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Cover photo:
Image of Sitka Harbor, Alaska; courtesy of Murat O. Balaban.
FAO
FISHERIES and
aquaculture
PROCEEDINGS
22
Second International Congress on
Seafood Technology on Sustainable,
Innovative and Healthy Seafood
FAO/The University of Alaska
10–13 May 2010
Anchorage, the United States of America
Edited by
John Ryder
FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
Rome, Italy
Lahsen Ababouch
FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
Rome, Italy
and
Murat Balaban
University of Auckland
Auckland, New Zealand
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
Rome, 2012
The designations employed and the presentation of material in this
information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever
on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
(FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city
or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or
boundaries. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers,
whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have
been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar
nature that are not mentioned.
The views expressed in this information product are those of the author(s) and
do not necessarily reflect the views of FAO.
ISBN 978-92-5-107108-3
All rights reserved. FAO encourages reproduction and dissemination of
material in this information product. Non-commercial uses will be authorized
free of charge, upon request. Reproduction for resale or other commercial
purposes, including educational purposes, may incur fees. Applications for
permission to reproduce or disseminate FAO copyright materials, and all
queries concerning rights and licences, should be addressed by e-mail to
[email protected] or to the Chief, Publishing Policy and Support Branch,
Office of Knowledge Exchange, Research and Extension, FAO,
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00153 Rome, Italy.
© FAO 2012
iii
Preparation of this document
These proceedings contain the submitted manuscripts from the Second International
Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood held
in Anchorage, the United States of America, from 10 to 13 May 2010. All papers have
been reproduced as submitted.
The University of Alaska organized the meeting in collaboration with the FAO
Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, and the congress was hosted by The University
of Alaska and held at the Hotel Captain Cook in Anchorage.
iv
Abstract
These proceedings contain the manuscripts from the Second International Congress
on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood held in
Anchorage, the United States of America from 10 to 13 May 2010. The University of
Alaska organized the meeting in collaboration with the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture
Department.
The congress reviewed developments related to:
• international seafood trade;
• consumer trends, consumption and health benefits;
• regulations for market access in international trade;
• recent trends in certification in the seafood sector;
• value-added products and new technologies;
• packaging;
• seafood quality and safety;
• education at college/university level;
• economics; and
• fishmeal and fish oil.
The meeting included a range of views regarding the opportunities and the recent
developments in sustainable, innovative and healthy seafood. These included thoughts
from government officials, business representatives and academia and highlighted that
the seafood industry is in a position to take advantage of the many positive aspects
that consumption of seafood offers to consumers, while recognizing that there are still
challenges ahead to realize fully the potential that seafood can achieve in international
and national trade and in meeting consumer expectations.
Ryder, J.; Ababouch, L.; Balaban, M.
Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and
Healthy Seafood.
FAO/The University of Alaska. 10–13 May 2010, Anchorage, the United States of
America.
FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Proceedings. No. 22. Rome, FAO. 2012. 238 pp.
v
Contents
Preparation of this document
Abstract
Foreword
Acknowledgements
Welcome address
iii
iv
vii
viii
1
Programme3
List of senior authors
5
PAPERS PRESENTED AT THE CONGRESS
7
Fish utilization and trade
9
Lahsen Ababouch
Grocery consumers in the recession
33
Jonathan Banks
Advances in the development and use of fish processing
equipment. Use of value chain data
49
Sveinn Margeirsson and Sigríður Sigurðardóttir
Heat treated fishery products
67
Vazhiyil Venugopal
Processing molluscs, shellfish and cephalopods
85
Irineu Batista and Rogério Mendes
Sashimi and sushi products
109
Yuko Murata
Minimising antimicrobial use in aquaculture and improving
food safety
117
Iddya Karunasagar
Market based standards and certification schemes in the international
seafood industry
135
Melanie Siggs
Education and training in seafood science and technology
143
Murat O. Balaban
European Union regulations governing fish and fishery products
159
Alan Reilly and Anne-Marie Boland
United States Food and Drug Administration. Safety requirements
for seafood
167
Timothy Hansen
Basic economics of value adding for fish products
Gunnar Knapp
181
vi
The future of fishmeal and fish oil
189
Andrew Jackson and Jonathan Shepherd
Health benefits of bio-functional marine lipids
209
Zakir Hossain and Koretaro Takahashi
Vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging of fish
and seafood products
Bernard Leveau and Bruno Goussault
223
vii
Foreword
Fisheries and aquaculture, as food production industries, have been advancing rapidly
in recent decades. Fish is now the most internationally traded food product, with some
37 percent by volume being traded across national borders. This can be traced to the
fact that fish is now a popular food commodity with a positive health image and that it
generally carries low tariffs. Aquaculture has become a major success story, with more
than 250 species in production, and now globally furnishes some 48 percent (2008)
of all fish for human consumption. To help boost the demand for fishery products
is the increasingly strong evidence with regard to the positive health effects of fish
consumption, despite the fact that some fish can carry various contaminants, such as
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and mercury.
In the last few decades, there have been significant developments in food processing
technology that have opened up various new possibilities for more value-added
products, longer shelf-life, and more secure distribution of fresh food, to name only a
few. This is particularly important for fish and fishery products because of their inherent
short shelf-life and their highly oxidative polyunsaturated lipids. Thus, fish are not only
some of the most perishable of protein foods of animal origin, but also the sheer number
of the very diverse species that are commercially utilized makes fish a very challenging
raw material when it comes to processing and distribution.
In recent decades, developing countries have achieved remarkable results in supplying
the international market with fish and fishery products. Despite the stringent technical
and hygienic demands of the major importers, they now supply more than 50 percent of
all imports. FAO has, through various programmes over the years, been heavily involved
in assisting developing countries in meeting these demands, not the least of which is the
now the internationally accepted Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)
approach. In the past, FAO has convened various conferences and congresses on seafood
technology. More recently, an International Congress on Seafood Technology was held
from 18 to 21 May 2008 by the Faculty of Fisheries of Ege University in Turkey. FAO
joined forces with the co-organizers of that congress, i.e. the University of Alaska, to
organize this Second International Congress on Seafood Technology.
The main objective of this Congress was to review the best available knowledge in
the main technological fields relating to seafood processing, shelf-life extension and
distribution. The most significant progress made in the last 10–15 years in the various
fields of seafood processing was reviewed by commissioned papers, in line with the
objectives of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, Article 11, which
relates to post-harvest practices and trade.
viii
Acknowledgements
The Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative
and Healthy Seafood was held in Anchorage, the United States of America, from 10 to
13 May 2010. It was organized by the University of Alaska in collaboration with the
FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department in Rome, Italy.
The Organizing Committee consisted of:
• Lahsen Ababouch, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
Rome, Italy.
• Murat Balaban, University of Alaska, United States of America.
• Sukran Cakli, Ege University, Turkey.
• Paula Cullenberg, Alaska SeaGrant Marine Advisory Program, United States of
America.
• Kevin O’Sullivan, Office of Fisheries Development for the State of Alaska, United
States of America.
• Randy Rice, Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute, United States of America.
• Hart Schwarzenbach, Peter Pan Seafoods, United States of America.
• Grimur Valdimarsson, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
Rome, Italy.
The task of the Scientific Committee was to select speakers for the individual papers
and to ensure that the quality of these is in conformity with expected standards. The
composition of the Scientific Committee was as follows:
• Lahsen Ababouch, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
Rome, Italy.
• Murat Balaban, University of Alaska, United States of America.
• Takashi Hirata, Kyoto University, Japan.
• Hordur Kristinsson, University of Florida, United States of America.
• Chengchiu Liu, Shanghai Ocean University, China.
• Grimur Valdimarsson, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,
Rome, Italy.
The Congress was funded by the Regular Programme of FAO through a Letter of
Agreement with the University of Alaska.
The object of the symposium was to bring together leading experts on seafood traderelated issues in order to identify the opportunities and challenges that lie ahead in the
sector.
Thanks are extended to all those who made presentations and chaired sessions, with
special thanks to those who prepared papers for publication in these proceedings.
Appreciation is also extended to Gloria Loriente of FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture
Department for the layout design of this publication.
1
Welcome address
Dear Colleagues,
On behalf of the Organizing Committee, we are pleased to welcome you to the
Second International Congress on Seafood Technology being held from 10 to 13 May
2010 in Anchorage, Alaska, United States of America.
Building on the success of the First Congress in 2008, the 2010 Congress will
address state-of-the-art information and innovation regarding handling, processing,
preservation, storage and transportation of seafood. World experts will present on
key issues addressing the seafood industry such as products and health, safety and
quality, integrated traceability, novel products and technologies, education, research
and innovation.
The high level panel of guest speakers and the organization of the Congress around
key themes will enable you to capture the breakthrough advances of the last decades
and envision the broad opportunities and possibilities that exist for more value-added
products, longer shelf-life, and more secure distribution of seafood.
In addition, the most recent research results will be presented in concurrent sessions,
and in poster sessions during the Congress. This will be an excellent opportunity
to interact, network, and exchange information, ideas and business opportunities
because this Congress has brought together not only scientists, technologists,
seafood processors, but also importers and exporters of seafood, business developers,
government administrators responsible for policy development, NGOs and other
interested parties from around the globe.
We believe it is most opportune to hold this Seafood Congress in Alaska. The
state has been the shining example of sustainable policies, practices, and science-based
decision-making for decades and has a long experience and leadership in seafood
processing and exporting, clean technologies, value addition, research, and teaching.
We welcome you to the 2nd International Congress on Seafood Technology.
Murat Balaban, Ph.D.
Director and Professor
Fishery Industrial Technology Center
School of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences
University of Alaska Fairbanks
Grimur Valdimarsson, Ph.D.
Director
Fish Products and Industry Division
Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations
3
Programme
Monday, 10 May 2010
08:00 – 17:00
Registration Desk Open
09:00 – 09:15
Opening Ceremony
09:15 – 09:45
Global fish production, utilization and trade. Lahsen Ababouch
09:45 – 10:15
Consumer perspectives and expectations. Jonathan Banks
10:15 – 10:30
Break / Poster Showcase
10:30 – 11:00
Advances in the development and use of fish processing equipment.
Sveinn Margeirsson
11:00 – 11:30
Developments in automation of processing equipment.
Kristinn Andersen
11:30 – 12:00
Heat treated fishery products. V. Venugopal
12:00 – 13:30
Lunch
13:30 – 14:00
Processing molluscs, shellfish and cephalopods. Irineu Batista
14:00 – 14:30
Vacuum packaging and modified atmosphere. Jerry Stillinger
14:30 – 15:00
Sashimi and Sushi products. Yoko Murata
15:00 – 15:10
Break / Poster Showcase
15:10 – 15:40
Seafood consumption and health benefits. Linda Chaves
15:40 – 16:00
Marine oils and related products. Schuichi Abe
16:00 – 16:20
Application of short path distillation to produce human grade Pollock oil.
Alexandra Olivera
16:30 – 18:30
Welcome Reception and Poster Showcase
Tuesday, 11 May 2010
07:30 – 17:00
Registration Desk Open
07:30 – 08:30
Poster Showcase
08:30 – 09:00
Consumer perceptions of the risks and benefits of farmed fish and fish
farmer in Europe. Anne Katrin Schlag
09:00 – 09:30
Alternatives to antibiotics in aquaculture. Iddya Karunasagar
09:30 – 10:00
Farmed fish welfare during slaughter and automation of selected unit
operations in subsequent processing line. Ulf Erikson
10:00 – 10:30
Break / Poster Showcase
10:30 – 11:00
Market based standards and certification schemes. Melanie Siggs
11:00 – 12:00
Education and training in seafood science and technology.
Murat Balaban
12:00 – 13:30
Lunch / Poster Showcase Open
13:30 – 14:00
The EU regulatory perspective of seafood safety. Alan Reilly
14:00 – 14:30
Regulatory perspective: US FDA safety requirements. Tim Hansen
14:30 – 15:00
Bioactive substances from fish waste. Se-Kwon Kim
15:00 – 15:20
Break / Poster Showcase
15:20 – 15:40
Utilization of Alaska fish processing by-products. Peter Bechtel
15:40 – 16:00
Fish protein hydrolysates as novel ingredients for cryoprotection of
frozen fish. E.C.Y. Li-Chan
16:00 – 16:20
Bioactive peptides derived from aquatic sources. H. Kristinsson
16:20 – 17:00
Final Chance to Visit Posters
4
Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
Wednesday, 12 May 2010
07:30 – 17:00
Registration Desk
08:30 – 09:00
Economics of value addition for fish and fishery products.
Gunnar Knapp
09:00 – 09:30
Future of fish meal and fish oil technology. Jonathan Shepherd
09:30 – 10:00
Surimi, state of the technology. Tyre Lanier
10:00 – 10:20
Break
10:20 – 10:50
Functional Benefits of Marine Phospholipids. K. Takahashi
10:50 – 11:10
Optimization of extraction, nanostructure and physical properties of
channel catfish skin gelatin. Yifen Wang
11:10 – 11:30
Extraction and characterization of collagen from skin, bone and muscle
of a trash fish, leatherjacket. R.J. Shakila
11:30 – 11:50
Comparison of phospholipids and DHA containing molecular species
from the liver of marine and river fish. Chengchu Liu
11:50 – 12:10
Traceability technology solution overview. Paul Lavery
12:10 – 12:30
Closing session
Breakouts
13:30 – 13:50
Session I
Traceability of fish and fish
products in Egypt. Necla Demir
13:50 – 14:10
Seafood authenticity testing
systems using PCR -RFLP and
bioanalyzer technology.
Lenore Kelly
Determining quality changes of
Rapid and reliable detection of
Salmonella enterocolitica seravarsin salted anchovies produced from
previously frozen raw material for
shrimp by multiplex PCR assay.
a year. Sevim Kose
Geevaretnam Jeyasekaran
Effects of chitosan coatings
Microbial risk assessment and
process standardization for partially incorporated with garlic oil on
processed value added fish.
quality characteristics of shrimp.
DD Namburidir
Emine Asik
Break
Break
Fat quality variations monitoring
Antilisterial properties of liquid
in covered Kilka with sodium
smokes applied to seafood
alginate. Mina Seifzadeh
products. Naim Montazeri
Effects of individual quick freezing Production of salted cod from
farmed and wild cod.
on salmonella recovery and texture
of shrimp. Kathleen Rajkowski
Cristol Solberg
Biogenic amine content of
Proposed mechanisms of water
traditional fish products of
holding in cooked surimi gels.
Tyre Lanier
European and Turkish origin.
Sevim Kose
Break
Closing ceremony and announcement of next ICST
14:10 – 14:30
14:30 – 14:50
14:50 – 15:10
15:10 – 15:30
15:30 – 15:50
15:50 – 16:10
16:10 – 16:30
16:30 – 17:30
Thursday, 13 May 2010
Various
Optional Tours
Session II
Contribution of polyphenols
and flavonoids to antioxidative
capabilities of ethanol extracts
from 20 species of marine algae.
Chengchu Liu
Reducing the fat content of fried
seafood. Angee Hunt
5
List of senior authors
Lahsen Ababouch
Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
Food and Agriculture Organization
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00153 Rome, Italy
Gunnar Knapp
Institute of Social and Economic Research
University of Alaska Anchorage
3211 Providence Drive, Anchorage
Alaska 99508, United States of America
Murat O. Balaban
Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering
University of Auckland
Auckland, New Zealand
Bernard Leveau
Symbaconsultant
26 rue de la Paix
La Marsa, Tunisia
Jonathan Banks
Jonathan Banks Associates Ltd
2 Blackmore Close
Thame OX9 3ZH, United Kingdom
Sveinn Margeirsson
Matis ohf
Vinlandsleid 12
113 Reykjavik, Iceland
Irineu Batista
IPIMAR, Institute of Fisheries and Marine
Research
Av. Brasília 1449-006
Lisbon, Portugal
Yuko Murata
Biochemistry and Food Technology Division
National Research Inst. of Fisheries Science, FRA
2-12-4, Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku
Yokohama, 236-8648, Japan
Timothy Hansen
USDC/NOAA Seafood Inspection Program
NOAA Fisheries, Department of Commerce
1315 East-West Highway, Silver Spring
MD 20910, United States of America
Alan Reilly
Food Safety Authority of Ireland
Abbey Court, Lower Abbey Street
Dublin, Ireland
Zakir Hossein
Faculty of Fisheries
Bangladesh Agricultural University
Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh
Melanie Siggs
Prince’s Charities International Sustainability Unit
Clarence House
London SW1A 1BA, United Kingdom
Vazhiyil Venugopal
Andrew Jackson
Formerly: Food Technology Division
International Fishmeal and Fish Oil Organisation Bhabha Atomic Research Center
2 College Yard, Lower Dagnall Street
Mumbai 400 085, India
St Albans AL3 4PA, United Kingdom
Iddya Karunasagar
Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
Food and Agriculture Organization
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla
00153 Rome, Italy
PAPERS PRESENTED AT THE
CONGRESS
9
Fish utilization and trade
Lahsen Ababouch
Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
Food and Agriculture Organization
Rome, Italy
Introduction
From very ancient times, fisheries have been an important source of food and also a
provider of livelihoods and economic benefits for those engaged in harvesting, culturing,
processing and trading of fish. Because of their nutritional and health attributes, taste
and easy digestibility, fish and seafood are much sought after by a broad cross-section
of the world’s population, particularly in developing countries. For example, fisheries
and aquaculture supply over 1.5 billion people with almost 20 percent of their average
animal protein intake and 3 billion people with at least 15 percent of their average
animal protein intake (FAO, 2010).
Likewise, fish and seafood are commodities that have been preserved and traded
since the Bronze Age. According to FAO (2010), around 32 to 40 percent of fish
globally harvested entered international trade over the last 40 years, increasing in
value from a mere US$8 billion in 1976 to an estimated export value of US$102 billion
in 2008. Developing countries contribute almost 50 percent of the value of world
exports of fish and fishery products and their net receipts of foreign exchange
(i.e. deducting imports from the value of exports) increased from US$1.8 billion in 1976
to US$27.2 billion in 2008. This is greater than the net exports of other agricultural
commodities such as rice, coffee, sugar, tea, banana and meat altogether.
But fish and seafood are highly perishable. Immediately after capture, several
chemical and biological changes can take place in the fish flesh and lead to rejection for
human consumption because of spoilage. Unfortunately, these fish post-harvest losses
remain important, especially in coastal areas of developing countries. Estimated at
10 to 12 million tonnes, they account for more than 8 percent of global fish
production, but can reach over 30 percent in some developing countries (Ward, 2007).
Understanding the causes of post-harvest losses and the options for their prevention
can assist in the choice of the most appropriate and cost effective preservation and
utilization methods.
The following sections are analyses of fish and aquaculture production, utilization,
economics and trade and of the main issues that need to be addressed to promote
responsible fish utilization and trade for a sustainable social and economic development
of the fishing and aquaculture communities, while preserving food security and the
environment.
Fish production, utilization and trade
This section is based mainly on the data compiled globally and published by FAO
(FAO, 2010).
Production
The world production from capture fisheries and aquaculture remains very significant
for global food security and food trade, providing an apparent per capita supply of
17.2 kg (LWE) in 2009. It averaged at 138.2 million tonnes per year during the period
2000 – 2009, with a record high of 145.1 million tonnes in 2009 (Table 1).
10
Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
TABLE 1
World fisheries and aquaculture production and utilization 2004–2009
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009*
10.2
10.1
(million tonnes)
PRODUCTION
Inland
Capture
8.6
9.4
9.8
10.0
Aquaculture
25.2
26.8
28.7
30.7
32.9
35.0
Total inland
33.8
36.2
38.5
40.6
43.1
45.1
Marine
Capture
83.8
82.7
80.0
79.9
79.5
79.9
Aquaculture
16.7
17.5
18.6
19.2
19.7
20.1
Total marine
100.5
100.1
98.6
99.2
99.2
100.0
Total capture
92.4
92.1
89.7
89.9
89.7
90.0
Total aquaculture
41.9
44.3
47.4
49.9
52.5
55.1
Total world fisheries
134.3
136.4
137.1
139.8
142.3
145.1
UTILIZATION
Human consumption
104.4
107.3
110.7
112.7
115.1
117.8
Non-food uses
29.8
29.1
26.3
27.1
27.2
27.3
Population (Billions)
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.8
Per capita food fish supply
(kg)
16.2
16.5
16.8
16.9
17.1
17.2
Note: Excluding aquatic plants. * FAO Data for 2009 are provisional estimates.
Source: SOFIA, 2010.
While fish production from capture fisheries has stagnated at around 90 to
92 million tonnes over the years, the demand for fish and fishery products has continued
to rise (Figure 1). Consumption has more than doubled since 1973. The increasing
demand has been steadily met by a robust increase in aquaculture production, estimated
at an average 8.3 percent yearly growth during the period 1970–2008, while the world
population grew at an average of 1.6 percent per year. As a result, the average annual
per capita supply of food fish from aquaculture for human consumption has increased
tenfold, from 0.7 kg in 1970 to 7.8 kg in 2008, at an average growth rate of 6.6 percent
Figure 1
Global fisheries and aquaculture production 1950–2008
Source: SOFIA, 2010.
Fish utilization and trade
11
per year. This trend is projected to continue, with the contribution of aquaculture to
fish food supply estimated to reach 60 percent by 2020, if not before.
Global capture fisheries production in 2008 was about 90 million tonnes,
comprising about 80 million tonnes from marine waters and a record 10 million tonnes
from inland waters (Table 1). World capture fisheries production has been relatively
stable in the past decade, with the exception of marked fluctuations driven by catches
of anchoveta – a species extremely susceptible to oceanographic conditions determined
by the El Niño Southern Oscillation – in the Southeast Pacific. Fluctuations in other
species and regions tend to compensate for each other to a large extent. In 2008, China,
Peru and Indonesia were the top producing countries. China remained by far the global
leader with production of about 15 million tonnes (Figure 2).
Figure 2
Global capture fisheries production in 2008: top ten producers and 10 species
Source: SOFIA, 2010.
From a production of less than one million tonnes per year in the early 1950s,
aquaculture grew dramatically to reach 68.3 million tonnes in 2008, including
15.8 million tonnes of aquatic plants. The Asia–Pacific region is the main aquaculture
production area, accounting for 89 percent of production in volume and 79 percent in
value, China alone accounts for 62 percent by volume and 51 percent by value of total
global production (Figure 3 and Table 2).
12
Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
Figure 3
Trends in world aquaculture production: major species group
Source: SOFIA, 2010.
TABLE 2
Top 15 aquaculture producers in 2008
Average annual rate of growth
(Percentage)
Production
(‘000 tonnes)
1990
2000
2008
1990-2000
2000-2008
1990-2008
China
6 482
21 522
32 736
12.7
5.4
9.4
India
1 017
1 943
3 479
6.7
7.6
7.1
Viet Nam
160
499
2 462
12.0
22.1
16.4
Indonesia
500
789
1 690
4.7
10.0
7.0
Thailand
292
738
1 374
9.7
8.1
9.0
Bangladesh
193
657
1 006
13.1
5.5
9.6
Norway
151
491
844
12.6
7.0
10.0
Chile
32
392
843
28.3
10.1
19.8
Philippines
380
394
741
0.4
8.2
3.8
Japan
804
763
732
-0.5
-0.5
-0.5
Egypt
62
340
694
18.6
9.3
14.4
Myanmar
7
99
675
30.2
27.1
28.8
United States of
America
315
456
500
3.8
1.2
2.6
Korea, Republic of
377
293
474
-2.5
6.2
1.3
Taiwan Province of
China
333
244
324
-3.1
3.6
-0.2
Notes: Data exclude aquatic plants.
Source: SOFIA, 2010.
However, the growth rates for aquaculture production are slowing, reflecting the
impact of a wide range of factors. They also vary greatly among regions. Latin America
and the Caribbean showed the highest average annual growth rate (21.1 percent) in the
period 1970–2008, followed by the Near East (14.1 percent) and Africa (12.6 percent).
During the same period, China’s aquaculture production increased at an average annual
growth rate of 10.4 percent, although it has declined to 5.4 percent per annum in the
new millennium. This is significantly lower than in the 1980s (17.3 percent) and 1990s
(12.7 percent). In Europe and North America, the annual growth rate has decreased
substantially since 2000 to 1.7 percent and 1.2 percent, respectively. The once-leading
Fish utilization and trade
countries in aquaculture development, such as France, Japan and Spain, have seen
declining production in the past decade. It is expected that, while world aquaculture
production will continue to grow in the coming decade, the rate of increase in most
regions will slow.
Economics
The fisheries and aquaculture sectors contribute significantly to national economies,
income and to the livelihood for millions of people around the world. In 2008,
the first sale value of capture fisheries was estimated at US$93.9 billion and that of
aquaculture at US$105.8 billion, including US$7.4 billion of aquatic plants. This harvest
undergoes primary and secondary processing and distribution, generating additional
value at each subsequent step, estimated in 2007 at US$60 billion, US$120 billion
and US$120 billion respectively for primary processing, secondary processing and
distribution (Gudmundsson, Asche and Nielsen, 2006). This value addition is also
accompanied by employment opportunities, especially for women employed in
primary and secondary processing in developing countries.
Employment in fisheries and aquaculture has grown substantially in the last
three decades, with an average rate of increase of 3.6 percent per year since 1980. It is
estimated that, in 2008, 44.9 million people were directly engaged, full time or part time,
in capture fisheries and aquaculture, and at least 12 percent of these were women. This
represents a 167 percent increase since 1980 (16.7 million people) and also represents
3.5 percent of the 1.3 billion people economically active in the broad agriculture sector
worldwide in 2008, compared with 1.8 percent in 1980.
It is also estimated that, for each person employed in capture fisheries and
aquaculture production, about three jobs are generated in subsequent activities, for a
total of more than 180 million jobs in the fisheries and aquaculture sector. On average,
each jobholder provides for three dependants or family members. Thus, the sector is
likely to support the livelihoods of a total of about 540 million people, or 8 percent of
the world population.
In 2008, 85.5 percent of fishers and fish farmers were in Asia, followed by Africa
(9.3 percent), Latin America and the Caribbean (2.9 percent), Europe (1.4 percent),
North America (0.7 percent) and Oceania (0.1 percent). China is the country with the
highest number of fishers and fish farmers, representing nearly one-third of the world
total. Although the highest concentration of people employed in the primary sector
is in Asia, the average annual production per person there is only 2.4 tonnes, whereas
it is more than 18 tonnes in North America and almost 24 tonnes in Europe. This
reflects the degree of industrialization of fishing activities, but also the key social role
played by small-scale fisheries in Africa and Asia. The difference is even more evident
in the aquaculture sector, where, for example, fish farmers’ average annual production
in Norway is 172 tonnes per person, as compared with 72 tonnes in Chile, 6 tonnes in
China and 2 tonnes in India.
Fish utilization
As a highly perishable commodity, fish is often processed to conserve its nutritional
properties and prolong its shelf-life. It is estimated that over 1 200 fish and seafood
species are harvested commercially worldwide, with a wide variation in appearance,
taste and price, although their nutritional attributes are broadly similar, particularly
with reference to their protein content (OECD, 1995).
Fish can be processed in a great variety of ways to provide product forms. Fish
is generally distributed as live, fresh, chilled, frozen, heat-treated, fermented, dried,
smoked, salted, pickled, boiled, fried, freeze-dried, minced, powdered or canned, or as
a combination of two or more of these forms. These many options for processing fish
cater to a wide range of tastes and presentation preferences, making fish one of the most
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
versatile food commodities. Yet, unlike many other food products, processing does not
necessarily lead to a greater value than that of premium fresh fish. In fact, for many
finfish species, premium fresh gutted fish can fetch the highest price.
During the period from 2004 to 2009, 104.4 to 117.8 million tonnes, representing
on average 80 percent of the annual world fish production, were used for direct human
consumption (Table 1). The remaining 27 to 30 million tonnes were destined for
non-food products, in particular for the manufacture of fishmeal and oil.
The data in Figure 4 show that the proportion of fish used for direct human
consumption has grown since the mid 1990s, mainly because more fish is used as food
and less for producing fishmeal and fish oil. Also, the proportion of fish marketed in
live/fresh form worldwide increased more significantly over the years compared with
other products.
Figure 4
Utilization and supply of world fisheries and aquaculture production (1950–2008)
Source: SOFIA, 2010.
Small pelagics, in particular anchoveta, are the main species used for the production
of fishmeal and fish oil. The El Niño phenomenon significantly affects anchoveta
catches, which have experienced a series of dramatic peaks and drops in the last
few decades. Since the peak of 30.2 million tonnes (LWE) in 1994, anchovy catches
have fluctuated significantly. In the last three years, they have stabilized at around
21 million tonnes per year.
Of the fish destined for direct human consumption, fish in live or fresh form was
the most important product, with a share of 49.1 percent, followed by frozen fish
(25.4 percent), prepared or preserved fish (15.0 percent) and cured fish (10.6 percent).
Live and fresh fish increased in quantity from 45.4 million tonnes in 1998 to
56.5 million tonnes in 2008. Processed fish for human consumption increased from
46.7 million tonnes in 1998 to 58.6 million tonnes in 2008. Freezing represents the main
method of processing fish for human consumption and it accounted for a 49.8 percent
share of the total processed fish destined for human consumption and a 20.5 percent
share of total fish production in 2008 (Figure 5).
Fish utilization and trade
15
Figure 5
Utilization of world fisheries and aquaculture production (1960–2008)
Source: SOFIA, 2010.
However, these general data mask significant differences between continents,
regions, countries and even differences within countries. The highest percentage
of fishmeal is produced by Latin American countries (47 percent of the total). The
proportion of cured fish is higher in Africa (14 percent of the total) compared with
other continents (the world average is 8.6 percent). In Europe and North America,
more than two-thirds of fish used for human consumption is in frozen and canned
forms.
In developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, a large proportion of
fish is marketed in live or fresh forms representing 60.0 percent of fish destined for
human consumption in 2008. Live fish is particularly appreciated in Asia (especially
by the Chinese population) and in niche markets in other countries, mainly among
immigrant Asian communities. However, notwithstanding technical changes and
innovations, many of these countries still lack adequate infrastructure, especially
properly equipped landing centres with access to electricity, potable water, roads, ice
plants, cold rooms and refrigerated transport. These factors, combined with tropical
temperatures, lead to a high percentage of post-harvest losses and quality deterioration.
Market infrastructure and facilities are often limited and congested, increasing the
difficulty of marketing perishable goods.
It is worth noting in the last few years that developing countries have experienced
a growth in the share of frozen products (18.4 percent in 2008, up from 7.7 percent
in 1998) and of prepared or preserved forms (11.8 percent in 2008, compared with
7.8 percent in 1998).
Notwithstanding these differences and limitations, globally the fish industry
has been dynamic during the last two decades. Fish utilization and processing have
diversified significantly, particularly into high value fresh and processed products,
fuelled by changing consumer tastes and advances in technology, packaging, logistics
and transport. Processing is becoming more intensive, geographically concentrated,
vertically integrated and linked with global supply chains. These changes reflect the
increasing globalization of the fisheries value chain, with the growth of international
distribution channels controlled by large retailers. More and more producers in
developing countries are being linked with, and coordinated by, firms located abroad.
The practice of outsourcing processing has gained significance, its extent depending
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
on the species, desired products and cost of labour and transportation. For example,
whole fish from Europe and North America are sent to Asia (China in particular,
but also India and Viet Nam) for filleting, packing and re-export. In Europe, smoked
and marinated products are processed in Central and Eastern Europe, in particular
in Poland and in the Baltic countries. European shrimp is peeled in North Africa
and tuna loins or canned tuna are prepared in many African and Latin American
countries. For some commodities, an entire industry has been delocalized over the
years from the developed to the developing world. For example, the preparation of
salted anchovies has been moved from Southern European countries to North Africa,
mainly Morocco (Ababouch and El Marrakchi, 2009). The further outsourcing of
production to developing countries is restricted specifically by sanitary and hygiene
requirements that can be difficult to meet. At the same time, processors are frequently
becoming more integrated with producers, with large processors in Asia, Africa and
Latin America relying on their own fishing vessels or aquaculture farms for the supply
of groundfish, salmon, catfish and shrimp to improve the product mix, obtain better
yields and respond to evolving quality and safety requirements of importing countries.
In developed countries, innovation in value addition is mainly focused on further
development of convenience foods and a wider variety of high value-added products,
mainly in fresh, frozen, breaded, smoked or canned forms. These require sophisticated
production equipment and methods and, therefore, access to capital. The resulting fish
products are commercialized as a variety of branded ready-to-eat meals.
In developing countries on the other hand, because of cheaper labour, manual
processing is still widespread for filleting, salting, canning, drying and fermentation,
thus providing livelihood opportunities for large numbers of people in coastal areas
in these countries. But, in several developing countries, fish processing is evolving
towards more value adding processes such as breading, cooking, vacuum packaging
or individual quick-freezing. Some of these recent developments are also driven by
demand in the domestic retail industry, especially in countries with an expanding
middle class, or by a shift in cultured species.
Finally, important innovations have also been achieved in the utilization of fish
waste derived from the fish processing industry. Chitin and chitosan obtained from
shrimp and crab shells are now used in water treatments, cosmetics and toiletries, food
and beverages, agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals. The skin of fish such as shark,
salmon, ling, cod, hagfish, tilapia, Nile perch, carp and seabass is used as a source of
gelatin as well as for the production of leather to make clothing, shoes, handbags, wallets
and belts. Fish collagen is used in the pharmaceutical industry, as are carotenoids and
astaxanthins – pigments that can be extracted from crustacean waste. Fish silage and
fish protein hydrolysates obtained from fish viscera are finding applications in the pet
feed and fish feed industries. A number of anticancer molecules have been discovered
following research into marine sponges, bryozoans and cnidarians. These molecules are
now chemically synthesized, while research on how to cultivate these sponge species is
ongoing. Procedures for the industrial preparation of biofuel from fish waste as well as
from seaweeds are being developed and their economic feasibility assessed.
Fish consumption
For many countries, the sector of fisheries and aquaculture is vital for food security,
not only for subsistence and small-scale fishers who rely directly on fisheries for
food and incomes, but also for consumers who can have access to an excellent source
of animal protein that contains all the essential amino acids. It is estimated that one
portion of 150 g of fish provides about 50–60 percent of the daily protein requirements
for an adult. Fish is also a source of essential micronutrients, including various vitamins
and minerals and highly unsaturated fatty acids with well established health benefits
(Lewin et al., 2005; Mozaffarian and Rimm, 2006). Although in many countries,
Fish utilization and trade
17
especially in developing countries, the average per capita fish consumption is low, fish
consumption, even in small quantities, can significantly improve the quality of dietary
proteins by complementing the essential amino acids that are often absent or present
only in low quantities in vegetable based diets.
Total and per capita fish food supplies have expanded significantly in the last five
decades. Total food fish supply has increased at an annual rate of 3.1 percent since 1961,
while the world population has increased by 1.7 percent per year in the same period.
Annual per capita fish consumption grew from an average of 9.9 kg in the 1960s to
17.2 kg in 2009 (Table 1 and Figure 5).
Table 3 shows the per capita consumption and the difference between countries
and regions reflecting the different levels of availability of fish and other foods, diverse
food traditions, tastes, income levels, prices and seasons. Annual per capita apparent
fish consumption can vary from less than 1 kg in one country to more than 100 kg
in another. Differences are also evident within countries, with consumption usually
higher in coastal areas.
TABLE 3
Fish food supply by continent and economic grouping in 2007
Total fish food supply
(million tonnes LWE1)
Per capita fish food supply
(kg/year)
World
113.1
17.0
World excluding China
78.2
14.6
Africa
8.2
8.5
North America
8.2
24.0
Latin America and the Caribbean
5.2
9.2
Asia
74.5
18.5
Europe
16.2
22.2
Oceania
0.9
25.2
Industrialized countries
27.4
28.7
Other developed countries
5.5
13.7
Least developed countries
7.6
9.5
Other developing countries
72.6
16.1
LIFDC2s
61.6
14.4
LIFDCs ex China
26.7
9.0
1 Live weight equivalent.
2 Low-income food-deficit countries.
Source: SOFIA, 2010.
Countries in the sub-Saharan Africa region have experienced static or decreasing
fish consumption, whereas countries of the former Soviet Union in Eastern Europe and
Central Asia experienced major declines in the 1990s. The most substantial increases in
annual per capita fish consumption have occurred in East Asia (from 10.8 kg in 1961
to 30.1 kg in 2007), Southeast Asia (from 12.7 kg in 1961 to 29.8 kg in 2007) and North
Africa (from 2.8 kg in 1961 to 10.1 kg in 2007). China, in particular, has seen dramatic
growth in its per capita fish consumption, with an average growth rate of 5.7 percent
per year in the period 1961–2007, owing to the substantial increase in aquaculture
production. If China is excluded, in 2007, annual per capita fish supply was about
14.6 kg, slightly higher than the average values of the mid 1990s, and lower than the
maximum levels registered in the mid 1980s.
The total amount of fish consumed and the species composition of the fish food
supply vary according to regions and countries,
In terms of regions, of the 111 million tonnes available for human consumption
in 2007, consumption was lower in Africa (8.2 million tonnes, with 8.5 kg per capita),
while Asia accounted for two-thirds of total consumption, with 74.5 million tonnes
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
(18.5 kg per capita), of which 39.6 million tonnes was consumed outside China
(14.5 kg per capita). Likewise, per capita consumption was 25.2 for Oceania, 24.0 for
North America, 22.2 for Europe, 9.4 for Central America and the Caribbean, and
9.1 kg per capita for South America.
Because of their increasing reliance on fish imports, apparent fish supply rose from
16.7 million tonnes live weight equivalent (LWE) in 1961 to 33.0 million tonnes in
2007 in developed countries and this is forecast to continue because of the increasing
demand and the decreasing fisheries production (down 16 percent in the period
1998–2008) in these countries. Apparent fish consumption in developed countries
grew from 17.2 kg per capita per year in 1961 to 24.3 kg in 2007. However, the share
of fish to animal protein intake, after consistent growth up to 1984, declined from
13.3 percent in 1984 to 12.0 percent in 2007, because of higher consumption of other
animal proteins.
Regarding species groups, annual per capita availability of crustaceans grew
substantially from 0.4 kg to 1.6 kg and that of molluscs (including cephalopods) from
0.8 kg to 2.5 kg during the period 1961–2007, although consumption of these highly
priced species is concentrated mainly in affluent economies. The increasing production
of salmon, trout and selected freshwater species has led to a significant growth in
annual per capita consumption of freshwater and diadromous species, up from 1.5 kg
in 1961 to 5.5 kg in 2007. In the last few years, no major changes have been experienced
by the other broader groups. Consumption of demersal and pelagic fish species has
stabilized at about 3.0 kg per capita per year. Demersal fish continue to be among
the main species favoured by consumers in Northern Europe and in North America
(8.5 kg and 7.0 kg per capita per year, respectively, in 2007), whereas cephalopods are
mainly preferred by Mediterranean and East Asian countries. Of the 17.0 kg of fish
per capita available for consumption in 2007, about 75 percent came from finfish.
Shellfish supplied 25 percent (or about 4.1 kg per capita), subdivided into 1.6 kg of
crustaceans, 0.6 kg of cephalopods and 1.9 kg of other molluscs. Freshwater and
diadromous species accounted for about 36.4 million tonnes of the total supply. Marine
finfish species provided about 48.1 million tonnes, of which 20.4 million tonnes were
pelagic species, 20.0 million tonnes were demersal fish, and 7.7 million tonnes were
unidentified marine fish.
In terms of health benefits, in addition to the provision of high quality animal
proteins, fish and fisheries products are a unique sources of the long chained omega-3
fatty acids – docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), essential for an optimal development of
the brain and neural system, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), well known to prevent
coronary heart disease (CHD) in the adult population (Lewin et al., 2005; Mozaffarian
and Rimm, 2006). DHA is a major building block of the human brain where it is
mainly incorporated during the period starting at the third trimester of a pregnancy
and expanding over the two first years after birth (Martinez, 1992; Lewin et al.,
2005). Likewise, a pooled analysis of 19 different studies has shown a 36 percent risk
reduction on CHD mortality with a daily consumption of 250 mg/day of long chained
omega-3 fatty acids (Mozaffarian and Rimm, 2006). The role of fish consumption in
mitigating mental disorders, such as depression and dementia, is increasingly recognized
(FAO, 2010).
Furthermore, fish and fisheries products are among the best sources of essential
micronutrients. Micronutrient deficiencies are affecting hundreds of million people,
particularly women and children in the developing world. More than 250 million
children worldwide are at risk of vitamin A deficiency, 200 million people have goitre,
and 20 million are mentally retarded as a result of iodine deficiency, 2 billion people
(over 30 percent of the world’s population) are iron deficient, and 800 000 child deaths
per year are attributable to zinc deficiency (WHO, 2007, 2009; De Benoit et al., 2008).
Many rural diets in many countries may not be particularly diverse, and thus, it is vital
Fish utilization and trade
to have access to food that can provide the essential nutrients. Improving access and
consumption of fish and seafood could help in combating micronutrient deficiencies.
Essential minerals, such as calcium, iodine, zinc, iron and selenium are widely found in
fish products, particularly in small species that are consumed whole. Seafood is almost
the only natural source of iodine, and iron and zinc are found in significant amounts,
particularly in fish species eaten whole such as the small indigenous fish Chanwa pileng
(Esomus longimanus) from Cambodia. Only 20 grams of this species eaten whole can
be one of the best sources of dietary minerals such as iron and zinc, meeting the daily
need of iron and zinc of a child (Roos et al., 2007).
Vitamins A, D and the B vitamin complex are found in significant amounts in
many fish species such as the small indigenous fish species from Bangladesh, mola
(Amblypharyngodon mola), which is reported to contain over 2 500 µg Retinol
Activity Equivalent of vitamin A in 100 g of fish; making it possible for 140 g of this
fish to cover a child’s weekly need of vitamin A (Roos et al., 2007).
However, there is a growing public concern regarding the presence of chemical
contaminants in fish. This concern has become more apparent in recent years, while
during the same period the multiple nutritional benefits of including fish in the diet
have become increasingly clear. Some fish species are known to contain contaminants
such as methyl mercury and dioxins. While the levels of such contaminants in seafood
are well below the maximum levels established for their safe intake, some long-lived
predator species can contain levels of these contaminants that exceed the levels regarded
as safe for consumption.
The evolving science in this field has led to questions about how much fish should
be eaten, and by whom, in order to minimize the risks of chemical exposures and
maximize the health benefits. National authorities have been faced with the challenge
of communicating complicated and nuanced messages to consumers and also with
questions on regulating maximum levels of these chemical contaminants in fish and
other foods.
A recent FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on the Risks and Benefits of Fish
Consumption reviewed data on nutrient and specific chemical contaminant levels in a
range of fish species, as well as recent scientific literature covering the risks and benefits
of fish consumption (FAO, 2010). The review was used to consider risk–benefit
assessments for specific end points of benefits and risks, including for sensitive groups
of the population. The output is intended to provide guidance to national food safety
authorities and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in their work on managing risks,
taking into account the existing data on the benefits of eating fish.
The consultation concluded that:
• Consumption of fish provides energy, protein, and a range of other
important nutrients, including the long chain n-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids
(LCn3PUFA).
• Eating fish is part of the cultural traditions of many peoples and in some
populations is a major source of food and essential nutrients.
