all questionnaire subscales varies
between .66 and .92 and is estimated satisfactory to good. To validate the questionnaire for
the stress-related job analysis, the results for the working conditions and for the physicians'
psychological and physical state of health were correlated: There are highly significant
correlations between overload and emotional exhaustion as well as unfairness and emotional
exhaustion. The correlations between overload and job strain as well as emotional dissonance
and job strain are highly significant. Finally, the physicians' personal accomplishment
correlates highly with participation and with the conditions for further education.
Conclusion: The methodical approach and benefits of the instrument will be discussed.
97
OVER THE LINE: MANAGERS’ EXPERIENCES
OF A LABOR STRIKE
KELLOWAY, E.K.1, FRANCES, L.2 & SCALES, A.1
1
Department of Management, Saint Mary’s University, Canada
2
Department of Psychology, Saint Mary’s University, Canada
Objectives: Although there have been a number of studies documenting the experiences of
striking union members, there has been little or no attention paid to the experiences of
managers during a strike. This is an important omission because managers are often on the
front lines of a strike having to pass through a picket line each day. Moreover, managers are
responsible for getting the workplace “back to normal” at the cessation of strike activity. Our
goal in this study was to explore managers’ experiences during a labor strike and their
implications for both managers and the organization.
Method: Participants for the current study were 10 managers selected according to a system
of purposive sampling for variation. Data were collected in the midst of a bitter four month
strike.
Individual interviews were conducted to gather detailed information concerning
managers’ perceptions of the workplace prior to the strike, experiences during a strike and
expectations for return to work..
Results: As expected, managers’ experiences during the strike reflected both the polarization
of attitudes and patterns of conflict as documented in the union literature. Managers did not
expect the level of conflict, seeing the dispute as a political one between the union and “the
company” but experiencing a level of personal hostility that was unexpected. Although not
hypothesized, managers also experienced the switch in job duties (i.e., from managerial to
performing the tasks of striking workers) as a pleasant change from their normal activities.
Managers anticipated that the return to work would be characterized by a rigid adherence to
workplace policies with little of the collegiality that had characterized pre-strike relations.
Conclusions: This study addressed a gap in the industrial relations literature by considering
managers’ experiences during a strike. The results show that there is a high cost for managers
during a strike. Although managers found satisfaction in the work they performed during the
strike, they and their families became targets for aggressive acts by strikers. Managers
experienced stress and polarization of attitudes stemming from the personal nature of the
attacks they experienced. The managers had a gloomy outlook for the post-strike workplace,
one characterized by divisions between managers and non-managers, in this previously
collegial workplace. Additional research on managers’ strike experiences and on the poststrike workplace is clearly necessary.
98
“AWWW POOR MUFFIN”: THE DEROGATION OF
HEALTH AND SAFETY COMPLAINTS AMONG
YOUNG WORKERS”
KELLOWAY, K.E. & YUE, A.
Department of Management, Saint Mary’s University, Canada
Objectives:A consistent finding in the research literature is that young workers experience
more injuries, but fewer fatal injuries, than do their older counterparts There are also data
suggesting that younger workers tend to experience more serious injuries, with a greater
likelihood for need for surgical intervention, than do older workers Although there are many
large surveys of safety outcomes among young workers, comparatively few studies have
asked young workers about their experiences of safety in the workplace.
Method: Participants for the current study were 10 young workers selected according to a
system of purposive sampling for variation. This study was conducted in two phases of
collection and analysis. Individual interviews were conducted to gather detailed information
concerning workplace safety.
Results: In general, young workers described a lack of awareness of, and concern for, safety
in the workplace. Although every respondent had experience multiple workplace injuries, most
did not report injuries to supervisors. When they did report injuries, they were most often
mocked by supervisors and coworkers. Accidents and injuries were seen as the result of
carelessness and respondents were more concerned with establishing a reputation as a “good”
employee than they were with safety.
Conclusions: In the world view of our participants, safety is not a systemic or environmental
concern, it is a matter of personal competence and, to some extent, of personal choice. This
view is reinforced by workplace climates that treat workplace hazards as being just part of the
job and by supervisors who routinely dismiss complaints or concerns about safety conditions
telling individuals who did complain were routinely denigrated, told to “suck it up” or, in the
case of young male workers, had their masculinity questioned. In contrast, injuries and scars
were presented as “badges of honour” by more senior employees. The implications of this
worldview for safety interventions with young people are discussed.
99
THE CHANGING ROLES OF OCCUPATIONAL
HEALTH AND SAFETY PROFESSIONALS: THREAT
OR OPPORTUNITY?
KHAN, S.1, HOUDMONT, J.2, LEKA, S.2 & GRIFFITHS A.2
1
2
EEF, The Manufacturers’ Organisation, United Kingdom
Institute of Work, Health & Organisations, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
Objectives: The world of work is changing and, with it, the role of occupational safety and
health practitioners. Increasingly, such practitioners are involved in aspects of work
traditionally performed by other specialists. Role development has implications for training
needs and our understanding of the future role of the practitioner. This presentation reports
on research conducted to identify how the role of the occupational safety and health
practitioner is changing and what the implications of change might be in terms of training
needs.
Methods: The research involved a Delphi consensus building exercise with an expert panel of
30 stakeholders who had considerable knowledge and experience in this area. The panel
included regulator and organisational bodies, sector skills councils, and educational and
professional bodies. The findings of the Delphi exercise informed the design of a survey which
was completed by more than 1,600 members of the Institution of Occupational Safety and
Health (IOSH).
Results: There was overall agreement among health and safety experts and practitioners on
the highest priorities for workplace health, namely common mental health problems and workrelated stress. Despite different prioritization of other key issues between the two groups,
other key areas include health surveillance and identification of emerging risks,
musculoskeletal disorders, sickness absence, planning for major health-related scares and
incidents, work-related driving, work-life balance, engagement and advice for SMEs,
evaluation of health and safety interventions, work-life balance and immigrant/migrant
population. Experts and practitioners also agreed as to the key knowledge and skills required
for the future role of health and safety practitioners. Key knowledge areas include attitudes,
persuasion and behaviour change, risk perception and communication, change management,
development of legislation and guidance, organisational culture, professional codes of conduct,
the multi-factorial nature of ill health, awareness of boundaries and other groups’ professional
competencies. Key skills areas include influencing, making the business case for workplace
health, early identification of workplace health priorities, leadership, understanding business
models and processes, project management for OSH issues, presentation skills, assertiveness
and practice and evaluation of workplace health interventions, mediation and conflict
management.
Conclusions: Despite some differences in the perception of importance of the issues among
different sub-groups of practitioners, it is recommended that continuing professional
development (CPD) training programmes develop knowledge and skills in relation to all the
above key priorities, placing emphasis on common mental health problems and work-related
stress.
100
EMOTIONAL LABOUR AND WELLBEING IN
TEACHING: THE INFLUENCE OF EXPERIENCE
AND JOB INVOLVEMENT
KINMAN, G.1, HINDLER, C.1 & WALSH, S.2
1
2
University of Bedfordshire, United Kingdom
Optimise Training and Development, United Kingdom
Objectives: It is widely acknowledged that jobs involving extensive interpersonal contact
require some degree of emotional labour, frequently impairing the wellbeing of employees
(Hochschild, 1983; Grandey, 2000). Although teaching has been described is a profoundly
emotional activity, little is yet known about the emotional demands faced by teachers or their
impact on wellbeing and job satisfaction. This study examined two facets of emotional labour
(emotional demands and dissonance) as predictors of burnout, job satisfaction and work-life
conflict. Also investigated was the role played two variables that are theoretically plausible
moderators of the relationship between emotional labour and strain: job experience and job
involvement.
Methods: Six hundred and twenty eight secondary school teachers (74% female) completed a
range of questionnaires. Emotional demands were measured by a scale based on Pugliesi
(1999) and emotional dissonance was assessed by the scale developed by Zapf et al. (2001).
Work-life conflict was assessed by the scale developed by Carlson, Kacmar, and Williams’
(2000). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach, & Jackson, 1986) and Warr et al’s (1979)
measure of job satisfaction were utilised.
Results: Significant associations were observed between both dimensions of emotional labour
and all strain outcomes. Job involvement was positively associated with both dimensions of
emotional labour. More experienced teachers tended to report more emotional demands and
emotional dissonance. A significant moderating effect was found for job experience and
involvement in the relationship between emotional demands and strain.
Conclusions: This study has found that emotional demands and dissonance are intrinsic
components of the teaching role that can potentially threaten the wellbeing of teachers.
Interventions are required to raise awareness of the emotional demands of teaching and ways
in which the emotion management skills of teachers might be enhanced should be considered.
101
REDUCED ORGANIZATIONAL WORK STRESS
INTERVENTIONS EVALUATED
KLEIN HESSELINK, D.J., WIEZER, N.M., DE KLEIJN, B.A.M.
& DEN BESTEN, L.A.A.
TNO Work & Employment, the Netherlands
Objectives: In the research literature evaluation of reduced organisational work stress
interventions for self help purposes in small groups is scarcely found. Most studies on work
stress interventions apply high scientific standards for measurement and experimentation.
Practical interventions are often done without any type of evaluation therefore, giving the
participants no feedback on the results. Besides this, most reduced interventions only
intervene at the personal level and do not try to influence the organisational level. In our
project it is shown that the standards for a qualitative good effect evaluation can be kept, also
with less rigorous measurement and experimentation.
Method: Six organisational work stress interventions in small departments (10-20 employees)
are described and compared to each other. Four of the six cases are held in a mental hospital
and two in a municipality. The interventions implied (a) a consultancy part to increase
participation and commitment of the employees in designing the intervention and (b) a
practical research part with reduced measurement and experimentation. Only one page
questionnaires (A4) were used to measure the key indicators of the identified problem. The
use of a control group was replaced by group discussion on the interpretation of the results
and changes.
Results: It was shown that with the omission of a control group and the use of simple tailor
made questionnaires, adequate interventions can be held. In all cases positive effects on
organisational factors are found. Sometimes these effects are small, showing that a second
intervention cycle is necessary to increase the effects. Such a second cycle can be easily
implemented however, because of the knowledge and experience gathered in the first
implementation cycle. The group discussion at the end of each project showed that this
knowledge and experience is sufficient to interpret the quality and quantity of the effects
correctly. Group discussion gave more information than the application of a control group, also
used in two cases.
Conclusions: It is shown that with a "light" version of work stress interventions, adequate
results can be reached and when not evaluated as sufficient, group discussion appeared to be
a good start for a second intervention cycle. However guidance by consultants or training of
managers or lay persons in the application of the method is still necessary, because
employees often lack initiative and creativity to start and continue interventions themselves.
The one page questionnaires gathered enough steering information for designing the
interventions and the evaluation of the relevant key concepts. The approach is easy enough to
be applied on a stand alone basis, but also the inclusion of this type of interventions in broad
organisational stress or quality programs is discussed.
102
WORK-LIFE CONFLICT AND MUSCULOSKELETAL
DISORDERS AMONG EMPLOYEES IN
SWITZERLAND
KNECHT, M., BRAUCHLI, R., LÄUBLI, T., BAUER, G. & HÄMMIG, O.
Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Switzerland
Center for Organizational and Occupational Sciences, ETH, Switzerland
Objectives: Scientific research on the topic of work-life balance or imbalance and its impact
on health is limited largely to English-speaking countries. By providing data and empirical
evidence from a large, even though non-representative sample of the Swiss working
population, this study partly fills the research gap in Switzerland on the topic of work-life
balance and health, especially concerning the relationship between work-life conflict and
musculoskeletal disorders.
Methods: To collect own primary data a survey has been conducted within four large and
well-known companies in Switzerland of different industrial sectors (health-care system,
financial sector, transportation sector) with a total sample of more than 6’000 employees of all
occupational positions. By using well-established, reliable, and validated measures to assess
concepts such as work-life conflict or balance, we developed a fully standardized and
comprehensive questionnaire, which allows us, for the first time in Switzerland, to investigate
the research questions and at best to replicate the results from international studies.
Results: There is much evidence for a quite strong association between indicators of work-life
balance and different health outcomes. In particular, findings show a significant dose-response
relationship between the degree of work-life conflict or imbalance and musculoskeletal
disorders (lower back pain, pain in the neck/shoulder).
Conclusion: Work-life balance plays a crucial role for employees’ health in general and also for
musculoskeletal disorders in particular. Companies should take this into account when
planning or implementing work-place health promotion. Since the nature of work has been
changing from physical to emotional and mental requirements, reconciling professional and
private lives becomes even more important.
103
WORKING TOWARDS A WHO GLOBAL
APPROACH OF HEALTHY WORKPLACES
THROUGH BEST PRACTICES
KORTUM, E.1 & ARREDONDO, S.A.2
1
World Heath Organisations, Head Quarters, Switzerland
2
MPH - UCSF
Objectives: In May 2007, the 60th World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization
endorsed the Global Plan of Action on Workers' Health for the period 2008-2017. The Global
Plan of Action addresses all aspects of workers' health, including primary prevention of
occupational hazards, protection and promotion of health at work, employment conditions, and
improving the response of health systems to workers' health. One of the five specific
objectives of the plan are to protect and promote health at the workplace. The assessment
and management of health risks at the workplace should be improved by defining essential
interventions for prevention and control of mechanical, physical, chemical, biological and
psychosocial risks in the working environment. Protecting health at the workplace also
requires enacting regulations and adopting a basic set of occupational health standards to
make certain that all workplaces comply with minimum requirements for health and safety
protection. Mechanisms are required to stimulate the development of healthy workplaces,
including consultation with, and participation, of all stakeholders. WHO recognizes that global
health threats, such as tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, malaria and avian influenza, can also be
prevented and controlled at the workplace. In preparation for implementing the WHO Global
Plan of Action on Workers' Health at the workplace level, a number of countries and
international stakeholders have emphasized the need for a globally coherent framework for
planning, delivery, and evaluation of essential interventions for workplace health protection
and promotion. WHO endeavours to develop a global guide on healthy workplaces. The
present work is one step towards that goal by comparing different regions' guidelines and
finding best practices that implement these models.
Methods: A convenience sample supplemented with a literature review was chosen in order to
find common guidelines among different regions. Based on the material available three regions
were identified: North America, Europe, and the Asian-Pacific Region. The best practices were
based off of these guiding principles from each region and most of them had achieved awards
for their efforts from differing organizations.
Results: There were 4 common themes. Commitment from leadership (i.e. through policy or
work guidelines) is necessary. Organizations need to recognize the importance of involving
employees with the process of health promotion and protection. The concept of health needs
to be broad (employee health and safety, the employee's health and their familys' health, the
organizational health (psychosocial work factors), or environmental health (physical factors,
community, promoting health). Finally, there needs to be the following: a needs assessment
for prioritization (have it align with guidelines, policy, corporate goals), identify goals to work
on, implementation of plan, and evaluation. Examples of best practices from North America,
Europe, and the Asian-Pacific Region will be presented.
Conclusion: Working towards a healthy workplace is achievable. Best practices share with
other member states the possibility and productivity that can be achieved. The common
elements among the different regions highlight that the strategies utilized can be broken down
into simple components that can be catered to a specific region.
104
INDIVIDUAL AND CONTEXTUAL PREDICTORS
OF NURSES JOB SATISFACTION:
THE MEDIATING ROLE OF BURNOUT
LACHINGER, H.K.1 & FINEGAN, J.2
1
School of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Western Ontario, Canada
2
University of Western Ontario, Canada
Objective: We used Kanter’s work empowerment theory to test a multi-level model of
workplace empowerment wherein we examined the effect of unit level leadership and
empowerment on individual nurses’ experiences of burnout and job satisfaction. We also
examined the effect of a personal dispositional variable, core self-evaluation on nurse burnout,
and subsequently job satisfaction.
Method: We surveyed 3156 nurses in 217 hospital units in 21 hospitals to test the multi-level
model of nurses’ job satisfaction. A multi-level structural equation modeling analysis revealed
significant individual and contextual effects on job satisfaction.
Results: The results revealed a good fit of the hypothesized model to the observed relations
in the data (Chi Square=12.03, df=1, CFI=.997, TLI=.945, RMSEA=.06). As predicted in the
individual level part of the model, CSE had a significant negative effect on Emotional
Exhaustion (Beta=-.419), which in turn, had a significant positive influence on Cynicism
(Beta=.609). Similarly, CSE had a significant negative effect on Cynicism (Beta = -.164),
which then had a significant negative influence on Job Satisfaction (Beta = -.468), as did
Emotional Exhaustion (Beta=-.128). At Level 2 (unit level), LMX Quality has a significant
direct effect on Structural Empowerment (Beta=.25), which in turn had a significant direct
effect on individual level nurses’ Job Satisfaction (Beta=.30). LMX Quality also had a direct
effect on nurses’ Job Satisfaction (Beta=.55). Unit level LMX and structural empowerment
influenced the two components of burnout differentially. Unit level LMX had a significant
negative effect on individual nurses’ feelings of cynicism (β = -.48) and unit empowerment
had a significant negative effect on emotional exhaustion (β = -.17). The LMX/EE path was
not significant (β = -.15) nor was the empowerment/cynicism path (β = -.13).
Conclusions: The contextual effects of positive employee/supervisor relationships and their
influence on empowering working conditions at the unit level and subsequently nurses’
individual burnout levels and job satisfaction highlight the importance of leadership for
creating conditions that result in a satisfied nursing workforce. Interventions to change work
conditions at the unit level are considerably more feasible than altering personal dispositional
factors, however, our results suggest that management must also take employees’ core beliefs
about themselves into account when designing healthy work environments in nursing settings.
Remarkably little research has been conducted that investigates the combined effects of
situational and dispositional determinants of work behaviours and attitudes, and even less has
been done that takes into consideration the impact of work unit contextual factors. This study
provides a comprehensive theoretical understanding of how leadership affects both unit and
individual level outcomes. Yet more research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms
through which leadership at the work group level influences unit and individual outcomes. Our
results suggest that unit leadership is important in determining whether nurses stay or leave
the field and thus provides an important potential remedy to the flood of people leaving the
profession. Moreover, it is likely that this model is applicable to other occupational group who
also are facing impending shortages as the general workforce ages.
105
THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL ON SICKNESS
ABSENCE IN THE WORKPLACE: THE
MODERATING ROLE OF PERCEIVED HEALTH
LANCEE, B.1 & TER HOEVEN, C.
2
1
2
European University Institute, Italy
University of Twente, the Netherlands
Objective: Sickness absence can be the result of various causes, such as demographics,
health (behaviour), and work, personal, and organizational factors (e.g., Duijts, Kant, Swaen,
Van den Brandt, & Zeegers, 2007). Many researchers have contributed to our understanding
of absenteeism, by studying the role of social predictors like social support (van Knippenberg,
van Dick, & Tavares, 2007) and social influence (Bamberger & Biron, 2007). However, these
studies focus on social structures in the workplace. In this paper, we will examine the
influence of social capital outside the workplace on sickness absence in the workplace. There
has been growing interest in the relationship between social capital and health (e.g.,
Poortinga, 2006). In the present study, social capital is defined as aspects of social
organization – such as civic participation or help from others – that yield positive returns for
the individual (e.g., Putnam, 2000; Coleman, 1990). As such, it is understood to influence
health positively (Mansyur, Amick, Harrist, & Franzini, 2008). Despite the interest in the health
effects of social capital, little is known about its effect on sickness absence from work. Besides
individual consequences, sickness absence has enormous effects on the economic performance
of organizations and the society as a whole (Dalton & Todor, 1993). Therefore, we examine to
what extent social capital can explain sickness absence. Building on social capital theory, we
test a conceptual model considering relationships between social capital, perceived health, as
well as interactions between perceived health and social capital.
Method: For the measurement, we used the 1996 wave of the German Socio-Economic Panel
Study, an annual representative household survey (see Wagner, Burkhauser, & Behringer,
1993). The data on sickness absence were collected in the consecutive year (i.e., 1997). For
the analyses, we dropped non-working respondents and subsequently made use of Tobit
regression analysis. These models are designed to make improved estimates when there is
either left- or right-censoring (Roncek, 1992).
Results: As expected, a strong negative relation was found between perceived health and
sickness absence in the workplace. In addition, a significant interaction effect was found
between participation in civic institutions and perceived health. To understand the interaction
effect, an ANOVA was conducted on degree of civic participation (active vs. not active) and
perceived health (healthy vs. unhealthy). This analysis confirmed that the interaction between
health and civic participation was significant. Analysis of the simple main effects showed that
the effect of participation in civic institutions was only significant in the unhealthy condition
(simple slope analysis confirmed this pattern of relations). Perceived health significantly
moderated the effect between civic participation and sickness absence, indicating that the
negative effect of civic participation on absence is more pronounced for people who perceive
themselves as unhealthy as opposed to healthy. The hypothesized relationships of family
social capital and social capital from friends on sickness absence could not be confirmed.
Conclusions: The findings of the present study show the importance of social participation
outside the workplace for people to engage in working life, especially when they do not feel
physically well.
106
THE IDENTIFICATION AND IMPACT OF
SUPPORTIVE MANAGER BEHAVIOUR IN UK
RAIL TRANSPORT STAFF
LEATHER, P.J.1, ZAROLA, A.2 & SANTOS, A.1
1
Institute of Work, Health & Organisations, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
2
Zeal Solutions, United Kingdom
Social support is widely recognised to be an important foundation for both physical and
psychological well-being at work. Nevertheless, research findings paint a complex and
confusing picture. In occupational stress research, for example, some studies report a direct
effect of support upon the appraisal of stressors, while others report a direct effect upon
symptoms of strain. Of the studies investigating the potential buffering effects of social
support, some report positive buffering effects, others negative or ‘reverse buffering’ effects
and others no effects at all. One of the principal factors contributing to this rather puzzling
picture has been a lack of specificity in the manner in which social support is construed and
measured. Work under the general heading of the ‘matching hypothesis’ has introduced a
welcome degree of specificity here, suggesting as it does that the benefit of social support
might depend upon some degree of congruence between the prevailing stressful work
demands and the source and type of help on offer. Line manager support has here been found
to be especially important in promoting employee health and well-being. There remains,
however, a general lack of research seeking to identify the precise behavioural indicators of
such manager support. In simple terms, what does ‘supportive management’ look like in the
minds of those who are managed? Put another way, what does a ‘supportive manager’ do that
is critical in their being perceived as supportive?
Objectives: Three objectives are therefore pursued in this paper:
•
The more precise specification of supportive manager behaviour amongst a sample of
UK rail transport staff;
•
The exploration of underpinning structure (factors) beneath these identified
behaviours;
•
The examination of the impact of these underpinning factors upon employee work
attitudes and well-being.
Method: A series of focus groups and repertory-grid interviews were conduced to determine
the behaviours which, in the minds of participants, differentiated a ‘supportive’ from an
‘unsupportive’ manager. From these interviews and focus groups some 159 constituent
behaviours were derived. These behaviours were then listed as the items on a questionnaire;
with respondents being asked to indicate how ‘characteristic’ each of the identified behaviours
was of their manager. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques were then
utilized to determine the smaller set of key behavioural clusters that constitute supportive
manager behaviour. Next, correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were used to
determine the impact of the supportive manager behaviour factors upon job satisfaction,
organizational commitment, work engagement, psychological symptoms of stress and
attitudes towards the customer.
Results & Conclusions: The results showed that a smaller number of supportive manager
behaviour factors could be determined and that these factors make a significant contribution
to employees’ health and work attitudes. The development and encouragement of these
behaviours, e.g. through improved selection, training, management development and
performance appraisal processes has an obvious premium for improving employee well-being
and work role effectiveness.
107
WORKLOAD AND VALUE CONGRUENCE:
DISTINCT CONTRIBUTORS TO BURNOUT AND
WORK ENGAGEMENT
LEITER, M.P.
Acadia University, Canada
Objective: The objective of the study was to identify distinct roles for work overload and
value congruence in predicting health care providers’ experience of burnout in contrast to work
engagement. The second objective was to contrast the experience of worklife among health
care providers.
Method: Health care providers (N = 1000) completed surveys assessing burnout and their
perceptions of worklife. They completed questionnaires including the Maslach Burnout
Inventory that assesses respondents’ energy in contrast to exhaustion, their involvement in
contrast to cynicism, and professional efficacy. They also completed the Areas of Worklife
scale that assesses respondents’ perception of workload, control, reward, community, fairness
and values in their work.
Results: The study explored a two-process model of burnout. First, work overload exhausts
providers by exerting excessive demands and interfering with their capacity to recover energy.
Second, enduring conflicts of personal and organizational values have a diverse relationship
with burnout. A series of structural equation analyses examined the relative contributions of
these two processes. The three samples showed evidence of both processes, but that the
workload/exhaustion process was dominant. Implications for a comprehensive model of
burnout are discussed. The presentation also considers the relative contribution of key areas
of worklife—control, rewards, community, and fairness—to providers’ evaluation of value
congruence with a variety of distinct health care settings.
Conclusions: Employees have a limited capacity to apply energy to work demands.
Eventually, they will experience fatigue if they encounter excessive demands and have
insufficient time for recovery. Although this dynamic is an important part of the burnout
process, but it is not the only process occurring. Although this dynamic is important and
factual, it does not have the complexity needed to support a worldwide research program for
three decades, as has occurred with burnout. The second, and more complex, dynamic at
work in burnout is value congruence. The burnout syndrome is especially relevant to
occupations that require dedication. The original focus of burnout was on human service
professions (Freudenberger, 1974; Maslach & Jackson, 1981). Its importance was not solely
that people felt exhausted from too much work, but that they lost the capacity for involvement
in their work. They no longer cared about their service recipients. Further, they lost their
sense of accomplishment, concluding that they no longer made a meaningful contribution
through their work. When broadening the burnout syndrome beyond human services in the
MBI—General Scale (Leiter & Schaufeli, 1996), the three-component framework continued.
The challenge in efforts to recruit and retain physicians in a dynamic health care system is
both to manage sustainable workloads as well as to encourage opportunities to support
professional values concerning health care delivery.
108
INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT AS A SOURCE OF
WORKPLACE STRESS
LEON-PEREZ, J.M., RAMIREZ-MARIN, J.Y. & MEDINA, F.J.
University of Seville, Spain
Objective: The main purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between conflict
stress and well-being at work. Interpersonal conflict has not been widely studied as a source
of stress from an occupational health perspective. This is unfortunate, since there is evidence
supporting that interpersonal conflict leads to workplace stress (Frone, 2000; Giebels &
Janssen, 2005; Spector & Jex, 1998). According to Giebels and Janssen we use the term
conflict stress to refer to interpersonal conflict as a source of workplace stress.
Method: The authors developed a scenario study which describes a conflict situation in the
workplace. Participants were contact employees from two different organizations (private and
public organizations) that voluntarily filled out the scenario study (N = 142). After participants
read a description of a conflict situation, the dependent measures were taken: (a) Stress,
derived from the Perceived Stress Scale that was adapted to conflict situations (Giebels &
Janssen, 2005), and (b) Well-being indicators such as emotional exhaustion, psychosomatic
complaints and satisfaction at work.
Results: Preliminary analysis suggested that participants from the private organization scored
higher in emotional exhaustion, M = 2.80 versus M = 1.84, F(1, 138) = 30.17; p‹.01, and
psychosomatic complaints, M = 2.47 versus M = 1.88, F(1, 139) = 15.98; p‹.01, than the
participants from the public organization. Moreover, private organization employees scored
lower in the satisfaction, M = 2.67 versus M = 3.42, F(1, 139) = 48.43; p‹.01, compared to
public organization employees. To test the impact of conflict stress over well-being and
satisfaction we conducted a multiple regression analysis with conflict stress as predictor and
organization type as control variable. Results suggested that conflict as stress is negatively
related with well-being and satisfaction at work (β = -.15; p‹.05) and at the same time conflict
as stress is positive related with emotional exhaustion (β = .26; p‹.01) and psychosomatic
complaints (β = .29; p‹.01),
Conclusions: In sum, taking together these results, the authors suggest that interpersonal
conflict at work is a strong source of stress. Moreover, in the presence of conflict, the type of
organization determines the stress level caused by conflict. The consequences of conflict as
stress on employees well-being should be addressed in further research.
109
DOES JOB COMPLEXITY PREDICT JOB STRAINS:
TESTING THE MODERATING EFFECTS OF SELFEFFICACY AND JOB AUTONOMY
LIU, C.1, WU, D.1, FAN, J.1 & NAUTA, M.2
1
2
Hofstra University, USA
Illinois State University, USA
Objectives: Job complexity refers to the level of stimulating and challenging demands of a
job (Hackman & Oldham, 1980). Lack of job complexity has been considered as a source of
job stress. The purpose of the current study are three fold including the development of the
Job Complexity Scale measuring four dimensions of job complexity (task demands, mental
demands, information process demands, interpersonal process demands); examining possible
moderators buffering the job complexity-job strains relationship; and lastly, to control for
common method variance, we obtained multi-source data from self-reports and an objective
job database (e.g., The Occupational Information Network, 1998).
Methods: Participants were 204 full-time employees from one large, U.S. state university (n
= 204). Twelve items were developed to measure the four sub-factors of job complexity. Five
outcome variables were measured: psychological strains, physical symptoms, voluntary
absence, voluntary lateness, and job performance. Two moderators were self-efficacy and job
autonomy. Survey packages were sent to university employees via campus mailing system.
Participation was voluntary and anonymous.
Results: Reliability and validity of the newly-developed Job Complexity Scale were obtained
and confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor model of job complexity. The selfreport data indicated that self-efficacy moderated the relations between job complexity and
outcome measures. For employees with high self-efficacy, job complexity was positively
related to job performance and negatively related to job strains (as indicated by psychological
strains, voluntary absence, and voluntary lateness). For employees with low self-efficacy, job
complexity was negatively related to job performance and positively related to job strains.
Similar results were obtained for job autonomy. For employees with high autonomy, job
complexity was related to better performance and less strain (as indicated by psychological
strains, physical strains, and voluntary lateness). For employees with low autonomy, job
complexity was related to poor job performance and more strains. On the other hand, job
complexity measures obtained from the O*NET database failed to replicate the above
interactions.
Conclusions: Overall, the four-factor model of job complexity was supported. We found that
task demands, mental demands, interpersonal demands, but not the information process
demands, were related to one or more indicators of job strain. Therefore, it is important to
differentiate the effects of four job complexity dimensions on employees’ health and wellbeing. We also found interactions between the two moderators with job complexity in
predicting strains and performance. Consistent with the Flow Theory, employees possessing
the skills to perform challenging jobs showed high job performance and low job strain.
Consistent with Job Demand—Control Theory, employees performed best when they were
given high control and high demands (e.g., complex jobs). However, we failed to obtain
significant result using the O*NET measures of job complexity. Since O*NET analysis was on
job-level, and our sample only included forty jobs, it would be hard to find significant results
with such a small sample. Future research should replicate our findings with samples with
more jobs.
110
BEHAVIOUR CHANGE AND WORKER
ENGAGEMENT PRACTICES IN THE UNITED
KINGDOM’S CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
LUNT, J., BATES, S. & BENNETT, V.
Health and Safety Laboratory, United Kingdom
Objectives: This research was commissioned by the Health and Safety Executive’s (HSE’s)
Construction Division to establish:
Current Behaviour Change and Worker Engagement (BCWE) practices used within the UK
construction sector
Potential differences between good practice, as identified by scientific literature, and actual
BCWE practices employed within construction sector.
Methods: A combined methods approach was used. This comprised a literature review utlising
a systematic methodology to establish the current evidence base on BCWE, and a qualitative
investigation to establish actual practices in the UK construction industry. The qualitative
sample comprised eight major construction companies belonging to a BCWE forum set up by
HSE, and three industry consultants recommended by forum members. Thematic and content
analysis were conducted to discern trends between companies and according to organisational
characteristics.
Results: Generating behaviour change through worker engagement within the construction
sector must overcome challenges concerning: The transient nature of the workforce; complex
working conditions; a diverse workforce; a results orientated industry; potential lack of client
receptiveness, and varied levels of management commitment. Strategies used to tackle
transience included managing BCWE project-by-project, training intermediaries in worker
engagement skills, and using highly prescriptive behavioural modification approaches. Greater
control over supply chains was exercised by including them within BCWE training, running
launch events dedicated to suppliers, building BCWE standards into sub-contracts, or
consolidating preferred supply chains. Emphasising the cross issue applicability of BCWE has
been used to secure senior management commitment. Negotiating BCWE into client contracts
has also been used to manage conflicting productivity pressures. Companies are managing
diversity issues by tailoring their approaches according to safety culture maturity levels.
Generally, companies do not implement full-blown BCWE where worksites are not ready for it.
Traditional approaches to behavioural safety have been criticised as failing to take sufficient
account of the multifaceted nature of accident causation; and of being perceived as blaming
mechanisms in safety cultures characterised by distrust. A concern persists within the
literature that behavioural safety programmes may not prevent low probability high impact
events. The actual BCWE practices used by industry practitioners demonstrated movement
towards a more integrated approach to behaviour change. Increasingly “top down” culture
change and safety management system improvements are being combined with individually
targeted behavioural approaches. Integration with the safety management system is being
achieved by: Writing BCWE into policies and procedures supporting the safety management
system; assimilating BCWE into human resource management and applying it to all stages of
project development. Using an integrated approach should help alleviate any concerns that
root causes of accidents are not being properly addressed within the construction sector.
Conclusions: Industry practitioners participating in this research appeared to be applying the
lessons learnt from earlier applications of behavioural safety. However, programmes generally
appear to focus more on safety rather than occupational health. Developing evocative and
persuasive risk communication techniques for occupational health issues needs to be
developed to ensure occupational health is given due consideration by the construction sector.
111
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF PREVENTATIVE
BEHAVIOURAL INTERVENTIONS FOR DERMAL
AND RESPIRATORY OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH
HAZARDS
LUNT, J.1, BELL, N.1, SHEFFIELD, D.2 & MORRIS, L.3
1
Health and Safety Laboratory, United Kingdom
2
Staffordshire University, United Kingdom
3
Health and Safety Executive, United Kingdom
Objectives: A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and
mechanisms of occupational based behavioral interventions for workers exposed to nonpathogenic dermal and respiratory chemical and physical hazards.
Methods: Seventeen electronic databases were searched using key words. Bibliography,
health and safety website, and hand searches of key journals were also undertaken. Articles
were included if they: (a) evaluated an intervention targeting behavioural compliance; (b)
addressed non-pathogenic dermal or respiratory occupational hazards; (c) used before and
after measures with a control group comparison, and (d) used behaviour-related exposure
indicators such as airborne exposure, health effects, behaviour observations, and self-reported
work practices. Two reviewers screened articles, extracted data and undertook inter-rater
reliability checks. Data was then extracted according to (a) effectiveness, and
(b)
mechanisms by which behavioural change had been achieved. Fifteen of 312 articles identified
as potentially relevant were included.
Results: Training, publicity campaigns, behaviour reinforcement approaches and occupational
health management interventions were represented within the included articles. A
predominance of small effect sizes, particularly for larger samples demonstrates limited impact
upon exposure. The studies contained too much heterogeneity (according to intervention type,
exposure outcomes, hazard type, and duration until post intervention assessment) for reliable
meta-analysis of all 15 studies. Heterogeneity testing did reveal a narrower selection to have
sufficient characteristics in common to warrant a ‘mini’ meta-analysis. These studies
concerned training interventions for dermal hazards using self-reported behavioural outcomes.
Their corresponding mean demonstrated a small effect. Comparison of the most with the least
effective interventions according to key behavioural change components revealed the least
effective omitted strategies for sustaining change.
Conclusions: Based on rigorous consideration of the literature, this review implies that:
9
Behavioural interventions on their own yield a small reduction in exposure to dermal
and respiratory hazards.
9
Behavioural interventions containing strategies that sustain awareness of the need to
control dermal and respiratory hazards appear the most effective. Repeating training,
regularly testing knowledge of risks, providing ‘poster prompts’ that remind employees as to
the correct course of action, feeding back health surveillance results, and providing ongoing
observation accompanied by constructive feedback, are examples of strategies used in the
most effective interventions. These serve to remind employees of the importance of controlling
exposure.
112
WELL-BEING VERSUS STRESS: WHAT
ADVANTAGES DOES A HOLISTIC VIEW OF
WELL-BEING OFFER THAT STRESS CANNOT?
LUNT, J. & FOX, D.
Health and Safety Laboratory, United Kingdom
Objectives: As part of a wider review exploring the utility of the risk management process for
contemporary occupational health conditions, a literature review was undertaken
encompassing two areas. Firstly, it sought to identify the biopsychosocial mechanisms by
which common occupational health problems arise. Secondly, it sought to identify important
individual, work environment and socio-demographic influences that affect well-being. The
implications of the findings for the management standards approach to stress were then
considered.
Methods: A systematic methodology for identifying relevant literature, and synthesising
findings from a disparate evidence base was used. The review was broken down into three
stages. An initial orientation stage was followed by stages assessing biopsychosocial
mechanisms and well-being influences respectively.
Given the extensive evidence base
related to these topics, search strategies prioritised recent good quality reviews and
investigations. Evidence statements were produced to capture the main findings of each
section, and weighted according to the quality of underpinning evidence. Inter-rater reliability
checks were incorporated into article selection, data-extraction and evidence statement
stages.
Results: Biopsychosocial mechanisms can be implicated in the aetiology of common
contemporary occupational health conditions such as stress, musculo-skeletal disorders,
depression, anxiety and non-specific symptoms. Compared to traditional deficit models of
stress, consideration of biopsychosocial mechanisms highlights the role of health behaviours,
health beliefs, workability beliefs and coping styles in symptom manifestation and progression.
It also demonstrates the potential utility of stress biomarkers as risk communication devices.
Conversely, well-being literature underscores morale, social equity, and an individual and
organisational values match, as crucial determinants of positive well-being. Emerging evidence
implicates morale as independent of stress, and strongly mediated by organisational climate.
Collectively, findings therefore implicate well-being as being more than the absence of
stressors. It also requires additional efforts in fostering a work environment that boosts
positive well-being .
Conclusion: Combining biopsychosocial with well-being concepts offers a holistic view of wellbeing. Based on this research, creating a work environment condition that foster well being
requires that the risk assessment process underpinning HSE’s Management Standards for
Stress be extended to include other factors that drive well-being over and above that achieved
by the prevention of stress. These include: health behaviour opportunities; reinstatement of
organisational climate; social equity/parity; synergy between individual and organisational
values; ‘workability beliefs’ health beliefs and their reinforcers. Such factors would need to
supplement the existing stress risk assessment process rather than supplant it. The risk
assessment process could then provide a more robust foundation upon which durable wellbeing improvements can be built.
113
PREDICTORS OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS IN
MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN INDIA
MAHANTA, D. & CHADHA, N.K.
University of Delhi, India
Objectives: The research was guided by the following objectives:
•
To see the significant difference, if any, between the four different types of
Multinational Companies on the dimension of Organizational Climate, Quality of Work Life
(QWL) and Occupational Stress.
•
To assess the relationship of Occupational Stress with background variables,
Organizational Climate and Quality of Work Life
•
To assess the relationship between Quality of Work Life and Organizational Climate
•
To investigate the contribution of Organizational Climate and Quality of Work Life as
predictors of Occupational Stress
Method: The sample for the study consisted of employees belonging to four different.
Multinational companies based in India. Scales and Questionnaires were used to collect the
data. The data obtained was subjected to various statistical treatments like descriptive and
inferential statistics.
Results: Our results showed that there is a significant difference between the four different
MNCs on the dimension of QWL.There is no significant difference between the four different
MNCs on the dimension of combined Organizational Climate Inventory scores. Significant
difference was found between them on the dimensions of OSI namely, Occupational Role
Questionnaire (ORQ) at 0.05 level and Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ) at 0.01 level of
significance. There is no significant difference between the MNCs on the dimension of OSI
namely, Personal Strain Questionnaire (PSQ). Better the Organizational Climate lesser would
be the Occupational Stress resulting from Organizational Role and Personal Strain and better
would be the Personal Coping Resources. Our results have shown that if the QWL is better, the
stress level experienced is expected to be low. Our results also show that Positive QWL is
expected to prevail when the Organizational Climate is towards positive or conducive side and
vice-versa. The findings show that only Organizational Climate served as a predictor to
Occupational Stress resulting from occupational Role and Personal Strain. It also showed that
Quality of Work Life served as a predictor to Personal Coping Resources to Occupational
Stress. The results were also obtained for each of the individual four companies as well which
gave varying dimensions of Organizational Climate as predictors of Occupational Stress. From
the results obtained it can be concluded that except for Age, the other background variables
do contribute significantly as Predictors of Occupational Stress at varied extents.
Conclusion: Thus to conclude, the research was a humble attempt to provide valuable insight
to the field of Occupational Health Psychology. It attempted to understand and know the
nuances of Occupational Stress and its Predictors in Multinational Companies in a developing
and booming economy like India.
114
ORGANIZATIONAL POLITICS AND WORKPLACE
SAFETY
MALKA, A., DAVID, E.M., AVERY, D., MEHTA, P. & WITT, L.A.
University of Houston, U.S.A.
Objectives: An expanding literature has well demonstrated the link between workplace
characteristics and workplace safety behavior (e.g., Newnam, Griffin, & Mason, 2008).
Following Dalal (2005), who discussed the link between social exchange theory and deviant
behavior, we propose that perceptions of organizational politics lead to unsafe behavior.
However, we suggest that the effect of perceived politics is indirect. We hypothesized that
work unit norms reflecting high levels of organizational politics first lead to low levels of
organizational commitment, which in turn yield unsafe behavior in the work unit.
Method: A total of 309 employees of a federal agency working in 42 work units of a large
warehouse completed a survey wherein they reported their perceptions of organizational
politics and their continuance commitment. We assessed the former using the “going along to
get ahead” subscale of the Kacmar and Ferris (1991) perceptions of organizational politics
scale (α = 73) and the latter using the Hrebiniak and Alutto (1972) continuance commitment
scale (α = 78). Consistent with work by Hoffman and Stetzer (1996), and in concert with onsite managers, we developed five items (e.g., “employees in this [work unit] inform others of
potentially hazardous situations”) assessing on-the-job safety behavior of employees in the
work unit overall. The warehouse’s senior manager rated all work units on the safety items
using a five-point, Likert-type scale (1 = never, 2 = seldom, 3 = sometimes, 4 = most of the
time, 5 = all of the time).
Results: We first computed rwgj scores (Lindell, Brandt, & Whitney, 1999) to justify
aggregation and then computed work unit mean scores for the perceived politics and
continuance commitment scales. Mean politics (r = -.34, p < .05) and commitment (r = .48, p
< .05) scores were both significantly related to the work unit-level safety behavior ratings.
Following Baron and Kenny (1986), we tested our hypothesis in four steps. First, we regressed
safety ratings on the mean politics scores (R2 = .12, p < .05). Second, we regressed mean
commitment scores on mean organizational politics scores (R2 = .48, p < .01). Third, we
regressed safety ratings on both mean politics and mean commitment scores (R2 = .28, p <
.05). With this third step, we learned that mean commitment scores were related to the safety
ratings (β = .14, p < .05) when controlling for mean politics scores. We also learned that
commitment appears to fully mediate the politics-safety relationship, as the main effect of
politics was no longer significant (β = -.01, ns). The result of the Sobel test (Sobel, 1982; 2.20, p < .05) confirmed the full mediation effect.
Conclusions: As hypothesized, and consistent with social exchange theory, we found that
work-unit levels of perceived organizational politics were related negatively to work-unit levels
of safety behavior. However, work-unit levels of continuance commitment mediated this
relationship. These results, suggesting a politics → commitment → safety behavior process
model, expand both the organizational politics and workplace safety literatures by
demonstrating the process underlying the link between political behaviors and safety
behaviors.
115
THE INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF BURNOUT AND
PERSONALITY ON PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS: A
LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS
MALKA, A.1, ZAPF, D.2, RUBINO, C.1, MILAM, A.1 & SPITZMÜLLER, C.1
1
2
University of Houston, U.S.A.
Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Germany
Objectives: Employee health has received much attention in the occupational stress
literature, due mainly to rising health care costs (e.g., Ganster & Schaubroeck, 1991). We
investigated the joint effects of emotional exhaustion, a dimension of burnout, and personality
on physical symptoms. The majority of the stress literature focuses on antecedents of
burnout; we argue that the consequences of burnout are also important. We hypothesized that
emotional exhaustion has differential effects on employee physical symptoms among
employees with different levels of neuroticism and agreeableness. We anticipated that highneuroticism individuals, characterized by experiencing negative and distressing emotions,
would experience more physical symptoms at all levels of emotional exhaustion. Additionally,
we anticipated that the emotional exhaustion-physical symptoms relationship would be
stronger among individuals who were higher rather than lower in neuroticism. Consistent with
Conservation of Resources Theory (Hobfall, 1989), which holds that using personal resources
leads to negative outcomes, we anticipated that the emotional exhaustion-physical symptoms
relationship would be stronger for high- rather than low-agreeableness individuals.
Methods: A total of 523 employees (73% women; M age = 41 years) from several German
organizations completed a survey measuring emotional exhaustion, personality, and physical
symptoms at multiple time points. We assessed emotional exhaustion using the Maslach
Burnout Inventory (α = .87; Maslach & Johnson, 1981b). We assessed neuroticism and
agreeableness using a subset of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (α = .79 and .73, respectively;
Costa & McCrae, 1992b). We assessed physical symptoms using the Mohr (1986) physical
symptoms (α = .93) scale.
Results: We employed moderated regression analysis to test the hypotheses. For hypothesis
1, we first entered the main effects of emotional exhaustion and neuroticism into the equation
(Total R2 = .20, p < .01). We then entered the emotional exhaustion x neuroticism crossproduct term at the second step (∆R2 = .02, p < .05). For hypothesis 2, we first entered the
main effects of emotional exhaustion and agreeableness into the equation (Total R2 = .20, p <
.01). We then entered the emotional exhaustion x agreeableness cross-product term at the
second step (∆R2 = .03, p < .05). We plotted the prediction of physical symptom scores at
high and low levels of emotional exhaustion (mean +1.0 and -1.0 SD; Stone & Hollenbeck,
1989). The first interaction revealed that highly neurotic individuals reported more physical
symptoms regardless of emotional exhaustion. Interestingly, the emotional exhaustionphysical symptoms relationship was stronger among low-neuroticism individuals. The second
interaction revealed that at low levels of emotional exhaustion, low-agreeableness individuals
reported more physical symptoms, whereas at high levels of emotional exhaustion, highagreeableness individuals reported more physical symptoms.
Conclusions: Highly neurotic individuals reported more physical symptoms at all levels of
emotional exhaustion. As expected and consistent with COR theory, low emotional exhaustion
was associated with higher (lower) levels of physical symptoms among individuals low (high)
in agreeableness. In contrast, high emotional exhaustion was associated with lower (higher)
levels of physical symptoms among individuals low (high) in agreeableness. We discuss
implications for organizational efforts in reducing employee physical symptoms.
116
DO TEACHERS BENEFIT FROM CERTAIN
TEACHING METHODS REGARDING THEIR
STRESS? RESULTS OF A VIDEO-BASED
ANALYSIS OF STRESSORS DURING TEACHING
IN GERMANY AND SWITZERLAND
MEDER, L.1, KRAUSE, A.2 & SCHÜPBACH, H.1
1
2
Work and Organizational Psychology, University of Freiburg, Germany
Applied Psychology, University of Applied Sciences Olten, Switzerland
Objective: On one hand, teachers are widely considered to be stressed – but data in this
research field were very rarely surveyed by observations of stressful work conditions (Meder
et al., 2008). On the other hand, results of international educational research highlight the
necessity of better teaching methods, especially in Germany. Considering both aspects, the
main question of our study is: How can teachers improve the quality of education in schools
and simultaneously suffer less from stressful work conditions?
Methods: 109 mathematics lessons in secondary schools in Germany and 74 of the Germanspeaking part of Switzerland, videotaped by the TIMSS 1995 and 1999 (Third International
Mathematics and Science Study), were analysed with an observational stress analysis
instrument for classroom teaching based on the concept of regulation hindrances, RHIAUnterricht (Krause et al., 2007). RHIA-Unterricht surveys two main task-related stress
variables per lesson: (1) additional effort assessed as the duration of extra work caused by
regulation barriers, and (2) noise assessed as not useful sound for the teaching interaction.
Teaching methods were operationalized as percentage of direct/frontal instruction phases,
individual and group work phases per lesson.
Results: The results indicate that the German and the Swiss sample were different, but
showed similar patterns for the correlation between teaching methods and stress during
teaching. First, German lessons scored significantly higher in stress measured as additional
effort while Swiss lessons scored higher (but not significantly) in stress measured as noise
exposure. Second, the correlations between the percentage of teaching methods applied and
stress variables per lesson showed following pattern: While frontal teaching methods
correlated negatively with additional effort and noise, phases of individual work correlated
positively with additional effort and noise, and phases of group work correlated positively only
with noise.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that changing from the well established frontal teaching
methods towards cooperative methods might be difficult at first because of the (temporary)
increase in stress levels after implementation. This can be seen as a main barrier for the
introduction of new cooperative teaching methods at school.
117
WHEN DO NARCISSISTS GET STRESSED? THE
ROLE OF EFFORT - REWARD IMBALANCE
MEIER, L.L. & SEMMER, N.K.
Univeristy of Bern, Switzerland
Objective: Previous research on narcissists in the workplace has mainly focused on their
performance, or their role as leaders. However, little is known about how they react to work
stressors. The current research examined the moderating role of narcissism in the relationship
between perceived effort-reward imbalance and irritation. Based on the notion that narcissists
have an inflated self-view and a sense of entitlement, we proposed that narcissists should
react particularly strongly to a perceived imbalance between their effort and the reward they
get in return.
Methods: Two different samples were acquired to test our hypothesis. Sample 1 consists of
106 pilots (95% males) of the Swiss air force. Sample 2 consists of 103 individuals (50%
males) holding a variety of different jobs. Effort-Reward Imbalance was assessed using a scale
by VanYperen (1996), and Narcissism was measured using a short version of the Narcissistic
Personality Inventory (Raskin & Hall, 2004). We used irritation as an indicator of well-being,
which was assessed using a scale by Mohr, Müller, Rigotti, Aycan, and Tschan (2006).
Results & Conclusion: Irritation was regressed on effort-reward imbalance, narcissism, and
the interaction of the two predictors. Effort-reward imbalance yielded a main effect in both
samples; narcissism only yielded one marginally significant effect. In accordance with our
hypothesis, however, there was a significant interaction between narcissism and effort-reward
imbalance in both samples (ß’s = .24 and .19, p’s = .002 and .049, respectively). As
expected, the association between effort-reward imbalance was stronger for people high on
narcissism than for those low on narcissism. These results are in line with the reasoning that a
lack of regard for ones effort (i.e. an effort-reward imbalance) signals that the individual is not
highly esteemed, and therefore represents a threat to one’s self-esteem. Furthermore, and
central to our hypothesis, narcissists, having a high but fragile self-esteem, react particularly
strong to a threat to the goal of maintaining their inflated self-view.
118
MENOPAUSE, DEPRESSION AND QUALITY OF
LIFE
MICALI, E.1, ABBATE, C.1, CANCELLIERI, F.2 & BARBARO, M.1
1
Department Social Environmental Medicine, University of Messina, Italy
2
Department Obstetric and Gynaecology, University of Messina, Italy
Objective: During the menopause, the production of female hormones, estrogen and
progesterone, is reduced progressively. This may cause intense discomfort in the form of
bursts of heat, nocturnal perspiring and nervous troubles (impairments in cognition, irritability,
sudden change of humour anxiety and depression) that can be troublesome and difficult to
tolerate during daily and working life. Substitutive hormone therapy practises have for many
years remained the preferred treatment for these symptoms. However, for various reasons we
need a valid alternative to synthetic estrogens. At present, results from many clinical studies
suggest the efficacy of soy isoflavones as an alternative or additional effective option that is
beneficial and safe for typical troubles of the menopause. We will analyse the menopause as
regard of work, of the dimension of the health, of the performances, of the wellbeing taking
the interaction of some variables among depression, disorders of the health and psychosocial
circumstances into account: age, sex, civil state, number of the child, nocturnal work and
work in turn, share of mental and physics work.
Methods: We recruited 50 women between 45-55 years, working in different areas in Sicily
(Italy), in menopause from 12 months, not isterectomizzate, in chronic treatment with soy
isoflavones, to value the effects of this treatment on woman’s health, life quality, working
performance and psychological-emotional status, according to instruction level and job. The
results were compared with a sample of 50 women recruited according the same criteria and
in substitutive hormone therapy. The investigation estimate depressive symptomlogy and it
will articulate in: (a) medical examination, objective exam, instrumental investigations; (b)
valided and standardized questionnaire as regard to: effort of work, life quality, depression,
anxiety, smoke, alcohol, medicinal drugs and alimentary habits; (c) mental tests; and (d)
clinical elaborations.
Results: The 68% of women in menopause treated with soy isoflavones did not have
depressive symptoms and had good levels of efficiency and performance working good health
and good quality of life. Women in menopause, hormone replacement therapy, had all fallen
tone and the mood as much as 72% had levels of clinical depression.
Conclusions: Many previous studies have demonstrated that depression significantly impairs
health-related quality of life, general functioning and work productivity, and causes significant
individual and economic burden with direct and indirect costs of illness. Comparative studies
have proved by three months of therapy with isoflavones, we have important improvement of
the menopausal sintomatology, while the first benefit starts to show after one month. This
study is inserted in a widening debate about a treatment that has low collateral risks on
women’s health, has easy management and low costs, and respects life quality and
expectation.
119
BURNOUT AND WORK ENGAGEMENT: A
CONTINUUM OR TWO SEPARATE FACTORS?
MILLEAR, P. & POPPY, L.
Queensland University of Technology, Australia
Objective: To test competing models of the factor structure of burnout and work engagement
Methods: In a diverse sample of the Australian working adults (n = 467), CFA in AMOS
compared different factorial models of burnout (as MBI-GS) and work engagement (as the
Utrecht Work Engagement Scale). The first model was Burnout and Work Engagement as their
separate scales; the second as the core features of burnout, exhaustion and cynicism,
separated from engagement, as vigour, dedication, absorption with professional efficacy; and
the third, as a one-factor model of all components.
Results: The first model of burnout and work engagement had unacceptably poor fit (X2(5) =
88.3, CFI = .93, RMSEA = .19 (90%CI = .16-.23), and attempting to improve fit lead to an
inadmissible solution. The second model was inadmissible, with a non-positive definite
covariance matrix, indicating linear dependencies between the indicator variables. The third
model had better fit (X2(5) = 17.2, CFI = .99, RMSEA = .07 (90%CI = .04 -.11), but the
limited contribution of exhaustion saw it removed, although vigour, as it’s opposite, maintains
this aspect in the construct. The remaining five factors had very good fit (X2(3) = 2.8, CFI =
1.00, RMSEA = .00 (90%CI = .00-.08), with the addition of correlations between the error
terms for absorption and professional efficacy (r = -.191, p<.001) and absorption and
cynicism (r =.522, p<.001).
Conclusions: Previous research in helping occupations found two separate factors, whereas
for Australians employed in many different occupations, the best solution for burnout and work
engagement was one factor with high opposite loadings. Adding the new scales for
engagement broadens the measurement of the same underlying construct rather than
measuring another, although related, construct. As a continuum, burnout would develop as
dedication, absorption, vigour and professional efficacy towards work are lost, and cynicism
increases, rather than developing separately to engagement in work. However, exhaustion
was not part of this solution, as its opposite, vigour, captures most of the individual’s energy
levels. The correlations between absorption and professional efficacy and cynicism indicate
that the benefits to engagement of being absorbed in work could be tempered by excessive
work involvement lessening efficacy and adding to the individual’s cynicism. The results
indicate that there are dynamic processes between being engaged and becoming burnt out,
changing motivation and affect toward work from enthusiasm to indifference.
120
LONGITUDINAL MODELLING OF WELL-BEING
AND MENTAL HEALTH IN AUSTRALIAN
WORKERS
MILLEAR, P. & POPPY, L.
Queensland University of Technology, Australia
Objective: To model longitudinally the dynamic relationships between the individual, their
workplace, the work-life interface and their well-being and mental health.
Methods: A prospective panel study (n = 198) of Australian working adults completed three
surveys at 3 month intervals. The longitudinal model was based on a well-fitting CFA with five
latent factors, Individual Factors, Positive Workplace Factors, Negative Spillover, Overall WellBeing and Mental Illness. Factor score weights for each latent factor were used to construct
composite variables used at Times 1, 2 and 3 in the longitudinal models. Following previous
research, the non-nested longitudinal models were compared as Stability, Causality, Reverse
Causality and Reciprocal models.
Results: The Reciprocal was the best fitting of this set of models (X2(36) = 34.8, CFI = 1.00,
RMSEA = .00 (90%CI = .00-.05), AIC = 202.85). However, to better understand the
influential relationships, trivial pathways were removed from the Reciprocal model, with the
Trimmed Reciprocal model maintaining good fit and having improved parsimony (X2(50) =
44.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA = .00 (90%CI = .00-.04), AIC = 184.78).
Conclusions: The longitudinal models show the strong influences of concurrent functioning
and stability of constructs over time, and weak reciprocal relationships between constructs
across time. At each time period, individuals with greater confidence in themselves and the
future (as Individual Factors) experience better work conditions (as Positive Workplace
Factors), have less problems between work and family (as Negative Spillover), greater Overall
Well-Being and fewer Mental Illnesses. These day-to-day influences are equalled by the long
term strength and stability of Individual Factors, Positive Workplace Factors, Negative
Spillover, and Overall Well-Being, with Mental Illness having only moderate effects over time.
Whilst the reciprocal paths had only weak to mild effects, there was mutual reinforcement of
Individual Factors and Overall Well-Being. Negative Spillover added to Mental Illness, whilst
Individual Factors lessened Mental Illness at later times. Well-being is more than how the
individual feels at one time; it is anchored in the immediate and distant past and provides a
robust stability to functioning into the future. Fortunately, mental illness appears less robust
over time and could be prevented or lessened in the future by improving the Individual Factors
as well as lessening the impact of Negative Spillover between work and family domains.
Interestingly, workplace conditions only concurrently influenced well-being and mental illness,
rather than over time.
121
SHORT NARRATIVES AS A METHOD TO
INVESTIGATE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE
WOMEN PROFESSIONALS TO RESIGN FROM
THEIR POSTS
MUHONEN, T.
Malmö University, Sweden
Objective: The increase in the number of women managers has been marginal contrary to
what was expected during the 1990´s. Even though the number of women and men in the
Swedish labour market is approximately equivalent, women do not reach the managerial
levels, especially the senior levels. There are also signs that many women who are specialists
or managers leave their careers prematurely. At the same time there is a growing need for
new managers due to the high retirement rate among the current managers in different
sectors. Earlier studies have revealed that women managers experience a high workload and
lack social support at their work. Additional restraining factors for these women are low salary,
difficulties in getting promotion, their “token” position, sexual harassment and work/home
conflict.
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the reasons leading to women professionals’
decisions to resign from their posts. This study is part of a larger project conducting follow-up
research among 45 women professionals who participated in earlier investigations eleven
years back. These women represent different managerial levels and four different branches
namely, banking, engineering, social work and construction. Since the participants represent
different lines of work, organizational levels, and both private and public sector, the follow-up
provides an opportunity to investigate differences due to line of work, level and sector.
Method: Altogether 38 of the 45 women professionals were interviewed during autumn 2007.
After the interviews 16 women have written a short narrative according to following
instruction: Could you please write down a short narrative, i.e. a succinct story (1-2 pages),
where you describe a situation when you where thinking of quitting (or did quit) your job. The
method of short narratives was originally developed by Nygren and Blom (1999) as an
alternative or a complementary approach when conducting qualitative research.
Results and Conclusions: The method will be demonstrated by an analysis of the narratives.
Limitations as well as strengths of the short narratives as a method in work life studies will be
discussed.
122
NONLINEAR DYNAMICS OF MOTIVATIONAL
PROCESSES IN THE WORKPLACE
NAVARRO, J.1, ARRIETA, C.2 & CEJA, L.3
1
Social Psychology Department, University of Barcelona, Spain
2
School of Psychology University of Costa Rica, Costa Rica
3
IESE Business School University of Navarra, Spain
Objectives: Innovative theoretical approaches such as complexity and chaos theories have
started to enrich our knowledge, partly as a result of the contemporary quest for enhancing
current scholarship in the field through the use of new theoretical approaches and
methodologies, and partly as a consequence of the established assumption that most
psychosocial processes tend to behave in a regular and stable manner, a premise that
underpins most investigations within work and organizational psychology. Findings in the field
of psychophysiology have shown that regularity in the behaviour (i.e. in the heart and the
brain) can represent the existence of anomalous organ functioning. Although there are clear
differences between physiological and psychosocial processes, the present paper intends to
evaluate the empirical postulation of steadiness and stability over time, under the thesis that
work motivation and flow experiences follow nonlinear patterns. Furthermore, just as
psychophysiological comportments, psychological behaviours at work are likely to be
anomalous when their dynamics are stable over time. With the aim of attaining this objective
three studies were conducted.
Method: A total of 25 employees took part in study 1; 48 participants in study 2 and 73 in
study 3. All 118 participants were employees, both full and part time. All studies present a
longitudinal design and the experience sampling method (ESM) was used for data collection. A
work motivation and a flow diary were developed and were loaded into a PDA. Each participant
was given a PDA and was randomly signalled 6 times a day over a period of several days
(between 17 and 21). Once obtained the temporal series, they were analysed using
methodological tools proper to the complexity sciences (v.g. recurrence analysis, Lyapunov’s
exponents, correlation dimension, surrogate data).
Results and Conclusions: Results obtained from the three studies indicate that indeed, work
motivation and flow experiences at work, as depicted by 80 % of the cases, tend to behave in
a nonlinear fashion, in a chaotic way. Likewise, preliminary results demonstrate that high
levels of work motivation (mainly intrinsic motivation), self-efficacy beliefs and perception of
instrumentality are associated with chaotic dynamics, whereas low levels of work motivation
are related to linear dynamics. Making the assumption that high levels of work motivation and
flow experiences are indicators of employee well being, the current findings may be opening
an interesting window for studying motivational processes at work from an occupational health
psychology perspective.
123
FROM BURNOUT TO AGGRESSIVENESS
TOWARDS SERVICE USERS: AN
INVESTIGATION AMONG SOCIAL WORKERS
NEVEU, J-P.1 & MANCEBO, N.2
1
Université Montesquieu-Bordeaux IV / LIRHE-CNRS, France
2
Univesitat de Girona, Spain
Objective: Occupational health psychology has heavily investigated the symptom of
professional burnout and its antecedents. Yet, there still exists a relative dearth of applied
research about those consequences of burnout that impair organizational performance. The
purpose of this study is to address the issue of poor quality service as an outcome professional
burnout.
Methods: Using a sample of social workers (n= 198), this research seeks to validate a process
model from burnout to aggressive attitudes toward visiting welfare recipients. Considering
burnout as a symptom of resources depletion, two burnout conditioning variables were
selected on the basis of in-depth interviews with study participants: lack competence
recognition and failure to relate to service users. Emotional exhaustion as measured by the
Maslach Burnout Inventory, was singled-out to account for professional burnout. In turn, the
MBI dimension of depersonalization was used as a measure of adverse attitude toward service
users.
Results: Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed both lack of competence recognition and
failure to relate to service users as determining factors of a resource depletion latent variable.
As hypothesized, structural equation analysis also confirmed the good fit of a process model
that considers resource depletion to be positively associated to emotional exhaustion, and
emotional exhaustion to be positively linked to depersonalization as an outcome of the burnout
process.
Conclusions: This research raises a number of developments for further research. First, it
confirms the relevance of a resource-based approach to professional burnout as a perspective
that bridges the gap between occupational health and motivation management. Second, it
indicates that workplace violence should also be considered from the viewpoint of service
users, a pressing issue for quality-seeking service organizations. Finally, this study suggests
that such a theory-free instrument as the MBI, depending on the purpose of research, could
also be used differently to fit a theory-based approach to burnout investigations.
124
IDENTIFYING THE PREDICTORS OF EMPLOYEE
HEALTH AND SATISFACTION IN A COSTCONSCIOUS, OUTPUT-DRIVEN PUBLIC SECTOR
ENVIRONMENT: TESTING A COMPREHENSIVE
AND NON-LINEAR DEMAND-CONTROL-SUPPORT
MODEL
NOBLET, A. & RODWELL, J.
Deakin Business School, Deakin University, Australia
Objectives: Public sector reform programs that simultaneously aim to reduce costs while
improving service effectiveness are associated with a range of negative outcomes including
increased levels of employee stress and declining job satisfaction. Yet these effects are
thought to be amplified in ‘high-risk’ human service professions (such as law enforcement and
health care) where the ‘doing more with less’ approach can not only undermine employee
wellbeing but may also jeopardise public safety. The primary objective of this study is to
examine the working conditions experienced by employees based in a high-risk public sector
environment (state-wide police force) that had undergone a series of efficiency-focused
organizational change programs and identify those characteristics that predict the wellbeing,
satisfaction and commitment of agency personnel. The study is guided by the demand-controlsupport (DCS) model (Karasek & Theorell 1990) and will test both additive and interactional
hypotheses. Studies examining the direct effects of the DCS variables often assumed that the
effects are linear and another major objective of this investigation is to test linear and nonlinear relationships between the DCS work characteristics and the employee-level outcomes of
wellbeing, satisfaction (intrinsic and extrinsic) and organizational commitment.
Method: The organization taking part in this study is an Australian, state-based law
enforcement agency that had implemented a succession of large-scale reforms over the
previous five years including substantial organizational restructuring, wide-ranging changes to
policies and procedures and the adoption of major new technologies. Four hundred and
seventy-nine police officers from two geographic regions took part in a survey via a selfcompleted questionnaire. Participant responses were subsequently analysed using hierarchical
multiple regression analyses. Prior to undertaking these analyses, the main effect variables
were “centered” to reduce multicollinearity when incorporating the interaction terms and
squared variables.
