RotheRham diabetes management guidelines 2013

Document technical information

Format pdf
Size 1.4 MB
First found Jun 9, 2017

Document content analysis

Language
English
Type
not defined
Concepts
no text concepts found

Persons

Organizations

Places

Transcript

Rotherham diabetes
Management Guidelines
2013
Issue 4
Rotherham Diabetes
Management
Guidelines
2013
NB: These guidelines replace previous versions
Objectives
There are about 11,000 people diagnosed with diabetes in Rotherham (4.4% of the population) and this is
estimated to grow at the rate of 2.5% per year. The Rotherham Diabetes Clinical Network has produced these
guidelines to help all health professionals provide optimal care for patients with diabetes in primary, intermediate and secondary care.
The guideline contains the collective consensus on best practice for the management of diabetes and draws
on national and international recommendations on standards of care where possible together with local clinical expertise. It aims to provide comprehensive information about diabetes clinical pathways in Rotherham
and will be added to and updated over time so that all clinicians can feel confident that by following it, they
will provide a high standard of care. It is not designed to be followed slavishly as there will be individual circumstances where experience and the clinical picture warrant an alternative course of action.
Development of the Guidelines
The following people have contributed in the development of the Guidlines:
Dr Solomon Muzulu
Dr Bernard Everett Dr Susan Rutter
Sri Kakarlapudi
Trevor Pilling
Stuart Lakin
Dr Jason Page
Fiona Smith
Sharon Gamble
Dr Bernd Franke
Dr Sherif El-Refee Dr Ahmed Abdelhafiz
Dr Alison Ogden
Consultant Physician (Diabetes and Endocrinology)
Rotherham Foundation Trust
General Practitioner
Woodstock Bower Surgery
Consultant Obstetrician
Rotherham Foundation Trust
Diabetes Dietician
Rotherham Foundation Trust
Podiatrist
Rotherham Foundation Trust
Head of Medicines Management NHS Rotherham
Lead Commissioner for Diabetes Rotherham CCGThorpe Hesley Surgery
Clinical Nurse Specialist/Diabetes/team leader
Rotherham CHS
Paediatric Diabetes Nurse Specialists
Rotherham Foundation Trust
Consultant Physician (Diabetes and Endocrinology)
Rotherham Foundation Trust
Consultant Paediatrician
Rotherham Foundation Trust
Consultant Physician (Elderly)
Rotherham Foundation Trust
General PractitionerClifton Surgery
The Guideline editorial team are:
Dr Nagpal Hoysal
Consultant in Public Health Medicine NHS Rotherham
In the event of significant new research findings, or national recommendations, specific areas in these guidelines
may be updated on an ad hoc basis. Full revision of the guidelines will be undertaken every two to three years.
Guidelines provide guidance
These guidelines provide advice on best practice management for the majority of people with diabetes;
however, it is not a mandate to be slavishly followed at all turns. Good clinical practice always involves
weighing the advantages and disadvantages of a potential course of action based on individual circumstances.
If you have comments on the content of the guidelines, please contact:
Dr Jason PageDr Solomon Muzulu
Lead Commissioner for Diabetes Rotherham CCG Consultant Endocrinologist
Thorpe Hesley Surgery Rotherham Foundation Trust
Sough Hall Avenue, ROTHERHAM S61 2QPMoorgate Road, Rotherham S60 2UD
01709 304155
[email protected]@rothgen.nhs.uk
2
Guidance - must be followed
Best Practice Additional Information
Document Links
Contents
3
1.
Diagnosis of Diabetes - N Hoysal / J Page
2.Management of Newly Diagnosed Diabetes - T Nougher-Fuller, J Page, B Franke
3.Top Tips for referral - N Hoysal / J Page
4.
Gestational diabetes - S Rutter
5.
Annual Review - J Page
6.Health promotion and preventative care
- D Howlett, S Rutter, K Wakefield, A Iliff, M Howard, J Saunders
7.Patient Education - F Smith/S Kakarlapudi
8.
Glucose Control
8.1. Dietary information - S Kakarlapudi
8.2. Oral hypoglycaemics and GLP-1 in type 2 DM - S Lakin
8.3.Insulin in type 2 DM - F Smith
8.4.Insulin in type 1 DM - F Smith
4
7
14
17
18
20
8.5.Self monitoring of blood glucose - S Lakin
8.6.Urine glucose testing
8.7.Sick day rules - F Smith
8.8.Prevention and management of hypoglycaemia - S Kakarlapudi
9.
Risk Factor Management
9.1.Hypertension - J Page
9.2.Cardiovascular disease
9.3. Kidney disease
9.4. Antithrombotics - J Page
9.5. Neuropathy and footcare - T Pilling
9.6.Psychological care - A Ogden
9.7.Erectile dysfunction - J Page
9.8.Contraception - A Ogden
10.Paediatric diabetes services - T Hyde
11. Referral forms - D Howlett, F Smith, T Pilling, J Saunders, M Howard
12.Contacts - N Hoysal
13. Appendices - J Saunders, A Iliff
47
48
49
53
58
58
61
62
63
64
66
68
69
71
73
82
85
26
31
31
33
42
46
1. Diagnosis of Diabetes
Symptoms
• Polyuria • Polydipsia
• Skin infection or pruritus
• Weight loss
• Lassitude
• Blurred vision
• Urinary or genital infection
People with Type 2 diabetes may have few if any symptoms
A high index of suspicion is needed as up to 30% of cases remain undiagnosed.
Criteria for Diagnosis
In people with symptoms, diabetes is usually diagnosed on the basis of a single:
• HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol/mol
• random venous plasma glucose concentration ≥ 11.1 mmol/l
• fasting plasma glucose concentration ≥ 7.0 mmol/l (whole blood ≥ 6.1 mmol/l)
An HbA1c <48mmol/mol does not exclude a diagnosis of diabetes and people with symptoms should be
offered an alternative test.
HbA1c should not be used as the sole test in any of the circumstances where glucose levels have risen rapidly
or very recently (< 2 – 3 months) such as:
• all children and young people with symptoms. The decision to refer should be based on a single raised
blood glucose result. Do not delay referral to the Paediatric Diabetes Team.
• symptoms suggesting Type 1 diabetes (any age)
• short duration diabetes symptoms
• patients at high risk of diabetes who are acutely ill
• taking medication that may cause rapid glucose rise e.g. corticosteroids, antipsychotics
• acute pancreatic damage/pancreatic surgery
In people without symptoms, diagnosis requires further confirmatory blood tests. Depending on the initial
investigation used:
• Repeat venous HbA1c. If second sample is less than 48mmol/mol treat as high risk of diabetes and
repeat the test in 6 months or sooner if symptoms develop.
• Repeat plasma glucose. At least one additional glucose test result on another day with a value in the
diabetic range is essential, either from a fasting or random sample as above.
If there is still uncertainty, diagnosis is on the basis of:
• plasma glucose concentration ≥ 11.1 mmol/l 2 hours after 75g anhydrous glucose in an oral glucose
tolerance test (OGTT)
Diagnosis must never be made on the basis of glycosuria or a capillary blood glucose alone; such tests may be
useful for risk assessment.
Reference:
1. CMO’s Update, 26, May 2000.
2. MeReC Briefing 2004; 25:1-8.
3. WHO, Use of Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) in the Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus, 2011
4
1. Diagnosis of Diabetes
Protocol for 75g Oral Glucose Tolerance
Test (OGTT)
• Baseline plasma glucose after a 12 hour fast (water only for comfort)
• Give equivalent of 75g oral glucose load:
394ml of Original Lucozade® Sparkling Glucose Drink (73kcal/100ml formulation) that has been
allowed to go flat.
• Repeat plasma glucose 2 hours later
• Send sample to laboratory
• Patients should refrain from smoking/exercise during the test
Risk Factors for Type 2 DM
White people aged over 40 years and people from black, Asian and minority ethnic groups aged over 25
years with one or more of the following:
• A first degree family history of diabetes
• Overweight/obese/morbidly obese with a BMI of 25kg/m2 and above, with a sedentary lifestyle
• Waist measurement >94cm (>37”) for white and black men or >90cm (>35”) for Asian men, and >80cm
(>31.5”) for women
• People who have ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease or treated
hypertension
• Women who have had gestational diabetes (recommended to have FPG testing)
• Women with polycystic ovary syndrome who have a BMI > 30
• People who are known to have impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glycaemia
• People who have severe mental health problems
• People who have hypertriglyceridaemia not due to alcohol excess or renal disease
A high index of suspicion is needed as up to 30% of cases remain undiagnosed
Classification of Diabetes
The following is a useful website to check on classification of Diabetes within the practice clinical system:
http://www.clininf.eu/cod
5
1. Diagnosis of Diabetes
Differential Diagnosis
Discriminating between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes:
• Consider Type 1 diabetes if
• Ketonuria is detected
• Weight loss is marked
• The person does not have features of the metabolic syndrome or other contributing illness
• In younger people, consider the possibility that apparent Type 1 diabetes is MODY or Type 2
• With obesity or with a family history of Type 2 diabetes especially if of non-white ethnicity.
Do not routinely use measurement of specific auto-antibodies or C-peptide to confirm the
diagnosis of Type 1 diabetes – consider their use at the time of diagnosis to discriminate Type 1 from Type 2
diabetes.
Consider referral to secondary care where a confident diagnosis of either T1DM or T2DM cannot be made.
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT):
and
Impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG):
Fasting glucose < 7 mmol/lFasting glucose ≥ 6.1 but < 7.0 mmol/l
2 hour glucose ≥ 7.8 but <11.1 mmol/l
High risk of developing diabetes
HbA1c between 42 – 47 mmol/mol (6.0 – 6.4%)
• P
atients with IGT/IFG should receive lifestyle advice – weight loss of 5kg and 30 minutes of moderate
exercise 5 times weekly reduces progression to Type 2 diabetes by almost 60%. Metformin may be
considered in younger, more overweight patients
• or high risk of developing diabetes
6
2. Management of
newly diagnosed diabetes
2.1 Does your patient need initiation of
insulin at diagnosis of diabetes?
Typical symptoms and a diagnostic blood glucose
(Random ≥ 11.1 mmol/l)
Yes
Is the patient ill (vomiting or semiconscious)?
Yes
Admit to hospital
Yes
Strong indication for insulin
Yes
Two or more are a strong
indication for insulin NO
Is there moderate (++)/heavy (+++) Ketonuria?
NO
Are one or more of the following present?
• Severe symptoms (Nocturia x 3-4)
• Short history (weeks)
• Marked weight loss (irrespective of absolute weight)
• A first degree relative with Type 1 diabetes
• A personal history of autoimmune disease
NO
No immediate need for insulin. Dietary advice
based on healthy eating principles refer to dietary information.
For advice on oral glucose control treatment refer
to Glucose control Type 2 DM
Yes
First degree relative with diabetes
on diet or tablets consider Type 2
diabetes
No immediate need for insulin
Consider non-urgent referral
7
2. Management of
newly diagnosed diabetes
2.2 INITIAL INFORMATION provision
Initial information provision
At diagnosis and during annual review, signpost local peer support and patient/carer/parent support
groups. Contact details for them can be found in the Contacts section.
In addition, all patients should be signposted to the 15 measures checklist.
8
he
al
th
ca
re
15
Diabetes UK
es
se
nt
ia
ls
The care you should receive
Having the right care is essential for the wellbeing of all people with diabetes. There is a
minimum level of healthcare that every person with diabetes deserves and should expect.
Here are the 15 essential checks and services you should receive. If you aren’t
getting all the care you need, take this checklist to your diabetes healthcare team and
discuss it with them.
1
Get your blood glucose levels measured at least once a year. An HbA1c blood
test will measure your overall blood glucose control and help you and your diabetes
healthcare team set your own target.
2
Have your blood pressure measured and recorded at least once a year,
and set a personal target that is right for you.
3
Have your blood fats (cholesterol) measured every year. Like blood glucose
levels and blood pressure, you should have your own target that is realistic
and achievable.
4
Have your eyes screened for signs of retinopathy every year. Using a specialised
digital camera, a photo of each eye will be taken and examined by a specialist who
will look for any changes to your retina (the seeing part at the back of your eye).
5
Have your legs and feet checked – the skin, circulation and nerve supply of
your legs and feet should be examined annually. You should be told if you have
any risk of foot problems, how serious they are and if you should be referred
to a specialist podiatrist or specialist foot clinic.
6
Have your kidney functions monitored annually. You should have two tests
for your kidneys: urine test for protein (a sign of possible kidney problems)
and a blood test to measure kidney function.
7
Have your weight checked and have your waist measured to see if you need
to lose weight.
8
Get support if you are a smoker including advice and support on how to quit.
Having diabetes already puts people at increased risk of heart disease and stroke,
and smoking further increases this risk.
9
Receive care planning to meet your individual needs – you live with diabetes
every day so you should have a say in every aspect of your care. Your yearly care
plan should be agreed as a result of a discussion between you and your diabetes
healthcare team, where you talk about your individual needs and set targets.*
10 Attend an education course to help you understand and manage your
diabetes. You should be offered and have the opportunity to attend courses
in your local area.
11 Receive paediatric care if you are a child or young person. You should
receive care from specialist diabetes paediatric healthcare professionals. When
the time comes to leave paediatric care, you should know exactly what to expect
so you have a smooth change over to adult health services.
12 Receive high quality care if admitted to hospital. If you have to stay in
hospital, you should still continue to receive high-quality diabetes care from
specialist diabetes healthcare professionals, regardless of whether you have
been admitted due to your diabetes or not.
13 Get information and specialist care if you are planning to have a baby
as your diabetes control has to be a lot tighter and monitored very closely. You
should expect care and support from specialist healthcare professionals at every
stage from preconception to post-natal care.
14 See specialist diabetes healthcare professionals to help you manage your
diabetes. Diabetes affects different parts of the body and you should have the
opportunity to see specialist professionals such as an ophthalmologist, podiatrist
or dietitian.
15 Get emotional and psychological support. Being diagnosed with diabetes
and living with a long term condition can be difficult. You should be able to talk
about your issues and concerns with specialist healthcare professionals.
Checks and services for children. The 15 checks and services may not all apply to
children. Children should have more frequent HbA1c measurements and generally do
not have formal screening for complications (eg blood pressure, blood fats, eyes, feet
and kidneys) until they are 12 years old. However, their weight, height and general
health will be regularly monitored by the healthcare team.
Do you want to make a difference to diabetes services and care? Help us
change lives and futures at www.diabetes.org.uk/get-involved
For more information and support call Diabetes UK Careline on 0845 120 2960
*If you live in Northern Ireland, care planning is different. Talk to your diabetes healthcare team.
© Diabetes UK 2011
2. Management of
newly diagnosed diabetes
2.3 Help for Patients Newly Diagnosed with Type 2 DM
s
Smoking?
Consider ref
smoking
cessation
m
Metformin
500mg and
titrate to max
tolerated
dose unless
contraindicated
i
Information
about Diet and
Exercise
l
Lower BP to
140/80 (130/80
if renal/eye/
cerebrovascular
disease
efer Dietician
R
and DESMOND
If HbA1C high
after 3-6/12 then
follow guidance
Refer
Hypertension
guidelines
Refer obsity pathway if BMI>25
r
e
Eyes: Refer
retinal screening
Renal: Test
Albumin/
Creatinine Ratio
Statin: Initiate
Simvastatin
40mg on
If abnormal
Initiate Ramipril
and titrate to
10mg daily
(Candestartan
if unable to
tolerate ACE)
Aim
chol<4mmol/l and
LDL <2mmol/l
Switch to
Atorvastatin 40mg
d after 3-6/12 if not
controlled
11
s
Triglycerides:
consider treatment
with fibrate if
>4.5mmol/l
2. Management of
newly diagnosed diabetes
2.4 INITIAL MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH TYPE 1
DIABETES MELLITUS (T1DM)
T1DM is an autoimmune disease triggered by an interaction between the immunsystem, susceptibility genes
(HLA linked) and environmental factors. The incidence of T1DM peaks in the age group 10-14.
However the speed of beta-cell destruction in the genetically susceptible individual varies greatly and hence
T1DM can present at any age.
•
•
•
•
Short history
Polyuria and polydypsia
Weight-loss
Tiredness/lethargy
Corroborative features include history of other autoimmune diseases or family history of
T1DM/autoimmune diseases.
The diagnosis is confirmed by raised random plasma glucose (> 11 mmol/l) and ketonuria (≥ ++) or raised
blood ketones (≥1mmol/L) (where available). However the absence of ketonuria or raised blood ketones
does not exclude the diagnosis of T1DM. In practice patients will have their capillary blood glucose (“BM”)
measured which needs to be confirmed as soon as feasible by a venous plasma glucose.
Measurement of fasting plasma glucose is rarely necessary and only recommended when patients are
relatively well (e.g no ketonuria/ketonaemia) and the delay in the diagnosis does not pose any risk to
the patient.
The algorithmon the next page explains how to manage the patient with new onset of T1DM in the
following clinical scenarios:
• 1. P
atient vomiting or semiconscious with high RPG and significant ketonuria (≥ +++)
/ ketonaemia (≥ 3mmol/l)
• 2. P
atient unwell with high RPG and significant ketonuria (≥ +++)/ketonaemia (≥ 3mmol/l)
(conscious and not vomiting)
• 3. P
atient with typical symptoms and able to eat/drink (see above), raised RPG and
mild ketonuria (≤ ++)/ketonaemia (between 1-3 mmol/L)
• 4. Patient with typical symptoms, raised RPG and no ketonuria/ketonaemia
12
2. Management of
newly diagnosed diabetes
The majority of patients with T1DM benefit from a basal/bolus regimen (e.g short-acting insulin with meals
and snacks and long-acting insulin od or bd). All patients on a basal/bolus regimen need to be educated
about carbohydrate counting. Patients will be encouraged to attend the local DAFNE course within the first
year of their diagnosis.
DAFNE graduates who despite implementation of the DAFNE principle do not achieve satisfactory glycaemic
control ( HbA1c ≥ 69 mmol/mol) or experience disabling hypoglycaemic episodes (see Nice TAG 57) should be
considered for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (insulin pump therapy).
Although in the classical presentation of T1DM the diagnosis is straightforward, an increasing proportion
of patients cannot be easily classified as T1DM or T2DM. In doubtful cases we would advise a referral to the
Diabetes Specialist Team.
13
3. Top tips for referral
The table below is an aide memoire for escalation of care (including when to refer to a specialist). In a number
of the scenarios, the primary care team needs to check that tasks have been completed (usually provision of
information or referral for structured education or retinal screening) and only take action if they haven’t.
