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International Osteoporosis Foundation
Michelangelo (1475-1564): Last Judgement - detail (thinking skull)
[before restoration]. Vatican, Sistine Chapel.
© 1990. Photo Scala, Florence.
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Progress In Osteoporosis
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
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Overview
Literature Review
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Epidemiology
Progress in Osteoporosis is a quarterly review journal that
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Morbidity/Mortality
provides a summary of the most important literature published in
the field of osteoporosis in the preceding 3-4 months.
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Financial Cost
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Genetics
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Measurement of Bone Mass
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Bone Material
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Bone Structure
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Histomorphology
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Biomechanics
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Growth
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Remodelling Markers
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Bone Formation
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Bone Resorption
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Osteocytes
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Systemic Factors
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Local Factors
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Risk factors
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Treatment
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Exercise
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Men
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Reviews
Managing Editor: Fina Liu
Invest In Your Bones Campaign
© 2008 International Osteoporosis Foundation
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Campaign vision
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About the Campaign
IOF News
Call for Abstracts
IOF World Congress on Osteoporosis in Bangkok, Thailand,
December 3-7, 2008
Abstract submission deadline: June 2, 2008
Read more
IOF hails WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Report and
FRAXTM website
Diagnosis of fracture risk becomes much easier, bringing
benefits to those at risk and cost savings...
Read more
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International Osteoporosis Foundation
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
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PDF version
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Overview
IOF Board
Members
Literature Review
●
Epidemiology
●
Morbidity/Mortality
●
Financial Cost
●
Genetics
●
Measurement of Bone Mass
●
Bone Material
●
Bone Structure
●
Histomorphology
●
Biomechanics
●
Growth
●
Remodelling Markers
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Bone Formation
●
Bone Resorption
●
Osteocytes
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Systemic Factors
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Local Factors
●
Risk Factors
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Treatment
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Exercise
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Men
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Reviews
Invest In Your Bones Campaign
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Campaign vision
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About the Campaign
DO be born with a good intellect
DO NOT have more mind than matter
DO develop an inquisitive mind
DO be ambitious
DO NOT be too ambitious
DO have originality
DO NOT jump at the first problem
DO obtain money
DO look from all points of view
DO NOT be a lone wolf
DO measure something
DO NOT be secretive
DO arrange your data in chart form
DO NOT be fooled by figures
DO develop a theory
DO NOT be a slave to your theory
DO NOT be too disturbed to produce papers
DO some unadulterated thinking
DO NOT wake up in an executive job
Fuller Albright
J Clin Invest 1944;23:921-6
Overview
Calcium, vitamin D, both – yes – no – maybe
There is little convincing evidence that calcium reduces vertebral and nonvertebral fractures because there have been no
replicated and credible trials (randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, large samples, prolonged follow up, few
dropouts) demonstrating a reduction in vertebral or nonvertebral fractures in children, women or men. Nevertheless, the believers
keep believing data if it suits their opinion and criticize the data if it does not. This is dangerous, particularly when it comes from
a respected authority or prestigious journal.
Surrogate endpoints of fracture are used and inferences such as rise in BMD are made even though a change in BMD is a
poor predictor of fracture risk reduction. Lambert et al report a randomized trial of calcium (792 mg/d) with follow up 2 years
after supplement withdrawal in 96 girls with low calcium intakes (mean: 636 mg/d). Compared with the controls, the
supplemented group showed greater gains in BMD. Resorption markers and parathyroid hormone were lower. After 42 months,
gains in BMD and differences in bone resorption markers were no longer evident. Calcium effects are short-lived because
remodelling is suppressed and then reversed on supplement withdrawal. The question is whether the structural effects produced
by remodelling suppression might reduce fracture risk while treatment continues. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:455-62
Zhu et al report that among 120 community-dwelling women aged 70-80 years given calcium 1200 mg/d, calcium with 1000 IU/
d vitamin D2 or double placebo in a randomised controlled double-blind trial, hip BMD was preserved in treated groups and not
in controls during 5 years. When split by the median, benefits were seen in those with baseline 25OHD levels below the median
(68 nmol/L). At year one, Ca and CaD groups had lower alkaline phosphatase and lower urinary DPD/Cr ratio. At 5 years,
this suppression was maintained in the CaD group. CaD reduced PTH at 3 and 5 years in those with baseline PTH above the
median. A lot of subgroup analyses were undertaken. The authors infer that addition of vitamin D to calcium has long term
beneficial effects on BMD, but does that mean calcium alone does not? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:743-9
Prince et al report that, in a 1-year double-blind, randomized trial of 302 community-dwelling ambulant women aged 70-90 years
with a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin <24.0 ng/mL and a history of falling, ergocalciferol at 1000 IU/d reduced the risk of having at least
1 fall after adjustment for height (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.37-0.99). Ergocalciferol reduced the risk of a first fall in winter and spring, but
not in summer and autumn, and reduced the risk of having one but not multiple falls. There were no data concerning fractures
reported (Arch Intern Med 2008;168:103-8). Richy et al report that in 14 trials including 21,268 subjects, vitamin D analogs
provided a lower risk for falling than native vitamin D: RR = 0.79 (0.64-0.96) vs. 0.94 (0.87-1.01) (intergroup difference P=
0.049). Calcif Tissue Int 2008;82:102-07
van Schoor et al studied 1311 community-dwelling older men and women. During 6 years, 115 persons (8.5%) had one or
more osteoporotic fractures. serum 25(OH)D cut point of 12 ng/ml gave the best discrimination between persons with and
without fractures. The lowest percentage of fractures (5.6%) was found above 30 ng/ml. After adjustment for age, serum 25(OH)
D below or equal to 12 ng/ml was associated with an increased fracture risk in the youngest (HR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.4-6.9), not the
oldest age group (HR = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.7-2.2). Cut points of 25(OH)D (<10 ng/ml, 10-19.9 ng/ml, 20-29.9 ng/ml, ≥30 ng/ml) were
not associated with fractures. Bone 2008;42:260-6
Looker and Mussolino studied 1917 men and women over 65 yr of age. There were 156 incident hip fractures. Serum 25(OH)
D exceeding 60 nM was related to hip fracture risk. For example, the multivariate-adjusted RR was 0.64 (0.46-0.89) among
individuals with serum 25(OH)D >62.5 nM compared with those with values below this level. The multivariate-adjusted RRs for
the second, third, and fourth vs. the first quartile were 0.50 (0.25-1.00), 0.41 (0.24-0.70), and 0.50 (0.29-0.86), respectively. Serum
25(OH)D was related to a lower hip fracture risk. J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:143-50
It’s not calcium in milk anyway – angiogenin
Morita et al report that a factor responsible for inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption is present in the basic protein fraction
of bovine milk (milk basic protein, MBP). The purified bovine angiogenin inhibited the pit forming activity of both unfractionated
bone cells and purified osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner, and the inhibitory activity was suppressed by anti-bovine
angiogenin antibody. The inhibitory activity was confirmed in mice in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of osteoclasts with bovine
angiogenin resulted in an impairment of the formation F-actin ring and a reduction in the mRNA levels of TRAP and cathepsin K.
Bone 2008;42:380
Risedronate and reduced osteoclastogenesis
Bisphosphonates reduce bone resorption by inducing osteoclast apoptosis. D'Amelio et al examined the influence of risedronate
on the formation of osteoclast precursors and cytokine production. In 25 patients treated with risedronate 5 mg/d, there was
a reduction in the number and degree of differentiation of osteoclast precursors, osteoclast formation, vitality and activity, in the level
of RANKL and TNF in cultures and of TNF and OPG in serum, and no changes in the group treated with calcium and vitamin D.
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:373-9
Sustained fracture risk reduction and antiresorptives
Few anti-fracture efficacy trials extend longer than 3 years with retention of at least the majority of the cohort was originally allocated
to treatment or placebo. Lack of controls has obvious implications; nothing can be said about fracture rates without controls –
have they decreased during treatment, remained unchanged or increased ……. relative to controls. We certainly don’t mean relative
to pre-treatment fracture rates in the same cohort because no study has ever been done to measure fracture rates for say 1-3
years before treatment, then compared fracture rate during treatment in year 1, 2, and 3 with the pretreatment period.
As shown in the figure, when an antiresorptive is given, the resorptive cavities excavated and present before treatment go
to completion with the bone formation phase of the remodelling cycle. As the bone tissue deposited mineralizes, BMD rises.
This increase is unopposed by the birth of the same numbers of new remodelling units because the antiresorptive has reduced
this birth rate. Fracture rates continue in control and treated subjects, but less frequently in treated subjects. The
precise morphological basis for the reduced progression of bone fragility is uncertain because it has not been studied.
As time goes by, steady state is achieved and the rise in BMD continues slowly, but the morphological basis for the rise changes.
Now the increase in BMD is the result of secondary mineralization (crystal enlargement) of the newly deposited bone that
has undergone primary mineralization. Concurrently there is continued secondary mineralization of the existing bone tissue which
has not been recently remodelled. The total bone tissue may be decreasing as remodelling with the negative BMU balance
continues to remove bone from bone slowly (because remodelling is suppressed during treatment). So bone tissue density
increases in a tissue that is decreasing. The net effect is a rise in BMD as the densitometer does not ‘see’ tissue mass decreasing.
What is in question is whether the fracture risk reduction seen in many studies within the first 12-36 months is sustained. In
most clinical trials there is a dropout rate of about 10% per year, so after 5 years half the sample is lost. Has randomization
been violated? It is very difficult to determine whether the Kaplan-Myer curves continue to diverge, which means the risk reduction
is maintained. If they become parallel, this suggests fracture incidence is the same in the treated and control group; and if the
lines converge, this suggests the fracture rates are higher under treatment than without treatment.
Loss of subjects in a trial potentially violates randomization. Randomization ensures that known and unknown covariates
influencing fracture (independent of the drug) are equally present in treatment and placebo arm of the trial. Is this potential
important? Of course it is. Say healthy people in the placebo arm drop out, the fracture rate will be higher and exaggerate the
benefit of the drug. If sicker people drop out of the placebo arm, then fracture rates will be lower and the benefit of the drug will
be obscured. A range of scenarios result when dropouts occur in the treatment arm. Is this corrected by bringing the last
measurement point forwards or doing other analyses? If the design and execution of a trial are flawed, nothing can save it, nothing
can give it credibility, not even statistics.
Watts et al report that patients who received risedronate 5 mg daily (N=398) or placebo (N=361) during the VERT-NA study
stopped therapy after 3 years but continued taking vitamin D and calcium for one year. In the year off treatment, BMD decreased
but remained higher than baseline and placebo at the spine and hip. Urinary NTX and BSAP decreased with treatment, were
not different from placebo after 1 year off treatment. The incidence of new morphometric vertebral fractures was 46% lower in
the former risedronate than former placebo (RR 0.54, 0.34, 0.86). Osteoporos Int 2008;19:365-72
Ensrud et al studied 10,101 postmenopausal women ≥55 yr of age with coronary heart disease. Women received 60 mg raloxifene
or placebo daily for a median of 5.6 yr. No risk reduction for nonvertebral fractures was observed but women treated with
raloxifene had a lower risk of clinical vertebral fractures (64 vs. 97 events; HR, 0.65, 0.47-0.89) (J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:11220). This is probably one of the longest follow up studies reported and provides compelling data regarding the anti-vertebral
fracture efficacy of this drug and the lack of it for nonvertebral fractures.
Strontium ranelate under the microscope
As illustrated in the figure, ideally a drug should increase periosteal apposition, reduce the volume of bone resorbed by each BMU
and increase the volume of bone formed by each BMU so that the net effect is a positive bone balance. If the bone balance is
positive, it is of interest to make bone remodelling rapid so that each remodelling event deposits bone on bone to help reconstruct
the skeleton. If bone balance is not restored by the BMU, then the drug should also slow remodelling because each remodelling
event robs bone of bone. If there is a positive balance produced by the BMU, then it is of interest for the drug to increase the rate
of remodelling or at least maintain it.
Arlot et al report that in 141 transiliac bone biopsies from 133 postmenopausal osteoporotic women, 49 biopsies after 1-5 yr of 2 g/
d strontium ranelate and 92 biopsies at baseline or after 1-5 yr of placebo, strontium ranelate was associated with 9% higher
mineral apposition rate in cancellous bone. Osteoblast surfaces were 38% higher and 3D analysis of 3-yr biopsies suggested
18% higher cortical thickness and 14% higher trabecular number with a 22% lower structure model index and 16% lower
trabecular separation with no change in cortical porosity. J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:215-22
These are encouraging results but they are cross-sectional, so ‘change’, ‘increased’ or ‘decreased’ should be ‘difference’, ‘higher’
or ‘lower’, respectively. Activation frequency, the measure of the birth rate of new remodelling units did not change in this study –
it decreases with antiresorptive agents and increases with PTH. The importance of the remodelling rate depends on what the net
effect of the volumes of bone resorbed and deposited by each BMU during the life cycle as described above.
Bonnelye et al studied primary mouse osteoblasts and osteoclasts derived from calvaria and spleen cells. Strontium
ranelate continuously or during proliferation or differentiation phases stimulated osteoblast formation. After 22 days of
continuous treatment, expression of the osteoblast markers ALP, BSP and OCN increased, and was combined with an increase
in bone nodule numbers. The number of mature osteoclasts decreased after treatment. Osteoclast resorbing activity was
also reduced, with strontium ranelate being associated with a disruption of the osteoclast actin-containing sealing zone.
Bone 2008;42:129-38
Seeman et al report that data was pooled from the Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention study (SOTI; n=1649) and
the TReatment Of Peripheral OSteoporosis (TROPOS; n=5091) to evaluate the antivertebral fracture efficacy of strontium ranelate
in women with lumbar spine (LS) osteopenia with any BMD value at the femoral neck (FN; N=1166) and in 265 women
with osteopenia at both sites (intention-to-treat analysis). The women were randomized to strontium ranelate 2 g/d orally or placebo
for 3 yr. In women with LS osteopenia, treatment reduced the risk of vertebral fracture by 41%. In women with osteopenia at both
sites, treatment reduced the risk of fracture by 52%. J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:433-8
Osteonecrosis and bisphosphonates
Etminan et al report that for each case of osteonecrosis, 10 controls were randomly selected. The initial cohort consisted of
87,837 subjects. In the primary analysis, the adjusted RR for AON among bisphosphonate users was 2.87 (1.71-5.05). The
adjusted RR for alendronate, etidronate, and risedronate were 2.87 (1.46-5.67), 2.43 (1.05-5.62), and 3.34 (1.04-10.67),
respectively. There were no differences in RR for AON among current users and past users of bisphosphonates. J Rheumatol
2008 [Epub ahead of print]
Anabolic therapy – are we there yet?
Mukherjee et al report that Bortezomib (Bzb), a proteasome inhibitor used in multiple myeloma, induces MSCs to
undergo osteoblastic differentiation, in part, by modulating transcription factor Runx-2 in mice. Mice implanted with MSCs
showed increased ectopic ossicle and bone formation when recipients received low doses of Bzb. Bone formation increased and
bone loss was rescued in a mouse model of osteoporosis. Tissue-resident adult stem cells in vivo can be pharmacologically
modified to promote a regenerative function in adult animals. J Clin Invest 2008;118:491-504
Boonen et al report that 245 women with osteoporosis had 2 years teriparatide and were stratified to alendronate (n=107),
risedronate (n=59), etidronate (n=30), non-bisphosphonate (n=49). Increases in bone formation markers occurred in all groups after
1 month teriparatide. Spine BMD increased while a transient decrease in hip BMD reversed. BMD change was similar in all
prior antiresorptives. Duration of prior antiresorptive and lag time between stopping prior therapy and starting teriparatide did not
affect the BMD response. Teriparatide induces positive effects on BMD and markers of bone formation in postmenopausal women
with osteoporosis, regardless of prior exposure to antiresorptives. Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:852-60
Adami et al report that following a year teriparatide 20 µg/day, women with osteoporosis were assigned to raloxifene 60 mg/day
or placebo for a year, then a year of raloxifene. The raloxifene and placebo groups showed a decrease in spine (LS) BMD in year 2
(-1.0%, P=0.004; and -4.0%, P<0.001, respectively); the decrease was less with raloxifene. Open-label raloxifene reversed the
LS BMD decrease with a placebo, resulting in similar decreases at 2 years: -2.6% (raloxifene-raloxifene) and -2.7% (placeboplacebo). At study end, LS and femoral neck (FN) BMD were higher than pre-teriparatide, with no differences between the
raloxifene-raloxifene and placebo-raloxifene groups, respectively (LS: 6.1% vs. 5.1%; FN: 3.4% vs. 3.0%). Sequential
raloxifene prevented rapid bone loss at the LS and increased FN BMD, whether raloxifene was started immediately or after a oneyear delay following teriparatide. Osteoporos Int 2008;19:87-94
Fluoride won’t go away – should it ?
Vestergaard et al report the results of a meta-analysis including 25 studies. Spine BMD increased 7.9% and hip BMD by
2.1%. Overall, there was no effect on the risk of vertebral or nonvertebral fracture. Daily dose of ≤20 mg fluoride (152
mg monofluorophosphate/44 mg sodium fluoride) were associated with a reduction in vertebral (OR=0.3, 0.1-0.9) and
nonvertebral (OR=0.5, 0.3-0.8) fracture risk. With a daily dose >20 mg fluoride equivalents, there was no reduction in vertebral
or nonvertebral fracture risk (Osteoporos Int 2008;19:257-68). It’s a shame to discard a drug like fluoride which has an anabolic
effect but, at least in the way it is used, is producing poor quality bone. Low dose fluoride may well be worth studying alone or
in combination with an antiresorptive but who will fund this sort of study ?
Cost-effectiveness
Kanis et al report alendronate 70 mg weekly for 5 years was cost-effective for the primary fracture prevention in women
with osteoporosis irrespective of age as was treatment of women with a prior fracture irrespective of BMD. NICE guidelines
are misguided. Bone 2008;42:4-15
Lekander et al reported the cost-effectiveness of 50 year old women. Hormone therapy (HT) compared to no treatment was
cost-effective for most subgroups of hysterectomised women; whereas for women with an intact uterus without a previous fracture,
HT was dominated by no treatment. Fracture risks were the single most important determinant of the cost-effectiveness.
Bone 2008;42:294-306
Compliance with therapy
Sinsky et al assessed how patient and provider compliance with osteoporosis guidelines varies when efficacy is presented as
relative risk (35% RRR) vs. absolute risk reduction (1% ARR). Compliance fell when the expression of treatment benefit was
switched from RRR to ARR for both patients (86% vs. 57% compliance; P<0.001) and physicians (97% vs. 56%
compliance; P<0.001). Increasing drug copayment from 0% to 10% of total drug cost decreased patient compliance with CPGs
from 80% to 57% (P<0.001) but did not impact physician compliance. J Gen Intern Med 2008;23:164-8
Bone loss before menopause
When I asked the late Harold Frost when ageing began he replied, “at birth”. It is likely that bone loss begins shortly after completion
of growth. There are several studies suggesting this and a recent study from Larry Riggs sheds some interesting insights into
this process. The authors studied an age- and sex-stratified sample (n=553) by QCT for up to 3 years. Substantial cortical bone
loss began in middle life in women but began mainly after age 75 in men. Trabecular bone loss began in young adult women and
men at all skeletal sites and continued with acceleration during perimenopause. Women experienced 37% and men experienced
42% of their total lifetime trabecular bone loss before age 50 compared with 6% and 15%, respectively, for cortical bone. Median
rates of change in trabecular bone (%/yr) were -0.40, -0.24, and -1.61 in young adult women and -0.38, -0.40, and -0.84 in young
adult men at the DR, DT, and LS, respectively (all p<0.001). J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:205-14
The question is, what are the effects on bone strength? If remodelling is slow and the loss of bone is due more to reduced
bone formation than increased rate of remodelling or increased volume of bone resorbed in each remodelling unit, then the same
loss of bone produces less loss of strength when bone loss proceeds, producing thinning of trabeculae rather than loss of
connectivity. In addition, as periosteal apposition continues, any loss of bone from the endocortical surface may be offset by
the independent and continued gain of bone on the periosteal surface. The authors reported little change in cortical bone, but they
did not report marrow cavity size, which would be of interest.
Ursus arctos horribilis and remodelling balance
McGee et al report cortical bone turnover during hibernation is balanced, bone formation and resorption replace the same volume
of bone removed by each BMU in grizzly bear femurs, which avoids bone loss. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous
and more mineralized and did not have changes in cortical bone geometry or mechanical properties. Activation frequency was
75% lower but mineral apposition rate was unchanged, so turnover decreases but osteons continue to refill at normal rates.
Grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption,
which preserves bone structure and strength. Bone 2008;42:396-404
Osteocytes – damage prevention and removal
This osteocytic-canalicular system functions in damage prevention by orchestrating adaptive remodelling, and damage removal
by orchestrating reparative remodelling. Osteocytes detect strain and initiate modelling and remodelling to adapt bone’s
material properties and structural design to offset the strain that will otherwise damage bone. Adaptation can be viewed as a
damage-prevention mechanism. The change in bone size, shape and mass distribution during growth achieved by modelling
and remodelling is successful adaptation; it is damage prevention by pre-emptive modification of structural strength in response
to increasing stresses imposed by growth.
Microdamage, when it accumulates, compromises bone strength and must be removed. The second important function of
the osteocyte is the detection of damage and initiation of focal remodelling to remove and replace damage with new bone.
The osteocyte is pivotal in detecting damage and initiating remodelling and in adapting bone structure to its loading
circumstances. Sclerostin, the protein product of the Sost gene, inhibits bone formation and is found nearly exclusively in
osteocytes, the cell type that has is implicated in sensing and initiating mechanical signalling. Osteocytes control
mechanotransduction by adjusting sclerostin (Wnt inhibitory) signal output to modulate Wnt signalling in the effector cells.
Robling et al report that Sost transcripts and sclerostin protein levels were reduced by ulnar loading. Portions of the ulnar
cortex receiving a greater strain stimulus were associated with a greater reduction in Sost staining intensity and sclerostinpositive osteocytes than were lower-strain portions of the tissue. Hindlimb unloading yielded an increase in Sost expression in
the tibia. Modulation of sclerostin levels allows osteocytes to coordinate regional and local osteogenesis in response to
increased mechanical stimulation, perhaps via releasing the local inhibition of Wnt/Lrp5 signalling. J Biol Chem 2008;283:5866-75
The purpose of modelling and remodelling during adulthood is to maintain bone strength achieved during growth but in
accordance with the prevailing loading circumstances. Part of the notion of maintaining strength is the detection and removal
of damaged bone. The osteocyte plays a pivotal role in bone modelling and remodelling by sacrificing itself. Microcracks
sever osteocyte processes in their canaliculi, producing osteocyte apoptosis. Osteocyte apoptosis is likely to be one of the first
events signalling the need for remodelling.
In vivo, osteocyte apoptosis occurs within 3 days of immobilization and is followed within 2 weeks by osteoclastogenesis. In
vitro, death of the osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells induced by scratching results in the formation of TRACP positive (osteoclast-like)
cells along the scratching path.
You et al report that osteocytes cocultured with osteoclast precursors support osteoclast formation and activation.
Mechanical stimulation of MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells decreases their ability to facilitate osteoclastogenesis, suggesting
soluble factors are released by mechanically stimulated MLO-Y4 cells that inhibit osteoclastogenesis. Soluble RANKL and OPG
were released by MLO-Y4 cells and the expressions of both are mechanically regulated. Mechanical loading decreases
the osteocyte's potential to induce osteoclast formation by direct cell-cell contact. Bone 2008;42:172-79
Adaptation
Bone’s material composition and structural design determine its strength. These two components interact and adapt to ensure
whole bone strength is appropriate to the loading requirements. Changes in one trait can result in adaptive changes in another so
the whole bone strength is maintained. There are many examples of this, but one of the best known is the MOV13 mouse model.
The mutant produces abnormal collagen and the material abnormality is compensated for by greater periosteal apposition,
which offsets the loss of strength (Bonadio et al. J Clin Invest 1993; 92:1697-1705).
Tommasini et al measured slenderness (area/length) and tissue level mechanical properties from tibias from 14 female (22-46 yr
old) and 17 male (17-46 yr old) donors. Ash content correlated negatively with slenderness and marrow area indicating that
slender bones were constructed of tissue with higher mineralization. Slender tibias were compensated by higher mineralization and
a greater area fraction of bone suggesting that bone adapts by varying the relative amount of cortical bone within the diaphysis and
by varying matrix composition. J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:236-46
Bone loss determines structure determines bone loss
Bone remodelling is surface based so that higher remodelling on trabecular bone than cortical bone is partly the result of
trabecular bone being fashioned with more surface than cortical bone – it has a higher surface to volume ratio. As remodelling
events in adulthood usually remove bone from bone (because the volume of bone removed during the resorptive phase of
a remodelling event is greater than the volume of bone deposited), there is a change in structure that accompanies this loss of bone.
Net loss of bone occurs on bone surfaces, so trabeculae thin; and when vigorous enough remodelling causes perforation, so
the surface disappears and remodelling intensity on the trabecular surface decreases or stops. In cortical bone, remodelling
produces intracortical porosity which increases the amount of surface within cortical bone, making it look like trabecular bone so
that the intensity of remodelling in the intracortical compartment increases. So this is a self defeating process, this change in
structure within cortical bone – trabecularizing it increases bone remodelling, increases bone loss and structural decay – hence
the title.
Squire et al report that 21 days of unloading produces greater trabecular bone loss in the distal femur and proximal tibia in
the metaphyses than in the epiphyses and 2-fold greater in females than in males. Disuse-induced changes were also greater
in trabecular than in cortical bone. Bone loss was inversely related to baseline bone volume fraction (R2 = 0.51 for females and
0.43 for males) and directly related to baseline bone surface to volume ratio (R2 = 0.69 for females and 0.60 for males).
Trabecular bone loss correlated osteoclast surface to bone surface ratios. Baseline bone morphology modulates bone loss;
anatomical regions with high surface-to-volume ratios, and high levels of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity are
particularly susceptible to disuse. Bone 2008;42:341-9
Time to see architecture not shadows
Boutroy et al report that in 33 postmenopausal women with a prior wrist fracture, areal and volumetric densities, cortical
thickness, trabecular number, and mechanical parameters were associated with wrist fracture. Five independent
components explained 86.2% of the total variability of bone characteristics. The first component included FE-estimated failure
load, areal and volumetric BMD, and cortical thickness, explaining 51% of the variance with an OR for wrist fracture = 2.49.
The second component included trabecular architecture, explaining 12% of the variance, with an OR=1.82. The third
component included the proportion of the load carried by cortical vs. trabecular bone, assessed by FEA, explaining 9% of the
variance, and had an OR=1.61. Thus, the proportion of load carried by cortical vs. trabecular bone seems to be associated with
wrist fracture independently of BMD and microarchitecture. J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:392-9
Cortical thickness is the net result of periosteal apposition and endocortical resorption, the absolute and relative movement of
these surfaces during growth and ageing determine the total bone cross-sectional size, its external shape and the distance the
cortical mass is placed from the neutral or long axis of the long bone. This 3D structural organisation determines bone strength.
Bone strength cannot be understood using bone densitometry.
Lauretani et al report that 345 men and 464 women, 21 to 102 years of age, had tibial QCT measured during 6-yr.
Periosteal apposition was higher in younger than in older men; whereas in women, the rate of apposition was homogenous across
age groups. The age-related medullary expansion was higher in women than men. In women, not men, endocortical resorption
was not matched by periosteal apposition caused loss of cortical bone. Endocortical resorption causes bone loss in older
women despite periosteal apposition. J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:400-8
Marshall et al report dimensions and vBMD in the femoral neck and shaft obtained using QCT in 3,305 men >65 yr of age in
the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study. All groups had similar femoral neck integral (total) volume. Blacks and Asians
had 6% greater mean cortical volume as a percent of integral volume, integral vBMD was 6-10% greater, and trabecular vBMD was
33-36% greater than Whites. Shaft cross-sectional area was similar in Blacks and Whites, but smaller among Asians than
Whites. Mean shaft cortical area was greater among Blacks but similar among Asians and Whites, resulting in mean cortical
thickness being 5% greater among Black and Asian men. Blacks also had greater mean cortical vBMD in both the femoral neck
and shaft. Blacks and Asians have features in the proximal femur that may confer advantages for bone strength. J Bone Miner
Res 2008;23:121-30
Collagen crosslinking – the good, bad and ugly
Material of bone is composed of collagen containing crystals of calcium hydroxyapatite-like mineral. The mineral confers stiffness,
the collagen confers toughness or the ability to absorb energy by deforming without cracking. If the collagen molecules are
crosslinked with advanced gylcation products (AGEs) they lose their ability to deform, and so they cannot absorb energy which
is, therefore, dissipated in the worst of all possible ways by causing failure of the material – cracking.
Yamamoto et al report that increased bone pentosidine is associated with its plasma levels and bone fragility in type 2 diabetics
with and without VFs. Although BMD did not differ, pentosidine was higher in women with VFs than in those without VFs
(0.0440±0.0136 vs. 0.0321±0.0118 µg/ml, p<0.001) (J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;92:1013-9). Shiraki et al report that in
432 Japanese elderly women followed for 5.2 years, 97 incident vertebral fractures occurred in 72 subjects. Urinary pentosidine was
a predictor of vertebral fracture (hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.01-1.76, P=0.04). J Bone Miner Metab 2008;26:93-100
Viguet-Carrin et al report an in vitro model of young bovine cortical bone specimens incubated in a sugar (ribose - an inducer
of AGEs). Pentosidine concentration increased in specimens incubated with ribose, an effect inhibited by AMG. Bone 2008;42:139-49
Byrjalsen et al report that collagen maturation measured as the ratio between ααCTX and ββCTX showed that
bisphosphonate induced a collagen profile consistent with an older matrix with a 52% (alendronate) and 38% (ibandronate)
reduction in the ratio between the two CTX isoforms vs. 3% and 15% with HRT or raloxifene, respectively. Antiresorptives had
different effects on the endogenous profile of bone collagen maturation. Osteoporos Int 2008;19:339-48
Allen et al report neither alendronate nor risedronate altered the strength-density relationship compared to control. The
energy absorption-density relationship was altered by alendronate, resulting in lower energy absorption capacity at a given
aBMD compared to both controls (-22%) and risedronate (-14%). After adjusting for increased aBMD, vertebrae from animals
treated with bisphosphonates had similar strength as those from untreated animals. Conversely, when adjusted for increased
aBMD, alendronate reduced the energy required for vertebral fracture. Osteoporos Int 2008;19:95-9
Allen et al treated female beagles for 1 year with vehicle, risedronate, alendronate or raloxifene. Vertebral trabecular bone
collagen isomerization (α/βCTX), enzymatic (PYD and DPD), and non-enzymatic (pentosidine) crosslinks. Bisphosphonates
increased pentosidine (+34 to 58%) and PYD/DPD (+14 to 26%), and decreased α/βCTX (-29 to 56%), raloxifene did not.