Results: The results of the regression analyses provide strong support for the additive DCS
model. Not only did the DCS capture significant proportions of the explained variance in the
four outcome variables, but the individual components – especially job control and work-based
support – predicted all four outcome variables. There was some support for non-linear effects,
with workload squared predicting wellbeing and extrinsic job satisfaction. Most of the
interactive terms failed to reach statistical significance, although the workload x support at
work interaction was significant for wellbeing.
Conclusion: Despite the present study only providing mixed support for the interactive
components of the DCS, the large amount of variance captured by the model suggests that it
offers a simple, yet powerful, conceptual framework for identifying the conditions that need to
be managed in cost-conscious and results-driven public sector environments. The relatively
parsimonious DCS model, particularly the control and support variables, were significant
across a number of outcomes, suggesting that these conditions represent valuable avenues for
abating any negative effects of the reforms. However, it cannot be assumed that the direct
effects are linear and both managers and researchers need to be aware of possible
curvilinearity.
125
WELL-BEING IN UNIVERSITY TEACHERS: THE
IMPORTANCE OF THE TRIPLE WORK PROFILE
PEREA, M.V. & SALANOVA, M.
Universitat Jaume I, Spain
Objective: The first objective of this study is to confirm that the triple work profile (i.e.,
teaching, research and management) of university teachers is not distributed in the same way
in all teachers, and more important, that, the distribution affects in their well-being (i.e.,
burnout, engagement and satisfaction variables). The second objective is to confirm that
burnout is not a three dimensional syndrome but a four dimensional syndrome composed by
exhaustion, depersonalization, cynicism and lack of professional efficacy, as well as
engagement is a three dimensional syndrome composed by vigour, dedication and absorption.
Method: In order to test the first objective a K-means cluster analysis was performed
obtaining four working patterns among university teachers, although in all cluster were the
three tasks of university teachers, in each cluster predominated one task over all other. In the
first cluster the main task was teaching, in the second was management, the third was
research and in the fourth was teaching and research in similar proportion. Furthermore,
ANOVA analysis was performed to analyze if the membership in a cluster affects university
teachers´ well-being.
Results: We obtained that satisfaction and absorption show significantly differences in
teachers well-being in the four clusters, so the university teachers more satisfied and more
absorbed with their jobs are those who are devoted primarily to research, while the most
dissatisfied and least absorbed are those who are devoted primarily to the management. With
regard to the second goal, CFA was performed obtaining a better fit for the four dimensions of
burnout, compared with the three dimensions (exhaustion, depersonalization and lack of
professional efficacy) and we also obtained a good fit for the three dimensions of engagement.
Conclusion: In this research we have confirmed that although every university teacher has a
triple work profile, is not the same for everyone regarding its relationship with their wellbeing.
126
EMOTION REGULATION IN DEMANDING
CLASSROOM SITUATIONS
PHILIPP, A. & SCHÜPBACH, H.
University of Freiburg, Germany
With increasing duration in the teaching profession more health problems occur (e.g.
increased emotional exhaustion, decreased work ability). In order to remain healthy it is
important, how teachers deal with their emotions in demanding classroom situations. Research
on emotion regulation [ER] in service professions has demonstrated that an emotional
dissonance between the felt and the actually displayed emotion as well as a faked display of
the required emotion (surface acting) is highly correlated to burnout, while trying to change
ones inner emotional state in order to feel the required emotion (deep acting) is less
correlated to burnout. Only a few studies, however, reported changes in these ER-strategies
depending on age or tenure of the employee. Some, however, reported an age-related
decrease in emotional dissonance.
Objective: Which changes in ER-strategies occur with increased tenure and which influence
does ER have on the increased health problems of teachers?
Method: This contribution presents a study on 210 teachers from German schools. Changes in
health as well as in ER-strategies of teachers with increased tenure were investigated.
Results: Results indicate, that with increasing tenure a decline in the teachers´ health was
found (emotional exhaustion: r=.26, p<.01, work ability: r=-.47, p<.01). Yet, with increased
tenure the variability in the health indicators increased, indicating that some teachers felt
burned-out and reported lower work ability with increased tenure, while others were able to
remain healthy (healthy worker effect). ER-strategies influenced the health of teachers: deep
acting was less associated with emotional exhaustion (r=.27, p<.01) and decreased work
ability (r=-.12, p=.09) than surface acting (emotional exhaustion: r=.51, p<.01; work ability:
r=-.29, p<.01). ER-strategies were not correlated to tenure, indicating that no general change
in ER with increased tenure could be observed. Teachers with more than 25 years of work
experience, however, differed in their ER depending on their health: those less healthy
reported slightly more emotional dissonance (t(51)=-1.89, p=.07) and used more surface
acting (t(51)=-2.37, p<.05) than healthier teachers.
Conclusions: It can be concluded that a differentiated development of ER of teachers occurs.
Some teachers are able to remain healthy, depending on their more health-beneficial ERstrategies. The experience of those teachers who remain healthy is valuable to help those who
already feel burned-out and also to prevent young teachers to establish less health-beneficial
ER strategies. Therefore, trainings should be designed to include those “successful” teachers
as well as teachers with health problems and also younger teachers.
127
BURNOUT DEVELOPMENT PHASES AMONG
EMPLOYEES WHO DO PEOPLE WORK
PUTNIK, K.1, DORANT, E.1, DE JONG, A.2 & VAN DER MOLEN, M.3
1
Department of Social Medicine, University of Maastricht, the Netherlands
2
Dutch National Donor Registry, Ministry of Health, the Netherlands
3
SPRinTUM Organisation, the Netherlands
Objectives: As part of ongoing research on decision making in burnout, the process of
burnout development was investigated. The aim of the study was to understand how burnout
develops, what stages persons go through, how they feel and what triggers their decision
making processes to go on sick leave or continue working.
Methods: Qualitative data were gathered via semi-structured interviews with 14 persons who
attended SPRinTUM, a secondary healthcare unit in Maastricht, the Netherlands. Data were
analyzed via grounded theory to obtain deeper understanding of the experiences and
meanings persons attach to the burnout development.
Results: Burnout developed over a period of time and consisted of distinct, yet cumulative
phases. The origin of the problem started at work, usually concerning increased workload,
changes in supervision or new organization of work. The stress increased over time, and
persons dealt with it by employing a variety of coping mechanisms. Since the stress did not
decrease, and coping mechanisms did not produce adequate results, various psychological and
physical symptoms such as disturbed sleep, anxiety, stomach problems, headaches, tiredness
and hypertension appeared. Persons with previous burnout episodes have sought help at the
onset of symptoms that reminded them of previous burnout experience. A few other
participants also made a decision to seek help at this point, changed some aspects of work or
stopped working. If the decision to make a change was not made at this point, breaking point
followed. Once breaking point was reached the persons felt they have depleted all their
resources and sick leave was the only option they were left with.
Conclusions: Burnout development, comparable to earlier research by Ekstedt and Fagerberg
(2005), was seen as consisting of a number of stages. As burnout is developing, warning signs
in the form of the symptoms appear. Frequently the persons ignore them and continue
working as usual out of dedication to their work, sense of responsibility and lack of sensitivity
to the seriousness of the symptoms. The persons who seek help earlier, prior to reaching the
breaking point, are those with previous burnout episodes and those who seek help for physical
symptoms. Thus, previous burnout experience sensitizes one to seek help earlier, but does not
prevent future burnout. More awareness raising about burnout is needed among supervisors
and employees, since early recognition of the problem may prevent further deterioration of
employees’ health and subsequent long term sickness absence.
128
GIMME A BREAK: SUBJECTIVE RECOVERY
MEDIATES THE ILLEGITIMATE TASK-STRESSOR
– WELL-BEING RELATIONSHIP
RAGSDALE, J.1, GREBNER, S.1, SEMMER, N.K.2 & BEEHR, T.A.1
1
Central Michigan University, USA
University of Bern, Switzerland
2
Objectives: Sufficient recovery from work demands is crucial for well-being and health, but
the role of subjective recovery in the relationship of stressors and strain is hardly investigated.
We assume that feelings of recovery mediate the positive relationship between illegitimate
task stressors and indicators of impaired well-being.
Methods: Data analyses are based on a sample of 125 male and female Swiss managers with
a mean age of 43.4 years (SD = 8.5 years) with an overall response rate of 69 percent.
Subjective recovery was measured using a 4-item faces scale (e.g., ‘How well do you recover
in general after work?’, ‘… over night?’, ‘… on days off work?’, and ‘… on holidays / in
vacations?’) developed by Grebner. The Bern Illegitimate Task Scale (BITS, Jacobshagen,
2006) was used to measure unnecessary tasks (e.g., ‘Do you have work tasks that make you
wonder if they have to be done at all?’) and unreasonable tasks (e.g., ‘Do you have work tasks
that you believe should be done by someone else?). Seven indicators of well-being were used:
psychosomatic complaints, irritation, and inability to switch off one’s mind after work (Mohr,
1991), exhaustion and disengagement (Demerouti & Nachreiner, 1998), and resigned attitude
towards the job and job satisfaction (Oegerli, 1984; Baillod &Semmer 1994).
Results: Mediator effects were tested following the procedure of Baron and Kenny (1986) and
the indirect effect was tested using Sobel’s test (1982). A series of full mediator effects of
recovery were found. Recovery mediates the relationship between unnecessary tasks and
psychosomatic complaints, emotional exhaustion, disengagement, and inability to switch off
one’s mind after work; unreasonable tasks and psychosomatic complaints, irritation and
inability to switch off. Additionally, a series of partial mediator effects of recovery was found,
including recovery partially mediating the relationship between unnecessary tasks and
resigned attitude towards the job, resentment, and job satisfaction.
Conclusions: Subjective recovery from work demands plays an important role as a mediator
in the work stressor-strain relationship. Illegitimate task stressors impede feelings of recovery
after work, over night, and during vacation, which in turn, contributes to the positive
relationship of stressors and impaired well-being. Hence, feelings of insufficient recovery from
work are considered early warning signs, which can be used to prevent impairment of wellbeing.
129
RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED TO PROFESSIONAL
PERFORMANCE OF CIVIL SERVANTS WITH
IMPAIRMENT
RANDO, B. & ANJOS, C.
National Institute of Administration, Portugal
Objectives: Considering the Social Inclusion Model (Fabela, 2007; Werneck, 2005) and the
WHO’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (2001), the aim of this
paper is to present some of the results from a larger research whose general purpose has
been to assess the labour conditions of the civil servants with impairment who work in the
Portuguese Central Public Administration. In particular, it tries to show the risk factors
associated to professional performance of a group of these employees.
Methods: A questionnaire has been administered to collect the data. It was composed by 38
questions about the impairment profile and personal factors, instrumental accessibility and
accessibility in virtual communication, architectural accessibility of the workplace, Information
and Communication Technologies’ (ICT) perceptions, and perception about the attitude of the
colleagues without impairment and direct managers. Almost all of them were multichoise
questions.
The questionnaire has been delivered to 204 ministerial organizations, where previously it had
been identified employees with impairment. To make it more accessible for some people, an
electronic version with a password was elaborated. This version has been accessible to blind
people using a screen reader. Also, a paper and Braille alphabet versions have been provided.
Results: The questionnaire has been answered by 1,051 people from an identified population
of 3,013 civil servants. In this sample, 66% of those who need ICT assistive technologies2 to
work don’t have one or more of them. More than half people of this group are female and
aged between 51 and 64. Most of them have a visual impairment and work in the current
office for more than six years. More than one third who needs workplace adaptations doesn’t
have them. Less than half (44%) says that the architectural accessibility of his/her workplace
is good. On the other hand, only 50.8% and 45.5% think his/her direct manager and
colleagues, respectively, value his/her performance. Also, 44.7% have the opinion that the
civil servants without impairment aren’t aware about the reality of the colleagues with special
needs.
Conclusions: The results show that, in the analyzed population of civil servants, the
employees with impairment who need ICT assistive technologies are more vulnerable to
certain risks, in particular to psychosocial, organizational and associated to the workplace
risks.
2
ICT assistive technologies are computer tools that promote greater independence for people with
impairment by enabling them to perform tasks that they were formerly unable to accomplish, or had great
difficulty accomplishing.
130
DISCRIMINATION AT WORK: A CROSSSECTIONAL STUDY AMONG NEPALESE
WORKERS IN THE UK
REGMI, K.R.
University of the West of England, United Kingdom
Objective: It has been well recognised that discrimination in all its forms prevent individuals
progressing within labour market. Some evidence exists on labour market regarding target
groups and barriers to participation, but little current consolidated intelligence on types and
extent of discrimination in the UK. This article was sought to examine the effects of
discrimination at work; and to draw general lessons, which might help to develop appropriate
policy to reduce discrimination strategies.
Methods: Self-administrated questionnaires instituted among 115 Nepalese working in South
East England, between 2005 and 2006, regarding their attitudes towards discrimination,
including possible causes, manifestations and impact on access and progress at work. Indepth interviews (n=10) and group consultations (n=20) were also conducted with employers
and officials to obtain further information about the knowledge and understanding of
discrimination and prevention, including complaint procedure and awareness of employees’
health and rights.
Results: Response rate was 79%. Nearly 80% mentioned the existence of discrimination at
work within the region. Seventy-percent of those who interviewed were indicated that the
trend of discrimination has been gradually increased (15% in 2001/02 and 29.3% in
2005/06). Wider social segregation was largely seen to result from negative, ill-informed,
attitudes and perceptions that lead to inappropriately designed and delivered services support
for people with both physical and mental conditions and impairment. A common theme for
people with different health (mental) conditions, apart from the stigma society places upon
them, was their described fluctuation in self-confidence. This resulted in feelings of
inadequacy, self-loathing and a desire for isolation. Limited recognition of overseas
qualification, poor acceptance of job references obtained from outside and criticism of
‘language’ and ‘accents’ reported another important barriers.
Conclusions: Discrimination has a profound effect on staff performance due to insecurity,
absenteeism, exclusion/de-motivation, poor health and stress. Creating a safe and
empowering environment reducing assumptions and stereotypes is important. Necessary
changes in employment policy and practices will reduce causes and consequences of
discrimination. There is also a need for increased confidence building as well as greater access
to information, guidance and awareness on work safety, stress and health at work.
131
PREDICTING JOB STRAIN AMONG NURSING
PERSONNEL USING JOB STRESS AND
ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE MODELS
RODWELL, J. & NOBLET, A.
Deakin Business School, Deakin University, Australia
Objectives: There is mounting empirical evidence suggesting that perceptions of justice can
contribute to employee stress. However there are a number of aspects of the justice-stress
relationship that are under-researched, in particular the extent to which justice perceptions
provide unique insights into this relationship (especially when compared to traditional job
stress models) and the effects of relatively new justice dimensions, namely the interpersonal
(extent to which decision makers treat people with respect and dignity) and informational
(extent to which rationale for decisions are explained) dimensions. There is also little known
about the precise nature of the direct effects and the degree to which these are linear or nonlinear. The specific objectives of this study are therefore to:
(1) Measure the capacity of organizational justice variables to add to the predictive capacity of
a commonly used model of job stress (i.e., Karasek and Theorell’s demand-control-support
model [DCS]).
(2) Examine the stress-related effects associated with interpersonal and informational justice
(when compared to distributive [extent to which outcomes are consistent with norms for
allocation] and procedural [justice of processes that lead to decision outcomes] justice).
(3) Assess the extent to which the direct effects of job stressors (i.e., justice and DCS
variables) are curvilinear.
Method: The study sample consisted of 168 nurses working in an Australian-based aged-care
facility. Participants were asked to complete a survey consisting of scales designed to measure
the justice and DCS variables, as well as stress-related outcomes (psychological wellbeing,
psychological distress, job satisfaction and organizational commitment).
Results: Prior to undertaking the hierarchical regression analyses, the main effect variables
were “centered” to reduce the multicollinearity that may arise when using squared and
interactional terms (when testing for curvilinear and moderating effects respectively). The
results of the regression analyses provide strong support for the additive DCS model, with the
majority of the explained variance being captured by the influence of job demands, job control
and social support. By comparison, the portion of variance accounted for by the justice
variables did not reach significance, with the exception of predicting psychological distress. In
relation to the curvilinear effects, several non-linear effects were identified, three of which
involved the justice variables (procedural, distributive and interpersonal justice). None of the
interactional DCS variables (e.g., demand x control x support; demand x control) predicted
the outcome measures.
Conclusion: The large amount of variance captured by the additive DCS model, relative to
the justice variables, suggests that there is little value in expanding commonly-used models of
job stress to include organizational justice concepts. While there is a clear need to consider
traditional job stressors when examining the work-stress relationship, the curvilinear effects of
the justice variables indicates that perceptions of justice still need to be taken into account.
We consider the theoretical and practical implications of these results and highlight areas
where future injustice-as-stressor research could be directed.
132
THE ROLE OF PERSONALITY AND THE DEMANDCONTROL MODEL IN PREDICTING JOB
SATISFACTION: A LONGITUDINAL ANALYSIS
RUBINO, C.1, MILAM, A.1, SPITZMÜLLER, C.1, MALKA, A.1 & ZAPF, D.2
1
2
University of Houston, USA
Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University, Germany
Objective: For over 25 years, Karasek’s demand-control job strain model has been one of the
most influential models in stressor and strain research. Although the link between demands,
controls, and strain is well-established, the model continues to be criticized for not being
comprehensive (deJonge & Kompier, 1997), and mixed support exists concerning the
hypothesized interactive effects of demand and control variables (de Lange, Taris, Kompier,
Houtman, & Bongers, 2003). Researchers have found that dispositional characteristics impact
the way employees perceive and react to the environment (Perrewe & Spector, 2002). In
particular, negative affectivity has been found to impact job and life satisfaction and
psychological well-being. Thus, this study aims to contribute to the extant literature by
extending Karasek’s demand-control model by including personality. We predict that a threeway interaction between demand variables (time pressure and uncertainty), a control variable
(decision latitude), and neuroticism will exist.
Method: A total of 523 employees (73% women; M age = 41 years) from several German
organizations completed a survey measuring job satisfaction, personality, and job
characteristics at multiple time points. We assessed neuroticism using a subset of the NEO
Five-Factor Inventory (α = .79; Costa & McCrae, 1992b) and assessed job characteristics,
including uncertainty, time pressure, and decision latitude using the ISTA (Instrument zur
stress-bezogenen Arbeitsanalyse).
Results: The hypotheses were tested using hierarchical linear regression: first main effects,
then the two-way interactions between each of the variables, and lastly the three-way
interaction were entered in sequential steps. Demand, control, and personality variables
measured at Time 1 were used to predict job satisfaction at Time 2. Time pressure, decision
latitude, and neuroticism directly impacted job satisfaction. Additionally, the two interactions
tested were significant: uncertainty x decision latitude x neuroticism (R²∆ = .024, p < .01)
and time pressure x decision latitude x neuroticism (R²∆ = .016, p < .05).
Conclusions: The results in this study provide support for a three-way interaction between
job demands, control, and neuroticism in predicting satisfaction. Our findings extend extant
literature by providing additional support for broadening the demand-control model. These
findings have practical and theoretical implications. Future studies should incorporate
dispositional characteristics, which may help explain the mixed findings for the model (de
Lange, et al., 2003). Additionally, organizations can increase employee psychological wellbeing at work (i.e., job satisfaction) by taking into consideration demand and control job
characteristics, as well as employee dispositions.
133
SELF-EFFICACY AND FLOW AT WORK: A
VIRTUOUS CIRCLE?
SALANOVA, M.1, RODRÍGUEZ-SÁNCHEZ, A.M.1, CIFRE, E.1 & SCHAUFELI, W.2
1
WoNT Research Team. Universitat Jaume I, Castellón, Spain
2
Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Objective: Based on predictions of Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997, 2001) and the
Channel Model of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975), the main objective of this study is to extend
the Channel Model (that assumes that flow occurs when there is a match between challenges
and skills) including self-efficacy as predictor of the combination of challenges X skills, and the
flow experience in itself (defined as work absorption and enjoyment). We expect that selfefficacy will play a predicting role of the flow experience, directly and also indirectly through
the challenges X skills combination, over the time. Moreover, we expect, that self-efficacy and
flow will be both reciprocally related in a kind of ‘virtuous’ circle over time: the more selfefficacy at T1 the more flow experiences at T2, and vice versa.
Method: Structural Equation Modelling was carried out in a sample of 234 secondary school
teachers (57% women; Mean age: 40), in two waves with 8 months in between.
Results: Results provided evidence for our predictions. More specifically, results showed that
the more self-efficacy, the more flow and also the higher the levels of challenge X skills, that
in turns predicts the more flow. The influence of self-efficacy at T1 on flow at T2 is also
showed over the time mediated by challengesXskills in T2. However, the reciprocal
relationship between flow in T1 as predictor of self-efficacy in T2 was not confirmed. Moreover,
the model including self-efficacy as an antecedent has more predicting power and fit better
than the model including only the challenges X skills combination as a predictor of flow
experience.
Conclusion: Results extended the Channel Model of flow including self-efficacy as a predictor
of challenge X skills and flow experiences. Summing up, the present work contributes to the
operationalization and clarification of the flow experiences as well as its antecedents.
Theoretical and practical implications of the study are discussed.
134
DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF THE
“EXPECTATIONS OF POLICING” SCALE.
SANTOS, A., LEATHER, P. & ZHOU, D.
Institute of Work, Health and Organisations, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
Objective: It has been claimed that the Police operate under what is known as an
occupational sub-culture which is said to idealise aggressive, ‘take-charge’ approaches to
policing crime which includes a ready acceptance of a degree of violence and aggression on
the job, whether as victims or instigators of that aggression. Such an outlook often results in
selective enforcement of the law and the use of illegitimate tactics, which could, in turn, give
rise to tensions within the community, public complaints against the Police (Brown, 1981) and
antisocial behaviour from the public. The social-interactionist model of violence and aggression
posits that an individual’s appraisal of a situation entails complex social judgments about the
others’ intentions and motives framed by norms and expectations of that particular social
situation (Leather & Lawrence, 1995). In the Police, as in any organization, attitudes and
beliefs about violence and aggression and the job itself generate certain expectations about
the job and interactions with individuals. Few studies however have attempted to develop a
measure which captures these expectations and attitudes. In developing such a measure, one
may be able to identify and decipher such attitudes which could assist in public relations
between the Police and the wider community. The aim of this study is to develop and validate
a scale measuring officer expectations of policing. In order to develop the items for the scale a
total of 15 focus groups with police officers. Participants were asked to define the role of a
police officer, the duties involved, and the nature of the work. Items in the scales were either
derived from direct quotations taken from the interviews or modified to improve coherence
and understanding. This led to the development of a 30 item attitude scale piloted on a sub
sample of police officers. Participants were asked to delete items which they felt were
redundant and improve the wording of statements where necessary. This resulted in a total of
19 attitudinal statements which were used in the final questionnaire.
The degree of
agreement with each attitudinal statement was measured by means of a five-point likert scale
ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree.
Method: The data reported in this study is part of a larger research survey on violence in an
English police force. A total of 2,533 questionnaires were distributed to all police officers in an
English police force, of which 760 were returned. Preliminary analyses checks for normality
and outliers were conducted on the attitudinal data using SPSS version 14 resulting in the
deletion of 14 cases. The data were randomly split into two halves which were labeled as half1
and half2. An exploratory factor analysis using principal components analysis with varimax
rotation was performed on the data labeled as half1, resulting in a 4 factor solution accounting
for 52% of the variance. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was then performed on the items
derived from the solution of the exploratory factor analysis. The initial CFA demonstrated the
hypothesised model needed further modification (SB-Χ2 (38) = 78.39, CFI = 0.915, RMSEA =
0.054, CI = (0,036, 0.070)) . Post-hoc model modification was performed to obtain an
improved fit and more parsimonious model. The Lagrange multiplier test revealed that error
terms associated with items 8 and 9 covaried, and that item 14 crossloaded on factors 2 and
3. In order to maintain the clarity of the model, only the first path was added in the modified
135
model. Analysis showed that the hypothesised model was reasonably well-fitting ((SB-Χ2 (37)
= 60.87, CFI= 0.952, RMSEA = 0.043 CI = (0.021. 0.060)).
Results: The results were cross-validated with the data labelled as half2. Analyses showed
that the model still held for this validation sample (SB-Χ2 (103) =120.305, CFI = 0.977,
RMSEA = .021, CI = (0.000, 0.036)). The LM test did not suggest any noninvariant
parameters across the data labelled as half 1and the data labelled as half2. So it could be
concluded that the proposed model is valid and equal across these two sets of data. Factors
were subsequently labelled as 1) Inherent nature of violence and aggression in policing;
2)Unrealistic public expectations of police officers 3) Legitimacy of the use of force in
confrontations 4) Mechanisms for dealing with the public.
Conclusions: The development of this scale is important for three reasons. First it provides
an opportunity to capture police officer appraisals of situations relating to their job. Second,
such appraisals may moderate the relationship between exposure to stressors or demands on
the job and resulting health and performance outcomes. Third, the scale can be used to design
organisational culture change interventions.
136
WHEN TIME PRESSURE REALLY HURTS: THE
CASE OF PERFORMANCE IMPAIRMENT
SEMMER, N., KÄLIN, W. & ELFERING, A.
University of Bern, Switzerland
Objective: Time pressure, although often associated with lower well-being, is an ambiguous
construct. On the negative side, it is accompanied by feelings of apprehension, uncertainty,
etc., which are likely to foster associations with strain (Spector & Jex, 1998). At the same
time, it may imply a challenge, and be associated with feelings of pride if that challenge is met
(cf. Beehr et al. 2001). This ambiguity may be responsible for the fact that associations with
strain are sometimes modest, and that some associations, especially with attitudinal indicators
like job satisfaction, may even be positive (Beehr et al., 2001; Podsakoff et al., 2007). We
argue that the crucial aspect determining the ambiguity of time pressure is the extent to which
one’s work goals can still be met. Impediments to task fulfilment are an important component
of many theoretical accounts of stress, and have empirically been found to be stressful (cf.
Spector & Jex, 1998; Podsakoff et al., 2007; Semmer et al., 2005). If these considerations are
correct, a measure assessing to what extent time pressure at work impedes people’s ability to
do high quality work should more clearly be related to well-being than a traditional measure of
time pressure.
Methods: Participants were young people from five occupations in Switzerland (Semmer et
al., 2005). Analyses refer to two waves in which our new construct was assessed (N = 481;
age = 22.6 years, 59% female). We assessed (a) task-related stressors (uncertainty,
organizational constraints, interruptions, concentration demands, and time pressure) and (b)
control, all with scales by Semmer et al. (1995); and (c) social support (Frese, 1989).
Furthermore, we added a new scale assessing “quality impairment through time pressure”
(three items, e.g., “Time pressure at work is so high that one has to ‘muddle through’
somehow”; Cronbach’s alpha = .78 (T1) and .79 (T2)). Dependent variables were “poor
unwinding after work” (“cognitive irritation”, Mohr et al., 2006), and job satisfaction (cf. Kaelin
et al., 2000). Data were analysed by way of multiple regression analyses, controlling for
demographics and self-efficacy (Items from Krampen, 1991), and for the dependent variables
at T1, where appropriate.
Results: With all other variables in the equation, time pressure was a significant predictor for
poor unwinding cross-sectional but not longitudinally. It was not predictive of job satisfaction.
By contrast, quality-impairment through time pressure predicted both dependent variables
cross-sectionally as well as longitudinally (beta T1-T2 = .16** for poor unwinding, and -.14*
for job satisfaction).
Conclusions: Our results are in line with the reasoning (1) that time pressure does, indeed,
contain positive elements, and (2) that the positive aspects relate to being able to perform
well despite time pressure. The resulting ambiguity attenuates associations with well-being,
both in terms of strain and in terms of attitudes. Time pressure that prevents people from
performing well, however, deprives them of the opportunity for accomplishment and pride,
and therefore represents a clear and unambiguous stressor.
137
CONSEQUENCES OF “PART-TIME SICK LEAVE”
FOR COLLEAGUES AND MANAGEMENT
SIEURIN, L., VINGARD, E. & JOSEPHSON, M.
Occupational and environmental Medicine, Uppsala Universitet, Sweden
Objective: In Sweden there is the possibility to prescribe part-time sick leave, 25, 50 or 75
percent of the actual working hour. The purpose of this study is to describe the experienced
consequences for colleagues and management surrounding employees on part-time sick leave.
Methods: Employees in four county councils and two municipalities in Sweden with
experiences from working together with colleagues on part-time sick leave were invited. Focus
group interviews were used and the result was obtained using manifest content analysis.
Individual interviews with politicians, higher management persons and social security workers
were conducted and used for triangulation to ensure a higher level of trustworthiness. Other
methods for trustworthiness were; co-analysing between the two authors and crosscomparisons with results from an earlier study on consequences of part time sick leave for the
individual.
Results: The colleagues believed that part-time sick leave is very positive for the sickness
absent colleague; it makes it possible for them to stay at work although not healthy. The
consequences for the working group were believed to be “not that positive”, as the colleagues
reported more own strain to cover for the person on part-time sick leave. Problematic areas
for the management were “recruiting stand-ins” as well as solving the more complex questions
about “working hours” and distribution of tasks so that they were considered reasonable and
fair to colleagues. Unrealistic expectations of work contributions from the person on part time
sick leave, was a clear theme in the interviews with both colleagues and managers. This
theme involved both “time spent” and “efforts made” from the sick listed. The sick listed
person was expected to be fully fit the time he/she spent at work which not was seen as
realistic. The attitude from the managers was considered crucial for the success or not of part
time participation at work. To find the balance between work task demands and capacity was
harder for partial sick-listed with mental disorders. Managers and teachers in the education
sector talked about negative consequences for the costumers (pupils), while in elderly care the
perspective was primarily about relations in the working group.
Conclusions: The ideas of positive consequences of part-time sick leave seemed to be limited
to the actual person on part-time sick leave. The consequences for clients, colleagues,
management and organisation are reported mostly as negative.
138
VIOLENCE IN AND FROM WORK IN A GROUP OF
TEACHERS AT THE UNIVERSIDAD DEL TRABAJO
DEL URUGUAY (POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE). A
QUALI-QUANTITATIVE TRIANGULATION STUDY
SILVEIRA, N.
Psychology Faculty & Occupational Health Department, Faculty of Medicine, National
University, Uruguay.
Objective: To describe, in a selective group of teachers, the subjective perceptions related to
violence in and from work, its conditions and environment, relating it with specific
questionnaires.
Method: Correlational study, with a quali-quantitative methodology. Instruments: only one
meeting, informed consent, loosely structured interview, observation, self-administered
application: MBI, labour satisfaction and stress, self-referenced symptoms.
Results: Confidence: M.B.I. : α = .8167, Labour satisfaction: α = .8659, Labour stress: α =
.7646, Self-referenced symptoms: α = .9220 .
Quali-quantitative triangulation model: Social and political environment: 321 teachers from 7
schools, 60% female, 40% male, minor total average Burnout, major average total stress,
minor average total satisfaction than previous studies. Communitarian level: admission: 1969
to 2007, multi employment 59%, High emotional fatigue 38%, high social interaction distance
41%, Low self realization 35%. Working environment: multi employment 40%, wishing to
change job 28%, employment insecurity 43%, communication failure 75%, exposed to
violence 34%, intentional violence 16,51%. Family: married 42%, single 25.54%. Income:
main 64,45%, sole 30,84%, unsatisfactory 75%. Specific level: Schools: without statistically
significant differences, MBI average, relevant differences in Labour Productivity and extrinsic
satisfaction. Self-referenced symptoms with higher level than somatic and psychosomatic
ones. Emergent: “You could loose your job”, “They’ve tried to bribe me to approve their
exam”, “If I didn’t clean up the room, they had lowered my points”, “Fourteen groups, 20
hours each”, “Every year nobody knows if they will keep their jobs”, “An inspector told me:
you’re pregnant, I’m not going to give you teaching chores”, “Labour security!!! It’s all
theory, there’s no security in the workshop”.
Conclusions: Institutional violence raises in and from work, it´s a group with high emotional
fatigue which constitutes a group on risk, close relationship between personal suffering and
impact in physiologic and psychological health. From this association spurts “politicalbureaucratic violence”. The actual challenge, and the most difficult, is the lack of consensus on
the subject of work violence and violence in the workplace. Political-bureaucratic violence is a
variant produced by political employees and/or permanent high rank employees strengthened
by those that don´t make decisions but legitimate those practices. Moral harassment and
institutional political-bureaucratic violence are complementary practices, both were endured
with the addition of psychological harassment that is harder to prove.
139
THE ROLE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT AND WORKFAMILY CONFLICT ON NURSES’ HEALTH
DISTRESS AND MARITAL ADJUSTMENT
SIMÃES, C.1,2, MCINTYRE, T.1 & MCINTYRE, S.3
1
Department of Psychology, Minho University, Portugal
2
School of Nursing, Minho University, Portugal
3
University of Houston - Clear Lake, USA
Objectives: The present study investigates the relationship between family-work and workfamily spill-over on nurse’s health distress and marital adjustment. The role of social support
and coping confidence will also be explored.
Methods: The sample consists of 88 female hospital-based nurses (Mean Age =34.36;
SD=9.31) from the northern region of Portugal. Participants were assessed by a SocioDemographic and a Professional Questionnaire, and the Portuguese versions of : 1) the
“Work-Family Conflict” scales (WFC/FWC-S, Netemeyer, Boles & McMurrian, 1996) to evaluate
“Work-Family Conflict” and “Family-Work Conflict”; 2) the “General Health Questionnaire”
(G.H.Q-12) to measure psychological distress; 3) the “Revised Brief Personal Survey” (BPS-R)
to assess health distress and coping; 4) the “Job Content Questionnaire” (JCQ – SS), to
measure social support in the work place; 5) and the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS) to assess marital satisfaction, dyadic cohesion and marital consensus.
Results: Data show that work-family conflict (WFC) and family-work conflict (FWC) are
positively correlated with psychological distress on the GHQ-12 (rWFC=.33; rFWC= .25) and
the stress response pressure/overload on the BPS-R (rWFC= .34; rFWC=.27). FWC is
negatively correlated with marital satisfaction (r=-.25), whereas WFC is negatively correlated
with marital consensus (r=-.21). Findings reveal that work-family spill-over is positively
correlated with family/friends social support (r=.29), but negatively correlated with supervisor
social support(r=-.25).
Coping confidence (BPS-R) is negatively correlated with health
distress responses (anger/frustration: r= -.28; guilt: r=-.29), and pressure/overload (r=-.21).
In turn, pressure/overload is negatively correlated with marital adjustment (r= -.22).
Conclusions: These findings are in conformity with existing literature which highlights the
role of work-family and family-work conflict on psychological distress in nurses (e.g. Simon et
al., 2004). It seems that the conflict experienced in one role transfers to the other role and
vice versa, affecting nurses’ marital adjustment and well being. Confidence in one’s coping
resources seems to be associated with lower personal distress and should be explored as a
potential moderator in the relationship between work-family spill over, and personal and
marital stress. Family and supervisor social support seem to be inversely related to workfamily spill-over, and their role as potential moderator should also be considered in future
studies. Results show the importance of reducing work-family conflict and making work
demands more compatible with family and “marital” life, in Portuguese nurses. Work-family
conflict, especially in women, must be considered in occupational health promotion programs
and in marital therapy.
140
PRODUCTIVITY, CARE QUALITY AND
EMPLOYEES' WELL-BEING IN PUBLIC AND
PRIVATE SERVICE HOUSING FOR ELDERLY
PEOPLE
SINERVO, T.1, PEKKARINEN, L.1, SYRJÄ, V.1, NORO, A.1, FINNE-SOVERI, H.1,
TAIMIO, H.2,, LILJA, R.2 & PIRTTILÄ, J.2
1
Stakes (National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health)
2
Labour Institute for Economic Research
Objectives: Economic situation of municipalities has increased the demands for higher
efficiency in care services. No consensus exists on the effects of using private services. The
effects may occur in costs, productivity, in quality of care and in well-being of workers. Most
studies report that free-for-all competition between service providers reduces costs. But there
have been doubts whether costs remain low in the long run. Increasing uncertainty, growing
demands, lay offs, lower wages and higher turnover rates of employees are frequently
reported. But private organizations are also reported to have better leadership, higher job
control and flatter organizations. Maximizing profits may lead to cutting costs and quality
problems. On the other hand competition is supposed to assure quality by motivating to
develop work processes. Most studies have explored only one or two aspects of privatization.
There is a lack of comprehensive studies taking into account costs, differences in clientele,
quality of care and workers' well-being. If these aspects are not taken into account the results
will be misleading. This study attempts to overcome the problems in former studies using a
large sample, and combining different data. The aim of this study is to explore the differences
between private-owned and municipal services in service housing (with 24-hour assistance)
for elderly people. The factors studied are costs and efficiency, quality of care, work
environment and well-being of employees. In analyses patient-structures and transactional
costs are taken into account.
Methods: The study is based on data from personnel surveys (N=2000), resident
assessments (3000) (quality of care, patient structure) and data on costs, organizational
structures and bed-days in municipal and private-owned service houses (150 work units).
Results: First results show that in private-owned organizations leadership, team climate and
autonomy are at better levels. Also job demands seem to be lower. In further analyses
patients' functioning and quality of care are explored.
Conclusions: The study showed that privately owned service housing may be a healthy workplace for nurses. Work environment seemed to be better in private organizations than in
municipal services. The differences in patient structures and resources as well as quality of
care will be explored.
141
THE INFLUENCE OF WORK STRESSORS ON
SAFETY RELATED EVENTS: THE MEDIATING
ROLE OF EMPLOYEE WELL BEING
SLAUNWHITE, J.M., FLEMING, M., WENTZELL, N. & GATIEN, B.
Department of Psychology, Saint Mary’s University, Canada
Objectives: Although previous research has shown that work related stressors are predictive
of employee health and well-being (Kelloway & Barling, 1991), there have been few attempts
to link workplace stressors and affective well-being with employee safety behaviours. This
study tested a structural model in which self-reported well-being mediated the relationship
between workplace stressors (workload, role conflict) and self reported safety behaviours.
Method: A sample of three hundred and forty two (N=342) heavy construction workers
completed a health and safety questionnaire in the fall of 2007. The questionnaire included
measures of employee affective well-being (Warr, 1990), workload, role conflict (House,
McMichael, Wells, Kaplan, and Landerman, 1979) and safety behaviours (Fleming, 2000).
Results: We used Baron and Kenny’s (1986) four step process to test the extent to which
affective well being mediated the relationship between workload and role conflict and safety
behaviour. We concluded that increased workload detrimentally influences safety behaviours
(β = - .12, p < .05) and employee affective wellbeing (β = - .42, p < .001). Additionally,
wellbeing positively influences safety behaviours (β = .25, p < .001). The relationship
between workload and safety behaviour was fully mediated by self-reported well-being of
employees, as demonstrated by this relationship becoming non-significant when controlling for
employee wellbeing (β = - .02, p = 82). Similarly, increased role conflict was associated with
decreased safety behaviours (β = - .23, p < .001) and employee wellbeing (β = -. 48, p <
.001). The relationship between role conflict and safety behaviours was only partially mediated
by self-reported well-being; this relationship was reduced when controlling for employee
wellbeing, although still significant (β = - .14, p = .03).
Conclusions: We concluded that workplace stressors influence self-reported safety
behaviours; however this impact is mediated by employee affective well-being. When
attempting to increase the safety behaviour of employees it is important to be cognizant of the
mediating role employee well-being has on safety related behaviours. Future research should
attempt to replicate these findings in other workplace domains.
142
SOCIAL SUPPORT AT WORK, ATTACHMENT,
AND BURNOUT AMONG GERIATRIC MENTAL
HEALTH WORKERS
SOCHOS, A. & SIERRA, J.
University of Bedfordshire, United Kingdom
Objectives: The main aim of the study was to explore the perception of social support at
work and its link with burnout, within an attachment theory framework. A questionnaire
assessing perceived social support from colleagues and superiors separately, among mental
health workers, was developed and the links between dimensions of perceived support at
work, attachment style, and burnout were investigated.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 68 nursing and support
staff in two geriatric mental health hospitals in Barcelona, Spain (61 females, 7 males; mean
age = 39.34, sd = 10.26). The Spanish versions of three questionnaires were administered:
the new 13-item Support at the Workplace Questionnaire developed by the authors, the
Relationship Questionnaire (Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991) consisting of four single-item
scales (secure, dismissive, preoccupied, and fearful) and the 22-item Maslach Burnout
Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1981) consisting of three subscales (emotional exhaustion,
depersonalisation, and personal accomplishment).
All questionnaires were completed
anonymously by the participants after work or during lunch breaks.
Results: Principal component analysis yielded three factors that explained 58.4% of the
variance: support from superiors, support from colleagues, and autonomy obstruction from
superiors. All three factors were correlated with emotional exhaustion (rs = -.28, -.32, .29,
p<.05), but only support from colleagues and autonomy obstruction from superiors were
correlated with the depersonalisation (rs = -.32 and .28, p<.01 and p<.05) and total burnout
scales (rs = -.35 and .33, p<.01). Preoccupied attachment was correlated with support from
colleagues and depersonalisation (rs = -.25 and .30, p<.05), while fearful attachment was
correlated with autonomy obstruction from superiors and depersonalisation (rs = -.30 and .38,
p<.05 and p<.01). Fearful attachment and support from colleagues predicted almost 20% of
the depersonalisation variance (F=9.19, p<.001).
Conclusions: The distinction between relatedness and autonomy may be useful in
understanding the breakdown of interpersonal processes at the workplace. While in same
level work relationships the provision of emotional and practical assistance, expressions of
relatedness, seemed to be linked with burnout, in relationships with superiors, the obstruction
of autonomy was the strongest correlate. Preoccupied employees, characterised by an
exaggerated need for interpersonal closeness, may be more vulnerable to depersonalisation
when support from colleagues is disrupted, while fearful employees, characterised by
interpersonal avoidance and a defensive sense of independence, may be more vulnerable
when autonomy is obstructed.
143
COMPARING THE ATTRIBUTIONAL STYLE OF
MANAGERS AND EMPLOYEES WHEN
DISCUSSING INCIDENTS OF STRESS AT WORK
ST-HILAIRE, F.1, YARKER, J.2, LEWIS, R.2 & DONALDSON-FEILDER, E.3
1
2
Laval University, Canada
Goldsmiths, University of London, United Kingdom
3
Affinity Health at Work, United Kingdom
Objectives: This study aims to explore the attributions made by employees’ and managers’
when discussing incidents of stress at work; to compare the attributional style of managers
and employees and; to discuss the impact of attribution theory to stress management
interventions. We now know that managers’ play an important role – positive and negative –
in employee stress management (e.g. Tepper, 2000; Hogan, Curphy & Hogan, 1994;
Thomson, Rick & Neathey, 2004). Recent research (Gilbreath & Benson, 2004; Neilsen et al.,
2008; Yarker et al, 2007; 2008) provides further understanding of the specific management
behaviours that impact on employees’ mental health and well-being. However, we have less
understanding of the way in which employees interpret their managers’ stress management
behaviour. For example, when reporting stressful incidences, do employees explain their
managers’ behaviour as attributable to an internal, controllable and specific cause? And, if so,
is this associated with a positive account of the managers’ intervention? Furthermore, when
managers report their role in managing an employee through a stressful incident, do they
attribute their behaviour to these same causes? Or, do they draw from different attributions
depending on the outcome of the incident?
Method: Managers and employees took part in structured interviews which employed the
critical incident technique (Flannagan, 1954). The sample was comprised of 84 participants;
39 managers and 45 employees, from 5 different British financial companies. The interviews
were recorded and transcribed. We then analysed the interviews using the Leeds Attributional
Coding System (LACS; Munton, Silvester, Stratton & Hanks, 1999). Frequency analysis was
conducted and comparisons between employees and managers attributional style were made.
Results: Preliminary analysis indicates that managers and employees report very different
attributional styles when discussing incidences of effective and ineffective management of
stress at work. Interestingly, the differences between employees’ and managers’ attributions
of management behaviour give incite into how the same behaviour can be both a cause or an
outcome of stress.
Conclusions: These results are relevant to understand how employees and managers
conceive stress management behaviors in terms of causes, outcomes, generalization,
controllability, stability, and specificity. In understanding how employees and managers
attribute manager behaviours, we will be better positioned to design effective interventions in
terms of the “good” management practices or competencies.
144
RISKS AND DISTRIBUTION OF SEXUAL
HARASSMENT AT THE WORKPLACE. A
REPRESENTATIVE SURVEY IN GERMAN AND
FRENCH-SPEAKING SWITZERLAND
STRUB, S.1, SCHÄR MOSER, M.2 & VANIS, M.3
1
3
Centre for Labour and Social Policy Studies BASS, Switzerland
2
Research and Counselling, Switzerland
Working Conditions Division, State Secretariat for Economic Affairs, Switzerland
Objective: Within the framework of an impulse program against sexual harassment at the
workplace by the Swiss federal government, we conducted a study in 2007 with the goal of
shedding light on the frequency and risk factors for this topic. Through telephone interviews,
we contacted a representative group of 2,020 actively employed participants throughout
German and French-speaking Switzerland.
Method: The study focuses on the incidence of sexual harassment from 3 different
perspectives: (1) direct experience of incidents with a potentially damaging nature. To avoid
problems with definitions and terminology, participants were presented with 12 incidents that
are classified as potential sexual harassment in the subject literature. The participants were
asked if they had ever experienced the incidents themselves. (2) Subjective experience was
measured in that the participants were asked firstly if they had been made to feel sexually
harassed by any of the 12 incidents or similar behaviour. Secondly, if not whether the incident
unpleasantly disturbed them. A positive response to either of these questions meets the
criteria for a form of sexual harassment according to the legal definition. (3) Subjects were
also asked if they had observed such behaviour among work colleagues.
Results: The preliminary findings showed that 51% of those questioned had experienced at
least one of the 12 forms of harassment indicated in the survey (women 55%, men 49%).
Qualifying these results according to subjective experience, women reported a 28% incidence
of sexual harassment, almost 3 times the frequency of that reported by men (10%).
The distribution of the frequency of the indirectly observed incidences roughly matched the
first and second study perspectives.
Conclusion: From an outsider perspective, incidences that are generally considered minor
infractions (such as sexual jokes) are more frequently observed than more “serious” ones.
However, people that have experienced some recent incident rate their working atmosphere
as significantly worse, no matter if they considered the incidents as harassment or not.
145
ORGANIZATIONAL INDICATORS OF
EMPLOYEES’ WELL-BEING: CITIZENSHIP
BEHAVIOURS VS. COUNTERPRODUCTIVE
BEHAVIOURS
SULEA, C., ZABORILA, C. & VIRGA, D.
West University, Timisoara, Romania
Our study aims at identifying predictive factors for well-being in organizational context, our
focus being on those factors that have a potential negative impact and generate coping
reactions and emotional experiences as fear and anger. The study was conducted on 94
employees using an eclectic questionnaire, based on well-known instruments along with newly
constructed instruments (for counterproductive climate and emotional responses). We have
conducted regression analyses to test our hypotheses. Our findings showed that organizational
factors (e.g.role overload, r=-.233, p < .01) and individual factors (e.g. interpersonal conflict
at work, r=-.261, p = .01) have an important role in well-being prediction. The results also
supported the proposed mediating relations (coping) and moderating relations (emotions). The
discussion will also address the impact of individual well-being on psychological health,
emphasizing the importance of healthy emotional responses.
146
COPYING CO-WORKERS’ SICKNESS ABSENCE IN
TEAMS
TEN BRUMMELHUIS, L.1 & TER HOEVEN, C.2
1
2
Utrecht University, the Netherlands
University of Twente, the Netherlands
Objective: Elaborate research has been done on the causes of employees’ sickness absence.
The predictors of absence have mainly been sought on the individual level, such as
commitment and psychological health of the employee (Bakker, Demerouti, De Boer &
Schaufeli, 2003) and on the organizational level, such as health programs (Cunningham &
James, 2000). Less attention has been paid to the causes of absenteeism on the meso-level of
organizations, the level where interactions between co-workers occur. Nonetheless, the
interactive processes between co-workers have become highly important since organizations
increasingly organize their work processes in a team based form (Cohen & Bailey, 1997),
requiring employees to interact with each other. The increased interaction between co-workers
urges for more insight in the effects co-workers may have on each other’s work outcomes.
Though previous studies have proved the importance of group processes for work outcomes
(Riordan & Griffeth, 1995), studies on absenteeism addressing the effects of co-worker
interactions are thus far lacking. Therefore, the central question of this study is whether
employee sickness absence is affected by co-worker characteristics, on top of employee
characteristics. As a theoretical building block we use the often applied distinction of sickness
frequency and sickness duration with the assumption that sickness frequency is related to
motivational factors, whereas sickness duration is caused by physical and mental illness
(Johns, 1997). Further, based on emotional contagion theory and social identification theory,
assuming that co-workers affect each other’s work outcomes via the exchange of emotions
and behaviour (Hatfield, Cacioppo, & Rapson, 1994; Tajfel & Turner, 1985) we hypothesize
that co-workers’ emotions (low job motivation and high stress) and co-workers’ absence
behaviour (frequency and duration) increase respectively employee absence frequency and
employee absence duration.
Method: Data were collected in 2007 among employees of 24 Dutch organizations using
teams as the primary work form. 520 Employees of 97 teams filled in questionnaires including
their team name, enabling us to link team members of the same team. We used self-reported
absence measures taking into account several reliability enhancing guidelines (Johns, 1994).
The other variables, control variables of team and organizational characteristics, as well as job
motivation and stress were measured by valid scales. Weighted regression analyses were used
to test the hypotheses, taking into account the nested character of our data.
Results: The results confirmed that the bulk of the variance in absence frequency and
duration was explained on the employee level and not by team or organizational
characteristics. Job motivation and stress of co-workers had no significant effect on
respectively employee absence frequency and duration, whereas a strong positive relation was
found between the co-workers’ absence behaviour (frequency and duration) and the
employee’s absence frequency and duration.
Conclusions: From our results, we conclude that group processes play an important role in
increasing or decreasing employee absenteeism. Although no support was found for the idea
that co-workers’ emotions spill over to the employee, the actual absence behaviour of coworkers appeared to be copied by the employee, supporting the idea that team members
together create commonly agreed behavioural patterns.
147
EFFECTIVE WORK-LIFE BALANCE SUPPORT FOR
DIFFERENT FAMILY TYPES
TEN BRUMMELHUIS, L. & VAN DER LIPPE, T.
Utrecht University, the Netherlands
Objective: Time pressure is a major problem of today’s workforce due to the increasing
proportion of workers with substantial responsibilities at home in addition to their job demands
(Moen, 2003). Organizations increasingly provide work-life policies, such as flextime and
childcare to facilitate work family balance. Evaluation studies principally agree on the
beneficial effects of work life policies on work and family outcomes (see for an overview: Glass
& Finley, 2002). However, the literature on work-life policies has focused on intact nuclear
families, whereas other family types have been largely neglected even though today’s work
force is characterized by an increasing diversity in family structures (Casper, Weltman &
Kwesiga, 2007). The demands and support that singles and employees without children have
at home may differ from employees with children (Young, 1996). Therefore, we will compare
the effectiveness of work-life balance support (WLB support) in enhancing employee work
outcomes between employees from different family types. Furthermore, work-life policy
studies have been restricted to the evaluation of work-life policies offered by the employer,
whereas support in balancing dual roles beyond the work place may play an important role in
increasing work outcomes as well (Lapierre & Allen, 2006). Our conceptualization of WLB
support includes instrumental support and social support from the work domain (e.g. flextime)
and from the family domain (outsourcing of household chores). Insights from two opposed
theories are used to predict the effectiveness of WLB support among employees from different
family types. Following conflict theory (Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985) we expect that WLB
support is most beneficial among employees who have greatest need for additional time and
energy due to high demands at home (parents). Following enrichment theory (Greenhaus &
Powell, 2006), we hypothesize that WLB support will be most effective in enhancing work
outcomes among employees who have the lowest resources at home (singles).
Methods: Data were collected in 2007 among 520 employees at 24 organizations, including
94 employees without partner and children (singles), 170 employees with partner, without
children (couples) and 218 employees with partner and children (parents). The dependent
variables of this study were work performance and helping behavior. We conducted multilevel
analyses taking into account the nested character of our data.
Results: The results showed multiple interaction effects of family type on the relationship
between WLB support and the work outcomes. For example, controlling for family tasks,
outsourcing of household chores increased performance among singles, but not among
couples and parents. Work-family culture increased performance among parents, while
reducing performance among singles. Singles’ work outcomes improved when they had access
to flexible work arrangements, whereas couples profited from social support from their
supervisors.
Conclusions: These findings stress the importance of taking into account the family type of
an employee when considering appropriate support to balance work and life roles.
148
HOME AND WORK DEMANDS - RESOURCES AND
SICKNESS ABSENCE: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF
JOB MOTIVATION AND PERCEIVED HEALTH
TER HOEVEN, C.1, TEN BRUMMELHUIS, L.2 & PAPER, B.
3
1
University of Twente, the Netherlands
Utrecht University, the Netherlands
Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands
2
3
Objective: In this study, we use the Job Demands – Resources (JD-R) model to examine how
different work and home demands and resources are related to absence frequency and
duration, mediated by job motivation and perceived health. The JD-R model is built on the
premise that employees always face job demands and have limited job resources (Demerouti,
Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001). When the organizational or social environment lacks
resources, employees have less self-regulatory power to cope with the influences of high
demands. Withdrawal from work or reduction of motivation can come into effect as a selfprotecting mechanism. Prior studies have established that high job demands exhaust
employees’ mental and physical resources and therefore lead to depletion, whereas the
absence of job resources undermines motivation (Bakker, Demerouti, & Euwema, 2005).
Bakker, Demerouti, de Boer, and Schaufeli (2003) confirmed this model and extended it by
predicting absence frequency and absence duration. In the present study, we argue that not
only job demands and – resources influence job motivation and perceived health and
subsequently absence, but that this process is also put into action by home demands and –
resources. Therefore, we extend the model with exogenous constructs related to the home
domain.
Results: Data were collected in the Dutch subsidiary of a consultancy firm, with 4,220
employees. This study used two types of data collection: a survey of employees and the
company records of employees’ absences. Of a total of 4220 employees, 1176 completed the
questionnaire (28 % response rate). The hypotheses were tested with structural equation
modeling (SEM) analyses using AMOS (Arbuckle, 1997). In this model, the latent exogenous
factors were work pressure, family burden, supervisor support, and social support. In addition,
the structural model includes two types of endogenous variables: (1) job motivation and
perceived health as latent (mediator) variables, and (2) absence frequency and duration as
observed variables. The model appears to fit the data well.
Conclusions: These findings imply an extension of the model presented in Bakker et al.
(2003), with home demands and – resources. In other words, demands and resources
provided by the family domain appeared to have just as much predictive power within the JDR model as those encountered within the job. This demonstrates the importance of home and
family demands for fully understanding the demands on employees. Both domains, work and
home, are an integral part of contemporary working life. Therefore, absence can only be
understood by taking both domains into account.
149
META-ANALYSIS OF THE ANTECEDENTS AND
CONSEQUENCES OF OCCUPATIONAL SEXUAL
HARASSMENT
TOPA-CANTISANO, G.
UNED, Department of Social and organizational psychology, Spain
Objectives: Although workplace harassment affects the lives of many employees, it until
recently has been relatively ignored in the organizational psychology literature. The current
meta-analysis examined the potential antecedents and consequences of workplace
harassment.
Based on the literature, in this review, the following hypotheses are formulated:
1. Significant effect sizes are expected between the antecedents and SH on the one hand,
and between SH and its consequences, on the other.
2. On the basis of the importance of the psychosocial factors, we expect:
a. A higher effect size of the antecedent of social interaction, specifically, social support
b. Lower effect sizes of the organizational antecedents: tolerance and job-gender context
3. On the basis of the impact on employees’ social relations, we expect:
a. Higher effect sizes of the consequences referring to Coworker satisfaction and supervisors
b. Lower effect sizes of the consequences referring to concrete work aspects, such as job
satisfaction, job withdrawal, or performance.
Method: An extensive literature search yielded 42 empirical studies with 60 independent
samples and 106,948 participants, to examine several negative consequences of workplace
SH, as well as how organizational climate may play a role in facilitating these occurrences.
Results: Most of the hypotheses formulated have found support in the data, although this
confirmation is not at all conclusive. Although, as proposed by the hypotheses, close relations
were found between the personal and organizational antecedents and consequences of SH, it
should be taken into account that some meta-analyses are based on a reduced number of
studies, such as the case of social support, performance, and, especially, coping strategies
and anxiety. With regard to the consequences, as predicted, the effects on social relations and
on psychological and physical well-being have higher effect sizes, although this hypothesis is
not confirmed either for anxiety or stress. In contrast, the consequences at the organizational
level, such as job withdrawal intention or performance, have a more complex pattern than was
predicted.
Conclusions: Despite the fact that no specific hypotheses were formulated about the
moderating variables, we could confirm that the effect sizes of organizational tolerance is very
low for the studies in the military setting, perhaps because of the effect of the official Equal
Opportunity programs that the North American Armed Forces have been implementing for
some time, as this is the context where most of the military studies reviewed came from. In
contrast, it is also observed that the studies that used standardized instruments such as the
SEQ (Fitzgerald, Magley, et al., 1999) to assess the variables of interest found higher effect
sizes. As this instrument operationalizes SH by means of a list of behaviors, it can be
concluded that more reliable measures allow one to determine stronger relations between SH
and its personal and organizational correlates.
150
THE WAY OPTIMISTS COPE WITH STRESS AT
WORK
TORKELSON, E.
Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden
Objectives: Previous studies on dispositional optimism and pessimism have showed that high
level of optimism predicted less perceived stress and less health problems. Some studies also
show that optimists tend to use active coping strategies more than pessimists do.
The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of optimism in relation to coping with
stress at work.
Methods: An Internet-based questionnaire was sent to 1345 female and male employees at
both managerial and non-managerial level working in a Swedish telecom company. The
company develops internet-based services and products, and provides individual solutions for
communications needs for both small and large organizations. The departments where the
participants work are comparable to call centres. Altogether 950 employees (71%)
participated in the study. The coping strategies that were examined were active coping,
seeking emotional support, seeking instrumental support, acceptance, positive reinterpretation
and growth, venting of emotions and social joining.
Results: The results showed that high level of optimism was positively related to some of the
coping strategies. These were active coping, seeking instrumental support and social joining.
In addition the results show that optimism was negatively related to acceptance and venting
of emotions.
Conclusions: It can be concluded that optimism is related to several coping strategies in the
study. Future research about stress at work should address personality factors such as
optimism.
151
INDIVIDUAL DISPOSITION, PERSONAL
IMPACT, AND HEALTHY PROCESSES AS
MODERATORS FOR STRESS AND HEALTH
COMPLAINTS CONNECTED WITH
ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE
TVEDT, S.D. & SAKSVIK, P.Ø.
Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway
Objectives: According to research literature, the individual’s disposition for change and
personal impact of the change, are important determinants of employee reactions to change.
The objective of this study was to investigate how the employee’s individual disposition for
change and the impact of the change on the individual together act as moderators for the
perceived healthiness of change process, for the psychosocial work environment, and for
experiences of stress and health complaints in organizations undergoing change.
Methods: Two main hypotheses were tested using SEM analysis: H1: The impact of change
functions as a moderator with a direct increasing effect on stress and health complaints, and
indirectly through increased demands, reduced perceived change process healthiness, reduced
control and support. H2: Personal disposition for change function as a moderator with direct
reducing effect on stress and health complaints, and indirectly through increased perceived
change process healthiness, control and support. Both hypotheses were tested by a strategic
cluster sample of four Norwegian enterprises undergoing change (N=414) by means of
Structural Equation Modelling (SEM).
Results: A model incorporating H1 and H2 with reasonable fit (CMIN/DF = 1.376, GFI=.985,
AGFI=.962, CFI=.989, RMSEA=.034) was achieved, that explained 30 % and 21 % of the
variance in stress and health complaints, respectively. As hypothesized in H1, The impact of
change had a direct increasing effect on stress and health complaints, and indirectly through
increased demands, reduced perceived change process healthiness, but the indirect
moderating effects through reduced control and reduced support were not significant. As
hypothesized in H2: Personal disposition for change had a direct reducing effect on health
complaints, but only indirectly on stress through the perceived change process healthiness,
and of the other hypothesized indirect effects, only the reducing effect on health complaints
through perceived change process healthiness and support was significant.
Conclusions: Although the SEM analyses used in the present study should not be taken as
confirmation of the causal nature of the model, the results indicate that both personal change
impact and individual disposition for change moderates the psychosocial working environment
in organizations undergoing change, and ultimately levels of stress and health complaints.
Interestingly, there seems to be a split in the model, change impact mainly effecting demands
and stress and negatively effecting the perceived change process healthiness, while change
disposition mainly effects support, control and health complaints and positively effecting the
perceived change process healthiness.
152
INVESTIGATING DEMOGRAPHIC PREDICTORS
OF CHANGE PROCESSES PERCEPTION
OBJECTIVES
TVEDT, S.D. & SAKSVIK, P.Ø.
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway
Objective: Findings reported in the research literature, suggests great differences in the
perception of organizational change processes both within and between enterprises
undergoing change. The objective of the present study was to investigate how parameters
varying in different subpopulations of enterprises undergoing change influence the perception
of change processes as measured by a pilot version of the Healthy Change Process Index
(HCPI).
Methods: The pilot version of HCPI incorporates four categories of healthy change:
Awareness of diversity in employee reactions to change; Availability of leaders during change;
Rapid role clarification; Constructive conflict management. In the present study we
hypothesized that each of the four categories of the preliminary HCPI would be influenced by
the following demographic predictors: Employee age, sex, education, seniority, permanence of
employment, and leadership responsibility. The hypothesis was tested with a strategic cluster
sample of seven Norwegian enterprises undergoing change (N=595). To test the hypothesis
we computed multiple regression analyses, using SPSS 15.0 software, for each of the four
HCPI categories.
Results: Awareness of diversity in employee reactions (Adj. R2 = .04) was predicted by
leadership responsibility (β = -.17) and seniority (β = -.14). Availability of leaders during
change (Adj. R2 = .04) was predicted by permanence of employment (β = -.17) and sex (β =
.12). Rapid role clarification (Adj. R2 = .03) was predicted by leadership responsibility (β =
.14). Constructive conflict management (Adj. R2 = .06) was predicted by seniority (β = -.23)
and leadership responsibility (β = -.15).
Conclusions: Our hypothesis was only partly supported. First, no more than two predictors
were significant for each of the four categories of the pilot HCPI. Second, the total explained
variance was low for all of the categories. On the other hand, all predictors except employee
age were significant for at least one of the categories, and often with moderate beta values.
Two important limitations with the present study are noted: First the analyses confound
individual level characteristics from enterprise level characteristics. Second, the analyses
confound differences in perception from differences in change process quality. The first
limitation, promises to be better addressed in future research by taking a multilevel approach.
The second limitation raises questions about to what extent certain levels of perceived process
quality ought to be accepted in special sectors, and whether there are grounds for a division
between process quality per se, and the perception thereof in research and practice.
153
LOW PREDICTABILITY AT WORK AS A
PREDICTOR OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION:
AN 18-YEAR PROSPECTIVE STUDY
VÄÄNÄNEN, A.1, JOENSUU, M.1, KOSKINEN, A.1, KIVIMÄKI, M.2, VAHTERA,
J.3, KOUVONEN, A.4 & JÄPPINEN, P.1
1
4
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland
2
University College London, United Kingdom
3
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku, Finland (FI)
Institute of Work, Health and Organisations, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
Objectives: Poor job control is suggested to represent a risk factor for acute myocardial
infarction (AMI), but few previous studies on AMI have taken into account that job control is a
multidimensional concept. The objective of this study was to prospectively examine the
relationship between the components of job control (decision authority, skill discretion,
predictability) and AMI among private sector industrial employees.
Methods: Data for the present analyses originate from the Still Working Study, which is a
prospective cohort study assessing health and potential risk factors at baseline and data on
18-year mortality and morbidity among private sector industrial employees within a
multinational forest industry corporation, with domicile in Finland. A questionnaire on workrelated psychosocial factors and health-related factors was sent in winter-spring 1986. The
employees initially free from heart disease who responded to the survey (response rate 76%),
who had worked in the company for at least 24 months before the survey, and who could be
identified from the database of the National Population Register Centre were included in the
study cohort of 1,716 female and 5,947 male employees (total=7,663, the mean age 40
years). During 18 years of follow-up (until 2005), 56 fatal (data derived from Statistics
Finland) and 316 non-fatal (data derived from the National Hospital Discharge Register)
events of AMI were documented among these employees.
Results: After adjustment for demographics, psychological distress, prevalent medical
conditions, lifestyle risk factors, and socioeconomic characteristics, low decision autonomy (P
trend <0.53) and skill discretion (P, trend <0.10) were not significantly related to subsequent
AMI. In contrast, low predictability at work was associated with elevated risk of AMI (P, trend
=0.02). This association was driven by the strong effect of predictability on AMI among
employees between 45 and 54 years of age.
Conclusions: Prospective evidence suggests that low predictability at work is an important
component of job control increasing long-term risk of AMI among middle-aged employees.
154
EXPANDING THE DISC MODEL: EFFECTS OF
MATCHING COPING STYLES
VAN DEN TOOREN, M.1, DE JONGE, J.1, VLERICK, P.2 & VERMEULEN, K.3
1
Department of Technology Management, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands
2
Department of Personnel Management, Work and Organizational Psychology, Belgium
3
Centrum voor Locomotorische en Neurologische Revalidatie (CLNR) – UZ Belgium
Objectives:
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of matching coping
styles on the explanatory power of the Demand-Induced Strain Compensation (DISC) Model.