New diagnosis
Trigger
Check-list
Timescale to
be seen
New diagnosis of diabetes in a child
Refer to on-call Paediatric Registrar or Children’s
Assessment Unit
ASAP
New diagnosis of Type 1 or 2 DM in an adult –
vomiting or semi-conscious
Admit to hospital under diabetologist
Ensure provided with advice about condition & 15 steps
Ensure signposting of local DUK groups
Ensure signposting of driving advice
Ensure referral to retinal screening
Ensure referral to structured education
ASAP
Discuss case with specialist team
Refer to specialist team
Provide advice about condition and 15 steps
Ensure signposting of driving advice
Ensure signposting of local DUK groups
Ensure referral to retinal screening
Same day
As per triage
New diagnosis of Type 1 or 2 DM in an adult –
moderate or heavy ketonuria ++/+++
New diagnosis of Type 2 DM in an adult
Provide advice about condition and 15 steps
Initial management plan
Signpost local DUK groups
Signpost driving advice
Refer for dietetics assessment
Refer for retinal screening
Refer for structured education
(DESMOND, CHO counting)
Note: Referral to specialist team not usually necessary
< 3 months
As clinically
necessary
< 3 months
< 3 months
As clinically
necessary
Pre-conception care and pregnancy
Timescale to
be seen
Trigger
Check-list
Diabetes in pregnancy
Advise to take 5mg folic acid od
Refer to diabetes antenatal clinic
< 1 week
Woman with diabetes planning pregnancy
Advise to take folic acid
Refer to diabetes antenatal clinic
< 4 weeks
14
3. Top tips for referral
Glucose control
Trigger
Check-list
Timescale to
be seen
Uncontrolled Type 1 DM
(HbA1c > 64 mmol/mol)
Frequent hyperglycaemia
Unscheduled hospital admission
Reinforce lifestyle behaviour change
(diet, weight, smoking, drinking)
Re-assess psychological needs
Consider referral to Specialist Team / review insulin regime
As per triage
Tightly controlled Type 1 DM
(HbA1c < 42 mmol/mol)
Poor hypo awareness
Frequent hypos
Unscheduled hospital admission
Signpost driving advice
Reinforce lifestyle behaviour change (diet, weight, smoking,
drinking)
Re-assess psychological needs
Consider referral to Specialist Team
As per triage
Uncontrolled Type 2 DM
(HbA1c > 64 mmol/mol)
Frequent hyperglycaemia
Unscheduled hospital admission
Reconsider whether HbA1c target is clinically appropriate
Reinforce need for weight loss/management
Reinforce dietary advice
Re-assess psychological needs
Review medication
Monitor every 3 months to assess response
Consider referral to Specialist Team
As per triage
Tightly controlled Type 2 DM
(HbA1c < 42 mmol/mol)
Poor hypo awareness
Frequent hypos
Reconsider whether HbA1c target is clinically appropriate
Review medication especially if on SU or insulin and consider
de-escalating therapy
Monitor every 3 months to assess response
Signpost driving advice
Investigate cause of (if any) weight loss
Consider referral to Specialist Team
As per triage
Not had structured education
Provide advice about condition and 15 steps
Signpost DUK group
Refer to Specialist Team for DAFNE (Type 1 DM) or DESMOND
(Type 2 DM)
As clinically
necessary
Foot problems
Trigger
Check-list
Timescale to
be seen
Patient systemically unwell with foot care
emergency
Admit to hospital for review by multidisciplinary Foot
care team
ASAP
Foot care emergencies: new foot ulceration,
diabetic foot infection, acute Charcot foot
Liaise and refer to multidisciplinary Foot care team
for review within 24 hours (if out-of-hours consider
referral to A&E/B1 if clinically indicated)
Within 24 hours
Foot problem (increased and high risk) see
appendix 11.3
Refer to community podiatry
As per triage
15
3. Top tips for referral
Out-pATIENT CLINIC DETAILS
CLINIC Rotherham HOSPITALHOW TO REFER
General Diabetes
Adult
Paediatric
Dr S Muzulu
Wednesday p.m. (new & follow-up)
Dr B FrankeThursday 9.00 a.m. (new & follow-up)
Dr S El-RefeePaediatric clinics are held on a weekly basis
in children's outpatient department. Children
and young people are offered 4
appointments a year one of which is an
annual review appointment
Dr Abdelhafiz Friday 1.30 p.m. (new & follow-up)
Referral letter or form
send to integrated
diabetes team
Diabetes Renal Clinic
Dr S Muzulu
Dr B Franke
Referral letter or form
send to integrated
diabetes team
Diabetes Foot Clinic
Dr B Franke and vascular surgeon
1.30 - 2.30 p.m. 4th Tuesday monthly
Referral letter or form
send to integrated
diabetes team
Erectile Dysfunction
Urology Clinic
Referral letter or form
send to integrated
diabetes team
Diabetes Antenatal
Clinic
Dr S Muzulu
Miss S Rutter
Transitional clinic
(16-18 year olds)
Dr S El-Refee and Dr B Franke
Wednesday or Friday pm, monthly
Direct Letter to Clinic
Young people clinic
(18-25 year olds)
Dr B Franke
Wednesday am, monthly
Referral letter or form
send to integrated
diabetes team
Diabetic Retinopathy
Ophthalmology Clinic
Mr Jabir
Wednesday p.m.
Referral letter or form
send to integrated
diabetes team
Insulin pump clinic
Dr B Franke
Wednesday pm, bi-monthly
Referral letter or form
send to integrated
diabetes team
Elderly
4th Wednesday p.m. alternate months
4th Wednesday p.m. alternate months
Wednesday a.m. (new and follow-up)
Referral letter or form
send to integrated
diabetes team
Refer to contacts for telephone number
16
3. Top tips for referral
Diabetes Top Tips
Hypoglycaemia
Patients under report episodes, ensure you ask the patients the following
during reviews:
Ask whether patients experience any symptoms of hypoglycaemia and how frequent
At what level of blood glucose patients develop the symptoms
Ensure patients know what a ‘hypo’ is and what to do if they have one
HbA1c control
Consider individualized HbA1c control in the elderly appropriate to their circumstances
– very tight control may not be in their best interest
High HbA1c
Patients with a regularly high HbA1c should be referred within 6/12 to the Diabetes
Integrated Specialist Team if the patient is on maxiumum tolerated oral therapy
Sulphonylureas
Elderly are especially prone to episodes of hypoglycaemia. Consider reducing dose of
SUs if having episodes of hypoglycaemia with good HbA1c control
Blood Glucose
monitoring
Where monitoring is appropriate please check patients have a machine, appropriate
testing strips and they know how to use it.
See http://bit.ly/16LPwK7 for BGM guideline
T1DM
These patients should have urine ketostix or blood ketone stix to use if unwell and
hyperglycaemic
Newly diagnosed
T1DM patients
Newly diagnosed well T1DM does not require admission if less ++ketonuria and if not
vomiting. Refer to Integrated Specialist Team to be seen on the same day
Sick day rules
Remind appropriate patients about sick day rules as part of the annual review
Foot Ulcers
Refer all new diabetic foot ulcers to the MDT diabetic foot team within 24 hrs for
assessment and management in order to reduce risk of further complications and
hospital admission
Lead Consultant
Dr Bernd Franke, Consultant Endocrinologist, Dr Jason Page, GP Champion Diabetes
Lead GP
Dr J Kitlowski, Clinical Commissioning Group, NHSR
Date Approved
27 June 2012
Review Date
27 June 2014
17
4. Gestational Diabetes (GDM)
Risk factors and Diagnosis
RISK FACTORS WHICH NECESSITATE OFFERING A GTT
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
P
revious gestational diabetes/impaired glucose tolerance – REFER ASAP TO DIABETES SPECIALIST MIDWIFE (DSM)
– see below– TELEPHONE IF NECESSARY 01709 424347
P
revious macrosomic baby (90th centile for gestational age - approx 4kg at term (if unsure check against centile
charts in ANC for each sex)
P
revious stillbirth
F amily history (1st degree relative with diabetes ie father, mother, sibling))
O
besity (BMI ≥30)
P
olycystic Ovarian Syndrome
E
thnicity other than white Caucasian
O
n long term oral steroids for ≥ 3months
Current pregnancy
•
•
L arge for dates (90th centile or above) / Polyhydramnios on antenatal USS
If a woman presents with excessive thirst and /or polyuria a GTT may be indicated – REFER URGENTLY TO
DIABETES SPECIALIST MIDWIFE ( By telephone/ fax)
Special circumstances
•
•
•
G
DM CAN OCCUR AT ANY TIME BUT GTT SHOULD NOT BE PERFORMED AFTER 32 weeks gestation- the case
should be discussed with a member of the antenatal diabetes team who will decide on whether home blood
glucose monitoring is appropriate and review by the team .
REPEATED GTTs ARE NOT ADVISED IN THE SAME PATIENT
W
omen who have had bariatric surgery - refer to the Diabetes Specialist Midwife for a capillary blood glucose
profile to be performed instead of GTT as bariatric surgery women cannot undertake GTT.
In order to make an informed decision about screening and testing for GDM women should be informed that:
• In most women GDM will respond to diet and exercise
• S ome women between 10-20% will need oral hypoglycaemics/ insulin therapy if the above measures do not
control the GDM
• If GDM is not detected and controlled there is a small risk of birth complications such as shoulder dystocia
• A
diagnosis of GDM will lead to increased monitoring and intervention both antenatally and in labour.
IF PATIENT ACCEPTS THE ABOVE
Refer for OGTT in Greenoaks clinic at 24-28 Wks GESTATION (ideally 26wks)
NB: If previous GDM – will need very early GTT and depending upon result further GTT as above – 26 weeks –
REFER URGENT TO DSM
PROCEDURE FOR GTT
• B
aseline plasma glucose after a 9-12 hour fast (water only for comfort).
• Give 75g oral glucose equivalent to:
394ml of Original Lucozade® Sparkling Glucose Drink (73kcal/100ml formulation) that has been
allowed to go flat.
• R
epeat plasma glucose 2 hours later.
• Send sample to laboratory
• Women should refrain from smoking/exercise during the test.
Follow up
• Women who have had GDM are at increased risk of Type 2 DM and are recommended to have annual
FPG testing.
18
5. ANNUAL REVIEW
Annual Review for Children with Diabetes
The following is a list of areas which represents a
full annual review for Children with Diabetes
1.Check of basic patient data e.g. address
2.Smoking status and referral as appropriate
to smoking cessation
3.
Alcohol intake and referral as appropriate
4.
A review of dietary issues/ under dietician?
5.Is BM testing used appropriately
6.DVLA as appropriate
7.Height
8.Weight
9.BMI
10.BP> over 12 years
11.Injection sites (where appropriate)
12.Depression screen using appropriate
questions
13.Discussion and recording of eye history,
e.g. attendance at retinopathy screening
or optician, and new visual symptoms, and
any known pathology including any laser
therapy and for pre/proliferative changes or
maculopathy
14.Foot Examination to include:
a.Pulses:
i.Posterior Tibial
ii. Dorsalispedis
19
15.Microalbuminuria over 12 years
16.Has patient had annual flu jab
17. Has patient had pneumococcal jab
and booster
18.Has patient accessed structure education?
19.Pre-conception issues, if appropiate, ask
women if they are considering pregnancy;
if they are, give advice re planning
pregnancy/pre-conception care and if not,
offer contraception.
20.Safety advice, e.g. driving
21.
General Social Issues
22.
a. Review of HbA1c result performed
in clinic ,additional blood tests requested
for U&E,LFT,TFT over 12 years,
microalbuminuria over 12 years ,Coeliac
disease ,type 1 only, annually.
23.Review of current medication and dose
adjustment advised as needed.
24.A management plan based on above review
and other aspects, agreed with the patient,
and a plan for follow-up made.
5. ANNUAL REVIEW
Annual Review for Adults with Diabetes
The following is a list of areas which represents a
full annual review for adults with Diabetes
1.Check of basic patient data e.g. address
2.Smoking status and referral as appropriate
to smoking cessation
3.
Alcohol intake and referral as appropriate
4.
A review of dietary issues/ under dietician?
5.Is BM testing used appropriately
6.Episodes of hypoglycaemia and discussion
whether assistance was needed and
whether there were warning signs
Threshold of warning symptoms (e.g how
low does BM need to fallbefore patients
gets symptoms)
History of hypo-unawareness
DVLA: has patient notified DVLA about
insulin treatment or any change of
treatment which might affect his driving
7.Height
8.Weight
9.BMI
10.BP
11.Injection sites (where appropriate)
12.Depression screen using appropriate
questions
13.Discussion and recording of eye history,
e.g. attendance at retinopathy screening
or optician, and new visual symptoms, and
any known pathology including any laser
therapy and for pre/proliferative changes or
maculopathy
14.Foot Examination to include:
a.Pulses:
i.Posterior Tibial
ii. Dorsalispedis
b.
10g Monofilament testing
c.
vibration sense and/or pinprick sensation
d.Hx of ulceration/ current ulceration and site
e.Callus formation
f.Prominent metatarsal heads
g.
Risk score
h.Under podiatry?
i.Hx amputation
j.Charcot foot
k.
Other deformity
20
15.Microalbuminuria testing
16.
Are there new symptoms of CVD
17.CKD investigations
18.
On ACE/ARB or contraindicated
19.Has patient had annual flu jab
20. Has patient had pneumococcal jab
and booster
20.Has patient accessed structure education?
21.Has patient issues regarding Erectile
dysfunction
22.Pre-conception issues, if appropiate, ask
women if they are considering pregnancy;
if they are, give advice re planning
pregnancy/pre-conception care and if not,
offer contraception.
23.Safety advice, e.g. driving
24.
General Social Issues
25.
A review of laboratory data
a.HbA1c
b.UEs
c.LFTs
d.TFT
e.Lipids
f.Microalbuminuria
g.Coeliac screen (Type 1 DM only)
26.A review of medication using the above
data a r/v based on HbA1c, BMs and
episodes of hypoglycaemia should occur
to help decide on medications issues
regarding glycaemic control. A decision
regarding treatment of hypertension also
needs to be made based on BP readings,
and an algorithm is already available
in the Diabetes guidelines. Statins are
recommended for Diabetics over 40 unless
there are contraindications. Other issues
may come to light during the review
that may need treatment according to
guidelines.
27.A management plan based on above review
and other aspects, agreed with the patient,
and a plan for follow-up made.
5. ANNUAL REVIEW
Annual Review of Children and Young People
with Diabetes up to the age of 19
The following are normally carried out by the Paediatric team:
• Risk assessment (foot care and injection sites from diagnosis and hypertension and renal from age 12 years)
• Referral for retinal screening from age 12
• BP (from age 12)
• Microalbuminuria (from age 12)
• Coeliac disease (every three years)
• Thyroid disease (every three years)
21
6. Health promotion and PREVENTATIVE CARE
6.1 Referral for Diabetic Eye Screening
All people with diabetes aged 12 years and above are eligible for annual screening to detect diabetic
retinopathy. Newly diagnosed patients and new registrations with an existing diagnosis of diabetes should
be referred as soon as possible to the Barnsley and Rotherham DRS service.
The contact details for this service are: Retinal Screening
For referral form please see 11.5
6.2 Pre-conception and Antenatal care
As part of routine care, all women of child bearing age with diabetes should be advised about the effects of
diabetes in pregnancy and encouraged to:
• Take 5mg Folic Acid daily if planning to conceive or as soon as they become aware that they are pregnant
• Make contact with health services as soon as they become aware that they are pregnant so that they can
be referred for specialist antenatal diabetes care
Women planning to conceive need their diabetes to be well managed. Ideally, a HbA1c of 42 mmol/mol
needs to be achieved and risk factors need to be managed. To facilitate this, a pre-conception clinic is
available at Rotherham Foundation Trust.
Women who are booking in should be referred for antenatal diabetes care as soon as possible, referrals
should be notified to:
Dr Susan Rutter, Consultant in Obstetrics & Gynaecology
22
6. Health promotion and PREVENTATIVE CARE
6.3 Seasonal Flu Vaccination
People with diabetes are more at risk of complications arising as a result of infections such as influenza and
pneumonia. Elevated blood glucose levels, as a response to infection, can lead to uncontrolled diabetes and
the potential danger of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) or Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS), both of
which can be fatal if left untreated.
Seasonal Flu
Vaccination should start after the age of six months and be repeated each year. None of the flu vaccines
is licensed for use in children before the age of six months. The best way to protect children younger than
six months who are in a clinical risk group such as people with diabetes, is to request members of their
household and their caregivers be vaccinated. They may not qualify for a free flu vaccination on the NHS but
the vaccination is available over the counter at most local pharmacies.
Up to the age of three the dose is half that of an older child or adult, and for children under the age of 13, if
they have not previously been vaccinated, the dose should be repeated after 4 – 6 weeks for the first year.
Anything about adult immunisation dosage and schedule?
Vaccination should be postponed in patients with a feverish illness or infection.
Where an individual is known to have an allergy to eggs, the vaccine may have to be avoided; however,
people with mild allergy could be vaccinated with a low egg albumen vaccine and in some years, for example
2011/12, the vaccine is egg free and could be given to people with any level of allergy; reference should be
made to the guidance published for each season, predominantly the Seasonal Flu Chapter of the Green Book
and the Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) for individual products.
It is recommended that diabetics over the age of 6 months be vaccinated against seasonal flu. This advice
to anyone with Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes requiring insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs and diet
controlled diabetics.
Pneumococcal
Invasive pneumococcal disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. It particularly affects the very
young, the elderly, those with an absent or nonfunctioning spleen and those with other causes of impaired
immunity. Recurrent infections may occur in association with skull defects, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks,
cochlear implants or fractures of the skull.
Children receive pneumococcal vaccination as part of the routine schedule.
Adults with diabetes requiring insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs and anyone aged over 65 years are eligible
for an offer of pneumococcal PPV vaccination. This is a single immunization; however, patients who are
asplenic, have splenic dysfunction or who have chronic renal disease are recommended to have a booster
every five years.
23
6. Health promotion and PREVENTATIVE CARE
6.4 Management of
non-hyperglycaemic risk factors
All people with diabetes should be assessed for non-hyperglycaemic risk factors on diagnosis and at annual
review and offered advice and referral as appropriate.
Smoking Cessation:
1
. ASK and record smoking status
Smoker – ex-smoker – non-smoker
QOF Points
2. ADVISE patient of health benefits
Stopping smoking is the best thing you can do for your health
3. Record of asking
QOF Points
4. Record of adivce
+/- referral to specialist stop smoking
Brief interventions and referral for smoking cessation
Typical interventions take between 5 – 10 mins
May include the following
• Simple opportunistic advice to stop to all smokers
• An assessment of the patient's commitment to quit
• An offer of pharmacotherapy and/or behavioural support
• Provision of self-help material and referral to more intensive support such as the NHS Stop Smoking Services
• Information should be recorded – smoking status, advice to stop, response to advice and referral if appropriate
• Everyone who smokes should be advised to quit
• If not ready they should be asked to consider the possibility and encouraged to seek help in the future
• If they present with a smoking related disease the advice should be linked to the medical condition
• Advice to stop should be sensitive to the individual's preferences, needs and circumstances
Very brief advice (AAA approach)
ASK and record the patient’s smoking status
“Are you smoking at all these days?”
ADVISE the patient of health benefits of quitting
“Stopping smoking is the best thing you can do for your health”.
ACT on patient’s response, including offering a referral to their local NHS Stop Smoking Service
“Lots of my patients are succeeding with support from the local NHS Stop Smoking Service and stop smoking
medication. Would you like me to refer you to them for more advice?”
24
6. Health promotion and PREVENTATIVE CARE
Alcohol:
Identification for alcohol related risk and treatment in Primary Care - 16 years +
Identify levels of drinking to assess alcohol related
risk using AUDIT C – if score 3+ go on to complete
full AUDIT page.
Confirm how many
units are in the
patients ‘drinks’
Lower Risk - Score 0-8
‘Well done’ - Reinforce lower risk drinking message. Not
safe in ceraint circumstances, operating machinery trying to
conceive, pregnant
Increasing Risk - Score 8-15
When should I use AUDIT C - AUDIT?
Advise to reduce to within lower risk drinking limits:
• Access advice on this from websites, leaflets.
• May already be seeing some alcohol related issues, fatigue, weight gain,
poor sleep, plus at higher risk of developing serious illness.
• New Patient Registration (DES only)
• G
eneral health interview, ante/post natal,
sexual health check-up, NHS Health check
etc
• A
ttendance at possible alcohol related
health condition e.g. multiple A&E
attendance
Higher risk drinkers (16 - 19)
Likely to be experiencing alcohol related health issues and are at much
higher risk of developing more serious illness.
I know you can reduce your drinking and we can review this in a month’s
time, but if you would like some extra support, explore how you feel about
your drinking and your confidence in changing it please refer yourself to the
Primary Care Alcohol Service, who will then arrange for you to see an Alcohol
Worker in the Practice.
• NOT in LES advise self referral Lifeline
• 16 years to 18 years refer Know the Score
• Personalise the feedback by relating drinking to individual health, risk and
personal responsibility to change
Local Brief advice tool. - Social marketing literature - www.callitanight.co.uk
Change for life - free from DoH orderline - Code C4L238 "Don't let the drinks
sneak up on you"
• Depression/anxiety
• Stomach disorders/diarrhoea
• Pancreatitis
• Abnormal LFT’s
• Hepatitis
• Cirrhosis
• Cardiac arrhythmias
• Vitamin deficiencies
• Hypertension
• Gout
• Stroke
• Unexplained infertility
• Emergency contraception
• Cardio myopathy
• Peripheral neuropathy
• Impotence/libido problems
• Seizures starting in middle age
Score 20+
Advise possible dependence
• Falls/collapses in elderly
• A
lcohol LES -Book into arranged clinic slot with practice and inform
designated Keyworker if SADQ less than 30/meets eligibility criteria. (Not in
LES refer to Clearways)
• SADQ > 30 complex/severely dependent refer directly to Consultant in
substance misuse at Clearways
• Aged 16yrs to 18 yrs refer to Know the Score Young Persons Drug and
Alcohol Project
25
• Acne, eczema, multiple bruising
• Cancers of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, breast and colon
• Non compliance medication
• Insomnia
• Anyone you have concerns re alcohol use.
6. Health promotion and PREVENTATIVE CARE
Weight Management
– Referral Pathway (Adults)
Patients should be referred into the Rotherham weight management services as appropriate.
Adults with a BMI (kg/m2) between 25 and 40 can be referred to Reshape Rotherham (community weight
management service). Adults with a BMI greater than 40 or greater than 30 with increased risk (eg Type 1
diabetes, tablet controlled Type 2 diabetes etc) should be referred to RIO (multidisciplinary team for obesity).