Bone turnover correlated to pentosidine (R = -0.664), α/βCTX (R=0.59), and PYD/DPD (R = -0.47). Osteoporos Int 2008;19:329-37
Morbidity and mortality
Vestergaard et al report 169,145 hip fractures in Denmark between 1977 and 2001. Compared to 524,010 controls, the cases
had twice the prevalence of comorbidity (HR=2.26, 95% CI: 2.24-2.27). Adjustments for confounders changed little the
excess mortality risk. The mortality after hip fracture was divided into an excess mortality of 19% within the first year following
the fracture (relative survival = 0.81 compared to controls), and an excess mortality of 1.8% per year (relative survival 0.982) for
every additional year following the fracture. The major causes of the excess mortality were due to fracture event complications
(70.8% within the first 30 days). Osteoporos Int 2007;18:1583-93
‘... My intention is not to prove that I was right but to find out whether I was right. “Abandon hope all ye who enter – an
observation.” Before assuming these phenomena are spots, which would suit us, let us first set about proving they are not fried
fish. We crawl by inches. What we find today we will wipe from the blackboard tomorrow and reject it unless it shows up again the
day after tomorrow. And if we find anything which would suit us, that thing we will eye with particular distrust. In fact, we will
approach this observing of the sun with the implacable determination to prove that the earth stands still, and only if
hopelessly defeated in this pious undertaking can we allow ourselves to wonder if we may not have been right all the time: the
earth revolves. Take the cloth off the telescope and turn it on the sun.’
Bertoldt Brecht
From Galileo
Note from the Editor
The purpose of Progress in Osteoporosis is to provide the reader with a summary of the most important literature published in the preceding
three to four months in the field of osteoporosis. Most reviews and original research are cited. In addition, summaries and figures are provided
for readers who may not have easy access to all the specialist literature. The summaries are based on the contents of abstracts, which have
been abbreviated to concisely convey the main theme. The contents of the abstracts and figures should be used only as a means of directing
the reader to the original literature and should not be quoted verbatim or cited as a reference. The opinions expressed in the Overview are my
own and do not necessarily reflect those of the International Osteoporosis Foundation.
Ego Seeman
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9.2.1 Epidemiology of hip fracture in the elderly in Spain
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Overview
Alvarez-Nebreda ML, Jimenez AB, Rodriguez P, Serra JA
Bone 2008;42:278-85
Literature Review
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Epidemiology
Morbidity/Mortality
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Financial Cost
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Genetics
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Measurement of Bone Mass
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Bone Material
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Bone Structure
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Histomorphology
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Biomechanics
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Growth
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Remodelling Markers
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Bone Formation
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Bone Resorption
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Osteocytes
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International Osteoporosis Foundation
9.2.2 Epidemiology of osteoporosis related fractures in Hungary from the nationwide health insurance database, 1999-2003
Pentek M, Horvath C, Boncz I, Falusi Z, Toth E, Sebestyen A, Majer I, Brodszky V, Gulacsi L
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:243-9
Invest In Your Bones Campaign
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Epidemiology
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
© 2008 International Osteoporosis Foundation
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Morbidity/Mortality
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
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9.2.3 Increased mortality in patients with a hip fracture-effect of pre-morbid conditions and post-fracture complications
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Overview
Vestergaard P, Rejnmark L, Mosekilde L
Osteoporos Int 2007;18:1583-93
Literature Review
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Epidemiology
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Morbidity/Mortality
Financial Cost
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Genetics
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Measurement of Bone Mass
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Bone Material
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Bone Structure
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Histomorphology
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Biomechanics
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Growth
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Remodelling Markers
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Bone Formation
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Bone Resorption
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Osteocytes
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Systemic Factors
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Local Factors
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Risk Factors
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Treatment
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Exercise
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Men
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Reviews
All subjects with a hip fracture in Denmark between 1977 and 2001. 169,145 fracture cases were compared to 524,010 controls.
The cases had higher prevalence of co-morbidity than the controls. The mortality rate was twice as high in fracture cases
(HR=2.26, 95% CI: 2.24-2.27). Adjustments for confounders changed the excess mortality risk little. The mortality after the hip
fracture was divided into two categories: an excess mortality of 19% within the first year following the fracture (relative survival =
0.81 compared to controls), and an excess mortality of 1.8% per year (relative survival 0.982) for every additional year following
the fracture. The major causes of the excess mortality were due to complications to the fracture event (70.8% within the first 30
days). Patients with a hip fracture have a excess mortality risk linked to the fracture event, not to pre-existing co-morbidity.
Invest In Your Bones Campaign
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Fig. 9.2.3 Observed and expected long-term survival among patients with a hip fracture. a) Actuarial survival. Footnote: The
expected survival was based on an age- and gender matched selection of the general population. b) Actuarial survival on a logscale. Reproduced from Osteoporos Int 2007; 18:1583-93 wih permission from Springer.
9.2.4 Survival and functional outcome according to hip fracture type: A one-year prospective cohort study in elderly
women with an intertrochanteric or femoral neck fracture
Haentjens P, Autier P, Barette M, Venken K, Vanderschueren D, Boonen S
Bone 2007;41:958-64
In a one-year prospective cohort study of 170 women enrolled, 86 (51%) had an intertrochanteric and 84 (49%) a femoral
neck fracture. At discharge, intertrochanteric hip fracture patients had a higher mortality (p=0.006) and were more impaired
(p=0.005). One year later, mortality was still higher after intertrochanteric fracture (relative risk 2.5: 1.3-5.1), but functional
outcome among surviving patients was similar by group. Intertrochanteric fractures are associated with increased mortality.
Functional outcome differs by fracture type at hospital discharge, but these differences do not persist.
© 2008 International Osteoporosis Foundation
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9.2.5 The cost-effectiveness of alendronate in the management of osteoporosis
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Overview
Kanis JA, Adams J, Borgstrom F, Cooper C, Jonsson B, Preedy D, Selby P, Compston J
Bone 2008;42:4-15
Literature Review
International Osteoporosis Foundation
Financial Cost
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
Cost-effectiveness of alendronate 70 mg weekly for 5 years in postmenopausal women with clinical risk factors for fracture
was computed using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in Markov methodology. Using a threshold of 30,000 and
20,000 GBP per quality of life-year (QALY) gained, alendronate was cost-effective for the primary prevention of fracture in women
with osteoporosis irrespective of age as was treatment of women with a prior fragility fracture irrespective of BMD. Costeffective scenarios were also found in women with risk factors for fracture with a BMD above the threshold for osteoporosis.
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Epidemiology
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Morbidity/Mortality
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Measurement of Bone Mass
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Bone Structure
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Histomorphology
9.2.6 Direct costs of osteoporosis and hip fracture: An analysis for the Mexican healthcare system
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Biomechanics
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Growth
Clark P, Carlos F, Barrera C, Guzman J, Maetzel A, Lavielle P, Ramirez E, Robinson V, Rodriguez-Cabrera R, Tamayo J, Tugwell P
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:269-76
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Remodelling Markers
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Osteocytes
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Risk Factors
9.2.7 Economic implications of osteoporosis-related femoral fractures in Saudi Arabian society
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Treatment
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Exercise
Bubshait D, Sadat-Ali M
Calcif Tissue Int 2007;81:455-8
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Men
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The total direct costs for OP and hip fracture were estimated for 2006 based on the projected annual incidence of hip fractures
in Mexico. A total of 22,233 hip fracture cases were estimated for 2006 with a total cost to the healthcare system of US$97,058,159
for the acute treatment alone ($4,365.50 per case).
This is a retrospective study of all patients admitted to the orthopaedic department of the King Fahd Hospital of the University,
Al Khobar between January 2001 and December 2006. There were 63 patients admitted to the hospital with osteoporosisrelated fractures and 43 sustained proximal femoral fractures. The cost of management of these patients from admission to
discharge was analyzed. A verbal survey was carried with all the hospitals in the eastern province to establish the prevalence
of osteoporosis-related femoral fractures for a 12-month period. There were 23 male and 20 female patients with average age of
72.11 years and the hospital stay was for 760 days. The cost of managing these patients was SR2.09 million (US$557,333.00) at
the rate of SR48,712 (US$12,989.90) per patient. The survey of all hospitals in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia showed that
984 proximal femoral fractures occurred in a population of 164,121. The estimated cost was SR48 million (US$12.78 million)
annually. On a national basis, with a population of 1,461,401 Saudis aged 50 years or more, 8,768 would suffer femoral
fractures yearly at a cost of SR4.27 billion (US$1.14 billion).
© 2008 International Osteoporosis Foundation
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9.2.8 A whole genome linkage scan for QTLs underlying peak BMD
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Overview
Zhang F, Xiao P, Yang F, Shen H, Xiong DH, Deng HY, Papasian CJ, Drees BM, Hamilton JJ, Recker RR, Deng HW
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:303-10
Literature Review
International Osteoporosis Foundation
Genetics
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
A whole genome linkage scan (WGLS) for peak BMD using 2,200 Caucasians from 207 pedigrees, aged 20-50 years were
genotyped with 410 microsatellite markers. The most impressing region is 12p12 for hip PBMD (LOD=2.79) in the total
sample. Epistatic interaction analyses found a epistatic interaction between 12p12 and 22q13 (p=0.0021) for hip PBMD.
Additionally, we detected suggestive linkage evidence at 15q26 (LOD=2.93), 2p13 (LOD=2.64), and Xq27 (LOD=2.64). Sexspecific analyses suggested the presence of sex-specific QTLs for PBMD variation.
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Measurement of Bone Mass
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9.2.9 Sex-specific association of the glucocorticoid receptor gene with extreme BMD
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Biomechanics
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Growth
Peng YM, Lei SF, Guo Y, Xiong DH, Yan H, Wang L, Guo YF, Deng HW
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:247-52
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The glucocorticoid (GC) receptor (GR) gene is an important candidate for BMD regulation in GC-induced osteoporosis
(GIO). However, no study has explored the genetic effects of the GR gene on BMD variation in the Chinese population. Our
sample consisted of 800 unrelated subjects (400 women and 400 men) with extreme age-adjusted hip BMD Z-scores selected from
a population composed of 1988 normal adult Chinese Han. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GR gene
were genotyped. Both single SNP and haplotype association analyses were conducted. SNP rs1866388 (p(c)=0.028) was
associated with extreme BMD only in men. In both sexes, haplotypes involving rs1866388 and rs2918419 were found to have
different frequency distributions in extremely low and high BMD groups (p(p)=0.024, 0.001, and 0.002 in women and 0.002, 0.003,
and 0.003 in men for window sizes of two, three, and four SNPs, respectively). Most shared haplotypes showed opposite
effects between women and men. For the first time, our study suggested the possible role of the GR gene on BMD regulation and
sex specificity in the association of GR with extreme BMD in the Chinese.
Invest In Your Bones Campaign
9.2.10 Family-based association study of ROR2 polymorphisms with an array of radiographic hand bone strength phenotypes
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Campaign vision
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About the Campaign
Ermakov S, Malkin I, Keter M, Kobyliansky E, Livshits G
Osteoporos Int 2007;18:1683-92
Bone size and BMD are major determinants of bone strength. This study tested the hypothesis of association of radiographic
hand bone length (BL) and BMD with polymorphisms in ROR2 gene that is important in skeletal development. Nineteen ROR2
SNPs were genotyped in 705 individuals, belonging to 212 nuclear families. The four tagging SNPs (tSNPs) and the
pairwise haplotypes between adjacent tSNPs were tested for association with series of hand BL and BMD measurements, adjusted
for covariates, using family-based association tests. We observed associations with BL and BMD mean values for all 18 studied
hand bones (p=0.0080, 0.0030), mean BL and BMD for proximal phalanges (p=0.0218, 0.0060) and metacarpal bones
(p=0.0014, 0.0004). The region of the first through the second ROR2 introns is most likely to contain the functional polymorphism/
s responsible for the observed associations.
9.2.11 Bone microstructure and its associated genetic variability in 12 inbred mouse strains: μCT study and in silico
genome scan
Sabsovich I, Clark JD, Liao G, Peltz G, Lindsey DP, Jacobs CR, Yao W, Guo T-Z, Kingery WS
Bone 2008;42:439-51
This study examined the genetic variation of cortical and trabecular bone microarchitecture across 12 strains of 4-month old
inbred male mice. Skeletal microarchitecture varied in a compartment- and site-specific fashion across strains. Genome
mapping identified 13 chromosomal intervals associated with skeletal traits and 5 of these intervals were novel.
Trabecular microarchitecture in different bone sites correlated across strains and most of the chromosomal intervals associated
with these trabecular traits were shared between skeletal sites. Conversely, no chromosomal intervals were shared between
the trabecular and cortical bone compartments in the femur, even though there was a strong correlation for these different
bone compartments across strains, suggesting site-specific regulation by environmental or intrinsic factors.
9.2.12 Epistatic effects contribute to variation in BMD in Fischer 344 x Lewis F2 rats
Koller DL, Liu L, Alam I, Sun Q, Econs MJ, Foroud T, Turner CH
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:41-7
The variation in risk factors including BMD is caused largely by genetic differences. We have reported quantitative trait locus
(QTL) results for BMD from a genome screen of 595 female F(2) progeny of Fischer 344 and Lewis rats. Microsatellite marker
data from a 20 cM genome screen was analyzed along with weight-adjusted BMD (DXA and pQCT) phenotypic data using the R/
qtl software package. Genotype and phenotype data were permuted to determine a genome-wide significance threshold. Novel loci
on chromosomes 12 and 15 showed a epistatic effect on total BMD at the femoral midshaft by pQCT (LOD=5.4). A QTL
on chromosome 7 was found to interact with a novel locus on chromosome 20 to affect whole lumbar BMD by pQCT (LOD=6.2).
9.2.13 Genetic loci affecting bone structure and strength in inbred COP and DA rats
Sun Q, Alam I, Liu L, Koller DL, Carr LG, Econs MJ, Foroud T, Turner CH
Bone 2008;42:547-53
A sample of 828 (405 males and 423 females) COP x DA F2 progeny had extensive phenotyping for bone structure snd
strength phenotypes. A whole-genome screen was conducted in the F2 rats, using microsatellite markers spaced at approximately
20 cM intervals. Significant QTL for femur structure and strength were identified on chromosome (Chr) 1 with a maximum LOD
score of 33.5; evidence of linkage was found in both the male and female rats. In addition, Chrs 6, 7, 10, 13, 15 and 18 were linked
to femur midshaft structure. QTL linked to femur strength were identified on Chrs 5 and 10. For L5 vertebrae, Chrs 2, 16, and
18 harbored QTL for cortical structure and trabecular structure for L5 was linked to Chrs 1, 7, 12, and 18. One female-specific QTL
for femur ultimate force was identified on Chr 5, and two male-specific QTL for L5 cortical area were found on Chrs 2 and 18.
9.2.14 The skeletal response to estrogen is impaired in female but not in male steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1
knockout mice
Modder UI, Sanyal A, Xu J, O'Malley BW, Spelsberg TC, Khosla S
Bone 2008;42:414-21
Steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-1 mediates estrogen (E) effects on bone in female mice. Analysis of male and female mice
showed a decrease in trabecular vBMD in SRC-1 KO mice in both genders. Following gnx and E (10 mg/kg/day), SRC-1 KO
female mice have a defect in E action in trabecular, not cortical bone. The same dose of E to gnx'd male SRC-1 KO mice
prevented trabecular bone loss. For example, in WT female mice, gnx followed by E maintained spine BMD as compared to
gnx without E replacement - this effect of E was absent in SRC-1 KO female mice. By contrast, the same dose of E was
equally effective in maintaining spine BMD in E-treated gnx'd male WT and male SRC-1 KO mice, respectively, as compared to
gnx'd mice without E. E was effective in suppressing cancellous bone turnover in both gnx'd WT and SRC-1 KO male mice;
however, in female mice, E only suppressed bone turnover in WT but not in SRC-1 KO mice. Loss of SRC-1 results in
trabecular osteopenia in male and female mice, but in contrast to female mice, this is not due to any detectable resistance to E
action in trabecular bone in male SRC-1 KO mice.
Fig. 9.2.14a Osteopenia in SRC-1 KO mice. BMD measurements by DXA revealed a significant decrease of the whole body
(WB), femur, and vertebral bone density of A) male WT (n=67, open bars) and male SRC-1 KO (n=56, solid bars) and B) female
WT (n=66, open bars) and female SRC-1 KO (n=70, solid bars) mice. Bars represent means±SEM. The P-values for the
comparison between the WT and SRC-1 KO mice are noted, **P<0.01 and ***P<0.001. Reproduced from Bone, 42:414-21,
Copyright (2008), with permission from Elsevier.
Fig. 9.2.14b Bone histomorphometry data were determined at the lumbar vertebrae of male WT (n=8-10, open bars) and SRC-1
KO (n=7-11, solid bars) mice either gnx'd and treated with a slow release E2 pellet or vehicle for 60 days. (A) Trabecular bone
volume expressed as percentage bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV). (B) Percentage of osteoblast surface per bone surface (Ob.
S/BS). (C) Number of osteoblast per bone parameter (N.Ob/BPm). (D) Percentage of osteoclast surface per bone surface (Oc.S/
BS). (E) Number of osteoclast per bone parameter (N.Oc/BPm). (F) C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I cross links (CTx)
was determined in serum of n=7 male WT and SRC-1 KO mice. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, and ***P<0.001 for direct comparison with
the respective gnx+vehicle group. In addition the gnx+V, WT and SRC-1 KO mice were compared with each other. §P<0.01,
and £P<0.001. Reproduced from Bone, 42:414-21, Copyright (2008), with permission from Elsevier.
Fig. 9.2.14c Bone histomorphometry data were determined at the lumbar vertebrae of female WT (n=5, open bars) and SRC-1
KO (n=3-6, solid bars) mice either gnx'd and treated with a slow release E2 pellet or vehicle for 60 days. (A) Trabecular bone
volume expressed as percentage bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV). (B) Percentage of osteoblast surface per bone surface (Ob.
S/BS). (C) Number of osteoblast per bone parameter (N.Ob/BPm). (D) Percentage of osteoclast surface per bone surface (Oc.S/
BS). (E) Number of osteoclast per bone parameter (N.Oc/BPm). *P<0.05 for direct comparison with the respective gnx+vehicle
group. WT and SRC-1 KO gnx+E groups were compared with each other; the P-values are noted in the figure. For the
statistical analyses the post hoc Fisher's PLSD test was used. Reproduced from Bone, 42:414-21, Copyright (2008), with
permission from Elsevier.
9.2.15 The RIZ Pro704 insertion-deletion polymorphism, BMD and fracture risk: The Rotterdam study
Stolk L, van Meurs JBJ, Arp PP, Hofman A, Pols HAP, Uitterlinden AG
Bone 2008;42:286-93
9.2.16 The COMT val158met polymorphism is associated with prevalent fractures in Swedish men
Eriksson AL, Mellstrom D, Lorentzon M, Orwoll ES, Redlund-Johnell I, Grundberg E, Holmberg A, Ljunggren O, Karlsson MK,
Ohlsson C
Bone 2008;42:107-12
9.2.17 Association between myostatin gene polymorphisms and peak BMD variation in Chinese nuclear families
Zhang ZL, He JW, Qin YJ, Hu YQ, Li M, Zhang H, Hu WW, Liu YJ, Gu JM
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:39-47
9.2.18 Three novel mutations of the PHEX gene in three Chinese families with X-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets
Xia W, Meng X, Jiang Y, Li M, Xing X, Pang L, Wang O, Pei Y, Yu LY, Sun Y, Hu Y, Zhou X
Calcif Tissue Int 2007;81:415-20
9.2.19 Polymorphisms and haplotypes of integrinalpha1 (ITGA1) are associated with BMD and fracture risk
in postmenopausal Koreans
Lee HJ, Kim SY, Koh JM, Bok J, Kim KJ, Kim KS, Park MH, Shin HD, Park BL, Kim TH, Hong JM, Park EK, Kim DJ, Oh B, Kimm
K, Kim GS, Lee JY
Bone 2007;41:979-86
9.2.20 Different gene expression patterns in the bone tissue of aging postmenopausal osteoporotic and nonosteoporotic women
Balla B, Kósa JP, Kiss J, Borsy A, Podani J, Takács I, Lazáry A, Nagy Z, Bácsi K, Speer G, Orosz L, Lakatos P
Calcif Tissue Int 2008;82:12-26
9.2.21 Bivariate whole genome linkage analyses for total body lean mass and BMD
Wang XL, Deng FY, Tan LJ, Deng HY, Liu YZ, Papasian CJ, Recker RR, Deng HW
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:447-52
9.2.22 Clinical and cellular manifestations of OSTM1-related infantile osteopetrosis
Maranda B, Chabot G, Decarie JC, Pata M, Azeddine B, Moreau A, Vacher J
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:296-300
9.2.23 A new heterozygous mutation (R714C) of the osteopetrosis gene, pleckstrin homolog domain containing family
M (with run domain) member 1 (PLEKHM1), impairs vesicular acidification and increases TRACP secretion in osteoclasts
Del Fattore A, Fornari R, Van Wesenbeeck L, de Freitas F, Timmermans JP, Peruzzi B, Cappariello A, Rucci N, Spera G, Helfrich
MH, Van Hul W, Migliaccio S, Teti A
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:380-91
9.2.24 Development of craniofacial structures in transgenic mice with constitutively active PTH/PTHrP receptor
Tsutsui TW, Riminucci M, Holmbeck K, Bianco P, Robey PG
Bone 2008;42:321-31
9.2.25 Dysregulated BMP signaling and enhanced osteogenic differentiation of connective tissue progenitor cells
from patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva
Billings PC, Fiori JL, Bentwood JL, O'Connell MP, Jiao X, Nussbaum B, Caron RJ, Shore EM, Kaplan FS
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:305-13
9.2.26 A chemical mutagenesis screen to identify modifier genes that interact with growth hormone and TGFb
signaling pathways
Mohan S, Baylink DJ, Srivastava AK
Bone 2008;42:388-95
9.2.27 Polymorphisms in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene and bone density/ultrasound and geometry in humans
Cho K, Demissie S, Dupuis J, Cupples LA, Kathiresan S, Beck TJ, Karasik D, Kiel DP
Bone 2008;42:53-60
© 2008 International Osteoporosis Foundation
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9.2.28 Calcifications in the abdominal aorta predict fractures in men: MINOS study
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Overview
Szulc P, Kiel DP, Delmas PD
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:95-102
Literature Review
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International Osteoporosis Foundation
Measurement of Bone Mass
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
In 781 men ≥50 yr of age during a 10-year follow-up, 66 men sustained incident clinical fractures. Calcifications in the abdominal
aorta expressed as an aortic calcification score (ACS) were assessed by a semiquantitative method. ACS>2 was associated with a
2-fold increase in the mortality risk after adjustment. After adjustment men in the highest quartile of ACS (>6) had lower BMD of
distal forearm, ultradistal radius, and whole body than men in the lower quartiles. Log-transformed ACS predicted fractures
when adjusted for age, BMI, age by BMI interaction, prevalent fractures, BMD, and history of two or more falls (e.g., hip
BMD; OR=1.44; p<0.02). ACS, BMD at all the skeletal sites, and history of two or more falls were independent predictors of
fracture. Men with ACS>6 had a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of fracture after adjustment for confounding variables (OR=2.543.04; p<0.005-0.001 according to the site). This long-term prospective study showed that elevated ACS (>6) is a robust
and independent risk factor for incident fracture in older men regardless of age, BMI, BMD, prevalent fractures, history of two or
more falls, comorbidities, and medications.
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Fig. 9.2.28 Survival of men according to the baseline ACS. Survival of men from the MINOS cohort during the 10 yr of the followup according to the ACS at baseline: ACS in two first quartiles (0-2), third quartile (3-6), and fourth quartile (>6). Reproduced from
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:95-102 with permission of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
9.2.29 Longitudinal changes in BMD and bone geometry in a population-based study
Lauretani F, Bandinelli S, Griswold ME, Maggio M, Semba R, Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:400-8
Three hundred forty-five men and 464 women 21-102 years of age from the InCHIANTI study had tibial QCT measured during 6yr. Periosteal apposition occurred both in men and women. The annual rate of bone periosteal apposition was higher in younger
than in older men, whereas in women, the rate of apposition was homogenous across age groups. The age-related
medullary expansion, was higher in women compared with men. In women, but not in men, accelerated endocortical resorption
not sufficiently balanced by periosteal apposition caused accelerated loss in cortical bone mass. The cross-sectional moment of
inertia decreased progressively over the life span in both sexes. Endocortical resorption causes bone loss in older women
despite periosteal apposition. Obtaining a balance between endocortical resorption and periosteal apposition should be the target
for interventions aimed to decrease bone loss and prevent osteoporosis in older women.
9.2.30 Algorithm-based qualitative and semiquantitative identification of prevalent vertebral fracture: Agreement
between different readers, imaging modalities, and diagnostic approaches
Ferrar L, Jiang G, Schousboe JT, DeBold CR, Eastell R
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:417-24
The aims of this study were to (1) compare the prevalence of VFs; (2) compare the characteristics of women with and without VFs;
(3) compare interobserver agreement; and (4) compare agreement between methods and imaging modalities for ABQ and
SQ definitions of VFs. Spine radiographs and absorptiometry images for 203 elderly women were assessed using ABQ (readers
ABQ-1 and ABQ-2). These readings were compared with SQ assessments (readers SQ-1 and SQ-2) of the same images performed
in a previous study. The prevalence of VF was 15-18% (radiography) and 12-24% (VFA) for ABQ and SQ, respectively. Women
with ABQ or SQ fractures were older and had lower BMD than those without fracture (p<0.01). Mild ABQ (but not SQ) VF
was associated with low BMD. Kappa scores for interobserver agreement for radiography and VFA, respectively, were as
follows: ABQ, kappa=0.74 (95% CI, 0.60, 0.87) and 0.65 (95% CI, 0.48, 0.81); SQ, kappa=0.53 (95% CI, 0.46, 0.60) and 0.51 (95%
CI, 0.44, 0.58). For agreement between ABQ-1 and SQ-1, kappa=0.55 (95% CI, 0.39, 0.72) for radiography and 0.41 (95% CI,
0.25, 0.58 for VFA. The prevalence of radiographic VF identified by ABQ and SQ was similar, but on VFA was 50% higher for SQ.
Mild ABQ VF was associated with low BMD. Interobserver agreement for radiographic diagnosis was significantly better for ABQ
than for SQ. Agreement between ABQ and SQ was moderate.
9.2.31 Comparison of densitometric and radiographic vertebral fracture assessment using the algorithm-based
qualitative method in postmenopausal women at low and high risk of fracture
Ferrar L, Jiang G, Clowes JA, Peel NF, Eastell R
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:103-11
Using densitometric vertebral fracture assessment (VFA), prevalent fractures are identified when vertebral height appears reduced
by ≥20% does not discriminate osteoporotic vertebral fracture (VF) and nonosteoporotic deformity. Algorithm-based
qualitative diagnosis (ABQ) focuses on vertebral endplate fracture to exclude these deformities but has not been applied in
VFA. Postmenopausal women at low risk (LR; n=459) and high risk (HR; n=298) of VF were assessed using ABQ. The prevalence
of VF was 11-29% (radiography) and 9-26% (VFA) in the LR and HR groups, respectively. Agreement between imaging
modalities was good or very good (kappa=0.62-0.81 in the LR and HR populations). The sensitivity to detect women with VF by
VFA was 71% and 84% in the LR and HR populations, respectively, and specificity was 97%. Fifty-two (77%) and 60 (61%)
of vertebrae misclassified by VFA in the LR and HR populations were mild fractures and 37 (54%) and 62 (63%) were
wedge fractures. One third of fractures missed by VFA were related to poor or unreadable image quality (n=27 and 28 vertebrae in
the LR and HR populations, respectively). Vertebrae misclassified by VFA were primarily mild fractures or deformities, and two
thirds of all fractures missed by VFA were related to poor or unreadable image quality.
9.2.32 Correlates of BMD in men of African ancestry: The Tobago Bone Health Study
Hill DD, Cauley JA, Sheu Y, Bunker CH, Patrick AL, Baker CE, Beckles GL, Wheeler VW, Zmuda JM
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:227-34
9.2.33 Effects of the sample size of reference population on determining BMD reference curve and peak BMD and
diagnosing osteoporosis
Hou YL, Liao EY, Wu XP, Peng YQ, Zhang H, Dai RC, Luo XH, Cao XZ
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:71-8
9.2.34 Factors affecting short-term bone density precision assessment and the effect on patient monitoring
Leslie WD
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:199-204
9.2.35 Measurements of mobile and bound water by nuclear magnetic resonance correlate with mechanical properties of bone
Nyman JS, Ni Q, Nicolella DP, Wang X
Bone 2008;42:193-9
9.2.36 In vivo 3D reconstruction of human vertebrae with the three-dimensional X-ray absorptiometry method
Kolta S, Quiligotti S, Ruyssen-Witrand A, Amido A, Mitton D, Bras AL, Skalli W, Roux C
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:185-92
© 2008 International Osteoporosis Foundation
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9.2.37 The associations between mineral crystallinity and the mechanical properties of human cortical bone
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Overview
Yerramshetty JS, Akkus O
Bone 2008;42:476-82
Literature Review
International Osteoporosis Foundation
Bone Material
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
Raman spectroscopy was used to provide information on the crystallinity of bone's mineral phase, a parameter which is an
overall indicator of mineral crystal size and stoichiometric perfection. Raman scans and mechanical tests (monotonic and fatigue;
n=64 each) were performed on the anterior, medial, lateral and posterior quadrant sections of 16 human cadaveric femurs (52 y.o.85 y.o.). Crystallinity explained 6.7% to 48.3% of the variation in monotonic mechanical properties. Tissue-level strength and
stiffness increased with increasing crystallinity while the ductility reduced. Crystallinity explained 11.3% to 63.5% of the variation
in fatigue properties. Moduli of specimens with greater crystallinity degraded at a slower rate and, also, they had longer fatigue lives.