• Among the general adult population, consumption of fish, particularly oily
fish, lowers the risk of CHD mortality. There is an absence of probable or
convincing evidence of CHD risks of methyl mercury. Potential cancer risks
of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are well below established CHD benefits.
• When considering benefits of LCn3PUFA versus risks of methyl mercury
among women of childbearing age – maternal fish consumption lowers the risk
of suboptimal neurodevelopment in their offspring compared with women not
eating fish in most circumstances evaluated.
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
• At levels of maternal DLCs intake (from fish and other dietary sources)
that do not exceed the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of
70 picograms/kg bodyweight/month established by JECFA,
neurodevelopmental risk for the foetus is negligible. At levels of maternal
DLCs intake (from fish and other dietary sources) that exceed the PTMI,
neurodevelopmental risk may no longer be negligible.
• Among infants, young children, and adolescents, the available data are
currently insufficient to derive a quantitative framework of health risks and
benefits of eating fish. However, healthy dietary patterns that include fish and
that are established early in life influence dietary habits and health during adult
life.
• In order to minimize risks in target populations, the Consultation recommended
a series of steps that member states should take to better assess and manage the
risks and benefits of fish consumption and to more effectively communicate
with their citizens.
• Member states should acknowledge fish consumption as an important food
source of energy, protein, and a range of essential nutrients and part of the
cultural traditions of many peoples.
• Emphasis should be given to the benefits of fish consumption on reducing
CHD mortality for the general adult population.
• Emphasis should be given to the neurodevelopment benefits provided
to offspring owing to fish consumption by women of childbearing age,
particularly pregnant women and nursing mothers and the neurodevelopment
risks to offspring of such women not consuming fish.
• Existing databases on specific nutrients and contaminants, particularly methyl
mercury and DLCs, in fish consumed in their region should be developed,
maintained, and improved.
• Risk management and communication strategies that both minimize risks and
maximize benefits from eating fish should be developed and evaluated.
Fish trade
Total world trade of fish and fishery products has seen an important increase during
the last three decades, going from a mere US$8 billion in 1976 to a record export value
of US$102 billion in 2008, at an average annual growth rate of 8.3 percent in value
(Figure 6).
Trade in fish and fishery products is characterized by a wide range of product types
and participants. In 2008, 197 countries reported exports of fish and fishery products.
Fish exports are important for many economies, in particular for developing nations
where they generate foreign currency earnings. In addition the sector has a significant
impact on employment, income and food security. In a few cases, fishery exports are
crucial for the economy. For example, in 2004 they accounted for a half or more of the
total value of merchandise trade for St. Pierre and Miquelon, Maldives, Federal States
of Micronesia, Iceland, Panama and Kiribati.
The 2008 world fish exports figure of US$102 billion is a record, 9 percent higher
than 2007, and nearly double the US$51.5 billion corresponding value in 1998. This
represents about 10 percent of total agricultural exports and 1 percent of world
merchandise trade. In real terms (adjusted for inflation), fish exports grew by 11 percent
in the period 2006–08, by 50 percent between 1998 and 2008 and by 76 percent
between 1988 and 2008. In quantity terms (LWE), exports were 55 million tonnes in
2008, representing an increase of 28 percent since 1995 and of 104 percent since 1985,
although some slight decline is observed since 2005. This decline was mainly because of
a fall in production of and trade in fishmeal (down 10 percent in the period 2005–08),
Fish utilization and trade
21
but also to the first signs of contraction in demand as a consequence of the food price
crisis, which affected consumer confidence in major markets.
Figure 6
Global export of fish and fishery products (1976–2008)
Source: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Statistics and Information Service. 2010. Commodities production and
trade 1976-2008. FISHSTAT Plus - Universal software for fishery statistical time series [online or CD-ROM]. Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available at: www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/software/fishstat
Note: Fishery statistical data presented in the above table exclude the production for marine mammals, crocodiles,
corals, sponges, shells and aquatic plants.
Similarly to other food commodities, prices of fish and fishery products were also
affected by the food price crisis of 2006 to 2008 when they reached record levels. The
FAO Fish Price Index indicates an increase from 93.6 in February 2007 to 128.0 in
September 2008. This represents the highest value reached since 1994 (with the base
year 1998–2005 = 100). Prices for species from capture fisheries increased more than
those for farmed species (which reached 137.7 versus 117.7 in September 2008, with
2005 as base year = 100) because of the larger impact from higher energy prices on
fishing vessel operations than on aquaculture operations.
Following the economic recession of September 2008, food prices fell dramatically.
The FAO Fish Price Index reported a drastic drop from 128.0 in September 2008 to
112.6 in March 2009, before recovering to 119.5 in November 2009. Provisional data
for 2010 indicate that there have been increasing signs that fish trade is recovering in
many countries, and the long term forecast for fish trade remains positive.
Table 4 shows the top ten exporters and importers of fish and fishery products in
1998 and 2008. China, Norway and Thailand are the top three exporters. Since 2002,
China has been by far the leading fish exporter, contributing almost 10 percent of
world fish export, estimated at US$10.1 billion in 2008 and at US$10.3 billion in 2009,
although this represents a mere 1 percent of its total merchandise exports. China is also
the sixth-largest importer, with an import value estimated at US$5.1 billion in 2008,
as compared with US$1 billion in 1998. This increase in imports reflects the lowered
import duties following China’s accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in
late 2001, the rising imports of raw material for reprocessing, as well as the growing
domestic consumption of high value species that are not available from local sources.
Viet Nam has also experienced significant growth in fish exports, up from
US$0.8 billion in 1998 to US$4.6 billion in 2008, when it became the fifth largest
exporter in the world. Its growing exports are linked to its flourishing aquaculture
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
industry, in particular to the production of Pangasius and of both marine and
freshwater shrimps and prawns.
TABLE 4
Top ten exporters and importers of fish and fishery products
1998
2008
APR
(US$ millions)
(US$ millions)
(Percentage)
China
2 656
10 114
14.3
Norway
3 661
6 937
6.6
Thailand
4 031
6 532
4.9
Denmark
2 898
4 601
4.7
Viet Nam
821
4 550
18.7
United States of America
2 400
4 463
6.4
Chile
1 598
3 931
9.4
Canada
2 266
3 706
5.0
Spain
1 529
3 465
8.5
Netherlands
1 365
3 394
9.5
Top ten subtotal
23 225
51 695
8.3
Rest of world total
28 228
50 289
5.9
World total
51 453
101 983
7.1
Japan
12 827
14 947
1.5
United States of America
8 576
14 135
5.1
Spain
3 546
7 101
7.2
France
3 505
5 836
5.2
Italy
2 809
5 453
6.9
991
5 143
17.9
Germany
2 624
4 502
5.5
United Kingdom
2 384
4 220
5.9
Denmark
1 704
3 111
6.2
17.8
Exporters
Importers
China
Republic of Korea
569
2 928
Top ten subtotal
39 534
67 377
5.5
Rest of world total
15 665
39 750
9.8
World total
55 199
107 128
6.9
Note: APR refers to the average annual percentage growth rate for 1998–2008.
Source: SOFIA, 2010.
In addition to China, Thailand and Viet Nam, many other developing countries
play a major role in global fish exports. In 2008, developing countries accounted
for 80 percent of world production. Their fish export accounted for 50 percent
(US$50.8 billion) of world fish export in value terms and 61 percent (33.8 million tonnes)
in quantity. Fishmeal represented 36 percent by quantity, but only 5 percent by value
of developing countries export in 2008. However, developing countries have also
considerably increased their share of the quantity of world fish exports destined for
human consumption, from 46 percent in 1998 to 55 percent in 2008.
A major barrier to fish exports by developing countries is the stringent quality
and safety standards and buyers’ requirements for animal health, environmental issues
and social responsibility concerns. In addition, the increasing power of large retail and
restaurant chains in seafood distribution is shifting negotiating power towards the
final stages in the value chain, and retailers are also imposing more and more private or
market based standards and labels on exports from developing countries. All the above
are making it more difficult for small-scale fish producers and operators to penetrate
international markets and distribution channels.
Fish utilization and trade
23
On the other hand, developing countries rely heavily on imports from developed
countries to supply the processing industry, including raw material for re-export, and
to supply the domestic markets (mainly low-priced, small pelagic species as well as high
value fishery species for emerging economies). In 2008, out of 75 percent (in value) of
fish exports from developing countries directed to developed countries, a growing
share used imported raw material for further processing and re-export. In 2008, in
value terms, 40 percent of the imports of fish and fishery products by developing
countries originated from developed countries.
Net export revenues of fish and fish products (i.e. value of fish exports minus value
of fish imports) are particularly important for many developing countries, being higher
than those of several other agricultural commodities such as rice, meat, sugar, coffee
and tobacco combined (Figure 7). They have increased significantly in recent decades,
growing from US$2.9 billion in 1978 to reach US$9.8 billion in 1988, US$17.4 billion
in 1998, and US$27.2 billion in 2008, including US$8.3 billion for low-income
food-deficit countries (LIFDCs) (out of US$11.5 of LIFDC net export revenues).
World imports of fish and fish products reached a new record of US$107.1 billion in
2008, up 9 percent from 2007 and up 95 percent since 1998.
Figure 7
Net exports of selected agricultural commodities by developing countries
Source: SOFIA, 2010.
Japan, the United States of America and the European Union (EU) are the major
markets, with a total share of about 69 percent in 2008. Japan is the world’s largest single
national importer of fish and fishery products, with imports worth US$14.9 billion in
2008, a growth of 13 percent compared with 2007, followed by a decrease of 8 percent
in 2009. The EU is by far the largest fish importing market. However, it is extremely
heterogeneous, with markedly different conditions from country to country. In 2008,
imports by the EU reached US$44.7 billion, up 7 percent from 2007, and representing
a share of 42 percent of total world imports. However, if intraregional trade among EU
countries is excluded, the EU imported US$23.9 billion from non-EU suppliers. This
still makes the EU the largest market in the world, with about 28 percent of the value of
world imports (excluding intra EU trade). Figures for 2009 indicate a downward trend
in EU imports, with a 7 percent decrease in value recorded.
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
Responsible fish utilization, trade and market access
With the globalization of the economy and the ever increasing concern over fisheries
and aquaculture sustainability, fish utilization and trade are not considered anymore
under the prism of technical and economic feasibility of processing and investment
projects only, but they are more and more integrated in the policies of government and
the corporate social responsibility strategies of fish and food companies.
Food security
A first major issue that faces policy makers, especially in developing countries, is
the necessity to balance food security and export promotion objectives owing to the
impact of fish trade on food security. In 1996, the World Food Summit declared that
food security is considered to exist “when all people at all times have physical and
economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and
food preference for an active healthy life”.
Fish is an important source of both direct and indirect food security in many
developing countries. Many of the concerns on issues relating to fish and food security
focused on the dimension of fish for consumption. Consequently, when fish exports
are examined, the focus has been primarily on how it reduces fish availability for
domestic consumption. Fish imports, on the other hand, are mostly seen as a means
to increase local availability. In actual fact, the relationship between trade (exports and
imports) and food security is more complex.
Production for exports to lucrative markets can enhance the income of poor fishers
substantially and thus achieve greater food security. This is especially beneficial for non
or low fish eating communities, for example, in Mauritania, Mali and Burkina Faso, or
vegetarian fishermen in India. On the other hand, exports may deprive a section of the
domestic consumers of a variety of fish, leading to a potential loss of food security for
them. This is particularly so when fish is an integral part of the culturally conditioned
diet of a population.
Fish imports for human consumption can help to stabilize or reduce fish prices
for poorer fish consumers. However, this can have an adverse effect on the income of
fishers in the importing country thus lowering their food security. As a response, they
may begin to exploit the local fish stocks heavily endangering resource renewal. But it
can be positive for the food security of countries such as Nigeria or Egypt that import
large quantities of highly nutritious but low price small pelagic fish such as herring and
mackerel for national consumption. Alternatively, women working in fish processing
may have more employment opportunities and secure more income to spend on
household food security. Imports may also be destined for re-export after processing.
In this case, new employment is generated in processing facilities for fish workers
from urban and rural areas. Their increased incomes will contribute to household food
security.
These examples illustrate that a single answer regarding the impact of international
fish trade on food security is not possible and that it is essential to analyse very specific
case studies in a variety of country contexts. In this respect, an FAO/Norway study
(Kurien, 2005) examined the impact of international fish trade on food security both
at the global level and through 11 national case studies in Nicaragua, Brazil, Chile,
Senegal, Ghana, Namibia, Kenya, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Philippines and Fiji. The
evidence drawn from this study indicates that, globally and in 8 of the 11 countries,
international trade has had a positive impact on food security. This assessment was
based on outcomes related to national impacts, impacts on fishers, workers, consumers
and resources. International fish trade was, however, found to have a negative impact
on the fish resources for all the countries, highlighting the urgent need for more
effective management regimes. Consequently, the study cautions that sustainable
resource management practices are a necessary condition for sustainable international
Fish utilization and trade
trade and that fish export promotion needs to be coupled with a sustainable resource
management policy. Ecolabelling and certification is an attempt to link market
access and resource sustainability (Washington and Ababouch, 2011). The study
also highlights the need for free and transparent trade and market policies to ensure
that the benefits from international fish trade are equitably enjoyed by all segments
of society. The study underscores the FAO’s Code of Conduct for Responsible
Fisheries recommendation that States consult with all stakeholders – industry, as well
as consumer and environmental groups – in the development of laws and regulations
related to trade fish trade.
Post-harvest losses
The generally acknowledged limits of production from capture fisheries and the
widening gap between fish supply and demand reaffirms that post-harvest losses are
an unacceptable waste of scarce natural resources. Post-harvest losses of fish occur
in various forms (Ward and Jeffries, 2000). The physical loss of material is caused by,
for example, discarding fish or bycatch (accidentally or voluntarily) and predation by
birds, other animals or insects. Quality losses occur when spoilage or physical damage
of fish result in a decrease in value or when there is a need to reprocess cured fish,
raising the cost of the finished product. In addition, inadequate handling, processing
and storage can reduce nutrients, leading to nutritional loss. Similarly, the conversion
of large quantities of fish catches into animal feeds can be considered, under certain
conditions, as a “loss” for human food security.
Post-harvest losses in small-scale fisheries can be among the highest for all the
commodities in the entire food production system. Fish losses caused by spoilage are
estimated at 10 to 12 million tonnes per year, accounting for over 8 percent of the total
production from capture fisheries and aquaculture. Appropriate preservation methods
can significantly reduce this loss, including from glut catches when the processing,
distribution and marketing system cannot cope with the exceptional quantities of fish
that are sometimes landed because of seasonal or inter-annual variations of availability
or abundance.
A large part of fisheries post-harvest losses occur because of inadequate or lack
of proper landing sites and related equipment. Fishing ports and landing sites are key
infrastructures at the interface between the harvesting of fish and its utilization. The
type and size of fishing ports greatly influences the rate at which a country’s fisheries
resources will be exploited, whereas the basic port and landing site infrastructure,
including administration setup and services, will contribute to the way resources will
be utilised, including opportunities to add value to the harvests. Fishing ports and
landing sites vary in size, organization and complexity depending on many factors.
They can range from relatively informal artisanal landing sites to relatively organized
and formalized locations. Moreover, these harbours may be found along the coastlines
of fresh and marine bodies of water (Sciortino, 2010).
To overcome these difficulties, investment is needed to physically upgrade and
rehabilitate landing sites and fishing harbours in conformity with sanitary and hygienic
requirements and to develop human capacity and administrative and management
structures for effective utilization and maintenance. In addition to improving fish
utilization and reducing post-harvest losses, improved harbour and landing site
infrastructure and administration can contribute to an easing of pressure on fish
resources.
However, it is critical that improved physical infrastructure be planned within
the framework of proper governance, policy and management of fisheries. Indeed,
because production from capture fisheries is limited, it is vital that fisheries policies and
management are in place to ensure that fishers can focus on maximizing the value of the
fish they catch instead of having to focus on maximizing the amount of fish they catch.
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
Physical loss also results from the discarding of bycatch. This type of loss is
especially significant in shrimp trawl fisheries where the proportion of other species
caught incidentally is very high and can reach 95 percent of the total material taken on
board. Bycatch contains a variety of fish sizes and species and is sometimes discarded
at sea. However, in densely populated areas of several developing countries, it is largely
used for local consumption. Chilled or frozen storage facilities on board the trawlers
are limited and are mostly kept for the main target species. Sorting the bycatch would
require additional crew time further reducing the financial incentive.
An FAO study to update fishery by fishery the quantity of discards in global
marine fisheries estimated that in the 1992 to 2001 period, annual average discards
were 7.3 million tonnes (Kelleher, 2005). Trawl fisheries for shrimp and demersal
finfish accounted for over 50 percent of the total estimated discards while representing
approximately 22 percent of the total landings recorded in the study. Tropical shrimp
trawl fisheries have the highest discard rate and account for over 27 percent of total
estimated discards. Demersal finfish trawling account for 36 percent of the estimated
global discards. Most purse seine, handline, jig, trap and pot fisheries have low discard
rates. Small-scale fisheries generally have lower discard rates than industrial fisheries.
Small-scale fisheries account for over 11 percent of the discard database landings and
have a weighted discard rate of 3.7 percent.
The study revealed a substantial reduction in discards in recent years. The major
reasons for this are a reduction in unwanted bycatch and increased utilization of
catches. Bycatch reduction is largely a result of the use of more selective fishing
gears, introduction of bycatch and discard regulations and improved enforcement of
regulatory measures. Increased retention of bycatch for human or animal food is the
result of improved processing technologies and expanding market opportunities for
lower-value catch.
The study discusses a number of policy issues to reduce discards. These include
a “no-discards” approach to fisheries management, the need for balance between
bycatch reduction and bycatch utilization initiatives and concerns arising from
incidental catches of marine mammals, birds and reptiles. The study also advocates the
development of more robust methods to estimate discards, the allowance for discards
in fishery management plans, the development of bycatch management plans and the
promotion of best practices for bycatch reduction and mitigation of incidental catches.
Global discard estimates could achieve greater precision through additional studies at
national and regional levels.
Finally, about 15 to 20 percent of the total fish production is still processed into
fishmeal and fish oil, using mainly small pelagic oily fish such as herrings, sardines,
mackerel, anchovies, pilchards, sand eel, menhaden and offal from the processing of
more valuable species (e.g. tuna). While conversion of fish to fishmeal and oil can be an
acceptable and efficient fishing strategy, it can also be considered a “loss” from a food
security perspective. Ideally, reduction into fishmeal and oil should only occur when it
is not economical or practical to utilize fish for direct human consumption.
Reducing post-harvest losses requires a wiser use of resources, the reduction of
spoilage and discards and the conversion of low-value resources that are available on
a sustainable basis into products for direct human consumption. Reducing spoilage
requires improved fish handling at all stages of the value chain, on board the boat,
during landing, processing and preservation and during transportation, all of which are
particularly deficient in small-scale fisheries. With increasing fish scarcity, the problem
of discards tends to resolve itself, at least partially, as new species previously deemed
commercially inferior are progressively integrated into markets and into consumer
consumption habits. This is insufficient, however, and proactive efforts are needed to
use more appropriate technologies systematically, such as square mesh and bycatch
excluder devices.
Fish utilization and trade
Duties, quotas and tariff escalation
The World Trade Organization (WTO) classifies fish as an industrial product which
carries lower import duties as compared with agricultural products. Furthermore,
the Doha round of negotiations decided that “tariff escalation” for fish and fishery
products would be reduced. This means that import duties for value added products
will be lowered thus creating new opportunities, not the least for developing countries.
In addition, stagnant domestic fishery production and the growing demand in
developed markets that rely on imports to cover increasing consumption have reduced
import duties on fish to a current average of around 4.5 percent. As a result, fishery
products from developing countries are able to gain increased access to developed
country markets without facing prohibitive custom duties similar to those applied to
agricultural products.
Over the last decade, however, both as a result of the WTO negotiations and of
bilateral trade agreements, many tariffs on processed products have been reduced.
Consequently, the transfer of value addition technologies, know-how and investment
capital to developing countries has increased, generating further employment and hard
currency earnings from processing and value addition. Part of this production has
been distributed in emerging economies, mainly in Asia, but also in Africa and Latin
America.
However, despite the availability of technology, not all projects in value addition for
export from developing countries have been successful. In particular, due consideration
was not always given to quality assurance, marketing and distribution issues before
embarking on the value addition process. For example, new value added products have
encountered difficulty accessing supermarket shelves without substantial investment in
marketing and publicity. Some operators have circumvented the problem by using the
label and distribution system of the importer or retailer, giving up some benefits that
accrue downstream from marketing and distribution in the value chain (O’Sullivan and
Bengoumi, 2008).
An important issue is the study of the distribution of costs and benefits to
understand how and where in the fish value chain revenues are accumulated, values
are added, profits are generated and to understand what are the principal barriers
against adding more value to exported seafood products in the country of origin or
destination. Preliminary studies indicate that the distribution of benefits is not always
equitable, especially in developing countries where upstream operators, especially
small-scale fishermen, do not always receive adequate benefits that in turn increase
their vulnerability (Gudmundsson, Asche and Nielsen, 2006).
Safety and quality requirements
The food and feed scares of the last decades (bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE),
dioxins, avian flu, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and foot and mouth
disease) have exposed the weakness in traditional food control systems. Likewise,
the increased globalization of fish trade has highlighted the risk of cross-border
transmission of hazardous agents and the rapid development of aquaculture has been
accompanied by the emergence of food safety concerns, in particular residues of
veterinary drugs. These developments have led to the need for the development of a
food safety strategy applicable throughout the entire fish food chain – from “farm or
sea to table”. This strategy needed to be scientifically based, adaptive and responsive
to changes in the food production chain. It had to be elaborated around the use of
risk analysis to develop food safety objectives and standards and be based on the
implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) systems.
FAO/WHO has identified the following five needs for a strategy in support of a
food chain approach to food safety, including for fish and fishery products:
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
• Fish safety and quality from a food chain perspective should incorporate the
three elements of risk analysis – assessment, management and communication –
ensuring an institutional separation of science-based risk assessment from risk
management;
• Tracing techniques (traceability) from the primary producer (including animal
feed and medicines used in aquaculture), through post-harvest treatment,
processing and distribution to the consumer must be improved;
• Harmonisation of standards, implying increased development and wider use of
internationally agreed, scientifically based standards is necessary;
• Equivalence in food safety systems – achieving similar levels of protection
against fish-borne hazards and quality defects whatever means of control are
used – must be further developed;
• Increased emphasis on risk avoidance or prevention at source within the whole
food chain – from farm or sea to plate.
The implementation of the food chain approach requires an enabling policy and a
regulatory environment at national and international levels with clearly defined rules
and standards, establishment of appropriate food control systems and programmes at
national levels, and provision of appropriate training and capacity building. Development
and implementation of Good Aquaculture Practices (GAP), Good Hygienic Practices
(GHP) and HACCP are required in the food chain step(s). Government institutions
should develop an enabling policy and a regulatory environment, organize the control
services, train personnel, upgrade the control facilities and laboratories and develop
national surveillance programs for relevant hazards. The industry should adopt good
practices and train personnel to implement GAP, GHP and HACCP. The support
institutions (academia, trade associations, private sector, etc.) should upgrade skills
of personnel involved in the food chain, conduct research on quality, safety and risk
assessments, and provide technical support to stakeholders. Finally, consumers groups
and other Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) should promote consumer
education and information and play a counter-balancing role to ensure that safety and
quality policy is science based and not driven by political or economical considerations.
The globalization and further liberalization of world fish trade, while offering
many benefits and opportunities, also presents emerging safety and quality challenges.
Improved scientific tools must be adopted and novel flexible approaches to safety
must be sought to ensure that responsibility for consumer protection is effectively
shared along the food chain and that regulations and standards reflect the most current
scientific evidence. This requires significant resources which are not always available,
especially for small-scale operations in developing countries.
Fish safety and quality assurance at the beginning of this third millennium requires
enhanced levels of international cooperation in promoting transparency, harmonisation,
equivalency schemes and standards setting mechanisms based on science. The SPS/TBT
agreements of the WTO and the benchmarking role of Codex Alimentarius provide
international references in this respect.
Labelling and certification
Certification and labelling have become important competitive parameters to access
international fish markets. Not only must suppliers adhere to the regulatory
requirements of importing countries, but additional labels or certificates may also be
required by the importer for commercial and marketing reasons. In the same way, the
supplier may also choose to apply particular labels or undergo voluntary certification
programmes in order to target specific segments of consumers, thereby gaining a
competitive advantage in market niches.
Fish utilization and trade
Similarly, companies may choose to produce according to specific requirements
that permit them to label their products as environmentally friendly or produced
with respect to certain social values. Examples of such labelling include: “organic
production” labels, “fair trade” labels”, “dolphin-safe tuna” labels or ecolabels such as
those of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) or Friend of the Sea (FoS). An ecolabel
is a tag or label placed on a product that certifies that the product was produced in an
environmentally friendly way. The label provides information at the point of sale that
links the product to the production process.
In fisheries, the increased interest in ecolabels results from the concerns about the
dramatic state of the world’s marine resources. The perceived failure of governments
to effectively manage marine resources has led to the development of alternative
mechanisms for protecting marine life and promoting sustainability. These are aimed
at influencing the purchasing decisions of consumers and the procurement policies of
retailers. Ecolabels are one such mechanism. Organizations developing and managing
an ecolabel develop standards against which applicants wishing to use the label will be
judged. They also manage the accreditation and certification process and market the
label to consumers to ensure recognition and demand for labelled products.
Other mechanisms used by NGOs include:
• Publicity campaigns or organized boycotts of certain species deemed to be
threatened such as the “Give Swordfish a Break” campaign in the United States
in the late 1990s;
• Consumer guides to influence consumers purchasing decisions, such as the
“Best Fish Guide” of the New Zealand Royal Forest and Bird Protection
Society or “The Sustainable Seafood Guide”, produced by Eartheasy, Canada;
• Putting pressure on retailers to introduce sustainable procurement policies
for fish and seafood. This is perhaps most developed in the United Kingdom
where Greenpeace is working with large retailers and produces an annual
league table, “Ranking of the sustainability of supermarkets’ seafood”.
Greenpeace also uses “naming and shaming” strategies such as media-savvy
protests outside retail outlets.
These strategies can be seen in terms of a continuum from more reactive
mechanisms that highlight and “shame” bad practice, to more proactive activities such
as encouraging consumers to purchase fish from sustainable stocks and working with
retailers to improve their procurement policies, as well as rewarding those that do with
positive publicity. Buyers and retailers have in turn responded by imposing private
standards and certification back through the supply chain, especially on producers
and processors. These developments have resulted in the proliferation of certification
bodies and schemes designed to trace the origin of fish, its quality and safety, and
the environmental and/or social conditions prevailing during fishing, aquaculture
production, processing and distribution (Washington and Ababouch, 2011).
But as standards, certification schemes and labels proliferate, both producers and
consumers are questioning their value. Producers in particular question whether these
private standards and certification schemes duplicate or complement government
work. In addition, consumers ask if private schemes really provide better protection
for them and the environment and/or contribute to social equity.
Many producers and exporting countries hold the view that sanitary standards
represent unjustified restrictions to trade, especially where they introduce measures
which duplicate those already applied by government authorities of the exporting
country. This raises the issue of how to define boundaries between public regulations
dealing with food safety, animal health, environmental and social protection on the
one hand and private market standards on the other? And who is responsible for what
and accountable to whom? While governments that are seen to use standards as trade
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
barriers can be challenged through the rules of WTO, what international mechanism,
or agreement, could be invoked to challenge private companies whose standards are
judged to create technical barriers to trade between countries? Several countries and
industry associations have raised serious concerns about the potential for private
standards to have trade limiting or trade distorting effects (WTO, 2008).
Proponents of private standards and certification schemes claim that they
encourage suppliers to force the use of responsible practices in fisheries and
aquaculture. Opponents of such standards see them as a private sector attempt to
replace/duplicate governmental policy in fisheries and aquaculture. The key issue is
how private standards and certification schemes, if needed, can be reconciled with the
public sector’s responsibility to regulate the use of responsible practices in fisheries and
aquaculture, throughout the food chain.
These issues require a concerted international effort. Improved knowledge is a
precondition for an international understanding and an approach to dealing with this
issue. More must be known about the effects of private standards and certification
schemes. Such knowledge may make it possible to propose solutions that will ensure
coherence of private standards with WTO trade measures.
It is also necessary to analyze if and how private standards are duplicating or
complementing the work of government authorities. Such an analysis will have a
particular focus on the effects that private standards and certification schemes are
having on developing countries’ capacities to access markets.
References
Ababouch, L. & El Marrakchi, A. 2009. Elaboration des semi-conserves d’anchois: aspects
économiques, techniques et hygiéniques. FAO Document Technique sur les Pêches et
l’Aquaculture No. 525. Rome, FAO. 90 pp.
De Benoit, B., LacLean, I., Egli, I. & Cogswell, M. 2008. Worldwide prevalence of anemia
1993-2005. WHO global database on Anemia. Geneva, Swizerland, WHO. 40 pp.
FAO. 2010. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2010. Rome. 197 pp.
FAO/WHO. 2011. Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on the Risks and
Benefits of Fish Consumption. Rome, FAO; Geneva, World Health Organization. 50 pp.
Gudmundsson, E., Asche, F. & Nielsen, M. 2006. Revenue distribution through the
seafood value chain. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 1019. Rome, FAO. 42 pp.
Kelleher, K. 2005. Discards in the world’s marine fisheries. An update. FAO Fisheries
Technical Paper No. 470. Rome, FAO. 131 pp.
Kurien, J. 2006. Responsible fish trade and food security. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper
No. 456. Rome, FAO. 162 pp.
Lewin, G.A., Schachter, H.M., Yuen, D., Merchant, P., Mamaladze, V. & Tsertsvadze, A.
2005. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on child and maternal health. Agency for Healthcare
Research and Quality (AHRQ). Evidence Report Technology Assessment (Summ).
pp. 1–11.
Martinez, M. 1992. Tissue levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids during early human
development. Journal of Pediatrics, 120(S): 129–138.
Mozaffarian, D. & Rimm, E.B. 2006. Fish intake, contaminants, and human health:
evaluating the risks and the benefits. Journal of the American Medical Association, 296:
1885–1899.
O’Sullivan, G. & Bengoumi, J. 2008. Market penetration of developing country seafood
products in European retail chains. Globefish Research Programme. Volume 90. Rome,
FAO. 48 pp.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 1995. Multilingual
dictionary of fish and fishery products. Fishing News Books. London. 352 pp.
Fish utilization and trade
Roos, N., Wahab, M.A., Chamnan, C. & Thilsted, S.H. 2007. The role of fish in
food-based strategies to combat Vitamin A and mineral deficiencies in developing
countries. Journal of Nutrition, 137: 1106–1109.
Sciortino, J.A. 2010. Fishing harbour planning, construction and management. FAO
Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 539. Rome, FAO. 337 pp.
Ward A.R. 2007. Post harvest loss assessment in PP3 zones of Cameron, Chad, Gambia and
Senegal: key learning. FAO/DFID Sustainable Fisheries Livelihoods Programme – Post
harvest Fisheries Livelihoods Pilot Project. Cotonou, Benin, SFLP-FAO. 60 pp.
Ward, A.R. & Jeffries, D.J. 2000. A manual for assessing post-harvest fisheries losses.
Chatham, UK, Natural Resources Institute. 140 pp.Washington, S. & Ababouch, L.
2011. Private standards and certification in fisheries and aquaculture. FAO Fisheries and
Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 553. Rome, FAO. 181 pp.
WHO. 2009. Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 1995–2005.
WHO global database on Vitamin A deficiency. Geneva, Swizerland. 55 pp.
WHO. 2007. Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination A
guide for programme managers. Third edition. Geneva, Switzerland. 98 pp.
World Trade Organization. 2008. Considerations relevant to private standards in the
field of animal health, food safety and animal welfare. G/SPS/GEN/822. Geneva.
Switzerland.
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Grocery consumers in the recession
Jonathan Banks
Jonathan Banks Associates Ltd
Thame, United Kingdom
Introduction
There are some myths and misconceptions surrounding consumer behaviour during
the current downturn. It is very easy to believe all of the gloom and doom published
in the media. However, it is preferable to base understandings on data and the insights
they provide.
At The Nielsen Company, key methods of observing consumer behaviour include:
1. Scanning data from store checkouts
2. Household panel data (access to over ½ million homes around the world)
3. Consumer research
–– Regularly asking consumers in over 50 countries about their thoughts and
concerns on issues related to their purchasing activity;
–– Media consumption and online behaviour. This helps build a picture of
what consumers see, and what they buy;
–– Resulting in an understanding of what is being done, where, by whom and
most interestingly of all, why.
Background
There are several large geodemographic changes occurring which are worth exploring.
The population is growing. Currently there are 7 billion people on the planet.
This number will continue to grow until 2050 when it is predicted that it will level
off at about 9.2 billion. This is 1 billion fewer than was being predicted 5 years ago.
Much of this decline is caused by the rapid lowering of fertility rates, especially in
Latin America. This is owing to increasing levels of wealth, and, as more women
receive more education, they enter careers of their own, marry later, and have their
first children at an older age. Also, lower infant mortality means parents can be more
confident that their offspring will survive childhood.
Average life expectancies continue to rise. Around the world there are large
variations in life expectancy. Most Europeans can expect to live until they are nearly
80, that is 10 years more than the global average. At the other end of the scale, people
in many African countries have low life expectancies. In Swaziland, it is just 32. This
is as a result of:
• lower levels of wealth. There is a high degree of correlation between wealth
and longevity
• the presence of HIV Aids in over a quarter of the adult population.
In most countries, women can expect to live 5 years longer than men.
The world’s wealth is unevenly dispersed. It is tempting, but a little inaccurate, to
over simplify this by saying that there is a rich North and a poor South. Over the last
60 years there has been a great increase in the number of people classified as middle
class. This is because of political and technological changes, many of which have
occurred in just the last 30 years:
• 1981 – the first personal computer – from IBM
• 1985 – the launch of Windows
• 1989 – the Berlin Wall falls
Papers presented at the congress
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• 1990 – Nelson Mandela is released; so is Windows 3.0
• 1991 – the first web site – at CERN in Switzerland
• 1993 – the first Browser
Deregulation and the opening up of economies to foreign investment help improve
gross domestic product (GDP), although protectionism and criminality prevent
economies reaching their full potential. Table 1 demonstrates that there is much further
growth potential for some already large growth economies. Many are not yet matching
their share of the world’s GDP to their share of the world’s population.
TABLE 1
Comparison of share of global population and GDP for selected countries
Country
Population (%)
GDP (PPP) (%)
Index (%)
Singapore
0.1
0.3
506
United Arab Emirates
0.1
0.3
381
Japan
1.9
6.5
340
Taiwan
0.3
1.1
307
Korea, South
0.7
1.8
251
Malaysia
0.4
0.5
145
Chile
0.2
0.4
143
Argentina
0.6
0.8
132
Mexico
1.6
2.1
125
South Africa
0.7
0.7
98
Brazil
2.9
2.8
96
Thailand
1.0
0.8
81
China
19.9
10.7
53
Egypt
1.2
0.6
51
Indonesia
3.5
1.3
36
Philippines
1.4
0.5
32
India
17.0
4.6
27
Pakistan
2.6
0.6
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Source: Global Online Surveys, 2009.
So is all this extra wealth making consumers feel more financially confident? The
evidence suggests not.
Consumer Confidence
The Nielsen Company undertake global research to understand consumers’ attitudes
to various aspects relating to their shopping and consumption behaviour. Quarterly
surveys conducted in over 50 countries ask respondents:
• Do you think job prospects in your country over the next 12 months will be:
(Excellent, good, not so good, bad, don’t know);
• Do you think the state of your own personal finances in the next 12 months
will be: (Excellent, good, not so good, bad, don’t know);
• Considering the cost of things today and your own personal finances, would
you say at this moment the time to buy the things you want and need is:
(Excellent, good, not so good, bad, don’t know).
Amalgamating the answers allows the construction of a Consumer Confidence
Index. A score above 100 means people are confident about their future finances and
below 100 means they are pessimistic about their prospects.
Figure 1 shows how consumer confidence has changed leading into and during the
current downturn.
Grocery consumers in the recession
35
Figure 1
Consumer Confidence Index
Note: A score above 100 means people are confident about their future finances and below 100 means they are
pessimistic about their prospects.
Source: Global Online Surveys, 2009.
The Consumer Confidence Index numbers for the 54 countries in which the
research is carried out show that some of the least financially confident countries
have been some of the richest (as measured by per capita GDP). Currently (March
2011), only 6 countries record a score that is significantly positive (above 110): India,
Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, Australia, Philippines and Switzerland.
Consumer Concerns
In the past, in most countries, health and work/life balance were normally in the top
3 concerns when people were asked “What is your biggest, and second biggest, concern
in the next 6 months?”. Financial worries have changed that (Table 2).
TABLE 2
Largest and second largest consumer concerns
The concern
Percentage of respondents giving the concern as their
largest or second largest concern
The economy
32
Job security
23
Health
20
Work / life balance
20
Increasing utility bills
15
Increasing food prices
13
Debt
13
Children’s education and/or welfare
12
Parents’ welfare and happiness
9
Increasing fuel prices
6
Global warming
6
Crime
6
Political instability
6
Terrorism
4
War
3
Immigration
2
Lack of understanding of other cultures
2
No concerns
2
Source: Nielsen Global Online Survey: global totals, December 2009.
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It is disappointing to see only 6 percent of respondents give ‘global warming’ as a
major concern. In fairness, the question is “What is your biggest/2nd biggest concern
in the next 6 months?” If the question asked was what the biggest concern is for the
next 20 years, “global warming” would probably score higher.
Large variations are seen in the different consumer concerns from country to
country. For example, ‘Crime’ is cited as a major concern in South Africa, Argentina,
Italy and Denmark given its prevalence in those areas. Similarly, ‘Terrorism’ scores
highest in India and Turkey because of recent events and the frequency of attacks there.
When looking at the evolution of these concerns over the last 4 years, financial
concerns now dominate social and environmental issues, with the exception of ‘health’.
Unemployment
Unemployment is increasing around the world. Spain has been hit particularly
hard given the importance of three recession-sensitive industries there: automotive,
construction and tourism. The German economy has not been run as irresponsibly as
some others, but still suffers as the ability to export is curtailed.
If one is made redundant, then for that person and their family it is potentially
catastrophic, but it is worth noting that for example, even in Spain, the vast majority
(79 percent) of the workforce is employed.
It remains to be seen whether the historic levels of fiscal stimulus being injected
into economies around the world have been sufficient. This, together with the
government debt accrued in bailing out the failed financial institutions, means that
countries have national debt levels that are painful to sustain. On a brighter note, in
many countries, consumers are beginning to learn that if they buy something, they
have to pay for it! Personal savings levels are still arguably too low, though they are
increasing. In the future, there may be more people that have sustainable debt levels
and sufficient pension provision.
Protectionism
The results shown in Table 3 indicate that despite the fact that restrictions on free trade
make people worse off (on average), with higher prices and reduced choice, in many
countries there are more votes for the politicians to restrict imports than to have open
access.
Table 3
Protectionism. Response to the question “To stimulate economic growth your government
should place trade restraints on foreign imports”
The Crtieria
Percentage responding
Strongly agree
6
Agree
26
Neither agree nor disagree
38
Disagree
24
Strongly disagree
6
Note: Compiled from 25,420 respondents from 53 countries – results shown here are total global average.
Source: Nielsen Global Online Survey, April 2009.
Consumer Behaviour
Table 4 shows a summary of recent grocery shopping behaviour, based on 12 countries
that make up 70 percent of the world’s GDP – Brazil, Canada, China, France,
Germany, Hong Kong, India, Italy, Spain, Taiwan, United Kingdom and the United
States of America.
Grocery consumers in the recession
37
TABLE 4
Grocery shopping behaviour trends based on data from the 12 countries that make up 70% of
the world’s GDP
The Behaviour
Aug 09
Sep 09
Nielsen market Index – Volume
May 09