Increased risk in adults
e.g.Type 1 diabetes
Tablet controlled T2DM
Dyslipidaemia
South Asian men
Established CVD
Sleep apnoea
etc
SECONDARY CARE
e.g. Cardiology
Diabetology
Gastroenterology
Respiratory
Surgery
Obstetrics/Gynaecology/Maternity
(Fertility/PCOS)
Orthopaedics
Rheumatology
etc.
MUSCULOSKELETAL (physio/podiatry)
COMMERICIAL SECTOR
e.g. Weight Watchers
Slimming World
PHARMACY
TIER 4
Specialist
interventions
e.g. bariatric surgery
er
aft
er
aft
d
ste
au
xh
ne
ter
2 in
ier
n
er
aft
r2
tie
TIER 2
Community Weight Management Service
(diet/nutrition/lifestyle/exercise education)
RESHAPE ROTHERHAM
(SELF REFERRAL)
tio
en
ve
erv
int
ntio
r3
tie
if t
er
If B
88 MI
cm > 4
or 0 o
wc r B
> 1 MI
02 > 3
cm 0 o
wit r w
hr c>
isk
Refer to tier 3 or recommend
tier 2 as appropriate
aft
TIER 1
Primary Activity
n
ntio
ve
er
int
If B
or MI
tie wc > 25-4
r2
0
self 94cm or w
ref re c >
err com 80
al
me cm
nd
n
tie
tio
r3
en
ass
erv
ess
int
me
r4
nt
tie
TIER 3
Specialist MDT Obesity Service
Rotherham Institute for Obesity (RIO)
(REFERRAL ONLY)
e.g. GP, Health Visitor, Leisure Services
e.g. Maternity Matters, UNICEF Baby Friendly, Ministry of Food, Leisure & Green Spaces,
Transport & Planning, Workplaces, Built Environment etc
Any TIER 3 patient requiring pharmacotherapy will be treated in TIER 3, and this will be reflected in the GP prescribing data for whom the patient is registered.
NB If patients are considered unsuccessful at any given tier, they automatically progress to the next tier of intervention.
After intervention, patients progress down through the tiers and back to primary activity (TIER 1) of monitoring and education (every 6-12 months).
For additional information see section 11.1
26
6. Health promotion and PREVENTATIVE CARE
Weight Management
– Referral Pathway (CHILDREN)
Children in the BMI 85th - 99.6th centile range can be referred to Carnegie Clubs (run by DC Leisure). Children
with BMI greater than the 99.6th centile or greater than the 95th centile with increased risk (eg Type 1
diabetes, tablet controlled Type 2 diabetes etc) should be referred to RIO (multi disciplinary team for obesity).
Increased risk in children
e.g. Type 1 diabetes
Tablet controlled T2DM
Special circumstances
er
er
aft
d
ste
au
xh
ne
ntio
ter
2 in
ier
if t
n
er
aft
r2
tie
TIER 2
Community Weight Management Service
(diet/nutrition/lifestyle/exercise education)
CARNEGIE CLUBS via DC Leisure
(SELF REFERRAL)
tio
en
ve
erv
int
th
r3
tie
9.6
Refer to tier 3 or recommend
tier 2 as appropriate
er
TIER 3
Specialist MDT Obesity Service
Rotherham Institute for Obesity (RIO)
(REFERRAL ONLY)
aft
If B
or MI
> 9 cen
5th tile
ce > 9
ntil 9.
e w 6th
ith cen
ris tile
k
n
tie
tio
r3
en
ass
erv
ess
int
me
r4
nt
tie
n
TIER 1
Primary Activity
tio
en
erv
int
if
rec BMI
self omm cent
ref end ile 8
5
err
al tier th –
2
9
SECONDARY CARE
e.g. Paediatrics
Surgery
Orthopaedics
MUSCULOSKELETAL (physio/podiatry)
SOCIAL SERVICES
aft
TIER 4
Specialist
interventions
e.g. Carnegie
residential camps
e.g. GP, Health Visitor, School Nurse
e.g. Maternity Matters, UNICEF Baby Friendly, Early Years, Play Path Finder, Healthy Schools,
Ministry of Food, Leisure & Green Spaces, Transport & Planning, Built Environment etc
Any TIER 3 patient requiring pharmacotherapy will be treated in TIER 3, and this will be reflected in the GP prescribing data for whom the patient is registered.
NB If patients are considered unsuccessful at any given tier, they automatically progress to the next tier of intervention.
After intervention, patients progress down through the tiers and back to primary activity (TIER 1) of monitoring and education (every 6-12 months).
For additional information see section 11.1
27
7. Patient Education
Patient Education
Education is essential to patient-centred care and is needed to ensure that individuals are empowered to
make informed decisions about managing their diabetes.
Diabetes education needs to be specific to individual needs, and is best addressed on a one to one basis
and in groups. It is important that the information given is accurate, clear, concise and not conflicting
or ambiguous.
The following are a few points to consider when providing education to the patient with diabetes:
• Allow sufficient time
• Avoid information overload. It is important to proceed at an appropriate pace for each patient.
Be aware of the patient’s saturation point
• Ensure that everyone is saying the same things
• Use information booklets but be aware of the contents. Written material should enhance teaching,
not replace it
• Messages often need to be re-iterated several times. Much of what is said is forgotten, not heard
or not understood
• Include a relative or friend where appropriate
• Be aware of language and cultural implications
• Record that the patient education has been given
• Education may have legal implications e.g. driving and hypoglycaemia, DVLA and insurance
and employment
Why Structured Education?
Structured education is a planned and graded programme that is comprehensive in scope, flexible in content
and adaptable to educational and cultural background (NICE 2003). http://www.nice.org.uk
It aims to improve knowledge, blood glucose control, weight, dietary management, physical activity
and psychological well being. Structured education improves biomedical outcomes, quality of life and
treatment satisfaction. It is recommended for maximising self-care, personal autonomy, skills and
knowledge (NSF for Diabetes 2001).
http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/
28
7. Patient Education
A high quality structured education programme should:
• Have a structured, written curriculum
• Have trained educators
• Be quality assured
• Be audited
(Nsf 2001, Nice 2003).
For more details of criteria visit the National Diabetes support team at: www.cgsupport.nhs.uk/diabetes
stRuctuReD eDucAtiON iN ROtheRhAm:
There are two national programmes for adults that currently meet the above suggested criteria. they are,
Diabetes Education and Self Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed (DesmOND) for people with
Type 2 diabetes and Dose Adjustment for Normal eating (DAfNe) for people with Type 1 diabetes. both
programmes are being delivered in Rotherham by the Diabetes specialist team"
Diabetes Education and Self Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed (DesmOND):
WhAt the pROGRAmme iNvOlves?
• 6 hrs education, as either:
1 full day or 2 half days
• Groups of 6-10 + partners or friends
• Delivered by 2 DESMOND educators (Rotherham currently has 4 DESMOND educators, and there will soon
be two more).
RefeRRAl cRiteRiA:
•
•
•
•
Newly diagnosed or on-going Type 2 Diabetes.
Able to speak & understand English
Not housebound
Patients can self refer or clinicians and professionals can refer using adult referral form to the Diabetes
specialist Nurse service.
WheRe ARe the cOuRses RuN?
In the Diabetes education and Resource centre and also in several satellite centres in the community.
More information about DesmOND can be found at www.desmond-project.org.uk
Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAfNe):
DAFNE has been established in Rotherham for 5 years. There are six DAFNE educators and two
DAfNe trained doctors.
WhAt DOes it iNvOlve?
• A 5-day training course delivered by 2 educators covering all aspects of diabetes and how to dose adjust
insulin for the food eaten along with healthy lifestyle changes in accordance with taught DAFNE principles.
• Initial follow-up session (2.5 hours) within 8 weeks of completing the course
• Recurrent (12-18 months) top-up sessions (3– 3.5 hours)
29
7. Patient Education
Referral Criteria:
• People with Type 1 Diabetes who have been diagnosed at least 6 months prior to referral
and are aged over 17 years
• Can speak and understand English
• No problems with vision or hearing
• No eating disorders
• No current severe mental health problems
• People who are willing to make changes to their diabetes management
Where are they held?
This programme is being currently held at the Diabetes Education and Resource Centre, but there are plans
for it to be delivered at other satellite centres in the community.
More information about DAFNE can be found at www.dafne.uk.com
Locally developed education programmes:
• Carbohydrate awareness / counting group (for patients on insulin)
• Optimisation of control (for patients with insulin treated Type 2 diabetes)
• Diabetes and Weight Management Groups
What is Carbohydrate Awareness / Counting group?
This is a programme that has been developed for
• People with type 2 diabetes on basal bolus regime who would like to improve their diabetes control by
matching their insulin to the amount of carbohydrate in their meal and
• As a stop-gap programme for people with type 1 diabetes on basal bolus regime, waiting to go on to the
DAFNE programme.
This programme is to give patients an understanding of what carbohydrates are and why they are important
in the management of their diabetes. The programme consists of practical workshops to teach:
• Which foods contain carbohydrates
• How to estimate the amount of carbohydrate in a given food
• How insulin works
• How to match the insulin to the food you eat
Where are the courses held?
In the Diabetes Centre at the Rotherham General Hospital and can also be organised in satellite centres in the
community depending on the amount of interest.
How long is the course?
The course is delivered over two mornings, three and half hours each (currently on a Tuesday).
Who can go on it?
People who are on a multiple insulin injection regime, i.e. when they inject a quick acting insulin for their
meals and one or two injections of a background insulin, also called the ‘Basal Bolus regime’.
30
7. Patient Education
How to refer patients to this programme?
Use the referral form for dietetics and mark for Diabetes Specialist Dietitians or the referral form
for Diabetes Specialist Nurses.
o The referral should include:
• Patient details • Weight • Most recent HbA1c and Lipid profile o Address to:
Kathy Winearls
Diabetes Education and Resource Centre
Rotherham General Hospital
Moorgate road
Rotherham
S60 2UD
• Height
• Current Medication
• Any relevant past medical history
Optimisation of blood glucose control programme
Aim
Improve knowledge and understanding of diabetes and insulin therapy in order to enable self-management.
Referral criteria:
• People with Type 2 diabetes who are treated with insulin therapy either a once daily or twice daily regime.
• HbA1c > 53 mmol/mol.
• Anyone who wishes to learn more about their diabetes and improve their blood glucaose control and are
able to understand English and participate in group education.
Learning outcomes:
To:
• Have an understanding of the treatments used in Type 2 Diabetes
• Understand the benefits of improving glycaemic control in reducing the risk of developing potential long
term complications associated with diabetes
• Understand how diet and activity affects blood glucose levels
• Understand blood glucose monitoring and HbA1c
• Understand and apply the ‘3 Day Rule’ insulin adjustment concept
• Manage and prevent hypoglycaemia effectively
• Understand the importance of annual reviews
• Understand when and how to seek professional support
Times:
1st session - 2 hours
2nd session - 2 hours
6 month follow up session - 2 hours
Optimise control groups are open to any patient with Type 2 Diabetes who meets the referral criteria. They
consist of 5 to 10 participants and partners are welcomed. These sessions will be held at the Diabetes and
Education Resource Centre or can be arranged in satellite centres in the community, according to demand.
31
7. Patient Education
Paediatric Structured Education programme
• Newly diagnosed group session within 12 months of diagnosis.
• Primary school age young people annual session offered.
• Secondary school young people annual session offered.
• Transition age young people annual workshop offered.
• Diabetes burnout session offered annually.
• Pump Masterclass, offered annually to all pump users.
Diabetes and Weight Management programme:
This programme has been specifically designed to support people with diabetes to make choices about
their food and lifestyle, to enable them to lose weight and manage their diabetes. It is aimed at people
who do not fit the criteria for Reshape Rotherham.
• It is a six session programme delivered over twelve weeks. Each session lasts for 2 hours.
• This programme aims to give people more guidance on diets to help with
• Weight management (specifically looking at calorie restriction) whilst taking into consideration
• Reducing the risk of hypoglycaemia when altering dietary intake,
• Altering diabetes medications to aid weight loss and prevent hypoglycaemia,
• Increasing exercise and understanding alteration necessary to diabetes medication to enable this
• Behaviour change, eating out, recipe ideas and goal setting.
Where is it delivered?
Two venues currently:
• Diabetes Education and Resource Centre, Rotherham General Hospital, Moorgate Road, Rotherham
• Highthorne Road Surgery, Kilnhurst, Rotherham.
Referral Criteria:
• People with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes on Insulin or maximum Oral hypoglycaemic medication
• BMI over 27 and /or a waist circumference >102cm for men and >80cm for women
• Motivated to lose weight and willing to follow a calorie restricted diet plan
• Willing to attend all six sessions
• Ablility to speak and understand English
How to refer?
By letter or dietetic referral card and please specify that the referral is for Diabetes Weight
Management groups
The referral should include:
• Patient details • Weight • Most recent HbA1c and Lipid profile • Height
• Current Medication
• Any relevant past medical history
Address to:
Kathy Winearls
Diabetes Education and Resource Centre
Rotherham General Hospital
Moorgate road
Rotherham
S60 2UD
32
8. Glucose CONTROL
8.1 Dietary Information
The aims of dietary treatment of diabetes are to:
• Minimise symptoms of hyperglycaemia.
• Minimise the risk of hypoglycaemia.
• Minimise the long term macro- and microvascular complication of diabetes.
To achieve this, dietary advice should aim to:
• Minimise fluctuations of blood glucose to as near normal as possible.
• Promote weight loss in people who are overweight.
• Reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
The dietary guidelines recommended for people with diabetes are similar to the UK healthy eating
guidelines. Advice on diet should be offered following assessment of:
• Lifestyle.
• Social circumstances.
• Current dietary intake.
• Readiness to make changes to diet and lifestyle.
• Current medication
Dietary changes should be negotiated with each patient using the following general principles:
• Existing eating habits should be modified rather than attempting to make major changes to
the patient's pattern of eating.
• Total calorie intake should be restricted to that needed to achieve and then maintain an agreed
target weight.
• About half of the energy intake should be from carbohydrates, with most of it in the form of medium to
low Glycaemic Index (GI) food. E.g. oat based cereals, granary or multigrain bread, pulses and beans,
new potatoes, pasta. For more information on GI visit www.glycaemicindex.com.
• Fruit and vegetables should be increased to at least 5 portions/day to achieve recommended
antioxidant intake.
• The intake of sugary food and drinks should be reduced to <10% of total calorie requirements.
• Total fat should be reduced to <30% of total calorie requirements by restricting the following
• Saturated fat to less than <10%
• Polyunsaturated fat to less than <10% and
• Monounsaturated fat for the rest of the allowance.
• Dietary salt should be reduced to <6g/day.
• Alcohol if taken, should be taken in moderation as per DH recommendations which is 2-3 units/day for
women and 3-4 units/day for men with 2-3 alcohol free days.
• Special diabetic products are high in calories, and are likely to cause gastrointestinal upset and are not
recommended. Options such as low calorie, low sugar, diet, healthy choices etc would be better.
Please refer to a Dietitian for individualised advice (see below for referral pathway for dietitians).
Patients can be given stop gap information from the Nutritional Information Pack.
The pack is available online at:
http://websrv.rotherhampct.nhs.uk/intranetapps/pctIntranet/departments/PageStyle2.asp?WebPageID=1743
and also by contacting The Department of Nutrition & Dietetic Services, Oakwood Hall, Rotherham NHS
Foundation Trust, Moorgate Road, Rotherham. S60 2UN. Telephone: 01709 304297
33
8. Glucose CONTROL
Referral Guidance:
Referral to the Diabetes Specialist Nurses for:
People newly diagnosed with diabetes
• Type 2 – To refer within four weeks of diagnosis
• Type 1 for initial advice – to refer within 48 hours of Diagnosis. After initial consultation, patient will be
referred to the specialist team for further management.
• Everyone who controls their diabetes with diet or tablet treatment should be offered dietetic review by a
dietitian at their diabetic annual review.
• People starting with GLP-1 therapy or similar medications to help maximise the benefit of the drug in
achieving weight loss.
• When being started on Sulphonylureas.
• People with Type 2 diabetes treated with diet or tablets and wanting to lose weight.
Referral to the Diabetes Dietetics Specialist Team for:
• People whose diabetes is poorly controlled even on maximum doses of medication.
• People who are wishing to lose weight but finding it difficult to manage due to diabetes medication.
• People who are having problems with hypoglycaemia or just erratic blood glucose control and you
suspect this may be due to dietary issues.
• People who are commencing on insulin.
• People who would like to gain better understanding of relationship of carbohydrate, insulin and
blood glucose levels.
• People with diabetes treated with insulin attending annual review for update on diet related issues.
• People with diabetes who are taking up exercise or who do competitive sport.
• People who want to manage their diabetes using carbohydrate counting.
For more information on diet and diabetes please use the following link:
http://websrv.rotherhampct.nhs.uk/?WebPageID=1721
34
8. Glucose CONTROL
8.2 Type 2 Diabetes Patient
Objectives
Stopping Smoking
Give diet + exercise
advice regardless
of BMI
Consider referral to smoking cessation
BMI > 25 kg m²
Refer to obesity pathway
Control BP to <140/80
(<130/80 if kidney, eye or cerebrovascular
damage)
See NHS Rotherham hypertension guidelines
Initiate
Simvastatin 40mg ON
All diabetic patients over 40 can be considered to have a
CVD risk > 20%. All other patients should be risk accessed
annually using UKPDS risk engine see:
www.dtu.ox.ac.uk/ index.php?maindoc=/ riskengine/
Aim to reduce total cholesterol to <4mmol\l &
LDL-cholesterol< 2mmol\l.
Switch to Atorvastatin 40mg daily if after 3-6
months of treatment cholesterol, is not at target.
Triglycerides
Dietary Advice
Consider early referral to DESMOND
programme.
Check HbA1C + fasting glucose in 3-6 months.
If HbA1C > 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) after lifestyle
interventions.
Initiate
Consider management if TG remains
> 4.5mmol\llitre (despite optimised glycaemic control &
statin therapy).
Metformin
+
Refer to the DESMOND programme or an approved
structure patient education programme.
Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patient
Current maximum
BNF recommended
dose = 2g daily. In
divided doses
Metformin
Initiate 500mg daily titrated
slowlyto maximally tolerated dose.
Unless Blood Glucose controlled with diet and weight loss.
Ramipril 10mg OD
(Irbesartan 150mg increased to 300mg OD if
ramipril not tolerated).
If microalbuminuria/proteinuria present.
Aspirin 75mg OD
Only if patient has had an MI or has symptoms of
cardiovascular disease
(Secondary prevention).
Control Blood Glucose
Unless contra-indicated
(If dyspepsia or increased risk or GI bleeding add
Lansoprazole 15mg daily).
(If aspirin allergic consider Clopidogrel 75mg daily see
clopidogrel guidelines).
•
•
HbA1C to be below 6.5% (48 mmol/mol).
Fasting glucose < 6mmol\l (Venous sample).
35
8. Glucose CONTROL
8.2 Oral Hypoglyaemics and GLP-1
Overview - Controlling Blood Glucose in a
patient with Type 2 diabetes
• H
bA1C to be below 7.5% (58. mmol/mol).
• Fasting glucose < 6mmol/l (venous sample)
• Patients must not experience frequent episodes of
hypoglycaemia
• In the very elderly or frail, symptom control alone may be
the priority
Objectives
Diet and Weight loss.
Consider referral to the DESMOND
programme
Treatment
Review HbA1c every 3-6 months if not at target,
every 12 months once at target
If HbA1C above 7.5%, (58.5mmol/mol) fasting glucose above
6mmol/l and/or BMI >25 initiate metformin.
Oral treatment to lower blood glucose
Step 1
METFORMIN
2. Avoid if patient susceptible to
hypoglycaemia.
See note 1
Step 2
GLICLAZIDE
SITAGLIPTIN/
LINAGLIPTIN
See note 3
Step 3
GLICLAZIDE
SITAGLIPTIN/
LINAGLIPTIN
3. Sitagliptin/Linagliptin area new drugs
and subject to intensive monitoring
for adverse effects by the CHM and
MHRA. They may be considered as a
second line choice if weight gain or
hypoglycaemia is undesirable.
4. Exenatide /liraglutide / lixisenatide
should be considered if oral therapy
has failed to control HbA1c or weight
gain is undesirable. Exenatide /
liraglutide is a new drug and is subject
to intensive monitoring for adverse
effects by the CHM and MHRA.
5. The cocomittant use of Exenatide
or liraglutide or lixisenatide and
Sitagliptin/Linagliptin is outside the
licence of both drugs.
See note 3
EXENATIDE /
LIRAGLUTIDE
(See note 4 & 5)
NOTES
1.Go to Step 2 if Metformin is not
tolerated or contra indicated
PIOGLITAZONE
See note 6
6. Pioglitazone due to its adverse
side effect profile should only be
considered for patients that are
unable or unwilling to be treated
with Exenatide or insulin.