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9.2.38 Variations of microstructure, mineral density and tissue elasticity in B6/C3H mice
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Growth
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Remodelling Markers
Raum K, Hofmann T, Leguerney I, Saied A, Peyrin F, Vico L, Laugier P
Bone 2007;41:1017-24
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200-MHz scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) and synchrotron radiation microCT (SR-μCT) were used to assess
microstructure, acoustic impedance Z and tissue degree of mineralization (DMB) in femora. Transverse femoral sections from B6
and C3H mice (5.5 months old) were explored. Mass density rho, elastic coefficient c(11) and Young's modulus E(1) were
locally derived in the distal epiphysis, distal metaphysis for trabecular bone and mid-diaphysis. Structural parameter estimates from
X-ray tomographic and acoustic images were almost identical. Both strains had the same bone diameter, but the C3H mice
had greater cortical thickness and smaller cancellous diameter than B6. DMB and impedance values were between 1.13 and 1.33
g/cm3 and 5.8 and 7.8 Mrayl, respectively. All tissue parameters were lower in B6 than C3H. However, interstrain differences of
DMB were much less (up to 3.8%) than differences of Z (up to 13.2%). SAM provides a quantitative estimate of elastic properties
at the tissue level that cannot be captured by SR-μCT.
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9.2.39 Serum pentosidine levels are positively associated with the presence of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal
women with type 2 diabetes
Yamamoto M, Yamaguchi T, Yamauchi M, Yano S, Sugimoto T
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:1013-9
Increased bone pentosidine (PEN) is associated with its plasma levels and bone fragility. In Japanese type 2 diabetic patients
(77 male over 50 years old and 76 postmenopausal female), with and without VFs revealed no differences in BMD or markers. PEN
in women with VFs was higher than in those without VFs (0.0440±0.0136 vs. 0.0321±0.0118 microg/ml, p<0.001) independent of
BMD (odds ratio=2.50, 1.09-5.73 per SD increase, p=0.0302 PEN levels, but not BMD, may be useful for assessing the risk
of prevalent VFs in postmenopausal diabetic women.
9.2.40 Regional variations in mineralization and strain distributions in the cortex of the human mandibular condyle
Cioffi I, van Ruijven LJ, Renders GA, Farella M, Michelotti A, van Eijden TM
Bone 2007;41:1051-8
© 2008 International Osteoporosis Foundation
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9.2.41 Structural determinants of vertebral fracture risk
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Overview
Melton LJ, 3rd, Riggs BL, Keaveny TM, Achenbach SJ, Hoffmann PF, Camp JJ, Rouleau PA, Bouxsein ML, Amin S, Atkinson
EJ, Robb RA, Khosla S
J Bone Miner Res 2007;22:1885-92
Literature Review
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9.2.42 Regional variation in vertebral bone morphology and its contribution to vertebral fracture strength
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Hulme PA, Boyd SK, Ferguson SJ
Bone 2007;41:946-57
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From an age-stratified sample 40 women with vertebral fracture (cases; mean age, 78.6±9.0 yr) were compared with 40 controls
with no fracture (mean age, 70.9±6.8 yr). Spine loading (axial compressive force on L3) was similar in vertebral fracture cases
and controls (e.g., for 90 degrees forward flexion, 2639 vs. 2706 N; age-adjusted p=0.173). However, fracture cases had
inferior values for most bone density and structure variables. Bone strength measures were also reduced, and the factor-of-risk
(phi) was 35-37% greater (worse) among women with a vertebral fracture. Relative risks for the strongest fracture predictor were
bone density (total lumbar spine vBMD: OR per SD change, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.3), bone geometry (vertebral apparent
cortical thickness: OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-4.1), bone microstructure (nonsignificant); bone strength ("cortical" [outer 2 mm]
compressive strength: OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.3-4.8), and factor-of-risk (phi for 90 degrees forward flexion/overall vertebral
compressive strength: OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.4-7.5). These variables correlated with spine aBMD (partial r, -0.32 to 0.75), but each was
a stronger predictor of fracture in the logistic regression analyses.
To quantify regional variations in architecture and vertebral strength soft tissue and posterior elements of 20 human functional
spine units (FSU) were removed (T9 to L5, mean 74.45±4.25 years). Specimens were loaded in compression to failure.
Vertebrae were not homogeneous. Posterior regions had greater bone volume, more connections, reduced trabecular separation
and more platelike isotropic structures than anterior regions. Heterogeneity also exists between posterior superior and inferior
regions (BV/TV: posterior superior 12.6±2.8%, inferior 14.6±3%; anterior superior 10.5±2.2%, inferior 10.7±2.4%). Of the
two endplates that abutted a common disc, the cranial inferior endplate was thicker (0.44±0.15 mm) than the caudal superior
endplate (0.37±0.13 mm). Correlations occurred between BV/TV, connective density and yield strength. Fracture risk prediction,
using BV/TV multiplied by the cross sectional area of the endplate, can be improved through regional analysis of the
underlying cancellous bone of the endplate of interest (R(2) 0.78) rather than analysis of the entire vertebra (R(2) 0.65) or BMD (R
(2) 0.47). A negative linear relationship between disc health and vertebral strength (R(2) 0.70) was observed, perhaps due to a shift
in loading from the weaker anterior to the stronger posterior region and cortical shell.
9.2.43 Trabecular structure quantified with the MRI-based virtual bone biopsy in postmenopausal women contributes
to vertebral deformity burden independent of areal vertebral BMD
Ladinsky GA, Vasilic B, Popescu AM, Wald M, Zemel BS, Snyder PJ, Loh L, Song HK, Saha PK, Wright AC, Wehrli FW
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:64-74
Postmenopausal women, 60-80 yr of age, were screened by DXA, and those with T-scores at either the hip or spine falling within
the range of -2.5±1.0 were studied with the MRI-based virtual bone biopsy, along with heel broadband ultrasound absorption
and pQCT of the tibia. The data from 98 subjects meeting the enrollment criteria. A spinal deformity index (SDI) was obtained
from morphometric measurements in midline sagittal MR images of the thoracic and lumbar spine to evaluate associations
between structure and deformity burden. A number of structural indices obtained at the distal radius were correlated with the
SDI. Among these were the topological surface density (a measure of trabecular plates) and trabecular bone volume fraction,
which were inversely correlated with SDI (p<0.0001). Combinations of two structural parameters accounted for up to 30% of
the variation in SDI (p<0.0001) independent of spinal BMD, which was not correlated. pQCT trabecular BMD was also
weakly associated, whereas broadband ultrasound absorption was not. No significant association between SDI and structural
indices were found at the tibia. Structural measures at the distal radius obtained in vivo by microMRI explained a significant portion
of the variation in total spinal deformity burden in postmenopausal women independent of areal BMD.
Fig. 9.2.43 μMRIs of the distal radius (top row) with their respective virtual cores (bottom row) along with structural parameters
from three subjects exemplifying a wide range in bone quality represented by the topological parameters that vary by over an order
of magnitude between the extremes: (A) 68-yr old woman having a well connected bone structure; (B) 69-yr old woman with
less dense trabecular network; (C) 87-yr old woman with sparse trabeculae and disconnected network. Reproduced from J Bone
Miner Res 2008;23:64-74 with permission of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
9.2.44 Finite element analysis based on in vivo HR-pQCT images of the distal radius is associated with wrist fracture
in postmenopausal women
Boutroy S, Van Rietbergen B, Sornay-Rendu E, Munoz F, Bouxsein ML, Delmas PD
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:392-9
In 33 postmenopausal women with a prior history of fragility wrist fracture and 33 age-matched controls from the OFELY cohort,
radius aBMD was measured by DXA and pQCT. Areal and volumetric densities, cortical thickness, trabecular number, and
mechanical parameters such as estimated failure load, stiffness, and the proportion of load carried by the trabecular bone at the
distal and proximal sites were associated with wrist fracture (p<0.05). The PCA revealed five independent components that
jointly explained 86.2% of the total variability of bone characteristics. The first PC included FE-estimated failure load, areal
and volumetric BMD, and cortical thickness, explaining 51% of the variance with an OR for wrist fracture = 2.49 (95% CI, 1.324.72). The second PC included trabecular architecture, explaining 12% of the variance, with an OR=1.82 (95% CI, 0.94-3.52).
The third PC included the proportion of the load carried by cortical versus trabecular bone, assessed by FEA, explaining 9% of
the variance, and had an OR=1.61 (95% CI, 0.94-2.77). Thus, the proportion of load carried by cortical vs.rabecular bone seems to
be associated with wrist fracture independently of BMD and microarchitecture (included in the first and second PC, respectively).
Bone mechanical properties assessed by μFE may provide information about skeletal fragility and fracture risk not assessed by
BMD or architecture measurements alone and are therefore likely to enhance the prediction of wrist fracture risk.
9.2.45 Race and ethnic variation in proximal femur structure and BMD among older men
Marshall LM, Zmuda JM, Chan BK, Barrett-Connor E, Cauley JA, Ensrud KE, Lang TF, Orwoll ES
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:121-30
In a cross-sectional study, dimensions and vBMD in the femoral neck and shaft were obtained from QCT scans among 3,305 men
≥65 yr of age in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study. All groups had similar femoral neck integral volume. Among
black and Asian men, mean cortical volume as a percent of integral volume was 6% greater, integral vBMD was 6-10% greater,
and trabecular vBMD was 33-36% greater than means among whites. Shaft cross-sectional area was similar among blacks,
but smaller among Asians, compared with whites. However, mean shaft cortical area was greater among blacks but similar
among Asians and whites, resulting in mean cortical thickness being 5% greater among black and Asian men. Blacks also had
greater mean cortical vBMD in both the femoral neck and shaft. Black and Asian men ≥65 yr of age have features in the
proximal femur that may confer advantages for bone strength. Specifically, greater cortical thickness and higher trabecular
vBMD among black and Asian men could help explain the lower hip fracture rates in these populations.
9.2.46 Age trends in proximal femur geometry in men: variation by race and ethnicity
Travison TG, Beck TJ, Esche GR, Araujo AB, McKinlay JB
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:277-87
Dual X-ray absorptiometry scans were obtained for 355 black, 394 Hispanic, and 441 white subjects. Measures were obtained for
the narrow neck (NN), intertrochanter (IT) and shaft regions of the proximal femur via hip structural analysis. Black subjects
exhibited greater age-specific BMD, CSA and Z, than their white counterparts. For instance, at age 50 y, NN BMD was
approximately 11% higher among black men (p<0.001). Hispanic men exhibited sharper age-related differences in NN and IT
BMD than did others. IT BMD, for instance, decreased by 2.4% with 10 y age among Hispanic subjects, but had virtually no age
trend in others (p<0.001). These results imply greater bone strength among black American men than among their white
counterparts, and may indicate elevated fracture risk among older Hispanic American subpopulations.
Fig. 9.2.46a Hip bone material (CSA) and bending strength (Z) vs. age, by region. Black men (dark solid lines) tend to have the
highest CSA and Z, particularly with respect to their white counterparts. Differences in Z between black and white men are
less substantial among the oldest men, while black/white differences in CSA are more consistent across the range of ages. In
the narrow neck and intertrochanter regions, Hispanic men show greater cross-sectional decreases in both parameters with
age. Horizontal position of symbols is staggered to enhance clarity. Reproduced from Osteoporos Int 2008; 19:277-87 wih
permission from Springer.
Fig. 9.2.46b Cross-sectional proportionate age trends in strength; narrow neck and intertrochanter regions. Figures depict mean
bone density (BMD), material (CSA) and bending strength (Z) scaled to the race/ethnicity-specific means among 30-39 year old men
in the sample. A value of 1.0 indicates a mean level equal to the mean among the 30-39 year old men. Hispanic men (gray
lines) consistently exhibit the sharpest negative cross-sectional trend with increasing age. Horizontal position of symbols is
staggered to enhance clarity. Reproduced from Osteoporos Int 2008; 19:277-87 wih permission from Springer.
9.2.47 Complete volumetric decomposition of individual trabecular plates and rods and its morphological correlations
with anisotropic elastic moduli in human trabecular bone
Liu XS, Sajda P, Saha PK, Wehrli FW, Bevill G, Keaveny TM, Guo XE
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:223-35
Seventy-one human trabecular bone samples from the femoral neck (FN), tibia, and vertebral body (VB) were imaged using μCT
or serial milling. Complete volumetric decomposition was applied to segment trabecular bone microstructure into individual plates
and rods. The orientation of each individual trabecula was determined, and the axial bone volume fractions (aBV/TV), axially
aligned bone volume fraction along each orthotropic axis, were correlated with the elastic moduli. Longitudinal plates and
transverse rods dominate at all three anatomic sites. aBV/TV along each axis showed a better correlation with the axial
elastic modulus (r(2) = 0.95 approximately 0.99) compared with BV/TV (r(2) = 0.93 approximately 0.94). The plateassociated morphological parameters showed higher correlations with the corresponding standard morphological parameters than
the rod-associated parameters. Multiple linear regression models of six elastic moduli with individual trabeculae segmentation
(ITS)-based morphological parameters (adjusted r(2) = 0.95 approximately 0.98) performed equally well as those with
standard morphological parameters (adjusted r(2) = 0.94 approximately 0.97) but revealed specific contributions from
individual trabecular plates or rods. The ITS-based morphological analyses provide a better characterization of the morphology
and trabecular orientation of trabecular bone. Results suggest that trabecular plates dominate the overall elastic properties
of trabecular bone.
Fig. 9.2.47a Results of the complete volumetric decomposition procedure on image of vertebral trabecular bone sample
(3.2×3.2×2.1 mm3). (A) An original image of a trabecular bone sample. (B) Results of skeletonization and topological classification
of A. Inner surface voxels are shown as red, surface edge voxels in green, inner curve voxels in light blue, curve end voxels in pink,
R-R junctions in orange, and P-R junctions in yellow. (C) Results of arc-skeletonization and topological classification of B. Arc
voxels are shown as red, inner curve voxels in light blue, curve end voxels in pink, P-P junctions in dark blue, R-R junctions in
orange, and P-R junctions in yellow. (D) Results of the decomposition of C. (E) Intermediate result of reconstruction to B. (F) Result
of complete reconstruction to A. Colors indicate different branches in D-F. Reproduced from J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:223-35
with permission of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Fig. 9.2.47b Illustrations of complete volumetric decomposition on images of trabecular bone samples (2.1×2.1×1.3 mm3)
from different anatomic sites: FN (A), tibia (B), and VB (C). (Left) Trabecular bone structures with the trabecular type labeled for
each voxel. Plate voxels are shown in red, rod voxels in green. (Right) Completely decomposed trabecular bone structures
with individual trabeculae labeled by color for each voxel. (A) 119 plates and 51 rods. (B) 72 plates and 46 rods. (C) 50 plates and
42 rods. Reproduced from J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:223-35 with permission of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Fig. 9.2.47c Results of correlation analyses between axial elastic modulus Eii and bone volume fraction (BV/TV), plate bone
volume fraction (pBV/TV), and Xi axial bone volume fraction (aBV/TV)i by nonlinear regression of power laws (i=1, 2, and 3).
p<0.001 for all the correlations. Reproduced from J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:223-35 with permission of the American Society for
Bone and Mineral Research.
9.2.48 Trabecular bone gradient in rat long bone metaphyses: mathematical modeling and application to
morphometric measurements and correction of implant positioning
Gabet Y, Kohavi D, Kohler T, Baras M, Muller R, Bab I
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:48-57
The mammalian metaphyseal trabecular bone is unevenly distributed. Hence, defining a standard reference volume is critical
for morphometric analyses in metaphyseal sites. The distal femoral and proximal tibial metaphyses of adult orchietomized (ORX)
or sham-ORX rats were scanned by μCT 6 wk postoperatively. The respective curve-fit analysis in both femur and tibia
revealed decreasing linear/quadratic and logarithmic gradients for all morphometric parameters in the sham-ORX animals. The
ORX animals showed similar gradients with roughly similar slopes but lower values. For the bone volume (BV/TV) and
connectivity (Conn.D) densities, the magnitude of the ORX effect increased toward the diaphysis. The trabecular number
was unaffected in ORX femora and tibias. The trabecular thickness showed a constant decrease in the femur and was unchanged
in the tibia.
Fig. 9.2.48 ORX-induced changes in trabecular bone parameters as function of distance from primary spongiosa. Abscissa is
distance of layer midplane. Ordinate is ORX-induced percent decrease in the calculated value for corresponding layer in (A)
femoral distal metaphysis and (B) tibial proximal metaphysis. , BV/TV; , Tb.N; , Tb.Th; , Conn.D. Data are mean±SE
obtained in eight animals per condition; *vs. first segment, p<0.05; **vs. segments 1-3, p<0.05; ***vs. segments 1-5,
p<0.05. Reproduced from J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:48-57 with permission of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
© 2008 International Osteoporosis Foundation
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Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
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9.2.49 Structural and cellular differences between metaphyseal and diaphyseal periosteum in different aged rats
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Overview
Fan W, Crawford R, Xiao Y
Bone 2008;42:81-9
Literature Review
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Epidemiology
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Four female Lewis rats from each group of juvenile (7 weeks old), mature (7 months old) and aged groups (2 years old)
were sacrificed. The thickness and cell number in diaphyseal periosteum decreased with age (p<0.001). In comparison
with diaphyseal area, the thickness and cell number in metaphyseal periosteum were much higher (p<0.001). There were
no differences between the juvenile and aged groups in the thickness and cell number in the cambial layer of metaphyseal
periosteum (p>0.05). However, the juvenile rats had more Stro1(+), F4/80(+) cells and blood vessels and fewer TRAP(+) cells
in different periosteal areas compared with other groups (p<0.001). The aged rats showed much fewer Stro1(+) cells, but more
F4/80(+), TRAP(+) cells and blood vessels in the cambial layer of metaphyseal periosteum (p<0.001). The metaphyseal periosteum
of aged rats seems more destructive than diaphyseal part and other age groups.
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International Osteoporosis Foundation
Biomechanics
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
9.2.50 Biological co-adaptation of morphological and composition traits contributes to mechanical functionality and
skeletal fragility
Tommasini SM, Nasser P, Hu B, Jepsen KJ
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:236-46
Cross-sectional morphology, slenderness (Tt.Ar/Le), and tissue level mechanical properties were measured from tibias from 14
female (22-46 yr old) and 17 male (17-46 yr old) donors. A path analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis that Tt.Ar/Le
is functionally related to mineralization (ash content) and the proportion of total area occupied by cortical bone. Ash content
correlated negatively with several traits including Tt.Ar/Le and marrow area, indicating that slender bones were constructed of
tissue with higher mineralization. Path analysis revealed that slender tibias were compensated by higher mineralization and a
greater area fraction of bone. The results suggest that bone adapts by varying the relative amount of cortical bone within the
diaphysis and by varying matrix composition.
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Fig. 9.2.50 Schematic illustration of how co-adaptation of morphological and compositional traits acts to increase overall stiffness
and failure load of a slender cylindrical structure. The slender structure, without co-adapted traits, has the same tissue modulus (E),
K, and Ct.Ar/Tt.Ar as the robust structure, but this results in a dramatically lower stiffness and failure load. The slender structure
with co-adapted traits has a slightly smaller marrow area (lower K, higher Ct.Ar/Tt.Ar) and larger tissue modulus and tissue
strength compared with the robust structure. These small changes increase the stiffness and failure load of the slender bone so
that they are closer to the robust structure. Reproduced from J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:236-46 with permission of the
American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
9.2.51 An in vitro model to test the contribution of advanced glycation end products to bone biomechanical properties
Viguet-Carrin S, Farlay D, Bala Y, Munoz F, Bouxsein ML, Delmas PD
Bone 2008;42:139-49
In this in vitro model, young bovine cortical bone specimens were incubated in phosphate buffered saline (PBS)±ribose (RIB,
an inducer of AGEs formation)±AMG for 15 days at 37 degrees C. (i) incubation±-treatments did not induce collagen
denaturation compared to specimens that were not incubated; (ii) neither treatment or incubation time effected the concentration
of trivalent enzymatic crosslinks pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. The nonenzymatic crosslink PEN was undetectable in
specimens that were not incubated or that were incubated in PBS or AMG alone. However, PEN concentration increased in
specimens incubated with RIB, whereas ribose-induced PEN formation was markedly inhibited by AMG. (iii) Incubation±treatments
did not change the mineral maturity, crystallinity or microhardness assessed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray microscopy analyses,
FTIRM and microindentation tests. (iv) PEN concentration was not associated with biomechanical properties assessed by 3point bending. AMG inhibits ribose-induced formation of PEN crosslinks in bone. AGE concentration did not influence
bending mechanical properties; however, the simple 3-point bending test we used was likely inadequate to demonstrate effects
of AGEs on mechanical properties.
9.2.52 Validity of serial milling-based imaging system for microdamage quantification
Bigley RF, Singh M, Hernandez CJ, Kazakia GJ, Martin RB, Keaveny TM
Bone 2008;42:212-5
The goal for this study was to compare two-dimensional, surface-based measures of microdamage extracted from this new
imaging system against those from more conventional histological section analyses. Human vertebral trabecular cores were
isolated, stained en bloc with a series of chelating fluorochromes, monotonically loaded, and underwent microdamage
quantification via the two methods. Bone area fraction measured by the new system correlated to that measured by histological
point counting (p<0.001, R(2)=0.80). Additionally, the new system produced statistically equivalent (p=0.021) measures of
damage fraction (mean±SD), Dx.AF=0.047±0.021, to that obtained from stereological point counting, Dx.AF=0.048±0.017, at a
10% difference level. These results demonstrate that this serial milling-based fluorescent imaging system provides a destructive
yet practical alternative to more conventional histologic section analysis in addition to its ability to provide a better understanding of
the three-dimensional nature of microdamage.
9.2.53 Trabecular shear stress amplification and variability in human vertebral cancellous bone: Relationship with
age, gender, spine level and trabecular architecture
Yeni YN, Zelman EA, Divine GW, Kim DG, Fyhrie DP
Bone 2008;42:591-6
9.2.54 Proximal femur mechanical adaptation to weight gain in late adolescence: A six-year longitudinal study
Petit MA, Beck TJ, Hughes JM, Lin HM, Bentley C, Lloyd T
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:180-8
9.2.55 Load distribution in the healthy and osteoporotic human proximal femur during a fall to the side
Verhulp E, van Rietbergen B, Huiskes R
Bone 2008;42:30-5
9.2.56 Correlation between hydroxyapatite crystallite orientation and ultrasonic wave velocities in bovine cortical bone
Yamato Y, Matsukawa M, Yanagitani T, Yamazaki K, Mizukawa H, Nagano A
Calcif Tissue Int 2008;82:162-9
9.2.57 Multi-modality study of the compositional and mechanical implications of hypomineralization in a rabbit model
of osteomalacia
Anumula S, Magland J, Wehrli SL, Ong H, Song HK, Wehrli FW
Bone 2008;42:405-13
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9.2.58 Intrauterine programming of bone. Part 1: Alteration of the osteogenic environment
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Lanham SA, Roberts C, Cooper C, Oreffo RO
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:147-56
Literature Review
International Osteoporosis Foundation
Growth
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
Epidemiological studies suggest skeletal growth is programmed during intrauterine and early postnatal life. Dams received either
18% w/w (control) or 9% w/w (low protein) diet during pregnancy, and the offspring were studied. Alkaline phosphatase activity
in controls reached peak levels from 8 to 20 weeks of age. In contrast, restricted diet offspring were at peak levels from 4 weeks
of age. Peak levels were similar in both groups. Serum IGF-1 levels were lower in female restricted diet offspring at 4 weeks of
age, and serum osteocalcin was higher at 4 weeks of age in male and female offspring from mothers fed the restricted diet,
whereas serum 25-OH vitamin D was lower in restricted diet males at 8, 12, and 20 weeks of age. These data indicate that a
low protein diet in utero affected the osteogenic environment in the offspring with effects that persist into late adulthood. The
nutritional environment in early development on programming of skeletal development with implicit consequences in later life.
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9.2.59 Intrauterine programming of bone. Part 2: Alteration of skeletal structure
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Bone Formation
Lanham SA, Roberts C, Perry MJ, Cooper C, Oreffo RO
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Osteoporos Int 2008;19:157-67
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Dams received either 18% w/w (control) or w/w 9% (low protein) diet during pregnancy, and the offspring were studied. Using μCT,
we found that at 75 weeks of age female offspring from mothers fed a restricted protein diet during pregnancy had femoral heads
with thinner, less dense trabeculae, femoral necks with closer packed trabeculae, vertebrae with thicker, denser trabeculae
and midshaft tibiae with denser cortical bone. Mechanical testing showed the femoral heads and midshaft tibiae to be
structurally weaker, whereas the femoral necks and vertebrae were structurally stronger.
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9.2.60 Impact of maternal veiling during pregnancy and socioeconomic status on offspring's musculoskeletal health
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Nabulsi M, Mahfoud Z, Maalouf J, Arabi A, Fuleihan GE
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:295-302
This study investigates the effects of maternal veiling during pregnancy, a surrogate for low vitamin D level, and socioeconomic
status (SES), a surrogate of nutritional status, on their offspring's bone mass at adolescence. Three hundred and twenty-six
healthy adolescents aged 13.1(2.0) years and their mothers were studied. In boys, adjusted analyses revealed that both
maternal veiling during pregnancy and SES were predictors of bone mass, at multiple skeletal sites. In girls, SES but not
maternal veiling during pregnancy was a significant predictor of bone mass at multiple sites. Maternal veiling during pregnancy
was associated with decreased musculoskeletal parameters of boys, but not girls. SES was a significant predictor of bone mass
in both genders. These findings may have profound implications on children's bone health.
9.2.61 Fetal growth velocity, size in early life and adolescence, and prediction of bone mass: Association to the GH-IGF axis
Jensen RB, Vielwerth S, Frystyk J, Veldhuis J, Larsen T, Molgaard C, Greisen G, Juul A
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:439-46
A longitudinal cohort of 16- to 19-year old adolescents (n=123) with data on third trimester fetal growth velocity (FGV) was
assessed by serial ultrasound measurements, birth weight (BW), and weight at 1 yr. A follow-up study included DXA
scan, anthropometric measurements, and measurements of the growth hormone (GH)-IGF-I axis in a representative
subpopulation (n=30). BW and weight at 1 yr were positively associated with whole body BMC (p=0.02 and p<0.0001,
respectively), lumbar spine BMC (p=0.001 and p=0.03, respectively), and lumbar spine BMD (p=0.04). After correction for
adolescent height and weight, no association remained significant. There was no relation between IGF-I and IGF binding protein
3 (IGFBP-3) levels in adolescence and size in early life or bone mass. In the subpopulation, GH secretion (median, 2.58 vs. 4.05),
GH pulse mass (median, 10.7 vs. 19.4 mU/liter), and total GH (median, 74.9 vs. 108.8 mU/liter/12 h) were decreased in the small
for gestational age (SGA) group compared with the appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group; this did not reach
statistical significance. Likewise, there were no differences in IGF-I, IGF-II, and IGFBP-1, -2, and -3 levels between the SGA and
AGA groups. A statistically significant positive association between FGV and adolescent IGF-II was found (B=199.9,
p=0.006). Significant negative associations between GH measurement and BMC, as well as BMD, were found (B=-0.008, p=0.005
and B=-0.008, p=0.006, respectively).
9.2.62 Bone fragility contributes to the risk of fracture in children, even after moderate and severe trauma
Clark EM, Ness AR, Tobias JH
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:173-9
Total body DXA scan results obtained at 9.9 yr of age were linked to reported fractures over the following 2 yr in children. Of the
6204 children with available data, 549 (8.9%) reported at least one fracture over the follow-up period, and trauma level was
assigned in 280 as follows: slight trauma, 56.1%; moderate trauma, 41.0%; severe trauma, 2.9%. Compared with children
without fractures, after adjustment, children with fractures from both slight and moderate/severe trauma had a reduced bone
size relative to body size (1133 cm(2) in nonfractured children versus 1112 cm(2) for slight trauma fractures, p<0.001; 1112 cm(2)
for moderate/severe trauma fractures, p=0.001) and reduced humeral vBMD (0.494 g/cm(3) in nonfractured children versus 0.484 g/
cm(3) for slight trauma fractures, p=0.036; and 0.482g/cm(3) for moderate/severe trauma fractures, p=0.016). Skeletal
fragility contributes to fracture risk in children, not only in fractures caused by slight trauma but also in those that result from
moderate or severe trauma.
9.2.63 Fractures during growth: Potential role of a milk-free diet
Konstantynowicz J, Nguyen TV, Kaczmarski M, Jamiolkowski J, Piotrowska-Jastrzebska J, Seeman E
Osteoporos Int 2007;18:1601-7
In this case-control study 57 boys and 34 girls aged 2.5-20 years with fractures (cases) were randomly matched by age and sex
with 171 boys and 102 girls without fractures (controls). In girls, 29.4% of cases and 11.8% of controls had a history of milk-free
diet producing an odds ratio (OR) for fracture associated with a milk-free diet of 4.6 (95% CI: 1.4-15.5, p<0.01). In boys, 23% of
cases and 19% of controls had a history of a milk-free diet; OR=1.3 (95% CI: 0.6-2.7, NS). If the prevalence of CMA in the
population is 5%, only 6.7% of the fractures occurring are attributable to CMA and the associated nutritional deficit. Cow's milk
allergy is associated with increased fracture risk in girls. Whether this association is due to the illness, calcium deficit or a deficit
in other milk nutrients is uncertain. The contribution of milk-free diet to fracture liability among children and adolescents is modest.
