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PART T WO
Introduction to
ICD-9-CM
chapter 1
ICD-9-CM Basics
chapter 2
LEARNING OUTCOMES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
chapter 3
1. Briefly discuss the background and history of ICD-9-CM.
chapter 4
2. Discuss the roles of the NCHS, CMS, AHIMA, and the AHA
in maintaining and updating ICD-9-CM codes.
chapter 5
3. Explain how to locate the periodic updates to ICD-9-CM
codes using the Internet.
4. Identify five uses of ICD-9-CM.
chapter 6
5. Discuss the importance of the ICD-9-CM Official Guidelines
for Coding and Reporting.
chapter 7
6. Describe the organization and content of Volumes 1, 2, and
3 of ICD-9-CM.
chapter 8
7. Interpret the formats, conventions, and symbols used in
ICD-9-CM.
chapter 9
chapter 10
chapter 11
8. List the basic process of assigning ICD-9-CM codes.
9. Describe the meaning of coding to the highest level of
specificity.
10. Identify common medical resources used to assist in the
assignment of accurate ICD-9-CM codes.
Key Terms
addenda
encoder
morbidity
AHA Coding Clinic for ICD-9-CM
eponym
mortality
Alphabetic Index (Volume 2)
etiology
Alphabetic Index to External Causes of
Disease and Injury
excludes
National Center for Health Statistics
(NCHS)
®
ICD-9-CM Coordination and
Maintenance Committee
not elsewhere classified (NEC)
ICD-9-CM Official Guidelines for
Coding and Reporting
notes
American Hospital Association (AHA)
omit code
braces
ICD-10-CM
parentheses
brackets
includes
section mark
carryover lines
International Classification of Diseases
Adapted for Indexing of Hospital
Records and Operation Classification
(ICDA)
subcategory
supplemental classification system
colon
International Classification of Diseases,
Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification
(ICD-9-CM)
conventions
lozenge
use additional code
cooperating parties
main term
V code
cross-references
manifestation
World Health Organization (WHO)
E code
modifiers
Alphabetic Index and Tabular List of
Procedures (Volume 3)
category
Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
chapter
code first underlying disease
not otherwise specified (NOS)
subclassification
subterm
Table of Drugs and Chemicals
Tabular List (Volume 1)
Chapter Outline
History and Purpose of ICD-9-CM
ICD-9-CM Basic Coding Process
Alphabetic Index (Volume 2)
Tabular List (Volume 1)
Alphabetic Index and Tabular List of Procedures (Volume 3)
ICD-9-CM Conventions
ICD-9-CM Coding Resources
Standard diagnosis codes represent diseases, injuries, and conditions that affect
health. Because these codes reflect the reasons for services rendered, accurately
reporting them is important for health care reimbursement, research, quality
measurement, and management decisions. Reporting a diagnosis code
communicates the reason for a medical visit, such as chest pain, and demonstrates
the medical necessity of the services. Knowledge of medical terminology,
anatomy and physiology, and current coding guidelines is essential to accurately
assign diagnosis codes. Resources are available for coders to use, such as printed
codebooks with useful enhancements, medical dictionaries, drug references, and
national guidelines.
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
51
History and Purpose of ICD-9-CM
The classification system used to record all diagnoses for medical visits
in the United States is the International Classification of Diseases,
Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, called ICD-9-CM. This coding
system is maintained by the National Center for Health Statistics
(NCHS) and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS),
both of which are departments of the federal Department of Health
and Human Services. The ICD-9-CM code set is organized in three
volumes. Volumes 1 and 2 are used to classify diagnoses, and Volume
3 is used to classify inpatient procedures that are billed by hospitals.
ICD-9-CM BACKGROUND
HIPAA TIP
Mandated Code Set
ICD-9-CM is the mandated code
set for medical diagnoses and
hospital inpatient services.
BILLING TIP
Inpatient and Outpatient
Procedures
Use Volume 3 of ICD-9-CM for
inpatient procedures, and use CPT
(covered in Chapters 6 through 10
of your program) for outpatient
procedures.
COMPLIANCE GUIDELINE
Use Current Codes
Compliant coding under HIPAA
requires codes to be current as of
the date of service. Do not report
codes that are no longer in the
code set.
INTERNET RESOURCE
ICD-9-CM Coordination
and Maintenance
Committee
www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/
otheract/icd9/maint/maint.htm
INTERNET RESOURCE
ICD-9-CM Code Updates
www.cms.hhs.gov/
ICD9ProviderDiagnosticCodes
52
Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
The ICD-9-CM code set is modeled after the International Classification of Diseases, which is used throughout the world and maintained
by the World Health Organization (WHO). In 1959, the U.S. Public
Health Service published the International Classification of Diseases, Adapted for Indexing of Hospital Records and Operation
Classification (ICDA). This system was revised over the years to
accommodate the need to classify morbidity, the rate of incidences of
diseases, and mortality (death) in the United States. In 1978, the World
Health Organization published a ninth revision of ICD called ICD-9.
The next year, in order to meet statistical data needs in the United
States, the U.S. Public Health Service published its modified code set
(the CM in the title means clinically modified). This expanded threevolume set is now known as ICD-9-CM. It includes more than thirteen
thousand codes and uses more digits in those codes than does ICD-9,
making it possible to specifically describe more diseases.
HIPAA considers Volumes 1 and 2 of ICD-9-CM to be the required
code set for diseases, injuries, impairments, other health problems and
their manifestations, and other causes of injury, disease, and impairment. Volume 3 of ICD-9-CM is the required code set for procedures
or actions performed for inpatients and billed by hospitals.
ICD-9-CM TODAY
To keep current with medical trends in disease management, ICD-9-CM
is updated every year. The responsibility for maintaining ICD-9-CM is
divided between the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), a
part of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), which maintains
Volumes 1 and 2, and CMS, which maintains Volume 3.
The federal ICD-9-CM Coordination and Maintenance Committee
considers coding modifications that have been proposed to ICD-9-CM.
This committee is cochaired by representatives from CMS and NCHS.
Interested parties from the public and private sectors can propose
changes to ICD-9-CM. The committee’s role is advisory, and the final
determination of code changes is made by the administrator of CMS
and the director of NCHS.
The Addenda: Updating ICD-9-CM NCHS and CMS release
ICD-9-CM updates called the addenda that take effect on October 1 and
April 1 of every year. The October 1 changes are the major updates; the
April 1 changes catch up on codes that were not included in the major
changes. The major new, invalid, and revised codes are posted on the
CMS Internet website by the beginning of July for HIPAA-mandated
use as of October 1 of the year. New codes must be used as of the date
they go into effect, and invalid (deleted) codes must not be used.
Codebooks The U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) publishes
the official ICD-9-CM code set on the Internet and in CD-ROM format
every year. Various commercial publishers include the updated codes in
annual coding books that are printed soon after the major updates are
released. Both physician practice (Volumes 1 and 2) and hospital-based
(all three volumes) codebooks are published. Many different features are
available in these codebooks, ranging from straightforward code listings
to enhanced manuals with many notes, illustrations, and tips helpful to
coders. No matter which codebook is chosen, medical coders must have
the current reference in order to select HIPAA-compliant codes.
OFFICIAL ICD-9-CM GUIDELINES
The HIPAA Final Rule, in addition to mandating the ICD-9-CM code
set, also requires the use of the ICD-9-CM Official Guidelines for
Coding and Reporting when codes are selected. These guidelines
assist in standardizing the assignment of ICD-9-CM codes for all
users. For example, they include the rules for selecting the principal
diagnosis when a patient has more than a single condition, assist the
coder in understanding the basic rules of code selection using ICD-9CM, and explain certain coding rules for specific medical conditions.
Table 2.1 outlines the Official Guidelines.
The Official Guidelines are the basis of consistent and accurate ICD9-CM reporting. They are written by NCHS and CMS and approved
by the cooperating parties, made up of the American Hospital
Association (AHA), the American Health Information Management
Association (AHIMA), CMS, and NCHS.
NOTE
The ICD-9-CM Official Guidelines
for Coding and Reporting are
reprinted in Appendix X of your
program. These guidelines will
be cited often as you build your
coding skill.
CODING TIP
Follow the Official Guidelines
Always base assignment of
ICD-9-CM codes on the
Official Guidelines.
PURPOSES OF ICD-9-CM
ICD-9-CM is a statistical tool used to convert medical diagnoses and
inpatient hospital procedures into numbers. The code set has five primary applications.
Reporting and Research
The statistical data are used for a
variety of reasons throughout the world to provide a consistent,
defined way of reporting. For example, to report that patients have
the disease of chest pain, medical coders assign an ICD-9-CM code
that always classifies chest pain the same way. Imagine trying to
INTERNET RESOURCE
ICD-9-CM Official Guidelines
www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/icd9/
icdguide.pdf
Table 2.1 Major Sections of the ICD-9-CM Official Guidelines
for Coding and Reporting
Section
Content
I
Conventions, general coding guidelines, and chapter-specific guidelines
II
Selection of Principal Diagnosis
III
Reporting Additional Diagnoses
IV
Diagnostic Coding and Reporting Guidelines for Outpatient Services
Appendix I
Present on Admission Reporting Guidelines
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
53
gather data on diseases if the conditions were listed alphabetically;
chest pain could be reported in different ways, such as “pain in the
chest” and “pain: chest.” Having diagnoses and procedures reported
in a consistent manner is essential for a variety of uses.
ICD-9-CM codes are also very important in the study of medication
effects on patients with certain diseases. For example, if a pharmaceutical company wants to research the effects of a new drug on patients
with lung cancer, ICD-9-CM codes can be used to identify a patient
population with that disease and to include those patients in the
study. Researchers can also use ICD-9-CM to look at trends in health
care among different patient groups. Federal agencies such as the
CDC conduct research and report health care data using ICD-9-CM
codes (see Figure 2.1). The CDC’s annual report of the number of
patients discharged from hospitals by disease and by age is based on
ICD-9-CM codes. At the national and state levels, the code set is used
to track cases of prevalent conditions such as HIV, influenza, pneumonia, and other communicable diseases.
Monitoring the Quality of Patient Care
The quality of
the care provided to patients can be measured in many ways, and
ICD-9-CM often plays an important role. For example, all of a hospital’s
patients with hip replacements may be asked to complete questionnaires
about their pain control after surgery. To perform this survey, researchers
identify the patients who underwent hip replacements by the ICD-9CM code listed in their medical records. Other examples include
monitoring quality of care by collecting statistics on treatment for heart
attacks and death rates of patients with particular diseases. Evaluating
quality of care for people with certain diagnoses or procedures allows
health care providers to improve services.
Communications and Transactions Because ICD-9-CM is a
nationally used classification system, the code meanings are a method
of consistent communication. Providers can communicate with payers
about the reason for services (the diagnoses) and the services provided
(the procedures) using ICD-9-CM. Payer policies often use code
numbers in communications to providers. For example, a Medicare
coverage policy is often explained by listing the diagnosis codes that
are appropriate for a set of procedure codes.
Reimbursement Much of the focus of ICD-9-CM is insurance
reimbursement. Payment for services rendered to hospital inpatients
is based on their diseases and conditions. If the health care visit is not
coded correctly, payment to the hospital could be incorrect. All
hospital inpatients must have their visits coded in ICD-9-CM. For
Medicare patients, these codes are then used to calculate a diagnosisrelated group (DRG) payment. Consideration of the diagnoses and
procedures and the patient’s gender, disposition, and age all contribute
to the DRG calculation and thus to a payment.
ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes assigned to outpatients also affect payment. ICD-9-CM is used to indicate the medical necessity of (reason
for) patients’ health care visits to physician offices, clinics, and outpatient hospital departments. For example, a diagnosis of chest pain is the
reason for a chest X-ray. The diagnosis code explains why the procedure was performed.
54
Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
FIGURE 2.1
CDC/NCHS ICD-9-CM Home Page
Administrative Uses Because ICD-9-CM is a standardized data
set used throughout the country, it is easy to use coded data to study
the types of patients seen and the services provided. For example,
staffing decisions can be made based on the number of patients with
a certain diagnosis. Using ICD-9-CM data, a hospital director knows
that the hospital performs a hundred hip replacements per month and
can schedule the appropriate amount of specialized nursing care for
those patients. Administrative budgeting, staffing, and marketing
tasks that require the evaluation of patient types and services can be
supported by review of ICD-9-CM codes reported for each patient.
INTERNET RESOURCE
ICD-10-CM Home Page
www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/
otheract/icd9/icd10cm.htm
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
55
Reimbursement Review
ICD-10-CM
A tenth edition of the ICD code set was published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1990. In the United States, the new Clinical Modification, the
ICD-10-CM, is being reviewed by health care professionals. ICD-10-CM is
expected to be adopted as the mandatory U.S. diagnosis code set. (Other
countries, such as Australia and Canada, already use their own modifications
of ICD-10.) The major differences are:
• The ICD-10 contains more than two thousand categories of diseases, many
more than the ICD-9. This creates more codes to permit more-specific
reporting of diseases and newly recognized conditions.
• Codes are alphanumeric, containing a letter followed by up to five numbers.
• A sixth digit is added to capture clinical details. For example, all codes that
relate to pregnancy, labor, and childbirth include a digit that indicates the
patient’s trimester.
• Codes are added to show which side of the body is affected for a disease or
condition that can be involved with the right side, the left side, or bilaterally.
For example, separate codes are listed for a malignant neoplasm of right
upper-inner quadrant of the female breast and for a malignant neoplasm of
left upper-inner quadrant of the female breast.