Dapagliflozin has received a positive TA from NICE and is now green lighted.
Its position in the guidelines will be decided before the next update in November 2013
36
8. Glucose CONTROL
Oral Diabetes Treatment Pathways
METFORMIN
GLICLAZIDE
(no dose reduction in renal
impairment) (A dose reduction
of gliclazide may be necessary
if hypoglycaemia is a problem)
(First line recommendation)
METFORMIN
SITAGLIPTIN/
LlNAGLIPTIN
SITAGLIPTIN
LlNAGLIPTIN
GLICLAZIDE
(no dose reduction in
renal impairment)
METFORMIN
GLICLAZIDE
EXENATIDE or
LIRAGLUTIDE or
LIXISENATIDE
(A dose reduction of
gliclazide may be necessary if
hypoglycaemia is a problem).
Ideally a reduction in HbA1c
of at least 1% and satisfactory
weight loss (NICE recommends
a weight loss of at least 3%
of initial body weight at 6
months.) should be observed.
Consider alternative treatment
options and the risks and
benefits of these if NICE
recommended outcomes are
not obtained
PIOGLITAZONE
METFORMIN
GLICLAZIDE
37
Sitagliptin is a new drug and is
subject to intensive monitoring
( ) for adverse effects by the
CHM & MHRA.
Sitagliptin/Linagliptin may
be considered as a second
line choice if weight gain or
hypoglycaemia is undesirable.
Exenatide / Liraglutide
LIXISENATIDE should be
considered if oral therapy has
failed to control HbA1c or
weight gain is undesirable.
Exenatide and liraglutide are
new drugs and are subject to
intensive monitoring ( ) for
adverse effects by the CHM &
MHRA.
Pioglitazone due to its
adverse side effect profile
should only be considered for
patients that are unable or
unwilling to be treated with
exenatide / liraglutide
or insulin.
8. Glucose CONTROL
Step 1 - Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: METFORMIN
Aims of treatment
•
•
•
Metformin for All
HbA1C to be below 7.5% (58 mmol/mol)
Fasting glucose < 6mmol/l (venous sample)
In the very elderly or frail, symptom control alone may be the priority
If diet + weight loss has failed to maintain
HbA1C to below 6.5% (48 mmol/mol)
Initiate Metformin
AVOID Metformin
• S tart with 500mg daily for 1-2 weeks, then
500mg twice a day for 1-2 weeks then increase
to 500mg TDS (unless glycaemic target is
reached)
• Then titrate every 1-3 months to achieve
glycaemic target or maximum dose is
prescribed (2g daily in divided doses)
• Tablets should be taken with or immediately
after a meal
• Diarrhoea occurs in up to 20%, this usually
resolves after 3-5 days or may be dose
dependent and may resolve on dose reduction
• Consider FBC if any signs of B12 deficiency
• In patients with creatinine >150 micromol/l,
eGFR ≤ 30 mls/min/1.73-m2
• Hepatic impairment
• Respiratory failure
• Recent MI < 6 weeks
• Sepsis
• History of ketoacidosis
UKPDS 34 found that 10
years of treatment in obese
patients, metformin reduced
rates of MI, diabetes related
deaths and mortality. For
every 14 patients treated
with metformin, one of
them would have their life
extended. A recent study
found metformin was as
effective for non-obese
diabetic patients. Therefore
metformin should be first
line for all Type 2 diabetic
patients.
Caution Review dose
• In patients with creatinine > 130 micromol/l,
eGFR ≤ 45 mls/min/1.73-m2
Review 3-6 months after initiation and following a dose increase
If glycaemic targets Met - Review in 6-12 months
If glycaemic targets not met - Patient is taking the maximum , or maximum tolerated meformin dose
Check compliance - Consider adding Gliclazide or Sitagliptin
Consider titrating more
slowly or a prolonged
release formulation for
patients unable to tolerate
metformin due to GI
problems
Targets for glycaemic control
HbA1c
Control
(QOF Targets)
< 7.0%
=53 mmol/mol
Excellent
7.0-8.0%
=53-64 mmol/mol
Acceptable
8.0-9.0%
=64-75 mmol/mol
Poor
>9.0%
= 75 mmol/mol
Very Poor
If HbA1C is 1% above a patient’s individual target consider whether an adjustment in diet or medication is needed to restore
optimal glucose control.
Blood Glucose Monitoring
Patient blood glucose monitoring may not be necessary at this stage. Patients are very unlikely to experience hypoglycaemia on
Metformin, consider blood glucose monitoring if the patient reports hypoglycaemia like symptoms. Effectiveness can be monitored
using HbA1C measurements.
38
8. Glucose CONTROL
Step 2 - Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes; Gliclazide (Sulphonylurea)
Patient has
•
•
•
A contraindication to metformin
Failure to tolerate metformin despite a reasonable trial and a slow initiation
Failure of metformin to control diabetes
Diabetes • HbA1C below 7.5% (58 mmol/mol)
Control • Fasting glucose < 6mmol/l (venous sample)
• Patients must not experience frequent episodes of hypoglycaemia
•
In the very elderly or frail, symptom control alone may be the priority
Initiate Gliclazide
AVOID Gliclazide
• 4
0mg-80mg daily with breakfast and subsequently
with evening meal
• Titrate by 40-80mg steps, every 1-3 months to achieve glycaemic
target or until
• Maximum daily dose is reached = 320mg daily, given as
160mg BD
• Or maximum tolerated dose is reached
• Avoid if patient susceptible to hypoglycaemia
• Severe hepatic disease
Severe renal impairment eGFR ≤30 mls/min/1.73-m2
• Porphyria
• Pregnancy and Breast feeding
• Presence of ketoacidosis
S ide effects are generally mild and infrequent and include
hypoglycaemia, gastro-intestinal disturbances, such as nausea,
vomiting, diarrhoea and constipation.
Hypersensitivity occurs rarely and usually in the first 6-8 weeks of
therapy, and usually manifest as allergic skin reactions.
Weight Gain
A 2-4kg weight gain is recognised as a consequence
of sulphonylurea therapy; in some patients this may
exceed 10kg. Patients should re-assessed and dietary
compliance reaffirmed before initiation.
Review 3-6 months after initiation and following a dose increase
If glycaemic targets met - Review in 6-12 months
If glycaemic targets NOT met - Patient is taking the maximum, or maximum tolerated meformin and/or gliclazide dose
Check compliance - Consider adding Exenatide, Sitagliptin if not added at step 2 or pioglitazone if alternatives inappropriate.
Targets for glycaemic control
HbA1c
Control
(QOF Targets)
< 7.0%
=53 mmol/mol
Excellent
7.0-8.0%
=53-64 mmol/mol
Acceptable
8.0-9.0%
=64-75 mmol/mol
Poor
>9.0%
= 75 mmol/mol
Very Poor
If HbA1C is 1% above a patient’s individual target consider whether an adjustment in diet or medication is needed to restore
optimal glucose control.
Refer to Rotherham PCT Blood Glucose Monitoring Guidelines
39
8. Glucose CONTROL
Step 2 or 3 - Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: SITAGLIPTIN
Sitagliptin as a third line agent to metformin and gliclazide if the patient has:
• Failure of metformin and/or gliclazide to control diabetes
Sitagliptin should be considered as a second line agent in addition to metformin if the patient:
• Is at significant risk of hypoglycaemia or its consequences, consider work and social circumstances (E.g. older person, people working with
machinery or at heights or living alone)
• Has a contraindication or cannot tolerate gliclazide
• Further weight gain would be undesirable
Sitagliptin can be used in combination with gliclazide as a second line agent if the patient:
• Has a contraindication or cannot tolerate metformin despite a reasonable trial
Diabetes • HbA1C below 7.5% (58 mmol/mol)
Control • Fasting glucose < 6mmol/l (venous sample)
• Patients must not experience frequent episodes of hypoglycaemia
• In the very elderly or frail, symptom control alone may be the priority
Initiate SITAGLIPTIN
• 100mg once daily
• The dose of metformin to be maintained
• The dose of gliclazide may need lowering if hypoglycaemia
is a concern.
• No dose adjustment is required for patients with mild renal
insufficiency, mild to moderate hepatic insufficiency or
in the elderly.
• In patients with moderate renal impairment (eGFRl ≥ 30 to
<50ml/min/1.73m2) the sitagliptin dose is 50mg once a day.
• In Patients with severe renal impairment (eGFRl < 30ml/
min/1.73m2) or with end stage renal disease requiring
haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis the sitagliptin dose is 25mg
once daily..
S ide effects Hypersensitivity reactions include anaphylaxis,
angioedema, and exfoliate skin conditions and stevens-johnson
have been reported usually in the first 3 months of treatment.
Nausea, flatulence and constipation have been reported when
used in conjunction with other hypoglycaemic agents pancreatitis.
AVOID Sitagliptin
• Moderate or worse renal failure
• Pregnancy
Sitagliptin is a new drug and is subject to intensive
monitoring by the CHM and MHRA its adverse effect
profile may not fully known.
Review 3-6 months after initiation and following a dose increase
If glycaemic targets met - Review in 6-12 months
If glycaemic targets NOT met - Patient is taking the maximum Or maximum tolerated metformin and/or sitagliptin/gliclazide dose
Check compliance - Consider adding exenatide or initiating insulin or pioglitazone
Targets for glycaemic control
HbA1c
Control
(QOF Targets)
< 7.0%
=53 mmol/mol
Excellent
7.0-8.0%
=53-64 mmol/mol
Acceptable
8.0-9.0%
=64-75 mmol/mol
Poor
>9.0%
= 75 mmol/mol
Very Poor
If HbA1C is 1% above a patient’s individual target consider whether an adjustment in diet or medication is needed to restore
optimal glucose control.
Refer to Rotherham PCT Blood Glucose Monitoring Guidelines
40
8. Glucose CONTROL
Step 2 or 3 - Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: LINAGLPTIN
Linagliptin can be used in combination with gliclazide as a second line agent if the patient;
• If the patient is unable to take metformin due to renal impairment
• Has a contraindication or cannot tolerate metformin despite a reasonable trial
Linagliptin as a third line agent to metformin and gliclazide if the patient has;
• Failure of metformin and/or gliclazide to control diabetes
Linagliptin should be considered as a second line agent in addition to Metformin if the patient;
• Is at significant risk of hypoglycaemia or its consequences, consider work and social circumstances (e.g., older person, people working with machinery or at heights or living alone).
• Has a contraindication or cannot tolerate gliclazide.
• Further weight gain would be undesirable.
Diabetes • HbA1C below 7.5% (58 mmol/mol)
Control • Fasting glucose < 6mmol/l (venous sample)
• Patients must not experience frequent episodes of hypoglycaemia
Initiate linagliptin
AVOID Linagliptin
• 5
mg once daily
• N
o dose adjustment is required for renal impairment.
• Pregnancy
If using as a third line agent;
• T
he dose of metformin is to be maintained
• T
he dose of gliclazide may need lowering if hypoglycaemia
is a concern.
• No dose adjustment is required for patients with mild renal
insufficiency, mild to moderate hepatic insufficiency or in the
elderly.
Linagliptin is a new drug and is subject to intensive
monitoring by the CHM and MHRA its adverse effect
profile may not fully known
Side effects Cough, nasopharyngitis pancreatitis.
Review 3-6 months after initiation and following a dose increase
If glycaemic targets met - Review in 6-12 months
If glycaemic targets NOT met - Patient is taking the maximum Or maximum tolerated metformin and/or sitagliptin/gliclazide dose
Check compliance - Consider adding exenatide or initiating insulin or pioglitazone
Targets for glycaemic control
HbA1c
Control
(QOF Targets)
< 7.0%
=53 mmol/mol
Excellent
7.0-8.0%
=53-64 mmol/mol
Acceptable
8.0-9.0%
=64-75 mmol/mol
Poor
>9.0%
= 75 mmol/mol
Very Poor
If HbA1C is 1% above a patient’s individual target consider whether an adjustment in diet or medication is needed to restore
optimal glucose control.
Refer to Rotherham PCT Blood Glucose Monitoring Guidelines
41
8. Glucose CONTROL
Step 3 - Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes;(GLP-1)
EXENATIDE/LIRAGLUTIDE
Exenatide/liraglutide should be considered as a third line agent in addition to metformin and gliclazide if there is a;
• Failure of metformin and/or gliclazide/sitagliptin to control diabetes
• Weight loss is desirable (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2)
• B
MI ≤ 35 kg/, and therapy with insulin would have significant occupational implications or weight loss would benefit other significant
obesity-related co-morbidities
• HbA1C below 7.5% (58 mmol/mol)
Diabetes
• Fasting glucose < 6mmol/l (venous sample)
Control
• Patients must not experience frequent episodes of hypoglycaemia
• In the very elderly or frail, symptom control alone may be the priority
EXENATIDE
EXENATIDE Once Weekly
LIRAGLUTIDE
Dose
5 micrograms twice daily increasing
to 10 micrograms twice daily if
necessary.
2mg once weekly
0.6mg daily, increased after one
week to 1.2mg daily and to
maximum of 1.8mg daily if necessary
Route
S\C Injection
S\C Injection
S\C Injection
When
Within 1 hour before 2 main meals
and at least 6 hours apart.
Once a week on the same day each
week.
Once daily at any time independent
of meals.
HbA1c control
Mean reduction 0.4-0.6% for 5
microgram twice daily and 0.8-0.9%
for 10 microgram twice daily
Mean reduction in HbA1c 0.67%
(-0.94%, -0.39%)
Mean reductions of between 0.8
to 1.5% across dose range 1.2 and
1.8mg daily.
Weight
Mean weight loss 1.4kg for 5
microgram twice daily -1.9 Kg for 10
microgram twice daily
Mean weight loss 2.9kg to 5.2kg
with nausea, 2.2kg to 2.9kg without
nausea
A mean weight loss -1.1kg (1.2mg)
and a weight loss -1.3kg (1.8mg)
(figures adapted from SPC)
Injection device
Pre-filled pen
Pre-filled pen
Co-prescribed with
Metformin
√ (Can also be used in combination
with a sulphonylurea)
√ (Can also be used in combination
with a sulphonylurea)
√ (Can also be used in combination
with a
sulphonylurea)
Sulphonlurea
√(Can also be used in combination
with a metformin)
√(Can also be used in combination
with a metformin
√ (Can also be used in combination
with a metformin)
Sitagliptin
X
X
X
Pioglitazone
√ in combination with metformin
√ in combination with metformin
√ in combination with metformin
Review 3-6 months after initiation and following a dose increase
If glycaemic targets met - Review in 6-12 months
If glycaemic targets NOT met - Patient is taking the maximum, or maximum tolerated meformin and/or gliclazide and/or pioglitazone dose
Check compliance - Consider initiating insulin or pioglitazone
Targets for glycaemic control
HbA1c
Control
(QOF Targets)
< 7.0%
=53 mmol/mol
Excellent
7.0-8.0%
=53-64 mmol/mol
Acceptable
8.0-9.0%
=64-75 mmol/mol
Poor
>9.0%
= 75 mmol/mol
Very Poor
If HbA1C is 1% above a patient’s individual target consider whether an adjustment in diet or medication is needed to restore
optimal glucose control.
Refer to Rotherham PCT Blood Glucose Monitoring Guidelines
42
8. Glucose CONTROL
Step 3 - Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes; (GLP-1): LIXISENATIDE
Lixisenatide should be considered as a third line agent in addition to metformin and gliclazide if there is a;
• Failure of metformin and/or gliclazide/sitagliptin to control diabetes
• Weight loss is desirable (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2)
• BMI ≤ 35 kg/, and therapy with insulin would have significant occupational implications or weight loss would benefit other significant
obesity-related co-morbidities
• Lixisenatide can be co-prescribed with basal insulin and could be considered if a reduction in insulin dosage is desirable.
Diabetes • HbA1C below 7.5% (58 mmol/mol)
Control • Fasting glucose < 6mmol/l (venous sample)
• Patients must not experience frequent episodes of hypoglycaemia
• In the very elderly or frail, symptom control alone may be the priority
DoseInitiating dose 10 micrograms once daily for 14 days
Maintenance dose 20 micrograms daily from day 15 onwards
RouteSubcutaneous injection in the thigh, abdomen or upper arm.
When
Dose is to be administered within the prior to the first meal of the day or the evening meal
HbA1c control
0.35-0.66% when used in combination with metformin, a sulphonylurea or basal insulin
Weight
0.32-1 kg when used in combination with metformin, a sulphonylurea or basal insulin
Injection devicePre-filled pen
Co-prescribed with
Metformin
√ (Can also be used in combination with a sulphonylurea and or pioglitazone)
Sulphonlurea
√(Can also be used in combination with a metformin and or pioglitazone)
Pioglitazone
√ in combination with metformin and or a sulphonylurea)
Sitagliptin / Linagliptin
×
Insulin
√ in combination with basal insulin to be initiated by secondary care, continued in primary care
Review 3-6 months after initiation and following a dose increase
If glycaemic targets met - Review in 6-12 months
If glycaemic targets NOT met - Patient is taking the maximum Or maximum tolerated metformin and/or sitagliptin/gliclazide dose
Check compliance - Consider adding exenatide or initiating insulin or pioglitazone
Targets for glycaemic control
HbA1c
Control
(QOF Targets)
< 7.0%
=53 mmol/mol
Excellent
7.0-8.0%
=53-64 mmol/mol
Acceptable
8.0-9.0%
=64-75 mmol/mol
Poor
>9.0%
= 75 mmol/mol
Very Poor
If HbA1C is 1% above a patient’s individual target consider whether an adjustment in diet or medication is needed to restore
optimal glucose control.
Refer to Rotherham PCT Blood Glucose Monitoring Guidelines
43
8. Glucose CONTROL
Step 3 - Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes;
PIOGLITAZONE
Pioglitazone should only be considered if
• There is a failure to tolerate metformin and/or gliclazide despite a reasonable trial
• The patient considers human insulin and or exenatide to be an unacceptable option
Diabetes • HbA1C below 7.5% (58 mmol/mol)
Control • Fasting glucose < 6mmol/l (venous sample)
• Patients must not experience frequent episodes of hypoglycaemia
• In the very elderly or frail, symptom control alone may be the priority
AVOID Pioglitazone
Initiate Pioglitazone
• 1
5-30mg once daily
• Increased to 45mg once daily according to response (it takes several weeks (up to 6 months)
before the full therapeutic effect becomes obvious)
S ide effects Gastro-intestinal disturbances, weight gain, oedema, fractures at atypical sites,
anaemia, headache, visual disturbances, dizziness, arthralgia, hypoaesthesia, haematuria,
impotence, macular oedema
less commonly
hypoglycaemia, fatigue, insomnia, vertigo, sweating, altered blood lipids, proteinuria,
•
•
•
•
•
Hepatic impairment
Heart failure
Pregnancy
Breast feeding
In patients considered to be at high
risk of fractures.
Liver Toxicity - Due to rare reports
of liver dysfunction. Liver function
should be checked before and after
initiation and at all reviews.
Review 3-6 months after initiation and following a dose increase
If glycaemic targets met - Review in 6-12 months
If glycaemic targets NOT met - Patient is taking the maximum, or maximum tolerated meformin and/or gliclazide and/or pioglitazone dose
Check compliance - Consider initiating insulin
Targets for glycaemic control
HbA1c Control
(QOF Taergets)
< 7.0%
=53 mmol/mol
DM23 achieved
Excellent
7.0-8.0%
=53-64 mmol/mol
DM 24 achieved
Acceptable
8.0-9.0%
=64-75 mmol/mol
DM 25 achieved
Poor
>9.0%
= 75 mmol/mol
Outside QOF targets
Very Poor
If HbA1C is 1% above a patient’s individual target consider whether an adjustment in diet or medication is needed to restore
optimal glucose control.
Refer to Rotherham PCT Blood Glucose Monitoring Guidelines
44
8. Glucose CONTROL
8.3 R
otherham – Guidelines for injectable
therapy in Type 2 Diabetes
For further help contact Diabetes Specialist Team Service on 01709 307910 If on basal analogue and poor glycaemic control/
osmotic symptoms move to BD Human Insulin
Starting Criteria
HbA1c >7.5%-8.5%
• Ensure maximum
tolerated oral
hypoglycaemic
agent
• Review lifestyle
& Diet
• Refer for
structured
education
program for Type
2 Diabetes
Prior to injectable
therapy
Low
Starting criteria
HbA1c >7.5%
BMI >35
After 6/12 need
reduction
≥1.0% HbA1c OR
≥3% of initial body
weight.