9.2.64 High-protein intake enhances the positive impact of physical activity on BMC in prepubertal boys
Chevalley T, Bonjour JP, Ferrari S, Rizzoli R
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:131-42
In 232 healthy prepubertal boys (age: 7.4±0.4 [SD]), the correlation r with BMC of the various skeletal sites were as follows:
physical activity, from 0.26 (p=0.0001) to 0.40 (p=0.0001); protein intake, from 0.18 (p=0.005) to 0.27 (p=0.0001); calcium intake,
from 0.09 (p=0.181) to 0.17 (p=0.007). By multiple regression analysis, the beta-adjusted values remained correlated with
BMC, ranging as follows: physical activity, from 0.219 (p=0.0007) to 0.340 (p<0.0001); protein intake, from 0.120 (p=0.146) to
0.217 (p=0.009). In contrast, it was not correlated for calcium intake: from -0.069 (p=0.410) to 0.001 (p=0.986). With protein
intake (mean=2.0 g/kg body weight/d) above the median, increased physical activity from 168 to 321 kcal/d was associated
with greater mean BMC Z-score (+0.6, p=0.0005). In contrast with protein intake (mean=1.5 g/kg body weight/d) below the
median, increased physical activity from 167 to 312 kcal/d was not associated with a greater mean BMC Z-score (+0.2, p=0.371).
The interaction between physical activity and protein intake was close to statistical significance for mean BMC Z-score (p=0.055)
and significant for femoral neck BMC (p=0.012). Increased physical activity on mean BMC Z-score was not influenced by difference
in calcium intake above (mean=945 mg/d) and below (mean=555 mg/d) the median.
Fig. 9.2.64 Influence of protein vs. calcium intake on the impact of increased physical activity on BMC in prepubertal boys.
(A) Increased physical activity is associated with a significant increase in mean BMC Z-score in subjects having protein intake
above but not below the median. (B) The positive impact of increased physical activity was not significantly modified by the
calcium intake. The means of physical activity and protein and calcium intakes below and above their respective median are
indicated in parentheses. Analyzed by ANOVA, the interaction between physical activity and protein intake was very close to
statistical significance (p=0.055). No interaction was found between physical activity and calcium intake (p=0.754). Reproduced from
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:131-42 with permission of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
9.2.65 Calcium supplementation and bone mineral accretion in adolescent girls: An 18-mo randomized controlled trial with
2-y follow-up
Lambert HL, Eastell R, Karnik K, Russell JM, Barker ME
Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:455-62
An 18-mo randomized trial of calcium supplementation (792 mg/d) with follow-up 2 y after supplement withdrawal in 96 girls
(mean age: 12 y) with low calcium intakes (mean: 636 mg/d) showed that the mean additional calcium intake in the
supplemented group was 555 mg/d. Compared with the control group, the supplemented group showed (P<0.05) greater gains in
BMC (except at the total hip site) over the 18-mo study. BMD change was (P<0.05) greater for all skeletal sites, and concentrations
of resorption markers and parathyroid hormone were (P<0.01) lower in the supplemented group than in the control group after 18
mo. After 42 mo, gains in BMC and BMD and differences in bone resorption were no longer evident. Calcium
supplementation enhances bone mineral accrual in teenage girls, but the effect is short lived. The likely mechanism for the effect of
the calcium is suppression of bone turnover, which is reversed upon supplement withdrawal.
9.2.66 Polymorphisms in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) gene are associated with peak
bone mass in non-sedentary men: Results from the Odense Androgen Study
Brixen K, Beckers S, Peeters A, Piters E, Balemans W, Nielsen TL, Wraae K, Bathum L, Brasen C, Hagen C, Andersen M, Van Hul
W, Abrahamsen B
Calcif Tissue Int 2007;81:421-9
The Odense Androgen Study (OAS) is a population-based study comprising 783 Caucasian men aged 20-30 years. The CC, CT,
and TT genotypes in Ala1330Val were found in 75.6%, 21.8%, and 2.6% of the participants, respectively. Similarly, the GG, GA,
and AA genotypes of Val667Met were found in 89.7%, 9.8%, and 0.5%, respectively. For the Ala1330Val polymorphism, no
significant differences were found in BMD. However, when analysis was restricted to non-sedentary men (n=589), a
significant association between the number of T-alleles and BMD in the spine and whole body were found. Each copy of the Tallele changed the Z-score of the spine by (median and 95% CI) -0.21 [95% CI: -0.40; -0.03] (p<0.02). Analysis suggested
an association between the AA genotype in the Val667Met polymorphism and increased body height and decreased BMD of
the femoral neck; however, no significant gene-dose effect of the A-allele could be demonstrated in the whole population. When
the analysis was restricted to nonsedentary subjects, however, each number of A-alleles was associated with a change in Z-score of
-0.26 [95% CI: -0.51; -0.01] (p=0.04). The Ala1330Val and Val667Met polymorphisms in the LRP5 gene are associated with peak
bone mass in physically active men.
9.2.67 Impaired growth plate function in bmp-6 null mice
Perry MJ, McDougall KE, Hou SC, Tobias JH
Bone 2008;42:216-25
Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) is expressed by osteoblasts and growth plate chondrocytes suggesting roles in bone
formation and growth regulation. Ten-week-old female littermate bmp-6 null and wild-type (WT) mice were administered E(2) by
daily sc injection for 28 days. Tibia area as measured by DXA was reduced in vehicle-treated bmp-6 null mice compared with
WT. Vehicle-treated bmp-6 null mice had a reduced cross-sectional area at the tibial middiaphysis whereas cancellous bone
indices were unaffected. Histomorphometry of the proximal tibial metaphysis demonstrated a defect in bone formation
immediately adjacent to the growth plate in bmp-6 null mice following E(2). E(2) was also associated with a dose-responsive
decrease in longitudinal growth rate, and proliferative and hypertrophic zone parameters of the growth plate (p<0.0001).
Significantly greater reductions following E(2) were observed in longitudinal growth rate (p<0.01), proliferating and hypertorphic
zone widths (p<0.001), and proliferating (p<0.0002) and hypertrophic (p<0.002) cells per column of bmp-6 null mice compared to
WT mice. BMP-6 may have a role in periosteal but not trabecular bone formation. Moreover, growth plate function was reduced in
bmp-6 null mice receiving estrogen, leading to an impaired cancellous bone response to estrogen at the highest dose, suggesting
that BMP-6 also plays a physiological role in maintaining growth plate function.
9.2.68 Nutrition-induced catch-up growth increases hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha RNA levels in the growth plate
Even-Zohar N, Jacob J, Amariglio N, Rechavi G, Potievsky O, Phillip M, Gat-Yablonski G
Bone 2008;42:505-15
To study the mechanisms governing catch-up growth in the growth plate, prepubertal rats had 10 days of 40% food
restriction, followed by a renewal of the regular food supply. The expression level of 550 genes decreased during food restriction
and increased during catch-up growth, starting already one day after refeeding. HIF-1alpha, as well as several of its
downstream targets, was found among these genes. Immunohistochemistry showed a similar pattern for HIF-1alpha
protein abundance. Additionally, HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein levels were higher in the proliferating than in the hypertrophic
zone, and this distribution was unaffected by nutritional status. These findings indicate that nutrition has a profound effect on
gene expression level during growth plate growth, and suggest an important role for HIF-1alpha in the growth plate and its response
to nutritional manipulation.
9.2.69 Comparisons of body size, composition, and whole body bone mass between North American and South
African children
Micklesfield LK, Norris SA, Nelson DA, Lambert EV, van der Merwe L, Pettifor JM
J Bone Miner Res 2007;22:1869-77
9.2.70 Which bone mass measures discriminate adolescents who have fractured from those who have not?
Jones G, Boon P
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:251-5
9.2.71 Growth and bone mineral accretion during puberty in Chinese girls: A five-year longitudinal study
Zhu K, Greenfield H, Zhang Q, Du X, Ma G, Foo LH, Cowell CT, Fraser DR
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:167-72
9.2.72 Perinatal bone turnover in term pregnancies: The influence of intrauterine growth restriction
Briana DD, Gourgiotis D, Boutsikou M, Baka S, Hassiakos D, Vraila V-M, Creatsas G, Malamitsi-Puchner A
Bone 2008;42:307-13
9.2.73 Murine and chicken chondrocytes regulate osteoclastogenesis by producing RANKL in response to BMP2
Usui M, Xing L, Drissi H, Zuscik M, O'Keefe R, Chen D, Boyce BF
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:314-25
9.2.74 Thyroid hormone interacts with the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway in the terminal differentiation of growth
plate chondrocytes
Wang L, Shao YY, Ballock RT
J Bone Miner Res 2007;22:1988-95
9.2.75 Involvement of nuclear factor I transcription/replication factor in the early stage of chondrocytic differentiation
Uchihashi T, Kimata M, Tachikawa K, Koshimizu T, Okada T, Ihara-Watanabe M, Sakai N, Kogo M, Ozono K, Michigami T
Bone 2007;41:1025-35
9.2.76 Bcl-2-associated athanogene-1 (BAG-1): A transcriptional regulator mediating chondrocyte survival and
differentiation during endochondral ossification
Tare RS, Townsend PA, Packham GK, Inglis S, Oreffo RO
Bone 2008;42:113-28
9.2.77 P2Y receptors activated by diadenosine polyphosphates reestablish Ca(2+) transients in achondroplasic chondrocytes
Guzman-Aranguez A, Irazu M, Yayon A, Pintor J
Bone 2008;42:516-23
© 2008 International Osteoporosis Foundation
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Remodelling Markers
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
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9.2.78 Short-term changes in serum PINP predict long-term changes in trabecular bone in the rat ovariectomy model
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Overview
Rissanen JP, Suominen MI, Peng Z, Morko J, Rasi S, Risteli J, Halleen JM
Calcif Tissue Int 2008;82:155-61
Literature Review
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Bone Formation
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9.2.79 Osteoblast-targeted expression of sfrp4 in mice results in low bone mass
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Overview
Nakanishi R, Akiyama H, Kimura H, Otsuki B, Shimizu M, Tsuboyama T, Nakamura T
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:271-7
Literature Review
International Osteoporosis Foundation
Bone Formation
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (Sfrp4) gene are responsible for low peak BMD
in senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) P6. In vitro studies revealed inhibition of osteoblast proliferation by Sfrp4, which is
supposed to be mediated by canonical Wnt signaling. The authors examined the expression of Sfrp4 in neonate long bones by in
situ hybridization and generated transgenic mice in which Sfrp4 was overexpressed in osteoblasts under the control of a 2.3-kb
Col1a1 osteoblast-specific promoter. Hemizygous Sfrp4 TG mice exhibited a 30% reduction of trabecular bone mass at 8 wk of
age, and histomorphometrical analysis showed decreases in both osteoblast numbers and bone formation rate. betaChet
mice exhibited a 17% reduction of trabecular bone mass in distal femora caused by an increase in the osteoclast number and
a decrease in bone formation rate. LiCl rescued the bone phenotype of Sfrp4 TG mice. Expression of Sfrp4 in periosteum and
bone tissues suggested the role of Sfrp4 in osteoblasts. Overexpression of Sfrp4 in osteoblasts suppressed osteoblast
proliferation, resulting in a decrease in bone formation in vivo. Partial suppression of beta-catenin/canonical Wnt signaling
also impaired bone formation, and activation of the signaling restored low bone mass of Sfrp4 TG mice. Thus, these results
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Remodelling Markers
indicate that Sfrp4 decreases bone formation at least in part by attenuating canonical Wnt signaling in vivo.
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9.2.81 Activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha pathway accelerates bone regeneration
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Reviews
Wan C, Gilbert SR, Wang Y, Cao X, Shen X, Ramaswamy G, Jacobsen KA, Alaql ZS, Eberhardt AW, Gerstenfeld LC, Einhorn
TA, Deng L, Clemens TL
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008;105:686-91
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9.2.80 Knee loading accelerates bone healing in mice
Zhang P, Sun Q, Turner CH, Yokota H
J Bone Miner Res 2007;22:1979-87
9.2.82 Bone regeneration is regulated by wnt signaling
Kim JB, Leucht P, Lam K, Luppen C, Ten Berge D, Nusse R, Helms JA
J Bone Miner Res 2007;22:1913-23
9.2.83 Extracellular matrix made by bone marrow cells facilitates expansion of marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor
cells and prevents their differentiation into osteoblasts
Chen XD, Dusevich V, Feng JQ, Manolagas SC, Jilka RL
J Bone Miner Res 2007;22:1943-56
9.2.84 Osteogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells is modulated by the miR-26a targeting of
the SMAD1 transcription factor
Luzi E, Marini F, Sala SC, Tognarini I, Galli G, Brandi ML
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:287-95
9.2.85 Cell surface expression of stem cell antigen-1 (sca-1) distinguishes osteo-, chondro-, and adipoprogenitors in
fetal mouse calvaria
Steenhuis P, Pettway GJ, Ignelzi MA, Jr.
Calcif Tissue Int 2008;82:44-56
9.2.86 Ucma, a novel secreted cartilage-specific protein with implications in osteogenesis
Surmann-Schmitt C, Dietz U, Kireva T, Adam N, Park J, Tagariello A, Onnerfjord P, Heinegard D, Schlotzer-Schrehardt U,
Deutzmann R, von der Mark K, Stock M
J Biol Chem 2008;283:7082-93
9.2.87 Histone deacetylase 7 associates with Runx2 and represses its activity during osteoblast maturation in a
deacetylation-independent manner
Jensen ED, Schroeder TM, Bailey J, Gopalakrishnan R, Westendorf JJ
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:361-72
9.2.88 General transcription factor IIA-{gamma} increases osteoblast-specific osteocalcin gene expression via
activating transcription factor 4 and runt-related transcription factor 2
Yu S, Jiang Y, Galson DL, Luo M, Lai Y, Lu Y, Ouyang HJ, Zhang J, Xiao G
J Biol Chem 2008;283:5542-53
9.2.89 Interaction of galectin-9 with lipid rafts induces osteoblast proliferation through the c-Src/ERK signaling pathway
Tanikawa R, Tanikawa T, Okada Y, Nakano K, Hirashima M, Yamauchi A, Hosokawa R, Tanaka Y
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:278-86
9.2.90 A 4 bp deletion mutation in DLX3 enhances osteoblastic differentiation and bone formation in vitro
Choi SJ, Song IS, Ryu OH, Choi SW, Hart PS, Wu WW, Shen RF, Hart TC
Bone 2008;42:162-71
9.2.91 Wnt10b increases postnatal bone formation by enhancing osteoblast differentiation
Bennett CN, Ouyang H, Ma YL, Zeng Q, Gerin I, Sousa KM, Lane TF, Krishnan V, Hankenson KD, MacDougald OA
J Bone Miner Res 2007;22:1924-32
9.2.92 The protein tyrosine phosphatase Rptpzeta is expressed in differentiated osteoblasts and affects bone formation
in mice
Schinke T, Gebauer M, Schilling AF, Lamprianou S, Priemel M, Mueldner C, Neunaber C, Streichert T, Ignatius A, Harroch S, Amling M
Bone 2008;42:524-34
9.2.93 Lipoxygenase metabolites are mediators of PTH-dependent human osteoblast growth
Somjen D, Tordjman K, Katzburg S, Knoll E, Sharon O, Limor R, Naidich M, Naor Z, Hendel D, Stern N
Bone 2008;42:491-7
9.2.94 Osteoblasts express NLRP3, a nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat region containing
receptor implicated in bacterially induced cell death
McCall SH, Sahraei M, Young AB, Worley CS, Duncan JA, Ting JP, Marriott I
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:30-40
9.2.95 The essential role of fetuin in the serum-induced calcification of collagen
Toroian D, Price PA
Calcif Tissue Int 2008;82:116-26
9.2.96 Calcospherulites isolated from the mineralization front of bone induce the mineralization of type I collagen
Midura RJ, Vasanji A, Su X, Wang A, Midura SB, Gorski JP
Bone 2007;41:1005-16
9.2.97 Extracellular calcium regulates parathyroid hormone-related peptide expression in osteoblasts and
osteoblast progenitor cells
Ahlstrom M, Pekkinen M, Riehle U, Lamberg-Allardt C
Bone 2008;42:483-90
9.2.98 HtrA1 inhibits mineral deposition by osteoblasts: Requirements for the protease and PDZ domains
Hadfield KD, Rock CF, Inkson CA, Dallas SL, Sudre L, Wallis GA, Boot-Handford RP, Canfield AE
J Biol Chem 2008;283:5928-38
9.2.99 Scavenger receptor of class B expressed by osteoblastic cells are implicated in the uptake of cholesteryl ester
and estradiol from LDL and HDL3
Brodeur MR, Brissette L, Falstrault L, Luangrath V, Moreau R
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:326-37
9.2.100 The GPCR modulator protein RAMP2 is essential for angiogenesis and vascular integrity
Ichikawa-Shindo Y, Sakurai T, Kamiyoshi A, Kawate H, Iinuma N, Yoshizawa T, Koyama T, Fukuchi J, Iimuro S, Moriyama
N, Kawakami H, Murata T, Kangawa K, Nagai R, Shindo T
J Clin Invest 2008;118:29-39
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9.2.101 Identification of angiogenin as the osteoclastic bone resorption-inhibitory factor in bovine milk
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Overview
Morita Y, Matsuyama H, Serizawa A, Takeya T, Kawakami H
Bone 2008;42:380-7
Literature Review
A factor responsible for inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in the basic protein fraction of bovine milk (milk basic
protein, MBP) was purified from MBP based on its activity to prevent unfractionated rabbit bone cells from forming pits on
dentine slices nd was identical to that of bovine angiogenin. The purified bovine angiogenin inhibited the pit-forming activity of
both unfractionated bone cells and purified osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner, and the inhibitory activity was suppressed
by treatment with anti-bovine angiogenin antibody. The inhibitory activity was confirmed in mice both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment
of osteoclasts with bovine angiogenin resulted in an impairment of the formation F-actin ring and a reduction in the mRNA levels
of TRAP and cathepsin K, both known to be essential for the bone resorption activity of osteoclasts. Angiogenin is the
substance mainly responsible for the inhibitory effect of bovine milk on osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and that it exerts
its activity by acting directly on the osteoclasts.
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9.2.103 Identifying the relative contributions of rac1 and rac2 to osteoclastogenesis
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Exercise
Wang Y, Lebowitz D, Sun C, Thang H, Grynpas MD, Glogauer M
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:260-70
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Bone Resorption
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
9.2.102 NOTCH1 regulates osteoclastogenesis directly in osteoclast precursors and indirectly via osteoblast lineage cells
Bai S, Kopan R, Zou W, Hilton MJ, Ong CT, Long F, Ross FP, Teitelbaum SL
J Biol Chem 2008;283:6509-18
9.2.104 Extracellular acidification enhances osteoclast survival through an NFAT-independent, protein kinase Cdependent pathway
Pereverzev A, Komarova SV, Korcok J, Armstrong S, Tremblay GB, Dixon SJ, Sims SM
Bone 2008;42:150-61
9.2.105 NHA-oc/NHA2: A mitochondrial cation-proton antiporter selectively expressed in osteoclasts
Battaglino RA, Pham L, Morse LR, Vokes M, Sharma A, Odgren PR, Yang M, Sasaki H, Stashenko P
Bone 2008;42:180-92
9.2.106 Secreted tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b is a marker of osteoclast number in human osteoclast cultures
and the rat ovariectomy model
Rissanen JP, Suominen MI, Peng Z, Halleen JM
Calcif Tissue Int 2008;82:108-15
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9.2.107 Osteocytes as mechanosensors in the inhibition of bone resorption due to mechanical loading
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Overview
You L, Temiyasathit S, Lee P, Kim CH, Tummala P, Yao W, Kingery W, Malone AM, Kwon RY, Jacobs CR
Bone 2008;42:172-9
Literature Review
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Epidemiology
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Measurement of Bone Mass
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Osteocytes
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
Osteocytes support osteoclast formation and activation when cocultured with osteoclast precursors. Mechanical stimulation of MLOY4 osteocyte-like cells decreases their osteoclastogenic-support potential when cocultured with RAW264.7 monocyte
osteoclast precursors; soluble factors released by these mechanically stimulated MLO-Y4 cells inhibit osteoclastogenesis induced
by ST2 bone marrow stromal cells or MLO-Y4 cells; and soluble RANKL and OPG were released by MLO-Y4 cells, and
the expressions of both were found to be mechanically regulated. Mechanical loading decreases the osteocyte's potential to
induce osteoclast formation by direct cell-cell contact. Mechanically stimulated osteocytes release soluble factors that can
inhibit osteoclastogenesis induced by other supporting cells including bone marrow stromal cells.
9.2.108 Mechanical stimulation of bone in vivo reduces osteocyte expression of sost/sclerostin
Robling AG, Niziolek PJ, Baldridge LA, Condon KW, Allen MR, Alam I, Mantila SM, Gluhak-Heinrich J, Bellido TM, Harris SE,
Turner CH
J Biol Chem 2008;283:5866-75
Sclerostin, the protein product of the Sost gene, inhibits bone formation. Among bone cells, sclerostin is found nearly exclusively in
the osteocytes, the cell type that has is implicated in sensing and initiating mechanical signaling. The recent discovery of
sclerostin's antagonistic effects on Lrp5 receptor signaling-a crucial mediator of skeletal mechanotransduction-provides a
potential mechanism for the osteocytes to control mechanotransduction, by adjusting their sclerostin (Wnt inhibitory) signal output
to modulate Wnt signaling in the effector cell population. Sost transcripts and sclerostin protein levels were dramatically reduced
by ulnar loading. Portions of the ulnar cortex receiving a greater strain stimulus were associated with a greater reduction in
Sost staining intensity and sclerostin-positive osteocytes (revealed via in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry,
respectively) than were lower-strain portions of the tissue. Hindlimb unloading yielded a significant increase in Sost expression in
the tibia. Modulation of sclerostin levels appears to be a finely-tuned mechanism by which osteocytes coordinate regional and
local osteogenesis in response to increased mechanical stimulation, perhaps via releasing the local inhibition of Wnt/Lrp5 signaling.
9.2.109 Aberrant Phex function in osteoblasts and osteocytes alone underlies murine X-linked hypophosphatemia
Yuan B, Takaiwa M, Clemens TL, Feng JQ, Kumar R, Rowe PS, Xie Y, Drezner MK
J Clin Invest 2008;118:722-34
9.2.110 Hormonal, pH, and calcium regulation of connexin 43-mediated dye transfer in osteocytes in chick calvaria
Ishihara Y, Kamioka H, Honjo T, Ueda H, Takano-Yamamoto T, Yamashiro T
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:350-60
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Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
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Literature Review
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Systemic Factors
9.2.111 Relationships between insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and OPG, RANKL, bone mineral density in healthy
Chinese women
Zhao HY, Liu JM, Ning G, Zhao YJ, Chen Y, Sun LH, Zhang LZ, Xu MY, Chen JL
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:221-6
BMDs at lumbar spine and proximal femur in 504 pre- and postmenopausal women were measured by DXA. Age was
negatively correlated with serum levels of IGF-I (r=-0.702, p<0.001). IGF-I was negatively correlated with OPG and OPG/RANKL
ratio, but positively correlated with RANKL. The relationship between IGF-I and BMDs disappeared after adjustment for age.
In postmenopausal women, IGF-I was lower in women with osteoporosis than in those with normal BMD (p=0.056), but no
differences were found among OPG, RANKL and OPG/RANKL ratio. Serum levels of OPG in the highest quintile of IGF-I were
lower than those in the lowest quintile of IGF-I, while no difference was found in RANKL. In the multiple regression analysis
model, serum levels of IGF-I were the main determinants of the bone mass in Chinese women.
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Fig. 9.2.111a Scatter plot of serum level IGF-I (In) against age IGF-I (In): logarithmically transformed IGF-I. Reproduced
from Osteoporos Int 2008; 19:221-6 wih permission from Springer.
Fig. 9.2.111b Scatter plot of serum levels of IGF-I (In) vs. OPG (a), RANKL (b) and OPG/RANKL ratio (c). Reproduced
from Osteoporos Int 2008; 19:221-6 wih permission from Springer.
9.2.112 The role of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 status and secondary hyperparathyroidism in relation to osteoporosis in
elderly Swedish women
Salminen H, Saaf M, Ringertz H, Strender LE
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:201-9
9.2.113 Parathyroid hormone is predictive of low bone mass in Canadian Aboriginal and White women
Weiler HA, Leslie WD, Bernstein CN
Bone 2008;42:498-504
9.2.114 Prolactin directly enhances bone turnover by raising osteoblast-expressed receptor activator of nuclear
factor kappaB ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio
Seriwatanachai D, Thongchote K, Charoenphandhu N, Pandaranandaka J, Tudpor K, Teerapornpuntakit J, Suthiphongchai
T, Krishnamra N
Bone 2008;42:535-46
9.2.115 Variations along the 24-hour cycle of circulating osteoprotegerin and soluble RANKL: A rhythmometric analysis
Dovio A, Generali D, Tampellini M, Berruti A, Tedoldi S, Torta M, Bonardi S, Tucci M, Allevi G, Aguggini S, Bottini A, Dogliotti L,
Angeli A
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:113-7
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Local Factors
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
9.2.116 Transgenic over-expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 results in age-dependent and genderspecific increases in bone strength and mineralization
Nordstrom SM, Carleton SM, Carson WL, Eren M, Phillips CL, Vaughan DE
Bone 2007;41:995-1004
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9.2.117 Callus mineralization and maturation are delayed during fracture healing in interleukin-6 knockout mice
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Yang X, Ricciardi BF, Hernandez-Soria A, Shi Y, Pleshko Camacho N, Bostrom MP
Bone 2007;41:928-36
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9.2.118 Bone morphogenetic proteins signal through the transforming growth factor-beta type III receptor
Kirkbride KC, Townsend TA, Bruinsma MW, Barnett JV, Blobe GC
J Biol Chem 2008;283:7628-37
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9.2.119 Long-term risk of incident vertebral fractures
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Overview
Cauley JA, Hochberg MC, Lui LY, Palermo L, Ensrud KE, Hillier TA, Nevitt MC, Cummings SR
Jama 2007;298:2761-7
Literature Review
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Risk Factors
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
2680 attended a clinic visit an average of 14.9 years after baseline; mean age of 68.8 years at entry and 83.8 years at follow-up.
487 (18.2%) had an incident vertebral fracture including 163 of the 394 (41.4%) with a prevalent vertebral fracture at baseline and
324 of the 2286 (14.2%) without a prevalent vertebral fracture at baseline (odds ratio, 4.21; 3.33-5.34). Low BMD was associated
with an increased risk of incident vertebral fracture (1 SD decrease in total hip BMD, 1.78 [1.58-2.00]). The absolute risk of
vertebral fracture ranged from 56% among women with total hip BMD T-score of -2.5 or less and a prevalent vertebral fracture to
9% in women with normal BMD and no prevalent vertebral fracture. Low BMD and prevalent vertebral fractures are
independently related to new vertebral fractures over 15 years of follow-up.
9.2.120 Assessing population risk for postmenopausal osteoporosis: A new strategy using data from the Behavioral
Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)
Schneyer CR, Lopez H, Concannon M, Hochberg MC
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:151-8
Using the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool Index (OST Index; [self-reported weight in kg - age] x 0.2) to analyze data from
62,882 women ≥50 yr of age who participated in the 2002 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to assess
an individual's risk of disease, has has modest positive and high negative predictive value for osteoporosis defined by BMD
criteria. Based on this index, women from each state were distributed among high-, moderate-, and low-risk OST
categories. Comparison of unweighted BRFSS-OST results and NHANES BMD data revealed similar percentages of
osteoporosis among all women ≥50 yr of age (BRFSS, 18.5%; NHANES, 18.0%; p=0.47) and also among white women
(BRFSS, 19.0%; NHANES, 20.0%; p=0.28). However, the percentages of osteoporosis among blacks and Hispanics did
not correspond. Analysis of readily available BRFSS data with the OST index formula is a simple, no-cost technique that
provides state prevalence estimates of postmenopausal osteoporosis that could be used to guide allocation of resources to
statewide osteoporosis prevention programs.
9.2.121 Mild prevalent and incident vertebral fractures are risk factors for new fractures
Roux C, Fechtenbaum J, Kolta S, Briot K, Girard M
Osteoporos Int 2007;18:1617-24
Three thousand three hundred and fifty-eight patients, aged 74±6 years, with postmenopausal osteoporosis included in the
placebo groups of two clinical trials of strontium ranelate were followed for 4 years. The RR of vertebral fracture in 4 years was
1.8 (1.3-2.4) p<0.001, and 2.7 (2.3-3.3) p<0.001 for patients having only mild vertebral fractures and at least one grade ≥2 fracture
at baseline respectively. The RR of vertebral fracture in the 3rd and 4th years of follow-up was 1.7 (1.1-2.6) p=0.01, and 1.9 (1.32.6) p<0.001 for patients having during the first 2 years incident mild fractures only, and for patients having at least one grade
≥2 incident fracture respectively. The RR of nonvertebral fracture in 4 years was 1.3 (0.9-1.9) p=0.15 and 1.7 (1.4-2.1) p<0.001
for patients having only mild or at least one grade ≥2 vertebral fracture at baseline respectively. For patients aged more than 70
years, these RR were 1.45 (0.99-2.11) (p=0.06), and 1.72 (1.36-2.18) p<0.001, respectively. The RR of nonvertebral fracture in the
3rd and 4th years was 1.68 (1.36-2.09) p<0.001 for patients having at least one grade ≥2 incident fracture during the 2 first years
of follow-up. Mild vertebral fractures are a risk factor for subsequent vertebral and nonvertebral fracture in postmenopausal
women with osteoporosis; 1 out of 4 patients with an incident mild vertebral fracture in 2 years will fracture again within the 2
next years.