When ICD-10-CM is mandated for use, a crosswalk (a printed or computerized resource that connects two sets of data) will be made available. Although
the code numbers look different, the basic systems are very much alike. People
who are familiar with the current codes will find that their training quickly
applies to the new system.
Checkpoint 2.1
1. Each year, many new ICD-9-CM categories are created for diseases that have been discovered
since the previous revision. List examples of diseases that have been diagnosed in the last two
decades.
Identify the purpose of ICD-9-CM coding in the following cases as research (R), quality (Q),
communication (C), payment (P), or administrative (A).
2. A hospital board would like to develop a chemotherapy marketing campaign because the hospital
has had a reduction in services to patients over the last year.
3. A physician reported the wrong ICD-9-CM codes to Medicare and was reimbursed incorrectly;
the codes had to be resubmitted on a new health care claim.
4.
A hospital wants to send a patient survey to all patients who underwent inpatient colonoscopies
to determine whether the services were satisfactory.
5. A trend showed an increase in hospital postoperative complications, and a hospital wanted to
investigate this.
6. A company wants to determine whether its new drug for the treatment of diabetes is effective.
_______________________
56
Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
ICD-9-CM Basic Coding Process
Diagnostic coding requires knowledge of the format of each ICD-9-CM
volume and of the conventions and rules each uses to assist the coder
in finding different types of codes, such as those describing external
causes of injuries rather than codes describing the injuries themselves.
A codebook is the source of the codes; the Official Guidelines are the
source of the conventions and rules.
The three volumes of the Official Guidelines are:
1. Diseases and Injuries: Tabular List: Volume 1 is made up of seventeen chapters of disease descriptions and codes with two supplementary classifications and five appendixes.
2. Diseases and Injuries: Alphabetic Index: Volume 2 provides (a) an
index of the disease descriptions in the Tabular List, (b) an index
in table format of drugs and chemicals that cause poisoning, and
(c) an index of external causes of injury, such as accidents.
3. Procedures: Tabular List and Alphabetic Index: Volume 3 covers
inpatient procedures billed by hospitals.
Although the Tabular List and the Alphabetic Index are labeled
Volume 1 and Volume 2, they are related like the parts of a book. They
cover diagnostic coding, and the coding process starts with looking up
words. Thus the Alphabetic Index (Volume 2), which contains medical terms, is used first. After a code has been located in Volume 2 based
on the diagnostic statement, it is verified in Volume 1, known as the
Tabular List. This two-step process must be followed in order to code
correctly. This chapter follows the same order of use, with the
Alphabetic Index discussed first, followed by the Tabular List. (Some
publishers’ versions of the ICD-9-CM place the Alphabetic Index
before the Tabular List for the same reason.)
Volume 3 contains both the Alphabetic Index and Tabular List of
Procedures. To use this volume correctly, the coder finds the procedural term in the Index and verifies the associated code in the Tabular
List of Procedures.
Alphabetic Index (Volume 2)
Volume 2, the Alphabetic Index, is organized alphabetically by medical term, as its title suggests. It has three main sections:
1. Alphabetic Index to Diseases and Injuries
2. Table of Drugs and Chemicals
3. Alphabetic Index to External Causes of Disease and Injuries
The Alphabetic Index lists words that describe diseases or injuries,
such as pneumonia, bronchitis, infection, and fracture. The Table of
Drugs and Chemicals is an alphabetical listing different drugs and
chemicals such as aspirin, alcohol, gasoline, and penicillin. In coding
external causes of diseases, coders start with words such as fall, accident, burn, and cut that can be found in the Alphabetic Index to
External Causes of Disease and Injuries. Examples of entries in the
three main sections of Volume 2 are listed in Table 2.2.
CODING TIP
Official Guidelines:
Conventions and Rules
The first part of Section I of the
Official Guidelines is “A.
Conventions for the ICD-9-CM.”
CODING TIP
Coding Process
The correct coding process is to
locate a term and its code in the
Alphabetic Index and to verify
the code selection in the
Tabular List.
Step 1.
Review complete
medical
documentation.
Step 2.
Abstract the medical
conditions and
procedures that should
be coded.
Step 3.
Identify the main term
for each condition
and procedure.
Step 4.
Locate the main
terms in the
Alphabetic Index.
Step 5.
Verify the code in the Tabular
List by reading all notes and
applying appropriate
conventions and guidelines.
FIGURE 2.2
Basic ICD-9-CM Code
Assignment Process
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
57
Table 2.2 Organization of the Alphabetic
Index (Volume 2)
Section Description
Sample Entries
Alphabetic Index to Diseases and Injuries (A-Z)
Angina
Fracture
Pneumonia
Table of Drugs and Chemicals (A-Z)
Aspirin
Coumadin
Petroleum
Alphabetic Index to External Causes of
Disease and Injuries (A-Z)
Fire
Hit
Sting
MAIN TERMS AND SUBTERMS
The Alphabetic Index lists main terms that represent diseases, injuries, problems, complaints, drugs, and external causes of diseases or
conditions. Main terms are shown in bold print. In addition to common nouns, main terms can be abbreviations (such as AAT) or
eponyms, names or phrases based on people’s names, such as
Gamstorp’s disease.
Usually the main term in the Alphabetic Index is a disease, not a site
of disease. This point is demonstrated by studying the underlined
words in these entries, which are examples of the main terms the
medical coder locates in the Alphabetic Index to begin the coding process. Note that for a broken arm, for example, the term fracture (not
humerus) is printed.
•
•
•
•
•
CODING TIP
Alphabetizing Words
The entries in the Alphabetic
Index are organized on letterby-letter alphabetizing, but the
following are ignored: (1) single
spaces between words,
(2) single hyphens within words,
and (3) the s in the possessive
form of a word.
58
Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
Urinary tract infection
Benign prostatic hypertrophy
Aspiration pneumonia
Fractured humerus
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Main terms are followed by indented words that provide additional
specifications of a disease. Words that are indented under a main term
are called subterms. Each subterm under a main term may have additional indented terms (sub-subterms). A subterm or a sub-subterm is
indented three character spaces from the term above it. For example,
as shown in Figure 2.3, the first subterm under the main term bronchitis
is with. The second subterm under the main term bronchitis is acute or
subacute. Subterms are listed alphabetically except for those with or
without, which are always the first listed subterms.
EXAMPL E To code acute chemical bronchitis, first locate the main
term bronchitis, then the subterm acute, and then the sub-subterm
chemical. This results in code 506.0.
Figure 2.3 illustrates some of the entries in ICD-9-CM relating to
bronchitis, a common respiratory condition. Coders will need familiarity with the disease processes relating to respiratory illnesses,
which are reviewed in the pathophysiology refresher on the following pages.
Bronchitis (diffuse) (hypostatic) (infectious)
(inflammatory) (simple) 490
with
emphysema—see Emphysema
influenza, flu, or grippe 487.1
obstruction airway, chronic 491.20
with
acute bronchitis 491.22
exacerbation (acute) 491.21
tracheitis 490
acute or subacute 466.0
with bronchospasm or obstruction 466.0
chronic 491.8
acute or subacute 466.0
with
bronchospasm 466.0
obstruction 466.0
tracheitis 466.0
chemical (due to fumes or vapors) 506.0
due to
fumes or vapors 506.0
radiation 508.8
FIGURE 2.3
Format of the Alphabetic
Index (Volume 2)
INDENTION AND CARRYOVER LINES
The use of the indented format helps coders see that the word chemical
(in Figure 2.3) refers specifically to acute or subacute, which refer to the
main term bronchitis. It is important to always observe this pattern of
indention. The subterm indentions are listed in strict letter-by-letter
alphabetical order below the term that is modified, with the exception
of the subterm with, which is always listed first.
There are other types of indentions. Indentions that are six characters in length represent carryover lines. These lines are used when an
entry will not fit on a single line. For example, the terms in parentheses after the main term bronchitis (diffuse, hypostatic, infectious, inflammatory, simple) are related to bronchitis, but because they all do not fit
on one line, they are carried over to the next line.
CODING TIP
Alphabetizing Numbers
In the Alphabetic Index, numeric
subterms appear before
alphabetic subterms. Numbers
appear in numerical order even
if they are spelled out in words
(first, second, third ).
Checkpoint 2.2
Using the Alphabetic Index of ICD-9-CM, answer the following questions.
1. In which section of the Volume 2 would you locate the term carbon monoxide?
2. In which section of Volume 2 would you locate the word laceration?
3. In which section of Volume 2 would you locate the word parachuting?
4. What main term is used to code burn of the hand?
5. What main term is used to code fall from tree?
6. What main term used to code poisoning from cocaine?
7. What is the first subterm under the main term earth falling?
8. What is the first subterm under the main term pain?
9. Using the Alphabetic Index only, code urinary tract infection.
10. Using the Alphabetic Index only, code progressive atrophic paralysis.
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
59
Pathophysiology Refreshers
The Respiratory System
The respiratory tract consists of two major parts: the
upper respiratory tract (generally regarded as including
the sinuses, nose, nasopharynx, and larynx) and the lower
respiratory tract (the trachea, bronchi, and lungs). Both
the upper and lower tracts are the sites of infections,
including major diseases that occur and are treated in the
United States and around the
world. In addition, allergies and
environmental hazards cause many
disorders of the respiratory system.
Respiratory Infections
Sinusitis is a common upper respiratory infection. It is classified as
accessory (in addition to the nose),
nasal (primarily in the nasal sinuses),
hyperplastic (accompanied by swelling), nonpurulent (without the production of pus), purulent (with the A chest X-ray.
production of pus), and chronic
(recurrent over time). In addition, sinusitis is categorized
by location as ethmoidal or frontal. Tonsillitis is classified in a
number of ways (such as acute, staphylococcal, and ulcerative).
It is often found along with adenoiditis, which itself can be
chronic or acute. Pharyngitis, an inflammation of the pharynx,
is classified in a number of ways. For example, it can be
influenzal, herpetic (associated with Herpes, streptococcal, or
chronic, among other classifications. Similarly, laryngitis is
categorized in a numbers of ways, such as acute, infective,
pneumococcal, and spasmodic. The general term sore throat
usually refers to pharyngitis but can include laryngitis and
other inflammations of the area
around the pharynx. Epiglottitis, rhinitis (nasal inflammation or a runny
nose), and laryngotracheitis are just
a few examples of other upper
respiratory infections. Some respiratory infections are caused by
allergies and are thus classified as
allergic.
The lower respiratory tract is
also the site of acute respiratory
infections. Bronchitis is classified as
acute, simple, infectious, inflammatory,
or hypostatic (caused by hypostasis,
lowered blood flow). It is also categorized based on whether it is viral, purulent, or with tracheitis, as well as in a number of other ways. Pleruisy is an
inflammation of the serous membranes of the lungs and is
Tabular List (Volume 1)
As shown in Table 2.3, the Tabular List has three divisions:
1. The chapters containing the diagnosis codes
2. The supplementary classification containing codes for nondisease
factors and for external causes of injury and poisoning
3. Appendixes
CHAPTERS
The first major section of the Tabular List includes the seventeen chapters of disease and injuries. These chapters represent different categories of disease and body systems such as respiratory diseases and
circulatory diseases. The codes are listed in numerical order and range
from 001.0 through 999.9.
The chapters of diagnosis codes are used to verify codes first looked
up in the Alphabetic Index. For example, to verify the code 486, the coder
looks in Chapter 8, Diseases of the Respiratory System, of Volume 2.
60
Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
classified in a number of ways, including acute, chronic, residual (remaining in an organ following another condition), and
unresolved (ongoing and not cured). Empyema is a purulent
infection in the pleural space. It is classified as interlobar
(between the lobes of the lungs) or encapsulated (localized),
among other ways. In addition, it may appear with or without a fistula.
COPD, Pneumonia, and Influenza
nied by wasting), chronic, and postural (intensified when
standing), and it can be categorized as accompanying other
conditions (such as with bronchitis).
Pneumonia is classified in many ways (acute, hemorrhagic,
or septic, for example). It is divided into two main types:
viral and bacterial. Viral pneumonias are usually categorized
by the specific virus (such as pneumonia due to SARS-associated coronavirus), just as bacterial pneumonias are categorized by the specific bacteria (as Streptococcus, unspecified
or Streptococcus, Group A). Pneumonia can
also be due to other specified organisms
or to other infectious disease such as
whooping cough, or it may be caused by
aspiration.
As mentioned above, the lower respiratory tract is the site of a number of infections. It is also the site of serious
respiratory disorders. The category
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and
Allied Conditions includes chronic bronchiNormal
Asthmatic
Other Respiratory
bronchiole
bronchiole,
tis, asthma, emphysema, and other chronic
showing
Conditions
airway obstructions. Some of these condiconstriction
There are many other respiratory conditions may result from allergies or chemical
A normal airway compared
tions, some of which are mechanical, such
exposure. Asthma is classified as bronchial
with one obstructed by
as a deviated septum or the mechanical com(with bronchial obstructions), catarrh asthma.
plication of a tracheostomy. Pneumothorax is
(with inflammation of mucous memthe accumulation of air or gas in the pleural cavity, somebranes), or spasmodic (occurring intermittently). It is also
times leading to a lung collapse. A pneumothorax may be
categorized in a variety of other ways, such as by cause
acute or chronic. It is also categorized by timing or cause
(allergic or exercise-induced), by accompanying conditions
(congenital if at birth, postoperative, or due to an accidental
(with hay fever), or by age (childhood). Emphysema is also
puncture).
classified in a number of ways, such as atrophic (accompa-
SUPPLEMENTARY CLASSIFICATIONS
To report or classify events or circumstances, a supplemental classification system must be used. The supplementary codes are ICD-9-CM
codes, but they do not reflect diagnoses or injuries.