The DISC Model generally proposes that employees who are faced with high job demands may
experience adverse health and the absence of positive outcomes such as creativity and active
learning, unless they have sufficient job resources to cope with their demanding job. Further,
the DISC Model proposes that job demands, job resources, and job-related outcomes may
comprise cognitive, emotional, or physical components, and that job resources are most likely
to moderate the relationship between job demands and job-related outcomes, when demands,
resources and outcomes all comprise the same component. In other words, moderating effects
are most likely when there is a triple match between demands, resources, and outcomes.
Although there is mounting empirical evidence for the DISC Model, the model ignores the
possible effects of individual differences in the prediction of job-related outcomes. In the
present study, we propose that employees may differ in their intention to actually use
available job resources, and that the explanatory power of the DISC Model could be improved
by including corresponding (i.e. cognitive, emotional, or physical) types of coping styles in the
prediction of job-related outcomes. More specifically, we assume that the intention to use
particular job resources is reflected in corresponding types of coping styles, and that
moderating effects are most likely when there is a quadruple match between demands,
resources, coping styles, and outcomes.
Methods: Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted on a three-wave panel study (oneyear time lag) among Belgian teachers (N=317). We analysed cognitive, emotional, and
physical two-way interactions (demands × resources) and three-way interactions (demands ×
resources × coping style) at T1 in the prediction of corresponding outcomes. That is, active
learning, emotional exhaustion, and physical complaints at T2, and emotional exhaustion at
T3. Similarly, we tested identical two- and three-way interactions at T2 in the prediction of
creativity, emotional exhaustion, and somatic complaints at T3. Control variables were the
dependent variables at T1 or T2, age, and gender.
Results: We found no triple or quadruple matches between demands, resources, coping, and
outcomes. However, we did find main effects and two-way interactions. Specifically, cognitive
coping (T2) was positively related to creativity, while emotional (T1 and T2) and physical (T2)
coping were negatively related to emotional exhaustion (T2 and T3) and somatic complaints.
Further, cognitive and emotional coping (T2) only had an effect on creativity and emotional
exhaustion when corresponding resources were unavailable.
Conclusions: In the present study, the explanatory power of the DISC Model could not be
significantly improved by including matching coping styles in the prediction of job-related
outcomes, possibly because there are additional factors that might stimulate or hinder the
actual use of job resources. Future research could further investigate the effects of matching
coping styles and other personal characteristics on the explanatory power of the DISC Model in
different populations.
155
PSYCHOSOCIAL INTERVENTION: NINE
SPANISH EXAMPLES
VEGA MARTÍNEZ, S.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo (INSHT), Spain
The Spanish National Institute of Occupational Health (INSHT) has collected nine examples of
psychosocial intervention in this country. Intervention was defined as any implemented
activities addressed to working conditions (preferably) and/or to individuals in order to reduce
or eliminate psychosocial risks factors.
Objectives: The aims of this project are to identify, describe, analyse and disseminate
psychosocial intervention experiences developed at company level. Preventive actions on
psychosocial field are still scarce in Spain due to several reasons (lack of specific regulations,
effects are not immediately apparent, propensity to blame personality factors and lifestyles of
employees, etc), therefore the long-term objective is to promote this kind of occupational
interventions in practice.
Methods: As a qualitative research, a multiple case study approach has been carried out.
Experiences were identified through key informants from a list of required conditions; a
description guide to selected organisations was made up, emphasizing the intervention
process and not only the outcomes; afterwards, cases were analyzed in the light of usual
recommended principles; finally, some learnings were identified.
Results: Nine experiences has been studied, deliberately including a wide array of sectors
(public and private, with activities like food production, education, transport, ceramic industry,
health care, etc), subjects (harassment, poor work content, time work organization, etc), time
and kind of intervention (proactive and reactive activities), level of the intervention
(organizational, individual, or a combination of both), type of programs and measures (drugs
prevention and treatment, job redesign, mediation programme, counselling, etc), type of
prevention agents involved (external or internal occupational health consultants, trade-union
delegates, etc) and participation strategies.
Conclusions: The cases show most of the commonest factors of success identified in
international literature, like systematic risk assessment (pointing out factors and risk groups),
planification and systematization of preventive activities (step-wise approach), contextual and
specific solutions, or implication of workers and staff. Follow-up activities and costs and
economic effects analysis of interventions were found the most frequent deficient elements.
156
THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE FACTORS
AFFECTING GRADUATE NURSES’ HEALTH AND
WELL-BEING DURING THEIR FIRST YEAR OF
CLINICAL PRACTICE IN REGIONAL AUSTRALIA
WALKER, A.1, EARL, C.1 & CUDDIHY, L.2
1
School of Psychology, Deakin Univeristy, Australia
2
Barwon Health, Australia
Objectives: Research with graduate nurses (GNs) indicates the first few months of nursing
can be challenging and stressful and that GNs register a higher rate of absenteeism compared
with other nurses (Chan & Morrison, 2000; Simon et al., 2004). There is little Australian
research on this issue. The current study is part of a 10-year longitudinal project that began
in 2005, which aims to explore the factors that affect GNs health and well-being in a regional
context in Victoria, Australia. The long-term aim of this research is to design interventions to
promote GNs health and well-being appropriate to their work context. In the present phase,
the perceptions of GNs and nurse unit managers (NUMs) were contrasted and the overall
findings compared with the previous two phases, to determine the similarities and differences
regarding the factors perceived to impact GNs health and well-being during their first year of
clinical practice.
Method: Thirty one GNs and 13 NUMs from a regional hospital in the State of Victoria,
Australia, participated in this phase of the research study by voluntarily completing an
anonymous qualitative survey. Participant response rates for the GNs and NUMs were 77.5%
and 76.5 % respectively.
Results: The data were content analysed using the two main categories of stressors
previously found to affect GNs: job-related stressors and personal stressors. The main jobrelated stressors found to negatively affect GNs health and well-being included: unsupportive
staff perceived as preventing integration into the workforce (61.3%); and encountering
unprofessional workplace behaviour (61.3%) that consequently impacted GNs confidence.
Interestingly, nearly 70% of the NUMs did not consider unprofessional workplace behaviour to
be an issue for the GNs. On the positive side, 64.5% of the GNs were satisfied with the
support provided by the organisation to help them cope with workplace stressors and 71% of
the GNs were satisfied with their jobs. With regards to personal stressors, most GNs (70%)
reported an overall deterioration in health and well-being since beginning work as a GN.
Common complaints included fatigue, poor sleeping habits and increased stress and illness.
Nevertheless, 80.6% of the GNs felt confident working as a nurse and 70.3% reported no
difficulty in coping with the issue of death and dying. Alternatively, 61.5% of the NUMs
believed that coping with death and dying was indeed an issue for the GNs.
Conclusions: Similar to the previous findings, there were both similarities and differences in
the perceptions of GNs and NUMs in relation to factors perceived to impact GNs health and
well-being. Findings are considered in relation to the previous two phases as well as in
relation to future directions of the longitudinal study. Implications of the findings for the
organisation and general nursing research are also explored.
157
THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE OUTCOMES
ASSOCIATED WITH BREACH AND FULFILMENT
OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT OF SAFETY
IN BLUE AND WHITE COLLAR EMPLOYEES
WALKER, A. & GEORGIADIS, A.
School of Psychology, Deakin University, Australia
Objectives: Occupational safety research has recently adopted a social exchange approach by
examining the impact of constructs, such as leader-member exchange (LMX) and perceived
organisational support (POS), on safety attitudes and behaviour (e.g. Hofmann & Morgeson,
1999; Hofmann, Morgeson & Gerras, 2003). A more recent extension of the social exchange
perspective examined the influence of the psychological contract on safety attitudes and
behaviour with white collar employees (e.g. Walker, 2007). The psychological contract of
safety is the beliefs of individuals about reciprocal safety obligations inferred from implicit or
explicit promises. When employees perceive that safety obligations promised by the employer
have not been met, a breach of the psychological contract occurs, termed employer breach of
obligations. Similarly, the extent to which employees fulfil their safety obligations to the
employer is termed employee fulfilment of obligations. The present study extended the
research of Walker (2007) and investigated the relationship between the psychological
contract of safety and safety attitudes and behaviours using a blue and white collar participant
sample. The role of trust as a mediator in the relationship between perceived breach of
employer safety obligations and safety climate attitudes was also investigated.
Method: Participants were from the State of Victoria, Australia and consisted of 80 blue collar
employees working in logistics and 126 nurses from a metropolitan hospital. Participants
voluntarily completed an anonymous survey measuring five variables: perceived breach of
employer safety obligations; perceived fulfilment of employee safety obligations; safety
climate attitudes; safety behaviour and trust in the organisation. All measures used an 11point Likert-type rating scale.
Results: As hypothesised for both participant groups, regression analyses found that
employer breach of safety obligations was significantly related to employee safety climate
attitudes and trust in the organisation, and that employee fulfilment of safety obligations
significantly influenced employee safety behaviour. In addition, trust in the organisation was
found to partially mediate the relationship between perceived breach of employer safety
obligations and safety climate attitudes in both the blue and white collar participant sample
groups.
Conclusions: Fulfilment and breach of the psychological contract of safety was found to have
similar associations with employee attitudes and behaviour to that previously established in
both the organisational and safety literatures. The role of trust as a partial mediator was also
not unexpected. The role of social exchange constructs as a means of understanding the
influences on employee safety attitudes and behaviour is discussed. The implications of these
findings for occupational safety and psychological contract research are also explored.
158
DOES WORK MOTIVATION HAVE AN IMPACT ON
PERCEIVED STRESS AMONG INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY CONSULTANTS?
WALLGREN, L.G.
Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden
Objectives: It is generally believed that knowledge firms that are dependent on the latest
technology and a highly competent workforce, for example, information technology (IT)
consultancy firms, represent the future in business and working life. The indications from
research observations and anecdotal reports suggest that the work environment in such firms
is demanding and stressful. While there are numerous theoretical or conceptual models that
deal with the association between psychosocial work environment and motivation and stress,
this linkage has not been examined closely in the IT consultancy profession, probably because
the profession is a relatively new one. It is therefore of great interest to examine whether the
‘old’ findings are relevant to this occupation. The main objective of this study is to enlarge our
understanding of the connection between motivation and stress for IT consultants by focusing
on a structural model of the relationship between job demands, job control and perceived
stress, with motivators as the proposed mediating variable.
Methods: For this cross-sectional study a web-based questionnaire survey was conducted
among IT consultants employed at ten IT consultancy firms in Sweden (N=380). The model
consisted of the independent latent variables of job demands and job control, motivators that
are treated as the mediating (intervening) variable, and perceived stress that is treated as a
dependent (endogenous) variable. The hypothesis of mediation was tested using a structural
equation modelling (SEM) approach that estimates direct, indirect and total effects.
Results: The results show that the job control latent variable was significantly related to
motivators, which mean that high job control (statistically) predicted high scores in the latent
variable (“motivators”). Moreover, the job demands latent variable was significantly related to
motivators, which mean that high job demands (statistically) predicted high scores in the
latent variable (“motivators”). Furthermore, motivators were significantly, but negatively,
related to perceived stress. In the final analysis, job control and job demands were found to
be significantly related to changes in motivators, which in turn affect perceived stress. Tests of
the indirect effect show that the effect of control on perceived stress through motivators was
statistically significant.
Conclusions: The study concludes that the work characteristics of job demands and job
control are important factors in explaining the genesis of perceived stress among IT
consultants. The results also point to the importance of motivators (e.g., recognition,
achievement and the possibility for growth) among IT consultants in the job stress and
performance framework. The study shows that motivators fully mediate the relationship
between job control and perceived stress. Comprehensive stress interventions are suggested
that address both the stress experienced individually by IT consultants and the organisational
origins of work stress. Since managers have a substantial influence on the work organisation,
it is important to involve and educate managers on the factors related to stress among their
subordinates. The practical implications are that managers must find inventive ways to explore
what motivates each employee in order to create sustainable professional development and a
healthy work organization.
159
USE OF THE OUTCOME RATING SCALE IN
EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF SHORT TERM
PSYCHOTHERAPY ON WORK RELATED
DISTRESS
WIECLAW, J.
Department of Occupational Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark
Objective: Many work organisations offer psychotherapeutic support to employees facing
work related psychological problems and symptoms. However, there are few studies
evaluating the effects of such support, and their results are inconclusive. The present study
aims to examine the usefulness of the Outcome Rating Scale (ORS) in monitoring the progress
of the therapeutic process and in evaluating its outcome.
Method: ORS, consists of four visual analog 10 cm scales representing areas of clients`
functioning: individual, relational, social (including work) and general. The client is asked to
place a hash mark on each line, with low estimates to the left and high to the right. Client
score is the summation of the marks measured on each scale (total max 40). A clinical cutoff
score of 25 is considered to differentiate those who experience enough distress to be in
therapy from those who are not. ORS was administered in the period 1st April 2008 – 30th
September 2008 to clients who requested psychotherapeutic support with a staff psychologist
in Aarhus County, Denmark. The client made marks on the scales at the beginning of each
therapeutic session. Markings were used as an indicator for therapeutic process. The final
outcome was calculated as the difference between the client total score at the last and first
sessions.
Results: ORS was found, both by the therapist and clients, to be brief, simple and easy to
administer. It provided a useful picture of therapeutic progress and indications for therapeutic
intervention. Although data collection is not yet completed, there is a tendency for clients to
have significantly higher scores at the end of therapy, which suggest a sense of improved
well-being.
Conclusion: Results indicate that ORS can be used as a simple and effective instrument to
monitor the progress and evaluate the effect of short term therapy on work-related distress.
160
PRECONDITIONS OF HEALTH PROMOTING
LEADERSHIP – AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF
SUPERVISORS
WILDE, B., HINRICHS, S., BAHAMONDES PAVEZ, C. & SCHÜPBACH, H.
Work and Organizational Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of Freiburg, Germany
Objective: Supervisors have an important role in workplace health promotion. They have
different opportunities to influence their employees’ health. On the basis of former research
and considerations in this field, the following factors can be subsumed under a health
promoting leadership: a health promoting leader-employee-interaction, the design of healthy
working conditions and the support and realization of workplace health promotion in the
department. One goal of workplace health promotion is to strengthen health promoting
leadership. For this purpose, it is necessary to know which conditions on the level of the
individual and on the company level encourage supervisors to show health promoting
leadership. However, there is not much scientific evidence on this issue. Based on the Theory
of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and first empirical results, the following factors are
considered to make it more likely that supervisors lead in a health promoting way: companies’
health culture (in terms of perceived norms and values), leaders’ attitudes and values
concerning employees’ health and health promoting leadership, leaders’ perceived influence on
their employees’ health and their perceived personal skills as well as perceived possibilities on
the company level to lead in a healthy way. This study investigates whether these factors are
associated with health promoting leadership and to what extent they help to explain it.
Method: Data were collected from about 200 lower- and middle-level supervisors in several
German companies using a questionnaire.
Results: Preliminary findings reveal that all factors are significantly correlated with health
promoting leadership. Regression analysis will show which of these factors are critical in
explaining health promoting leadership.
Conclusion: The results show that the theoretically derived factors are relevant preconditions
of health promoting leadership. Thus, companies have to take these factors into account if
they want their supervisors to promote the health of their employees. Therefore it is necessary
to develop appropriate measures.
161
SUPERVISOR EFFECTIVENESS AND EMPLOYEE
EMOTIONAL EXHAUSTION
WITT, L.A., PERRY, S.J., RUBINO, C. & DAVID, E.M.
University of Houston, U.S.A.
Objective: We tested Conservation of Resources Theory (COR) by examining the joint effects
of supervisory performance and employee conscientiousness on employee emotional
exhaustion, the primary dimension of burnout. We hypothesized that effective supervisory
performance has differential curvilinear effects on employee emotional exhaustion among
employees at different levels of conscientiousness, a personality trait reflecting ambition and
organization. We anticipated that among low-conscientiousness employees, emotional
exhaustion increases as supervisory performance reaches a moderate level of effectiveness
and then levels off. The low-conscientiousness employees are forced to spend unwanted levels
of resources when their supervisors are striving to reach objectives. In contrast, when
supervisors give insufficient effort, high-conscientiousness employees must spend considerable
energy to accomplish goals. Hence, among high-conscientiousness employees, emotional
exhaustion is likely to decrease as supervisory performance reaches a moderate level of
effectiveness and then level off.
Methods: A total of 316 bank employees completed a survey. We assessed emotional
exhaustion using the Witt, Andrews, and Carlson (2004) emotional exhaustion (α = 86) scale.
We assessed personality using the conscientiousness (α = 83) and emotional stability (α = 84)
scales of the Mount and Barrick (1995) Personal Characteristics Inventory. We assessed
supervisory performance using seven manager-rated items (α = 73).
Results: Using hierarchical moderated multiple regression, we first entered the main effects
of emotional stability (a control), conscientiousness, supervisory performance, and the
supervisory performance quadratic term into the equation (Total R2 = .14, p < .01). Next we
entered the conscientiousness x supervisory performance cross-product term (∆R2 = .00, ns)
and then the cross-product term of conscientiousness x the supervisory performance quadratic
term (∆R2 = .02, p < .01). A plot of the significant interaction revealed a curvilinear
relationship between supervisory performance and employee emotional exhaustion among
both low- and high-conscientiousness employees. The highest levels of emotional exhaustion
were among high-conscientiousness employees having low-performing supervisors.
Conclusions: As hypothesized and consistent with COR theory, moderate-to-high supervisory
performance was associated with high (low) levels of emotional exhaustion among workers
low (high) in conscientiousness. Our findings may have implications for not only for stress
theory but also for priority targeting of efforts to reduce emotional exhaustion.
162
EMOTIONAL DISSONANCE ON WORK FAMILY
CONFLICT AMONG CHINESE SERVICE
EMPLOYEES
YUE-LOK CHEUNG, F.1 & SO-KUM TANG, C.2
1
Department of Sociology and Social Policy, Lingnan University, Hong Kong
Department of Psychology, National University of Singapore, Singapore
2
Objectives: Two important points of adult life are work and family (Baltes & Heydens-Gahir,
2003; Netemeyer, Boles, & McMurrian, 1996). In the last two decades, there have been
significant changes of familial and work structure as there is dramatic increase in female labor
force participation, higher prevalence of dual-earner and single-parent families (Eby, Casper,
Lockwood, Bordeaux, & Brinley, 2005; Westman & Etzion, 2005). Work family conflict occurs
"when pressures from the work and family roles are mutually incompatible in which
participation in one role makes it difficult to participate in the other role" (Greenhaus &
Beutell, 1995, p.7). As Geurts and Demerouti (2003) suggested, it is important to identify
specific antecedent of work family conflict in different occupational settings. While past studies
have shown that emotional dissonance is a salient work stressor which endangers employees’
psychological health in the service industry (e.g. Bakker & Heuven, 2006; Holman, Chissick, &
Totterdell; Zapf & Holz, 2006), its role on work family conflict is still unknown. Furthermore,
personal resources such as satisfying work relations with others may offset the negative
impact of prolonged emotional dissonance (e.g. Cheung & Tang, 2007). Therefore, it is also
possible that satisfying work relations may moderate the linkage between emotional
dissonance – work family conflict. In this presentation, I would report findings on 1). the
association between emotional dissonance and two conflict dimensions, namely family-work
conflict (FWC) and work-family conflict (WFC) and 2). the potential interaction between
emotional dissonance and satisfying work relations with others in affecting the two WFC
outcomes.
Methods: Service employees in Hong Kong, including registered nurses, retail shop
representatives, and call center representatives were recruited in the present study. All
participants were asked to complete a questionnaire, which included description of the study
objectives, the use of information obtained from participants, and all psychological measures.
Confidentiality was ensured. A total of 1,100 questionnaires were distributed and 442 valid
questionnaires were returned for analysis. The return rate was about 40%. Among them, 112
were male while 330 were female.
Results: Bivariate correlation showed that emotional dissonance related significantly to both
FWC (r = .18, p<.01) and WFC (r = .28, p<.01). Similarly, satisfying work relations also
correlated significantly with FWC (r = -.16, p<.01) and WFC (r = -.24, p<.01). Two
hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the potential moderating effect of
emotional dissonance and satisfying work relations in predicting FWC and WFC, respectively.
In the first step, demographic information (i.e. gender and age) and work characteristics (i.e.
display of positive and negative emotions) were entered. In the second step, emotional
dissonance and satisfying work relations were entered. In the final step, the interaction term
(emotional dissonance x satisfying work relations) was entered. Results suggested that
emotional dissonance and negative affectivity were salient correlates in predicting both FWC
and WFC, even when demographic and job characteristics were controlled. However, the
hypothesized moderating effect was not found.
Conclusion: The present study confirmed the significant role of emotional dissonance in
affecting work family conflict. However, the hypothesized moderating effect of satisfying work
relations was not supported in the present study. Potential strategies to mitigate the negative
impact of emotional dissonance will be discussed.
163
SYMPOSIA
164
THE IMPACT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL FLEXIBILITY
ON HEALTH AND PERFORMANCE AT WORK
SYMPOSIUM CHAIRS: BOND, F.1, VAN VELDHOVEN, M.2, BIRON, C.3 &
FLAXMAN, P.4
1
Goldsmiths, University of London, United Kingdom
2
Tilburg University, the Netherlands
3
Lancaster University, United Kingdom
4
City University, London, United Kingdom
Psychological flexibility (also referred to as psychological acceptance) is a primary determinant
of mental health and behavioural effectiveness, as hypothesised by one of the more recent,
empirically based theories of psychopathology, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT;
Hayes, Stroshal, & Wilson, 1999). Psychological flexibility, or flexibility, refers to an ability to
focus on the present moment and, depending upon what the situation affords, persist with or
change one’s (even inflexible, stereotypical) behaviour in the pursuit of goals and values.
People cannot focus comprehensively on the present moment, however, when their attention
is directed at altering, avoiding, suppressing, analysing or otherwise controlling their
psychological events (e.g., thoughts, feelings, physiological sensations, images, and
memories). Thus, psychological flexibility involves a reduced tendency to control internal
experiences when doing so prevents goal attainment (e.g., when avoiding fear prevents
people from taking goal-directed action); instead, flexibility involves people deliberately
observing their internal experiences on a moment-to-moment basis, in an open, nonelaborative, non-controlling, and non-judgmental manner (Hayes, Luoma, Bond, Masuda &
Lillis, 2006).
This non-elaborative, non-judgmental – or mindful – stance towards (even unwanted) internal
events frees people from the need to control them or be overly guided by them; instead, it
allows people to re-direct their limited attentional resources to the present moment. As a
result, psychologically flexible people are less emotionally disturbed (Baer, 2003; Hayes et al.,
2006), and they have more attentional resources for noticing and responding effectively to
goal-associated opportunities that exist in the present situation. It is this “goal-related context
sensitivity” feature of psychological flexibility that is thought to make this individual
characteristic an important influence on job performance, motivation, absenteeism and mental
health at work (Bond & Hayes, 2002).
This symposium presents research that furthers our insight into the effects of, and
mechanisms involved in, psychological flexibility. To start with, the topic is briefly introduced
(10 minutes). Next, four empirical contributions are presented. The studies presented were
carried out in the UK and in the Netherlands. Each presentation lasts 20 minutes (15 minutes
presentation, followed by 5 minutes of discussion per paper). After these presentations, there
will be a maximum of 30 minutes to discuss the papers and the research topic in general.
Total estimated time for the symposium is two hours. The four papers are presented below.
165
THE INFLUENCE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
FLEXIBILITY ON WORK REDESIGN: MEDIATED
MODERATION OF A WORK REORGANISATION
INTERVENTION
BOND, F.1, FLAXMAN, P.2 & BUNCE, D.1
1
Goldsmiths, University of London, United Kingdom
2
City University, London, United Kingdom
Objectives: The present study examines the extent to which a particular individual
characteristic, psychological flexibility, can augment the effectiveness of a control-enhancing
work reorganisation intervention. Psychological flexibility, or flexibility, refers to a willingness
to experience any unwanted thoughts and feelings (e.g., fear) that arise, when trying to work
towards one’s goals and values (Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999). Previous research has
demonstrated that flexibility enhances the longitudinal benefits that job control has on job
performance and mental health (Bond & Bunce, 2003; Bond & Flaxman, 2006). In addition,
findings from randomised controlled trials have shown that worksite training programmes can
increase this characteristic and thereby improve mental health and innovation efforts, as well
as decrease prejudice (Bond & Bunce, 2000; Hayes et al., 2004). The primary goal of the
present study was to determine the extent to which a work reorganisation intervention
improved various health-related (e.g., mental health) and work-related (e.g., absenteeism)
outcomes by increasing job control; and, if it did so, to establish whether this process of
change was more beneficial (i.e., resulted in more favourable outcomes) for those individuals
with higher levels of psychological flexibility. In this way, we sought to respond to calls for a
greater consideration of individual differences in work reorganisation research (Jex et al.,
2001).
Methods: This study occurred in two customer service centres of a large financial services
organisation in the United Kingdom (UK). This company wanted to reduce stress and absence
rates, as well as improve motivation levels amongst its call centre employees. Their primary
responsibilities were to answer high-volume telephone enquiries and enter customer account
information into computerised systems
The study intervention was based upon participative action research (PAR). Both customer
service centres provided the same data processing and telephone enquiry functions. We
randomly selected one of the centres (N = 84) to serve as the control group and the other (N
= 97) received the PAR intervention. Through quantitative and qualitative procedures, we
identified job control as a major correlate of stress and absence rates within both of the call
centres; thus, the primary aim of the PAR programme was collaboratively to find ways of
improving job control in the intervention call centre. Specific initiatives included: providing
employees with greater control over how they scheduled their work, what type of work they
undertook at a given time (e.g., processing mortgage or savings accounts applications), and
when they had their lunch break.
Results: ANCOVA results showed that the PAR intervention significantly improved employee
mental health, and it reduced absence rates (from an average of 11 to 7 days), thereby saving
this organisation £105,164 in absence payments over the 14 months of the study. Mediated
166
moderation multiple regression analyses, based upon Baron and Kenny (1986) and Muller,
Judd, and Yzerbyt (2005), further indicated that job control was the mechanism, or mediator,
by which the PAR programme produced these effects. Finally, and as predicted, these analyses
showed that the beneficial effects of job control were stronger for people with higher levels of
flexibility, or acceptance.
Conclusions: This appears to be only the second study (after Bond & Bunce, 2001), using a
quasi-experimental design, to show that job control serves as a mediator by which a work
reorganisation intervention improves both mental health and productivity outcomes. As such,
it lends further support to models of occupational health psychology that emphasise the
importance of this work organisation characteristic (e.g., Hackman & Oldham, 1975; Karasek,
1979). Uniquely, though, this study shows that an individual characteristic can moderate the
degree to which such an increase in control will have beneficial effects. This finding highlights
the advantage of considering, if not directly targeting, individual characteristics when
implementing a work reorganisation programme.
167
PSYCHOLOGICAL WORKLOAD, EMPLOYEE JOB
STRAIN AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FLEXIBILITY
VAN VELDHOVEN, M.1 & BIRON, M.2
1
2
Tilburg University, the Netherlands
Lancaster University, United Kingdom
For many European workers psychological workload has increased over the past decades (Cox,
Griffiths & Rial-González, 2000; Parent-Thirion et al., 2007). There is growing evidence
suggesting that sustained, high psychological workload may have serious health and safety
effects, with a cumulative strain mechanism mediating this association (Dormann & Zapf,
2002; Sluiter et al., 2003). In theoretical models like the Michigan Model, the Effort-Recovery
Model, and the Effort-Reward models, characteristics of the psychological profile (e.g.,
personality traits, coping styles, and motivational variables) of the employee are hypothesized
to moderate the stressor-strain relationship. Many variables have been put forward in this
context as possible predictors or moderators, but no consensus has appeared in this literature
concerning a “core” characteristic (van Veldhoven, 1996).
Objectives: Recently Bond, Hayes and Barnes-Holmes (2006) have suggested that
psychological flexibility, also referred to simply as “flexibility”, might be such a “core
characteristic”. This construct may not only be relevant to stressor-strain relationships, but
also to a wider range of outcomes relevant to organizational behaviour and occupational
health psychology. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possible contribution and
moderating role of psychological acceptance in the relationship between workload and
employee job strain.
Methods: Empirical results are reported using data from two samples: a student population
(N>320), and a samples of employees taken from the general workforce (N=100).
Psychological flexibility was assessed with a Dutch translation of the AAQ-2 (Bond et al.,
submitted). Workload was measured using the scale by Van Veldhoven & Meijman (1994). Job
strain was measured with a variety of scales, including a Dutch translation of the anxietycontentment scale by Peter Warr (1990).
Results: Results show that the Dutch translation has a reliability of .87 in the employee
sample and .88 in the student sample. Both workload and psychological flexibility make
substantial contributions to the explanation of employee job strain. Main effects have
standardized betas that range from .27 to .50 (absolute values). These are all significant at
the level of p<.01. Workload contributes positively to strain, psychological flexibility
negatively, as expected. No evidence was found, however, for a moderating effect.
Conclusions: First of all, these results attest to the reliability and validity of the Dutch
translation of the AAQ-2. Furthermore, psychological flexibility appears to have a direct
negative relationship with job strain, rather than a moderating effect. As the possible costs of
sustained high job strain can be high to employees (burnout risk, safety risk, risk of work
incapacity), organizations and society alike, training employees in the use of flexibility
strategies might be an important future prospect for practice in occupational health
psychology and organizational behaviour.
168
EMOTIONAL DISSONANCE AND WELL-BEING IN
SERVICE ROLES: THE ROLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
FLEXIBILITY
BIRON, M.1 & VAN VELDHOVEN, M.2
1
Lancaster University, United Kingdom
2
Tilburg University, the Netherlands
Although past research has advanced our understanding of emotion regulation, it has been
limited in that most studies focus on two types of emotion regulation strategies, namely deep
acting and surface acting (Hochschild, 1983). Common to both types of regulation strategies is
individuals’ effort to create a publicly observable display (using facial/bodily/lingual
expressions) trying to control, tolerate, reduce, or minimize the influence of stimuli. This often
creates emotional dissonance, e.g. a discrepancy between genuinely felt emotions and
organizationally/professionally-prescribed emotions (Morris & Feldman, 1996). However, we
know little about employees’ use of other emotion regulation strategies. In particular, we are
interested in the possible value of psychological flexibility (also referred to as flexibility).
Rather than being limited by the content and intensity of emotions, employees using such a
strategy may be focusing on their desired goals; i.e., consciously accepting emotions as part
of the job instead of being disturbed by, and reactive to emotions (Hayes et al., 2004).
Accordingly, this study has three objectives.
Objectives: First, we examine the potential outcomes (in terms of employee well being and
performance) associated with flexibility, as opposed to, or beyond those associated with the
more traditional emotion regulation strategies (i.e., deep/surface acting).
Second, we examine whether flexibility, which is expected to promote an effective deployment
of personal resources, may play an indirect role by moderating the effects of emotional
dissonance on employee wellbeing. Finally, we test whether and to what extent the effects of
psychological flexibility vary as a function of the measurement focal, namely trait-based and
day-level flexibility, with the former referring to flexibility as a more fixed, general personality
characteristic and the latter as a somewhat variable resource, influenced by daily events.
Methods/Results/Conclusions: Data were collected in April/May 2008, from 115 workers
(out of 164 targeted; the response rate is 70%) employed in service jobs with direct client
contact of at least 60% during a typical working day. Participants completed a survey and
consequently kept a diary for three consecutive working days. Psychological flexibility,
emotional dissonance and employee well-being were measured in the survey (general, traitbased type of measurement) and in the diary (day-level measurement). Results are currently
being analyzed and will be presented at the conference.
169
INCREASING PSYCHOLOGICAL FLEXIBILITY AT
WORK THROUGH ACCEPTANCE AND
COMMITMENT TRAINING (ACT)
FLAXMAN, P.1 & BOND, F.2
1
2
City University, London, United Kingdom
Goldsmiths, University of London, United Kingdom
Objectives: The aims of this paper are twofold: 1) to describe how acceptance and
commitment therapy (ACT; Hayes et al., 1999), developed for use in clinical settings, has
been adapted for use as a worksite training programme; and, 2) to present the findings of a
large randomised controlled trial that evaluated the efficacy of this approach to increasing
psychological flexibility for improving employees’ psychological health.
Method: This paper will first illustrate how ACT’s six core processes that constitute
psychological flexibility (acceptance, defusion, present moment, self-as-context, values, and
committed action) have been translated into a three-session training programme that can be
delivered to small groups of employees. In particular, we will show how the two broad skills
contained in ACT - mindfulness and values-based action - provide a useful framework for
worksite training programmes. Our ACT intervention was delivered using a “2 + 1” format, in
which volunteer participants attended three sessions: two on consecutive weeks and a third
three months later. The training was delivered to small groups of up to ten employees, during
work time, with each session lasting for approximately three hours. For evaluation purposes,
158 local government employees in London were randomly allocated to receive ACT, stress
inoculation training (SIT; Meichenbaum, 1985) (also delivered over three sessions), or to a
waiting list control group. Employees in the training groups completed a battery of
questionnaires at the beginning of session 1 (T1) and session 3 (T2 [T1 + 3 months]), and
again three months after the third session (T3 [T1 + 6 months]). Employees allocated to the
control group completed the same questionnaires at the same time intervals. The
questionnaires included measures of general mental health (GHQ-12), psychological flexibility
(AAQ), and dysfunctional cognitions (DAS).
Results: Both ACT and SIT resulted in significant improvements in employee mental health
across the six month evaluation period, with no changes observed in the control group. These
improvements were associated with medium to large effect sizes. Moreover, approximately
60% of employees who entered ACT or SIT with elevated distress improved to a clinically
significant degree. Mediation tests indicated that ACT and SIT were operating through distinct
mechanisms of change. Consistent with theoretical predictions, improvements observed in ACT
were fully mediated by an increase in psychological flexibility, while the improvements in the
SIT group were partially mediated by a reduction in dysfunctional attitudes.
Conclusions: ACT can be successfully adapted for use as a worksite training programme. We
would suggest that ACT’s focus on the non-judgemental acceptance of unchangeable internal
events, and the emphasis on pursuing valued goals, makes this intervention approach
particularly suitable for employee groups. Our recent empirical evaluations have demonstrated
that ACT is at least as effective as the well-validated stress inoculation training protocol (cf.
Saunders et al., 1996). Our mediation analyses further demonstrate the benefits of improving
psychological flexibility in the workplace.
170
WORK-LIFE BALANCE AND A WORKSITE
HEALTH PROMOTION PROGRAM FOR LOW
QUALIFIED WORKERS WITH REGARD TO
GENDER
SYMPOSIUM CHAIR: BUSCH, C.
University of Hamburg, Germany
In this symposium we present selected results of the ReSuM-project financed by the German
Federal Ministry of Education and Research, in which we develop and evaluate a worksite
health promotion program for low qualified workers. The program deals with stress and
resource management. We develop the program in cooperation with prevention providers, like
health insurance companies. In the first presentation of this symposium we present a crosscultural study, which shows that German low qualified workers, especially women experience
high levels of work-family conflicts in comparison to Swedish workers. In the second
contribution, we present the results of an interview study with low qualified women in
Germany, in which we investigated the life goals and work-life balance of these women to find
explanations for their high level of work-family conflicts. The findings indicate that these
women concentrate their life goals on family matters. They perceive their main resources in
the family, their main stressors at work and they report correspondigly mainly work-to-family
conflicts and family-to-work enrichments. In the third contribution, we focus on gender
specific stressors, resources and health of low qualified workers. Analyses of the ReSuM-data
show that low qualified women have a higher risk for health impairments than men. Further
gender differences in social support and coping were found. Health promotion activities are
necessary for this target group, but difficult to realize. In the last contribution of this
symposium, we present a worksite health promotion program for low qualified workers, which
takes motivational aspects and gender aspects into account. It integrates a team training
dealing with stress and resource management and a training of the direct supervisor. It ran
through a testing phase in six German companies with an extensive process evaluation. The
process evaluation shows e.g. the different effects of the training depending on the quality of
team work and the cultural diversity in the teams. On the basis of the results of the process
evaluation the whole program was revised. At the moment the program is going through the
evaluation phase.
171
FAMILY AND WORK: BENEFIT OR BURDEN FOR
LOW QUALIFIED WORKERS?
STAAR, H.1, BUSCH, C.1 & ABORG, C.2
1
University of Hamburg, Germany
2
Örebro University, Sweden
The present study provides a theoretical framework for approaching work-family issues from a
cross-cultural point of view. Based on these theoretical delineations, differences in the
evaluations of how well shared and negotiated role-related responsibilities are met among
men and women from a different cultural background are investigated. The study specifically
examined cross-cultural differences in employees’ experienced levels of Work-Family Conflict
and Work-Family Enrichment and evaluated culture-specific patterns in the distribution of
family-related responsibilities. Thereby German (n=98) and Swedish (n=105) low qualified
workers were addressed. To investigate differences in cultural work and family related norms
and values between Swedish and German employees, Hofstede’s cultural dimension of
masculinity was applied. As was conjectured due to the country index scores presented by
Hofstede, results showed that the German sample ranked higher on masculinity than the
Swedish group with a value of 70 compared to 27. Building on this differentiation, the results
indicated significant cross-cultural differences in the reported levels of Work-Family Conflict
between Germans and Swedes. Swedish employees of both genders showed consistently lower
levels of both, work interference with family (WIF) and family interference with work (FIW)
than German men and women. Moreover, the findings suggested that gender differences in
the perceived levels of conflict varied across cultures: For Swedish workers there were no
gender differences in their experienced levels of conflict at all, whereas German women
reported significant higher FIW than German men. Moreover, significant gender differences in
the interrelation between working hours and Work-Family Conflict were found for the German
group exclusively with women being more negatively affected when working longer hours.
Additionally, there was some evidence for differences in the distribution of family-related
demands among German and Swedish workers: Whereas German men and women
significantly differed in their allocation to family duties with the men being engaged to a lesser
degree, the majority of Swedish male and female workers were found to largely share
responsibilities among spouses. In contrast to Work-Family Conflict, the cultural background
did not prove to be a strong predictor for Work-Family Enrichment: German and Swedish low
qualified workers did not significantly differ when evaluating their perceived enrichment from
one domain to the other. The results indicated that other factors like the occupational level are
more likely to promote enrichment processes.
172
WORK-LIFE BALANCE OF LOW QUALIFIED
WOMEN
BUSCH, C. & SUHR-LUDEWIG, K.
University of Hamburg, Germany
Low qualified working women experience problematic living conditions. They often have jobs
with high physical and psychosocial demands combined with low control, the so called stress
jobs. They also have high levels of work-family conflict, at least in Germany. In a qualitative
interview study with low qualified working women (n=19), we investigated the life goals, the
work-life balance and the experienced stressors and resources in the biography to explore how
work-family conflicts emerge. We used semi-structured interviews, transcribed them and
analysed them according to qualitative content analysis. The findings suggested that the life
goals are concentrated on family matters. The low qualified women, who were interviewed in
this study, organized their life around the family. The lacking professional life goals and early
pregnancies prevented a profound professional education. The main resources were seen in
the family, like a satisfying partnership and healthy children. When the interview partners
were asked about stress, work came to the fore. They mentioned as main stressors job
insecurity, unexpected changes concerning working time, qualitative underload and
quantitative overload. The interview study indicated mainly family-to-work enrichment , like a
satisfying partnership supports the way to cope emotionally with work demands. Conclusions
for worksite health promotion for this target group are mainly to ensure non-varying working
time, to enrich their tasks at work and to strengthen social resources at work through e.g.
team work. Further conclusions are to train low qualified women to develop life goals beside
the family.
173
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PERCEPTIONS OF
STRESSORS AND RESOURCES AMONG LOW
QUALIFIED WORKERS
KALYTTA, T. & DUCKI, A.
European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology (EAWOP), Germany
Gender-based analyses of stress have been extensively carried out. However, in addition to
gender little attention is given to socio-economic factors, such as social class. Among low
qualifies workers, occupational stress is an important problem, yet low qualified women and
men are rarely addressed. This study focuses on aspects of stress for female and male low
qualified workers. The aim of the study was to investigate gender-specific patterns in low
qualified workers.
Data on health, working and living conditions were gathered through a self-administered
questionnaire. Psychological distress was measured by using General Health Questionnaire
(GHQ-12). Female and male low qualified workers (N=60) with different occupations (e.g.,
production workers, cleaners) were included. In addition to similarities between female and
male low qualified workers´ description about stressors (e.g., financial stressors), a number of
important gender differences emerged. Results show that low qualified women have a risk for
health problems. Gender differences in social support and coping were found.
To understand low qualified women´s and men´s perspectives about stress, we have to
develop more sensitive methods which account for their experiences, background and
understanding of stress. In addition, this study points out some practical implications. When
powering stress management training programs, gender of low qualified workers should be
taken into account. Several training strategies suitable for such a population are suggested.
174
A WORKSITE HEALTH PROMOTION PROGRAM
FOR THE LOW QUALIFIED WORKERS: RESUM
BUSCH, C.1, ROSCHER, S.1, DUCKI, A.2 & KALYTTA, T.2
1
2
University of Hamburg, Germany
European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology (EAWOP), Germany
Although low qualified workers are a risk group for serious health impairments, especially
women, worksite health promotion for low qualified workers does hardly exist for different
reasons. First of all, companies are often not interested to offer health promotion activities for
this target group, because low qualified workers are easy to replace. Second, low qualified
workers are often not motivated to participate in health promotion programs. In this last
contribution of the symposium, we present the ReSuM-program, which is an intervention
program for low qualified workers. We took motivational aspects and genderspecific aspects
into account. The program is developed in co-operation with several prevention providers in
Germany, like German health insurance companies. The program embraces a team training of
the low qualified workers and a training of the direct supervisor. We choosed a team
intervention to foster the individual motivation to participate and to ensure the transfer of the
training contents to the everyday practice. The training focuses on promoting exercise in spare
time and at work. It promotes social support between the team members and problem-solving
activities in teamwork. The training deals with work-life balance and goal setting. Further the
intervention program covers a training of the direct supervisor to promote social support and
appreciation. The whole program is manualized and ran through the testing phase in 2007 in
six German companies with an extensive process evaluation. The process evaluation shows
e.g. the differential effects of the training depending on the quality of team work and the
cultural diversity in the teams. The process evaluation also shows the importance of the
supervisor training session for the training effectiveness. On the basis of the results of the
process evaluation the whole program was revised. At the moment the program is going
through the evaluation phase in ten German companies.
175
PSYCHOSOCIAL SAFETY CLIMATE AND
CULTURE; BUILDING INDIVIDUAL RESILIENCE
THROUGH ORGANISATIONAL RESILIENCE
SYMPOSIUM CHIAR: DOLLARD, M.
University of South Australia, Australia
In this symposium we build, operationalise and test a theoretical model of workplace
psychosocial safety climate to explain the theoretical origins of job demands and resources,
worker health and engagement, and the profound consequences for those working without
psychosocial care.
176
PSYCHOSOCIAL SAFETY CLIMATE AS A
PRECURSOR TO DEMANDS, RESOURCES,
HEALTH, AND ENGAGEMENT IN HUMANITARIAN
AID WORKERS
DOLLARD, M.1, TAYLOR, C.1, CLARK, A.1 & DORMANN, C.2
1
Work & Stress Research Group, Centre for Applied Psychological Research, University of
South Australia, Australia
2
Organizational and Business Psychology, Psychologisches Institut der Johannes GutenbergUniversität Mainz, Germnay
A lack of psychosocial safety climate is a violation of the duty of (psychosocial) care, an
obligation owed to any employee whom it is reasonably foreseeable would be injured by a lack
of care. Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) is defined as ‘organization’s philosophy, values and
practices towards protection of the psychological and physical health of employees’. Using the
job demands-resources (JD-R) framework we predicted that PSC as an upstream
organizational level resource would precede the work context (i.e. job demands, job
resources) which would in turn would predict health, and work engagement. Using mediational
hypotheses in a sample of 436 employees (76% response rate) from an Australian
humanitarian not for profit organization we found that PSC predicted work engagement
partially through job resources (i.e. job control). Additionally, PSC predicted health problems
partially through its relationship with both job demands and resources (model Chi-Square (26)
= 36.6, n.s., RMSEA = .04). The results show that the PSC construct is a key upstream
component of work stress theory, and additionally there is a moral case for building PSC.
177
PSYCHOSOCIAL SAFETY CLIMATE:
LONGITUDINAL IMPACT ON HEALTH,
ENGAGEMENT AND SICKNESS ABSENCE
DOLLARD, M.1 & BAKKER, A.2
1
Work & Stress Research Group, Centre for Applied Psychological Research, University of
South Australia, Australia
2
Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands
We built a theoretical model of workplace psychosocial safety climate to explain the theoretical
origins of job demands and resources, worker health and engagement. Psychosocial safety
climate (PSC) is defined as ‘worker perceptions regarding the organization’s philosophy, values
and practices towards protection of the psychological and physical health of employees’. Using
the job demands-resources (JD-R) framework we predicted that PSC as an upstream
organizational level resource would presage the work context (i.e. job demands, job
resources) which would in turn predict health, work engagement and absenteeism. Using self
report data and objective sickness absence data, mediational hypotheses were tested in a
longitudinal study over 12 months in a sample of 193 Australian public sector workers. We
found that PSC predicted sickness absence, through job resources (i.e. job control) and work
engagement. Additionally, PSC predicted (reduced) health problems through its relationship
with job resources. The results show that the PSC construct is a fundamentally important
upstream component of work stress theory, and additionally there is a business case for
building PSC.
178
POLICING AND PSYCHOSOCIAL SAFETY
CULTURE
WINWOOD, P., TUCKEY, M. & DOLLARD, M.
Work & Stress Research Group, Centre for Applied Psychological Research, University of South
Australia, Australia
Policing is well recognised to be work which is inherently stressful. Exposure to events which
are threatening to the life and physical well being of emergency first responders themselves,
as well as the aftermath of trauma and tragic experience of others, are common. Whilst
individual events may not be sufficient to cause primary reactions such as PTSD, a summed
experience of them over time may lead to a progressive erosion of stress resistance and
resilience leading to psychological injury. This has been characterised by others as a ‘slow
accident’. However, police frequently attempt to live up to a ‘Superhero myth’ expected of
them by the public in carrying out their duties. The expectation is that officers, by virtue of
their training and experience, are protected against the personal emotional consequences of
their operational experience. This myth tends to be perpetuated within policing through both
peer and management expectations of what defines a ‘good officer’. These expectations not
infrequently promote a group culture of emotional suppression, and a tendency for officers
who are adversely affected by their experiences being discouraged from seeking appropriate
help until they have been psychologically injured to a degree that leads to their medical
discharge from the service. Where such a culture predominates over other supportive factors
such as camaraderie, stress management awareness, it can foster a psychosocial safety
environment which is toxic, and acts to undermine stress resistance and resilience (which is
already under challenge) rather than promoting it. On the basis of their qualitative research
within a large Australian police service, the authors argue that greater understanding of the
practical dimensions of the psychosocial safety culture within policing is essential if the high
burden of psychological injury within this occupation is to be reduced.
179
BUILDING ORGANISATIONAL RESILIENCE
TAYLOR, C., DOLLARD, M. & CLARK, A.
Work & Stress Research Group, Centre for Applied Psychological Research, University of South
Australia, Australia
Today, like never before, organisations are undergoing enormous change to survive in the
global and fiercely competitive labour market. To be “resilient” per se and endure such
challenges has been typically examined at an individual level in a clinical context. The authors
argue that the notion of resilience can also be applied at a systems level to an organisational
context. It is here that we propose the concept of organisational resilience. Organisational
Resilience (OR) is defined as “the buoyancy of an organisation to progress through change and
challenge, whilst maintaining the psychological integrity of those within the system”. Using the
framework of JD-R theory, OR (of which psychosocial safety climate is operationalised as a
subset) was conceived as an upstream systems level resource that would predict the work
context (i.e. job demands, job resources) and in turn predict health and work engagement. In
a sample of 437 humanitarian service workers, OR was found to impact job demands and
resources, which in turn produced carry on effects to health and engagement (including
individual resilience). Whilst prior research has focused on the work context in terms of the
predictive effects upon health and engagement, these factors are without a doubt impacted on
by the broader systemic factors.
180
OPERATIONALISING THE CONSTRUCT
DOLLARD, M. & KANG, S.
Work & Stress Research Group, Centre for Applied Psychological Research, University of South
Australia, Australia
Psychometric evidence from 5 samples (education, social services, 2 police samples, and a
remote nurse sample) is provided on the Psychosocial Safety Culture and Climate Index.
181
HISPANIC IMMIGRANTS WORKING IN THE
UNITED STATES: WORKPLACE CHALLENGES
SYMPOSIUM CHAIR: EGGERTH, D.
CDC/NIOSH, U.S.A.
There are currently over 43 million persons of Hispanic descent living in the U.S.,
approximately 40% of whom are foreign born (Census Bureau, 2005). It is estimated that by
the year 2050, more than 25% of the U.S. population will be of Hispanic descent and that
Hispanics will make up 15% of the U.S. workforce. In the past, most Hispanics immigrating to
the United States for employment settled in areas that had existing Hispanic/Latino
communities. However, in the last decade, the Midwestern and Southeastern states, areas
that have not historically been destinations for these immigrants have experienced explosive
growth in their Hispanic populations. A recent study conducted by the Pew Hispanic Center
referred to the cities of the Midwest and the Southeast that had experienced explosive growth
in their Hispanic population as “new settlement” areas. Compared to immigrants in “old
settlement” areas, immigrants in the new settlement areas face additional challenges related
to the lack of an established Hispanic community. Prominent among these challenges are the
lack of a Spanish-speaking infrastructure and community service agencies virtually unprepared
to cope with the sudden influx of Hispanic immigrants.
It is often goes unrecognized in the literature that the Hispanic immigrants to the United
States in the past decade differ in some important ways from previous waves of Hispanic
immigrants and from native-born Hispanics. Many of these more recent immigrants are poor,
rural farmers who were economically displaced in the wake of the North American Free Trade
Act (NAFTA). These more recent immigrants tend to be more poorly educated than previous
immigrants and they often speak an indigenous dialect as their primary language – not
Spanish. Moreover, many have no previous experience working for another person prior to
immigrating to the United States.
Hispanic immigrants tend to work in the poorest paid and most dangerous occupations.
Epidemiological studies suggest that the Hispanic immigrant population experiences significant
health disparities, particularly related to occupational safety and health.
Between 1995 and 2000 the fatal work injury rate for all workers in the U.S. was 4.6 per
100,000 workers. This compares to a rate of 4.5 per 100,000 for native-born Hispanics and
6.1 per 100,000 for foreign-born Hispanics. In 2000, the relative fatality risk for all foreignborn workers in the U.S. was 1.11, as compared to 0.99 for native-born workers. The relative
risk for Hispanic immigrant workers was 1.40.
This symposium will present papers discussing the challenges facing Hispanic immigrants
working in the United States and the challenges faced by both academics and public health
professionals attempting to meet their needs. The individual papers will discuss:
•
Relationships between work-related stress and cardiovascular health;
•
The relationships between employment status (documented or not) and work-related
stressors;
•
Psychosocial predictors of workplace injuries;
•
The feasibility of using the workplace as a forum for public health intervention with
immigrant worker populations.
182
STRESS IN THE WORKPLACE AND THE
CARDIOVASCULAR HEALTH OF NORTH
AMERICAN HISPANICS
JAMES, K.
Portland State University, U.S.A.
Hispanics are now the largest minority in the U.S. and the fastest-growing part of the U.S.
labor force (Bureau of Census, 2001). Yet, there has been very little research on workplace
stress as an influence on cardiovascular outcomes among North American Hispanic workers
(James, in press; Krieger, 2000; Piotrkowski, 1998). Cardiovascular diseases (CVD’s) are the
leading cause of death in Canada and the U.S., negatively impact the quality of life of
individuals, and produce high health-related costs for organizations (American Heart
Association, 2000). Moreover, substantial evidence indicates that work stress contributes to
CVD development and severity (see recent reviews by, e.g., Cooper, Dewe, & O'Driscoll, 2001;
and Landsbergis, et al., 2003). Such (very limited) evidence as does exist indicates that
Hispanic (and other minority) workers may be subject to some relatively unique sources of
work stress (e.g., Davidson & Freidman, 1998; Elovainio, Kivimaeki, & Vahtera, 2002; James,
et al., 1994; Krieger, 2001). The intent of the proposed presentation is, therefore, to begin to
provide better evidence on work-stressor influences on blood pressure among North American
Hispanic workers. Two studies will be described. The first involved Mexican-American workers
in the U.S. and showed that those who thought about their actual job stressors prior to having
their blood pressure (BP) measured had significantly higher BP than those whose BP scores
were taken before they considered their job-stressors. Study 2 involved South and Central
American immigrant workers in primarily non-Hispanic Canadian organizations and indicated
that workplace value-conflicts, and perceived organizational justice were significant predictors
of blood-pressure levels above and beyond traditional job-related stressors (e.g., lack of
autonomy; task overload). The results are integrated with existing theories of workplace
influences on health and illness and some potential practical implications are outlined.
183
EXAMINING CONSEQUENCES OF EMPLOYMENT
STATUS FOR STRESSOR EXPOSURE IN LATINO
IMMIGRANTS IN THE UNITED STATES
SPITZMÜLLER, C., RIVERA MINAYA, C., RUBINO, C. & SCHULZE, L.
University of Houston, U.S.A.
Although studies on immigrants’ occupational health are scarce, some previous research on
occupational health in immigrant populations in the United States (e.g. Grzywacz et al., 2007)
has examined the work experiences of Latino workers. Results of the few published studies on
Latino workers demonstrate that not all research findings that are based on other, nonimmigrant populations, translate to Latino workers. However, even within Latino populations,
significant differences may exist depending on an individual’s respective employment status.
As many Latino immigrants in the United States work as day laborers, their experiences of
work-related stressors may differ from the experiences of those Latino immigrants who were
able to obtain full-time positions. Hence, the objective of this study is to examine differences
in exposure to stressors among Latino immigrants who work as day laborers and those
employed in permanent positions. Specifically, we hypothesize that exposure to stressors that
are common for Latino populations (e.g. experiencing workplace language barriers as a
stressor, having concerns over immigration status, and being subject to poor occupational
safety standards) is exacerbated for day laborers with no permanent employment contracts.
Using Spanish language surveys to assess exposure to stressors, we collected data from 132
recent immigrants, 92 of whom were employed full time, and 40 who worked as day laborers.
The data support the notion that Latino day laborers’ exposure to stressors is higher than the
exposure of Latinos with permanent jobs. Day laborers reported more concerns over language
barriers as impediments to being effective at work, had higher concerns over immigration
related issues, and reported working under conditions that entailed low safety standards and
low levels of compliance with safe workplace practices. Implications include a necessity for
further research to focus on day laborer populations’ experiences of workplace stressors and
well-being outcomes.
184
PSYCHOSOCIAL PREDICTORS OF WORKPLACE
ACCIDENTS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY
CLARK, O. & QUILES, J.
University of Hartford, United Kingdom
Objectives: According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics report, in 2006, 1.2 million nonfatal accidents and illnesses requiring days away from work were recorded in the private
sector. This represents an injury rate of 2.3 per 100 full-time workers. Many factors may
potentially contribute to workplace injuries. The present study is a qualitative investigation of
psychosocial risk factors associated with workplace injuries. By content-analyzing focus group
data from several distinct categories of employees, the authors examine the differences in
work experience of immigrant and non-immigrant populations.
Methods: The data were collected through unstructured focus group interviews. The focus
groups with native English-speaking employees and Latino immigrants were conducted
separately. Within each category, males and females were interviewed separately. Groups
were also separated by education levels. The focus group transcripts were content analyzed.
Results: Focus group participants identified a wide variety of psychosocial factors that play a
role in workplace accidents. These factors can be classified into such categories as lack of
managerial support, interpersonal conflict, racial and gender discrimination, and insufficient
safety training. There were several group differences. Compared to native participants,
immigrants were more likely to mention mistreatment from their managers and supervisors.
Specifically, Latino immigrants more often reported managers’ disregard for their well-being
and difficulties obtaining help.
Conclusions: This qualitative study suggests several new research hypotheses. It also
provides access to richly detailed information about workplace experiences of new immigrants
employed in non-agricultural settings. Practical implications of the findings will be discussed.
185
EXPLORING THE FEASIBILITY OF WORKPLACE
TUBERCULOSIS INTERVENTIONS
EGGERTH, D., FLYNN, M. & DELANEY, S.
CDC/NIOSH, U.S.A.
The tuberculosis (TB) incidence among foreign-born individuals in the U.S. is 22.5 per 100,000
as compared to 2.6 per 100,000 for American-born individuals. Foreign-born individuals
represented 53.7% of the TB cases reported in the United States in 2004. Hispanics are the
fastest growing demographic group in the United States, having increased by 58% from 1990
to 2000. TB was reported more frequently among Hispanics than among any other ethnic
group for the first time in 2004 and 74% of Hispanic TB cases were foreign-born individuals.
Mexican-born workers account for the highest percentage (approximately 25%) of new TB
cases reported in the United States. Given the rapidly increasing rate of immigration from
Latin America to the United States, finding effective ways to reach Latin American immigrants
with information and treatment is essential to controlling and eventually eliminating the
disease in the United States. Due to barriers of language, education, and illegal immigration
status, Hispanic immigrant workers tend to be concentrated within certain industries
(agriculture, service, construction, and manufacturing) and often within particular companies
within a given industry. Consequently, it may be possible to capitalize on this employmentbased “segregation” by using the workplace as a forum for both TB education and treatment.
The findings presented by this paper are from the first phase of data collection to investigate
the feasibility of using the workplace for public health interventions with the Hispanic
immigrant population.
These findings also represent an important first step in better
understanding the educational needs of these immigrants related to TB.
A total of 12 focus groups were conducted with Hispanic immigrants working in an urban
center in the Midwestern United States. These focus groups were stratified by gender and
education level (6th grade and below; 7th – 12th grade; and college educated).
The
participants were asked to discuss their knowledge, beliefs and attitudes related to TB and the
perceived feasibility of using the workplace for TB interventions. An open coding strategy was
used on the focus group transcripts. The most salient themes identified by this analysis were:
•
There is a low level of accurate knowledge concerning TB, particularly routes of
transmission.
•
TB was viewed by many as being a disease of poverty, in particular affecting those
who already suffer from ill health, exposure to cold or malnutrition.
•
TB is considered to be very serious and likely fatal, though most also knew treatments
existed for TB.
•
Nearly all considered themselves to be safe from TB due to having been vaccinated in
their home countries.
•
Immigrant workers responding very positively to workplace-based TB interventions.
•
There was also significant interest in workplace-based public health interventions
addressing a concerns ranging from hygiene to HIV/AIDS.
These findings suggest that workplace may represent a very important route to reaching an
otherwise difficult to reach population with public health interventions. These findings are also
congruent with the NIOSH WorkLife Initiative which proposes to use the workplace a forum to
for public health interventions.
186
WORKPLACE BULLYING AND HEALTH:
ORGANIZATIONAL AND PERSONAL
INTERVENTIONS
SYMPOSIUM CHAIRS: ESCARTÍN, J.1 & ZAPF, D.2
¹University of Barcelona, Spain
²Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
For more than a decade, workplace bullying has been debated both in the scientific literature
and in the public press. Although the definitions are differing most researchers agree that
bullying refers to a situation where a person is repeatedly exposed to negative social
behaviours from one or more persons, and the person has become a target in an inferior
position with difficulties to defend him- or herself. Many studies have shown the negative
impact of bullying on health with some studies going so far as to suggest personality disorders
and post-traumatic stress disorders to be a result of prolonged workplace bullying.
Furthermore, research has shown evidence of the negative consequences for organizations,
such as a decrease of their productivity and incomes. In contrast to this growing evidence
regarding the negative organizational and health effects of bullying there is relative little
research on interventions with regard to workplace bullying. After defining the concept and
setting up the context, contributions from four different countries will report experiences and
results of intervention studies. The Australian contribution describes experiences and empirical
results from a large scale organizational development study in the Educational sector in which
workplace bullying was addressed. The Spanish contribution reports on the development of an
Anti-Bullying Code of Practice in a large public administration, following a hierarchical 3-steps
model: the primary, secundary and tertiary prevention. The Irish contribution looks at the
impact on health of persons who are referred for psychological assessments by the legal
profession because of personal injury resulting from victimization, such impact is then
compared to the national statistics. Finally, the German contribution reports results from a
study on bullying victims receiving psychotherapeutic treatment in a large psychosomatic
clinic, looking at whether the group of victims seeking such a treatment are representative of
all bullying victims or whether they belong to a specific group. In a nutshell, this symposium
introduces several organizational and personal interventions dedicated to workplace bullying
and health.
187
WORKPLACE BULLYING AND HEALTH: AN
INTRODUCTION
ZAPF, D.
Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany
This first contribution of the symposium will give an introduction to the concept of workplace
bullying. Most researchers agree that bullying refers to a situation where a person is
repeatedly exposed to negative social behaviours from one or more persons, and the person
has become a target in an inferior position with difficulties to defend him- or herself. This
definition distinguishes bullying from harassment, which includes also minor forms of negative
social behaviour directed towards other people. Social stress at work also includes, for
example, negative social climate with frequent tensions and conflicts, but without a
perpetrator-target structure. From the stress perspective, bullying is a situation including high
stressors and little resources to deal with the stress situation. In the case of severe bullying at
work, victims have little control over their work situation and often they have lost their social
network and thus any kind of social support from colleagues and supervisors. Organisational
stress research has repeatedly shown that high stressors and low resources are the key
characteristics of high strain jobs. From the conflict perspective, bullying is an escalated
conflict with very limited means for conflict management. Bullying as an extreme stress
situation is related to severe health impairment. In this contribution empirical research on
bullying and health will be reviewed and conclusions will be drawn with regard to prevention
and intervention. Here, the literature on conflict escalation has shown that the number of
intervention strategies decreases the more the conflicts are escalated. Thus with regard to
workplace bullying, the emphasis is on prevention and early intervention.
188
EVALUATION OF A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF A
RISK MANAGEMENT INTERVENTION FOR
BULLYING
DOLLARD, M.
University of South Australia, Australia
Participatory action research risk management (PAR-RM) has been used successfully to
achieve changes in work stressors and stress outcomes. Feasibly the approach should work to
reduce the bullying and its costly consequences. Australian education department employees
worked with their managers and a facilitator and assessed work psychosocial risks, including
bullying, to determine actions for prevention, and then implemented actions. Bullying was
positively related to psychological distress (r = .29, p <.01) and sick-leave (r = .18, p <.05)
over 12 months. Actions that particularly focused on communication and consultation, role
clarity, and conflict resolutions had the most impact on bullying. Using a quasi-experimental
repeated measures exposure design (High Action N = 32, Low Action, N = 39; Control N =
123) with data matched at twelve months, we showed that greater exposure to a range of
actions led to greater reduction in bullying and psychological distress, and attenuated sickness
absence. Repeated measures MANOVA showed the impact on bullying depended on the level
of exposure (e.g. HA vs LA, Group X Time, p < .05, η2 = .07). Structural Equation Modelling
also confirmed a fully mediated intervention pathway (intervention
change in bullying
change in psychological distress). In sum, a PAR-RM work reorganization approach can reduce
bullying, and is thus truly primary preventative.
189
DEVELOPING AN ANTI-BULLYING CODE OF
PRACTICE IN A LARGE PUBLIC ORGANIZATION:
A CASE STUDY
ESCARTÍN, J.1, ARRIETA, C.2, RODRÍGUEZ-CARBALLEIRA, A.1 & ZAPF, D.3
¹University of Barcelona, Spain
²University of San Jose, Costa Rica
³Goethe University Frankfurt,Germany
The increasing incidence of workplace bullying shown in two Psychological Risk Assessments in
2004 and 2006, and the pressure of the Labour Union on the organization to reduce these
negative behaviours, created the urge to develop an Anti-Bullying Code of Practice in a 700
employee Public Organization. The purpose of the Anti-Bullying Code of Practice was to
contribute to the prevention of bullying and to cope with the “actual cases of bullying”, which
were having a negative impact on all employees. In 2007, after 6 months of attempts to
develop an Anti-Bullying Code of Practice and after failing to reach an agreement among
stakeholders, the organization decided to seek help from external consultants. The objectives
of the consultancy were: (1) to develop an Anti-Bullying Code of Practice and (2) to reach a
consensus among stakeholders for signing such code. A total of 6 + 1 working sessions were
scheduled periodically during working hours. During the first three working sessions several
group techniques were used to enhance the team members’ commitment in relation to the
Code of Practice, emphasising a hierarchical 3-steps model: the primary, the secondary and
the terciary prevention. The other working sessions used a channel communication strategy to
write the Code of Practice on time. As a result, the Anti-Bullying Code of Practice was signed
and accepted. According to the qualitative data obtained from the intervention process
assessment, the workgroup stressed positively the methodology and the work dynamic used,
scoring this intervention with 9 in a 0-10 points scale. Actually, although quantitative data are
still not available, new data from the Psychological Risk Assessment 2008 is being collected in
order to assess the efficiency of the Code of Practice. Lessons learned from this intervention
include an understanding of the advantages of using academic and professional external
consultants in order to structure the development of an Anti-Bullying Code of Practice in public
organizations as part of a comprehensive health intervention process.
190
THE MENTAL AND PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF
WORKPLACE BULLYING: THE USE OF A
NATIONAL POSTAL SURVEY AND INDIVIDUAL
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS IN THE LEGAL
PROCESS
O’MOORE, M.
Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
The aim of the present paper is to add to the body of knowledge that suggests that workplace
bullying and harassment is a major source of stress and can affect the mental and physical
health of those who are victims of workplace bullying and harassment. Two data sets will be
examined for the occurrence and correlates of somatic and psychological symptoms and for
behavioural changes. The first data set comprises a National Postal Survey carried out by the
Anti-Bullying Centre (ABC) and commissioned by the Health and Safety Authority, Ireland
(O’Moore, 2000). The second set consists of individual psychological assessments conducted
by ABC over the years. These were in response to referrals from solicitors throughout Ireland
who suspected workplace bullying was playing a major part in their seeking of legal recourse.