Fig. 9.2.121 Incidence of new non-vertebral fracture by severity of prevalent and incident vertebral fractures. a-No fracture. b-Only
mild fractures. c-At least one grade ≥2 fracture. Reproduced from Osteoporos Int 2007; 18:1617-24 wih permission from Springer.
9.2.122 Risk factors for vertebral and nonvertebral fracture over 10 years: A population-based study in women
Finigan J, Greenfield DM, Blumsohn A, Hannon RA, Peel NF, Jiang G, Eastell R
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:75-85
In a 10-yr prospective population-based study of 375 women who were 50-85 yr of age initially, 70 subjects sustained one or
more nonvertebral fractures and 29 sustained one or more vertebral fractures. Risk factors that predicted both types of
fracture included increasing age, decreasing BMD at all sites, prevalent vertebral fracture, and shorter estrogen exposure.
For nonvertebral fractures only, the risk factors included low urinary creatinine and less frequent use of stairs. The factors for
vertebral fractures included lighter weight, reduced body fat, heavy smoking, lower serum calcium, albumin, and thyroid T(3),
weak grip strength, and poor physical capability. In a multivariate model, weight, fat mass, serum calcium and T(3), prevalent
vertebral fracture, and physical capability remained significant. Furthermore, grip strength, serum albumin, weight loss, and
physical capability were associated with rate of bone loss at the femoral neck, and a fast rate of bone loss was also associated
with vertebral fractures.
9.2.123 Combining clinical factors and quantitative ultrasound improves the detection of women both at low and high risk
for hip fracture
Durosier C, Hans D, Krieg MA, Ruffieux C, Cornuz J, Meunier PJ, Schott AM
Osteoporos Int 2007;18:1651-9
We pooled two Caucasian cohorts, EPIDOS and SEMOF, into a large database named "EPISEM", in which 12,064 women, 70 to
100 years old, were analyzed. Risk score was formed by combining the QUS-derived heel stiffness index (SI), patient age, body
mass index (BMI), fracture history, fall history, diabetes history, chair-test results, and past estrogen treatment. Using the composite
SI-CRF score, 42% of the women who did not report a hip fracture were found to be at low risk at baseline, and 57% of those
who subsequently sustained a fracture were at high risk. Using the SI alone, corresponding percentages were 38% and 52%;
using CRF alone, 34% and 53%. The number of subjects in the intermediate group was reduced from 5,400 (including 112
hip fractures) and 5,032 (including 111 hip fractures) to 4,549 (including 100 including fractures) for the CRF and QUS alone
versus the combination score. Combining clinical risk factors to heel bone ultrasound appears to correctly identify more women at
low risk for hip fracture than either the stiffness index or the CRF alone; it improves the detection of women both at low and high risk.
9.2.124 A population-based assessment of rates of bone loss at multiple skeletal sites: Evidence for substantial
trabecular bone loss in young adult women and men
Riggs BL, Melton LJ, Robb RA, Camp JJ, Atkinson EJ, McDaniel L, Amin S, Rouleau PA, Khosla S
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:205-14
In an age- and sex-stratified population sample (n=553), volumetric BMD (vBMD) of trabecular and cortical bone by QCT
was measured annually for up to 3 yr at the distal radius (DR) and distal tibia (DT) (n=552) and trabecular vBMD at baseline and 3
yr at the lumbar spine (LS) (n=474). Substantial cortical bone loss began in middle life in women but began mainly after age 75 in
men. Trabecular bone loss began in young adult women and men at all three skeletal sites and continued throughout life
with acceleration during perimenopause in women. Women experienced 37% and men experienced 42% of their total
lifetime trabecular bone loss before age 50 compared with 6% and 15%, respectively, for cortical bone. Median rates of change
in trabecular bone (%/yr) were -0.40, -0.24, and -1.61 in young adult women and -0.38, -0.40, and -0.84 in young adult men at the
DR, DT, and LS, respectively (all p<0.001). In postmenopausal women and, to a lesser extent, in older men, higher rates of
cortical and trabecular bone loss were associated with lower levels of biologically active sex steroids and with higher levels of
follicle stimulating hormone and bone turnover markers.
Fig. 9.2.124a Age-specific changes in vBMD at cortical scanning sites at DR and DT in (A) women and (B) men. Data are shown
with a smoothing spline and the 95% CI. Premenopausal women (solid lines) are plotted against age in years,
whereas postmenopausal women (broken lines) are plotted against years since menopause. Flaring of confidence limits at
beginning and end of regression plots is a statistical artifact caused by smaller numbers of subjects at these ages. Reproduced from
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:205-14 with permission of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Fig. 9.2.124b Age-specific changes in vBMD at trabecular scanning sites in women at the (A) DR, (B) DT, and (C) LS. Data are
shown with a smoothing spline and the 95% CI. Premenopausal women (solid lines) are plotted against age in years,
whereas postmenopausal women (broken lines) are plotted against years since menopause. Reproduced from J Bone Miner
Res 2008;23:205-14 with permission of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
9.2.125 Prediction of clinical non-spine fractures in older black and white men and women with volumetric BMD of the
spine and areal BMD of the hip: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study
Mackey DC, Eby JG, Harris F, Taaffe DR, Cauley JA, Tylavsky FA, Harris TB, Lang TF, Cummings SR
J Bone Miner Res 2007;22:1862-8
Areal BMD (aBMD) predicts clinical non-spine fractures. The predictive ability of vertebral trabecular volumetric BMD (TrvBMD)
for clinical non-spine fractures has never been tested or compared with hip aBMD. In 1446 elderly black and white adults (70-79 yr)
in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, 152 clinical non-spine fractures were confirmed during an average of 6.4
yr. Vertebral TrvBMD and hip aBMD were both associated with risk of non-spine fracture in black and white women and black
men. The age-adjusted HR of fracture per SD decrease in BMD was highest in black men (hip aBMD: HR=2.04, 95% CI=1.03,
4.04; vertebral TrvBMD: HR=3.00, 95% CI=1.29, 7.00) and lowest in white men (hip aBMD: HR=1.23, 95% CI=0.85, 1.78;
vertebral TrvBMD: HR=1.06, 95% CI=0.73, 1.54). Adjusted for age, sex, and race, each SD decrease in hip aBMD was
associated with a 1.67-fold (95% CI=1.36, 2.07) greater risk of fracture, and each SD decrease in vertebral TrvBMD was
associated with a 1.47-fold (95% CI=1.18, 1.82) greater risk. Low BMD measured by either spine QCT or hip DXA predicts nonspine fracture in older black and white women and black men. Vertebral TrvBMD is not a stronger predictor than hip aBMD of
non-spine fracture.
Fig. 9.2.125 Incidence of clinical non-spine fracture by quartile of expected probability of fracture. Expected probabilities
were calculated from logistic regression models based on measurement of vertebral TrvBMD, total hip aBMD, and the combination
of vertebral TrvBMD and total hip aBMD. Reproduced from J Bone Miner Res 2007;22:1862-8 with permission of the American
Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
9.2.126 Measured height loss predicts fractures in middle-aged and older men and women: The EPIC-Norfolk
prospective population study
Moayyeri A, Luben RN, Bingham SA, Welch AA, Wareham NJ, Khaw KT
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:425-32
Height change can be easily measured and may contribute to fracture risk prediction. We assessed measured height loss and
fracture incidence in a prospective population study. Height was measured between 1993 and 1997 and repeated between 1997
and 2000. Incident fractures to 2006 were ascertained by hospital record linkage. In 14,921 men and women 42-82 yr of age, during
a mean follow-up period of 7.1 yr, there were 390 fractures, including 122 hip fractures. Prior annual height loss in those who had
an incident fracture (1.8± 0.3 [SD] mm) was greater than other participants (0.9±0.2 mm; p<0.001). Participants with annual height
loss >0.5 cm had an age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio of any fracture of 1.76 (95% CI, 1.16-2.67) and of hip fracture of 2.08 (95%
CI, 1.07-4.05). Each 1 cm/yr height loss was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.86 (95% CI, 1.28-2.72) for all fractures and 2.24
(95% CI, 1.23-4.09) for hip fracture after adjustment for age, sex, past history of fracture, smoking, body mass index, alcohol
intake, and heel ultrasound measures. Annual height loss of 1 cm was comparable to having a past history of fracture and
equivalent to being approximately 14 yr older in chronological age in terms of the magnitude of relationship with fracture risk.
Middle-aged and older men and women with annual height loss >0.5 cm are at increased risk of hip and any fracture.
9.2.127 Decreased bone mineral density is correlated with increased subclinical atherosclerosis in older, but not
younger, Mexican American women and men: The San Antonio Family Osteoporosis Study
Shaffer JR, Kammerer CM, Rainwater DL, O'Leary DH, Bruder JM, Bauer RL, Mitchell BD
Calcif Tissue Int 2007;81:430-41
In 535 women and 335 men significant inverse correlations of IMT and BMD at all bone sites in women >60 years of age
(P<0.001) and modest positive correlations (not significant) of IMT on hip BMD (P<0.1) in women <60 years of age. Similarly,
we observed negative correlations between IMT and forearm BMD in men >60 years of age (P<0.001) and positive correlations in
men <60 years of age (P=0.05). Variation in risk factors for CVD, including serum levels of low- and high-density
lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein particle size, triglycerides, paraoxonase 1 activity, and CRP did not account for
the relationship between BMD and IMT in either older or younger men or women.
9.2.128 Calcified atherosclerotic plaque and bone mineral density in type 2 diabetes: The diabetes heart study
Carr JJ, Register TC, Hsu FC, Lohman K, Lenchik L, Bowden DW, Langefeld CD, Xu J, Rich SS, Wagenknecht LE, Freedman BI
Bone 2008;42:43-52
To determine the relationships between atherosclerotic calcified plaque (CP) and BMD in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus
(DM2) 1023 diabetics were studied. Subjects were 53.8% female, 85% European American (EA) and 15% African American
(AA). After adjustment for age, inverse associations between CP and vBMD persisted in EA men (correlations between -0.11 and
-0.16, all p<0.05 with the exception of carotid CP vs. T-vBMD, p=0.076) and in AA women, excluding aortic CP (correlations between
-0.16 and -0.25, all p<0.05). Estrogen use in AA but not EA women was associated with an inverse relation between CP and
vBMD. Inverse relationships between CP and vBMD were observed in EA men and AA women with DM2 after adjusting for age
and other covariates. QCT determined vBMD was more strongly related to CP than aBMD by DXA.
9.2.129 Bone formation in spontaneously diabetic Torii-newly established model of non-obese type 2 diabetes rats
Fujii H, Hamada Y, Fukagawa M
Bone 2008;42:372-9
To examine the bone abnormalities in non-obese type 2 diabetes, Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rats and Sprague-Dawley
(SD) rats were used as a control group (n = 17). SDT rats were divided into two groups: the diabetic (DM) group (n=18) and the
DM+insulin (INS) group (n=18) at 20 weeks of age. The DM+INS group received subcutaneously implanted insulin pellets every
2 weeks. Despite renal function not being impaired, BMD and bone strength were lower in the DM group. Osteoid volume per
bone volume, osteoblast surface per bone surface, eroded surface per bone surface, osteoclast surface per bone surface, the
mineral apposition rate, and the bone formation rate per bone surface were lower in the DM group than in the control and DM
+INS groups. The mRNA expression of ALP and OCN was lower in the DM group than in the control group. Furthermore,
8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, which is an oxidative stress marker, was elevated in the DM group. These abnormalities were
recovered by insulin therapy. Non-obese type 2 diabetes is associated with a low turnover of bone and that the abnormalities
are ameliorated by insulin.
9.2.130 Optimal vitamin D status attenuates the age-associated increase in systolic blood pressure in white
Americans: Results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Judd SE, Nanes MS, Ziegler TR, Wilson PW, Tangpricha V
Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:136-41
Blood pressure was normotensive SBP (<110 mm Hg) high-normal SBP (110-119 mm Hg). Lower 25(OH)D was associated with
a higher blood pressure in whites (P<0.001); however, when controlling for age, the association was no longer
significant. Concentrations of 25(OH)D >80 nmol/L decreased the age-related increase in SBP by 20% compared with
participants having 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L (P<0.001). Only 8% of blacks had 25(OH)D >80 nmol/L. SBP is inversely associated
with serum vitamin D in nonhypertensive white persons in the United States.
9.2.131 Vitamin D2 is as effective as vitamin D3 in maintaining circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D
Holick MF, Biancuzzo RM, Chen TC, Klein EK, Young A, Bibuld D, Reitz R, Salameh W, Ameri A, Tannenbaum AD
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:677-81
This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study of healthy adults ages 18-84 years who received placebo, 1,000
IU vitamin D3, 1,000 IU vitamin D2, or 500 IU of vitamin D2 plus 500 IU of vitamin D3 daily for 11 weeks at the end of the winter.
Sixty percent of the healthy adults were vitamin D deficient at the start. The circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased to the
same extent in the groups that received 1,000 IU daily as D2 (baseline 16.9±10.5 ng/ml; 11 weeks 26.8±9.6 ng/ml); vitamin
D3 (baseline 19.6±11.1 ng/ml; 11 weeks 28.9±11.0 ng/ml) or a
9.2.132 Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and hip fracture risk in older U.S. white adults
Looker AC, Mussolino ME
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:143-50
1917 white men and women ≥65 yr of age were examined in NHANES III, 1988-1994. There were 156 incident hip fracture
cases. Cases were older, had lower BMD and body mass index, more prevalent spine or wrist fractures and weight loss
before baseline, and ate fewer kilocalories and less calcium than noncases. After adjusting, serum 25(OH)D exceeding 60 nM
were related to hip fracture risk. For example, the multivariate-adjusted RR was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.46-0.89) among individuals
with serum 25(OH)D values ≥62.5 nM compared with those with values below this level. When grouped into quartiles, the
multivariate-adjusted RR for the second, third, and fourth vs. the first quartile of serum 25(OH)D were 0.50 (95% CI, 0.25-1.00),
0.41 (95% CI, 0.24-0.70), and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.29-0.86), respectively. Serum 25(OH)D was related to a lower hip fracture
riskafter adjusting for confounding variables.
9.2.133 Vitamin D status, bone mass, and bone metabolism in home-dwelling postmenopausal Japanese women:
Yokogoshi Study
Nakamura K, Tsugawa N, Saito T, Ishikawa M, Tsuchiya Y, Hyodo K, Maruyama K, Oshiki R, Kobayashi R, Nashimoto M,
Yoshihara A, Ozaki R, Okano T, Yamamoto M
Bone 2008;42:271-7
Among 600 ambulatory postmenopausal women the mean serum 25(OH)D was 55.6 nmol/L (SD 14.6). Serum 25(OH)D was
linearly associated with BMD of the femoral neck (R2=0.020, P=0.003), not spine. Odds ratios (ORs) for low BMD (defined as t score
≤ -2.5 SD) were calculated for strata defined by 25(OH)D concentration. The prevalence of low BMD of the lumbar spine was higher
in the 40- to 50-nmol/L 25(OH)D group (adjusted OR=3.0, 95% CI: 1.3-7.0) compared to the reference group (≥70 nmol/L).
Prevalence of low BMD for the femoral neck was higher in the 30- to 40 nmol/L (adjusted OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.1-12.1) and the 40- to
50 nmol/L (adjusted OR=7.6, 95% CI: 2.5-23.2) groups compared to the reference group (≥70 nmol/L). The mean serum PTH
was higher in subjects with serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L compared to those with serum 25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L. A serum 25(OH)D of
at least 70 nmol/L is needed to obtain high BMD of the femoral neck, and that of at least 50 nmol/L is needed to achieve normal
PTH levels and prevent low BMD in home-dwelling postmenopausal Japanese women.
Fig. 9.2.133a Mean (plus SD) values of BMD of the lumbar spine for each 10 nmol/L increment in the serum 25(OH)D
concentration. The serum 25(OH)D concentration was not linearly associated with BMD at the lumbar spine (P=0.1322), although
50 nmol/L may be an inflection point. Reproduced from Bone, 42:271-7, Copyright (2008), with permission from Elsevier.
Fig. 9.2.133b Mean (plus SD) values of BMD of the femoral neck for each 10 nmol/L increment in the serum 25(OH)D
concentration. BMD becomes higher as the 25(OH)D level becomes higher beginning from the 40-50 nmol/L group of serum 25(OH)
D. Reproduced from Bone, 42:271-7, Copyright (2008), with permission from Elsevier.
Fig. 9.2.133c Mean (plus SD) values of the serum intact PTH concentration for each 10 nmol/L increment in the serum 25(OH)
D concentration. Mean serum intact PTH concentrations for 25(OH)D <30 nmol/L, 30-39 nmol/L, and 40-49 nmol/L, indicated with
an asterisk (*), are significantly higher than those for serum 25(OH)D concentrations ≥50 nmol/L, as assessed by ANOVA with
the Dunnett multiple comparison. Reproduced from Bone, 42:271-7, Copyright (2008), with permission from Elsevier.
9.2.134 Vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures
van Schoor NM, Visser M, Pluijm SMF, Kuchuk N, Smit JH, Lips P
Bone 2008;42:260-6
1311 community-dwelling older men and women had serum 25(OH)D determined and fractures assessed during six years. 11.3%
had a serum 25(OH)D below 10 ng/ml, 48.4% below 20 ng/ml, and 82.4% below 30 ng/ml. 115 (8.5%) had one or more
osteoporotic fractures. A cut point of 12 ng/ml giving the best discrimination between persons with and without fractures (17.5% of
the persons fell below this cut point). The lowest percentage of fractures (5.6%) was found above 30 ng/ml. Analyses were
conducted separately for persons aged 65-75 years (n=656) and for persons aged 75-89 years (n=664). After adjustment for age,
and other factors serum 25(OH)D below or equal to 12 ng/ml was associated with an increased fracture risk in the youngest age
group (HR=3.1; 95% CI: 1.4-6.9), not in the oldest age group (HR=1.3; 95% CI: 0.7-2.2). For commonly used cut points of serum
25(OH)D (<10 ng/ml, 10-19.9 ng/ml, 20-29.9 ng/ml, ≥30 ng/ml), no associations were found after adjustment. Serum 25(OH)D
levels below or equal to 12 ng/ml were associated with an increased fracture risk in persons aged 65-75 years.
Fig. 9.2.134 Risk of fractures using the optimal cut point of serum 25(OH)D. Presented are the hazard ratios and 95%
confidence intervals for fractures comparing serum 25(OH)D ≤12 ng/ml vs. serum 25(OH)D >12 ng/ml in the age groups <75 years
(a) and ≥75 years (b). In the youngest age group, 53 persons had a serum 25(OH)D ≤12 ng/ml and 595 persons had a serum 25
(OH)D >12 ng/ml. In the oldest age group, 177 persons had a serum 25(OH)D level ≤12 ng/ml and 486 persons had a serum 25(OH)
D >12 ng/ml. Model 1: univariate. Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, season. Model 3: Model 2+education, body mass index, number
of chronic diseases, creatinine level, cognition, smoking, alcohol use. Model 4: Model 3+physical activity, physical performance.
These variables can both act as a confounder and as a mediator. Reproduced from Bone, 42:260-6, Copyright (2008), with
permission from Elsevier.
9.2.135 Severe vitamin D deficiency in Swiss hip fracture patients
Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Can U, Staehelin HB, Platz A, Henschkowski J, Michel BA, Dawson-Hughes B, Theiler R
Bone 2008;42:597-602
222 consecutive hip fracture patients were investigated over a 12 month period. Mean age of patients was 86 years and 77%
were women. Mean serum 25(OH)D levels were low among hip fracture patients admitted from home (34.6 nmol/l), from assisted
living (27.7 nmol/l), and from nursing homes (24 nmol/l). Severe vitamin D deficiency below 30 nmol/l was present in 60%, 80%
were below 50 nmol/l, and less than 4% reached desirable levels of at least 75 nmol/l. Consistently, only 10% of hip fracture
patients had any vitamin D supplementation on admission to acute care with significantly higher 25(OH)D levels among
individuals supplemented with 800-880 IU/day (63.5 nmol/l). Controlling for age and gender, vitamin D supplementation, type
of dwelling, and season were independently and significantly associated with 25(OH)D levels. These data provide evidence
that current guidelines for the prevention of hip fractures need further effort to be translated into clinical practice.
9.2.136 Prevalence of vitamin D depletion among subjects seeking advice on osteoporosis: A five-year cross-sectional
study with public health implications
Guardia G, Parikh N, Eskridge T, Phillips E, Divine G, Rao DS
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:13-9
In a cross-sectional study of 2924 patients seen for osteoporosis, 25-OHD level was 24.6±10 ng/ml and mean PTH was 48.4±32
pg/ml. The prevalence of vitamin D depletion was 15% with a cut-off level of <15 ng/ml, and rose to 32% and 72% with cut-off
levels <20 ng/ml and <30 ng/ml, respectively. The prevalence was higher in men and blacks and remained constant over 5
years, regardless of the cut-off level. The expected inverse relationship between 25-OHD and PTH was observed irrespective
of gender or ethnicity. The prevalence of vitamin D depletion in patients seeking advice for osteoporosis is high and did not
change over the 5 years of the study.
Fig. 9.2.136 Relationship between serum PTH and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels by gender (a: Men & b: Women) and ethnicity
(c: Blacks & d: Whites) with Loess curve fit. Reproduced from Osteoporos Int 2008; 19:13-9 wih permission from Springer.
9.2.137 Parathyroid response to vitamin D insufficiency: relations to bone, body composition, and to lifestyle characteristics
Rejnmark L, Vestergaard P, Brot C, Mosekilde L
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2008;[Epub ahead of print]
In 405 recent postmenopausal women with vitamin D insufficiency, plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin were higher (p<0.05) in
SHPT compared with FHPT. SHPT was associated with higher osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, whereas
whole body BMD and hip and lumbar spine BMD were reduced. Subjects with SHPT had a 7% (p<0.01) higher body weight and a
23% higher fat mass (p<0.01) than subjects with FHPT, whereas lean tissue mass did not differ. In SHPT, fat mass was increased
by 14% (p<0.001) at the upper and lower extremities and by 33% (p<0.001) at the trunk. In a regression model, predictors of fat
mass was P-PTH (r(p)=0.248, p<0.01) and P-osteocalcin (r(p) = -0.115, p=0.02), with no effects of P-25OHD or P-creatinine
levels. Effects of vitamin D insufficiency on bone is associated with the PTH responses. The increased body weight and fat mass
in SHPT compared with FHPT may imply that PTH excess contributes to fat accumulation.
9.2.138 Relationship between serum parathyroid hormone, vitamin D sufficiency, age, and calcium intake
Adami S, Viapiana O, Gatti D, Idolazzi L, Rossini M
Bone 2008;42:267-70
697 women were available for analysis. Serum PTH correlated with age, 25(OH)D and calcium intake (p<0.001) and in a
multivariate model they all contributed to explain PTH variance (R2=24.4%). In 39 elderly osteoporotic women on a low calcium
intake and given vitamin D supplements (2000-3000 IU daily for >8 months) able to increase 25(OH)D levels above 110 nMol/l,
PTH levels were below 35 pg/mL. The minimum 25(OH)D to be recommended depends largely on the age and the calcium intake.
In elderly individuals not taking calcium supplements in order to keep serum PTH levels strictly within the normal range 25(OH)
D serum levels should be maintained above ca. 120 nMol/L.
Fig. 9.2.138 Age adjusted mean serum parathyroid hormone values according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D values and
calcium intake. Reproduced from Bone, 42:267-70, Copyright (2008), with permission from Elsevier.
9.2.139 Low prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among adolescents with anorexia nervosa
Haagensen AL, Feldman HA, Ringelheim J, Gordon CM
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:289-94
Fifty adolescents with AN and 200 controls were compared. The prevalence of deficiency (<20 ng/mL) was 2% in the AN group
vs. 24% among controls (p=0.003). 25OHD was similar among white participants with AN and white controls (39.5 vs. 36.0 ng/
mL, p=0.20), but higher than in non-white controls (20.6 ng/mL). Significantly more girls with AN reported vitamin D
supplementation (86%) than the full control (14%) or white subgroup (27%) (p<0.001). Participants with AN had lower
PTH concentrations than controls, (27.8 vs. 47.4 pg/mL, p=0.009), a trend that lost significance after age and race adjustment (41.7
pg/mL, p=0.12). Compared to healthy controls, adolescents with AN had a lower prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and
PTH concentration. However, 25OHD and PTH concentrations were similar after adjustment for race and age. The trend of lower
PTH levels in adolescents with AN, accompanied by exceptional compliance with supplementation, may have bone health
implications for these patients.
9.2.140 Dietary protein intake and bone mineral content in adolescents: The Copenhagen Cohort Study
Budek AZ, Hoppe C, Ingstrup H, Michaelsen KF, Bugel S, Molgaard C
Osteoporos Int 2007;18:1661-7
This was a cross-sectional study of 17-year old girls (n=63) and boys (n=46) participating in the second follow-up of The
Copenhagen Cohort Study. The mean total protein intake (approximately 1.2 g/kg) was modestly higher than that recommended.
Total and milk (approximately 0.3 g/kg) protein intake, but not meat protein intake (approximately 0.4 g/kg), was positively
associated with size-adjusted BMC (P≤0.05). The positive association between milk protein intake and size-adjusted BMC
remained after correction for energy, calcium, and physical activity (P≤0.01) and did not seem to be mediated via current serum IGF-I.
9.2.141 Dietary intake of folate, but not vitamin B(2) or B(12), is associated with increased bone mineral density 5 Years
after the menopause: Results from a 10-year follow-up study in early postmenopausal women
Rejnmark L, Vestergaard P, Hermann AP, Brot C, Eiken P, Mosekilde L
Calcif Tissue Int 2008;82:1-11
In 1,869 perimenopausal women associations between intakes and BMD were assessed at baseline and after 5 years. At year 5,
but not at baseline, cross-sectional analyses showed positive correlations between daily intake from diet and from diet
plus supplements of folate and BMD at the femoral neck (P<0.01). However, no associations were found between intakes
and changes in BMD. During 10 years of follow-up, 360 subjects sustained a fracture. Compared with 1,440 controls,
logistic regression analyses revealed no difference in intakes between cases and controls.
9.2.142 Effect of dietary B vitamins on BMD and risk of fracture in elderly men and women: The Rotterdam Study
Yazdanpanah N, Zillikens MC, Rivadeneira F, de Jong R, Lindemans J, Uitterlinden AG, Pols HA, van Meurs JB
Bone 2007;41:987-94
Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) is a modifiable risk factor for fractures. Elevated Hcy can have a nutritional cause, such as
inadequate intake of folate, riboflavin, pyridoxine or cobalamin, which serve as cofactors or substrates for the enzymes involved in
the Hcy metabolism. We examined the association between intake of Hcy-related B vitamin (riboflavin, pyridoxine, folate
and cobalamin) and FN-BMD and the risk of fracture in 5304 individuals aged 55 years and over from the Rotterdam Study. During
7.4 years, with vertebral fractures assessed by X-rays during a mean of 6.4 years small associations between dietary
pyridoxine (beta=0.09, p=1x10(-8)) and riboflavin intake (beta=0.06, p=0.002) and baseline FN-BMD were found. Pyridoxine
intake was inversely correlated to fracture risk. As compared to the three lowest quartiles, individuals in the highest quartile of
age- and energy-adjusted dietary pyridoxine intake had a decreased risk of non-vertebral fractures (HR=0.77, 95% CI=0.65-0.92)
and of fragility fractures (HR=0.55, 95% CI=0.40-0.77). Increased dietary riboflavin and pyridoxine intake was associated with
higher FN-BMD. Furthermore, a reduction in risk of fracture in relation to dietary pyridoxine intake independent of BMD was found.
9.2.143 Chronic ethanol consumption inhibits postlactational anabolic bone rebuilding in female rats
Shankar K, Hidestrand M, Liu X, Chen JR, Haley R, Perrien DS, Skinner RA, Lumpkin CK, Jr., Badger TM, Ronis MJ
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:338-49
Female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=7-9 per group) were fed EtOH-containing diets (13 g/kg/d) for 1, 2, or 4 wk after weaning of
their offspring. EtOH abolished the anabolic bone rebuilding that occurred after lactation. Decreased BMD and BMC were
associated with decreased bone formation not increased osteoclast activity. EtOH-fed rats showed greater proportion of fat
volume/bone volume and expression of adipocyte-specific genes. EtOH-induced skeletal effects were mitigated by the
dietary antioxidant, N-acetyl cysteine or by blocking TNF-alpha signaling. These data suggest EtOH in the period
immediately postweaning may impair the mother's skeletal health and lead to long-term osteopenia.
9.2.144 Increased cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression in bone of streptozotocin-induced
diabetic rats
Hie M, Shimono M, Fujii K, Tsukamoto I
Bone 2007;41:1045-50
The effect of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) on bone metabolism was evaluated using the streptozotocin (STZ)induced diabetic rat 1 week after the induction of diabetes. The urine N- NTx and Dpd increased to 3.6-fold and 1.2-fold. The
amount of hydroxyproline and calcium in the distal femur of diabetic rats decreased to 76% and 90%. The levels of serum
osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the distal femur were reduced to about 40% and 70% of the control
levels, respectively. The decrease in the expression osteocalcin was observed in distal femur of the diabetic rats, although the level
of ALP mRNA was unchanged. The activity and the mRNA level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) increased to 1.5and 2.3-fold the control level, respectively, in distal femur. The activity, protein, and mRNA levels of cathepsin K were also elevated
to about 2-, 2.3-, and 2-fold. IDDM contributes to bone loss through changes in gene expression of TRAP and cathepsin K
in osteoclasts as well as osteocalcin in osteoblasts resulting in increased resorptive activity and decreased bone formation.