V Codes V codes, codes that start with the letter V, are the
Supplementary Classification of Factors Influencing Health Status
and Contact with Health Services. They are found immediately
after code 999.9 in the first section of the Tabular List. This classification reports circumstances other than disease or injury such as
the following:
•
A person who is not currently sick encounters health care services.
E X A M P L ES
•
A well-child visit; a visit for a routine chest X-ray.
A person with a resolving disease or injury or a long-term chronic
condition encounters the health care system for specific aftercare
for that disease.
EXAMPLE
V58.1: Encounter for chemotherapy.
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
61
Table 2.3 Organization of the Tabular List (Volume 1)
Chapter
Category
Code Range
Classification of Diseases and Injuries
1
Infectious and Parasitic Diseases
001–139
2
Neoplasms
140–239
3
Endocrine, Nutritional, and Metabolic Diseases,
and Immunity Disorders
240–279
4
Diseases of the Blood and Blood-Forming Organs
280–289
5
Mental Disorders
290–319
6
Diseases of the Central Nervous System and Sense Organs
320–389
7
Diseases of the Circulatory System
390–459
8
Diseases of the Respiratory System
460–519
9
Diseases of the Digestive System
520–579
10
Diseases of the Genitourinary System
580–629
11
Complications of Pregnancy, Childbirth, and the Puerperium
630–677
12
Diseases of the Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue
680–709
13
Diseases of the Musculoskeletal System and Connective Tissue
710–739
14
Congenital Anomalies
740–759
15
Certain Conditions Originating in the Perinatal Period
760–779
16
Symptoms, Signs, and Ill-Defined Conditions
780–799
17
Injury and Poisoning
800–999
Supplementary Classifications
V Codes
Supplementary Classification of Factors Influencing Health Status
and Contact with Health Services
V01–V86
E Codes
Supplementary Classification of External Causes of Injury and
Poisoning
E800–E999
Appendixes
A
Morphology of Neoplasms
B
Glossary of Mental Disorders (deleted in 2004)
C
Classification of Drugs by American Hospital Formulary Services List
Number and Their ICD-9-CM Equivalents
D
Classification of Industrial Accidents According to Agency
E
List of Three-Digit Categories
•
When a patient is being evaluated preoperatively, a code from
category V72.8 is listed first, followed by a code for the condition
that is the reason for the surgery.
V72.81: Preoperative cardiovascular examination.
414.01: Arteriosclerotic heart disease of native coronary artery.
EXAMPL ES
•
62
Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
A circumstance or problem influences a patient’s health status, but
is not itself a current illness or injury. For example, codes V10–V19
cover history. If a person with a family history of colon cancer
presents with rectal bleeding, the problem is listed first, and the V
code is assigned as an additional code.
569.3: Hemorrhage of rectum and anus.
V16.0: Family history of malignant neoplasm.
E X A M P L ES
•
In the case of a newborn, the V code indicates the birth status.
BILLING TIP
Use V Codes to Show
Medical Necessity
V codes such as family history or
a patient’s previous condition help
demonstrate why a service was
medically necessary.
EXAMPLE V30.01: Single liveborn born in hospital via cesarean
delivery.
V codes classify the reasons for health care services or provide supplemental information about a person’s health.
A V code can be used either as a primary code for an encounter or
as an additional code. It is researched the same way as other codes,
using the Alphabetic Index to point to the term’s code and the
Supplementary Classification in the Tabular List to verify it.
The terms that indicate the need for V codes, however, are not the
same as other medical terms. They usually have to do with a reason
for an encounter other than a disease or its complications. When
found in diagnostic statements, the words listed in Table 2.4 often
point to V codes.
E Codes Following the V code section are the E codes, the
Supplemental Classification of External Causes of Injury and Poisoning.
These codes classify the causes of injury, poisoning, and adverse events
and are used to gather statistics relating to these occurrences. They are
unique in that they are never listed alone or first; rather, the condition
is reported first, followed by the E code to reflect the circumstance. For
example, if a patient presented to the office for a sprained finger (diagnosis) after falling from a chair at home (E codes), three codes would
CODING ALERT
E codes are never reported
alone or first.
BILLING TIP
Use E Codes to Show Who
Is Responsible for Payment
E codes for trauma and accidents
help payers determine which
insurance applies. They are
especially useful on workers’
compensation claims.
Table 2.4 Terminology Associated with V Codes
Term
Example
Contact
V01.1: Contact with tuberculosis
Contraception
V25.1: Insertion of intrauterine contraceptive device
Counseling
V61.11: Counseling for victim of spousal and partner abuse
Examination
V70: General medical examination
Fitting of
V52: Fitting and adjustment of prosthetic device and implant
Follow-up
V67.0: Follow-up examination following surgery
Health, healthy
V20: Health supervision of infant or child
History (of)
V10.05: Personal history of malignant neoplasm, large intestine
Replacement
V42.0: Kidney replaced by transplant
Screening/test
V73.2: Special screening examination for measles
Status
V44: Artificial opening status
Supervision (of)
V23: Supervision of high-risk pregnancy
Therapy
V57.3: Speech therapy
Vaccination,
inoculation
V06: Need for prophylactic vaccination and inoculation
against combinations of disease
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
63
CODING TIP
Locate the Appendixes
Take the time to find the
appendixes in the codebook
you are using; each publisher
determines the extent to which
these appendixes are included.
be used to report the visit: a code for sprained finger (Chapter 17 in the
Tabular List), a code for falling from a chair (E code), and a code to
show that the fall happened at home (E code). Without the E codes, the
circumstances and places of injury would not be known.
APPENDIXES
The last section of the Tabular List includes the appendixes. They are
used for specific coding purposes and by specific types of facilities. For
example, Appendix A, Morphology of Neoplasms, lists the morphology codes that are used to report cancers in specialized cancer facilities.
The following appendixes are part of Volume 1 and are typically
located in the back of the codebook, depending on the publisher:
Appendix
Topic
A
Morphology of Neoplasms
B
Glossary of Mental Disorders (officially removed
October 1, 2004)
C
Classification of Drugs by American Hospital Formulary
Service List Number and ICD-9-CM Equivalents
D
Classification of Industrial Accidents
E
List of Three-Digit Categories
Checkpoint 2.3
In what section of the Tabular List would each of the following codes be found, and on what page
numbers in your codebook? For example, code V45.1 is found in the Tabular List of V codes.
1. 486
2. E816.1
3. 28:12
4. M9044/3
5. V 02.51
TABULAR LIST FORMAT
ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes range from three digits (numbers) to five
digits in length. The first three digits identify the broad category of the
disease, and the additional digits are used to more specifically identify
the details of the disease. The format of the Tabular List reflects this
method of identifying diagnoses:
64
Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
Chapter
Range of codes
Section
Range of codes within a chapter
Category
Three-digit code
Subcategory
Four-digit code
Subclassification
Five-digit code
Chapters and Sections Each of the seventeen chapters in the
Tabular List contains a series of three-digit codes that represent a body
system or group of diseases. Chapters are divided into sections. A section contains a group of numbers related to a more specific disease
group. For example, Chapter 1 covers infectious and parasitic diseases
(001–139). The first section in the chapter is titled Intestinal Infectious
Diseases (001–009), and the second section is titled Tuberculosis
(010–018). The sections in ICD-9-CM are not specifically labeled, but
they are important in understanding the format of the tabular list.
Figure 2.4 shows a chapter and the first section in that chapter.
1. INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC DISEASES (001–139)
Note: Categories for “late effects” of infectious and
parasitic diseases are to be found at 137–139.
Includes: Diseases generally recognized as communicable or transmissible as
well as a few diseases of unknown but possible infectious origin.
Excludes:
acute respiratory infections (406–466)
carrier or suspected carrier of infectious organism (V02.0–V02.9)
certain localized infections
influenza (487.0–487.8)
FIGURE 2.4
Example of Tabular List Entries
INTESTINAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES (001–009)
Excludes:
helminthiases (120.0–129)
001 CHOLERA
001.0 DUE TO VIBRIO CHOLERAE
001.1 DUE TO VIBRIO CHOLERAE EL TOR
001.9 CHOLERA, UNSPECIFIED
002 TYPHOID AND PARATYPHOID FEVERS
002.0 TYPHOID FEVER
Typhoid (fever) (infection) [any site]
002.1 PARATYPHOID FEVER A
002.2 PARATYPHOID FEVER B
002.3 PARATYPHOID FEVER C
002.9 PARATYPHOID FEVER, UNSPECIFIED
003 OTHER SALMONELLA INFECTIONS
Includes: Infection or food poisoning by
Salmonella [any serotype]
003.0 SALMONELLA GASTROENTERITIS
Salmonellosis
003.1 SALMONELLA SPETICEMIA
003.2 LOCALIZED SALMONELLA
INFECTIONS
003.20 LOCALIZED SALMONELLA INFECTION,
UNSPECIFIED
003.21 SALMONELLA MENINGITIS
003.22 SALMONELLA PNEUMONIA
003.23 SALMONELLA ARTHRITIS
003.24 SALMONELLA OSTEOMYELITIS
003.29 OTHER
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
65
Pathophysiology Refreshers
blood glucose readings). Reflecting this, there are four
subclassifications (0 ⴝ Type II or unspecified; 1 ⴝ Type I
The endocrine system consists of a group of glands that
not stated as uncontrolled; 2 ⴝ Type II or unspecified
secrete hormones. The oversecretion or undersecretion
type uncontrolled; 3 ⴝ Type I uncontrolled). Gestational
of these hormones is responsible for many disorders of
diabetes is Type II diabetes that appears only during
the body. Endocrine disorders are closely related to the
pregnancy.
functions of the body’s metabolism.
Diabetes is also related to many complications, such as
neuropathy (nerve disease), retinitis (inflammation of the
Metabolic Disorders
retina), peripheral vascular disease with ulcers, and coma with
ketoacidosis. Diabetic wound
Diabetes is a major contributor to
care is necessitating the openrising health care costs in the United
ing of new wound care centers
States. Approximately 7 percent of
as the incidence of Type II diathe population has diabetes, and the
betes increases. Diabetes is also
rate of growth of cases of diabetes is
classified as without mention of
increasing rapidly. In addition, adultcomplication. Diabetes often
onset diabetes is now appearing at
affects kidney and heart funcmuch younger ages. Much of this is
tioning, so some of the classifiattributed to lifestyle factors—less
cations have to do with kidney
exercise and greater intake of caloconditions or blood vessel disries starting at an early age.
A yearly diabetic eye exam is essential
ease. Hypoglycemia (abnormally
There are two basic types of dia- to maintain eye health.
low glucose level in the blood)
betes mellitus: Type 1 ( juvenile type)
may occur if too much insulin is taken to control diabetes,
and Type II. Diabetes may be described in documentaor it may be spontaneous. It is also classified in a number
tion as brittle (unpredictable, with large fluctuations in
of different ways, such as infantile or reactive.
blood sugar), congenital (present at birth), familial (presObesity is calculated according to growth charts supplied
ent in close relations), uncontrolled, severe, slight, or withby the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (www.cdc.
out complication. Diabetes is either controlled (with
gov).There are pediatric growth charts (ages two to twenty)
blood glucose measured often and kept within reasonand adult growth charts (over age twenty) that calculate
able limits) or uncontrolled (with great variations in the
The Endocrine System
Categories, Subcategories, and Subclassifications Three
terms are used to identify the types of specific codes: category, subcategory, and subclassification. Category codes are three digits in length;
subcategory codes have four digits; and subclassification codes are
five digits long. To interpret each code, the medical coder reads the
description at the category level, subcategory level, and subclassification level. In some cases, notes at the chapter or section levels apply to
the entire chapter or section.
To find the correct code for transient arthropathy of
the upper arm, which is 716.42, first read the information with 716.4
in the Tabular List. Note that a fifth digit is required. Next, read the
fifth-digit subclassification at the beginning of the category to choose
the correct digit.
EXAMPL E
An important coding rule is that a disease must be classified to its
highest level of specificity. This means that all digits assignable for a
specific disease must be used. For example, code 250.00–diabetes
66
Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
the BMI (body mass index). Obesity and morbid obesity are
based on the weights listed in those charts. Obesity is classified in a number of ways, including familial and nutritional.
Other metabolic disorders include
disorders of carbohydrate metabolism
and lipid metabolism. Lack of absorption of various minerals, such as calcium, can also cause disorders.
enlargement), dwarfism (abnormally diminished growth),
and gigantism (abnormally large stature) are all pituitary
disorders.
The secretions of the testes
and ovaries—the male and female
sex glands—control menstrual
cycles in the female and sexual
functioning in both sexes. Premature menopause before age forty
Other Glandular
may result from surgical removal
Disorders
of the ovaries or from unknown
A goiter is an enlargement of the
causes. Hormone replacement therthyroid gland. Goiters have many
apy is used to treat this condition
different causes and are classified in
as well as the symptoms of menoa variety of ways. For example,
pause occurring at a normal age.
there are juvenile goiters, goiters due
Erectile dysfunction may also be
to iodine deficiency, and internal goitreated with hormones and other
ters. Hypothyroidism (deficiency of
medications. There are other
thyroid secretions) may have a
conditions, such as polycystic ovanumber of causes. Hyperthyroidism
ries, that are controlled by the sex
(overabundance of thyroid secreglands.
tions) is also categorized in a variCushing’s syndrome results from
ety of ways, such as preadult and
hypersecretion of the adrenal
recurrent. Grave’s disease is one form
glands. Addison’s disease is the
of hyperthyroidism. Thyrotoxicosis,
result of hyposecretion of the
A diabetic patient receives instruction
excessive concentrations of thyroid
adrenal glands. Aldosteronism
on glucose monitoring.
secretions in the body, can be fatal.