Jun 09

Jul 09



Oct 09
Nielsen Market Index – Value






Are consumers moving to store brands?






Are shoppers shifting to value channels?






Are retailers selling more on promotion?







Are consumers shopping more frequently?






Are consumers spending more per trip?






Nielsen Global Consumer Confidence


Key:
 Very Strong Growth: Greater than or equal to +5%

Strong Growth: Between +1% and +4%

Neutral: between -1% and +1%

Negative: Between -1% and -4%

Very Negative: Less than or equal to -5%
Source: Nielsen Global Online Survey: global totals, December 2009.
Volume levels are largely static, and the growth in value is mainly because of
inflation, as opposed to trading up. Discussion about the growth of store brands (private
labels) will follow in the next section. The growth of value channels – discounters like
Aldi, Lidl and Dia, and Dollar Stores in the US – has more to do with their increased
store numbers than constraints on household expenditure. The increases observed in
promotional expenditure may be because shoppers were seeking out ‘bargains’, but
these offers can be a false economy. ‘Buy one get one free’ (BOGOF) promotions
are now giving way to single pack price reductions, as the additional purchase on
the ‘BOGOF’ often ended up in the bin. The increases seen at the start of last year
may also have been caused by an increase in the number of promotions being put
in front of shoppers. In other words, if the head office buyer in a retailer thinks
that, in a downturn, shoppers will want to buy more on promotion, and as a result
provides more promotions, it can become a self-fulfilling prophecy that more is sold
on promotion. Much of our research shows that shoppers “want what they get” – as
opposed to “getting what they want”. Shopping behaviour is greatly influenced by the
environment and the infrastructure in which shoppers find themselves.
To save money, some households are shopping more frequently, buying just what
is needed for the next meal or two, thereby spreading expenditure and reducing waste.
More often households are shopping slightly less often – two completely different
tactics to achieve the same objective!
The reason that for so many people it is ‘business as usual’ is that whilst a new car
or exotic foreign holidays are not needed every year, we do have to eat. Food is now
cheaper than it has ever been before, so despite the recession, all of the gloom and
doom in the media is not reflected in our data. Figure 2 provides the reason.
A peasant in India, earning less than US$1 per day, would probably spend all of
that income on food. In richer western countries about 15 percent of our household
expenditure goes on food. So even after significant food inflation, only a small part of
our income is spent on groceries.
People in employment may now even have more disposable income as they reduce
their spending on big-ticket items like cars and holidays, and see interest rates on their
mortgages at their lowest levels.
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Figure 2
GDP per capita vs household spend on food across countries
Note: Country abbreviations are standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codes.
Source: Global Online Surveys, 2009.
A crucial thing for the food industry to understand is that whilst the industry is
not recession-proof, it is definitely recession-resistant. Sales levels are not declining;
the majority of categories measured are either static or growing. There is undoubtedly
pressure on categories and the value and profit they generate as a result of creeping
commoditisation. This is caused by:
• the growth of discounters;
• increased reliance on promotional activity; and
• the growth of private label.
Private Label
Private label’s growth is not so much driven by the economic downturn, but is more
a function of increasing consolidation of store ownership. This results in head office
buyers increasingly finding that they have the critical mass needed to make more
private label “Stock Keeping Units” viable. As their most important Key Performance
Indicator will often be the percentage profit on return achieved, decreasing brands’
share is often seen as a high priority in the management of the category. Private label’s
share varies by country (Figure 3).
Private label is increasingly supported by professionally marketed initiatives. It
evolves from being just a cheaper copy of the brand to a more differentiated offering
with category leading innovations and often sold at a premium to the brand.
Grocery consumers in the recession
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Figure 3
Private label share
– by country and grouped by continent
Source: Global Online Surveys, 2009.
Brand Owners’ Response
Having studied thousands of categories in many countries over a long period of time,
it is evident that brand owners can be the masters of their own destiny and mitigate
the downward pressures on their categories and margins. Private label does not cause
brands to be weak, but if brands are weak, private label will take over.
So the question then becomes – “how do you stop your brand from being weak?”
The answer is to understand the drivers of your brand’s equity and watch for early
warning signs of weakening:
• Is your innovation record poor?
• Is your Research and Development budget no longer large enough?
• Are you becoming more reliant on promotional activity to support your
volume?
Papers presented at the congress
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• Are you charging an unjustifiably high premium for your brand?
• Are you spending enough on good advertising?
• Is there spare capacity in your market?
There is much you can do to add value. Despite the economic downturn, consumers
are still willing to spend more money on products that align with these mega-trends:
• Health and well-being
• Indulgence and pleasure
• Convenience and practicality
• Ethical
If vendors can bring products to market that tick all four of these boxes then they
are likely to be able to charge quite significant premiums!
The Future
Going forward, the most important of these mega-trends is the last – ethical. It means
different things to different people, and might include:
• Local
• Animal welfare
• Sustainably sourced (e.g. paper or fish products; recyclable packaging)
• Organic
• Fair trade
• Low carbon emissions
Consumers are learning to live in a financially more sustainable manner. That
means, in increasing numbers, they will:
• Make their cars last longer
• Have fewer foreign holidays and take more vacations locally
• Reduce debt levels, and save more
• Have greater concern for the environment
The respondents in our Global Online Survey1, which covers over 50 countries,
claim to be concerned about the environment. It is surprising, therefore, that there is
not 100 percent agreement with the question: “How strongly do you agree or disagree
the statement ‘I am concerned about the global environment’ ”. In fact, 51 percent
agree with the statement and 29 percent strongly agree, leaving 20 percent as undecided
or disagreeing.
Do these concerns translate in to actions? Shoppers’ perception of ethical
consumption varies greatly (Table 5). Table 6 then provides the buying claims of
respondents.
Table 5
Response to the question: “In the last six months, in response to my concerns about climate
change, I have changed my daily behaviour”
Criteria
12
Agree
39
Neither agree nor disagree
32
Disagree
13
Strongly disagree
4
Source: Global Online Surveys, 2009.
1
Percentage responding
Strongly agree
Source: Nielsen Global Online Survey, April 2009.
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TABLE 6
Consumer stated preferences for grocery products addressing sustainability issues.
Product category
Percentage of those who
actively buy the product
Energy efficient products or appliances
53
Locally made products
51
Products in recyclable packaging
45
Products bought from a Farmers’ market
42
Organic products
35
Products with little or no packaging
31
Fairtrade products
27
Products that haven’t travelled long distances to get to the store
27
Ethically produced or grown products
25
Products that have not been tested on animals
23
Source: Global Online Surveys, 2009.
There is probably a degree of over-claiming here – however, at worst, this shows a
propensity to want to do the right thing.
When trying to consume groceries in a more sustainable manner, there is much
confusion. Many column inches have been devoted to ‘food miles’. However, a better
concept is carbon emissions. This is because carbon audits often reveal counter intuitive
findings. Products transported from far away may have lower carbon emissions than
local ones – sometimes depending on the time of year or mode of transport. The
carbon emissions from the energy inputs needed to grow and process a product in the
country of consumption can be much higher than those associated with transportation
of imported products, as with these examples in Europe:
• New Zealand lamb
• New Zealand apples in winter
• Kenyan roses
Some products declare on their packaging the carbon emissions associated with
their production. Knowing that, for instance, 85g of carbon were emitted in the
production of a 35g pack of crisps does not tell the consumer whether that is good,
bad, or indifferent2. It does, however, demonstrate that the manufacturer is bothered
enough about this to a) measure it, and then b) try to reduce it. After all, you can only
effectively manage what you measure.
The idea that certain fruits and vegetables have seasons and cannot be expected
to be available all year round is also gaining wider acceptance. Consumers need
manufacturers and retailers to do ‘choice editing’ for them and provide sustainably
sourced products.
Some consumers ‘get it’ more than others (Table 7).
TABLE 7
“Within the next 10 years, how do you think your quality of life will be affected by the impacts
of climate change?”
Criteria
4
It will improve slightly
15
It will neither worsen nor improve
32
It will worsen slightly
38
It will worsen greatly
11
Source: Global Online Surveys, 2009.
2
Total percentage
It will improve greatly
www.walkerscarbonfootprint.co.uk/walkers_carbon_footprint.html
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At a country level (Table 8), the most concerned about climate change are countries
in Latin America, with the exception of Greece.
Table 8
Responses to the question “Within the next 10 years, how do you think your quality of life will
be affected by the impacts of climate change?”
Percentage responding to:
“It will worsen slightly”
“It will worsen greatly”
Total thinking their quality of life
will worsen (%)
Greece
52
35
87
Brazil
55
24
79
Argentina
57
22
79
Chile
48
30
78
Colombia
47
29
76
Mexico
47
27
74
Venezuela
48
25
73
Country
Source: Global Online Surveys, 2009.
The global population will rise from its current 6.8 billion to between 9 and
10 billion in 2050. There has to be sufficient food, sustainably sourced, for everyone
to eat. Perhaps the negative opinion over genetic modification may diminish as the
population grows and the science is better understood.
Fish Versus Meat
People are encouraged to eat less red meat to reduce carbon emissions3 and fish has
certainly gained in popularity as consumers are encouraged by health campaigns to
regularly eat oily fish to improve intake of omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acids.
Consumption levels vary hugely from country to country, but 92 percent of Nielsen’s
survey respondents claim to have eaten fish in the last year (Table 9).
Table 9
Responses to the question “On average how often do you eat fish (including seafood)?”
Country
Occasions
per week
Country
Occasions
per week
Country
Occasions
per week
Philippines
3.3
Israel
1.6
Latvia
1.4
Malaysia
3.0
France
1.5
Belgium
1.3
Singapore
2.9
Ireland
1.5
Brazil
1.3
Portugal
2.8
Italy
1.5
Chile
1.3
Thailand
2.8
Poland
1.5
New Zealand
1.3
Hong Kong
2.7
Sweden
1.5
Switzerland
1.3
Indonesia
2.6
United Kingdom
1.5
Venezuela
1.3
Japan
2.6
Estonia
1.5
Canada
1.2
Spain
2.3
Lithuania
1.5
Turkey
1.2
Taiwan
2.3
Egypt
1.5
United States
1.2
Vietnam
2.1
Australia
1.4
Colombia
1.2
China
1.9
Austria
1.4
Netherlands
1.1
Norway
1.9
Finland
1.4
Czech Republic
1.1
Denmark
1.7
Germany
1.4
Pakistan
1.1
South Korea
1.7
Greece
1.4
Argentina
1.0
Russia
1.7
Mexico
1.4
India
0.9
United Arab
Emirates
1.7
South Africa
1.4
Hungary
0.8
Source: Nielsen Global Online Survey, April 2008. Global average is 1.6.
Overfishing has led to the depletion of many species in the world’s fisheries.
Consumers are becoming more aware of the need to ensure that the fish they buy has
3
www.supportmfm.org
Grocery consumers in the recession
43
been sustainably sourced. Consumer awareness of the issue is low, but growing. The
split of those who ‘strongly agree; or ‘agree’ with the question: “I am concerned about
overuse of global fish stocks” is 17 percent and 36 percent respectively.
Table 10 shows the countries that are most concerned with this issue.
Table 10
Responses to the question “I am concerned about overuse of global fish stocks”
Country
Percentage responding:
“Stongly agree”
“Agree”
Total agreeing (%)
Greece
45
39
84
Indonesia
30
50
80
Thailand
34
45
79
Sweden
29
44
73
Switzerland
29
44
73
Spain
27
45
72
South Africa
34
37
71
France
29
42
71
Philippines
28
40
68
Mexico
28
35
63
Source: Global Online Surveys, 2009.
But who did consumers think should take responsibility for it? Table 11 provides
the answer.
Table 11
Response to question: “Which of the following groups should assume responsibility for
ensuring the sea’s fish stocks are not overused?”
Group
Percentage responding
Governments of countries
67
The fishing industry
46
Fish manufacturers and processors
28
People who buy or eat fish
19
Non-governmental organisations
18
Retailers of fish products
16
Source: Global Online Surveys 2009.
There are a number of schemes in place to ensure that the fishing industry is
behaving in a responsible manner, with perhaps the best known being the Marine
Stewardship Council founded 10 years ago and whose logo appears on many products.
For most people, this kind of on-pack accreditation is at best a ‘nice-to-have’ and
is only a ‘must-have’ for a minority (Table 12).
TABLE 12
“What level of influence do product labels declaring that fish is sustainably sourced have on
your purchasing decision?”
Criteria
Total percentage
Very important
27
Important
43
No influence on purchase decision
30
Source: Global Online Surveys, 2009.
There is a variation by country with Table 13 showing the countries that are most
heavily influenced by a product label declaring the sustainability of the source of fish
and those that are least concerned.
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Table 13
Country populations that are influenced by a product label declaring the sustainability of the
source of fish
Importance of product label declaring sustainability of the source
of fish on purchase decision
Country
Very important (%)
Important (%)
No influence (%)
Vietnam
57
39
4
Philippines
50
40
10
Brazil
45
39
16
Colombia
45
37
18
Saudi Arabia
44
35
21
Mexico
41
38
21
India
38
41
21
Chile
37
40
23
Indonesia
35
47
18
United Arab Emirates
35
40
25
Most influenced populations
Least influenced populations
Russia
16
37
47
Belgium
14
38
48
Czech Republic
14
37
49
Poland
12
40
48
Hungary
11
46
43
Netherlands
11
45
44
Finland
10
37
53
Norway
9
41
50
Estonia
9
36
55
Latvia
8
35
57
Source: Global Online Surveys, 2009.
If governments and the industry can work out how fisheries can be fully exploited
but not over exploited, then, with help from aquaculture, perhaps fish can increase
its ‘share of stomach’. The fish industry still has other hurdles to overcome, as this
research from an earlier Nielsen survey demonstrated (Table 14).
Table 14
Response to question: “What are the main reasons you don’t eat fish?”
Response
Percentage of respondents (global average)
I don’t like the taste
33
I don’t like the smell
32
I don’t like the bones
21
It’s too expensive
17
I’m opposed to eating
15
I don’t like the
14
I don’t know how to
12
It’s not easily available
8
Note: The base is those respondents who “rarely eat fish”.
Source: Nielsen Global Online Survey, April 2008.
Quo vadis?
Twenty years ago, when the world realised that chlorofluorocarbons were depleting
the ozone layer, effective action was taken with the Montreal Protocol. That is a good
precedent, but will a sense of inequality hamper negotiations, as most of the carbon in
the atmosphere today has been put there by the wealthier nations? It might have been
reasonable to expect consumers in emerging economies to want developed nations
to contribute more to the savings needed. This is not necessarily what survey results
showed. Table 15 shows the response to the question: “Which one of the following
options do you believe should be adopted to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases?”
Grocery consumers in the recession
45
TABLE 15
“Which one of the following options do you believe should be adopted to reduce emissions of
greenhouse gases?”
Answer to question
Total percentage
All countries should reduce their emission per person equally
41
Emission reductions based on country wealth – all countries reduce emissions and
wealthy reduce their emissions the most
43
Emission reductions based on country wealth – emission reductions from poor
countries are voluntary
5
Emission reductions based on country wealth – only wealthy countries should
reduce their emissions
3
Don’t know
7
Sources: Nielsen Global Online Survey, April 2009; GDP data – CIA Factbook.
Figures 4 and 5 show the country responses to the same questions. The low r2
numbers show there is little correlation between a country’s wealth and the response
selected.
Figure 4
Response to question “All countries should reduce their emissions per person equally?”
Note: Country abbreviations are standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codes.
Sources: Nielsen Global Online Survey, April 2009; GDP data – CIA Factbook.
It is to be hoped that COP174 in Durban (Nov 28 2011) will help reduce emissions.
Many political leaders in countries with high emissions show understanding of the
issue and give signs of willingness to adopt policies based on the science (as opposed
to a misunderstanding of the economics involved). Professor Stern5 has persuasively
demonstrated that the cheaper option is to attack this issue sooner rather than later.
4
5
The 17th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
held in Durban, 28 November to 9 December 2011.
Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change. UK Treasury, 2006.
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Figure 5
Response to question “Wealthy countries should reduce their emissions the most?”
Note: Country abbreviations are standard ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codes.
Sources: Nielsen Global Online Survey April 2009; GDP data – CIA Factbook.
The food industry has much work to do in this area and needs to proceed with
some urgency and, above all, integrity. Marketers should not be lazy and become
beguiled by trying to achieve short-term gains with spurious claims. Similarly, when
the organic farming industry claim that their product is “better for you, and better for
the planet”, they had better make sure that it is. Carbon emissions are often lower from
the non-organic alternative6.
The food industry is currently in a transition phase, where displaying your ethical
credentials might be a differentiator in the fight for consumer loyalty. However, it is
likely that very soon it will cease to be a differentiator – and just become a hygiene
factor for manufacturers and retailers. So is the industry seriously addressing this issue
in their businesses? Tackling carbon emissions will not only make businesses more
attractive to customers (i.e. both retailers and consumers), but will also reduce energy
bills. This in turn leads to higher profits – achieving the so-called ‘triple-win’ of people,
planet and profits.
There is not a single ‘magic bullet’ that will solve the climate crisis, however if
everyone takes action to reduce emissions, the worst may be avoided. Rabbi Tarfon
put it rather well7 “It is not your duty to finish the work...but neither are you free to
ignore it.”
Closing Thoughts
In the grocery arena, provenance and sustainability will gain in importance.
Shoppers will be more discerning about why they are paying a premium for some
products, and ponder the ‘value for money’ that more expensive products yield
(e.g. organic or bottled water).
6
7
Shopping Trolley Report Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, 2007.
Ethics of the fathers/Pirkei Avot. A compilation of the ethical teachings and maxims of the Rabbis of the
Mishnaic period.
Grocery consumers in the recession
It may be hoped that this downturn finishes in a couple of years, after which
there could be a recovery and a return to the consumer behaviour of the previous
10 years. Perhaps more consumers will ‘press a reset button’ and increasingly learn to
make a permanent adjustment to sustainable financial and environmental purchasing
behaviour.
Around the world, as the numbers of modern self-service supermarkets and
hypermarkets increase, the economies of scale, especially from supply chain savings,
will be passed on to consumers thereby retarding inflation. With total food bills
becoming a smaller component of total household expenditure there will be plenty of
opportunities for exciting, premium, value-added propositions on the shelves.
Now is a great time to develop and launch products! Advertising is probably
cheaper than it has ever been before, and competitors may be engaged in a race to the
bottom of the category – so keep adding value, and enhance brand equity. Studies show
that increasing brand equity leads to higher market share – and profits.
47
49
Advances in the development and
use of fish processing equipment.
Use of value chain data
Sveinn Margeirsson and Sigríður Sigurðardóttir
Matis ohf
Reykjavik, Iceland
Summary
Advances in the development and use of fish processing equipment, with respect to the
whole value chain, are discussed. The situation in Iceland is described briefly, especially
in terms of how seafood production has increasingly taken a value chain perspective
into account. Focus is put on how different modules have been linked together,
allowing for constant monitoring of yield and economic performance of the catch
and processing operations. The different data collection equipment, such as electronic
logbooks, processing information systems and marketing information systems are
discussed and as is how the data from each link are used for management within
the link. Application of traceability is also discussed and how such an application
can integrate data from different links in the value chain. When such integration is
achieved, more information can be produced from the data. Such information include,
for instance, processing related variables like nematodes in the fish and fillet yield and
their connection to fishing grounds, as well as environmentally related variables such as
oil usage. Future aspects of value chain management, including decision support, more
efficient fisheries management and increased data collection to increase the fineness of
the traceability granularity are also discussed.
Introduction
The value chain concept has been increasingly used in the Icelandic food industry in
the last years and the management of seafood companies has changed accordingly.
Today, managers in the seafood industry consider catching, processing and marketing
simultaneously when making decisions. The fact that the same party often owns
Icelandic fishing vessels, fish processing companies and marketing companies has also
impacted on the value chain approach; the aim is to maximize the profit of the total
chain – from catch to consumer – instead of only looking at an isolated link in the value
chain.
Increased use of automatic data capturing methods, such as electronic logbooks and
weighing machines onboard the vessels, has also enabled better inventory management
based on the age and size of the raw material, and other factors considered useful for
planning the processing. Use of RFID labelled fish tubs is also increasing, making
inventory control and traceability more automated and accurate and therefore enabling
different processing of raw material with different properties.
Importance of seafood production for the Icelandic economy
Despite growth in other industry sectors, the seafood industry is the single most
important industry for Iceland. It was estimated in 2004 that fisheries and seafood
production, together with ancillary industries, accounted for at least 30 percent
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
of domestic production (Árnason I, 2004). In 2007, this was still the case
(Jóhannesson S, Agnarsson S, 2007).
The worldwide economic downturn has impacted negatively on Iceland. This
is partly because Icelanders spent too much during 2004 to 2007, as apparent from
Figure 1(a), but also because, apparently, the Icelandic banking industry has been badly
mis-managed over the last decade. There are other reasons, of course. However, one
of the consequences of the economic crash in Iceland in 2008 has been the increased
importance of fisheries and seafood production for the country‘s economy. Seafood
production is again considered the most important industry in Iceland, not only in terms
of the export value (Figure 1(b)), but also in terms of growth opportunities. Companies
like Marel (www.marel.com), Trackwell (www.trackwell.com) and Hampidjan
(www.hampidjan.is) are all examples of innovative companies servicing Icelandic
fisheries and seafood production and also exporting their products and services,
contributing importantly to the Icelandic economy.
The export value of seafood in Iceland in 2009 was approximately 200 billion ISK
(US$1.5 billion). This is approximately 30 percent of the country’s total export value
(Statistics Iceland, 2010). The transportation sector is heavily reliant upon seafood
production and accounts for approximately 10 percent of the export value of Iceland.
Thus, altogether, seafood is responsible for at least one third of the export value of
Iceland.
Figure 1
Export and import index from 1945–2009 and
Proportional distribution of export value between industries in Iceland
Notes: Left figure - Icelandic export and import index from 1945–2009. Note the increase in imported goods from 2004–2007,
much higher than the increase in value of exported goods. In 2009, the value of imported goods fell sharply, while the value of
exported goods increased fast. Right figure - The proportional distribution of export value between industries in Iceland. Note the
increase of the importance of seafood production from 2008 to 2009. The transport industry in Iceland relies heavily on the seafood
production and therefore, seafood production account for even higher proportion of export value than appears at first.
Source: Statistics Iceland and the Federation of Icelandic Industries, 2010.
The most important species for value creation in Icelandic seafood production is
cod. The Icelandic economic zone is in the north Atlantic Ocean, and there, as in many
other waters, catch volumes have declined in the last decades. After attaining annual
catch volumes of 300–400 thousand tonnes during the late 1980s, a sharp decline in
catch volumes followed. In the decade after the onset of the Icelandic quota system in
1984 and again from 2000–2006, quite large differences between total allowable catch
(TAC) and the actual total catch can be noticed (Figure 2).
Advances in the development and use of fish processing equipment. Use of value chain data
Figure 2
Catch volume and quotas for cod in Icelandic waters from 1984–2010
Source: Sigurdsson, 2006.
Even though the cod stocks did recover to some extent, after the actual
implementation of the fisheries management system that had been established in
1984, the high catch volumes of the 1980s are distant memories. Such a decrease in
catch volumes called for new methods to maintain profitability of the fish industry.
Therefore, in the 1990s, focus was put on improving the handling and processing of
cod and the development of new and more valuable products. The first decade of the
21st century has led to the development of a more comprehensive management of the
cod value chain as a whole.
Value chain perspective
The concept of the value chain (Figure 3) has been increasingly used in the Icelandic
seafood industry in recent years and the management of seafood companies has
changed accordingly.
Today, many managers in the seafood industry consider catching, processing and
marketing simultaneously when making decisions. Many of the seafood companies
have integrated value chain operations, so in fact the whole value chain is owned and
operated by the same party. This has led to a more holistic approach to management
by not only focusing on maximising the profit from one link in the value chain but
looking at the value chain as a whole. It is now possible to estimate the properties of
any catch, based on historical data, and to evaluate sailing times and the value of the
catch because it has been shown that the properties of the catch and the corresponding
value are both spatially and temporally dependent (Margeirsson, B. et al., 2010;
Margeirsson, S. et al., 2007; Margeirsson, S. et al., 2006).
Increased use of automatic data capturing methods, such as electronic logbooks
and weighing machines onboard the vessels, has also enabled better inventory
management based on the age and size of the raw material and other factors considered
useful for planning the processing. The use of RFID labelled fish tubs, for instance,
makes inventory control and traceability more automatic and precise and facilitates the
use of different processing options for raw material with different properties.
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Figure 3
The value chain of seafood
Note: The first layer (top) shows the operations within the value chain. The second layer shows the medium for data
collection within each link and the third layer shows examples of data which are collected.
The amount of data recorded in the Icelandic cod industry has increased greatly
in the last decade, in parallel with the decreased costs of acquiring data through
automation and computer systems. Some companies have started to utilise the data
for management purposes. Data can also be used to respond to consumers' demands
for more information about their food products, such as origin, catching method and
impact on the environment. This flow of data is based on traceability being in place in
the value chain.
Traceability leads to transparency within the chain and is a key factor when linking
data. Vertical integration and partnership relationships have increased the motivation
within the food industry, as well as in other industries, to share information from one
link to another in the value chain. Increased sharing of information and data has and
will continue to improve decision making concerning catch and processing of cod in
Iceland. Information on fillet yields, gaping and parasites and further analysis of that
information has helped in managing the fleet of each company. The size of the catch
is no longer only taken into account when choosing catching grounds, but also the
properties of the catch for processing, time from catching ground to processing, oil cost
and other economic related factors.
When information, such as grading and location data, are available for the catch,
modern communication technology allows transmission of data to the processing
companies, facilitating the organisation of the processing lines long before the catch is
landed. The processing companies are then able to estimate how much and what kind
of products they will be able to supply to retailers. This makes marketing more focused
and more efficient.
The role of traceability
Traceability is a term that is often discussed in relation to seafood production and food
production in general. Different definitions for traceability in the food sector exist,
such as:
• The ability to trace the history, application or location of that which is under
consideration. (ISO, 2000).
Advances in the development and use of fish processing equipment. Use of value chain data
• The ability to trace and follow a food, feed, food producing animal or
substance intended to be, or expected to be incorporated into a food
or feed, through all stages of production, processing and distribution
(Regulation EC No 178/2002 (EC, 2002)).
• The ability to follow the movement of a food through specified stage(s) of
production, processing, and distribution” (Codex Alimentarius, (CAC, 2008)).
• The creation and maintenance of records needed to determine the immediate
previous sources and the immediate subsequent recipients of food
(U.S. Bioterrorism Act 2002 (PL107-188, 2002)).
No matter which definition is used, traceability can be used to trace products up
and down the value chain. Most commonly, the value chain is seen as starting with
raw material and ending with the consumer. The flow of goods defines the stream –
downstream is in the direction to the consumer, upstream is in the direction to the
raw material. Tracing products upstream (or backward) is often called tracing, whereas
tracing products downstream (or forward) is called tracking. Tracing enables “source
finding”. It enables for instance health authorities to find the source of a particular
problem (Bechini et al., 2005; Deasy, 2002; Dupuy et al., 2005; Frederiksen et al., 2002;
GS1, 2009; Olsson and Skjöldebrand, 2008; Schwägele, 2005). From the processing
manager‘s point of view, it enables tracing the catching ground of a particular product
and thereby linking the attributes of the product to the catching area. Such attributes
might include water content, water holding capacity and other physical properties
of fish muscle. They might also include analysis of the contribution margin of the
product, thereby enabling the processing manager to choose catching areas based on
expected contribution margins.
The captain, on the other hand, may be interested in tracking his catch. What
happened to the catch? Was it properly utilised? Did all the quality arrangements
onboard affect the price of the catch? Tracking is also used in a product recall. If,
for instance, mercury contamination is found in a seafood product entering the
EU market, it is necessary to trace its origin back to the source and when the source
of the contamination is found, track all products that may have been contaminated in
the same way.
Generally there are two categories of traceability. Internal traceability is the ability
to trace the product information internally in a company and external traceability (or
chain traceability) is the ability to trace the product information through the links in
a value chain. It is important to note that traceability is not the product information
itself. Traceability is the ability to trace and is, as such, only a tool that makes it possible
to trace this information through the chain. This was emphasized by Olsen and Karlsen
(2005).
A traceability system should, in the same way, not be understood as a system that
holds all the data, but rather a system that enables an actor in the value chain to trace
back or track forward. The systems that hold the data are referred to as information
systems. Experience has shown that in complex food value chains, such systems must
be electronic if they are to be effective. However, theoretically a traceability system
might be based on pens and paper.
There may be numerous benefits of applying traceability. Traceability allows
health authorities to trace and track contaminated foodstuff and reduces the risk and
cost of food borne disease outbreaks (Hobbs, 2003). For the food industry, including
seafood producers, the benefits occur at the market end and back to distribution and
processing.
Some of the benefits of applying traceability are as follows:
1. Lower recall cost is probably the most widely accepted benefit. If contamination
is found in seafood products and the producer cannot show that the problem
is isolated to a small portion of his production, a full product recall may be the
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
result. For many producers, such recalls may mean an end to their business
and therefore it is of utmost importance to isolate the problem and thereby
reduce the cost of a recall. A rule of thumb is that the smaller the production
lot, the smaller the recall cost. It is, however, important to estimate the risk of
a recall, as having small lots may increase cost; for instance, by slowing down
processing. It is therefore important, from an economic point of view, to take
the whole value chain into account and weigh risks and costs when deciding
on the methods used for traceability.
Related to this, benefits from the reduction of lawsuits may accrue. If a
producer can show that problems with their products are not related to their
operations but rather the operations of another processor, a transporting
company, a retailer or even the consumer, then lawsuits may be avoided.
This may save the producer from penalties and a possible loss of trade
owing to a damaged reputation and a weakened brand (Can-Trace, 2007;
Frederiksen et al., 2002; Poghosyan et al., 2004).
Market benefits may occur simply because, by being able to trace products,
companies become compliant with EU and US regulations. There may also
be some consumer requirements regarding traceability, especially at the highvalue end of the market (Golan et al., 2004).
Improved natural resource management is possible through analysis of the
resource utilisation. In fisheries this may be an analysis of how well the natural
resource (fish stocks) are utilised - if the catch is coming from a sustainable
stock, if the utilisation of the catch is for human consumption, how much
of the catch is utilised and how much is discarded, either before or after
processing (as waste or byproducts).
Improved environmental management, for instance through Life Cycle
Assessment (LCA) and calculation of carbon footprints. The use of LCA and
carbon footprints may offer a viable way of expanding the discussion on the
sustainability of seafood production and providing a more holistic view on
the matter of sustainable seafood than that offered by the adoption of popular
ecolabels, such as the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC).
There are numerous process improvements possible if traceability is applied.
From the authors’ point of view, this area has by far the most potential for
economic benefits, excluding benefits from limiting food poisoning events. A
more thorough discussion on the opportunities related to some of the benefits
may be found later in the chapter, but the benefits may include:
a) Improved supply chain management
b) Improved company management
c) Increased production efficiency
d) Improved planning of processing
e) Improved inventory management
f) Lower cost of distribution
g) More focused raw material acquisition
h) Improved quality management
i) More focused product development
Using information systems in the value chain
Different information systems are responsible for managing data in the different links
of the value chain. Figure 3 (middle layer) shows how the information systems relate
to individual links and what kind of data may be expected in each link. The following
section discusses this in brief.
Advances in the development and use of fish processing equipment. Use of value chain data
Information systems in catching
In Europe, reporting the catch of individual vessels has been required for some time.
This reporting has been done by filling out so called logbooks. Electronic logbooks
are widely used in Icelandic fisheries and are being adopted in more fisheries, such
as in Norway and the Faroe Islands. Today, hundreds of vessels report their catch
through electronic logbooks, or e-logbooks as they often are called. The e-logbooks
are basically an electronic edition of the paper based logbooks that have been used for
decades in those countries and more widely. The captain of the vessel enters the catch,
by haul or days, depending on the fisheries. Catch reports are created with information
on the size of the catch, relative size of each species, catch location, date, weather
conditions and other factors, depending on the fisheries. The reports are received by
the Directorate of Fisheries and the Marine Research Institute. The Marine Research
Institute uses the reports for scientific purposes, for instance regarding calculations of
fish stock sizes. The Directorate of Fisheries compares the data from the reports to
landing data for fisheries management purposes.
The use of electronic logbooks has frequently been enhanced by new regulations.
A good example is the law on fisheries management in Iceland, which now requires
electronic logbooks if vessels are above a certain limit. Today, suppliers of seafood
into the European Union must show that their supply is not coming from illegal,
unreported, unregulated (IUU) fisheries. This will most probably further enhance the
use of electronic logbooks. The electronic logbooks will create enormous volume of
data concerning the catch. It is therefore important for all parties of the value chain to
realize how they can benefit from the use of electronic logbooks.
The owners of the vessels also receive copies of the catch data. The owners of
the vessels are often also the owners of processing factories and they use the data for
management of their operations. Some examples of different kinds of analyses that help
decision makers include:
1. Catch rates in different catching areas and seasons.
2. Species distribution (proportion of different species) in different catching areas
and seasons.
3. Size distribution of the catch in different catching areas and seasons.
4. Comparison between different vessels, if companies use more than one vessel
for catching.
5. Bait utilization, i.e. how different bait results in different catches, even mapped
down to different catching areas and seasons.
6. Comparison of catching areas in terms of expected profit making, taking into
account both revenues (sales) and costs (oil cost, for instance).
7. Analysis of vessel movements during fishing trips and catch, possibly taking
into account environmental conditions such as salinity, currents and weather
conditions.
Raw material stock systems
Raw material stock systems or information systems at landing include data such as
quality of icing, temperature measurements and inventory levels. The information
systems are normally not as advanced as those used in e-logbooks and may be a
mixture of a database based software solution, spreadsheets and paper. Radio frequency
identification (RFID) tags have been used as identifiers of storage units (most often
for fish tubs) and even for data storage. However, the use of RFID tags in seafood
production is not common yet because of the harsh conditions (cold and humid
environment) that makes reading of RFID tags more difficult. The same applies for bar
codes, which have also been used as identifiers. In Iceland, the most common method
for identification is labelling the fish tubs with either the haul number or date. In some
instances the label may even be the trip number.
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Information from this link of the value chain can be used widely. Quality
management of icing is one example. Many processing plants in Iceland pay a quality
premium, because icing of the catch is vital for the quality and freshness and this
premium quality opens up the possibilities that the processing plant has for further
processing. Another example is scheduling of the processing workforce. By knowing
the inventory level and details of the catch (size and age distribution, for instance)
and adding data from the e-logbooks (incoming supply), the processing managers
can organise the processing for the following days, determine if there is enough raw
material to fulfil orders (and also determine if additional supplies are needed from the
fish market) and, based on the market price of different products and the workforce
available, schedule which products are to be produced and how – with the ultimate goal
of profit optimization.
Information systems in processing
There are different processing information systems available. In Iceland, the most
common systems are Wisefish from Maritech, Innova from Marel and SAP systems.
All of these systems vary greatly, but have in common the feature to manage data from
processing and sometimes from marketing. The utilisation of the data can take many
forms. Marketing needs to know the product inventory. Processing managers may
require different information from the systems. Contribution margin calculations are
based on information from the systems, as well as monitoring of yield at different stages
of processing. Defect monitoring is also important, as well as monitoring of quality.
Connecting quality inspections to the single employees helps with staff education, but
may also serve as part of a salary system, with higher salaries for higher quality work.
Information systems in marketing
Information systems in marketing are often well connected to the processing
information systems or at least to the product inventory. However, when it comes
to displaying marketing information from the other parts of the value chain, no such
system is available in the seafood industry. Thus data experts need to use raw data and
manipulate and analyse this data to provide information of value to managers. With
that in mind, at least an informal link exists between the marketing and processing parts
of the value chain.
It is useful to look at the value chain using Porter’s generic value chain model
(Porter, 1985) to better understand the different activities throughout the chain
(Figure 4). The primary value chain activities are:
• Inbound logistics: Receiving and warehousing of materials and their distribution
to manufacturing.
• Operations: The processes of transforming inputs into finished products and
services.
• Outbound logistics: The warehousing and distribution of finished goods.
• Marketing and sales: The identification of customer needs and the generation
of sales.
• Service: The support of customers after the products and services are sold to
them.
People are getting more and more conscious of the food they consume and
discussion about genetic modification of foods has increased the demand for
traceability, because consumers want to be able to obtain information about the food
throughout the value chain. As a result, traceability can be used as a marketing tool,
while recognising the limitations mentioned previously with regard to full chain data
analysis when it comes to displaying marketing information from the other parts of
the value chain.
Advances in the development and use of fish processing equipment. Use of value chain data
Figure 4
Visualisation of Porter‘s Generic Value Chain
Linking the information systems
It is of extreme importance to link all the data collected in the value chain in order
to make full use of the data. To illustrate the importance of this, one may look at the
current typical method of determining catch location. This mostly involves the captains
of vessels relying on their past experience and gut instinct with the aim of maximizing
the catch, catch value and total earnings of each vessel. However the captain lacks
hard information to consider the latter two factors, so the focus will mainly be on
catch volumes. This method has proved remarkably successful but has some obvious
shortcomings. The overall value of the catch, taking into account the value creation in
processing is, for instance, not taken into account. A combination of the tacit knowledge
of vessel captains and processing managers and a more scientific method would be a
good option for decision making at sea. An optimization model based on work of
Margeirsson et al. (2007) has been proposed (Olafsson et al., 2010) for both long-term
and short-term decision making for a fishery operating several vessels. A prototype of
the software, called Fishmark, has been developed to support decisions in the seafood
industry in Iceland and has been taken up by a number of Icelandic companies. The
aim is to solve a multi-commodity network flow problem that describes the entire
operation of a fishery. However, the shortcomings lie in the linking of data from
different links of the value chain. An important part of such decision support systems is
the statistical model, based on previous data, that gives indications on what kind of fish
can be expected in a certain area at a certain time and helps in deciding the location for
catching. This could surely be a very helpful tool but in the current situation, reliable
and sufficient data are missing for the model to be of practical use.
The results of Olafsson et al. (2010) are, however, quite interesting. They showed
that by linking data from electronic logbooks, onboard vessels and data from the
information systems in processing, significant information can be created with a variety
of possible uses. One application, for instance, might be the statistical analysis of size
distributions of catches in order to highlight possible high-grading or at-sea discarding.
Another approach to linking information systems is being explored by an EC funded
project called EcoFishman. The overall aim of the project is to develop and contribute
to the implementation of a new integrated fisheries management system in Europe,
based on results based management. The proposed method is to develop a geographical
tool that will integrate relational databases containing the latest traceability tools with
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web based and geographical information system (GIS) technology. The geographical
visualization tool / decision support system will provide a unique interface to view the
interaction and interdependency of relevant data of different types.
The databases to be integrated are both proprietary, such as those described
in previous chapters, and those that consist of data from three case studies where
responsive fisheries management system (RFMS) will be designed and simulated.
The different data sets to be collected include biological, social, legal and economic
indicators. Because many of those indicators have a geographical component, the GIS
technology is very applicable. The collected datasets will have an important role when
it comes to predicting and simulating the effects of the RFMS.
Relevant sources of data include the numerous technological tools that are
available for assisting in managing fisheries, such as logbooks, satellites, data systems
for markets and processing, camera systems onboard vessels (CCTV), technological
tools to mitigate bycatch and more.
Decision support: Fleet and processing management
In the case of the seafood industry, the total allowable catch is constrained by
regulations. Therefore the revenues are determined by the price of the product and the
production yield from the supply of raw material. With this in mind, one can see the
importance of utilizing fish optimally as well as making sure that the properties and
volumes of catches meet the demands from consumers.
Activities included in the seafood value chain are dependent on each other. Decisions
on fishing, processing, labour allocations, quota allocation and marketing may play an
important role in the final quality of the final product and thus the revenue obtained.
Decision support systems (DSSs) can play an important role in the industry. They have
been defined as interactive and adaptable computer-based information systems and are
especially developed for supporting managerial decision-making activities.
As an example of a DSS tool for the value chain, a linear optimization model, has
been proposed (Margeirsson et al., 2010) to solve the problem of choosing the right
parameters for material acquisition. The model is a combination of an assignment
problem and a production problem, where the objective is to assign vessels to fishing
grounds and to determine the allocation of the expected catch. When constructing the
model, the authors realized that good communication between the manager of the
catch and the managers of processing and marketing is required to optimize the profits
of the value chain as a whole. Four different data categories are taken into account:
1. Catching ground data: Catch volume, species composition, sailing distances,
etc.
2. Catch properties in terms of processing properties: Age of the catch, size
distribution, etc.
3. Operations expenses: Fishing, transport and processing.
4. Market data: Demand, price of fish from the vessels and price of fish products.
The proposed model may be described as a multi-commodity flow model, where
fish is the flowing object. The flow is shown on Figure 5. Properties of the fish change
as it moves through the network and the model needs to keep track of the properties
of the fish and its associated costs and revenues.
Advances in the development and use of fish processing equipment. Use of value chain data
Figure 5
A network for one season that shows a flow of caught fish through
the company’s value chain
Icelandic fish processors are highly developed technically so that much of the
information needed to make the correct decisions is already collected and available.
Many of the processing plants have undergone radical changes in recent years, with
installation of new processing equipment, such as Marel‘s concept of ‘flowlines’.
An important part of flowlines is a continuous weighing of fish parts at different
unit operations of processing. The weight of the head, fillets, different products and
byproducts can all be monitored. This allows processing managers to follow the yield
through processing and, if traceability is applied, to map the yield to different catching
conditions such as catching areas, seasons, towing times and other parameters. A few
hypothetical, but still realistic, scenarios were constructed for a small company in
Iceland. In one of the four scenarios, it was assumed that the company operated one
trawler and one land-based fish processing plant and that the trawler could choose
between two different harbours (A and B), as shown on Figure 6. Harbour A was
located on the west coast of Iceland, close to the processing plant whereas harbour B
was located on the east coast. The model assumed that fish landed in harbour B would
be transported by land to the fish processing plant. The Icelandic waters were divided
into 13 different areas and the year into four seasons.
The results show, for instance, that the most profitable catching areas would be
A11 and A12 (see Figure 6). Another scenario revealed that if the processing took
place in the south eastern part of Iceland (Harbour B location), the profits of the
company would be higher than in the first scenario. From this it can be concluded that
with traceability, fisheries can retrieve information on, for example, size distribution
of the fish or fillet yield from different catching grounds. This confirms the value of
traceability.
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Figure 6
Partition of Icelandic waters into 13 different areas (A1-A13)
Note: The figure also shows the locations of two harbours A and B and the fish processing plant F. Harbours A and B
are the harbours where the trawler of the company in the scenario can land. Fish processing plant F is owned by the
company.
Moreover, the results show that creation of decision support systems in the form
of linear programming models is viable. They require reliable and continuous data
flow within the seafood value chain and that the data are accessible for analysis and
modelling. Traceability must be applied to link the different actors in the value chain.
When it comes to such linking, the high level of integration in Icelandic seafood value
chains helps to ensure the data flow.
Decision support such as proposed here may be used to answer different
“what-if” questions. Such questions may be about quota price, choice of catching areas
and seasons for catching, location of processing plants and the possibility of responding
to different market conditions. Historical data are important for the precision of the
model, but new data on product price, as well as market forecasts may be of use.
Decision Support: Cooling chain
It is of extreme importance that the cooling of the transported fish is well monitored,
because the temperature of the fish throughout the value chain affects the quality of
the product and, therefore, the revenue achieved. Freezing has for a long time been
the most important preservation method in the seafood industry, especially in remote
areas such as Iceland that require a longer periods to transport their products to the
market. In the past decade or so, the importance of freezing has decreased while
chilling has become more and more important. Icelandic consumers and consumers in
Western Europe are the most important market for Icelandic seafood. In more recent
times, these consumers have lost interest in frozen food, or put more accurately, they
want their food in a fresh state if they can have access to it in that state. The economic
crisis may have impacted on this to some extent, but this is the general trend. Many
of the higher quality producers in Iceland and Norway have welcomed this because
it has resulted in partial protection against double-frozen seafood that is processed
in Asia and other low wage areas. This move to fresh fish has, however, demanded
more efficient cooling because microbiological and enzymatic spoilage is much
faster in chilled seafood compared with frozen seafood. In the first five years of the
Advances in the development and use of fish processing equipment. Use of value chain data
21st century, this was solved mostly by transporting the fresh products to the
market via airfreight, but environmental pressure as well as increasing fuel prices has
necessitated the development of chilling techniques that allow sea freight to be used to
meet the demands for chilled products. One such successful technique is superchilling.
In superchilling, products are chilled below 0 °C, partially freezing the water contained
in the products but doing it in such a way that the physical changes that occur when
traditional freezing is used do not occur. Experiments have shown that the storage life
may be prolonged by 4 to 6 days for both cod and arctic charr, which is approximately
the time it takes to sail from Iceland to Western Europe. An important further benefit
from superchilling, which takes place after filleting but before trimming and further
processing, is an increased yield from the raw material, because the chilling treatment
improves mechanical processing of the fillets. Superchilling combined with modified
atmosphere packaging can result in further increases in shelf-life, to 14 to 20 days for
cod fillets (Sivertsvik et al., 2002).
However, it is not sufficient only to use superchilling during processing. Accurate
control of the product temperature throughout the chill chain is essential in order
to minimize cost and maximize product quality and thereby product value. This is
unfortunately not always the case. Figure 7 shows an extreme example of what may be
expected in terms of temperature fluctuations in air freight from Iceland to the United
Kingdom.
Figure 7
Temperature fluctuations in an air freight transport of fresh fillets from Icelandic
processor to further processing in United Kingdom
Source: Mai et al., 2010.
The product temperature is affected by packaging and the ambient temperature.
The fact that different transportation modes have various interfaces can cause
problems in the chill chain, for example during loading, unloading, delivery operations
and temporary storage. All of these stages can introduce delays and are normally
not well monitored in terms of ambient temperature, at least not as well as the
transportation links themselves. When ambient temperature rises, heat is transferred
from the environment through the insulating packaging and starts affecting the
product quality through stimulation of spoilage processes. The type of packaging used
decides how serious this thermal load becomes, but factors such as air velocity and
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humidity also affect the transfer of heat from the environment through packaging.
The effect of including frozen cooling packs inside fresh fish boxes has been studied
(Margeirsson et al., 2009; Margeirsson et al., 2010). Their findings revealed that using
cooling packs in fish boxes is an effective way to protect fresh fish fillets against
temperature abuse. The same study showed that the insulating performance of expanded
polystyrene boxes is significantly better than of corrugated plastic boxes, independent
of usage of cooling mats, but the difference is even larger if cooling mats are used
(Margeirsson et al., 2010). Thus the management of the chilling chain can become more
effective and efficient by taking into account all data from the value chain.
To retrieve the necessary information to monitor the temperature of the product,
time-temperature indicators can be used. These are small devices or labels that can
be attached to the food or the food package and are in close contact with the food.
They show an easily measurable, time-temperature dependent change which must
be irreversible and easily correlated to the food deterioration process and remaining
shelf-life (Taoukis and Labuza, 1989). Because actual temperature measurements at all
stages of the value chain of fresh fish may not be feasible, the use of time-temperature
indicators has been suggested to enable estimation of the shelf-life of fresh seafood
products (Kreyenschmidt et al., 2010; Riva et al., 2001; Taoukis and Labuza, 1989;
Tsironi et al., 2008).
Environmental Decision Support
The emphasis on the environment in the marketing of seafood products has increased
greatly during the last decade. This has come about for at least two reasons. Firstly,
pressure from non governmental organisations, consumer organisations and retailers
has demanded it and, secondly, if seafood companies want to remain in business in the
long term, they need to ensure a sustainable utilisation of fish stocks, otherwise they
will have no raw material. Long term interests for an industry must be kept in mind
at all times. For Icelanders, the crash in the herring stocks in the late 1960s, with the
resulting economic crisis, was a tough lesson.
Life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluates the impacts that a product has on the
environment over the entire period of its life cycle. One of the shortcomings of the
method is, however, that it does not fully take into account the different origins of raw
materials and the routes they take in the value chain. It is however widely used and
may be among the most advanced tools available for environmental impact assessment.
In recent research, Guttormsdóttir (2009) studied two different value chains in
Iceland; the catching of cod by long liners and by bottom trawlers. The environmental
impacts of both catching methods were evaluated by applying LCA. Information from
the processing phase was gathered and the product was followed from the processing
plant to Sevilla in Spain were it was sold and consumed. The study revealed that fish
caught by bottom trawling has a larger environmental impact than long line caught cod,
within all categories assessed such as climate change, respiratory organics/inorganics,
ecotoxicity, acidification and fossil fuel. The most environmentally unfriendly phase
within both methods is the fishery phase, the reason being the heavy fossil fuel
consumption. To elaborate, 1.1 litre of fuel was consumed by the trawler to obtain
1 kg of processed cod compared with 0.36 litres by the long liner to obtain the same
amount of cod. Substantial environmental impact also arises from the processing phase,
especially within the trawled cod product – this is mainly because of the refrigerants
used in the processing plant. For long lined cod the second greatest environmental
impact is the transportation with most of the environmental impact coming from
the trucks that transport the product in Iceland and in the target country. Carbon
footprints were also calculated. The trawled cod resulted in 5.14 kg CO2 equivalence
while the long lined cod was calculated to be 1.58 kg CO2 equivalence. Much further
research is needed to assess the environmental impact of a wider range of seafood
Advances in the development and use of fish processing equipment. Use of value chain data
products in different value chains so that catching, processing and transportation can
become more environmentally friendly.
Further work
The future of fisheries is based on the ability to maintain, or increase, production.
However, this must be done in such a way that fish stocks are not overutilised, and that
diversity and the well-being of the environment and society are maintained. One key to
attain this is by ensuring traceability in the value chain and enhancing the use of it for
managerial decision making. This is one of many important areas for future research
and development in the seafood industry.
First of all, it is clear that the databases already maintained by many modern
fisheries represent a great deal of untapped potential. Converting this data into useful
information, through optimization models, statistical methods or any type of DSS
could prove extremely useful for the decision makers. Moreover, regulatory authorities
may also benefit from further utilization of the raw data collected over the years,
including use of industry data. Still more data is needed as an input for DSSs and
preferably this data should be collected automatically throughout the value chain.
Another issue that should be addressed in the near future is the sustainability of
the seafood value chain. The value chain concept should be more tightly integrated
in the day-to-day operations and information should be made available that will help
companies to support the long term sustainability of their operations.
One may well foresee an extended version of LCA (call it LCA+) that uses
traceability to allow even better analyses than are possible with current LCA
methodology. This enhanced methodology will better incorporate ethical and socioeconomic aspects. Moreover, LCA+ will allow its application to different food
production chains to elicit differences with respect to sustainability attributes. It
will enable Food Business Operators (FBOs) and other stakeholders to identify
sustainability hot spots within production, processing, packaging and transportation,
as well as allow for comparisons across various chains.
With the current use of DSS, most focus is put on financial outcome and
optimisation of processes. However there is a need for a tool such as LCA+, or a
system supporting decisions regarding environmental aspects of the value chain, which
also takes economic factors into account. For an ideal DSS system to become useful the
following data and parameters must be incorporated:
• Real-time traceability data;
• LCA+ results from analysis with the new parameters and data provision timetemperature indicators;
• Identified sustainability indicators;
• Expected consumer behaviour, if available. Consumer values of interest to
FBOs relate thereby to increased demand or wider price margins for products
meeting obvious consumer needs. They will support sustainable management
with respect to their business operations.
By these means, managers within the respective chains will be able to use the DSS
to aid decision making that can affect sustainability. Increased sustainability can then be
achieved when informed decisions can be taken by the FBOs themselves and informed
assessment can be performed by other stakeholders e.g. governmental agencies,
certification agencies and NGOs.
Because the overall sustainability level of products consists of the sum of the
sustainability of the operations throughout the production chain, an integrated
approach is required. It is therefore necessary to increase the effort to utilise and
disseminate information from all production processes in production chains – from
catching the fish, through the value chain to the consumers buying the food in retail
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outlets or in a restaurant. A method such as LCA+ would be extremely useful for
attaining these goals of transparency, traceability and improved decision making.
References
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(State of marine fish stocks in Icelandic waters 2006/2007, prospects for the quota year
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Can-Trace. 2007. Cost of traceability in Canada: developing a measurement model. AAFC
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Deasy, D.J. 2002. Food safety and assurance: the role of information technology.
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Guttormsdóttir, A.B. 2009. Life cycle assessment on Icelandic cod product based on two
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Hobbs, J.E. 2003. Traceability in Meat Supply Chains. Current Agr., Food, and Resource,
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plastic boxes and expanded polystyrene boxes. Report no. 01-09. Matiso.
Margeirsson, S., Jónsson, G.R., Arason, S. & Thorkelsson, G. 2007. Processing forecast
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Advances in the development and use of fish processing equipment. Use of value chain data
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season and quality defects on value of Icelandic cod (Gadus morhua) products.
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research from fish to dish – quality, safety and processing of wild and farmed fish,
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Margeirsson, B., Gospavic, R., Palsson, H., Arason, S. & Popov, V. 2010. Experimental
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Tsironi, T., Gogou, E., Velliou, E. & Taoukis, P.S. 2008. Application and validation of the
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Heat treated fishery products
Vazhiyil Venugopal
Former Scientific Officer
Food Technology Division
Bhabha Atomic Research Center
Mumbai, India
Summary
Application of heat has an important role in the preservation of fishery products.
Conventional heat-based processes for fishery products include boiling, drying, frying,
baking and grilling. Thermal sterilization of fish on a commercial scale was initiated
with the invention of canning. Conventional canning is being replaced by retortable
pouch packaging because of its inherent advantages. Upcoming non-conventional
thermal processes include microwave, radiofrequency and ohmic heating. Thermal
processing makes foods more digestible, palatable and ensures their microbiological
safety. However, high temperature processing has certain disadvantages such as loss of
some vitamins, essential amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids as well as formation
of some harmful compounds. These changes can be significantly minimized by
combination of low heat with other techniques such as chilling, freezing, modified
atmosphere packaging, high pressure, etc. Judicious combinations of these techniques
help development of novel products, such as cook-chill and sous vide items, coated
and grilled products, surimi based restructured products, heat/pressure processed
products, etc. Advantages of combination techniques are saving of energy, reduced loss
of nutrients, convenience in handling and enhanced consumer satisfaction. Analyses of
merits of individual processes will be helpful for the successful value addition of fishery
products.
Introduction
Heating is the oldest and most reliable method of preservation of food products
including seafood. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations, in the year 2008, 115 million tonnes of fish was used for direct human
consumption (FAO, 2010). Thermal processing was one of the important techniques
used for their processing (FAO, 2008). Commercial scale heat processing of fishery
products is supported by diverse equipments and machinery, depending upon the
treatment. Heat processed fishery products may be grouped into three categories,
depending on the intensity of thermal energy applied, as shown in Table 1.
The first category comprises conventional or traditional processes that depend on
heat treatment below 100 °C and include cured products such as dried and smoked
items. Products dried in the open sun, in general, have poor quality and hence limited
consumer appeal. In contrast, drying of fishery products in cabinets by solar heat yields
products having high hygienic properties. The second category relates to products
that receive thermal treatment at temperatures above 100 °C. These products are those
produced by canning, retort pouch packaging, extrusion cooking, as well as battered,
prefried and grilled. Development of the third category of products is of recent origin
and involves combination of mild heating with other processes such as chilling, uses
of food additives including antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds, packaging,
etc. These products are appealing, convenient to handle and hence have enhanced
marketability. Applications of microwave, radio frequency and ohmic heating are yet
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to become commercialized. This article will deal with the major classes of heat-treated
fishery products, their quality characteristics and merits of thermal processing.
TABLE 1
Thermal processes for seafood
Low temperature (treatment below 100 °C)
Conventional processes
Drying (air, solar)
Smoking (cold or hot smoking)
Pasteurization
Pickling
Fermentation
High temperature (above 100 °C)
Canning
Retort pouch packaging
Extrusion cooking
Battered, prefried and frozen products
Grilled products
Combination processes involving moderate
(not above 100 °C) heating
Cook-chill processing
Sous vide processing
Pasteurized and surface coated products using fish protein
dispersion, chitosan etc.
Traditional processes
Curing is a combination of one or more processes such as salting, hot air drying,
pickling, smoking and marinating (Venugopal and Shahidi, 1998). Thermal treatment
during curing is through hot air drying (sun or solar) or contact of hot surfaces. While
elevated temperatures enhance water evaporation, presence of salt (in the case of salted
products), smoke components (smoked products), or pH (pickles and marinades)
in the product provide barriers against growth of microorganisms. A combination
of barriers efficiently prevents microbial growth through ‘hurdle technology’
(Leistner, 1992). The sensory properties of dried fish deteriorate during storage because
of the oxidation of lipids, browning reactions, and formation of rust, subsequently
leading to a hard texture of the dried tissue. Some novel treatments have potential to
control such losses of quality. For example, dehydrated steaks from the freshwater fish
rohu (Labeo rohita), which can give crispy products upon frying in oil, were developed
by initial tenderization of fresh steaks with papain, salting the treated steaks in an equal
volume of 5 percent brine followed by drying at 60 °C in a tunnel or a solar dryer.
Tenderization enhanced rehydration capacity of the steaks (Smruti et al., 2003). Squid,
when subjected to semi-drying followed by roasting, gave a brown acceptable product
(Fu et al., 2007).
Smoking is the process of the penetration of volatile compounds resulting from
incomplete burning of wood into fresh, ideally salted fish. Smoke is generated by
burning sawdust or chips of wood such as maple, oak etc. Storage stability of smoked
fish is owing to a combination of factors, namely, (i) salting, which lowers water
activity resulting in reduced microbial growth; (ii) elevated temperature drying, which
provides a physical surface barrier to the passage of microorganisms, (iii) deposition of
antimicrobial substances such as phenols; and, (iv) deposition of antioxidant substances
from smoke, delaying rancidity development. The process of smoking may be ‘cold’
or ‘hot’ depending upon the temperature of the treatment. Cold (temperature between
30 °C to 40 °C) smoked fish, containing about 5 percent salt and exposed to smoke
for 7 hours can be kept for about 2 months at refrigerated temperatures, although,
these products may pose microbial risks. Hot smoking is carried at temperatures in
the range of 50 °C to 90 °C. The hot smoked products are rapidly cooled and stored
at temperature below 4 °C or frozen. Smoke flavourings or liquid smoke have been
applied to fishery products because of their advantages over conventional smoking
(Hattula et al., 2001). Vacuum, modified or controlled atmosphere packaging or canning
can increase the shelf-life of the smoked products (Bannerman and Horne, 2001).
A characteristic flavour is the most typical feature of smoked products. Smoked seafood
Heat treated fishery products
may contain up to 0.5 g of smoke constituents per 100 g tissue, which include volatile
carbon compounds including hydrocarbons, furans, nitrogen oxides, sulphur and
other compounds, some of them being carcinogenic and hence responsible for health
hazards. Improvements in fish smoking relating to temperature control, electrostatic
filtration, and development of liquid smoke have been made to enhance the quality
of the products. One of the most popular smoked fish species is salmon (Rora et al.,
1998). Salmon meat, usually discarded after oil extraction, could be preserved using a
combination of smoking and acidification with lactic acid bacteria. The smoked shelf
stable product is a source of protein and high-value fatty acids (Bower et al., 2009).
Dried fishery products frequently suffer severe losses because of infestation by flies,
beetles and mites, particularly during storage under tropical conditions of high storage
temperature and humidity (IAEA, 1989). Fumigants such as ethylene dibromide (EDB)
have been used to control insects and nematodes in these products. However, these
chemicals are being phased out for health reasons. Low doses of gamma radiation can
inactivate most of the insects and their larvae (IAEA, 1989). However, the technology
is yet to be commercially accepted.
Heat sterilized products
Canning
Thermal treatment of fish in sealed metallic cans eliminates bacterial as well as autolytic
spoilage, giving products with shelf lives of 1 to 2 years at ambient temperatures. The
unit operations for finfish canning include skinning, filleting, separation of fish parts
after evisceration and trimming of fins, scales and other inedible parts, brining, cooking,
exhausting, hot filling, and sealing (Horner, 1992). The filling medium, usually brine
or oil, accelerates heat transfer to the fish and avoids overcooking at points closest
to the can walls. Sterilization of the filled can is done at 121 °C (a steam pressure of
2.0 bar would give a temperature of 120.2 °C) to attain commercial sterility. Inadequate
thermal treatment is a risk factor because of possible survival of heat resistant
Clostridium botulinum that can produce a lethal toxin. The generally recognized
minimum heating time to contain the problem is exposure of the coldest spot in the
can to a temperature of 121 °C for 3 min (Fo value of 3). High acid fishery products
such as marinades and pickles, which contain acetic, citric or lactic acids require heat
treatment at a lower temperatures (e.g. 90 °C), while fish canned in tomato juice and
low acid (pH3) products require full sterilization at 121 °C. Computer simulation
of heat transfer is increasingly used in the process development and ensures better
product quality and safety (Ansorena et al., 2010). During cooking, leaching of water
soluble vitamins and soluble proteins into cooking liquors is increasingly recognized
as the major source of loss of nutrients (Horner, 1992; Farkas and Hale, 2000). The
equipment required for canning as well as its economic aspects has been discussed by
Zugarramurdi et al. (1995).
Canning has been employed to preserve marine pelagic fish such as anchovy,
herring, mackerel, sardine, scad, sprat, pilchard, a variety of shellfish and molluscs
(Skipnes, 2002). In Europe, headed and gutted small sardines and sprat canned in oil
or tomato sauce are available, while canned herring products are popular in Germany.
Some fish such as sprats may be briefly smoked prior to canning. The U.S tuna
industry annually processes several thousand tonnes of fish, with skipjack tuna being
the most important raw material. Popular canned products include tuna canned in
oil, brine, or vegetable broth, tuna salad with garden vegetables, tuna salad in Italian
sauce, tuna in sweet and sour sauce and tuna spread (Subasinghe, 1996). Freshwater
and farmed fish such as carp, chub and rohu are suitable for canning. (Raksakulathai,
1996). Canning has also been employed to preserve fish balls, pastes and spreads from
freshwater bream. For these products, the fish is thoroughly cooked, chopped and
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
mixed with ingredients to give a spreadable consistency. Incorporation of a gelling
agent such as gelatin may be required to develop a paté that is sliceable and spreadable
(Balange et al., 2002). The two popular shrimp species, the white shrimp and black
tiger, are also suitable for canning (Sriket et al., 2007).
Retortable pouch packaging
The conventional canning in metal containers is being replaced by the retort pouch.
The technology is aimed at producing high water activity (>0.85) low acid (pH>4.5)
foods that are stable at ambient temperatures. Several types of retortable pouches are
available that suit consumer choice and convenience. While conventional pouches are
generally pillow style, the new stand-up flexible pouches are capable of erect positioning
on shelves by virtue of a flat base and hence have a better ability to display their
contents (Brody, 2008). The advent of retort pouch processing technology has made
the availability of shelf-stable ready-to-eat (RTE) foods a reality. Other commercial
retort pouch packaged products include vegetable curries, pudding in tubes, as well
as coffee and dairy beverages (Brody, 2008). Although the costs associated with retort
pouch processing are significantly higher than for canning, the comparatively low cost
of the pouch compared with aluminium cans allows for lower freight costs attributed
to the lighter weight and smaller volume of pouches. Higher consumer demand makes
the technology cost effective. The retort pack allows shorter thermal processes in
comparison to canning. Furthermore, unlike the metallic cans, the boil-in-bag facility
offers the potential of warming the food in the pouch immediately before consumption.
The required qualities of a retortable pouch are its ability to withstand a temperature
as high as 133 °C, good seal integrity with a seal strength of 2 to 3.5 kg/100 mm, bond
strength of 150–500 g/10 mg and burst strength of 7.5 kg/15 mm seal (Devadasan,
2001). The pouch is a laminate of three materials, an outer layer (normally 12 µm thick)
of polyester, a middle layer of aluminium foil and an inner layer of polypropylene. The
outer layer protects the foil, provides strength and also a surface for printing details of
the contents. The aluminium layer functions as a barrier for moisture, odour, light and
gas, while, the inner layer is the heat seal and food contact material. The following are
the general requirements for retortable pouch packaging:
1. Resistance to temperature up to 133 °C;
2. Low gas permeability and no oxygen permeability;
3. Inertness in interaction with food components;
4. Low water vapour transmission rate. Ideal moisture vapour transmission rate,
nil;
5. Heat sealability, bond strength and resistance to burst;
6. Physical strength to resist any handling during manufacturing and distribution;
7. Good aging properties;
8.Printability.
The critical factors involved in the development of retort=pouched products
include product consistency, filling capacity/drained weight, perfection in sealing,
temperature distribution and control, container orientation, residual headspace gas,
processing and racking systems, processing medium, pouch thickness and the pressure
applied (Beverly et al., 1990). Because of their limited seal strength, pouches are unable
to support internal pressure developed by heat induced expansion of gases, therefore
during processing the retort pressure is carefully controlled by steam/air mixtures.
After the sterilization process, the pouch is rapidly cooled to avoid overcooking
(Silva et al., 1995). During treatment, monitoring of surface thermal conductance
of pouches allows determination of process time, mass average sterilizing value and
nutrient retention (Bhowmik and Tandon, 1987; Simpson et al., 2004). There are three
essential rules for the safety of retort pouch processed products, namely, pouch seal
integrity, adequate thermal processes to eliminate the most dangerous and heat resistant
Heat treated fishery products
71
microorganisms including Clostridium botulinum spores, and post-process hygiene.
Retort pouch packaged products generally require reheating before consumption of
the packaged food items (Rangarao, 2004). Table 2 compares retort pouch technology
with conventional metallic canning.
TABLE 2
Comparison of retort pouch technology with conventional metallic canning
Features
Retort pouch
Can
Feasibility
Highly suitable for delicate products
such as seafood, sauces
Good for products having tough
texture such as beef, pork, etc.
Product development
Slower filling, thermal processing more
complex
Convenient production line
including filling and thermal
processing
Sterilization time
Less
More
Product quality
Superior product quality, with more
natural colour, flavour and texture
Intense cooking results in loss of
natural sensory attributes.
Shelf-life
Comparable with canned products
Comparable with retort pouch
products
Convenience in handling
Less weight, needs less storage space
More weight, requires more space
for storage
Convenience in
consumption
Can be easily opened by tearing across
the top at a notch in the side seal or by
cutting with scissors
May require a can opener
Capital investment
High
Medium level of capital
investment
Marketing
Trade and consumers need to be
familiarized with handling the pouches
Established technology and hence,
minimum consumer education
needed
An optimization technique has been developed for thermal processing of jack
mackerel in cone frustum shaped pouches demonstrating the comparatively low cost
of the pouch compared with aluminium cans (Simpson et al., 2004). Seafood including
salmon, tuna, crab, clams, shrimp, mussel and oyster, and products such as fish sausage,
smoked fish, fish paste and other items have been successfully subjected to retort
packaging (Srinivas Gopal, 2003). Curried seer fish (Scomberomorus guttatus) packaged
in a retort pouch of polyester/aluminium foil/cast polypropylene, had acceptable
sensory characteristics for more than a year in storage (Vijayan et al., 1998). Prawn in
‘kuruma’ (essentially an extract of mixed spices), using white shrimp (Fenneropenaeus
indicus), was packaged in retort pouches. Thermal processing required significantly
less time compared with that of conventional aluminium cans and the resulting pouch
products were superior to canned products in terms of quality attributes (Mohan
et al., 2008). Similar results have been reported for sardine based products. An increase
in thermal treatment times resulted in loss of textural properties of both canned and
pouch packaged fish (Ali et al, 2005). Salmon in various forms, such as flavoured
roasted fillets, smoked chowder as well as spread, pickled products, paté, croquettes,
lunch meat, pasties, low fat burgers, sausages and smoked and marinated tenderloins,
have been retort packaged in stand-up flexible pouches (Venugopal, 2006). A novel
pouch material, aluminium oxide coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/nylon/cast
polypropylene (CPP) (ALOX) has recently been reported for packaging of salmon
(Byun et al., 2010). Smoked yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) steaks were packed
in retort pouches with refined sunflower oil or 2 percent brine as the filling medium.
Processing was done at a Fo value of 10 in an overpressure autoclave with a facility
for rotation. A slow rotation of the product up to 8 rpm during thermal treatment
significantly enhanced heat penetration in the product requiring lower process time.
(Bindu and Srinivas Gopal, 2008). Retort pouch packaged mussel meat was acceptable
up to one year of storage at ambient temperature (Bindu et al., 2004).
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
Consumer interest in retort pouch products are attributed to changes in
lifestyles, lack of sufficient culinary knowledge (to prepare meals from scratch),
interest in products having exotic tastes, better hygienic quality, and convenience in
handling. Therefore, the global consumption of retort pouches has increased from
7 billion in 2002 to 10.1 billion in 2006 and is projected to be 18.8 billion in 2011
(McQuillen, 2007). In India, production of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods has exceeded an
annual value of about US$20 million (Rangarao, 2004). The Natick Soldier Research,
Development & Engineering Center (NSRDEC) in the United States has developed
RTE meals for soldiers (Halford, 2010). Retort pouch packed fishery products have
become a recent addition to seafood trade.
Extrusion cooking
Extrusion technology has been used for several decades, particularly for the development
of cereal based breakfast items. Food extruders are high temperature (130–180 °C)
short-time (HTST) machinery that can transform a variety of raw ingredients into
modified intermediate and finished products (Harper, 1981). The process involves
forcing a mixture of starch and other ingredients, at low moisture content (15 to
45 percent), through a barrel under variable conditions of temperature and pressure.
This results in the melting and gelation of starch, facilitating its binding with other
ingredients. The movement of the material through the barrel can be through single,
twin, or multiple screw conveyors that provide high or low shear on the product.
When the product emerges from the extruder, it expands because of the sudden drop in
pressure. A suitable die at the end of the barrel allows different shapes of the emerging
product to be formed. Twin screw extruders have better mixing ability, uniform shear
rate, good heat transfer, and can operate at higher moisture contents, compared with
their single screw counterparts and are therefore finding increased applications for
chemical modification of food ingredients to create tailor-made products.
The application of extrusion technology for protein rich products is possible,
at higher moisture levels. Extrusion of protein products at moisture contents of up
to 80 percent facilitates emulsification, gelation, restructuring, microcoagulation,
and/or fiberization of the specific protein constituents (Areaas, 1992; Cheftel et al.,
1992). Texturization of surimi using a twin screw extruder at a screw speed of 150 rpm,
a barrel temperature of 160–180 °C, a feed rate of 30 kg per hr and a die temperature
of about 10 °C gave a product having a texture comparable with that of lobster, crab,
and squid. The equipment required long dies with cooling, which helped to partially
solidify the material. Surimi from Alaska pollock, sardine, and salmon were used in
these processes. An extruded crab analogue prepared from Alaska pollock surimi
is in commercial production in Japan (Cheftel et al., 1992). Extrusion processing of
fish has scope for the development of products from underutilized species, bycatch
and also meat recovered from filleting operations, for the production of fibrous
value-added products. The system is capable of making products in a wide range
of shapes (ropes, flakes, cubes and patties) with different physical properties (e.g.
smooth, rough, shiny or marbled surface appearance with light to dark coloration).
Ingredients such as flavourings, preservatives, colorants, oils and vitamins can be
added. Development of products incorporating proteins from soybean and surimi
has been attempted with some success (Choudhury and Gautam, 2003; Gautam et al.,
1997).
Coated, prefried products
Battered, prefried and then frozen products are an important category in the ready meals
market. Because of their convenience, these items are liked by most consumers, indicated
by the volume of global trade in such products. Sophisticated machinery is available for
the operations. Predust usually is a fine, dry material composed of wheat flour, gums,
Heat treated fishery products
proteins and often flavours, which is sprinkled on the moist surface of the frozen or
fresh seafood. It improves the adhesion of the batter. Batters are of two types, adhesive
and tempura. The adhesive batter contains starch, salt, seasonings, polysaccharides
(e.g. xanthan), proteins, fat/hydrogenated oils, and preferably a leavening agent such
as sodium carbonate to favour expansion during frying. The proportion of batter and
water is usually in the ratio of 1:2. Gums such as xanthan are used in the control of
viscosity and water holding capacity. Corn flour is important in tempura batters. The
characteristic property of the batter is its viscosity, which determines its performance
during frying and quality of the finished product. (Joseph, 2003; Fiszman and Salvador
2003). ‘Breading’ uses a cereal based coating, often of breadcrumbs. Texture, mesh
size, porosity and absorption are the major factors contributing to the texture of the
coating. The major functional characteristics of breading are its volume to unit area,
browning rate, moisture absorption, oil absorption, colour and texture. According to
the normal manufacturing process, frying is carried out at 180–200 °C in refined oil
for about 30 sec, followed by freezing the product. By keeping the coated product
in the fryer for a relatively short time, heat transfer to the product is restricted to the
coating surface, while the core of the product, such as fish, remains frozen. Limited
quality is lost because the product is frozen immediately after frying. However, the
high temperatures associated with frying may cause oxidative losses of vitamins such
as vitamin E. The coating technology has been described by Joseph (2003). Battering
and breading techniques have contributed significantly to value-addition of fish fillets,
shellfish and molluscs. Some of the products include butterfly shrimp, squid rings,
stuffed squid rings, fish cutlets and fish burgers. The coating technology has further
improved with the development of the surimi industry. The popular ‘fish finger’ or
‘fish stick’ is a coated product from finfish species such as cod, haddock, pollock, perch
and catfish, among others (Sasiela, 200l).
Grill-marked and sauce coated fillets appeared in the market in the 1990s.
The use of a flavoured sauce over the grilled fish enhances its flavour. The sauce is
generally composed of water (40–60 percent), vegetable oil (10–50 percent), seasoning
(5–25 percent) and gum thickener (0.2–1 percent). Popular sauce flavours include
lemon pepper, Polynesian (pineapple sauce sprinkled with toasted coconut), smoked
barbecue and tomato. The sauce is applied to the grilled seafood using conventional
batter recirculating equipment. The sauced fish are individually packaged in pouches
using skin-sealing trays. These products are generally well accepted throughout the
world (Mermelstein, 2000).
Combination processes involving moderate thermal treatments
The increased demand for convenient, fresh-like, ready-to-eat or ready-to-prepare
products has encouraged the development of techniques combining mild heating with
other techniques such as refrigeration, use of preservatives, etc.
Cook-chill products
Moderate heating in conjunction with chilling helps retain freshness and enhances
user convenience of foods such as vegetables. These are called ‘minimally processed
foods’ and are characterized by a water activity (aw) above 0.85 and pH above 4.
They include ready-to-eat meals and chilled prepared foods (Ohlsson and Bengtsson,
2002). Such foods are processed by a mild heating not exceeding 100 °C followed
by refrigerated storage and distribution (FLAIR, 1997).The Codex Alimentarius
Commission classifies these foods as low acid type foods, (pH>4.6) having high
water activity (>0.92) that are heated (or processed using other treatments) to reduce
their original microbial population and are intended to be refrigerated during their
shelf-life to retard or prevent proliferation of undesirable microorganisms, and have an
extended shelf-life of more than five days. These foods are packaged, not necessarily
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
hermetically, before or after processing, and may or may not require heating prior to
consumption (Codex, 1993). ‘Cook-chill catering’ is defined as a ‘catering system based
on the full cooking of food followed by fast chilling and storage at controlled low
temperatures above freezing point (0–3 °C) and subsequent thorough heating by the
consumer (or person serving the consumer) before consumption’ (Light and Walker,
1990) The minimum unit operations of the process are cooking, chilling, packaging and
chilled storage. The term, ‘pasteurized chilled foods’ is also used to refer to these foods.
Pasteurization temperatures usually range between 65 °C and 95 °C. Preservatives are
usually avoided in order to convey a fresh or home-made appeal to consumers. The
safety of the products depends on limited refrigerated storage (normally 5 days) to
prevent the growth of any hazardous microorganisms. Flexible packaging is an integral
part of the process to prevent microbial contamination. The packaging also controls
moisture vapour transfer and displays the product in an attractive way (Cleland, 1996).
Time-Temperature Integrator devices are useful to monitor storage temperatures.
A special barcode with a time-temperature indicator that changes colour can also
give information on temperature abuse during storage (Brody, 2008). The food may
be subjected to reheating, generally to 70 °C for a few minutes before consumption.
The low cooking temperature and refrigerated storage retain high sensory and
nutritional qualities. The disadvantages of cook-chill catering include possible abuse
of storage temperatures enhancing microbiological risks, product instability during
extended storage and the need for high capital investment for the technology. The
limited chilled shelf-life of cook-chill products could be extended by incorporation
of additional processing steps, such as brining. The U.S. National Food Processors
Association recommends incorporation of multiple (at least two) barriers or hurdles
(in addition to refrigeration) into the product formulation to ensure microbial safety
(NFPA, 2002; IFT/FDA, 2003). Examples of such microbial barriers include
acidification, reduced water activity, preservatives, protective cultures and modified
atmosphere packaging. Modifications may also include sous vide (cooked under
vacuum), hot-fill and hygienic and aseptic packaging. Additional treatments such
as low dose irradiation and/or modified atmosphere packaging could be employed
(Scott, 1989). Integration of Good Manufacturing Practices/Good Hygienic Practices
(GMP/GHP) and of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) can enhance
safety of these foods. During the decade from 2000 to 2010, chilled foods worth GBP8
708 million per annum were marketed, showing a value growth of 83 percent during
the period (UK Chilled Foods Association, 2010).
Cook-chill processes involving multiple microbial barriers including chill
temperature have been reported for extending the refrigerated shelf-life of fishery
products. The processes for two commercially important fishery products, namely
white pomfret (Stromateus cenereus) and shrimp (Penaeus indicus), include
polyphosphate dip treatment, brining, steaming, rapid chilling followed by chilled
storage. Polyphosphates improve the water holding capacity of the product, while the
brining stage enhanced flavour, sensitized microorganisms to heat and provided an
additional antimicrobial barrier. The products had an extended shelf-life of 25 days, as
shown by microbiological and sensory evaluations (Venugopal, 1993). The process for
shrimp is shown in Figure 1. The process could be extended to other fishery products.
Table 3 summarizes the merits of cook-chill technology.
Heat treated fishery products
75
Figure 1
Cook-chill process for shrimp. Adapted from Venugopal, 1993
Fresh shrimp

Peel, devein

Wash, drain

Immerse in equal volume of aqueous (10%) (w/v) sodium chloride for 1 h

Drain

Gently stir in 5% (w/v) aqueous sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP)(Ratio of shrimp to solution, 5:1)