The results will be based on well-known tests and measurements which include the General
Health Questionnaire (Goldberg & Williams, 1988), The State Trait Anxiety Inventory
(Spielberger & Rickman, 1991), The State Trait Anger Inventory (Spielberger & Rickman,
1991), The Rosenberg Self-Esteem (Rosenberg, 1965) and The Impact of Events Scale
(Horowitz, Wilner & Alverez, 1979).
191
VICTIMS OF WORKPLACE BULLYING IN A
PSYCHOSOMATIC HOSPITAL
JENDEREK, K.1, SCHWICKERATH, J.2 & ZAPF, D.1
1
Goethe-University Frankfurt, Germany
2
Berus-Klinik, Berus, Germany
Researchers (e.g., Matthiesen & Einarsen, 2001; Zapf, 1999) have repeatedly argued that
victims of bullying are not a homogeneous group. The perpetrator-prey model of Einarsen, for
example, suggests that any person entering a perpetrator’s sphere, may become a victim.
Thus, these victims should not be different from a group that has nothing to do with bullying
(non-victims). In contrast, several studies have shown that persons with certain
characteristics such as being high in neuroticism or low in social competence carry a higher
risk to become victimized. In the present study we wanted to know if victims of bullying who
are patients in a rehabilitation hospital belong to this latter group. This research question was
analysed in a study comprising 93 participants in a clinic and 96 participants representing a
control group. Results showed that persons with high neuroticism, low social competence and
low general self-efficacy have a higher risk to become victimized. Neuroticism also has a
moderating effect on the correlation of mobbing-victimization and organizational
individualisation and power distance respectively. Moreover we found systematic differences
between victims and non-victims in accordance with other published studies. We found little
differences with regard to non-clinical samples of victims. There were no differences with
regard to conflict management. Furthermore inpatient victims do not suffer more from
mobbing-activities than other victims. However inpatient victims showed a tendency to report
less organizational mobbing than other victims do. In conclusion inpatient victims differ from
non-victims. But there was little evidence that they are specific compared to other victim
samples.
192
THE GRAYING OF THE AMERICAN WORKFORCE:
IMPLICATIONS FOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH
PSYCHOLOGY
SYMPOSIUM CHAIR: FISHER, G.
Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, U.S.A.
Recent demographic, economic, and workplace changes underscore the importance of
conducting research among older workers (Shultz & Adams, 2007). The proportion of older
workers in the U.S. workforce is growing based on the aging of the baby-boomer generation
and concomitant decrease in the number of younger adults entering the labor market (Greller
& Nee, 1989, 1990). By 2030, the number of Americans age 65 and older will nearly double,
to over 70 million, while the number of workers between the ages of 25-54 will increase by
only 12 percent (U.S. Census Bureau, 2004).
The nature of the workplace has evolved in many ways. For example, a career with a single
company is no longer the norm (Price & Vinokur, 1995). More jobs fall within the realm of the
service sector compared with industrial-manufacturing, leading to heavier reliance on cognitive
and people skills; likewise, rapid technological advances have resulted in a need for new and
different skills among workers (Warr, 1994). In addition, the aging process, such as changes
in health and cognition, is likely to have an impact on the well-being of employees in
organizational settings (Jex, Wang, & Zarubin, 2007).
As occupational health psychology researchers, it behooves us to examine the impact of work
on this ever-growing, aging population. One excellent source of data for examining issues
facing the aging workforce is the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a large, national
longitudinal study of individuals age 51 and older in the U.S. that has been ongoing since
1992. The four papers in this symposium, drawing on HRS data, address distinct issues
related to the aging workforce to shed light on key issues for occupational health psychology
research and practice. The questions they address range from broad considerations of the
changing nature of work and the changing nature of the workforce to questions about the
differential work withdrawal experiences of older women and questions about how the
interplay between work and family affects retirement plans?
First, Fisher, Matthews, and Grosch describe the demographics of the aging U.S. workforce.
Their results also describe trends in jobs and the physical and cognitive job demands
experienced by older workers over a twelve-year period, from 1992 - 2004. In the second
paper, Grosch and his colleagues examine occupational differences related to cognitive
functioning, in which they not only found significant differences between white and blue collar
workers, but meaningful differences among various occupational groups.
Cleveland and her colleagues have focused their research on a large, but understudied
segment of the aging workforce: women. Their paper examines the diversity and individual
variations among older women that may be associated with work withdrawal. Their results
highlight important differences between older White and Black working women, including
differences in missed days because of health and differences in job demands. In the final
paper, Barnes-Farrell and her colleagues examine how positive and negative aspects of the
work-family interface might operate to influence retirement timing. Their results showed that
work-to-family conflict was associated with earlier planned age of retirement. In contrast,
work-to-family facilitation was associated with later planned age of retirement; the facilitation
effect was particularly pronounced among men.
Collectively, these papers highlight a number of important issues regarding the nature of work
experiences for older adults. Furthermore, they offer insights into practical issues that
organizations can address to improve the quality of work and well-being for an aging
workforce.
193
TRENDS IN DEMOGRAPHIC AND JOB
CHARACTERISTICS AMONG OLDER WORKERS
IN THE U.S
FISHER, G.1, MATTHEWS, R.2 & GROSCH, J.3
1
3
Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, U.S.A.
2
Louisiana State University, U.S.A.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S.A.
Objectives. The purpose of the present study was to examine trends in the demographic and
job characteristics and job demands among a nationally representative sample of older
workers in the U.S. age 51-61 between 1992 and 2004.
Methods: Participants were N=10,868 workers between the ages of 51 and 61 who
participated in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in at least one wave in 1992, 1998,
and 2004. Participants were interviewed either face-to-face or via telephone by a trained
interviewer from the Survey Research Center. Participants were asked a series of questions
about their current employment status, occupation, job characteristics, and other aspects of
their work.
Results: A comparison of demographic characteristics among older workers showed a slight
increase racial and ethnic and diversity in 2004 compared with 1992, with slightly more Blacks
and Hispanics being in the workforce. In addition, workers among the same age group in later
waves were more highly educated (e.g., M=14.2 years of education among workers in 2004,
compared with M=12.76 in 1992). The proportion of workers who were self-employed
remained fairly stable (19%) across the 12-year time interval. The proportion of older workers
in white collar jobs increased only slightly over time, although there were more noticeable
shifts among occupations. For example, there was an increase between 1992 and 1998 in the
number of workers in professional specialty operations and technical support positions and a
decrease in the proportion of machine operators. Workers in jobs with higher levels of
cognitive complexity in 1992 were more likely to still be working twelve years later (t (6569)
= 4.72, p < .05), whereas those with greater physical job demands were less likely to still be
working (t (6615) = 3.99, p < .01). Additional results regarding inter- and intra-individual
trends in jobs and job characteristics will be presented.
Conclusions: Between 1992 and 2004, the older workforce became increasingly diverse and
more highly educated. Workers in jobs with higher cognitive demands were more likely to
stay in the workforce, while those in more physically demanding jobs were less likely to
continue working. Knowing more about our the demographic and job characteristics of older
workers will assist us in knowing who we can expect to remain in the labor force, attracting
and retaining older workers in the workforce, and attending to the health and safety needs of
older workers.
194
OCCUPATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN AGE-RELATED
COGNITIVE DECLINE
GROSCH, J.1, ALTERMAN, T.1, LI, J.1 & FISHER, G.2
1
2
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S.A.
Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, U.S.A.
Objectives: Occupational differences have been reported for several important health
outcomes, including heart disease and cancer. However, one outcome that has received much
less attention from occupational health professionals is cognitive functioning. The present
study used data from several waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to analyze
occupational differences in performance on two measures of memory.
A major question
addressed in the analyses was whether different occupational groups (e.g., blue versus whitecollar workers) would show the same rate of decline in cognitive performance over time.
Methods: Participants were individuals who participated in five waves of the HRS (1992,
1994, 1996, 1998, and 2000). In each of these waves, subjects participated in a cognition
module in which they were read a list of words and then asked to recall the list immediately,
and then after an interval of 20 minutes. The standardized number of words correctly recalled
constituted the immediate and delayed memory performance scores. Multiple regression
analysis was used to compare performance on the two memory tasks for blue and white-collar
workers, after controlling for education, household income, ethnicity, gender, and current
work status. In addition, multiple regression was used to determine if the rate of decline in
memory performance between 1992 and 2000 was the same for blue and white-collar
workers. Follow-up analyses examined differences in memory performance for more specific
occupational groups (e.g., transportation workers, managerial workers, etc.). All analyses
were conducted with weighted values, using SUDAAN to properly adjust variance estimates to
reflect the complex sampling design of the HRS.
Results: For both immediate and delayed recall, white-collar workers performed better than
blue-collar workers (p < .0001), even after all control variables were entered into the analysis.
In addition, a significant interaction occurred, such that blue-collar workers experienced a
greater decline in performance between 1992 and 2000 than white-collar workers (p < .0001).
Follow-up analyses found that transportation, construction, and agricultural workers declined
the most in performance, whereas managerial, professional, and clerical workers declined the
least.
Conclusions: The results demonstrate that occupational differences in cognitive functioning
exist. The significant interaction between occupation and time suggests that differences
between blue and white-collar workers increase with age. These findings will be discussed in
terms of limitations inherent in the study (e.g., possible selection issues involved in the HRS,
the nature of the memory task, and the problem of using a single occupational category to
represent an individual’s occupational history), and well as work-related factors (e.g., job
complexity) that may contribute to the observed occupational differences. The results of
additional analyses focusing on the role of common characteristics of occupations that show
the greatest decline in cognitive functioning will also be presented.
195
AGE, HEALTH, FAIRNESS AND RETIREMENT
PERCEPTIONS:COMPARISONS AMONG OLDER
BLACK AND WHITE WOMEN
CLEVELAND, J., SAWYER, K., FOO, S. & JONES, A.
The Pennsylvania State University, U.S.A.
Objectives: By 2030, more than twenty percent of the U.S. population will be 65 years and
older (Cascio, 2003). As the population ages, so too does the U.S workforce. However, the
acceleration of workforce aging is dependent on a number of factors including whether
employees choose to retire from or remain within the workplace past 65 years, the ‘normal’
age of retirement. Further, the U.S. workforce reflects increasing diversity of gender, ethnic
and racial groups, and immigrants (Cascio, 2003; Fullerton, 1997). A number of factors
contribute to worker withdrawal or departure from the workforce including personal
characteristics and work-nonwork perceptions. Women represent one of the largest segments
of the aging population yet there is little research that specifically focuses on the diversity and
individual variations among older women that may be associated with work withdrawal. In the
present study, we compare both demographic variations as well as work, health and age
perceptions among middle aged and older Black and White employed women.
Methods: Using the 2006 HRS data set, responses from 1157 working Black and White
women were analyzed. Women were identified as either middle aged (53 to 60 years old) or
older (over 60 years old) to further examine the diversity among women.
Results: Using uni- and multivariate analysis, Black women regardless of age were less likely
to be living with a spouse or partner than white women. Few differences were found among
middle aged women on education (black=13.3 years v white=13.87 years) although slightly
greater racial variations emerged among women over 61 years (black=12.37 years vs
white=13.20 years). White, middle-aged women planned to stop working at 64.8 years while
similar Blacks at 62.1 years; whereas among older White women plan to stop working at 69
and black women at 71.1 years. More older Black women than White women considered
themselves retired. Middle-aged Black and White women expect to collect social security
income at similar ages while among older women, Blacks and Whites differed in the expected
age at which they expect to collect social security (64.4 and 68.5 respectively). Further,
among middle aged women, Whites worked more hours per week than blacks (42 vs 39
hours) with this difference increasing among older White and Black women (48 vs 27hours).
Regardless of age, Black and White older women differed in terms of self-rated overall health
such that Whites rated health higher. Importantly, Black women reported more missed days
of work because of health than do White women. On the other hand, Black women report
lower job demands than White women with the lowest demands reported among Black women
over 61 years. Middle-aged Black women report lower life satisfaction with smaller race
differences among older women. Yet regardless of race, there is more work-nonwork conflict
among middle aged women with the lowest conflict reported among older Black women.
Conclusions: Variability among employed women are discussed in relation to perceptions of
work fairness and subtle discrimination as predictors of work withdrawal.
196
HOW DOES THE NATURE OF THE WORK-FAMILY
INTERFACE INFLUENCE PLANNED RETIREMENT
AGE OF MEN AND WOMEN?
BARNES-FARRELL, J., DOVE-STEINKAMP, M., GOLAY, L., JOHNSON, N. &
MCGONAGLE, A.
University of Connecticut, U.S.A.
Objectives: The effects of spillover between work and family domains of one’s life are
frequently studied for adults in early and mid-career stages and have been associated with
health, job satisfaction, intentions to turnover, and organizational commitment. Much less is
known about the quality of the work-life interface and its potential impact on features of older
workers’ careers, such as plans regarding the timing of the transition to retirement from the
workforce. In this study, we investigated the extent to which conflict-based and facilitationbased relationships between work and family domains are related to planned timing of
retirement for working adults. Based on push-pull theories of forces contributing to worker
decisions about when to transition from an employment role to a retirement role, our primary
hypotheses were that: (a) work-family conflict should contribute to plans for an earlier
transition from work to retirement; and (b) work-family facilitation should contribute to plans
for a delayed transition from work to retirement. In addition, we posed the following research
question: Are there gender differences in the pattern of relationships between work-family
interface variables and planned retirement age?
Method: We investigated these questions using archival data from members of the 2004
wave of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) who completed the Occupational Health
Module of the 2004 survey. The Occupational Health module was completed by a sample of
adults aged 65 and under who were working for pay in the USA during 2004; 287 men (n=97)
and women (n=190) met the requirements of the study. Self-reports of retirement intentions
and anticipated age of retirement were used to measure planned retirement age, and birth
year was used to measure current age. The quality of work-life interfaces was measured
using multi-item self-report scales that assessed Work-to-Family Conflict, Family-to-Work
Conflict, Work-to-Family Facilitation, and Family-to-Work Facilitation, respectively.
Results: Our hypotheses and research questions were addressed using moderated multiple
regression analysis. After controlling for current age, quality of the work-to-family interface
accounted for significant variance in planned retirement age (R2 change = .049, p < .001).
Consistent with our hypotheses, frequent work-to-family conflict was associated with earlier
planned age of retirement and frequent work-to-family facilitation was associated with later
planned age of retirement. Furthermore, the work-to-family facilitation relationship was
moderated by gender (p < .01). Work-to-family facilitation was the primary driver of delayed
retirement plans for men but it was unrelated to women’s retirement plans. The quality of the
family-to-work interface was unrelated to planned retirement age.
Conclusions: Recent shifts in workplace demographics have generated a growing interest in
the retention of older workers. Organizations that are concerned with delaying the exit of older
adults from the workforce would do well to pay attention to conditions that enhance the
quality of the work-life interface. The results of this study suggest that negative spillover
between work and life domains may push older workers toward retirement, but work
arrangements that facilitate familial roles may encourage older men, in particular, to remain
active members of the workplace, by delaying plans for retirement.
197
GLOBAL CHANGES, WORK CONDITIONS,
STRESS AND FATIGUE IN AVIATION WORKERS
- AN INTERNATIONAL UNION/RESEARCHER
STUDY
SYMPOSIUM CHAIR: GREINER, B.
University College Cork, Ireland
Civil aviation has seen many changes in the past decade. Demands from the public for lower
cost travel, heightened security emphasis since 9/11 and liberalization policies, have vastly
changed the industry and conditions of work. As civil aviation is a largely globalized sector an
international approach to occupational health and safety issues is required..
The symposium includes four papers presenting first results of a large international study on
working conditions, stress and fatigue in aviation workers involving 200 different countries.
The study is a collaborative effort between unions and researchers.
•
The first presentation by Dr. Ellen Rosskam introduces to the background of the study
and its methods and highlights changes in social and economic security in this industry over
the past few years
•
The second presentation by Ms. Vera Mc Carthy presents results on changes in work
conditions of aviation work within the international context
•
The third presentation by Prof. Johannes Siegrist highlights aspects of work stress in a
globalized economy using the effort-reward imbalance approach
•
The last presentation by Dr. Birgit Greiner addresses associations of job
characteristics, economic and social insecurity with fatigue and burnout in aviation workers
In the discussion will address issues that go beyond aviation work but deal with stress
research issues in the context of globalisation, research methodology (for example
participatory action research), partnerships (e.g. with unions) and policy implications of the
research.
198
BACKGROUND ON A GLOBAL INVESTIGATION
OF CIVIL AVIATION WORKERS: FOCUS ON
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SECURITY ASPECTS
ROSSKAM, R., GREINER, B., McCARTHY, V., SMITH, S., MAROWSKY, I. &
WILLIAMSON, L.
University College Cork, Ireland
Objectives: The presentation will describe the background of a global investigation of civil
aviation workers in 200 countries (covering ground staff, cabin crew and air traffic controllers)
on behalf of 800,000 workers, through a lens of the social effects of liberalization on workers’
social and economic security.
Methods: The study uses participatory action research methodology. The key partner working
with the research team is the International Transport Workers’ Federation (ITF), Civil Aviation
Section and its global affiliates. The study attempts to examine changes in the sector
occurring between 2000 and 2007.
Results: Descriptive results on changes in civil aviation workers’ social and economic security
from 2000 to 2007 will be presented together with international comparisons. Specifically we
will address for example changes in job security, job losses, outsourcing, contingent work
contracts, social benefits and income security.
Conclusions: This investigation is a pioneering examination of the conditions in this sector
and is meant to inform international policy making in the civil aviation sector. The study is also
meant to provide collective bargaining agents in the ITF’s global affiliates with empirical
evidence for improving their conditions of work.
199
TEMPORAL FACTORS AND CIVIL AVIATION
WORKERS – AN INTERNATIONAL
COLLABORATIVE STUDY
McCARTHY, V.1, GREINER, B.1, ROSSKAM, E.2, SMITH, S.3 & MAROWSKY, I.4
1
University College Cork, Ireland
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C, U.S.A.
Brunel University School of Business, Center for Research on Emotion Work, United Kingdom
4
International Transport Workers’ Federation, London, United Kingdom
2
3
Objective: Describe work demands and working hours in civil aviation workers (ground staff,
cabin crew and air traffic controllers) and their changes over the past 7 years.
Method: For over a century, the civil aviation industry has been developing and growing with
great success. Demand from the public for lower cost travel, together with industrial
restructuring, globalisation and liberalisation policies, have vastly changed the industry and
conditions of work. The events of September 11th 2001 have had major implications for the
aviation industry. These influences probably resulted in increased pressures on aviation
workers internationally however the specific stress factors due to global changes have not
been specifically determined yet.
This was a collaborative study involving unions and researchers. In order to examine work
conditions and work practices in civil aviation workers worldwide, a questionnaire was sent to
all International Transport Workers’ Federation global affiliates in 200 countries representing
800,000 civil aviation workers. There were three specific occupational groups studied; cabin
crew, ground staff and air traffic controllers. Key informants completed the questionnaires on
behalf of the workers they represented, indicating changes from 2000 to 2007. Total number
of hours worked, consecutive hours worked, rest breaks and shift pattern were enquired.
Data collection is ongoing.
This methodology allows the international union, individual members and the researchers to
gain insight into civil aviation workers’ working conditions. The methodology allows us to
obtain data from a wide variety of countries and regions about work practices and changes in
the industry thought to be increasing stress in aviation workers.
Results: Descriptive results on working conditions of aviation workers will be presented, more
specifically on total number of hours worked, consecutive hours worked, rest breaks and shift
pattern. International comparisons will be made owing to the nature of this study design.
Conclusions: This is the first study to internationally describe working conditions in aviation
workers and will inform national as well as international policy urgently needed in this sector.
The high degree of responsibility attributed to civil aviation staff with regard to the safety of
the travelling public and increased work commitments can have health implication in the form
of absence due to stress, musculoskeletal injury or other occupational health related ailments.
The psychological and indeed physiological well-being of these workers is dependent on a
numbers of different issues, which may vary among airports, countries and job descriptions.
200
MEASURING WORK STRESS IN CIVIL AVIATION
WORKERS IN A GLOBALIZED ECONOMY
SIEGRIST, J.1, ROSSKAM, E.2, McCARTHY, V.3, GREINER, B.3, SMITH, S.4 &
MAROWSKY, I.5
1
Institut für Medizinische Soziologie, Heinrich Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Germany
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C.; Visiting Professor,
University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Work Environment Department; Senior Visiting Fellow,
University of Surrey, European Institute for Health and Medical Sciences, United Kingdom
3
Department of Epidemiology & Public Health, University of Cork, Ireland
Brunel University School of Business, Center for Research on Emotion Work, United Kingdom
5
International Transport Workers’ Federation, United Kingdom
2
4
Objectives: Economic globalization can affect the health of working populations in general,
and of civic aviation workers in particular, in positive and negative ways. On the negative side
pressures towards increasing return on investment contribute to a process of work
intensification that often goes along with cut-down of personnel, downsizing and merging,
thus increasing job instability and insecurity in sizeable parts of the workforce. Whereas more
traditional measures of work stress were concerned with particular job characteristics and
personal coping capabilities a more recent approach, termed effort-reward imbalance, focuses
on a core notion of work contracts, the reciprocity of efforts spent and rewards received at
work. The model claims that high cost/low gain conditions are frequent in modern economies,
in particular if employees have limited alternative choice in the labor market, and that this
imbalance increases the risk of incident stress-related disorders to a significant degree.
Importantly, rewards at work include salary, promotion prospects, job security and esteem or
recognition.
Methods: In a collaborative study involving unions and researchers a questionnaire including
a modified version of the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire was sent out to all
International Transport Workers’ Federation global affiliates in 200 countries representing
800,000 civil aviation workers. Key informants completed the questionnaires on behalf of the
workers they represented. Data collection is still ongoing
Results: This contribution will present first results from the global civil aviation workers study
where information on stressful work was obtained
in terms of this model.
Conclusions: Findings are discussed in the frame of current scientific evidence, and policy
implications are proposed.
201
WORK CONDITIONS, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL
SECURITY, FATIGUE AND BURNOUT IN
AVIATION WORKERS
GREINER,B.1, ROSSKAM, E.2, McCARTHY, V.1, SMITH, S.3 & MAROWSKY, I.4
1
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College Cork, Ireland
Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C.; Visiting Professor,
University of Massachusetts, Lowell, Work Environment Department; Senior Visiting Fellow,
University of Surrey, European Institute for Health and Medical Sciences, United Kingdom
3
Brunel University School of Business, Center for Research on Emotion Work, London, United
Kingdom
4
International Transport Workers’ Federation, London, United Kingdom
2
Objectives: To determine associations between job characteristics, measures of economic
and social security with burnout and fatigue for 3 different occupational groups of aviation
workers.
Background: Worker fatigue and burnout can create major problems in civil aviation
compromising passenger safety and delivery of service. The industry has been experiencing
major restructuring in the past few years, for some workers presumably resulting in increased
psychological work demands, loss of external resources such as job control and social support
and decreased social and economic security. Although associations between job characteristics
and fatigue/burnout are well established in the general job stress literature, less is known
about how the context of economic and social security (or insecurity) affect these associations.
Methods: A questionnaire was sent to all International Transport Workers’ Federation global
affiliates in 200 countries representing 800,000 civil aviation workers.
Key informants
completed the questionnaires on behalf of the occupational group (cabin crew, ground workers
and air traffic controllers) they represented including questions on job demands, job control,
social support (modified version of the Job Content Questionnaire), burnout (Maslach burnout
inventory), fatigue and social and economic security (e.g. job losses, contingent work
contracts, outsourcing in this particular occupational group).
Results: Data collection is still ongoing. For each occupational group we will present results
obtained by regression models with fatigue and burnout as dependent variable and measures
of work characteristics and economic and social security as independent variables. We are
specifically interested in determining interactions of work characteristics (e.g. psychological
demands) and measures of economic and social security (e.g. high level of contingent work in
this particular occupational group) in relation to overall fatigue and burnout. International
comparisons will be provided.
Conclusions: Results will inform research as well as policy aiming at prevention of fatigue
and burnout in aviation workers internationally.
202
DEVELOPMENT OF A EUROPEAN PSYCHOSOCIAL
RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK (PRIMA-EF)
SYMPOSIUM CHAIRS: LEKA, S.1 & KORTUM, E.2
1
2
University of Nottingham, Great Britain
World Health Organisation, Switzerland
This symposium will describe recent policy research at the European level that focuses on the
development of a European framework for psychosocial risk management (PRIMA-EF). This
research has been funded by the EC 6th Framework Programme and particularly addresses
work-related stress, and workplace violence (including harassment, bullying and mobbing).
The objectives of the research programme are: a. to develop existing knowledge in reviewing
available methodologies to evaluate the prevalence and impact of psychosocial risks at work
and work-related stress, including physical and psychological workplace violence, harassment,
bullying and mobbing; b. to identify appropriate means of collecting sensitive data in relation
to these issues; c. to develop international standards and indicators on stress and violence at
work; d. to develop detailed recommendations and evidence-based best-practice guidance on
the management of these issues at the workplace; and e. to disseminate the results of the
project to stakeholders and social partners including small and medium-sized enterprises
(SMEs). In line with European policy on corporate social responsibility and social dialogue, the
project involves social partners throughout its implementation and is supported by the World
Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Office (ILO). In addition, the
consortium supporting the programme works in synergy with partners internationally to
ensure a wide impact of the project outcomes and the initiation of the development of an
international network of centres of excellence in psychosocial risk management.
The symposium will consist of six presentations that will describe the work that has been
completed so far through this research programme. The first presentation will describe the key
principles of the framework for psychosocial risk management that underpins this policy
research. The second presentation will focus on regulations and social dialogue and their link
with psychosocial risk management and present findings of focus groups with participants at a
stakeholder workshop including. The third presentation will discuss the findings from a survey
of policy makers across Europe on the perception of psychosocial risks and work-related
stress. The fourth presentation will discuss key indicators in the area of psychosocial risk
management and will present an indicator model focussing on macro and micro levels (e.g.
policy, enterprise). The fifth presentations will focus on best practice as concerns psychosocial
risk management interventions. Key best practice principles and the results from a series of
interviews with experts across the EU will be presented and discussed. The sixth presentation
will discuss the key issues in policy orientated research for psychosocial risk management and
discuss the way forward.
203
INTRODUCTION TO THE EUROPEAN
FRAMEWORK FOR PSYCHOSOCIAL RISK
MANAGEMENT
LEKA, S.1, JAIN, A.1, COX, T.1 & KORTUM, E.2
1
Institute of Work, Health and Organisations, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
2
World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland
Throughout Europe, researchers and research institutes, government bodies and organisations
have their own ways of managing the challenge of work-related stress, often presented under
different names, using different methods and measures and putting their emphasis on
different parts of the overall system. These different approaches have usually been arrived at
through a process of funded research and development and, as a result, attract a degree of
loyalty.
In the different Member States of the European Union there are likely to be procedures and
systems for dealing with work-related stress which is now widely recognised as one of the
major challenges to occupational health. However, there is a great variety in the approaches
that exist with the most obvious distinction being between those that focus on the individual
and ways of promoting their health or treating those in poor health and those that focus on
the causes of work-related stress in the design and management of work and which attempt
organisational-level solutions.
The PRIMA-EF project aims at establishing a framework that will accommodate all the existing
(major) risk management approaches to work-related stress across the European Union. This
framework can be built from a theoretical analysis of the risk management process, identifying
its key elements in logic and philosophy, strategy and procedures, areas of measurement and
types of measure, and from a subsequent analysis of typical risk management approaches as
used within the European Union. This European psychosocial risk management framework
(PRIMA-EF), when agreed and disseminated, should inform decisions on the development of
new and existing approaches to the management of work-related stress. Convergence is one
key concept. PRIMA-EF attempts reconciliation and harmonisation of what exists.
A second key issue for this alternative approach is that of equivalence. Within PRIMA-EF, the
principle of equivalence, and allowing diversity, continues throughout the life of the
framework. Equivalence allows the overall approach to be tailored to the context in which it is
used without loosing the opportunity to compare across situations, at one level, and to draw
general conclusions at another.
The third key concept is contextualisation. There has long been a debate over the adequacy or
otherwise of contrasting approaches to the assessment and reduction of work-related stress.
Contextualisation, tailoring the approach to its situation, is a necessary part and facilitates its
practical impact in workplaces.
Beyond the key concepts, such as convergence, equivalence and contextualisation, the PRIMAEF project aims at examining the philosophy and logic of risk management for work-related
stress in Europe and the strategies, methods and measures used and the key principles
involved.
This presentation will present the PRIMA framework’s philosophy and logic and key principles.
204
POLICIES, REGULATIONS AND SOCIAL
DIALOGUE IN THE EU IN RELATION TO
PSYCHOSOCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT
ERTEL, M.1, STILIJANOW, U.1, SEDLATSCHEK, C.1, IAVICOLI, S.2, NATALI, E.2,
PETYX, C.2 & DEITINGER, P.2
1
2
Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Berlin, Germany
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL), Rome, Italy
In terms of recognizing the relevance of work-related stress and of psychosocial risks in
general, considerable progress has been made over the last years in the EU. This is due to
legal and institutional developments, in particular the common European Framework, starting
with the EU Framework Directive on Health and Safety in 1989, the growing body of scientific
knowledge on the detrimental effects of psychosocial risks on safety, health and productivity
and the dissemination of this knowledge (e.g. by the European Commission’s Guide on WorkRelated Stress in 2000), Complementary actions taken by the European social partners within
the Frame of European Social Dialogue, in particular the Framework Agreements on Workrelated Stress (2004) and on Harassment and Violence at Work (2007). In the UK, a
pragmatic approach was chosen with the HSE Management Standards for Work-Related
Stress.
However, many barriers exist in terms of addressing psychosocial risks, and there are growing
concerns as to whether the existing legal and regulatory framework in the EU is appropriate
and effective for the prevention of work-related stress. This is due to a set of factors, many of
which are interrelated and often tend to be neglected or even overlooked by academic
researchers. The process of EU enlargement is increasing the European Union’s heterogeneity
in view of its economic level of development, social partner capacities and the political will to
address stress-related problems. Problems related to stress at work are increasing across
Europe, but at the same time there are differences among countries and among actors
(Government/state agencies, Trade Unions, employers associations) in the awareness, the
understanding and the prioritisation of stress-related issues, which was demonstrated by a
current stakeholder survey conducted within the project PRIMA-EF (www.prima-ef.org). These
differences are most pronounced between old and new EU member countries. Relevant
differences also prevail between trade unions and employers associations in terms of
assessing the relevance of binding regulations/law enforcement versus “soft law” (e.g. social
dialogue). Against this background, the presentation will focus on the following questions:
•
How appropriate and effective are the existing regulations for the assessment and
management of psychosocial risks?
•
-What are the driving forces and what are the barriers in this context ?
•
-How can psychosocial risks be successfully addressed in the new EU states which
have undergone massive econonic, social and political restructuring over the last years ?
•
What are the achievements and limits of news forms of “soft law” (in particular social
dialogue) in relation to psychosocial risk management ?
205
PSYCHOSOCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT –
EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK: A SURVEY ABOUT
STAKEHOLDERS’ PERCEPTIONS OF
PSYCHOSOCIAL RISKS
DEITINGER, P.1, NATALI, E.1, PETYX, C.1, ERTEL, M.2, LEKA, S.3 &
IAVICOLI, S.1
1
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention, Italy
2
Federal Institute of Occupational Safety & Health, Germany
3
Institute of Work, Health & Organisations, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
Psychosocial risks, work-related stress, violence, harassment, bullying and mobbing are widely
recognised considered major challenges to occupational health and safety (EASHW, 2006).
Throughout Europe, researchers and research institutes, government bodies and organisations
differed in awareness and understanding of these new types of challenges in working life.
Scientific literature provides a broad view of research on stress, its consequences on workers’
health, workplace, and its main causes. However, little attention was focused on “stress
perception”, and even less to the different parties’ points of view in the world of work.
Objective: The PRIMA-EF project focused on the development of a European framework for
psychosocial risk management with a special focus on work-related stress and workplace
violence (including harassment, bullying and mobbing) and included separate and concrete but
interrelated research work packages. The “stress perception” among stakeholders is an
important intermediate step because convergence among social partners on the perception of
stress is necessary in order to overcome the often-quoted science-policy gap and the one
between policy and implementation.
Methods: As part of project activities a survey questionnaire was developed to assess
stakeholders’ perceptions of psychosocial risks, involving stakeholders on a tripartite basis
(government institutions, trade union organizations, employers’ organizations), across the
enlarged EU. The main topics of the questionnaire were: the effectiveness and the needs
related to regulations governing health and safety at work, perception of work related stress
and related outcomes, the role and effectiveness of dialogue and cooperation between the
social partners.
Results: The results show a large consensus that work-related stress can lead to occupational
disease and it effects on increasing absenteeism and decreasing productivity. Organizational
culture and excessive work demands are considered the main causes of work related stress
but the employers underline the importance of lack of work-life balance and other individual
characteristics. In particular, trade unions emphasize the effect on increasing accidents. The
research results also help explain the perception which stakeholders have of the importance of
those organizational variables which are widely known as potential sources of work-related
stress.
Conclusions: The results of the study will be disseminated through the www.prima-ef.org
website and publications (books and brochures) written in a user-friendly language and style
so that they can be easily used at the enterprise level. The dissemination’s goal is that of
spreading and increasing knowledge and awareness among different stakeholders on the
work-related stress area, especially on the importance of social dialogue, corporate social
responsibility (CSR) and of psychosocial risk management.
206
DEVELOPING INDICATORS FOR PSYCHOSOCIAL
RISK MANAGEMENT
HOUTMAN, I.1, VAN DEN BOSSCHE, S.1, ZWETSLOOT, G.1, BAKHUYS
ROOZEBOOM, M.1, WIDERSZAL-BAZYL, M.2, ZOLNIERCZYK-ZREDA, D.2,
LEKA, S.3 & JAIN, A.3
1
TNO Quality of Life, Netherlands
2
CIOP-PIB, Poland
3
Institute of Work, Health & Organisations, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
As part of the PRIMA-EF Project, which focuses on the development of a European framework
for psychosocial risks management, we will present one of the project’s work packages: the
work package on 'Monitoring and Indicators'. This work package focuses on a comparative
evaluation and analysis of psychosocial risks at work and work-related stress, including
physical and psychological workplace violence, harassment, bullying and mobbing. The
purposes to be covered in this work package are to:
•
develop a European indicator model for psychosocial risk management with a special
focus on work-related stress and workplace violence. Cost benefit models could be
incorporated in the assessment of the impact and management of psychosocial risks;
•
develop international standards for these indicators on stress and violence at work and
establish the relevance to high risk groups and occupational sectors, gender issues and the
issue of culture within the EU.
•
collect sensitive data in relation to these issues;
•
Additionally, cost benefit analysis methods will be identified and can be incorporated
into the assessment of the impact of psychosocial risks and the evaluation of interventions.
The integrated indicator model as identified aims to encompass employer and employee
interests, and will put forward affordable goals to reach at enterprise level. Within this context,
the indicators should include ‘Corporate Social Responsibility’ (CSR).
Apart from content specifications that have to be taken into account, (see above) several
contextual criteria appear to be important as well:
•
The indicator model/indicators should be considered to have policy relevance next to
expert assessments. In a WHO Working Group Meeting, it was agreed that expert assessments
may not necessarily be in accordance with the burden of disease caused by the environmental
(risk) factor under consideration, nor with the assessment of national policy makers;
•
Data availability is an important and practical consideration to take into account.
Particularly since data quality is not always straightforward because the determinants of data
quality such as validity and reliability of the data elements are not always clearly defined;
•
Comparability considered from a multinational perspective is often considered to be
important as well.
The indicator model:
•
In order to synthesize the aims we wish the integrated model to achieve, we should be
able to identify
•
the exposure to risk factors;
•
the impact resulting in more or less permanent (positive or negative) outcomes
(dependent on the quality of the coping process);
•
action indicators relevant for risk management;
207
•
indicators at the individual as well as at the organisational level, and maybe even
higher levels (sectoral, national, international);
•
costs and benefits
The process of stress can be summarized in a model which illustrates the risk factors for workrelated stress, stress reactions, consequences of stress at three levels and individual
characteristics, as well as their interrelations. This model will form the basis for the European
indicator model on psychosocial risk management has been developed.
The indicators: As pointed out earlier, important (contextual) criteria for the identification of
indicators are the availability and the comparability of indicators. The European Union, by way
of the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (EFILWC)
already has a survey instrument, measuring indicators on the ‘quality of work and
employment’. In this presentation we will focus on what indicators are already available from
this source, and which indicators need further development.
208
EVALUATION OF BEST PRACTICE
INTERVENTIONS FOR WORK-RELATED
VIOLENCE AND WORK-RELATED STRESS
LINDSTROM, K.1, VARTIA, M.1, LEKA, S.2, PAHKIN, K.1, SUTELA, S.1,
HASSARD, J.2 & JAIN, A.2
1
2
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland
Institute of Work, Health & Organisations, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
In the last decade, a large number of organisations and companies have developed measures
and programmes to assess and manage psychosocial risks at work. International
organisations, as well as EU and national bodies have published reports on ways to deal with
psychosocial risk factors (ILO, 2004; WHO, 2003; EU: the European Foundation for the
Improvement of Living and Working Conditions and the European Agency for Safety and
Health at Work). Both general guidelines and basic steps in a risk control cycle have been
provided as well as more detailed accounts of various measures. The most extensive overview
of different approaches to prevent and manage psychosocial risks has been described by the
Partnership for European Research in Occupational Safety and Health pillar group (PEROSH,
2004). This report exemplifies current strategies and measures applied in eleven EU-countries
to combat psychosocial stress factors.
During the past ten years, work-related violence has aroused much concern both
internationally and nationally. According to European level surveys (Fourth European Working
Conditions Survey 2005) there has been an increase particularly in the level of physical
violence from other people in the period 1995-2005 in the EU15 countries and the same trend
has been seen also in national levels. National data from Finland show a clear increase in
violence from other people against women in 1980-2003 (Heiskanen 2007). With the
increasing figures, the pressure to prevent and manage all kinds of violence and bullying at
work has been increasing
Part of the PRIMA-EF project focused on the review of risk management approaches, and
analysis of case studies and evidence-based best practice interventions on psychosocial stress
including work-related violence. On the basis of the analysis, the aim of part of the project
was to develop practical intervention tools and methods for use at the enterprise level to
prevent and tackle work-related stress, bullying and third party violence at work.
At first, a comprehensive literature review was carried out of the risk management approaches
in relation to stress, violence and bullying/mobbing and harassment at work. Interventions at
the policy, primary, secondary and tertiary level were reviewed. In the next step, an inventory
on existing psychosocial risk management approaches and their characteristics was elaborated
on the basis of the framework and key principles for psychosocial risk management and bestpractice criteria developed. Complementary data was collected through semi-structured
interviews with professionals who have developed, examined or utilized the different level
approaches to manage bullying and violence at work. In all, 39 experts (researchers,
consultants, counsellors, union representatives, authorities) were interviewed.
The literature search showed that in relation to psychosocial risks in general only a few
evaluated interventions have been carried out but that some are ongoing. Management of
bullying and third party violence share common strategies but the contents differ. Both
workplace bullying and third party violence are multiform phenomenon and there is no single
solution to preventing and managing them. Awareness and recognition of bullying differ
between countries. The readiness of organizations and enterprises must therefore be taken
into account when different kinds of measures to manage workplace bullying are implemented.
Recommendations based on the findings will be presented during the symposium.
209
KEY ISSUES IN POLICY RESEARCH FOR
PSYCHOSOCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT AND THE
WAY FORWARD
LEKA, S.1, COX, T.1, ZWETSLOOT, G.2, JAIN, A.1 & KORTUM, E.3
1
Institute of Work, Health and Organisations, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
2
TNO Quality of Life, Netherlands
3
World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland
A number of significant developments towards the prevention of mental ill-health at work and
the management of psychosocial risks have been achieved at the policy level in the EU in the
past years. These include the introduction of the 1989 EC Council Framework Directive on the
Introduction of Measures to Encourage Improvements in the Safety and Health of Workers at
Work, 89/391/EEC (Official Journal of the European Communities, 32, No L183, 1-8). The
Directive is based on principles of prevention and risk management and concerns all types of
risks to worker health, including those related to psychosocial hazards at work. On the basis of
this EC legislation, a new EU risk prevention culture has since been established, combining
legislation, social dialogue, best practices, corporate social responsibility, and building
partnerships. Important documents in this context include: the European Commission’s
Guidance on Work-Related Stress (2000); the European Commission’s Green Paper on
Promoting a European Framework for Corporate Social Responsibility (2001); the European
Framework Agreement on Work-Related Stress (2004) which was agreed upon by the
European Social Partners within the auspices of social dialogue (ETUC, UNICE, UEAPME and
CEEP. Framework Agreement on Work-Related Stress. Brussels, Belgium: ETUC, 2004); and
the EC’s Green Paper on Promoting the mental health of the population. Towards a strategy on
mental health for the EU (2005).
However, it has been identified that there exists a gap between policy and practice that
prevents its effective implementation (Levi, 2005) and the promotion of occupational mental
health. There are a number of reasons for this gap. One is a lack of awareness across the
enlarged EU that is often associated with lack of expertise, research and appropriate
infrastructure. At the same time, the responsibility for understanding and managing the
interface between work, employment and mental health varies greatly across countries.
In addition, a comprehensive EU framework to manage psychosocial risks and promote mental
health at work has been lacking and this has complicated agreement by the social partners on
the issues of concern and effective implementation of existing knowledge and policy into
practice, especially in contexts where resources and scarce, such as SMEs. The PRIMA-EF
project has attempted to address this shortcoming by developing a European Psychosocial Risk
Management Framework with the aim to promote harmonization in the area of psychosocial
risk management and enhance best practice by providing detailed recommendations and
evidence-based guidance that will enable stakeholders (occupational health and safety
professionals, policy makers, employers, trade unions, employees) to implement them to
improve the quality of working life. However, due to differences described above in terms of
awareness, understanding, approach, expertise, resources, infrastructure and research across
the enlarged EU, the effective implementation of the developed European framework can be
jeopardised.
210
The final presentation of the PRIMA-EF symposium will summarise the main points that have
been discussed and will identify key issues of importance in policy research for psychosocial
risk management. More specifically, emphasis will be put on the area of policy evaluation as
well as its accompanying infrastructure across the EU. Areas such as awareness, education,
and expertise and occupational health services availability and coverage will be addressed. In
addition, the key but neglected area of policy-level interventions will be discussed as well as
the facilitation of social dialogue and involvement of key stakeholders. Monitoring issues at a
number of levels, both micro and macro, and gaps in current practice will be highlighted and
needs for further development in these areas will be identified. Special emphasis will also be
put on the enterprise level and the promotion of a comprehensive approach to psychosocial
risk management that is linked to best business practices, and to the broader community and
societal levels. Finally, the role of international organisations for the promotion of policy in the
area of psychosocial risk management will also be discussed.
211
RESEARCH ON BURNOUT: NEW VISTAS
SYMPOSIUM CHAIR: SHIROM, A.
Tel Aviv University, Israel
The general structure of this proposal is as follows. The proposed symposium comprises five
papers and a brief introduction and summary by the chairperson. Following a general
introduction to the area of study covered by the proposal, an abstract of each of the five
papers included in the proposal is provided. Each abstract is preceded by the personal details
of the authors and co-authors.
Introduction to the Proposed Symposium
Burnout represents a negative affective state, comprised of the feelings of emotional
exhaustion, physical fatigue and cognitive weariness, which denotes the depletion of energetic
resources resulting from cumulative exposure to chronic work and life stresses (S. Melamed,
Shirom, Toker, Berliner, & Shapira, 2006). There are indications that severe burnout is
present in about 7% of the workforce of advanced countries (e.g. Hallsten, 2005; Schaufeli &
Enzmann, 1998). Accumulated evidence shows that burnout may transfer from one employee
to another, either directly or indirectly (for a recent review of the evidence, see: Bakker,
Demerouti, & Schaufeli, 2003). There is evidence suggesting that burnout may be a chronic
condition, lasting for several years (for a recent summary of the evidence, see Melamed et al.,
2006). Accumulating evidence suggests that burnout, in addition to its negative impact on
quality of life and mental health (Maslach, Schaufeli, & Leiter, 2001; S. Melamed et al.,
2006), may pose a risk to physical health (cf. S. Melamed et al., 2006), including increased
risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD: S. Melamed et al., 2006), diabetes(S. Melamed, Shirom,
Toker, & Shapira, 2006), musculoskeletal disorders (Honkonen et al., 2006), and impaired
fertility (Sheiner, Sheiner, Carel, Potashnik, & Shoham-Vardi, 2002). There are mixed results
regarding CV risk factors. Burnout was found to be associated with lipids in females and
cholesterol in males (Shirom, Westman, Shamai, & Carel, 1997), but was not found to be
associated with hypertension (cf. S. Melamed et al., 2006). Furthermore, there is some
indication, from a prospective study, that burnout is negatively associated over time with
obesity (Armon, Shirom, Berliner, Shapira, & Melamed, in press).
The proposed symposium will augment the above body of knowledge in several major ways.
The first paper will present the major findings of a major longitudinal study investigating the
extent to which burnout predict new cases of disability pensions in Finland. The second paper
will report on the relationships between fatigue and burnout based on a very large prospective
cohort study. The third paper describes a study in which feelings of guilt were investigated as
affecting the relationships among burnout, depression, and absenteeism. The relationships
between burnout and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension and blood
lipids, were hypothesized in several of the above reviews to be mediated by cortisol secretion:
the fourth study shed light on the general linkages between cortisol profiles, negative affects,
sleep patterns, and other possible determinants of these profiles. The fifth and last paper
explores the role of contextual and cultural effects on burnout among physicians in Spain and
Sweden. Taken together, the five papers contribute new knowledge and understanding to the
phenomenon of burnout. They do so at the level of burnout's consequences to the person, as a
predictor of disability pensions (Paper #1), and to the organization, as a predictor of
absenteeism (Paper # 3). They do so by shedding light on how burnout is related to some of
its concomitants, including cortisol (Paper #4) and chronic fatigue (Paper # 2). Finally, they
explore how the national context might be a contextual factor influencing burnout's levels
among physicians (Paper #5).
212
BURNOUT, HEALTH STATUS, AND PERMANENT
WORK DISABILITY: REGISTER-BASED COHORT
STUDY
AHOLA, K., TOPPINEN-TANNER, S., HUUHTANEN, P., KOSKINEN, A. &
VÄÄNÄNEN, A.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health
Objectives: Occupational burnout resulting from chronic work stress has shown to associate
with mental disorders and physical illnesses. Due to few longitudinal studies, the causality of
the association between burnout and health has remained unclear. We examined whether
burnout and its sub-dimensions predict new disability pension during an eight-year follow-up
even after baseline health status and various other covariates are taken into account.
Methods: Altogether 8371 forest industry employees of those who had responded to a
company-wide survey (n= 9705; response rate 63%) were identified and used as a base
population for this study. In 1996, burnout was assessed with Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey. Information on disability pensions was extracted from a national register till
the end of 2004. The assessment of health status at baseline relied on information concerning
chronic illnesses, and was gathered in two ways: from prescription and special imbursement
registers (objective) and by self-report (subjective). The impact of burnout, exhaustion,
cynicism, and diminished professional efficacy on pensioning was analysed with Cox
proportional hazard regression and adjusted stepwise for socio-demographic factors and
physical work strain, objective health status, and subjective health status at baseline.
Results: Burnout predicted new disability pension during the eight year-follow-up. Hazard
ratio (HR) for severe burnout was 3.8 (95% confidence interval CI 2.7-5.4) and for mild
burnout 1.7 (95% CI 1.4-2.0). They attenuated considerably after various covariates were
included in the model but the HR for severe burnout remained significant even after
adjustment for objective and subjective health status at baseline. After these adjustments,
severe burnout was related to 1.5-fold risk of new disability pension compared to the group
with no burnout (95% CI 1.1-2.2). The results concerning exhaustion were similar than those
concerning total burnout. Instead, cynicism predicted disability pension after adjustment for
objective health status but not after adjustment for subjective health status. The same held
for severely diminished professional efficacy, but only among women.
Conclusions: Burnout had an independent effect on future disability pension during an eightyear period. The effect of severe burnout on work disability was significant even after
objectively and subjectively assessed health status at baseline was taken into account. These
findings imply that burnout may actually lead to early exit from work life. Similar results
concerning exhaustion dimension of burnout support the idea of exhaustion being the core
dimension of burnout when work ability is considered. Screening burnout with the help of
occupational health services could help noticing the need for intervention early enough and
might therefore prevent early exit from the labour market.
213
THE TEMPORAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
BURNOUT AND PROLONGED FATIGUE: A 4YEAR PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY
LEONE, S., HUIBERS, M., KNOTTNERUS, J. & KANT, I.
Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
Objectives: Burnout and prolonged fatigue have hardly been compared empirically despite
similarities. Knowledge on how these conditions influence each other in time is limited
although this could have implications for (the timing of) intervention. This study aimed to
examine the temporal relationship between burnout and prolonged fatigue by examining 1) if
they predict each other in time, 2) if there is a dose- response relationship and 3) if they tend
to alternate or merge together in time.
Methods: Four-year prospective follow-up data from the Maastricht Cohort Study were used
for this study. After selection, 11710 participants could be included. Burnout and prolonged
fatigue were measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey and the Checklist
Individual Strength, respectively. Data were analyzed using Cox regression analysis,
generalized estimating equation analysis and multinomial regression analysis.
Results: Burnout at baseline was associated with an increased risk of subsequent prolonged
fatigue (HR=1.33, 95%-CI 1.16-1.53) and prolonged fatigue was associated with an increased
risk of subsequent burnout (HR=1.65, 95%-CI 1.44-1.89). There seems to be evidence of a
dose response relationship. Burnout and prolonged fatigue do not tend replace each other in
time but rather remain as they are or merge together.
Conclusions: Burnout and prolonged fatigue seem to influence each other in the manner of a
downward spiral. Recognizing and correctly identifying fatigue complaints at an early stage
seems important as early intervention could prevent the conditions from co-occurring and
avert a worsening of outcome.
214
THE ROLE OF GUILT IN THE PROCESS OF
BURNOUT
GIL-MONTE, P., FIGUIEREDO, H. & GARCÍA-JUESAS, J.
University of Valencia, Spain
Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the role of the feelings of guilt on
relationship between burnout, depression and absenteeism. Guilt is an unpleasant and
remorseful feelings associated with the recognition that one has violated or is capable of
violating a moral or social standard. It is a social emotion linked to the communal
relationships. Excessive or inappropriate levels of guilt can produce depression. Guilt is a
symptom that may be useful for understanding and diagnosing the relationship between
burnout and its consequences. We consider that one of the frequent causes of feelings of guilt
in professionals is the existence of negative thoughts about the customers or clients and the
negative and cynical way they have treated them. The clinical alterations produced by feelings
of guilt (e.g., depression) can cause an increase in the subjects’ rate of absenteeism.
Methods: The participants were 551 people working with intellectually disabled persons. Job
overload was assessed using 6 items of Karasek scale (α = .72). Social support was evaluated
by 6 items (α = .82). The Spanish Burnout Inventory (SBI) was applied to estimate burnout.
This instrument contains 20 items distributed into four dimensions called: Enthusiasm toward
the job (5 items, α = .90), Psychological exhaustion (4 items, α = .82), Indolence (6 items, α
= .70), and Guilt (5 items, α = .80). Low scores on Enthusiasm toward the job, together with
high scores on Psychological exhaustion and Indolence, as well as on Guilt, indicate high levels
of burnout. Depression was measured by the Self-Ratting Depression Scale (20 items, α =
.85) Absenteeism was estimated by one item: subjects were asked about the number of
workdays they had missed in the past 12 months. Procedure. The subjects participated
voluntarily in the study. The data were gathered in a non-random way, and analyzed with the
SPSS 12.5, and LISREL 8 programs.
Results: The measures of goodness of fit for the model were: Chi2(17) = 94,53 (p = .000),
RMSR = .087, GFI = .96, AGFI = .92, CFI = .93, PNFI = .55, ECVI = .23 (.13 - 1.98). This
indicates that the fit of this model was quite satisfactory.
Conclusions: The results obtained confirm the hypotheses formulated, providing empirical
evidence for the influence of guilt in the relationships between indolence and absenteeism.
Those professionals who presented high levels of indolence showed more absenteeism when
they felt high levels of guilt about their attitude/behavior at work.
215
QUANTIFICATION OF SALIVARY CORTISOL
PROFILES IN FIELD RESEARCH: INTERNAL
STRUCTURE AND STABILITY
BERNHARDT, A.1, HÖLZL, R.1 & BAERENZ, P.2
1
2
University of Mannheim, Otto-Selz-Institute for Applied Psychology, Germany
Berufsgenossenschaft Nahrungsmittel und Gaststaetten, Mannheim, Germany
Objectives: Diurnal salivary cortisol profiles in healthy adults are characterized by a marked
circadian rhythm with pronounced activity in the post-awakening period and a significant
decrease throughout the remainder of the day. A whole range of composite measures referring
to both components of the diurnal profile are employed. In principle, the variety of measures
can be classified into level and dynamic parameters. Given the large inter- and intraindividual
variation in cortisol levels various factors doubtlessly account for these differences, even if
empirical evidence is – at least in part – inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to
investigate basal diurnal salivary cortisol profiles in a large sample of human services
professionals within their natural environment. Given the exploratory nature of this study, we
analysed the internal structure, the association with somatic and mental complaints, and the
stability of diurnal salivary cortisol profiles.
Methods: A total of 390 (122 male) participants were investigated. Four diurnal saliva
samples were collected on three consecutive working days. Adherence to the sampling
protocol was electronically monitored. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center
for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977), trait anxiety with the
State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T; Spielberger, 1980), somatic symptoms and complaints
with the Giessen Subjective Complaints List (Braehler & Scheer, 1995), and burnout with the
Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach et al., 1986). A stress diary was kept during sampling
days assessing self-rated mood and subjective well-being.
Results: Missing saliva samples and/or unspecified sampling times were evenly distributed
across sampling days. No systematic effect of non-adherence to the sampling protocol on
cortisol levels could be observed. Cortisol profiles remained unaffected by sleep-related
variables, the participants’ age, use of oral contraceptives, somatic complaints, current mood
states, and negative affect, particularly burnout: Cortisol levels did not differentiate between
high and low burnout groups even when allowing for specific comorbidity (i.e. depressive
symptoms, trait anxiety, and somatic distress). Significant differences in salivary cortisol
levels could be observed with respect to gender and work-related variables.
Conclusions: In summary, averaged across all participants stable basal salivary cortisol
profiles were assessed in a naturalistic setting. Being largely unaffected by confounding factors
and displaying satisfying stability, basal salivary cortisol profiles proved to be suitable for the
assessment of HPA-axis functioning in field studies. However, basal salivary cortisol levels
should not be regarded as indicators of acute stress responses, but rather as indicators of
long-term regulation processes of the HPA-axis as delineated in the concept of allostatic load
(McEwen, 1998). Longitudinal study designs are therefore required to evaluate how
differences in HPA-axis responses to acute stressors are reflected in dysregulational processes
of basal HPA-axis functioning, i.e. how and when dysregulations in cortisol responses to acute
stressors harmfully affect basal cortisol levels, how changes in basal HPA-axis functioning are
associated with changes in other regulatory systems and at which specific point of time within
this process adverse health-related sequelae result from the dysregulation of regulatory
systems.
216
WORK DEMANDS AND WELL-BEING: A
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AMONGST SWEDISH
AND CATALAN PHYSICIANS
DOLAN, S. & DÍEZ, M.
ESADE. Ramon Llull University, Spain
Objective: This paper set out to explore a problem which directly affects medical staff and
hospitals around the world, as well as affecting the quality of working life of professionals. An
extended rationale borrowed from configurational conceptual contributions was used in this
empirical study to test multiple possible linkages (or profiles) between certain personal,
organizational, and cultural variables that affect burnout.
Methods: An innovative statistical treatment borrowed from data mining methodology was
used to compare two distinct national and organizational contexts.
A self-administered questionnaire from a sample of 1509 physicians working in the Swedish
and Spanish (Catalan) public hospitals was used. Standardized job/work demands with
multiple items were employed in conjunction with the Uppsala Burnout scale, which was
dichotomized into high score (burnout) and low score (vigor). A combination of ANOVAs and
"classification and regression tree analyses" was utilized to test the relationships and identify
profiles.
Results: Traditionally, the burnout syndrome has been viewed as a problem intrinsic to
performing a care-related activity. However, the results of this study appear to suggest that
the psychosocial risk associated with practice of the medical profession is also related to the
socio-cultural context. Professional and personal profiles involving risk factors for burnout
were identified. Similarly, a configuration of factors explaining vigor was identified as well. The
results obtained in Catalonia were compared with those obtained in Sweden. Findings show
that in Catalonia it appears that the psychosocial risk associated with practising the medical
profession is related to the socio-cultural context. For example, factors such as those linked to
job dissatisfaction and the perceived workload, among others. By contrast, in the case of
Sweden, factors linked to gender equality at work predominated the profile of higher burnout
risk
Conclusions: Identifying risk configuration is of interest in view of designing prevention
program. Given the different configurations, a suggestion is made to tailor fit the preventative
programs in order to make them more effective in preventing burnout. The vigor profiles can
be used as benchmark for medical doctors in making career and other employment related
decisions.
217
PUTTING THEORY TO WORK IN THE REAL
WORLD
SYMPOSIUM CHAIR: TEHRANI, N.
Noreen Tehrani Associates Ltd, United Kingdom
Background: This symposia reflects aspects of the work undertaken by practitioner
researchers in Occupational Health Psychology. The papers cover a range of issues that affect
organisations and their workforce. In each paper the practitioner presents an issue within
their area of interest and shows how from understanding the underlying principles and
theories practical solutions can be created.
Well-being in the Workplace: This paper presents a study which looks into the ways in
which employees subjectively experience wellbeing in their place of work and how this
knowledge may be used to inform organisational endeavours to enhance employee wellbeing
workplace.
Internet pornography and gambling – punishment or treatment and rehabilitation?:
The cost of internet pornography and gambling at workplace and the solution focused
approach of treatment and rehabilitation rather than punishment oriented response of
suspension or dismissal
Moral Harassment – the French solution: The La Rochelle Business School places a high
value on creating a culture which optimises individual and collective performance and
effectiveness. Faced with some cases of moral harassment (bullying) the school is taking
steps to introduce a programme to promote a positive approach which will identify and
demonstrate its core values.
Using Psychological Theory to Design Effective Employee Rehabilitation Packages:
Policy and evidence contexts are converging to strengthen the case for developing effective
and early interventions to rehabilitate employees back to work following a period of illhealth.
This paper argues that psychological theory needs to be used more rigorously to develop and
evaluate these interventions. Occupational Health Psychologists have much to contribute in
ensuring that rehabilitation programmes are evidence based, and in helping returning
individuals and their colleagues understand the challenges and opportunities presented by
reintegrating a member of staff back into the workplace.
218
WELL-BEING IN THE WORKPLACE
BERRIMAN, J.1 & TEHRANI, N.2
1
2
CIGNA HealthCare, United Kingdom
Noreen Tehrani Associates Ltd, United Kingdom
Objectives: This study explores the unique meanings of wellbeing at work by a group of
employees and enquires how wellbeing is subjectively experienced in their places of work.
Suggestions are made as to how this knowledge may subsequently be used to inform
organisational endeavours to enhance the wellbeing of employees. The research questions
posed in this research are:
•
What do employees perceive as being involved in wellbeing in the workplace?
•
What are the key practical and theoretical aspects of wellbeing in the workplace?
•
How might this research be used to inform organisations wishing to enhance wellbeing
in their workplace?
Methods:A qualitative methodology has been adopted for this study to capture the multiple
dimensions of the wellbeing experience. Template analysis was used as the most appropriate
qualitative research tool for identifying themes arising from the raw data. In addition, as the
study involved a relatively large group of employees, the researchers required a methodology
which was less prescriptive and time consuming than other qualitative methods (King, 2004).
The structured interview involved the following areas of inquiry:
•
How do you define wellbeing at work?
•
What do you think are the key elements of wellbeing at work?
•
How does it feel to experience wellbeing at work?
•
What can you do to improve your wellbeing at work?
•
What should organisations do to increase wellbeing at work?
Results: An initial template was created based on an analysis of the data from questions
posed in the semi-structured interviews. However, a recurrent theme emerging from the
interviews indicated that participants contrasted their own means of achieving and
experiencing wellbeing with those experienced previously with other employers.
This
emphasis on individual differences prompted a closer examination of the individual transcripts.
The resultant analysis yielded the following five personal dispositions or attitudes towards
creating and maintaining wellbeing.
•
The organisation is responsible for creating an environment which protects my
wellbeing
•
My wellbeing is achieved by minimising the costs and maximising the benefits of
aspects of work
•
Positive relationships are essential to my wellbeing
•
Wellbeing is related to the extent to which I can see myself developing and achieving
•
In order to experience wellbeing my work has to have meaning
The final template combined both analyses.
Conclusions: The research supports the notion that wellbeing is a multidimensional
phenomenon.
Individual differences in what is important in the establishment and
maintenance of wellbeing need to be better understood by researchers and organisations
alike. Simply improving organisational hygiene factors across the board may provide some
benefit, but it is only by understanding and acting on the individual drivers of wellbeing at
work that significant improvements can be made.
219
INTERNET PORNOGRAPHY AND GAMBLING –
PUNISHMENT OR TREATMENT AND
REHABILITATION?
NATEGH, F.
Private Practice, United Kingdom
Objectives: To highlight the cost of internet pornography and gambling in the workplace and
how a solution focused approach of treatment and rehabilitation may be more effective than a
punishment oriented response involving suspension and dismissal
Background: Addiction to Internet is a new concept and phenomenon that the mental health
field and its practitioners are only recently becoming aware of. These types of addictions were
not categorized or even mentioned in DSM-IV and ICD-10 due to their new inception, and total
unawareness about their capacity in posing a major threat to people’s mental health and
wellbeing. Addiction to internet pornography and gambling, two subcategory of the overall
Internet addiction are two of the most devastating and damaging forms of addiction. At no
time in the past history could a person gamble away or use enormous amount of time and
money by a flick of a finger and movement of the computer mouse. The three As of Internet
addictions as they are called in the literature, 1) anonymity, 2) affordability, and 3)
availability, has created a worldwide epidemic, destroying the lives of millions fresh recruits
around the world everyday. Those caught in the web of the net, mostly perhaps without any
prior history of sexual inappropriateness and gambling problems, find the extremely effective
mood altering nature of these activities irresistible. The same loss of control, progression and
development of tolerance, as well as a downward spiral of the victims lives due to the
consequences of addiction that exists in other forms such as addiction to alcohol and drugs.
The cost to businesses due to loss of productivity of the employees is estimated in the
millions. It has been found that 70% of porn Internet activities happen during the hours of 9
and 5, when the addicts are supposed to be working. 20% of men and 13% of women admit
to accessing porn sites while at work. 25% of the total search engine requests are porn
related making it one of the top three searches. 12% of all websites involved in pornography,
and 10% of adults admit to having an Internet sexual addiction. Internet porn industry is
estimated to bring a revenue of 12 billion dollars per year (statistic from US). The usual
response of the employers when these activities are discovered are seizures of the computers,
and a punishment oriented response consisting of suspension or dismissal.
Conclusions: This author would like to propose an alternative to this usual response.
Rehabilitation and treatment are the most reasonable and humane response to such
phenomenon. The serious addictive nature of theInternet in general, and Internet gambling
and pornography in specific, prompts those with criminal intent to prey on vulnerable and
predisposed individuals. It is proposed that these victims are deserving of rehab and
treatment opportunity in the same way as alcoholic or drug addicted co-workers.
220
MORAL HARASSMENT – THE FRENCH SOLUTION
TEHRANI, N.1, VAUGHAN, S.2 & SZALAJSKI, C.2
1
Noreen Tehrani Associates Ltd, United Kingdom
2
Groupe Sup de Co, United Kingdom
Background: On 12 March 2008 a report was submitted to the French government making
recommendations for the assessment, evaluation and management of violence and abuse as a
hazard in the workplace. In the report they recommend that France follows the example of
other EU countries by monitoring the incidence of workplace abuse, favouring the prevention
strategies (Dignity at Work Policies) in addition to reactive strategies and the support systems
for dealing with workplace violence and abuse. The La Rochelle Business School is a nonprofit, independent, research and educational institute dedicated to developing and
disseminating its expertise within a global context. The School is committed to recognising
and adopting behaviours consistent with agreed values and is concerned to identify the work
methods and management practices which can be put in place to contribute to a culture which
informs personal, organisational and business practice in line with the achievement of a
culture of dignity and respect.
Methods: The Business School organised an externally facilitated workshop to look at the
possibility of establishing a programme to promote positive behaviours as a means of
improving its organisational and educational culture and performance.
The programme involves a number of interlinked elements:
•
Dignity at Work Policy: The policy emphasises the positive goal of creating a
working environment which is aspirational in its outlook to create a positive working
environment for all employees.
•
Definition of Positive Values and Behaviours: The establishment of the Business
School’s values and associated behaviours involved the Management Council meeting for one
day during which they:
o
Increased their awareness of the impact of bullying and violence at work
o
Identified shared values for the Business School
o
Described the behaviours which supported the values
•
Employee and Student Education: An educational programme to include employees
and students embedded within the existing educational frameworks.
•
Local Champions: The establishment of local dignity champions with clear criteria for
the selection, training and supervision.
•
Informal Conflict Resolution: The School will work to bring about a resolution of
conflict and wherever possible will attempt to create an environment where inappropriate
behaviours can be identified, challenged and changed before they develop into bullying or
harassment.