(oversecretion of aldosterone
The pituitary gland plays an important role in normalfrom the adrenal glands) can cause hypertension and fluid
izing growth. Acromegaly (abnormal head, hand, and foot
retention.
mellitus—requires the use of five digits. Using only the first three
digits—category code 250—reports only that the patient has diabetes,
rather than a specific type or degree of control. Correct diagnosis
coding using ICD-9-CM requires adding both a fourth digit
(subcategory) to explain the presence of diabetic complications
(such as 250.7 to report peripheral circulatory disorders) and a fifth
digit (subclassification) to provide detail regarding the type and
control of diabetes.
Fifth-digit subcategory codes are found throughout the Tabular
List. For example, as shown for category 250 in Figure 2.5, the fifth
digits may be shown in a table at the category level (right below the
category entry). Figure 2.5 illustrates the entries in ICD-9-CM relating
to diabetes mellitus, a common disease of the endocrine system.
Coders will need familiarity with these disease processes, which are
reviewed in the pathophysiology refresher on pages xx–xx.
Another typical format for presenting required fifth digits is shown
in Figure 2.6, where five-digit codes are indented under a subcategory
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
67
FIGURE 2.5
Fifth Digits for Reporting
Diabetes Mellitus
250 DIABETES MELLITUS
Excludes
gestational diabetes (648.8)
hyperglycemia NOS (790..6)
neonatal diabetes mellitus (775.1)
nonclinical diabetes (790.29)
The following fifth-digit subclassification is for use with category 250:
CODING CAUTION
When Four Digits
Are Correct
When a five-digit code is not
available, a four-digit code is
correct. For example, if a patient
has a malignant neoplasm of the
stomach (category 151), a fourth
digit is required to reflect the
exact location of the neoplasm
in the stomach, such as 151.4 for
a malignant neoplasm of the
body of the stomach.
FIGURE 2.6
Five-Digit Codes for
Reporting Obstructive
Chronic Bronchitis
CODING ALERT
E Code Format
E codes are the exception to
the format rule that all
diagnosis codes contain three
digits before the decimal
point. E codes have four digits
before the decimal point.
CODING TIP
Select the Most Specific Code
Always code to the highest
level of specificity—the most
number of digits available.
68
Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
0 TYPE II OR UNSPECIFIED TYPE, NOT STATED
AS UNCONTROLLED
Fifth-digit 0 is for use for type II patients,
even if the patient requires insulin.
Use additional code, if applicable, for associated long-term (current)
insulin use (V58.67)
1 TYPE I [JUVENILE TYPE], NOT STATED
AS UNCONTROLLED
2 TYPE II OR UNSPECIFIED TYPE, UNCONTROLLED
Fifth-digit 2 is for use for type II patients, even if the patient
requires Insulin.
Use additional code, if applicable, for associated long-term (current)
insulin use (V58.67)
3 TYPE I [JUVENILE TYPE], UNCONTROLLED
491.2 OBSTRUCTIVE CHRONIC BRONCHITIS
Bronchitis:
Emphysematous
Obstructive (chronic) (diffuse)
Bronchitis with:
Chronic airway obstruction
Emphysema
Excludes:
asthmatic bronchitis (acute) NOS (493.9)
chronic obstructive asthma (493.2)
491.20 WITHOUT EXACERBATION
C/C
Emphysema with chronic bronchitis
491.21 WITH (ACUTE) EXACERBATION
C/C
Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease [COPD]
Decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary dsease [COPD}
Decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]
with exacerbation
Excludes
chronic osbstructive asthma with
acute exacerbation (493.22)
491.22 WITH ACUTE BRONCHITIS
C/C
code, as shown for code 491.2 . In other instances, the fifth digits are
listed and described at the section level, as is done under the codes for
complications mainly related to pregnancy (640–648). In all these
instances, the fifth digit has to be assigned for the ICD-9-CM code to
report the disease completely. Fifth-digit notations are also found in
the Tabular List to External Causes of Injury. For example, code E905
requires a fifth digit to reflect the type of animal or plant that caused
poisoning or a toxic reaction.
Checkpoint 2.4
Using Volume 1, write the narrative description for the following codes.
1. 486
2. 585.2
3. 153.3
4. 250.71
5. E812.0
6. V21.32
7. 493.90
8. 718.65
9. 808.41
10. 276.51
Alphabetic Index and Tabular List of
Procedures (Volume 3)
Volume 3 of ICD-9-CM classifies procedures performed in the hospital
inpatient setting, and the codes are used only by the facility. They are
not used to classify procedures performed by physicians in any
setting. Volume 3 contains both an Alphabetic Index to Procedures
and a Tabular List of Procedures.
CODING CAUTION
Use the Alphabetic Index
and the Tabular List
All codes found in the Alphabetic
Index must be verified in the
Tabular List before the final
codes are assigned.
ALPHABETIC INDEX TO PROCEDURES
The Alphabetic Index to Procedures is formatted alphabetically by
type of procedure, eponym, or operation. Some of the main terms in
this volume are reduction, removal, incision, appendectomy, and Keller
(eponym). The format of subterms and carryover lines applies in
this volume as well. The subterms as, by, and with are unique to the
Alphabetic Index to Procedures; they immediately follow the main
terms to which they refer. The remaining subterms are listed in
alphabetical order. For example, the main term repair and subterm
knee are used to find the code for repair of the knee. 81.47. If the
repair was of the collateral ligament of the knee, code 81.46 would
be assigned.
CODING TIP
Coding Volume 3 Procedures
Always look at all the subterms
to obtain the most specific
code representing the
procedure performed.
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
69
TABULAR LIST OF PROCEDURES
Once a code has been located in the Alphabetic Index to Procedures of
Volume 3, the code is verified in the Tabular List of Procedures. The format of the Volume 3 Tabular List is similar to the format of the Volume 1
Tabular List to Diseases and Injuries. Volume 3 procedure codes contain
three or four digits, with two characters placed to the left of the decimal
point. Coding to the highest level of specificity is required, meaning that
the code must include the most digits available.
21.1: Incision of the nose.
21.22: Biopsy of the nose.
EXAMPL ES
The two codes in the example are two completely different procedures. Figure 2.7 shows an example from Chapter 7, Operations on the
Cardiovascular System (35–39). Code 35.11 is assigned to classify an
open heart valvuloplasty of aortic valve without replacement.
FIGURE 2.7
Example from Tabular List
of Procedures
35 OPERATIONS ON VALVES AND SEPTA OF HEART
Includes: Stenotomy (median) (transverse), as operative approach
Thoracotomy, as operative approach
Code also cardiopulmonary bypass [extracorporeal circulation]
[heart-lung machine] (39.61)
35.0 CLOSED HEART VALVOTOMY
Excludes:
percutaneous (balloon) valvuloplasty (35.96)
35.00 CLOSED HEART VAVLOTOMY, UNSPECIFIED VALVE
NON-SPECIFIC O.R. PROC
35.01 CLOSED HEART VALVOTOMY, AORTIC VALVE
35.02 CLOSED HEART VALVOTOMY, MITRAL VALVE
35.03 CLOSED HEART VALVOTOMY, PULMONARY VALVE
35.04 CLOSED HEART VALVOTOMY, TRICUSPID VALVE
35.1 OPEN HEART VALVULOPLASTY WITHOUT REPLACEMENT
Includes:
Open heart valvotomy
Code also cardiopulmonary bypass, if performed [extracorporeal circulation]
[heart-lung machine] (39.61)
CODING TIP
What Type of ICD-9-CM
Code Is It?
It is easy to determine whether
an ICD-9-CM code represents
a diagnosis or a procedure. A
diagnosis code has three to
five digits with a decimal point
after the third digit. A
procedure code contains three
or four digits with a decimal
point after the second digit.
For example, 434.91 is a
diagnosis code, and 45.23 is
a procedure code.
70
Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
Excludes:
percutaneous (balloon) valvuloplasty (35.96)
that associated with repair of:
endocardial cushion defect (35.54, 35.63, 35.73)
valvular defect associated with atrial and ventricular septal defects
(35.54, 35.63, 35.73)
35.10 OPEN HEART VALVULOPLASTY WITHOUT
REPLACEMENT, UNSPECIFIED VALVE
NON-SPECIFIC O.R. PROC
35.11 OPEN HEART VALVULOPLASTY OF AORTIC VALVE
WITHOUT REPLACEMENT
35.12 OPEN HEART VALVULOPLASTY OF MITRAL VALVE
WITHOUT REPLACEMENT
35.13 OPEN HEART VALVULOPLASTY OF PULMONARY
VALVE WITHOUT REPLACEMENT
35.14 OPEN HEART VALVULOPLASTY OF TRICUSPID
VALVE WITHOUT REPLACEMENT
Checkpoint 2.5
Using Volume 3, answer the following questions.
1. What is the first subterm under the main term lysis?
2. In which section of Volume 3(Alphabetic Index or Tabular List) would you find the main term
nephrectomy?
3. Which procedure was performed if code 55.4 was reported?
4. Which procedure was performed if code 84.11 was reported?
5. Is code 75.6 a valid code (meaning, does it have the correct number of characters)?
Explain your answer.
ICD-9-CM Conventions
Just as the basic rules of the road help people drive safely, so do coding
conventions guide the use of ICD-9-CM. Conventions or notations
appear throughout ICD-9-CM. The cardinal rule is that codes are
never selected from one volume alone; always start with the Alphabetic
Index and finish by verifying the code in the Tabular List. Specific
details and examples of coding conventions follow and are summarized in Tables 2.5 and 2.6.
CODING TIP
Follow the Official Guidelines
for Conventions
ICD-9-CM conventions and
rules are also covered in
Section I, Part A of the Official
Guidelines.
MODIFIERS
Modifiers (also called parenthetical or nonessential modifiers) are
found in the Alphabetic Index (Volume 2) and in the Alphabetic
Index to Procedures in Volume 3. The modifiers are terms surrounded
by parentheses. The presence or absence of these parenthetical terms
in diagnostic statements has no affect on code assignment. For example, in the Alphabetic Index for the entry diabetes, the nonessential
modifiers brittle, congenital, familial, mellitus, and so on are listed. If
documentation states that the diagnosis of diabetes is familial diabetes or poorly controlled diabetes, the same code is researched in the
Tabular List.
EXAMPLE
Diabetes, diabetic (brittle) (congenital) (familial) (mellitus) (poorly
controlled) (severe) (slight) (without complication) 250.0
Other modifiers, the subterms, do affect code assignment because
they provide clarification, such as differences or specifics about the
site. Each of these modifiers is presented in an individual line entry
under the main term:
EXAMPLE
Ganglion 727.43
joint 727.41
of yaws (early) (late) 102.6
periosteal (see also Periostitis) 730.3
tendon sheath (compound) (diffuse) 727.42
tuberculous (see also Tuberculosis) 015.9
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
71
Table 2.5 Summary List of Conventions Used in ICD-9-CM Volumes 1 and 2
Convention
Convention
Location (Volume)
Meaning
Abbreviations
NEC
1, 2, 3
Not elsewhere classified or other specified, or a more specific category
is not provided
NOS
2
Not otherwise specified, or unspecified
Brackets [ ]
1
Enclose synonyms or explanations
Slanted brackets [ ]
2
Enclose manifestation codes, or codes that should be listed second
Parentheses ( )
1, 2
Enclose supplemental words or nonessential modifiers
Colon :
1
Placed after an incomplete term that needs one or more of the following
modifiers to assign that code
Braces { }
1
Enclose a series of terms, each of which is modified by the statement to the
right of the brace; both terms must be present to assign that code
Section marks §
1
Instruct the coder to reference a footnote
Lozenges □
1
Identify a code unique to ICD-9-CM (not the same in ICD-9)
Includes
1
Further defines or gives examples of terms included in that code or code section
Excludes
1
Lists terms that are excluded from or are to be coded elsewhere (not included)
Note
1, 2
Defines terms or gives coding instruction
See
2
Follows a main term and provides a new main term that should be
referenced
See also
2
Follows a main term to see additional entries (subterms) that may apply
See category
2
Go directly to the Tabular List
1
Font of all codes and titles
2
Font of all main terms
1
Font of excludes notes and identifies codes that are not to be used as primary
Use additional code
1
Instructs the coder to assign an additional code to give more information if known
Code first underlying
disease
1
Instructs the coder to code the underlying disease first, then the other code
second (the code containing the instruction)
Punctuation
Terms
Cross-References
Typeface
Bold
Italics
Instructions
This example shows individual subterms (modifiers) describing the
site and type of disease (manifestation). This type of modifier must be
present in documentation in order for the specific code to be assigned.
In this example, the modifying subterms are joint and tendon sheath,
and a ganglion of the joint would result in code 727.41, whereas a
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Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
Table 2.6 Summary List of Conventions Used in ICD-9-CM Volume 3
Convention
Location: Alphabetic
Index (A) or Tabular
List (T)
Meaning
Abbreviations
NEC
A, T
Not elsewhere classified, or indication that specified forms of the
procedure are classified separately. Only used if more specific
information is not available. OR term for which a more specific code
is not available, even with additional information provided.