Drain

Steam for 15 min

Cool to 0-2 °C for 15 min

Package in polypropylene pouches

Store at 3 °C
TABLE 3
Merits of cook-chill technology
Advantages
Disadvantages
Processing
Microbiological risks require strict process and
storage control
Central production unit
Production is separate from consumption point
Bulk buying power
Higher productivity
Better equipment
Lower storage costs, because temperature is not
below freezing
Heating is rapid. Microwave oven can be used
Facility for HACCP
Less equipment needed
Less space
Less skilled and unskilled staff
Less waste of raw material
Possibility for varied food product formulary
Packaging
Less food waste (flexible packaging size)
Convenience and flexibility
Protection from recontamination
Vacuum retards spoilage processes
‘Sealing in’ juice and flavours
Labelling information
Adapted from Rodger (2004).
Product instability during prolonged storage
Environmental issues with respect to packaging
material
Limited chilled distribution channels
High energy requirement for storage
Need for capital investment
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
Sous vide (meaning, ‘under vacuum’) cooking is defined as cooking of raw materials
under controlled conditions of temperature and time inside heat-stable pouches under
vacuum, followed by rapid chilling. (Gonzales-Fandos et al. 2004). Heat treatment
equivalent to 90 °C for 10 min to obtain a substantial reduction in the numbers
of the pathogenic microorganism Clostridium botulinum has been recommended
(FLAIR, 1997). The European Chilled Food Federation’s ‘Botulism Working Party’
determined a need for additional effective preservation factors for sous vide foods,
where a 6D reduction of non-proteolytic C. botulinum cannot be guaranteed
(Gould, 1999). The flavour and texture of sous vide foods are comparable to those of
conventional cook-chill and conventionally cooked foods (Chirife and Favetto, 1992)
Rainbow trout processed by the sous vide method (involving heating to maintain a
core temperature 90 °C for 3.3 min) resulted in substantial microbial reduction in the
product. (Gonzales-Fandos et al. 2004). The sous vide process for farmed blue mussels
(Mytilus edulis) includes cleaning, filling in pouches in presence of desired sauces,
packaging under vacuum and pasteurization at 100 °C for 17 to 35 min, followed by
immediate cooling. The product has a shelf-life of 14 days at 0–5 °C. Instead of chilled
storage, the seafood can also be frozen at ‑18 °C. Vacuum packed, cooked, frozen
molluscs, having a shelf-life of 21 days at 4 °C are gaining popularity as a gourmet
item. (Gorski, 1990). The shelf-life for sous vide processed cod, cod fillets and salmon
stored at 0 °C, 3 °C and 4 °C were 28, 21 and 15–21 days, respectively (FLAIR,1997).
Sous vide processing of salmon has been reported by Bergslien (1996).
Other combination techniques
Heating can be combined with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment, modified
atmosphere packaging and use of preservatives such as antimicrobials, antioxidants,
etc. Treatment at an optimum HHP of 150 MPa for 15 min significantly reduced
microorganisms in Atlantic salmon. There was no significant change in fatty acid
profile (Yagiz et al., 2009). The possibility to improve the microbial quality of blue
fish burgers incorporating thymol (110 ppm), GFSE (100 ppm) and lemon extract
(120 ppm) in combination with MAP has been reported. The product had a shelf-life
of 28 days at 4 °C. (Del Nobile et al., 2009; Venugopal, 2010).
Meat from low cost fish can be converted to a thermostable water dispersion that
can have various applications as protein coatings to preserve valuable fishery products.
The dispersion is prepared by thorough washing of fish meat, as in the case of surimi.
The washed meat is homogenized in water at 3 percent protein concentration. The pH
of the homogenate is lowered to about 4 by a few drops of acetic acid, followed by
heating of the homogenate. The dispersion contains proteins, which remain soluble
even at 100 °C (Venugopal, 2006). The dispersion could be used as an edible coating to
enhance the shelf-life of fresh fish, because, as it has a slightly acidic pH, the dispersion
prevents bacterial proliferation on the surface (Smruti and Venugopal, 2004). The
dispersion, when applied to mince of fatty fish such as mackerel, can prevent lipid
oxidation as well as drip loss during frozen storage (Kakatkar et al., 2004). Another
promising area is using chitosan from shrimp shell waste to give coatings to high
value fishery products. Chitosan, because of its well recognized antimicrobial and
antioxidant activities, has the potential to extend refrigerated shelf-life of fishery
products (Venugopal, 2010).
Non conventional heating techniques
Non conventional, rapid heating techniques are increasingly becoming popular in
food processing because of their recognized advantages. The upcoming technologies
include microwave (MW), radiofrequency (RF) and ohmic heating. Both MW
(915-24125 MHz) and RF waves (13 kHz to 40 MHz) are part of the electromagnetic
spectrum that result in heating of dielectric materials by induced molecular vibration as
Heat treated fishery products
a result of dipole rotation or ionic polarization (USFDA, 2009). Commercialized food
applications of MW and RF heating include blanching, pasteurization, sterilization,
drying, selective heating, disinfestations, etc. Technological challenges in these
applications include process equipment design to achieve the desired effects, such as
microbial destruction and enzyme inactivation, temperature and process monitoring,
and achieving temperature uniformity. Other issues relate to the use of packaging
materials in in-package sterilization applications, package/container concerns
in domestic MW ovens, receptor technology for creating dry-oven conditions,
modelling and time-temperature process integrators. There is also the issue of nonthermal and enhanced thermal effects of microwave heating on destruction kinetics
(Ramaswamy and Tang, 2008).
Continuous flow microwave sterilization is an emerging technology that has the
potential to replace the conventional heating processes for viscous and pumpable
food products (Kumar et al., 2007). Mathematical modelling of heat transfer has
been developed using fish meat gel to study the heating mechanisms of seafood
products inside a microwave oven, and employed fibreoptic probes to measure the
temperature elevation at various positions of the foodstuff (Hu and Mallikarjun, 2004).
MW heating for a few seconds could enhance puffing and improve the crispness of
vacuum packaged fish slices (Chang et al., 2007).
Radio frequency (RF) heating is a promising technology for food applications
because of the associated rapid and uniform heat distribution, large penetration depth
and lower energy consumption. Because of their lower frequency levels, RF waves
have a larger penetration depth than microwave heating and hence could find better
application in larger size foods. RF heating is influenced principally by the dielectric
properties of the product when other conditions are kept constant (Chong et al.,
2004). The frequency level of the waves, temperature and properties of food, such
as viscosity, water content and chemical composition affect the dielectric properties
and thus the RF heating of foods (Piyasena et al., 2003). Radio frequency heating has
been successfully applied for drying, baking and thawing of frozen meat. An 18 MHz
RF processor applied approximately 0.5 kV/cm electric field strength to liquids, and
was capable of pasteurizing the liquids provided that cooling was minimized. There
were no non-thermal effects of RF energy detected on various microorganisms
including Escherichia coli K-12, Listeria innocua, or yeast in various food products
(Geveke et al., 2002; Wang et al., 2003).
Ohmic heating has been applied to fishery products. Pacific whiting surimi gels
having 78 percent moisture and 2 percent NaCl when heated slowly in a conventional
water bath exhibited poor gel quality, while the ohmically heated gels showed more
than a twofold increase in shear stress and shear strain over conventionally heated
gels. Degradation of structural proteins was minimal under ohmic heating, resulting
in a continuous network structure of the fish surimi. Non-fish protein additives
exerted better influence on the gel properties when subjected to ohmic heating
(Yongsawatdigul et al., 1995; Cha and Park, 2007).
Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used to assess the end point
temperature (EPT) of heated fish and shellfish meats. Blue marlin (Makaira mazara),
skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), red sea bream (Pagrus major), kuruma prawn (Penaeus
japonicus) and scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) meats were heat treated at different
temperatures (5 °C intervals between 60 °C and 100 °C). NIR spectra were measured
at 2nm intervals between 1100 and 2500nm. Changes in NIR reflectance spectra at
appropriate wavelengths upon heat treatment at 60–100 °C were related to the heating
temperature (Uddin et al., 2002).
Advantages and disadvantages of thermal processing
Cooking, in general, enhances the digestibility of fish proteins. Cooking may
result in some loss of nutrients depending on the temperature, duration of cooking
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
and the composition of the seafood. Boiling has little effect in the composition of
shellfish. Of the fish cured by different methods, smoked fish has good acceptability,
while others (air dried, salted, etc.) attract limited consumer interest and may pose
safety hazards. A combination of heat, light and oxygen has a higher damaging effect
on nutrients, including vitamin B6 and folic acid. Smoking Alaska salmon prior to oil
extraction did not result in destruction of its rich polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)
(Bower et al., 2009). Mild cooking causes little loss of protein with only a slight loss
in available lysine, whereas drastic heating can significantly reduce the protein quality.
Sulphides, including hydrogen sulphide, were generated from thermal degradation
of cysteine and methionine residues of fish proteins. In addition trimethylamine
(TMA) and dimethylamine (DMA) increased with a rise in temperature above 100 °C
(Yamazawa, 1991). The changes that take place in fats during heat processing greatly
depend on the fatty acid composition. In the presence of oxygen, unsaturated fatty
acids may become oxidized to highly reactive peroxides, which decompose to a wide
range of compounds. These compounds, which include aldehydes, ketones, alcohols,
small carboxylic acids and alkanes, give rise to a very broad odour spectrum and also a
yellowish discoloration to the product. At normal frying temperatures, these substances
are formed slowly in pure fats, but their formation is catalyzed by traces of metals such
as iron and copper present in the fish. In addition, overheating or repeated heating of
fats results in an accumulation of the oxidation products, making the fat potentially
toxic. In a recent study, slices of cultured sturgeon having a total lipid content of
3.1 percent (consisting of 29.1, 42.6 and 28.1g saturated (SFAs), monounsaturated
(MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) per 100 g fat) were fried, chilled,
and then reheated. In fried samples the levels of C18 fatty acid groups, namely
MUFAs and PUFAs as well as the n6/n3 ratio increased while SFAs, eicosa pentaenoic
and decosa hexaenoic acids decreased. Free fatty acid (FFA) content decreased after
frying, but peroxide value increased with a subsequent decrease in chilled conditions
(Nikoo et al., 2010). Canning of fish and shellfish has little impact on proximate
composition. However, canned fish, frequently packed in vegetable oil, not only increases
calorie content but also may nullify the beneficial effects of n-3 PUFA (Kinsella et al.,
1990; Pigott and Tucker, 1990). Because thermal treatment is less severe in retort pouch
packaged fishery products, the treatment results in reduced increases in the volatile
compounds and oxidation products as well as a reduced loss of nutrients, as compared
with canned counterparts. (Mohan et al., 2008). Culinary processes like boiling, grilling
and frying, whether done conventionally or with a microwave oven, generally do
not lead to significant oxidation of fat or reduction in the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty
acids in herring fillets (Regulska and Ilow, 2002). The influence of thermal processing
such as boiling, drying, roasting, baking, grilling and frying on the taste, aroma and
texture can be attributed to generation of volatile compounds as well as Maillard
reaction products. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was detected as the main
component of N-nitrosamines in dried seafood products when subjected to cooking by
different methods. While the contents of NDMA in uncooked products ranged from
1.0 to 46.9μg/kg, cooking resulted in increased NDMA ranging from 1.1 to
630.5μg/kg, regardless of the cooking method. Indirect heating such as use of a steam
cooker and a microwave oven, as compared with direct heating such as a gas range and
a briquette fire, caused less increase in NDMA (Lee et al., 2003).
Combination of thermal processing with other conventional methods or novel
technologies ensures a better product in terms of nutritive value and storage stability
and also helps in saving of energy. The synergistic effect resulting from combining
high pressure treatment and gentle heating can effectively kill microorganisms
or inactivate enzymes while desirable compounds, such as vitamins, colorants
and flavourings, remain largely unaffected. The application of novel technological
treatment and processing methods, in general, presupposes that the treatment does
Heat treated fishery products
79
not lead to any additional microbial, toxicological or allergenic risks. The National
Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF) on behalf
of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Marine Fisheries
Service (NMFS) has provided advice to consumers on the microbiological safety of
heat treated fishery products. Seafood products are consumed in a variety of forms
that include raw, lightly cooked, marinated, partially or thoroughly cooked. The
microbiological safety of these products is greatly enhanced when they are properly
handled, cooked, served, or stored. Nevertheless, available epidemiological data are
inadequate to determine the relative contributions of raw, undercooked, or properly
cooked and then recontaminated seafood to the burden of food-borne diseases.
The fragile nature of muscle tissues in fishery products results in a delicate balance
between proper cooking to inactivate the pathogenic microorganisms and overcooking
which may affect the optimal eating quality of fishery products. It was suggested that
food safety should take precedence over eating quality whenever possible. Although
cooking recommendations are widely available, there is no easy, practical measurement
or indicator for the consumer to objectively determine if sufficient cooking to ensure
safety of the treated fishery products has been undertaken. Non traditional novel
preparation procedures cannot be relied upon to assure the microbiological safety of
seafood products. Microwave heating is often less effective than conventional heating
because of non-uniform heat distribution. There is a lack of thermal inactivation data
for relevant pathogens in appropriate seafood because of the diversity of products
available and the various methods of cooking that are applied to these products
(Anonymous, 2008). Potential health benefits and risks of thermal processing of food
including seafood have also been highlighted in a recent symposium (SKLM, 2007).
Table 4 summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of thermal processing of seafood.
TABLE 4
Advantages and disadvantages of thermal processing of seafood
Advantages
Nutritional and health benefits
Enhanced bioavailability of nutritional constituents
Enhances palatability by improving flavour
Ensures a sustainable and balanced diet.
Positive influence on acceptability
Intelligent selection of process variables contributes to positive health
effects or to reduce negative ones.
Microbiological
Improves shelf-life by eliminating spoilage causing microorganisms
Enhances safety by inactivation of pathogenic organisms
Heat induced inactivation of toxins
Possible production of antimicrobial substances or enzyme inhibitors
Disadvantages
Nutritional
Temperature-dependent loss of nutrients such as vitamins, essential
amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids.
Drying at 60 °C or above causes appreciable damages to proteins,
decrease in sulphydryl group contents
Combination of heat, light and oxygen has higher damaging effect on
nutrients, including vitamin B6, vitamin E and folic acid
Leaching of nutrients occurs during blanching prior to canning
Frying may cause oxidative loses and isomerization of fatty acids with
significant loss in biological activities.
Safety
Non-sterilizing temperatures jeopardizes microbial safety
Possible formation of carcinogenic acrylamides and heterocyclic
amines, furan etc. at high temperatures
Smoking may lead to formation of benzopyrene and other
carcinogenic compounds
Adapted from SKLM (2007).
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
It may be pointed out that the merits of thermal treatments of foods including fishery
products are not still completely understood. Future research needs to concentrate
on areas which include bioavailability of nutritional constituents, evaluation of the
formation of substances with antioxidant or other chemopreventive activities and
development of sensitive biomarkers for heat exposure and its effects.
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Processing molluscs, shellfish and
cephalopods
Irineu Batista and Rogério Mendes
Institute of Fisheries and Marine Research
Lisbon, Portugal
Bivalve molluscs processing
The consumption of bivalve molluscs by humans dates back to the Late Archaic
or Late Mesolithic periods. This is well documented by the shell middens found in
many locations around the world. Bivalves continue to represent an important food
item mainly for the population living near the rivers and seashore. In 1950, their
production attained 1 034 000 tonnes (FAO, 2010) and in 2008 the total production
(wild and farmed) was 13 841 000 tonnes (Figure 1). It is noteworthy that bivalves from
aquaculture production represented about six times that caught in the wild.
Figure 1
Production of bivalve molluscs (farmed and wild) in 2008
Source: FAO, 2010.
Bivalve molluscs are usually marketed fresh as raw, unshelled or shucked
refrigerated. They are also sold frozen, dried, canned, salted or in brine and marinated.
The shelf-life of bivalve molluscs is limited to the time they survive out of water.
This has led to different approaches to prolong their shelf-life such as reported for
instance in the US Patent 5 165 361 (1992). In this patent a method is described to
preserve bivalves in the live state in a closed container partially filled with water and
replacing the air contained in the space with oxygen. The effectiveness of modified
atmosphere packaging (MAP) for the preservation of fish and fish products has been
recognized but only a few works were published on its application to bivalve molluscs.
Pastoriza et al. (2004) studied the stability of live mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis)
packaged under modified atmospheres. They obtained the highest survival in an
atmosphere with high oxygen concentration (75% O2/ 2% N2), which allowed a
shelf-life of 6 days when held at 2–3 °C. The shelf–life of control molluscs packaged
in air did not exceed 3–4 days when stored under the same conditions. The
application of MAP to preserve live clams (Ruditapes decussates) was also studied by
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Gonçalves et al. (2009). Live clams stored both in air and packed in 70% O2/30%
N2 for 6 days at 6 °C presented similar physiological conditions and health status.
However, a significant benefit of MAP storage was observed in the preservation of the
characteristic sweet taste of clams.
The shelf-life of post-mortem bivalves is very short because of the high water
activity, neutral pH, high amino acid content and also the presence of psychrotolerant
spoilage bacteria. On the other hand, the spoilage mechanism associated with bivalves is
different from that of crustaceans and finfish because of the presence of significant levels
of carbohydrate, which leads to saccharolytic activities and the accumulation of organic
acids. Bivalve molluscs as water-filtering organisms accumulate microorganisms, which
are closely related to the environmental conditions, microbiological quality of the water
where they live and other physicochemical characteristics of the habitats. Pathogen rich
microflora may be also present in bivalves, particularly on those inhabiting estuaries,
which makes them more susceptible to the faecal contamination and environmental
pollution of the surrounding waters. In fact bivalves are highly featured in statistics of
food-borne diseases.
The effect of ozonation in aqueous solution on the shelf-life of shucked, vacuum
packaged mussels, stored under refrigeration was studied by Manousaridis et al. (2005).
Ozonation reduced bacterial populations and on the basis of sensory analyses, a shelflife of 12 days was obtained for vacuum packaged mussels ozonated for 90 min as
compared with a shelf-life of 9 days for non-ozonated vacuum packaged mussels.
In order to increase the shelf-life of mussels a combination of MAP technology
and refrigeration was reported by Goulas (2008). The best results were achieved with
the mixture 60% CO2/20% N2/20% O2, which kept the mussels acceptable up to ca.
10–11 days based on the odour scores. In a similar study, Caglak et al. (2008) studied the
microbiological, chemical and sensory changes occurring in mussels stored aerobically,
under vacuum and three modified atmospheres (50% CO2/50% N2, 80% CO2/20%
N2, 65% CO2/35% N2). According to these authors the gas mixture richest in CO2 was
the most effective for mussel preservation, which were acceptable for 8 days of storage.
Scallops are also valuable bivalve molluscs where MAP has been applied to
increase their shelf-life. This technology was used by Kimura et al. (2000) to preserve
the scallop adductor muscle stored at 5 °C in an atmosphere of 100% O2, 80%
O2/20%CO2, 60% O2/40% CO2, and air. The best results were obtained with 100%
O2 atmosphere, which allowed a prolongation for nearly two days in shelf-life of the
scallop adductor muscle. Simpson et al. (2007) studied the optimal conditions for
packaging scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) in modified atmosphere system. According
to the mathematical model developed in this study the optimal conditions for scallop
storage were a 60% CO2/10% O2/30% N2 gas mixture and a headspace:food ratio of
2:1. With these conditions, a simulated shelf-life of 21 days was obtained.
The demand for safe foods, additive free, fresh tasting and with extended
shelf-life has led also to the utilization of high pressure (HP) treatment of bivalves,
particularly oysters. This treatment has the potential to improve microbial quality
without compromising sensory and nutritional quality (Farkas and Hoover, 2000).
Furthermore, the application of HP kills the oyster and facilitates the opening by hand
or may even be used to induce shucking. As reported by Lopez-Caballero et al. (2000)
HP treated oysters preserved their raw appearance, were slightly more voluminous
and juicier and the flavour was virtually unchanged. HP treatment of oysters
(200–400 MPa/7 °C/10 min) reduced the number of all targeted microorganisms. The
appearance of the oyster meat was better when pressurization (400 MPa) was carried
out under chilled conditions (7 °C) rather than at higher temperatures (20 °C and
37 °C). Calik et al. (2002) showed that Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) numbers were
reduced by HP treatment in both pure culture and whole Pacific oysters. Optimum
Processing molluscs, shellfish and cephalopods
conditions for reducing Vp in pure culture and whole oyster to non-detectable levels
were achieved at 345 MPa for 30 and 90 s, respectively.
In a previous work He et al. (2002) also observed a reduction of the initial
microbial load by 2 to 3 logs in HP treated Pacific oysters. The reduced bacterial
counts remained low through the storage period at < 4 °C. The pH of HP treated
oysters decreased slightly from 6.3 to 5.8 during storage while the hand shucked
oysters (control) dropped to 4.1, this sharp decrease being a clear indicator of bivalve
spoilage (Jay, 1996). HP treated oysters received higher quality scores than controls
during the storage trial.
In the study by Linton et al. (2003) it is concluded that pressure treatment of
mussels, scallops and oysters at 300, 400, 500 and 600 MPa for 2 min at 20 °C readily
inactivated psychrotrophic bacteria, coliforms and Pseudomonads. The range of
bacteria present in the products decreased after pressure treatment mainly because of
inactivation of Gram negative bacteria. This led to an increase of proportion of Gram
positive species (Bacillus, Acinetobacter/Moraxella and lactic acid bacteria).
Cruz-Romero et al. (2008a) studied the changes in microbiological and
physicochemical quality of oysters HP treated at 260 – 600 MPa for 5 min and stored
at 2 °C on ice for 31 days. This study confirmed that the HP processing of oysters
can inactivate microorganisms and delay microbial growth in chilled storage, but
also showed that it affects their quality attributes. In another study Cruz-Romero
et al. (2008b) followed the microbiological and biochemical changes in high pressure
treated oysters stored aerobically on ice, in vacuum packaging and under MAP
(40% CO2/60% N2). The use of MAP was shown to be effective in extending the
shelf-life of HP treated oysters and according to the authors has great potential for
preserving HP treated oysters.
The potential of HP processing to reduce viral contamination in mussels
and oysters was also demonstrated by Murchie et al. (2007). Bovine enterovirus,
structurally similar to hepatitis A virus, was more pressure resistant than feline
calicivirus, a surrogate for norovirus. Both viruses were more pressure resistant when
treated in “naturally” contaminated mussels and oysters, compared with seawater and
culture medium. The results obtained suggested that relatively mild HP treatments
(approximately 260 MPa) currently used for commercial processing of oysters, may
be insufficient to ensure the safety of shellfish for human consumption, particularly
in relation to human pathogenic viruses (Figure 2). In the work by Kingsley et al.
(2007) it is demonstrated that a marine norovirus (strain MNV-1) can be inactivated by
high pressure. A 5 min, 450 MPa treatment was sufficient to inactivate 6.85 log PFU
of MNV-1 in virus stock in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium. The inactivation of
MNV-1 directly within oyster tissue was also achieved, a 5 min 400 MPa treatment at
5 °C to inactivate 4.05 log PFU was sufficient. Taking into account that cooking may
not be enough to avoid shellfish borne virus transmission (McDonnel et al., 1997) HP
treatment may therefore be useful for reducing infectious virus in bivalves prior to
cooking.
Oyster shucking by HP processing is at present and for the last five years a well
known process with commercial success by several North American and European
companies (Raghubeer, 2007). Using HP patented technology, no-shell shucked oyster
and a fully detached and ready-to-serve frozen half shell oyster are awarded products
from Gold Band Oysters and good examples of the exploitation of this process and
of the technological advances in this field. For this specific purpose, shucking, one
considerable downside of HP processing is the capital investment. An affordable cost
may however be offered by other technologies under investigation. For example, with
the joint utilization of oyster positioning and imaging technologies (So and Wheaton,
2002) the precise application of a laser to the shell immediately above the adductor
muscle is a promising technology. According to Martin and Hall (2006), the exact
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application of heat precisely above the muscle scar results on a very clean release of the
adductor muscle while keeping the oyster raw.
Figure 2
Effect of high pressure treatments on the infectivity of bovine enterovirus
in culture medium
Note: Effect of HP treatments (150-550 MPa for 5 min at 20 °C) on the infectivity of bovine enterovirus (BEV) in
culture medium (■), seawater (●), mussels (□) and oysters (○). Average tissue culture infectious dose for 50% (TCID50)
obtained from three independent trials. Error bars are standard error of the mean. aBEV was detected in two out of
three trials (value shown calculated from results of two trials). bBEV was detected in one out of three trials
(TCID50 ≤ 1.0) (Murchie et al., 2007; reproduced with permission of Elsevier Limited).
High pressure processing was also applied to thawing scallops (Pecten irradians).
Optimal results were obtained at 150 MPa, and achieved a significantly reduced drip loss
(31 percent) when compared with thawing under atmospheric pressure (Flick Jr., 2003).
The effect of HP processing on the quality of scallop (Aequipecten irradians) adductor
muscle was also studied by Pérez-Won et al. (2005). This work has shown that HP
processing induced a size reduction of the honeycomb structure of myofibres giving a
more compact appearance to the structure. This HP treatment also reduced initial load
in total plate count of microorganisms to 10 cfu/g. The colour and compressibility of
HP treated scallops were enhanced but loss of hardness was observed.
The restructuring process at low temperatures is a technological alternative for
the upgrading of underutilized resources, which have an unappealing aspect or small
size. This process was applied by Suklim (1998) to upgrade calico scallops (Argopecten
gibbys) by using alginate and MTGase (Microbial Transglutaminase) at 1 percent level as
cold-set binders with different setting times. At the setting temperature of 5 °C,
restructured scallops bound with alginate presented the greatest binding strength at
2 hrs setting, while those bound with MTGase required 24 hours to reach the maximum
binding strength. However, the products obtained with alginate had lower binding
strength values, which may result in a decrease in consumer acceptability. Beltrán-Lugo
et al. (2005) also made the restructuring of small or broken pieces of the adductor muscle
of the lions-paw scallop (Nodipecten subnodosus) and the catarina scallop (Argopecten
ventricosus) to obtain uniform and commercial size scallop meat. Two cold-set binding
systems – caseinate-transglutaminase (CT) and fibrinogen-thrombin (FT) –were used.
The results obtained led to concluding that lions-paw and catarina scallops can be
successfully restructured by CT and FT systems (Figure 3). They also indicated that,
not only the restructuring system, but the species have influence on characteristics
of restructured scallop meat. The end colour of the FT system was noticeable in the
Processing molluscs, shellfish and cephalopods
89
adductor muscle from lions-paw scallops. A larger increase in most texture parameters
was produced by the CT system than was produced by the FT system.
Figure 3
Shear tests and light microscopy of scallop meats
Note: (A) Warner-Bratzler shear test values of raw materials and restructured meats of lions-paw scallops and
catarina scallops using two cold-set binding systems. Different letters within species indicate significant differences
(P<0.05) between treatments. Bars represent standard deviation (n = 10). (B) Light microscopy images (40x)
contrasted with Masson’s trichrome stain of polymerized matrices and restructured meats of the two scallop species
using CT and FT systems. A = CT matrix; B = FT matrix; binder-adductor muscle interface for lion-paw scallop meats
restructured wit CT (= C) and FT (= E). Binder-adductor muscle interface for catarina scallop meats restructured
wit CT (= D) and FT (= F). Muscle fibers (MF) and polymerized proteins of matrices (PPM) appear as pink to red
colour. Interstitial materials appear white. CT = restructured with casein-transglutaminase; FT = restructured with
fibrinogen-thrombin; RM = raw material. (Beltrán-Lugo et al., 2005; reproduced with permission of John Wiley and
Sons).
Cephalopod processing
Cephalopods landings increased from around 600 thousand tonnes in 1950 to more
than 4.3 million tonnes in 2008 (FAO, 2010). This enormous increase of cephalopod
landings was previously foreseen by Caddy and Rodhouse (1998) who considered that
“cephalopod fisheries are among the few still with some local potential for expansion”.
Figure 4 shows the evolution of cephalopod landings and the percentage of different
groups of commercialized cephalopods.
Cephalopods are fishery products very much appreciated in the Mediterranean and
Asia. They deteriorate more rapidly than fish and under refrigeration have a relatively
short shelf-life. Autolysis of the cephalopod muscle is particularly intense because
of the high level of proteolytic activity produced by their highly active metabolism.
As a consequence, the products resulting from the autolytic activity favour rapid
microbial growth. Thus, alternative technologies to refrigeration on ice have been tried
to extend the shelf-life of cephalopods. The application of modified atmospheres is
one of those technologies, having been used by Ruiz-Capillas et al. (2002) to preserve
pota (Todaropsis eblanae) and white octopus (Eledone cirrhosa). The results reported
by these authors indicated that a controlled atmosphere with 60% CO2/15% O2/25%
N2 together with refrigeration at 1 °C increased the shelf-life of both species by at least
54 percent.
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Figure 4
Cephalopod production data
Note: (A) Total catches of cephalopods from 1950 – 2009; (B) Breakdown of production by groups of species in 2008
Source: FAO, 2010.
A combination of vacuum-packaging and oregano essential oil (0.4% v/v)
was also applied to preserve octopus (Octopus vulgaris) during storage at 4 °C
(Atrea et al., 2009). Based primarily on sensory evaluation (odour), the use of those
conditions allowed extending the shelf-life of fresh octopus by approximately 20 days.
An important characteristic of octopus is its toughness, which makes it nearly
inedible if it is cooked without previous tenderization. This property of octopus
muscle led Katsanidis (2004) to study the effects of tumbling time, NaCl concentration,
boiling time, and acetic acid levels on the tenderness of fresh octopus (Eledone
moschata). The author concluded that prolonged tumbling and heating of octopus
muscle resulted in decreased toughness. Addition of NaCl during tumbling did not
affect toughness consistently. On the other hand, acetic acid at levels of 0.1 percent
and 0.2 percent significantly reduced toughness of octopus muscle. In a similar study,
Katsanidis and Agrafioti (2009) evaluated the effect of using acetic, lactic and citric
acids on the tenderization of octopus (Octopus vulgaris). The addition of these acids at
0.05 and 0.1M levels resulted in significant tenderization compared with the untreated
control. Although no differences in the tenderizing effect within acids was observed,
their use shortened the heat processing time of octopus almost by half.
Other approaches have been tried to softening cephalopods, mainly dried squid.
This is a popular seafood product in several Far East countries, which can be cooked
directly with or without prior softening. This process may be performed by various
rehydration processes but immersion of dried squid in alkaline solution has become a
widely used method. Kugino et al. (1993) studied the differences between raw squid
and softened dried squid under various conditions. Electron microscopy showed
water permeation throughout the muscle fibrils and fibres, while there was almost no
permeation of water inside the individual fibrils. In order to investigate the effect of
some processing parameters of alkaline treatments on the physicochemical properties
of dried squid Benjakul et al. (2000) used different NaOH or Na2CO3 solutions for
soaking. They concluded that dried squid soaked in 0.15 mol.kg-1 NaCO3 with a
squid/alkaline solution ratio of 1:10 (w/v) for 20 h was the most acceptable in terms
of both appearance and textural properties. In another study on softening dried squid
prepared at 4 and 40 °C performed by Konishi et al. (2003) it was concluded that a
significantly higher wet weight was observed when processing was done at 4 °C. The
protein pattern obtained by SDS-PAGE of the 4 °C dried squid was almost the same
as that of raw squid.
High pressure treatment is another interesting alternative for preserving
cephalopods. In one of the first works (Matser et al., 2000) on the application of HP to
octopus (Octopus vulgaris) at 0 °C and 5 min pressure holding time, it was concluded
Processing molluscs, shellfish and cephalopods
that octopus retained a raw appearance till 400–800 MPa. In the work by Hurtado et al.
(2001) the application of HP (400 MPa) continuously or in pulsed form at 7 and 40 °C
to octopus is reported. A reduction of microbial flora (total viable count and lactic
bacteria) after pressurization and during chilling storage was recorded. This reduction
was more significant in the lot pressurized by step-pulse. A lower level of nitrogenous
compounds and a decrease of the autolytic activity were obtained in the pressurized
octopus in comparison with control samples. The shelf-life of the pressurized octopus
was 43 days longer than unpressurized.
The application of HP treatment to squid (Todaropsis eblanae) mantles was studied
by Paarup et al. (2002). These authors evaluated the changes occurring in vacuum
packed pressurised squid mantle during refrigerated storage (4 °C). Squid mantles were
pressurised in the range between 150 to 400 MPa for 15 min at ambient temperature.
The sensory analysis showed that the higher the pressurisation the longer the shelf-life.
Microbial counts conducted after one day of storage showed a reduction of bacterial
loads in all pressurised lots, reaching levels below the detection limit in the lots treated
with 200–400 MPa.
In a recent paper (Gou et al., 2010) the effect of HP processing on the quality
of squid (Todarodes pacificus) during refrigerated storage is described. This work is
particularly focused on the effect of HP on the reduction of unpleasant off odours.
Thus, the influence of HP treatment on the inhibition of trimethylamine-N-oxide
demethylase (TMAOase) activity and microbial growth in squid treated at 300 MPa
for 20 min was investigated. TMAOase activity and the production of dimethylamine
in raw squid were significantly reduced after HP treatment. Similarly, the number of
total aerobic bacteria was also reduced by 1.26 log units and HP treated squid products
presented a lower production of trimethylamine.
Concerning changes during cooking, early studies on texture changes in cooked
squid muscle using scanning electron microscopy date back to the 1970s (Otwell and
Hamann, 1979). Thermal alterations of muscle fibres appeared as a loss of myofibril
distinction first evident at 50 °C. Increasing temperature of muscle fibres caused, in
order, coagulation of sarcoplasmic proteins, disintegration of the sarcoplasm, and
continuous fibre shrinkage and dehydration. Later on Otwell and Giddings (1980)
reported that squid muscle heated at 100 °C showed gross distortions of all mantle
tissues. Mieko et al. (2000) also studied the textural changes occurring in three cooked
squid species (oval squid, Japanese common squid and arrow squid). These authors
concluded that the speed of squid muscle becoming tough and then tender depended
on the squid species. The fastest tenderization was observed in arrow squid followed
by the Japanese common squid and the slowest softening was recorded in the oval
squid. In a later study (Mieko et al., 2006) on the texture changes of boiled squid
muscle, different cooking solutions (water (WA), 18 percent salt solution (SA) and
100 percent soy sauce (SO)) were used. The squid cooked in SO had the highest
hardness, followed by SA and then by WA. Longer boiling in WA made the meat
softer but no such effect was observed on squid boiled in SA and SO. Boiling in SO
for a short time made the skin tough, seeming that some components in SO other than
sodium chloride influenced the physical properties of the muscle and skin of the squid.
The effect of fast freezing at -40 °C and vapour cooking at 100 °C on the
connective tissue extract (CTE) from giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) was also studied by
Valencia-Pérez et al. (2008). Light microscopic observations of CTE after 12 minutes
of freezing showed rupture of fibres but the agglutination of fibres during the cooking
time was observed. The electrophoresis analysis suggested that during freezing
and cooking processes molecular bond modifications that hold the integrity of the
connective tissue structure had occurred.
Vacuum cooking involves heating of the raw materials vacuum packed in a plastic
film bag at a relatively low temperature. Raw products processed with vacuum cooking
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
at around 60 °C for a long time have a softer texture than products cooked by methods
involving higher temperatures. This method was used by Naito et al. (1996) to cook
squid muscle. The firmness of squid muscle cooked at 60 °C was the lowest. On the
other hand, the cooking loss of squid in vacuum cooking was larger than in normal
cooking but remained nearly the same over prolonged cooking time. The softening
mechanism was not completely explained but later Okiani et al. (2008) demonstrated
that much actin is liberated from myofibrils by heating at 60 °C. This reaction was
proposed as one of the main reasons for the softening of squid muscle during vacuum
cooking (Okitani et al., 2009).
Fried battered squid rings are one of the main food items prepared from squid. They
are currently one of the products most in demand by Spanish consumers. Llorca et al.
(2001) studied the microstructural changes occurring on frozen battered squid rings
during frying. It was observed that the fibres of battered and fried squid are still visible
after frying but altered by coagulation of sarcoplasmic proteins. The water evaporation
during frying led also to a closer packing of the muscle tissue fibres. The absorption of
frying oil in the food substrate also takes place and this oil draws other components of
the batter, such as starch, to the denaturated squid surface. In another work the effect
of corn flour, salt and leavening agent (Na2H2P2O7/NaHCO3) on the texture of fried,
battered squid rings was studied by Salvador et al. (2002). It was concluded that the
leavening agent had the greatest effect on the final texture of the fried product. The
value of the force of penetration of battered squid rings with the leavening agent was
significantly lower than the values of the other products. The penetrometry profile
was also different and corresponded to a crispy product. In a latter study Llorca et al.
(2007) observed at a microstructural level the formation of big voids during freezing
of squid rings as a consequence of the packing of the fibres. However, the size of these
voids decreased after final frying and the central sarcoplasm was still visible but altered
by coagulation of the sarcoplasmic proteins and the sarcolemma separated from the
myofibrillar package.
Cephalopods have been also used for the production of jellified products reported
in several works. However, these studies have generally shown that products with
satisfactory gel elasticity cannot be obtained when Teuthida are used as ingredients.
This is the case of the gels prepared with the proteins from the squid Loligo vulgaris,
which were weak and brittle, with low gel strength (Gómez-Guillén et al., 2002a).
However, the addition of different protease inhibitors increased the elastic modulus
in the thermal gelation profile of squid proteins. In another work (Pérez-Mateos et
al., 2002) it was shown that the incorporation of protease inhibitors in addition to
microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) considerably improved gel elasticity of squid
(L. vulgaris) proteins. Park et al. (2003) concluded that the degradation of myosin
of the Japanese common squid (Todarodes pacificus) was presumably because of the
presence of metalloproteases. They also showed that the addition of Ca2+ and the
calpain inhibitor E64 significantly improved the breaking strength and the strain of
thermal gels preincubated at 40 °C. The results obtained by Tsujioka et al. (2005)
working with Japanese common squid are also in agreement with those reported by
Peréz-Mateos et al. (2002). They concluded that it is essential to inhibit myosin heavy
chain degradation by adding an astatin-like squid metalloprotease inhibitor (such
as EDTA) and then to add MTGase to prepare a gel with high jelly strength from
Japanese common squid (Figure 5).
Processing molluscs, shellfish and cephalopods
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Figure 5
Gel strength of gels prepared from squid natural actomyosin
Note: Comparison of jelly strength of gels prepared from Japanese common squid natural actomyosin with: (A)
additives (EDTA and inositol 6-phosphate (IP6)) and (B) with additives + MTGase. Control, no additives.
(Tsujioka et al., 2005; with kind permission of Springer Science and Business Media).
Among cephalopods giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) is an abundant squid species
found in the eastern Pacific from Chile up to Oregon, which has deserved much
interest. However, the acid or bitter taste of this species is due to the presence of
some peptides and free amino acids in the muscle (Sanchez-Brambila et al., 2004) and
the intense ammonia odour produced by high concentration of non protein nitrogen
compounds discourage direct consumption of giant squid. Several studies have also
suggested that giant squid is not suitable for production of a gel type product because
of the intensive proteolysis developed immediately after catch, which affects its gel
forming capacity (Gómez-Guillén et al., 1997; Gómez-Guillén et al., 1998). As an
alternative to the conventional surimi washing process a new procedure was devised
(Sanchez-Alonso et al., 2007) for processing the functional protein concentrate from
giant squid (D. gigas) muscle. It is based on the solubilization of the mantle at very
low ionic strength and neutral pH (0.16M NaCl and 0.1% NaHCO3) with 250 ppm
of EDTA and further acid precipitation (pH 4.7–4.9) of much of the muscle protein
(Figure 6). Gelation should be achievable in only one stage, at 90 °C, after adding 0.2%
Ca(OH)2. Gels of about 400 g.cm of gel strength were obtained. Palafox et al. (2009)
also prepared protein isolates from giant squid by the pH shift processing described
by Hultin and Kelleher (1999). The former authors reported that about 85 percent
of the initial muscle protein was solubilized at pH 3 and 11. About 90 percent of the
protein was obtained after precipitation at pH 5.5 and the total yield from both alkaline
and acid solubilization was 75 percent. The authors also concluded that most proteins
from giant squid muscle may be obtained by acid and alkaline extraction, either
from fresh or frozen squid muscle. The protein solubility at several ionic strengths
(0 to 0.1 M), pH (2 to 13) and gelling capacity of giant squid muscle proteins were
evaluated (De la Fuente-Betancourt et al., 2009). Strength was higher for thermal gels
prepared from the mantle. As mentioned by the authors, the solubility and gel forming
capacity of the proteins from mantle and fin of giant squid suggest that these properties
can provide additional value to this squid species.
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
Figure 6
Proteins in giant squid
Note: (A) Flow diagram of protein recovery from giant squid; (B) Percentage of muscular protein solubility expressed
as soluble protein (SP) in relation to total protein (TP), depending on different NaCl concentrations in the solvent.
Different letters indicate significant differences (P<0.05) between samples at different concentrations; (C) Protein
precipitation (%) from muscle solutions in relation to total protein at different pH values of the solution. Different
letters indicate differences between samples (Sánchez-Alonso et al., 2007; reproduced with permission of Elsevier
Ltd).
In order to avoid the problems of poor gelling properties of giant squid
Félix-Armenta et al. (2009) described the formulation and the establishment of the
technological parameters for processing a frankfurter type product from this raw
material. The prepared products were vacuum–packed and stored at 2–4 °C for up to
27 days and the physicochemical characteristics, the microbial changes and the sensory
quality were analysed at regular intervals during storage. According to the authors, the
results suggest that a stable gelled–emulsified type product can be developed from giant
squid mantle muscle.
Suklim et al. (2003), working with the underutilized North Atlantic short–finned
squid (Illex illecebrosus), reported the preparation of restructured squid patties with
selected heat–set binders (starch and egg white albumin). When the level of starch was
increased from 2 to 10 percent, a decrease in hardness, cohesiveness and springiness
was observed. However, 2 percent egg white albumin increased the hardness and
cohesiveness. Starch had no ability to improve cohesiveness when combined with
egg white albumin. However, starch–combinations reduced the cooking losses of
restructured squid when compared with the products obtained from starch and egg
white albumin separately.
Squids have been used as a raw material for collagen and gelatin extraction. In
comparison with fish species, squid collagen presents a high degree of cross–linking
because of the high amount of hydroxyl lysine together with high content of
hydroxyproline. Thus, the squid (Illex argentinus) skin was used as raw material to
study the parameters affecting the isolation of collagen (Kołodziejska et al., 1999). The
solubility of the collagen extracted in salt solutions and the efficiency of removal of
skin chromatophores were determined. Collagen, soluble in dilute acid solutions, was
isolated from squid skin by 24 h soaking in 10% NaCl solution at room temperature,
followed by washing with water and 24 h bleaching in 1% H2O2 in 0.01M NaOH.
The yield of collagen was 53 percent. Gómez–Guillén et al. (2002b) extracted squid
gelatin from giant squid (D. gigas) using a mild–acid procedure (0.05 M acetic acid)
Processing molluscs, shellfish and cephalopods
and overnight extraction at 80 °C. However, under these conditions a low gelatin and
α-chain yields were obtained and, as a consequence, poor gelling ability. A high gelatin
yield (10.9%) from jumbo flying squid skin (Dosidicus eschrichitii) was achieved by
using 0.02% H2SO4 for swelling and overnight extraction at 45 °C (Lin and Li, 2006).
Petersen and Yates (1977) recommended an appropriate digestion of the raw collagen
with proteases to improve the gelatin yield of highly cross linked collagen as squid
collagen. Giménez et al. (2009) described a method of preparation of two different
quality grade gelatins from giant squid (D. gigas), which has a collagen concentration
of 18.33 percent (Torres-Arreola et al., 2008). The former authors used the outer
and inner tunics of the mantle, which were previously subjected to hydrolysis with
pepsin (1/800 w/w ratio in 0.5 M acetic acid at 2 °C for 72 h) followed by a first
gelatin extraction (G1) with distilled water (60 °C/18 h). The collagenous residues
were swollen again in 0.5 M acetic acid for 24 h and a second gelatin extraction (G2)
was carried out at 60 °C/18 h. Pre–treatment of squids with pepsin allowed collagen
solubilization and the extraction yield to increase by extracting mainly α-chains. The
second gelatin extraction increased the total yield. The gelatin G1 exhibited good
gel forming ability but gelatin G2 showed poor viscoelastic behaviour and low gel
strength. Both gelatins showed good filmogenic ability and similar physical properties
were found. However, films made from gelatin G1 had higher puncture force than
films made from gelatin G2.
Aewsiri et al. (2009) used cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) skin for the extraction of
gelatin. The highest yield of gelatin (49.65 percent and 72.88 percent for dorsal and
ventral skin, respectively) was obtained from skin bleached with 5% H2O2 for 48 h.
As reported, bleaching improved the colour and enhanced the bloom strength, and the
emulsifying and foaming properties of the gelatin extracted.
In a recent work (Uriarte–Montoya et al., 2010) the extraction of collagen from
the giant squid and its potential application in the preparation of chitosan–collagen
biofilms is studied. Acid soluble collagen (ASC) was extracted with an average yield of
15 percent from the total muscle protein. A positive plasticizer effect of squid collagen
over a chitosan film was detected. The FT–IR spectrum showed that chitosan and ASC
remain linked into the films mainly because of hydrogen bonding. As reported by the
authors, the blending of ASC from squid mantle and chitosan gives the possibility
of producing new materials with potential applications in the food or biomedical
industries.
Crustacean processing
The world’s production of crustacean, wild and farmed, is shown in Figure 7. Shrimps
and prawns represent the majority of the production in both cases and about 60 percent
of total production is traded internationally (FAO, 2010). The aquaculture shrimp
production has expanded rapidly since 1997, with an increase of 165 percent during the
period of 1997–2004 and its production in 2008 attained more than 3.4 million tonnes.
Shrimp is the most important internationally–traded commodity by value, accounting
for about 19 percent of the total value.
Like bivalve molluscs and cephalopods MAP has also been extensively studied in
crustaceans as a processing technology to enhance the shelf–life of raw or processed
products. The use of MAP is, however, not devoid of limitations, and potential growth
of pathogenic bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium botulinum
type E, may be present in chilled cooked MAP products.
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Figure 7
Production of crustaceans in 2008
Source: FAO, 2010
The effect of modified atmospheres on the preservation of packed deepwater
pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) was studied by López–Caballero et al. (2002).
A delay of microbial growth was observed in shrimps packed in MAP
(40–45% CO2/30–35% O2) when compared with air–packed or iced stored shrimp.
Trimethylamine and total volatile nitrogen production was reduced as well. However,
the production of some biogenic amines seemed to be enhanced during the storage
of MAP–shrimp. Another study with the same shrimp species packed in two
modified atmospheres (40% CO2/30% O2/30% N2 and 45% CO2/5% O2/50% N2)
combined with sulphites–based treatment was performed (Gonçalves et al., 2003).
Generally, both atmospheres preserved the shrimp quality up to 9 days compared with
4 to 7 days of ice storage, although the gas mixture richest in CO2 seemed to be more
effective. Martínez–Alvarez et al. (2005) also studied the joint effect of melanosis
inhibitors (metabisulfite and 4–hexylresorcinol) and a controlled atmosphere (48%
CO2, 7% O2 and 45% N2) on the quality of deepwater pink shrimp. It was observed
that the combination of CO2–enriched atmosphere with 0.25% 4–hexylresorcinol
resulted in nearly complete prevention of melanosis over 9 days of storage. Controlled
atmosphere limited total viable counts, and enterobacterial growth was lower. The
use of MAP was also reported by Thepnuan et al. (2008) to preserve Pacific white
shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Shrimp was pre–treated with 2% pyrophosphate and
0.25% 4–hexylresorcinol and stored under refrigerated MAP (80% CO2, 10% O2,
10% N2 or 80% CO2, 20% CO2, 20% N2). Under these storage conditions, a delay of
microbial growth and lower trimethylamine and volatile base nitrogen production was
observed in shrimps. The pre–treatment with 4–hexylresorcinol was also effective in
the prevention of shrimp melanosis.
Shrimps are also frequently commercialized in their cooked form because they are
highly perishable. However, the industrial cooking conditions may negatively affect
shrimp quality. It can be affected by overcooking, which is associated with weight
loss and toughening of the meat. A poor appearance, because of cooking conditions,
may also occur as a result of melanosis. Several studies have reported the effect of
cooking on sensory and chemical changes of shrimp. More recently Erdogdu et al.
(2004) evaluated the effects of shrimp size and internal temperature distribution during
cooking of Pacific white shrimp previously treated with sodium tri–polyphosphate
(STP) solutions. The results obtained indicated that dipping shrimp in STP solutions
can be used to prevent the large cooking–related yield losses of different sizes of
shrimp. The moisture retaining effect of STP was greater in smaller shrimp. Similarly
Benjakul et al. (2008) studied the effect of heating on cooking loss, physical properties
and microstructure of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and Pacific white shrimp
meats. It was observed that an increased cooking loss occurred when shrimp samples
Processing molluscs, shellfish and cephalopods
were heated for longer time, particularly more than one minute. The higher cooking
losses were recorded in the tail part. Both shear force and colour parameters values
also increased when heating time increased. Cooked meat of both species had more
compact fibre arrangements with the shrinkage of sarcomeres, compared with raw
samples.
The changes in functional properties and quality occurring in three shrimp species
(Parapenaeus longirostris, Crangon crangon and Pandalus borealis) cooked in the
temperature range between 30 and 85 °C was also studied by Schubring (2009). In
this work it was concluded that lightness, redness and yellowness values increased
with increasing heating temperature. Changes in texture (hardening or softening)
because of heating did not show clear tendencies. However, differential scanning
calorimetry curves of differently heated shrimp species differed markedly. Some peaks
corresponding to transition temperatures disappeared with increasing temperature and
the enthalpy of denaturation also significantly decreased with temperature increase.
Martínez–Alvarez et al. (2009) evaluated the vacuum–cooking and steaming
cooking of deepwater pink shrimp as alternative cooking treatments. Neither the
melanosis–inhibiting blends (with a commercial sulphite– or 4–hexylresorcinol–based
formula) nor the cooking methods used significantly affected the water–holding
capacity, firmness or moisture content of the cooked shrimps. It was also concluded
that a combination of prior spraying with 4–hexylresorcinol–based formula followed
by vacuum–cooking proved to be the best method for obtaining shrimp with good
appearance and high microbial quality.
The effect of protein hydrolysate prepared from salted duck egg white (PHSEW)
was checked in Pacific white shrimp as a substitute for phosphate (Kaewmanee et al.,
2009). Shrimp soaked in 4% NaCl containing 7% PHSEW and 2% mixed phosphates
had the highest cooking yield compared with shrimps with other treatments. The
muscle fibres of cooked shrimp treated with the above mixture or with 4% NaCl
containing 3.5% of mixed phosphate had swollen fibrils and gaps, while the control
had a swollen compact structure. The authors concluded that PHSEW could reduce
phosphate residue in shrimps without an adverse effect on sensory properties.
Salt–boiled shrimp is one of the shrimp products generally consumed in Turkey.
Thus, the effect of different cooking brine solutions on the protein losses of shrimp
(Penaeus semisulcatus) was studied by Ünlüsayın et al. (2010). The results obtained by
these authors indicated that the best method for salt–boiling shrimp was with whole
shrimp boiled for 8 minutes at 10% NaCl concentration.
Another shrimp commodity highly–valued in Far–East countries is dried shrimp.
Its processing involves a cooking step in a salt solution aimed at reducing the number
of microorganisms in shrimp to a safe level and to improve the flavour. Various works
have been published to optimize the boiling conditions in salt solutions. Among the
most recent works are the papers by Niamnuy et al. (2007, 2008). These authors
investigated the effect of various parameters (salt solution concentration, mass ratio
of shrimp to salt solution, boiling time and shrimp size) on the quality of cooked
shrimp (Penaeus indicus). It was found that higher concentration of salt solution,
longer boiling time and lower mass ratio of shrimp to salt solution led to higher salt
content of shrimp. On the other hand, under those conditions lower levels of moisture
and proteins and, as a consequence, higher values of hardness, toughness shrinkage
and colour changes were observed. Finally, it was concluded that a minimum boiling
time of 3 min was enough to reduce the number of microorganisms to a safe level and
inactivate enzymes responsible for melanosis. In another study Niamnuy et al. (2008)
reported the effect of boiling time and concentration of salt solution on the protein
fractions, microstructural and physical changes of boiled shrimp. It was concluded
that an increase in boiling time and concentration of salt solution led to a decrease in
the contents of myofibrillar, sarcoplasmic and stroma protein together with an increase
in alkali–soluble and protein loss during boiling as well as to a raise in cooking loss,
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hardness and fractal dimension values. The muscle protein denaturation was also an
important factor influencing the microstructural and physical changes in shrimp during
boiling in salt solution.
The drying step in the production of dried shrimp requires an adequate
control to obtain a product with desired and uniform quality. The effects of shrimp
(Penaeus spp.) size and level and pattern of inlet drying air temperature on the drying
kinetics and quality attributes of shrimp dried in a jet–spouted bed dryer was studied
by Tapaneyasin et al. (2005). In this study it was concluded that the use of a constant
inlet air temperature of 100 °C yielded dried shrimp with the best quality (low
percentage of shrinkage, high percentage of rehydration, low maximum shear force,
and high value of redness). Similarly Niamnuy et al. (2007) investigated the effects
of boiling parameters (salt concentration and boiling time) and drying conditions (air
temperature) as well as size shrimp (Penaeus indicus) on the kinetics of drying and
various quality attributes of dried shrimp. The conditions that gave the highest hedonic
scores of sensory evaluation for small dried shrimp were a salt solution of 2% (w/v),
boiling time of 7 min, and drying air temperature of 120 °C. For large shrimp the best
hedonic scores were achieved with a salt solution of 4% (w/v), boiling time of 7 min,
and drying air temperature of 100 °C.
MAP has been also used in the preservation of pre–cooked shrimp. Pastoriza et al.
(2002) reported the utilization of MAP (50% CO2, 50% N2) in combination with lauric
acid to preserve pre–cooked shrimp tails (Parapenaeus longirostris) in the refrigerated
state. Sensory properties of shrimp tails subjected to this combined effect received the
highest scores and were commercially acceptable after one month of storage at 7±1 °C.
In order to evaluate the shelf–life and the safety aspects of chilled cooked and
peeled shrimps (Pandalus borealis) in MAP, Mejlholm et al. (2005) carried out storage
trials with naturally contaminated shrimps at 2.5 and 8 °C. Challenge tests at the same
conditions were also performed after inoculation with L. monocytogenes, Brochothrix
thermosphacta and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, which are responsible for sensory
spoilage of those MAP products. It was concluded that to prevent L. monocytogenes
from becoming a safety problem cooked and peeled MAP (50%CO2/30% N2/20% O2)
shrimps should be distributed at 2 °C and with a maximum shelf–life of 20–21 days.
Mejlholm et al. (2008) studied the microbial changes and growth of L. monocytogenes
during chilled storage of shrimp in brine and brined shrimp (P. borealis). The results
obtained in this study allowed the conclusion that concentrations of microorganisms
of brined shrimp from an industrial processing line were 1.0–2.3 log (CFUg–1) higher
than in manually processed samples. As a result industrially processed brined shrimp
had a substantially shorter shelf–life and a more diverse spoilage microflora. The