•
Formal Procedures: Occasionally the nature of the bullying behaviour is not
appropriate for informal procedures. Where the unacceptable behaviour involves harassment
or one of the employees involved in the dispute prefers it, there are formal grievance
procedures which are adopted.
•
Monitoring: The total programme is to be monitored using a range of approaches and
tools.
Results and Conclusion: This programme is work in progress. The programme commenced
in April 2008 and is being fully supported by the Dean and the Management Council. An
update on the results and the conclusions on the programme will be available for the
conference.
221
USING PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY TO DESIGN
EFFECTIVE EMPLOYEE REHABILITATION
PACKAGES
WREN, B.
Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust, United Kingdom
In the UK policy and evidence contexts are converging to strengthen the case for developing
effective and early interventions to rehabilitate employees back to work following a period of
ill-health. A recent review concludes that “NHS professionals and their organisations – along
with their regulators – should recognise retention in, or return to work as a key indicator in
the treatment of working age people and appropriate data should be collected to monitor it”.
(Department of
Health 2008).
There is also widespread recognition of a lack of
standardisation of rehabilitation programmes.
Objectives: This paper considers the evidence that informs employee rehabilitation
programmes and argues that to increase their success:
Psychological theory needs to be used more rigorously to inform work with the returning
individual
Work also needs to be done with the team/department to which the individual is returning.
Method: A literature review was carried out on employee return to work interventions and the
extent to
a) which psychological theory was used and b) which the work context was
included in the intervention was assessed. Qualitative interviews were carried out with a
sample of health service employees – half of whom had successfully returned to work. The
second half of the sample had had an unsuccessful attempt to return to work. The extent to
which the intervention targeted the context to which employees were returning was assessed
in each of these cases.
Results: There is limited use of psychological theory in the design of employee rehabilitation
packages and the focus is predominantly on the returning individual rather than their
colleagues, work context or managers. Psychological aspects of return to work are not
consistently considered in rehabilitation interventions.
Conclusions: Occupational Health Psychologists have much to contribute in ensuring that
rehabilitation programmes are evidence based, and in helping returning individuals and their
colleagues understand the challenges and opportunities presented by re-integrating a member
of staff back into the workplace.
222
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH IN OCCUPATIONAL
HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
SYMPOSIUMS CHAIRS: WIELENGA-MEIJER, E.1 & DE LANGE, A.2
1
Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands
2
University of Groningen, the Netherlands
Most of the studies in the field of Occupational Health Psychology are field studies, which is
beneficial for a number of reasons. For example, the external and ecological validity of such a
design are usually high, and some phenomena of interest do not lend itself well for
examination in a non-field context (e.g., factors determining burnout, or the effects of
prolonged exposure to high job demands). However, a number of issues in our field can also
be addressed using more rigid experimental designs. Experimental designs are more suited for
examining causal relationships than even longitudinal field studies; moreover, they may be
more appropriate to answer the research question than a survey design, for example if the
research question considers underlying (physiological) processes. In this sense, experimental
designs may be able to shed more light on the processes underlying particular relationships
than field studies.
Despite the potential advantages of experimental designs, at present such designs are only
rarely used in occupational health psychology. The present symposium brings together four
experimental studies that illustrate how experimentation can be fruitfully used in our field. In
conjunction, these studies provide a good impression of the advantages (but also the
limitations) of using such designs in OHP. The four contributions:
1. Annet de Lange (Groningen University, the Netherlands) will present an experiment
employing repeated measurements. The aim of this study is to examine whether an affiliative
type of humor intervention indeed reduces psychological complaints (e.g. need for recovery)
and whether it has a positive impact on objective outcomes like respondent’s heart rate or
performance.
2. Ferdi de Goede (Groningen University, the Netherlands) will present the results of an
innovative experiment that focuses on the role of job resources in reducing the negative
impact of high job demands on psychological well-being and performance. Time,
informational, and method control are manipulated.
3. Cornelia Niessen (University of Konstanz, Germany) will present the results of an
experimental study, where she investigated how individuals adapt to an enhancement of work
autonomy (work method and work scheduling autonomy). Work autonomy is experimentally
manipulated.
4. Finally, Etty Wielenga-Meijer (Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands) will present
the results of an experimental study, examining whether the relationship between autonomy
and learning outcomes is mediated by motivational, cognition and behavioural processes.
Again, levels of autonomy are manipulated by varying the participants' level of autonomy.
If time permits, the general discussion will focus on the limitations of experimental designs
relative to field designs, and on the approaches to overcome these limitations. We also would
challenge the public to discuss about their own (proposed) experimental designs to investigate
research questions related to occupational health psychology.
223
THE STRESS REDUCING EFFECTS OF AN
AFFILIATIVE TYPE OF HUMOR INTERVENTION.
RESULTS OF AN INNOVATIVE EXPERIMENTAL
STUDY
DE LANGE, A.1, DIKKERS, J.2 & HAUWEN, W.1
1
2
University of Groningen, the Netherlands
Vrije University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Objectives: A popular view is that a greater sense of humor enhances psychological wellbeing and physical health (Kuiper et al., 2004). Some studies confirm this notion, while others
show opposite effects. Martin et al. (2003) recently developed a more extensive theory,
specifying exact conditions in which ‘sense of humor’ leads to physical and psychological wellbeing. More specifically, Martin et al. (2003) identified four humor styles: affiliative, selfenhancing, aggressive and self-defeating. Aggressive humor in particular is potentially
detrimental to psychological well-being, whereas affiliative humor can enhance psychological
well-being (Martin et al., 2003). Affiliative humor may affect respondents through positive
emotional states, like a more positive perceptual perspective (O’Connell, 1976; Borcherdt,
2002; Kuiper & Olinger, 1998), but can also manifest itself through positive physiological
processes (e.g. enhanced functioning of the immune system; Kuiper & Nicoll, 2004; Martin,
2004). The aim of this experimental study is to examine whether, after performing a stressful
dispatch task, an affiliative type of humor intervention indeed reduces psychological
complaints (e.g. need for recovery) and has a positive impact on objective outcomes like
respondent’s heart rate or performance.
Method: The analyses were based on results from an innovative “Taxi Simulation Dispatch
Task” developed at the University of Groningen (Bos et al., 2005). This experimental task was
developed to simulate a complex work environment of a taxi dispatcher in the Dutch province
of Groningen by generating a wide range of scenarios in a controlled setting, while taking into
account the additional requirements of the experimenter. Pilot tests revealed that this task
was experienced as a stressful task with a high task load. Fifty-six Psychology undergraduate
students participated in the study and were subdivided across two experimental (19 students
in total per group), and one control group (18 students). The experimental groups watched an
affiliative or aggressive humor video. The affiliative video reflected a friendly use of humor,
whereas the aggressive one was characterized by sarcasm or derision (Martin et al., 2003).
The control group watched a neutral video. The stress outcome variables were measured on
three occasions (on baseline, after the stressful dispatch task and after the humor
intervention), and included: recovery need, depressive mood and heart rate. Performance was
measured by the timing and the quality of the taxi selection.
Results. MANOVA repeated measures analyses revealed significant Time x Group effects for
need for recovery, depressive mood, and quality of taxi selection. No significant group effects
were found for the timing measure. However, after the affiliative humor intervention the
respondents reported, as expected, a significant reduction in need for recovery, depressive
mood and an increased quality of the taxi selection compared to the aggressive humor and
control group.
Conclusions: Considering the beneficial effects of the affiliative type of humor intervention, it
is important to further examine these effects among workers coping with an increasing task
load and low job control (e.g. intensive care personnel).
224
THE INFLUENCE OF JOB RESOURCES IN THE
RELATION BETWEEN HIGH JOB DEMANDS AND
INDICATORS OF WELL-BEING AND
PERFORMANCE
DE GOEDE, F. & DE LANGE, A.
University of Groningen, the Netherlands
Objectives: According to the Job-Demands-Resources model, job resources play a vital role
in reducing the negative impact of high task demands on psychological-well-being (Bakker &
Schaufeli, 2004). This hypothesis has been validated in numerous survey studies (cf. Bakker,
2008; Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; De Lange, Taris, Kompier, Houtman & Bongers, 2003), but
there remains a paucity of experimental research that explicitly examines the causal nature of
these relations. In this study we therefore present the results of an innovative experiment on
the role of job resources in reducing the negative impact of high job demands on psychological
well-being and performance.
Method: The analyses were based on results from an innovative “Taxi Simulation Dispatch
Task” developed at the University of Groningen (Bos et al., 2005). This experimental task was
developed to simulate a complex work environment of a taxi dispatcher by generating a wide
range of scenarios in a controlled setting, while taking into account the additional
requirements of the experimenter. Pilot tests revealed that this task was experienced as a
stressful task with a high task load. The respondents will be examined across three different
time points. On baseline (before the simulation), after the first session (after 30 minutes), and
after the second session (again after 30 minutes). A hundred Psychology undergraduate
students will participate in the study and are subdivided across three experimental (25
students in total per group), and one control group (25 students). Time, informational and
method control are manipulated in the different experimental groups. Time control will be
operationalized as the availability of short breaks during the simulation (cf. Hockey & Earley,
2006), and informational control as amount of task-relevant information (cf. Jimmieson &
Terry, 1999). Method control will be operationalized as the freedom to perform a task in
different ways (e.g., in line with the prescribed method or fixed sequence of actions or using
different types of methods and actions). As indicators of psychological well-being: need for
recovery, depressive mood, vigor and dedication will be measured, and as indicator of
physiological well-being the respondent’s heart rate will be monitored during the sessions.
Finally, 2 different types of performance (taxi timing and selection) were measured.
Manipulations will be checked by specific questions on how many breaks they have taken, how
much procedural information was provided, and whether they were allowed to perform the
task the way they wanted to
Results: Preliminary results reveal significant differences between the experimental groups.
For further analyses, MANOVA repeated measures analyses will be used.
Conclusions: Considering the paucity of experimental research examining relations between
different types of job resources and indicators of well-being as well as performance, this study
may reveal interesting new results.
225
CHANGES IN WORK AUTONOMY: THE ROLE OF
TASK REFLECTION
NIESSEN, C.1 & VOLMER, J.2
1
2
University of Konstanz, Germany
University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany
Organizations face more and more work roles which comprise emergent tasks and informal
expectations (Ilgen, 1994; Murphy & Jackson, 1999). As one consequence, today employees
get more autonomy in defining and managing their tasks within organizations (Fried,
Hollenbeck, Slowik, Tiegs, & Ben-David, 1999). In the present experiment, we examined how
individuals adapt to an enhancement of task autonomy and examined the moderating role of
task reflection. Work autonomy was manipulated in an experimental setting in which
participants (n = 56) completed a scheduling activity. Multilevel analyses demonstrated that
participants who started to work with low autonomy showed poorer performance when
autonomy was enhanced compared to participants who experienced no change in autonomy
but a high level of autonomy from the beginning. Second, we showed that early in adaptation
individuals developed a sub optimal strategy for task performance which they retained over
time. Third, analysis of thinking aloud protocols revealed that intensively reflecting about how
to accomplish the task when work autonomy was increased had a negative impact on
performance among those individuals who worked previously with low autonomy. Fourth, and
finally, it is conceivable that the detrimental role of task reflection on performance when
autonomy was increased results from prior task-related knowledge rather than capacity
limitations. From a practical perspective, a key implication of the present findings to draw is
that success of increased autonomy will depend on preparing, monitoring and revising
individuals´ performance early in work design using a social setting. Then, it may be more
likely that the positive aspects of task reflection such as supporting the revision and
development of working processes will outweigh its costs. The findings of the present study
are important because they inform efforts to improve individuals´ responses to work
design strategies that increase autonomy.
226
WHY AND HOW DOES AUTONOMY INFLUENCE
LEARNING? AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY
WIELENGA-MEIJER, E., TARIS, T., KOMPIER, M. &
WIGBOLDUS, D.
Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands
Objectives: Learning is an essential element of work and therefore an important topic in work
and organizational psychology as well. In this field, several theoretical approaches assume a
relationship between autonomy and learning. This relationship has been supported by several
empirical studies. However, until now the question remains why and how job characteristics
influence learning; what psychological (learning) processes account for this relationship?
Method: In order to examine whether motivational, cognitive and behavioral processes
mediate the relationship between autonomy and learning outcomes, an experimental study
was conducted in which task autonomy was varied. Ninety-six university students had to learn
a computer game while having different degrees of autonomy (no autonomy, moderate
autonomy and full autonomy), after which we assessed what they had learned during a
transfer trial, using a variety of motivational, behavioral and cognitive measures.
Results: ANOVA revealed that autonomy significantly influenced performance during the
transfer trials. Autonomy also affected the motivational as well as the behavioral measures.
Hierarchical regression analyses, combined with the Sobel test showed that the motivational
processes as well as some of the behavioral processes significantly mediated the relation
between the autonomy manipulation and performance during the transfer trials.
Conclusion: This experimental study helps in interpreting the relationship between autonomy
and learning. One of the reasons that autonomy positively influences learning, is because
more autonomy increases people's level of motivation, and gives them the possibility to
explore more. Based on these findings, practical recommendations and directions for future
research are discussed.
227
MANAGING CONFLICT AT WORK: ROLES AND
INTERVENTIONS FOR OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH
PSYCHOLOGY
SYMPOSIUM CHAIR: WREN, B.
Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust, United Kingdom
Conflict is the most frequent underlying reason for referral to in-house occupational health
services. It is a growing problem in organisational life and addressing it is cost and labour
intensive. However the costs of not tackling workplace conflict are serious for performance and
functioning, individual and organisational wellbeing and effectiveness, and risk management.
A recent UK study estimated that dealing with workplace conflict cost organisations £20k per
employee, annually. Related costs include sickness absence, reduced team and individual
functioning, increased likelihood of mistakes, poorer clinical care and long term psychological
problems in staff (Wren and Michie 2004).
Without effective organisational responses to conflict, it is likely to only be tackled when it has
become embedded, is more difficult to resolve and will have negative consequences for the
individual, their colleagues and their team. Very often the use of formal policies and
procedures leads to problems becoming more entrenched, more intractable and more labour
intensive to solve. A recent UK review (Gibbons 2005) has demonstrated the failure of current
approaches to conflict resolution and called for the establishment of more in–house, informal
approaches to conflict.
This symposium will describe a range of creative interventions which demonstrate the vital
contribution of occupational health psychologists in helping organisations to understand,
prevent and address conflict at work. An introductory presentation will identify individual,
interpersonal, team and organisational causes for workplace conflict and the impact of conflict
on wellbeing, effectiveness and risk. The symposium will go on to describe a range of
interventions that a network of practitioner occupational health psychologists have developed.
Three main types of intervention will be discussed:
•
Intervening organisationally to address structural causes of conflict
•
Promoting active coping through the development of services and interventions
•
Developing resilience by helping individuals to understand, avoid and survive conflict
situations.
It will conclude with a presentation of the work of an occupational health psychologist in
establishing an in-house mediation service. All the presenters are chartered occupational
health psychologists who have set up in-house psychological services in NHS settings.
228
PREVENTING CONFLICT: HOW OCCUPATIONAL
HEALTH PSYCHOLOGISTS CAN HELP MANAGERS
AND THEIR ORGANISATIONS RE-ALIGN
STRUCTURES AND PROCESSES THAT MAY LEAD
TO CONFLICT
HILL-TOUT, J.
Gwent Healthcare NHS Trust, United Kingdom
Objective: In large organisations it is easy for senior personnel to become disassociated from
those delivering services on the ground. In the UK NHS the powerful emphasis on strategic
targets set at a Government level emphasises this separation. In such an environment the
imperative to deliver on set targets means that it can be seen as disloyal to disagree or
question. Informative debates to influence service delivery do not take place so often, and
the potential for conflict in the system increases. In Gwent Healthcare NHS Trust a key strand
of the psychologist’s work is to support open dialogue about difficult issues so that the
negative impact of conflict is reduced and service quality is maintained.
Method: This area of work has been approached in two separate but complementary ways.
Firstly the psychologist routinely collects information about organisational life which is fed
back to the Executive Board. This includes data from a Trust Wide Staff Consultation,
information from stress audits, and the identification of themes emerging from the Staff
Counselling Service. Secondly the psychologist develops and supports opportunities for staff at
different levels in the organisation to talk to each other. This includes setting up facilitated
networks where managers can come together on a regular basis to discuss problems in a
neutral setting, and a 1 to 1 consultation service which gives managers the opportunity to
think through how they might tackle a workplace challenges in a more systemic way.
Results: Giving feedback to executives about organisational life has led to the development of
early stage interventions for workplace bullying and a project which aims to improve the
visibility of managers in order to bridge the gap between operational and strategic work.
Facilitated networks have encouraged a wider discussion of the conflict between operational
need and professional values and have lent support to making the case for establishing a
nursing role to promote and monitor this aspect of work in acute services settings
Conclusion: This paper concludes with a consideration of the demands of this type of work on
the psychologist and the implications for occupational health psychology role development.
The pressing demand to deliver in healthcare today causes disruption to the usual ways in
which healthcare staff negotiate and reach agreement. A psychologist who is employed by the
very service it is there to help manage this disruption, can find themselves under pressure to
work in ways which simply collude with the existing system. However with careful positioning
it is possible to provide valuable systemic interventions which support a different way of
resolving difficulties that may otherwise lead to conflict.
229
FOSTERING COMPETENCE IN MANAGING
INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONGST
GROUPS OF SENIOR MEDICAL STAFF
ALLEN, C.
Central Manchester and Manchester Children’s University Hospitals NHS Trust, United Kingdom
Objective: Senior medical practitioners work in intense, at times fast-paced environments,
with high levels of responsibility – for life and death issues in some specialties. The long period
of training equips them to take up leadership, bear and manage this responsibility with
confidence, but not necessarily to collaborate and share decision making in non-clinical
activities. In addition, the ethic of care, central in the practice of medicine, comes under
pressure in a Health Service dominated by more commercial values, with imperatives to meet
nationally imposed targets for clinical activity, creating additional psychological demands. It is
inevitable that this range of pressures on doctors at times gives rise to conflict, which for the
reasons referred to, is often expressed as interpersonal conflict. The intervention described is
designed to develop and foster competence in working in a team environment and to reduce
the potential for conflict.
Method: In a group of doctors experiencing high levels of interpersonal conflict, some
expressed as formal grievances and complaints, the psychologist provides individual role
coaching, alongside facilitated team meetings. In addition, mediation is provided when a pair
of doctors are in conflict. These interventions promote understanding of system and group
dynamics, provide opportunities to reflect on oneself in role, and reinforce acceptable
professional behaviour.
Results: This relatively high level of input over several months has had a significant impact
on the overall functioning and performance of this group of clinicians. Regular meetings are
largely effective, the group has managed succession of leadership roles, colleagues are
supported to take other lead roles. There continue to be heated, passionate exchanges and
expressions of difference, but these are now largely managed within the group and do not
have a negative impact on service delivery and relationships with colleagues across the
organisation.
Conclusion: Because of the way medical practitioners are ‘professionally socialised’ (eg to
take sole responsibility for clinical decisions) and because of pressures in the Health Service,
when conflicts arise, doctors are at risk of personalising issues and conflicts becoming
entrenched. Psychological interventions with individuals and the group as a whole can be
effective in fostering competent inter-professional behaviour and minimising the clinical and
organisational risks that conflict between clinicians can involve .
230
INTERVENING WITH MANAGERS TO REDUCE
THE IMPACT OF MANAGER/EMPLOYEE
CONFLICT
GETHING, N.
Occupational Health, St Mary’s Hospital, London, United Kingdom
Objective: This presentation will focus on helping managers develop the requisite
psychological and behavioural skills that will allow them to better absorb and mediate the
conflicts and dilemmas that arise when they have to introduce fractious issues into the
workplace.
Emphasis will be laid on the understanding that managers serve not only as
agents of change in their employees’ (which may lead to conflict and discord) but they also
serve as potential containers and mediators of growth for their employees during times of flux.
For this to be achieved the manager has to remember that he/she will become a player in the
employee’s psychological representation of the work-world; i.e. he/ she will carry the
projections of the employee (imbued with all the employee’s thoughts, images, and feelings
about what constitutes an authority figure). Managers who are able to regulate and control
these boundary challenges are better equipped to not only help employees successfully
negotiate this role; they find themselves enjoying the diversity and intrigue inherent in dealing
with unpredictability.
Method: Managers are put through a series of exercises designed to heighten awareness
about the roles and behaviours they unconsciously adopt. In particular, they are shown that,
in all likelihood, they have a standard set of habitual responses to any given work place
dynamic. Whilst these tried and tested methods work well with most employees most of the
time; they will not work with all employees all of the time. Exercises are therefore geared
toward promoting healthy unknowing and flexibility before each encounter; followed by tools
designed to help the manager describe and operationally define the employee relationship
with the aim of helping him/her creatively modify behaviour in order to best work within an
understanding of the dynamic created by the way in which the employee relates to them.
This, in turn is done with the view of slowly modifying the role he or she has been assigned
and, in so doing, help the employee grow and the manager to stay effective.
Results: Results are presented in terms of the managers’ ability to change and adapt.
Managers are not pushed to become flexible; they are challenged to identify and understand
the psychological defences that will block creative-adjustment to the management
relationship- the rest is up to them.
Conclusion: The presentation will conclude with a consideration of the potential of this type of
intervention for reducing employee/manager conflict
231
MINDFULNESS: TOOL TO HELP EMPLOYEES
SURVIVE WORK CONFLICT?
SCHWARTZ, A.
School of Health and Sciences, Staffordshire University, United Kingdom
Mindfulness-based cognitive-behavioural therapy techniques are aimed at helping people learn
to manage difficult emotions and upsetting thoughts. Mindfulness is beneficial in the selfmanagement for people with chronic conditions, and in a range of everyday situations (KabatZinn, 1990; Segal, Williams & Teasdale, 2002) and is seen as part of the ‘third-wave’
contextual approaches in cognitive and behavioural therapies (Baer, 2003; Hayes & Smith,
2005). Considering that the National Institute of Clinical Excellence in Britain recommends
Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy as a prevention of relapse for people who have had
periods of depression, it was decided to explore the use of mindfulness in the context of
rehabilitation for people off work following work based conflict. It was deemed particularly
relevant to working therapeutically with people struggling to deal with conflict at work and the
associated stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms. By their very nature, in conflict
situations people’s choices are limited and active coping is not a readily available option.
Hence strategies such as mindfulness offer ways of not getting ‘caught up’ in clashes, and may
help defuse, distract and diminish the likelihood of escalations.
Objective: As a practitioner Occupational Health Psychologist, mindfulness training is one of
the tools offered to employees who are seen for rehabilitative input. Following periods of
sickness absence, it has been found to be beneficial to assist individual’s return to work. In the
light of evidence based practice, it was decided to explore views of service users about its
general and specific impact in returning to the workplace following conflict.
Methods: Users of the OHP consultancy were asked to describe the usefulness of this
intervention. Mindfulness was described as a way of focusing in the moment, through
emphasis on the process of paying attention to thoughts and feelings ‘moment by moment’
and without judgment. This exploratory study aimed to understand the client’s experience of
using this method when returning to work following absence due to conflict at work.
Results: Participants’ responses emphasised the fact that they found it a calming approach,
which helped them to ‘de-clutter’ their minds of incessant thoughts and ruminations on conflict
situations. Feedback indicated that they learnt to observe their thoughts and emotions, in a
neutral and non-judgmental way reducing their distress about previous conflicts.
Conclusions: Whereas in traditional forms of cognitive and behavioural therapies the focus is
on altering the negative content of thoughts, in mindfulness the focus is on changing the
person’s relationship to the suffering caused by the negative thoughts and upsetting emotions.
Results of this exploratory study show that using mindfulness as part of rehabilitation back to
work following conflict enables employees to ‘stand back’, in order to notice reactions and
make decisions about alternative responses. It can be used alongside other tools such as
transactional analysis, mediation and facilitated meetings with managers as part of a graded
return to work process.
232
DEVELOPING AN INTERNAL WORKPLACE
MEDIATION SERVICE
JENNINGS, T. & THOMPSON, N.
Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom
Objective: Formal procedures for dealing with conflict are adversarial and more often than
not lead to no-win situations for the staff involved. As well as the human cost, there are huge
financial implications in terms of sick leave taken and HR and management hours spent
investigating and trying to resolve such cases. The Occupational Health Psychologist (OHP) at
a large acute trust in the north of England noted that referrals to staff counselling often
involved conflict or claims of bullying or harassment. A staff mediation scheme was developed
as an alternative method of dealing with relationship problems between staff. The set up and
development of this service will be described as will results of a preliminary evaluation.
Method: A new dignity at work policy was devised which reflected a move towards more
positive approaches to dealing with conflict in the organisation. The OHP submitted a business
case to the executive team to train a group of twelve volunteer staff in mediation skills. An
external agency provided the training and volunteers completed a 6 day course to become
accredited workplace mediators. The OHP co-ordinated the new mediation service, allocated
cases as they were referred in and provided ongoing support and supervision to the
mediators. The service was promoted via leaflets on payslips, a mediation website and training
across the trust. The service has been running for two years at the time of writing and is being
evaluated for effectiveness by asking participants to complete a self-report questionnaire
survey at two time points following the mediation. Mediators were also asked for their views of
the service.
Results: Twenty-five cases had been referred to the service over a two year period. Of the
cases that have been through the mediation process, 95% had reached an agreement. Results
of the evaluation will be presented which include the parties self –report of effectiveness at
two time points as well as the mediator’s views. Evidence suggests that staff are using
mediation as a first port of call in conflict situations rather than going down the grievance
route. There is some evidence to suggest that staff are returning to work from sick leave much
earlier if offered mediation. The mediators report that the skills they have learnt also enable
them to function more effectively in their substantive posts.
Conclusion: Setting up an in-house staff mediation service is a viable, effective way of
resolving disputes informally in the workplace. It is important to develop organisational policy
and training to encourage the use of such informal conflict resolution services. There is a
growing cultural change towards this being an accepted first port of call in conflict situations
rather than resorting to formal processes. The OHP has a valid role to play in developing and
co-ordinating such in-house mediation services.
233
WORKSHOPS
234
FOCUSING: A LEARNT TOOL FOR PEER AND
PROFESSIONAL INTERVENTION FOR
PROMOTING EMOTIONAL WELL BEING IN THE
WORK PLACE
BACHARACH, Y.
Smithers Institute, Cornell University, U.S.A.
Overview: Stress, anxiety, depression, substance abuse and burn out are all present in the
work place. Organizations have dealt with these issues using EAP’s, PAP’s, coaching and
mentoring. The challenge for those that engage with workplace interventions, especially
around the issues of well being, be they peer counselors such as found in PAP’s or
professionals eg: social workers, is how to assist those in need of help to focus on the
underlining issues, deal with them and not be overwhelmed by them. Too many programs
have ignored the fact that in order to succeed in intervention we must develop techniques that
will allow the workplace help giver to assist their subject in moving beyond feeling
overwhelmed by stress, anxiety and other emotions. Focusing is an easy learnt technique
developed in the 60’s by Eugene Gendlin, PhD philosopher and psychologist and has been very
affectively used by presenter to train workers to help each other reduce stress anxiety and
burnout in the workplace.
Workshop Objectives: 1) To introduce focusing a well developed technique that helps
reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety and burnout in the workplace and promotes well being. 2)
To offer participants the basics of Focusing.
Workshop Methods: I propose a 90 minute workshop that will include:
Historical and theoretical background: will include how Focusing was developed and how it is
used in the field of mental health and the work place. Experiential exercises that demonstrate
the technique of focusing and the immediate relieving affect on the participants.
235
PEER ASSISTANCE IN THE WORKPLACE:
COWORKER HELPING AS A BASIS FOR
ENHANCING EMPLOYEE WELLBEING AND
ADDRESSING PROBLEMATIC WORKPLACE
BEHAVIOR
BAMBERGER, P.1 & BACHARACH, Y.2
1
2
Technion – Israel Institute of Technology,
Smithers Institute, Cornell University, U.S.A.
Overview: Over the past 25 years, Peer Assistance Programs (PAP) have become a widely
accepted mode for helping troubled employees in American workplaces (French, Dunlap,
Roman & Steele, 1997; Hartwell et al., 1996). A PAP is a voluntary, peer-based framework
designed to motivate employees who suffer from personal problems to seek help, and to
provide support and assistance to employees seeking help (Bacharach, Bamberger &
Sonnenstuhl, 1996). PAPs operate in over 15% of the organizations that offer workforce
assistance services in the US (Bacharach, Bamberger & Sonnenstuhl, 2001; Hayghe, 1991),
and recently have been transferred to other countries (Berridge, Cooper & HighleyMarchington, 1997; Buon, 2006; Kirk, 2005).
Workshop Objectives: (1) To introduce an alternative model of employee assistance
grounded on voluntary, peer-based mutual aid and helping; (2) To clarify how peer assistance
addresses the problem of limited employee help-seeking – the Achilles-heel of traditional
EAPs; (3) To offer hands-on skills in developing and implementing peer-assistance programs
in the workplace.
Workshop Methods: We propose a 90 minute workshop structured around 3 segments: (1)
Theoretical Framework (To be presented by P. Bamberger): In this segment, we will describe
the theoretical grounding for peer-based helping processes in the workplace and how
assistance programs based on peer assistance differ from the more prevalent, professionalbased EAP model. In particular, we will emphasize the benefits of peer-based frameworks in
facilitating employee help-seeking and increasing the utilization of assistance benefits. We will
also discuss the role of peer-based frameworks as cultural change-agents influencing
problematic employee norms and values (e.g., regarding the legitimacy of worksite substance
use or abuse). Finally, we will review recent research on peer assistance programs and their
impact on a variety of employee and organizational outcomes.
(2) Developing a Peer-Based Program (To be presented by P. Bamberger and Y. Bacharach):
In this segment, we will review alternative program structures (e.g., sponsorship alternatives;
structural alternatives) and policies/procedures (i.e., confidentiality; last-chance agreements),
as well as their respective advantages and disadvantages under varying circumstances.
Examples will be provided from programs in the manufacturing, health-care and transport
sectors.
(3) Hands-on Skills (To be presented by Y. Bacharach): In this segment, we will demonstrate
the type of skills-based training required by peer volunteers and subsequently used by them
to facilitate the help-seeking and referral processes. Volunteer participants will be used to
demonstrate several of the core processes inherent to peer assistance such as constructive
confrontation, empathetic listening, and help-seeking facilitation.
236
LEISURE THERAPY IN WORKPLACE:
HARNESSING THE POWER OF ESCAPISM VIA
VIRTUAL VACATIONS
CONNORS, M. & BLOEDEL, J.
Iowa State University, U.S.A.
Objective: The purpose of this workshop is present Virtual Reality or VR as a new stress
management tool and examine the advantages and disadvantages of integrating this tool into
the average work environment. The topics that will be addressed include cost benefits,
usability, controllable variables, and the availability of measurable biofeedback. The objective
is to illustrate how workers can mentally escape stressful work environments without leaving
their desk. By using a Virtual Reality Personal Computer-based software Application or VRPCA
workers can achieve relief and therefore, reduce the risk of accumulative stress. The theory is
that the worker will return to their natural environment more relaxed and theoretically, more
productive. Since stressful events can consume a person’s cognitive focus and thus cause
negative psychological and physiological outcomes, escapism can help. Escapism is a type of
leisure therapy in which people use distraction from reality to provide a sense of stress relief.
VR has an amazing attribute of giving users an authentic experience and this helps to harness
the power of escapism. From a virtual stroll through Paris, to a virtual walk on the beach,
users can fully immerse into a realistic 3D vacation-like experience as a distraction
intervention. Recent mental health studies investigating the use of VR as a prevention tool,
an adjunctive, or a stand alone intervention has yielded widespread well-documented positive
outcomes and launched a new evolution in mental healthcare called CyberPsychology.
Method: Duke University collaborated with Case Western Reserve University Comprehensive
Cancer Center to investigate the effectiveness of a VR distraction intervention on breast
cancer patients. The subjects’ suffered such severe distress that their symptoms were being
exacerbated and altering the effectiveness of the chemotherapy treatments essential to
improving their condition. The subjects served as both test and control group. Two
chemotherapy treatments were given, one combined with VR distraction intervention and one
treatment given without the VR. To immerse them into their new environment the subjects
were encouraged to explore, experience, and interact with the dynamics of the virtual
environment. The variables were distress, fatigue, and anxiety.
Results: While physically present in their stressful situation, cognitively the subjects achieved
full immersion into their desired environments and escapism occurred. The subjects reported
immediate relief of their distress and fatigue. Findings were so remarkable that it led to the
creation of the Virtual Reality Program in the Duke University’s Department of Psychiatry and
Behavioral Sciences and inspired a new scientific journal called CyberPsychology and Behavior.
Conclusion: Findings from this groundbreaking study indicate that a VR intervention can
alleviate stress. By redirection ones attention from an ever-present negative stimuli and fully
immersing them cognitively into a new more pleasant stimuli escapism can occur almost
immediately. The disadvantages of VR can include design, usability, and equipment issues.
Nevertheless, with rapid advancements in technology these disadvantages can be easily
overcome. The direction of future research should focus on investigating the efficacy of VR as
a new workplace stress management tool.
237
THE HEALTH AND SAFETY EXECUTIVE’S
MANAGEMENT STANDARDS FOR WORKRELATED STRESS 2004-2008: LESSONS
LEARNT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
KELLY, P.J. & PALFERMAN, D.
The Health and Safety Executive, United Kingdom
In 2004, the British Health and Safety Executive (HSE) launched their Management Standards
approach for tackling the causes of work-related stress. The Management Standards approach
is a nationwide strategy aimed at delivering reduced levels of sickness absence attributed to
work-related stress within the British working population. The Management Standards
approach is focused on primary interventions at the level of the organisation. In many
respects the approach is aligned with the good jobs agenda, where the active participation of
all employees in the process delivers improved working practices and improved individual and
organisational performance.
There are two aims of the workshop. The first is to provide delegates with a full up-to-date
briefing on the various initiatives undertaken since the launch of the Management Standards
approach in 2004.
We will discuss in detail lessons from our different intervention
programmes aimed at increasing awareness and uptake of the approach organisations across
the UK. As the HSE is the national enforcement body for health and safety legislation, the
intervention programmes and the lessons from these activities have been wide ranging and
informative. This information will be vital in the design of future intervention programmes
focused on improving employee health and well-being.
The second aim of the workshop is to engage with European colleagues about how the
Management Standards and other European initiatives can complement and inform one
another. What lessons can we learn from each other concerning the implementation of suitable
and reasonable interventions to tackle work-related stress with a view to collaborating on
European projects? We would also like to engage delegates in a discussion on whether the six
psychosocial hazards or ‘stressors’ considered within the Management Standards approach
(demand, control, support, role, relationships and change) ought to be extended to cover
other psychosocial hazards that can pose a risk to workplace health, and how this might be
achieved.
238
THE ROLE OF PSYCHOSOCIAL OCCUPATIONAL
RISKS AND WORK-RELATED STRESS IN
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
KORTUM, E.1 & LEKA, S.2
1
2
World Health Organization, Switzerland
Institute of Work, Health and Organisations, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
Target group: All interested, and in particular all representatives from developing
countries
This workshop will present an overview of the current situation as it pertains to the nature of
psychosocial risks, the understanding of work-related stress in developing countries, as well as
levels of awareness, and interventions.
The general argument frequently heard is that work-related stress is not a priority in any
developing country per se since other overwhelming problems need to be addressed, such as
unemployment, poverty, and malnutrition, and infectious disease. At present 450 million
people live in extreme poverty and malnutrition, while another 880 million live in what can
only be described as absolute poverty. In 2005, of over 2.8 billion workers in the world, nearly
1.4 billion did not earn enough to lift themselves and their families above the US 2 dollars a
day poverty line. And nearly every 5th worker in the world has to survive with less than US 1
dollar for each family member.
The pioneer project, which will be discussed, aims at raising awareness about the priorities in
this area of research and with a view to practical action (identified through two Delphi rounds
preceded by telephone interviews with experts). It further stresses the potential and trends for
a gradually growing experience of work-related stress and the ensuing health consequences
due to a number of developments, including the changing structural nature of work, company
policies of multi-nationals in developing countries that strive for reduced production costs, the
transfer of hazardous machinery from industrialized to developing countries, and the
processes inherent in globalization and their consequences on working populations. The
growth of large multi-national companies has been accompanied by increased decentralization,
outsourcing and flexible working environments, with wide variations in the conditions of work
and in exposure to occupational hazards. It is widely acknowledged that the impact of global
changes in the working environment has benefited industrialized or strong economies and
marginalised those that are weak.
After the introductory presentation the audience will have an opportunity to discuss a number
of key questions:
•
What is the current understanding of psychosocial risks at work is in developing
countries and how do they mostly relate to specific developing country contexts?
•
Which occupational sectors that are most affected by work-related stress emanating
from psychosocial risks at work?
•
Which types of interventions are currently applied to manage psychosocial risk in
developing countries?
•
Which particular issues affect the female workforce in developing countries?
•
Which workplace issues and risks require urgent attention in developing countries?
•
What are the priorities for action in addressing occupational health and safety issues?
It is expected that the audience will actively participate in the discussion and share their
experiences or studies with us.
239
POSTERS
240
WORK-RELATED MENTAL AND BEHAVIORAL
DISORDERS COMPENSATED UNDER THE
INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENT COMPENSATION
INSURANCE IN KOREA
AHN, Y-S.1 & CHOI, K-S.2
1
Department of Occupational Medicine, Dongguk University International Hospital, Korea
2
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Eulji University School of Medicine, Korea
Objectives: To analyze the characteristics of work-related mental and behavioral disorders,
excluding sequelae of physical injuries, organic mental disorders and disorders due to
psychoactive substance use, compensated under the Industrial Accident Compensation
Insurance (IACI) that has been operated by the Korea Labor Welfare Corporation (KLWC).
Methods: Using the KLWC compensation database, We investigated the all cases of workrelated mental and behavioral disorders compensated during the 5 years between 1999 and
2004. We analyzed the characteristics of occupational diseases using the KLWC electronic data
and the epidemiologic survey data to evaluate the work-relatedness investigated by the
Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute(OSHRI) of the Korea Occupational Safety
and Health Agency(KOSHA).
Results: KLWC approved 187 cases, including 23 suicides (12.3%) for 5 years. Men accounted
for 167 cases (89.3%). The mean age was 39.9 years old and the most common age group
was 40-49 years old (69 cases 36.9%), followed by 30-39 (62 cases, 33.2%) and 20-29 (28
cases, 15.0%). The most common mental and behavioral disorders by the Korean Statistical
Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 5th version (KCD-5), which is very
similar to ICD-10, was reaction to severe stress, and adjustment disorders (F43; 73 cases,
39.0%), followed by depressive episode (F32; 49 cases, 26.2%) and other anxiety disorder
(F41; 34 cases, 18.2%). The most common working duration was 10-19 years (50 cases,
26.7%). The mean duration of medical treatment was 319 days and 28.3% of workers had
more than 1 year recuperation duration. The main occupational stressors related to these
disorders were difficulty in personal relationship with their colleagues, unfair dismissal
pressure, discrimination, a malicious practice alienating fellow, over- and underwork,
experience with extreme stress and etc. 56.1% of workers (105 cases) were employed in nonmanufacturing and non-construction enterprises. The most common size of enterprise was
larger than 1,000 workers (48 cases, 25.6%).
Conclusions: We were able to elucidate the kinds of work-related mental and behavioral
disorders and the characteristics of workers through this study. Reaction to severe stress, and
adjustment disorders (F43) and depressive episode (F32) caused by many kinds of workrelated stressor were major mental and behavioral disorders. Workers with more than 10
years working duration were also at risk to develop these kinds of mental disorders. A
management policy must be established to prevent work-related mental and behavioral
disorders occurring in such vulnerable workers.
241
SUICIDE RISK OF WORKERS WITH
COMPENSATED OCCUPATIONAL INJURY IN
KOREA
AHN, Y-S.1 & KIM, H-R.2
1
Department of Occupational Medicine, Dongguk University International Hospital, Korea
2
Department of Preventive Medicine, The Catholic University, Korea
Objectives: Occupational injury by itself is one of the work-related stressors to cause many
kinds of mental and behavioral disorders including depression and suicide. Thus this study was
analyzed the characteristics of suicide workers among occupationally injured workers and
estimated the suicide risk of them.
Methods: Suicide mortality from 1998 to 2004 was analyzed in the cohort contained 257,355
workers who were compensated by occupational injury from 1998 to 2001 in Korea. Deaths
were identified by the Korean National Statistical Office (KNSO), a registry estimated to
achieve greater than 95% registration of deaths, cause of death was available beginning in
1992. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) of suicide (X60-X84) was estimated by Poisson
regression methods controlling age and calendar time.
Results: 488 suicide deaths (466 men, 22 women) were observed during 1998-2004. Suicide
mortalities in men were significantly high compared to the Korean general male population
(SMR=1.31, 95%CI=1.18-1.47). In women, suicide mortality was non-significantly high
(SMR=1.07, 95%CI=0.70-1.65) comparing to Korean women. The scale of enterprises, the
recuperation duration and the disability degree caused by injury sequela were risk factors
affecting suicide mortality. Comparing to the company with more than 100 workers, the
relative risk of suicide mortality was 1.12 (95%CI=1.09-1.14) in company with less than 100
workers. Increasing disability degree, the relative risk of suicide was also increased (RR=1.37,
95%CI=1.34-1.40).
Conclusions: This occupationally injured workers' cohort exhibits increasing risk of suicide
mortality comparing to the Korean general population. This suggested that not only physical
therapy but also social supports and psychological rehabilitation are important factors to
prevent suicide of occupationally injured workers. Small scale enterprises, long recuperation
periods and high degree of disability are risk factors increasing suicide mortality. However
more detailed investigation of confounding variables and future follow-up of this cohort will
better define suicide mortality risks in occupationally injured workers in Korea.
242
WORKPLACE BULLYING ASSOCIATED HEALTH
HAZARDS. IS IT LACK OF QUALITY
ASSURANCE? A MODEL OF ORGANIZATIONAL
INTERVENTION IN EGYPT
ALAZAB, R.M.
Alazhar University, Egypt
Background: Bullying at workplace in Egypt is still a hidden problem and most of
organizations haven't policy to combat it. WHO/ILO defined bulling as "repeated and over time
offensive behavior through vindictive, cruel, or malicious attempts to humiliate or undermine
an individual or groups of employees".
Objectives: to find out the magnitude of bullying among the studied workers, to determine
causes, forms and health hazards of bullying among the examined workers and to assess the
value of intervention on the prevalence rate of health hazards of bullying among the studied
workers.
Methodology: Cross - Sectional study was conducted among 1127 workers. The workers
were investigated against bullying. All subjects were examined to explore the health hazards.
A management commitment policy against bullying was announced inside the workplace
besides raising the knowledge of employees about bullying. Reassessment was done after one
year.
Results: 71.3 % of the studied workers were experienced bullying at workplace. The most
prevalent forms of bullying among the examined workers were: discount the person's
thoughts (64.2%), Screaming (53.1%), refuse reasonable requests (49.1%), and regular
unfair criticism in front of colleagues (39.7%). These proportions were decreased after the
intervention to: 27.8%, 16.7%, 19.2% and 8.3% respectively. The main factors determined
bullying was: need to meet deadline (91.2%), excessive workload (83.7%), keep workers
alert and active (79.6%) and low performance (67.3%). The most prevalent health hazards
among the bullied workers were; loss of concentration (60.7%), insomnia (57.1%), headache
(53.4%), tachycardia (52.7%), and unexplained fatigue (47.3%). These proportions were
decreased after the intervention to: 11.8%, 9.1%, 6.6%, 7.2% and 10.2% respectively.
Conclusions: management commitment policy and raising awareness against bullying could
be a preventive program for some of health disorders.
Recommendation: Policy against bullying might be added to the accreditation tools of quality
of health services inside the workplaces.
243
THE IMPACT OF CHANGE PROCESSES ON
EMPLOYEES' ATTITUDE TOWARDS THE USE OF
ICT AT WORK
ANDERSEN, T.K.1, SAKSVIK, P.Ø.2 & TORVATN, H.3
1
SINTEF/NTNU, Norway
Department of Psychology, NTNU, Norway
3
SINTEF Technology and Society, Norway
2
Objectives: Norwegian power grid maintenance companies struggle in becoming efficient
toward constantly changing markets. Information and communication technology systems
(ICTS) are often seen as the solution. However, the new technology remains heavily
underutilised. Explanatory variables for employees' inclination to use new ICTS are manifold;
computer anxiety, confidence, liking and perceived usefulness. Yet they fail to consider the
implications of organisational change processes. Recent research shows that a healthy change
process requires attention to norms, diversity of reactions, role clarification, manager
availability and constructive conflicts. This leads to the assumption that it is necessary to
consider the impact of the change process on attitude towards the use of new technology.
Methods: Spring 2008 a web-based survey was conducted in a Norwegian entrepreneurial
power grid SME, rendering 88 complete responses. The survey was based on already validated
scales, as well as on scales in course of validation. Indexes were constructed on the general
dimensions of computer anxiety (α=.83), computer usefulness (α=.91), computer experience
(α=.69), the relevance of change (α=.86) and the well-handling of change (α=.93).
Dependent variable was an index on degree of positive attitude towards the use of ICT
(α=.83). A linear block regression (OLS) was conducted, based on three single items and five
indexes built through factor analyses/reliability checks. Standard statistical tests in the
program ware SPSS were used for all analyses.
Results: The model was divided into three blocks. The first ("Constant time pressure" (β = .26), "Procedural clarity" (β = .18) and "Type of work"(β = .20)) explained 11 percent of the
variance in the "Positive attitude towards using ICT in work" index. The second block,
("Computer anxiety" (β = -.36), "Computer usefulness" (β = .22) and "Computer experience"
(β = .14)) explained the variance in the dependent variable with another 36 percent. The third
block ("Relevance of change" (β = .27) and "Well-handling of change" (β = -.26)) explained
additionally 10 percent of the variance in the dependent variable. The model yielded an
adjusted R² = .57 (p > 0.01, N = 88). "Type of work" (blue/white collar) as well as "Computer
experience" did not turn out to be significant in the final model. They still contributed to
explained variance and were kept. Demographic variables (gender, age, seniority) were not
significant.
Conclusion: Perceived computer experience, computer anxiety and computer usefulness were
the main predictors to explain the attitude towards the use of ICT at work. Relevance of the
change as well as the organisation's handling of it add significantly to explaining employees'
attitudes in course and after implementation. Additional analyses show that attitudes toward
shifting work from hands-on to head-on vary between blue and white collar employees
working in the same organisation. More insight is needed in the implicit way the organisation
handles change towards different groups of employees, and why these groups' attitudes and
behaviour differ from one another.
244
AN IPA STUDY OF CANCER SURVIVORSHIP AND
WORK?
BAINS, M.1, YARKER, J.2, MUNIR, F.3 & KALAWSKY, K.3
1
2
British Psychological Society, United Kingdom
Goldsmiths College, University of London, United Kingdom
3
Loughborough University, United Kingdom
Objectives: The research objectives were to explore cancer survivors’ experiences of
managing cancer and work utilising an Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis approach (IPA).
The impact of diagnosis and treatment on a cancer survivors’ ability to work is not yet fully
understood. With an estimated 90,000 new cases of cancer diagnosed in people of working
age in the UK each year, this is a key issue for health at work. This study employs an IPA
approach to gain a rich understanding of survivors’ experience of work. The approach is
phenomenological as it is interested in formulating a detailed interpretation of an individual’s
personal perception, as opposed to generating an objective account of the area being
investigated.
Methods: Eleven participants (female n = 5, mean age = 57.4 years) were recruited from a
National Cancer Charity (United Kingdom). All participants had received a cancer diagnosis in
the last 10 years. The researchers sought to gain a rich insight into the experiences of cancer
survivors, including those that successfully returned to, or, resumed work, those who had
difficulties in managing cancer and work, and those who did not return to work. Semistructured interviews comprising of four broad areas (cancer experiences at work,
management, coping and improvements) were conducted and audio-taped.
Data was
transcribed and analysed using Interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA).
Results: All participants were employed at the time of diagnosis, however, at the time of the
interview 8 were employed, one was on long-term sick leave, one had taken ill-health
retirement and one was unemployed.
Analysis generated four higher-order themes:
Disclosure; Support; Management of work; and, Psychological Outlook. Most returned to
work, or attempted to, once their treatment was completed. Disclosing information to
employers about their condition and treatment was important as it was deemed necessary to
gain time off work. Furthermore, disclosure facilitated the introduction of work adjustments.
The majority (n = 9) reported that they received support continuously and were never made
to feel isolated in the workplace due to their cancer, allowing individuals to focus on managing
their cancer. The knowledge and understanding of employers and colleagues appears to be
crucial when interpreting the level and type (positive or negative) of support received. Upon
returning to work, the majority of participants reported that their employer made adequate
adjustments. However, only two participants reported that their return was monitored.
Concerns relating to anxiety regarding recurrence and low quality of life were also expressed.
Encouragingly, a number of participants reported a positive psychological outlook with regard
to managing and coping with their cancer and work.
Conclusions: The findings provide a rich and invaluable insight into cancer survivors’
experiences in managing their cancer and work. It is apparent that many report positive
levels of support and adjustments from employers, however, the knowledge and
understanding that employers and colleagues have of cancer, its treatment and their
implications for work is crucial. It is also plausible to suggest that more appropriate return to
work monitoring is required to aid individuals affected by cancer.
245
THE PORTUGUESE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
REFORMS POTENTIAL IMPACT IN THE
DEVELOPMENT OF CIVIL SERVANTS WORK
RELATED STRESS
BAPTISTA, C. & FERRAZ, D.
Portuguese National Institute of Public Administration, Portugal
Objectives: The main purpose of our paper is to reflect about the potential impact of
Portuguese Public Administration reform on the development of civil servants work related
stress (WRS). We are particularly interested in assessing which characteristics within the new
legal framework may promote distress among Portuguese civil servants. We will establish an
association between the legal framework and the main factors of WRS presented by the IWHO (2000). By doing this type of analysis we emphasize the need to proceed for diagnosis –
intervention projects which aim to prevent in a primary level work related stress in Public
sector workers.
Methods: Our analysis is based on the study of the Portuguese Legal framework that supports
the current Public Administrative reform. We applied the documental analysis technique to the
following new legal regimes: Performance appraisal system; Restructuration Program of the
Central State Administration; New regime of careers and pay system; New process of mobility
and retirement; New work contract regime applied to Public Administration. This qualitative
analysis was based in the research framework “Factors associated with work related stress”
presented in the report Research on Work Related Stress, produced by the I-WHO, from the
University of Nottingham (2000).
Results: Our findings suggest that the new paradigm of human resources management in
Portuguese Public Administration Reform creates the conditions for the development of
distress among civil servants. The qualitative analysis revealed a latent relation between some
of the new legal regimes and the WRS factors defined in the literature. Therefore we establish
a matrix where the new legal regimes and WRS factors are directly associated. This type of
information contributes to an effective step towards the implementation of stress management
programs in Portuguese Public Administration.
Conclusion: The main results show the absence of an occupational health preventive attitude
and strategy in the conception of the new legal framework in the Portuguese Public
Administration. Taking together the climate of change resistance and some of the WRS factors
that emerge as relevant in our analysis, we emphasize the need for an effective intervention
which benefits workers health.
246
DOMINATING MOOD AS MEDIATOR OF THE
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHORT-TERM STRESS
AND HARDINESS
BEREZOVSKAYA, R.
Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia
Objective: The main objective of the present study was to explore whether dominating mood
experienced at work mediates the relationships between such so called negative effects of the
job as fatigue – monotony - psychical satiation - stress and psychological hardiness.
Method: The study was conducted in one private medical multiple-profile clinic in SaintPetersburg. Participants were physician from two departments (aesthetic medicine and
stomatology). The majority of participants were women (76%). Participants reported an
average age of 38.6 (range = 30-47 years) with an average work experience in this firm of
5.3 years (range = 2-7). The variables were assessed using three instruments: (1) Plath and
Richter’s BMS II (Russian version adopted by Leonova & Velichkovskaya) which evaluate
short-term stress; (2) Hardiness Survey (Maddi/Leontiev & Rasskazova) which measure such
components of dispositional resilience as commitment, control and challenge; (3) Kulikov’s
Dominating Mood Scale (DMS-8) which evaluate the level of activity, cheerfulness, liveliness,
relaxedness, composure, steadiness, satisfaction. Moreover, control variables such as gender,
age, length of experience and specialization were derived from employers’ registers.To answer
the research questions we used the SPSS program package for descriptive statistics,
correlation and variance analysis of the data.
Results: The study produced several significant findings. First, among the respondents there
was an average degree of psychological hardiness and, generally, a low level of short-term
stress (only two dimensions - fatigue and stress - showed a moderate level).Second, no
significant gender and generational differences emerged in response patterns to stress,
hardiness and dominating mood statements in this survey. However, we received some
differences connecting with the physicians’ specialization. Third, after conducting a Pearson
correlation, results showed relationship between the overall hardiness score and psychical
fatigue (r = -.62) and psychical satiation (r = -.65). This relationships were approaching
significance p < .01. Correlations of stress and monotony with hardiness did not reach the
level of significance. Finally, the empirical results provide evidence to support the research
hypothesis: four dimensions of dominating mood (steadiness, relaxedness, composure and
satisfaction) significantly moderated the relationship between psychological hardiness and
psychical fatigue. So the findings of this study suggest employees expressing more positive
mood tended to report the lower level of psychical fatigue.
Conclusions: In conclusion, these results suggest several practical implications. We suggest
that dominating mood can be discussed as an important indicator of psychological well-being
of employees. Moreover we assert that these results may be evidence for the need to take it
into account in monitoring of occupational health and working out of health promotion
programs.
247
STRESS AT WORK AND IMPAIRED SLEEP:
PERSEVERATIVE COGNITIONS AS A MEDIATOR
BERSET, M., LÜTHY, S., ELFERING, A. & SEMMER, N.
University of Bern, Switzerland
Objective: Sufficient recovery following an acute stress reaction is crucial for preventing the
development of stress-related disease in the long run (Geurts & Sonnentag, 2006). Sleep is a
vital period of recovery. Therefore, the examination of factors predicting impaired sleep quality
is essential. Stress is one of the factors that can affect sleep quality (cf. Brosschot, Pieper &
Thayer, 2005; Sapolsky, 2004). For stress in daily life to affect sleep, however, it seems
plausible to assume that their must be some mediating mechanisms that keeps stressful
situations salient. Lack of unwinding has been proposed as such a mechanism for a long time
(Frankenhaeuser, 1986). This, however, leads to the question of what characterizes slow
unwinding. Most likely, perseverative cognitions are involved. Broschot, Pieper and Thayer
(2005, p. 1045) define perseverative cognitions as “the repeated or chronic activation of the
cognitive representation of stress-related content”, reflecting phenomena such as worries,
rumination, and anticipatory stress. There is evidence that stress has an impact on
perseverative cognitions (e.g., Grebner, Semmer & Elfering, 2005), and that perseverative
cognitions impair sleep quality (Akerstedt et al., 2002). We therefore hypothesize that stress
at work, specifically time pressure and effort-reward imbalance, is negatively associated with
sleep quality, and that this association is mediated by perseverative cognitions.
Methods: To test our hypothesis we used a convenience sample consisting of 294 individuals
who filled in an online questionnaire. After removing five outliers an N of 289 participants
resulted. 116 of whom were male, and 173 female. Mean age was 35.33 (SD = 12.3).
Time pressure (TP) was measured with a scale of the Instrument for Stress Oriented Task
Analysis (ISTA, Semmer, Zapf, & Dunckel, 1995). Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) was
assessed using a scale by VanYperen (1996). As a measure for perseverative cognitions we
used the scale “cognitive irritation” by Mohr, Müller, Rigotti, Aycan, and Tschan (2006).
Finally, we assessed sleep quality with the Insomnia Severity Index (Bastien, Vallières &
Morin, 2001). We used structural equation modeling with latent variables to test our
hypothesis. Significance testing of mediations was done with bootstrapping (cf. Shrout &
Bolger, 2002).
Results: Both stressors were significantly positively related to cognitive irritation (ERI: .15,
TP: .27). Cognitive irritation was negatively related to sleep (-.35). The indirect effects of both
stressors on sleep, via cognitive irritation, were significant (TP: Γ = -.09; ERI: Γ = -.05). In
addition, ERI had also a direct effect on sleep (-.18). The direct effect of TP on sleep was not
significant. χ2 of the model was 315.4 (df = 164). Indexes measuring the overall fit of the
postulated model had values of RMSEA = .057 (CI = .047, .066), SRMR = .046, and CFI =
.953.
Conclusions: In accordance with our hypothesis, perseverative cognitions mediated the
association between stress at work and sleep quality. The effect of time pressure was fully, the
effect of effort-reward imbalance was partially mediated. The fit of the model was satisfactory
(cf. Hu & Bentler, 1999).Our results are cross-sectional and, therefore, do not allow causal
inferences. Nevertheless, our results are in line with the assumption that perseverative
cognitions are a crucial link between stress at work and chronic health impairments insofar as
they are the active “agent” that keeps stress states alive, or reinstates them, and thus
perturbs sleep and, along with this, recovery.
248
ASSESSMENT OF SAFETY CULTURE IN HIGH
RELIABILITY ORGANIZATIONS
BRESÓ, I., LATORRE, F., GRACIA, F. & PEIRÓ, J.M.
University of Valencia, Spain
Nowadays organizations are characterised by continuous and accelerated changes. Apart from
the social, economic and technologic changes that are occurring at the more global level, high
reliability organizations are facing more specific changes among which political pressures,
aging of plants and technologic equipment are the most highlighted ones. In this kind of
organizations, where there is a higher complexity and error consequences are fatal, safety
culture is considered as a tool to reduce risks, associated to the performance of routine tasks
and an element of improving the social acceptance of this type of organizations.
Objective: Despite growing interest in studying safety culture, there is no general agreement
related to its definition, to its dimensionality or to measurement tools for safety culture in
current literature. We find a large quantity of definitions, which in some general aspects
coincide. This work analyses some of the proposed definitions by researchers. We propose
taxonomy of these definitions taking into account diverse issues. On one hand, safety culture
can be approached from the construct of organizational culture, differentiating it from other
similar considered aspects, outlining its outputs or taking into account its dimensions. On the
other hand, due to the importance of safety culture in high reliability organizations, we
consider those elements that reinforce safety culture in this kind of organizations.
Methods: Moreover, we review methodology which is proposed to assess safety culture, and
different measurement tools.
Results & Conclusions: Finally, we outline some conclusions and future lines of research
about this issue.
249
THE THAI VERSION OF EFFORT-REWARD
IMBALANCE QUESTIONNAIRE (THAI ERIQ): A
STUDY OF PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES IN
GARMENT WORKERS
BUAPETCH, A.
Mahidol University in Bangkok, Thailand
Objective: This study aimed to test the psychometric properties of the Thai version of the
Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire (T-ERIQ).
Methods: The English version of the 23-item ERIQ was translated and back-translated.
Content validity was examined by five experts and face validity was examined by twelve key
informants before being tested for construct validity with 828 workers from six garment
factories. Predictive validity was assessed through the relationship between the ERI constructs
and psychological health outcomes including psychosomatic symptoms, state of anxiety,
depression, and job satisfaction. The internal consistency of the Thai ERIQ was tested using
the first survey (n=828) and test-retest stability was examined 2 to 4 weeks later with a
subsample (n=408).
Results: Results showed that 2% of workers reported effort-reward imbalance (ERI ratio ≥ 1).
The Thai ERIQ has good content validity with a Content Validity Index of .95. Cronbach’s alpha
coefficients for the effort, reward, and overcommitment scales were .77, .81, and .66,
respectively. The 2-4 week stability of these three constructs was moderate (r=.496-.576,
p<.001). A four factor solution was found using exploratory factor analysis, indicating
consistency with the theoretical ERI model. Logistic regression analyses supported significant
associations of reward with all psychological health outcomes.
Conclusions: Findings suggested that the Thai ERIQ has adequate reliability and validity to
investigate the psychosocial work environment. The Thai ERIQ can be applicable in Thai
working population, particularly in the industrial manufacturing workers.
250
GENDER DIFFERENCES AND PSYCHOSOCIAL
RISKS AT WORK IN MADRID. PRELIMINARY
FINDINGS. IBERMUTUAMUR JOB STRESS
RESEARCH PROGRAM
CATALINA-ROMERO, C., SAINZ-GUTIÉRREZ, J.C., CORTÉS-ARCAS, M.V.,
QUEVEDO-AGUADO, L., NEYRA-SUÁREZ, I., CALVO-BONACHO, E. & ROMÁNGARCÍA, J.
Ibermutuamur, Madrid, Spain
Objective: This study aims to evaluate gender differences in psychosocial risk profile among
workers in the Autonomous Region of Madrid.
Methods: Stratified random sampling. Cross-sectional design. Job stress and psychosocial risk
at work were assessed with a battery of questionnaires, which included a brief version of the
Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), in a sample of 5,418 workers who went to
perform their usual medical check-up in the Society for the Prevention of Ibermutuamur in the
Autonomous Region of Madrid. Bivariate analyses (Chi-square) were conducted for the
variable sex, using SPSS.15.
Results: No statistically significant gender differences were found in overall job satisfaction,
self-reported job stress, burnout or harassment at work. By contrast, women have lower
levels of pay satisfaction (p =. 03) and a higher proportion of women were affected by stress
from non-work related sources (p <.001). Women have lower levels of job control and skill
discretion (p <.001) and social support (p=.04), higher difficulties on work and family life
balance (p <.001) and greater job insecurity (p <.001).
Conclusions: Our results suggest a higher level of psychosocial risk among women. While
levels of overall job satisfaction and perceived job stress seem to be the same in both sexes,
women have jobs with poorer psychosocial quality and have greater difficulties than men to
harmonize their work and family life.
251
COPING, BURNOUT AND EMOTIONAL
DISORDERS IN STUDENTS AND UNIVERSITY
PROFESSORS
CUNHA, M., PEREIRA, J., MACHADO, M. & MACHADO, F.
Instituto Superior da Maia, Portugal
The authors introduce the preliminary results of a project that has for object the study of the
relation between coping, burnout and emotional disorders, in a population of Portuguese
students and university professors undertaking their activities within an educational model
proposed by the Bologna regime. The test samples comprises 300 students and 50 university
professors. The instruments used were the Problem Resolution Inventory by Vaz Serra,
Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Psychological Symptoms Inventory, adapted to the
Portuguese reality by Canavarro. These results suggest the relation between resources of
resolution of problems and emotional regulation, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and
emotional disturbance, both in professors as well as in students. They also suggest an increase
presence of coping strategies grounded on avoidance or denial, when referring to students.
252
ORGANIZATIONAL PRACTICES FOR LEARNING
WITH WORK ACCIDENTS
DA SILVA, S.C.A.1, DOS SANTOS OLIVEIRA, M.J.1 CARVALHO, H.M.B.1
JACINTO, M.C.R.2 FIALHO, T.C.3 & SOARES, C.A.P.G.3
1
2
CIS, ISCTE, Portugal
Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial, Portugal
3
CENTEC, IST, Portugal
European statistics reveal that work accidents still represent an important social problem for
our society (European Commission, 2004) and, at the same time, it has been acknowledged
the need to use accident information for prevention through learning (e.g., Koornneef, 2000;
Toft & Reynolds, 1997). Furthermore, it has been strongly recommended that organizations
should develop a reporting culture and a learning culture (Reason, 1997). A reporting culture
stresses the importance of getting knowledge from small accidents and near misses; a
learning culture means that the information is available, disseminated, discussed, and changes
are implemented. According to Reason (1997) learning implies a cycle from observing,
reflecting, creating to acting. Until now only few studies focused on the global learning
process/cycle (e.g., Koornneef, 2000).
Objectives: During the last year we started a research project (CAPTAR – Learn to prevent)
with the goal of establishing strategies and processes to learn efficiently with accidents and
that will cover all the cycle phases.
Methods: In this paper we will present the first phase of this project. Namely, 20 case studies
that aimed to characterize organisational best practices for collecting and analysing
information in order to improve safety learning and accidents prevention. The case studies
involved organizations operating in different activity sectors (e.g., chemical industry;
construction; transports; energy production, health care) that were identified as having good
practices. The data is being collected using long semi-structured interviews with key
organisational stakeholders. The interview protocol covers information, such as: type of
accident records; existence of a formal procedure for accident investigation; what accident
forms are used; procedures used in the data collection; procedures used in accident analysis,
and finally, how these organisations use the relevant information towards safety learning and
improvement. Overall interviews length and documentation collection varies between two and
five hours. In addition to the interview, relevant organisational documentation is also being
collected and analysed in this study.
Results and Conclusions: At the moment data is still being collected but in our paper we will
present the results of the best practices in use and discuss its implications for research and
intervention.
253
A TOOL FOR EVALUATING THE RISK OF
MOBBING IN ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXTS:
THE “VAL.MOB.” SCALE
DEITINGER, P.1, NARDELLA, C.1, BONAFEDE, M.1 & AIELLO, A.2
1
Italian National Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL), Italy
2
University of Cagliari, Department of Psychology, Italy
The world of work is in continuous changing and there is an ever-increasing occurrence of
phenomena such as corporate restructuring, the introduction of new technologies, the
adoption of flexible management models as well as greater diversification in the workforce.
Where such phenomena occur in a labour market, an increased level of conflict can be found.
If this conflict is poorly managed, it can encourage mobbing.
Objectives: Given the complexity of the phenomenon and the difficulty of identifying
situations of mobbing in the various work environments, we decided to carry out an evaluative
tool able to estimate the phenomenon of mobbing in a valid and reliable way, i.e. able to
discriminate between subjects who are really at risk of mobbing and those who are not.