NOS
T
Not otherwise specified or unspecified
Brackets [ ]
T
Enclose synonyms or explanations
Slanted brackets [ ]
A
Enclose codes representing components of a procedure that should
be reported second
Parentheses ( )
A
Enclose supplemental words or nonessential modifiers whose absence
or presence does not affect code assignment
T
Enclose supplemental word or nonessential modifiers
Colons :
T
Placed after an incomplete term that needs one or more of the
following modifiers
Braces { }
T
Enclose a series of terms, each of which is modified by the statement
to the right of the brace; both terms must be present
Section marks §
T
Instruct the coder to reference a footnote
Lozenges □
T
Identify a code unique to ICD-9-CM (not the same in ICD-9)
Includes
T
Further defines or gives examples of terms included in that code
or code section
Excludes
T
Lists terms that are excluded from or are to be coded elsewhere
(not included)
Note
A, T
Defines terms or gives coding instruction
See
A
Follows a main term and provides a new main term that should be
referenced
See also
A
Follows a main term to see additional entries (subterms) that may apply
See category
A
Go directly to the Tabular List
T
Font of all codes and titles
A
Font of all main terms
T
Font of excludes notes and identifies codes that are not to be
used as primary
Code also
T
An instruction to code each component of a procedure when
completed at the same time
Omit code
A
Instruction in the Alphabetic Index to not use the incision code
when an incision is performed only for completing an additional
surgery
Punctuation
Terms
Cross-References
Typeface
Bold
Italics
Instructions
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
73
ganglion of a tendon sheath would result in code 727.42. This example
also shows the nonessential modifiers compound and diffuse following
the subterm tendon sheath.
ABBREVIATIONS
Abbreviations are used in all three volumes of ICD-9-CM.
Not Elsewhere Classified (NEC)
NEC, not elsewhere
classified, means that ICD-9-CM does not have a code for the
documented condition. The abbreviation appears in the Alphabetic
Index, and the code must be verified in the Tabular List. Often the
Tabular List uses a grouping of such conditions. When NEC is used,
additional information will not alter the code assignment; often there
is a precise statement but no correlated code.
EXAMPL E
Household circumstance affecting care V60.9
specified type NEC V60.8
In this example from the Alphabetic Index, NEC is used to classify a specified type of household circumstance affecting care
(V60.8). When verified in the Tabular List (Volume 1), code V60.8
means “other specified housing or economic circumstances.” This
application of NEC refers to the facts that a more specific category
is not provided and that additional information will not alter code
assignment. So many household circumstances could affect care
that ICD-9-CM cannot separately classify each and every one of
them. The entries in the Tabular List for codes V60.8 and V60.9 are
as follows.
EXAMPL ES
V60.8 OTHER SPECIFIED HOUSING OR ECONOMIC
CIRCUMSTANCES
V60.9 UNSPECIFIED HOUSING OR ECONOMIC
CIRCUMSTANCE
Not Otherwise Specified (NOS)
NOS, not otherwise
specified, is used in the Tabular List to indicate a code that should be
used when the documentation does not supply a more specific
condition for code assignment. In other words, typically the coder
does not have information to code a specific disease and would need
such information to assign a different code.
EXAMPL E
414.9 CHRONIC ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE, UNSPECIFIED
Ischemic heart disease NOS
CODING TIP
Essentially, NEC indicates a
classification failure of the
ICD-9-CM, and NOS indicates
a documentation failure.
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Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
This code ends in a 9. Often, codes that end in 9 classify conditions
that are unspecified.
EXAMPL ES
• 728.9: Unspecified disorder of muscle, ligament, and fascia.
• V75.9: Screening examination for unspecified infectious diseases.
• E987.9: Falling from a high place, undetermined whether accidentally or purposely inflicted, unspecified means.
Checkpoint 2.6
Code the following using Volumes 1 and 2, and identify the conventions that apply: NEC, NOS,
nonessential modifier, or subterm modifier.
Codes
Conventions
1. Contraception management
2. Flash pneumonia
3. Food poisoning
4. Conjunctivitis
5. Closed fracture, phalanx of foot
NOTES
Notes are used to define terms and give coding instruction. For example, in the Alphabetic Index the main term fracture is followed by a
note that defines an open fracture and related terms as compared to a
closed fracture and related terms. Similarly, a note follows the main
term diabetes that instructs the coder to use a fifth digit. In the
Alphabetic Index to Procedures in Volume 3, a note at the main term
transplant instructs the coder on how to report a donor source.
EXAMPLE
Infarct, infarction
...
myocardium, myocardial (acute or with a stated duration
of 8 weeks or less) (with hypertension) 410.9
Note—Use the following fifth-digit subclassification with category 410:
0 episode unspecified
1 initial episode
2 subsequent episode without recurrence
CROSS-REFERENCES
In the ICD-9-CM, the terms see, see also, and see category indicate crossreferences, meaning that the coder must look elsewhere to code a
particular condition.
See
The cross-reference see refers the coder to another main term
under which all the information about a specific disease or injury will
be found.
E X A M P L ES
Parkinson’s Disease, syndrome or tremor—see Parkinsonism
Myringitis with otitis media—see Otitis Media
Plastic Repair—see Repair, by site
Deformity, leg, congenital, reduction—see Deformity, reduction, lower limb
Notice that the comma separates a main term from a subterm when
the cross- reference refers to a more specific disease. In the example of
deformity above, the coder would follow the cross-reference to the
main term Deformity, then the subterm reduction, and finally the subsubterm lower limb.
CODING TIP
Following Cross-References
When the cross-reference see
appears, look at the new main
term and all subterms listed.
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75
See Also The cross-reference term see also directs the coder to
check another main term that may have additional information if the
first main term the coder looks up does not provide a correct match for
the diagnostic statement.
EXAMPL ES
Paresthesia—see also Disturbance, sensation
Dilation, heart (acute) (chronic)—see also Hypertrophy, cardiac
Neuroma—see also Neoplasm, connective tissue, benign
Neuropathy, neuropathic—see also Disorder, Nerve
In the first example, to code paresthesia of smell, the cross-reference
Disturbance, sensation tells the coder to go to the main term Disturbance.
By following this cross-reference, the specific code for disturbance of
smell can be located (781.1).
See (or See Also) Category The cross-reference see category
directs the coder to go immediately to the Tabular List, specifically to
a category or range of codes. In such a case, the Tabular List contains
specific information regarding the use of the codes, and the coder can
determine the exact code assignment from the notes.
EXAMPL ES
Septicemia, with ectopic pregnancy—see also Categories 633.0–633.
Fever, brain, late effect,—see category 326
Checkpoint 2.7
Answer the following questions using all three volumes of ICD-9-CM.
1. What does the note at the main term asthma instruct the coder to do?
2. What is the cross-reference used to code embolic cerebrovascular disease?
3. What does the note refer to at the main term fracture?
4. Which cross-reference should the coder follow when coding depressive psychosis?
5. What does the note specify at code 777.9?
6. What does the note at category 299 instruct the coder to do?
7. Which cross-reference is used in coding the procedure incision with removal of foreign body?
8. What does the note located at the main term endarterectomy instruct the coder to do?
9. Which cross-reference is used when coding a late effect of an intracranial abscess?
10. What does the note at category 532 instruct the coder to do?
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PUNCTUATION
ICD-9-CM uses various punctuation marks that direct the coder to follow certain rules, provide additional meaning, or explain terms.
Brackets Brackets [ ] are used to enclose synonyms, alternative
wordings, and explanatory phrases in the Tabular List of Diseases and
Injuries.
EXAMPLE
483.0 MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE
Eaton’s agent
Pleuropneumonia-like organism [PPLO]
Slanted Brackets Some conditions may require two codes, one
for the etiology, the cause or origin of the condition, and a second for
the manifestation, a disease resulting from a different underlying
disease or disorder. For example, diabetes (underlying cause) can
manifest to diabetic peripheral angiopathy. When slanted brackets [ ]
appear, both codes must be reported; the etiology code should be listed
first and the manifestation code in slanted brackets reported second.
EXAMPLE
Phlebitis
...
gouty 274.89 [451.9]
The Alphabetic Index entry above indicates that the diagnostic
statement “gouty phlebitis” requires two codes, one for the etiology
(gout) and one for the manifestation (phlebitis). The use of slanted
brackets around the code means that it cannot be used as the primary
code; it is listed after the etiology code.
EXAMPLE
Antrax 022.9
with pneumonia 022.1 [484.5]
In this example from the Alphabetic Index, both codes 022.1 and
484.5 would be reported. When these codes are verified in the Tabular
List, code 022.1 represents anthrax (etiology) with the manifestation of
pneumonia.
Slanted brackets in the Alphabetic Index to Procedures in Volume 3
require the coder to code both procedures (if performed). For example,
the main term ileocystoplasty lists two codes, 57.87 and [45.51], so both
should be reported.
Parentheses Parentheses ( ) are used in both the Alphabetic Index
and the Tabular List to enclose terms that are supplementary, that may or
may not be present in the disease statement, and that do not affect code
assignment. They are always used to enclose these nonessential terms.
Colon The colon : is used in the Tabular List after an incomplete
term that needs one or more of the terms or modifiers that follow it.
EXAMPLE
462 ACUTE PHARYNGITIS
Acute sore throat NOS
Pharyngitis (acute):
NOS
Gangrenous
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77
Infective
Phlegmonous
Pneumococcal
Staphylococcal
Suppurative
Ulcerative
Sore throat (viral) NOS
Viral pharyngitis
In this example, other diseases such as gangrenous pharyngitis, ulcerative pharyngitis, and infective pharyngitis as well as acute pharyngitis
are coded as 462. Both the term to the left of the colon and the term to the
right of the colon must be present in order to assign that code.
Braces Braces { } are occasionally used in the Tabular List to
enclose a series of terms that, when combined with the statement to
the right of the brace, results in that specific code assignment.
EXAMPL E
INTERNAL INJURY OF THORAX, ABDOMEN,
AND PELVIS (860–869)
Includes:
blast injuries
blunt trauma
bruise
concussion injuries (except cerebral) of internal organs
crushing
hematoma
laceration
puncture
tear
traumatic rupture
The example above, which depicts the Internal Injury of Thorax,
Abdomen, and Pelvis (860–869) section, means that that internal injury of
the abdomen includes a tear of an internal organ, a blast injury of an internal organ, a crushing of an internal organ, or other listed type of injury.
SYMBOLS
Special symbols instruct the coder that there is a special circumstance
regarding that code.
Lozenge The lozenge □ indicates that a code—296.3X in the example
that follows—is unique to ICD-9-CM. In other words, the ICD-9-CM
code does not appear in ICD-9. The lozenge symbol is located in the ICD9-CM Tabular List only and can be ignored by coders.
EXAMPL E
□ 296.3 MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER,
RECURRENT EPISODE
Section Mark A section mark symbol § precedes a code to
indicate that there is a footnote with special instructions. This symbol
is found in all three volumes of ICD-9-CM.
EXAMPL E
§ 675 INFECTIONS OF THE BREAST AND NIPPLE
ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDBIRTH
§ Requires fifth digit. Valid digits are in [brackets] under each code. See beginning of section 640–649 for
codes and definitions.
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Includes: The listed conditions during pregnancy, childbirth, or
the puerperium
§ 675.0 INFECTIONS OF NIPPLE
[0–4] Abscess of nipple
For example, code 675.0 instructs the coder to look at the footnote
at the bottom of the page. The footnote then instructs the coder to see
the beginning of the applicable section for definitions of the fifth digits. A section mark can also be found at procedure code 78.7 in the
Tabular List of Procedures (Volume 3).
Typeface Boldface and italic type are special typeface settings that
provide coding instructions.
Bold Boldface print is used to identify main terms and titles in the
Alphabetic Indexes. Bold type in the Tabular List depicts each code
and code title.
Italics In the Tabular List of Diseases and Injuries, italics indicate that
the code should not be reported alone or listed first. In other words, the
code in italics typically represents a manifestation of disease, and the
underlying cause should be reported first, before the code in italics.
EXAMPLE
484.8 PNEUMONIA IN OTHER INFECTIOUS DISEASES
CLASSIFIED ELSEWHERE
Code first underlying disease, as:
Q fever (083.0)
Typhoid fever (002.0)
In the example, code 484.8 Pneumonia in other infectious disease classified elsewhere is in italics. This disease is a manifestation of an underlying disease.
NOTE
Sequencing of multiple codes is
covered in Chapter 4 of your
program.
Checkpoint 2.8
Apply the punctuation, symbols, and typeface conventions to answer the following questions.
1. Would the diagnosis of sprue be classified to code 579.1?
2. Which two codes should be reported when coding lupus nephritis?
3. What does the section mark at category 651 refer to?
4. What symbol is located at code 312, and what is the meaning of this symbol?
5. Code waxy kidney.
6. Would the diagnosis of acute coronary embolism without myocardial infarction be classified to
code 411.81?
7. Explain the significance of the italics for code 774.5.
8. Code Ebstein’s disease, Type 2, in control.
9. What is the significance of the terms in parenthesis located at the main term bronchitis?
10. Code glaucoma in anterior dislocation of the lens.
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
79
INSTRUCTIONAL NOTATIONS
ICD-9-CM also includes terms that are instructional in nature. These
notations tell the coder to do something, or let the coder know what
types of diseases are included or excluded. These notations are found
in the Tabular List and the Tabular List of Procedures.
Includes The notation includes refers to a code title to give an
example or define the contents of the code or code series. Therefore,
an includes note at the section level, such as for the section of
Tuberculosis codes, instructs the coder that infection by Mycobacterium
tuberculosis (human or bovine) is included for any code ranging from
010 to 018.
EXAMPL E
TUBERCULOSIS (010–018)
Includes: Infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (human) (bovine)
An includes note at the category level gives definitions or examples
for that category.