shelf–life of brined shrimp was affected by the type and concentration of organic acids
used (benzoic, citric, sorbic acetic and lactic acids) and by the storage temperature
(7–8 °C or 12 °C). Shrimp in brine with benzoic, citric and sorbic acids prevented
growth of L. monocytogenes during more than 40 days at 7 °C when the preserving
parameters resembled those of commercial products. A new extensive growth and
growth boundary–model for L. monocytogenes in lightly preserved and ready–to–eat
shrimp was developed by Mejlholm and Dalgaard (2009). This model includes a total
of 12 environmental parameters and their interactive effects. It allowed to predicting
growth rates of L. monocytogenes in brined shrimp with benzoic, citric and sorbic acids
or with acetic and lactic acids.
Sivertsvik and Birkeland (2006) studied the effects of storage time, modified
atmospheres (30 or 60% CO2), soluble gas stabilisation (SGS), i.e. application
of 100% CO2 saturated atmosphere at 3 bar, and gas to product volume ratio
on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of cooked, peeled and brined
ready–to–eat shrimp (P. borealis). SGS treatment prior to packaging (2 h) reduced
the aerobic plate count and psychrotrophic count. The increase of CO2 levels during
Processing molluscs, shellfish and cephalopods
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MAP and the application of SGS significantly enhanced the sensory quality of the
shrimps. It is generally concluded that SGS treatment in combination with MAP can
be successfully used on ready–to–eat shrimps to reduce the package volume and to
improve the microbiological and sensory characteristics.
In another study Rutherford et al. (2007) studied the combined effect of MAP and
storage temperature on growth of L. monocytogenes on ready–to–eat shrimp. Cooked,
peeled and deveined shrimp were inoculated with this pathogenic bacteria, packed
in air, vacuum and a 100% CO2 atmosphere, and stored at 3, 7 and 12 °C. Results
demonstrated that shrimps packed in CO2 and stored at 3 °C did not permit growth of
L. monocytogenes during the 15 day storage period. The other packaging/temperature
combinations allowed for multiplication of the bacterium. However, the authors also
concluded that when strict temperature control is difficult, additional antimicrobial
hurdles may be necessary to ensure safety.
The combined effect of bactericides and MAP on the shelf–life of Chinese shrimp
(Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were evaluated by Lu (2009). The aerobic plate counts,
total volatile base nitrogen and organoleptic evaluation of overall acceptable score were
followed during cold storage of whole or beheaded shrimp. It was concluded that,
taking into consideration all the parameters analysed, the shelf–life of Chinese shrimp
stored at 2±1 °C treated with MAP (40% CO2/30% O2/30% N2) and 100% CO2
after soaking with a bactericide compound (nisin) were 13 and 17 days, respectively
(Figure 8).
Figure 8
Effect of bactericides on shrimp storage
Note: Effect of bactericides on total volatile base-nitrogen (TVB-N) values (A) and aerobic plate count (APC) values
(B)in MAP (40 % CO2/ 30 % O2/ 30 % N2) whole and beheaded shrimps during storage at 2±1 °C: (●) Wh+B; (○) Be+B;
(▼) Wh+O; (Δ) Be+O; (■) Wh+W; (□) Be+W. Wh = whole shrimp; Be = beheaded shrimp; B = compound bactericide;
O = ozonized water; W = water. (Lu, 2009; reproduced with permission of Elsevier Limited).
Crustaceans are commercially HP processed in several countries both to inactivate
micro organisms and to automatically “shuck” the meat from the shell. The application
of HP processing to crabs led to obtaining brown meat yields of 23 percent, compared
with 18 percent in the control (SEAFISH Authority, 2009). Similarly, white meat yield
was 12.9 percent compared with 8.3 percent in the control. However, poor quality
product was obtained because of the excessive water uptake. Nevertheless, it was also
concluded that a careful control of the processing parameters may “firm up” head and
claw meat to enable this meat to be extracted whole. Yield on lobster claws was up to
23 percent higher than on cooked controls. For Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus),
cold water and warm water prawns, yields increases of up to 3, 2 and 7 percent were
obtained respectively.
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
In another report (Raghubeer, 2007), it is mentioned that the average total
weight percentage recovered in HP processed Maine lobster at 250–500 MPa was
43 percent compared with an average of 25 percent in the traditional cooked product.
A more significant increase in yield was achieved in soft shelled animals with a
45 percent recovery compared with 22 percent from cooking. Similarly, for crabs
(Blue, Dungeness, Alaskan King, and Golden) the HP processing increased the yield to
an average of 35 percent of total body weight whereas the mean recovered weight was
19 percent by traditional cooking method.
The possibility of using HP processing to extend the shelf–life of whole Norway
lobster was studied by Albalat et al. (2008). Whole animals were pressurised at
150, 300 and 500 MPa for 3 min at ambient temperature and subsequently stored at
0–2 °C for up 21 days. The results showed that the bacterial load was reduced in a
pressure–dependent manner until 21 days. However, microbial growth was resumed in
all lots after a delay, which was also pressure–dependent.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for centuries to preserve a wide variety
of foods. Among these foods are included fish and fish products used to prepare
fermented products, such as fish sauces and pastes of South East Asia. These fermented
products are completely different from the raw materials exhibiting their own flavour
characteristics.
LAB are not of much concern in seafood either aerobically stored or vacuum packed
(VP) and in MAP because of the biochemical characteristics of fish products and their
dominant microflora. However, they may present great relevance in lightly preserved
fish products (LPFP), including VP and MAP. LPFP are uncooked or mildly cooked
products such as peeled shrimp stored in MAP or in brine. The addition of NaCl at
a concentration of about 5.5–6.5 percent has an inhibitory effect on Gram–negative
bacteria but allows the growth of other micro–organisms like LAB. These bacteria
can reach high levels (107–8 CFU/g) in lightly–preserved shrimps such as reported for
cooked or brined peeled shrimps (P. borealis) by Dalgaard et al. (2003) and Mejlholm
et al. (2005) and for tropical cooked, peeled and brined shrimps (P. vannamei) stored in
MAP (Jaffrès et al., 2009). The LAB isolated from LPFP are mainly Lactobacillus sakei
and L. curvatus and Carnobacterium, mainly maltaromaticum and divergens. It has
been thought that LAB play a minor role in the spoilage of marine products. However,
Dalgaard et al. (2003) anticipated that carnobacteria are involved in the spoilage of
cooked shrimp stored in MAP. Later, the importance of carnobacteria as spoilage
microorganisms in cooked and peeled MAP shrimps stored at 5 °C was confirmed
by Laursen et al. (2006). Carnobacterium divergens and C. maltaromaticum caused
sensory spoilage of shrimps and generated ammonia, tyramine and various alcohols,
aldehydes and ketones. These authors also showed that the unpleasant odour generated
by Carnobacterium spp. and Brochothrix thermosphacta were different from those
produced by these bacteria in pure culture.
LPFP may represent, however, a health risk for consumers because they are
processed by treatments not sufficient to destroy pathogens. Several of these products
are eaten raw and thus it is necessary to minimise the presence and to prevent the
growth of those pathogens for food safety. Other microorganisms responsible for the
organoleptic damage to foods may be also present and the growth of those spoilage
organisms should be also prevented. Biopreservation has been used as an adequate
technology to extend the shelf–life and /or control the growth of pathogens in LPFP
by inoculating selected bacteria to inhibit undesirable bacteria. LAB are usually chosen
as they produce a wide range of inhibitory compounds (organic acids, hydrogen
peroxide, diacetyl and bacteriocins). However, as mentioned by Leroi (2010), the
selected LAB strain should not modify the organoleptic and nutritional quality of the
products.
Processing molluscs, shellfish and cephalopods
101
One of the first studies on the use of bacteriocins from LAB to increase the
shelf–life of brined shrimp (P. borealis) was reported by Einarsson and Lauzon (1995).
In this study the effects of three different LAB bacteriocins on bacterial growth and
shelf–life were compared with those of a benzoate–sorbate solution and a control
with no preservatives. Nisin Z was the bacteriocin which allowed a longer shelf–life
of brined shrimps (31 days). At the end of the storage period the Gram–negative flora
was more pronounced in the nisin Z treated shrimp.
Figure 9
Effect of lactic acid bacteria on the quality index in shrimp
Note: Evolution of the Quality Index of cooked peeled shrimps inoculated with seven different strains of
bioprotective lactic acid bacteria (105 UFC/g, after 7 days and 28 days of storage under vacuum at 8 °C. Control:
non inoculated sample. EU2213, 2247, 2262: Leuconostoc gelidium; EU 2229, 2241: Lactococcus piscium; EU2257:
Carnobacterium alterfunditum; EU2255: Lactobacillus fuchuensis. (Improving seafood products for the consumer,
ISBN 978-1-84569-019-9. Leroi et al., 2006; reproduced with permission of Woodhead Publishing Limited, UK).
Leroi et al. (2006) reviewed the main works published on the application of hurdle
technology to preserve seafood products, where particular attention was given to
biopreservation with LAB. The results obtained on the preservation of cooked tropical
wild and farmed shrimps with seven groups of LAB strains isolated from various
marine products are also described. The cooked shrimps were inoculated by each LAB
strain at a level of 105 CFUg–1 and stored at 8 °C for 28 days of storage under vacuum
packaging. The samples were analysed for sensory and microbiological quality after
7 and 28 days of storage. After 28 days, the samples inoculated with Leuconostoc
gelidum EU2247 and EU2262 kept their fresh initial sensory quality showing that
these two strains were able to greatly extend the shelf–life of wild and farmed cooked
shrimps (Figure 9). Matamoros et al. (2009) also observed that two L. gelidum strains
greatly extended the shelf–life of cooked peeled shrimp. The inhibiting capacities of
L. gelidum and L. piscium were tested against three pathogenic bacteria (Vibrio cholerae,
L. monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) by challenge tests in shrimp. L. piscium
strain EU2241 was able to reduce significantly the number of L. monocytogenes and
S. aureus in the product by 2 log throughout the study for L. monocytogenes and up to
4 weeks for S. aureus.
In a more recent work, it was demonstrated that L. piscium CNCM I–4031
inhibited B. thermosphacta in tropical cooked shrimp (P. vannamei) and significantly
prolonged sensory shelf–life (Fall et al., 2010a). The inhibitory effect of this bacterial
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
strain on L. monocytogenes inoculated in tropical cooked peeled shrimp (P. vannamei)
stored at 8 °C in MAP (50% N2 – 50% CO2) was also demonstrated (Fall et al., 2010b).
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109
Sashimi and sushi products
Yuko Murata
Biochemistry and Food Technology Division
National Research Institute of Fisheries Science
Yokohama, Japan
Summary
Sashimi and the toppings for sushi are mainly made of raw, uncooked materials. The
taste of fish and shellfish are contributed by amino acids (AA), organic acids (OA) and
nucleotides (Nu). AA components differ largely among species, giving each fish and
shellfish species their unique taste. As for OA, fish muscle, the main edible part of fish,
contains mainly lactic acid, while the edible part of some of the shellfish species mainly
contains succinic acid. These components vary with the condition of the catch and its
treatment, and affect the taste. Nu, especially adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) and its
related compounds in fish muscle dramatically change after death. ATP is degraded
into adenosine-5’-diphosphate (ADP), adenosine-5’-monophosphate (AMP), and
inosine-5’-monophosphate (IMP) rapidly after death. IMP content is negligible just
after death and accumulates according to degradation of ATP. IMP contributes to the
umami taste of fish muscle. Up to 6 to 10hr after death, most of ATP is changed into
IMP and the umami taste of fish muscle is enriched. Therefore the best time to eat raw
fish is not just after harvest, but 6 to 10hr after harvest. On the other hand, most raw
shellfish are optimal for eating immediately after catch, because they spoil quickly after
death.
Introduction
Sashimi and sushi products are traditional and popular Japanese seafoods. They are
widely recognized as a low calorie healthy food. More recently, sashimi and sushi have
become popular around the world. This chapter focuses on the history of sashimi and
sushi, toppings of sushi, taste of fish and shellfish and, lastly, provides tips to enjoy
sashimi and sushi. The most common type of sushi is called nigiri-sushi. Figure 1
shows nigiri-sushi and a typical nigiri-sushi box.
Figure 1
Nigiri-sushi and a typical nigiri-sushi box
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
History of sashimi
In the Muromachi Period (1336–1573), the word “sashimi” was found in an article in
“Suzukakeki”. The word sashimi means “pierced body”, i.e. sashimi = sashi (to pierce
or to stick) and mi (body, meat) (Figure 2). The word “sashimi” is thought to have been
derived two ways:
1. It was used instead of “cut fish meat” because “cut” was an inauspicious word
for the Samurai.
2. Derivation from the culinary practice of sticking the fish’s tail and fin to the
slices to allow identification of the fish that is being eaten.
Figure 2
Sashimi
Note: The word shashimi means
“pierced body”.
Figure 3
Skipjack seller in the Edo
period (1603-1867)
Note: From “Morisadamankou”.
Figure 4
Nare-sushi
In the Edo period (1603–1867), the sashimi culture, especially
related to sashimi cuisine, expanded. Skipjack sashimi was
particularly popular in the city of Edo (now known as Tokyo).
Figure 3 is a picture of a skipjack seller in this period.
By the middle of the 20th Century, with the invention of
the refrigerator, there was a further popularization of sashimi.
In recent years, high performance refrigerators, freezers and
cold-chain systems have been developed. Also distribution
systems for live fish have been developed. Accordingly, the
quality of the sashimi has become higher.
History of Sushi
The most common type of sushi in the modern sushi
restaurant is called nigiri-sushi. However, the original type
of sushi was nare-sushi and this is different from nigiri-sushi.
Nare-sushi was first produced in the 9th Century. Fish were salted
and wrapped in fermented rice for preservation. The rice was
removed before eating. Figure 4 shows a picture of “funazushi”.
It is one of the specialties of the Siga prefecture and is the same as
the original nare-sushi.
In the Muromachi Period, oshizushi was produced. The
fermentation process was skipped and vinegar was used. The rice
used in the process began to be eaten along with the fish. In this
period, oshizushi was mainly made and eaten in Osaka. Figure 5
shows a picture of “oshizushi”.
In the middle of the 18th century, oshizushi was brought to
Edo. In the early 19th Century (the latter part of the Edo Period),
nigiri-sushi was invented by the townspeople of Edo, based on
oshizushi. At first, nigiri-sushi was sold mainly at sushi stands
(“sushi-yatai” in Japanese) (Figure 6).
Toppings for Nigiri–sushi
Toppings for nigiri-sushi (“sushi-neta”, or “sushi-dane” in
Japanese) are mainly raw fish and shellfish. These are also used
for sashimi.
With the development of refrigeration technology, frozen fish
and shellfish were also used for toppings of sushi and sashimi –
not only wild caught fish, but also farmed fish. The following is a
list of popular fish used for sashimi and sushi:
Sashimi and sushi products
1. Tuna – Five species of tuna are used. Blue fin tuna is
the most popular and expensive. Many frozen tunas are
also used. With the development of tuna aquaculture
technology, farmed tuna are being introduced into the
market. Skipjack tuna has been popular since the Edo
period and it is only caught wild. Both wild and farmed
yellowtail tuna are also used. Recently, farmed yellowtail
tuna has become popular both within and outside of
Japan.
2. Sea bream – Both wild and farmed fish are used.
3. Flounders – Again, both wild and farmed fish are used.
Pre-cooking for sashimi and sushi
Some of the toppings for sushi are made from pre-cooked fish,
and are marinated, broiled or once-frozen to circumvent rapid
loss of freshness, toxins and parasites, respectively. Examples for
the cases of mackerel and gizzard shad, eel, and salmon are cited
as follows.
Marinating (su-shime) is a method by which fish are sprinkled
with salt and then soaked in vinegar in order to preserve and to
kill parasites, for example, mackerel, gizzard shad (Figure 7).
Eel serum contains ichthyotoxin and raw eels should not be
eaten. To inactivate the toxin, fish are broiled. Broiled eels and
broiled Japanese conger eel are used not only for toppings of sushi
but also una-jyu and anago-don. These are traditional items in
Japanese cuisine. The eels are placed on rice with the salty-sweet
Nitsume sauce. Figure 8 shoes a picture of una-jyu.
The process of freezing is sometimes used to kill parasites.
For example, in salmon, tapeworm and anisakis are possible
parasites, thus in order to eat salmon as sashimi or as toppings
for sushi, frozen salmon is used. “Ruibe” is one of the traditional
Ainu people’s foods and is simply frozen salmon sashimi.
Taste of fish and shellfish
Figure 9 shows the main compounds that contribute to the taste
of fish and shellfish respectively. Amino acids, nucleotides and
organic acids are the main compounds involved in the taste of fish
and shellfish.
Amino
acids
(AA)
contribute
to
the
main
taste of fish and shellfish. Nucleotides (Nu), AMP
(adenosine-5’-monophosphate), IMP (inosine-5’-monophosphate)
and GMP (guanosine-5’- monophosphate) contribute the umami
taste. IMP enhances the umami taste of monosodium glutamate
(Yamaguchi, 1967) and some amino acids (Kawai et al., 2002).
Yoshii (1987) reported that the response of the chorda tympani
nerve to some amino acids was enhanced by addition of AMP or
GMP. This suggests that AMP and GMP would affect the taste
quality of some amino acids. Organic acids (OA) are responsible
for sourness, for example, lactic acid contributes a sour taste to
fish muscle. Succinic acid may contribute an umami taste to the
edible parts of clams. Levels of lactic acid and succinic acid vary
with the condition of the catch and treatment.
111
Figure 5
Oshizushi
Figure 6
Sushi Yatai
Note: From “Gyoshokubunnka no
keifu””.
Figure 7
Gizzard shad
Figure 8
Una-jyu
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
Figure 9
Chemical compounds that contribute to the taste of (a) fish and (b) shellfish
(a)
(b)
Fatty fish are thought to be “delicious” while fat (lipid) was thought to be tasteless
for a long time. However, candidate fat taste receptors have been discovered and are
thought to directly contribute to the taste (deliciousness) of foods (Gilbertson et al.,
1997). Also, a more recent study has shown that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had bitter inhibitory effects (Yasumatsu et al., 2005).
Glycogen does not directly contribute to but enriches the taste of shellfish (Watanabe
et al., 1990).
How and why raw fish is delicious?
Amino acid components are different among species and this leads to the unique taste
of each fish species. Accumulation of IMP starts after death and it affects the taste.
The quantity of lactic acid varies with the fishing conditions, for example, when a fish
struggles at the time of catch, the quantity of lactic acid of the muscles increases. The
content of fat and lipids changes seasonally and it affects the taste of fish. Generally,
fish in which the fat content is at a high level are thought to be more delicious in
Japanese cuisine.
The best time to eat raw fish
Adenosine-5’-triphosphate (ATP) and its related compounds, that is,
adenosine-5’-diphosphate (ADP), AMP, IMP, inosine (HxR) and hypoxanthine
(Hx) are the main nucleotides in fish muscle. The components of nucleotide related
compounds (Nu-ATP) in fish muscle dramatically change after death. Figure 10 shows
the changes of the components of Nu-ATP in horse mackerel muscle during storage
at 5 °C after catch.
Sashimi and sushi products
113
Figure 10
The changes of the components of Nu-ATP in horse mackerel muscle during
storage at 5 °C after catch
In live fish muscle, most of Nu-ATP is ATP and high levels of ATP are present.
Just after death, more than 90 percent of Nu-ATP in the muscle is ATP. Because ATP
is tasteless, the taste, especially the umami taste, of the fish muscle is negligible. After
death, the ATP is rapidly degraded into ADP, AMP, and to IMP. The IMP content is
negligible just after death and accumulates depending on the degradation of ATP. IMP
contributes to the umami taste. Thus, with the accumulation of IMP, the umami taste of
fish muscle increases. Up to 7~10 hours after death, more than 80 percent of Nu-ATP
is IMP, and the umami taste of fish muscle is heightened. These results suggest that
the best time to eat fish is about 7~10 hours after death. High levels of IMP remain
for several days, but the length of time that these high levels remain in the fish muscle
varies among different fish species. At a point in time, normally several days after
death, the IMP is degraded into HxR and Hx and the IMP content decreases. At this
time, fish should not be eaten as raw fish (sashimi) and at this point putrefaction starts.
How and why is raw shellfish delicious?
Most raw shellfish are at an optimal state for eating immediately after capture because
of their rapid degradation. Just after harvesting, components similar to those found in
fish species contribute to the taste of shellfish (Figure 11).
The active components of shellfish vary among the different species:
Clams:
Taurine (Tau), glutamic acid (Glu), glycine (Gly),
arginine (Arg), AMP and succinic acid mainly contribute
to the taste (Fuke and Konosu, 1989). They are not used
as raw clams but used after being boiled and broiled.
Sea urchins: Glu, Gly, alanine (Ala), methionine (Met), valine (Val),
IMP and GMP mainly contribute to the taste (Komata,
1964). Mainly raw urchins are used for sashimi and
sushi.
Prawns and Lobsters: Glu, Gly, Ala, Arg, Proline (Pro), AMP, IMP and betaine
mainly contribute to the taste (Shirai et al., 1996). Raw
prawns/lobsters and sometimes frozen and/or boiled
products are used for sashimi and sushi.
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
Crabs: Squids: Glu, Gly, Ala, Arg, AMP, GMP and betaine mainly
contribute the taste (Hayashi et al., 1978, 1979, 1981;
Konosu et al., 1978). Raw, frozen and boiled crabs are
used for sashimi and sushi.
Glu, Gly, Ala, Arg, Pro, AMP, betaine and TMAO
(trimethylamine oxide) mainly contribute to the taste
(Kani et al., 2008). In Japan, raw squid are sometimes
used for sashimi. However care is necessary because of
parasites, and for this reason, squid are often frozen to
kill the parasites.
Figure 11
Optimal stage for eating shellfish
Tips fOR enjoying sashimi and sushi
The following are some tips to maximise the enjoyment of eating sashimi and sushi:
1. Keep clean. Hands, cooking utensils and equipment must be kept clean.
2. Use fresh materials.
3. Keep materials and dishes in a cool/cold area. Do not leave them in warm areas
(i.e. at room temperature) for a long time.
4. Do not eat raw freshwater fish. Often, parasitic worms are present in these
species.
5. If you are inexperienced at preparing sashimi or sushi using fish and shellfish,
obtain the correct information and check about parasites, toxins, and matters
related to food safety.
References
Fuke, S. & Konosu, S. 1989. Taste-active components of a few species of bivalves. In
Y. Kawamura, ed. Society for Research on Umami Taste ’89 Forum, pp. 85–91. Tokyo,
Society for Research on Umami Taste.
Gilbertson, T.A., Fontenot, D.T., Liu, L., Zhang, H. & Monroe, W.T. 1997. Fatty acid
modulation of K+ channels in taste receptor cells: gustatory cues for dietary fat.
American Journal of Physiology, 272: C1203–C1210.
Hayashi, T., Yamaguchi, K. & Konosu, S. 1979. Studies on flavour components in boiled
crab–II. Nucleotides and organic bases in the extracts. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi,
44: 1357–1362.
Sashimi and sushi products
Hayashi, T., Yamaguchi, K. & Konosu, S. 1981. Sensory analysis of taste –active
components in the extracts of snow crab meat. Journal of Food Science, 46: 479–483 &
493.
Hayashi, T., Asakawa, A., Yamaguchi, K. & Konosu, S. 1979. Studies on flavour
components in boiled crab–III. Sugars and organic acids and minerals in the extracts.
Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 45: 1325–1329.
Hayashi, T., Furukawa, H., Yamaguchi, K. & Konosu, S. 1981. Comparison of taste
between natural and synthetic extracts of snow crab meat. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi,
47: 529–534.
Kani, Y., Yoshikawa, N., Okada, S. & Abe, H. 2008. Taste–active components in the
mantle of the oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana and their effects on squid taste. Food
Research International, 41: 371–379.
Kawai, M., Okiyama, A. & Ueda, Y. 2002. Taste enhancements between various amino
acids and IMP. Chemical Senses, 27: 739–745.
Komata, Y. 1964. Studies on the extractive components of “uni”–IV. Taste of each
component in the extractives. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 30: 749–756.
Konosu, S., Yamaguchi, K. & Hayashi, T. 1979. Studies on flavour components in boiled
crab–I. Amino acids and related compounds in the extract. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi,
44: 505–510.
Shirai, T., Hirakawa, Y., Koshikawa, Y., Toraishi, H., Terayama, M., Suzuki, T. &
Hirano, T. 1996. Taste components of Japanese spiny and shovel–nosed lobsters.
Fisheries Science, 62: 283–287.
Watanabe, K., Lan, H.L., Yamaguchi, K. & Konosu, S. 1990. Role of extractive
components of scallop in its characteristic taste development. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo
Gakkaishi, 37: 439–445.
Yamaguchi, S. 1967. The synergistic taste effect of monosodium glutamate and disodium
5’–inosinate. Journal of Food Science, 32: 473–47.
Yasumatsu, K., Saito, S., Ming, D., Murata, Y., Sanematsu, K., Shigemura, N.,
Margolskee, R.F. & Ninomiya, Y. 2005. Bitter inhibitory effect of fatty acids: Analysis
by psychophysical, molecular biological and neuroethological study. Japanese Journal
of Taste and Smell Research, 12(3): 303–306.
Yoshii, K. 1987. Synergistic effects of 5’–nucleotides on rat taste responses to various amino
acids. In Y. Kawamura & M.R. Kare, eds. Umami: a basic taste, pp. 219–232. New York,
USA, and Basel,Switzerland, Marcel Dekker, Inc.
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117
Minimising antimicrobial use in
aquaculture and improving food
safety
Iddya Karunasagar
Fisheries and Aquaculture Department
Food and Agriculture Organization
Rome, Italy
Summary
Aquaculture is contributing to about 50 percent of global fish production and in most
parts of the world fish capture production has stagnated for over a decade because
maximum sustainable yields have been reached. Therefore the increasing demand
for fish has to be met by increasing fish production by aquaculture. This has been a
challenge because disease outbreaks have been causing serious losses in both finfish
as well as shellfish aquaculture. Detection of residues, in some countries, of certain
banned antibiotics in aquaculture products has led to consumer concerns about the
safety of these products. There is also growing concern about the emergence and spread
of bacteria resistant to antimicrobial agents and transfer of resistance determinants to
human pathogens that may be associated with the aquatic environment. In this context,
there is a need to look for alternatives to antimicrobial agents for health management
in aquaculture.
Most often, disease problems in aquaculture are because of a shift in the delicate
balance between the host, the pathogen and the environment. Therefore, disease
problems can be significantly reduced by adopting good management practices. In the
aquaculture of salmonids, the use of antimicrobials could be minimised substantially
by vaccinating fish against some of the common bacterial and viral diseases. However,
currently, no vaccines are available for parasitic diseases. Further, global aquaculture is
dominated by Asian cyprinids and currently, there are no commercial vaccines available
for these species. Crustaceans have a poorly developed immune system and there are
no commercial vaccines for this sector of aquaculture. However, the innate immune
response of fish and crustaceans can be stimulated by certain microbial molecules like
glucans that can act as immunostimulants. Currently, immunostimulants are widely
used for health management both in finfish as well as crustacean aquaculture.
Probiotics have become useful tools for health management and the term
“probiotics” has been more broadly used in aquaculture to refer to microbial agents
that have beneficial effects on cultured animals in a number of ways. Most of the
aquaculture probiotics are thought to act by modifying the microbial community
around the animals in favour of beneficial microorganisms that may improve the
water or sediment quality, suppress pathogenic bacteria, stimulate the immune system
of the host or improve host digestion. The technology of bacteriophage therapy is
attracting the attention of medical professionals because of the increasing incidence
of human infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria. Scientific studies show that
even in bacterial diseases of fish and shrimp, bacteriophage therapy could be effective.
Commercial products based on bacteriophages for pathogen control in agriculture,
aquaculture and food processing are available in some countries. Thus, there are
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
number of alternative technologies for health management in aquaculture and these
have potential to contribute to minimising antimicrobial use in this sector.
Public health and trade impact of the use of antimicrobials in
aquaculture
The contribution of aquaculture to world fish production is increasing rapidly. In 2006,
47 percent of the 110 million tonnes of world food fish supply came from aquaculture
(FAO, 2009). The annual growth rate in world aquaculture production during 2004 to
2006 was 6.1 percent in volume terms and 11 percent in value terms. The Asia Pacific
Region accounts for 89 percent of production in terms of quantity and 77 percent in
terms of value. As increasing quantities of aquaculture product are reaching markets,
there is also considerable concern on safety issues and the detection of residues of
antibiotics has been one the major issues. It is very difficult to obtain data on the
usage of antimicrobials in aquaculture. The World Organisation for Animal Health
(OIE) prepared a list of antimicrobials of veterinary importance (Table 1). This follows
the recommendation of the FAO/OIE/WHO Expert Workshop on non-human
antimicrobial usage and antimicrobial resistance that OIE and WHO should develop a
list of critically important antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and human medicine
respectively (FAO/OIE/WHO, 2003).
The OIE list was prepared based on response to a questionnaire sent to member
countries. Two criteria were used to assess the importance of antimicrobials in
veterinary medicine:
a) Response rate to the questionnaire regarding veterinary critically important
antimicrobials. This criterion was met when more than 50 percent of the
respondents identified the importance of the antimicrobial.
b) Treatment of serious animal disease and availability of alternative
antimicrobials.
Antimicrobials meeting both criteria were designated “veterinary critically
important antimicrobials”. Those meeting one of the criteria were designated
“veterinary highly important antimicrobials”. Those meeting none of the criteria were
designated “veterinary important antimicrobials”. Table 1 shows all antimicrobials
used in aquaculture appearing in the OIE list and antimicrobials licensed for use in
aquaculture in the United States of America and in the European Union.
There is no reliable data on licensing or national usage from the Asia Pacific region,
but available evidence suggests that considerable quantities are used in some countries,
often without professional consultation or supervision. Insufficient regulations and
limited enforcement in many countries where aquaculture is an important industry are
major problems that need to be addressed.
At the international level, it is being recognized that while antimicrobial agents
are important for animal health protection, the negative impacts of their use in food
producing animals should be minimized. The Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World
Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) have organized several expert consultations
and technical meetings to review the global situation and develop recommendations.
Minimising antimicrobial use in aquaculture and improving food safety
TABLE 1
Antimicrobials licensed/used in aquaculture
Antimicrobials appearing in OIE
list1
Antimicrobials approved by US
FDA2
Antimicrobials approved in EU3
Spectinomycin
Oxytetracycline
Amoxycillin
Streptomycin
Florfenicol
Florfenicol
Kanamycin
Sulfadimethoxine/ ormetoprim
Oxolonic acid
Bicozamycin
Oxytetracycline
Fosfomycin
Flumequine
Lincomycin
Sarafloxacin
Erythromycin
Sulphadiazine + trimethoprim
Josamycin
Spiramycin
Novobiocin
Amoxycillin
Ampicillin
Tobicillin
Florphenicol
Thiamphenicol
Flumequin
Miloxacin
Oxalonic acid
Enrofloxacin
Sulphadimethoxine
Sulphafurazole
Sulphamethoxine
Sulphamonomethoxine
Trimethoprim + sulphonamide
Doxycycline, Oxytetracycline,
Tetracycline
1
2
3
www.oie.int/downld/Antimicrobials/OIE_list_antimicrobials.pdf.
www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/DevelopmentApprovalProcess/Aquaculture/ucm132954.htm.
Rodgers and Furones, 2009 accessed at ressources.ciheam.org/om/pdf/a86/00801061.pdf.
The public health hazards related to antimicrobial use in aquaculture include
the development and spread of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and resistance
genes and the occurrence of antimicrobial residues in products of aquaculture
(FAO/OIE/WHO, 2006). Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents is a significant
public health concern. The widespread use of antibiotics in different sectors such as animal
husbandry, agriculture and human medicine has contributed to selection and spread of
antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the environment. Antibiotic resistance genes can spread
among unrelated bacteria without any phylogenetic, ecological or geographical
barriers. The Joint FAO/OIE/WHO Expert Consultation on Antimicrobial Use in
Aquaculture and Antimicrobial Resistance held in 2006 identified two types of hazards
with respect of antimicrobial resistance:
1. Development of acquired resistance in bacteria in aquatic environments that
can infect humans. This can be regarded as a direct spread of resistance from
aquatic environments to humans; and
2. Development of acquired resistance in bacteria in aquatic environments
whereby such resistant bacteria can act as a reservoir of resistance genes from
which the genes can be further disseminated and ultimately end up in human
pathogens. This can be viewed as an indirect spread of resistance from aquatic
environments to humans caused by horizontal gene transfer.
The consequences of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria causing human infections
could include increased severity of infection and increased frequency of treatment
failures (FAO/OIE/WHO, 2006). However, there are no recorded cases of human
infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria from aquaculture products.
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While the issue of selection and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in aquaculture
has been deliberated upon for quite some time, the issue of antimicrobial residues in
aquaculture products came to the fore in 2001 following marked improvements in
laboratory methods to detect residues. This was followed by disruptions of trade in
aquaculture products. According to the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Sanitary
and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement, countries have the right to establish measures
to protect the life and health of their population and also to determine the level of
protection that is appropriate for the country; however, available scientific evidence
should be used when establishing control measures, and these measures should not
be taken only to favour the domestic industry. Measures adopted by countries with
respect to antibiotic residues and antibiotic-resistant bacteria would be within the
framework of the SPS agreement.
At the international level, the responsibility of providing advice on risk management
concerning veterinary drug residues lies with the Codex Alimentarius Commission
(CAC) and its subsidiary body, the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary
Drugs in Foods (CCRVDF). The primary responsibility for risk assessment lies with
the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). CCRVDF
determines the priorities for consideration of residues of veterinary drugs and JECFA
provides independent scientific advice by evaluating the available data on veterinary
drugs prioritized by CCRVDF. The Risk Assessment Policy for Setting of MRLs in
Food established by the CAC defines the responsibilities of CCRVDF and JECFA and
their interactions. For the establishment of a priority list, CCRVDF identifies, with the
assistance of Members, the veterinary drugs that may pose a consumer safety problem
and/or have a potential adverse impact on international trade. Veterinary drugs meeting
some or all of the following criteria could appear on the priority list:
• A Member has proposed the compound for evaluation;
• A Member has established good veterinary practices with regard to the
compound;
• The compound has the potential to cause public health and/or trade problems;
• It is available as a commercial product; and
• There is commitment that a dossier will be made available (CAC, 2010).
JECFA uses a risk assessment process to establish acceptable daily intake
(ADI) and maximum residue limits (MRLs). Veterinary drugs that are toxic or have
carcinogenic potential are not evaluated by JECFA and therefore no ADI or MRL
is established. Chloramphenicol and nitrofurans, the main compounds that caused
disruptions in trade in aquaculture products, belong to this category and are banned for
use in food-producing animals in most countries. Presently, there is a Codex MRL only
for chlortetracycline/oxytetracycline/tetracycline in fish and shrimp (CAC, 2009).
However, there are national/regional MRLs for several other antimicrobial agents. In
the European Union (EU), Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1181/2002 establishes
MRLs for veterinary drugs in foods of animal origin, including aquaculture products.
A lack of Codex MRLs for veterinary drugs could be a problem for many developing
countries that adopt Codex MRLs as national MRLs. This situation led FAO/WHO
(2004) to recommend that for veterinary drugs that have been evaluated by national
governments and are legally used in many countries, a comprehensive approach
needs to be adopted to expedite harmonization. A JECFA evaluation of substances
may be constrained by a lack of sponsors. FAO/WHO (2004) recommended that
with the assistance of JECFA and based on national/regional MRLs, an initial list of
temporary/operative MRLs could be adopted by CCRVDF. This list could be made
permanent by CAC, if the national/regional risk assessments are not questioned or if
JECFA could establish an ADI using the data used by the country/region to propose
an MRL. Substances that do not fulfil these requirements could then be moved to the
list of compounds not to be used in food animals.
Minimising antimicrobial use in aquaculture and improving food safety
121
For veterinary drugs without an ADI or MRL, regulatory authorities generally
adopt a zero tolerance approach. In this situation, as the analytical capability
improves, levels that were not detectable by earlier technologies become detectable
and hence reportable. Therefore, independent of any toxicological risk posed by the
food product, the residues would attract regulatory action. The countries taking a
zero tolerance approach argue that the products are not acceptable because they have
evidence of the use of a banned drug in animal production and therefore it represents
a violation of regulations.
Table 2 shows the rapid alerts that appeared in the European Union market
resulting from residues of antimicrobials being found in fish and fishery products.
The major veterinary drugs involved are chloramphenicol, nitrofuran metabolites and
malachite green.
TABLE 2
Rapid alerts from detection of residues of veterinary drugs in the European Union
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Chloramphenicol
Veterinary drug
44
102
9
8
1
1
4
2
3
4
Total
178
Malachite green
0
2
11
18
50
17
9
2
5
4
118
Nitrofuran
(including all
metabolites)
0
89
51
27
30
41
31
48
89
10
416
Following the trade disruptions caused by the detection of residues, a Joint
FAO/WHO Technical Workshop on Residues of Veterinary Drugs without
ADI/MRL was held in 2004. This technical meeting recommended that for residues of
drugs without an ADI/MRL, CCRVDF should request JECFA to perform and report,
if possible, an estimate of the risks associated with the exposure to residues, because
such risk estimates would be useful in risk management and that CAC should include
consideration of cost–benefit and risk comparisons in their risk analysis process
(FAO, 2004). Use of alternate risk management approaches that reflect the toxicological
risk of the residue for regulatory analytical methods such as Recommended Performance
Level (RPL) or a control strategy chosen by the competent authority were also
recommended (FAO/WHO, 2004). They further emphasized that the illegal use of
veterinary drugs cannot be condoned. The current lack of epidemiological data on the
perceived public health risks and the cost of implementing regulatory measures based
on analytical capability emphasize the need for more innovative approaches to manage
this problem.
Alternatives to antimicrobials in health management in
aquaculture
One of the major constraints faced by aquaculture is the serious loss because of disease
outbreaks. Some examples are indicated in Table 3. Both shrimp and finfish farmers
have lost millions of dollars because of outbreaks of diseases. Therefore, a health
management strategy is very important for the success of commercial aquaculture.
Most often, pathogens causing diseases are present in the environment in which fish
are grown but disease outbreaks occur when the conditions are unfavourable for the
fish e.g. overcrowding, environmental stress like drops in temperature, salinity. In the
case of shrimp, for example, the presence of multiple viruses has been detected by
sensitive diagnostic tests, like polymerase chain reaction, in shrimp farms showing
normal growth (Umesha et al., 2006). This suggests that for an infection (presence of
a pathogen in a host system) to lead to a disease (alteration of the normal physiology
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of the animal), environmental factors are very important. Thus effective health
management strategies should consider the interaction between the host, the pathogen
and the environment. The goal of the strategies should be to prevent disease outbreaks
occurring, thus minimizing the need for use of any antimicrobials.
TABLE 3
Some examples of economic losses because of diseases in aquaculture
Disease
Country
Economic impact
Reference
White spot disease of
shrimp
Bangladesh
US$80.14 million
during late 1990’s
Alam et al., 2007
White spot disease of
shrimp
India
US$120 million during
late 1990’s
Karunasagar and
Karunasagar, 1999
Yellow head disease
and white spot disease
of shrimp
Thailand
US$650 million in 1994
Chanratchakool et al.,
2001.
Shrimp viral diseases
Viet Nam
US$100 million in 1993
Khoa et al., 2001
White spot disease of
shrimp
Ecuador
US$280 million in 1999
Alday de Graindorge and
Griffith, 2001
Bacterial diseases of
finfish
China
Over US$120 million
annually during
1990–1992
Wei, 2002
Infectious salmon
anaemia (ISA) virus
disease
United States of
America
United Kingdom
US$20 million in 2001
US$32 million in
1998–1999
Valderhaug, 2008
However, it should be pointed out that global aquaculture systems encompass
diverse fish species and varied pond conditions. For example, carps in Asia are cultured
in earthen ponds with fairly high organic matter content, while salmonids are cultured
in rather clean waters in temperate environments. Aquaculture involves not only the
vertebrate finfish, but also includes invertebrates like crustaceans and molluscs, which
are at different evolutionary scales and have diverse physiological systems. A good
understanding of the animal physiology, nutrition and immunological system would
be essential to develop appropriate health management strategies. Some of the health
management tools that have been successfully used in various aquaculture systems are
detailed below.
Good aquaculture practices
Epidemiological studies have indicated that outbreaks of diseases in aquaculture
systems are related to certain risk factors such as high stocking density, inadequate
management of feed, fertilizers, water and sediment quality, the use of infected seeds,
sudden changes in environmental conditions, such as temperature, salinity, dissolved
oxygen, etc. Studies conducted in Asia in shrimp aquaculture have shown that, in
some ponds, one can find animals infected with two or three viruses but growing
normally (Umesha et al., 2006). This shows that often pathogens are present in the
environment (e.g. in water/sediment in the case of bacteria or in carrier animals in the
case of viruses), but may not result in disease unless there are additional environmental
factors affecting the host. Thus, for disease management, it is important to consider
developing and implementing good aquaculture practices (GAPs). The general aspects
to be looked into, such as site selection, water quality, source of fry and fingerlings,
identification of hazards and defects, and production operations including feed and
use of veterinary drugs, have been elaborated in the Codex Code of Practice for Fish
and Fishery Products (CAC/RCP 52-2003). Depending on the species cultured and
the surrounding environmental conditions, site-specific GAPs need to be worked out.
One of the well known success stories is that of shrimp aquaculture in India. Following
Minimising antimicrobial use in aquaculture and improving food safety
the outbreak of disease from whitespot syndrome in India, there were massive crop
losses. The Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) of India, in
collaboration with the Network of Aquaculture Centers in Asia and Pacific (NACA),
initiated a programme to develop “Better Management Practices” (BMPs) in the State
of Andhra Pradesh. The BMPs developed included a comprehensive set of measures
such as good pond preparation, water quality management, pond bottom management,
biosecurity and avoidance of animals carrying White Spot Syndrome Virus, good
quality seed selection, feed management and waste management (Umesh et al., 2010).
Because most shrimp farmers in India operate small farms, often with a single pond, a
cluster approach was used, so that farmers in an area joined together and followed the
same practices. Over a period of 4 years, this approach led to a 31 percent reduction in
disease prevalence compared with non-BMP ponds (Umesh et al., 2010). This example
illustrates that it is possible to achieve marked gains in production by following BMPs.
Vaccination
Vaccination has been successfully used for prevention of disease outbreaks in animal
husbandry and some diseases have even been eradicated e.g. Bovine riderpest viral
disease. Even in the aquaculture sector, there are success stories like the minimization
of antimicrobial use in salmon culture in Norway. Bacterial vaccines were commercially
used in aquaculture for the first time in the United States of America during the late
1970s against enteric red mouth disease (yersiniosis) and vibriosis (Evelyn, 1997).
These early vaccines were based on inactivated whole bacterial cells administered by
immersion. Application of industrially produced vaccines in aquaculture perhaps began
in Norway, the major driving force being the huge losses to the salmon aquaculture
industry because of vibriosis in the 1980s. In 1987, nearly 50 000 kg of antibiotics were
used for production of about 5 000 tonnes of salmon, but the usage dropped following
development of vaccines (Sommerset et al., 2005). The antibiotics used in Norwegian
salmon industry in 2003 were only 805 kg active ingredient for over 500 000 tonnes
fish production (Burridge et al., 2008). However, the use of antibiotics in salmon
aquaculture varies depending upon the country. In Chile during 2003, 133 800 kg
antibiotics were used for the production of 280 481 tonnes of salmon and in Canada,
30 373 kg antibiotics were used for production of 111 178 tonnes of salmon. This trend
seems to be continuing with the salmon aquaculture industry in Chile using 385 600 kg
antibiotics in 2007 and 325 600 kg antibiotics in 2008 to produce between 300 000 to
400 000 MT salmon (Burridge et al., 2010). Thus, apart from availability of commercial
vaccines, there are other factors like regulatory pressure that influence antimicrobial
use in the aquaculture industry. Presently, vaccines are available for a large number
of bacterial diseases and a few viral diseases (Tables 4 and 5). However, most of the
vaccines available are for salmonids and there are very few vaccines for use in tropical
aquaculture, one example being the streptococcosis vaccine for tilapia. According to
FAO statistics (FAO, 2007), global aquaculture production in 2004 was dominated by
carps and cyprinids (18.3 million tonnes) and shrimps and prawns (2.76 million tonnes)
while salmon and trout production was only about 1.9 million tonnes. Thus, there are
no commercial vaccines available for some of the major commercial fish species.
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TABLE 4
Examples of multivalent/bivalent vaccines available for aquaculture in different regions
Diseases/Type of
vaccines
Countries/Regions
Pathogen
Fish
North
America
Europe
Chile
Japan/
Asia
Bivalent/Multivalent
vaccines
Furunculosis,
Vibriosis
Aeromonas
salmonicida, Vibrio
anguillarum,
V. ordalli
Salmonids
+
+
Vibriosis, Yersiniosis
Vibrio anguillarum,
Yersinia ruckeri,
V. ordalli
Salmonids,
cod
+
+
Furunculosis,
Vibriosis
Coldwater vibriosis,
Winter sore,
Pancreas disease
Aeromonas
salmonicida, Vibrio
anguillarum,
V. salmonicida,
Moritella viscosa,
Infectious pancreatic
necrosis virus
Salmonids
Furunculosis,
Vibriosis,
Infectious
pancreatic necrosis,
Salmonid Ricketsial
Septicaemia (SRS),
Infectious salmon
anaemia (ISA)
Aeromonas
salmonicida, Vibrio
anguillarum,
Piscirickettsia
salmonis, Infectious
pancreatic necrosis
virus, ISA virus
Salmonids
+
Furunculosis,
Vibriosis,
Infectious
pancreatic necrosis,
Salmonid Ricketsial
Septicaemia (SRS)
Aeromonas
salmonicida, Vibrio
anguillarum,
Piscirickettsia
salmonis,
Infectious pancreatic
necrosis virus
Salmonids
+
Infectious
pancreatic necrosis,
Salmonid Ricketsial
Septicaemia (SRS)
Piscirickettsia
salmonis,
Infectious pancreatic
necrosis virus
Salmonids
+
Vibriosis, Infectious
pancreatic necrosis
Vibrio anguillarum,
Infectious pancreatic
necrosis virus
Salmonids
Furunculosis,
Vibriosis, Infectious
pancreatic necrosis
Aeromonas
salmonicida, Vibrio
anguillarum,
Infectious pancreatic
necrosis virus
Salmonids
+
Vibriosis, Infectious
pancreatic
necrosis, Ricketsial
Septicaemia (SRS)
Vibrio anguillarum
Infectious pancreatic
necrosis virus,
Piscirickettsia
salmonis
Salmonids
+
Pasteurellosis,
Vibriosis
Photobacterium
damselae, Vibrio
anguillarum
Salmonids
+
Furunculosis,
Infectious pancreatic
necrosis (IPN)
Aeromonas
salmonicida,
Infectious pancreatic
necrosis virus
Salmonids
+
Pasteurellosis and
Streptococcosis
Photobacterium
damselae,
Lactococcus garvieae
Yellowtail
Vibriosis, cold water
vibriosis
Vibrio anguillarum,
V. ordalli,
V. salmonicida
Salmonids
+
Vibriosis
Vibrio anguillarum,
serotype O1, O2a,
O2b
Salmonids,
halibut,
cod,
seabass,
seabream,
Amberjack,
yellowtail
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Minimising antimicrobial use in aquaculture and improving food safety
125
TABLE 5
Examples of monovalent vaccines available for aquaculture in different regions
Diseases/Type of
vaccines
Countries/Region
Pathogen
Fish
North
America
Europe
Japan/
Asia
Chile
Vibriosis
Vibrio anguillarum,
serotype O1
Yellowtails
+
Furunculosis
Aeromonas
salmonicida
Salmonids
Infectious salmon
anaemia (ISA)
ISA virus
Salmonids
+
Infectious pancreatic
necrosis
IPN virus
Salmonids
+
+
Enteric septicaemia
Edwardsiella ictaluri
Catfish
+
Yersiniosis
Yersinia ruckeri
Salmonids
+
Columnaris disease
Flavobacterium
columnare
Catfish
Streptococcosis
Streptococcus iniae
Tilapia,
seabass,
grouper,
flounder,
halibut
Pasteurellosis
Photobacterium
damselae subsp
piscicida
Seabass and
seabream
Lactococcosis
Lactococcus garvieae
Trout,
Amberjack/
yellowtail
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Cold water vibriosis
V. salmonicida
Salmonids
+
Flavobacteriosis
Flavobacterium
psychrophilum
Salmonids
+
+
+
Bacterial kidney
disease
Renibacterium
salmoninarum
Salmonids
+
+
While most available bacterial vaccines are based on inactivated bacterial cells
(bacterins), there are a few examples of live attenuated vaccines. The efficacy of
bacterins containing Edwardsiella ictaluri is low but, but a live attenuated vaccine
has been found to be efficacious by immersion at 7 to 10 days post hatching
(Shoemaker et al., 1999). A live vaccine based on cross-reactive property of Arthrobacter
spp. has been used in a vaccine licensed in North America and Chile against the
intracellular bacterium Renibacterium salmoninarum causing bacterial kidney disease
(Sommerset et al., 2005). As shown in Tables 4 and 5, there are a few viral vaccines
available and most of these are based on inactivated viruses or recombinant proteins.
The efficacy of inactivated viral vaccines is low unless delivered by injection at
relatively high doses (Sommerset et al., 2005). There are safety concerns about use of
live inactivated viruses as vaccines. As such, there is a need to demonstrate that they
are non-pathogenic to non-target species of aquatic animals because they are likely
to reach the aquatic environment, particularly if they are used for animals reared in
open waters in cages. Generating such data would involve enormous cost and effort.
DNA vaccines show promising results in experimental trails, but this involves
introduction of a bacterial plasmid encoding antigen of interest. There are concerns
that the plasmids may reach the environment and could reach other organisms with
unforeseeable consequences (Magnadottir, 2010).
There are currently no vaccines available for parasites, though this group of
pathogens can cause considerable economic losses. Celiate parasites like Trichodina,
monogeneans like Gyrodactylus and Dactylogyrus and copepod parasites like Lernea
are serious problems in warm water aquaculture. In salmon aquaculture in the
northern hemisphere, the lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) alone are responsible for
US$50–100 million annual losses through mortality, growth and quality reduction
and pharmaceutical costs (Sommerset et al., 2005). In Chile, the copepods belonging
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
Caligus spp. are a major problem. Parasites have complex cellular structure and the
identification of a protective antigen would be important. More research efforts are
needed to develop vaccines for parasites affecting aquacultured fish.
The two common methods of vaccine delivery to fish are immersion and injection.
In the former, fish are immersed in a dilute vaccine suspension and this is a cheap,
convenient method for a large number of fish, usually, at the fry stage. Vaccination by
immersion has been found to be effective for several bacterial vaccines. On the other
hand, vaccination by injection is labour-intensive and cannot be delivered to fish at
the fry stage. In salmon aquaculture, use of a multiple component vaccine is common
and in such multivalent vaccines, some components require delivery by injection
with an oil adjuvant. In commercial salmon aquaculture, automated vaccine machines
are commonly used. Because of the problems involved in delivering vaccines, the
farmers prefer vaccination only once during the culture period and this has led to the
development of polyvalent vaccines. Some of the commonly used vaccines for salmon
contain six antigens (Table 4).
Being vertebrates, fish have a fairly developed specific immune system that has
several similarities with the mammalian system. Fish produce antibodies, predominantly
of the IgM type. On the other hand, the immune system of invertebrate shrimp is
poorly understood. Though it is commonly believed that they do not have an adaptive
immunity comparable to vertebrates, experimental studies indicate that it is possible
to induce protection in shrimp through injection/oral administration of viral proteins
(Witteveldt et al., 2004a; 2004b), but the mechanism of protection is not known. There
are no commercially available vaccines for shrimp aquaculture.
Immunostimulants
Though vertebrate finfish have a fairly developed specific immune response, the innate
immune response plays an important role in preventing attack by pathogens. In the case
of invertebrates like shrimp, there is no evidence of any specific immune response and
the innate immunity is very important in the defence against pathogens. Even in finfish,
development and maturation components involved in a specific immune response takes
a few months after hatching (Zapata et al., 2006) and therefore at this early stage of life,
they are dependent on an innate immune response. Even after maturation, the specific
immune response in fish has several constraints, such as limited classes of antibodies
(IgG, IgA and IgE have not been found in fish), limited memory and relatively slow
lymphocyte proliferation (Magnadottir, 2006).
Immunostimulants are naturally occurring compounds that enhance disease
resistance in the host through modulation of the immune system (Bricknell and
Dalmo, 2005). Studies done with various fish species show that the innate immune
system can be upregulated with the help of various immunostimulants (Sakai, 1999).
Many of the immunostimulants reported are molecules derived from microbial cell
walls or outer membranes with characteristic patterns such as repeating units e.g.
glucans, lipopolysaccharides, peptidoglycans, chitin and chitosan, and have been
termed “pathogen associated molecular patterns” (PAMP). These recognise pattern
recognition receptors (PRR) or pattern recognition proteins (PRP) of the innate
immune system present in host cells. Stimulation of the innate immune response
is indicated by parameters such as phagocytosis, activation of reactive oxygen and
microbicidal activity in granulocytes, macrophage migration, complement activation
and resistance to challenge by microbial pathogens (Sakai, 1999). There are numerous
studies on immunostimulants and most of them report improved resistance to challenge
by various bacterial pathogens, but some studies indicate no effect (Sakai, 1999).
Most commercial immunostimulants are derived from yeast and seaweeds containing
β 1‑3 and β 1‑6 glucans in the case of former and alginates and polysaccharides in
the case of latter. Delivery of immunostimulants is generally by bath immersion or
Minimising antimicrobial use in aquaculture and improving food safety
through feed. Pulse feeding is commonly practiced. In shrimp aquaculture in India,
the intervals of feeding range from 4 to 7 days (Karunasagar and Karunasagar, 1999)
and in salmonid culture, it could range from 4 to 6 weeks (Bricknell and Dalmo, 2005).
In salmonid aquaculture, feeding with diet supplemented with immunostimulants
has been demonstrated to reduce sea lice settlement and provide better protection
against furunculosis and vibriosis (Bricknell and Dalmo, 2005). Immunostimulants are
reported to be widely used in seabass and sea bream aquaculture.
Probiotics
Probiotics have been in use in human and veterinary medicine for a long time and
the term has been traditionally used to refer to live microbial feed supplements that
beneficially affect the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance (Fuller, 1989).
A Joint FAO/WHO Working group on drafting guidelines for the evaluation of
probiotics in foods recommended the following definition: “Live microorganisms
which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host”
(FAO/WHO, 2002). In the aquatic environment, the animals are in intimate contact
with the environment including the microflora therein and even gut flora of aquatic
animals are greatly influenced by the microflora in the surrounding environment.
Considering this interaction between environmental microflora and fish health,
Verschuere et al. (2000) suggested the following definition for probiotics in aquaculture:
“A live microbial adjunct which has a beneficial effect on the host by modifying the
host associated or ambient microbial community, by ensuring improved use of feed
or enhancing its nutritional value, by enhancing the host response towards disease
or by improving the quality of its ambient environment”. Thus, probiotic bacteria
could improve the animal health either by suppressing the pathogens present in the
environment, by stimulating the immune response in the host, by improving the
digestion in the gut or by improving water/sediment quality by degrading accumulated
wastes (Figure 1).
FIGURE 1
Potential roles of probiotic bacteria in improvement of animal health
Probiotic bacteria may modify the host associated microbial community by
competitive exclusion of pathogens. The competition could be for nutrients, iron
or for adhesion sites and some are known to produce compounds inhibitory to the
pathogens. In fact, a common technique used by several investigators looking for
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
potential probiotic bacteria is to screen the cultures for the ability to suppress potential
fish/shrimp pathogens (Vershuere et al., 2000). Lactic acid bacteria, commonly used
as probiotics in mammalian systems, are known to produce bacteriocins that inhibit,
predominantly, gram positive bacteria. Most fish/shrimp pathogenic bacteria are gram
negative and bacteria such as Bacillus spp. have been shown to produce inhibitory
compounds against gram negative bacteria (Karunasagar et al., 2005) and have been
used as probiotics in shrimp aquaculture. When added to shrimp larval rearing water
or when administered through diets, Bacillus spp. have been shown to improve survival
and weight of larvae (Rengpipat et al., 1998; Moriarty, 1998). There are also reports
of Bacillus, Carnobacterium and Vibrio spp. that enhance survival of fish eggs, larvae,
juveniles or adults when challenged with pathogens (Vershuere et al., 2000). Though
production of inhibitory compounds by probiotic bacteria that suppress pathogens has
been demonstrated in vitro, this has not been demonstrated under in vivo conditions.
However, enhanced survival, moulting rate and growth of black tiger shrimp,
P. monodon, has been reported under farm conditions (Rengpipat et al.,1998). Addition
of probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Bacillus, Carnobacterium or Roseobacter
to larval rearing water has been found to improve survival of turbot larvae, salmonid
fingerlings and channel catfish (Balcazar et al., 2006). Feed supplementation has been
preferred in grow-out ponds and has been found to be more effective than direct
addition to rearing water (Hai et al., 2009).
Improvement of water/sediment quality by improving oxidation of ammonia or by
oxidizing sulphides by a consortium of probiotic bacteria that included Bacillus spp.,
Nitrosomans and Nitobacter has been demonstrated under laboratory conditions in
microcosms simulating shrimp pond conditions (Karunasagar, 2011). However, some
studies were unable to find this effect (Vershuere et al., 2000). Photosynthetic purple
non-sulphur bacteria are widely used as probiotics in shrimp farms in South East Asia
and in fish and shrimp farms in China (Qi et al., 2009). These bacteria are reported to