9.2.145 The association between cysteine, bone turnover, and low bone mass
Baines M, Kredan MB, Davison A, Higgins G, West C, Fraser WD, Ranganath LR
Calcif Tissue Int 2007;81:450-4
In 328 postmenopausal British women grouped according to their BMD measurement subjects with low BMD had a lower plasma
Cys (146.3 vs. 177.7 mumol/l, p<0.0001), a higher recent fracture rate (30.9% vs. 16.4%, p=0.017), and a higher percentage of
current smokers (26.4% vs. 7.3%. p=0.003) than those with normal BMD. Additionally, they had a lower plasma Cys, and
higher plasma tHcy and CTX, than those with osteopenia. In the whole population, Cys was associated with BMD, weight,
height, smoking habit, log creatinine, Cys-Gly, log tHcy, and log folate, but the significant positive association of Cys with BMD
was maintained after correction for all other variables (r=0.197, p=0.003). After weight, Cys was the next most significant predictor
of BMD in a stepwise multiple linear regression model.
9.2.146 Fracture incidence in GH-deficient patients on complete hormone replacement including GH
Holmer H, Svensson J, Rylander L, Johannsson G, Rosen T, Bengtsson BA, Thoren M, Hoybye C, Degerblad M, Bramnert M,
Hagg E, Engstrom BE, Ekman B, Thorngren KG, Hagmar L, Erfurth EM
J Bone Miner Res 2007;22:1842-50
Eight hundred thirty-two patients with GHD and 2581 matched population controls answered a questionnaire about
fractures. Incidence rate ratio (IRR) for first fracture were estimated. The median time on GH therapy for childhood onset (CO)
GHD men and women was 15 and 12 yr, respectively, and 6 and 5 yr for adult onset (AO) GHD men and women, respectively. A
more than doubled risk (IRR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.23-4.28) for nonosteoporotic fractures was recorded in women with CO GHD,
whereas no risk increase was observed among CO GHD men (IRR, 0.61) and AO GHD women (IRR, 1.08). A decreased incidence
of fractures (IRR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.34-0.86) was recorded in AO GHD men. Increased fracture risk in CO GHD women can most
likely be explained by interaction between oral estrogen and the GH-IGF-I axis. The adequate substitution rate of testosterone
(90%) and GH (94%) may have resulted in significantly lower fracture risk in AO GHD men.
9.2.147 Does diabetes increase the risk for fractures after solid organ transplantation? A nested case-control study
Rakel A, Sheehy O, Rahme E, Lelorier J
J Bone Miner Res 2007;22:1878-84
Diabetes has been associated with osteoporosis in the general population. However, among patients receiving solid
organ transplantation, the association between pretransplant diabetes and post-transplant fractures is not clear. The study
included 238 cases and 873 controls. Pretransplant diabetes was present in 30% of the cases and 22% of the controls (crude
OR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.7-2.8). Diabetes remained a risk factor for fractures (adjusted OR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.5-2.6). Use of narcotics
(OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 2.0-4.4) and antidepressants (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-3.1) in the month preceding the index date and use of
loop diuretics in the year preceding the index date (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.9) were also associated with increased risks of fractures.
9.2.148 Lean mass and not fat mass is associated with male proximal femur strength
Travison TG, Araujo AB, Esche GR, Beck TJ, McKinlay JB
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:189-98
Data from N=1171 community-dwelling subjects, lean mass, fat mass, and BMI were each positively associated with hip
strength. However, controlling for lean mass was sufficient to remove the positive, and induce a negative, association for fat mass
or BMI. Associations between lean mass and hip strength were strongest and resistant to control for other measures. Lean mass
alone was sufficient to account for a substantial proportion of racial/ethnic difference in hip strength measures, whereas fat
mass exhibited no comparable explanatory power. The positive association between relative weight and proximal femur strength
is accounted for by lean mass, suggesting that, in men, the protective effect of BMI in preventing fracture is mediated not by
adipose tissue but by the influence of increased muscle mass accompanying elevated BMI.
9.2.149 Recovery of spaceflight-induced bone loss: Bone mineral density after long-duration missions as fitted with
an exponential function
Sibonga JD, Evans HJ, Sung HG, Spector ER, Lang TF, Oganov VS, Bakulin AV, Shackelford LC, Leblanc AD
Bone 2007;41:973-8
Changes in BMD (between 56 different sets of pre- and postflight measurements) were plotted as a function of days after
landing. BMD changes were fitted to an exponential mathematical function that estimated: (i) BMD change on landing day (day 0)
and (ii) the number of days after landing when 50% of the lost bone would be recovered ("50% recovery time") in the lumbar
spine, trochanter, pelvis, femoral neck and calcaneus. Averaged losses of bone mineral after long-duration spaceflight
ranged between 2% and 9% across all sites with the recovery model predicting a 50% restoration of bone loss for all sites to be
within 9 months.
9.2.150 Baseline bone morphometry and cellular activity modulate the degree of bone loss in the appendicular
skeleton during disuse
Squire M, Brazin A, Keng Y, Judex S
Bone 2008;42:341-9
Adult mice (4 months old, BALB/cByJ x C3H/HeJ) were assigned to male and female baseline controls, age-matched controls
or disuse. All baseline controls were sacrificed (0 day). Age-matched control and disuse mice were sacrificed (21 days). Following
21 days of unloading, trabecular bone loss in the distal femur and proximal tibia was 3-fold greater in the metaphyses than in
the epiphyses and 2-fold greater in females than in males. Disuse-induced changes in cortical bone were 2-fold smaller
than trabecular bone losses and were more apparent in females. Bone loss was inversely related to baseline bone volume
fraction (R2=0.51 for females and 0.43 for males) and directly related to baseline bone surface to volume ratio (R2=0.69 for
females and 0.60 for males). Additionally, trabecular bone loss correlated with baseline mineral apposition rates and
osteoclast surface to bone surface ratios (R2=0.86 and 0.46, respectively, genders combined). These data demonstrate that
baseline bone morphology and cellular activity modulate bone loss and that, independent of gender, anatomical regions with low
bone quantity, high surface-to-volume ratios, and high levels of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity are particularly susceptible
to disuse.
9.2.151 Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during
disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis)
McGee ME, Maki AJ, Johnson SE, Nelson OL, Robbins CT, Donahue SW
Bone 2008;42:396-404
Cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs avoids bone loss.
Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical
bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower
during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These
data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes
in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did
not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover
and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea
that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.
Fig. 9.2.151 Bone geometry and intracortical porosity do not respond similarly to disuse in turkeys (A, B) and grizzly bears (C, D).
A: Control turkey ulna, B: turkey ulna immobilized for 8 weeks, C: active grizzly bear femur, D: grizzly bear femur after 17 weeks
of hibernation. Large intracortical pores and thinning of the bone cortex, which occur during disuse in the turkey ulna, are not seen
in the hibernating grizzly bear femur. In contrast, grizzly bear bone becomes less porous during physical inactivity. Reproduced
from Bone, 42:396-404, Copyright (2008), with permission from Elsevier.
9.2.152 Abdominal aortic calcification detected on lateral spine images from a bone densitometer predicts
incident myocardial infarction or stroke in older women
Schousboe JT, Taylor BC, Kiel DP, Ensrud KE, Wilson KE, McCloskey EV
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:409-16
Among participants in a randomized controlled trial (women; age >75 yr) of clodronate versus placebo, those who sustained an MI
or stroke during the median 4-yr follow-up study period were selected as cases (n=408), and 408 controls were randomly
selected from the remainder of the parent study population. Baseline VFA images were scored for AAC, The OR of incident MI
or stroke for those in the middle and top tertiles, respectively, compared with the bottom tertile of AAC score were 1.14 (95% CI,
0.79-1.66) and 1.74 (95% CI, 1.19-2.56) for the 24-point scale and 1.42 (95% CI, 0.98-2.05) and 1.77 (95% CI, 1.22-2.55) for the
8-point scale, adjusted for age, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure,
smoking, renal function, health status, and baseline diagnoses of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, angina, and prior stroke.
AAC scored on VFA images is independently associated with incident MI or stroke. Because bone densitometry is indicated for
all women ≥65 yr of age, VFA imaging offers an opportunity to capture this CVD risk factor in postmenopausal women
undergoing bone densitometry at very little additional cost.
9.2.153 Association of left ventricular function with bone mineral density in older women: A population-based study
Laudisio A, Marzetti E, Antonica L, Cocchi A, Bernabei R, Zuccala G
Calcif Tissue Int 2008;82:27-33
In 312 subjects aged 75 and over living in Tuscania, Italy, LVEF was associated with T score (beta=0.02, 95% CI 0.01-0.05;
P=0.033), Z score (beta=0.02, 95% CI 0.01-0.04; P=0.038), and stiffness index (beta=0.25, 95% CI 0.02-0.48; P=0.036). No
significant associations were observed in men. In linear discriminant analysis, the LVEF cutoff level that best predicted
osteoporosis was ≤49%. Left ventricular function is directly and independently associated with all of the ultrasonographic
BMD parameters in older women.
9.2.154 Serum insulin-like growth factor-I level is associated with the presence of vertebral fractures in
postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Kanazawa I, Yamaguchi T, Yamamoto M, Yamauchi M, Yano S, Sugimoto T
Osteoporos Int 2007;18:1675-81
A total of 131 postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes were recruited. Either IGF-I or C-peptide was not correlated with BMD
at any site or bone metabolic markers, such as osteocalcin (OC) and urinary N-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type-I
collagen (uNTX). However, serum IGF-I level was lower in subjects with vertebral fractures than in those without fractures (mean
±SD: 106.9±50.0 vs. 142.8±50.8 ng/ml, p=0.0006). IGF-I was selected as an index affecting the presence of vertebral fractures
(odds ratio=0.436, 95% confidential interval 0.234-0.814 per SD increase, p=0.0092). This significance was almost the same
after additional adjustment for lumbar BMD or C-peptide. Serum IGF-I level could be clinically useful for assessing the risk of
vertebral fractures independent of BMD in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.
9.2.155 Nutritional impact of elevated calcium transport activity in carrots
Morris J, Hawthorne KM, Hotze T, Abrams SA, Hirschi KD
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008;105:1431-5
9.2.156 Chocolate consumption and bone density in older women
Hodgson JM, Devine A, Burke V, Dick IM, Prince RL
Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:175-80
9.2.157 Dietary restraint and low bone mass in female adolescent endurance runners
Barrack MT, Rauh MJ, Barkai HS, Nichols JF
Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87:36-43
9.2.158 Addressing the health benefits and risks, involving vitamin D or skin cancer, of increased sun exposure
Moan J, Porojnicu AC, Dahlback A, Setlow RB
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008;105:668-73
9.2.159 Vitamin D insufficiency underlies unexpected hypocalcemia following high dose glucocorticoid therapy
Kinoshita Y, Masuoka K, Miyakoshi S, Taniguchi S, Takeuchi Y
Bone 2008;42:226-8
9.2.160 Low dietary riboflavin but not folate predicts increased fracture risk in postmenopausal women homozygous for
the MTHFR 677 T allele
Yazdanpanah N, Uitterlinden AG, Zillikens MC, Jhamai M, Rivadeneira F, Hofman A, de Jonge R, Lindemans J, Pols HA, van
Meurs JB
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:86-94
9.2.161 Relation of folates, vitamin B12 and homocysteine to vertebral bone mineral density change in
postmenopausal women: A five-year longitudinal evaluation
Cagnacci A, Bagni B, Zini A, Cannoletta M, Generali M, Volpe A
Bone 2008;42:314-20
9.2.162 Homocysteine, bone mineral density, and fracture risk over 2 years of followup in women with and without
systemic lupus erythematosus
Rhew EY, Lee C, Eksarko P, Dyer AR, Tily H, Spies S, Pope RM, Ramsey-Goldman R
J Rheumatol 2008;35:230-6
9.2.163 Bone mineral density in postmenopausal female subjects is associated with serum antioxidant carotenoids
Sugiura M, Nakamura M, Ogawa K, Ikoma Y, Ando F, Yano M
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:211-9
9.2.164 The importance of calculating absolute rather than relative fracture risk
Tucker G, Metcalfe A, Pearce C, Need AG, Dick IM, Prince RL, Nordin BE
Bone 2007;41:937-41
9.2.165 Bone mineral density changes during the menopause transition in a multiethnic cohort of women
Finkelstein JS, Brockwell SE, Mehta V, Greendale GA, Sowers MR, Ettinger B, Lo JC, Johnston JM, Cauley JA, Danielson ME,
Neer RM
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:861-8
9.2.166 The relationship between body composition and bone mineral content: Threshold effects in a racially and
ethnically diverse group of men
Travison TG, Araujo AB, Esche GR, McKinlay JB
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:29-38
9.2.167 Association between height loss and bone loss, cumulative incidence of vertebral fractures and future quality of
life: The Miyama study
Yoshimura N, Kinoshita H, Takijiri T, Oka H, Muraki S, Mabuchi A, Kawaguchi H, Nakamura K, Nakamura T
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:21-8
9.2.168 Flattening of sagittal spinal curvature as a predictor of vertebral fracture
Kobayashi T, Takeda N, Atsuta Y, Matsuno T
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:65-9
9.2.169 Prognostic indicators of changes in bone density measures in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa-II
Misra M, Prabhakaran R, Miller KK, Goldstein MA, Mickley D, Clauss L, Lockhart P, Cord J, Herzog DB, Katzman DK, Klibanski A
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007;[Epub ahead of print]
9.2.170 Reduced attenuation of bone resorption after oral glucose in type 2 diabetes
Chailurkit LO, Chanprasertyothin S, Rajatanavin R, Ongphiphadhanakul B
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2007;[Epub ahead of print]
9.2.171 Risk factors for fractures and falls in older women with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Patel S, Hyer S, Tweed K, Kerry S, Allan K, Rodin A, Barron J
Calcif Tissue Int 2008;82:87-91
9.2.172 Short-term changes in bone and mineral metabolism following gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients
Baek KH, Jeon HM, Lee SS, Lim DJ, Oh KW, Lee WY, Rhee EJ, Han JH, Cha BY, Lee KW, Son HY, Kang SK, Kang MI
Bone 2008;42:61-7
9.2.173 Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is associated with low-turnover osteoporosis
Toiviainen-Salo S, Mayranpaa MK, Durie PR, Richards N, Grynpas M, Ellis L, Ikegawa S, Cole WG, Rommens J, Marttinen
E, Savilahti E, Makitie O
Bone 2007;41:965-72
9.2.174 Underdeveloped trabecular bone microarchitecture is detected in children with cerebral palsy using highresolution magnetic resonance imaging
Modlesky CM, Subramanian P, Miller F
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:169-76
9.2.175 Low bone mineral density and high bone metabolism turnover in premenopausal women with unipolar depression
Petronijevic M, Petronijevic N, Ivkovic M, Stefanovic D, Radonjic N, Glisic B, Ristic G, Damjanovic A, Paunovic V
Bone 2008;42:582-90
9.2.176 Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and osteoporosis: pathomechanism and clinical relevance remain to
be established
Schulte-Herbruggen O, Anghelescu I
Arch Intern Med 2008;168:110
9.2.177 Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other antidepressants and risk of fracture
Vestergaard P, Rejnmark L, Mosekilde L
Calcif Tissue Int 2008;82:92-101
9.2.178 Anxiolytics and sedatives and risk of fractures: Effects of half-life
Vestergaard P, Rejnmark L, Mosekilde L
Calcif Tissue Int 2008;82:34-43
9.2.179 Increased augmentation index and central aortic blood pressure in osteoporotic postmenopausal women
Mangiafico RA, Alagona C, Pennisi P, Parisi N, Mangiafico M, Purrello F, Fiore CE
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:49-56
9.2.180 Evaluation of osteoporosis using skin thickness measurements
Patel R, Blake GM, Fogelman I
Calcif Tissue Int 2007;81:442-9
9.2.181 Effects of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate on bone density and bone metabolism before and after peak
bone mass: A case-control study
Walsh JS, Eastell R, Peel NF
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;[Epub ahead of print]
9.2.182 Specific effects of gamma-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic ethyl esters on bone postovariectomy in rats
Poulsen RC, Firth EC, Rogers CW, Moughan PJ, Kruger MC
Calcif Tissue Int 2007;81:459-71
9.2.183 Phenotypic characteristics of bone in carbonic anhydrase II-deficient mice
Margolis DS, Szivek JA, Lai LW, Lien YH
Calcif Tissue Int 2008;82:66-76
9.2.184 Deterioration of bone quality by long-term magnetic field with extremely low frequency in rats
Gurgul S, Erdal N, Yilmaz SN, Yildiz A, Ankarali H
Bone 2008;42:74-80
© 2008 International Osteoporosis Foundation
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9.2.185 Efficacy and safety of risedronate 150 mg once a month in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis
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Overview
Delmas PD, McClung MR, Zanchetta JR, Racewicz A, Roux C, Benhamou CL, Man Z, Eusebio RA, Beary JF, Burgio DE, Matzkin
E, Boonen S
Bone 2008;42:36-42
Literature Review
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Epidemiology
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Morbidity/Mortality
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Financial Cost
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Genetics
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Measurement of Bone Mass
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Bone Material
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Bone Structure
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Histomorphology
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Biomechanics
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Growth
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Remodelling Markers
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Bone Formation
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Bone Resorption
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Osteocytes
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About the Campaign
Women with osteoporosis were randomly assigned to risedronate 5 mg daily (n=642) or 150 mg once a month (followed by
daily placebo) (n=650) double-blind fashion for 2 years. 538 patients in the daily group (83.8%) and 556 patients in the once-amonth group (85.5%) completed 1 year. The mean percent change in lumbar spine bone mineral density was 3.4% in the daily
group and 3.5% in the once-a-month group. The once-a-month regimen was non-inferior to the daily regimen. The mean
percent changes in bone mineral density at sites in the hip (total proximal femur, femoral neck, femoral trochanter) were also similar
in both dose groups, as were the changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover. The incidence of adverse events, adverse
events leading to withdrawal, and upper gastrointestinal tract adverse events were similar in the 2 treatment groups. Both
regimens were well tolerated; the percent of patients who withdrew from treatment as a result of an adverse event was 9.5% in
the daily group and 8.6% in the once-a-month group.
9.2.186 Fracture risk remains reduced one year after discontinuation of risedronate
Watts NB, Chines A, Olszynski WP, McKeever CD, McClung MR, Zhou X, Grauer A
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:365-72
Patients who received risedronate 5 mg daily (N=398) or placebo (N=361) during the VERT-NA study stopped therapy per
protocol after 3 years but continued taking vitamin D (if levels at study entry were low) and calcium and were reassessed one
year later. In the year off treatment, spine BMD decreased, but remained higher than baseline (p≤0.001) and placebo (p<0.001),
with similar findings at the femoral neck and trochanter. Urinary NTX and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, which decreased
with treatment, were not different from placebo after 1 year off treatment. Despite the changes in intermediate markers, the
incidence of new morphometric vertebral fractures was 46% lower in the former risedronate group compared with the former
placebo group (RR 0.54 [95% CI, 0.34, 0.86, p=0.009]). Despite the apparent resolution of effect on BMD and BTM, the risk
reduction of new vertebral fractures remained in the year after treatment with risedronate was stopped.
Fig. 9.2.186a (a) Mean percent change in lumbar spine BMD during 3 years of blinded treatment with placebo or risedronate 5
mg daily, followed by 1 year of open label treatment with calcium (and vitamin D, if needed). Asterisk indicates significant change
from baseline (p<0.05) based upon a paired t-test. (b) Mean percent change in femoral neck BMD during 3 years of blinded
treatment with placebo or risedronate 5 mg daily, followed by 1 year of open label treatment with calcium (and vitamin D, if
needed). An asterisk indicates significant change from baseline (p<0.05) based upon a paired t-test. Reproduced from Osteoporos
Int 2008; 19:365-72 wih permission from Springer.
Fig. 9.2.186b (a) Median percent change in urinary NTX excretion during 3 years of blinded treatment with placebo or risedronate
5 mg daily, followed by 1 year of open label treatment with calcium (and vitamin D, if needed). Asterisk indicates significant
change from baseline (p<0.05) based upon a Signed Rank t-test. (b) Median percent change in bone-specific alkaline
phosphatase during 3 years of blinded treatment with placebo or risedronate 5 mg daily, followed by 1 year of open label
treatment with calcium (and vitamin D, if needed). Asterisk indicates significant change from baseline (p<0.05) based upon a
Signed Rank test. Reproduced from Osteoporos Int 2008; 19:365-72 wih permission from Springer.
Fig. 9.2.186c New vertebral fractures in the subjects previously treated with risedronate and those in the control group in the year
after discontinuation of risedronate 5 mg daily. Reproduced from Osteoporos Int 2008; 19:365-72 with permission from Springer.
9.2.187 Risedronate for prevention of bone mineral density loss in patients receiving high-dose glucocorticoids:
a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial
Mok CC, Tong KH, To CH, Siu YP, Ma KM
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:357-64
Adults with medical diseases treated with high-dose prednisolone (>0.5 mg/kg/day) were randomized to risedronate (5 mg/day)
or placebo for 6 months in a double-blind manner, along with elemental calcium (1,000 mg/day). 120 patients were recruited
(82 women, age 42.8±14.3 years, 63% corticosteroid-naive, 30% women postmenopausal) and 103 completed the study.
Baseline clinical characteristics and BMD were similar in the risedronate and placebo groups. At 6 months, a significant gain in
spinal BMD was observed in the risedronate group (+0.7±0.3%; p=0.03) but a drop was detected in the placebo group (-0.7
±0.4%; p=0.12). After adjustment for baseline BMD, age, gender, body mass index and cumulative prednisolone dosages,
the intergroup difference in spinal BMD remained significant (1.4%; p=0.006). Both groups had a significant drop in hip BMD, but
the magnitude was greater in the placebo arm (-0.8±0.4% in risedronate vs. -1.3±0.5% the in placebo).
Fig. 9.2.187 Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) from baseline to 6 months: (a) Lumbar spine; (b) Hip; (c) Femoral neck;
(d) Femoral trochanter; (e) Whole body. Error bars represent standard error of the mean (SEM). Reproduced from Osteoporos
Int 2008; 19:357-64 with permission from Springer.
9.2.188 Risedronate reduces osteoclast precursors and cytokine production in postmenopausal osteoporotic women
D'Amelio P, Grimaldi A, Di Bella S, Tamone C, Brianza SZ, Ravazzoli MG, Bernabei P, Cristofaro MA, Pescarmona GP, Isaia G
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:373-9
Bisphosphonates inhibit bone resorption by acting against osteoclasts. Some in vitro studies suggest that they induce
osteoclast apoptosis; others suggest that they exert an effect on the production of pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines. This
paper examined the influence of risedronate on the formation of osteoclast precursors and cytokine production within the compass
of osteoclastogenesis in osteoporosis. In 38 osteoporotic women; 25 patients were treated with risedronate 5 mg/d, whereas 13
were treated with calcium 1 g/d and vitamin D 800 UI/d. After 3 mo of risedronate, there was a reduction in the number and degree
of differentiation of osteoclast precursors, osteoclast formation, vitality and activity, and in the level of RANKL and TNF in cultures
and of TNF and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in serum, whereas in the group treated with calcium and vitamin D, there were no
significant changes. Risedronate lowers the number of circulating osteoclast precursors, their formation, vitality, and activity
in cultures, and in reducing the level of pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines in culture supernatants and in serum.
9.2.189 Monthly oral ibandronate is effective and well tolerated after 3 years: The MOBILE long-term extension
Stakkestad JA, Lakatos P, Lorenc R, Sedarati F, Neate C, Reginster JY
Clin Rheumatol 2008;[Epub ahead of print]
The 2-year Monthly Oral iBandronate In LadiEs (MOBILE) registration study assessed BMD and turnover. Monthly oral
ibandronate was as effective and well tolerated as a 2.5 mg daily oral regimen. 3 years treatment with monthly ibandronate.
received 100 mg (n=359) or 150 mg (n=360) monthly oral ibandronate with a post hoc analysis included patients who received 100
mg (n=173) or 150 mg (n=169) monthly continuously. After one additional year mean spine BMD increased a 1.5% and 1.1% in
the 150 and 100 mg arms, respectively. Total hip BMD changed by 0.3 and -0.08%, respectively. In the post hoc analysis, 3year increases in lumbar spine BMD were 7.6%; p<0.0001 vs. baseline and 100 mg monthly (6.4%; p<0.0001 vs. baseline).
9.2.190 Effects of intravenous zoledronic acid once yearly on bone remodeling and bone structure
Recker RR, Delmas PD, Halse J, Reid IR, Boonen S, Garcia-Hernandez PA, Supronik J, Lewiecki EM, Ochoa L, Miller P, Hu
H, Mesenbrink P, Hartl F, Gasser J, Eriksen EF
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:6-16
Bone biopsies were obtained in 152 patients on treatment or placebo at 3 yr after double tetracycline labeling. In five patients,
only qualitative histology was performed, leaving 147 biopsy cores (79 treatment, 68 placebo) for μCT and histomorphometry.
MicroCT revealed higher trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) in the zol group (median, 16.6% vs. 12.8%; p=0.02), higher
trabecular numbers (p=0.008), decreased trabecular separation (p=0.011), and a trend toward improved connectivity
density (p=0.062). Qualitative analysis revealed presence of tetracycline label in 81 of 82 biopsies on zoledronic acid and all
70 biopsies from placebo groups. Zoledronic acid induced a 63% median (71% mean) reduction of the activation frequency (Ac.
f; p<0.0001) and reduced mineralizing surface (MS/BS; p<0.0001) and volume referent bone formation rate (BFR/BV).
Mineral appositional rate was higher in the zoledronic acid group (p=0.0002), suggesting improved osteoblast function.
Mineralization lag time was similar in the two groups, whereas osteoid volume (OV/BV; p<0.0001) and osteoid thickness (O.
Th; p=0.0094) were lower in zoledronic acid-treated patients. Concomitant administration of other antiresorptives did not alter
the tissue level response to zoledronic acid.
9.2.191 Hip fractures in users of first- vs. second-generation bisphosphonates
Mamdani M, Kopp A, Hawker G
Osteoporos Int 2007;18:1595-600
Hip fracture rates among elderly women with a history of fracture dispensed first- and second generation bisphosphonates
were compared. Administrative data from Ontario, Canada from 01 April 1998 to 31 March 2002 was used to identify populationbased bisphosphonate-naive cohorts of subjects age 66 years and older initiated on first- (etidronate plus calcium; n=19,127)
or second-generation (alendronate or risedronate; n=1,460) bisphosphonates. During over 23,000 person-years of follow-up,
293 hospital admissions for first hip fracture. The unadjusted event rates yielded approximately 12.5 hospital admissions for
hip fracture per 1,000 person-years of follow-up in each study group. Relative to the etidronate plus calcium group, females in
the alendronate or risedronate group were equally likely to be admitted for hip fracture (adjusted rate ratio=1.0; 95% CI 0.6-1.6).
9.2.192 Use of oral bisphosphonates and the risk of aseptic osteonecrosis: A nested case-control study
Etminan M, Aminzadeh K, Matthew IR, Brophy JM
J Rheumatol 2008;[Epub ahead of print]
Cases were hospitalizations secondary to AON at a nonspecified site. For each case, 10 controls were matched to the cases.
The initial cohort consisted of 87,837 subjects. In the primary analysis, the adjusted RR for AON among bisphosphonate users
was 2.87 (95% CI 1.71-5.05). The adjusted RR for alendronate, etidronate, and risedronate were 2.87 (95% CI 1.46-5.67), 2.43
(95% CI 1.05-5.62), and 3.34 (95% CI 1.04-10.67), respectively. There were no differences in RR for AON among current users
and past users of bisphosphonates. An association was observed between oral bisphosphonate use and aseptic osteonecrosis.
9.2.193 Changes in vertebral strength-density and energy absorption-density relationships following
bisphosphonate treatment in beagle dogs
Allen MR, Burr DB
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:95-9
aBMD and compressive mechanical properties (ultimate load and energy absorption) were assessed on lumbar vertebrae
from skeletally mature beagle dogs treated with vehicle (VEH), alendronate (ALN), or risedronate (RIS). Neither treatment altered
the strength-density relationship compared to VEH. The energy absorption-density relationship was altered by ALN, resulting in
lower energy absorption capacity at a given aBMD compared to both VEH (-22%) and RIS (-14%). These data document that
after adjusting for increased aBMD, vertebrae from animals treated with bisphosphonates have similar strength as those
from untreated animals. Conversely, when adjusted for increased aBMD, alendronate, but not risedronate, reduces the
energy required for vertebral fracture.
Fig. 9.2.193 Strength-density (a) and energy absorption-density (b) relationships of vertebral bone from beagles treated for 1 year
with vehicle or clinical doses of risedronate, or alendronate. The strength-density relationship was similar for untreated (vehicle (
), y=17264 × −1927.2) and bisphosphonate-treated animals (pooled ( ), y=16709 × −1724.8). BP-treated groups were combined
as there was no difference between RIS (y=24551 × −4132) and ALN (y=10051 × +464) for the strength-density relationship.
The energy absorption-density relationship differed from untreated ( , y=9717 × −1437) and risedronate-treated ( , y=12559
× −2604) animals compared to those treated with alendronate ( , y=8542×−1439). Reproduced from Osteoporos Int 2008; 19:959 wih permission from Springer.
9.2.194 Bisphosphonates alter trabecular bone collagen crosslinking and isomerization in beagle dog vertebra
Allen MR, Gineyts E, Leeming DJ, Burr DB, Delmas PD
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:329-37
Skeletally mature female beagles were treated for one year with oral doses of vehicle (VEH), risedronate (RIS; 3 doses),
alendronate (ALN; 3 doses), or raloxifene (RAL; 2 doses). The middle dose of RIS and ALN and the lower dose of RAL.