Do not use if
osmotic symptoms
or weight loss
See Guidelines for
further information
Beware high Trigs
Starting Criteria
HbA1c >7.5%-8.5%
Review at 60
units daily (if daily
dosing) or
60 units BD (if bd
dosing)
May be in addition
to oral medications
Do not use if
osmotic symptoms
or weight loss
Review at 60 units
BD
Refer Diabetes
Specialist Team to
discuss this option
when patients on
60 Units Humulin
M3 Or patients
who require tighter
control
Refer Diabetes
Specialist Team
to discuss this
option require
carbohydrate
Counting and
Self titration
If no improvement
refer to Diabetes
Specialist Team
Basal Bolus
TDS
Analogue Mix 50/50
Humalog Mix 50
BD Human
Mixture 30/70
Humulin M3
Basal Human
Humulin I
Insulatard
GLP1
if patient lost
weight but no
improvement in
HbA1C refer to
Diabetes Team to
consider adding
insulin
Continue Metformin where appropriate. HbA1c in mmol/mol.
Skills and Capabilities
45
High
8. Glucose CONTROL
STEP 1 – prior to injectable therapies
•
•
•
•
•
•
Review and intensify current oral diabetes medication (see Section 8 Glucose Control).
Refer to diabetes specialist dietitian (consider referral to Diabetes Reshape if raised BMI).
Discuss lifestyle choices/increasing activity levels (if appropriate).
Encourage attendance at structured education programme (Desmond)
Assess patient understanding of progression of Type 2 diabetes and progression of treatment to injectable therapy.
Check symptom profile – e.g. Unexplained weight loss, osmotic symptoms (to enable correct entry point on treatment
pathway)
• Assess ability of patient to self-manage injectable therapy
(In the very old or frail, symptom control alone may be the priority)
STEP 2 – GLP-1 therapy
Consider Exenatide (Byetta) / Exenatide Modified Release (Bydureon)
or Liraglutide (Victoza) in addition to oral therapy if:
•
•
•
•
Metformin and Gliclazide and /or Sitagliptin have failed to control the blood glucose levels
Weight loss is desirable (BMI > 35 kg/m²)
BMI < 35 kg/m² and initiation of insulin therapy would have significant occupational restrictions
BMI < 35 kg/m² and initiation of insulin may cause further weight gain increasing risk of obesity-related co-morbidities
Contra-indications
GLP-1 therapy should not be considered in:
• suspected Type 1 diabetes
• patients with overt osmotic symptoms
• patients with a previous episode of / history of pancreatitis
• patients at risk of developing pancreatitis (triglyceride level > 10)
• patients with severe gastro-intestinal disease
Renal Impairment
Exenatide (Byetta) - standard release twice daily injection (5mcg or 10mcg):
• use with caution if eGFR 30 – 50mL/min
• avoid if eGFR < 30mL/min
Exenatide (Bydureon) – modified release once weekly injection (2mg):
• avoid if eGFR < 50mL/min
Liraglutide (Victoza) – once daily injection (0.6mg or 1.2mg):
• avoid if eGFR < 60mL/min
COUNSELLING
Patients/carers should be taught how to recognise the signs and symptoms of acute pancreatitis (persistent, severe
abdominal pain - possibly radiating into the back, nausea, vomiting) and advised to seek urgent medical advice.
Patients should be advised re increased risk of thyroid neoplasm with Liraglutide.
CONTINUATION OF GLP-1 TREATMENT
NICE currently recommends treatment is continued beyond 6 months only if:
• HbA1c concentration is reduced by 11mmol/mol (1%)
AND• there is a weight loss of at least 3% of initial body weight at 6 months
However, the Diabetes Integrated Specialist Team would suggest that continuation of GLP-1 therapy should be considered
if the HbA1c target has been achieved (see Rotherham Diabetes Management Guidelines). If only the target for weight loss
has been achieved please discuss with Specialist Team.
If patient has had a substantial weight loss but HbA1c hasn’t improved/remains suboptimal, refer to diabetes specialist
service for consideration of adding insulin to GLP-1.
46
8. Glucose CONTROL
INSULIN LADDER STEP 3 – ADDITION OF BASAL INSULIN (TYPE 2 DIABETES)
The addition of basal insulin to existing oral hypoglycaemic agents is recommended for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes
(NICE CG 87).
Before initiating insulin therapy
•
•
•
•
•
Refer to dietitian
Teach or review self blood glucose monitoring technique
Assess ability of patient to self-manage insulin therapy (see pre-insulin guidelines)
Review and intensify oral medication to maximum tolerated dose
Always use clinical judgement and consider patient’s individual circumstances in all cases
SUGGESTED CRITERIA
One or more of the following:
• No osmotic symptoms
• HbA1c 58 – 69mmol/L
• When optimal glucose control is not appropriate ( e.g. terminal illness, inability to self manage)
• Patient choice
STARTING BASAL INSULIN
• Start once daily basal insulin – initially 10 units at bedtime (or in the morning if preferred) via an appropriate insulin
delivery device
• Continue oral hypoglycaemic agents but monitor for hypoglycaemia (dose may need to be reduced)
• Ensure patient has been taught how to recognise and treat hypoglycaemia (see guidelines)
Active dose titration needs to take place
• Patients able to self-titrate should be taught the ‘3 day rule’ (see guidelines).
• Frequent telephone contact from an appropriately skilled health care professional is required to titrate the dose
if patient unable to self-manage
Review appropriateness of insulin regime if a dose of 60 units once daily is reached and individual glucose targets
not achieved
Refer to/contact Diabetes Specialist Nurse Service for further advice
Occasionally a twice daily basal insulin regime is appropriate – if unsure contact DSN service
47
8. Glucose CONTROL
STEP 4 – TWICE DAILY HUMAN BIPHASIC INSULIN (MIXTURE)
Commencing twice daily biphasic insulin is recommended as an option in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes (NICE CG 87)
BEFORE INITIATING INSULIN;
•
•
•
•
Refer to dietitian to minimise risk of weight gain
Review and intensify oral medication if not already done
Assess patient’s readiness /ability to manage insulin therapy (see guidelines)
Teach patient to monitor blood glucose levels (review technique if already self-monitoring)
Always use clinical judgement and consider patient’s individual circumstances in all cases
SUGGESTED CRITERIA
One or more of the following:
• Osmotic symptoms
• Unplanned weight loss
• HbA1c greater than 69mmol/mol
• Intolerance /maximum tolerated dose of OHA’s
• Optimal glucose control is required and multiple injection therapy is not acceptable
STARTING TWICE DAILY BIPHASIC INSULIN
• Stop sulphonylureas
• Stop glitazone/gliptin
• Continue Metformin
Start biphasic human insulin –
• Initial starting dose: 10 units before breakfast // 10 units before evening meal via an appropriate insulin delivery device
• Ask patient to inject insulin 20-30 minutes before eating
• Advise patient that BG levels may initially be high until active titration begins
Active dose titration is needed
• If patient able to self-manage teach insulin adjustment using ‘3 day rule’ (see guidelines)
• Frequent telephone contact from an appropriately skilled health care professional will be required if patient unable to
self-titrate
• Teach prevention and management of hypoglycaemia (see guidelines)
Review appropriateness of insulin regime if dose reaches 60 units b.d. and individual glucose targets not achieved
If unsure contact diabetes specialist nurse service for further advice.
48
8. Glucose CONTROL
8.4 INSULIN THERAPY - TYPE 1 DIABETES (NICE CG 15)
Prescribe the types of insulin that allow the person with Type 1 diabetes the most independence.
MULTIPLE INJECTION THERAPY (MIT) OR BASAL BOLUS REGIMES –
NB/ (this is the preferred option in Type 1 diabetes)
• These offer the most lifestyle flexibility and should be the chosen option if the patient is agreeable.
• These regimes need to be started as part of an integrated package of specialist care including education,
dietetic assessment and support, skills training in self-monitoring and adjustment of insulin doses.
CONSIDER TWICE DAILY INSULIN REGIMES :
• For those who are unable to commit to a multiple injection regime
• For those who prefer to have two injections per day
• For those who may require assistance with their injections
MULTIPLE INJECTION THERAPY (BASAL BOLUS)
Mealtime insulin – (BOLUS)
• Use rapid-acting insulin analogues (preferred choice)
• Novorapid or Humalog or Apidra - {Unmodified (soluble) insulin such as Humulin S or Actrapid
is not as frequently used in Type 1 diabetes but still available}
Rapid-acting insulin analogues will avoid the need for regular snacks, post-prandial glucose surges and late
inter-prandial hypoglycaemia.
Basal / Background insulin - (BASAL) - (THIS IS NEEDED IN ADDITION TO THE MEALTIME INSULIN DOSES)
LONG ACTING ANALOGUE INSULIN
Insulin Glargine (Lantus) is recommended as a treatment choice for people with Type 1 diabetes (NICE TA 53)
• (duration 20-24 hours – once daily injection)
• Inject at the same time each day (usually bedtime)
Insulin Detemir (Levemir)
• (duration 16-20 hours – once or twice daily injection)
• Inject at bedtime (once daily)
• Inject morning and evening (usually breakfast and bedtime)
ISOPHANE (NPH) INSULIN
• (duration 10 – 14 hours with a distinct peak of action between 4 – 8 hours)
Humulin I or Insulatard or Insuman Basal
• given at bedtime as a once daily or twice daily if needed (morning and evening)
NB - Isophane (NPH) insulins are ‘cloudy’ in appearance and need to be resuspended before each injection.
LOCAL GUIDANCE
The Diabetes specialist team in Rotherham prefers to use the following Insulin regime to treat type 1
Diabetes:
BASAL BOLUS (MULTIPLE INJECTION THERAPY) USING:
RAPID - ACTING ANALOGUE INSULIN AT MEALTIMES
LONG - ACTING ANALOGUE INSULIN AT BEDTIME (OR TWICE DAILY)
49
8. Glucose CONTROL
8.5 Self-monitoring of blood glucose
In keeping with recommendations contained within NICE Clinical Guideline CG 87 self monitoring of blood
glucose should only be provided routinely to people with Type 2 diabetes not treated with insulin or
sulphonylureas where there is an agreed purpose or goal to testing.
These guidelines do not apply in:
• Patients using insulin either alone or in combination with oral medication
• Pregnancy
• Children
1. P
eople with diabetes should have their HbA1c measured at 2-6 month intervals (6 monthly if blood
glucose levels are stable).
2. Blood glucose monitoring is not necessary unless the patient is going to act upon the result, by adjusting
their dose or food intake. The patient with stable non-insulin controlled diabetes will, therefore,
require limited monitoring in normal circumstances.
3. If treated with tablets patients do not need to do daily readings but should be advised to do regular
readings when:
• They are feeling unwell and not able to eat. E.g. common colds, chest infections, GI infections
• T
hey have hypoglycaemic symptoms: dizziness, nausea, sweating, feeling faint, confusion and
disorientation
• C
ircumstances such as travel, or working hours have resulted in a change to the daily routine and meal times
Patients should act if blood glucose levels are less than 4mmol/l by consuming a high calorific snack and remeasuring blood glucose levels. See ‘Management of Hypoglycaemia’ section.
4. P
atients are advised to do occasional blood glucose readings to ensure familiarity with the equipment and
that all equipment is in good working order and that blood glucose sticks are in date.
5. Patients should be encouraged to do regular readings 2-4 times a week at different times of the day
when hypoglycaemic drug therapy has been modified, until it is recognised that blood glucose levels have
stabilised on the new drug regime.
6. Patients should be encouraged to do regular readings 2-4 times a week at different times of the day if
they undertake any major modifications to their regular diet until it is recognised that blood glucose levels
have stabilised.
7. Patients who are reluctant to dispense with regular monitoring should be encouraged to check their
blood glucose no more that 2-4 times a week at irregular intervals.
50
8. Glucose CONTROL
8.6 Urine Glucose testing
•
•
•
•
•
Occasionally some patients may express a preference for urine testing
Urine tests are inexpensive relative to SMBG
Urine tests are non-invasive
Urine tests are an unreliable guide to the current blood glucose level and may therefore be misleading
Urine tests are influenced by a high (often seen in the elderly and patients with renal impairment ) or a low renal threshold (as seen in pregnancy)
• Urine tests identify hyperglycaemia but not hypoglycaemia
Advantages and disadvantages of each of the currently available urine test strips are shown below:
Test strip
RANGE
TIMES (s)
COMMENT
RELATIVE COST
BHR Medi-test
Up to 55.5 mmol/l
30-60
• Accurate and sensitive.
• Also allows testing for protein, ketones and
leucocytes
Cheapest
Diabur Test 5000
Up to 5%
120
• Accurate and sensitive.
• Scale rather elaborate.
• Can be read after 120 sec with no loss of accuracy
Mid-range
Diastix
Up to 2%
30
• D
ifficult to distinguish between 0.5, 1 and 2% in
poor light.
• Must be read at 30 seconds for accurate result.
• Colour change inhibited by heavy ketonuria
Mid -range
Clinistix
Low/medium/high
10
• Not quantitative, useful only as a screening test
Most expensive
51
8. Glucose CONTROL
8.7 SICK DAY RULES
If a person with Type 2 diabetes becomes unwell it is likely that this will affect their blood glucose control.
Everyday illnesses or infections nearly always cause hyperglycaemia as the natural response to illness is the
release of stress hormones and additional glucose from the stores in the liver. As a result, even if the patient
is vomiting and unable to eat or drink, the blood glucose levels may still rise.
Common illnesses include:
•
•
•
•
•
Cold or flu viruses
Stomach upset (diarrhoea and /or vomiting)
Infections e.g. urine, chest or skin.
Sore throats
Illnesses where steroid tablets or injections are needed will also raise blood glucose levels.
Patients should be advised to contact/see their doctor if an infection is suspected.
Advice for patients to follow when unwell:
• Never stop taking your tablets or insulin, even if you are not eating.
• If you usually test your blood glucose levels, continue to check at least every 4 hours.
• K
eep drinking and eat if you are able to. Try to drink approximately 3 to 4 litres per day (one glass over
one hour) of sugar free fluids such as water, diet soft drinks or diet cordial to prevent dehydration. Aim to
drink at least a glass of fluid over 1 hour period.
• If you are unable to eat your normal meals, replace them with alternatives such as milky drinks, soup, ice
cream or fruit juice.
• Make sure you have some Lucozade/ Glucose tablets or full sugar cola/lemonade available. If your blood
glucose level falls below 4mmol/L you will need these to return your glucose level to normal again. (see
management of hypoglycaemia section)
• If you live alone, let someone know that you are unwell so they can check on you.
• If you are not well enough to follow the above guidelines then please contact your GP or diabetes
health professional.
• Remember to rest as much as possible.
MONITORING BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS DURING ILLNESS AND MAKING
ADJUSTMENTS TO TREATMENT
(Advice for patients being managed at home)
TABLETS
• If your blood glucose level is less than 15mmol/L continue with your usual medication and test before
each meal.
• If your blood glucose level is between 15-20mmol/L and you take tablets for your diabetes, continue as
normal and re-test before each meal or within 4 hours.
If you start to feel worse or start to vomit, contact your GP or an appropriate healthcare professional for
further advice.
52
8. Glucose CONTROL
INSULIN
• If your blood glucose level is more than 15mmol/L for more than 12 hours and you have twice daily
insulin injections add 4 extra units to each dose.
• If you have a basal bolus regime (quick acting insulin with meals/long acting insulin in the evening [+/or
in the morning] add 2 - 4 extra units to each of your quick acting insulin doses.
• If your illness continues for a few days and your blood glucose levels continue to be high, you may need to
add 2 - 4 extra units to your long acting insulin doses as well
• If your condition does not start to improve or you feel worse or start to vomit, you must seek advice from
your GP/Practice nurse or diabetes health professional.
• If your blood glucose levels are persistently above 20mmol/L contact your doctor or diabetes health
professional for individual advice.
• R
educe any insulin doses back to normal when you are feeling better and your blood glucose levels have
started to return to their usual levels.
If you have a different insulin regime to those already described please seek individual advice from your
diabetes health professional.
CHECKING FOR KETONES
People with Type 2 diabetes are not usually susceptible to ketoacidosis therefore do not normally need to
test for ketones. However, as part of the assessment of your patient during acute illness a test for ketonuria
should be performed routinely.
People with Type 2 diabetes may be directed to test for ketones during illness by a member of the specialist
diabetes team, especially if they are under 40 years of age.
GLP-1 therapy - Exenatide (Byetta), Liraglutide (Victoza), Bydureon (extended release Exenatide)
You do not need to increase the dose to treat a raised blood glucose level during illness. Monitor your blood
glucose levels 4 hourly (if able to) and as long as you are able to eat, you should continue to inject your
treatment as usual.
If you are unable to eat, do not inject your treatment and contact your health professional for advice.
Remind patients -If your blood glucose levels remain over 20mmol/L for more than 24 hours,
contact your GP or diabetes team for further advice
It may be useful to get patients to keep a record of who to contact when they are ill (example below)
Contact Numbers:
GP’s name …………………………………………………………………………
GP’s telephone number…………………………………………………………..
Diabetes Specialist Nurse/Dietitian…………………………………………......Contact number
Rotherham District General Hospital
01709 820000
Rotherham Community Health Centre 01709 423000
For further information contact:
NHS Direct 0845 46 47
Diabetes UK www.diabetes.org.uk
53
01709 427910
8. Glucose CONTROL
MANAGING DURING EPISODES OF ILLNESS – TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS (DM)
This guidance is more commonly referred to as ‘SICK DAY RULES’
Key Points (for health professionals)
Intercurrent illness may lead to deterioration in blood glucose control and an increased risk of developing
decompensated diabetes (diabetic ketoacidosis - DKA)
Checking both the blood glucose and urine (or blood) ketone level is an essential part of the assessment of
any patient with Type 1 DM who is unwell.
WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF KETONES?
Ketones are acids produced during the breakdown of body fat
Ketone production is controlled by the presence of insulin
Ketones can be detected in the urine using test strips such as Ketostix
K
etone levels of moderate (++) or large (+++) in the urine of a patient with Type 1 diabetes indicates the
need for more insulin - even when the patient isn’t eating
• Early intervention can help to prevent the development of DKA
•
•
•
•
WHEN TO CHECK FOR KETONES
The urine should be checked for the presence of ketones with any of the following:
• Any unexpected high blood glucose level (>13 mmol/L)
• Generally feeling unwell (even if the blood glucose level is within normal ranges)
• High temperature –indicating signs of infection
• Vomiting or abdominal pain
• Excessive thirst/increased urinary frequency
NB: Most people with Type 1 diabetes will have instructions on testing for ketones.
• They should have a supply of urine ketone testing strips (Ketostix).
N
B/Patients with Type 1 diabetes who actively self-manage their condition or those who may be more at
risk of developing ketoacidosis should have been shown how to test their blood ketone levels.
• They will have been provided with the appropriate meter (Freestyle Optium Xceed) and test strips (Freestyle Optium - ketone strips are used at the moment).
There are separate guidelines for patients who have been shown how to test blood ketone levels.
ADVICE TO BE GIVEN TO PATIENTS FOR MANAGING DURING EPISODES
OF ILLNESS (TYPE 1 DM) (For people with Type 1 diabetes who are being managed at home)
NEVER STOP INSULIN INJECTIONS – even if unable to eat
• If appetite is poor, suggest replacing normal meals with fluids eg. Soup, milk- based drinks, yogurt,
custard, ice cream etc. and continue to take your insulin injections.
• If the blood glucose level falls below 4 mmol/L, advise to drink Lucozade (100mls), Jelly Babies (3-4) or
have 5-6 glucose tablets with a drink of water. (see hypoglycaemia guidelines)
• Advise to continue to drink plenty of sugar-free fluids – suggest 100-200mls (1 glass) every hour and
encourage sipping over a 1 hour period rather than trying to drink all at once, especially if feeling sick.
• If able - small amounts of carbohydrate should be eaten to prevent starvation ketones.
NB/ A
ll patients with Type 1 DM should have access to supplies of quick-acting insulin regardless of
their usual insulin type
54
8. Glucose CONTROL
SELF-MONITORING AND INSULIN DOSES
• Measure blood glucose (BG) levels at least four (4) times daily - (suggest before breakfast, lunch, tea
and at bedtime)
• Check urine for the presence of ketones (at least daily even if BG level is normal (not the first sample
of the day)
NO KETONES PRESENT
• If BG less than 11mmol/L - continue with usual doses of insulin
• If BG between 11 - 14mmol/L – give an additional 2 units of quick-acting insulin before each meal and
at bedtime (if needed)
• If BG between 14 - 17mmol/L – give an additional 4 units of quick-acting insulin before each meal and
at bedtime (if needed)
If you experience frequent hypoglycaemia while implementing this regime, reduce the amount of additional
insulin by 2 units.