Methods: The Scale was administered to a sample of 441 persons divided into two groups,
the experimental and control groups: 188 males (average age = 44.5 sd = 10.4) and 253
females (average age = 39.7 sd = 9.7). The questionnaire consisted of three sections: a)
Mobbing scale. To define the items, seven main thematic areas were identified: Elements of
discomfort (deskilling, work overload); Threats and violence (verbal or written threats,
physical and psychological violence); Physical or social isolation; Formal and informal
communication within the organization; Horizontal and vertical sociality (relations with
colleagues, relations with managers); organizational commitment and affective/emotional
climate; b) Symptomatology scale: response scored according to the Likert-type 1 to 5
response scale, referring primarily to the diagnosis categories currently applied in the field of
legal medicine; c) Personal and social data and occupational history.
Results and Conclusions: The factor analysis carried out shows that the Mobbing Scale is
composed of four stable and reliable factors which explain 57.8% of the variance. The first
Factor (α = .97), called “Relational “, groups together the items relating to relationships with
managers and colleagues, emphasising aspects of communication within the organisation,
verbal violence, derisions. The second Factor (α =.87), called “Intrusiveness/interference”,
groups together the items relating to infringements of private life, moral and physical
violence, stereotypes and prejudices. The third Factor (α = .90), called “Deskilling”, groups
together the items relating to the assignment of downgraded tasks, work overload or
underload. The fourth Factor (α = .70), called “Organizational commitment and
affective/emotional climate”, groups together the items relating to the values, the climate and
the subject’s affective relationship with the workplace. Subsequently, the discriminating value
of the Val.Mob. scale was tested by analysing the discriminating function on the two groups of
the sample. The averages of the individual factors reveal a significant difference between
people who believe they are subject to mobbing and those who do not. Indeed, 84% of the
cases prove to be correctly classified. Moreover, the function appears to show good sensitivity
values (197/249 = 79% for subjects who identified themselves as subject to mobbing) and
specificity values (174/192 = 90% for subjects who identified themselves as not subject to
mobbing). The properties of the Scale which emerge from the data were as expected, namely:
validity, reliability, discrimination value and predictability.
254
PERSONALITY, TRAUMATIC SYMPTOMS AND
COPING, A COMPARISON BETWEEN
PROFESSIONAL AND NON PROFESSIONAL
SAMPLES OF CAREGIVERS
DÍAZ MARTÍNEZ, A., LANZÓN SERRA, T., INFANZÓN CASES, E. & SELLAMI, K.
University of Valencia, Spain
OBJETIVES To look after a dependent relative at home is a really stressful situation, and
some times a traumatic one also. In our study, we compare personality, traumatic symptoms
and coping in two samples of caregivers, all of then with a dependent relative at home.
METHOD Our total sample was made of 100 caregivers, split in two groups, the first one
composed by 50 nurses (professional sample), whose job out of home is in hospitals, and a
second sample composed by 50 caregivers (non-professional sample) whose job, if any, has
no relationship with nursing. For this study, we have used the Barthel Scale (Mahoney &
Barthel, 1965), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1985 in
the revised and short version for Spanish, Ortet et al. 1997), the Impact of Event ScaleRevised (Horowitz et al, 1979, revised by Weiss & Marmar, 1997) and the COPE Scale (Short
version by Carver et al., 1989, 1997).
RESULTS Our results show in the first place a high reliability index for the variables studied.
Secondly, all variables, except active coping, show differences between the two samples, with
higher extraversion for the professional nurse sample, and higher neuroticism, traumatic
symptoms and passive coping in the non-professional sample. And thirdly, when we take into
account the dependency level of the relative looked after, the traumatic symptoms disappear
when the level of dependency is low in both professional and non-professional samples, but it
increases specifically in the non-professional sample when the level of dependency is high.
CONCLUSIONS This last result indicate that the dependency level in the relative looked after
at home is an important variable, in the sense that it creates a situation that provokes serious
symptoms of anxiety in caregivers not prepared to deal with a highly dependent person. In
this context, 12 caregivers from the non-professional sample, most of them looking after
relatives with cancer, scored higher than 51 in the total IES scale, showing that we could be
facing a situation close to posttraumatic syndrome in non-professional caregivers looking after
a highly dependent relative at home. In contrast with this situation, only a subject from the
professional sample, who was looking after a son with schizophrenia, presented high traumatic
symptoms.
255
PSYCHOLOGICAL, MATERIAL AND WORKPLACE
WELL-BEING BETWEEN SPANISH AND
MOROCCAN SAMPLES
DÍAZ MARTÍNEZ, A., SELLAMI, K., LANZÓN SERRA, T. & INFANZÓN CASES, E.
University of Valencia, Spain
OBJETIVES The objective of this study is to know the differences between Spanish and
Moroccan in three variables: psychological, material and workplace well-being. We also show
these differences taking into account the gender for both samples.
METHOD In this work we have used 400 subjects, split in two samples, 200 from Spain,
mainly from the city of Valencia, and 200 from Morocco, from the cities of Casablanca,
Marrakech, Meknez and Tanger. The Well-Being Scale (Sanchez Cánovas, 1996) was used.
An Arabic translation of this scale was done for the Moroccan sample. Although the scale has
four dimensions: psychological, material, workplace and marriage well-being, marriage wellbeing dimension was eliminated due to the problems with the sexual items in Morocco. The
scale has 30 items for psychological well-being and 10 items for material well-being and 10
items for workplace well-being.
RESULTS Firstly, we developed a factorial analysis for the 400 subjects in order to obtain
those items from the original scale with factorial saturation higher than .35. Psychological
well-being got 22 items, and material and workplace well-being maintained each one the same
original 10 items. We followed here the Buss & Poley (1976) and Buss & Royce (1975)
strategy in cross-cultural research. In the second place, we got the reliability index (alpha de
Cronback) for the three dimensions. And finally, due to the high reliability of the dimensions
obtained, we made the differential analysis between both samples: Spanish Moroccan, menwoman Moroccan, men-woman Spanish, Spanish-Moroccan men, and Spanish-Moroccan
women. For the three variables, Spanish got significative higher scores than Moroccan, there
were no significative differences between men and woman in each sample, and in the
differences between Spanish and Moroccan taking into account the gender, we found that
Spanish men got significative higher scores in psychological and material well-being. The
difference in workplace well-being was not significant. And finally, Spanish woman got higher
significative scores than the Moroccan woman in the three variables.
CONCLUSIONS We can conclude that the Well-Being Scale used in this work has got high
reliability and has show clear differences between Spanish and Moroccan samples with higher
scores for the Spanish. Both samples have no gender differences in gender between men and
women, but for most of the three variables Spanish men and woman got higher scores than
Moroccan men and woman.
256
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN NATIVE AND
IMMIGRANT WORKERS IN SPAIN: ACCIDENTS
AND WELL-BEING
GARCÍA-IZQUIERDO, A.L.1, & RAMOS-VILLAGRASA, P.J.
2
1
2
Universidad de Oviedo, Spain
Universidad de Barcelona, Spain
Objective: In recent years, the impressive amount of immigrants workers in the Spanish
labour market is higher than ever. They cope the challenge for adapting to a new culture, and
organization may manage this properly. Organizations have the responsibility and guarantee
the health, security and well-being at work, but these objectives are more difficult to achieve
in a diversity workforce. So we are interested in detecting diffences and similarities between
immigrant and native workers.
Methods: This study investigate differences and similarities between native and immigrant
workers in a set of well-being and labour accidents related variables. These variables and their
measure instruments were: “Big Five” personality, measured with Big Five Inventory
developed by Bennet-Martínez and John (1998); locus of control measured with an adaptation
of Pérez (1984) scale; self-efficacy at work with Quijano and Navarro (2000) scale; security
climate based on the homonymous scale by Cheyne, Cox, Oliver and Tomás (1998); and
security-at-work rules knowledge and labour risk perceptions measured with items developed
to this investigation.
Results: Forty hundred and sixty-eight workers participates in the study (47.01% were
immigrants of different countries). Descriptive statistics, correlations and linear and logistic
regression analyses were conducted. Results showed that the main differences on correlations
were between locus of control and the rest of variables. Regression analyses showed that
neuroticism and extraversion predict psychological well-being to immigrants and native
workers. About accidents, conscientiousness was predictor for both groups, but immigrant’s
accidents were predicted by security climate also. These last relationships are important
because security climate could be improved by the organizations.
Conclusions: Main conclusion is differences showed between immigrants and native, but
both groups are very similar on other aspects, especially on the influence of the “Big Five”
over criteria (psychological well-being and accidents). These results contribute to support
hypothesis about personality role in organizational health psychology. Additionally, conclusions
suggest promotion of security climate could improve security at-work of immigrant workers.
257
OCCUPATIONAL STRESS IN TEACHING: A
STUDY WITH HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS
GOMES, A.R.
1
1
& SIMÃES, C.1,2
Department of Psychology, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
2
School of Nursing, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal
Objectives: This study investigates the impact of occupational stress in high school teachers,
through the analyses of indicators related to work and personal well-being. Specifically, it
evaluates work stress, burnout, physical health and professional fulfilment.
Methods: The sample consists of 689 high school teachers working in the north of Portugal.
Participants were assessed through four different questionnaires: i) The Stress Questionnaire
for High School Teachers (Gomes et al., 2006; Kyriacou & Sutcliffe, 1978); ii) Maslach Burnout
Inventory – Educators Survey (Maslach, Jackson, & Schwab, 1996; Melo, Gomes, & Cruz,
1999); iii) The Occupational Stress Indicator – Physical Ill Health Scale (Cooper, Sloan, &
Williams, 1988; Cunha et al., 1992); and iv) The Satisfaction and Professional Fulfilment Scale
(Gomes, Melo, & Cruz, 2000).
Results: The results revealed significant levels of occupational stress (percentages near
40%), a different frequency of "burnout" in the three appraised dimensions (10% in emotional
exhaustion, 3% in reduced personal accomplishment and 1% in depersonalization), various
physical health problems and values of professional dissatisfaction close to 20%. The analysis
of stress sources in teaching profession, allowed to verify that problems related to students,
such as bad behaviour, low interest and motivation in the classroom, were the main source of
concern referred by teachers. Multiple regression analysis pointed out different predictors’
variables for the three dimensions of burnout: i) in emotional exhaustion, six variables were
significant and explained 60% of the total variance (health problems, professional satisfaction,
general stress, desire to leave the job, students’ different abilities and students’ disciplinary
problems); ii) for personal accomplishment, two variables were significant and explained 16%
of the total variance (professional satisfaction and general stress); and at last iii) in
depersonalization dimension, three variables were significant and explained 13% of the total
variance (desire to leave the job, general stress and disciplinary policies). Discriminant
analysis and “t-test” for independent samples revealed additional occupational problems in
different variables, in specific groups : i) women felt more stress related with time pressures
and workload, career development, health problems, emotional exhaustion and students’
disciplinary problems, and less depersonalization than men; ii) older teachers showed higher
desire to leave the job, more stress related to students’ different abilities and more emotional
exhaustion; iii) professionals with precarious contracts, revealed higher levels of stress related
to career development and less desire to leave the job; iv) teachers working more hours per
week reported more general stress, time pressures and workload, and less problems related to
students’ different abilities; finally, v) teachers with more students in the classroom, showed
more problems related to general stress, students’ disciplinary problems, bureaucracy work,
time pressures and workload, desire to leave the job and emotional exhaustion.
Conclusions: The results confirm the high levels of stress found in Portuguese teachers,
which must be considered in occupational health policies and occupational health
interventions. These findings also point to the need for further research linking job
characteristics with professional stress and physical health problems.
258
WHAT IS A HEALTHY ORGANIZATION AND
WORK? PERSPECTIVES FROM DIFFERENT
PROFESSIONALS
GONÇALVES, S.1, NEVES, J.1 & MORIN, E.2
1
Centro de Investigação e Intervenção Social/ Instituto Superior de Ciências do Trabalho e da
Empresa (CIS/ISCTE), Portugal
2
HEC-Montreal, Canada
The world is becoming increasingly competitive and characterised by the existence of pressure
that is frequently much greater than what is desired. For this reason it becomes difficult to
respond actively and on time to the pressure and maintain the emotional and psychological
balance needed to face these daily pressures. In this context, stress associated to work is one
of the worst problems that had its origin with the industrialisation and modern technology.
Indeed, the Fourth European working conditions survey (European Foundation for the
Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, 2006) showed that, in 2005, 20% of workers
from the EU-15 and 30% from the 10 new Member States believed that their health is at risk
because of work-related stress. In 2002, the annual economic cost of work-related stress in
the EU-15 was estimated at EUR 20 000 million. Due to these facts in the last years, workers’
health has become a central theme in social and psychological literature. However, the
research has been centred in the causes of stress and health problems. Recently, it is
emerging a new perspective on organizations and humans resources. This new parading Positive Psychology - defends besides focusing on the negative aspects of work and
organizations, one should also focus the positive aspects, such as resources and strengths that
work has (e.g., Salanova, Martínez & Llorens, 2005).
Objective: The present study is part of a PhD project which main goal is to analyse the
predictors’ variables of workers’ well-being. This specific study aim to answer the following
question: “What is a healthy organization and work and what are their characteristics?”.
Method: Date was collect with an on-line questionnaire through “snow-ball” method with
several open questions, free-word association tasks and two quantitative scales.
Results & Conculsions: The sample is composed by 403 participants from several areas of
training and work (e.g., teachers, nurses, engineers, psychologists, etc.). Data was analyse
using contend analysis supported with Atlas.ti Software. Results and practical implications will
be discussed.
259
WORK CONDITIONS AND RISKS IN LATVIA
GRINBERGA, S.
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Riga Stradins University, Latvia
Objective: The objective of the study was to create analytic basis in the field of occupational
health and safety, which would ease rational and effective decision-making for elaboration of
employment and social policy programmes and for ensuring sustainable development.
Method: The Study comprises several activities and various working methods:
1. Analysis of legislation and policy plans of European Union and the Republic of Latvia;
2. Analysis of cooperation schemes of respective institutions, analysis of information
circulation
and overlapping functions, as well as assessment of interaction of different organisations;
3. Analysis of existing studies and review of similar studies;
4. Analysis of databases currently existing in Latvia;
5. Survey of employers, employees, general public, occupational health and safety specialists,
as
well as specially protected and socially castaway groups of individuals; analysis and
summarisation of the obtained results;
6. Objective assessment of working conditions and occupational risks;
7. Calculation of work ability index and working conditions the field of health care; comparison
of the results in dynamics.
Summary of the surveys
Name of the survey
Number of surveyed respondents
Survey of employers and their representatives
1058
Survey of employees
2455 employees, 65 selfemployed In total 2520
Survey of permanent residents of Latvia
1015
Survey of specialists having or still continuing 86
higher Professional education in the field of
occupational health and safety
Pregnant women and parents after their leave for 600 (402 of them were employed before
child care
giving birth to the youngest child)
Disabled people
201 – disabled due to occupational factors,
205 – disabled due to other reasons. In total
- 406
Following risk factors were most frequently measured: Noise level, Whole-body vibration,
Microclimate, including ventilation assessment, Lighting.
For assessment of work ability index an employee answers series of questions combined in
a special questionnaire. These questions are designed for evaluation of health, mental and
physical work ability and mental resources of a worker, as well as prognosis of work ability in
future.
Results and Conclusions: Information obtained during the Study show that at present
psychosocial factors (shortage of time, overtime work, long working hours etc.) and ergonomic
factors (work with a computer, lifting heavy objects, awkward posture, repetitive movements
etc.) are one of the most essential occupation risk factors. It means that conventional risk
factors are substituted by modern ones. On the other hand, laboratory analysis show that
microclimate and dust (especially abrasive dust and welding fumes) should be considered as
significant occupational problems. Taking into account that psychosocial and ergonomic risk
factors, as well as microclimate, usually interfere with each other and even intensifies the
effects of one another, this group of factors should be treated with great care, especially
because there are no standards for microclimate in Latvia and no simple and convenient
method for assessment of psychosocial and ergonomic risk factors.
260
CONFLICT, NO WAY OUT? SUPPORT CLIMATE
AND CONSEQUENCES ON BURNOUT
GUERRA, J., ARENAS, A., MEDINA, F. & MUNDUATE, L.
University of Seville, Spain
Conflict is an inherent phenomenon in all organizational levels. In the last decade, many
authors point out that conflict has a positive side. Conflict about personal aspects
(Relationship conflict) has negative consequences for organizational goals and employee wellbeing, but when a conflict is focused on tasks may have positive consequences (e.g.,
creativity). Previous research does not have shown a clear and direct relationship between
task conflict and well-being indicators. However, it would be possible this type of conflict to
have indirect effects on well-being through relationship conflict. Conflict, independently of its
origin, is a social stressor. Prolonged exposure to conflict may therefore result in behavioral
and psychological consequences, psychosomatic complaints, or burnout. A work group with
frequent conflicts among their members is likely to have a large number of employees with
lowered well-being. In the opposite side, a supportive relationship tends to relieve stress and
to reduce burnout levels. When members of an organization perceive they can be supported,
personal conflict is less intense. Support climate could also reduce the escalation from task
conflict into relationship conflict.
OBJETIVES In this study, we empirically explore the relationship among workplace conflict,
organizational climate, and burnout.
METHOD Data were collected from 314 workers, employed in public homes for senior citizens.
Of these 68.4% were female and 31.6% were male. Participants were cited by their
supervisors within their own workplace as a part of assessment of the psychosocial risks in the
organization.
RESULTS Largely consistent with our hypotheses, results revealed that relationship conflict
mediated the relationship between task conflict and burnout, especially emotional exhaustion.
Support climate moderated the relationship between task conflict and relationship conflict,
indicating that a high level of task conflict with a low support climate lead to a high
relationship conflict. Moreover, support climate directly reduced burnout.
CONCLUSIONS Although workplace conflict is not possible to eliminate completely, we can
promote support climate as a protective factor. Support climate mitigate burnout and also
moderate the relationship between task conflict and relationship conflict. In work groups with
a high support climate, conflict focused on tasks is less likely to influence on employee health
and well-being.
261
A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY ABOUT MOBBING
AMONG THE FINANCE SECTOR WORKERS IN
ISTANBUL-TURKEY
GÜL, H.1, KAY, I.1, ÇAYIR, E.1, ALÇALAR, N.2 , TEZCAN, N.3 & ÖZGÜLNAR, N.1
1
Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine Department of Public Health, Çapa-Istanbul
Turkey
2
Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine Department of Psychiatry, Çapa-Istanbul
Turkey
3
Private consultant lawyer, Istanbul- Turkey
Objectives: There is an increasing awareness on mobbing as an important risk factor in
occupational studies. However, the origin of mobbing has so far, been insufficiently analyzed,
though such an analysis is necessary in order to develop methods to prevent mobbing and its
negative effects at individual, organizational and social levels. This study aims as an
investigation of the perceptions and experiences of those who have been subject to mobbing
behavior. Besides, characteristics of individuals who exercise mobbing were analyzed.
Methods: This study was carried out between January 01 2008 and March 31 2008 with a
sample of 174 people who work in the finance sector. A questionnaire was prepared after a
literature review. This questionnaire included questions about demographic characteristics of
workers’ knowledge and experiences about and attitudes towards mobbing. Descriptive
statistics were used in the data analysis. The differences between categorical variables were
analyzed via chi-square test.
Results: Women and men constitute respectively, 60.3% and 39.7% of the sample. 39.1% of
the sample are between the ages 20 and 29, 50.6% are married, 43.1% are single, 93% have
college degree. 17.8% of the employees are high-level managers (CEO etc.), 47.1% are
working at lower managerial levels (such as chief of department), 32.2% are working at other
levels. The percentage of those who stated that he/she have been subject to mobbing
behavior is 66.1 and 60.3% of the sample view mobbing as a problem. Those who rose
mobbing as an issue to the managers but could not receive any response constitute 24.7% of
the sample. Among these who have been subject to mobbing behavior, 45.4% have stated
that they were criticized in a harsh manner, 40.2% have stated that their work have always
been found flawed, and 39.1% have stated that their successes have always been ignored.
Conclusions: Mobbing behavior in the workplace causes negative consequences both for the
employees and for the institution. This research showed that mobbing in the workplace results
in experience of stress and depression, decrease in motivation to work and decrease in trust
to the organization. Finally, we argue that group efficiency, reorganization, staff reduction and
relocation strategies do not necessitate humiliation of individuals. Employers should consider
the issue of mobbing in a serious manner and develop policies in order to avoid it.
262
PREVENTION OF ARTHALGIA WHILE CARING
FOR THE AGED PEOPLE
HAKOBYAN, N.
International Cooperation and Standardization of Armenian State Pedagogical University, the
Republic of Armenia
Objectives: In Armenian society the number of the old has constantly increased in parallel
with the increase in the aged population making up 20% of the whole population. Every sixth
person in Armenia is a pensioner. For supporting and helping the old to deal with their everyday activity routine which they are not able to perform in an adequate way because of health
or functional limitation, care provision services were set up by some non govermental
organizations which was provided by caregivers. The problem of Arthalgia is considered one of
the most important problems in the sphere of health care which is generally associated with
the reduction of activeness and productivity. The objective of this study is to show and present
those efficient strategies and ways which will give the caregivers opportunities to prevent their
arthalgia problems wile taking care of the aged people. Taking into consideration this aim
some analysis have been given connected with occupational performances for caregivers’
effective and trained out techniques to develop and consider Arthalgia prevention.
Establishment and preparation of Althalgia prevention techniques for the caregivers working
with the aged people on occupational health care evidence, including recommendations on
advice, treatment and facilitative working techniques.
Methods: In order to develop Arthalgia self-prevention effective techniques for those who
take care of the aged people 2 focus group assessment with 25 caregivers was done to
identify the personal and physical factors causing Arthalgia pain. Information on Arthalgia pain
and other factors was gathered through using 0-10 Numeric Pain Intensity Scale before and
after the treatment and also different occupations were assessed by observations at the
workplace done by the caregivers. Arthalgia pain self-prevention effective techniques for the
caregivers was developed based on their occupational performance needs and through
analyzing the main causes of incapacities for performing home care services for the aged
people. The implementation was done through establishing close cooperation with the
caregivers, the aged people.
Results: The result of the following study based on the caregivers’ occupational needs showed
that during working process the caregivers trained to manage their Arthalgia pains themselves
by using appropriate pain prevention skills and techniques and combining some facilitative
equipments.Meanwhile the aged people received qualitative care provision services and had
possibilities to enlarge their participation in provided activities.
Conclusion: Aging has never been as acute as nowadays in the Republic of Armenia, as the
aged people are extremely unprotected in existing new socio economic situation. This study
has formulated and developed an effective techniques and ways for the caregivers to prevent
themselves Arthalgia pain while providing home care services to the aged people.
263
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND
SAFETY PERFORMANCE: THE MEDIATING ROLE
OF MEANINGFUL WORK
INNESS, M.1, BARLING, J.2 & TURNER, N.3
1
University of Alberta, Canada
2
Queen’s University, Canada
3
University of Manitoba, Canada
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of transformational leadership
(TFL) on employee safety performance, and the mediating impact of the meaning of work. We
operationalize safety performance as consisting of safety compliance (obeying safety-related
regulations) and safety participation (voluntary behavior designed to improve workplace
safety; (e.g., Griffin & Neal, 2000). While different formulations of leadership exist, TFL has
received considerable empirical attention (e.g., Bass & Riggio, 2006; Bono & Judge, 2004). It
has been suggested (Barling, Loughlin, & Kelloway, 2002) that the four behaviors comprise
TFL (inspirational motivation, idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, and individual
consideration), may encourage safety performance. Specifically, TFLs may inspire employees
to believe that higher levels of safety are possible, convey employee safety as a core value,
encourage employees to find innovative ways to improve safety, and place importance on
employee well-being, respectively. Empirical findings lend support to the notion that
leadership actions may impact on safety performance. Research suggests that behaviors
characteristic of TFLs, such as a high-quality exchanges (Hofmann & Morgeson, 1999), being
inspiring, and invoking employee decision making (Clarke & Ward, 2006) have been found to
predict safety participation. Both co-operative (Simard & Marchand, 1997), and supportive
(Parker, Axtell, & Turner, 2001) supervision have been found to predict safety compliance.
One mechanism through which TFL impacts on employee performance in general is by helping
employees perceive their work is meaningful (Shamir, House, & Arthur, 1993), that is, having
a purpose beyond its extrinsic rewards (Arnold, et al., 2007). In turn, higher levels of job
performance can result (Grant, 2008) as individuals experience intrinsic motivation
(Charbonneau, Barling, & Kelloway, 2001). Given this, we expect that TFL will have an impact
on performance outcomes that require intrinsic motivation, such as safety participation, but
not basic, required task behaviors such as safety compliance. As such, we hypothesize that:
H1: TFL will impact on safety participation via its effect on the meaning of work.
H2: TFL will have a direct relationship effect on safety compliance.
Method: Cross-sectional data was collected via an online survey from 159 (73 males; 86
females) people holding two jobs. Using a sample of multiple job holders allowed us to control
the impact of both contextual and personal factors.
Results: Results supported Hypothesis 1: The meaning of work fully mediated the impact of
TFL on safety participation in both jobs. Results partially supported hypothesis 2. There was a
direct, negative relationship between TFL and safety compliance, but only in the context of
participants’ second job.
Conclusions: Findings suggest that TFL impacts on employees’ perception that their work is
meaningful, which in turn impacts on safety participation, but not compliance. This finding is
consistent with the notion that safety participation is extra-role job performance based on
intrinsic motivation. TFL negatively predicted compliance suggesting the TFLs who encourage
discretionary thought and action by employees might need to reinforce the importance of
compliance with basic safety procedures.
264
APPRECIATION AT WORK: MEASUREMENT AND
ASSOCIATIONS WITH WELL-BEING
JACOBSHAGEN, N., OEHLER, N., STETTLER, E., LIECHTI, S. & SEMMER, N.
University of Bern, Switzerland
Objective: It seems plausible that appreciation at work is important for employees and is
associated with their well-being (Semmer, Jacobshagen, Meier, & Elfering, 2007). However, in
the psychology of work and organizations, appreciation has seldom been researched, and just
a few and very brief scales are presented on how to measure it (e.g., Siegrist, 1996; Yukl,
1994). These scales, though, focus more on general appreciation (e.g. “I feel appreciated at
work”) and do not take into account more specific forms of appreciation (e.g., assigning more
responsibilities after a task well done - cf. Semmer et al, 2007). The aim of the current project
was to develop a more specific scale measuring appreciation at work from different sources,
that is, fellow employees and supervisors (cf. Siegrist, 1996). Another aim was to test the
hypothesis that appreciation at work is associated with employees’ well-being. Furthermore,
we hypothesized that supervisor’s appreciation is more important. They represent the
organization and have a strong influence on working conditions, task assignment, rewards,
etc. So, we postulate a) that appreciation at work can be measured convincingly with this
newly developed scale, b) that appreciation at work has significant relations with several
indicators of employees’ well-being, and c) that appreciation from supervisors is more
important than appreciation from work colleagues.
Methods: 42 items that assessed appreciation at work by colleagues and supervisors were
formulated and tested in a pilot study (N = 66). Based on the factorial structure, 15 items
were retained. In the two main studies, these 15 items were tested again in a) a sample of 88
employees with different jobs using a paper-pencil questionnaire and b) 340 employees from
two different Swiss companies (transportation and retail sector), who filled in an online
questionnaire.
Indicators of health were a) feelings of resentment towards the organization (Geurts,
Schaufeli, & Rutte, 1999), b) job satisfaction (Semmer & Baillod, 1994), and c) self-esteem
(Rosenberg, 1965). Data were analyzed by way of factor analysis, correlations, and multiple
regression analysis.
Results: The factorial structure of the scale and subscales for appreciation at work show a
satisfactory fit in exploratory as well as confirmatory factor analysis. The two subscales were
performed, and they had a high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of .91 and .88 in study
1 and .91 and .85 in study 2). As expected, they were correlated with one another (r = .31
and r = .53), and the total scale also displayed high alpha’s as well (α = .89 and .91)
Correlations between appreciation and well-being were in the proposed direction. Regression
analyses (controlling for age and gender) revealed that supervisor’s appreciation explained
more variance in two out of three indicators of well-being: feelings of resentment and job
satisfaction. Unexpectedly, appreciation by colleagues explained more variance in self-esteem
than supervisors’ in both samples.
Conclusions: Our appreciation scale has good psychometric properties, and it displays
associations with indicators of well-being as expected. Our results are in line with our
theoretical position that appreciation is of pivotal importance for people at work. Further
research should focus more strongly on this variable; investigate it in different contexts, and
with longitudinal designs. Furthermore, future research might include a third source of
appreciation, that is, clients (Jacobshagen & Semmer, under review).
265
THE INFLUENCE OF BREAST CANCER
TREATMENT ON COGNITIVE ABILITY AND
EMPLOYMENT PATHWAYS
KALAWSKY, K.1, MUNIR, F.1, YARKER, J.2, AHMED, S.3, ROBERTSON, J.3 &
WHALLEY, B.4
1
Department of Human Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, United Kingdom
2
Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths, University of London, United Kingdom
3
Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, City Hospital Campus, Nottingham, United
Kingdom
4
School of Psychology, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, United Kingdom
Objectives: The proposed study has two broad objectives: (i) To examine the employment
outcomes of breast cancer chemotherapy patients over a longitudinal period in the UK and (ii)
to explore the role of chemotherapy induced cognitive dysfunction on return to work.
Methods: Female breast cancer patients are currently being recruited from an oncology clinic
at a NHS Trust in the Midlands (UK). To be eligible for study enrolment, patients have to fulfil
the following criteria: a) to be employed, or to have been in employment for >18.5 hours (2.5
days) per week at the time of breast cancer diagnosis; b) to have a primary cancer diagnosis
and; c) to speak fluent English. The study is of a longitudinal (approximate duration 1 year)
repeated mixed-measures design. Participants will act as their own control. To monitor the
effect of chemotherapy on cognitive function and employment pathways over time, each
participant is assessed on three separate occasions (baseline, mid chemotherapy and upon
completion of chemotherapy). During each assessment participants are asked to complete a
battery of eight cognitive tasks, which cover a broad range of functions. Upon completion of
the cognitive battery participants are given a questionnaire comprising of pre-existing, well
validated measures concerning the side effects of chemotherapy treatment and work related
issues.
Results: Data collection is currently in progress. However, based upon preliminary analysis of
the sample to date, it is expected that those receiving chemotherapy will experience deficits in
their cognitive ability. Furthermore, self awareness of this deficit will affect perceived cognitive
functioning and therefore influence decisions regarding maintaining or returning to
employment. It is envisaged that by the time of the conference 40 participants will have
completed the study.
Conclusions: The findings will build upon and enhance existing knowledge between the
effects of chemotherapy on cognitive functioning. Moreover it will provide a novel insight into
how chemotherapy induced cognitive dysfunction can affect ability to work. The findings will
also help to facilitate better support for breast cancer survivors, helping to restore them to
their desired level of work function and economic productivity. The ultimate goal of the
research is to aid the development of work-place policies to assist work resumption, and
workplace re-integration among breast cancer survivors.
266
BIOGRAPHICAL COUNSELLING AND THERAPY
FOR A DEEPER UNDERSTANDING OF WORK
DISSATISFACTION, PERSONAL VOID AND
PROMOTION OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH
KARTIC, V. & BAPI, K.S.
Deeksha Foundation’s Centre for Psychological Consulting and Services
Hyderabad, India
Objectives: To share the experience of working with individuals going through dissatisfaction
and distress despite apparently leading successful lives . with the belief that this knowledge
may help alleviate the sense of emptiness, that may give rise to difficulties in many facets of
life, either in the form of changing some decisions or developing the ability to live with the
decisions. To guide individuals to gain a deeper understanding of their own
personal/professional goals and ambitions.
Methods: confirmation of the knowledge based on at least 30 complex cases with individual
biography study and counselling and therapy.. Common factors being age ( mid-thirties and
early forties)the similarity of complaints ( symptoms of feeling empty ,low work and personal
dissatisfaction etc) and individuals who were amenable to the concept of spirituality. One
detailed case study to be presented as an example.
Results: All of them have gone back with a deeper understanding of their own individual life
patterns and sense of purpose towards what they understood as their individual destiny paths.
Conclusions: It can be easily concluded that those who are open to the spiritual-scientific
approach of anthroposophical psychotherapy and its tool of Biography study, counselling and
therapy can benefit from the overall experience.
267
INTEGRATING THE ASSESSMENT OF WORK
STRESS IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING
CARDIOVASCULAR CATHETER EXAMINATION
INTO ROUTINE CLINICAL CARE
KOPP M.1, RITELLI C.1, PFAFFENBERGER N.1 & PACHINGER O.2
1
Innsbruck Medical University, Center of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Dept of General and
Social Psychiatry, Clinical and Health Psychology
2
Innsbruck Medical University, Center of Internal Medicine, Dept of Cardiology
Objectives: To assess level of work stress in patients with cardiovascular diseases at the
beginning of clinical care to enhance early bevioral treatment approaches.
Methods: We performed clinical interviews and asked 77 patients who underwent catheter
examination for completing questionnaires (Areas of Worklife Survey AWS, Maslach-BurnoutInventory, MBI) to assess workload. After interviews the level of job strain was rated in 3
categories (low N=27, moderate N=26, severe N=24) and we performed 2-tailed correlations
(Pearson) using subscale scores of the instruments (SPSS 15.0).
Results: Highest correlations between interview and AWS were found for the dimensions
workload (r=-.536) and community (r=-.509); followed by fairness (r=-.355) and reward (r=.386). In the MBI we had the highest correlation with the interview rating for exhaustion
(r=.536), followed by cynicism (r=.367) and efficiency (r=.329, all mentioned correlations
were significant on the .01 percent level).
Conclusions: High correlations between a clinical interview and the AWS and MBI in
cardiovascular patients seem to justify the development of a (computer-adaptive)
questionnaire screening method for selecting patients with high job strain in routine clinical
care.
268
THE OBSERVATION OF NATURAL WORK
MEETINGS AS A METHOD TO ASSESS SAFETY
CULTURE
LATORRE, F.
University of Valencia, Spain
Objective: The goal of this work is to describe a methodology to assess the safety culture,
centered in work meeting observations. Moreover, to assess the validity of the information
regarding the safety culture, and more exactly, regarding the five dimensions of safety culture
collected in INSAG (1991), we have applied this methodology in an organization. Observation
of natural work meetings has two advantages compared to other usual or common methods in
safety culture testing. First, it is a non- intrusive method of data collection, and it allows
having more access to real culture, through observation of culture in action. Second, the
application of this method in a real company has allowed us to test if these advantages are
true. This methodology is part of a larger proposal to test safety culture that takes into
account the use of other two evaluation techniques, such as questionnaire and semistructured interviews.
Method: In order to achieve our goal, in the first place we will deal with the reasons for
choosing this methodology to study safety culture. In the second place, we will describe in
what consists this methodology, referring to which model of safety culture is used, which
aspects were observed to be able to extract conclusions related to safety culture, what is the
nature that work meetings to be observed have to have, how many people participate in the
observation and which is the role of each one of them, among other issues.
Results & Conclusions: In the third place, the main results that were observed after its
application in a nuclear plant will be discussed. Finally, we will outline a synthesis of main
conclusions
269
STATE OF THE ART OF SAFETY CLIMATE
LATORRE, M.F., BRESÓ I., GRACIA, F.J. & PEIRÓ, J.M.
Department of Social Psychology, University of Valencia, Spain
Objectives: Safety climate has shown its potency as predictor of safety related outcomes in
organizations. Study of safety climate has been extended to several sectors: energy (Mearns,
Flin and Whitaker, 2001), health (Naveh, Katz-Navon & Stern, 2005), manufacturing (Zohar,
2005), among others. Due to it, we consider that it is necessary to carry out a state of art of
safety climate. The goal of analysis of research of safety climate is to show the last studies
carried out in this area, as well as, to make an effort of synthesis and analysis to clarify safety
climate and to show main antecedents (leadership, supervisory actions, safety practices and
procedures, formalization process among others) and main consequences (safety behaviour,
injury report, accident, near misses, treatment error in health and OCB). We explain
relationship between safety climate and safety behaviour from point of view of psychological
theories as social learning (Bandura & Walters, 1963), Leader-member exchange (Dansereau,
Graen & Haga, 1975), Expectancy theory (Vroom, 1964) and role theory (Katz & Khan,
1966); which show psychological mechanisms which operate into employees.
Method: Moreover, after analysing 30 studies, we synthesize factors into three dimensions:
organization safety commitment, employee safety implication and perceived physical risk.
Results & Conclusions: At the end, we show some examples of questionnaires which
measure safety climate.
270
THE DANISH WAY– A NATIONAL STRATEGY
FOR JOB STRESS PREVENTION
LAURITZEN, C.B. & SKYDSBJERG, C.
The Danish Working Environment Authority, Denmark
Objective: Job stress is a known contributor to physical and psychosocial health problems as
well as an increasing economic burden for enterprises and society as a whole. Furthermore,
many enterprises experience job stress as challenging to address. To strengthen and qualify
work on job stress prevention, the Danish Government has launched a national strategy. Part
of the strategy consists of increased inspections by the Danish Working Environment Authority
(DWEA) aimed at assessing health and safety risks concerning job stress and job related
violence.
Methods: 25 sector specific guidance tools have been developed to help DWEA inspectors
assess job stress risks in all Danish enterprises. Based on resent research (COPSOQ, NRCWE
2003) the guidance tools consist of the three most important risk factors in each sector. E.g.
in the social sector (e.g. hospitals, schools, retirement homes) where DWEA address
Quantitative demands, Emotional demands and Work related violence, as well as important
preventive factors, e.g. information and social support from management, Influence/Control
and Training. In addition, enterprises with identified stress related health or safety risks are
offered extra guidance by DWEA on how to make qualified action plans.
Results: During the first year of the strategy there has been a 150% increase in the amount
of improvement notices issued regarding job stress and job related violence. The tools have
increased the comprehensibility of the improvement notices as well as reduced DWEAs time
consumption per enterprise. Furthermore, many enterprises with job stress problems have
asked for and received DWEA guidance regarding action plans.
Conclusions: The guidance tools seem to be a suitable and efficient way of assessing the
health and safety risks concerning job stress and job related violence thereby allowing the
DWEA to detect more of the existing problems. Continuous challenges projected for the
strategy include e.g. qualifying all DWEA inspectors in proper use of the tools and continuously
refining the tools based on further research and experiences from practice.
271
PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS IN THE
CONSTRUCTION WORK: A COMPARATIVE
STUDY
LORENTE, L., GRACIA, E., CIFRE, E. & SALANOVA, M.
WONT Research Team. Universitat Jaume I, Spain
Objective: The main objective of this study is to analyze the psycho-social factors in the
construction work. Construction workers have high probability of suffering injures and being
involved at work-accidents. Traditionally, research referred to risk prevention in construction
industry has been limited to study physical, technical and management aspects; however
recent research shows the importance of psychosocial factors in the security, confirming that
the mere intervention in technology or management strategies do not decrease the rate of
occupational accidents (Espluga, 2006). This study takes into consideration that these risks
could be produced by not only technical problems but also psychosocial features. In this
sense, this study tests the differences between the psychosocial factors perceived by a
construction workers’ sample and the psychosocial factors perceived by a heterogeneous
workers one.
Method: Based on the Job Demands-Resources model (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, &
Schaufeli, 2001), a new reduced version of the RED (Resources-Emotions/experiencesDemands, by WoNT Research Team, 2004) questionnaire was created (RED-CONS) to assess
construction workers' psychosocial factors. The administration of the questionnaire was done
face-to-face by trained interviewers. The final sample was composed by 228 construction
workers (100% men; Mean age: 39.62, S.D.: 11.89) from 10 different construction
companies. 41 of them were foreigners and 120 had a temporary contract. The data of this
sample were compared with a heterogeneous one composed by 634 Spanish workers from
different occupations using descriptive analyses and ANOVA´s.
Results: Results show that construction workers perceive significatively less job demands
(i.e., quantitative and qualitative overload, role ambiguity, and routine) but also less job
resources in all (i.e., autonomy, feedback, technical support) except on transformational
leadership, since construction workers showed higher ratings than the heterogeneous sample.
Regarding to the levels of well-being is the construction sector which shows higher levels of
engagement (i.e., vigour, dedication and absorption). No differences were found in negative
occupational health indicators (i.e., burnout).
Conclusions: Results show that, generally speaking, both construction workers’ sample
demands and resources are lower than the heterogeneous sample’s one. In this case, it seems
that the construction workers are located in the so-called “passive job” (Karasek, 1979), with
low demands and low resources. However, against what expected, their work engagement is
also higher. It could be because of the specific characteristics of construction work, as the high
physical demands might be related to high engagement. Practical implications of these results
and future research are discussed.
272
HOW EFFICACY BELIEFS PREDICT WORK
ENGAGEMENT AND PERFORMANCE
LORENTE, L.1, SALANOVA, M.1, SCHAUFELI W.B.2 & MARTÍNEZ, I.1
1
2
Universitat Jaume I, Spain
Utrecht University, the Netherlands
Objective: The objective of the present study is to analyse the role of efficacy beliefs (i.e.,
self-efficacy and perceived collective efficacy) as a predictor of psychosocial well-being
(engagement) following the Dual Self-efficacy Model of Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory. This
model, based on efficacy beliefs, is an extension of the “Dual Process Model”, in which only
positive results are considered. That is, when high efficacy beliefs predict high resources and,
in turn, influence engagement and work performance.
Method: In order to achieve our objective, Spanish construction workers (n=228), aged
between 16 and 64 years (M=39.8, Sd=11.2), responded to a semi-structured interview which
was designed by the Wont Research Team for the construction industry. Information was
collected in the workplace. Using the AMOS computer program, structural equation modelling
analyses were done to validate the research model.
Results: The analyses empirically supported our model, that is, the predicting role that selfefficacy plays in the perception of job demands (i.e., quantitative overload, routine and role
conflict) and job resources (i.e., autonomy, feedback and interpersonal relationships), which in
turn leads to engagement and performance. These analyses also showed a direct relationship
between collective efficacy and performance.
Conclusions: The results confirm that self-efficacy plays a predicting role in the perception of
demands and resources in the Dual Model, but not of collective efficacy. Engagement is
predicted by self-efficacy via available job resources but not via demands. This may be due to
the fact that the difference between hindrance and challenge demands in the research model
has not been considered.Thus, self-efficacy shows a positive relationship with resources which,
in turn, lead to engagement and performance, unlike collective efficacy since it presents no
relationship with demands and resources, and is directly related with performance. In fact,
18% of performance is accounted for by engagement and perceived collective efficacy.
The model also reveals a positive, high and significant relationship between self-efficacy and
collective efficacy to coincide with the SCT (Bandura, 1997), which affirms that, besides the
group’s cooperative capabilities, collective efficacy is strongly related to individuals’ selfefficacy beliefs.Thus, from the positive psychology perspective, this study emphasizes the role
that self-efficacy and perceived collective efficacy play in explaining engagement and work
performance, and promotes positive psychological and organisational results.
273
THE BURNOUT SYNDROME IN SOLVENIAN P.E.
TEACHERS
MARKELJ, N.1 & JANKOVIČ, G.2
1
2
University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
America Chamber of Commerce Slovenia
People, working in profession with intense involvement with other people, are continuously
exposed to factors that threaten their psycho-physical stability. The chronic stress finally leads
to burnout, a state of physical and emotional exhaustion as well as attitudinal change. Among
others, teacher profession is one of the most threatening. Burnout syndrome has a large
negative influence on teachers’ state of mind and consequently on pedagogical work and
educational process.
Objective: In Slovenia, the burnout syndrome has not been thoroughly researched among
teachers yet, and there is no study among PE teachers. The aim of this work is to explore the
burnout syndrome among Slovenian PE teachers, focusing on the impact of socio-demographic
factors, stressors and strategies for coping with stress.
Method: The pilot study sample consists of 54 PE teachers, selected on voluntary basis. They
answered the questionnaire, consisted of 4 parts: (1) personal data and data about the work
environment, (2) Maslach burnout inventory, which assesses emotional exhaustion (feeling
drained and tired), depersonalization (impersonal response toward students) and personal
accomplishment (feelings of incompetence and ineffectiveness), (3) stressors scale and (4)
strategies for coping with stress. The basic statistical analyses were conducted, followed by
the comparison with research results of Slovenian and some other foreign countries.
Results: The results show that Slovenian PE teachers are less burnt out than Slovenian
teachers in general; the statistical differences are significant. We assume that those
differences relate to different personal traits and different strategies for coping with stress.
The majority of PE teachers listed as strategies for coping with stress sport activities,
psychological relaxation (SPA, meditation, talking about problems with important others...)
and good preparation for classes. Nevertheless, the assumption cannot be confirmed because
no research has been done yet in that direction. The most influent stressors for PE teachers
are the complex and demanding work, students’ bad working habits, involvement in different
obligations at once, educational reforms and great responsibility for others. Further research
of prevention programmes are pointed out.
Conclusions: In our further work will be included: (1) the development of the appropriate
stressors scale, (2) main research on whole teacher population, (3) second analyses of factors
of burnout syndrome (developing the model), and (4) the development of appropriate
preventing actions against burnout in teachers.
274
BURNOUT, ENGAGEMENT AND SLEEP
PROBLEMS IN PHYSICIANS FROM SPAINISH
EMERGENCY HOSPITALS STAFF
MARTÍN-ARAGÓN, M., QUILES, J., QUILES, Y.,TEROL, C., NÚÑEZ, R. &
BERNABÉ, M.
University Miguel Hernández of Elche, Spain
The present study is a part of a research supported by Spanish Society of Health Emergencies.
The scientific literature shows relations with some Burnout scales but there isn’t more articles
that informed the consequences of positive experience feel at work, it’s possible these positive
emotions at job offer an emotional protection in sleep problems.
Objectives: We analyse the relation between Burnout and Engagement scales with start and
keep sleep problems in physicians.
Method: The design research is a cross pilot study. The sample is composing by 40 physicians
from urgencies medical services. 60% are men. The mean age is 38.4 (DS: 8.39). Most of
them are married (45%). 30% of staff is civil servant and 55% in the last month
communicated that work at least 6 times in shifts of 24 hours. The mean of experience years
in urgencies is 9.82 (DS: 7.85). Questionnaires: ad hoc ítems to asses start and keep sleep
problems and sociodemographics and job demands. MBI-GS (Salanova & Grau, 1999) to
assess Burnout and UWES (Schuafeli & Bakker, 2003) to asses Engagement. We analysed
internal consistency, descriptive statistics and correlation.
Results: Cronbach`s levels are adecuated (Nunally & Bernstein, 1994) to: EmotionalExhautation (.80), Cynicism (.81) and Lack of Professional Efficacy (.77) of MBI-GS; and Vigor
(.74), Dedication (.80), but moderately lower in Absortion (.65) to UWES. Data shows
significative and negative relations between Emotional-Exhautation (r=-.48; p=.002), Cynism
(r=-.39; p=.015) with keep sleep problems in physicians.
Conclusion: In general, our findings are similar with other studies. It’s necessary increase the
sample size, we hope that increase sample size in research, enable to learn us the effect of
positive emotions (i.e. Engagement) have in decrease sleep problems consequences and
Burnout.
275
SAFETY CLIMATE AND ACCIDENTS AMONG
CONSTRUCTION WORKERS: THE ROLE OF
LEADERSHIP AS A MEDIATOR
MELIÁ, J.L. & BECERRIL, M.
University of Valencia, Spain
Objectives: Many studies have documented the negative influence of a poor safety climate on
occupational accidents (e.g. Johnson, 2007; Neal, & Griffin, 2006), and others have shown
that the positive effect of leadership on safety results is mediated by safety climate (Barling,
Loughlin, & Kelloway, 2002). Within this framework, the effect of positive leadership, as part
of a general climate, on a specific kind of results, such as safety records, should be mediated
by a specific climate, the safety climate. This study explores the opposite view: positive
leadership is considered as a condition of the efficacy of safety climate. Therefore, positive
leadership should be considered as a mediator in the relationship between safety climate and
safety outcomes.
Method: Using the Baron and Kenny (1986) analytic framework of mediation, we assessed
whether leadership mediates the relationship between safety climate and two safety
outcomes, micro-accidents and quasi-accidents.
Results: The proposed relationships are tested at the group level using a sample of 859
Spanish construction workers belonging to 111 groups. Safety climate is negatively associated
with micro-accidents (b=-.34, p<0.001) and leadership (b=.54, p<0.001), but when
controlling for leadership, the relationship between safety climate and micro-accidents
becomes non-significant (b=-.12, p=.227). Safety climate is also negatively associated with
quasi-accidents (b=-.34, p<0.001), but when controlling for leadership, the relationship
between safety climate and quasi-accidents becomes non-significant (b=-.12, p=.229).
Conclusions: The results supported the hypothesis; that is, leadership fully mediated the
relationship between safety climate and the two accident measures. These findings support
the key role of positive leadership as an active instrumental condition of safety in the
construction sector: while safety climate implies a positive perception of the organizational
safety response, the effect of this response on the safety results depends on positive
leadership.
Acknowledgements: This paper was developed within the CONSTOOLKIT Project, [BIA200761680], which focuses on the development of safety intervention tools for the psychosocial
factors related to accidents in the construction sector. Financial support was provided by the
Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (España) and The European Regional Development Fund
(ERDF - FEDER).
276
THE AGENT STRUCTURE OF SAFETY CLIMATE IN
THE CONSTRUCTION SECTOR
MELIÁ, J.L. & BECERRIL, M.
University of Valencia, Spain
Safety climate is a multidimensional construct that includes shared perceptions with regard to
safety policies, procedures and practices (Zohar, 2003). Safety climate is related to important
safety outcomes, such as workers’ unsafe behaviours and accident data (e.g., Hofmann, &
Stetzer, 1996; Johnson, 2007; Neal, & Griffin, 2006). Therefore, this construct has been
considered an indicator of the organizational safety level with an important preventive value
(Flin, Mearns, O’Connor, & Bryden, 2000). The preventive importance of safety climate has
encouraged the development of studies designed to explore its dimensionality (e.g., Zohar,
1980; Evans, Glendon, & Creed, 2007). Several literature reviews have identified certain
representative dimensions (e.g., Clarke, 2000; Flin, et al 2000; Seo, Torabi, Blair, & Ellis,
2004). However, there has been some disagreement about the existence of a generic factorial
structure, and the occupational sector has appeared as one of the variables that explain
differences across studies (Guldenmund, 2000).
Objective: Some important characteristics of the construction industry are its idiosyncratic
organization of jobs, tasks and contexts and its unacceptably high accident rates (Lundholm,
2004; Karjalainen, 2004). Therefore, the construction industry can be considered an
interesting sector for the exploration of the safety climate factorial structure. The objective of
this study is to explore this structure in a Spanish sample of construction workers.
Method: The sample was composed of 911 Spanish construction workers who voluntarily
participated in the study. Data was obtained during professional training sessions given by a
Spanish occupational foundation. The majority of the participants were male (91%), with ages
between 30 and 39 years old (41,6%) and less than 29 years old (33,1%). They perform the
following construction jobs: bricklayers (20,3%), mates (11,1%), specialized jobs (17,9%),
drivers (10,4%), bosses (13,4%), clerks (3,7%) and highly skilled technicians (23,1%). The
construction workers filled out the 28-item safety climate HERC Questionnaire. This
questionnaire is based on the psychosocial model of work accidents (Meliá, 2004a). Therefore,
it was designed to measure the Organizational Safety Response (OSR), the Supervisors’ Safety
Response (SSR), the Co-workers’ Safety Response (CSR), the Workers’ Safety Response
(WSR) and the Perceived Probability of Accidents (PPA).
Results: A principal components analysis with varimax rotation made it possible to identify
five factors explaining 69.69 % of the total variance. The first factor explains 16.63% of the
variance, and it consists of the eight items related to PPA (alpha=0.88). The second factor
explains 14.13% of the variance, and it is made up of the five items related to SSR
(alpha=0.91). The third factor explains 13.99% of the variance, and it is comprised of the five
items related to CSR (alpha=0.93). The fourth factor explains 13.56% of the variance, and it
consists of the five items related to OSR (alpha=0.83). The fifth factor explains 11.33% of the
variance, and it is compoed of the five items related to WSR (alpha=0.91).
Conclusions: The factorial structure identifies the five issues considered in the development
of the questionnaire, and these dimensions also coincide with some of the dimensions
identified in literature reviews (e.g., Seo, et al. 2004) and in previous studies using this
instrument with other samples (Meliá, 2004b). The results of the study provide evidence for
the consideration of these dimensions as useful safety diagnostic indicators, in order to assess
safety and develop effective safety programs in the construction sector.
Acknowledgments: This paper was developed within the CONSTOOLKIT Project, [BIA200761680], which focuses on the development of safety intervention tools for the psychosocial
factors related to accidents in the construction sector. Financial support was provided by the
Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia (España) and The European Regional Development Fund
(ERDF - FEDER).
277
EXAMINING SELF AND OBSERVER RATINGS OF
PERSONALITY AS PREDICTORS OF SEXUAL
HARASSMENT VICTIMIZATION
MILAM, A. & SPITZMÜLLER, C.
University of Houston, USA
Objectives. Sexual harassment (SH) in the workplace is a problem that, with its considerable
negative outcomes for both the target and the organization, has only recently been studied
from an organisational psychology perspective. Unfortunately, unwanted, offending sex-based
behaviour is relatively common. An estimated 40-50% of women in the European Union, as
well as the United States have experienced SH in the workplace (European Commission, 1998;
U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board, 1997). Targets of SH experience strain, such as low
levels of job satisfaction, a decrement in health outcomes and health satisfaction, and an
increase in psychological distress. These strains lead to negative organisational outcomes as
well, such as job and work withdrawal (Fitzgerald et al., 1997). Recent meta-analytical
research on workplace victimisation has lamented the lack of research examining the role of
personality characteristics in victimisation (Bowling & Beehr, 2006). Specifically, the objective
of this paper is to examine whether self and coworker ratings of personality are predictive of
those most ubiquitous forms of SH, such as inappropriate jokes, comments, and gestures. In
particular, we are interested in agreeableness, neuroticism, and narcissism because they
represent three of the most visible individual difference variables.
Methods. One hundred seventy-nine full-time U.S. employees from a variety of occupations
and industries were surveyed. Each participant asked a coworker with whom they frequently
interacted to provide information about the primary participant. The participants and their
coworkers were primarily female, and were racially and ethnically diverse, representing a
variety of industries and occupations. Sexual Harassment was measured using an 11-item
version of the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire – Department of Defense (SEQ-DoD; Bastian,
Lancaster, & Reyst, 1996). Participants and their coworkers (answering items about the
primary participant) completed the agreeableness and neuroticism scales available from the
International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; Goldberg, 1999). The narcissism scale used in this
study was Raskin and Terry’s (1988) Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI).
Results. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed with gender and age as a
covariate in the first step of every model test. Hypothesis 1 proposed a negative relation
between agreeableness and SH, and was supported for both self and coworker reports of
agreeableness (β’s = -.32 & -.21, p’s <.005). In partial support of Hypothesis 2, only selfreported neuroticism was positively related to SH (β = .16, p <.04). Similarly, self-reported
narcissism was positively related to SH (β = .17, p <.03), which partially supports Hypothesis
3.
Conclusions. Clearly, there are characteristics of the victim that may play a larger role in the
experience SH than previously have been recognized. By identifying that individuals who are
low in agreeableness and high in neuroticism and narcissism may be more likely to experience
and report SH does not excuse the behavior, nor does it place any blame on the feet of the
victim. Rather, we seek to identify all of the possible predictors that play a role in such
dreadful behaviour.
278
PERSONALITY, WORKPLACE BULLYING AND
HEALTH AMONG LATIN-AMERICAN
IMMIGRANTS
MORENO-JIMÉNEZ, B., GARROSA, E., RODRÍGUEZ-CARVAJAL, R., DÍAZ, L. &
RODRÍGUEZ, Y.
Faculty of Psychology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain
Objectives: Research on workplace-bullying has traditionally been focused on work-related
stressors and contextual factors. However, this relationship seems more complex that
expected, where personality and individual factors may influence this relationship. In this
study we tried to assess damages on health that were derived from workplace-bullying, based
on a theoretical model that considers personal and organizational variables.
Methods: Through a self-questionnaire methodology, the sample consisted of 279-LatinAmerican immigrants living in Spain, aged 18–55years (mean=34.0, SD=5.8). First, the
theoretical model was assessed with equation regression modelling analyses. Subsequently,
the hypothesized mediation effect of the personal variables social disadaptation and social
anxiety was analyzed.
Results: The general model showed good fit indices that ranging from .938(NNFI) to
.950(CFI)(SRMR .046). As regards the mediation analyses, bullying, social anxiety, social
disadaptation and health complaints were significantly correlated (p<0.01), after controlling
for age and sex. Path modelling showed that social disadaptation fully mediate the effects of
workplace-bullying on health, whereas social anxiety only partially mediates the association
between bullying and health.
Conclusion: The findings were related to an integrated model of health considering
organizational and personal factors. It is important to remark the lack of attention of bullying
research on immigrants’ population, wherein the study of mediation effect of socio-cultural
adaptation becomes relevant. These results should be considered in future prevention and
intervention programs.
279
SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS OF PSYCHOSOCIAL
RISK IN A GROUP OF WORKERS: USE OF A
GRAPHIC METHOD
NARDELLA, C.1, DEITINGER, P.1, BENTIVENGA, R.1, GHELLI, M.1, BONAFEDE,
M.1, RONCHETTI, M.1 & AIELLO, A.2
1
Italian National Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL), Italy
2
University of Cagliari, Department of Psychology, Italy
Social Representations (SRs) coordinate the various elements of the social environment,
making them coherent and thereby conferring meaning on human behaviour, integrating it
within a more articulate and extended system of relationships (Marini, De Simone, 2002). In
relation to the workplace, they may be conceived as a system of interpretation which allows
individuals to understand better a complex and often little-known world; each representation
arises also from the totality of information which individuals receive from the environment and
which they subsequently re-elaborate within the various social groups to which they belong.
Objectives: The central aim of this study was to outline the "images”or representations
shared by the interviewees on the theme of the "world of work", using a non-verbal method
(iconic/visual). Specifically, analysis took place of the drawings created by the subjects
interviewed, in order to understand the world of work as perceived and experienced by the
workers. In other words the aim was to identify the constellations of knowledge, beliefs,
attitudes, emotions and behaviours of these workers in relation to their world of work.
Methods: The survey involved the analysis of the drawings created by a group of workers
who participated in the educational laboratory on psychosocial risks, organised by the Italian
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL) on the occasion of the
European week 2007 campaign “Lighten the load”, promoted by the European Agency for
Safety and Health at Work and dedicated to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs).
100 drawings were collected, of which 80 were accompanied by personal-social data. The
descriptive data of the sample reveal a population consisting predominantly of women
(55.0%), with an average age of 38 years (s.d.=10.02).
Analysis of the graphic/pictorial subject matter was carried out in two phases: in the first
phase, four independent experts identified the categories which emerged from a set of 25
drawings, randomly extracted from the whole sample. In the second phase, further two
independent experts identified the presence/absence of each category in the drawings of the
sub-sample and, subsequently, in the whole set of drawings. This approach allowed to identify
the characteristics attributed by the subjects to their world of work.
Results and Conclusions: Analysis of the two independent experts revealed that there were
12 predominant categories of SRs, with an inter-expert agreement (Cohen’s κ = 0.71), which
indicates "excellent” according to the Landis and Koch classification (1977). The categories of
SRs are articulated into either positive dimensions (positive communication with colleagues,
computerisation/usability, well-being, satisfaction, collaboration, ambient comfort) or negative
dimensions (isolation, inflexibility, emotional emptiness/distance, no chance of career
development, harassment, confusion). From the point of view of effective primary prevention
in the work environment, this qualitative method could supply an additional possibility of
examining the relation between the emotional dimension and work, which is an important
basis for the relationships in the working environment, which are fundamental in order to
promote conditions of well being.
280
THE ROLE OF STRESS RESISTANCE IN MARINE
NAVIGATORS’ OCCUPATIONAL ACTIVITY
NEZAVITINA, T.S.1 & SHAFRAN, L.M.2
1
2
Delta-Pilot, Ukraine
Ukrainian Research Institute for medicine of transport, Ukraine
Objectives: The aim of the work presented is to study psycho-physiological aspects of
occupational stress resistance (SR) in navigators. This is a fragment of research project by
psycho-physiological investigating of occupational activity of Ukrainian navigators and sea
pilots.
Methods: Experimental method of SR integral estimation by the results of complex psychophysiological investigation. We have determined groups with low, middle and high level of SR.
230 persons – senior understudy officers, masters, and sea pilots, have been examined.
Results: They have revealed dependence of SR level with age and professional success of
navigators. In the group of masters below 40 y.o. a minimum of persons with low SR (1%)
and the highest SR (59%) has been marked. This index was 10 times higher than in the
group of senior understudy officers. We suppose that their high SR was an important factor of
their career progress. The majority of masters and sea pilots under investigation aged from 40
to 60 y.o. In this age group the level of high, middle and low SR constituted 26%, 58% and
16% among masters and 45%, 48% and 7% among sea pilots, correspondingly. In the group
of masters over 60 y.o. they observed increase of high SR (50%), decrease of middle SR
(25%) and a promoted increase of persons with low SR(25%). The analysis of the results
obtained allowed to highlight factors connected with the decrease of professional SR in
navigators, (1) presence of somatic diseases, (2) individual and constitutional features by
weak type, (3) disturbance of social-and-psychological adaptation and (4) deficiency of
professional experience.
Conclusions: (1) High SR is one of the principal essential qualities determining effective and
accident-free activity of marine navigators and pilots. (2) SR refers to category of qualities
building up in process of activity and training; and it is necessary to consider it providing
navigators and pilots for psycho-physiological assistance. (3) Timely revealing of the persons
with low SR in navigators and sea pilots and implementation of specific measures of its
increase will favour safe, effective activity, safety of navigation and preservation of
professional longevity of specialists.
281
STRESS, BURNOUT AND EMOTIONAL
DISORDERS IN A WORK CONTEXT: CREATION
OF A PORTUGUESE INSTRUMENT
PEREIRA, J., CUNHA, M., MACHADO, F. & MACHADO, M.
Instituto Superior da Maia, Portugal
Comprised in a 4-phase project (Construction; Validation; Verification; and Assessment), and
previewed for final presentation next December 2008, the authors present the first two phases
of a work to create an assessment test of "Stress, Burnout and Emotional Disorders at work",
specific for the Portuguese reality. With this, we also aim to contribute for the development of
an intervention model on the present constructs, in more than one labour environments
(global perception of activities within work, health, business, public administration, prisons
and education). In this approach a first version of the proposed instrument is presented,
outlining the results coming from bibliographic researches about constructs, of the setting up
of related describers marked by the specialists as nuclear for the indicated measures, as well
as of those of which the pre-existing instruments, although created for other cultural realities,
are preponderant to carry out the measures identified as nuclear in this project. Also revealed
here are the preliminary results coming from the first calculations of the metric qualities
(validity and fidelity), resultant from "phase 2", bearing in mind the results obtained upon
application of the tests identified as concurrent to the one being created, as well as the first
results of the application of the test under development now.
282
DOES THE “RIGHT PERSONALITY” PROTECT
PUBLIC SAFETY PERSONNEL IN INCIDENT
RESPONSE?
PERRY, S.J., WITT, L.A., LUKSYTE, A. & STEWART, R.W.
Department of Psychology, University of Houston
Objectives: Recent highly-publicized incidents have led governments to increasingly
implement policies designed to enhance public safety. In the U.S.A., the Department of
Homeland Security has produced numerous organizational and regulatory mandates, some of
which have focused on inter-agency coordination for responses to both routine and emergency
incidents. Unfortunately, these policies have focused more on equipment than on personnel
issues. People working in incident response face many demands from the environment, other
responders, and victims. Even small incidents have grave consequences if the responders
make mistakes. For instance, when responders are tasked with removing a traffic incident
from a major highway, they must act quickly and safely to avoid injury to responders and
motorists on the highway. If responders fail to make the appropriate decisions and coordinate
with all involved agencies, response will be slower, increasing the possibility of secondary
accidents, traffic congestion, or further injury. This example of a relatively minor incident
illustrates the stress potentially associated with every incident response effort. According to
stress researchers, continual job demands paired with insufficient job resources result in
negative outcomes, including decreased psychological well-being and performance (e.g.,
Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001). Public safety officials certainly face
numerous job demands, and whereas their agencies strive to provide the appropriate
resources, one resource that employees inherently possess may help them avoid the negative
effects of stress the most; that is, personality. Trait Activation Theory suggests that specific
situations activate specific personality traits (Tett & Burnett, 2003). Personality traits act as
resources that affect responses to situational demands. In line with the notions underlying
Trait Activation Theory, we conducted this exploratory study in an effort to identify traits that
predispose public safety workers to effectively handle stressful public safety response
situations. We propose a preliminary “right personality” profile for this type of working
environment (i.e., fit) and assess the effect of fit on personal well-being and performance.
Methods: We are in the early stages of a research program. So far, we have conducted 56
semi-structured interviews of groups and individuals in government agencies involved in
incident response. We included individual contributors through the hierarchy up to directors.
Functions included emergency management personnel, law enforcement, and traffic
managers. Additionally, we observed 15 planning and operations meetings among
representatives of the same government agencies and have collected an initial dataset using a
survey distributed to 40 emergency operations center workers and their respective
supervisors.
Results: Three factors from the Big Five framework of personality summarize the most
commonly mentioned personality traits in our interviews (Barrick, Mount, & Judge, 2001).
Along with their most relevant sub-factors, they are Conscientiousness (e.g., dependable,
achievement-oriented, planful), Emotional Stability (e.g., calm, self-confident, especially under
pressure), and Extraversion (e.g., sociable, ambitious).