EXAMPL E
433 OCCLUSION AND STENOSIS OF PRECEREBRAL
ARTERIES
Includes: Embolism, of basilar, carotid, and vertebral arteries
Narrowing, of basilar, carotid, and vertebral arteries
Obstruction, of basilar, carotid, and vertebral arteries
Thrombosis, of basilar, carotid, and vertebral arteries
In this example, category 433 includes the conditions of embolism
of basilar, carotid, and vertebral arteries.
EXAMPL E
830 DISLOCATION OF JAW
Includes: Jaw (cartilage) (meniscus)
Mandible
Maxilla (inferior)
Temporomandibular (joint)
Looking at the includes note at category 830 helps the coder review
the jaw anatomy cited in the documentation.
Excludes An excludes note in the Tabular List of Disease and
Injuries and the Tabular List of Procedures instructs the coder about
words and conditions that should be coded elsewhere. In other words,
these conditions are not included in the code.
EXAMPL E
455 HEMORRHOIDS
Includes: Hemorrhoids (anus) (rectum)
Piles
Varicose veins, anus or rectum
Excludes:
that complicating pregnancy, childbirth, or the puerperium (671.8)
In this example, the excludes note is at the category level. This
means that if documentation states that a hemorrhoid complicates
pregnancy, childbirth, or the puerperium, that condition should not be
coded (or is excluded) from category 455.
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EXAMPLE
464.1 ACUTE TRACHEITIS
Tracheitis (acute):
NOS
Catarrhal
Viral
Excludes:
chronic tracheitis (491.8)
CODING TIP
Note that excludes notes are
italicized.
The excludes note here is at the subcategory level and states that
chronic tracheitis is excluded from code 464.1, acute tracheitis.
Use Additional Code The instruction use additional code tells
the coder to also code further information if it is documented. For
example, in the Alphabetic Index to Procedures, this instruction means
to use an additional code for a procedure if in fact that procedure was
carried out.
EXAMPLE
599.0 URINARY TRACT INFECTION, SITE NOT
SPECIFIED
Use additional code to identify organism, such as Escherichia
coli [E. coli] (041.4)
This notation instructs the coder that the organism causing a urinary tract infection should be coded if it is identified in the documentation. The following example shows the notation instructing the
coder to identify a drug (E code) if the disease was drug induced.
EXAMPLE
333.90 UNSPECIFIED EXTRAPYRAMIDAL DISEASE AND
ABNORMAL MOVEMENT DISORDER
Medication-induced movement disorders NOS
Use additional E code to identify drug, if drug-induced
Code First Underlying Disease The instruction code first
underlying disease is located only in the Tabular List with codes that
are not intended to be selected as a primary disease because they are
manifestations of other underlying diseases. Sometimes, these codes
are in italics. The underlying disease should be coded first, followed
by the code with the notation code first underlying disease.
EXAMPLE
517 LUNG INVOLVEMENT IN CONDITIONS CLASSIFIED
ELSEWHERE
Excludes:
rheumatoid lung (714.81)
517.1 RHEUMATIC PNEUMONIA
Code first underlying disease (390)
Code 517.1 should be coded second, and the underlying cause of
the rheumatic pneumonia—code 390, rheumatic fever—should be
coded and sequenced first. Notice the italics in the next example:
EXAMPLE
337.1 PERIPHERAL AUTONOMIC NEUROPATHY IN
DISORDERS CLASSIFIED ELSEWHERE
Code first underlying disease, as:
Amyloidosis (277.30–277.39)
Diabetes (250.6)
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
81
The code 337.1 is in italics and contains the instructional notation to
code first the underlying disease of peripheral autonomic neuropathy.
Therefore, the underlying cause of the neuropathy should be reported
first, followed by the neuropathy code 337.1. The underlying cause
could be amyloidosis or diabetes.
Omit Code The instructional notation omit code is found only in
the Alphabetic Index to Procedures in Volume 3. It is seen next to a
term listing an incision , such as laparotomy. This means that when an
incision was made for the purpose of performing further surgery, the
code for the incision should be omitted, or not coded.
EXAMPL E
Arthrotomy 80.10
As operative approach—omit code
In the above example, the main term in the Alphabetic Index to
Procedures is arthrotomy. The notation, under the subterm “as operative approach” tells the coder that if the arthrotomy was completed as
the operative approach and additional surgery was performed, the
code for arthrotomy should not be assigned.
Checkpoint 2.9
Using all three volumes of ICD-9-CM, answer the following questions.
1. What site is excluded from malignant neoplasm of the intrahepatic bile ducts, code 155.1?
2. Is emphysema due to fumes or vapors excluded from subcategory 498.2?
3. Which sites are included when a code from category 27 is assigned from the Tabular List of
Procedures?
4. Would assigning code 34.59 be appropriate for biopsy of the pleura?
Why?
5. Do the codes in section 410–414 include ischemic heart disease with mention of
hypertension?
Code the following using Volumes 1 and 2 of ICD-9-CM.
6. Acute cystitis due to Escherichia coli (E coli)
7. Tuberculosis of bone with necrosis of the knee
8. Type II controlled diabetic gangrene
9. Coronary artery bypass of one coronary artery while on cardiopulmonary bypass (heart-lung
machine)
10. Streptococcal septicemia with SIRS
TABLES
Three tables in ICD-9-CM are used to provide an organized structure
for the coding of certain diseases and drugs. The format of each table
is based on the need to classify different types of disease, sites of
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Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
diseases, or circumstances of disease. These tables are the:
1. Hypertension Table
2. Neoplasm Table
3. Table of Drugs and Chemicals
Hypertension Table The hypertension table is located at the
main term hypertension in the Alphabetic Index. It contains a complete
listing of conditions associated with hypertension (subterms) and
requires classification of the hypertensive conditions as malignant,
benign, or unspecified.
E X A M P L E Benign cardiorenal hypertension is classified as code
404.10. The main term is hypertension; the subterm is cardiorenal, and
the second column lists benign.
Neoplasm Table Neoplasm codes can be located two different
ways in the Alphabetic Index. The first way is by morphology, meaning
the histiologic type such as carcinoma, sarcoma, adenoma, and
histiocytoma. The second listing is found in the Neoplasm Table. The
table is organized alphabetically by body or anatomical site. The first
column lists the anatomical location , and the next six columns relate to
the behavior of the neoplasm, described as a malignant tumor, a benign
tumor, a tumor of uncertain behavior, or a tumor of unspecified nature.
There are three types of malignant tumors. Each is progressive,
rapid-growing, life-threatening, and made of cancerous cells:
1. Primary: The neoplasm that is the encounter’s main diagnosis is
found at the site of origin.
2. Secondary: The neoplasm that is the encounter’s main diagnosis
metastasized (spread) to an additional body site from the original
location.
3. Carcinoma in situ: The neoplasm is restricted to one site (a noninvasive type); this may also be referred to as preinvasive cancer.
A benign tumor is slow-growing, not life-threatening, and is made
of normal or near-normal cells. A tumor of uncertain behavior was not
classifiable when the cells were examined, and one of unspecified
nature is one for which there is no documentation of the nature of the
neoplasm.
The following entries are shown in the Neoplasm Table for a neoplasm of the colon:
MALIGNANT
Colon
Primary
Secondary
Cancer in situ
BENIGN
UNCERTAIN BEHAVIOR
UNSPECIFIED
154.0
197.5
230.4
211.4
235.2
239.0
Table of Drugs and Chemicals The Table of Drugs and
Chemicals is used to classify poisoning or adverse effects, which are
conditions inadvertently caused by the correct use of a drug. The table
is organized alphabetically by drug or chemical name. Columns across
the table provide codes to identify that a poisoning occurred. The
columns located after the poisoning code are the external cause codes
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
83
Pathophysiology Refreshers
Cancer
Cancer is a general term for any of a number of diseases with
malignant growths. Tumors or neoplasms are growths. Benign
growths are generally located within a limited area and do
not spread. Malignant growths sometimes spread within the
organ or part in which they originate. If they spread to other
organs or parts, they are said to metastasize.
Neoplasms are grouped according to whether they are
primary (located in a specific originating site, except for
lymphatic tissue), primary of lymphatic tissue, secondary (originating
from another site), unspecified (as
to location), benign, carcinoma in
situ (meaning a localized cluster of
malignant cells), and of uncertain
behavior. In addition, neoplasms are
categorized by where they occur,
such as abdominopelvic, brain, and
breast. Subcategories within the
sites indicate more specific loca- A mammogram.
tions (for example, brain cancer is
subcategorized as basal ganglia, cerebrum, cerebellum, midbrain, and so on).
Neoplasms are also staged (graded) by the TNM system. T stands for tumor; N stands for spread to the lymph
nodes; and M stands for metastasis (spreading to other
sites).The TNM system rates tumors from 1 to 4 depending on the severity of the malignancy.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the
United States, following heart disease, the number one
killer. The most deadly form of cancer is lung cancer.
Common Cancers
Cancer can occur anywhere in the body. For women,
breast, cervical, and ovarian cancers occur frequently.
Breast cancer is classified by glandular tissue or soft tissue,
and it is categorized by location
(such as the quadrant or the nipple). Cervical cancer is categorized
by location (endocervix or external
os, for example). Ovarian cancer
may be categorized according to
the parts involved, such as fallopian
tube or parametrium.
For men, prostate cancer may be
aggressive and require treatment,
or it may be slow-growing and just
need watching. Testicular cancer is
more common in men who have had an undescended testicle or abnormal testicular development.
Lung cancer is widespread, especially among smokers. It
is categorized by location (for example, middle lobe or
main bronchus). Colon cancer is also categorized by loca-
(E codes). The E code identifies the circumstances of the poisoning or
adverse effect for the specific drug or chemical. This example from the
Neoplasm Table illustrates some of the entries in ICD-9-CM relating to
cancer. Coders will need familiarity with these diseases, which are
reviewed in the pathophysiology refresher on cancer shown on the
following pages.
Checkpoint 2.10
Using the tables in the Alphabetic Index (Volume 1) of ICD-9-CM, answer the following
questions.
1. What are the three types of hypertension noted in the hypertension table?
2. What is the code for benign hypertension with chronic kidney disease?
3. Which type of term is used as a subterm in the neoplasm table: site, etiology, manifestation?
4. What is the code for benign neoplasm of the lung?
5. What is the poisoning code for aspirin?
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Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
tion (for example, sigmoid or ascending). Some glandular
cancers can be fairly contained and easily treated; for
example, thyroid cancer usually requires removal and limited treatment, followed by hormone replacement. However, others, such as pancreatic cancer, are difficult to treat
and are usually fatal.
Skin cancer is categorized by
location, such as hand or thigh.
Moles on the skin are either benign
or malignant (the latter are usually
dark and irregular). Skin cancer is
on the rise as a result of increasing
exposure to ultraviolet rays from
the sun.
Leukemia is a general term for
blood or bone marrow cancer. A cancer cell.
Leukemias are classified either
without mention of remission or with remission. They are
either acute (having an overgrowth of immature blood
cells) or chronic (having an overgrowth of mature blood
cells). There is also an early stage of leukemia called myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in which bone marrow does not
produce enough blood cells.
Cancer Prevention and Treatment
Cancer is not always preventable; however, avoidance
of carcinogens (things that are known to cause cancer)
is the best way to prevent it. Some known carcinogens
are tobacco smoke, asbestos, ultraviolet rays of the sun,
and certain chemicals. The next best thing to total
avoidance is early detection. Some symptoms clearly
indicate possible cancer: rectal bleeding; dark, irregular
skin moles; breast lumps; and
persistent coughing of unknown
cause. Other symptoms are more
subtle, but can be detected by
cancer screenings, now common
procedures.
Mammograms
(breast cancer screening) are
recommended at certain intervals for women depending on
age and family history. PSA tests
(prostate cancer screening) are
routine for males at certain ages
and with certain histories. A colonoscopy provides a
clear picture of any suspicious polyps. Chest X-rays can
detect lung cancer, and MRIs and CAT scans can see
tumors in various locations.
Cancer treatment has advanced greatly in the past
decade. Radical surgeries are still sometimes necessary,
but radiation and chemotherapy have replaced some surgical procedures. New targeted therapies, such as hormone receptor treatments, show promise for limiting
tumor growth in certain cases.
ICD-9-CM Coding Resources
To assign ICD-9-CM codes correctly, the coder must use the current
code set and follow the Official Guidelines. Knowledge of medical terminology and reference to other medical resources are also required.
AHA CODING CLINIC® FOR ICD-9-CM
AHA Coding Clinic® for ICD-9-CM is published by the American
Hospital Association (AHA). The AHA Central Office handles all ICD9-CM coding-related issues and works with NCHS and CMS to maintain integrity of the coding system. AHA Coding Clinic provides advice
on coding certain diseases and includes:
•
•
•
•
Official coding advice and guidelines
Correct code assignments for new diseases and technologies
Articles offering practical information to improve data quality
A communication process to disperse code changes or corrections
to health care providers
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
85
INTERNET RESOURCE
AHA Coding Clinic® for
ICD-9-CM
www.aha.org/aha/issues/
Medicare/IPPS/coding.html
•
•
An “Ask the Editor” section that includes practical examples
Information on question submission
Coding Clinic is published quarterly or as needed and can be purchased from the AHA. The coding advice is approved by CMS for
Medicare reimbursement and is also accepted by many other payers.
NCHS WEBSITE
INTERNET RESOURCE
The ICD-9-CM Code
Conversion Table
www.cdc.gov/nchs/datawh/
ftpserv/ftpicd9/ftpicd9.
htm#guidelines
A list of all ICD-9-CM diagnosis code changes can be found at the
NCHS website. Also available is an ICD-9-CM conversion table that
shows new and replaced codes used to classify the same conditions.