IN THE PRESENCE OF KETONES
(BG level usually above 13mmol/L but can be normal)
• ++ (MODERATE KETONURIA)
Give an additional 4 units of quick-acting insulin every 4 hours (independent of food and even if not eating)
Recheck BG and ketone level every 4 hours
• +++ (SEVERE KETONURIA)
Give an additional 6 units of quick-acting insulin every 2 hours
Recheck BG and ketone level every 2 hours
IMPORTANT
If ketones are present at bedtime, the patient must continue
to monitor BG and ketone levels every 2-4 hours throughout the night and
give additional insulin doses as previously suggested.
IF BLOOD GLUCOSE / KETONE LEVELS DO NOT IMPROVE OR DETERIORATE IN SPITE OF 2 ADDITIONAL
CORRECTION INSULIN DOSES AND/OR VOMITING DEVELOPS/WORSENS THERE IS A HIGH RISK OF DKA
AND THE PATIENT SHOULD BE ADMITTED TO HOSPITAL IMMEDIATELY.
PEOPLE WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES WHO HAVE ATTENDED A DAFNE COURSE OR WHO ARE CONFIDENT
WITH MULTIPLE INJECTION THERAPY INSULIN DOSE ADJUSTMENT WILL USE SICK DAY RULES WITH
INSULIN CORRECTION DOSES OF 10% TOTAL DAILY DOSE (TDD) AND 20% TDD.
55
8. Glucose CONTROL
HYPOGLYCAEMIA
8.8 Management of Hypoglycaemia
Hypoglycaemia, defined as blood glucose levels (BGL) <4mmol/l is a possible consequence of some diabetes
treatments. It affects people’s work, relationships, ability to drive and their quality of life. Hypoglycaemia
should be prevented where possible and when it does occur, should be treated fast and effectively. It is also
important to guide patients to identify the cause of their hypoglycaemia and take appropriate steps to
avoid recurrence.
For treatment flowchart Communtity
Hospital
What can cause A hypo?
COMMON CAUSES In the Community
• E
ating less carbohydrate (starchy food) than normal, or missing or being late with a snack or a meal
• Doing more activity than normal without taking extra carbohydrate (starchy or sugary food) or adjusting
their insulin prior to the activity
• Taking too much insulin or too large a dose of sulphonylureas e.g. gliclazide, glimepiride and prandial
glucose regulators e.g. nateglinide, repaglinide
• Drinking too much alcohol, especially on an empty stomach when on insulin on sulphonylureas.
COMMON CAUSES In the HOSPITAL
Mis-calculation of sliding scale insulin dose:
Over correcting high BGLs
Over estimating patients dietary intake
Time delay in receiving a meal after insulin being given
Missed meals due to:
• L ack of appetite • Away from bed when meal arrives • D
isliking hospital meals • Investigation procedures – nil by mouth
• Wrong meal delivered
• No bedtime snack available
Can hypo symptoms occur at blood glucose levels above 4 mmol/L?
• Yes.
This may happen when there has been a period of poor control (i.e. when blood glucose levels
havebeen in double figures) and when this is corrected and blood glucose levels begin to drop to
normal levels (BMs between 4-7mmol/l)
• T
his is not a true hypo
What can be done when there are hypo symptoms but blood glucose is
above 4mmol/l?
• A
dvise patient to sit down and have a non-sugary drink if wishes to, and let the symptoms settle. If the
person feels desperate to have something to eat, advice to keep to a small snack such as 1 small biscuit,1/2
a piece of toast, or a small portion of fruit etc.
• It is not advisable to treat them as hypo, as it will not give the body a chance to adapt to normal
glucose levels
• E
xplain to patient why it has happened and why not to treat it as hypo.
What if symptoms don’t settle?
• Investigate other causes
56
8. Glucose CONTROL
Prevention and management
• Educate patients and carers on
• Causes of hypos (please see above) and how to avoid them
• Blood glucose monitoring and how to interpret the results
• Eat extra carbohydrate or reduce hypoglycaemic medication if doing increased activity
• Carrying identification
• Educating friends and family on what is a hypo and how to treat it fast / effectively
• Give ‘Hypoglycaemia’ A4/A5 sheet (both available in diabetes information pack) to be kept at an
easily accessible place
• R
eview oral hypoglycaemic medication/insulin doses regularly, especially if patient is on a weight-reducing
programme or has increased their activity level
• R
emember patients will need more input if they have irregular meal patterns, exceptionally active life
style, poor appetite, gastroparesis, or also has Coeliac disease
• Make referrals to the relevant members of the diabetes specialist team if further input is required.
For treatment flowchart
Hospital
Community
57
8. Glucose CONTROL
8.8Management
MANAGEMENTof
OFHypoglycaemia
HYPOGLYCAEMIA(Hypo)
(HYPO)
8.8
COMMUNITY
––Community
EXPERIENCING SYMPTOMS OR SIGNS OF HYPOGLYCAEMIA?
MILD:
E.g. sweating, clammy, pallor,
glazed eyes, tingling of lips,
blurred vision, light headedness
MODERATE:
E.g. lack of concentration, slurred
speech, change in behaviour, confused
or disorientated
Check blood glucose. If <4mmol/l
NO
OR
If unable to check, but has symptoms of Hypo follow appropriate
coloured arrows based on symptoms
YES
YES
YES
NO
Able to follow instructions
Investigate other causes
YES
NO
SEVERE:
Unresponsive or unconscious
NO
Advise to take or give one of the following: BOX1
• 5 - 6 glucose tablets with some water
• 100 - 120 ml of Lucozade
• 150mls of ordinary (full sugar) cola
• 3 - 4 jelly babies
• 3 - 4 teaspoons of sugar dissolved in a small
glass of water
NO
Able to swallow
YES
Squeeze 1 1/2 - 2 tubes
of Glucise gel (Glucogel
or Dextrogel) a little at
a time into inside of the
cheek from the outside
until one entire tube is
used
Wait for 15 minutes, re-check blood glucose level.
Is blood glucose above 4mmol/l?
YES
Give Glucagon injection if available
(do not give this if patient on gliclazide
or has had large quantities of alcohol
call 999).
Alert and responsive in 10 – 15
mins (Glucagon may cause
vomiting)
YES
Is a meal due in next half hour?
YES
Go to BOX1
NO
Check blood glucose
is above 4mmol/l
NO
YES
Have the meal as usual and consider
reducing insulin dose by 1-2 units or
having extra carbs such as - 1 potato,
or 1 slice bread or 1 tablespoon rice
or pasta etc for that meal.
NO
Give a carbohydrate snack e.g. one piece
of toast, or one biscuit or one fruit or
cereal bar and eat next meal as usual
when it is due
Risk of repeat Hypo is high therefore monitor blood
glucose regularly at least 4 hourly for 24 hours.
Investigate cause for hypo and provide advice and support
to avoid reoccurrence.
58
Call 999 immediately
8. Glucose CONTROL
8.8 M
Management
of HYPOGLYCAEMIA
Hypoglycaemia (HYPO)
(Hypo) 8.8
ANAGEMENT OF
Hospital
–– HOSPITAL
EXPERIENCING SYMPTOMS OR SIGNS OF HYPOGLYCAEMIA?
MILD:
E.g. sweating, clammy, pallor,
glazed eyes, tingling of lips,
blurred vision, light headedness
MODERATE:
E.g. lack of concentration, slurred
speech, change in behaviour, confused
or disorientated
SEVERE:
Unresponsive or unconscious
Check blood glucose. If <4mmol/l
NO
YES
YES
YES
Investigate other causes
YES
NO
Able to swallow
NO
NO
Able to follow instructions
Advise to take or give one of the following: BOX1
• 5 - 6 glucose tablets with some water
• 100 - 120 ml of Lucozade
• 150mls of ordinary (full sugar) cola
• 3 - 4 jelly babies
• 3 - 4 teaspoons of sugar dissolved in a small
glass of water
Wait for 15 minutes, re-check blood glucose level.
Is blood glucose above 4mmol/l?
YES
NO
If IV access achievable
YES
YES
Give 25ml of 50%
dextrose solution
IV and flush with
normal saline
Squeeze 1 1/2 - 2 tubes of
Glucise gel (Glucogel or
Dextrogel) a little at a
time into inside of the
cheek from the outside
until one entire tube is
used
YES
Go to BOX1
NO
NO
Check blood glucose
is above 4mmol/l
NO
YES
Have the meal as usual and consider
reducing insulin dose by 1-2 units or
having extra carbs such as - 1 potato,
or 1 slice bread or 1 tablespoon rice
or pasta etc for that meal.
Give glucagon
injection if
available
( See below
for doseage
details*)
Alert and responsive in 10 – 15
mins (Glucagon may cause
vomiting)
YES
Is a meal due in next half hour?
NO
Give a carbohydrate snack e.g. one piece
of toast, or one biscuit or one fruit or
cereal bar and eat next meal as usual
when it is due
Risk of repeat Hypo is high therefore monitor blood
glucose regularly at least 4 hourly for 24 hours.
Investigate cause for hypo and provide advice and support
to avoid reoccurrence.
*GLUCAGON DOSE:
ADULTS AND CHILD OVER 8YRS (OR BODY WEIGHT OVER 25KG) – 1MG.
CHILD UNDER 8YRS (OR BODY WEIGHT UNDER 25KG) – 500 MICROGRAMS.
ROUTE OF DELIVERY: SUBCUTANEOUS, INTRAMUSCULAR, OR INTRAVENOUS INJECTION.
59
Call Medical Team
8. Glucose CONTROL
8.8 Management of Hypoglycaemia – Additional Information
Glucagon Dose:
Adults and child over 8yrs (or body weight over 25kg) – 1mg.
Child under 8yrs (or body weight under 25kg) – 500 micrograms.
Route of delivery: subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intravenous injection.
What can cause A hypo?
• Eating less carbohydrate (starchy food) than normal, or missing or being late with a snack or a meal
• Doing more exercise than normal without taking extra carbohydrate (starchy or sugary food) or adjusting
their insulin prior to the activity
• Taking too much insulin or too large a dose of sulphonylureas e.g. gliclazide, glimepiride and prandial
glucose regulators e.g. nateglinide, repaglinide
• Drinking too much alcohol , especially on an empty stomach
Can hypo symptoms occur at blood glucose levels above 4 mmol/L?
• Yes. This may happen when there has been a period of poor control (i.e. when blood glucose levels have
been in double figures) and when this is corrected and blood glucose levels begin to drop to normal levels
(BMs between 4-7mmol/l)
• This is not a true hypo
What can be done when there are hypo symptoms but blood glucose is above 4mmol/l?
• Advise patient to sit down and have a non-sugary drink if wishes to, and let the symptoms settle
• It is not advisable to treat them as hypo as it will not give the body a chance to adapt to normal glucose levels
• Explain to patient why it has happened and why not to treat it as hypo.
What if symptoms don’t settle?
• Investigate other causes
Prevention:
How can hypos be prevented?
• Educate patients and carers on
• Causes of hypos (please see above) and how to avoid them
• How to treat them (see flow charts above) and what to carry with them
• Blood glucose monitoring and how to interpret the results
• Carrying identification
• Informing friends and family
• Give ‘Help with hypo ’ booklet by Novo Nordisk, and ‘Hypoglycaemia’ A4/A5 sheet (both available
in diabetes information pack) to be kept at an easily accessible place
• Review oral hypoglycaemic medication/insulin doses regularly, especially if patient is on a weight-reducing
programme or has increased their activity level
• Remember patients will need more input if they have irregular meal patterns, exceptionally active life
style, poor appetite, gastroparesis, or Coeliac disease
• Make referrals to the relevant members of the diabetes / education and resource centre if further input is required
60
9. Risk Factor Management
9.1 Hypertension
Clinic BP (mmHg)
Treatment Threshold
≥ 140 systolic and/or ≥ 80 diastolic
Targets
• No microvascular complications
< 140 / < 80
• Microvascular/ Cerebro vascular
< 130 / < 80
complications
Ambulatory/Home BP (mmHg)
≥130 systolic and/or
≥ 75 diastolic
< 130 / < 75
< 120 / < 75
9.1 Hypertension in Diabetes
- Management Algorithm
Is the patient at high CVD risk (manifest CVD or > 20% CV event risk)?
Is the patient over 40?
YES
YES
Microalbuminuria or proteinuria?
Start Statin
NO
NO
Is ambulatory BP <140/80?
NO
Repeat BP
measurement
annually
Use ACE inhibitor first line but you may
treat with any antihypertensive agent
to suit patient profile
Target < 140 / < 80 mmHg
YES
ACE inhibitor or ARB blocker:
• Titrate to maximal tolerated dose
BP < 140 / < 80 mmHg
BP < 140 / < 80 mmHg
YES
NO
NO
• A
dd in additional agents and titrate to full dose (see A/CD
mnemonic in Vascular Risk guidelines)
• Only stop agents if not tolerated
• Multiple agents are often required to attain BP control
Repeat every 6 months
61
YES
9. Risk Factor Management
9.1 Hypertension in Diabetes
- Treatment Options
Lifestyle modification
• Weight loss
• Increase physical activity
• Reduce alcohol intake to less than 2 units per day
• No added salt diet
• Stop smoking
• ‘5 a day’ (portions of fruit/vegetables)
ACE inhibitor
• Drug of first choice in patients with
microalbuminuria or proteinuria
• Titrate to maximal tolerated dose
• Adequate contraception advised if used in women
of child bearing age. ACE inhibitors must be
stopped in the event of pregnancy
• Combination with diuretic (bendroflumethazide
2.5mg, spironolactone 25mg if potassium <4.5
mmol/l”) can be useful
• U&E and creatinine should be checked before and
7-14 days after dose change after starting an ACE
inhibitor and after every dose adjustment
Beta-blockers • Use cardioselective agents (eg atenolol 25-100mg
od or Bisoprolol 2.5-10mg od)
• Greater cardiovascular protective effects in
diabetic patients with IHD than in non-diabetics
• Useful in patients with angina/post myocardial
infarction
• Cheap/effective: equal efficacy with Captopril in
UKPDS trial
• Use with care in heart failure/severe peripheral
vascular disease; avoid in asthma
• May cause erectile dysfunction
Calcium Antagonists
• Useful in patients with co-existent angina
• Long acting agents recommended
• Suggest diltiazem XL 90-360 mg od or amlodipine
5-10mg od
• Use as second line agent or as part of combination
therapy
• Metabolically neutral
• Avoid short acting dihydropyridine calcium channel
blockers such as nifedipine
Ethnic considerations
• People of African-Caribbean descent may respond
poorly to ACEI, Alpha blockers and beta-blockers
• Consider Ca channel blockers or an ACEI with a
diuretic as alternatives
Angiotensin Receptor Blocker
• Useful in patients who do not tolerate ACE
inhibitors due to cough
• Equal first line agents in Type 2 diabetes with
microalbuminuria/proteinuria
• U&E and creatinine should be checked before and
7-14 days after starting an AII blocker and after
every dose adjustment
• Candesartan is the recommended AT2 blocker
in diabetes
Diuretics
Thiazides, e.g. bendroflumethazide 2.5mg od
• Inexpensive and effective
• Unlikely to have adverse metabolic effects when
used at low dose
• May cause erectile dysfunction
• Use when serum creatinine is normal
Spironolactone if Potassium <4.5
• Check U&Es within 7-14 days of starting
• Beware use with ACE I or ARB
Alpha blockers
• Doxazosin 1-16 mg daily (or m/r 4-8mg od)
• Use as second line agent or as part of combination
therapy
• Metabolically neutral
• Safe in renal impairmen
• Check lying and standing blood pressure before
starting alpha-blocker
The British National Formulary gives details of dosages, side effects, drug interactions and
monitoring of all anti-hyperTensive drugs.
62
9. Risk Factor Management
General Comments on Hypertension Management in Type 2 Diabetes
• T
he UKPDS trial showed clear benefit of lowering blood pressure to 142/84 mmHg in middle-aged patients
with Type 2 diabetes and hypertension
• To achieve this approximately one third of patients required one anti-hypertensive agent, one third needed
two and one third needed three or more agents
• A target of 140/80 or less may be difficult, impossible or unnecessary to achieve in certain patients (i.e. the
elderly). Individual targets should be established for each patient
• Systolic hypertension is common in diabetes and the recommended targets may be difficult to attain. Aim
to lower the systolic pressure by 20 mmHg in the first instance and then review
• Aim to minimise ALL vascular risk factors, especially in patients with established end-organ damage
In the UKPDS each 10 mmHg decrease in mean systolic blood pressure was associated with risk reductions of:
12% for any diabetes-related complication
15% for diabetes related deaths
11% for myocardial infarction
13% for microvascular complications
No threshold of risk was observed for any end point
63
9. Risk Factor Management
9.2 Cardiovascular Disease
Initial assessment
• T
ake a full clinical history, including any history of cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, angina,
CABG, angioplasty or heart transplant, peripheral vascular disease, atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease).
• Identify people with adverse lipid profile secondary to conditions other than diabetes mellitus:
• ask about alcohol consumption and manage accordingly
• check thyroid function tests to exclude hypothyroidism
• check liver function tests to exclude liver disease
• check serum creatinine and urine protein to exclude renal disease
• Review and discuss other modifiable risk factors, particularly smoking
• offer smoking cessation advice where appropriate and/or refer to smoking cessation clinic
• for individuals who are overweight or obese, encourage weight loss and increased physical activity
Lipid Lowering Drugs
Two classes of lipoprotein regulating drugs are recommended. The British National Formulary gives details of
dosages, side effects, drug interactions and monitoring.
• Statins: T
he statins (atorvastatin, fluvastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin and rosuvastatin) are more effective
than other classes of drugs in lowering LDL-cholesterol but less effective than the fibrates in
reducing triglycerides and raising HDL-cholesterol
• Fibrates: Bezafibrate, ciprofibrate, fenofibrate, and gemfibrozil can be regarded as broad-spectrum lipidmodulating agents. They decrease serum triglycerides, reduce LDL-cholesterol and raise HDLcholesterol. Fibrates have been shown to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease events in those
with low HDL-cholesterol or raised triglycerides
Other lipid-regulating drugs are available, but are less commonly used (e.g. ezetimibe, nicotinic acid
derivatives and fish oils).
• All
adult patients, unless assessed as lower risk (10 year CV risk <20%), should be offered treatment with a
statin (unless contraindicated)
• Those with a fasting triglyceride level ≥10.0 mmol/l should normally be treated with a fibrate as drug
of first choice. Consider referral of such patients to lipid or diabetes clinic, particularly if a statin-fibrate
combination may be necessary
9.2 Cardiovascular Disease
– Targets for Treatment
Primary and secondary prevention
Total cholesterol
LDL cholesterol
≤4.0 mmol/l
≤2.0 mmol/l
HDL cholesterol
Triglycerides
64
≥1.4 mmol/l
≤2.3 mmol/l
9. Risk Factor Management
9.3 Kidney Disease
Microalbuminuria:
• Excess
albumin in the urine but not detectable using protein dipstick
• The earliest indicator of renal disease (nephropathy)
• Is predictive of total mortality, cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular
Microalbuminuria laboratory screening
10 ml early morning 'first pass' urine sample in a 'Universal' specimen container. Clinical chemistry form for
albumin/creatinine ratio ('ACR') in mg/mmol.
Male Female
Interpretation Action
<2.5
<3.5 Normal
Repeat in 1 year
≥2.5
≥3.5 Possible microalbuminuriaExclude infection, then repeat once or twice within 4 months to confirm.
Proteinuria:
• Is an important finding in people with diabetes
• Represents progression of urine albumin excretion from microalbuminuria
• Is associated with a high probability of progressive renal impairment due to diabetic nephropathy and an
increased risk of macrovascular disease
Renal monitoring for patients with diabetes
• Annual urine dipstick test for protein (Boehringer 5L or Albustix test strips)
• If urine dipstick negative for protein measure urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR)
• Annual serum creatinine/eGFR
Renal Management for Patients with Diabetes
Normal albumin excretion
Persistently raised ACR or proteinuria
• Maintain good blood glucose control
• Maintain good blood glucose control
(HbA1c < 53 mmol/mol if possible)
(HbA1c < 53 mmol/mol if possible)
• Maintain good blood pressure control
• Maintain good blood pressure control
(target < 140/80 mmHg)
(target < 130/80 mmHg)
• Stop smoking
• Start ACE inhibitor of choice for CV/renal protection – see BP guidelines
• Use combination antihypertensive therapy to reach target.