Conclusions: Security threats impose many demands on those who protect the public. Based
on our interviews and observations, we propose that possessing an appropriate personality
profile will protect first responders from detrimental personal well-being and stress.
Specifically, when public safety personnel are higher on Conscientiousness, Emotional
Stability, and Extraversion, they are likely to have more resources with which to deal with
demands, and therefore avoid negative consequences to their personal well-being.
283
A STUDY OF CULTURAL FACILITATORS AND
BARRIERS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF
HEALTH & SAFETY SYSTEMS
RAMOS-SAPENA, Y., DÍAZ-CABRERA, D., ISLA DÍAZ, R. & HERNÁNDEZFERNAUD, E.
University of La Laguna, Spain
Objectives: Current research into organisational change processes emphasise the key role of
organisational culture as a critical barrier in the implementation of new systems. Therefore, an
important task is to identify and evaluate cultural facilitators and barriers in the development
of a learning organisation and knowledge management system (KMS). A main aim of this
study has been to explore a group of critical culture characteristics that can facilitate these
organisational changes. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is: (a) the identification of
potential individual, group and organisational facilitators and barriers for implementation of
new health and safety systems in aviation companies; and (b) the development of an
evaluation and implementation cultural model to evaluate the key organisational
characteristics required for a successful change process.
Method: The sample was composed by 81 pilots and managers from six companies. A group
of relevant indicators related to innovation and learning was identified that could permit to
evaluate implementation culture in organizations, such as: Organisational and individual
values; Organisational Practices and Policies; Organisational Trust, and Proactive Climate. A
number of semi-structured exploratory interviews were developed along with the Individual
Values Scale and run between February 2006 and November 2007. The first set of interviews
had fairly general objectives, and the next ones were developed focusing on those aspects
about which more information was needed. So, each interview protocol was elaborated based
on the literature review and the findings of the previous interviews. The main objective of the
interviews to date focused on the identification of those characteristics of organisation that
could facilitate or impede the implementation of change.
Results and conclusions: Overall more negative issues and areas for improvement were
reported than positive ones. But it should be seen as a positive thing, in the sense that, these
kinds of interviews, give staff the opportunity to verbalise their complaints about the problems
they perceive in their organisations and provide the opportunity to suggest improvement
alternatives.
And also provide us, as action-researchers, a guide for organisational
intervention aimed to change.
284
PERCEIVED POSITIVE IMPACT OF WORKPLACE
FACTORS ON THE HEALTH OF NURSING STAFF
IN LONG-TERM CARE FACILITIES
REEVES II, D.W.1, TULLER, M.D.1, HENNING, R.1, PUNNETT, L.2, NOBREGA,
S.2 & GORE, R.2
1
Center for the Promotion of Health in the New England Workplace (CPH-NEW), University of
Connecticut, U.S.A
2
University of Massachusetts, Lowell, CPH-NEW, U.S.A.
Objective: A nursing staff shortage has led to a large body of research seeking to identify risk
factors for leaving these jobs. The main body of this research focuses on negative aspects of
work, both physical and psychosocial. Little research has focused on workplace factors which
have a positive impact on nursing professionals, and how these factors might help retain
nursing staff. The present effort analyzed qualitative data to identify workplace factors that
nursing staff (primarily certified nursing assistants, licensed practical nurses and registered
nurses, along with some occupational and physical therapists) perceived to impact their health
positively in long-term care facilities.
Method: Nursing staff (N=557) in 13 long-term care facilities in the Northeast were surveyed
prior to a workplace intervention. Open-ended questions were used to gather information on
workplace factors perceived to have positive and/or negative effects on employees’ health.
The positive aspects were obtained in response to the following survey items: “If you think
there is something about your job or workplace that has a good effect on your health, what is
it about your job or workplace that deserves credit?” (Part A) followed up by “What is the good
effect on your health?” (Part B). A set of themes was developed for each item after reading
through all responses. Surveys were divided between two coders who worked independently,
and themes appearing in each survey response were then tallied. A total of 637 instances of
themes were found. No single response had more than three themes. Inter-rater reliabilities
were 91% (Part A) and 87% (Part B), both within the standard acceptable range.
Results: Interpersonal aspects of the job were most frequently cited to have positive health
effects. The importance of interpersonal relationships was reflected in Part A by the indication
of “Coworker teamwork/support” in 182 responses (29%), and “Relationship with residents” in
105 responses (16%). Example responses were “My coworkers, we all work well together and
get along very well,” reflecting the beneficial effects of coworker teamwork and support; and
“The feeling I get from the patients for counting on me in sickness and in health,” reflecting
the benefits of a close relationship with residents. Themes in Part B showed that among
nursing staff who felt their interaction with residents (patients) was good for their health, 44%
felt this gave them “Satisfaction in life.” Among nursing staff who felt that coworker support
and teamwork was beneficial to their health, the two main themes were "Reduction of stress”
(14%) and “Assisting them in keeping healthy” (11%).
Conclusion: These findings shed light on opportunities for workplace interventions to help
retain long-term care employees and provide insight on workplace factors valued by nursing
staff. Results suggest that the health of nursing staff may benefit from interventions that focus
on workplace factors which can promote effective teamwork among staff and opportunities for
meaningful interpersonal contact with residents.
285
PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL
METHODS DIAGNOSTICS OF MODERN OFFICE
WORKERS’ WORK-RELATED STRESS
RUBTSOV, M.
RAMS Institute of Occupational Health, Moscow, Russian Federation
Background & Objective: According to Global plan of action on workers’ health 2008-2017
all workers should be able to enjoy the highest attainable standard of physical and mental
health and favourable working conditions. In this connection the special attention is given
preventive maintenance professional and is industrial the caused diseases, including caused by
the stress leading to crises, depressions, to cardiovascular diseases, muscular-skeletal both
other physical and mental infringements. Occupational stress can lead to strained, and
frequently also to overstrained organism functional state of the leading stubborn psychological
state that can be shown at physiological level, including at workers of modern offices. As is
known, health of workers of brainwork-strained in many respects is defined by their
psychological status caused, first of all, by nervously-emotional loadings during work. With a
view of search of psycho-physiological parameters reflecting relationship between
psychological status, of cardiovascular system state and intensity of brainwork, it has been
carried out the analyses of the these systems basic parameters at workers of modern
technical company office (with reception of the informed consent).
Method: Investigation group consists of 72 persons, 52 men and 20 women, middle age was
32.7±1.4 years, the average experience of work 11.9±1.3 years (men – 31.7+1.4 and
10.8±1.3; women 34.4±3.0 and 14.0±2.7, accordingly). The estimation of work intensity was
carried out under principles developed in RAMS Institute of Occupational Health and standard
in the Russian Federation by intellectual, touch, emotional loadings, degree of monotony
and operating mode. The estimation of cardiovascular system
state was carried out by
measurements of changes of heat rate, blood pressure and calculation of
integrated
parameter - an index of functional changes (IFC) under R. Baevski. The analyses of
psychological state was spent by evaluation of burnout parameters (strength, resistance and
exhaustion), psychological non-adaptation questionnaire, scales of asthenic state, scale of
Zung depression, MMPI questionnaire , life quality evaluation (SF-36 HEALTH STATUS
SURVEY), situational and personal uneasiness by C.Spilberger method. The informative
parameters reflecting brainwork degree are determined: scales of asthenic state and Zung
depression, the situational uneasiness, separate parameters psychological non-adaptation,
operative memory on numbers, parameters of cardiovascular system state. Burnout test,
used for quantitative evaluation of psychological status under various degree of brainwork
intensity, has shown its high informative ability, especially by psychological processes strength
parameter.
Results: Presence of statistical significant positive correlation of IFC changes with burnout
strength parameter, as in group a whole (r=0.40; p≤0.01), and in men subgroup (r = 0.35;
p≤0.05); and insignificant negative correlation between IFC
and resistance burnout
parameter in women subgroup (r =-0,27). Use of the burnout test for quantitative evaluation
of psychological status alongside with application of method of cardiovascular system
functional changes index definition and intensity of work estimation allows to analyses
adequately functional state under brainwork-strained at workers of modern offices.
286
JOB INSECURITY AS A COLLECTIVE
PHENOMENON: JOB INSECURITY CLIMATE. A
STUDY OF ITS ANTECEDENTS
SORA, B.1, CABALLER, A.2 & PEIRÓ, J.2
1
Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Spain
2
University of Valencia, Spain
An important amount of literature about job insecurity has been developed during the last
decades (Sverke, Hellgren & Näswall, 2002). The majority of this literature has adopted an
individual-analysis approach without taking into consideration social context. However, several
authors have implicitly assumed that a job insecurity context existed in organizations where
layoffs had been produced (ej. Brockner et al., 1994; Brockner, Wiesenfel & Martin, 1995). In
this view, a new multilevel perspective on research of job insecurity has emerged. It suggests
that job insecurity must be conceptualized at several levels given that job insecurity is not
only an individual phenomenon but also a collective phenomenon. Concretely, this collective
conceptualization of job insecurity has been named job insecurity climate. However, the scarce
bunch of works that have studied job insecurity climate has mainly examined its consequences
for employees and organizations. Consequently, the antecedents of this collective stressor
have been left out. Indeed, we are not aware of any study that has investigated the possible
determinants of job insecurity climate. Thus, the aim of the present study is to analyze the
possible factors that determine job insecurity climate. In particular, organizational size, type of
organization (private versus public), organizational consensus and sector were examined. The
sample was composed by 650 employees, which were assembled into 29 Spanish
organizations from three different sectors (ej: retail, food and education). The results showed
that job insecurity climate was significantly determined by type of organization, organizational
consensus and sector. Indeed, education sector is negatively related to job insecurity climate
and organizational consensus, whereas it is positively related to type of organization. In
conclusion, job insecurity climate is lower in public organizations than private ones, and
especially in the education sector compared to other Spanish sectors. Finally, low
organizational consensus also seems to improve low job insecurity climate.
287
THE DIFFERENT CONCEPTUALIZATIONS OF JOB
INSECURITY AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON
EMPLOYEES’ BEHAVIORS AND ATTITUDES
SORA, B.1, CABALLER, A.2 & PEIRÓ, J.2
1
Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Spain
2
University of Valencia, Spain
Job insecurity has been identified as one of the most important stressors in current worklife.
From a general perspective, this stressor has been understood as the threat of unemployment
with a wide range of detrimental consequences for employees. Nevertheless, job insecurity
has been conceptualized in several ways in the literature. It has been defined both as an
objective and subjective phenomenon. The objective job insecurity refers to secure
expectative about imminent job loss, such as temporary contracts; whereas the subjective
conceptualization defends that job insecurity perception differs between employees even if
they are exposed to the same situation. The majority of research has adopted a quantitative
subjective definition compared to the new approach oriented to qualitative job insecurity. The
quantitative perspective reflects the concern about the possible job loss, whereas the
qualitative one refers to perceived threat of impaired quality in the employment relationship.
Although the general assumption points out that job insecurity affects employees’ behaviors
and attitudes, there seems to be a lack of data concerning if all these types of job insecurity
have the same effects. Hence, the aim of this study is to examine if the different types of job
insecurity influence employees’ behaviors and attitudes in the same way. The sample includes
370 employees from various Spanish sectors. The results show that quantitative job insecurity
influence a wider range of employees’ negative behaviors (e.g. organizational deviance,
perceived performance and intention to leave the organization) compared to qualitative or
objective job insecurity. However, regarding employees’ attitudes, the results indicate that
both quantitative and qualitative job insecurity negatively influences job satisfaction,
organizational commitment and life satisfaction, whereas objective job insecurity seems not to
be so detrimental. Thus, it seems plausible to conclude that the different types of job
insecurity have different effects on employees’ behaviors and attitudes, being especially
detrimental quantitative job insecurity compared to the others.
288
EVALUATING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY
IN HONG KONG SCHOOLS
TANG, J. & COX, S.
Institute of Work, Health and Organisations, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
Background and Objectives: Research conducted recently in Hong Kong showed that 99.5%
of respondents who were teachers were suffering from work related illness (Hong Kong
Professional Teachers’ Union, 2007).
The previous focus within the literature was on
establishing the need to adopt a risk management approach and produce guidance and
legislation to improve health and safety at work (Cox et al., 2000). This is not enough in itself
though. There is also a need to implement and evaluate this policy effectively. This is not
being done very well currently, thus the current study seeks to review the occupational safety
and health policies and services in Hong Kong schools and the implementation of such policies.
Methods: 10 policy makers from the Hong Kong Government (Legislative Council members)
and 21 school stakeholders, who are representatives of the upper management (9 school
principals) and the middle management (12 panel head teachers) from different secondary
schools in Hong Kong were selected to participate in semi-structured interviews for this study.
These were transcribed and subjected to Framework analysis.
Results: Preliminary analysis suggests that Hong Kong policy makers, secondary school
Principals and panel head teachers responded differently in terms of understanding health and
safety issues, importance of psychosocial issues and awareness of legislation and policy.
Although most of the panel head teachers believed that health and safety was important, most
had limited knowledge of the health and safety issues, psychosocial issues and legislation and
policy. They reported receiving limited information from the government prior to the health
and safety guidelines and services.
In comparison, the school principals are more
knowledgeable, particular in terms of government legislation and local policies in schools.
Also, the majority of the school stakeholders found that the government has over emphasized
the health and safety of students and thus neglected teachers’ needs. Further barriers to the
promotion and implementation of occupational health and safety policy included the lack of
resources and awareness.
Conclusions: These findings have important implications for providing the Hong Kong
government with information on the effectiveness of implementation of occupational safety
and health policies and services. In light of these findings, future avenues for understand the
occupational safety and health outcomes in Hong Kong schools will be addressed in the next
stage of the project.
289
INCIDENCE AND PREDICTORS OF WORKPLACE
VIOLENCE AND AGGRESSION
TEED, M.1, KELLOWAY, E.K.1 & BARLING, J.2
1
Saint Mary’s University, Canada
2
Queen’s University, Canada
Objective: Research suggests that rates of workplace aggression are significantly higher than
rates of workplace violence; and that the prevalence of both violence and aggression may vary
according to the relationship between the perpetrator and victim (Schat, Frone, & Kelloway,
2006). Moreover, across all sources the prevalence of physical violence is very low and some
forms of violence (e.g., violence from coworkers and supervisors) may be undetectable in
small to moderate sized samples (e.g., LeBlanc & Kelloway, 2002). As a result, it is not
possible to examine the question of differential prediction across sources. The objective of this
paper is to examine prevalence and predictors of workplace violence and aggression
perpetrated by both organizational insiders
(e.g. co-workers and supervisors) and
organizational outsiders (e.g., clients, members of the public). To do so, we utilize data from
a large survey of federal (Canadian) government employees.
Method: The Public Employment Survey (Public Service Commission, 2002) provided data for
the current analyses. The survey was completed by 95, 010 public service employees from
across Canada. The modal age of respondents was between 40 and 49 years of age.
Approximately 25% (n = 23,062) of respondents reported holding supervisory positions at the
time of the study and 57.4% of respondents were female.
Results: As predicted, physical violence was comparatively rare with only 1590 (1.7%) of
respondents reporting being a victim. Also as anticipated respondents reported that violence
was more than twice as likely to originate with clients/members of the public than with
organizational insiders. Non-physical aggression was experienced more widely with 14.4% of
respondents (n=13,679) reporting victimization. Again, harassment was more likely from
organizational outsiders than from insiders. Logistic regressions showed that demographic
and attitudinal predictors of violence and aggression varied according to the source of the
behaviour (i.e., insider vs outsider).
Conclusion: Results from the current study support previous research (Baron & Neuman,
1998) suggesting that employees are more likely to be victims of workplace aggression than
workplace violence. Moreover, our data confirm suggestions that organizational violence and
harassment are both more likely from individuals who are not members of the organization –
these results have implications for both future research and organizational intervention.
290
THE IMPACT OF STRESS ON HEALTH-RELATED
BEHAVIOUR: THE MODERATING ROLE OF
PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT
TER HOEVEN, C.L.1 & FRANSEN, M.L.2
1 Department of Technical and Professional Communication, University of Twente, the
Netherlands
2 The Amsterdam School of Communications Research, University of Amsterdam, the
Netherlands
Objective: Previous research demonstrated that there are cross over effects of work stress
to, for instance, family life (Ford, Heinen, & Langkamer, 2007) and life satisfaction (Lee,
Hwang, Kim, & Daly, 2004). In the present studies, we argue that stress is not only related to
work outcomes and social life, but also to health-related behaviour. More specifically, we focus
on the relation between stress and food preferences. Under conditions of stress, self-control
mechanisms break down frequently. According to the self-regulation model (Baumeister,
Heatheron, & Tice, 1993), we only have a limited amount of regulation strength. Selfregulatory resource can be exhausted by demanding tasks (Vohs & Heatherton, 2000). Once
depleted, people tend to engage in compulsive buying (Vohs & Faber, 2007) and binge eating
(Baumeister & Heatheron, 1996). Obviously, the consequences for health are far-reaching.
Building on the theory of self-regulation, we propose that stressed individuals not only eat
more, but also prefer unhealthy food products over healthy food products.
Method and Results: In the first study, we examined the relationship between stress and
food preferences by measuring both participants stress level and food product attitudes. The
results demonstrated that stressed participants have a relatively more positive attitude
towards unhealthy food products in comparison with unstressed participants. To establish the
causal relation between stress and food preferences, in study 2, we conducted an experiment
in which we induced levels of stress. In addition, this study incorporated perceived social
support. It is expected, that social support has a stress declining effect (e.g., Cohen & Wills,
1985), which reduces the impact of stress on food product attitudes. As hypothesized, the
results yielded a significant main effect of stress on product preferences showing that the
stressed participants, compared to the relaxed participants, evaluated the unhealthy food
products more positively than the healthy food products. In addition, this effect was qualified
by a significant interaction between stress levels and social support satisfaction; the effect of
stress on product preference appeared more pronounced for participants who are unsatisfied
with the social support they receive.
Conclusions: The findings of the present studies show that being stressed may result in
unhealthy food preferences. Moreover, participants who perceive their social support as
satisfactory seem better in coping with stress. Stretching this point results in the provocative
notion that work-related stress may not only directly affect performance at the workplace but
also via the consequences of negative health behavior.
291
UNPAID OVERTIME, PERCEIVED JOB
CHARACTERISTICS AND BURNOUT: UNPAID
OVERTIME AS A JOB MOTIVATION AND
BURNOUT NEUTRALITY FACTOR
TSENG, F-T.
Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan
Objective: The relationship of working hours and stress has been discussed in a long time.
This study focused on the unpaid overtime, which its proportion in current working hours is
growing yet being overlooked so far. The aim of this study is to explore the mediating process
underlying the relationship between unpaid overtime hours, perceived job characteristics and
burnout.
Method: Questionnaire data from 162 boundary service workers in Taiwan telecommunication
and banking industry were analyzed. The Worklife Characteristics Scales developed by Leiter
and Maslach (2000) and The Maslsch Burnout Inventory- Human Service Survey (MBI- HSS)
developed by Maslach and Jackson (1981) were adopted. Data was analyzed by LISREL 7.0
software.
Conclusion: Drawing on the cognitive dissonance theory and published empirical findings, it
was hypothesized that perceived job characteristics (workload, lack of control and values
conflict) would mediate the relationship between unpaid overtime hours and burnout
(emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and diminished personal achievement), and that the
total influence of unpaid overtime on burnout would be offset by the contradictory mediating
effects. Structural equation modeling analyses showed that, after controlling for demographic
variables, unpaid overtime hours directly related to workload perception, while inversely
related to perceived lack of control and values conflict, such that neutralized the impact of
unpaid overtime hours on burnout.
Implications: These findings add to the literature on the role of working hours in the workrelated stress by showing that unpaid overtime labor donation is very likely to be the key
element for understanding the inconsistent empirical evidence for working hours on stress and
health. Job motivation and burnout neutrality of unpaid overtime donation is distinguished
from paid overtime; the later one only related to workload directly. This suggests further study
on the relationship between work time control and compensation type of time. Finally, in
terms of employee health management, the monitoring of unpaid overtime hours is suggested
to help identifying the physiologically risky worker whose job motivation remains satisfactory
and free of burnout syndrome.
292
MIDDLE MANAGEMENT IN CHANGE AND
TRANSITION; HEALTH AND WELL-BEING IN
THE INTEGRATION PROCESS
VESTLY BERGH, L.I., & BAKKE, Å.
StatoilHydro ASA, Norway
StatoilHydro has carried out the largest company merger in the Nordic history. As the two
companies have strong profiles within health, safety and environment, there are high
expectations for the completion of the merger in relation to taking care of people during this
process. Mergers have become of considerable interest o researchers as the business
community has increased its merger activity. Looking at research literature, we see that
organizations don’t have adequate focus on the people in these processes. To be able to get
good and profitable transition processes, we need insight into psychological reactions to
change.
Recent literature emphasises the key role middle management plays in implementing planned
change and points to middle management, rather than the traditional focus on top
management, as a critical success factor for attaining positive results from change (Balogun,
2003; Huy, 2001; Mantere, 2007). Huy (2001) found that middle managers take on the role of
the entrepreneur; the communicator; the therapist; and the tightrope-artist. As part of
targeted efforts related to health and well-being during the integration process at
StatoilHydro, middle managers have been offered training on how to prevent and handle
health-related consequences in change and transition processes. This is expected to improve
their ability to undertake personal change, helping others through change, keeping the
business going, and implementing change into departments.
The initiative is carried out at a corporate level involving all middle managers in the company.
Leaders with personnel responsibility are offered a 3,5 hour workshop that is divided into one
theoretical part and one practical part. The practical part is weighted high because leaders are
challenged in dialogue with the facilitator and other participants. The goal is to strengthen the
middle manager’s role in practical skills, to make them able to initiate actions needed to
promote health, well being and a good working environment. The group exercises that are
used in the practical part are solution oriented and have a positive outlook. Leaders can
participate as individuals or join as part of their leader group. So far, 400 middle managers
have completed the workshop. The feedback from the workshops was very relevant and
useful, where dialog and exchange of experience between leaders was especially valuable.
Experiences collected in the workshops will be a contribution to the 3 year long research
program on the merger process in StatoilHydro. The overall aim of this programme is to
provide high-quality, research-based knowledge on the merger and acquisition process in
StatoilHydro. The research programme has a specific learning perspective with flexible use of
knowledge collected through participation and dialogue.
The workshop will continue during 2008. In the continuation of the program StatoilHydro will
look into the possibility of making the workshops a standardized program of the company’s
internal Health, Safety and Environment School. Employing a systematic view regarding
training middle managers in the field of psychosocial working environment may improve
employee well-being through the creation of meaningful jobs. In the pursuit of becoming
industrial leading within Occupational Health the training of managers represents one
important element towards success.
293
INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS
OF EMPLOYEES’ WELL-BEING: A COMPARATIVE
STUDY
VIRGA, D., SULEA, C. & ZABORILA, C.
West University, Timisoara, Romania
Objectives: Our research aims at identifying the differences between employees’ perceptions
from two different organizations (state vs. private) regarding the well-being organizational and
individual factors and also the level of perception concerning job-related well-being, on the
basis on a predictive model that we have designed.
Methods: The study was developed in two organizations, one being a public institution (92
employees) and one prom the private sector (64 employees). The subjects that we have
investigated have a mean of age of 35 (for the first organization), respectively and 33 for the
second one. The study was conducted using an eclectic questionnaire, based on well-known
instruments along with newly constructed instruments (for counterproductive climate and
emotional responses).
Results: We have conducted t significance test for the differences between independent
samples and we have obtained significant values related to well-being (t=2,50, p=.01),
interpersonal organizational justice (t=4,099, p= .000), job satisfaction (t= 2,27, p= .02),
role ambiguity (t= - 2,77, p= .006), and also several form of counterproductive behaviours
and emotional responses.
Conclusions: The conclusion of the study reveals the idea that the organizational
environment generates significant differences in employees’ well-being perception and the
individual and organizational factors that determine this perception. Thus, the improvement
strategies for well-being should be individualized at the organizational level, taking into
consideration its characteristics.
294
AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF THE FACTORS
THAT LEAD TO BURNOUT IN “HOBBY-JOBS”
VOLPONE, S.D., PERRY, S.J., & RUBINO, C.
University of Houston, U.S.A.
Objectives: A growing trend toward self-employment suggests that more people are
transitioning a passion, often a hobby, into a business. A significant risk of making such a
career move is the occurrence of burnout. A number of negative outcomes have been linked
with burnout, including decreased performance, satisfaction, commitment, and increased
turnover. We report here on an exploratory study designed to uncover potential factors that
accompany the high demands of self-employment, specifically, hobby-jobs, and lead to
burnout.
Methods: Respondents (N=271) completed an online survey. They were self-employed and
perceived a high level of autonomy. For 41 percent, this business was their full-time, primary
job and 38 percent had gone through a major career change to start this business. Average
tenure in the hobby-job was 7 years.
Results: In hierarchical regression analyses, the first model, which included personality
characteristics as predictors, accounted for 20% of the variance in burnout. The main effects
of neuroticism, conscientiousness, and perceived stress were significantly associated with
burnout (β = .14, -.14, .22, respectively). In Step 2, we added job characteristics as
predictors. In this full model, task variety and constraints were the only significant predictors
(β = -.21 and .24, respectively). None of the hobby-job-specific predictors reached
significance. The change in R2 for this second model was .09. In Step 3, an exploratory step
testing a variety of person-job interactions, one significant interaction emerged; that between
neuroticism and constraints. The change in R2 for this third model was .02 (from R2 = .29 to
.31), a mid-range moderator effect size.
Conclusions: We found that job variety, job constraints, and the interaction between
neuroticism and constraints were significant predictors of burnout. We contribute to the
literature on burnout and entrepreneurship by showing that hobby-jobs are similar to regular
jobs in terms of the factors that cause burnout. Not only should jobs include enough variety to
foster motivation and continued passion about the business, but constraints should be
anticipated and addressed rationally to avoid burnout. Furthermore, organizations are
concerned with preventing burnout to avoid these extra costs in their workforce, but selfemployed workers in hobby-jobs have broader concerns. They must avoid burnout so they can
sustain their livelihood, their business.
295
SIMILARITY AND SICKNESS ABSENCE: THE
IMPACT OF SUPERVISOR AND SUBORDINATE
SEX
VOLPONE, S.D.1, RUBINO, C.1, AVERY, D.R.1, MCKAY, P.F.,
WILSON, D.C. 3
2
&
1
2
University of Houston, U.S.A.
Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, U.S.A.
3
University of Delaware, U.S.A.
Objectives: Employees often find themselves working with supervisors and co-workers of the
same sex. This occurs largely because organizations often discriminate against women and
place them disproportionately in less desirable positions, and employees may find similarity
comforting. It is, therefore, logical to question the impact of sex similarity in an employee’s
work group. Almost no research has investigated the effects of workplace sex similarity on
health outcomes. Here, we hypothesize that supervisor-subordinate sex similarity relates to
sickness absence, but differently for men and women. Sickness absence is of interest because
our field has begun to explore the effects of similarity on the employee’s health.
Methods: The current study examined the association between supervisor-subordinate sex
similarity and sickness absence using a national survey conducted by the Gallup Organization
in 2006 (N=963; 48% male). Using random digit dialing, interviewers contacted participants,
who worked in a variety of industries, by phone. Most (66%) participants reported having a
supervisor of the same sex.
Results: We performed a between subjects ANCOVA to test our hypothesis. After controlling
for demographic variables and accounting for the main effect of sex similarity, the sex
similarity x sex interaction accounted for significant incremental variance in sickness absence
[F(1, 9) = 9.61, p < .01, 2 = .01]. Follow up sub-group analyses indicated that the effect of
sex similarity was negative for men ( = -.10, p < .05, R2 = .01) and positive for women
(
= .09, p < .05,
R2 = .01). Thus, men and women were out sick more often when
supervised by women.
Conclusions: As hypothesized, and in contrast with the relational demography and similarityattraction paradigms, there was an asymmetrical effect of supervisor-subordinate sex
similarity on sickness absence. The results suggest men with female supervisors are more
likely to have a higher number of absences attributed to sickness than men with male
supervisors. Additionally, women with male supervisors report much lower absences attributed
to sickness than women with female supervisors. Thus, sex similarity has opposite and
offsetting effects on men and women. These results have bottom line implications for
organizations. If pairing people of particular sexes into workgroups creates a dynamic where
subordinates of a certain sex are more comfortable using (or possibly abusing) their sick days,
then it is in the organization’s power to investigate the supervisor-subordinate dynamics in
their company.
296
WHAT DOES BURNOUT PREDICT? NOT
TURNOVER: THE INFLUENCE OF BURNOUT ON
ORGANIZATIONAL ATTITUDES
WEINHARDT, J. & GRIFFETH, R.
Ohio University, U.S.A.
Objectives: Organizational burnout is costly for both individuals and organizations.
Researchers have attributed turnover and declines in organizational attitudes to burnout
(Leiter & Maslach, 1988; Cordes & Dougherty, 1993). In this study, we sought to investigate
the influence of burnout on turnover. In addition, we investigated the relationship between
burnout and organizational attitudes such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and
co-worker and supervisor satisfaction. Finally, we investigated the influence Theory X
Management has on organizational attitudes and on burnout.
Methods: From a hospital in a large Midwestern city, we surveyed approximately 1,100
registered nurses. The surveys were administered online via the hospitals extensive computer
network, promising confidentiality. Measures: Job satisfaction. We used Spector’s (1985) Job
Satisfaction Survey (JSS), measuring nine facets of job satisfaction: pay, promotion,
supervision, benefits, merit incentives, operating conditions, coworkers, nature of work and
communication with 36 items. Burnout. Maslach and Jackson (1981)’s scale of burnout was
used. The three subscales are emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal
accomplishment. Organizational commitment. Using a 7-point disagree-agreement scale,
respondents described commitment with the abbreviated 9-item version of Porter, Steers,
Mowday, and Boulian’s (1974) measure, which excluded turnover cognitions (Bozeman &
Perrewé, 2001). Employment opportunity index (EOI). We used the ease-of-leaving,
networking, and mobility subscales, desirability-of-movement and crystallization-ofalternatives from Griffeth et al.’s (2005) EOI scale. Theory X Management. Theory X
Management was derived from a factor analysis of the turnover events and shocks scale
(TESS; Griffeth, Hom, Allen, Morse, & Weinhardt, 2008). This scale measures events that
prompt individuals to think about leaving their current employer. Theory X Management
represents events such as “bad decisions by upper management”. Personality Measures. Two
dimensions of the Big 5 Personality Scale, neuroticism and conscientiousness (IPIP items from
Lewis R. Goldberg HTTP://IPIP.ORI.ORG/)
Results: Multiple regression and correlational analyses were used to investigate the study’s
objectives. Using multiple regression we found that burnout was unrelated to turnover, (F(3,956)
= .461, p > .05). Burnout is significantly negatively related to job satisfaction, even after
controlling for overall satisfaction ((b = -.393), F (2, 964) = 327.161, p< .001, R2 = .40, pr=.38). In addition burnout is significantly negatively related to coworker satisfaction, controlling
for job satisfaction ((b = -.305), F (2, 964) = 153.35, p< .001, R2 = .241, pr=-.22).Supervisor
satisfaction was also negatively related to burnout ((b = -.298), F (2, 964) = 68.076, p< .001,
R2 = .124, pr=-.157). Organizational commitment was significantly negatively related to
burnout, even after controlling for job satisfaction, ((b = -.267), F (2, 964) = 164.09, p< .001,
R2 = .26, pr=-.19). Conscientiousness was unrelated to burnout (R=.011, p> .05).
Neuroticism is weakly related to burnout (R2 = .005, p< .05).Theory X Management was
significantly positively related to burnout, even after controlling for job satisfaction, ((b =
.442), F (2, 958) = 133.568, p< .001, R2 = .218, pr= .324).
Conclusion: The results of this study show support for a majority of our proposed
hypotheses. However, we did not find a significant relationship between burnout and employee
turnover.
Our data consistently indicate significant relationships between burnout and
organizational attitudes and Theory X management.
297
PERCEIVED STRESS IS REDUCED BY GROUPBASED STRESS MANAGEMENT INTERVENTION:
A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
WILLERT, M., THULSTRUP, A. & BONDE, J.
Department of Occupational Medicine, University Hospital of Aarhus, Denmark
Background: The work of 150.000 employees is lost every year in Denmark due to sickness
absence. Claims for acknowledgement of work-related injuries on grounds of psychosocial
work conditions, have risen from a few hundred to now almost 3000 per year. It is believed
that a passive strategy of extended sick-leave for work-related stress conditions, constitutes a
risk factor for sustaining passive coping strategies, as well as increased risk of early
withdrawal from the work force. At present there are few activating means of intervention for
work-related stress in the danish public health service.
Objective: To examine whether an activating intervention founded on the principles of
cognitive therapy can reduce perceived stress.
Methods: 102 patients with symptoms of work-related stress were included in a waiting-list
control design. 51 patients were randomly allocated to receive the intervention and the
remains acted as controls, while being on a waiting-list. As an attempt to neutralize dropout,
the control subjects were offered an intervention similar to the one the intervention group
received, after their stay on the waiting-list. The intervention consisted of 8 three-hour group
sessions over a period of 3 months. The outcome was measured at baseline and post-trial on a
variety of questionnaires, among them the Perceived Stress Scale, 10-item version (PSS-10)
(Cohen & Williamson, 1988). A repeated measures analysis of PSS-10 scores was performed.
The differences between baseline and post-trial scores for the two groups were analyzed with
the students t-test. Furthermore the post-trial differences between the two groups were
analyzed with the students t-test. Estimates are reported with 95% confidence intervals.
Results: The mean score on the PSS-10 at baseline was 25.8(24.8; 26.9) points. This score
was comparable between the intervention group and the waiting-list control group. From
baseline to post-trial a decrease of 6.4(4.5; 8.4) points on the PSS-10 was found for the
intervention group, compared to a decrease of 1.0(-.8; 2.8) points in the waiting-list control
group. The difference of 5.4 (2.8; 8.1) points between the two groups was found to be
statistically significant (p<.001). Post-trial the intervention group had a mean score of 19.9
(18.1; 21.6) points, compared to the mean of the waiting-list control group of 24.0 (22.2;
25.9) points. This difference of 4.1 (1.6; 6.7) points was also found to be statistically
significant (p<.001). Taking the 95% confidence intervals into account the mean change for
the waiting-list control group could be either positive or negative, reflecting the possibility of
no difference from baseline to post-trial in the control group.
Conclusions: The intervention has been proven to significantly lower the score on a measure
of perceived stress experienced by the individual. An a priori threshold for a clinically
significant change from baseline to post-trial had been set at 4 points on the PSS-10 scale. For
the intervention group the mean change of 6.4(4.5; 8.4) points exceed this threshold.
298
CRYING AT WORK: AN EXAMINATION OF THE
BELIEFS AND ATTITUDES OF WOMEN
YAGHMOUR, Y.1 & KINMAN, G.2
1
2
Goldsmith’s College, United Kingdom
University of Bedfordshire, United Kingdom
Objectives: Crying at work has received attention in the popular press, but the topic has not
yet been systematically examined. This study examined women’s personal experiences of
crying at work and their attitudes towards the issue. Specifically, the situational and affective
antecedents of crying at work were examined, together with he way women cope with their
own crying episodes and those of colleagues, their attitudes towards crying at work in general
and their perceptions of the attitudes of others. The perceived impact of what might be
considered “successful” and “unsuccessful” emotion management on women’s wellbeing and
credibility at work was also assessed.
Method: Data was obtained from 57 women from a range of occupations via in-depth
interviews. Data was subjected to thematic content analysis.
Results: Four major themes and several sub-themes emerged from the data. The main
themes were: a) emotional labour and emotion management; b) power, control and injustice
where the gendered nature of tears was highlighted; c) stress and feeling overwhelmed; d)
support networks and “being allowed to cry”. Findings also revealed that crying at work was
not necessarily seen to have negative repercussions for women’s personal wellbeing and
credibility.
Conclusions: The findings of this study highlight considerable complexities in attitudes and
beliefs surrounding the subject of crying at work. Evidence is provided that crying at work is a
relevant issue, not only for the individual woman, but also for those who share her working
environment. Findings will be discussed in relation to emotion management and power
dynamics within organisations and potentially fruitful areas for future research will be
considered.
299
THE EFFECTS OF TEAMWORK ON MENTAL
WELFARE OF HOSPITAL NURSES
YAMAGUCHI, H.
Kyushu University, Japan
The present study was intended to explore the characteristics of the relationship between
teamwork qualities and mental welfare of hospital nurses. The preceding investigation into the
reasons for frequent leaving employment of hospital nurses in Japan (Yamaguchi, 2006), it
was shown that the better self evaluation on teamwork of own nursing team, the lower the
motivation to leave their employments. Although most previous studies on teamwork have
focused on the productive side of its effects, further studies should pay more attentions to
another side such as facilitating secure behaviors and preserving mental welfare of workers in
organizations. From this viewpoint, I conducted an investigation to examine the teamwork
effects on mental states of hospital nurses. Respondents were 680 nurses (male 21, female
659) working in 33 departments of big general hospitals in Japan. The questionnaire consisted
of measurement scales as follows: teamwork (team orientation, team leadership, job
clarification, monitoring, feedback, sharing information, and mutual job arrangement), job
satisfaction, morale, organizational commitment, psychological stresses for committing errors,
and evaluation on organizational systems (promotion, transfer, salary). The survey was
conducted from December 2006 through January 2007. In addition, the numbers of reported
incidents of each department of hospitals were checked during the period of this survey.
Questionnaires were delivered through the representative clerks of each department. Each
respondent answered it anonymously, then enclosed and mailed back to researcher’s office.
We could recognize the respondents’ departments because we marked the distinctive signs on
the last page of questionnaires of each department. The results showed that team orientation
and team leadership had positive correlations with job satisfaction, morale, and organizational
commitment. Behavioral elements of teamwork such as monitoring, and feedback, mutual job
arrangement had negative correlation with psychological stresses though their coefficients
were not high enough. It also revealed that departments which the members evaluated their
teamwork better reported less incidents. Nursing professionals think generally that excellent
nursing teams will report more incidents because they work sincerely and exchange
information honestly and openly. So the result of this study was inexplicable one for many
nursing professionals. After specific examination, it was explicated that the reason for less
incidents in better teamwork departments was attributed to the less numbers of the least
crucial incident (level 1). Reported numbers of incidents of other levels were not different
among departments. In the departments of well-evaluated teamwork, mostly minor incidents
were dealt with rightly at incipient stage. Then they felt no need to make reports about such
inconsiderable incidents. The results implies that nurturing better teamwork will help
facilitating secure nursing behaviors and preserving mental welfare of nurses. Further
examinations of teamwork effects on accuracy of nursing behaviors and mental health of
nurses are needed. Development of effective strategies for building excellent teamwork is also
important and urgent task for nursing organizations.
300
SPANISH
ABSTRACTS
301
LA ADMINISTRACION DEL CONFLICTO EN LAS
ORGANIZACIONES Y SU EFECTO EN LA SALUD
ACOSTA, M., AGUILERA, M.A. & POZOS, E.
Universidad de Guadalajara, México
Objetivos: Identificar al estilo interpersonal en el manejo de conflictos como factor protector
contra el acoso psicológico en el trabajo.
Métodos: Se realizó una investigación documental sobre la administración y el manejo del
conflicto en las organizaciones, los modelos teóricos más influyentes y los instrumentos de
medida más frecuentemente utilizados, los estilos interpersonales para el manejo de conflictos
y sobre las implicaciones que puede acarrear a las organizaciones y la salud mental de los
trabajadores la adecuada o inadecuada administración del conflicto.
Resultados: La administración del conflicto para Rahim (2002) presupone el diseño de una
serie de estrategias efectivas tendientes a minimizar el funcionamiento inadecuado y al
impulso de los aspectos favorables del conflicto con la finalidad de promover el aprendizaje y
la eficiencia al interior de la organización. Rahim y Bonoma (1979) establecen que existen dos
diferentes orientaciones en el manejo de conflictos: la orientada al individuo y la orientada a
los otros y cinco diferentes estilos interpersonales. El integrar, complacer, comprometer,
dominar y evitar. Investigaciones empíricas han demostrado una correlación favorable cuando
se utilizan los estilos orientados a la cooperación como integrar, complacer y comprometer y,
por el contrario, una correlación desfavorable cuando se utilizan los estilos orientados a la
dominación como evitar y dominar. Shelton (1999) afirmó que la evaluación de los estilos de
comportamiento utilizados por un sujeto permite saber la vulnerabilidad de éste ante
situaciones de estrés prolongado y que pudieran derivar en el síndrome del quemarse por el
trabajo. Zapf (1999) aportó evidencia empírica al relacionar el estilo interpersonal para el
manejo de conflictos y el acoso psicológico en el trabajo. Concluyó que entre menos asertiva
fue la forma en la que las personas enfrentaron un conflicto, más efectos desfavorables les
significó en su salud.
Conclusión: Los conflictos en las organizaciones no sólo son desacuerdos sobre la manera en
cómo ha de realizarse un tarea. Sino que también puede advertirse un sustrato de origen
afectivo. La administración del conflicto presupone el diseño de una serie de estrategias
efectivas tendientes a minimizar el funcionamiento inadecuado y al impulso de los aspectos
favorables del conflicto con la finalidad de promover el aprendizaje y la eficiencia al interior de
la organización. Los estilos interpersonales para el manejo de conflictos orientados a la
cooperación (integrar, complacer y comprometer) pueden tener un efecto protector para quien
los use en contra del acoso psicológico en el trabajo. Por el contrario, los estilos orientados
hacia la dominación se pueden constituir en un factor predisponente y/o precipitante para
sufrir de acoso psicológico en el trabajo. El entrenamiento en el estilo interpersonal para el
manejo de conflictos puede convertirse en una estrategia saludable para la administración del
conflicto en las organizaciones.
302
CONDICIONES DE TRABAJO Y SALUD EN
PROFESORES: EL PAPEL DEL BIENESTAR
PSICOLÓGICO
ADELL, M. A., ESTREDER, Y., LATORRE, M. F. & RAMOS, J.
Universitat de València, España
La salud laboral de los agentes del mundo del trabajo, aparece como una de las
preocupaciones más asumidas por parte del colectivo empresarial y las administraciones. Al
respecto y entre las medidas tomadas por las administraciones y las empresas, no hay que
olvidar las que afectan al equilibrio psicológico de los trabajadores y a la estabilidad afectiva y
relacional de su entorno laboral. Justamente hay algunos antecedentes, desde Atkinson
(1964) a Goleman (2000), en el sentido de que las capacidades emocionales dificultan o
favorecen nuestra actividad cognitiva, relacional y laboral. Específicamente, el modelo
demanda-control (Karasek, 1979) describe y analiza las situaciones laborales considerando las
características psicosociales del entorno de trabajo y su influencia sobre la salud-enfermedad
de los trabajadores. Uno de los principales supuestos de este modelo, es el que considera que
las características del trabajo influyen en el bienestar de los trabajadores (De Lange, Taris,
Kompier, Houtman, & Bongers, 2003; Van der Doef & Maes, 1999).
Objetivos: El presente estudio examina los efectos del trabajo en la salud de los profesores,
considerando la influencia de los niveles de autonomía en la realización de su actividad y su
relación con la satisfacción laboral (bienestar psicológico) que de ella se deriva.
Métodos: Participantes: la muestra está formada por 279 profesionales de la enseñanza, de
un total de diecinueve centros. De ellos, 164 son mujeres (59.4%) y 112 son hombres
(40.6%). Su edad oscila entre 21 y 65 años, siendo la media de 39.15 y la desviación típica de
10.45. Respecto al tiempo que llevan trabajando en el centro, el rango va desde los 0 hasta
los 48 años, y la mediana se sitúa en 7 años de antigüedad.
Variables: Variables control: edad, sexo y antigüedad en el centro; Autonomía para influenciar
en las decisiones en el trabajo; Satisfacción laboral del profesor/a con la tarea docente que
realiza; Percepción del estado general de salud del docente. Análisis de datos: regresión
múltiple, siguiendo el modelo jerárquico por bloques.
Resultados: Una vez controlado el efecto de las variables sociodemográficas, encontramos
que los más mayores son los que perciben que su salud es mejor (ß=-.27*). La relación entre
autonomía en el trabajo y salud laboral es positiva. Además, cuando incluimos la satisfacción
laboral en el modelo, el efecto de la autonomía sobre la salud se reduce, manteniéndose
significativa e indicando por tanto una relación de mediación parcial.
Conclusiones: Los factores psicosociales, en concreto la autonomía en el trabajo, afectan a la
salud de los docentes a través de la satisfacción laboral (bienestar psicológico) que se deriva
de contar con esta capacidad de decidir en la actividad a desarrollar. Así pues, la componente
afectiva del trabajo, en forma de bienestar psicológico, parece jugar un papel consistente en la
salud laboral.
303
ESTRÉS ASOCIADO A FACTORES
PSICOSOCIALES EN EL TRABAJO EN
PERSONAL DE ENFERMERÍA DE TERCER NIVEL
DE ATENCIÓN DEL INSTITUTO MEXICANO DEL
SEGURO SOCIAL
COLUNGA, C.1, ENRÍQUEZ, C. B.2, GONZÁLEZ, M. A.3, DOMÍNGUEZ, R.3,
PRECIADO, M. L.1 & SANTES, M. C.2
Universidad de Guadalajara, México 1
Universidad Veracruzana, México 2
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México
3
Objetivo: Analizar la sintomatología de estrés y su asociación con factores psicosociales en el
trabajo en personal de enfermería de tercer nivel de atención.
Métodos: Con diseño trasversal analítico, estimamos una muestra de 218 enfermeras del
Hospital de Pediatría del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social en Guadalajara, México. Se
incluyó a todas las categorías, servicios y turnos, quienes no tuvieran diagnóstico de
psicopatología o utilizaran psicofármacos; se aplicó la escala Seppo Aro para sintomatología de
estrés, con alfa de cronbach de 0.83, tipo autoinforme, correspondiente a síntomas
psicosomáticos, emocionales o conativos; y la escala de factores psicosociales en el trabajo,
que evalúa 7 dimensiones relacionadas con condiciones, carga, contenido, exigencia,
desarrollo, interacción y remuneración en el trabajo, con alfa de 0.88; agregamos datos
sociodemográficos y laborales, aplicando estadística descriptiva y Chi cuadrado, considerando
significativa una p<0.05.
Resultados: Sexo 95% femenino, edad promedio 37+8 años, estado civil casados con 55%,
solteros 30%, separados o divorciados 8%, viudos 1% y madres solteras 6%; la categoría se
distribuyó en auxiliares de enfermería 17%, enfermera general 54%, especialista 18% y jefe
de piso 11%; los turnos fueron 35% matutino, 30% vespertino, 35% nocturno. La frecuencia
de estrés, se encontró en 24%. El estrés no se asoció con ninguno de los factores
sociodemográficos, ni laborales (p>0.05), no obstante, 5 de las 7 dimensiones de factores
psicosociales, asociaron significativamente con estrés (p<0.05), exigencias laborales y
remuneración no mostraron asociación (p>0.05). Condiciones de trabajo y exigencia de la
tarea, fueron las peor calificadas con 57% y 80% inadecuados, respectivamente. La
calificación total para factores psicosociales, fue inadecuada en 37%; 63% las considera
buenas.
Conclusiones: La frecuencia de estrés relacionada a factores psicosociales en el trabajo,
sugiere la necesidad de estrategias para disminuirlo, enfocándose a las condiciones del trabajo
enfermero y a la exigencia de la tarea.
304
REGISTRO Y DIARIO MOBB: UNA
HERRAMIENTA DE DIAGNÓSTICO PRECOZ
DEL MOBBING
FIDALGO, M.1, GARCÍA, M.2, GALLEGO, Y.3, PÉREZ, G.4, FERRER, R.5 &
NOGAREDA, C.1
INSHT, España 1
Departament de Salut 2
MCMutual 3
MCPrevención 4
Universidad de Barcelona
5
Objetivos: La identificación y valoración de las situaciones de “mobbing” en el entorno laboral
se presenta como un problema para los profesionales ya que no suele tratarse desde el
enfoque de “factor de riesgo” sino que se considera el problema cuando ya se ha manifestado
y, generalmente, ha tenido consecuencias, ya sea sobre la salud de las personas ya sea sobre
la propia organización. Por ello el grupo de trabajo se propuso como objetivo la elaboración de
una herramienta que facilitara la detección precoz de los casos y permitiera detectar los
factores de riesgo organizativo y las consecuencias individuales de forma diferenciada.
Métodos: Para la definición del concepto de “mobbing” y para el diseño de las herramientas,
objeto final de este grupo de trabajo, la metodología se ha basado en la revisión documental y
la discusión de grupo.
Resultados: Después de una revisión exhaustiva de las herramientas disponibles, y a través
de una discusión conceptual del término se ha llegado a una definición técnica común, desde
una perspectiva de prevención de riesgos laborales y que sirva de punto de partida para las
tareas posteriores. A partir de esta definición conceptual se están diseñando tres
herramientas: Un modelo de autorregistro de incidentes, que ayude a los trabajadores a
recoger de manera sistematizada las posibles conductas de acoso dirigidas hacia ellos y las
pautas de actuación a seguir. Una guía dirigida a proporcionar a los técnicos la información
necesaria para la identificación inicial de posibles situaciones de acoso y su valoración como
factor de riesgo en el trabajo. Un registro de percepciones, síntomas y conductas adoptadas
para el seguimiento y vigilancia de la salud de las personas posiblemente afectadas.
305
PROPIEDADES PSICOMETRICAS DE LA
ADAPTACION PORTUGUESA DEL
“CUESTIONARIO PARA LA EVALUACION DEL
SINDROME QUEMARSE POR EL TRABAJO
(CESQT)”: UN ESTUDIO TRANSCULTURAL
FIGUIEREDO, H., MEDEIROS, Y. & GIL-MONTE, P. R.
Universidad de Valencia, España
Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio es explorar la estructura factorial y la consistencia
interna de la adaptación al portugués del “Cuestionario para la Evaluación del Síndrome de
Quemarse por el Trabajo” CESQT (Gil-Monte, 2005).
Métodos: La muestra estuvo formada por 349 docentes, 138 profesores universitarios de dos
universidades de Brasil, y 211 maestros de educación primaria y secundaria de Portugal. El
instrumento para la evaluación del síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo (SQT) fue el CESQT,
versión profesionales de las educación. Se realizó un análisis factorial exploratoria mediante
Componentes Principales y rotación Varimax ajustándose a 4 la extracción de los factores.
Resultados: La solución para la muestra total reprodujo la distribución de los ítems de la
versión original explicando el 55,82 % de la varaianza, con los items cargando por encima de
.40 en el factor al que pertenecían y por debajo de .30 en los restantes factores: en el primer
factor quedaron agrupados los ítems de la subescala Ilusión por el Trabajo (17,44 % de la
varianza), en el segundo los ítems de la subescala Indolencia (13,42 % de la varianza), los
ítems de la subescala Culpa se agruparon en el tercer factor (12,95 % de la varianza), y por
ultimo, los pertenecientes a la subescala Desgaste psíquico se agruparon en el cuatro factor
(12,02% de la varianza). Los resultados también fueron adecuados en función del país
(Brasil, 51,84 % vs. Portugal 57,45 % de la varianza) y del género (hombres 55,49 % vs.
mujeres 56,94 % de la varianza) de los participantes. Las cuatro subescalas del CESQT
alcanzaron valores alfa de Cronbach superiores a .70, para la muestra total: Ilusión por el
trabajo, alfa = .87; Desgaste psíquico, alfa = .79; Indolencia, alfa = .72; y Culpa, alfa = .76.
Para las muestras de hombres y mujeres, y para la muestra portuguesa, los valores también
fueron superiores a .70 para todas las escalas, pero la subescala Indolencia sólo alcanzó un
valor alfa de Cronbach de .58 para la muestra brasileña.
Conclusión: De este modo podemos afirmar que la versión portuguesa del CESQT es un
instrumento valido y fiable.
306
DIAGNÓSTICO URGENTE: LA EXPERIENCIA DE
EVALUAR EL SÍNDROME DE QUEMARSE POR EL
TRABAJO (SQT) EN EL PERSONAL DE
SEGURIDAD Y CUSTODIA DEL SISTEMA
PENITENCIARIO DE JALISCO, MÉXICO
FIGUIEREDO, H.1 & VALDEZ, H.2
Universidad de Valencia, España 1
Dirección General de Prevención y Readaptación Social, México
2
Objetivo: A través de un instrumentos estandarizado y contextualizado al ámbito laboral
penitenciario (CESQT prisiones), establecer la prevalencia de los factores que conforman el
Síndrome de Quemarse por el Trabajo, para asesorar a la autoridad de la institución
penitenciaria en la atención al personal, considerar la necesidad de atenderlo y procurar la
prevención y detección de riesgos psicosociales, antes que sancionar como única alternativa
de regulación del desempeño laboral.
Métodos: Se aplicó el Cuestionario de Evaluación del Síndrome de Quemarse por el Trabajo,
desarrollado por el Dr. Pedro R. Gil – Monte, en su versión para personal de prisiones (CESQT
prisiones), a una muestra conformada de manera aleatoria, y compuesta por 628 empleados
de Seguridad y Custodia de los tres principales centros penitenciarios de Jalisco. De manera
complementaria se aplicaron escalas de evaluación de Conflictos Interpersonales, Inequidad
en los intercambios sociales, Problemas de salud, Absentismo y Valores Instrumentales.
Resultados: Si bien los puntajes referentes a Desgaste psíquico e Indolencia fueron altos en
solo el 9% y el 10% de la muestra respectivamente, encontramos que en lo referente a la
Ilusión por el trabajo, el 76.75% presentaba puntajes bajos. Con ello se obtuvo un panorama
más detallado de la prevalencia de los factores que conforman Síndrome de Quemarse por el
Trabajo. El Síndrome en su conjunto aparece en el 3.34% de las personas evaluadas, las
cuales en su mayoría son hombres (el 85.71%), con un promedio de 15 años en la institución.
Conclusiones: Independientemente de la prevalencia registrada, el ejercicio de evaluar el
SQT nos ha permitido iniciar un cambio de actitud de la autoridad penitenciaria hacia los
problemas laborales de la institución, ahora podemos hacer una distinción de esta
problemática y validar como posibilidad el implementar estrategias organizacionales para
afrontarla y considerar la atención psicológica del personal antes que una sanción o despido
para quien posiblemente esté haciendo un notable esfuerzo de adaptación a un medio laboral
particularmente hostil. Finalmente habremos de considerar una revisión en el rubro de Ilusión
por el trabajo, cuyos resultados podrían estar directamente relacionados con la sobrepoblación
penitenciaria.
307
EFECTO DE LA FALTA DE
RETROALIMENTACIÓN EN LA REALIZACIÓN
DE UNA TAREA DE RESOLUCIÓN DE
PROBLEMA Y SU RELACIÓN CON EL
SÍNDROME BURNOUT
FUENTES, E.N. & TORRES, C.
Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente (ITESO), México
En la conceptualización del Síndrome Burnout se han descrito los comportamientos que lo
conforman, sus características y las condiciones laborales que pueden producirlo. Los estudios
que se han llevado a cabo en su mayoría son estudios de campo por medio de aplicación de
instrumentos o de observaciones, no hay muchos estudios de laboratorio en donde se
controle una de las variables que influyen en el Síndrome Burnout.
Objetivo: El objetivo de la presente investigación fue hacer un estudio de laboratorio y
conocer el efecto de la falta de retroalimentación en una tarea de resolución de problema
relacionándolo con el Síndrome Burnout. Se creó una situación experimental de tolerancia a la
ambigüedad. Se midió el desempeño efectivo en una tarea de resolución de problema, en
donde se utilizó la falta de retroalimentación como variable independiente. Finalmente, se
relacionó con las características que en conjunto conforman el Síndrome Burnout.
Métodos: Participaron 6 estudiantes de licenciatura de entre 21 y 24 años de edad. Se hizo
un diseño balanceado simple con pre y post prueba con dos grupos de tres participantes cada
uno. Para la aplicación del experimento se utilizó el juego de mesa “Mente Maestra” de Birján.
El juego consistió en descifrar un código secreto compuesto por cuatro canicas de diferentes
colores (6, 4 o 2 opciones de color). Se le dijo al participante que se podían repetir los colores
y cuáles colores estaban participando. Siempre que el participante daba una respuesta había
tres condiciones de retroalimentación: a) retroalimentar respuesta con respecto a las canicas
bien ubicadas y/o con color adecuado (retroalimentación completa); b) retroalimentar
únicamente su respuesta cuando las canicas estuvieran bien ubicadas (retroalimentación
parcial); c) no retroalimentar sus respuestas (sin retroalimentación). Se registraron: a)la
duración total por ensayo (seg); b) el tiempo que tardó el participante en dar una opción de
respuesta; c) el número de opciones de respuestas que dio el participante antes de dar la
respuesta correcta por ensayo; d) el porcentaje de respuestas correctas por sesión; e) los
comentarios realizados por el participante; y d) el estado que presentaba el sujeto antes,
durante y después de la sesión (auto-referido y observado)
Resultados: Los resultados demuestran que al exponer a los participantes a una situación de
tolerancia a la ambigüedad (retirar la retroalimentación), disminuyeron sus respuestas
correctas; invirtieron más tiempo por ensayo e intraensayo para encontrar la respuesta
correcta; se presentó un aumento en los comentarios sobre la tarea, ejecución, y estado; y se
describían como cansados, desesperados, etc.
Conclusiones: Las conductas observadas tienen relación con las conductas presentadas en
las personas diagnosticadas con Síndrome Burnout. La definición y la medición se
establecieron con base en la misma categoría lógica. Por lo tanto no hay errores categoriales
ni confusión con respecto a la manera de medir el Síndrome Burnout.
308
EL PAPEL DE LA CULPA EN EL PROCESO DE
DESARROLLO DEL SINDROME DE QUEMARSE
POR EL TRABAJO Y SU RELACIÓN CON LA
DEPRESIÓN
GARCÍA-JUESAS, J.A., FIGUEIREDO, H. & GIL-MONTE, P.R.
Universidad de Valencia, España
Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio es explorar el modelo causal del desarrollo del Síndrome
de Quemarse por el Trabajo.
Métodos: La muestra estuvo formada por 349 docentes, 138 profesores universitarios de dos
universidades de Brasil, y 211 maestros de educación primaria y secundaria de Portugal, de
los cuales, 132 eran hombres y 217 eran mujeres. El instrumento para la evaluación del
síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo (SQT) fue el CESQT, versión para profesionales de la
educación, y para la evaluación de la depresión se utilizo la Autoaplicada de Depresión de
Zung (1965).
Resultados: Se realizaron análisis de regresión, y se obtuvo evidencia para el efecto
modulador de la Culpa en la relación entre la variable Ilusión por el trabajo y la Depresión (F
= .058; β = .438; Cambio en R² = .008); de la misma forma, la Culpa modula la relación
entre la variable Desgaste psíquico y la Depresión (F = .042; β = .279; Cambio en R² = .008).
Aun no siendo significativa, se obtuvieron también valores residuales cuando intentamos
comprobar si la Culpa modula la relación entre el SQT y la Depresión (F = .084; β = .269;
Cambio en R² = .006). Se obtuvieron también resultados significativos por sexo, cuando
comparamos el efecto modulador de la Culpa en las relaciones entre las variables anteriores.
De esa forma, en la relación entre Ilusión por el trabajo y Depresión, obtuvimos valores
significativos para la muestra de mujeres (F = .018; β = -.694; Cambio en R² = .022),
obtuvimos también valores significativos cuando intentamos evidenciar el efecto modulador de
la Culpa en la relación entre Desgaste psíquico y la Depresión (F = .017; β = .186; Cambio en
R² = .019), y por fin para la relación entre el SQT y Depresión (F = .0124; β = .180; Cambio
en R² = .017).
Conclusiónes: La Culpa presenta un efecto modulador en la relación entre el SQT y la
Depresión.
309
LA VIOLENCIA COMO RIESGO PSICOSOCIAL
EN PROFESIONALES SANITARIOS
GASCÓN, S.1, MARTÍNEZ-JARRETA, B.1 CASALOD, Y.1 & SANTED, M.A.2
Universidad de Zaragoza, España 1
Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, España
2
Objetivos: En los últimos años se ha producido un notable avance en el reconocimiento de los
derechos del usuario del sistema de salud, por lo que sorprende el incremento de las
conductas violentas en este medio. Aunque este fenómeno ha sido objeto de estudio en
diferentes trabajos, su verdadera dimensión es desconocida en nuestro país, debido a que las
estadísticas se basan exclusivamente en los incidentes denunciados, pero no reflejan su
auténtica magnitud. Tampoco han sido estudiadas en profundidad sus consecuencias para la
salud de los profesionales. El objetivo del estudio fue el de lograr un conocimiento preciso
sobre la violencia en el medio sanitario, su incidencia según el tipo de centro, servicio y
profesión, y sus posibles repercusiones sobre la salud.
Métodos: Participantes: 1.875 sanitarios, pertenecientes a 4 hospitales y a 22 centros de
Atención Primaria. Instrumentos: Datos demográficos, cuestionario de agresiones: descripción
de distintos tipos de agresión, respuestas desadaptativas al estrés, cuestionario MBI (Maslach
Burnout Inventory).
Resultados: Un 11% había sido víctima de agresión física durante los doce meses
precedentes. Este porcentaje fue superior en grandes hospitales (21,9%), especialmente en
Urgencias (38%) y Psiquiatría (26,9%). un 64% habían sido objeto de comportamiento
amenazante, coacciones o insultos. El hecho de haber sufrido agresión física no apareció
asociado a la sintomatología psíquica, pero sí se encontró asociación estadísticamente
significativa entre la violencia no física y ansiedad (χ 2 = 10,498; p < 0,01); síntomas de
Trastorno de Estrés Post Traumático (χ 2 = 21,053; p < 0,01); y burnout. (χ 2 = 40,065; p <
0,01);). Esta relación se confirmó mediante análisis de regresión logística. Únicamente dos de
cada diez profesionales se sentían apoyados por la administración. Se observó correlación
estadísticamente significativa y en sentido negativo entre agresiones y apoyo percibido (r = 0,338; p < 0,001). Esta variable mostró correlación inversa con la sintomatología psíquica (r
= -0,067; p < 0,05) y el burnout (r = -0,207; p< 0,001).
Conclusiones: La experiencia de haber sufrido episodios de agresión y vivir bajo la amenaza
de volver a sufrirlos es una importantísima fuente de estrés, agravada en caso de no percibir
apoyo. Sus consecuencias negativas pueden afectar al profesional y a la propia organización,
lo que redunda en perjuicio para el usuario. La relación entre sintomatología psíquica y apoyo
convierte a esta variable en estrategia imprescindible para reducir el riesgo de violencia. El
apoyo está relacionado con la infradenuncia y se considera fundamental para romper el círculo
de aislamiento en el que a veces se encuentra el profesional.
310
ESTRATEGIAS FORMATIVAS DE
AFRONTAMIENTO DEL ESTRÉS PARA
DOCENTES. ESTRESORES PERCIBIDOS E
IMPACTO EN LA SALUD
GIL-MONTE, P. R.1, MARTÍNEZ-LOSA, J. F. 2, RAMOS, M. J. 2, PAGÈS, D. 2 &
PEÑA, A.2
Universidad de Valencia, España
Audit & Control Estrés, España
1
2
Objetivo: Estudio de campo para conocer la incidencia de los riesgos psicosociales en el
sector, se identificaron antecedentes (factores) y consecuentes de estrés (síntomas e
incidencia del síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo). El Modelo formativo ESTAFOR de
intervención frente a los riesgos psicosociales en el ámbito educativo pretende dotar al
docente de estrategias para afrontar el estrés.
Métodos: La muestra del estudio han sido los docentes de Educación Primaria, Secundaria,
Bachillerato y Módulos FP de enseñanza privada de Cataluña (centros de enseñanza del
ámbito rural y urbano). La muestra utilizada es de 1.055 individuos. Se distribuyeron 1600
cuestionarios, por lo que la tasa de respuesta se sitúa en un 65.94 %. El cuestionario que se
ha usado es una prueba para estudiar el estrés y la calidad de vida laboral en los profesionales
de la educación específicamente incorpora indicadores de síndrome de quemarse por el
trabajo, autonomía, conflicto de rol, ambigüedad de rol, sobrecarga laboral, apoyo social,
conflictos interpersonales, inequidad en los intercambios sociales, retroinformación,
oportunidad de desarrollo de habilidades y oportunidad de control.
Resultados: Los resultados obtenidos indican que para los profesores de la muestra las
fuentes de estrés que se perciben con mayor frecuencia son: la falta de Equidad en los
intercambios sociales (un 25% de los maestros se consideran no reconocidos
profesionalmente), la falta de Retroinformación (55% de los trabajadores manifiestan que
nunca o raramente reciben información sobre los resultados de las tareas desarrolladas),
Sobrecarga Laboral (un 18,50% “frecuentemente” o “muy frecuentemente” percibieron
elevada). La mayor parte de los participantes en el estudio se encuentran satisfechos en
general con su trabajo. El tipo de problemas que con más frecuencia sufren los individuos de
la muestra son los problemas de tipo emocional y cognitivo, lo que confirmaría que la labor de
enseñanza implica un cansancio emocional intenso debido a que está dirigido hacia personas,
y supone una elevada implicación en los problemas de los alumnos. El 27,30% de las
ausencias en el trabajo manifestadas en los cuestionarios fueron producidas por problemas de
salud derivados del trabajo. El porcentaje de profesores que ha desarrollado el SQT con un
perfil de patología fue del 3,70%.
Conclusiones: Estos porcentajes son suficientemente elevados para considerarlos y planificar
actuaciones preventivas, puesto que como vemos es un colectivo de potencial riesgo para
desarrollar el síndrome de burnout con patología.