be efficient degraders of organic wastes in aquaculture ponds.
It has been proposed that in the case of filter feeders or larval stages of crustaceans,
probiotic bacteria may serve as a complementary food source and enhance digestion
(Vershuere et al., 2000). Protease producing bacteria such as Bacillus spp. have been
shown to improve growth performance in shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Liu et al.,
2009).
The immunomodulating activity of probiotics in various fish species has been
reported in the literature (Nayak, 2010). Stimulation of both innate immune response
as well as increase in immunoglobulin levels has been demonstrated in fish. Probiotic
bacteria such as Lactobacillus spp., Bacillus spp., Carnobacterium spp., Clostridium
butyricum, have been demonstrated to stimulate the immune system of several fish
species like tilapia, seabream and trout. But some investigators reported variable
results. The high degree of variability observed by some investigators may be related
to the bacterial species used as a probiotic and their source. It is now common to use
multi-species probiotics. Organisms belonging to different families like Lactobacillus
and Bacillus spp. have been found to act synergistically in immunomodulation
(Salinas et al., 2005).
In China, the biggest aquaculture producer in the world, it has been reported
that over one hundred companies are involved in producing about 50 000 tonnes of
probiotics with a market value of 50 million Euros. Though probiotics for aquaculture
had a booming market in 2008, there was about a 50 percent decline in the market
because of a lack of confidence by farmers and an issue with quality control of the
commercial products (Qi et al., 2009). This seems to be the experience in many
countries. Regulatory approval for the use of probiotics as feed supplements has been
documented in some regions. European Union regulation EC/710/2009 permits the
use of authorized probiotics for disease control in organic aquaculture.
Minimising antimicrobial use in aquaculture and improving food safety
Biocontrol agents
The use of microorganisms as biological control agents for insect pests has been practiced
in various forms. Bacteriophages (bacteria eaters) are viruses that replicate by using
bacteria as hosts. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in using bacteriophages as
therapeutic agents, particularly in the context of widespread occurrence of antibiotic
resistance in several pathogenic bacteria. Bacteriophages are abundant in nature and
have been found in both terrestrial and aquatic environments and in association with
plants and animals. In non-polluted waters, 2 x 108 bacteriophages per ml have been
found (Bergh et al., 1989). The life cycle of a bacteriophage may include a lytic stage
and some bacteriophages have their genome inserted into the host chromosome and
enter a lysogenic stage. Lysogenic bacteriophages are involved in gene transfer in
bacteria and some of the virulence factors found in bacteria (e.g. the ability to produce
cholera toxin by Vibrio cholerae O1) have been associated with bacteriophages inserted
into the bacterial genome.
Soon after the discovery of bacteriophages in 1917, the potential to use them
against bacteria was realized. However, the interest in bacteriophages declined after
the discovery of antibiotics, the subsequent scaling up of antibiotic production to
industrial levels and their effectiveness in treating infections in soldiers during the
World War II. But the treatment failures because bacteria show resistance to multiple
antibiotics has led to a renewed interest in bacteriophage therapy. Bacteriophages are
host specific, hence they lyse only the target bacteria, unlike antibiotics that suppress
most of the bacterial groups. Thus bacteriophage therapy would not suppress useful
commensal flora that are required for the health of the animals. This would be a great
advantage in aquaculture.
The application of bacteriophages to combat fish pathogens was investigated by
Nakai and coworkers (Nakai et al., 1999; Park et al., 2000; Nakai and Park, 2002). They
used bacteriophages belonging to Siphoviridae family isolated from the aquaculture
environment. Oral administration of bacteriophages against Lactococcus garvieae to
young yellowtails (Seliora quinqueradiata) resulted in 100 percent survival following
intraperitoneal challenge with the pathogen compared with 10 percent survival in
control groups (Nakai et al., 1999). Oral administration of phage impregnated feed
(mixture of two bacteriophages, one belonging to Myoviridae and another belonging to
Podoviridae family) to ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) brought down cumulative mortality
to 22.5 percent compared with 65 percent in controls, following an oral challenge
with Pseudomonas plecoglossicida (Park, 2000). In both studies, the authors used
oral administration and this would be very convenient in aquaculture. Fish digestive
tracts have a relatively high pH and therefore the acid sensitivity of phages would not
be an issue in aquaculture (Nakai and Park, 2002). Examples of reported efficacy of
bacteriophages in improving survival of fish/shrimp when challenged with pathogens
are indicated in Table 6.
Imbeault et al. (2006) studied the application of bacteriophages in preventing
furunculosis caused by A. salmonicida in farmed brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).
In aquarium tanks, application of bacteriophages resulted in a 6 log reduction in the
number of A. salmonicida and reduced the mortality from 100 percent to 10 percent.
Phage resistant mutants were isolated, but they were susceptible to other phages and
the investigators suggested the use of bacteriophage combinations to overcome the
problem. Park and Nakai (2003) also noted that a combination of two bacteriophages
gave a significantly higher protection to ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) infected with
Pseudomonas plecoglossicida compared with treatment with a single bacteriophage.
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TABLE 6
Reported examples of bacteriophage therapy in fish and shrimp
Pathogen
Fish/Shrimp species
Route of
administration
Observed effect
Reference
Lactococcus
garvieae
Yellowtail (Seliora
quinqueradiata)
Oral
administration
Improved survival
on challenge
Nakai et al., 1999
Pseudomonas
plecoglossicida
Ayu (Plecoglossus
altivelis)
Oral
administration
Improved survival
on challenge
Park et al., 2000
Aeromonas
salmonicida
Brook trout
(Salvelinus
fontinalis)
Addition to tank
water
Reduction in A.
salmonicida in
water, improved
survival of fish
Imbeault et al.,
2006
Vibrio harveyi
Black Tiger
shrimp (Penaeus
monodon)
Addition to larval
rearing tank
water
Improved survival
of post-larvae
during a natural
outbreak
Vinod et al., 2006
Vibrio harveyi
biofilm
Black Tiger
shrimp (Penaeus
monodon)
Addition to water
Reduction in
bacterial density
in biofilm,
improved survival
of post-larvae
Karunasagar et
al., 2007
One of the concerns regarding the use of bacteriophage therapy has been
the possibility that certain phages may go into a lysogenic state and may be
involved in gene transfer. Virulence genes have been associated with lysogenic
bacteriophages. Bacteriophages against the shrimp pathogen V. harveyi may belong to
the family Siphoviridae or Myoviridae (Oakey and Owens, 2000, Shivu et al., 2007;
Crothers-Stomps et al., 2010). Generally members of Siphoviridae have been reported
to be lytic phages (Vinod et al., 2006; Shivu et al., 2007; Karunasagar et al., 2007;
Crothers-Stomps et al., 2010). A V. harveyi myovirus like phage (VHML) has been
reported to be temperate and confer virulence to the host strains (Pasarawipas et al.,
2005). Shivu et al. (2007) tested the host range of a collection of V. harveyi phages
against 180 isolates from different geographical regions. Three strains of siphoviridae
family were able to lyse 65–70 percent of the strains, indicating a broad host range.
Vinod et al. (2006) tested bacteriophage therapy of shrimp (P. monodon) larvae and
post-larvae in both laboratory microcosms as well as in hatcheries during a natural
outbreak of luminous bacteria disease. The bacteriophages were added to larval
tanks. In microcosms, larval survival was 25 percent in the control and 85 percent
with treatment. In hatchery trials, the survival was 86 percent with bacteriophages,
40 percent with antibiotics and 17 percent in controls (Vinod et al., 2006). Bacteriophage
treatment brought down counts of luminous bacteria in the tanks. In another hatchery
trial during a natural outbreak of luminous bacteria disease, 86–88 percent survival was
obtained with bacteriophage treatment compared with 65–68 percent with antibiotics
(Karunasagar et al., 2007). These studies show the potential for bacteriophages to be
effective alternatives to antibiotics in shrimp larval health management. Bacteriophages
used by Vinod et al. (2006) and Karunasagar et al. (2007) lacked the putative virulence
gene carried by VHML and hence the concern regarding carriage of virulence gene
would be minimal.
One of the problems in shrimp larval health management is the persistence
of V. harveyi in the hatchery environment, by forming a biofilm that is
resistant to antibiotic and sanitizer treatment (Karunasagar et al., 1996). The
ability of bacteriophages to bring about a 3 log reduction in biofilm cells of
V. harveyi on high density polyethylene (HDPE) surfaces was demonstrated by
Karunasagar et al., (2007). This provides an additional advantage for bacteriophages
in shrimp larval health management. However, considering that the host range for
selected phages was 65–70 percent, and also considering the possibility that bacterial
strains may develop resistance to bacteriophages, phage therapy with a consortium
of phages would be necessary to ensure effectiveness with unknown strains causing
disease outbreaks.
Minimising antimicrobial use in aquaculture and improving food safety
Biocontrol of pathogens using bacteriophages has already been commercialized in
agriculture, aquaculture and in the food industry. Agriphage is a commercial product
from OmniLytics Inc. to combat Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, which
causes bacterial spot disease in peppers and tomatoes, and Pseudomonas syringae
pv. tomato, which causes bacterial speck disease in tomatoes. It has been registered
by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 2005 (US Environmental
Protection Agency, 2010). OmnilLytics Inc. has also received US FDA approval for
use of bacteriophages against Escherichia coli and Salmonella in live animals before
slaughtering (Garcia et al., 2010). In 2007, the US FDA approved Listex P100 from
EBI Biosafety as GRAS (Generally Recognised As Safe) for use in all foods in which
Listeria could be a risk (EBI Food Safety, 2010). ListShield from Intralytix has
received US FDA and US EPA approval for use in ready-to-eat foods for control of
L. monocytogenes (Intralytix, 2010). In India, Mangalore Biotech Laboratory (2010)
has a commercial product for control of luminous bacteria in shrimp hatcheries.
Conclusions
Microbial diseases have been causing serious economic losses for the aquaculture
industry, but there is a need to minimize the use of antimicrobials in aquaculture
to avoid problems of residues and antibiotic resistance in food-associated bacteria.
A number of alternatives are available for managing the health of animals in
aquaculture systems. Implementation of good aquaculture practices would to a large
extent reduce the health risk for animals in aquaculture systems. Tools like vaccines,
immunostimulants and probiotics could be used for prevention of diseases depending
on aquaculture systems and the risks involved. Biocontrol agents like bacteriophages
could be used for both prevention as well as control in case of outbreaks. It could be
recommended that the farmers use a risk based approach and decide on appropriate
preventive or control strategies.
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135
Market based standards and
certification schemes in the
international seafood industry
Melanie Siggs
Prince’s Charities International Sustainability Unit
London, United Kingdom
A rough guide to Standards development
The business of Assurance and the desire to produce Standards is nothing new, but
the concept as we recognize it, as it relates to seafood in the current market, could
be traced back to the development of the Blue Angel logo in Germany in the early
1970s. The Blue Angel logo was a collaborative response, including the United Nations
Environment Programme, to the desire to note best environmental practice on a range
of goods and services (not foods).
Elsewhere in the world standards began to develop through different processes
and with different objectives and for specific markets and goods. The one common
objective may have been to assure customers of a certain set of criteria, and thus to
respond to market requirements. This allowed product differentiation, promotion of
character and credentials, and the building of brands promoting different customer
experiences. The development of standards eventually led to the need for Standards
for Standards – how could we know what is credible and what is not – how can we
have processes of Standards development through which stakeholders could engage or
challenge?
In the environmental and social standards arena the International Social and
Environmental Accreditation and Labelling (ISEAL) Alliance stepped to the fore.
The ISEAL Alliance is the global association for social and environmental
standards systems. ISEAL members are leaders in the field, committed to creating solid
and credible standards systems. Working with established and emerging voluntary
standards initiatives, ISEAL develops guidance and facilitates coordinated efforts to
ensure their effectiveness and credibility and scale up their impacts. ISEAL’s Codes
of Good Practice are international reference documents for credible social and
environmental standards. Compliance is a membership condition.
Within the seafood sector the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) is a member of
ISEAL, and the WWF Aquaculture Dialogues are Associate members, following the
Code of Conduct for their Dialogues. The Code is strong on stakeholder engagement,
comment processes and management of objections which, while being arguably
appropriate, has led to some criticism around its tendency to create a lengthy process
that is less able to nimbly respond to market needs.
The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) responded
to member requests to develop guidelines on what credible and appropriate standards
should look like and produced the FAO Guidelines for the Ecolabelling of Fish and
Fishery Products. The FAO Guidelines for the Certification of Aquaculture is nearing
completion. These complement the Guidelines for the Responsible Management of
Fisheries and likewise Shrimp Farming.
One of the problems of the FAO Guidelines is that people like the ‘brand’ of FAO
and use it to buy themselves credibility. Additionally the guidelines are not themselves
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standards, but are often communicated as such, and also while claims are made that
standards conform to FAO guidelines there is no audit process, so it is open to abuse.
These challenges are not the fault of FAO or the guidelines, but something that needs
to be addressed by the sector. It may be that all claims are valid, but some process of
validation seems appropriate.
Increasingly we are seeing the non-governmental organization (NGO) sector
‘judge’ what they deem to be appropriate, or not, in the business of assurance and
standards. This can be very effective in terms of being heard as this group has great
agency in the press, and often with consumers. Retailers themselves are creating their
own sets of standards, beyond their procurement policies. This is often to provide them
with a personal proposition or to fill a need in the market place for a standard not yet
developed. In many cases the retailers will engage with a respected NGO to develop
their standards.
Brand and Labels
A subject that is often overlooked is that of the brand and proposition of the standard
setter’s organisation. This may be less important in Business to Business operations,
but in Business to Consumer, i.e. where the label is likely to be put on a pack, then
selecting the standard/label can be a significant corporate decision.
• Is the proposition of the standard/label the same as our own?
• Is the label owner going to protect its brand and reputation, or potentially
damage mine?
• Is it ‘safe’ for me to partner with this brand?
• What will this brand say about me?
NGO endorsement can be a part of this brand positioning, but it is worth
remembering, for each party, that partnering brands can bring strength and
demonstration of behaviour, but it always carries risk.
At this juncture it is useful to clarify something that may well be very obvious but
causes much confusion through miscommunication: Standards and Certification are
not the same thing.
Most of the discussion is centred on the business of standards and standard
setting, while certification is the process of auditing to those standards. It is strongly
believed that the two bodies should not be housed under the same roof. There are, of
course, standards for the process of certification itself. The International Standards
Organisation (ISO) provide ISO 65. Additionally, most standard setters are non-profit
making organisations. The certification bodies are the organisations who are making
money from the process. Making money in itself is a necessity of the Western economic
model. However, it can be a barrier to poorer countries being able to participate in
audits. Further, it can drive better or worse standards of audit and these aspects of the
business of assurance need careful attention.
The main international seafood standards bodies today
Table 1 lays out those standard setting bodies that are active in the international
markets associated with European and US supply at the current time. It is interesting
to note that they do not all work to the same codes of standard setting or governance.
Market based standards and certification schemes in the international seafood industry
TABLE 1
Standard setting organisations in farmed and capture fisheries sectors
Farmed Fish
Organic Farmed Fish
Wild Caught Fish
Aquaculture Stewardship Council
/ WWF Dialogues
Soil Association
Marine Stewardship Council
Global Aquaculture Alliance
Naturland
International Fishmeal and Fish
Oil Organisation
Global Gap
Global Gap
Global Gap
Friends of the Sea
Friends of the Sea
Friends of the Sea
Agriculture Biologique
In farmed standards, salmon and shrimp are probably the two most “needed’
standards by the retail sector, with tilapia and striped catfish (Pangasius) being the next
most important. The need is being driven by consumption and markets. However, the
biggest controversy comes around the business of feedstuffs. There is no complete
answer at the current time. The International Fishmeal and Fish Oil Organisation
(IFFO) has developed a code for Responsible Fish Meal and Oil, while Friends of the
Sea have certified a number of forage fisheries. The world’s biggest fishery, Peruvian
anchoveta, is currently under assessment for certification to Marine Stewardship
Council (MSC) standards. However, there remain a number of ethical issues around
forage fisheries; should fish be fed to farmed species to create a higher value product,
mostly destined for Western markets? Or should that fish be sold locally for human
consumption? And should there be fishing from the bottom of the food chain in simple
ecosystems, such as, Antarctic krill? It is unlikely that such questions will be answered
to everyone’s satisfaction, but it is interesting to consider some different views to those
frequently heard, for example:
• Selling forage fisheries overseas; what are the positive effects on the economy
of a significant forage fisheries versus selling that fish in to domestic markets –
or whether it is a consumer issue, rather than a fisheries issue, to supply a
wealthy domestic market with nutritional supplements?
• Fishing of krill for rich Western markets; should those who oppose such
activity focus on the fishery or the market as a route to change?
• Whose responsibility is it to decide whether a fishery should have access to
certification?
The Big Picture
Already we have a sense of the complexity of the landscape of standards in the seafood
sector, but here’s the reality – people in the seafood sector see and hear all the noise
around these standards every day, because it is their business sector, but in the bigger
picture the industry is just one of many.
Consumers worldwide are faced with assurance propositions in every direction –
standards and claims around different products. This is particularly true in Europe
and North America, but increasingly elsewhere including in Asia’s growing consumer
market.
In the EU alone there are around 260 consumer-facing retail ecolabels covering
timber, eggs, meat, fruit, vegetables, organic produce, fair trade products, coffee, tea,
local and regional products, safe, healthy, brand propositions that look like labels and
labels that make propositions.
The retail food shelves are a complex mass of information and as consumers we
have to make some very quick calculations on what to purchase.
Value, quality, pack size, there are many contributing factors in making that
quick decision. If consumers are concerned with the provenance and ethics of their
product choice they may consider the pack claims or the labels, or they may ‘hand
over’ responsibility to the retailer, or chef. Alternatively, when faced with many labels,
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consumers may decide that any label will do; suggesting that an indication of intention
is good enough for now. So for the retailer or chef there is an opportunity to ensure
that their proposition persuades those who want to handover responsibility to trust in
their choices. For those who manage labels, there is an opportunity to create a brand
and proposition for the label that is easily recognizable and generally understood. So,
if there is concern about the credibility of those labels, if reassurance is needed that the
quality and depth of that proposition is meaningful, then the question is how to ensure
there is a framework for the creation of credible standards that lead to the label?
Commodity, process or issue labels
There is another layer of complexity that is often overlooked. This generic term,
ecolabels, covers a wide range of issues and concerns. Some labels address issues such as
social or animal welfare (RSPCA1, Freedom Food, Free Range produce), while others
may address production processes such as organic, or guaranteeing quality or safety.
Also, some labels, such as the Fairtrade label, may apply to a wide range of products,
which helps to raise recognition because of the frequency and range of use of the label,
while other labels address only one commodity, making recognition and understanding
harder to embed.
The MSC is the only assurance scheme seeking to set environmental standards for
a wild harvested food commodity i.e. for a management process and ecosystem impact
rather than a production process and environmental management.
If might be considered that, given the apparent complexity and breadth of the
assurance business, there is a need to keep the seafood propositions as simple and
consistent as possible to make it a clear, easily recognizable and understood option to
buy responsibly produced seafood.
The Next Generation of Assurance?
Layer and layer of complexity is added to this weighty landscape as new standards are
invented when people feel that what’s on offer doesn’t quite do what they want to say.
At the same time producers are facing increasing numbers of audits as buyers seek a
portfolio of assurances to meet different consumer concerns or to protect their own
reputation and positioning.
It is estimated to cost around US$20 million per year to run a robust international
standards operation (not including audit fees), so each time standards are developed or
redeveloped there is overlap that adds extra costs being added to the value chain.
Dr Alan Knight2, a global thought leader on the business of Standards remarks
“we have over 250 ecolabels and over 50 product stewardship bodies, the question is,
is this too many? If yes, how many do we need and what makes them all different and
needed? If no, how many more before there are too many? There needs to be a new
look at product stewardship”.
As such new conversations are considering what the future for assurance might look
like, and these conversations include challenging the scope of industry responsibility –
what should be included and how – carbon, water, energy?
Knight also suggests “As well as building schemes around specific product sectors
and issues, we should take a toolbox approach, assessing the issues where product
stewardship is part of the solution and designing the optimum portfolio of schemes
without unnecessary duplication or gaps. In other words, a tool box approach.
I suggest that there needs to be around 30 tools”.
For example, if we look at a region of ocean, we might be able to have some
collective assurance process that says “yes” the area is appropriately managed and
1
2
Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
www.dralanknight.com/my-papers
Market based standards and certification schemes in the international seafood industry
all boats reach minimum levels of health, safety, legality, etc. thus all fisheries in this
area reach level A. Individual fisheries might then elect to reach level B, they might
wish to differentiate and add value to their product and so on. Ways of adding value
might be around the (currently) less regulated areas such as energy or water usage or
Animal welfare. These ideas might start to build a cross product way of demonstrating
assurance that builds on areas of common audit and equivalence across different
commodity or propositional sectors, sharing costs and data, without using different
consumer facing labels.
In conversations on standards a common question is what do we mean by
”good” – what is good enough? Should the market decide that, or should NGOs
decide that, or should producers, or scientists, or consumers … that’s where the
stakeholder engagement and public consultation comes in, and likely there will need to
be a compromise; but as a starting point 3 tiers may be appropriate:
Good
The Law – Legislation and Government – not Bad;
Better
More than the Law and required governance;
Adding value through additional propositions;
Suits ‘choice editing’;
Best High end, niche markets, informed consumers, reinforcing specific brand and reputational propositions.
Noticing and pulling together on touch points across the ‘tool box’ and across
the Good/Better/Best could be a useful and cost saving exercise; working on areas of
equivalence, collaborative problem solving, sharing science, might all be smart ways
forward for global standard setters – and it should be remembered that this isn’t just
fish, this is across the portfolio.
Building on “good”, it is interesting to notice how this often become an
internality – good becomes the norm. Twenty years ago many people might not have
believed the level of nutritional information there is on a pack today, but it is there, so
why not also expect the same level of information for other issues such as sustainability
i.e. good becoming the norm?
The next tiers start to offer the differentiation. It may be worth asking at this point
if standard setters, B2B or B2C, are service providers, and not product producers in
their own right? This positioning and distinction between service providers, product
producer (label), NGO and position taker – may be very important to the bigger
strategic proposition.
Service Provider; provides a service that allows the investors in that value chain to
demonstrate their values and practices.
Product owner; may sit with the Service Provider role in offering a product which
has a brand value of its own which enhances that of the ‘purchasing’ organisation.
Organic labels might, for example, enhance the value proposition of the farmer or
retailer investing in them. In this case it will be important for the product owner,
which is likely to be a label, to manage the brand, reputation and awareness of its
product.
NGO and position taker; potentially a question that needs debating. Can a
standard setter, who manages and provides that set of standards, be an active NGO
and position taker in the community? How does that affect their role as a product
owner? How do they then find their scope of responsibility around their offering?
Something that feels important is to reposition the business of assurance and labels
as a positive. All too often they are talked about, certainly in the seafood industry, in
an apologetic way and used to defend production. It would be more productive to find
ways in which “good” is the norm, the governance level, while “better” standards are
positioned more positively and celebrate the achievements of the production investment.
Standards would no longer be used to defend, but to protect and demonstrate.
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Private standards or Government legislation?
An often contested subject is whether private standards or government legislation
work best in ensuring a responsible industry?
It could be argued that all governments have a responsibility to ensure good
practice with minimum negative environmental impact in the seafood sector, be that
fisheries or farms. If a government is brave enough, and has time, to create robust
legislation pertaining to management of fisheries and aquaculture it may be seen as the
beginning of norming the process. An example outside of seafood standards could be
European safety standards. Government regulation tends to opt for ensuring safe and
appropriate – the ‘not bad’ level and a danger is that it may be weakened to ensure
that the less capable parts of the industry are not economically marginalized. Further
the process may be clouded or stalled by other, non-related policies, economies or
elections, possibly even traded for other legislative matters.
Independent standard setters can have the advantage of being able to respond
more nimbly to markets, industry needs and changing landscapes. Further they might
have better prospects of longevity. Independent standard setters can also position their
offering related to the “good”, “better”, “best” propositions, and strategically and
positively work on reputational issues. However, all these positive opportunities are
likely to be quickly overshadowed if the standard setter’s governance or conduct is in
question.
Where do we go from here?
There are a number of conversations regarding the future for the business of assurance
in progress at the current time. Are standards driving positive change? What are
our expectations of the suite of standards available? Within the world of seafood in
particular there are challenges from science, and NGOs in particular, regarding how to
address these questions and what is an appropriate framework for the future? Can the
standard setters be seen as brand partners?
It is important to remember that seafood standards sit amongst a much wider
portfolio of consumer propositions. Whilst there is a real need to address the industry
challenges, it is probably important to do so in a way that still sits cohesively in the
bigger picture.
Perhaps it is time for the international standard setters to come together in a
collaborative fashion to agree on areas of equivalence, to notice gaps in the standards
offerings, to work on mutual positioning where it is appropriate and yet retain their
unique qualities and create a smart forum to explore development of the sector.
Perhaps it would be helpful for the retailers and processors to create a framework
that outlines their expectations of standard setters. The framework might suggest
which codes the standards must adhere to, the reputational management the standards
must work for and requirement that the standard setters must work together on areas
of equivalence and development.
Ultimately it might be that through a set of frameworks as described above a
mutual label of recognition for seafood might emerge – as per the pyramid model
shown in Figure 1. There are, of course, the challenges of retaining ‘market share’ and
identity.
This model might also enable one standard setter to offer two products, something
for regional/local markets, and something for international markets, but through one
process.
Market based standards and certification schemes in the international seafood industry
FIGURE 1
Where is the business of assurance heading?
There is much energy to find good, meaningful solutions that can benefit the
environment, the socio economic needs, and more. It is bound to be uncomfortable
sometimes, and there will not always be agreement immediately, but it is important that
all sectors of the community work collaboratively for a common cause; in protection
of the planet, communities, systems and good practice – and not in defence of a label.
A 2009 Ernst & Young report puts “Reputational Management” in the top ten
business risks for global business; Reputational risk is related to corporate governance,
business ethics and crisis management, and the time to develop plans and procedures is
not when the world is knocking at the door looking for answers.
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Education and training in seafood
science and technology
Murat O. Balaban
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering
University of Auckland
Auckland, New Zealand
Summary
Aquatic resources and seafood are a vital part of the economy, social life and tradition of
many coastal countries and communities. Because of the projected human population
increase to about 9 billion in 2050, and considering that the feed conversion ratio
(FCR) of aquatic foods is much less than that of land animals, aquatic foods promise
to deliver a significant portion of the future protein requirements more economically.
To prepare for this future requires an integrated approach to use the existing aquatic
resources optimally, and to develop new resources, mainly through aquaculture and to
drive in efficiencies through optimal processing. The requirements for the advances in
knowledge in this area, the needs of the industry to hire knowledgeable and trained
workers in new areas and to replace existing workers lost through attrition in existing
areas, and the need to provide well trained regulatory and political decision makers
demands that the training and education in Seafood Science and Technology (SST)
should be emphasised, developed, and coordinated.
Importance of Aquatic Resources in the World
The world population is projected to grow from 6.1 billion in 2000 to 8.9 billion
(medium estimate) in 2050 (Figure 1), increasing by 47 percent (United Nations, 2004).
The high estimate is 10.6 billion by 2050. The low estimate predicts a population crash
that may stabilize at 2 billion in 2300 (not shown in the figure).
The protein requirements of the human population are also increasing dramatically.
Aquatic foods constitute a significant portion of the protein supply in the world
(Figure 2).
The FCR is an important consideration in animal protein production. Animals
that have a low FCR are considered efficient users of feed. Sheep and cattle need more
than 8 kg of feed to put on 1 kg of live weight. The US pork industry claims to have
an FCR of 3.4–3.6. Poultry has a feed conversion ratio of 2 to 4. Farm raised Atlantic
salmon has a very good FCR, about 1.2, and tilapia, typically, 1.6 to 1.8 (Steinfeld et al.,
2006). Therefore, as resources become scarce and competition for resources increases,
it is more sustainable to rely on aquatic resources for animal protein requirements of
the growing world population.
In the last 30 years, world seafood production from aquaculture has expanded
rapidly and now supplies about half of world seafood demand (FAO, 2008) (Figure 3).
The aquaculture of tilapia alone (a freshwater, herbivorous fish) in China yielded
1 million metric tonnes in 2005. The upward trend in aquaculture production is
expected to continue. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
estimated that an additional 40 million tonnes of aquatic food will be required by 2030
over and above the 2005 worldwide consumption of 105.5 million tonnes (FAO, 2008).
FAO projects that most of this increase will be supplied by aquaculture. Even if wild
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
stocks are managed at sustainable levels, they will be unable to meet the increasing
worldwide demand for seafood (FAO, 2008; The World Bank 2007).
Figure 1
Projected world population growth
Source: United Nations, 2004.
Figure 2
Comparison of protein supply: aquatic foods versus beef and veal
Source: Compiled by Earth Policy Institute from FAO, 1948-1985 World Crop and Livestock Statistics. Rome, 1987;
FAO, FAOSTAT Statistics Database, at apps.fao.org, updated 24 May 2004; FAO, FISHSTAT Plus, electronic database,
viewed 13 August 2004.
Education and traning in seafood science and technology
Figure 3
Total fisheries production from capture fisheries and aquaculture
Education needs in Seafood Science and Technology
Increasingly, knowledge and know-how are becoming critical for success in any area in
general, and in Seafood Science and Technology (SST) in particular.
Education, training, and continuous updating of information are the keys
to provide qualified and capable workers and management for the industry as
well as know-how and industrial experience, educators capable of research and
generation of new knowledge and innovation in academia, and knowledgeable and
forward-looking regulators and political leaders. Finally, consumers need to be
knowledgeable and educated to make the proper personal and public choices. The
unique properties, supply forms, demand and culture of aquatic foods requires
some specialization. For other commodities, this is also the case. For example,
milk and milk products require a specialization focused in the dairy area. In the
United States, the per capita consumption of dairy foods is 250 kg/yr. There
are several Dairy Science Departments in universities in the United States. Red
meat per capita consumption is 43.8 kg/yr, and there are Meat Science/Animal
Science Departments in several universities. Similarly, the per capita consumption
of chickens and ducks amounts to about 50 kg/yr, and there are Poultry Science
Departments. The per capita consumption of wine in the United States is about
7.7 litres/yr which amounts to about 8 kg. There are Enology Departments in
various universities. Aquatic foods in the United States are consumed at about
8 kg/person/yr. However, there is no Seafood Science and Technology Department
in the United States. Furthermore, the topic of SST is not covered in Fisheries and
Aquaculture Departments, and in Food Science Departments there may be one of two
courses offered for SST.
If aquatic foods are important now, and are to become even more important in
the future, the question that needs to be answered is the following: “Where will the
qualified workers, researchers and leaders in SST come from? Who will replace the
current people in SST? Where is the pipeline?”
The pipeline concept is important, because in the United States, even in
communities where aquatic foods contribute significantly to the economy and culture,
working in this area is not considered as “glamorous” by young people, and therefore
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is not targeted as a career. Therefore, the continuum from middle school to PhD needs
to be considered (see Appendix 1).
Figure 4
Requirements for education and training for seafood science and technology industry needs
The requirements for the industry regarding qualified people and educational
levels are shown in Figure 4.
Typically, “research” universities concentrate on the top part of this pyramid, with
the goal of producing PhDs. Generally, undergraduate education, or “skills training” is
not a high priority in these universities. This type of training is expected to come from,
for example, 2 year colleges (or community colleges). However, curricula targeting SST
is either very scarce or non-existent in the United States at this level as well.
Stakeholder surveys
A flexible and multi-tier education and training system requires close interaction with
stakeholders and feedback regarding the “quality and efficacy” of education. This can
be achieved by conducting periodic surveys regarding educational requirements of
the stakeholders (industry, academia, and regulatory agencies), follow-up interviews
with graduates, alumni and their employers, and by periodic regional and international
meetings to assess changing educational and training needs.
In 2009, a survey was conducted in Alaska to assess the educational needs and
perspectives of the SST sector. This was done during two professional meetings by
questionnaires. The summary of the results are shown in Tables 1 and 2.
Table 1
Industry survey regarding SST education. N=70. Question: “What level of Seafood Science and
Technology education is required by your business/community? Check all that apply”
Response (%)
Education level
16
No high school diploma or GED
18
High school diploma or GED
13
One-year certificate given by community college
17
Two-years community college degree (e.g. A.A., or A.S, or A.A.S.
23
Four-years university undergraduate degree (e.g. B.A. or B.S.)
13
University graduate degree (M.Sc. or Ph.D.)
Education and traning in seafood science and technology
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Table 2
Industry survey (2009): Summary of the relative importance of knowledge areas in SST and the
expected institutions to deliver the education
Seafood Chemistry
Seafood Microbiology
Seafood Processing
Inter / national Regulation
HACCP
Seafood Marketing
Seafood Economics
High
Medium
Low
High school
10
12
15
Community college
16
18
5
University
31
10
1
15
High school
11
12
Community college
18
18
3
University
31
10
2
16
High school
8
14
Community college
17
18
3
University
25
13
3
22
High school
4
10
Community college
13
20
7
University
26
12
2
15
High school
9
12
Community college
28
9
5
University
35
4
2
21
High school
4
14
Community college
13
24
4
University
24
16
4
19
High school
4
15
Community college
12
22
5
University
27
13
3
There are interesting results displayed in Table 1. About 47 percent of the jobs did
not require a college education. This needs to be understood by academia. In fact, only
about 13 percent of the jobs required an advanced degree (MSc. or PhD.). The question
that emerges then is who will supply the education and training for the levels that are
considered as adequate by the industry?
In Table 2, a significant number of the people surveyed were of the opinion that
community colleges could deliver the level of education and training in many areas of
SST, although for every area, university training received the highest response.
These types of surveys need to be performed periodically by educational
institutions to adjust their training to the requirements of the “real world”. Without
this interaction, the curricula become irrelevant.
Curriculum contents at various levels
By its nature, SST requires many fields from various disciplines. These include biology
(aquaculture), ecology (sustainability), fishing related (gear, methods), food science
(safety, nutritional quality), processing and preserving (efficient resource utilization),
economics (management of business, people, projects, resources), and international
regulations. This makes it challenging to develop a curriculum to cover most of these
subjects, yet go into some depth in them in the limited time available.
Some examples will be given from different institutions that specialize in SST
education.
SST education in Turkey
Despite that the total aquatic resources are a fraction of the United States production,
there are many universities in Turkey that have formal undergraduate and graduate
education in the area of SST (Figure 5).
Aquaculture is an area that is rapidly increasing both in size and in capability
in Turkey. Ege University in Izmir, on the Western shore of Turkey, has both
undergraduate and graduate education in the area of fisheries in general, and aquatic
foods processing in particular. In Appendix 2, the curriculum of a 4 year undergraduate
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
degree is provided. During the first three years, students take common courses. In the
fourth year, allowance is made for a specialization into one of three sub-topics: Marine
and Freshwater Science and Technology, Fisheries and Seafood Processing Technology,
and Aquaculture. It is interesting to see the diversity of the courses taken during the
first three years, from basic sciences to engineering mechanics to navigation to coastal
zone management. This is quite different from the traditional fisheries curricula
available in the United States.
Figure 5
Location of universities in Turkey that have formal SST education
SST education in Taiwan
Another example of a formal tertiary level education in SST is from Taiwan. The
nation has a Marine University and a Department of Seafood in this university.
In Appendix 3, the curricula for both an undergraduate degree and a Master’s degree
are provided.
Fisheries training at the United Nations University
Finally, a 6 month course in Fisheries Training is offered by the United Nations
University, and is held in Iceland. The brief contents are given in Appendix 4. It is
interesting to note the breadth of the curriculum, from aquaculture to fisheries policy.
This demonstrates the multi-disciplinary nature of the SST field.
Education in the new era
With the increasing breadth of the subjects and the multi-disciplinary nature of SST,
with the increasing internationalization of the seafood trade, and with increasing
pressures placed on both capture fisheries and on aquaculture, the educational needs of
the near future will not be the same as that of the past.
New generation of students
How do you attract the best and the brightest students to SST? Why not medicine and
law? Why should a top-tier student select SST as a career? This can be accomplished by
introducing the SST area to the student as early as possible (maybe in middle school),
and keep emphasizing the positive, exciting and real nature of SST throughout the
student’s educational life. This requires courses, materials and access to SST at many
levels and throughout the year. At the same time, with increasing automation and
emphasis on technology, uniform quality and safety, a typical career in SST will be
Education and traning in seafood science and technology
elevated from the “slime line”, where people cut fish all day, into one where automated
machines are designed, built, maintained and operated.
The new generation of students is also “born with electronic equipment”. It is
natural for them to “play with” cell phones, IPods, computers, etc. They are much
more tech-savvy than the last generation. This lends itself well to the concept of
“student-centric education”, where the mode of learning is not for a student to sit
passively in class and have the material delivered to him/her, but to actively learn
himself/herself at his/her own pace, at a time chosen by him/her. The new generation
may therefore be more amenable to benefit from distance learning, web-based
content, asynchronous education, and more reliance on technology in the delivery of
information and training.
Finally, with more coordination and international cooperation, the
internationalisation of the curriculum may be closer to reality. A good example of
this is the European Masters in Food Engineering. Students spend a semester each in
several countries, in a university with expertise in a given area, e.g. refrigeration or heat
transfer. While visiting the country, they also have extensive visits to food plants and
companies, and interact with the faculty and students in the host university. They then
return to their home institution to perform their research, and graduate with a diploma
of European Masters in Food Engineering. A similar model could be adapted to the
SST education. For example, students from South and Central American countries
could earn their advanced degree in SST by taking courses from several universities in
different countries. The same could be done for Southeast Asian countries.
Finally, with the leadership of, for example FAO, a wiki-type content bank
could be developed in many fields of SST, and made available worldwide. This may
be designed as a multi-level set of courses, going from short and simple courses to
semester-long and in-depth courses. The advantage of this approach would be to
use the best expertise in any given area worldwide, and therefore have overall course
material of a quality that cannot be achieved by one institution alone.
The advantage of this flexible approach is to be able to address the emerging
issues in a timely manner. For example, traceability, allergens, energy requirements for
capture, aquaculture and processing operations, and supply chain globalization can be
addressed, and knowledge and content can be rapidly updated as more becomes known
in a particular area.
Recommendations
In the United States:
• Develop a formal and comprehensive SST curriculum from K–12 to PhD. For
this, a national summit needs to be convened for SST.
• Strengthen cooperation with stakeholders. With the leadership of, for example
USDA, develop methods and mechanisms for easy, continuous and meaningful
contact among stakeholders in the SST area.
• Develop innovative, flexible, technology-based content and materials.
• Develop international/regional linkages and cooperation for a more
international curriculum.
References
Brown, L., Hindmarsh, R. & Mcgregor, R. 2001. Dynamic Agriculture, Book Three.
2nd edition. Sydney, Australia, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
FAO. 2008. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture, 2008. Rome, FAO. 176 pp.
Steinfeld, H., Gerber, P., Wassenaar, T., Castel, V., Rosales, M. & de Haan, C. 2006.
Livestock’s long shadow. Environmental issues and options [online]. Rome, FAO. [Cited
August 2010]. ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/a0701e/a0701e00.pdf.
United Nations. 2004. World population to 2300. ST/ESA/SER.A/236. New York, USA,
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division.
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Appendices
Appendix 1. Proposed curricula at different levels in the education continuum
1) K–12 Courses in SST
–– The seafood we eat. An integrated view of the ecosystem approach to the
aquatic resources, with human impact. The importance of seafood in the
diet: proteins and omega-3 fatty acids. Safety of seafoods. International
perspectives.
–– Visits to hatcheries
–– Visits to aquaculture facilities
–– Visits to fishing boats
–– Visits to seafood processing plants
–– Visits to supermarket seafood sections, and other aquatic resource areas
–– Summer internships in seafood companies
–– Development of course materials (text-based and Web-based), videos, and
testing tools.
–– Elementary, middle and high school teacher education programs
2) Two Year College Courses in SST
–– Refrigeration systems
–– Marine engines
–– Economics of fishing
–– Seafood marketing
–– Aquaculture/hatchery operations
–– Preservation of seafood (canning, freezing, smoking, drying, etc.)
–– Value added seafood products (roe, by-products, fish oils, fish feed, skins, etc.)
–– HACCP and safety of seafood
–– National and International regulations
3) Undergraduate Courses in SST
–– Introduction to Aquatic Resources Utilization
–– International Seafood Marketing Systems
–– Vertical integration of production, processing and marketing systems
–– Seafood biochemistry and quality
–– Seafood Processing and Preservation 1
–– Seafood Processing and Preservation 2
–– Seafood Composition and Analysis
–– Internship, in Plants, NGOs
–– Seafood microbiology
–– National and International regulations
4) Graduate Courses in SST
–– Advanced seafood chemistry
–– Advanced by-product value-adding
–– Advanced processing technologies
–– Advanced seafood microbiology
–– Advanced international seafood economics and marketing
–– Advanced techniques of sensory and instrumental quality evaluation
Education and traning in seafood science and technology
5) Continuing Education/Short Courses
The list can be very extensive, spanning the range from skills improvement
(e.g. refrigeration systems) to economic strengthening (e.g. direct marketing) to
HACCP regulations.
6) Local Collaboration Networks
Institutions (educational, regulatory, and industrial/professional) should form
networks with the purpose of communication, collaboration, and planning. There can
be periodic reviews of curricula, advertisement of positions, needs assessment for the
sector, and political support. Distance delivery of seafood related information, as well
as workforce development can be addressed within these networks.
7) National Collaboration Network in the U.S.
Universities
Sea Grant
NOAA/NMFS
USDA/FDA
Seafood NGOs (e.g. NFI, ASMI, AFDF, Seafood Products Association, Pacific
Seafood Processors Association)
Seafood Companies
8) International Collaboration Network
A successful model of international cooperation in university education is the
“European Masters” program in Food Engineering. Students from the European
Union visit different universities every semester, and benefit from the expertise of that
institution in a particular area. They complete their research in their home institutions
during the last two semesters.
In the SST curriculum, FAO, European Union, Norway, Iceland, Japan, China,
Chile, Brazil, etc. can be included, in a gradual fashion, and depending on the needs for
integration within a sub-category such as warm water shellfish.
–– Course equivalencies
–– Student exchange
–– Faculty exchange
–– Research cooperation
–– Distance education
–– Yearly teacher education meetings
–– Periodic conferences
151
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
Appendix 2. Example undergraduate curriculum from Ege University, Izmir,
Turkey. Curriculum for fisheries courses. The first three years are common.
The fourth year allows for specialization. The seafood processing option is
shown here for the 4th year.
www.erasmus.ege.edu.tr/dersListele.php?lang=en&birimKod=7
FACULTY OF FISHERIES COURSE STRUCTURE
Total hours per Week
Code
Course Name
Lecture
Practical
Classes
Lab
Work
ECTS
Credits
Type of
Course
Year 1
Semester 1
101
Turkish Language
2
0
0
2
Required
102
Principles of Atatürk, Recent Turkish
History I
2
0
0
2
Required
106
Chemistry
2
0
2
4
Required
107
Physics
2
0
0
3
Required
108
Mathematics
2
0
0
3
Required
112
Biology (Botany)
2
0
1
3
Required
116
Technical Drawing
1
2
0
2
Required
119
Oceanography
2
0
0
3
Required
128
Introduction to Computer–I
2
2
0
3
Required
135
General Fishing Technique
2
0
0
3
Required
137
Marine Meteorology
2
0
0
2
Required
Total
30
Year 1
Semester 2
114
Mathematics II
1
0
0
2
Required
120
Biology (Zoology)
2
0
2
3
Required
122
Limnology
2
0
2
3
Required
124
Diving Techniques and First Aid
1
2
0
3
Required
125
General Economy
2
0
0
3
Required
129
Introduction to Computer–II
2
2
0
3
Required
134
Materials Science
1
2
0
3
Required
136
Basic Principles of Aquaculture
2
0
0
3
Required
138
Ecology
2
2
0
3
Required
92
Turkish Language
2
0
0
2
Required
94
Principles of Atatürk and Recent Turkish
History II
2
0
0
2
Required
Total
30
Year 2
Semester 1
207
Statistics
2
0
0
4
Required
211
Genetic
2
0
0
3
Required
239
Fish Morphology and Anatomy
2
2
0
4
Required
240
General Microbiology
2
2
0
4
Required
244
Maritime Law
1
0
0
2
Required
245
Engineering Mechanics and Structural
Analysis
2
2
0
4
Required
246
Measurement Science
2
0
0
3
Required
248
Aquatic Invertebrates
2
2
0
3
Required
259
Reading in Foreign Language
1
0
0
1
Required
261
Professional Technical English–I
2
0
0
2
Required
Total
30
Education and traning in seafood science and technology
153
Year 2
Semester 2
249
Navigation
2
1
0
3
Required
250
Marine Biology
2
0
0
3
Required
251
Nutritional Biochemistry
2
0
1
4
Required
253
Fishing Equipment and Gears
2
0
1
3
Required
254
Water Quality
1
0
2
3
Required
255
Fisheries Law
1
0
0
2
Required
256
Marine Fishes
2
0
1
4
Required
257
Planktonology
2
1
0
3
Required
258
Fluid Mechanics
2
0
0
3
Required
260
Professional Technical English–II
2
0
0
2
Required
Total
30
Year 3
Semester 1
301
Fishing Vessels
2
1
0
3.5
Required
303
Seafood Chemistry I
2
0
1
3.5
Required
305
Aquarium Technology
2
1
0
3.5
Required
307
Electricity and Electronics
2
0
0
3
Required
309
Business Economics
2
0
0
3
Required
311
Inland-water Fishes
2
0
1
3.5
Required
313
Seafood Processing Technology–I
2
0
1
3.5
Required
315
Freshwater Fish Culture
2
0
1
3.5
Required
317
Coastal Zone Usage and Management
2
0
0
3
Required
Total
30
Year 3
Semester 2
302
Fishing Net Making and Design
Techniques
2
1
0
3
Required
304
Invertebrate Culture
2
0
1
3.5
Required
306
Plankton Culture
2
0
1
3
Required
308
Fish Feeds and Fish Feed Technology
2
0
1
3
Required
310
Marine Fish Culture
2
0
1
3.5
Required
312
Project Techniques
2
1
0
3.5
Required
314
Seafood Microbiology–I
2
0
1
3
Required
316
Fish Diseases
2
0
1
3.5
Required
318
Fish Physiology
2
0
0
3
Required
319
Practice
0
0
0
0
Required
320
Foreign Language for Occupational Life
1
0
0
1
Required
Total
Year 4
30
Semester 1
Marine and Freshwater Sciences and Technology Programme – Autumn
30
Option
Fisheries and Seafood Processing Technology Programme – Autumn
30
Option
Aquaculture Programme – Autumn
30
Option
30
Total
Fisheries and Seafood Processing Technology Programme OPTION – AUTUMN
03435
Fish Catching Methods
2
1
0
4
Required
03437
Seafood Processing Technology–II
2
0
1
4
Required
03439
Fishing Mechanization
2
1
0
4
Required
03441
Thesis
0
4
0
8
Required
03442
Seafood Microbiology–I
2
0
1
3
Elective
03443
Project Preparation Technique in
Fisheries
2
1
0
3
Elective
03445
Fisheries Oceanography
2
1
0
3
Elective
03447
Seamanship
2
1
0
3
Elective
03449
Safety at Sea/on Board
2
1
0
3
Elective
03451
Cold Storage in Fisheries Products
2
1
0
3
Elective
03455
Processing Technology of Aquatic Plants
2
0
1
4
Elective
03459
Fisheries Economics
2
0
0
3
Elective
03463
Sports Fishing
2
1
0
3
Elective
03465
Population Dynamics in Fisheries–I
2
1
0
3
Required
03467
Modelling and Monitoring of Fishing
2
1
0
3
Elective
03461
Fishing Operations and Management
2
1
0
3
Elective
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
Year 4
Semester 2
Marine and Freshwater Sciences and Technology Programme – Spring
30
Option
Fisheries and Seafood Processing Technology Programme – Spring
30
Option
Aquaculture Programme – Spring
30
Option
Total
30
Fisheries and Seafood Processing Technology Programme OPTION – SPRING
03434
Quality Control of Seafood
2
1
0
3
Required
03436
Fisheries Engineering
2
1
0
3
Required
03438
Fish Behaviour
2
0
0
3
Required
03440
Coastal Fisheries Management
2
1
0
3
Required
03444
Packaging Technique in Fisheries
Products
2
0
0
3
Elective
03446
Artificial Reef Applications in Fisheries
2
1
0
3
Elective
03448
Live Fish Capture and Transportation
2
1
0
4
Elective
03450
Communication at Sea
2
1
0
3
Elective
03452
Population Dynamics in Fisheries–II
2
1
0
3
Elective
03453
Seafood Chemistry–II
2
0
1
4
Elective
03454
Storage of Cargoes
2
0
0
2
Elective
03456
Computer Usage in Fishing Gear Design
2
0
0
2
Elective
03457
Scuba Diving
2
1
0
4
Elective
03458
Population Genetics in Fisheries
2
0
0
3
Elective
03462
By Product Technology in Fisheries
2
1
0
3
Elective
03464
Tuna Fishing and Technology
2
1
0
3
Elective
Education and traning in seafood science and technology
155
Appendix 3. National Kaohsiung Marine University, Department of Seafood
Science, Taiwan. Both the undergraduate and the Master’s degree courses
are given.
Undergraduate Course
April, 2004 revised
1st Year
1st Semester
2nd Semester
Required/
Optional
Subject
Credit
Required/
Optional
Subject
Required
Biology
2
Required
Organic Chemistry
2
Required
Chemistry
3
Required
The Experiment of Physics
1
Required
The Experiment of
Chemistry
1
Required
Physics
3
Required
Physics
3
Required
The Experiment of
Chemistry
1
Required
Calculus
1
Required
Optional
Introduction on
Fisheries
2
Optional
Basic Economics
2
Optional
The Experiment of
Biology
1
Optional
Total Credits for Required Subjects: 10
Credit
Total Credits for Required Subjects: 7
2nd Year
1st Semester
2nd Semester
Required/
Optional
Subject
Credit
Required/
Optional
Subject
Required
Required
Organic Chemistry
2
Required
Microbiology
3
Analytical
Chemistry
2
Required
The Experiment of
Microbiology
1
Required
Analytical
Chemistry
Laboratory
1
Required
Analytical Chemistry
2
Required
Biostatistics
2
Required
Analytical Chemistry
Laboratory
1
Required
Food Processing(1)
2
Required
Biochemistry
3
Required
Experiment in
Food Processing(1)
1
Required
Biostatistics
2
Required
Food Processing(2)
2
Required
Experiment in Food
Processing(2)
1
Optional
Principles and Practice of
Electrical Engineering
2
Optional
Business
Administration
Total Credits for Required Subjects: 10
2
Total Credits for Required Subjects: 15
Credit
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
3rd Year
1st Semester
2nd Semester
Required/
Optional
Subject
Credit
Required/
Optional
Subject
Required
Required
Microbiology
3
Required
Food chemistry
2
The Experiment of
Microbiology
1
Required
Nutrition
2
Required
Biochemistry
3
Required
Science of Food
Refrigeration
3
Required
Biochemistry
Laboratory
1
Required
Food Engineering
3
Required
Food chemistry
2
Required
Food Analysis, Inspection
and Experiment
1
Required
Quality Control
2
Required
Freeze Engineering
3
Required
Fish Processing
Technology
2
Required
Seafood
Manufacture
Practice
1
Required
Food Sanitation
and Law
2
Optional
Food Microbiology
3
Total Credits for Required Subjects: 20
Credit
Optional
Instrumental Analysis
2
Optional
Diet Therapy
3
Optional
Food Additives
2
Optional
Experiments
1
Optional
Food Microbiology
Experiment
1
Total Credits for Required Subjects: 11
4th Year
1st Semester
2nd Semester
Required/
Optional
Subject
Credit
Required/
Optional
Subject
Required
Required
Fisheries Chemistry
3
Required
Food Sanitation and Law
2
Introduction of
Molecular Biology
2
Required
Seminar
2
Required
Seminar
2
Required
Factory Management
2
Optional
Nutrition of Life
Cycle
2
Optional
Toxicology
2
Optional
The New Products
Development
2
Optional
Introduction Life Science
2
Optional
Supermarket
operation and
Management
2
Optional
Nutrition Physiology
2
Optional
Meat, Dairy and
Egg processing
Technology
2
Optional
Introductory Immunology
2
Optional
Biotechnology
Optional
Food and Beverage
Management
2
Total Credits for Required Subjects: 9
Total Credits for Required Subjects: 6
(1) The required for graduation shall be at least 85 credits except the Dissertation subject.
Credit
Education and traning in seafood science and technology
157
Master Degree Course
October, 2005 revised
Required
Subject
Optional
Credit
Subject
Credit
Seminar
4
Topic in Seafood Science
2
Master Thesis
6
Topic in Protein Chemistry
2
Topic in Molecular Carbohydrate Biology
2
Topic in Lipid Chemistry
2
Topic in Flavour Chemistry
2
Marine Natural Product Chemistry
2
Topic in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
2
Enzyme Chemistry
2
Seafood Toxicology
2
Topic in Seafood Biotechnology
2
Instrumental Analysis and Experiment
2
Topic in Science of Food Refrigeration
2
Advanced Food Chemistry
2
Topic in Rapid Analysis of Food Microbiology
2
High Pressured Food
2
Experimental Designs
2
Cellular Biology
2
Bioinformatics
2
Chemical Carcinogenesis
2
Topic in Food Processing
2
Methodology for Food Science Research
2
Total Credits for Required Subjects: 10
Total Credits for Required Subjects: 2
Appendix 4. United Nations University – Fisheries Training Programme in
Iceland. Structure of 6 month training programme.
Orientation (1 week)
Introductory Course (5 weeks)
Fellows should gain a holistic view of fisheries and be able to put their own fisheries into an international
and / or regional perspective
Management
Sustainable
Fishing
Quality
Resource
Fisheries
of Fisheries
Aquaculture
Technology
Management
Assessment
Planning and
Companies
(6 weeks)
(6 weeks)
of Fish
(6 weeks)
Policy
(6 weeks)
Handling and
(6 weeks)
Processing
(6 weeks)
Operational
Aquaculture
Fishing
Fish processing
Fish biology
Resource
planning
systems
methods
economics
HACCP
Biological
Strategic
Aquaculture
Fish behaviour
indicators
Project
Storage /
planning
research
planning
Gear design
shelf–life
Sampling
Business
Site selection
strategy
Policy
Gear material
Quality
planning
formulation
Species
indicators
Survey design
Gear
Human
selection
Management
selectivity
Sanitation
Environmental
resources
systems
EIA
aspects of
Gear research
Traceability
Raw materials
fisheries
Planning and
Vessel
Packaging
Economic
monitoring
Assessment
structure
analysis
models
Product
Operational
development
Accounting
aspects
Data poor
situations
Fleet
management
Precautionary
approach
Catch rules
Project Proposal