Vertebral trabecular bone matrix was assessed for collagen isomerization (ratio of alpha/beta C-telopeptide [CTX]),
enzymatic (pyridinoline [PYD] and deoxypyridinoline [DPD]), and non-enzymatic (pentosidine [PEN]) cross-links. All doses of both
RIS and ALN increased PEN (+34-58%) and the ratio of PYD/DPD (+14-26%), and decreased the ratio of alpha/beta CTX (-2956%) compared to VEH. RAL did not alter any collagen parameters. Bone turnover rate correlated to PEN (R=-0.664), alpha/beta
CTX (R=0.586), and PYD/DPD (R=-0.470). Bisphosphonate alters properties of bone collagen suggesting a contribution of the
organic matrix to the anti-fracture efficacy of this drug class.
Fig. 9.2.194a Changes in collagen crosslinking and isomerization with anti-remodeling agents. Pentosidine (a), the ratio of PYD/
DPD (b) and the ratio of α/β CTX (c) were assessed in trabecular bone from vertebrae of dogs treated for 1 year with
vehicle, risedronate, alendronate, or raloxifene. An increase in the PYD/DPD ratio is indicative of increased enzymatic
collagen crosslinks while a decrease in the α/β CTX ratio indicates increased collagen maturity. Data presented as mean
±SE. Numbers in bars represent percent difference compared to Vehicle. (a) p<0.05 vs. vehicle, (b) p<0.05 vs. low dose within
drug. Reproduced from Osteoporos Int 2008; 19:329-37 wih permission from Springer.
Fig. 9.2.194b Relationship between bone turnover and collagen crosslinking and isomerization. Significant linear relationships
existed between the rate of vertebral bone turnover (activation frequency) and pentosidine (a), enzymatic crosslink ratio (b),
and collagen isomerization (c). Vehicle ( ), risedronate ( ), alendronate ( ), raloxifene ( ). Reproduced from Osteoporos Int
2008; 19:329-37 wih permission from Springer.
9.2.195 Stainless steel screws coated with bisphosphonates gave stronger fixation and more surrounding
bone. Histomorphometry in rats
Wermelin K, Suska F, Tengvall P, Thomsen P, Aspenberg P
Bone 2008;42:365-71
Coating of stainless steel screws with bisphosphonate in a fibrinogen matrix leads to an enhancement of the pullout strength 2
weeks after insertion in rat tibiae. This effect then increases over time until at least 8 weeks. The pullout force reflects the
mechanical properties of the bone within the threads, which acts as a screw nut. Stainless steel screws served as uncoated
control, controls coated with a layer of cross-linked fibrinogen, or screws further modified with bisphosphonates covalently linked
and physically adsorbed to the fibrinogen layer. At 8 weeks, the part of the bisphosphonate screw that was located in the
marrow cavity had become surrounded with bone, whereas there was almost no bone surrounding the controls. The bone area
density in the threads along the entire bisphosphonate screw was increased by 40% compared with uncoated controls, and at 250
[mu]m distance it was more than doubled. At 1 week, coated screws had less implant-bone contact, but at 8 weeks there was
no difference between uncoated and bisphosphonate-coated screws. The bisphosphonate screws had 50% increased removal
torque at 2 weeks compared to uncoated screws. Howship's lacunae and osteoclasts were found near the screws
with bisphosphonates at 8 weeks, suggesting that some bone remodeling took place near the implant, in spite of the presence
of bisphosphonates.
Fig. 9.2.195a Primitive bone or osteoid (O) and a fragment of old bone (B) in the marrow cavity at 1 week around a
bisphosphonate screw. Reproduced from Bone, 42:365-71, Copyright (2008), with permission from Elsevier.
Fig. 9.2.195b A multinucleated cell in a resorption lacune (a), suggestive on ongoing bone resorption adjacent to a
bisphosphonate-coated screw. There is also a multinucleated cell with lobulated nuclei (b), probably an apoptotic
osteoclast. Reproduced from Bone, 42:365-71, Copyright (2008), with permission from Elsevier.
Fig. 9.2.195c Osteoclast (black arrow) resorbing newly synthesized bone at 8 weeks adjacent to a bisphosphonate screw in
the medullary cavity. Reproduced from Bone, 42:365-71, Copyright (2008), with permission from Elsevier.
9.2.196 Bisphosphonate treatment increases the size of the mandibular condyle and normalizes growth of the
mandibular ramus in osteoprotegerin-deficient mice
Kimura M, Miyazawa K, Tabuchi M, Maeda H, Kameyama Y, Goto S
Calcif Tissue Int 2008;82:137-47
OPG-deficient (OPG-/-) mice develop osteoporosis. Eight-week-old male OPG-/- mice and wild-type (WT) mice were
administered bisphosphonate (1.25 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally once every 3 days for 30 days. All bone formationrelated parameters and bone resorption-related parameters were lower in OPG-/- mice with bisphosphonate than in those
without bisphosphonate. The volume of the whole condyle and the mandibular length in OPG-/- mice without bisphosphonate
were smaller than in WT mice. Bisphosphonate treatment of the OPG-/- mice resulted in an increase in the volume of the
mandibular condyle and mandibular ramus length. In fact, the mandibular ramus length in OPG-/- mice with bisphosphonate
was similar to the length in WT mice without bisphosphonate. Histologically, the surface irregularity of the mandibular condyle that
was observed in the OPG-/- mice without bisphosphonate tended to be less marked in the OPG-/- mice with bisphosphonate, and
the proportion of the area of the cartilage layer relative to the whole condyle was significantly larger in OPG-/- mice
with bisphosphonate than in those without bisphosphonate.
9.2.197 Effects of raloxifene on fracture risk in postmenopausal women: The raloxifene use for the heart trial
Ensrud KE, Stock JL, Barrett-Connor E, Grady D, Mosca L, Khaw KT, Zhao Q, Agnusdei D, Cauley JA
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:112-20
10,101 postmenopausal women ≥55 yr of age with coronary heart disease or at high risk for coronary events received 60
mg raloxifene daily or placebo for a median of 5.6 yr. There was no difference between raloxifene and placebo groups in risk
of nonvertebral fractures (428 vs. 438 events; hazard ratio [HR], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.84-1.10), including hip/femur (89 vs. 103 events;
HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.64-1.13) and wrist (107 vs. 111 events; HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.73-1.24) fractures. Women treated with
raloxifene had a lower risk of clinical vertebral fractures (64 vs. 97 events; HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.47-0.89). In older women with or
at high risk of coronary heart disease not selected on the basis of osteoporosis or increased fracture risk, treatment with raloxifene
for 5 yr reduced the risk of clinical vertebral, not nonvertebral fractures.
9.2.198 Effect of raloxifene after recombinant teriparatide [hPTH(1-34)] treatment in postmenopausal women
with osteoporosis
Adami S, San Martin J, Munoz-Torres M, Econs MJ, Xie L, Dalsky GP, McClung M, Felsenberg D, Brown JP, Brandi ML, Sipos A
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:87-94
Following a year teriparatide 20 μg/day, women with osteoporosis were assigned to raloxifene 60 mg/day (n=157) or a
placebo (n=172) for year 2, than a year of raloxifene. The raloxifene and placebo groups showed a decrease in spine (LS) BMD
in year 2 (-1.0±0.3%, P=0.004; and -4.0±0.3%, P<0.001, respectively); the decrease was less with raloxifene (P<0.001). Openlabel raloxifene reversed the LS BMD decrease with a placebo, resulting in similar decreases 2 years (-2.6±0.4%
(raloxifene-raloxifene) and -2.7±0.4% (placebo-placebo). At study end, LS and femoral neck (FN) BMD were higher than
pre-teriparatide levels, with no differences between the raloxifene-raloxifene and placebo-raloxifene groups, respectively (LS:
6.1±0.5% vs. 5.1±0.5%; FN: 3.4±0.6% vs. 3.0±0.5%). Sequential raloxifene prevented rapid bone loss at the LS and increased
FN BMD whether raloxifene was started immediately or after a one-year delay following teriparatide.
Fig. 9.2.198a Percent change in bone mineral density during the 3-year sequential treatment. a. Lumbar spine; b. Femoral neck;
c. Ultradistal radius; d. One-third distal radius. *P=0.021 vs. placebo, †P<0.001 vs. placebo. Reproduced from Osteoporos Int
2008; 19:87-94 wih permission from Springer.
Fig. 9.2.198b Percent change in serum osteocalcin (a) and serum CTX (b) 3 months after randomization. *P<0.001 vs.
placebo, †P=0.002 vs. placebo. Reproduced from Osteoporos Int 2008; 19:87-94 wih permission from Springer.
Fig. 9.2.198c Percent changes in lumbar spine BMD during the randomization year and quartiles of percent change in
biochemical markers in 3 months after randomization. A. Osteocalcin-placebo quartiles: 1st: -75.1 to -50.8; 2nd: -50.8 to -39.5; 3rd:
-39.5 to -25.6; 4th: -25.6 to +77.7. B. Osteocalcin-raloxifene quartiles: 1st: -77.3 to -59.7; 2nd: -59.7 to -49.5; 3rd: -49.5 to -36.3;
4th:-36.3 to +47.7. C. CTX-placebo quartiles: 1st: -84.6 to -51.9; 2nd: -51.9 to -35.0; 3rd: -35.0 to -10.6; 4th: -10.6 to +152.0. D.
CTX-raloxifene quartiles: 1st: -86.1 to -58.4; 2nd: -58.4 to -45.3; 3rd: -45.3 to -24.1; 4th: -24.1 to +99.3. Homogeneity tests:
osteocalcin-placebo, P=0.1370; osteocalcin-raloxifene, P=0.0303; CTX-placebo, P=0.1717; CTX-raloxifene, P=0.0012. Linear
trend tests: osteocalcin-raloxifene, P=0.0047; CTX-raloxifene, P<0.0001. Reproduced from Osteoporos Int 2008; 19:87-94
wih permission from Springer.
9.2.199 Effects of previous antiresorptive therapy on the bone mineral density response to two years of teriparatide
treatment in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis
Boonen S, Marin F, Obermayer-Pietsch B, Simoes ME, Barker C, Glass EV, Hadji P, Lyritis G, Oertel H, Nickelsen T, McCloskey EV
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:852-60
245 women with osteoporosis had 2 years of teriparatide and were stratified by into alendronate (n=107), risedronate
(n=59), etidronate (n=30), non-bisphosphonate (n=49). Significant increases in bone formation markers occurred in all groups after
1 month of teriparatide. Spine BMD increased while a transient decrease in hip BMD reversed. BMD change was similar in all
prior antiresorptives. Prior etidronate users showed a higher increase at the spine not hip BMD. Duration of prior antiresorptive and
lag time between stopping prior therapy and starting teriparatide did not affect the BMD response at any skeletal site.
Teriparatide induces positive effects on BMD and markers of bone formation in postmenopausal women with established
osteoporosis, regardless of prior long-term exposure to antiresorptive therapies.
9.2.200 Enhanced chondrogenesis and Wnt signaling in PTH-treated fractures
Kakar S, Einhorn TA, Vora S, Miara LJ, Hon G, Wigner NA, Toben D, Jacobsen KA, Al-Sebaei MO, Song M, Trackman PC,
Morgan EF, Gerstenfeld LC, Barnes GL
J Bone Miner Res 2007;22:1903-12
Closed femoral fractures were generated in 8-wk-old male C57Bl/6 mice followed by daily systemic injections of either saline
(control) or 30 μg/kg PTH(1-34) for 14 days after fracture. Bones were harvested at days 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 after
fracture and analyzed at the tissue level by radiography and histomorphometry and at the molecular and biochemical levels level
by RNase protection assay (RPA), real-time PCR, and Western blot analysis. PTH induced a larger callus cross-sectional area,
length, and total volume compared with controls. Molecular analysis of the expression of extracellular matrix genes associated
with chondrogenesis and osteogenesis showed that PTH treated fractures displayed a 3-fold greater increase in
chondrogenesis relative to osteogenesis over the course of the repair process. In addition, chondrocyte hypertrophy occurred earlier
in the PTH-treated callus tissues. Analysis of the expression of potential mediators of PTH actions showed that PTH treatment
induced the expression of Wnts 4, 5a, 5b, and 10b and increased levels of unphosphorylated, nuclear localized beta-catenin protein,
a central feature of canonical Wnt signaling. PTH-mediated enhancement of fracture repair is primarily associated with an
amplification of chondrocyte recruitment and maturation and an increase in canonical Wnt signaling supporting the conclusion
that PTH effects on bone repair are mediated at least in part through the activation of Wnt-signaling pathways.
9.2.201 Intermittent administration of human parathyroid hormone enhances bone formation and union at the site
of cancellous bone osteotomy in normal and ovariectomized rats
Nozaka K, Miyakoshi N, Kasukawa Y, Maekawa S, Noguchi H, Shimada Y
Bone 2008;42:90-7
After a bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) cancellous bone osteotomy was performed on the right proximal tibia. After once-a-week hPTH
(1-34) (100 μg/kg) or its vehicle for 4 weeks, bilateral tibiae including osteotomy and non-osteotomy sites were harvested.
hPTH increased cancellous bone volume by stimulating bone formation in both normal and OVX rats and suppressed
adipocyte volume (p<0.05). The percentage of PCNA-positive cells at the osteotomy site after PTH treatment was 2- to 3-fold
higher than that of vehicle both in sham-operated and OVX rats (p<0.05). The magnitude of increase in the percentage of
PCNA-positive cells after PTH at the osteotomy site was two times higher than that at the non-osteotomy site. PTH
increased cancellous bone union after osteotomy both in sham-operated and OVX rats (p<0.05).
9.2.202 Interleukin-18 is regulated by parathyroid hormone and is required for its bone anabolic actions
Raggatt LJ, Qin L, Tamasi J, Jefcoat SC, Jr., Shimizu E, Selvamurugan N, Liew FY, Bevelock L, Feyen JH, Partridge NC
J Biol Chem 2008;283:6790-8
IL-18 expression is increased in UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic cells in response to PTH. IL-18 mRNA increased by 2 h and
had diminished after 12 h. Female IL-18 null mice and wild type littermate controls were injected with human 1-38 PTH for 4
weeks and the anabolic effect of PTH was abolished in trabecular bone not cortical bone.
9.2.203 Effectiveness of antiresorptive agents in the prevention of recurrent hip fractures
Morin S, Rahme E, Behlouli H, Tenenhouse A, Goltzman D, Pilote L
Osteoporos Int 2007;18:1625-32
Of 20,644 patients, 6,779 filled a prescription for antiresorptive agents. There were 992 recurrent hip fractures. Patients exposed
to antiresorptives had a 26% reduction in the rate of recurrent fractures (adjusted hazard ratio 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64-0.86) compared
to patients who were not. All subgroups experienced a reduction in recurrent fracture, except the very elderly.
9.2.204 Bone turnover and bone collagen maturation in osteoporosis: Effects of antiresorptive therapies
Byrjalsen I, Leeming DJ, Qvist P, Christiansen C, Karsdal MA
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:339-48
Participants were from cohorts of healthy postmenopausal women participating in double blind, placebo-controlled 2-year studies
of alendronate, ibandronate, intranasal hormone replacement therapy (HRT), oral HRT, transdermal HRT, or raloxifene (n=427).
The non-isomerized ααCTX and isomerized ββCTX were measured in urine samples obtained at baseline, and after 6, 12, and
24 months of therapy. Bone collagen maturation measured as the ratio between ααCTX and ββCTX showed that
bisphosphonate treatment induced a collagen profile consistent with an older matrix with a 52% (alendronate) and 38%
(ibandronate) reduction in the ratio between the two CTX isoforms vs. 3% and 15% with HRT or raloxifene, respectively.
Anti-resorptive treatments had different effects on the endogenous profile of bone collagen maturation.
Fig. 9.2.204a Urinary ααCTX in percentage of baseline values in postmenopausal women during 24 months of anti-resorptive
therapy. Upper left shows the placebo-corrected changes, and upper right the placebo-corrected time-averaged mean during
the treatment period. The lower panels show values relative to baseline in each study in the placebo ( ) and active treatment groups
( ). AL (alendronate); IB (ibandronate); HRT-N (intranasal HRT); HRT-O (oral HRT); HRT-T (transdermal HRT); RLX
(raloxifene). Values shown are geometric mean±1SEM. The level of significance denotes difference from the placebo group:
*p<0.05; ***p<0.001. Reproduced from Osteoporos Int 2008; 19:339-48 wih permission from Springer.
Fig. 9.2.204b Urinary ββCTX in percentage of baseline values in postmenopausal women during 24 months of anti-resorptive
therapy. Upper left shows the placebo-corrected changes, and upper right the placebo-corrected time-averaged mean during
the treatment period. The lower panels show values relative to baseline in each study in the placebo ( ) and active treatment groups
( ). AL (alendronate); IB (ibandronate); HRT-N (intranasal HRT); HRT-O (oral HRT); HRT-T (transdermal HRT); RLX
(raloxifene). Values shown are geometric mean±1SEM. The level of significance denotes difference from the placebo group:
**p<0.01; ***p<0.001. Reproduced from Osteoporos Int 2008; 19:339-48 wih permission from Springer.
Fig. 9.2.204c Urinary ααCTX/ββCTX ratio in percentage of baseline values in postmenopausal women during 24 months of
anti-resorptive therapy. Upper left shows the placebo-corrected changes, and upper right the placebo-corrected time-averaged
mean during the treatment period. The lower panels show values relative to baseline in each study in the placebo ( ) and
active treatment groups ( ). AL (alendronate); IB (ibandronate); HRT-N (intranasal HRT); HRT-O (oral HRT); HRT-T
(transdermal HRT); RLX (raloxifene). Values shown are geometric mean±1SEM. The level of significance denotes difference from
the placebo group: *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001. Reproduced from Osteoporos Int 2008; 19:339-48 wih permission from Springer.
Fig. 9.2.204d Changes in percentage per year in BMDhip (a) and BMDspine (b) in postmenopausal women during antiresorptive therapy. AL (alendronate); IB (ibandronate); HRT-N (intranasal HRT); HRT-O (oral HRT); HRT-T (transdermal HRT);
RLX (raloxifene). In the individual studies the values were adjusted for the corresponding placebo group. Values shown are
mean±1SEM. The level of significance denotes difference from the placebo group: **p<0.01; ***p<0.001. Reproduced
from Osteoporos Int 2008; 19:339-48 wih permission from Springer.
9.2.205 Histomorphometric and muT analysis of bone biopsies from postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated
with strontium ranelate
Arlot ME, Jiang Y, Genant HK, Zhao J, Burt-Pichat B, Roux JP, Delmas PD, Meunier PJ
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:215-22
One hundred forty-one transiliac bone biopsies were obtained from 133 postmenopausal osteoporotic women: 49 biopsies after 1-5
yr of 2 g/d strontium ranelate and 92 biopsies at baseline or after 1-5 yr of placebo. Histomorphometry provided a 2D demonstration
of the bone safety of strontium ranelate, with significantly higher mineral apposition rate (MAR) in cancellous bone (+9% vs.
control, p=0.019) and borderline higher in cortical bone (+10%, p=0.056). Osteoblast surfaces were higher (+38% vs.
control, p=0.047). 3D analysis of 3-yr biopsies with treatment (20 biopsies) and placebo (21 biopsies) using μCT showed changes
in microarchitecture with, in the strontium ranelate group, higher cortical thickness (+18%, p=0.008) and trabecular number
(+14%, p=0.05), and lower structure model index (-22%, p=0.01) and trabecular separation (-16%, p=0.04), with no change in
cortical porosity.
9.2.206 Strontium ranelate reduces the risk of vertebral fractures in patients with osteopenia
Seeman E, Devogelaer JP, Lorenc R, Spector T, Brixen K, Balogh A, Stucki G, Reginster JY
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:433-8
Data from the Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention study (SOTI; n=1649) and the TReatment Of Peripheral
OSteoporosis (TROPOS; n=5091) were pooled to evaluate the antivertebral fracture efficacy of strontium ranelate in women
with lumbar spine (LS) osteopenia with any BMD value at the femoral neck (FN; N=1166) and in 265 women with osteopenia at
both sites (intention-to-treat analysis). The women were randomized to strontium ranelate 2 g/d orally or placebo for 3 yr. In
women with LS osteopenia, treatment reduced the risk of vertebral fracture by 41%, by 59% (RR=0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.99) in the
447 patients with no prevalent fractures, and by 38% (RR=0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.88) in the 719 patients with prevalent fractures.
In women with osteopenia at both sites, treatment reduced the risk of fracture by 52%. Strontium ranelate safely reduces the risk
of vertebral fractures in women with osteopenia with or without a prevalent fracture.
9.2.207 Dual effect of strontium ranelate: Stimulation of osteoblast differentiation and inhibition of osteoclast formation
and resorption in vitro
Bonnelye E, Chabadel A, Saltel F, Jurdic P
Bone 2008;42:129-38
In primary murine osteoblasts and osteoclasts derived from calvaria and spleen cells strontium ranelate continuously or
during proliferation or differentiation phases of mouse calvaria cells, stimulates osteoblast formation. After 22 days of
continuous treatment, expression of the osteoblast markers ALP, BSP and OCN increased, and was combined with an increase
in bone nodule numbers. The number of mature osteoclasts decreased after treatment. Similarly to previous studies, we confirm
that osteoclasts resorbing activity was also reduced but we found that strontium ranelate was associated with a disruption of
the osteoclast actin-containing sealing zone.
9.2.208 Differential effects of D-hormone analogs and native vitamin D on the risk of falls: A comparative meta-analysis
Richy F, Dukas L, Schacht E
Calcif Tissue Int 2008;82:102-7
Fourteen trials including 21,268 subjects were included. Using double-blind data only, vitamin D-hormone analogs provided
a statistically significant lower level of risk for falling compared to native vitamin D: RR=0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.64-0.96)
vs. 0.94 (0.87-1.01) (intergroup difference P=0.049). The dropout rates observed in the two sets of trials were comparable: 0.33%
per month. Upon current evidence, D-hormone analogs seem to prevent falls to a greater extent than their native compound.
9.2.209 Effects of ergocalciferol added to calcium on the risk of falls in elderly high-risk women
Prince RL, Austin N, Devine A, Dick IM, Bruce D, Zhu K
Arch Intern Med 2008;168:103-8
A 1-year double-blind, randomized controlled trial of 302 community-dwelling ambulant older women aged 70 to 90 years with a
serum 25-hydroxyvitamin <24.0 ng/mL and a history of falling in the previous year were randomized to ergocalciferol, 1000 IU/d,
or placebo. Both groups received calcium citrate, 1000 mg/d. Ergocalciferol reduced the risk of at least 1 fall after adjustment for
height (ergocalciferol, 53.0%; control, 62.9%; OR=0.61, 0.37-0.99). Ergocalciferol reduced the risk of having the first fall in winter
and spring ergocalciferol group, 25.2%; control, 35.8%; OR, 0.55 (0.32-0.96) but not in summer and autumn, and reduced the risk
of having 1 fall (ergocalciferol 21.2%; control 33.8%; OR, 0.50; (0.28-0.88) but not multiple falls. Patients with a history of falling
and vitamin D insufficiency in sunny climates benefit from ergocalciferol and calcium, which is associated with a 19% reduction in
the relative risk of falling, mostly in winter.
9.2.210 Effects of calcium and vitamin d supplementation on hip bone mineral density and calcium-related analytes in
elderly ambulatory Australian women: A five-year randomized controlled trial
Zhu K, Devine A, Dick IM, Wilson SG, Prince RL
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:743-9
A 5-year randomised controlled double-blind trial of 120 community-dwelling women aged 70-80 years given Calcium 1200 mg/d
(Ca group) or 1000 IU/d vitamin D2 (CaD group), double placebo (control). Hip BMD was preserved in CaD (-0.17%) and Ca
(0.19%) groups. not controls (-1.27%) at year one and maintained in the CaD group at years 3 and 5. The benefits were in those
with baseline 25OHD levels below the median (68 nmol/L). At year one, Ca and CaD groups had 6.8% and 11.3% lower
plasma alkaline phosphatase, respectively (P≤0.02), and 28.7% and 34.5% lower urinary DPD/Cr ratio, respectively (P≤0.05). At
5 years, this suppression was only maintained in the CaD group. CaD reduced PTH at 3 and 5 years (27.8 and 31.3%, P≤0.005)
in those with baseline PTH above the median (3.6 pmol/L). Addition of vitamin D to calcium has long term beneficial effects on
bone density in elderly women living in a sunny climate, probably mediated by a long term reduction in bone turnover rate.
9.2.211 Alfacalcidol-stimulated focal bone formation on the cancellous surface and increased bone formation on
the periosteal surface of the lumbar vertebrae of adult female rats
Chen H, Tian X, Liu X, Setterberg RB, Li M, Jee WS
Calcif Tissue Int 2008;82:127-36
Seventy-four 8.5-month-old rats were administered 0, 0.005, 0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 μg/kg of alfacalcidol for 12 weeks, alone or
in combination with exercise. At 0.05 and 0.1 μg/kg, alfacalcidol increasd cancellous bone volume. Percent eroded surface,
bone resorption and formation were suppressed by alfacalcidol. However, mineral apposition rate was increased. A positive
balance between bone formation and resorption was observed in the rats treated with the highest dose of alfacalcidol.
Alfacalcidol induced a unique bone formation site ("bouton") on the cancellous surface. These boutons connected adjacent
trabeculae and increased trabecular thickness. They exhibited both smooth and scalloped cement lines, suggesting that they
were formed by minimodeling- and remodeling-based bone formation. Furthermore, alfacalcidol at 0.1 mug/kg increased
periosteal bone formation of the lumbar transverse processes. Bipedal stance exercise alone did not have an effect on bone
balance and bone turnover. There were no interactions between alfacalcidol and bipedal stance exercise. Alfacalcidol exhibited
both anti-catabolic and anabolic effects on bone in intact female rats. The effect of combined treatment with alfacalcidol and
bipedal stance exercise was no better than that of alfacalcidol alone.
9.2.212 Two-year treatment with denosumab (AMG 162) in a randomized phase 2 study of postmenopausal women with
low BMD
Lewiecki EM, Miller PD, McClung MR, Cohen SB, Bolognese MA, Liu Y, Wang A, Siddhanti S, Fitzpatrick LA
J Bone Miner Res 2007;22:1832-41
Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits RANKL. Four hundred twelve postmenopausal women with
lumbar spine BMD T-scores of -1.8 to -4.0 or femoral neck/total hip T-scores of -1.8 to -3.5 were randomly assigned to
subcutaneous placebo; denosumab 6, 14, or 30 mg every 3 mo; denosumab 14, 60, 100, or 210 mg every 6 mo; or open-label
oral alendronate 70 mg once weekly. Denosumab increased BMD at all measured skeletal sites and decreased turnover markers at
24 mo. At the lumbar spine, BMD increases with denosumab ranged from 4.13% to 8.89%. BMD changes with denosumab 30
mg every 3 mo and ≥60 mg every 6 mo were similar to, or in some cases greater than, with alendronate. The incidence of
adverse events was similar in the placebo, denosumab, and alendronate treatment groups.
Fig. 9.2.212a Comparison of percentage change in BMD and laboratory parameters with denosumab 3-mo regimens,
alendronate, and placebo ( , placebo; , denosumab 6 mg; , denosumab 14 mg; , denosumab 30 mg; , alendronate 70
mg weekly). Between-group differences at p<0.05 were observed based on ANCOVA model adjusting for treatment
group, geographical location, and baseline value as follows: (a) denosumab 6 mg vs. placebo; (b) denosumab 14 mg vs. placebo;
(c) denosumab 30 mg vs. placebo; (d) alendronate vs. placebo. Error bars denote SE. Reproduced from J Bone Miner
Res 2007;22:1832-41 with permission of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Fig. 9.2.212b Comparison of percentage change in BMD and laboratory parameters with denosumab 6-mo regimens,
alendronate, and placebo ( , placebo; , denosumab 14 mg; , denosumab 60 mg; , denosumab 100 mg; , denosumab 210
mg; , alendronate 70 mg weekly). Between-group differences at p<0.05 were observed based on ANCOVA model adjusting
for treatment group, geographical location, and baseline value as follows: (a) denosumab 14 mg vs. placebo; (b) denosumab 60
mg vs. placebo; (c) denosumab 100 mg vs. placebo; (d) denosumab 210 mg vs. placebo; (e) alendronate vs. placebo. Error
bars denote SE. Reproduced from J Bone Miner Res 2007;22:1832-41 with permission of the American Society for Bone and
Mineral Research.
9.2.213 Cathepsin K inhibitors prevent matrix-derived growth factor degradation by human osteoclasts
Fuller K, Lawrence KM, Ross JL, Grabowska UB, Shiroo M, Samuelsson B, Chambers TJ
Bone 2008;42:200-11
CathK-inhibitors suppress degradation of the organic matrix of bone while allowing demineralization. CathK-inhibitors increased
the concentrations of matrix-derived proteins in supernatants of osteoclasts on bone, most likely through protection
against intracellular degradation. Protons are necessary and sufficient for the release of IGF-I from bone matrix, and that
recombinant CathK can degrade both marker proteins. In the presence of a CathK-inhibitor, the amount of IGF-I released from
matrix exceeded the amount secreted by osteoclasts. CathK-inhibition augmented bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2
release. Lastly, MC3T3-E1 numbers were greater after co-culture with osteoclasts on bone with versus without CathKinhibitor, showing that, in the presence of CathK-inhibitor, osteoclasts release biologically-significant quantities of biologicallyactive matrix-derived growth factors. These results support a model in which osteoclastic secretion of protons demineralizes
bone, causing release of growth factors from bone matrix. Normally these are largely degraded, with collagen, in the
resorptive hemivacuole and during transcytosis to the basal surface of the osteoclast, but in the presence of CathK inhibitor they
are released intact, and so might augment bone formation.