This conversion table includes code changes made between 1986 and
the current year. Coders use this resource to update old codes reported
in earlier years. For example, dehydration was coded differently
before 2005 than it is today (it is currently code 276.51).
MEDICAL REFERENCES
CODING CAUTION
Using Resources
As will become clear as you
increase your coding skill,
correct coding requires a
variety of resources for
understanding the medical
terms, diseases, and procedures
to assign accurate ICD-9-CM
codes.
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Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
A basic understanding of medical terms, the disease process, and current
medical procedures is required in medical coding, but no one can possibly remember all the medical terms and anatomy, physiology, disease,
and procedural information. It is important for coders to have references
available to help when a documented health issue needs further investigation. For example, if a medical record includes terms a coder has never
seen before, a medical dictionary would be helpful. If a physician documents a blockage of a specific artery, the coder may need to consult an
anatomy book to locate that artery in the vascular system.
Documented medications can be investigated in a drug manual to
determine the category of drug. Internet research is helpful in understanding new technology in the treatment of disease. Researching and
understanding a new medical technique can help a coder assign the
correct ICD-9-CM procedure code. Pathophysiology books discuss the
disease process and treatment, including the signs and symptoms of
disease. Table 2.7 is a basic listing of medical references used by coders.
COMPUTER-AIDED CODING
Today many larger health care facilities use computer programs to
assign ICD-9-CM codes. Such computer-aided coding software is
called an encoder. Encoder software can be based on the logic behind
selecting codes or on a computerized version of the actual ICD-9-CM
code set.
Logic-based encoders contain a system of questions and answers
that help the coder assign the correct ICD-9-CM code. Book-based
encoders provide computerized versions of the actual ICD-9-CM
codebook, allowing the coder to access the Tabular List and Alphabetic
Index on-screen. Built into these software encoding systems are
alerts, edits, and references. For example, if the code enters an
invalid ICD-9-CM code, the software alerts the coder to make a correction. If the coder selects a code for a male when the patient is
female, the encoder system alerts the coder about that error. Other
types of edits alert the coder that two codes that should not be
reported together were reported, or that a fifth digit is required.
Table 2.7 Recommended Medical Coding Resources
Coding Resource
Information
ICD-9-CM Official Guidelines for Coding
and Reporting
Contains the most current rules for ICD-9-CM coding
AHA Coding Clinic® for ICD-9-CM
Provides advice on coding issues
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid website
at www.cms.gov
Lists most current ICD-9-CM procedure codes (Volume 3)
National Center for Health Care Statistics
website at www.cdc.gov/nchs
Lists most current ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes (Volumes 1 and 2)
Medical dictionary
Defines medical terms
Anatomy and physiology book
Identifies location of body organs and explains different body systems
Pathophysiology book
Explains the disease process
Drug reference
Lists different medications and their actions, indications, and side effects
Abbreviation book
Lists abbreviations and their meanings
Internet medical sites
Resource for new technology and endless health care information
Medical terminology book
Defines medical terms
References to Coding Clinic and CPT Assistant can also be linked to
codes in the Tabular List, allowing the coder to access specific guidelines immediately.
The use of encoders does not replace the need for knowledge of the
ICD-9-CM coding guidelines. These computer-aided systems provide
a tool for coders that can be useful to improve consistency, efficiency,
and accuracy by putting alerts, edits, and references at the coder’s
fingertips. A list of diagnosis codes and their description in a billing
software package or file is not the same as using an encoder. The list
in billing software primarily includes the diagnoses most commonly
used in a physician practice. It does not contain specific coding edits,
alerts, or references.
NOTE
CPT codes for procedures are
covered in Chapters 6 through
10 of your program.
Checkpoint 2.11
Which coding resource would be used to find the medical information below?
1. The meaning of CHF
2. Coding advice regarding a patient who has uncontrolled diabetes
3. The medical indications for the drug Zantac
4. The ICD-9-CM procedure code changes effective October 1, 2007
5. The signs and symptoms of gastric ulcer
6. In which part of the body the talus is located
7. The code for sleep apnea effective October 1, 2005
8. The latest technology for heart transplants
9. The rules for sequencing diagnosis codes
10. Medical term for gallbladder removal
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
87
Summary
88
Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
1.
ICD-9-CM is the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth
Revision, Clinical Modification. This coding system is modeled
after the International Classification of Disease, which is maintained by the World Health Organization. ICD-9-CM can be
traced to 1959, when the U.S. Public Health Service published the
International Classification of Diseases, Adapted for Indexing of
Hospital Records and Operation Classification (ICDA). Over the
years, ICDA was revised, updated, and adapted for the United
States as ICD-9-CM. This code set contains more than thirteen
thousand codes and is updated annually.
2.
The responsibility for maintaining ICD-9-CM is divided between
the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS; part of the
Centers for Disease Control, CDC) for Volumes 1 and 2, and
CMS for Volume 3. The ICD-9-CM Coordination and
Maintenance Committee considers proposed coding modifications to ICD-9-CM. In order to maintain the coding system, the
cooperating parties, which represent NCHS, CMS, AHIMA, and
AHA, meet regularly. Interested parties from either the public or
private sector can propose a change in ICD-9-CM. Changes are
published annually on October 1 and April 1.
3.
The best way to keep up-to-date on ICD-9-CM code changes is
to use the Internet. The website for ICD-9-CM updates from the
National Center for Health Care Statistics (www.cms.gov/nchs/
icd9.htm) contains the latest information on ICD-9-CM codes.
This website also includes a crosswalk from old codes to new
codes along with the addenda and updated guidelines.
4.
ICD-9-CM is the medical coding system used throughout the
United States for reporting medical conditions and procedures.
The three-volume code set is used to transform medical words
into code numbers for data reporting. The codes are used by a
variety of health care providers, payers, and agencies for data
reporting. The actual coded data are used for health care payment,
health care communication, measurement of health care quality,
research and education, and administrative decision making.
5.
For all health care providers to use ICD-9-CM accurately and
consistently, national guidelines for its use must be followed.
ICD-9-CM guidelines are published in the ICD-9-CM Official
Guidelines for Coding and Reporting, and HIPAA legislation mandates their use. The guidelines address basic coding steps, conventions, sequencing, and chapter-specific guidelines. National
guidelines provide coders with consistent, comprehensive
instructions on the use of ICD-9-CM.
6.
The structure and content of ICD-9-CM differs depending on
which volume is being used. For example, the Alphabetic Index
to Diseases and Injuries (Volume 2) is formatted in three main
sections: the Alphabetic Index to Diseases and Injuries, the Table
of Drugs and Chemicals, and the Alphabetic Index to External
Causes of Disease and Injuries. The Tabular List of Diseases and
Injuries (Volume 1) contains three main sections as well: the
Tabular List of Diseases and Injuries, the Supplemental
Classifications, and the Appendixes.
Volume 3 of ICD-9-CM is structured differently. This volume
includes both the Alphabetic Index to Procedures and the
Tabular List of Procedures. The format of each volume helps
direct the coder. In the Alphabetic Index, main terms are used to
identify the patient’s condition. Subterms provide further specification to a condition, such as location, type of condition, or
cause of disease. The indented format of the Alphabetic Index
helps the coder assign the most specific code available.
Verification of the code in the Tabular List requires use of the
indented format as well. In the Tabular List, the format of chapters, sections, categories, subcategories and subclassifications
assist the coder in assigning the most specific code available.
7.
Conventions, or rules of coding, are specific to the use of
ICD-9-CM. For example, punctuation such as parentheses, brackets, and colons instruct the coder. Other conventions such as
notes, includes, and excludes instruct the coder regarding certain
conditions and how those conditions should be coded. Cross-references and terms such as code also or code first underlying disease
also provided instructions. It is imperative to understand and
apply these conventions in order to assign codes accurately.
8.
The basic coding process begins with review of complete medical documentation and abstraction of conditions. Each condition
is coded by identifying the main term representing it. The main
term is one word in the diagnostic statement that the coder uses
to find the code. For example, the diagnosis of urinary tract
infection would require the coder to look up the main term infection. Indented subterms are used to provide specificity in coding
a condition. Once a code has been located in the Alphabetic
Index, that code is verified in the Tabular List. All conventions
and instructions must be followed for accuracy in coding.
9.
The requirement to code to the highest level of specificity means
that the most digits available for a particular code must be
assigned. The use of the fifth digit subclassification is prominent
throughout the codebook. The fourth and fifth digits assigned to
a particular category may have an indented format, or instructions to use a fourth or fifth digit may be located in notes.
Remember to always code to the highest level of specificity.
10.
Having the resources to assign ICD-9-CM codes accurately is
essential. Access to national coding guidelines, published coding
advice, medical dictionaries, and medical Internet sites and use
of encoders are some of the resources coders use to keep current
with medical practice, understand medical documentation, and
assign accurate codes.
Review Questions: Chapter 2
Match the key terms with their definitions.
a. WHO
b. cooperating parties
c. ICD-9-CM Official Guidelines for Coding and Reporting
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
89
Alphabetic Index to External Causes of Disease and Injury
slanted brackets
section
includes note
subclassification
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
colon
omit code
1.
Coding convention that encloses codes that should be reported second; these codes represent
manifestation of a disease
2.
Organization responsible for maintaining ICD-9 and ICD-10
3.
Instruction in Alphabetic Index to Procedures
4.
An ICD-9-CM code with five digits
5.
Publication that contains rules on ICD-9-CM coding and sequencing
6.
A range of codes within a chapter
7.
A coding convention that combines a term on the left with a term on the right
8.
A coding convention that instructs the coder that these conditions are not excluded
9.
The group of organizations that includes representative from the NCHS, CMS, AHIMA,
and AHA
10.
A portion of Volume of ICD-9-CM
Decide whether each statement is true or false.
1.
A coder is finished coding once a code is found in the Alphabetic Index. T or F
2.
ICD-9-CM codes are never used for health care reimbursement. T or F
3.
HIPAA legislation mandates the use of ICD-9-CM. T or F
4.
ICD-9-CM codes are updated annually on January 1. T or F
5.
An E code can never be used as a principal diagnosis. T or F
6.
The first step in assigning an ICD-9-CM code is reviewing complete documentation. T or F
7.
When coding to the highest level of specificity, the coder must assign a code using the most digits
available. T or F
8.
The comma is a convention used in ICD-9-CM to list nonessential modifiers. T or F
9.
An encoder can replace a knowledgeable coder. T or F
10.
The Tabular List of V codes is located in Volume 3 of ICD-9-CM. T or F
Select the letter that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. Which codes would be used to classify uncontrolled type II diabetic neuropathy?
a.
b.
c.
d.
250.60, 357.2
250.62, 583.81
250.60, 583.81
250.62, 357.2
2. Which convention instructs the coder to read a footnote?
a.
b.
90
lozenge
section mark
Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
c.
d.
colon
brace
3. Which of the following would not be found in the ICD-9-CM Tabular List of Disease and Injuries
(Volume 2)?
a.
b.
c.
d.
486
434.91
45.23
V10.05
4. Which codes represent open fracture of the distal tibia due to fall from a ladder at home?
a.
b.
c.
d.
823.90, E881.0, E849.9
824.9, E888.9, E849.9
824.8, E888.9, E849.0
824.9, E881.0, E849.0
5. Which codes represent acute pyelonephritis due to pseudomonas in a patient with a history of urinary
tract infections?
a.
b.
c.
d.
590.10, V13.02, 041.7
590.00, V18.69, 041.7
590.10, V18.69, 041.7
590.10, V13.02
6. Code 098.0 describes
a.
b.
c.
d.
gonorrhea not otherwise specified
acute gonococcal infection of the lower genitourinary tract
gonococcal urethritis
all of the above
7. Which code or codes represent acute and chronic cholecystitis with choledocholithiasis?
a.
b.
c.
d.
575.12, 574.80
574.40
574.30, 574.40
574.5, 575.12
8. Which codes represent hypertension with stage V chronic kidney disease?
a.
b.
c.
d.
403.01, 585.5
403.91, 585.5
403.90, 585.5
403.9, 585.5
9. Which E code would be assigned when coding a suicide attempt by morphine?
a.
b.
c.
d.
E850.2
E935.2
E950.0
E962.0
10. Which codes represent pyrophosphate crystal induced arthritis of the knee?
a.
b.
c.
d.
275.49, 712.25
712.25, 275.49
275.49, 712.26
274.0, 712.26
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
91
1.
List the three main sections of the ICD-9-CM Alphabetic Index>
2.
List the three main sections of the ICD-9-CM Tabular List.
3.
Describe the difference between an ICD-9-CM diagnosis code and an ICD-9-CM procedure code.
4.
Identify whether the fifth digit subclassification classifies the site of disease, the cause of disease
(etiology), or the type of disease.
a.
250.63
b.
053.14
c.
038.43
d.
552.21
e.
945.33
5.
What are the steps in the coding process?
6.
Code the following.
a.
Cerebral concussion with loss of consciousness for forty-five minutes
b.
Family history of colonic polyps
c.
Myelopthisis due to malignant neoplasm of the central portion of the female breast
d.
e.
Abnormal electrocardiogram
Alcohol intoxication with alcoholism, continuous use of alcohol
Applying Your Knowledge
BUILDING CODING SKILLS
Case 2.1
1. You are the coding supervisor at a major acute care hospital.
What resources would you recommend to ensure that the most
current ICD-9-CM codes are in use in your health care facility?