Research Project – Final Report and Presentation (14 weeks)
Must address important issues in Fellows home country
159
European Union regulations
governing fish and fishery
products
Alan Reilly and Anne-Marie Boland
Food Safety Authority of Ireland
Dublin, Ireland
Introduction
Following the publication of the EC White paper on Food Safety in 2000 and the
subsequent review of the European food hygiene regulations, new rules came into
force in 2006 that were accompanied by Regulations on the organisation of official food
controls. The approach taken in the legislation is to separate aspects of food hygiene
from animal health and it aims to remove any duplication and inconsistencies that
could cause difficulties both for businesses and regulatory authorities. The legislation
focuses on the need to protect public health in a way that is effective, proportionate
and based on risk.
A key aspect of the legislation is that all food and feed business operators, from
farmers and processors to retailers and caterers, have principal responsibility for
ensuring that food placed on the European Union (EU) market meets the required
food safety standards. The Regulations apply at every stage in the food chain, including
primary production (i.e. farming, fishing and aquaculture) in line with the “farm to
fork” approach to food safety in the EU. The Regulations apply to food businesses
that catch and farm fish and crustaceans, that farm and handle live bivalve molluscs and
those handling and processing fish and fishery products. The responsibilities of food
business operators are clearly set out in the Regulations, which also require appropriate
own-checks to be carried out and include the taking of samples by industry to ensure
the marketing of safe fishery products. The Regulations also include provisions
for guides to good practice to be developed by industry with support from other
stakeholders. The legislation applies directly to food businesses and the affect the
legislation will have depends on the size and nature of the business.
The Food Hygiene Regulations constitute a complementary set of rules to
harmonise EU food safety measures. They are a suite of several Regulations including
Regulation EC/852/2004, which lays down the general hygiene requirements for all
food business operators and Regulation EC/853/2004, which lays down additional
specific requirements for food businesses dealing with foods of animal origin, including
live bivalve molluscs and fishery products. Regulation EC/854/2004 lays down the
official controls for foods of animal origin. The basis for the Regulations is set down
by the General Food Law Regulation EC/178/2002, which provides a framework to
ensure a coherent approach in the development of food legislation. The General Food
Law Regulation set down definitions, principles and obligations covering all stages of
food and feed production and distribution. Other related recent legislation includes the
Regulation on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, the Regulation on official feed
and food controls and the Regulation on feed hygiene.
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
Exporting Fish and Fishery Products to the European Union
Market
For all food and feed, including fish and fishery products, the general principle is
that the product meets or is equivalent to EU standards. In addition, under current
arrangements, in order to export products of animal origin to the EU, the country
must be approved for the relevant commodity and the products must originate in an
establishment that is approved to export to the EU. Lists are maintained at EU level
of countries and establishments from which imports are permitted. Countries and
establishments approved in this manner are commonly referred to as “listed”. In order
to be listed, the third country concerned must provide guarantees that exports to the
EU meet, or are equivalent to, the standards prescribed in the relevant EU legislation.
All consignments of live animals and products of animal origin introduced into
the territory of the EU must be presented at an EU approved border inspection post
(BIP) to undergo mandatory veterinary checks and must be accompanied by a health
certificate.
Food Business Registration and Approval
Under the current legislation, primary producers involved in fishing and aquaculture
must be registered with the national competent authority as food business operators.
Operators will need to register before starting at a new location and will also need
to inform the competent authority of the nature of their business. Furthermore,
establishments must be approved if they handle products of animal origin for which
specific hygiene conditions are laid down in EU legislation. This includes those
handling live bivalve molluscs and fishery products. Premises in compliance with
the new regulations should be issued an approval number that must accompany all
shipment documentation.
Identification Marking and Labelling
A food business must apply its identification mark before the product leaves the
establishment of production. This mark must be legible, indelible and clearly visible
for inspection. It must show the name or two letter code of the country (for example
IE for Ireland) and the approval number of the premises.
Primary Production
The farm-to-fork approach of EU legislation embraces primary production and the
general principles of food hygiene legislation now extend to all operations engaged in
the primary production of food.
‘Primary production’ is defined as the production, rearing or growing of primary
products up to and including harvesting, hunting, fishing, milking and all stages of
animal production prior to slaughter. Fish and shellfish farmers are primary producers
and are required to follow good farming practices and manage their operations as set
out in Annex 1 of Regulation EC/852/2004. Primary producers are not required to
implement a HACCP system.
In practical terms, the requirements for primary producers amount to the
application of good standards of basic hygiene. Primary producers must ensure that
hazards are acceptably controlled and that they comply with existing legislation. Under
the new rules, primary producers need to take steps, for example, to:
• prevent contamination arising from water, soil, feed, veterinary products,
waste, etc;
• keep animals (fish) intended to be placed on the market for human consumption
clean;
• take account of results from tests relevant to animal and human health;
• use medicines appropriately.
European Union regulations governing fish and fishery products
The requirements for food business operators in Annex 1 of Regulation
EC/852/2004 also apply to certain associated activities that include:
• the transport, handling and storage of primary products at the place of
production, where their nature has not been substantially altered;
• the transport of live animals, where this is necessary;
• transport, from the place of production to an establishment, of products of
plant origin, fishery products and wild game, where their nature has not been
substantially altered.
General Requirements for Food Business Operators
Food business operators, such as fish processors and manufacturers, carrying out
activities other than primary production have to comply with the general hygiene
provisions of Annex II of Regulation EC/852/2004. This Annex sets out the details for
the hygiene requirements for:
• food premises, including outside areas and sites;
• transport conditions;
• equipment;
• food waste;
• water supply;
• personal hygiene of persons in contact with food;
• food;
• wrapping and packaging;
• heat treatment, which may be used to process certain foodstuffs;
• training of food workers.
Requirements for Live Bivalve Molluscs and Fishery Products
Food business operators making or handling products of animal origin must also
comply with the provisions of Regulation EC/853/2004 and, where appropriate, certain
specific rules concerning microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, temperature control
and compliance with the cold chain, and sampling and analysis requirements. Foods
of animal origin include live bivalve molluscs and fishery products. The provisions
of Regulation EC/853/2004 apply to unprocessed and processed products of animal
origin, but do not apply to composite foods i.e. foods containing both products of
plant origin and processed products of animal origin.
Regulation EC/854/2004 lays down specific rules for the organisation of official
controls on products of animal origin intended for human consumption. This
Regulation supplements Regulation EC/852/2004 on hygiene of foodstuffs and
Regulation EC/853/2004 on specific hygiene rules for foodstuffs of animal origin. This
official control regulation gives details of the controls to be carried out on live bivalve
molluscs and fishery products.
Details in relation to the approval of establishments and the withdrawal of approval,
if serious deficiencies are identified on the part of the food business operator, are also
set out in Regulation EC/854/2004. Food business operators must provide authorised
officers with all assistance needed to carry out the controls, notably as regards access
to premises and the presentation of documentation or records. The official controls
include audits of good hygiene practices and HACCP principles, as well as specific
controls that have requirements determined by sector (including live bivalve molluscs
and fishery products).
Regulation EC/2074/2005 sets out implementing measures for certain provisions
of the hygiene regulations that apply to fish and fishery products. This Regulation
includes rules for fishery products encompassing detection of parasites, maximum
levels for total volatile nitrogen for certain species as a determinant of “fitness”, testing
methods for marine biotoxins and labelling with cooking instructions for specified fish.
161
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
Live Bivalve Molluscs
Harvested live bivalve molluscs intended for human consumption must comply with
high health standards applicable at all stages of the production chain. With the exception
of the provisions on purification, the rules also apply to live echinoderms, tunicates
and marine gastropods. The Regulations include provisions for cooperation by food
business operators in the classification system. Approved dispatch and purification
centres are now required to establish a HACCP system as explained below.
Regulation EC/853/2004 specifies requirements for the following areas:
• production of live bivalve molluscs from Class A, B or C production areas;
• harvesting of molluscs and their transport to a dispatch or purification centre,
relaying area or processing plant;
• relaying of molluscs in approved areas under optimal conditions of traceability
and purification;
• essential equipment and hygiene conditions in dispatch and purification
centres;
• health standards applicable to live bivalve molluscs: freshness and viability;
microbiological criteria, evaluation of the presence of marine biotoxins and
harmful substances in relation to the permissible daily intake;
• health marking, wrapping, labelling, storage and transport of live bivalve
molluscs;
• rules applicable to scallops harvested outside classified areas.
Regulation EC/854/2004 specifies that new production areas require a sanitary
survey and the establishment of a representative sampling programme based on the
sanitary survey data.
Fishery Products
Specific requirements for fish and fishery products cover the following elements:
• equipment and facilities on fishing vessels, factory vessels and freezer
vessels: areas for receiving products taken on board, work and storage areas,
refrigeration and freezing installations, pumping of waste and disinfection;
• hygiene on board fishing vessels, factory vessels and freezer vessels: cleanliness,
protection from any form of contamination, washing with water and cold
treatment;
• conditions of hygiene during and after the landing of fishery products:
protection against any form of contamination, equipment used, auction and
wholesale markets;
• fresh and frozen products, mechanically separated fish flesh, parasites harmful
to human health (visual examination), and cooked crustaceans and molluscs;
• processed fishery products;
• health standards applicable to fishery products: evaluation of the presence of
substances and toxins harmful to human health;
• wrapping, packaging, storage and transport of fishery products.
Record keeping
Under current regulations, food business operators will be required to keep records
relevant to food safety, including:
• the nature and origin of animal/fish feed (if used);
• any veterinary products administered and their withdrawal dates (if used);
• any occurrence of disease that may affect food safety;
• the results of any analyses carried out;
• the health status of the animals prior to slaughter.
European Union regulations governing fish and fishery products
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
EU hygiene regulations legislation requires food business operators (except primary
producers) to put in place, implement and maintain a permanent procedure, or
procedures, based on the principles of HACCP. The requirements take a risk based
approach and can be applied flexibly in all food businesses regardless of the size or
nature of the business.
Training
Food business operators are responsible for ensuring that food handlers have received
adequate instruction and/or training in food hygiene to enable them to handle food
safely. Training should be appropriate to the tasks of staff in a particular food business
and be appropriate for the work to be carried out. Training can be achieved in different
ways. These include in-house training, the organisation of training courses, information
campaigns from professional organisations or from regulatory authorities, guides to
good practice, etc. With regard to HACCP training for staff in small businesses, it must
be kept in mind that such training should be proportionate to the size and the nature of
the business and should relate to the way that HACCP is applied in the food business.
If guides to good practice for hygiene and for the application of HACCP principles
are used, training should aim to make staff familiar with the content of such guides.
Microbiological Criteria of Foodstuffs
The Microbiological Criteria for Foodstuffs Regulation (Regulation EC/2073/2005)
includes limits for certain micro-organisms in specified foodstuffs and sets down limits
for food safety criteria and process hygiene criteria. The Regulation sets down the
E. coli and Salmonella limits for placing live bivalve molluscs and live echinoderms,
tunicates and gastropods on the market for human consumption. It also sets down
limits for fishery products for the following:
• Listeria monocytogenes for ready-to-eat food;
• Salmonella for cooked crustaceans and molluscan shellfish;
• Histamine for species associated with high amounts of histidine;
• E. coli and coagulase-positive staphylococci for shelled and shucked products
of cooked crustaceans and molluscan shellfish (process criteria).
Regulation EC/2073/2005 contains detailed controls encompassing sampling and
analysis requirements. It is structured so it can be applied flexibly in all food businesses,
regardless of their type or size. Food business operators should apply the criteria
within the framework of procedures based on HACCP principles. The criteria can be
used by food business operators to validate and verify their food safety management
procedures and when assessing the acceptability of foodstuffs, or their manufacturing,
handling and distribution processes.
Traceability and Withdrawal of Food Products
In accordance with Regulation EC/178/2002, food business operators must set up
traceability systems and procedures for ingredients, foodstuffs and, where appropriate,
animals used for food production. Similarly, where a food business operator identifies
that a foodstuff presents a serious risk to health, they shall immediately withdraw that
foodstuff from the market and inform users and the relevant Competent Authority.
Animal Health Rules
Council Directive 2002/99/EC lays down the animal health rules governing the
production, processing, distribution and introduction of products of animal origin for
human consumption.
Council Directive 2006/88/EC covers health requirements for aquaculture animals
and controls of certain fish and bivalve diseases. The main aim of the Directive is to
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raise standards of aquaculture health throughout the EU and to control the spread
of disease while maintaining freedom for trade. While the focus of the Directive is
primarily aquaculture production businesses, the Directive also contains provisions
relating to stocked fisheries for angling, installations which keep fish but do not intend
to market them, smaller scale farmers who produce directly for human consumption
and fish kept for ornamental purposes.
Animal and fish feeds
Regulation EC/183/2005 lays down the requirements for feed hygiene. It ensures that
feed safety is considered at all stages of the feed chain that may have an impact on
feed and food safety. The regulation requires the compulsory registration of all feed
business establishments and the approval of those operators that are involved in the
production of certain feed additives, pre-mixtures and compound feeding stuff. It also
requires the application of good hygiene practice at all levels of feed production and the
introduction of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles for
the feed business operators other than at the level of primary production.
The regulation provides for a European Union framework for guides to good
practice in feed production and such a guide has been published.
Residue Monitoring Programmes
European regulations include requirements for a wide range of food monitoring
for residues of veterinary drugs, pesticides and chemical contaminants. Much of the
legislation in this area refers to food animal production, which would include farmed
fish but does not always specifically refer to fish. Complex EU regulations exist for
the approval of the use of medicines for prevention or cure of animal diseases; for
setting maximum residue limits (MRLs) of permitted animal remedies and to check
for compliance with these MRLs; for monitoring of levels of banned animal remedies;
for monitoring levels of pesticides in farmed fish and for monitoring levels of chemical
contaminants such as dioxins and heavy metals in fishery products. Methods of analyses
and sampling plans for use during monitoring are also included in the regulations.
The key regulations comprise of Directive 2001/82/EC, which stipulates that
veterinary medicinal products can only be authorised or used in food producing
animals if pharmacologically active substances contained therein have been assessed
as safe according to Regulation (EC) No 470/2009. The latter regulation establishes
MRLs for these products. Directive 1996/23/EC on residues monitoring contains
specific requirements for the control of pharmacologically active substances that may
be used as veterinary medicinal products in food animal production. This includes
primarily sampling and investigation procedures, requirements on the documentation
of use, indication for sanctions in case of non-compliance, requirements for targeted
investigations and for the establishment and reporting of monitoring programmes.
Directive 1996/22/EC prohibits the use of certain substances in food producing
animals.
Sampling frequencies for testing farmed fish for compliance with EU regulations
have been published by the European Commission. For those countries where fish and
fishery products from any farm are eligible to be exported to the EU, the proportion
of animals sampled should be taken relative to the annual national production figures.
The minimum number of samples to be collected each year for veterinary drug residue
analysis must be at least 1 per 100 tonnes of annual production.
Food contaminants are substances that may be present in fish and fishery products
because of environmental contamination, cultivation practices or production processes.
If present above certain levels, these substances can pose a threat to human health. EU
regulations ensure that food placed on the market is safe to eat and does not contain
contaminants at levels which could threaten human health. Maximum levels for certain
European Union regulations governing fish and fishery products
contaminants in fishery products are set in Regulation EC/1881/2006. This regulation
includes MRLs for heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury and for dioxins
and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH).
Methods for sampling and analysis of fish for the control of the levels of lead, cadmium,
mercury and benzo-α-pyrene are included in Regulation EC/333/2007 and for dioxin
and dioxin-like PCBs in Regulation EC/1883/2006.
Inspections and Auditing to Verify Compliance
The European Commission has three main instruments at its disposal to ensure that
EU legislation is properly implemented and enforced. It verifies the transposition by
Member States of EU legislation into national laws and analyses reports received from
Member States and third countries on the application of aspects of EU legislation,
such as national residue programmes and animal feed controls. Additionally it carries
out inspections in Member States and third countries to check the implementation and
enforcement of EU legislation by national competent authorities.
The control function at EU level is mainly the responsibility of the Food and
Veterinary Office (FVO), a directorate of DG Health and Consumers. Its main task
is to carry out on-the-spot inspections to evaluate national control systems, to report
on its findings and to follow up on the action taken by national competent authorities
in response to its reports. The European Commission has published guidance for the
importation of fish and fishery products from third countries.
Conclusion
The EU integrated approach to food safety aims to assure a high level of food safety,
animal health, animal welfare and plant health within the European Union through
coherent farm-to-table measures and adequate monitoring, while ensuring the effective
functioning of the internal market. Regulations, Directives and Decisions in the food
safety control area are regularly updated and published by the European Commission
on their web site.
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United States Food and
Drug Administration. Safety
requirements for seafood
Timothy Hansen
USDC/NOAA Seafood Inspection Program
NOAA Fisheries, Department of Commerce
Silver Spring, United States of America
Introduction
The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has tremendous responsibilities
for the regulation of food (including seafood), drugs, medical devices, biologics and
toxic chemicals. It is estimated that FDA regulation affects over 50 percent of the
economy of the United States. In recent years there has been an exponential increase
in imports because of the expansion of the globalized economy. More and more of
the commodities under FDA regulation are manufactured in foreign countries. This
has placed a significant burden on the agency to adequately ensure the safety of these
products. Moreover, the FDA budget was significantly reduced from 2001 to 2008.
Although the agency received a significant increase in resources from Congress in 2009
the effect has been to further limit their ability to respond to the challenge of ensuring
the safety of all the commodities they have authority to regulate including seafood.
The Challenge for Seafood Regulation
Seafood safety has been controversial and high profile in the United States media for
at least two decades. There is a constant barrage of questions arising about the safety
of imported seafood. Federal agencies, including FDA and NOAA Fisheries have
struggled to respond to them. The most recent example is concern over aquaculture
drug residues from China, Vietnam and Thailand. FDA responded to this in 2007
by imposing import alert 16–131 on farm-raised products from China that produced
shrimp, tilapia, dace and eels for the United States market. These products were
implicated as having drug residues that included Nitrofurans (a highly effective
antibiotic), Malachite Green (a substance used to control fungal infections in fish that
is also a potent carcinogen), and Chloramphenicol (a mild antibiotic used to control
a variety of fish diseases). An import alert effectively shifts the burden of proof for
imports from FDA to the importer. Therefore, every shipment of aquacultured fish
and fishery products had to be analyzed for drug residues and found to be free of them
before the shipment is allowed on the United States market. Because more than 700
firms were affected, this became a significant burden to the FDA Import Operations.
Moreover, at the same time melamine which is an industrial chemical that can imitate
protein content in foods was found in a wide variety of food products from China
including seafood. This caused further concern in the media and on the consuming
public.
Food safety scares heightens the day-to-day burden of FDA who must spend
precious resources answering questions from the media, Congress, consumer groups
and the public at large. Besides the budget problems that FDA experienced through
most of 2000s there were other factors that made the agency’s job more difficult relative
to seafood regulation. First, the volume of imported seafood increased significantly
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since the year 2000. Seafood is the world’s largest traded product on the basis of value.
In 2009 FDA reviewed between 900 000 and 1 000 000 entries of fish and fishery
products from abroad. These shipments are manufactured in at least 13 000 and as
many as 20 000 processing facilities abroad. Inspecting all of the products and facilities
is a gargantuan task without considering other food (and medical) commodities.
In light of the reduced resources available to the agency is has become increasingly
difficult to inspect the ever-increasing volume of products and processing facilities.
Second, FDA adopted the Seafood HACCP1 Regulation (21 CFR 123) in
December 1997. This regulation required preventive control measures for food safety
in addition to existing sanitation, food handling and employee hygiene requirements.
This approach has proven to be largely successful in preventing food safety problems in
seafood. However, the principles are complicated and the system is not easily managed.
In order to be successful any regulatory HACCP control scheme needs to rely on a
readily available scientific basis that creates appropriate guidance to the industry and
the FDA field, and also rely on trained staff from investigators to consumer safety
officers, who must continually refine their skills and apply HACCP principles to
novel situations. By 2005, resource restrictions had limited FDA’s ability to create
guidance and perform an expert evaluation of HACCP controls because they could
not replace staff lost to retirements and resignations. The quality of both investigations
and reviews were affected.
Third, the legal and scientific review process that might lead to regulatory action
became more complicated and burdensome in the mid 2000s. Generally, when a serious
food safety violation is encountered the investigator will note it on FDA form 483 List
of Observations. The investigator will write a detailed report and submit it to his or
her supervisor and to a local district compliance officer. The compliance officer will
determine if the evidence warrants legal action and submits the regulatory package to
the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Office of Compliance and Office
of Food Safety for legal and scientific review respectively. If the Office of Compliance
agrees that the evidence is sound and the Office of Food Safety agrees that the science
is correct then a decision is made whether the Office of General Council (OGC) in the
Office of the Commissioner should be sent the case for possible enforcement action. In
2004 it was decided that all cases should be sent to OGC. This slowed the compliance
process down considerably and because there was a six month deadline for completion
many cases have not met the deadline.
Fourth, some new priorities have been added to FDA’s burden. There are a couple
of examples. There has been a recent Government Accountability Office (GAO) study
that concluded that FDA should be more vigorous in enforcing firms to comply with
economic fraud provisions in the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and regulations. GAO
specifically wants economic integrity provisions to be part of the Seafood HACCP
Regulation which currently only requires food safety controls. Another example is the
Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCO). This law requires
clear labelling for any potential allergen that may be in a food product. For seafood
FDA has decided to require this to be part of a seafood HACCP plan that increases the
investigator’s and reviewer’s time requirement.
1
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point.
United States Food and Drug Administration. Safety requirements for seafood
Response to the Challenge
The Federal Government and the States have responded to this challenge in several
ways. First, the United States Congress has proposed several legislative packages for
adoption. Second, the Food Safety Enhancement Act introduced by Representative
John Dingell (D-Michigan) and the Food Safety Modernization Act introduced
by Senator Richard Durban (D-Illinois) have a reasonable chance for passage and
consideration by President Obama. They are described below along with other
significant legislation that is not likely to be adopted. FDA in 2007 published the Food
Protection Plan that outlines the agency’s thinking about how to address these food
safety issues. Finally, other Federal agencies and the States have also responded to the
potential food safety problems the United States may be experiencing.
Congressional Activity
Major Legislation Congressional Record Service Summaries
H.R. 2749 Food Safety Enhancement Act
Lead Sponsor: Representative John Dingell (D-Michigan)
Introduced: 6/8/2009
Last Action: 8/3/2009 Referred to Senate committee. Status: Received in the Senate and
read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions.
House Reports: 111–234
Committee Summary of House passed bill (July 2009):
1. Creates an up-to-date registry of all food facilities serving American consumers:
Requires all facilities operating within the United States or importing food to
the United States to register with FDA annually.
2. Generates resources to support FDA oversight of food safety: Requires
payment of an annual registration fee of US$500 per facility that would
generate revenue for food safety activities at FDA.
3. Prevents food safety problems before they occur: Requires foreign and
domestic food facilities to have safety plans in place to identify and mitigate
hazards. Safety plans and food facility records would be subject to review by
FDA inspectors and third-party certifiers.
4. Increases inspections: Sets a minimum inspection frequency for foreign and
domestic facilities. Each high risk facility would be inspected at least once
every six to 12 months; each low risk facility would be inspected at least once
every 18 months to three years; and each warehouse would be inspected at
least once every five years. Refusing, impeding or delaying an inspection is
prohibited.
5. Requires food imports to demonstrate safety: Directs the Secretary to require
certain foreign food to be certified as meeting all United States food safety
requirements by third parties accredited by FDA.
6. Creates fast-track import process for food meeting security standards: Directs
FDA to develop voluntary safety and security guidelines for imported foods.
Importers meeting the guidelines would receive expedited processing.
7. Requires safety plans for fresh produce and certain other raw agricultural
commodities: Directs FDA, in coordination with United States Department
of Agriculture, to issue regulations for ensuring the safe production and
harvesting of fruits and vegetables and other raw agricultural commodities,
like mushrooms.
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8. Improves traceability: Significantly expands FDA traceback capabilities in the
event of a food borne illness outbreak. Directs the Secretary to issue traceback
regulations that enable the Secretary to identify the history of the food in as
short a timeframe as practicable, but no longer than two business days. Prior
to issuing such regulations, the Secretary would be required to conduct a
feasibility study, public meetings, and one or more pilot projects before issuing
traceback regulations. There are exemptions for certain foods or facilities.
9. Requires country-of-origin labelling: Requires all processed food labels
to indicate the country in which final processing occurred. Requires
country-of-origin labelling for all produce.
10. Expands laboratory testing capacity: Requires FDA to establish a program to
recognize laboratory accreditation bodies and to accept test results only from
duly accredited laboratories. Requires laboratories to send certain test results
directly to FDA. Provides strong, flexible enforcement tools: Provides FDA
new authority to issue mandatory recalls of tainted foods. Strengthens penalties
imposed on food facilities that fail to comply with safety requirements.
11. Advances the science of food safety: Directs the Secretary to enhance food borne
illness surveillance systems to improve the collection, analysis, reporting, and
usefulness of data on food borne illnesses. Requires the Secretary to provide
greater coordination between federal, state, and local agencies.
12. Enhances transparency of GRAS program: Requires posting on FDA’s Web
site of documentation submitted to FDA in support of a “generally recognized
as safe” (GRAS) notification.
13. Allows FDA to charge a fee to cover the cost of additional inspections of
facilities that previously committed a violation of the Act related to food.
14. Infant Formula: Requires that a manufacturer of a new infant formula submit
certain safety information regarding new ingredients. Grants FDA additional
time to review such new ingredients.
15. Enhances FDA’s ability to administratively detain tainted food products.
16. Allows the Secretary to prohibit or restrict movement of harmful food
products: If the Secretary, after consultation with the Governor, determines
there is credible evidence that an article of food presents an imminent threat,
he or she would be able to prohibit or restrict movement of food in a state or
portion of a state.
17. Creates an up-to-date registry of importers: Requires all importers of foods to
register with FDA annually and pay a registration fee.
18. Requires unique identification numbers for facilities and importers: To
improve the accuracy of data and the ability of FDA to more quickly identify
involved parties in a crisis situation, creates unique identification numbers for
all food facilities and importers.
19. Provides protection for whistleblowers that bring attention to important
safety information: Prohibits entities regulated by FDA from discriminating
against an employee in retaliation for assisting in any investigation regarding
any conduct which the employee reasonably believes constitutes a violation of
federal law.
20. Grants FDA new authority to subpoena records related to possible violations.
United States Food and Drug Administration. Safety requirements for seafood
S.510 FDA Food Safety Modernization Act
Lead Sponsor: Senator Richard Durbin (D-Illinois)
Introduced: 3/3/2009
Last Action: 12/18/2009 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders.
Calendar No. 247.
Official CRS Summary of Introduced version:
FDA Food Safety Modernization Act – Amends the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic
Act (FFDCA) to expand the authority of the Secretary of Health and Human Services
(the Secretary) to regulate food, including by authorizing the Secretary to suspend the
registration of a food facility.
Requires each food facility to evaluate hazards and implement preventive controls.
Directs the Secretary to assess and collect fees related to:
1. Food facility reinspection;
2. Food recalls; and
3. The voluntary qualified importer program.
Requires the Secretary and the Secretary of Agriculture to prepare the National
Agriculture and Food Defense Strategy.
Requires the Secretary to:
1. Identify preventive programs and practices to promote the safety and security
of food;
2. Promulgate regulations on sanitary food transportation practices;
3. Develop a policy to manage the risk of food allergy and anaphylaxis in schools
and early childhood education programs;
4. Allocate inspection resources based on the risk profile of food facilities or
food;
5. Recognize bodies that accredit food testing laboratories; and
6. Improve the capacity of the Secretary to track and trace raw agricultural
commodities.
Requires the Secretary, acting through the Director of the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC), to enhance food borne illness surveillance systems.
Authorizes the Secretary to order an immediate cessation of distribution, or a
recall, of food.
Requires the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to
assist state, local, and tribal governments in preparing for, assessing, decontaminating,
and recovering from an agriculture or food emergency.
Provides for:
1. Foreign supplier verification activities;
2. A voluntary qualified importer program; and
3. The inspection of foreign facilities registered to import food.
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Minor legislation summarized by NOAA Legislative Affairs
Number
Name
Sponsor
Details
S92
Imported
Seafood Safety
Enhancement Act
of 2009
Senator David
Vitter (R–LA)
A bill to ensure the safety of seafood and seafood products
being imported into the United States. Authorizes the FDA to
refuse entry of products that do not meet United States food
safety regulatory requirements and establishes marking and
notification procedures in the event product is refused (so that
the refused product is not re-shipped through another port of
entry.)
HR875
Food Safety
Modernization Act
of 2009
Representative
Rosa DeLauro (D
CT–3)
The bill reorganizes several inspection services and agencies
within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish a new Food
Safety Administration within HHS. Part of the “consolidation”
of food safety agencies within HHS includes moving all of the
personnel and assets of the NOAA Seafood Inspection Program
into the newly formed Food Safety Administration. HR1370
Commercial
Seafood Consumer
Protection Act
Representative
Anthony Weiner
(D NY–9)
To improve the protections afforded under Federal law to
consumers from contaminated seafood by directing the
Secretary of Commerce to establish a program, in coordination
with other appropriate Federal agencies, to strengthen
activities for ensuring that seafood sold or offered for sale to
the public in or affecting interstate commerce is fit for human
consumption.
HR4363
National
Sustainable
Offshore
Aquaculture Act of
2009
Representative
Lois Capps (D
CA–23)
To establish a regulatory system and research program for
sustainable offshore aquaculture in the United States EEZ, and
for other purposes.
S2913
Comprehensive
National Mercury
Monitoring Act
Senator Susan
Collins (R–ME)
The bill mandates the establishment of a monitoring program
for mercury led by the EPA in order to track:
(A) long-term trends in atmospheric mercury concentrations
and deposition; and
(B) mercury levels in watersheds, surface waters, and fish and
wildlife in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystems in
response to changing mercury emissions over time (including
endangered species and marine mammals). Authorizes funds
for NOAA.
FDA Food Protection Plan
(www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodSafetyPrograms/FoodProtectionPlan2007/
ucm132705.htm)
For more than 100 years, the United States Food and Drug Administration has
protected the health of Americans by improving the safety of those components of
the food supply the agency regulates. Today, the United States food supply is one of
the safest in the world. The Food Protection Plan outlines a strategy to strengthen an
already safe food system. The plan reflects recent challenges and global changes, and it
builds upon advances in science and technology to safeguard the nation’s food supply
against unintentional and deliberate contamination. The Food Protection Plan provides
a comprehensive and integrated strategy of prevention, intervention, and response.
The plan focuses FDA’s efforts to prevent problems before they start. It employs
risk-based interventions to ensure preventive approaches are effective. And it provides
for a rapid response when contaminated food or feed are detected, or when there is
harm to humans or animals.
Here are the main elements:
Prevention
Prevention is the keystone of an effective, proactive food defence and food safety
plan. Preventive measures must be built in from the start of domestic and international
food production processes. FDA will continue to work with industry, state, local,
and foreign governments to further develop the tools and science needed to identify
vulnerabilities and determine the most effective approaches.
United States Food and Drug Administration. Safety requirements for seafood
The plan calls for:
• Increasing corporate responsibility to prevent food-borne illnesses;
• Identifying food vulnerabilities and assess risks;
• Expanding the understanding and use of effective mitigation measures.
Intervention
Targeted risk-based intervention involving domestic and imported products will
provide the second layer of protection. The goal is to ensure that preventive approaches
are implemented and that contaminated food is identified when preventive measures
are not taken or fail. The components of intervention are:
• Focus inspections and sampling based on risk;
• Enhance risk-based surveillance;
• Improve the detection of food system “signals” that indicate contamination.
Response
The plan bolsters FDA’s existing emergency response system. To shorten the period
between detection and containment of a food-borne illness requires faster response
activities and more effective communication to consumers, industry, and federal, state
and international partners. To that end, FDA will:
• Improve immediate response;
• Improve risk communications to the public, industry and other stakeholders.
To meet the above goals, the FDA Food Protection Plan outlines specific actions
and requested legislative authorities. The requested authorities and actions include:
Prevention
Action steps:
• Meet with states and consumer groups to solicit their input on implementing
preventive approaches to protect the food supply;
• Develop written food protection guidelines for industry to develop food
protection plans for produce and other food products, and implement other
measures to promote corporate responsibility;
• Analyze food import trend data and integrate it into a risk-based approach
that focuses inspection resources on those imports that pose the greatest risk.
• Improve FDA’s presence overseas;
• Legislative proposals;
• Allow FDA to require preventive controls against intentional adulteration by
terrorists or criminals at points of high vulnerability in the food chain;
• Authorize FDA to issue additional preventive controls for high risk foods;
• Require food facilities to renew their FDA registrations every two years, and
allow FDA to modify the registration categories.
Intervention
Action Steps:
• Focus food and feed inspections and sampling based on risk;
• Train FDA and state investigators on new, technically complex and specialized
food manufacturing processes, as determined by a risk-based needs assessment,
and modern inspection strategies;
• Collaborate with foreign authorities to reduce potential risk of imported foods
• Use advanced screening technology at the border;
• Legislative proposals;
• Authorize FDA to accredit highly qualified third parties for voluntary food
inspections;
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• Require new reinspection fee from facilities that fail to meet current Good
Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs);
• Empower FDA to require electronic import certificates for shipments of
designated high risk products;
• Require new Food and Animal Feed Export Certification Fee to improve the
ability of United States firms to export their products;
• Authorize FDA to refuse admission of imported food if FDA inspection
access is delayed, limited or denied.
Response
Action Steps:
• Enhance data collection, incident reporting and emergency response capabilities
• Work with stakeholders to implement a more effective trace back process,
using technologies to rapidly and precisely track the origin and destination of
contaminated foods, feed and ingredients
• Work with communications and media experts to design and conduct
consumer communications and behaviour response studies
• In a food related emergency, implement this communications plan, including
using all relevant media and technologies available, to reach consumers,
retailers, industry, public health officials and other stakeholders
• Legislative proposals
• Empower FDA to issue a Mandatory Recall if voluntary recalls are not
effective
• Give FDA enhanced access to food records during emergencies
Other U.S Federal and State Agencies
United States Department of Agriculture
There was a provision in the 2008 Farm Bill that authorized the United States
Department of Agriculture Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) to regulate
catfish under the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA) by making farmed catfish an
“amenable” species under the Act along with meat and poultry. There have been several
developments since the Farm Bill was enacted. First, FSIS developed a risk analysis that
selected Salmonella as the major risk factor for food safety. Most food safety experts
disagreed with this assessment citing the relevant literature that had only one anecdotal
instance of a food borne illness associating both Salmonella and catfish. Second,
FSIS was required to produce regulation by January 1, 2010 that would describe how
the legislation would be implemented. The regulations have not been approved by the
Office of Management and Budget (OMB) of the Executive Branch at this writing.
Third, the FMIA requires that a Federal inspector be present during slaughter. The
rationale for this is to prevent zoonotic disease transmission from the animals (cattle,
hogs, chickens). Fish does not transmit diseases to humans so the requirement does
not seem to be a relevant food safety measure. Fourth the legislation did not define
“catfish” but left that decision to the Secretary of Agriculture. Secretary Vilsack
decided that the term “catfish” included all species within the order Siluriformes. This
includes all catfish species grown in China, Vietnam and Brazil. If the regulations are
implemented this will mean that (FMIA) will require that all imported catfish have
an equivalent system of control to the United States system. Any such system would
take most foreign competent authority years to implement and gain approval. In
the meantime no foreign produced catfish would be allowed onto the United States
market. Because the importation of Pangasius species from Vietnam and China are
major commodities, this will cause a potential major impediment to trade. OMB has
United States Food and Drug Administration. Safety requirements for seafood
granted an indefinite extension to the approval of these regulations in February, 2010
and no decision or activity has occurred since.
Seafood Inspection Program of NOAA Fisheries
The Seafood Inspection Program (SIP) of NOAA Fisheries has made it a priority to
assist FDA in promoting food safety and quality in seafood products. In October
2009 the agencies signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that outlined areas
of cooperation between the agencies. Moreover, both agencies have created better
lines of communication and planned and provided training to the other agency. Both
agencies believe that the relationship defined in the MOU should evolve into a closer
working relationship. SIP has also adopted the policy that all regulatory requirements
for all processes in participating establishments must be met. If the firm does not do
so, they face suspension of services. SIP also provides food safety consultations and
international inspection services as well as food safety training in HACCP principles
and sanitation.
States
In response to the economic fraud problems discussed above and in cooperation
with the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Federal agency that sets
methodologies for all industries including food, several states launched a survey of
net weights in seafood products in early 2010. They found that there was significant
consumer fraud in products that did not contain the stated net weights. The final
impact of this event has not occurred at this writing in March 2010.
Domestic Regulation of Seafood
Presently the two Federal agencies that regulate the product and conditions of
production are the Food and Drug Administration and NOAA Fisheries Seafood
Inspection Program. FDA focuses their inspection effort on the conditions of
production that may affect the safety of the product e.g. sanitation and preventive
HACCP programs. FDA investigators will take samples of seafood on a routine basis
for analysis for any possible hazard that may occur in that product. SIP will concentrate
on ensuring compliance with FDA laws and regulations and will also evaluate product
for safety and quality.
The two most important regulations for seafood are the Current Good
Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) 21 Code of Federal Regulation 110, and the
Seafood HACCP Regulation 21 Code of Federal Regulation 123. The current Good
Manufacturing Practices deal mainly in sanitation, food handling and hygiene. These
requirements are applicable to all food products. These are the so-called prerequisite
programs for preventive control systems that are basic tenets to any food safety
system. The FDA Web site for this is here: www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/gmp-toc.html.
The Seafood HACCP regulations are specific to seafood and require that appropriate
preventive controls of likely hazards be established for the processing of all seafood
products. HACCP is an acronym for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point which is
a system where all possible hazards in a food processing establishment are identified,
control points are established, monitoring procedures are implemented and critical
limits and corrective actions for each safety parameter are specified. A system of
systems verification including records review is also required to ensure that the system
is working properly. The Seafood HACCP regulation may be found at: www.cfsan.fda.
gov/~comm/haccp4x8.html.
This regulation is supported by the Fish and Fishery Products Hazard Guide
that gives detailed instruction about how to identify hazards, write and implement a
HACCP plan and other regulatory requirements that seafood producers need to be
aware.
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FDA inspections are auditory in nature. They will visit a plant unannounced
and evaluate its sanitation conditions and HACCP systems. These inspections will
generally take one to five days to complete. When the investigator is done with his or
her evaluation a so-called Form 483 will be issued that lists objectionable observations.
The investigator will usually advise the firm to submit a written description of how
they intend to correct the problems.
It is advisable that the firms respond immediately to the observations and submit
appropriate corrections. In many cases responsiveness by the firm will convince FDA
officials that further regulatory action is unnecessary. If the firm believes that the
FDA investigator’s observations are incorrect or not scientifically based they should
inform FDA in writing, and include their reasoning. FDA has a policy related to
HACCP controls that they have been called the “continuation policy” which states
that the firm may petition FDA if they believe that their system of control has a sound
scientific basis but does not conform to the Fish and Fishery Product Guide. See the
following link: www.cfsan.fda.gov/~comm/seaguide.html. If the reasoning appears to
be valid scientists at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition will evaluate
the information submitted by the firm for scientific validity. If the firm’s reasoning is
acceptable no further regulatory actions will likely take place for that issue.
FDA also requires that all food manufacturers register under the Bioterrorism Act
of 2002. The process is fairly simple and is accomplished by filling out a web based
form and submitting the information to FDA. See instruction on the FDA web site at:
www.cfsan.fda.gov/~furls/ffregsum.html.
The SIP has contracts with many of the larger firms in the United States and
depending on the type of service will be in the plant and inspect on a continuous basis
or will audit the firm four or more times per year. SIP oversees about one third of the
United States consumption of seafood. In either case, the firm will undergo a rigorous
systems audit for preventive controls and sanitation at least four times per year. SIP will
also require that the firm submit written corrective actions to systems audit checklists.
If corrections are not made the contract may be suspended or revoked and the firm will
not receive certifications and grade marks that their customers require.
Import Regulation of Seafood
Imported seafood is subject to the regulatory oversight of FDA. Any consignment
offered for entry into the United States is subject to inspection by FDA import officers.
These officers use a digital system for selection of seafood products that is based on
the relative risk of the product to the consumer. Theoretically a cooked-ready-to-eat
product should be sampled and analyzed at a much higher rate than raw products with
no inherent hazards. Once a consignment is targeted for inspection and analysis it may
be subject to a visual examination or more rigorous analytical testing for contaminants.
If the officer sees any discrepancy with the product that constitutes an “appearance of
adulteration” the importer then assumes the burden of proof that the product is not
adulterated and it may be tested at the expense of the importer or denied entry. In any
case, the product will be placed in an expensive bonded warehouse until the matter
is resolved. An appearance can be mis-labelling, inadequate packaging protecting the
product or anything that seems to be non-compliant to the regulations and laws. If
contaminants are found and there is a reasonable way to eliminate them e.g. cooking
raw product for microbiological contamination then the importer may petition FDA
to do so with specific explanations about how the processing will eliminate the hazard.
If FDA believes that product imported from a particular firm, country or region
has a high probability of adulteration they may issue an import alert. An import alert
will list all the affected firms, countries or regions and it will require appropriate
analytical testing on each lot offered for importation into the commerce of the United
States. Firms, countries or regions will have to show that the root cause of the problem
United States Food and Drug Administration. Safety requirements for seafood
that created the adulteration has been eliminated. For seafood firms that are subject
to the Seafood HACCP Regulation this usually requires that FDA or a reliable third
party has verified that the correction has occurred. This may cause problems if there
are many affected firms as it may take FDA quite a while to verify the corrections.
Importers must give prior notice to Customs and Border Protection (CBP) that a
shipment is going to be offered for entry under the food protection provisions of the
Bioterrorism Act. The time limitations vary according to what conveyance the product
is transported. For more information consult the FDA Web site at: www.cfsan.fda.
gov/~dms/fsbtact.html#oct2003.
Importers also must comply with 21 Code of Federal Regulation 123.12, Special
requirements for imported products. The purpose of this provision in the HACCP
regulations is to ensure that products entering into United States commerce are in
compliance with the Seafood HACCP Regulation similar to domestically produced
seafood. The importer of record must buy seafood from a country with an active
memorandum of understanding (MOU) with FDA or have written verification
procedures that outline product food safety specifications and affirmative steps as
follows:
• Obtaining from the foreign processor the HACCP and sanitation monitoring
records required by this part that relate to the specific lot of fish or fishery
products being offered for import;
• Obtaining either a continuing or lot-by-lot certificate from an appropriate
foreign government inspection authority or competent third party certifying
that the imported fish or fishery product is or was processed in accordance
with the requirements of this part;
• Regularly inspecting the foreign processor’s facilities to ensure that the
imported fish or fishery product is being processed in accordance with the
requirements of this part;
• Maintaining on file a copy, in English, of the foreign processor’s HACCP plan,
and a written guarantee from the foreign processor that the imported fish or
fishery product is processed in accordance with the requirements of this part;
• Periodically testing the imported fish or fishery product, and maintaining
on file a copy, in English, of a written guarantee from the foreign processor
that the imported fish or fishery product is processed in accordance with the
requirements of this part; or
• Other such verification measures as appropriate that provide an equivalent
level of assurance of compliance with the requirements of this part.
An importer may hire a competent third party to assist with or perform any
or all of the verification activities specified above, including writing the importer’s
verification procedures on the importer’s behalf. See the following on the FDA Web
site: www.cfsan.fda.gov/~comm/haccp4x8.html.
Monitoring and Analysis for Seafood
FDA does not perform a large volume of analytical monitoring for domestic product.
The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition has an annual compliance plan that
specifies, among other inspection activities, what products will be sampled and what
analysis will occur. There is also a standing sampling plan called Toxic Elements where
appropriate chemical analysis is performed at a specified rate.
Imported products are more likely to be monitored and analyzed than domestic
product even though the overall monitoring rate is about one percent. Import officers
use a digital risk assessment system to make random choices of consignment for
sampling, and the appropriate analysis will be performed.
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Regulatory Actions for Seafood
FDA investigators during routine inspections of seafood manufacturing facilities may
find conditions of production or lack of preventive controls that they judge to be
serious or critical in nature. The investigator will note the egregious condition on their
Form 483 List of Observations. If the firm does not correct the deficiency FDA will
issue a Warning Letter. This is an official letter informing the firm that FDA intends
to take regulatory action through the court system. If FDA finds similar conditions
on a follow-up inspection, regulatory action will likely occur. This will mean that
FDA will pursue a court action. However, the agency must go through an exhaustive
review process before the court action can go forward. This will include a review of
the sufficiency of the evidence by the district who will classify the action and send
the case file to the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition who will again look
at the evidence development through the Office of Compliance and send it to the
Office of Food Safety Division of Seafood for scientific review. If the investigator and
district scientific reasoning is sound the case file goes to the Office of General Counsel
(OGC) for final legal review. Once the OGC is satisfied that a sufficient case exists,
the assigned attorney will refer the case to the United States Attorney (who works for
the Department of Justice) near the location of the manufacturing plant, who may or
may not choose to prosecute the case. If the prosecution is successful the Federal court
will generally issue an injunction against the firm that is an order by the court to stop
all processing until the FDA is satisfied that the egregious conditions are corrected.
Because this is an elaborate process only a few regulatory actions are adjudicated in
court every year.
If FDA has knowledge that much food is adulterated they may take action
against the product itself and will seek a seizure of the product by Federal officials.
Because FDA does not do a great deal of product inspection for domestic seafood
this is generally a rare event. However, imports are routinely analyzed for appropriate
hazards. If an imported consignment is found to be adulterated it can either be
reprocessed to eliminate the hazard if possible, destroyed or not allowed in commerce
and shipped out of the United States.
Laws and Regulations Governing Seafood in the United States
Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act
This law covers all food (except meat and poultry), drugs and cosmetics.
www.fda.gov/opacom/laws/fdcact/fdctoc.htm
Public Health Act
This is a compendium of laws that promote public health.
www.fda.gov/opacom/laws/phsvcact/phsvcact.htm
Agricultural Marketing Act
Provides for voluntary grading programs for all food commodities under the
Agricultural Marketing Service that promoted the safety and quality of food.
edocket.access.gpo.gov/cfr_2008/janqtr/pdf/7cfr53.1.pdf
Fish and Wildlife Act
This Act transferred seafood inspection from the Department of Agriculture to the
Department of Interior Bureau of Commercial Fisheries (later National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration). It also gave DOI the authority to perform food safety
inspections.
www.access.gpo.gov/uscode/title16/chapter9_.html
Bioterrorism Act 2002
This Act calls for security measures for food, drugs and drinking water and national
preparedness for terrorist acts.
www.fda.gov/oc/bioterrorism/PL107-188.html
United States Food and Drug Administration. Safety requirements for seafood
Lacey Act
This Act is designed to protect wildlife from illegal exploitation. It allows any Federal
or state law to be used as a basis of prosecution. It is useful to fisheries enforcement
officers and food and drug FDA officers in taking legal action against illegally caught
or mis-branded wild seafood.
21 Code of Federal Regulation 110
This regulation specifies Good Manufacturing Practices for Food Production.
www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/cgmps.html
21 Code of Federal Regulation 113
This regulation addresses low-acid canned food requirements.
ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=f7cd1d3ff180ae237d453e96096dd33
0&rgn=div5&view=text&node=21:2.0.1.1.12&idno=21
21 Code of Federal Regulation 123
This is the Seafood Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point requirements for all
seafood produced or shipped to the United States.
vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/qa2haccp.html
50 Code of Federal Regulation 260
This is regulations government processed fishery products.
www.seafood.nmfs.noaa.gov/50CFR260-261.PDF
Conclusion
Although there are great challenges for any governmental organization to ensure
food safety to its citizens, the United States is addressing these issues. Although
the responses are not well coordinated and sometimes at cross purposes there will
eventually will be an improved safety system for all food consumed in the United
States including seafood. This will likely come at a cost of more inspection oversight,
more demands for in-plant control systems, more restrictive labelling and more
traceability of products in commerce. Ideally, there will be more cooperation and
resource leveraging by regulatory agencies in the future that result in more effective
food regulation. This cooperative spirit coupled with a stronger, better funded FDA
should help address these issues.
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Basic economics of value adding
for fish products
Gunnar Knapp
Institute of Social and Economic Research
University of Alaska Anchorage
Anchorage, United States of America
Abstract
Value adding may represent an opportunity for companies and regions to derive greater
economic benefits from the fish that they produce and process. Whether value adding
is profitable depends on whether the increase in value offsets the increase in costs. This
paper reviews important things to understand about the economics of value adding for
fish products. These include: (1) not all value adding which is technically possible is
necessarily profitable; (2) location affects the economics of value adding; (3) the most
profitable location for value adding is not necessarily where primary processing occurs;
(4) how capture fisheries are managed may affect the economics of value adding;
(5) whether fish are produced in capture fisheries or aquaculture may affect the
economics of value adding; (6) tax and trade policies may affect the economics of
value adding; (7) the economics of value adding may change significantly over time;
(8) marketing is critical to successful value adding; (9) choices which maximize the
overall profitability of a fish processing operation do not necessarily maximize the
profitability of by-product processing; and (10) different groups within a region may
be affected in different ways by value adding.
Introduction
The purpose in this paper is to review, as simply and clearly as possible, some of the
most important things to understand about the economics of value adding for fish
products.
“Value adding for fish products” may be broadly defined as “additional processing
to produce higher valued products.”1 An example would be processing Alaska salmon
into fillets rather than the traditional “frozen headed and gutted” product form. Other
examples of “value adding” include breading, smoking, flavouring, portioning, and
combining fish with other ingredients to produce consumer-ready meals. Another kind
of value adding would be using fish parts which might previously have been disposed
of (such as fish heads and entrails) to produce “by-products” such as fish meal, fish oil
and pet food.
1
“Value adding” is a commonly used but rarely precisely defined term in the seafood business. This
simple definition is intended to convey the meaning in which the term is commonly used. A more formal
definition would require defining more precisely what distinguishes a product which is “value-added”
from one which is not “value-added.” In common usage, “value-added” typically means “higher-priced,”
“more consumer-ready,” “non-traditional,” and “requiring more processing.” Because it is a traditional
product, canned salmon would generally not be considered to be a “value added” product, even though
it is higher-priced, more consumer-ready, and requires more processing than frozen headed and gutted
salmon.
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In theory, value adding represents an opportunity for regions to derive greater
economic benefits from the fish that they produce and process. But many companies
do not engage in value adding to the extent that would be possible given existing
production technologies. For example, Alaska salmon processors typically produce
much more headed and gutted salmon than salmon fillets—even though salmon fillets
command significantly higher prices.
In some cases, companies produce non value-added products in the region where
the fish are caught or farmed, and “export” those products to other regions (in the same
country or in foreign countries) where further value-added processing occurs. For
example, a significant share of Alaska salmon production is exported as frozen headed
and gutted salmon to China, where it is processed into value-added products for sale
to markets in the United States and Europe.
In some cases, companies do not fully utilize fish even though technologies exist
to do so. For example, many Alaska salmon processors do not utilize salmon heads or
entrails, even though they could be processed into fish meal, fish oil or pet food.
The fact that seafood processing companies engage in less value adding than would
be possible given existing production technologies can be both puzzling and frustrating
for residents of fish producing regions, who perceive that they are not receiving the full
potential benefits of their fishery resources.
However, seafood processing companies which engage in less value adding than
they might are not necessarily lacking in knowledge or willingness to innovate. They
may rather be making fully rational business decisions. Not all value adding that is
technically possible is necessarily profitable or optimal for a company.
In almost all cases, higher value products are also higher cost products to produce.
When and where value adding is profitable depends on the extent to which the increase
in value offsets the increase in costs.
In this paper the basic economics of secondary processing and by-product
processing are briefly reviewed first and then ten important things to understand about
the economics of value adding for fish products are discussed.
For purposes of this paper, the term “primary product” refers to a non-value
added product, and “secondary product” refers to a value-added product that could be
made by further processing of the primary product. The term “by-product” is used to
refer to products that could be made from the fish in addition to whatever primary or
secondary products are produced, utilizing parts of the fish that would otherwise be
discarded as waste.
Basic Economics of Secondary Processing
Under what conditions would secondary processing, following primary processing,
increase a fish processor’s profits? Suppose first that secondary processing could
be done without any additional cost. Secondary processing increases profits only if
the increase in price is sufficiently great to make up for any volume loss involved in
secondary processing. Put differently, the profitability of secondary processing depends
not only on the relative prices of the secondary and primary products, but also on the
yield from the primary product volume to secondary product volume. Mathematically,
secondary processing increases value only if the following condition is met:
Basic economics of value adding for fish products
Equation (1) may be rearranged to give:
Suppose next that secondary processing adds additional variable costs of labour
and other inputs. Secondary processing increases profits only if the increase in price is
sufficiently high to make up for both yield losses and any net increases in unit costs of
labour and other inputs, such as packaging and ingredients. Mathematically, secondary
processing increases profits only if the following condition is met: 2
Suppose next that secondary processing requires additional capital investment in
plants and machinery. Secondary processing will increase profits only if the increase in
price is sufficiently high to also cover additional unit capital costs. Unit capital costs
depend on the efficiency of utilization of capital. Secondary processing is less likely to
be profitable if the scale of production is too small to fully utilize the additional plants
or machinery, or if they can only be utilized some of the time.
Secondary processing may affect transportation costs in several ways. Secondary
processing may reduce transportation costs by reducing the volume of product to be
shipped. This potential cost advantage may be offset by additional costs of packaging
or special handling requirements for secondary products.
Basic Economics of By-product Processing
By definition, “by-products” are produced using parts of the fish that would otherwise
be discarded as waste. By-product processing is profitable only if the additional
revenue from the by-products exceeds the additional processing costs.
Processing for certain kinds of by-products, such as fish meal and fish oil, is highly
capital intensive. Processing these kinds of by-products is more likely to be profitable
with a larger scale of production. Put differently, it is harder for plants that process
small volumes of fish to cover the high capital costs of fish meal or fish oil processing.
Note that it is unlikely that any kind of by-product processing utilizing traditional
technologies to process fish parts that have traditionally been discarded as waste would
2
To see why, think of the numerator on the left side of the previous equation at “net secondary product
price”, or price per unit net of increases in unit costs of wages and other inputs.
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be highly profitable. This is simply because processors are unlikely to have ignored
or overlooked highly profitable ways of using fish resources. However, if by-product
prices increase or by-product processing costs decrease, formerly unprofitable types
of by-product processing may become profitable. In contrast, new technologies to
produce new kinds of by-products, or to produce traditional by-products in new ways,
may potentially be highly profitable.
Ten Important Things to Understand About the Economics of
Value Adding
Below are ten important things to understand about the economics of value adding for
fish products.
1. Value adding isn’t necessarily profitable.
Whether value adding increases a fish processor’s profits depends on numerous factors,
including (but not limited to) relative product prices, secondary processing yields,
wage rates, secondary processing labour requirements, secondary processing unit
costs and uses of other inputs such as packaging and ingredients, transportation costs
for secondary processing inputs, and relative transportation costs for primary and
secondary products. All of these factors matter. You can’t conclude that secondary
professing would necessarily increase a processor’s profits simply because value added
products may command a much higher price.
2. Location affects the economics of value adding.
Many of the factors that affect the economics of value adding may vary significantly
between different locations. These include, in particular, labour costs, energy costs,
transportation costs of secondary processing inputs such as packaging and ingredients,
and relative transportation costs for primary and secondary products. Value adding
that is profitable in one location may not be profitable in another location. For
example, labour-intensive value adding is less likely to be profitable in places where
wage rates are high.
3. The most profitable location for value adding is not necessarily where primary
processing occurs.
Because primary processing must be done soon after harvesting in order to stabilize
fish quality, most primary processing has to occur relatively close to where fish are
harvested by capture fisheries or grown in aquaculture systems. Secondary processing
does not necessarily have to be done soon after harvesting or in the same location as
primary processing.
It might seem that value adding at the same location as the primary processing
would convey an obvious economic advantage by saving on the cost of transporting
primary product to another location. But this potential transportation cost advantage
may be outweighed by many other factors which might be more favourable at a
different location, such as labour costs, costs of other processing inputs such as
packaging and ingredients, and transportation costs to end markets. Note in particular
that if value adding occurs near end markets, there may be little or no transportation
cost advantage to value adding at the same location as primary processing.
Suppose, for example, that a “local” processor has a choice of value adding “locally”
where primary processing is done, or in a different “foreign” location. Assume that
“foreign” wage rates and other unit processing costs are lower than “local” wage rates
and other unit processing costs. “Local” value adding will be more profitable than
“foreign” value adding only if the foreign savings on labour and other costs are less
than the increase in transportation costs. This depends not only on relative wage rates
Basic economics of value adding for fish products
and other unit costs, but also the labour intensity of processing and the intensity of use
of other inputs.
“Local value adding” is more profitable than “foreign value adding” only if the
condition in Equation (6) is met:
This helps to explain why an increasing share of the fish captured or grown
in American and European fisheries and aquaculture are being shipped to China,
Viet Nam and other countries for secondary processing—and then shipped back to
markets in America and Europe. The savings on labour and other costs outweigh the
additional transportation costs.
In recent years, increasing volumes of Alaska salmon have been exported to China
for value-added processing. In China, frozen headed and gutted Alaska salmon are
thawed, filleted, portioned and packaged for re-export to U.S. and European markets.
4. How capture fisheries are managed may affect the economics of value adding.
Fisheries management may affect the timing of fish deliveries to processors. For
example, in competitive “derby”3 fisheries, processors may receive large daily volumes
of fish during a short season, followed by long periods during which they don’t receive
any fish. In contrast, in fisheries with individual quota management, fishermen may
deliver smaller daily volumes over a longer season.
The timing of fish deliveries affects how efficiently processors can utilize the
additional investments in plants and machinery needed for fish processing. The unit
cost of a packaging machine will be much lower if the machine is operated every day
than if it is only operated part of the year.
Fisheries management may also affect the quality of fish delivered to processors.
For example, in competitive “derby” fisheries where fishermen are trying to catch fish