Manage CV risk factors aggressively – see lipid/aspirin guidelines
Discuss with a diabetologist or nephrologist in the following circumstances:
If non-diabetic renal disease is suspected because of:
• Heavy proteinuria/nephrotic syndrome +/- raised creatinine with
• Short duration diabetes
• Little or no retinopathy
• Haematuria/microscopic haematuria
• Raised creatinine with little or no proteinuria
• Possible systemic illness – e.g.vasculitis/myeloma
• Acute renal failure
For management of: • Persistent fluid retention • Hypertension
For management of advancing renal failure
(eGFR 30-60 ml/min)
65
9. Risk Factor Management
9.4 Antithrombotics (Aspirin/Clopidogrel)
Aspirin (75 mg od)
Secondary prevention
• For people with manifest cardiovascular disease, offer 75 mg aspirin daily
Aspirin intolerance
• Consider clopidogrel 75mg daily in those patients who are intolerant of aspirin
Primary prevention
Aspirin is not licensed for primary prevention of vascular events. If aspirin is used for primary prevention the
balance of benefits and risk should be considered for each individual, particularly the presence of risk factors
for vascular disease (including conditions such as Diabetes) and the risk of gastronintestinal bleeding”
*NICE guidance has not been updated since recent evidence suggesting avoiding aspirin in people with Diabetes unless
they have established CVD. We would currently advise avoiding aspirin in patients without CVD, however an individual
patient approach is needed.
66
9. Risk Factor Management
9.5 Neuropathy and Footcare
On diagnosis of diabetes, and at annual review thereafter, trained personnel should examine patients’ feet to detect risk factors for ulceration.
Assessment should include:Classify foot risk as:
• At low current risk (normal sensation, palpable
• Testing of sensation using 10g monofilament
pulses)
and/or vibration
• At increased risk (neuropathy or absent pulses or
• Palpation of dorsalis pedis and posterior other risk factors)
tibial foot pulses
• At high risk (neuropathy or absent pulses plus
• Inspection for any foot deformity
deformity or skin changes or previous ulcer)
• Inspection of footwear
• Foot care emergency (ulceration, infection, acute
• Inspection for callus
charcot foot)
• Note of previous ulceration
• Note of previous amputation
Further References:
Diabetic Foot care – see NICE Guideline 10
Diabetic foot pathway of care – see NICE Pathway of Care
These can be found on the NICE Guidance Website at: www.nice.org.uk
67
9. Risk Factor Management
9.5 Neuropathy and Footcare
– Diabetes Foot Assessment Tool
TestEquipmentGuidelines
Sensation monofilament 10g
• Avoid areas of callus or damaged tissue
• Place the monofilament on the foot for 1-2 seconds
until it buckles
• Ask the patient to say “yes” every time they feel it
• Recommended testing areas are 1, 3 and 5
metatarsal heads and 1st toe apex
• Failure to perceive this sensation may indicate large
nerve fibre damage
Vibration 128Hz tuning fork
• Tuning fork should be held below the two prongs.
Do not use a hard surface to start vibration
• Place the tuning fork on the patients hand or elbow,
so the patient knows what to expect
• Ask the patient to close their eyes
• Vibrate the tuning fork and apply to the bony part
of the medial side at the base of the big toe joint.
It should be applied at a 90 degree angle with a
constant pressure
• Ask the patient to tell you if the vibration feels
the same, or absent when compared with the
sensation they felt on their elbow, and can they
say when it stops
Palpation
None
• Peripheral arterial disease is classified as the
inability to palpate both arteries in one or both
feet. Other signs of vascular disease may include
thin shiny skin, loss of subcutaneous tissue, dusky
red or cyanosed skin
• Intermittent claudication = pain in calf muscles
when walking any distance
• Posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis pulses
Refer to Foot Assessment form 11.4
68
9. Risk Factor Management
9.6 Mental Health and Diabetes
RECOGNITION
• D
epression is 2-3 times more likely in a person suffering a chronic physical health problem and 20% of
people with a chronic illness will suffer from depression
• Mental health problems may impact on an individual’s capacity to accept their diagnosis and manage their
condition.
• It should not be accepted as “normal” that an individual with a chronic illness feels low in mood or
anxious.
• Treating depression in patients with a chronic illness has the potential to increase their quality of life and
life expectancy.
• Patients with diabetes may benefit from local or national peer support eg Diabetes UK Rotherham Branch
or Diabetes UK peer support line 0843 353 8600
SCREENING AND DIAGNOSIS
• N
ICE advises screening at annual review using two questions:
• During the last month, have you often felt bothered by feeling down, depressed or hopeless?
• D
uring the last month, have you often been bothered by having little interest or pleasure in
doing things?
• If the patient answers “yes” to either question a comprehensive assessment that includes, but does not rely
solely upon, a symptom count (eg PHQ9) should be conducted; it should take into account any history of
co-morbid mental health, physical impairment/disability and social/cultural factors.
• In making an assessment beware that patients who are symptomatic or who suffer complications may
score highly on questions 3&4 of the PHQ9.
• Patients should be diagnosed using DSM-IV criteria but patients with persistent (more than 2 years) subthreshold depressive symptoms may also benefit from treatment.
TREATMENT
Psychological Interventions
• There is no evidence that mental health issues require different treatments in diabetes but treatment
may need to be tailored to the patient’s needs and capabilities if they suffer disability/impairment from
complications of diabetes. Any practitioner to whom the patient is referred should, with the patients
consent, be made aware of their condition.
• For persistent sub-threshold or mild to moderate depression psychological interventions should be used as
first line as per Rotherham PCMHS.
• Patients with co-existing mental health problems should be treated as normal but their mental health
practitioners should, with the patients consent, be informed of their diagnosis.
Drug treatments
• There is no evidence to support the use of specific medications in patients with diabetes to treat
depression or other mental health problems.
• A
majority of patients with diabetes will be taking other medications both for diabetes and other
co-morbidities so interactions may be more common and influence the use of commonly prescribed
medications
• The following may be useful to consider when prescribing antidepressants:
• Citalopram and sertraline have a lower propensity for interactions
• A
void SSRIs when taking NSAIDs because of an increased risk of GI bleeds. Consider
mirtazipine,trazodone, mianserin or reboxetine. If there is no suitable alternative offer
gastroprotection.
69
9. Risk Factor Management
• D
o not normally offer SSRIs to patients taking warfarin or heparin because of their antiplatelet
effect. Consider mirtazipine (but note INR may increase slightly.
• Use SSRIs with caution in patients taking aspirin. Consider safer alternatives – mirtazipine,
trazodone,mianserin, reboxitine. If no suitable alternative offer gastroprotection.
• Do not offer SSRIs to patient receiving “triptan” drugs for migraine. Consider mirtazipine,
trazodone, mianserin or reboxetine.
• Do not normally offer SSRIs at the same time as MAO-B inhibitors (eg selegiline, rasagiline).
Consider mirtazipine, trazodone, mianserin or reboxetine
• Do not offer fluvoxamine to patients taking theophylline, clonazapine, methodone or tizamindine.
Offer citalopram or sertraline.
• In patients taking flecanide or propafenadone offer sertraline (mirtazipine or moclobemide
as alternatives)
• In patients taking atomoxetine do not offer fluoxetine or paroxetine. Other SSRIs are suitable.
70
9. Risk Factor Management
9.7 Erectile Dysfunction
Erectile dysfunction – the inability to obtain and sustain
an erection suitable for intercourse
Are there clues to psychogenic or organic origin?
Suggests psychogenic
• Sudden onset
• Early collapse of erection
• Good quality spontaneous / self stimulation /
waking erections
• Premature ejaculation or inability to ejaculate
• Relationship problems
• Major life events
• Psychological problems
Consider psychosexual therapy
Contact: Jan Farrell - Urology
Suggests organic
• Gradual onset
• Lack of tumescence
• Normal ejaculation
• Normal libido
• Risk factors
• Operations / radiotherapy or trauma to pelvis /
scrotum
• Current medication
• Smoking
• Alcohol
Recommended investigations
• Glucose/HbA1c
• Creatinine
• 9am LH/FSH and testosterone
• Prolactin
Referral for endocrine opinion if
testosterone or prolactin abnormal
Poor response/not tolerated
– try alternative choice
Is physical treatment appropriate / desired?
Discuss treatment options
Arrange a trial of
• Sildenafil/tadalafil/vardenafil *
• Sublingual apomorphine*
• Vacuum device
• Urethral alprostadil
• Intracavernosal alprostadil
In surgery or after referral to diabetes erectile
dysfunction clinics
* HSC 99/115 and 99/148 include men with diabetes
in list of patients to whom GPs may prescribe
71
9. Risk Factor Management
9.8 Contraception
As with all patients seeking contraception, discussion should be in the context of what attributes will best suit
the need of the patient and condom use is encouraged to help prevent (sexually transmitted infections).
Combined oral contraceptives
• Generally safe in younger patients with Type 1 diabetes
• Patients with two or more risk factors (i.e. diabetes plus any one of the following: age > 35yrs,
hypertension, vascular disease, obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2), smoking) should not use the combined
contraceptive pill
• Low dose combined pills with gestodene or desogestrel (3rd generation) have a minimal effect on
carbohydrate and lipid metabolism but a higher thromboembolic risk
• Low dose combined pills containing levonorgestrel (2nd generation) have a greater effect on carbohydrate
and lipid metabolism but a lower thromboembolic risk
• Low dose combined pills are especially suited to the young patient
Progestogen only pill
• Metabolically neutral but less reliable than low dose combined contraceptive pill
• Safe in patients with diabetes
Depo Provera
• Injectables may alter the dosage requirements for diabetic control, but these are suitable for use in
patients with diabetes
Implanon
• Suitable for patients with diabetes
IUCD/IUS
• As safe in diabetic as non-diabetic women but avoid in women with multiple sexual partners
Barrier methods
• Safe but less reliable than hormonal contraceptives - but encourage use in all patients in addition to main
method for safer sex
Hormone Replacement Therapy
• Very little trial evidence with HRT and patients with diabetes
• Recommendation to use HRT in patients with diabetes based on extrapolation of benefits from nondiabetic population. There appears to be little or no role for HRT in cardiovascular disease prevention
• Preparations using non-androgenic progestogens (Premique and Tridestra) have better cardiovascular risk
profile than those containing norethisterone (Climagest and Estrapak) or levonorgestrel (Prempak-C)
• Patient tolerability is likely to play a major part in selection of suitable HRT
• Measure triglycerides a month after starting HRT
72
9. Risk Factor Management
Summary
Consider switch from combined pill to progestogen only pill if other cardiovascular risk factors present.
Under 35 years choose from
• Combined oral contraceptives
• IUCD/IUS
• POP
• Depo Provera
• Implanon
• Barrier
Over 35 years consider
• Switch from combined pill to progestogen only pill if other cardiovascular risk factors present
• IUCD/IUS or sterilisation if family complete
• Implanon
73
10. P
aediatric Diabetes
Services
Diabetes Diagnosis
Children are mainly presenting with Type 1 Diabetes, however children are beginning to present with
Type 2 Diabetes.
Early or prompt diagnosis for children and young people is vital. The presenting symptoms would be:
Symptoms for both Type 1 and 2
• Polyuria • Polydipsia
• Lassitude/Lethargy
Additional Symptoms for Type 1
• Usually not obese, recent weight loss
• Thrush type infection (repeated episodes)
presenting with Ketoacidosis
• Blurred vision
• Presence of Ketones at diagnosis with about 35%
Additional Symptoms for Type 2
• Overweight at diagnosis, little or no weight loss
• Negative for Ketones (generally)
• Thrush type infection (repeated episodes)
• May have areas of dark skin pigmentation (acanthosis nigricans), which are most often found between
the fingers and toes and on the back of the neck ("dirty neck") and in axillary creases.
Typical High Risks factors
• Family history• South Asian/Black African /Caribbean
Please obtain urine sample and test for glycosuria. If positive and symptomatic refer as stated below.
to Children’s Assessment area, contact on call registrar to arrange review as soon as possible.
NOTE:Guidelines for the care of Children and Young People with Type 1 Diabetes issued by Rotherham
General Hospital Paediatrics Department are available on the Hospital Intranet.
Repeat Prescriptions for Diabetes Medication and Equipment
Please note families are issued with a complete list of repeat prescription items which is also faxed to
their GP. They are advised to only access what they need however all items need to remain available
for them to access as needed .(Current practice appears to be that items not accessed for 6 months are
removed which creates problems for the families when these items are required as they have to contact
the specialist nurse and a repeat fax has to be sent to the practice.)
Insulin Pump Therapy
Please communicate with the paediatric diabetes team, if any requests for an Insulin Pump Therapy are
made as there are set procedures in place.
Referral Procedure
Please see section 3
74
10. P
aediatric Diabetes
Services
Paediatric Diabetes Services
Referral Procedure – Dr El-Refee
The normal referral procedure for youngsters with newly diagnosed diabetes is that after a GP refers to or contacts
the department, arrangements are made for the child/teenager to attend Children’s Assessment Unit as soon as
possible. This will usually be straight away if parents are able to bring them to hospital.
Upon discharge from the Unit, arrangements are made for them to be seen by Dr El-Refee within 6-8 weeks in one
of his Diabetes Clinics. In the meantime, they will have the continuing support of the Paediatric Diabetes Specialist
Nurse Team.
NOTE:Guidelines for the care of Children and Young People with Type 1 Diabetes issued by Rotherham General
Hospital Paediatrics Department are available on the Hospital Intranet.
75
11. Referral forms
11.1 Diabetes eye screening referral form
Bold Fields mandatory – we may have to return the form if they are not completed
Name
Address
Postcode
Date of BirthNHS NoHospital No
Telephone Contact HomeWork
Mobile
GP
GP Address
NEW PATIENTSKNOWN DIABETES
Date of Diagnosis
Symptomatic at diagnosis
YES
NO
Year of diagnosis
Fasting blood sugar at diagnosis
Or diagnosis by GTT
YES Previously screenedYES NO
Under Ophthalmology
NO
YES NO
All Patients
Most recent Hba1c
Most recent BP
On Rx for Blood Pressure
Diabetes Type
Yes
Type 1 No
Type 2
MODY
Other
Diabetes treatment
Patient has given consent for screening and sharing of information to relevant health professionals
Yes
No
Signed Date
Name
Designation
For information regarding ineligibility or opting out.
Phone Diabetes Centre 01226 434576/434577 Fax 01226 434406
76
11. Referral forms
11.2 A
dult Referral to Diabetes Specialist
Nurse Service
Adult Referral to Diabetes Specialist Service
If URGENT please fax:
Post to:
01709 307911
Diabetes Specialist Nurse Service
Diabetes Education & Resource Centre
Rotherham General Hospital, Moorgate
Rotherham S60 2UD
01709 307910
Otherwise call for advice:
Name:
Address:
Patient Details
Hospital Number:
NHS Number:
Date of Birth:
/
Home Telephone:
Hospital Consultant:
Post Code:
GP Name:
GP Details
/
Practice:
(Stamp)
Referral from:
(if not GP)
Reason for Referral: (please tick)
URGENT – within 5 working days
Initiation of insulin therapy in
well type 1 – newly diagnosed
Diabetic Pregnancy (Type 1 or Type 2)
Immediate referral to Greenoaks must be
made
Hypoglycaemia unawareness
(requiring intervention of others)
Initiation of insulin in problematic Type 2
diabetes with severe osmotic symptoms (on
maximum OHAs or intolerant of OHAs)
PLEASE ATTACH CURRENT MEDICATION
LIST
PLEASE ATTACH ANY OTHER RELEVANT
RESULTS
Background Medical History
YES
Problematic Hypoglycaemia
(frequent severe hypos affecting day to day
activities)
Commence insulin therapy
(Type 2 patient on maximum OHAs or
intolerant of OHAs)
Pre-conception counselling
Diabetes control complicated by conditions
such as Terminal Illness, Pancreatitis,
Nephropathy, etc. Please specify:
Structured Education – DAFNE TYPE 1
DESMOND TYPE 2
OTHER INFORMATION
NO
HbA1c:
Ischaemic Heart Disease
BMI
Diabetic Retinopathy
Previous Stroke/TIA
Diabetic Nephropathy
Peripheral Vascular Disease
Diabetic Neuropathy
Autonomic Neuropathy
Other important conditions (list): ……………………..
……………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………
Signed:
ROUTINE - within 6 weeks
Glucose control persistently poor
mmol/mol
HbA1c > 53
7.5%
(Type 1 DM)
Glucose control persistently poor
HbA1c > 8.5%
(Type 2 insulin treated DM)
70 mmol/mol
Name:
:
Result
Date
……….
……….
……….
……….
AC Ratio
……….
……….
Microalbuminuria
……….
……….
Proteinuria
……….
……….
eGFR :
……….
……….
Blood Pressure
……….
……….
Lipid Profile
……….
……….
THIS SECTION MUST BE COMPLETED
TRANSPORT REQUIRED
YES
Date:
NO
77
11. Referral forms
11.3 Foot Assessment Form (Sample)
DIABETIC FOOT ASSESSMENT
Patient Name:
NHS No:
Address:
Date:
G.P.
Neuropathic Assessment and Vascular Assessment
- absent
+ present
10g monofilament
R
L
Foot Pulses
R L Vibration
R
st
st
Hallux (1 toe)
Dorsalis Pedis
1 Metatarsal Phalangeal
st
Joint
1 Met head
Posterior Tibial
rd
3 Met head
Intermittent Claudication
th
5 Met head
Colour/Temperature *Neuropathy = 2 or more sites absent
*Peripheral Arterial Disease = no pulse in one foot
for monofilament
L
Risk Factors
+ present
- absent
Presence of foot deformity
Previous foot ulceration
Current foot ulceration
Callus/Corn
R
L
Amputation
Painful neuropathy
Night/Rest pain
Risk Classification
√
LOW RISK
INCREASED
RISK
HIGH RISK
FOOT CARE
EMERGENCY
Normal Sensation
Palpable Pulses
Peripheral Neuropathy or
Absent Pulses or
Deformity/Callus or
Presence of risk factor
Neuropathy or absent pulses
Plus deformity or callus
Previous foot ulceration or
Amputation
Current Foot Ulceration
Infection
Acute charcot foot
R
L
Y
Poor Footwear
Smoker
Poor diabetes control
Basic foot care advice
Annual foot assessment
Refer to Podiatry Department only if
patient has a clinical need for podiatry
treatment (not routine simple nail care)
Refer to Podiatry Department
At risk foot care advice by health care
professional
Regular review (3-6 monthly)
Refer to Podiatry Department
Refer to Orthotics Department via GP
At risk foot care advice
Arrange review within 3 months
Refer and
to GP
within
24 hours
Liaise
refer
to multidisciplinary
Foot
Refer
to Podiatry
care
team
within 24Department
hours (if out-of-hours
Redressreferral
woundto A&E/B1 if clinically
consider
indicated)
At risk foot care advice
For an urgent referral (eg infection)
contact one of the team direct.
N
Useful
Numbers
Podiatry Rotherham
Podiatry Dept
Community Health
Doncaster
Gate
Centre
423227
Reception:
01709 304801
Podiatry
Diabetes
Centre 427917
Diabetes
Diabetes Specialist
Centre
Nurses 427910
Podiatrist:
TrevorViability
Pilling
Tissue
01709 307917
Specialist
Nurses
423358
Diabetes
Specialist
Nurses:
01709 307910
Tissue Viability
Specialist Nurse
01709 302471
LA/dm/R-DFAT
12.05.05
78
Office Use Only
Date received:
ID Number:
the Rotherham
Nhs foundation trust
Rotherham
Adult Weight Management Self Referral Form
So, you’re thinking about losing weight, we can help you.
the Rotherham
Nhs foundation
Reshape Rotherham is a new adult (over 17 years old) weight management programme.
It’s FREE,trust
fun and
friendly. It consists of 10 weekly, hour long group sessions and will help you to make long-term changes
towards a healthier diet and lifestyle. The programme is delivered in community venues around the
Rotherham area such as health centres, church halls etc. Please fill in and return the referral form below.
We look forward to meeting you.
the Rotherham
YOUR DETAILS
Nhs foundation trust
Name:......................................................................................................................Gender: M/F..............................
Address:.…………………..…………………………………………………………………...............................................
.................................................................................
Postcode:……………….....
Home tel no:………………………………………..…
Mobile tel no:………....................……….......................
the Rotherham
DOB:……………………….......... Height:……….............……...
Please tick box if any apply:
Type 1 Diabetes (insulin controlled)
Type 2 Diabetes (diet or tablet controlled)
Dyslipidaemia
Established cardiovascular disease
Established sleep apnoea
South Asian Male
Nhs foundation trust
Weight:……….…......................………
Post bariatric surgery
Coeliac disease/ Crohn’s disease
Food Allergy (not been
by a Dietitian)
theseen
Rotherham
Pregnant or Breastfeeding
Nhs foundation trust
Diagnosed mental health condition
please specify…………………………………………
Other - please specify…………………..................
How did you hear about Reshape Rotherham?
.................................................................................................................................................................