Remember to address issues such as coding resources and
computer systems.
2. Why is it important to follow the ICD-9-CM Official Guidelines for
Coding and Reporting?
3. Which of the following codes are not coded to the highest level of
specificity?
a. 250.1
b. 410.3
c. E812
d. V58.1
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Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
Case 2.2
The following chart note is on file for a female patient.
Rayelle Smith-Jones
2/14/2008
SUBJECTIVE: The mother brought in this 3-week-old female. The patient is
doing very well. They have been using the phototherapy blanket. She is thirsty, has
good yellow stooling, and continues on formula. Her alertness is normal. Other
pertinent ROS is noncontributory.
OBJECTIVE: Afebrile. Comfortable. Jaundice is only minimal at this time. No
scleral icterus. Good activity level. Normal fontanel. TMs, nose, mouth, pharynx,
neck, heart, lungs, abdomen, liver, spleen, and groins are normal. Normal cord
care. Good extremities.
ASSESSMENT: Resolving physiological jaundice on phototherapy.
PLAN: Will stop phototherapy and do a bilirubin level a couple of days to make
sure there is no rebound. The patient is to be seen one week. Push fluids. Routine
care was discussed.
MD/xx
1.
After review of the documentation, which diagnosis should be
coded?
2.
What main term would you use to begin the coding process?
3.
Is this patient a newborn (twenty-eight days old or less)?
4.
What ICD-9-CM code is assigned for this visit?
Case 2.3
The following chart note is on file for a male patient.
Joseph Baldwin
2/15/2008
SUBJECTIVE: Joseph is a 56-year-old male who presents to the office with
nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea over the past two days. He has no fever and no
history of gastrointestinal problems, and he has had a hard time keeping food
down. Other pertinent ROS is noncontributory.
OBJECTIVE: Afebrile, appears weak and ill. Oral mucosa is dry; ENT is normal;
neck, heart, lungs, liver, spleen, and groins are normal. Abdomen is nontender with
no masses. Bowel sounds are normal. Good extremities.
ASSESSMENT: Viral gastroenteritis with mild dehydration.
PLAN: Patient should rest, drink plenty of fluids. If symptoms do not subside or
worsen within 48 hours, return to the office. Watch for signs of worsening dehydration. Care was discussed.
MD/xx
1.
What diagnoses should be reported for this visit?
2.
What main term should be used to begin the coding process?
3.
What are the diagnosis codes for this visit?
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
93
Case 2.4
The following chart note is on file for a female patient.
Sandy Wright
4/15/2008
SUBJECTIVE: Patient complains of a mole on her back and a red, swollen lump
on her thigh. The mole on the back has not changed in size and is not painful.
However, the lump on the thigh is red, swollen, and painful.
OBJECTIVE: Back: the mole is 1 cm uniform, brown in color with irregular
borders.
THIGH: There is an indurate area measuring 3 cm in diameter in the proximal
medial right thigh. In the center there is a small pustule and a wider area of
erythema surrounding this, consistent with cellulitis. There are no red streaks
present.
ASSESSMENT: Abscess with cellulitis; nevus of the back.
PLAN: The abscess was cleansed with Betadine and anesthetized with 1%
Xylocaine. An incision and drainage was done with #11 blade. A pocket was created and packed with Iodoform gauze. The patient was given Ancef 1 gm IM. She
was given a prescription for Keflex 500 mg and Tylenol #3 for pain. Sandy will be
referred to a dermatologist for evaluation of the possible basal cell carcinoma of
the back.
1.
Which diagnoses should be reported for the lump on the thigh?
2.
Which diagnosis should be reported for the mole on the back?
3.
Assign the codes for this patient.
4.
Where is the instructional notation to use an additional code found?
5.
Can the additional code be assigned? Why?
Case 2.5
The following chart note is on file for a female patient.
Joann Adamson
4/10/2008
SUBJECTIVE: Patient complains of sore throat, dysphagia, fever, and chills this
morning. Patient has had two documented Strep throat cases this year.
OBJECTIVE: Temperature is 100.2 degrees. Ears are clear. Throat is deeply
injected with 4+ cryptic hypertrophic tonsils with exudate. Neck had marked
tender cervical lymphadenopathy and submandibular adenopathy.
LAB: Quick Strep is positive for Strep.
ASSESSMENT: Acute suppurative Streptococcal tonsillitis and pharyngitis.
PLAN: She was given 1.2 C-R Bicillin IM. She was observed for 20 minutes. She
is to rest for the next 24 hours and use Tylenol PRN.
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Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
1.
What are the signs and symptoms?
2.
Which conditions would be coded?
3.
What main terms would the coder use to begin the coding process?
4.
Which terms are supplementary terms (in parentheses) when
assigning the code for tonsillitis?
5.
Assign the code or codes for this outpatient visit.
6.
When verifying the code or codes, which convention is used to
show that the code assigned in correct for Streptococcal pharyngitis
and tonsillitis?
Case 2.6
The following chart note is on file for a male patient.
Derek Appleton
4/12/2008
SUBJECTIVE: This 61-year-old male has a problem with nosebleeds. No history of nose trauma. Hemorrhage comes on spontaneously about every two
weeks. They start at rest and occasionally with exertion. He has no other bleeding problems. He has been on antihypertensive medications in the past.
OBJECTIVE: Blood pressure, 174/70; pulse 80. He has some dried blood in the
right nostril. There is no active bleeding at this time, but there is a small clot over
the anterior midseptum, which may be the bleeding site.
ASSESSMENT: 1. Benign hypertension
2. Recurrent epistaxis
PLAN: Patient was given Procardia sublingually with blood pressure dropping to
140/70. Vaseline jelly was applied to the right nostril anteriorly. Follow-up for
blood pressure check in two weeks.
1.
List the diagnoses that would be reported for this visit.
2.
What main terms would be used to code the diagnoses?
3.
Which column should the coder use in coding hypertension?
4.
Which diagnosis codes would be reported for this visit?
Case 2.7
The following chart note is on file for a female patient.
Catherine Gregory
4/18/2008
SUBJECTIVE: This 25-year-old female complains of nausea and epigastric discomfort, which she describes as constant burning, for several weeks. She states
that she gets nauseated when she is around food. No vomiting, melena, or
hematemesis. She admits that she is taking aspirin 81 mg, QID for headaches, and
on weekends she has four to eight drinks. She has not consumed any chocolate,
tea, pop, or coffee.
OBJECTIVE: Abdomen is soft, flat, and nontender with normal bowel sounds;
no masses or organomegaly.
ASSESSMENT: 1. Acute gastritis, due to therapeutic use of aspirin
2. Headaches
PLAN: She is to stop using aspirin and is to use Extra-Strength Tylenol for headaches. She was given a sample of Prilosec 20 mg QD for one month. Patient
should return for follow-up in four weeks.
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
95
1.
Abstract the diagnoses from this office visit.
2.
Identify the main terms that would used to code the diagnoses.
3.
Which column from the Table of Drugs and Chemicals is used in
this case to show the adverse effect of aspirin?
4.
Where is the note regarding the use of a fifth digit when coding
gastritis located?
5.
Verify and assign the correct diagnosis codes.
Case 2.8
The following chart note is on file for a male patient.
Ross Henderson
5/15/2008
SUBJECTIVE: Ross is an 81-year-old male who is diabetic. He in on Humulin
insulin 30 NPH and 15 regular. He developed a diabetic ulcer on the ventral
aspect of his left foot several months ago, and he has been treating the ulcer.
Today he feels that there is too much callous formation around the ulcer.
OBJECTIVE: There is definite callous formation around the ulcer; the ulcer is
smaller today than it was two weeks ago. Debridement of the skin was done, and
the ulcer was dressed with Neosporin.
ASSESSMENT: 1. Diabetic ulcer of left foot
2. Type II diabetes mellitus, treated with long-term use of insulin
PLAN: Patient will keep soaking his foot and applying new dressings daily. Patient
is to return in two weeks for follow-up.
1.
Which diagnosis reflects the use of insulin over a long period of time?
2.
Abstract the diagnoses from this office visit.
3.
Abstract the procedure from the office visit.
4.
Identify the main terms used to code all diagnoses and procedures.
5.
Which convention instructs the coder regarding sequencing of the
diagnosis codes?
6.
Which convention instructs the coder to assign an additional code?
7.
Assign the diagnosis and procedure codes for this visit.
Case 2.9
The following chart note is on file for a female patient.
Anna Starship
5/17/2008
HISTORY: Patient complains of severe pain in the right lateral abdomen, around
to the back. No fever, chills. She had a kidney stone that required lithotripsy.
EXAM: There is tenderness over the right costovertebral angle and flank area.
DIAGNOSTICS: IVP shows a small calcified fleck in the right ureter. Urinalysis
reveals 2+ blood cells. White blood cell count is 11,900.
DIAGNOSIS: Right ureteral stone; acute pyelonephritis.
PLAN: She is given codeine #3 for pain. Push fluids. She is to strain all urine and
save any stones. Septra DS for five days.
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Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
1.
Abstract the diagnoses from this office visit.
2.
Identify the main terms used to code these diagnoses.
3.
Which coding reference would be used to define IVP?
4.
Which cross-reference is used when coding the stone?
5.
Assign the correct ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes.
Case 2.10
The following chart note is on file for a male patient.
Jeremy Hoffman
5/20/2008
SUBJECTIVE: Patient complains of right inguinal cramping and sharp, constant
pain that was brought on by lifting heavy objects at work today. Patient is status
post vasectomy.
OBJECTIVE: Abdomen is soft and nontender with positive bowel sounds. There
is fullness in the right groin area. Palpation of the inguinal canal reveals a bulge
that is made worse with coughing. The hernia is reducible, and there is no question of incarceration or strangulation.
ASSESSMENT: Right direct inguinal hernia.
PLAN: Testicular self-exam was discussed. He is being referred to a surgeon for
probable herniorrhaphy.
1.
Abstract the diagnosis from this visit.
2.
Locate the main term that would be used to code the diagnosis.
Which convention is used to instruct the coder?
3.
What is the first subterm located under the main term used to code
this diagnosis?
4.
Assign the diagnosis code for this patient.
Case 2.11
The following chart note is on file for a female patient.
Denise Golden
5/25/2008
HISTORY OF PRESENT ILLNESS: Denise fell off her bike and injured her
right wrist and right knee.
PHYSICAL EXAM: The right wrist is swollen with obvious deformity. There is
normal sensation of fingers with normal motion of the fingers. She has pain with
movement of the wrist. Right knee patella is tender to palpation. There is joiny
effusion of the knee. Sensation and motor distal to the injury is normal.
X-RAY: X-ray of the right wrist reveals a Colles fracture with displacement of
30% from the normal position. Right knee X-ray shows a fracture of the patella
with no displacement of the fragments.
IMPRESSION: 1. Colles fracture, right wrist
2. Communited patellar fracture, right knee
TREATMENT: Leg immobilizer was placed. Patient was given one crutch and
instructed in crutch walking. She should bear as little weight as possible on the
right knee. Posterior splint with Ace wrap was placed on the forearm. She is
given Tylenol #3 for pain. Appointment will be made with Orthopedics for
tomorrow for possible surgery.
Chapter 2 | ICD-9-CM Basics
97
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
What injuries did Denise sustain?
How did these injuries occur?
What is a Colles fracture? Which coding resource could be used to
locate the definition of a Colles fracture?
Which main terms would the coder look up in the Alphabetic Index
to Diseases and Injuries and the Alphabetic Index to External Causes?
Which convention instructs the coder regarding the definition of
open versus closed fracture? What type of fractures did this patient
sustain (open or closed)?
Assign the fracture codes for this visit.
Assign the E code or codes for this visit.
Researching the Internet
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
98
Part 2 | Introduction to ICD-9-CM
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services maintains the
current list of ICD-9-CM procedure codes (Volume 3) and references
to HIPAA-mandated transactions and code sets. Access the CMS
website at www.cms.hhs.gov, and link to Regulations and Guidelines
to find the details of HIPAA legislation for health care transactions.
The National Center for Health Care Statistics (NCHS) oversees the
changes and modifications to ICD-9-CM, Volumes 1 and 2. The
Coordination and Maintenance Committee provides a mechanism
for change in codes. Locate the meeting minutes of the Coordination
and Maintenance Committee at www.cdc.gov/nchs (see Top Ten
Links to include ICD-9 information) to see how this committee
addresses applications for code changes and modifications.
ICD-9-CM codes are used for statistical reporting by federal health
agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Access the CDC
website at www.cdc.gov, and find one study or survey that included
ICD-9-CM codes. How are the codes used to provide information?
Knowledge of new technology is essential for keeping up with
medical practice and treatment for ICD-9-CM coding. Find a
medical website that provides information on the latest technology
used to treat heart disease. List the name and URL of the website,
and describe the new technology.
Understanding the disease process can make ICD-9-CM coding
easier. One website that lists a variety of diseases and conditions is
Web MD. Access the Web MD at http://boards.webmd.com, and
find information about the causes, signs and symptoms, treatment,
and prevention of asthma. For example, ICD-9-CM codes classify
the different types of asthma, so knowledge of this information
allows the coder to understand coding issues about this disease.
With ICD-9-CM codes changing every year under the National
Center for Health Statistics, it is important to be able to access new
codes and keep track of codes you reported in the past. Locate code
276.51 using the ICD-9-CM coding conversion table at the National
Center for Health Statistics website at www.cdc.gov/nchs/datawh/
ftpserv/ftpicd9/ftpicd9.htm#guidelines. What disease does this
code represent, and what code was used to report this disease before
2005? Why is it important to have access to this information?

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