9.2.214 Estradiol rapidly inhibits osteoclastogenesis and RANKL expression in bone marrow cultures in
postmenopausal women: A pilot study
Taxel P, Kaneko H, Lee SK, Aguila HL, Raisz LG, Lorenzo JA
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:193-9
Estrogen (E(2)) deficiency at menopause increases osteoclast (OCL) formation and bone resorption, predisposing women
to osteoporosis. We examined receptor activator of NF-kappa B-ligand (RANKL) expression and in vitro OCL formation in
cultured bone marrow cells from eight postmenopausal women before and after 3 weeks of E(2) and three untreated
premenopausal women. RANKL (3-100 ng/ml) produced a dose-dependent increase in in vitro OC formation and E(2)
(p<0.01) inhibited OCL formation by 33-50%. A small proportion of marrow cells bound anti- RANKL Ab (0.2-4.3%). There was
no effect of E(2) on the percentage of cells binding the anti-RANKL Ab in the R1 fraction. In the R2 fraction E(2) decreased
the percentage of cells binding anti-RANKL Ab by 68±9% (p<0.01). Three weeks of E(2) had a dual action. It inhibited the ability
of hematopoietic cells to form OCLs in response to RANKL, and decreased the production of RANKL in cells of the bone marrow.
9.2.215 Effects of treatment with fluoride on bone mineral density and fracture risk: A meta-analysis
Vestergaard P, Jorgensen NR, Schwarz P, Mosekilde L
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:257-68
Twenty-five eligible studies were identified. Spine BMD increased 7.9%, 95% CI: 5.4-10.5%, and hip BMD 2.1%, 95% CI: 0.9-3.4%.
A meta-regression showed increasing spine BMD with increasing treatment duration (5.04±2.16%/year of treatment). Overall
there was no significant effect on the risk of vertebral (OR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.5-1.5) or non-vertebral fracture (OR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.51.4). With a daily dose of ≤20 mg fluoride equivalents (152 mg monofluorophosphate/44 mg sodium fluoride), there was a
significant reduction in vertebral (OR=0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.9) and non-vertebral (OR=0.5, 95% CI: 0.3-0.8) fracture risk. With a
daily dose >20 mg fluoride equivalents, there was no reduction in vertebral (OR=1.3, 95% CI: 0.8-2.0) and non-vertebral
(OR=1.5, 95% CI: 0.8-2.8) fracture risk. Fluoride increases spine and hip BMD, depending on treatment duration. Overall there was
no effect on hip or spine fracture risk. However, in subgroup analyses a low fluoride dose (≤20 mg/day of fluoride equivalents)
was associated with a significant reduction in fracture risk.
9.2.216 Effect of vitamin K supplementation on bone loss in elderly men and women
Booth SL, Dallal G, Shea MK, Gundberg C, Peterson JW, Dawson-Hughes B
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;[Epub ahead of print]
To determine the effect of three-year phylloquinone supplementation 452 men and women (60-80 y) were randomized to 500 μg/d
or no phylloquinone, plus a daily calcium (600 mg elemental calcium) and vitamin D (400 IU) supplement. Intent-to-treat analysis
was used to compare change in measures in 401 participants who completed the trial. There were no differences in changes in
bone mineral density at any site between the two groups. The group that received the phylloquinone had higher phylloquinone
and lower % undercarboxylated osteocalcin concentrations. No other biochemical measures differed between the two
groups. Phylloquinone supplementation does not confer any additional benefit for bone health at the spine or hip when taken
with recommended amounts of calcium and vitamin D.
9.2.217 Locally applied simvastatin promotes fracture healing in ovariectomized rat
Wang JW, Xu SW, Yang DS, Lv RK
Osteoporos Int 2007;18:1641-50
Simvastatin (10 mg/kg/day) was injected subcutaneously to tissue overlying the site of fractured tibiae of ovariectomized rats for
a treatment period of 5 days. Vehicle reagent was used as a control. Healing quality was evaluated at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after
fracture. Compared with that in the vehicle group, the callus cross-section area in simvastatin-treated rats was enlarged by
21.3% (p<0.05) at 1 week and by 21.5% (p<0.05) at 2 weeks; new woven bone was relatively substantive and arranged more
tightly and regularly at 2 and 4 weeks; and maximal load was increased by 57.5% (p<0.05) at 2 weeks and by 31.4% (p<0.05) at
4 weeks. Histomorphometrically, simvastatin was associated with a significant (p<0.05) increase of mineralization width
(MLW), mineralization volume (MLV) and mineral apposition rate (MAR). The current study suggests that local application
of simvastatin could promote fracture healing in ovariectomized rats.
Fig. 9.2.217 Radiographs of tibiae of Sprague-Dawley rats at 1 (a, d), 2 (b, e) and 4 (c, f) weeks after fracture. The
progressed consolidation of the fracture gap in OVX+SVS (e, f) groups is clearly recognizable compared with the OVX+vehicle (b,
c) group at 2 and 4 weeks. Reproduced from Osteoporos Int 2007; 18:1641-50 wih permission from Springer.
9.2.218 The impact of expressions of treatment efficacy and out-of-pocket expenses on patient and physician interest
in osteoporosis treatment: implications for pay-for-performance programs
Sinsky CA, Foreman-Hoffman V, Cram P
J Gen Intern Med 2008;23:164-8
To assess how patient and provider compliance with osteoporosis CPGs varies when efficacy is presented as relative risk
reduction (RRR) vs. absolute risk reduction (ARR). Patient and provider acceptance of pharmacotherapy when treatment
efficacy (reduction in hip fractures) was expressed in relative terms (35% RRR) vs. absolute terms (1% ARR); acceptance
of pharmacotherapy as patient drug copayment increased from 0% to 100% of the total drug costs. Compliance with CPGs fell
when the expression of treatment benefit was switched from RRR to ARR for both patients (86% vs. 57% compliance; P<0.001)
and physicians (97% vs. 56% compliance; P<0.001). Increasing drug copayment from 0% to 10% of total drug cost decreased
patient compliance with CPGs from 80% to 57% (P<0.001) but did not impact physician compliance.
9.2.219 Cost effectiveness of hormone therapy in women at high risks of fracture in Sweden, the US and the UK:
Results based on the Women's Health Initiative randomised controlled trial
Lekander I, Borgstrom F, Strom O, Zethraeus N, Kanis JA
Bone 2008;42:294-306
The cost effectiveness of 50 year old women was assessed based on a societal perspective and the medical evidence found in
the Women Health Initiative (WHI) trials. The model had a lifetime horizon divided into cycle lengths of 1 year and comprised
the following disease states: hip fracture, vertebral fracture, wrist fracture, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, coronary heart
disease, stroke and venous thromboembolic events. An intervention was modelled by its impact on the disease risks during and
after the cessation of treatment. HT compared to no treatment was cost-effective for most subgroups of hysterectomised
women, whereas for women with an intact uterus without a previous fracture, HT was commonly dominated by no treatment.
Fracture risks were the single most important determinant of the cost effectiveness results.
Fig. 9.2.219 Acceptability curves for 60 year old osteoporotic (T-score = −2.5 SD) women. (a) Hysterectomised women with a
previous fracture. (b) Hysterectomised women without a previous fracture. (c) Women with intact uterus and a previous fracture.
Note: These figures illustrate the results from the probabilistic analyses. The results represent the proportion of ICERs that fall
below different values of willingness to pay (WTP). The WTP sets the threshold value for when an intervention is deemed
cost-effective. The results illustrated in panel (a) have, for example, a higher probability of falling below smaller values of WTP than
the results in panel (c). Reproduced from Bone, 42:294-306, Copyright (2008), with permission from Elsevier.
9.2.220 Successful direct intervention for osteoporosis in patients with minimal trauma fractures
Kuo I, Ong C, Simmons L, Bliuc D, Eisman J, Center J
Osteoporos Int 2007;18:1633-9
From March 2004 to March 2006, 155 consecutive minimal-trauma fracture subjects (mean age 64.0±17.6) attending fracture
clinics had a medical assessment, following which they were recommended BMD and laboratory testing. Treatment
recommendations were given after review of investigations with follow-up at a median of 8.6 months. Comparison of outcomes
was made with a similar group of patients given written information 2 years prior. At baseline, 47% of patients had prior fractures,
but only 26% had had BMD screening. Twenty-one percent were on anti-resorptive therapy, and 15% were on calcium/vitamin
D. Following intervention, 83% had a BMD and of these, 68% had a T-score < -1.0. Of treatment naive patients, 44%
were recommended anti-resorptive therapy and 56% were recommended calcium/vitamin D. Compliance was 80% for antiresorptive and 76% for calcium/vitamin D. Female gender and lower BMD were predictors of compliance. Compared with
information-based intervention, direct intervention improved management two to fivefold, maintaining long-term treatment in 90%
of osteoporotic and 73% of osteopenic subjects requiring therapy.
9.2.221 Microstimulation at the bone-implant interface upregulates osteoclast activation pathways
Stadelmann VA, Terrier A, Pioletti DP
Bone 2008;42:358-64
So far no data exists directly quantifying the effect of micromotion and compression on human bone. Gene expression of
RANKL, OPG, TGFB2, IFNG and CSF-1 was analyzed after no mechanical stimulation (control), exposure to compression or
exposure to micromotions. We observed an 8-fold upregulation of RANKL after exposure to micromotions, and downregulation
of OPG, IFNG and TGFB2. The RANKL:OPG ratio was upregulated 24-fold after micromotions. This suggests that the
micromotions arising at the bone-implant interface during normal gait cycles induce a bone resorption response after only 1 h,
which occurs before any wear debris particles enter the system.
9.2.222 Pharmacologic targeting of a stem/progenitor population in vivo is associated with enhanced bone regeneration
in mice
Mukherjee S, Raje N, Schoonmaker JA, Liu JC, Hideshima T, Wein MN, Jones DC, Vallet S, Bouxsein ML, Pozzi S, Chhetri S,
Seo YD, Aronson JP, Patel C, Fulciniti M, Purton LE, Glimcher LH, Lian JB, Stein G, Anderson KC, Scadden DT
J Clin Invest 2008;118:491-504
Bortezomib (Bzb) is a proteasome inhibitor used in multiple myeloma. Bzb induces MSCs to undergo osteoblastic differentiation,
in part by modulation of the bone-specifying transcription factor Runx-2 in mice. Mice implanted with MSCs showed increased
ectopic ossicle and bone formation when recipients received low doses of Bzb. Furthermore, this treatment increased bone
formation and rescued bone loss in a mouse model of osteoporosis. Thus, we show that a tissue-resident adult stem cell population
in vivo can be pharmacologically modified to promote a regenerative function in adult animals.
9.2.223 Continuous local infusion of fibroblast growth factor-2 enhances consolidation of the bone segment lengthened
by distraction osteogenesis in rabbit experiment
Abbaspour A, Takata S, Sairyo K, Katoh S, Yukata K, Yasui N
Bone 2008;42:98-106
Experimental tibial lengthening was achieved in 61 rabbits to examine the effect of continuous local infusion of recombinant
human fibroblast growth factor-2 (rhFGF-2) on bone healing of the lengthened segment. The tibial diaphysis was separated
by osteotomy and was subjected to slow progressive distraction (rate: 0.35 mm/12 h). At various stages of distraction, rhFGF-2
was infused continuously for 2 weeks into the lengthened segment (rate: 14.28 μg/60 mul/day). Bone healing was
significantly accelerated when rhFGF-2 was infused in the beginning of consolidation phase, but not in the distraction phase or in
the lag phase. rhFGF-2-treated tibia had increased bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and cortical
bone thickness (CBT). Three-point bending test demonstrated that rhFGF-2-treated bone had stronger mechanical properties than N/
S-treated bone. rhFGF-2 into the lengthened segment can shorten the consolidation phase of limb lengthening and the method
is applicable to the clinical treatment.
9.2.224 Recommendations for the clinical evaluation of agents for treatment of osteoporosis: Consensus of an expert
panel representing the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR), the International Society for
Clinical Densitometry (ISCD), and the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF)
Silverman SL, Cummings SR, Watts NB
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:159-65
9.2.225 The care gap in diagnosis and treatment of women with a fragility fracture
Bessette L, Ste-Marie LG, Jean S, Davison KS, Beaulieu M, Baranci M, Bessant J, Brown JP
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:79-86
9.2.226 Efficacy and tolerability of intravenous ibandronate injections in postmenopausal osteoporosis: 2-year results
from the DIVA Study
Eisman JA, Civitelli R, Adami S, Czerwinski E, Recknor C, Prince R, Reginster JY, Zaidi M, Felsenberg D, Hughes C, Mairon
N, Masanauskaite D, Reid DM, Delmas PD, Recker RR
J Rheumatol 2008;35:488-97
9.2.227 Bisphosphonates reduce local recurrence in extremity giant cell tumor of bone: A case-control study
Tse LF, Wong KC, Kumta SM, Huang L, Chow TC, Griffith JF
Bone 2008;42:68-73
9.2.228 Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis can hide jaw metastases
Bedogni A, Saia G, Ragazzo M, Bettini G, Capelli P, D'Alessandro E, Nocini PF, Russo LL, Lo Muzio L, Blandamura S
Bone 2007;41:942-5
9.2.229 Zoledronate-related osteonecrosis of the mandible
Ho L, Quan V, Henderson R
Clin Nucl Med 2008;33:68-70
9.2.230 The effects of bone remodeling inhibition by alendronate on three-dimensional microarchitecture of
subchondral bone tissues in guinea pig primary osteoarthrosis
Ding M, Danielsen CC, Hvid I
Calcif Tissue Int 2008;82:77-86
9.2.231 Characteristics of patients initiating teriparatide for the treatment of osteoporosis
Foster SA, Foley KA, Meadows ES, Johnston JA, Wang S, Pohl GM, Long SR
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:373-7
9.2.232 Control of the SOST bone enhancer by PTH using MEF2 transcription factors
Leupin O, Kramer I, Collette NM, Loots GG, Natt F, Kneissel M, Keller H
J Bone Miner Res 2007;22:1957-67
9.2.233 Genetic background influences fluoride's effects on osteoclastogenesis
Yan D, Gurumurthy A, Wright M, Pfeiler TW, Loboa EG, Everett ET
Bone 2007;41:1036-44
9.2.234 Autologous stem cell regeneration in craniosynostosis
Moioli EK, Clark PA, Sumner DR, Mao JJ
Bone 2008;42:332-40
9.2.235 Uptake and adherence with soft- and hard-shelled hip protectors in Norwegian nursing homes: A cluster
randomised trial
Bentzen H, Forsen L, Becker C, Bergland A
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:101-11
© 2008 International Osteoporosis Foundation
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Exercise
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
9.2.236 Physical training preserves bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with forearm fractures and low
bone mineral density
Bergstrom I, Landgren B, Brinck J, Freyschuss B
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:177-83
One hundred and twelve postmenopausal women 45-65 years with forearm fractures and T-scores from -1.0 to -3.0 were
randomized to either a physical training or control group. Training included three fast 30-minute walks and two sessions of onehour training per week. A per protocol analysis was performed, including 48 subjects in the training group and 44 subjects in
the control group. The total hip BMD increased in the training group +0.005 g/cm2 (±0.018), +0.58%, while it decreased -0.003 g/
cm2 (±0.019), -0.36%, (p=0.041) in the control group. No significant effects of physical training were seen in the lumbar spine.
A sensitivity intention to treat analysis, including all randomized subjects, showed no significant effect of physical training on BMD
at any site. Despite this the authors infer a small but positive effect of physical exercise on hip BMD in postmenopausal women
with low BMD.
9.2.237 Interaction between playing golf and HRT on vertebral bone properties in post-menopausal women measured by QCT
Eser P, Cook J, Black J, Iles R, Daly RM, Ptasznik R, Bass SL
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:311-9
Forty-seven postmenopausal women who played golf regularly were compared to 25 controls. Bone parameters at the midvertebral body were determined by QCT at spinal levels T3, T7, T12 and L2 (cross-sectional area (CSA), total volumetric
BMD (vBMD), trabecular vBMD of the central 50% of total CSA, BMC and cortical rim thickness). At T7 and L2, CSA of trunk
muscles was determined. There was a positive interaction between golf and HRT for vertebral CSA and BMC at T12 and L2, but not
at T3 or T7 (p ranging <0.02 to 0.07). Current HRT use was associated with a 10-15% greater total and trabecular vBMD.
Vertebral CSA was the bone parameter significantly related to muscle CSA. These findings provide preliminary evidence that
playing golf may improve lower spine bone strength in postmenopausal women who are using HRT.
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9.2.238 WISE-2005: Supine treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure and flywheel resistive exercise as
a countermeasure to bed rest-induced bone loss in women during 60-day simulated microgravity
Smith SM, Zwart SR, Heer M, Lee SM, Baecker N, Meuche S, Macias BR, Shackelford LC, Schneider S, Hargens AR
Bone 2008;42:572-81
After a 20-day ambulatory adaptation to controlled confinement and diet, 16 women participated in a 60-day, 6 degrees head-downtilt BR and were assigned randomly to one of the two groups. Control subjects (CON, n=8) performed no countermeasure.
Exercise subjects (EX, n=8) participated in an exercise program during BR, alternating between supine treadmill exercise within
lower body negative pressure (3-4 d wk(-1)) and flywheel resistive exercise (2-3 d wk(-1)). By the last week of BR, excretion of
helical peptide (CON, 79%±44 increase; EX, 64%±50, mean±SD) and N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide (CON, 51%±34; EX,
43%±56), markers of bone resorption, were greater than they were before BR in both groups (P<0.05). However,
serum concentrations of the bone formation marker procollagen type I N propeptide were greater in EX than CON throughout and
after bed rest (P<0.05), while concentrations of the bone formation marker bone alkaline phosphatase tended to be greater in EX
than CON. Exercise attenuated loss of hip and leg bone mineral density in EX compared to CON. The combination of resistive
and aerobic exercise did not prevent bone resorption but did promote bone formation, and helped mitigate the net bone
loss associated with simulated microgravity.
9.2.239 Effects of different types of weight-bearing loading on bone mass and size in young males: A longitudinal study
Nordstrom A, Hogstrom M, Nordstrom P
Bone 2008;42:565-71
9.2.240 Compressive forces induce osteogenic gene expression in calvarial osteoblasts
Rath B, Nam J, Knobloch TJ, Lannutti JJ, Agarwal S
J Biomech 2008;41:1095-103
9.2.241 Responses of intramembranous bone and sutures upon in vivo cyclic tensile and compressive loading
Peptan AI, Lopez A, Kopher RA, Mao JJ
Bone 2008;42:432-8
9.2.242 The lipogenic gene Spot 14 is activated in bone by disuse yet remains unaffected by a mechanical signal anabolic
to the skeleton
Zhi J, Xu G, Rubin CT, Hadjiargyrou M
Calcif Tissue Int 2008;82:148-54
© 2008 International Osteoporosis Foundation
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Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
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9.2.243 An association between socioeconomic, health and health behavioural indicators and fractures in young adult males
●
Overview
Mattila VM, Jormanainen V, Sahi T, Pihlajamaki H
Osteoporos Int 2007;18:1609-15
Literature Review
In 7,378 conscript males (median age 19), of which 7,083 (96%) answered. 2,456 (34.7%) participants reported fracture(s). The
most common anatomical locations of fracture were the forearm, the hand and the ankle. The strongest risk indicators for
fractures were frequent drunkenness (OR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.0), regular sports training (OR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.3-1.9), frequent use
of health care services (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.8) and obesity (OR 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2-1.9).
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9.2.244 Outdoor air pollution and bone mineral density in elderly men: The Oslo Health Study
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Histomorphology
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Biomechanics
Alvaer K, Meyer HE, Falch JA, Nafstad P, Sogaard AJ
Osteoporos Int 2007;18:1669-74
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Growth
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Remodelling Markers
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In an osteoporosis sub-study of the population-based Oslo Health Study (2000-2001) BMD of total body and total hip (mg/cm(2))
was measured by DXA in 590 men 75-76 years old. Exposure to air pollution (particulate matter (PM(10) and PM(2.5)) and
nitrogen dioxide (NO(2))) at each participant's home address was estimated from 1992 to 2001. Air pollution was inversely
associated with total body BMD, whereas no association was found for total hip BMD. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) [95% CI] for
low total body BMD (Z-score ≤-1) was per standard deviation increase 1.33 [1.05-1.70] for PM(2.5), 1.28 [1.00-1.63] for PM(10),
and 1.24 [0.97-1.59] for NO(2). Stratified by smoking status the adjusted OR for PM(2.5) was 1.73 [1.02-2.95] in current smokers,
1.40 [1.03-1.90] in former smokers and 0.83 [0.43-1.58] in non-smokers. There was a weak but statistically significant
inverse association between indicators of air pollution and total body BMD. Further investigations are warranted.
9.2.245 Endogenous sex hormones and incident fracture risk in older men: The Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study
Meier C, Nguyen TV, Handelsman DJ, Schindler C, Kushnir MM, Rockwood AL, Meikle AW, Center JR, Eisman JA, Seibel MJ
Arch Intern Med 2008;168:47-54
609 men older than 60 years observed between January 1989 and December 2005, with the median duration being 5.8 years (up
to 13 years). During follow-up, 113 men had at least 1 low-trauma fracture. The risk of fracture was increased in men with
reduced testosterone (hazard ratio [HR], 1.33; 1.09-1.62). After adjustment for sex hormone-binding globulin, serum testosterone
(HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.22-1.78) and serum estradiol (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.47) were associated with overall fracture risk.
After further adjustment for major risk factors testosterone was still associated with risk of fracture, particularly with hip (HR, 1.88;
95% CI, 1.24-2.82) and nonvertebral (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03-1.68) fractures.
9.2.246 Effect of testosterone supplementation on functional mobility, cognition, and other parameters in older men:
A randomized controlled trial
Emmelot-Vonk MH, Verhaar HJ, Nakhai Pour HR, Aleman A, Lock TM, Bosch JL, Grobbee DE, van der Schouw YT
Jama 2008;299:39-52
In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 237 healthy men between the ages of 60 and 80 years with a
testosterone below 13.7 nmol/L randomly assigned to 80 mg of testosterone undecenoate or placebo twice daily for 6 months.
207 men completed the study. Lean mass increased and fat mass decreased without an increase of mobility or muscle
strength. Cognitive function and BMD did not change. Insulin sensitivity improved but HDL cholesterol decreased; by the end of
the study, 47.8% in the testosterone group vs 35.5% in the placebo had the metabolic syndrome (P=0.07). Quality-of-life was
no different except for one hormone-related quality-of-life measure. No negative effects on prostate were detected.
Testosterone during 6 months to older men with a low normal testosterone did not affect functional status or cognition.
9.2.247 Adherence to alendronate in male veterans
Hansen KE, Swenson ED, Baltz B, Schuna AA, Jones AN, Elliott ME
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:349-56
Adherence in the first 12 and 24 months of therapy was 59% and 54%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, non-adherence
was more likely in men using tobacco (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.13, 3.84, p=0.02) and reporting side effects (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.14,
3.73, p=0.02) and less likely in men undergoing bone density during therapy (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.26, 0.90, p=0.02). Alendronate
non-adherence is more likely in male veterans who smoke or report side effects, and less likely in men having bone
densitometry during therapy.
9.2.248 The effect of combined androgen blockade on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men with prostate cancer
Yamada Y, Takahashi S, Fujimura T, Nishimatsu H, Ishikawa A, Kume H, Tomita K, Takeuchi T, Kitamura T
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:321-7
Bicalutamide (BL) maintains BMD. 204 men were evaluated (control group: n=56, castration group: n=102, 'CAB with BL' group:
n=22, 'CAB with estramustine phosphate (EMP)' group: n=24). The BMD % Z-score of the castration group was lower than that of
the control group or the 'CAB with EMP' group (90.6% vs. 95.5%, 98.6%; p<0.042, p<0.044, respectively). Levels of u-NTx, uDPD, OC of the castration group were the highest followed by the control group, then the 'CAB with BL' group and the 'CAB with
EMP' group.
9.2.249 Characteristics of males over 50 years who present with a fracture: Epidemiology and underlying risk factors
Sharma S, Fraser M, Lovell F, Reece A, McLellan AR
J Bone Joint Surg Br 2008;90:72-7
© 2008 International Osteoporosis Foundation
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9.2.250 A reference standard for the description of osteoporosis
Kanis JA, McCloskey EV, Johansson H, Oden A, Melton LJ, 3rd, Khaltaev N
Bone 2008;42:467-75
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Epidemiology
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9.2.251 Bone mineralization density distribution in health and disease
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Bone Material
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Bone Structure
Roschger P, Paschalis EP, Fratzl P, Klaushofer K
Bone 2008;42:456-66
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Histomorphology
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Remodelling Markers
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9.2.253 A unified theory for osteonal and hemi-osteonal remodeling
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Risk Factors
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Treatment
van Oers RFM, Ruimerman R, Tanck E, Hilbers PAJ, Huiskes R
Bone 2008;42:250-9
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International Osteoporosis Foundation
Reviews
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
9.2.252 Interaction of bone morphogenetic proteins with cells of the osteoclast lineage: Review of the existing evidence
Giannoudis PV, Kanakaris NK, Einhorn TA
Osteoporos Int 2007;18:1565-81
9.2.254 Genetics, pathogenesis and complications of osteopetrosis
Del Fattore A, Cappariello A, Teti A
Bone 2008;42:19-29
Risk Factors
9.2.255 Correlation of obesity and osteoporosis: Effect of fat mass on the determination of osteoporosis
Zhao LJ, Jiang H, Papasian CJ, Maulik D, Drees B, Hamilton J, Deng HW
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:17-29
9.2.256 Depression and osteoporosis: Epidemiology and potential mediating pathways
Mezuk B, Eaton WW, Golden SH
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:1-12
9.2.257 Skeletal consequences of thiazolidinedione therapy
Grey A
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:129-37
Falls
9.2.258 Shifting the focus in fracture prevention from osteoporosis to falls
Jarvinen TL, Sievanen H, Khan KM, Heinonen A, Kannus P
Bmj 2008;336:124-6
Treatment
9.2.259 The role of calcium and vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis
Rizzoli R, Boonen S, Brandi ML, Burlet N, Delmas P, Reginster JY
Bone 2008;42:246-9
The role of calcium and vitamin D supplementation in the treatment of osteoporosis has been extensively studied. The aim of
this paper was to reach, where possible, consensus views on five key questions relating to calcium and vitamin D supplementation
in the management of osteoporosis. Whereas global strategies that target supplementation to the general population could not
be justified in terms of efficacy and health economics, there is a clearer rationale for supplementing patients who are at increased
risk of osteoporosis and those who have developed osteoporosis, including those already taking other treatments for
osteoporosis. The combination of vitamin D with calcium may be beneficial in terms of efficacy and, perhaps, for optimising adherence.
9.2.260 Meta-analysis: Vitamin D compounds in chronic kidney disease
Palmer SC, McGregor DO, Macaskill P, Craig JC, Elder GJ, Strippoli GF
Ann Intern Med 2007;147:840-53
To determine whether vitamin D therapy improves biochemical markers of mineral metabolism and cardiovascular and
mortality outcomes in chronic kidney disease randomized, controlled trials of vitamin D compounds in chronic kidney disease
were identified. Seventy-six trials were identified; 3667 participants. Vitamin D compounds did not reduce the risk for death, bone
pain, vascular calcification, or parathyroidectomy. Compared with placebo, vitamin D sterols were associated with an increased risk
for hypercalcemia (relative risk, 2.37 [95% CI, 1.16-4.85]) and hyperphosphatemia (relative risk, 1.77 [CI, 1.15-2.74]) but did not
show a consistent reduction in PTH. Compared with placebo, more recently developed vitamin D analogues were associated
with hypercalcemia (relative risk, 5.15 [CI, 1.06-24.97]) but not hyperphosphatemia, and levels of PTH were reduced (weighted
mean difference, -10.77 pmol/L [CI, -20.51 to -1.03 pmol/L]). For suppression of PTH, intravenous administration was superior to
oral vitamin D, but higher intravenous doses were used. Vitamin D compounds do not consistently reduce PTH levels, and
beneficial effects on patient-level outcomes are unproven. The value of vitamin D treatment for people with chronic kidney
disease remains uncertain.
9.2.261 Systematic review: Comparative effectiveness of treatments to prevent fractures in men and women with low
bone density or osteoporosis
MacLean C, Newberry S, Maglione M, McMahon M, Ranganath V, Suttorp M, Mojica W, Timmer M, Alexander A, McNamara M,
Desai SB, Zhou A, Chen S, Carter J, Tringale C, Valentine D, Johnsen B, Grossman J
Ann Intern Med 2008;148:197-213
9.2.262 Positive effects of intravenous zoledronic acid on bone remodeling and structure: Are different effects on
osteoblast activity to other oral bisphosphonates responsible?
Ebeling PR, Burr DB
J Bone Miner Res 2008;23:2-5
Exercise
9.2.263 Tai chi for osteoporosis: A systematic review
Lee MS, Pittler MH, Shin BC, Ernst E
Osteoporos Int 2008;19:139-46
© 2008 International Osteoporosis Foundation
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International Osteoporosis Foundation
Campaign vision
The IOF Invest in Your Bones campaign vision is of a world without osteoporotic fractures through increasing awareness
and understanding of osteoporosis. The emphasis is also on improving quality of life and on the healthcare budget. In addition,
the Invest in Your Bones campaign aims to sensitise health professionals, including general practitioners, radiologists and
orthopaedic surgeons.
About the campaign
In 2002, IOF inaugurated the first phase of the Invest in Your Bones Campaign. The campaign, now in its fourth phase (beginning
in 2008), supports projects aimed at improving access to, and reimbursement of, diagnosis and proven therapies in individuals at
high risk of fragility fracture. It has a geographic focus on France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK.
The campaign also helps the IOF to support the ‘Call for Action’ at the EU, through various policy and lobbying activities,
including support to the European Parliament Osteoporosis Interest Group and EU Osteoporosis Consultation Panel.
Other key ongoing projects supported by the campaign include the Osteoporosis Education Program to Improve the Recognition
and Reporting of Vertebral Fractures by Radiologists; an initiative involving orthopaedic surgeons aimed at optimizing the care
of fragility fracture patients; the development of health economics studies in osteoporosis; and support to the development of
new guidelines for assessing fracture risk in individuals.
Invest In Your Bones Campaign
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Invest in Your Bones Campaign
Volume 9, Issue 2, 2008
Campaign vision
About the Campaign
© 2008 International Osteoporosis Foundation

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