311
ESTRATEGIAS FORMATIVAS DE
AFRONTAMIENTO DEL ESTRÉS PARA
DOCENTES. MODELO FORMATIVO DE
COMPETENCIAS FRENTE A RIESGOS
PSICOSOCIALES EN EL ÁMBITO EDUCATIVO
GIL-MONTE, P. R.1, MARTINEZ-LOSA, J. F. 2, RAMOS, M. J. 2, PAGES, D. 2 &
PEÑA, A.2
Universidad de Valencia, España 1
Audit & Control Estrés, España 2
Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio fue desarrollar un modelo de formación en prevención de
riesgos psicosociales de carácter innovador en el ámbito educativo dirigido a los profesores,
tutores y formadores basado en el uso de acciones formativas como estrategia de intervención
(principalmente de carácter secundario y terciario) hacia el distrés.
Métodos: El procedimiento consistió en la recogida de información cualitativa y cuantitativa,
mediante la consulta de fuentes documentales (análisis de modelos de formación en
intervención de riesgos psicosociales, experiencias previas y buenas prácticas), cuestionarios
dirigidos a formadores docentes, directores de centros y jefes de estudio, grupos de discusión
con docentes, y reuniones de expertos. El punto de partida del modelo diseñado en el
proyecto lo encontramos en las bases teóricas en las cuales se sustenta: por una parte, los
resultados y conclusiones obtenidos en el trabajo de campo y por otra, la definición de un
perfil “resistente” a las situaciones estresantes.
Resultados: De los resultados obtenidos en el estudio hemos presupuesto la existencia de un
perfil amortiguador, y hemos llevado a cabo una propuesta de perfil de formador resistente al
estrés, que conjuntamente con una elevada percepción de su eficacia como formador
(Autoeficacia) y una serie de factores externos que fortalecen la resistencia del formador al
estrés, como por ejemplo el apoyo social, configuran el perfil “resistente” de docente. A partir
del modelo se ha desarrollado el modelo de competencias profesional del docente. Este
modelo general de competencias propuesto incluye tres niveles de competencias:
competencias para el afrontamiento del estrés, elevada percepción de su eficacia como
formador (autoeficacia), y competencias necesarias para una correcta actuación general en el
puesto de trabajo. Respecto a las competencias profesionales generales que hemos descrito,
se han establecido dos grandes ejes. El primero contempla las competencias básicas
específicas para la realización de las funciones y tareas propias del formador. El segundo eje
integra las competencias transversales necesarias para realizar muchas de estas tareas. Una
vez definido el modelo de competencias del docente, hemos desarrollado dos herramientas
autoaplicativas para la obtención de un diagnóstico personal: el Cuestionario Autoaplicativo de
Evaluación de Competencias, basado en el modelo descrito de competencias y, el Cuestionario
Autoaplicativo de Diagnóstico de estrés, basado en indicadores de nivel de estrés.
312
ESTUDIANDO LA OTRA VISIÓN DEL
SÍNDROME DEL QUEMADO: ENGAGEMENT
(ENTUSIASMO LABORAL) DESDE UN ENFOQUE
MIXTO
HERNÁNDEZ, C.I.
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México
La mayoría de las investigaciones utilizan un modelo patogénico de salud mental se centran en
los aspectos negativos; de ahí que los estudiosos retomen el síndrome del Quemado en varias
de sus concepciones, sin embargo el opuesto a este constructo el “engagement” (Salanova M,
Shaufeli W, Lloret S, Peiró J y Grau R, 2000) ha sido poco explorado y retomado en población
Mexicana aún cuando este surge desde un modelo salutogénico. Es decir se ha soslayado la
influencia positiva del engagement en el funcionamiento personal, social y laboral de los
trabajadores del área de la salud, es esta quizás la razón más importante para incorporar esta
visión de efectos psicológicos positivos en el trabajo o bien salud mental en los trabajadores.
Objetivo: Identificar el nivel de engagement (entusiasmo laboral) en sus tres componentes:
dedicación, absorción y dedicación en el trabajo.
Métodos: El estudio cuantitativo fue de corte transversal, descriptivo, correlacional y
observacional, mientras que en la metodología cualitativa se utilizo una entrevista a
profundidad desde el enfoque de la hermenéutica profunda y que permite dar cuenta de las
dimensiones etic y emic. El estudio se realizó con personal de atención primaria.
Resultados: Se identifico que en el componente vigor 4.3% reportó niveles bajos, 34.1%
niveles medios y 61.6% niveles altos. En el componente dedicación 4.7% niveles bajos, nivel
medio 37.3% y 58.0% niveles altos. En absorción 3.6% niveles bajos, 44.2% nivel medio y
52.2% nivel alto. Respecto a los resultados cualitativos se identificó que el personal
entrevistado refieren sentimientos de agrado y gusto por el trabajo, que el trabajo les gusta
de otra forma ya no lo estarían realizando.
Conclusión: En los tres componentes se obtuvieron altos niveles de engagement lo que nos
hace pensar que los trabajadores perciben su trabajo como agradable, manifiestan un “estar a
gusto” con lo que hacen, y manifiestan algunos sentimientos de implicación, compromiso con
el paciente y eficacia, probablemente estos hallazgos permitan apuntar a un estudio que
incorpore nuevas alternativas de intervenciones o prevención en los trabajadores del sector
salud para evitar el desarrollo de efectos psicológicos negativos.
313
ESTRÉS, BURNOUT, ENGAGEMENT Y
VARIABLES PSICOSOCIALES ASOCIADAS EN
POBLACIÓN LABORAL MEXICANA
JUAREZ, A.
Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, México
El tema del estrés y la salud mental en el trabajo se ha convertido una prioridad esencial para
varios organismos internacionales (OMS, OIT, NIOSH, Unión Europea, etc). Esta prioridad ha
significado un avance importante en la investigación, vigilancia y prevención de estos temas
de manera trascendente en países desarrollados. No obstante lo anterior, en países no
desarrollados la realidad es contrastante. Este es el caso de Latinoamérica, donde las
condiciones sociales y laborales mantienen una realidad que trae consigo diversas
consecuencias innegables en la salud mental. México no es la excepción y la investigación en
estos temas sigue siendo magra y con una pobre difusión. El presente simposio pretende
mostrar los resultados de cinco investigaciones realizadas en distintos contextos laborales en
México, tratando de ofrecer un panorama de la problemática. La afortunada colaboración de
estos investigadores ha llevado a la conformación de una red Mexicana que hoy propone
compartir los hallazgos en este foro. Los estudios abordan distintas metodologías que van
desde la etnografía y narrativa, hasta estudios con análisis cuantitativos multivariados.
Asimismo, se estudian diversas poblaciones laborales que incluyen telefonistas, trabajadores
de salud, docentes, ejecutivos y trabajadores manuales. En general los resultados mostrados
por los cinco investigadores especialistas, darán cuenta de la situación de los factores
psicosociales laborales y aquellos propios de la personalidad del empleado que se encuentran
frecuentemente asociados al estrés, burnout y otros efectos psicológicos, así como de la
prevalencia de éstos. Dichos hallazgos al ser consistentes con la literatura internacional,
pueden establecer las bases y directrices para la correcta prevención, vigilancia y futura
investigación de estos factores con miras al bienestar y calidad de vida de la fuerza laboral
Mexicana.
314
VALIDEZ DE LA ESCALA DE DESGASTE
PROFESIONAL (CESQT) Y VARIABLES
PSICOSOCIALES ASOCIADAS EN
TRABAJADORES MANUALES EN MÉXICO.
JUAREZ, A. & GARCÍA, J.
Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, México
Objetivo: El presente estudio tuvo dos objetivos, el primero fue identificar la validez del
cuestionario CESQT en su versión de desgaste profesional (Gil-Monte 2008) mediante un
análisis factorial y como validez de criterio se utilizó el Cuestionario General de Salud
(Goldberg, 1981); el segundo objetivo fue averiguar su asociación con distintas variables del
entorno psicosocial laboral, tales como la inseguridad en el empleo, la supervisión estricta, el
apoyo social, la falta de recursos, la tensión laboral, el desequilibrio esfuerzo/recompensa; así
como de variables individuales tales como la ira-rasgo, la ira contenida, el
sobreinvolucramiento laboral, la autoeficacia y el control emocional.
Métodos: En un grupo de trabajadores manuales (N=111) se aplicó el CESQT en su versión
de desgaste profesional y el cuestionario general de salud de Goldberg.
Resultados: En cuanto a los resultados de validez obtenidos se encontró que el análisis
factorial arrojó 4 factores que explican el 53.41% de la varianza, quedando en el siguiente
orden: desgaste psíquico, ilusión por el trabajo, desencanto profesional y culpa, los que en
general cargaron los ítems respectivos acorde a lo esperado. En cuanto a las correlaciones con
el puntaje total de salud según el cuestionario de Goldberg, se encontraron correlaciones
estadísticamente significativas en las cuatro dimensiones del desgaste profesional según el
CESQT, siendo r=.59 para desgaste psíquico, r=.52 para desencanto profesional, r=-.30 para
ilusión en el trabajo y r=.32 para culpa. Finalmente, los modelos de regresión generados por
el método de stepwise, mostraron que para desgaste psíquico los predictores significativos
fueron desequilibrio esfuerzo/recompensa β.32, autoeficacia β -.36, Falta de recursos β.28 y
sobreinvolucramiento β.27; para desencanto profesional los principales predictores fueron
control emocional β -.36, Falta de recursos β.35, e ira-rasgo β.32-, para ilusión por el trabajo
fueron autoeficacia β.41 y supervisión estricta β -.26. y para culpa, sólo el emocional β -.38.
Conclusiones: En conclusión encontramos que el cuestionario CESQT en su versión de
desgaste profesional (ocupaciones de no servicio a otras personas) puede ser considerada
como válida para su uso en población Mexicana. Asimismo, se encuentra que las variables
asociadas al desgaste profesional varían según el componente, aunque cabe destacar que se
encuentran tanto predictores del ambiente laboral como de la personalidad. Particularmente
destacan la falta de recursos, la autoeficacia y el control emocional como predictores
consistentes en las diferentes dimensiones. Aunque futuros estudios necesitan realizarse,
deben considerarse estos factores en los programas de prevención de desgaste profesional.
315
LA TOLERANCIA AL ESTRÉS Y EL
DESARROLLO DE COMPETENCIAS DE
ESTUDIANTES UNIVERSITARIOS COMO
ESTRATEGIA PREVENTIVA AL BURNOUT
MANCEBO, N.
Univesitat de Girona, España
Objetivos: La preparación de los alumnos universitarios para cumplir ciertos perfiles
profesionales ha incluido el desarrollo de competencias específicas relacionadas con
conocimientos técnicos, habilidades de gestión de personas y de recursos materiales. Los
cambios que se prevén implementar en el contexto del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior
(EEES) consideran la inclusión de algunas nuevas competencias y hace visibles otras ya
existentes (considerando la tolerancia al estrés como una competencia más). Las raíces de la
prevención del burnout profesional deberían situarse antes de la incorporación en el mercado
laboral, incluyendo todos los niveles educativos.
Métodos: Cycloid es una aplicación de autoevaluación construida bajo al arquitectura Evolute
(Kantola et al., 2005) y pretende mostrar el diferencial entre la visión actual y futura,
denominada tensión creativa en el contexto de competencias específicas. El contenido de
Cycloid ha sido desarrollado por el Department of Industrial Management at Tampere
University of Technology in Pori, Finland, bajo la supervisión del Profesor H. Vanharanta y ha
sido adaptado por la Universidad de Girona miembro de la red de centros de investigación
evolute (ERC). Las competencias se evalúan mediante 120 frases y ha sido desarrollada sobre
lógica difusa. Los datos utilizados son los recogidos en los dos últimos cursos 2006-07 y 200708. La proximidad a la finalización de sus estudios y el hecho de que un porcentaje
significativo compagina estudio y trabajo los hace especialmente receptivos a la evaluación de
competencias y a considerarse a sí mismos como “project managers” de su carrera de
aprendizaje.
Resultados: Los resultados globales muestran que el 22% de los estudiantes consideran que
la primera competencia a mejorar (de las 30 consideradas) es la tolerancia al estrés. Y para el
44,5% en 2006 y el 42,7% en 2007 se sitúa entre las tres primeras. El análisis de
correlaciones muestra que la tolerancia al estrés se halla correlacionada con otras
competencias y se consideran variables moderadoras como la experiencia profesional y
género.
Conclusiones: La difusión de nuevas metodologías docentes como la evaluación continua, el
portafolio, que pueden asegurar el seguimiento continuo y cercano del alumno, pueden sin
embargo producir efectos adversos sobre otras. Las experiencias, estudios y análisis que la
psicología de la salud ocupacional ofrece deberían integrarse como elemento preventivo en el
diseño de metodologías docentes, contenidos y actividades y por consiguiente considerar la
tolerancia al estrés en la evaluación del impacto que estos cambios pueden o están
produciendo sobre los nuestros futuros profesionales.
316
FACTORES DE RIESGO PSICOSOCIAL
INTRALABORALES Y SU RELACIÓN CON LA
SATISFACCIÓN CON LA VIDA EN LOS
TRABAJADORES
MARULANDA, I.C. & GÓMEZ V.M.
Universidad de los Andes, Colombia
La Organización Mundial de la Salud define la salud como un estado completo de bienestar
físico, mental y social. De hecho explica que “Los conceptos de salud mental incluyen
bienestar subjetivo, autonomía, competencia, dependencia intergeneracional y reconocimiento
de la habilidad de realizarse intelectual y emocionalmente” (OMS, 2004, p.7). Así mismo
Diener, Emmons, Larsem, & Griffin (1985) definen el bienestar subjetivo como una valoración
afectiva y cognitiva que el individuo realiza sobre las condiciones generales de su vida basado
en criterios subjetivos. La satisfacción con la vida corresponde a la valoración cognitiva que el
individuo realiza de su vida a partir de un conjunto de valores y estándares culturales e
individuales.
En Colombia se han realizado pocas investigaciones que permitan conocer la relación existente
entre las variables psicosociales del trabajo y la salud de los trabajadores.
Objetivos: El propósito de esta investigación fue considerar la relación que existe entre los
factores psicosociales de los modelos de estrés laboral Demanda Control Apoyo Social (Job
Strain) y Desbalance Esfuerzo Recompensa (ERI) con la Satisfacción con la vida.
Métodos: Se aplicaron encuestas a 659 participantes, 302 de sexo masculino y 357 de sexo
femenino, entre los 18 y los 67 años de edad, trabajadores de 6 compañías diferentes, con
contratos laborales estables en el sector público o privado en varias ciudades de Colombia.
Para realizar la evaluación se usaron las versiones autorizadas en español del JCQ y del ERI,
asi como del cuestionario de Satisfacción con la vida desarrollado por Diener, Emmons, Larsen
& Griffin (1985) en su version en Español. Se realizaron análisis de regresión múltiple entre
las variables psicosociales que componen cada modelo y la variable satisfacción con la vida.
Resultados: Los análisis mostraron que las variables psicosociales de ambos modelos
explican varianza de la satisfacción con la vida en los trabajadores, sin embargo es el modelo
de Demanda Control Apoyo Social el que más varianza explica al tomar el grupo de
trabajadores en su totalidad (10%). Adicionalmente en los análisis dividiendo la muestra por
hombres y mujeres estas relaciones se observan mas claramente, pues para el ERI los
resultados mostraron que las variables explican varianza únicamente para el caso de los
hombres y no para las mujeres. Así mismo la participación de las variables que componen
cada modelo cambio según el sexo de los sujetos.
Conclusión: Al igual que otros resultados reportados las variables del modelo Demanda
Control Apoyo Social, específicamente las variables de apoyo social mostraron relación con la
satisfacción. Adicionalmente mostraron que en los modelos estas relaciones no son iguales
para el caso de los trabajadores según el sexo.
317
ESTRÉS TRAUMATICO SECUNDARIO Y
VARIABLES DE PERSONALIDAD EN
PROFESIONALES QUE LABORAN EN
SERVICIOS DE EMERGENCIAS DE JALISCO
MEDA, R.M.1, MORENO, B.2, PALOMERA, A.1, ARIAS, E.D.1 & CHAN, E. C.1
Universidad de Guadalajara, México 1
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, España
2
El Estrés Traumático Secundario (STS), definido como La consecuencia natural
comportamental y emocional que resulta de saber acerca de un evento traumatizante
experimentado por otra persona que es significante, donde el estrés resulta de ayudar o
querer ayudar a la persona que sufre el trauma (Figley, 1995), surge como propuesta de los
estudios dirigidos no sólo a las víctimas primarias de situaciones traumáticas o altamente
estresantes, sino también a sus cuidadores como víctimas.
Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el nivel de afectación de estrés traumático
secundario y comparar sus características de personalidad de profesionales que trabajan en
servicios de emergencias.
Métodos: Se obtuvieron datos de 203 bomberos y 217 paramédicos y/o médicos y
enfermeras de distintas bases de Guadalajara y Tlaquepaque, a los cuales se les aplicó el
Cuestionario de evaluación del Estrés Traumático Secundario de Moreno y cols., (2004), del
cual se retomaron 2 escalas para valorar la relación entre la Personalidad y las posibles
Consecuencias del ETS: Cuestionario de personalidad (24 reactivos); y Cuestionario de
consecuencias (18 reactivos). La aplicación de los instrumentos se realizo en su área de
trabajo bajo consentimiento informado.
Resultados: Se encontró de manera general que los sujetos expresaron un nivel moderado
de ETS, mientras que en las variables de personalidad se encontraron puntuaciones baja en
las subescalas de Empatía y en la subescala de Comprensibilidad (sin diferencias por sexo),
pero con puntuaciones moderadas en las subescalas de Sentido del humor y Reto,
consideradas en la literatura como factores protección al ETS. Se encontró una correlación
positiva entre el nivel de estrés traumático secundario con las subescalas de personalidad de
empata y reto.
Conclusiones: Los resultados indicaron que se trata de una muestra sin afectación del estrés
traumático secundario; sin embargo algunos caso de bomberos y paramédicos indicaron
afectación moderada-alta, solo se observó una correlación que indicaba que a mayor nivel
sociocultural menor nivel de de sacudida de creencias. Por sexo se encontró que las mujeres
tienden a ser mas empáticas y comprensivas como era de esperarse.
318
INTERVENCIONES EN DESARROLLO
ORGANIZACIONAL Y FACTORES DE RIESGO
PSICOSOCIAL: UNA PERSPECTIVA
ESTRUCTURAL
MEDINA, R.
RMA/Codelco – Universidad de Valparaíso, Chile
Objetivo: Analizar y contrastar empíricamente el modelo de Elliot Jaques (2004) en una
muestra de trabajadores chilenos de servicios de una gran empresa productiva. Este trabajo
se centra en mostrar cómo la estructura de la organización afecta a determinadas variables
psicolaborales como las disfunciones de rol, y como a través de las intervenciones en
Desarrollo Organizacional se puede impactar sobre estas. Se analiza las relaciones EntornoEstrategia-Estructura-Personas, dado que en cada una de ellas se producen quiebres que
posteriormente pueden transformarse en un riesgo psicolaboral, impactando a las personas y
al negocio.
Métodos: El Modelo de Jaques plantea que existe una jerarquía de cuatro formas que los
sujetos utilizan para procesar la información: pensamiento declarativo, acumulativo, en serie y
en paralelo. Estas cuatro formas de procesar información se iteran en cada uno de los cinco
órdenes de complejidad de la información: Preverbal, Verbal concreto, Verbal simbólico,
Conceptual abstracto y Universal. La complejidad del procesamiento mental de cada individuo,
y su capacidad potencial al interior de una organización, van a estar determinados por la
forma de procesamiento y el orden de complejidad de la información. En estos elementos
influye el horizonte temporal en el cual la persona se desempeña, y que es una resultante de
las capacidades del individuo en relación al contexto organizacional y a las responsabilidades
que se le exigen, entendiendo la estructura organizacional a partir de estos elementos.
La muestra del estudio la componen 270 profesionales de administración y servicios de
Codelco Chile (empresa de producción de cobre). Los instrumentos seleccionados están
conformados cada uno por cinco reactivos que se distribuyen en dos sub-escalas. Estas
escalas son resultado de una modificación y adaptación al castellano de algunos ítems de la
escala de Rizzo, House y Lirztman (1970). El modelo se evaluó mediante el programa SPSS
15.
Resultados: Se confirmó que el modelo hipotetizado de análisis estructural de Jaques se
ajustaba suficientemente a los datos.
Conclusión: La necesidad de cambio de las organizaciones ha remecido las estructuras,
pensadas como algo relativamente estable, y diseñadas para plazos no inmediatos. Las
estructuras, no pueden ser modificadas rápidamente, y tienen componentes que frenan la
adaptación al entorno. Cuando existen elementos estructurales que afectan al individuo, estos
se transforman en factores de riesgos psicosociales, provocando problemas en la organización.
En lo particular, operacionalizando algunas de las variables estructurales que afectan al
individuo, comprobamos que la ambigüedad y el conflicto de Rol están directamente
relacionadas con patologías laborales asociadas al estrés, y son el elemento relacionador con
la estructura y las variables planteadas en el modelo estructural de Jaques. Se debe trabajar
más sobre los elementos asociados al rol en forma diagnóstica e interventiva, dado que estás
son el punto crítico en los procesos persona–organización. El modelo de Jaques ofrece
suficiente evidencia empírica que lo apoya, lo que permite concluir que es un modelo
adecuado para analizar la relación entre las estructuras organizacionales y algunas variables
de riesgo psicosocial.
319
ESTRÉS EN EJECUTIVOS DE MEDIANAS Y
GRANDES EMPRESAS MEXICANAS: UN
ENFOQUE DE DESARROLLO HUMANO
ORGANIZACIONAL
MERCADO, P. & SALGADO R.
Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, México
Objetivos: Identificar fuentes de estrés, manifestaciones a nivel personal y organizacional,
así como efectos moderadores (o de manejo del estrés) en ejecutivos de medianas y grandes
empresas mexicanas, a través del Indicador de Presión en el Trabajo (IPT) para construir
propuestas de afrontamiento con enfoque de desarrollo humano organizacional.
Métodos: Investigación exploratoria y descriptiva, no experimental transeccional. La muestra
no probabilística se integra de 41 ejecutivos mexicanos, recolectando datos mediante un
instrumento de 142 reactivos durante abril-noviembre 2006. Se hipotetizan altos niveles de
presión, manifestaciones positivas, más que negativas, a nivel personal y organizacional, así
como un uso moderado de estrategias de manejo del estrés.
Resultados: Estos ejecutivos trabajan en promedio 53 horas a la semana. Se llegó a
confirmar parcialmente la hipótesis planteada. Los ejecutivos mexicanos enfrentan altos
niveles de presión, manifestados a través de la carga de trabajo, manejo de relaciones
personales, necesidad de reconocimiento, responsabilidad, rol gerencial, demandas casatrabajo y dificultades diarias. Utilizan como moderadores el empuje, la impaciencia, el control,
la influencia personal, el enfoque en el problema y la separación vida-trabajo. Manifiestan su
estrés positivamente a través de la satisfacción laboral y organizacional, la seguridad en la
empresa, el compromiso organizacional, la salud mental y la resiliencia, así como sus niveles
de energía, aunque sí la responsabilidad y las dificultades diarias, así como su gran necesidad
de reconocimiento y el natural desequilibrio hogar-trabajo. Le dan poca importancia al clima
organizacional y no recurren al apoyo social para afrontar el estrés.
Conclusiones: Para el ejecutivo no representa una presión el clima organizacional. Es un
grupo dentro de las organizaciones que no aplica el desarrollo humano ni con su persona ni a
nivel organizacional, lo cual no se traduce en que sean personas deshonestas, déspotas o algo
similar. Se detecta una beta de posibilidades para trabajar en esta filosofía de vida. Otra
prueba de ello es que el soporte social no es un factor utilizado por el ejecutivo para enfrentar
el estrés, lo que hace suponer que desconfía de colaboradores y hasta amigos para tratar
asuntos del trabajo, aunque también es una posición jerárquica que atiende, en la mayoría de
los casos, asuntos confidenciales y de riesgo. En conclusión, en la medida en que el ejecutivo
cuente con una alta capacidad negociadora, habilidad para el manejo de información y
capacidad de comunicación y escucha, podría disminuir el nivel de estrés individual y
organizacional.
320
VALIDEZ FACTORIAL DEL “CUESTIONARIO
PARA LA EVALUACIÓN DEL SÍNDROME DE
QUEMARSE POR EL TRABAJO” (CESQT) EN
UNA MUESTRA DE PROFESIONALES QUE
TRABAJAN HACIA PERSONAS CON
DISCAPACIDAD CHILENOS
OLIVARES, V. & GIL-MONTE, P. R.
Universitat de Valencia, España
Objetivo: El síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo (SQT) se puede definir como una respuesta
al estrés laboral crónico con origen en las relaciones interpersonales. El instrumento por
excelencia para su evaluación es el Maslach Burnout Inventory, aunque este instrumento
presenta algunas insuficiencias psicométricas. Entre las medidas alternativas está el CESQT. El
objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la validez factorial y la consistencia interna del
“Cuestionario para la Evaluación del Síndrome de Quemarse por el Trabajo” (CESQT). Se
hipotetizó una estructura de cuatro factores similar a la estructura original del instrumento.
Métodos: La muestra del estudio la formaron 277 profesionales chilenos que trabajaban hacia
personas con discapacidad. El instrumento (CESQT) está formado por 20 items que se
distribuyen en cuatro subescalas: Ilusión por el trabajo (5 items), Desgaste psíquico (4 items),
Indolencia (6 items), y Culpa (5 items), y se evalúan mediante una escala de frecuencia de 5
grados. Altas puntuaciones en Desgaste psíquico, Indolencia, y Culpa, y bajas puntuaciones en
Ilusión por el trabajo indican altos niveles de SQT. El análisis factorial confirmatorio se realizó
mediante el programa LISREL 8, y el método de análisis fue el WLS.
Resultados: El modelo hipotetizado obtuvo un ajuste adecuado a los datos (Chi2(164) =
285.32, p < .001, AGFI = .95, RMSEA = .052, NNFI = .93, CFI = .94, y PNFI = .75), lo que
confirmó que el modelo hipotetizado ajustaba suficientemente a los datos. Todas las
subescalas presentaron valores de consistencia interna superiores a .70. Respecto a la calidad
de los ítems con relación a su dimensión, el calculó de la homogeneidad del ítem, la
correlación ítem-escala, y el índice de fiabilidad del ítems resultaron adecuados, observándose
en general valores por encima de .40.
Conclusiones: El CESQT ofrece validez factorial y sus escalas presentan valores de
consistencia interna adecuada, lo que permite afirmar que es un instrumento válido y fiable
para evaluar el SQT en profesionales chilenos que trabajan hacia personas con discapacidad.
321
VIOLENCIA PSICOLOGICA Y MOBBING EN
COSTA RICA
PANDO, M., ARANDA, C., FRANCO, S. & TORRES, T.M.
Universidad de Guadalajara, México
Objetivos: Determinar de manera diferenciada las prevalencias de “violencia psicológica en el
trabajo” y del “acoso psicológico en el trabajo (Mobbing)” en trabajadores de Costa Rica.
Métodos: El presente constituye el primer reporte sobre la prevalencia de la violencia
psicológica y el Mobbing en Centro América y se basa en un estudio exploratorio con 139
trabajadores de diversas Ciudades y giros empresariales de Costa Rica con la aplicación del
IVAPT-PANDO. El IVAPT-PANDO se administra individual o colectivamente a manera de
autoreporte, consta de 22 ítems con dos incisos de respuesta es escala tipo Likert, el
instrumento, obtiene tres mediciones que corresponden a la presencia de la violencia, la
intensidad de la violencia y el mobbing. Cada una se expresa con valores de alto, medio y
bajo. Este Instrumento ha presentado consistencia interna, en México con un alpha de
Cronbach 0.911 y validez factorial de 0.77 de acuerdo a Guilford con 53.47% de varianza
explicada, mientras que los resultados españoles arrojaron un alpha de Cronbach 0.939 y una
varianza explicada del 53.01%. Para el análisis de datos se utilizaron tasas y porcentajes para
la distribución de las variables y la aplicación de la prueba de Chi cuadrada para la obtención
de datos de asociación en donde se consideró asociación significativa si p < 0.05.
Resultados: Los resultados señalaron que el 74.8% de la población era víctima de violencia
psicológica en el trabajo, aunque solo 7.9% del total se calificó sufriéndola con intensidad
alta. El mobbing solo se presenta en el 19.4%, 11.5% en el nivel medio y 7.9% en nivel alto.
La presencia de violencia psicológica está influida por el género que presenta un asociación de
(p=.034), donde las mayores prevalencias de violencia alta la presentan las mujeres con un
78.5%, por el estado civil (p=.015) donde los casados presentan 77.7% de presencia de
violencia psicológica alta. Por su parte la intensidad de la violencia no se vio afectada por el
sexo y el estado civil pero si por el turno y la duración de la jornada, donde los sujetos que
laboraban fuera del turno matutino presentaban las mayores intensidades de violencia en el
21.4% de los casos (p=.000) y aquellos que trabajan mas de 40 horas semanales con un 80%
(p=.021), para el mobbing no se reporta asociación significativa con el género, pero si para el
estado civil (p=.030), turno de trabajo (p=.000) y la duración de la jornada (p=.013), donde
las mayores presencias del mobbing son en los casados con el 22.7%, aquéllos que trabajan
en el turno matutino con el 31.4% y quienes laboran más de 40 horas con un 15%.
Conclusiones: La evaluación de manera diferencial entre la “violencia psicológica
generalizada” y el mobbing, permitió comprender de mejor manera las diferencias
encontradas entre diversos estudios que utilizan diferentes instrumentos de medición,
mostrando que es más común el uso de la violencia generalizada que el del mobbing, pero la
primera parece tener menores efectos dañinos en el trabajador.
322
EL LADO OSCURO DE LAS ORGANIZACIONES
DE SUS EFECTOS EN EL FACTOR HUMANO
PATLAN, J.1 & RIVERA, L.2
Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México, México 1
Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, México 2
Objetivos: Iniciar una integración y análisis de perspectivas teóricas del lado oscuro de las
organizaciones y conformar una perspectiva integradora que permita determinar los efectos
negativos provocados por las organizaciones hacia los individuos y colaboradores que en ellas
laboran.
Métodos: Se efectuó una revisión a la literatura para identificar investigaciones previas
respecto a: 1) definiciones y enfoques conceptuales utilizados en el estudio del lado oscuro de
las organizaciones, 2) investigaciones empíricas del lado oscuro de las organizaciones y del
lado oscuro del comportamiento organizacional, y 3) efectos negativos que provocan las
organizaciones en el factor humano.
Resultados: En la revisión efectuada a la literatura se identificaron tres ejes importantes de
estudio: 1) el lado oscuro de las organizaciones, 2) el lado oscuro del comportamiento
organizacional, y 3) el lado oscuro del entorno (globalización y entorno económico). El lado
oscuro de las organizaciones se define como el conjunto de efectos negativos que surgen o
son propiciados en las organizaciones o a partir de ellas, efectos que van dirigidos a los
miembros de las organizaciones, a la sociedad y el ambiente. Los efectos dirigidos a los
miembros de las organizaciones se refieren al conjunto de efectos negativos provocados a
partir de tres centros causales principales: a) la estructura y diseño organizacional (e.g.,
rutinización, síndrome de burnout, rotación, ausentismo, estrés, errores, accidentes y riesgos
de trabajo, bajo desempeño laboral, insatisfacción laboral, baja motivación), b) el liderazgo, la
dirección, ejercicio y abuso de poder (e.g., acoso laboral, hostigamiento sexual,
discriminación, autoritarismo, inadecuado clima laboral, baja moral del trabajador) y c) la
actividad y puesto desempeñado (e.g., robos, corrupción, fraudes, violación de contratos de
confidencialidad). Por su parte, el lado oscuro del comportamiento organizacional se define
como los comportamientos, motivados por un empleado o grupo de empleados, que tienen
consecuencias negativas para otro miembro de la organización, otro grupo de individuos de la
organización o para la organización misma. Los comportamientos pueden dañar o ser
perjudiciales al bienestar humano y a la organización. Los comportamientos que son
perjudiciales al bienestar humano se refieren a comportamientos negativos cuyos costos y
perjuicios inciden directamente en: a) los propios trabajadores (e.g., alcoholismo,
drogadicción, trabajadores fumadores, prácticas especificas inseguras para el trabajo, suicidio)
y b) otros miembros de la organización (e.g., violencia verbal y psicológica, violencia física,
hostigamiento sexual, practicas inseguras para el trabajo). Los comportamientos negativos
que dañan o perjudican a la organización son los que tienen un costo financiero para la
organización (e.g., ausentismo, tardanza y tiempos muertos, robos violación de leyes, códigos
o regulaciones) y los que no generan costos financieros.
Conclusión: El lado oscuro de las organizaciones es un campo emergente que requiere el
desarrollo continúo de un mayor número de investigaciones. También, es un tema
recientemente abordado y tiene un carácter integrador de múltiples temáticas y problemáticas
organizacionales investigadas previamente, que requieren ser estudiadas para generar
continúas recomendaciones en favor de lograr mayores efectos positivos de las
organizaciones.
323
ESTILOS DE PERSONALIDAD Y PRESENCIA O
AUSENCIA DE BURNOUT, EN BUSCA DE UNA
RELACIÓN (ESTUDIO REALIZADO EN LA
REGIÓN DE VALPARAÍSO, CHILE)
QUAAS, C.
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile
Objetivo: La presente investigación explora acerca de la existencia de relación entre los
diferentes estilos de personalidad y la presencia o ausencia del síndrome de Burnout.
Métodos: Para determinar lo anterior, se trabajo con 119 profesionales pertenecientes a
profesiones denominadas “predispuestas” al síndrome (profesores, asistentes sociales,
médicos, kinesiólogos, enfermeros y psicólogos y sacerdotes).
En el estudio de tipo exploratorio y cuantitativo, se utilizo para la medición del Burnout el
Inventario de Burnout de Maslach (MBI); y para la medición de los estilos de personalidad, el
Inventario de Estilos de Personalidad de Millon (MIPS).
Resultados: Los datos se analizaron conforme a estadísticos descriptivos y pruebas
paramétricas, a partir de lo cual se obtuvo que la muestra estaba compuesta por 4,2% de
personas que poseían el síndrome, 30,3% que no lo poseían y 65,5% que estaban proclives a
desarrollarlo. En cuanto a los rasgo de personalidad, se observó que los rasgos que aparecen
en al menos el 50% de los participantes eran apertura, modificación, protección, extraversión,
sensación, reflexión, sistematización, comunicatividad, firmeza, conformismo y concordancia.
Al relacionar ambas variables, se pudo determinar que los estilos de personalidad integrados
por los rasgos conformismo, acomodación, concordancia, sensación, protección y
sometimiento se presentaban en 60% de los sujetos con Burnout; mientras los rasgos
apertura, conformismo, sensación y firmeza se presentaban en 55,6% de los participantes con
ausencia del síndrome. Al correlacionar cada rasgo con las diferentes dimensiones del Burnout
se obtuvo que, además de los rasgos que correlacionaban sólo con alguna de las dimensiones,
existían otros que presentaban relación directa con las dimensiones agotamiento emocional y
despersonalización e inversa con la dimensión realización personal. Es así como los rasgos:
preservación, introversión y retraimiento se vinculaban directamente con la presencia del
Burnout; mientras sus polos opuestos, apertura, extroversión y comunicatividad se
relacionaban con la ausencia del síndrome. Al contrastar los resultados obtenidos en los tres
análisis se obtuvo que para el grupo con Burnout, los rasgos de acomodación y sometimiento
se presentaban tanto en el análisis de estilos como en el de rasgos. Mientras para el grupo
con ausencia del síndrome, se presentaba el rasgo de apertura tanto en el análisis del estilo de
personalidad como en el de polaridades correlacionadas.
Conclusiones: A partir de lo anterior podemos señalar que existe relación entre el Síndrome
de Burnout y los Estilos de Personalidad en la muestra de profesionales estudiados.
324
EL ESTRÉS LABORAL COMO METÁFORA DE
PROCESOS DE CAMBIO DE OPERADORAS
TELEFÓNICAS EN MÉXICO
RAMÍREZ, J.
Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México
Objetivo: Debido a la inquietud de un grupo de sindicalistas (operadoras telefónicas de la
empresa más importante de México) interesadas en que se reconozca el estrés como
enfermedad laboral, se realizó una investigación con el objeto de descifrar ¿qué significa este
reconocimiento?, ¿qué significa el estrés para las operadoras telefónicas, cómo lo
experimentan y a que situaciones se asocia? fueron las primeras preguntas que orientaron la
intención de entender el estrés desde la perspectiva sociocultural y por ello desde la propia
experiencia de un grupo de operadoras telefónicas.
Métodos: Se realizó una copiosa revisión bibliográfica que permitió ubicar el problema
teórico-conceptual, consolidando con ello la base de la argumentación dirigida a destacar que
el estrés aparte de ser una categoría del saber profesional es también una metáfora que los
conjuntos sociales manejan para explicar síntomas físicos, situaciones y relaciones que
experimentan. Se seleccionaron 25 operadoras telefónicas que aceptaron tener diagnóstico de
estrés o bien sufrir dicho padecimiento. Su experiencia, sus nociones, sus valoraciones sobre
el estrés fueron captadas aplicando una metodología variada que igualmente puso atención en
la realización de una etnografía del centro laboral; en la aplicación de un cuestionario para
captar de manera central ciertos tópicos de salud-enfermedad-atención; en la entrevista
semiestructurada que puso atención a la narrativa de las operadoras que permitió articular
tanto lo individual, familiar y laboral, como su pasado, presente y futuro. Todas estas
estrategias metodológicas se lograron durante casi un año de trabajo de campo realizando en
un centro laboral de la empresa Telmex.
Resultados: Como resultados vemos que desde la narrativa de las operadoras se advierte el
momento en el que transcurre la investigación refiriendo una compleja relación entre la
realidad social, cultural y política que viven éstas (en el trabajo y en la familia) teniendo como
marco de referencia el cambio tecnológico generado años atrás. En las explicaciones de las
operadoras el trabajo aparece como la principal causa de estrés. Todos los elementos referidos
a éste son dinámicos, cambiantes a lo largo de su historia laboral. Para el momento actual, el
principal malestar está en las relaciones interpersonales transformadas por el cambio
tecnológico y las nuevas exigencias de producción que pusieron de manifiesto la pérdida del
contenido simbólico del trabajo, la transformación de las redes sociales solidarias que se
convirtieron en la actualidad en relaciones agresivas en diversas direcciones (entre
operadoras, entre operadora/cliente y entre operadora/supervisora) y, la insatisfacción laboral
actual manifiesta, sobre todo, ante la constante amenaza de la desaparición de la categoría de
operadora telefónica.
Conclusiones: Como conclusiones se destaca que estudiar el estrés desde la significación,
poniendo atención en la narrativa, develó la experiencia del estrés articulada con situaciones,
momentos, personas, relaciones, mostrando su naturaleza polisémica y multicontextual, lo
cual constituyó un material rico en imágenes y referentes que, no sólo reveló la forma en que
las operadoras conceptúan su experiencia de enfermedad, sino toda una compleja
interpretación en la cual vimos el lugar que toman el trabajo y la familia y, un proceso de
transformación de ellas como trabajadoras y como mujeres. En este sentido, podemos decir
que en sus narrativas se expresaron diversas metáforas desde las cuales las diferentes
transformaciones constituyen procesos de significación y resignificación.
325
ESTUDIO DE FACTORES PSICOSOCIALES EN
TRABAJADORES MEXICANOS DE LA
INDUSTRIA DEL PETRÓLEO: IMPLICACIONES
METODOLÓGICAS PARA SU EVALUACIÓN
RAMÍREZ J. A., CEDILLO L., VALENCIA A. M. & SANTILLANA J.
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México-FESI, México
El estado actual de la investigación sobre Factores Psicosociales en trabajadores mexicanos,
como en otros países Latinoamericanos, se caracteriza por un desarrollo conceptual
heterogéneo o inconsistente, metodológicamente incipiente y de bajo impacto social y
normativo; por tanto de poca utilidad para la protección de la salud de los trabajadores.
Objetivo: En este trabajo se hace un balance general del estado actual del estudio de
Factores Psicosociales y se describe la investigación mas reciente del Grupo de trabajo de la
Facultad de Estudios Profesionales Iztacala de la UNAM. El objetivo es describir los resultados
de la evaluación de 315 trabajadores y analizar sus implicaciones metodológicas.
Resultados: Los resultados mostraron la incidencia de los siguientes factores psicosociales de
riesgo en los trabajadores estudiados: carga mental e inseguridad laboral (19%), apoyo social
bajo (17%), patrón de personalidad tipo “A” (16%), ausencia de valores humanos (14%),
autoeficacia percibida baja y acoso psicosocial (13%), pocos recursos disponibles para el
trabajo (12%), trabajo en espacios confinados (7%), posibilidades reducidas para tomar
decisiones (6%), relaciones con superiores y falta de cooperación (5%), presión de tiempo
time y demandas de trabajo altas (4%). El grado de incidencia de los efectos psicológicos
evaluados fue: tensión laboral (19%), fatiga (16%), insatisfacción (15%), depresión y
síndrome de quemado por el trabajo (12%).
Conclusiones: Los autores subrayan la necesidad de utilizar instrumentos validados en este
tipo de poblaciones de trabajadores para la vigilancia periódica de la salud en el trabajo, con el
fin de tomar acciones organizacionales tales como el rediseño de la cultura organizacional, de
puestos y de los procedimientos de selección, el control de factores ergonómicos, la formación
y conducción de equipos, con el fin de contribuir a mejorar las condiciones de trabajo y los
servicios para la salud de los trabajadores. Por otra parte, se insiste en la necesidad de
reforzar el intercambio y la colaboración entre los colegas de países hispanos para mejorar los
instrumentos disponibles y desarrollar otros que sean validados para la evaluación de factores
psicosociales protectores y de riesgo en nuestros trabajadores.
326
LA CALIDAD DE VIDA LABORAL EN RELACIÓN
A OTRAS VARIABLES LABORALES Y
ORGANIZACIONALES DE EQUIPOS DE
TRABAJO.
RAMIS, M. C. , MANASSERO, M. A., GARCÍA, E. & FERRER V. A.
Universidad de las Islas Baleares, España
Objetivos: En un estudio sobre la influencia de las habilidades comunicativas de los
responsables de equipos de trabajo sobre su motivación, se incluyeron variables que en la
literatura sobre el tema se hallan muy relacionadas: características de los puestos de trabajo,
percepción de autoeficacia, equidad, satisfacción laboral y bienestar psicológico. El objetivo
era analizar la relación e influencia de estas variables.
Métodos: Una revisión de los diferentes modelos teóricos publicados sobre motivación nos
muestra una referencia casi permanente a la satisfacción laboral, aunque los postulados sean
diferentes (Herzberg, 1959; Adams, 1963; Vroom, 1970; Locke y Latham, 1991;González,
Peiró y Bravo,1996). Podríamos decir que existe una relación significativa y recíproca entre
ambos conceptos. La motivación entendida como fuerza que guía y mantiene la conducta
laboral cuando se está interesado en alcanzar unas necesidades, metas, expectativas y/o
valores. Este esfuerzo conforma, por su parte, una actitud hacia la conducta laboral en sí, y a
su vez, el nivel de satisfacción alcanzado incidirá en el nivel de esfuerzo que cada persona esté
dispuesta a realizar. De forma semejante, la alta satisfacción es el resultado de toda una serie
de procesos laborales, grupales y personales que se convierte a su vez en potencial motivador
para iniciar y mantener nuevas conductas laborales y actitudes positivas. A su vez, el análisis
de estas variables nos permite estudiar los niveles de calidad de vida laboral, puesto que
podemos decir que la misma es una percepción subjetiva y personal de bienestar, un
sentimiento de satisfacción/insatisfacción con la vida (Dalkey y RourKe, 1973). La muestra
estaba formada por 296 trabajadores y trabajadoras integrados en 37 equipos de trabajo de
diferentes grupos ocupacionales. Se utilizaron las escalas siguientes: Job Diagnostic Survey
(Hackman y Oldham, 1974), Maslach Bournout Inventory – General Survey (Schaufeli et al.,
1996), G.H.Q - 12. de Goldberg (1996), Cuestionario de Equidad (elaboración propia),
Cuestionario de la percepción de las habilidades del supervisor/a (elaboración propia).
Resultados: Los resultados obtenidos permiten analizar las relaciones entre las características
de los diferentes puestos de trabajo, las vivencias y percepciones que de ellos se derivan y la
percepción de las habilidades de liderazgo con la motivación, la percepción de autoeficacia, de
equidad, la satisfacción laboral y el bienestar psicológico, a la vez que las posibles
interrelaciones entre estas variables resultado. Por otra parte, no son las características
objetivas de los trabajos sino la percepción, la vivencia del individuo de las mismas las que se
relacionan con la motivación, la autoeficacia, la equidad, la satisfacción y el bienestar
psicológico. En esta percepción y vivencia del puesto tienen una especial influencia las
habilidades comunicativas de la supervisión. A su vez, se da una relación positiva y
significativa entre estas variables. Sin embargo, aunque la calidad de vida laboral (medida
como bienestar psicológico en el trabajo) se relaciona directa y positivamente con satisfacción
y autoeficacia, no lo hace con la motivación. De modo que esta última relación se ve modulada
por diversas variables que se analizan en este estudio.
327
INMIGRACION Y TRABAJO EN ESPAÑA:
FACTORES PERSONALES Y PSICOSOCIALES
DETEMINANTES DEL SINDROME DE ULISES
RAMOS-VILLAGRASA, P.J.1 & GARCÍA-IZQUIERDO, A.2
Universidad de Barcelona, España
Universidad de Oviedo, España 2
1
La inmigración en España ha experimentado un gran crecimiento en al actualidad, debido en
gran medida, por la búsqueda de empleo y la mejora de las condiciones de vida. Sin embargo,
el hecho de trasladarse a una cultura diferente conlleva para los inmigrantes unas demandas
que pueden resultar estresantes y derivar en riesgos para su salud. El Síndrome de Ulises
(SU) es un constructo que refleja los factores estresantes de este colectivo constituyendo un
trastorno específico dentro del proceso adaptativo.
Objetivos: En este estudio nos proponemos analizar cuales son los factores personales y
psicosociales que pueden determinar el desarrollo de SU en los trabajadores inmigrantes.
Métodos: Para ello, realizamos un estudio de carácter transversal en el que participan 112
trabajadores inmigrantes residentes en España de diferentes países de procedencia. Los
participantes cumplimentaron un cuestionario autoinformado de manera anónima en el que se
midió personalidad “Big Five” mediante el Big Five Inventory (Bennet-Martínez y John, 1998),
autoeficacia con la escala de autoeficacia en el trabajo (Navarro y Quijano, 2000) anomia con
la escala de Srole (1956), locus de control con una adaptación de la escala de Pérez (1984),
clima de seguridad adaptando el instrumento homónimo de Cheyne, Cox, Oliver y Tomás
(1998), conocimiento de la cultura española antes de emigrar con un ítem desarrollado ad hoc
y como variable dependiente, el SU, según la medida descrita por Ramos-Villagrasa y GarcíaIzquierdo (2007).
Resultados: Mediante análisis de regresión lineal encontramos que las variables que actúan
como predictoras son los factores de personalidad neuroticismo y responsabilidad, el
conocimiento de la cultura española antes de emigrar y la anomia. Junto a ello, también se
encuentra que aquellos inmigrantes que han vivido en otros países antes de emigrar a España
tienden a puntuar más bajo en el síndrome de Ulises que los que no lo han hecho.
Conclusiones: Las conclusiones que podemos extraer de este estudio son las siguientes: en
primer lugar, que la personalidad se muestran de nuevo como un importante predictor de la
salud. Junto a ello, destacamos también el papel de la anomia, una variable que consideramos
debe ser objeto de mayor atención en el futuro por su relación con la inmigración. Finalmente,
la inclusión en el modelo del conocimiento de la cultura española antes de emigrar nos lleva a
sugerir que facilitar dicho conocimiento desde las organizaciones puede ser una forma de
promover la salud en este colectivo de trabajadores.
328
PREVALENCIA DEL SÍNDROME DE BURNOUT Y
FACTORES ASOCIADOS EN EL PERSONAL DE
ENFERMERÍA DEL HGR C/MF NO. 1 DE
CUERNAVACA MORELOS
RUBIO, L. M.1, ÁVILA, L.1, ORTIZ, J.1 & GRAJALES, T.2
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, México
Universidad de Montemorelos, México 2
1
Objetivo: Determinar del Síndrome de Burnout y factores asociados (edad, sexo, estado
civil, área de trabajo) en el personal de enfermería del HGR C/MF no.
1 de Cuernavaca
Morelos.
Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal y descriptivo. Primero, se realizó una prueba
piloto con 20 personas, para efectuar ajustes, una vez realizados, se procedió a levantar las
encuestas para efectuar el estudio. La población de personal de enfermería del hospital es de
817, se estudiaron 250 enfermeras/os de diferentes categorías, servicios y turnos, mismas
que conformaron la muestra que fue recolectada por conveniencia, para ello, se tomó en
consideración la prevalencia del síndrome reportada en la literatura, la cual fue del 17%. El
Síndrome de Burnout se midió utilizando la escala del MBI (Maslach Burnout Inventory)
adicionalmente se hicieron 26 preguntas sociodemográficas y laborales.
Resultados: La prevalencia en esta población del Síndrome de Burnout fue de 2.8%; 44%
presentaron despersonalización; el 19% de los encuestados presentaron cansancio emocional
y 14.80% presentaron baja realización personal, todo lo anterior se consideran factores
predisponentes para el desarrollo del Síndrome de Burnout. El promedio de edad de los que
tienen Síndrome de Burnout y aquellos libres de él fue similar (38.7 vs 39.1) asimismo los
servicios de adscripción no mostraron diferencias significativas; en cuanto al turno de labores,
los afectados pertenecieron 3 al turno matutino, 3 al nocturno y uno al vespertino. La media
del tiempo de laborar fue de 11.14 vs. 13.61 comparando aquellos con y sin síndrome de
Burnout. El 81.75% de los que presentan Síndrome de Burnout refirieron querer cambiar de
servicio, el 42.85% refiere querer cambiar de profesión, el 100% de las que tienen Síndrome
de Burnout consideran que el número de pacientes a su cargo es excesivo.
Conclusiones: La prevalencia del Síndrome de Burnout encontrada en este estudio fue baja
comparada con lo referido en la literatura internacional. Es importante considerar las
expectativas que el personal de enfermería de esta Institución manifiesta sobre el deseo de
cambiar de profesión, así como el cambio de servicio de adscripción podrían reducir esta
predisposición al síndrome.
329
APLICACIÓN DEL MODELO DE
INVESTIGACIÓN-ACCIÓN PARA EL
MEJORAMIENTO DEL DESEMPEÑO DE LOS
COADJUTORES COMO TUTORES ACADÉMICOS
SAINZ, A.M., MUÑOZ, A. & ORNELAS, P.
Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Occidente (ITESO), México
En la educación es fundamental que quien aprende conozca y use los medios adecuados para
lograr su aprendizaje. Por lo general, los profesionales que se dedican a la enseñanza reciben
entrenamiento en métodos y técnicas para realizar su labor, pero solo en algunas ocasiones se
entrena a los estudiantes en métodos y técnicas de estudio acordes a sus propios hábitos y
habilidades. Es indudable que para lograr el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje es necesario
que ambas partes, maestro y alumno, conozcan y sepan hacer su labor de manera adecuada.
Para el logro de ésta tarea favorece la ayuda del Tutor Académico, cuya labor consiste en
guiar al estudiante en la creación y definición de sus propios medios de aprendizaje.
Objetivo: Por tanto, la presente investigación tiene por objetivo primordial lograr que el Tutor
Académico de una institución de nivel medio superior realice con mayor eficacia su labor, a
través de un entrenamiento adecuado, apegado a las circunstancias y el contexto de dicha
institución; esto con la finalidad de reforzar los métodos y técnicas de estudio del alumno,
mejorando así la calidad del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje.
Métodos: Para llevar a cabo la presente investigación se aplicó el modelo InvestigaciónAcción en una institución de nivel medio superior, a fin de implementar la función de Tutor
Académico a las tareas de la figura denominada por la institución como Coadjutor; la cual
carece de un entrenamiento previo para llevar a cabo su labor y cuyo perfil laboral se
encuentra indefinido. La investigación se realizó en cuatro fases: 1) Contrato Psicológico, 2)
Diagnóstico, 3) Formulación de Planes de Mejora y 4) Ejecución del Plan.
Resultados: Como resultado se obtuvo un aumento significativo en el uso de medios
adecuados de aprendizaje, medido con las calificaciones obtenidas por los estudiantes y los
resultados de una encuesta de hábitos y habilidades de estudio. Destacan sobre manera las
asesorías individuales, ya que fue en este aspecto donde se presentaron los resultados más
significativos y congruentes con la labor de Tutor Académico, con esto se puede deducir que
con el reconocimiento de las necesidades particulares y específicas se realizaron
intervenciones de mayor pertinencia.
Conclusión: Debido a la variedad en los resultados se dedujo que es posible capacitar a un
estudiante y ofrecer herramientas para la mejora en los hábitos de estudio, sin embargo
existen elementos personales de decisión en cada individuo que escapan al procedimiento
realizado.
330
ESTRESORES LABORALES EN PILOTOS
COMERCIALES DE AVIÓN
SÁNCHEZ, J. C.1, AGUIRRE, C.2 & VAURO, R.2
Universidad de Salamanca, España
Universidad de Talca, Chile 2
1
Objetivos: El presente estudio se ha desarrollado para dar cumplimento a dos objetivos
principales. En primer lugar, analizar y validar la estructura del cuestionario Detonantes del
Estrés Laboral (D.E.L.) en pilotos comerciales de aviación internacional y, en segundo lugar,
analizar las relaciones entre los detonantes del estrés laboral de estos pilotos. La importancia
del tema en este contexto está justificada por varios motivos. En primer lugar, el estrés
laboral cobra cientos de víctimas, acarreando no solo costes económicos, sino también sociales
y culturales. Por otro lado, el trabajo de piloto de aeronaves comerciales está inserto en un
marco altamente tecnificado y artificial y presenta una serie de potenciales fuentes de estrés.
Las regulaciones de las jornadas laborales o el entrenamiento profesional del personal
aeronáutico, son temas de vital interés para el estudio del estrés laboral.
Métodos: El diseño de la investigación es de carácter exploratorio descriptivo y correlacional y
cuenta con un muestreo probabilístico. A una muestra de 36 pilotos chilenos (Circulo de
Pilotos de Chile), en una primera etapa, y, posteriormente en una segunda etapa, a una
muestra de 72 pilotos españoles (Sindicato Español de Pilotos de Líneas Aéreas) se les pasó el
cuestionario D.E.L. (Detonantes del Estress Laboral) diseñado por Aguirre y Mancilla (2002).
Mediante análisis factoriales se identificaron los estresores laborales. Posteriormente, a través
de diferentes análisis de regresión múltiple se analizaron
las relaciones entre estos
estresores.
Resultados: Se obtuvieron cuatro dimensiones propuestas como estresores: factores
organizacionales, factores ambientales, relación-familia trabajo y relaciones interpersonales en
el trabajo. Se analizan las relaciones entre estos estresores.
Conclusiones: Las principales conclusiones de esta investigación son que las relaciones
interpersonales en el trabajo actúan como un factor protector del estrés, que los factores del
ambiente físico son explicados en gran medida por la relación familia – trabajo, y que esta
última es explicada en gran parte por los factores organizacionales. Se propone para futuros
estudios la inclusión de variables como satisfacción laboral, síntomas psicosomáticos de
estrés, contrato psicológico, entre otras, para profundizar más sobre el estrés laboral en este
colectivo de trabajadores. La presente investigación tiene relevancia social, práctica y
metodológica. Relevancia social, porque contribuye a la prevención y enfrentamiento del
Estrés Laboral a nivel individual y organizacional y aporta información de utilidad para mejorar
las condiciones laborales y el desarrollo profesional de los pilotos comerciales españoles;
relevancia práctica: porque sus resultados y conclusiones contribuyen a optimizar la gestión
de Recursos Humanos de cualquier organización del medio aeronáutico. Y relevancia
metodológica, porque este estudio ha permitido el perfeccionamiento de un cuestionario para
la evaluación de los desencadenantes de Estrés Laboral en pilotos comerciales, con sólidos
criterios estadísticos de fiabilidad y validez.
331
PREVALENCIA DEL SÍNDROME DE QUEMARSE
POR EL TRABAJO EN ACADÉMICOS
MEXICANOS DE INSTITUCIONES DE
EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR EVALUADOS CON EL
CESQT
SANDOVAL, J.I. & UNDA, S.G.
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México
Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la prevalencia del SQT en una muestra de
237 maestros mexicanos de cuatro instituciones de educación superior.
Métodos: Se utilizó el Cuestionario para la Evaluación del Síndrome de Quemarse por el
Trabajo para profesionales de la educación (CESQT-PE). La prevalencia se analizó siguiendo el
procedimiento de los puntos de referencia de la escala de frecuencia de respuesta. Se
encontró que el 2.5% de los participantes presentaban baja Ilusión en el trabajo, 21%
puntuaciones altas en desgaste psíquico, .4% altos niveles de indolencia y para culpa 3.8%. El
alpha de Cronbach fue de .73 para ilusión por el trabajo, .80 en desgate, .55 en indolencia y
.76 en culpa. En las variables sociodemográficas que sí se encontró diferencia significativa
son sexo, donde las mujeres reportan menor realización personal y en el tipo de contrato, en
donde los profesores de asignatura se encuentran con mayor cansancio emocional.
Resultados: En relación con variables laborales se encontró una correlación positiva entre el
SQT y sobre carga laboral con .463, satisfacción laboral de -.248, con percepción de
problemas de salud de .431 y con autoeficacia de -.205.
Conclusiones: Se concluye sobre la necesidad ampliar el estudio con más muestras de
docentes de educación superior y de intervenir para prevenir el deterioro de la salud de los
mismos.
332
LUGARES DE TRABAJO SALUDABLES EN
ENFERMERÍA: ANTECEDENTES Y
CONSECUENCIAS DE LA AGRESIÓN EN EL
TRABAJO. ESTUDIO PILOTO
TOPA-CANTISANO G.1, MORIANO, J.A.1, MORENO, F.J.1, MONTORO, P.1 &
MORIANO, S.2
Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, España
Hospital Universitario La Paz, España
1
2
Objetivos: Durante los últimos veinte años la investigación empírica ha acumulado evidencia
acerca de los efectos negativos de la violencia sufrida en el trabajo por parte de los
profesionales de diversas ocupaciones, en particular de la Enfermería, tanto en Norteamérica
como en otros países. Este fenómeno amenaza gravemente la Calidad de Vida Laboral del
colectivo y, como consecuencia, la prestación eficaz del servicio sanitario a la población. La
violencia en el trabajo no sólo incluye los actos físicos observables sino también las conductas
psicológicas. Las víctimas son sometidas a acoso, amenazas, intimidación, acoso sexual y
otras formas de violencia psicológica. La violencia en el trabajo puede adoptar diferentes
formatos y no hay unanimidad entre los autores a la hora de definirla, pero la mayoría
coincide en que se trata de un fenómeno universal con tres notas características: actos
negativos o violentos dirigidos hacia una persona en el contexto de su trabajo, incapacidad de
la víctima para defenderse y gravedad de las consecuencias indeseables sobre dicha víctima, a
corto y a largo plazo (Einarsen, 2000, Einarsen, Matthiesen, & Skogstad, 1998). La violencia
en el trabajo puede causar interferencias tanto inmediatas como a largo plazo de las
relaciones interpersonales y del ambiente de trabajo en general. Los costes de la violencia son
variados y alcanzan un amplio rango, incluyendo: (1) costes directos producidos por
accidentes, enfermedades, discapacidades y muerte, absentismo y abandono del personal, (2)
costes indirectos, como la reducción del rendimiento en el trabajo y (3) costes intangibles,
como el perjuicio a la imagen de la organización, la reducción de la motivación y la moral, los
bajos niveles de creatividad y la creación de un ambiente desfavorable para el trabajo. Sobre
la base de la literatura esperamos que el conflicto de rol sea un antecedente importante del
acoso laboral la identificación grupal, profesional y organizacional sean antecedentes con
influencia negativa en el acoso laboral el apoyo grupal y organizacional sean antecedentes con
influencia negativa en el acoso laboral el cansancio emocional sea una consecuencia negativa
del acoso laboral.
Métodos: El estudio se ha llevado a cabo con 270 profesionales de enfermería de Centros
públicos españoles.
Resultados: Los análisis avalan las hipótesis propuestas. En el Modelo de ecuaciones
estructurales presentado, la identificación organizacional y el apoyo organizacional no tienen el
impacto pronosticado sobre el acoso laboral. Sin embargo, el resto de las relaciones se verifica
de acuerdo con lo pronosticado. Además del acoso laboral, son antecedentes del cansancio
emocional el conflicto de rol y el apoyo organizacional, en sentido negativo.
Conclusiones: El estudio es exploratorio y su finalidad principal es poner a prueba un
conjunto de instrumentos para emplearlos más adelante en un estudio de mayor amplitud. Las
escalas muestran unas propiedades psicométricas aceptables y el modelo de relaciones
propuesto se verifica parcialmente.
333
LA IMPORTANCIA DE LA EVALUACION DE
RIESGOS PSICOSOCIALES EN EL SISTEMA
PENITENCIARIO
VALDEZ, H.
Dirección General de Prevención y Readaptación Social, México
Objetivo: Distinguir los riesgos psicosociales a los que está expuesto el empleado del sistema
penitenciario para desarrollar programas preventivos que reduzcan el impacto de dichos
riesgos en la salud, dinámica familiar y desempeño social del trabajador
Métodos: Partimos de nuestra experiencia directa de 14 años como empleados del sistema
penitenciario, la aplicación de pruebas como el CESQT, y la atención clínica de los trabajadores
en el esquema de terapia breve.
Resultados: En dos años y medio de trabajar con los empleados del sistema penitenciario
(personal de seguridad, técnico, jurídico, administrativo y directivo) hemos desarrollado un
mapa de riesgos psicosociales en los diferentes establecimientos penitenciarios de Jalisco (13
en total) detectando las zonas de más tensión y evaluando los elementos con que cuenta el
personal para disminuir el impacto de trabajar con delincuentes, no contar con un
reconocimiento social de su labor y el vivir las jornadas laborales con el riesgo latente de
motines, amenazas directas o indirectas e incluso participar directamente en un disturbio. Esto
es algo que generalmente la sociedad no conoce y por lo tanto no reconoce como un espacio
laboral en donde los empleados son impactados en sus propios valores, motivaciones e
ideales.
Conclusión: El trabajo en un sistema penitenciario debe ser visualizado como una labor con
efectos contundentes en la personalidad del individuo, quien no pocas veces es lanzado a la
convivencia con los antivalores de la subcultura penitenciaria sin la más mínima protección y
al final de esa exposición, es percibido por la sociedad como una persona corrupta e
irresponsable, en lugar de proporcionarle la asistencia requerida para recuperar su
autoestima, el sentido de su labor, su prestigio social y en algunas ocasiones, para sobrellevar
las secuelas físicas que dejan la exposición a un ambiente laboral violento tanto física como
psicológicamente. No olvidemos que dentro de las instituciones penitenciarias se corren todos
los riesgos laborales de una micro – ciudad y muy poco se hace por evitarlos en función de la
urgencia de fenómenos como la sobrepoblación carcelaria y la carrera por combatir el delito.
Evaluar los efectos psicosociales de ese ambiente de trabajo en el individuo, es mucho más
relevante en este contexto, pues es el área más comúnmente afectada para el trabajador
penitenciario.
334
NUEVAS ESTRATEGIAS METODOLOGICAS EN
LA DOCENCIA DE POSTGRADOS
VENTURA, M., MARTÍNEZ, I., SALANOVA, M., LLORENS, S. & CIFRE, E.
Universitat Jaume I., España
Objetivo: Las exigencias actuales de los nuevos planes de estudios universitarios, reclaman
estrategias docentes innovadoras y creativas que se ajusten a las necesidades de los
estudiantes. Las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TICs) son un valioso
recurso a considerar y que destaca por su eficacia en el postgrado ya que permite al
estudiante el acceso a la información como alternativa a la clase presencial, así como un mejor
aprovechamiento de los aprendizajes. En este contexto, el objetivo general de este estudio es
dar a conocer la metodología docente utilizada en la implantación y desarrollo del máster
oficial en Psicología del Trabajo, las Organizaciones y en Recursos Humanos de la Universitat
Jaume I en su primer año de impartición.
Métodos: Junto con las metodologías tradicionales, como las clases magistrales impartidas
por profesores de la Universitat Jaume I y de otras universidades junto con profesionales
expertos, se han utilizado tres herramientas innovadoras: el portfolio electrónico (e-folio), la
evaluación continuada del profesorado (con la emisión del correspondiente feedback), y las
sesiones de survey feedback con los estudiantes. Para implementar el primero se ha utilizado
la intranet de la Universidad (http://www.aulavirtual.uji.es) y ha sido la base para la gestión
toda la documentación e información, constituyendo el instrumento docente fundamental. El
segundo de los recursos, las evaluaciones continuas de profesorado, se han ejecutado para
cada uno de los profesores emitiendo los resultados en comparación con la media del resto de
profesores y para cada módulo, así como evaluación de la coordinación entre profesores de
cada asignatura. Por último, las sesiones de survey feedback, han consistido en puestas en
común y discusiones cara-a-cara entre profesores y estudiantes, y se han revelado como
potentes herramientas de control y seguimiento de consecución de los objetivos y
expectativas del máster y fuente de mejoras continuas de cara a la excelencia docente.
Finalmente en este trabajo se analizan aplicaciones prácticas y propuestas de mejora de cara
a la impartición del máster en esta segunda edición (curso 2008-2009).
335

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