Were you referred to Reshape Rotherham during a NHS Health Check by your GP or Practice Nurse?
YES NO
If coming to Reshape Rotherham, please choose your preference:
Daytime
Evening (after 5pm)
Preferred area in Rotherham (e.g. Maltby, Town Centre, Wath etc) ………………………………
General Practitioners Details
(you must be registered with a Rotherham GP)
Name of GP:………………………….................…………………………………………………………………………….
GP Address:…………………………………………………………………….. Postcode:…........................................
Send or fax this form to:
Reshape Rotherham, Nutrition & Dietetic Department
Rotherham NHS Foundation Trust
Oakwood Hall, Moorgate Road
Rotherham, S60 2UD
Fax Number: 01709 307947
Signature: ....................................................... Date: ................................
Aged 17 or under?
Carnegie Club is a 12 week weight management programme for overweight & obese children aged 8-17 & their
families. Carnegie Clubs are FREE of charge, run at Rotherham Leisure Complex and Aston-cum-Aughton Leisure Centre.
For more information please contact Natalie Dunn on 01709 722555/ 07525 702784/ visit www.
carnegieweightmanagement.com/rotherham
Office Use Only
Date received:
ID Number:
Rotherham
NHS Rotherham Weight Management Referral Form
All patients MUST be motivated to lose weight
For Adults: (BMI = Body Mass Index, WC = waist circumference)
• Consider direct referral to Reshape Rotherham (weight management programme)
If BMI 25 - 40 (NB adults can self-refer to Reshape Rotherham on 01709 307694)
• Consider direct referral to RIO (specialist MDT)
If BMI > 30 (or WC > 102cm male or > 88cm female) with increased risk, or BMI > 40 without
For Children: (using appropriate child growth charts for BMI centiles)
• Consider direct referral to Carnegie Clubs (via DC Leisure)
If BMI > 85th centile (NB children (8-17years) can be self-referred on 01709 722555)
• Consider direct referral to RIO (specialist MDT)
If BMI > 95th centile with increased risk, or > 99.6th without increased risk
Patient DETAILS
Name:......................................................................................................................Gender: M/F..............................
Address:.…………………..…………………………………………………………………...............................................
.................................................................................
Postcode:……………….....
Home tel no:………………………………………..…
Mobile tel no:………....................……….......................
DOB:………………………...... Height:……………...
Weight:……….…………
BMI:................……..………..
Name of parent/guardian (for child referral):…………………………. Contact tel no:………...…......…….
Address (if different from above):......................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................
Please tick box if any apply:
Type 1 Diabetes (insulin controlled)
Type 2 Diabetes (diet or tablet controlled)
Dyslipidaemia
Established cardiovascular disease
Established sleep apnoea
South Asian Male
Postcode:.......................................................................
Post bariatric surgery
Coeliac disease/ Crohn’s disease
Food Allergy (not been seen by a Dietitian)
Pregnant or Breastfeeding
Diagnosed mental health condition
please specify…………………………………………
Other - please specify…………………..................
General Practitioners Details
(patient must be registered with a Rotherham GP)
Name of GP:………………………….................…………………………………………………………………………….
GP Address:…………………………………………………………………….. Postcode:…........................................
Referrer Details
(please tick box that applies to you)
Internal referrals:External referrals:
Reshape Rotherham
GP /
Practice Nurse /
During CVD/HealthCheck
Carnegie Clubs via DC Leisure Consultant (specify department)...........................................
RIODietitian
Carnegie International CampHealth Visitor
Bariatric Surgical Service Pharmacist
Other................................................................................
Print Name………………………………… Signature:………………….…..……..
Send completed form to relevant address or fax number given below:
Date:…………..………
Reshape Rotherham, Dept of Nutrition and Dietetic Services, Oakwood Hall, Moorgate Road Rotherham S60 2UD
Tel 01709 307725 Fax 01709 307947
Natalie Dunn, DC Leisure, Rotherham Leisure Complex, Effingham Street, Rotherham S66 1BL
Tel 01709 722555. Fax 01709 722557. Mobile 07525 702784
RIO, Clifton Medical Centre, The Health Village, Doncaster Gate, Rotherham, S651DA
Tel 08444773622 or Fax 08444773831
Alcohol - Audit C
Pint Lager: ABV 5.2%Bottle
3 Units
Lager: ABV 5.2%
Single Gin & Tonic: ABV 40%
White Wine (175ml) : ABV 13%
Bottle of Wine: ABV 13.5%
1.7 Units
1 Unit
2.3 Units
10 Units
Please answer these Questions before you go in for your appointment.
Scoring system
Questions
0
1
2
3
4
How often do you have a drink containing alcohol?
Never
Monthly
or less
2-4
2-3
4+ times
times per times per per week
month
week
How many units of alcohol do you drink on a typical day
when you are drinking?
1 -2
3-4
5-6
7-8
10+
How often have you had 6 or more units if female, or 8 or
more if male, on a single occasion in the last year?
Never
Less than
monthly
Monthly
Weekly
Daily or
almost
daily
Total
Scoring:
A score of 2 or less? Congratulations this indicates lower risk drinking (see overleaf)
A score of 3 or more? Please answer the following 7 questions:
Scoring system
Questions
0
1
2
How often during the last year have you found that you
were not able to stop drinking once you had started?
Never
Less than
monthly
Monthly
Weekly
Daily or
almost
daily
How often during the last year have you failed to do what
was normally expected from you because of your drinking?
Never
Less than
monthly
Monthly
Weekly
Daily or
almost
daily
How often during the last year have you needed an alcoholic
drink in the morning to get yourself going after a heavy
drinking session?
Never
Less than
monthly
Monthly
Weekly
Daily or
almost
daily
How often during the last year have you had a feeling of
guilt or remorse after drinking?
Never
Less than
monthly
Monthly
Weekly
Daily or
almost
daily
How often during the last year have you been unable to
remember what happened the night before because you
had been drinking?
Never
Less than
monthly
Monthly
Weekly
Daily or
almost
daily
Have you or somebody else been injured as a result of
your drinking?
No
Yes, but
not in
the last
year
Yes,
during
the last
year
No
Yes, but
not in
the last
year
Yes,
during
the last
year
Has a relative or friend, doctor or other health worker
been concerned about your drinking or suggested that
you cut down?
Please turn over for scoring & next steps
Your
Score
3 4
Total
Your
Score
Alcohol - Audit C
SCORING: If you have completed both sets of questions add your scores together;
AUDIT C _____ + AUDIT _____ =
Based on your total score you will fall into one of the following categories, please read the guidance below and consider;
how this has made you feel, the options outlined for further information and where to go for help and advice.
Scored 0-7?
You are at ‘Lower risk’
This level of drinking means that in most circumstances you have a low risk of causing
yourself future harm from your alcohol use.
It is called 'lower-risk', rather than 'safe', because drinking alcohol is never completely
safe. Even drinking below these levels will not be advisable in some circumstances.
Any drinking can still be too much if you’re driving, operating machinery, about to go
swimming or engaging in strenuous physical activity.
Pregnant women or women trying to conceive should not drink alcohol. Too much
exposure to alcohol can seriously affect your baby's development.
Scored 8-15?
You are at ‘Increasing risk’
Drinking at this level increases the risk of damaging your health. Alcohol affects all
parts and systems of the body, and it can play a role in numerous medical conditions.
If you're drinking at around these levels, your risk of developing a serious illness is
higher compared to non-drinkers. At these drinking levels, you might already be
suffering from alcohol-related problems, such as fatigue or depression, weight gain,
poor sleep and sexual problems.
Scored 8-15?
You are at ‘Increasing risk’
If you’re in this group, you’re at an even higher risk of damaging your health
compared to increasing risk drinkers.
Alcohol affects the whole body, and it can play a role in numerous medical conditions.
You’re at a much higher risk of developing alcohol-related health problems. Your
body has probably suffered some damage already, even if you’re not yet aware of
it. You may be sleeping poorly or having sexual problems. And, like increasing-risk
drinkers but possibly more so, you’re almost definitely in worse physical shape than
you would be otherwise, whatever your age or gender. You could also suffer from
high blood pressure.
Scored 8-15?
You are at ‘Increasing risk’
If you have scored 20+ we strongly advise you to see your GP or get in touch with
Lifeline on the number below as soon as possible. Your alcohol may be significantly
effecting your health as well as your day to day life. You should take medical advice
before stopping, please don’t just stop drinking as you may physically withdraw, with
symptoms such as shaking, sweating and feelings of anxiety. There is a lot of support to
help you either cut down gradually or eventually stop completely. If you think you are
suffering physical withdrawal symptoms seek medical attention immediately.
There are lots of ways you can reduce your alcohol intake, try keeping a drinks diary and see which drinks you can
cut out, if you drink at home measure your units, plan an activity at times you usually drink. For more advice and
information on how to reduce your alcohol use;
See your GP for a referral to the Primary Care Alcohol Workers
or call or pop in to Lifeline on 01709 423507,
77 Sheffield Road,Rotherham,S60 1DA
A score of 2 or less? Congratulations this indicates lower risk drinking (see overleaf)
A score of 3 or more? Please answer the following 7 questions:
11. Referral forms
Referral Form To Primary Care Alcohol Service
Fax number
01709 324363
NameDate of Birth
Male / Female
AddressGP Address
Telephone No
Ok to ContactYes
No
If No - how would patient like to be contacted?
Referral Source Details
Name and Contact No of Referrer
Safeguarding children / vulnerable adult concerns Yes
No
Comments
Has the patient consented to the Referral?
YesNo
83
11. Referral forms
Any Risk Identified?
Daily Units
SADQ Score
AUDIT Score
Reason for referral
To be completed by Primary Care Service
ACTIONS:
84
12. CONTACTS
User/Carer/Parent Support Groups:
Diabetes UK. The most up-to-date contact details are available from their website www.diabetes.org.uk,
by emailing [email protected] or phoning 01325 488606; the following contacts were checked
on 2 February 2012:
Mr Terence Nougher-Fuller Secretary/Treasurer and
01709 852057
Diabetes Service [email protected]
Rotherham Diabetes UK Group
“Park Hill” Hooton Lane,
Ravenfield,
ROTHERHAM S65 4NQ
Mavis Skipper
Wath Upon Dearne Diabetes UK Group
(Families with Diabetes & Carers)
01709 585758
[email protected]
Rotherham Young Diabetes Association:
www.ryda.org.uk
UK Children with Diabetes Advocacy Group.
For parents of and children with diabetes: www.childrenwithdiabetesuk.org
Integrated Specialist Team (Adults):
Dr Bernd FrankeConsultant Physician, Diabetes & Endocrinology
01709
Dr Solomon MuzuluConsultant Physician, Diabetes & Endocrinology
01709
Dr Ahmed HafizConsultant Physician01709
Fiona Smith
Diabetes Specialist Nurse Team Leader
01709
Lynda AstburySenior Diabetes Specialist Nurse
01709
Carol RoebuckDiabetes Specialist Nurse01709
Karen CarnallDiabetes Specialist Nurse01709
Dawn Cunningham
Diabetes Education and Support Worker
01709
Sri KakarlapudiLead Dietician for Diabetes Services
01709
Sarah VeitchDiabetes Specialist Dietician01709
Sarah GroomSpecialist dietician for Obesity and Diabetes
01709
Trevor PillingDiabetes Lead Podiatrist01709
Fiona CrawfordSpecialist Podiatrist01709
Lisa WatsonSpecialist Podiatrist01709
Janice WootenPodiatry Assistant01709
424157
424155
427576
427926
427923
427920
427925
427922
427916
427916
424297
427917
427917
427917
427917
Diabetic Eye Screening:
Mr Darren HowlettProgramme Manager01226 432086
Appointments/General Admin Enquires01226 434576/7
Fax (Safehaven)01226 434579
85
12. CONTACTS
Obstetrics/Antenatal Clinic:
Miss Susan RutterConsultant Obstetrician
Dr Radhika GosakanConsultant Obstetrician
Claire HeeleyLead Midwife for Diabetes
01709 424239
01709 424234
01709 424239
Paediatric team:
Dr Sherif El-RefeeConsultant Paediatrician
Terrye Hyde
Diabetes Specialist Nurse
Sharon Gamble
Diabetes Specialist Nurse
Lauran Sanderson
Diabetes specialist nurse
Janet GommPaediatric Diabetes Specialist Dietician
01709 424577
01709 427924 / 07798 668815
01709 427910 / 07979 770101
01709 427916
Diabetes Education and Resource Centre:
Claire KeightleyManager01709
Janet Bell
DAFNE/DESMOND Co-ordinator
01709
Kathy Winearls
Administration Officer
01709
Theresa RidgewayReceptionist01709
Fax (Safehaven)01709
427919
427913
427913
427910
427911
Specialists:
Dr Rangasamy MuthusamyConsultant Cardiologist (RDGH)
01709 424158
Mr Mohamad JabirConsultant Ophthalmologist and 01709 427095
Clinical Director of Specialist Surgery (RDGH)
Dr Bisher KawarConsultant Renal Physician (NGH)
0114 2714018/4663
Jan FarrellCNS Urology Psycho-sexual Therapy
01709 427468
Mr Shah NawazVascular Surgeon
01709 424762
GP lead commissioner for Diabetes:
Dr Jason Page
GP Diabetes Champion and CCG lead for Prescribing
[email protected]
01709 52853
86
12. CONTACTS
Diabetes Education & Resource Centre
General Information
• The Diabetes Education & Resource Centre opened in early May 2005
• The Centre is on the Rotherham General Hospital site and is jointly managed by the NHS Rotherham and the
Hospital Foundation Trust
• It provides an education and resource facility for patients, their families and healthcare professionals and houses
Rotherham’s Retinal Screening Service
• The facility is staffed by a multidisciplinary team including Diabetes Specialist Nurses, Podiatrists and Dieticians
who run specialist clinics from the centre. The centre is currently open from 9 am to 5 pm Monday to Friday, and
appointments are available through Choose and Book
Services Provided
•
•
•
•
•
•
Diabetes triage
Optimisation of glucose control
Initiation of insulin therapy (for types 1 and 2)
Hypoglycaemia management
Planning a diabetic pregnancy
Structured education programmes (DESMOND, DAFNE, carbohydrate counting/awareness sessions)
87
13 . Appendices
13 .1 Rotherham Healthy Weight Referral Pathway
- Adults (additional Information)
Specialist Tertiary Service - Tier 4
Bariatric surgery.
RIO (Rotherham Institute for Obesity) - Tier 3
The Rotherham Institute for Obesity (RIO) is a specialist centre for the management of obesity. It has a multidisciplinary
team approach to tackling weight by providing specialists including; Obesity Specialist Nurses (OSNs), healthcare assistants
(HCAs) with specialist weighing and measuring equipment, dietetics input for complex dietary needs, group work and
cooking skills education in our on-site kitchen, talking therapists for psychological and counselling input, a physical
activity specialist with on-site gym facilities, a General Practitioner with a specialist interest in obesity (GPwSI) for any
prescribing issues, and access to local bariatric surgeons and other secondary care specialists if meeting appropriate
criteria. It provides all the pre-op assessment for adults who may be suitable for surgery.
Contact: Lynn Senior, RIO Supervisor, Rotherham Institute for Obesity (RIO)
Clifton Medical Centre, The Health Village, Doncaster Gate, Rotherham, S65 1DA Tel: 08444773622 or Fax: 08444773831
Re Shape Rotherham - Tier 2
A free service available to all local residents registered to a Rotherham GP, with a BMI of over 25. Reshape Rotherham
consists of a series of 10 weekly, hour long sessions designed to help people make long term changes towards a healthier
diet and lifestyle.
People can either self refer by telephoning 01709 307694 or can be referred into the service by visiting their GP or
Practice Nurse.
For more information on Reshape Rotherham, please contact Vanessa Quarmby on [email protected] or
01709 307121.
Primary Activity – Tier 1
Primary activity includes health promoting brief interventions to encourage lifestyle changes. These can be provided by a
range of staff including GPs, Leisure Services, Health Visitors etc
88
13 . Appendices
Rotherham Healthy Weight referral pathway - Children (additional information)
The Weight Management Services working with children and young people have signed up to Rotherham’s
Children and Young People’s Overarching Information Sharing Protocol
Carnegie International Camp - Tier 4
The residential summer camp is designed for 8-17 year olds and is the most intensive weight management
programme available with the exception of surgery; it is primarily focused on the most obese children (>85th
percentile for age and gender related BMI), although it is effective for all levels of overweight/obesity.
The camp is multidisciplinary and includes guidance on dietary restriction and modification, physical activity
promotion, lifestyle change and the development of social skills whilst providing a fun and supportive
environment for weight loss. All components adhere fully to NICE guidance and activities are aligned to key
stages in the National Curriculum and other national health campaigns such as Change4Life.
Visit: www.carnegieweightmanagement.com or 0113 8125 233.
RIO (Rotherham Institute for Obesity) - Tier 3
The Rotherham Institute for Obesity (RIO) is a specialist centre for the management of obesity. It has a
multidisciplinary team approach to tackling weight by providing specialists including: Obesity Specialist
Nurses (OSNs), healthcare assistants (HCAs) with specialist weighing and measuring equipment, dietetics
input for complex dietary needs, group work and cooking skills education in our on-site kitchen, talking
therapists for psychological and counselling input, a physical activity specialist with on-site gym facilities, a
General Practitioner with a specialist interest (GPwSI) in obesity for any prescribing issues, and access to local
bariatric surgeons and other secondary care specialists if meeting appropriate criteria. It provides triage of
children who may be suitable for Carnegie Camps.
Contact: Lynn Senior, RIO Supervisor, Rotherham Institute for Obesity (RIO) Clifton Medical Centre, The
Health Village, Doncaster Gate, Rotherham, S65 1DA Tel: 08444 773622 or Fax: 08444 773831.
Carnegie Club- Tier 2
Carnegie Club is a 12 week weight management programme for overweight and obese children aged 8-17
and their families to help them become fitter, healthier and happier. DC Leisure is working in partnership
with NHS Rotherham and Carnegie Weight Management (CWM) to deliver the Carnegie Clubs FREE of
charge at Rotherham Leisure Complex and Aston-cum-Aughton Leisure Centre
Visit: www.carnegieweightmanagement.com/rotherham or call the programme manager on 07525 702784.
Primary Activity – Tier 1
Primary activity includes health promoting brief interventions to encourage lifestyle changes. These can be
provided by a range of staff including GPs, Leisure Services, Health Visitors, Teachers, School Nurses etc.
89
13 . Appendices
13.2 Smoking Cessation Referrals
Ask and record Smoking Status
Non smoker Record in notes.
No further action required.
Smoker
ADVISE the patient of health benefits of quitting
“Stopping smoking is the best thing you can do for
your health”.
ACT on patient’s response, including offering a referral
to their local NHS Stop Smoking Service
Smokes and wants help to stop.
Complete referral form and send to
Rotherham Stop Smoking Service
RCHC, Greasbrough Road
Rotherham
S601RY
Or fax to 01709 423208
Refer over the phone
Telephone
01709 422444
Stop smoking Service will attempt to
phone client twice and if no contact
send a letter.
Client will be informed of all types of
support offered and nearest venue.
An appointment can be made.
Smokes Does Not want help to stop
If not ready they should be asked
to consider the possibility and
encouraged to seek help in the future
The Stop Smoking Service can help
with any concerns
What we offer
Friendly advice and support using
An evidence based programme - assessment,
preparation, quit and 4 weeks of follow up
• Help with access to treatment products available on prescription
• Carbon Monoxide monitoring
• Group support
• 1-1 appointments
• Drop In
• Home Visits for those receiving home visits from GPs
90
13 . Appendices
13.3 REferences
Chalmers J, McBain AM, Brown IRF, Campbell IW. Metformin: is its use contraindicated in the elderly?
Practical Diabetes 1992, 9, 51-53.
European Diabetes Policy Group 1998.
A desktop guide to Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Diabetic Medicine 1999, 16, 253-266.
European Diabetes Policy Group 1999. A desktop guide to Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic Medicine 1999,
16,716-730.
National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Clinical Guidelines F Management of Type 2 diabetes. Renal disease
– prevention and early management. February 2002.
National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Clinical Guidelines G Management of Type 2 Diabetes. Management
of blood glucose. Sept 2002.
National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Clinical Guidelines H Management of Type 2 Diabetes. Management
of blood pressure and blood lipids. October 2002.
National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Clinical Guidelines 87. Type 2 Diabetes. May 2009.
Nottingham Health Authority Guidelines on Vascular Risk (2001)
91
www.rotherham.nhs.uk
NHS Rotherham is the Rotherham Primary Care Trust
© Creative Media Services NHS Rotherham
Date of publication: 03.04.2012 Ref: HIEG3363_1112NHSR

Similar documents

×

Report this document