as fast as possible, they may not take the time to handle fish as carefully as they would
in fisheries with individual quotas. This may result in more bruising, reducing the
processing yield for value-added products such as fillets and portions.
3
Fishermen and fishery managers commonly refer to highly-competitive fisheries in which large numbers
of fishermen compete for a limited available volume of fish during a short season as a “derby” fishery.
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5. Whether fish are produced in capture fisheries or aquaculture may affect the
economics of value adding.
Regardless of how capture fisheries are managed, they may face certain inherent
competitive disadvantages relative to aquaculture with respect to the potential
for efficient secondary processing. Capture fisheries tend to have greater inherent
variability in fish size and other fish characteristics, making it more difficult to design
secondary processing machinery and reducing processing yields. Capture fisheries are
subject to greater seasonality and annual harvest variability and uncertainty, increasing
the difficulty of utilizing secondary processing capacity efficiently. Wild fisheries may
occur in remote locations with extremely high labour, transportation and utility costs
and where aquaculture facilities would not be situated.
6. Tax and trade policies may affect the economics of value adding.
If primary and secondary products are subject to different tax policies (by domestic
governments) or trade policies (by foreign governments in end-market countries) this
may affect the relative profitability of primary and secondary processing.
7. The economics of value adding may change significantly over time.
Seafood industry technology, prices, costs, taxes, consumer tastes, regulations and other
factors affecting the profitability of secondary processing are subject to significant
and sometimes rapid change. These can create new opportunities for profitable value
adding – or make formerly profitable value adding unprofitable. New labour saving
technologies such as salmon pinbone-pulling machines can make secondary processing
profitable in areas with high labour costs. Increasing labour costs in China could
reduce the profitability of the large secondary processing industry that has developed
there in recent years.
8. Marketing is critical to successful value adding.
Secondary products may command significantly higher prices than primary products.
This creates an incentive for processors to increase production of these products. Unless
increased production is accompanied by effective marketing to expand demand, prices
may fall as production expands – particularly for niche market products. Successful
value adding requires more than producing value added products cost effectively.
It also requires an understanding of what kinds of products markets demand and
communicating effectively about how products meet those demands.
9. Choices which maximize the overall profitability of a fish processing operations do
not necessarily maximize the profitability of by-product processing.
Fish processors make choices such as the location and scale of plants based on how
the choices affect total revenues, costs and profits rather than the revenues, costs and
profits from by-products. In general, processors face trade-offs between having more
smaller-scale operations located closer to where fish are harvested or grown (which
reduces costs of fish transportation and improves product quality) or having fewer
larger-scale operations (which benefit from greater economies of scale). In general,
because of the relatively greater intensity of by-product processing than food product
processing, the optimal fish plant scale for maximizing total profits is lower than the
optimal scale for maximizing the profitability of by-product processing. In fisheries
that are widely dispersed and/or highly seasonal, such as some Alaska salmon fisheries,
the scale of production may be insufficient to economically justify the capital costs of
utilizing the entire fish, resulting in the discarding of significant volumes of “waste”
products such as fish heads and entrails.
Basic economics of value adding for fish products
10. Different groups within a region may be affected in different ways by value
adding.
Fish processors benefit most from whatever types of processing are most profitable.
In some cases, it may be most profitable for processors not to engage in value-added
processing or to “export” primary products for further value-added processing outside
a region.
In general, fishermen and fish farmers also benefit most from whatever types of
processing are most profitable for processors – which maximize the prices processors
might potentially be able to pay for their fish.
In contrast, other businesses within a region – those which sell to fish processors
or to their employees – may benefit most from whatever types of processing
maximize expenditures by processors within the region, or which maximize processing
employment. Similarly, local and regional governments may benefit most from
whatever types of processing maximize sales taxes or property taxes. Thus other
businesses and local governments may advocate for relatively more value adding than
processors prefer.
In some cases, local governments may provide tax incentives or subsidies as
incentives for processors to undertake value adding – or they may mandate it.
Mandating value-adding may be rational from a local business development perspective
but is not necessarily optimal for processors or fishermen.
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The future of fishmeal and fish oil
Andrew Jackson and Jonathan Shepherd
International Fishmeal and Fish Oil Organisation
St Albans, United Kingdom
Introduction
Fishmeal is a natural feed ingredient used in diets for farmed fish and crustaceans and
as a supplement in nutritionally demanding periods in the life cycle of pigs and poultry,
as well as in pet food. The main nutritional benefits of fishmeal are that it is high in
protein with an excellent amino acid profile as well as being highly digestible with no
anti-nutritional factors.
Fish oil is the major natural source of the long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated
fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Most fish
oil is used in feeds for farmed fish and there is an expanding market for fish oil as a
human nutritional supplement in the form of oil capsules and as a food additive.
The annual global fish catch (excluding aquaculture) of around 90 million tonnes
includes approximately 30 million metric tonnes representing fish which go for
non-direct food use (FAO, 2008) (Figure 1). Of this 30 million tonnes around
16.5 million tonnes goes for fishmeal and fish oil production, the remainder going for
a range of uses, including direct feeding as minced wet fish to animals (particularly fish
and crustaceans in Asia), as well as pet foods and fur producing animals.
Figure 1
Total global capture fisheries
Source: FAO, 2008.
As summarized by Jackson and Shepherd (2010), about 5 million tonnes of fishmeal
and 1 million tonnes per annum of fish oil are derived from that 16.5 million tonnes of
whole fish. In addition to this production from whole fish, an increasing proportion of
fishmeal and fish oil is derived from trimmings as a by-product of fish processing for
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human consumption (approximately 5 million tonnes of by-products were converted
to approx 1.25 million tonnes of fishmeal and fish oil in 2008).
Figures 2 and 3 show global production of fishmeal and fish oil respectively from
the early 1960s to 2008, with fishmeal output at about 5 million tonnes and fish oil
at about 1 million tonnes in recent years. The largest producer of fishmeal and fish
oil from whole fish is Peru followed by Chile. Other important producing countries
include United States, Iceland, Norway, Denmark and Thailand. Much of the year
to year variation can be explained by the periodic El Niño events in the Pacific,
for example in 1998, which displace the upwelling of cold water responsible for the
exceptionally productive anchovy and other species fisheries off the Peruvian and
Chilean Pacific coasts.
Figure 2
Fishmeal production 1962 onwards
Figure 3
Fish oil production 1963 onwards
The future of fishmeal and fish oil
191
This chapter looks at the changing pattern of use of fishmeal and fish oil as
a component of feed, mainly for farmed aquatic animals, and comments on the
implications for sustainable aquaculture. When describing populations of whole,
wild (normally pelagic) fish being caught for manufacture of fishmeal and fish oil, the
term ‘feed’ fish will be used; such targeted fisheries are sometimes also referred to as
industrial, reduction or forage fisheries.
An overview of stock management of global feed fisheries, with
special reference to Peru
Global feed fisheries in general
The estimate of 16.5 million tonnes of whole, wild fish used to make fishmeal and
fish oil in 2008 excludes an additional 4.5 million tonnes of process trimmings derived
from wild and farmed fish for human consumption. This whole fish tonnage is caught
mainly by targeted fishing of pelagic species for which there is limited or no demand
for human consumption. By far the largest example in volume terms is the Peruvian
anchovy (Engraulis ringens), with an annual catch subject to El Niño fluctuations,
but during the period 2000 to 2006 varying from 6 to 10 million tonnes (including
approximately 1 million tonnes of Chilean landings) and thus representing 25 percent
to 30 percent or more of global fishmeal production depending on the year. National
production by industrial fisheries has recently been surveyed by Peron et al. (2010).
Table 1 shows the production data for the average of the period 2001 to 2006.
Table 1
Average annual catches of the largest pelagic fisheries used at least in part for feed purposes
Average annual
catch (tonnes)
Species
Latin name
Countries
Peruvian anchovy
Engraulis ringens
Peru, Chile
8,468,000
Chilean jack mackerel
Trachurus murphyi
Chile, Peru
1,749,000
Japanese anchovy
Trachurus japonicus
China, Japan
1,567,000
Chub mackerel
Scomber japonicus
Peru, Chile, China, Japan, Mexico
1,403,500
Blue whiting
Micromesistius
poutassou
Norway, Faroes, Denmark, Iceland
1,398,500
Capelin
Mallotus villosus
Norway, Iceland, Faroes, Canada
958,500
Menhaden
Brevoortia patronus &
Brevoortia tyrannus
USA
691,000
Source: Peron et al., 2010.
Additionally there are smaller catches of a variety of other small pelagic fish
species, e.g. Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and sardines (Sardina spp.) which are
used for both fishmeal and human consumption, as well as other species e.g. sandeel
(Ammodytes spp.) which are used only for fishmeal and fish oil. It is important to
recognise, however, that species such as chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), blue
whiting (Micromesistius poutassou), and capelin (Mallotus villosus) are now used
mainly for human consumption and this is increasingly true also for Chilean jack
mackerel (Trachurus murphyi). By contrast it has been estimated that 97 percent of
Peruvian anchovy is used for fishmeal and fish oil and menhaden (Brevoortia spp.) is
almost exclusively used for fishmeal and fish oil with a minor quantity going for bait
fish.
Growing recognition of the need for responsible practice
Recent years have seen a growing trend towards improving fisheries management and
adopting a more precautionary approach as laid out by the United Nations’ Food and
Agriculture Organization in their Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (FAO,
1995). This has resulted in some fundamental changes to the way many of the world’s
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largest feed fisheries have been managed. This is particularly true in both North and
South America as well as Europe. The multi-national nature of European waters has
given particular problems, but despite many serious issues, there is clear evidence that
the EU Common Fisheries Policy is being reformed. Meanwhile for many of the feed
fisheries, such as Norway pout (Trisopterus esmarkii), Blue Whiting and sand eels,
there are good management measures already in place which are allowing the stocks
to recover.
In Asia, where 20–25 percent of the world’s fishmeal is produced, the management
of the fisheries, which provide some of the raw material, presents a complicated
picture. Many of the fish that are destined to be made into fishmeal do not originate
from targeted pelagic species, but are fish for which there is no ready market for
human consumption. As such many of them are juvenile fish or slow growing benthic
fish, both of which are important for the sustainability of the ecosystem. In addition
there are often few fishery controls and very limited knowledge on the state of the
fishery. In addition to the fish which go for fishmeal and fish oil production, there are
significant volumes of fish which are used in a fresh state for direct feeding, particularly
to marine fish species. Estimates vary as to the annual quantity of fish used this way
but are thought to be in the order of around 5 million tonnes. This is an area where
considerable efforts are going to be needed in order to try and improve the situation.
All this is in contrast with what we can now see in South America where, following
problems during the 1970s and 1980s, significant efforts have been made to improve the
scientific knowledge of the major fisheries. This is particularly true of the management
of the world’s largest feed fishery, that for Peruvian anchovy, which is found principally
in Peru but also in northern Chile. The fishery lies within the exceptionally productive
Humboldt Large Marine Ecosystem (LME). The anchovy population fluctuates as a
result of natural events, mainly climatic – which occur in seasonal, annual, interannual
and interdecadal scales. One of the most dramatic events affecting the LME is the
occurrence of El Niño.
Processing of anchovy into fishmeal and fish oil on a serious scale in Peru had
begun in the 1950s. By 1964 rising demand for poultry and pig feed and improved
fishing and processing technology had resulted in Peru producing 40 percent of the
total global supply of fishmeal. Fish products accounted for 25–30 percent of export
earnings in the 1960s, but as the decade wore on, signs of overfishing appeared and the
newer larger fishing boats were forced to explore fresh untapped fishing grounds. In
1970 the FAO warned that the maximum (annual) sustainable yield of anchovy was
9.5 million tonnes, compared with an actual catch in that year of 12 million tonnes.
FAO’s warning was emphasised by a dramatic fall in catches in 1972 and 1973. Low
catches persisted through the eighties and the industry struggled, although the biomass
of other species, like sardines, increased.
It was then that the Peruvian Government, industry and the Peruvian national
fisheries research institute (Instituto del Mar del Perú; IMARPE) started working
together to develop the extensive policies and controls in place now. Peruvian policy
has been based on five principles:
1. Protection of ecosystems
2. Implementation of clean technologies
3. Preservation of biodiversity
4. Social justice
5. Sustainable use of marine resources
Anchovies are a pelagic, fast growing and short lived species and IMARPE has
stated (Soldi, 2009) that it is impossible to estimate an “optimal catch”. It is therefore
essential to manage this fishery in an adaptive, flexible and rapid manner. To do this
The future of fishmeal and fish oil
193
the controlling authorities (government) needs quasi real-time scientific information of
fisheries and the capability to make, implement and enforce decisions rapidly.
Information on stock status is provided by extended acoustic surveys three times
a year, plankton surveys to estimate fish abundance based on eggs and larvae density,
and plankton and oceanographic and plankton productivity by in situ and satellite
monitoring and analysis.
The management controls imposed by the Peruvian Government include:
Biomass controls
• Statutory seasons when the fisheries are open and closed
• Annual and seasonal total catch limits
• Only artisanal boats are permitted to fish within five miles of the coast
• Rapid closure when limits are reached of more than 10 percent juveniles in
catch
• Maximum Limits of Capture per Vessel (from 2009).
Bycatch controls
• Bycatch limit 5 percent (actual in 2007 was 3.6 percent according to IMARPE)
• Minimum mesh size of 1/2 inch (13mm)
Unloading
• Formal declaration of hold capacity
• Closed entry to new fishing boats
• Licences required to fish within the 200 mile limit and to land catch
• Security-sealed satellite tracking of all boats operating outside the 5 mile limit
• 24 hour independent recording of landings at 134 unloading points
• Fines and revoking of licences for breaches of rules
The capacity to make the rapid decisions necessary to protect the Peruvian
anchovy stock is illustrated by the decision flow diagram (Figure 4). If landings exceed
the catch limit set for a season, then there is an immediate and final stop to fishing. If
catches of juveniles exceed 10 percent of the catch, there is provisional closure while
further checks take place. Either, or both, of these decisions can be implemented within
36 hours.
Figure 4
Decision flow diagram
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There are further controls and information systems, many imposed to protect the
landings of fish for direct human consumption, for example, receiving plants are not
authorised to land fish coming from vessels without valid licenses.
Assessment of Peruvian controls
The controls introduced in Peru have resulted in the sustainability of Peru’s
fisheries and marine ecosystem recently being ranked as the best in the world by
Mondoux et al. (2008). Since this assessment Peru has undertaken further improvements
including the introduction of Maximum Limits of Capture per Vessel (MLCV), a form
of catch share, introduced in 2009 (Legislative decree 1084). This changed the system
from what had been until then a competitive race among fishing vessels to each secure
as much as possible of that fishing season’s total permitted catch for the whole fleet.
This change has shown a considerable number of benefits. For the 2009 fishing
season a Total Maximum Limit of Permissible Capture (TMLPC) of 2 million tonnes
for the whole fleet was set; this was then distributed as MLCVs amongst the fishing
vessels with a valid fishing permit. MLCVs were assigned to 1,147 fishing vessels.
However, only 886 fishing vessels were active during this season, a reduction in
23 percent of the hold capacity and the number of fishing vessels compared with a year
earlier.
The fishing effort was sustained for 87 days in 2009/2010 compared with only
19 days in 2008, 25 days in 2007, 21 days in 2006 and 50 days in 2005. In comparison
to 2008, there was a significant reduction in the average number of fishing vessels active
each day and also on the average number of landings of anchovy each day, down by
70 percent and 72 percent respectively (Table 2). This reduction improved the freshness
of the raw material which increased the price of the anchovy, benefiting the fishermen,
and also improved the quality of the final products.
TABLE 2
The impact of MLCVs on landings and fishing days
Indicator
Seasons 2008
Seasons 2009
Difference
1st
2nd
Total
1st
2nd
Total
LMTCP metric
tonnes
3 000 000
2 000 000
5 000 000
3 500 000
2 000 000
5 500 00
2008/2009
10%
Landings metric
tonnes
3 147 954
2 136 205
5 284 159
3 419 379
1 961 449
5 380
828
2%
263%
Days Fishing
33
19
52
102
87
189
Av FV/day**
836
901
860
280
233
258
-70%
159 415
166 285
161 925
54 089
47 511
51 061
-68%
95 393
112 432
101 618
33 523
22 545
28 470
-72%
Av Auth Cap/day*
metric tonnes
Av Landings/day
metric tonnes
** Average Number of Vessels fishing per day.
* Average total of Authorised Capacity fishing per day.
Source: Peruvian Ministry of Production.
The outcome of all these improvements is that the high quality of Peruvian
management of the anchovy fishery is now becoming better recognised internationally
when compared using criteria from the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible
Fisheries. The FAO Code is however under some criticism for not having a full
ecosystem approach. Meanwhile, Peru has launched a project called Peru Ecosystem
Projection Scenarios (PEPS), which will evaluate the impact of fisheries on parts of
the ecosystem. Already started are projects looking at how a warmer world may
affect atmospheric forcing and oceanic circulation and productivity; how setting aside
five million tonnes from spawning stock would affect the ecosystem; and sea bird and
sea lion population monitoring as indicators of the interaction between anchovy stocks
and numbers of higher predators. Marine Protected Areas are also to be implemented.
The future of fishmeal and fish oil
Current Supply trends
Maximising the proportion of feed fish sold for human consumption
There is no definitive list of ‘feed species’ or fisheries – most of them are edible and
provide nutrition to humans. However, many of the species used to manufacture
fishmeal and fish oil are small, bony, not very palatable or unfamiliar to consumers; or
the logistics of transporting them to markets in good condition and at realistic price
levels have been problematic. Small pelagic fish, such as anchovy, deteriorate rapidly in
unrefrigerated holds or storage. Lack of investment in processing facilities (for human
consumption) has also restricted the opening up of human consumption markets. For
some other species, such as herring in the North East Atlantic, that part of the catch
that is not supplied into its usual human consumption market, has been diverted to
produce fishmeal. Later in this chapter the efficiency of feeding wild caught fish to
farmed fish is addressed, but there is an a priori argument that fish should go for direct
human consumption wherever possible since, other things being equal, this is usually
the higher value use. As regards ethical considerations, Wijkström (2009) has recently
criticised the view that making fishmeal for feeding to fish is wrong if the purpose is to
maximise food production, arguing that it gives no weight to the economic realities or
food preferences that govern the use of fish.
Traditionally fishmeal factories have often been located alongside canning and
freezing factories, to process and pack fish for human consumption. If fish could
find a market for human consumption, the fish took the canning or freezing route.
For the last five to ten years there has been increased effort put into finding a human
consumption outlet for what were previously regarded as feed fish by means of:
• investment in processing facilities and adding value by government and
industry;
• new product development (such as surimi);
• more even landings through introduction of catch share schemes, as opposed
to alternating glut and shortage;
• national or international food aid schemes;
• improved handling and methods of preserving the catch in good condition.
Norway reports an increasing proportion of its catch of capelin, herring and blue
whiting going for human consumption; and Denmark similarly with herring and blue
whiting. In Chile there has been a large rise in the proportion of jack mackerel and
chub mackerel catch going for human consumption with some processors finding
human consumption outlets for more than half their output and exporting mackerel
products to dozens of countries.
Recently the Peruvian government has been actively encouraging the development
of a local market for the direct human consumption of anchovy. As a result there has
been considerable investment in the processing and distribution of anchovy throughout
the country and particularly into the poorer areas in the mountains. Sales of anchovy for
human consumption in both local and export markets are expected to grow. However,
in relative terms, the volumes are likely to remain fairly small and will not greatly affect
the output of fishmeal and fish oil. For example, in 2009, approximately 120 000 tonnes
(2 percent) of Peruvian anchovy went for human consumption (Peruvian Ministry of
Production, 2009).
Increased production of fishmeal and fish oil from processing by-products
(wild and farmed)
Globally in 2009 about 25 percent of fishmeal and fish oil was produced from
by-products and this proportion has been rising steadily in recent years, by about
1–2 percent per annum (source: IFFO estimates).
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Table 3 is a country-by-country estimate of fishmeal production from by-products
(frames, offal, trimmings) for 2008 with the largest such producers being Thailand,
Japan, and Chile (in that order). The factors which encourage by-product based
production include reliable local availability of offals from seafood processing, local
demand from fish feed factories, and favourable logistics. For example, Chilean seafood
factories processing for human consumption markets are frequently integrated with
fishmeal production plants; fresh offals and off-cuts, which have no commercial value
for human consumption, are diverted direct to the fishmeal intake channel. On the
other hand Alaskan processors of Pollock for human consumption often have difficulty
manufacturing fishmeal and fish oil cost-efficiently because of problems of seasonality,
lack of geographical concentration, lack of local demand etc., despite the large size
of the pollock fishery. Local year round demand for fishmeal from neighbouring
animal and fish feed plants has encouraged by-product utilisation and there is also an
increasing use of aquaculture processing by-products as raw materials, although most
countries have regulations prohibiting such material from being recycled back to the
same species.
TABLE 3
Estimate of global production by-product fishmeal, 2008
Country
Total Fishmeal Production
(‘000 tonnes)
By-Product Coefficient (%)
By-product Fishmeal
Production (‘000 tonnes)
Angola
5.3
50
2.7
Argentina
50.0
55
27.5
Australia
14.0
50
7.0
Brazil
42.5
22
9.4
Cambodia
3.0
60
1.8
Canada
31.2
100
31.2
Chile
673.3
14
94.3
China
141.0
5
7.1
Denmark
161.3
20
32.3
Ecuador
48.0
14
6.7
Faroe Islands
44.4
5
2.2
Finland
3.6
70
2.5
France
13.7
100
13.7
Germany
19.0
100
19.0
Iceland
140.9
32
45.1
India
19.3
5
1.0
Indonesia
15.0
30
4.5
Iran
29.8
30
8.9
Ireland
19.3
40
7.7
Italy
4.3
100
4.3
1.0
60
0.6
Japan
Ivory Coast
202.9
90
182.6
Korea (Rep)
49.6
20
9.9
Lithuania
22.0
20
4.4
Malaysia
44.2
40
17.7
Maldives
2.0
80
1.6
Mauritius
5.0
60
3.0
Mexico
105.8
50
52.9
Morocco
78.0
15
11.7
Namibia
12.5
100
12.5
New Zealand
27.0
10
2.7
Norway
135.0
22
29.7
Pakistan
56.2
20
11.2
Panama
55.2
10
5.5
1 396.1
2
27.9
Poland
22.4
40
9.0
Russian Fed.
71.0
50
35.5
Peru
The future of fishmeal and fish oil
197
TABLE 3
Estimate of global production by-product fishmeal, 2008 (continued)
Total Fishmeal Production
(‘000 tonnes)
By-Product Coefficient (%)
Senegal
4.3
100
4.3
Seychelles
20.0
70
14.0
Country
By-product Fishmeal
Production (‘000 tonnes)
South Africa
83.8
10
8.4
Spain
20.0
100
20.0
Sweden
23.6
50
11.8
Taiwan
18.2
70
12.7
Thailand
468.0
60
280.8
U.K.
42.0
70
29.4
U.S.A.
216.2
25
54.1
Vietnam
45.9
50
Total 47
4 706.8
Others
Total world
23.0
1 205.6
111.2
20
22.2
4 818.0
25%
1 227.9
Increased pressure to convert trash fish to fishmeal and fish oil in South East
Asia
More than five million tonnes of low value fish is used for animal feed each year in
South East Asia and is reviewed by Funge-Smith et al. (2005). Most of this material
has been fed directly to pigs, poultry and, increasingly, to farmed fish. This practice is
now being discouraged because of poor storage qualities and high levels of wastage at
feeding. In its place fish farmers are increasingly using pelletted feed, including varying
proportions of fishmeal and fish oil.
Overview of current supply trends
IFFO expects production of fishmeal and fish oil to remain broadly static, or to
decline slightly, over the next five to 10 years. Initiatives, often led by governments, to
protect and preserve stocks and to maximise the quantity of feed fish being sold for
direct human consumption will have a broadly negative effect on production volumes;
while increased production from the by-products of wild caught and farmed seafood
processing plus the replacement of ‘trash fish’ feed with manufactured pellets will have
a balancing positive effect (Table 4). This does not take account of the likely market
entry of long chain omega-3 oils derived from algal production and from genetically
modified plants within the next 5 to 10 years.
TABLE 4
Forecast supply trends, 2010–2020
Forecast supply trend
Impact on production
Rigid application of stock conservation controls based on the
precautionary principle
Broadly negative
Maximising the proportion of feed fish sold for human
consumption
Negative
Increased production of fishmeal and fish oil from processing
by-products (wild and farmed)
Positive
Replacement of direct ‘trash’ fish feeding in aquaculture feeds
with pelletted feed (including fishmeal and fish oil)
Positive
Overall
Static or slightly declining
Source: IFFO
Current demand trends
Move from ‘Agri’ to ‘Aqua’ during 1960 to 2005
Current demand issues should be considered against a background of the dramatic
changes which have occurred in the pattern of global fishmeal and fish oil consumption
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in the last thirty to forty years, both in terms of the sectors in which they were used
and geographically.
Figures 5 and 6 summarise the changes by sector according to IFFO estimates.
In 1960 98.5 percent of fishmeal was used in chicken and pig feeds. By 2008, this had
shrunk to 40 percent and aquaculture had taken over as the major user at 60 percent.
For fish oil the switch has been from hardened edible (margarine) used at 80 percent of
consumption in 1970 to 80 percent use in aquaculture by 2010. Two things happened
simultaneously, one was a move from hard margarines made from hydrogenated fats
to vegetable margarines, principally on the evidence of reduced heart disease, and
secondly there was a rapid growth in aquaculture over this period, particularly salmon
which require a high oil diet. Thus the use of hydrogenated fat was severely reduced
in the United States and Europe, which happened to coincide with the rapid growth in
salmonid production, providing a new outlet for fish oil. Figures 7 and 8 show detail
by species on use in aquaculture.
Also of note is the growth, from near zero in 1970 to an estimated 15 percent of
production by 2010, in refined edible oil for human consumption, which includes fish
oil supplements and additives.
Figure 5
Changing uses of fishmeal
Source: IFFO estimates.
Figure 6
Changing uses of fish oil
Source: IFFO estimates.
The future of fishmeal and fish oil
199
Figure 7
Use of fishmeal in aquaculture, 2008
Figure 8
Use of fish oil in aquaculture, 2008
Currently then, the rapidly expanding aquaculture sector is the major user of both
fishmeal and fish oil. This has led to concerns that the continued growth of aquaculture
could be constrained by a shortage of fishmeal and fish oil or else lead to unsustainable
fishing to meet the demand (Naylor et al., 2009). These concerns are discussed further
later.
Current trends in consumption – reducing dietary inclusion levels
The aquafeed industry has recognised for some time that supplies of fishmeal and fish oil
were finite and now appear limited to a range of approximately 5–6 million tonnes and
1–1.5 million tonnes per annum, respectively. Extensive research has been undertaken
to identify and introduce alternative sources of lipids and protein, particularly for
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the more intensively farmed species with a longer history of being farmed, such
as salmonids and shrimp. The result is that the proportion of marine ingredients
in salmonid diets has been progressively reduced by feed formulators since 2000
(Figure 9). Where technology and cost considerations have allowed, fishmeal has been
increasingly substituted by soybean meal and land animal proteins, whereas fish oil
has been increasingly substituted by vegetable oils, mainly rapeseed oil. This trend is
likely to continue as nutritional knowledge and processing technology increases and
has occurred in both chicken and pig diets. These two species, which in 1960 consumed
almost 100 percent of the world’s fishmeal production, have achieved phenomenal
growth in production over the last 50 years but now use under 40 percent of the
world’s fishmeal production. It should be noted that dietary inclusion in chickens is
now largely restricted to chicks in the first day or two after hatching and is largely
restricted in piglets to the period during and immediately after weaning.
Judging from the pattern of substitution, it seems likely that marine ingredients
will be used more and more strategically at critical stages in the life cycle of both fish
and farmed land animals, where their health, welfare and nutritional properties are
especially beneficial and valuable, for example in weaner feeds for young pigs and in
hatchery feeds for farmed fish fry and fingerlings. Thus it is not usually nutritionally
necessary or cost-effective to feed fishmeal in broiler chickens or fattening pigs.
Also the growing evidence for the role played by the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids
EPA and DHA, found almost exclusively in marine oils, will ensure that there is
a continuing demand for including fish oil in the diets of farmed fish (particularly
salmonids) to ensure health giving properties for the final consumer. The link in
humans between sufficient intake of these two omega-3 fatty acids and healthy hearts
and brain development is now well established and there is a growing body of evidence
indicating their health benefits with respect to other conditions (Ruxton et al., 2004).
Figure 9
Inclusion levels of marine ingredients in salmonid diets, 2000–2008
The result of lower inclusion levels of fishmeal and fish oil in aquaculture diets
has been a levelling off the total global consumption of these two products by the
aquaculture sector. Figure 10 shows that while overall aquaculture production
continues to grow, the use of fishmeal for aquaculture rose during the period 2000 to
The future of fishmeal and fish oil
201
2004 and then reached a plateau at about 3.1 million metric tonnes. This compares with
total fishmeal supply in 2008 of approx 4.9 million metric tonnes (the balance being
taken up mainly by pigs and poultry). It can be seen that the annual use of fish oil for
aquaculture over the period 2000 to 2008 remained fairly constant at between 700 000
and 800 000 metric tonnes compared with a total annual supply of around 1 million
metric tonnes.
Figure 10
Global aquaculture production with fishmeal and fish oil usage, 2000–2008
Source: Data FAO and IFFO.
Fishmeal usage moving to Asia
Equally there has been a large change in the geographical pattern of consumption as
shown in Figure 11 comparing 1960, 1980 and 2000. As intensive aquaculture has grown
in China and South East Asia, this area has become the dominant user of fishmeal. This
trend will undoubtedly be maintained because of the rapid modernisation of intensive
livestock production in order to meet the demand for animal protein by an increasingly
affluent oriental population with a keen demand for pork and fish.
Figure 11
Changing pattern of global fishmeal consumption, 1960–2000
Souce: IFFO estimates.
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Efficiency of transformation of wild feed fish via aquaculture into fish and
other seafood for human consumption
In the wild it is generally considered that salmon consume around 10 kg of prey fish
to produce 1 kg of live weight gain. Under farming conditions this ratio of 10:1 is
considerably improved, but there has been considerable debate as to the best way to
calculate this ratio. Tacon and Metian (2008) produced estimates that in 2006 farmed
salmon required 4 or 5 kg of wild fish, in the form of fishmeal and oil in their feed,
to achieve each kilogram of weight gain. Focus on this high Fish-in/Fish-out (FIFO)
ratio for salmonids and other species has been cited in questioning the eco-efficiency
of expanding aquaculture to increase supplies of seafood.
Figure 12
Mass balance for fishmeal and fish oil
Jackson and Shepherd (2010) demonstrated, by means of a mass balance model
for the transformation of wild fish to fishmeal and fish oil and its subsequent use in
aquaculture feeds, that the method used by Tacon and Metian gave much higher values
than those calculated with this alternative method. The results of the mass balance
calculations are given in Figure 12 and Tables 5, 6 and 7. The output shows that in
2008 just under 22 million tonnes of raw material, comprising 16.47 million tonnes
of harvested whole fish and 5.49 million tonnes of by-products, were processed into
fishmeal and fish oil. The by-products are frames, guts, skin etc from the processing
of whole wild and farmed fish and other seafood for human consumption. These
inputs yielded 4.94 million tonnes of fishmeal, 1.03 million tonnes of fish oil and
15.99 million tonnes of water. The water obviously remained at the site of production
released as water or steam.
Table 5 and Table 6 are the result of analysing where the outputs, respectively and
separately, of fishmeal and fish oil are used, and of the amount of raw material and
whole fish that can be attributed to each activity. The resulting whole fish attribution
is then used to calculate a Fish-in/Fish-out ratio (FIFO) for each ‘fed’ aquaculture
activity, using the definition of fed aquaculture used by Tacon (Tacon, 2005). These two
tables show clearly why looking at fishmeal and fish oil attribution separately gives a
distorted view. For example, it can be seen that, according to Table 6, to produce the
The future of fishmeal and fish oil
203
120 000 metric tonnes of fish oil going for direct human use, such as capsules, required
over 2 million tonnes of fish. Whilst being correct, this implies that the fish were caught
only for their oil, which is not the case because nearly five times the amount of meal
is extracted as oil.
TABLE 5
Fishmeal used in farmed production and the resultant whole fish FIFO1 ratio (thousand tonnes)
Chicken
Pig
1
Fishmeal
Raw material
Whole Fish
Farmed production)
FIFO1
440
1 957
1 468
N/A
N/A
N/A
1 263
5 613
4 210
N/A
Other Land Animals
160
711
533
N/A
N/A
Crustaceans
786
3 494
2 621
4 673
0.56
Marine Fish
738
3 281
2 461
2 337
1.05
Salmon & Trout
916
4 069
3 052
2 365
1.29
Eels
186
825
619
244
2.53
Cyprinids
130
577
433
13 037
0.03
Tilapias
143
636
477
2 737
0.17
Other Freshwater
180
800
600
2 102
0.29
Aquaculture Sub-total
3 079
13 683
10 262
27 495
0.37
Total
4 942
21 964
16 473
FIFO = Fish-in/Fish-out ratio
TABLE 6
Fish oil used in farmed production and the resultant whole fish FIFO1 ratio (thousand tonnes)
Fish oil
Raw material
Whole Fish
Farmed production
FIFO1
Human Consumption
126
2 689
2 017
N/A
N/A
Other uses
110
2 340
1 755
N/A
N/A
Crustaceans
28
589
442
4 673
0.09
Marine Fish
115
2 455
1 841
2 337
0.79
Salmon & Trout
604
12 857
9 642
2 365
4.08
Eels
15
320
240
244
0.98
Cyprinids
1
24
18
13 037
0.00
Tilapias
18
376
282
2 737
0.10
Other Freshwater
15
313
235
2 102
0.11
Aquaculture Sub-total
796
16 934
12 700
27 495
0.46
1 032
21 964
16 472
Total
1
FIFO = Fish-In/Fish-out ratio
Given that both fishmeal and fish oil currently yield about the same revenue per
tonne (US$1 000–1 500/tonne), the fishmeal and fish oil are therefore equally valued
today and equally important in determining the profitability of the enterprise. It
therefore seems logical to combine the fishmeal and fish oil production and conduct a
full mass balance analysis of the global system for their production. Table 7 is the result
of such a mass balance analysis which accounts for all raw materials entering the system
and the resulting outputs (meal, oil and water) and their attribution to each destination
activity.
Taking fed aquaculture alone it can be seen that, if the inputs and outputs are
compared by species, 27.49 million tonnes of fed aquaculture were produced in
2008 using feed derived from 10.68 million tonnes of whole wild fish representing a
Fish-in/Fish-out ratio of 0.39:1. This is further broken down to show the corresponding
ratios for species groupings, ranging from 2.26:1 for farmed eels down to 0.03:1 for
carp, with salmonids at a ratio of 1.77:1. It should be noted that this mass balance
approach gives FIFO ratios that are lower than those calculated by Tacon and Metian
(2008) using the single ingredient approach.
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
TABLE 7
Mass Balance for Fish oil & Fishmeal combined including overall whole fish FIFO1 ratio
(thousand tonnes)
Fish oil
Water
Total Raw
material
Whole
Fish
Farmed
production
FIFO1
Chicken
0
440
1 178
1 619
1 214
N/A
N/A
Pig
0
1 263
3 380
4 643
3 482
N/A
N/A
Other Land Animals
0
160
428
588
441
N/A
N/A
Other oil uses
110
0
294
404
303
N/A
N/A
Human Consumption
126
0
337
463
347
N/A
N/A
Crustaceans
28
786
2 178
2 992
2 244
4 673
0.48
Marine Fish
115
738
2 285
3 138
2 354
2 337
1.01
Salmon & Trout
604
916
4 069
5 588
4 191
2 365
1.77
Eels
15
186
537
738
554
244
2.26
Cyprinids
1
130
350
481
361
13 037
0.03
Tilapias
18
143
430
591
443
2 737
0.16
Other Freshwater
15
180
521
716
537
2 102
0.26
27 495
0.39
Aquaculture Sub-total
Total
1
Fishmeal
796
3 079
10 371
14 246
10 684
1 032
4 942
15 990
21 964
16 473
FIFO = Fish-in/Fish-out ratio
Salmonid’s FIFO ratio is not only lower than has previously been suggested, but it
is steadily declining (Fig 13), from 2.5 in 2001 to 1.8 in 2008. During the same period
the ratio for all aquaculture reduced from just over 0.5 to 0.39. The main reason for this
trend is the substitution of fishmeal and fish oil by other ingredients, notably soybeans
and rapeseed oil.
Estimates can also be made as to the amount of whole wild fish that are being used
in different food production sectors (Figure 14). Here it can be seen that over recent
years there has been a steady decline in the amount of whole fish which has gone for
rendering, falling from around 23 million tonnes in 2000 to about 16.5 million tonnes
in 2008. The biggest reduction has been in the amount of whole fish going to the pig
and poultry industry while, as already discussed, volumes going to the aquaculture
industry have remained fairly constant over the last five years.
Figure 13
FIFO 2000–2008 for farmed Salmonids, based on whole rendered fish
The future of fishmeal and fish oil
205
Figure 14
Global use of rendered whole fish
Reassuring the value chain about fisheries management
Supermarkets, processors and wholesalers wish to be able to reassure their respective
customers that seafood and animal products are responsibly sourced and supplied. The
FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries is the only internationally recognised
measure of good fisheries management and is therefore the commonest reference point
for accreditation programmes.
There are a number of such initiatives in the fisheries and aquaculture sectors –
some already operational, including those from Global Gap, Friend of the Sea,
Best Aquaculture Practice (from the Global Aquaculture Alliance), and the Marine
Stewardship Council – and others in the pipeline – such as the Aquaculture Stewardship
Council. All of these audit to a Standard and grant certified status. Some of these are
consumer ecolabels and others are focused on business-to-business reassurance of
good and responsible practice.
None of these has addressed the needs of the fishmeal and fish oil producers both
to be able to demonstrate responsible sourcing (from well managed fisheries) and
responsible production of safe and pure products. Only small quantities of fishmeal are
available so far from MSC certified fisheries. In 2009 IFFO therefore launched its own
Global Standard for Responsible Supply (the IFFO RS) and associated certification
programme for fishmeal and fish oil factories. In order to ensure that the Standard
and programme reflected the needs of all stakeholders, they were developed by a
multi-stakeholder Technical Advisory Committee, including representatives of
producers and traders of fishmeal & fish oil, fish feed producers, fish farmers, fish
processors, retailers and environmental NGOs. The unit audited is the factory.
The programme opened to applications from October 2009 and the first factory
was awarded certification in February 2010. Supplies of fishmeal and fish oil from
factories, which had been independently audited and certified as complying with the
IFFO RS, first came on to the market in 2010. Forty seven factories in four countries,
representing approx 25 percent of world production, had been approved by 31st August
2010. This progress suggests that the IFFO RS programme will form the first link in a
fully certified aquaculture supply chain.
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
Key features of the IFFO RS are:
• It is a business-to-business certification programme that enables a compliant
factory to demonstrate that it responsibly sources its raw material from well
managed fisheries and responsibly converts that into safe products free from
cross contamination.
• Whole fish used must come from fisheries that have been independently
scientifically assessed and meet the key principles of the FAO Code of
Conduct for Responsible Fisheries – the only internationally recognised
measure of good fisheries management. Illegal, unreported and unregulated
(IUU) fish are excluded.
• Applicants must demonstrate that they manufacture under a recognised quality
control scheme to ensure product safety and purity whilst also maintaining
product traceability
• All applications are assessed through audits against the IFFO RS standard by
an independent ISO 65:1996 accredited certification body
• The Certification Committee, which reviews all audit reports, comprises a
retailer, a processor, an environmental NGO, and one IFFO representative
• The IFFO programme recognises other certification programmes which have
demonstrable equivalency and which are accepted within the industry e.g.
Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) for the fishery element.
The IFFO RS is in continuous development. During 2011 IFFO expects to add a
fisheries by-product module and is also evaluating and developing an emissions and
effluent module, as well as an Improvers’ Programme.
The development of an Improvers’ Programme relates to concern that factories in
some countries will find the IFFO RS Standard difficult to achieve, yet there is a will
to raise standards. IFFO does not wish to dilute the IFFO RS Standard but hopes to
work with manufacturers and government as well as other international bodies, such
as the FAO and World Bank, which can provide access to capital funds for investment
in factories and fisheries management. The approach will be to identify areas of noncompliance, and develop a structured programme of continuous improvement with
agreed milestones along a defined timeline towards a final goal of certification to the
IFFO RS Standard (IFFO, 2010).
Summary and implications of future trends
To sum up, it seems likely that current global supplies of fishmeal and fish oil will not
increase beyond current annual production levels in the region of 5 million tonnes and
1 million tonnes respectively and may reduce to a limited extent. Aquaculture feeds are
the main use of fishmeal and fish oil and world ‘fed’ aquaculture production continues
to rise; however, the ceiling on supply of marine ingredients and their reducing dietary
inclusion levels because of substitution, has resulted in a levelling off of total annual
consumption since 2004 and 2001 of fishmeal and fish oil respectively. Increased
fishmeal market share for aquaculture feeds (today approximately 60 percent) versus
land animal feeds (today approximately 40 percent) is likely to come about only if
aquaculture is prepared to pay more than agriculture (especially for the weaner piglet
feed market). The fish oil market is even more dominated by aquaculture feeds (today
approximately 80 percent), especially for salmonid farming; however, the growth rate
of salmonid culture is slowing and dietary inclusion levels for fish oil are reducing
because of substitution with vegetable oils. This trend is expected to continue, whereas
we have recently seen the emergence of a high omega-3 segment to supply the human
health market; this is a higher value segment and today represents a market share of c
20 percent by volume. The likelihood is that the human health market will continue to
increase market share versus aquaculture feeds in volume and value. Another important
factor in this market place will be the probable introduction of algal- and GM-derived
The future of fishmeal and fish oil
competitors to EPA and DHA which, price permitting, could be used for both feed
and human nutraceutical purposes.
Overall the fishmeal and fish oil markets are expected to remain scarcity-driven
with price volatility due to supply fluctuations against a background of continuing
demand pressures, driven in particular by increased food production in Asia.
Traditionally used as feed commodity raw materials, marine ingredients are now being
increasingly fed strategically at critical stages of the life cycle in farming fish and land
animals or alternatively in the manufacture of added value speciality products for the
human nutritional and pharmaceutical markets.
It is clear that as finite live natural resources, fish stocks supplying fishmeal and
fish oil must be managed responsibly to ensure a sustainable future for the industry.
Also it is important that producers are able and willing to demonstrate responsible
practice in sourcing and production; in this regard the recent trend towards seeking
third party audited certification is likely to increase and is to be welcomed. Provided
the industry is sustainable, the evidence presented indicates that nutritional innovation
to enable (at least) partial substitution, together with increasing price, means the market
will continue to reallocate marine ingredients to the highest value market, rather than
creating shortages which would curb continuing expansion of aquaculture and land
animal production.
References
FAO. 2005. Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. Rome. 41 pp.
FAO. 2008. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture, 2008. Rome. 176 pp.
Funge-Smith, S., Lindebo, E. & Staples, D. 2005. Asian fisheries today: the production
and use of low value/trash fish from marine fisheries in the Asia–Pacific region. RAP
Publication 2005/16. Bangkok, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific (RAP).
38 pp.
IFFO. 2010. Global standard for responsible supply. In: IFFO [online]. www.iffo.net
Mondoux, S., Pitcher, T. & Pauly, D. 2008. Ranking maritime countries by the
sustainability of their fisheries. In J. Alder & D.Pauly, eds. Fisheries Centre Research
Report, 16(7), pp 13–27.
Jackson, A.J. & Shepherd, C.J. 2010. Connections between farmed and wild fish: fishmeal
and fish oil as feed ingredients in sustainable aquaculture. In: Organisation for Economic
Cooperation and Development. Advancing the aquaculture agenda. Policies to ensure a
sustainable aquaculture sector. 15–16 April 2010, Paris, pp. 331–343.
Naylor, R.L., Hardy, R.W., Bureauc, D.P., Chiua, A., Elliott, M., Farrelle, A.P., Forster,
I., Gatlin, D.M., Goldburgh, R.J., Huac K. & Nichols, P.D. 2009. Feeding aquaculture
in an era of finite resources. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(36):
15103–15110.
Peron, G., Mittaine J.F. & Le Gallic, B. 2010. Where do fishmeal and fish oil products
come from? An analysis of the conversion ratios in the global fishmeal industry. Marine
Policy, 34(4): 815–820.
Peruvian Ministry of Production. 2009. Desenvolvimiento anual. In: Viceministerio
de Pesquería [online] www.produce.gob.pe/portal/portal/apsportalproduce/
internapesqueria?ARE=3&JER=443
Ruxton, C.H.S, Reed, S.C., Simpson, M.J.A. & Millington, K.J. 2004. The health benefits
of omega–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: a review of the evidence. Journal of Human
Nutrition and Dietetics, 17: 449–459.
Soldi, H. 2009. Status and future of the anchovy fisheries of Peru. In: Seafood Summit,
1–3 February 2009 San Diego.
Tacon, A.G.J. 2005. Salmon aquaculture dialogue: status of information on salmon
aquaculture feed and the environment. International Aquafeed, 8: 22–37.
207
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Tacon, A.G.J. & Metian, M. 2008. Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oil
in industrially compounded aquafeeds: trends and future prospects. Aquaculture, 285:
146–158.
Wijkström, U.N. 2009. The use of wild fish as aquaculture feed and its effects on income
and food for the poor and the undernourished. In M.R. Hasan & M. Halwart, eds. Fish
as feed inputs for aquaculture: practices, sustainability and implications, pp. 371–407.
Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 518. Rome, FAO.
209
Health benefits of bio-functional
marine lipids
Zakir Hossain1 and Koretaro Takahashi2
Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University
Mymensingh, Bangladesh
2
Faculty of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University
Hokadate, Japan
1
Introduction
The importance of marine polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) phospholipid of
n-3 series specially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA),
in human nutrition is becoming recognized (British Nutrition Foundation, 1992).
N-3 PUFAs such as EPA and DHA have many biological functions. Sphingolipids are
other functional lipids that are found in all eukaryotic cells. The complex sphingolipids
consist of a long chain sphingoid-base, usually sphingosine, which is acylated at the
2-amino position, forming a ceramide. In sphingomyelin (SM), a phosphatidylcholine
is bound to the 1-ol position of ceramide, while a mono- or an oligosaccharide is found
in this position in the glycosphingolipids. Thus, sphingolipids can be expected in minor
amounts in all food products. They act as intracellular messengers, being involved in
cell cycle regulation and induction of apoptosis (Hannun et al., 2000; Huwiler et al.,
2000). Glycolipids also play certain physiological roles such as regulation of protein
kinase activity and inhibit tumour cell growth (Jennemann et al., 1990). Glycolipids are
usually rare in terrestrial plants and animals but are present in relatively large amounts
in some species of marine algae (Richmond, 1990). Monogalactosyl diacylglycerol
(MGDG), Digalactosyl diacylglycerol (DGDG) and Sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol
(SQDG) are known as important biofunctional glycolipids.
These marine lipids have been applied in a variety of fields such as biochemistry,
food technology, cosmetics etc. Beside these industries, scientists identified their
potential application in pharmaceutical sciences. Recently, there has been a growing
interest in the ingestion of n-3 fatty acids in the treatment of cancer (Karmali, 1996).
Since the 1990s, marine complex lipids are being recognized as useful complex lipids
for health care purposes. In this article, the focus will be on the sources and health
benefits of marine lipids.
Sources For Marine Lipids
Marine Phospholipids
Marine fishes are rich in PUFAs inserted EPA and DHA. Krill oil also contains
phospholipids that have a naturally high content of EPA and DHA. The oil also
contains other nutrients considered essential for the human body. The sources of DHA
and EPA in marine fishes are shown in Table 1.
Krill are tiny open ocean crustaceans and are found in very large quantities.
They are rich in n-3 PUFAs. Other sources of marine lipids that are rich in DHA
inserted phospholipids are squid skin, muscle, connective tissues, and the gonads
of marine animals. A recently identified source for EPA inserted phospholipids is
starfish (Asterias amurensis). A notable feature is that starfish is not only rich in EPA
inserted phospholipids but also rich in cerebroside, an extremely useful material for
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
cosmetics. Starfish eat scallop and fish in the sea. Set nets are also often damaged by
starfish. Though starfish are a nuisance for fisherman, they are rich in useful complex
lipids. For example, cerebroside content in starfish is approximately 0.1–0.2 percent
and phospholipid content is 0.2–0.3 percent. The fatty acids composition of squid and
starfish phosphatidylcholine is shown in Table 2 (Hossain et al., 2006).
TABLE 1
Sources of EPA and DHA in different marine fishes
Fish/Seafood
Total EPA/DHA (mg/100 g)
Mackerel
2 300
Chinook salmon
1 900
Herring
1 700
Anchovy
1 400
Sardine
1 400
Coho salmon
1 200
Trout
600
Spiny lobster
500
Halibut
400
Shrimp
300
Catfish
300
Sole
200
Cod
200
Source: USDA Nutrient Database www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp/search/
TABLE 2
Fatty acid composition of soy, squid meal and starfish phosphotidylcholine
Fatty acid
Soy PC (%)
Squid meal PC (%)
Starfish PC (%)
C 16:0 (Palmitic acid)
12.5
35.2
3.4
C 18:0 (Stearic acid)
0.2
1.3
9.5
C 18:1 (Oleic acid)
14.8
2.4
6.7
C 18:2 (Linoleic acid)
63.4
1.0
––
C 20:1 (Eicosenoic acid)
0.4
11.4
C 20:4 (Arachidonic acid)
1.0
5.6
C 20:5 (EPA)
9.2
47.3
C 22:5 (Docosapentaenoic acid)
––
1.5
42.6
8.3
C 22:6 (DHA)
Marine Sphingolipids
The physiologically active substances including glycosylceramides and some
related compounds are found in a variety of sea cucumber species (Yamada, 2002;
Yamada et al., 2003). Dry sea cucumber contains approximately 200 mg cerebroside
per 100 g dry weight (Sugawara et al., 2006). Glycosylceramides used for food
ingredient have been isolated from some plant sources, but their content is very low
(1–40 mg/100 g dry weight, Sugawara and Miyazawa, 1999). Thus, sea cucumber might
be a suitable dietary source of sphingolipids. However, the sphingoid base structures in
sea cucumber are more complicated than those in mammals and there is little information
about food function of these sphingoid bases, which are not found in mammals. The
fatty fishes contain relatively high amounts of glycosphingolipids. Salmon contains
114 nmol glycosphingolipids/g and herring 88 nmol/g, indicating that fatty fish are
among the richest sources of dietary glycosphingolipids (Hellgren, 2001). Sphingolipids
were extracted and quantified from Pacific saury (Cololabis saira). Sphingomyelin in
different tissues of C. saira ranged from 2.5 mg/g to 27.6 mg/g, the content in brain
was the highest, followed by eyes, and ceramide monohexoside content was less than
23.0 mg/g in all tissues (Duan et al., 2010).
Health benefits of bio-functional marine lipids
211
Marine Glycolopids
Brown algae, especially Sargassum horneri, are a very good source of glycolipids
(Hossain et al., 2003). Glycoglycerolipids are glycolipids in which one or more
saccharide residues are linked by a glycosyl linkage to a lipid moiety containing a
glycerol residue. They constitute an important class of membrane lipids that are
synthesized by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms (Kates, 1990a, 1990b).
Algae represent valuable sources of a wide spectrum of complex lipids with different
potential applications. The lipids containing PUFAs are especially interesting in
various applications. Some of these compounds are usually rare in terrestrial plants
and animals but are present in relatively large amounts in some species of algae and fish
(Caughey et al., 1996). They have beneficial effects on heart diseases, Parkinson’s disease,
multiple sclerosis, inflammatory diseases, premenstrual syndrome, plasma cholesterol
levels, cancer and others (Rodriguez and Guerrero, 1992). Glycolipids (MGDG, DGDG
and SQDG) were 1.96 percent of dry sample of marine brown algae (S. horneri). The
major fatty acids composition of MGDG, DGDG and SQDG are shown in Table 3
(Hossain et al., 2003).
TABLE 3
Fatty acid profiles of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG)
and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG) of the brown alga Sargassum horneri
Fatty acid
%
MGDG
DGDG
C14:0
3.04
1.5
SQDG
3.1
C16:0
14.79
12.0
41.6
C16:1
2.87
2.0
4.0
C16:2
–
––
1.9
C18:0
–
2.8
14.7
C18:1
6.35
4.1
––
C18:2
5.77
3.3
2.9
C18:3
4.71
4.6
5.1
C18:4
–
12.0
––
C20:1
31.25
3.5
5.2
C20:4
10.62
23.8
6.2
C20:5
20.60
23.5
4.7
Others
0.05
6.9
11.6
Functional Benefits Of Marine Lipids
Benefits of Phospholipids
The n-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA are orthomolecular, conditionally essential
nutrients that enhance quality of life and lower the risk of premature death. DHA is
essential to pre- and postnatal brain development, whereas EPA seems more influential
on behaviour and mood. Both DHA and EPA generate neuroprotective metabolites. In
double blind, randomized, controlled trials, DHA and EPA combinations have been
shown to benefit attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD), autism, dyspraxia,
dyslexia, and aggression. Krill oil inserted cosmetics such as shampoo, conditioners,
creams, lotion etc. are now available on the world market. Krill n-3 fatty acids are also
increasingly more popular as a food additive. Krill n-3 phospholipids demonstrated
anti-inflammatory activity, lowering C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The n-3 fatty
acids may play a role in certain cases of depression. Fish oil supplements are well
tolerated, and have been shown to be without significant side effects over large scale,
3 year research (Logan, 2004; Marchioli et al., 2002).
The DHA and EPA inserted marine phospholipids are useful for medical
applications. Both phospholipids prevent over-production of arachidonic
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acid-derived eicosanoids which often increase risk of cancer, thrombosis, allergy and
other diseases. The phospholipid form results in a higher PUFA content in plasma than
the triacylglycerol form (Hosokawa and Takahashi, 2005; Wijendran et al., 2002). For
this reason, the phospholipid form may be more effective than the triacylglycerol form
when PUFAs are administered. Not only the functionalities of PUFAs themselves, but
also the phospholipid chemical structure should exert notable health benefits. A typical
example for this is the prevention effect of DHA inserted phospholipid on apoplexy.
Among fish oil triacylglycerol, egg yolk phospholipid, and squid phospholipid rich in
sn-2 DHA inserted phospholipids, squid phospholipid was the only available chemical
form to prevent apoplexy in rats (Galli et al., 1992).
The DHA and EPA are reported to induce growth inhibition with sodium
butyrate (NaBt) in HT-29, DLD-1, and Caco-2 colon cancer cell lines (Hofmanov´a
et al., 2005). It was shown that NaBt enhances growth inhibition, lipid peroxidation,
and apoptosis with DHA and EPA in the form of free fatty acid and phospholipids
(Hossain et al., 2009). Epidemiological and experimental studies conducted over the
past few decades suggest a protective role for n-3 PUFA against the development of
colon cancer (Bartsch et al., 1999). It was also shown that the three human colon cancer
cell lines are growth inhibited by n-3 PUFA (Hossain et al., 2009). DHA were found
to elicit the most pronounced effect on cell growth in all of the three cell lines, whereas
EPA induced growth inhibition to a lesser extent. Arachidonic acid (AA) or AA PC
did not affect growth. This may be the cause for the number of double bonds, as DHA
is the longest (22 C) and most unsaturated (6 C–C double bonds) fatty acid. On the
other hand, EPA and AA contain 5 C–C and 4 C–C double bonds, respectively.
Several reports have shown that antioxidants like vitamin E, butylated
hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) block the cytotoxic
effect of different PUFAs, indicating that non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation is
frequently involved (Finstad et al., 1998). It was found that BHT was able to reduce
the growth inhibition of cells. Moreover, PUFAs induced an increased generation of
thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) in the cells. It indicated that lipid
peroxidation must be in part responsible for the cytotoxicity in the cells. It was observed
that the treatment of HT-29 cells with n-3 PUFAs for 48 h enhanced lipid peroxidation
(Hossain et al., 2009). Thus, lipid peroxidation is considered, at least in part, one of
the main mechanisms of the PUFAs cytostatic and cytotoxic action on cancer cells
(Das, 1991). These events are mainly consequences of structural and functional changes
in cell membranes (Chapkin et al., 2002). At any rate, cancer cells are known to be more
susceptible to lipid peroxidation damage than normal cells, resulting in the selective cell
growth suppression and apoptosis on cancer cells.
Hossain et al. (2009) detected that the apoptosis was increased by potentiation
of caspase-3 activity. Apoptosis is controlled by mainly mitochondrial pathway
(Green and Reed, 1998). Mitochondrial release of cytochrome c into the cytosol has
been shown in cell-free systems to be rate limiting for the activation of caspases and
endonucleases (Martinou et al., 2000). Cytosolic cytochrome c activates procaspase-9
by binding to Apaf1 in the presence of dATP, leading to caspase-9 activation and
subsequent activation of downstream effector caspases, including caspase-3, with
triggering of apoptosis (Li et al., 1997). Caspase-3 activity was increased significantly
when HT-29 cells were treated with EPA or DHA in combination with NaBt. But
caspase-3 was not increased significantly when it was treated with DHA- or EPA- PC
and NaBt. It is anticipated that fatty acid-derived metabolites can interact with and
activate the caspase cascade. Although cellular damage by chemotherapeutic agents
and radiation is generally considered to cause caspase activation and apoptosis by
mechanisms that involve cytochrome c release from mitochondria, death receptors are
implicated in apoptosis induced by certain cytotoxic agents (Kaufman and Earnshaw,
2000). Incorporation of PUFAs into the cellular lipids of HT-29 cells was associated
Health benefits of bio-functional marine lipids
with an increase in caspase 3 activity. This is an important characteristic of apoptosis
(Latham et al., 2001).
Evidence indicates that Bcl-2 acts to stabilize mitochondrial membrane integrity
by preventing cytochrome c release and subsequent caspase activation and apoptosis
(Tsujimoto and Shimizu, 2000). To determine whether attenuated cytochrome c release
was related to alterations in Bcl-2, Bcl-2 expression was analyzed (Hossain et al.,
2009). Therefore, decreased Bcl-2 may contribute to attenuated cytochrome c release
and increased caspase-9 and -3 activity in the colon cancer cells. The Bcl-2 family
proteins, whose members may be antiapoptotic or proapoptotic, regulate cell death
by controlling the mitochondrial membrane permeability during apoptosis (Adams
and Cory, 1998). However, the transfection studies have expressed that when cleaved
by caspase, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl proteins are converted into potent proapoptotic factors,
and they may accelerate apoptosis by amplifying the caspase cascade (Bellows et al.,
2000). It was, therefore, inferred that the Bcl-2 family protein might participate in the
event that controlled the change in mitochondrial membrane potential and trigger
cytochrome c release during apoptosis induced by n-3 PUFAs (Hossain et al., 2009). It
is speculated that marine n-3 PUFAs induced apoptosis appeared to occur mainly via
a mechanism that was TBARs formation and was associated with increased activity of
caspase-3 and down regulation of Bcl-2.
Benefits of Sphingolipids
Dietary sphingolipids have gained attention for their potential to protect the intestine
from inflammation and cancers (Duan and Nilsson, 2009; Schmelz, 2004). Sphingolipids
hydrolyze to bioactive ceramide and sphingoid bases (Hannun and Obeid, 2008).
Sphingoid bases can induce apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines (Sugawara et al., 2006).
In addition, other physiological functions of sphingolipids such as improving the
barrier function of skin, lowering plasma lipids and preventing melanin formation,
have also been reported (Kinoshita et al., 2007). The effects of the sphingoid bases,
C(2)-ceramide, and C(2)-dihydroceramide on apoptosis were determined by detecting
200-bp DNA ladders or hypo-diploid areas (sub-G(0)/G(1)), indicative of apoptosis,
in HCT-116 human colon cancer cells. In addition, the effects of the sphingoid bases
at an apoptotic concentration for 12 hours on cell cycle distribution were determined
by flow cytometry. The results indicated that the sphingoid bases and C(2)-ceramide
induced apoptosis, whereas C(2)-dihydroceramide had no effects (Ahn and Schroeder,
2010). Dietary SM inhibited the tumorigenesis and increased the alkaline SMase activity
in the colon by 65 percent. The increased activity was associated with increased enzyme
protein and mRNA expression. No changes of acid and neutral SMase activities were
found (Zhang et al., 2008).
Sphingosine is also a potent signalling molecule that alters the Ca2+ homeostasis
by directly interacting with voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (Titieysky et al., 1998;
Mathes et al., 1998). Additionally, it affects the activity of several protein kinases,
e.g. it inhibits the calmodulin-dependent protein kinase and the insulin receptor
tyrosine kinase, while enhancing the activity of diacylglycerol kinase (Hannun et al.,
2001). Furthermore, within the epithelial cells, sphingosine may be phosphorylated
to sphingosin-1-phosphate by the sphingosine kinase (Huwiler et al., 2000).
Sphingosine-1-phosphate is also a potent cell regulator, with effects that are antagonistic
to ceramid. Thus, sphingosine-1-phosphate induces DNA synthesis, proliferation and
inhibits the ceramide-induced apoptosis (Pyne and Pyne, 2000).
Ceramide is a very potent inducer of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and differentiation
(Huwiler et al., 2000) increased cellular content of ceramide might thus alter the
developmental fate of the cells. Biologically active sphingolipid metabolites formed from
dietary sphingolipids may influence cell differentiation and tumour development in the
gut (Merrill et al., 1997). Furthermore, it has been shown that human colon carcinomas
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have a significantly lower activity of the alkaline SMase than non-transformed tissue and
it has been suggested that the decreased SMase activity is an early event in development
of colorectal cancer (Hertervig et al., 1997). Ceramide, supplied from the hydrolysis of
dietary sphingolipids, would then increase the ceramide levels in the transformed cells
over a threshold level that triggers apoptosis and thereby inhibit the development of
carcinomas (Duan, 1998). The outline of sphingoid bases-induced apoptotic signalling
pathway in Figure 1 has been proposed (unpublished data). Sphingoid bases-induced
DNA damage resulted in the up-regulation of GADD45, which induced cell cycle
arrest in G2/M phase giving cells the chance to repair the DNA damage. On the other
hand, if DNA damage could not be repaired, cells will execute apoptotic pathways.
The GADD45 can up- and down-regulate Bax and p-AKT, respectively, and lead to
the disruption of mitochondrial membrane, which in turn would cause cytochrome c
release from the intramitochondria into the cytosol, thus activating caspase-3 and -8,
which then cleaves the death substrates, leading to apoptosis. In conclusion, it has been
shown that sphingoid bases induce HepG2 cell apoptosis by the GADD45 induction
and activation of caspase-3, -8, and PPARγ (Figure 1).
Figure 1
The proposed outline of the sphingoid bases induced apoptotic signalling pathway
Benefits of Glycolipids
Glycolipids have shown potent anti-tumour and anti-viral activities as well as potential
for the treatment of certain autoimmune disorders. Detailed mechanistic studies suggest
this biological activity occurs via Natural Killer T (NKT) cell activation. Several alpha
glycolipids are already in Phase I clinical trials for a variety of disease treatments that
include cancer and diabetes. Because the structure of the glycolipid dictates the type
as well as the extent of immunological activity, a readily accessible library of these
molecules is desirous for drug discovery and development.
SQDG, a class of sulphoglycolipids, is a potent inhibitor of DNA polymerase.
Because DNA polymerases are essential enzymes for DNA replication and repair
and subsequent cell division, the inhibition of these enzymes will lead to the death
Health benefits of bio-functional marine lipids
of tumour cells, especially under conditions of active proliferation (Mizushina et al.,
1998). SQDG exhibits the inhibition of growth on the human colon adenocarcinoma
cell DLD-1 (Ohta et al., 2002) and on the human gastric cancer cell SNU-1
(Quasney et al., 2001) as well as apoptosis on SNU-1 (Quasney et al., 2001). DGDG is
also a valuable antitumor promoter in carcinogenosis (Shirahashi et al., 1993). DGDG
has inhibitory activities in mouse skin papilloma as well as Epstein-Barr virus-early
antigen activation test on Raji cells (Tokuda et al., 1996).
Marine lipids increase the tight junction permeability
It has been shown that the trans-10, cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)
altered the transcription of zonula occludens (ZO)-1, occludin, claudin-1 and claudin-4
genes, which encode protein components of the tight-junction (TJ) complex between
neighbouring intestinal cells. Exposure of Caco-2 cells to trans-10, cis-12 isomer of
CLA led to a down-regulation of claudin-1 gene transcription while transcription of
claudin-4, occludin and ZO-1 genes was up-regulated. The exact role of the individual
claudin proteins within the functionality of the TJ has still to be fully elucidated, and
thus, the physiological meaning of the differential regulation of the expression of these
two claudin genes by the trans-10, cis-12 isomer of CLA is as yet unclear (Turksen and
Troy, 2004). TJ represents a unique signalling membrane microdomain that influences
fundamental properties of epithelial cells. The pro-inflammatory cytokines play an
important role in epithelial barrier defect and in pathophysiology of Crohn`s disease
(Sartor, 2003). DHA and EPA could prevent distortion of TJ morphology induced
by proinflammatory cytokines. DHA and EPA have positive effect on impaired
epithelial barrier function induced by IFN–γ and TNF–α (Li et al., 2008). Of interest,
an investigation of the role of TNF in disrupting TJ assembly in Madin-Darby canine
kidney (MDCK) cells, a renal epithelial cell line, showed that TNF–α decreased claudin-1
expression, which it has been suggested may cause a relocation of ZO-1 away from the
TJ and consequent increased permeability (Poritz et al., 2004), similar to that observed
in CLA-treated Caco-2 cells (Jewell et al., 2005). There is some information on the
effect of fatty acids on occludin expression. For example, Jiang et al. (1998) showed that
gamma-linoleic acid and EPA increased the expression of occludin in human vascular
endothelial cells, which was also associated with reduced paracellular permeability. In
addition, less phosphorylated forms of occludin are found in the basolateral membrane
and cytosol, whereas more phosphorylated forms are concentrated in TJs (Sakakibara
et al., 1997; Wong, 1997). Immuno-fluorescent staining has shown a preponderance
of occludin (and ZO-1) in cytosol of Caco-2 cells exposed to the trans-10, cis-12
isomer of CLA (Jewell et al., 2005). Roche et al. (2001) suggested that the inhibition of
phosphorylation of occludin might arise by interference by the trans-10, cis-12 isomer
of CLA with one of the signalling pathways that regulate TJ biogenesis. In a recent
study, it was found that EPA- and DHA-enriched marine phospholipids increased
the TJ permeability (Hossain et al., 2006). The authors assumed that PUFA induces
intracellular acidosis to decrease the intracellular ATP level and inhibit Ca+2 -ATPase.
The increase in the calcium level activates the actomyosin contraction by the activation
of cytoskeletal destabilization or through other processes leading to the opening of the
TJ (Figure 2) (Hayashi and Tomita, 2007).
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Figure 2
Proposed opening mechanism of tight junctions by polyunsaturated fatty acids
Interestingly, the microarray data showed that transcription of the protein
phosphatase 2A (PP2A) gene was up-regulated in Caco-2 cells exposed to the
trans-10, cis-12 isomer of CLA. Enhanced PP2A activity induces dephosphorylation
of ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1, possibly preventing TJs assembly and, consequently,
is associated with increased permeability. However, other mechanisms of action may
also be involved; for example, the data also suggests that other potential mediators of
TJ function, such as ZONAB, Rab3B and Rab13 that are thought to have a regulatory
function (Harhaj and Antonetti, 2004), were also altered. Some researchers have
shown that the PUFA up-regulates the expression of occludin or occludin mRNA. In
addition, levels of different claudins are related to carcinoma cell invasion and disease
progression. The relative expression levels of the claudin-1, -3, and -4 genes were
higher in cancer than in normal adjacent mucosa, whereas the relative expression of the
claudin-7 genes was similar. Thus, reduced expression of the claudin-7 gene may be a
useful predictor of liver metastasis patients with colorectal cancer (Oh-l et al., 2005). It
was proposed that PUFA may change the lipid composition and fatty acyl substitution
of phospholipids in membrane microdomains in TJ (Hossain and Hirata, 2008). EPA
changed the phospholipid composition of membrane microdomains of TJ by enriching
the unsaturated fatty acyl substitution of phospholipids (Oshima et al., 2008).
Conclusion
Fish oils are an excellent source of long-chain n-3 PUFAs, such as DHA and EPA.
After consumption, n-3 PUFAs can be incorporated into cell membranes and reduce
the amount of arachidonic acid available for the synthesis of pro-inflammatory
eicosanoids (e.g., prostaglandins, leukotrienes). Likewise, n-3 PUFAs can also reduce
the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor alpha,
interleukin-1, and interleukin-6. Considerable research has been conducted to evaluate
the potential therapeutic effects of fish oils in numerous conditions, including arthritis,
coronary artery disease, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and sepsis, all of which
have inflammation as a key component of their pathology.
The stocks of wild salmon and other species that are not contaminated with
mercury or other pollutants are increasingly restricted. An alternative is to take dietary
supplements rich in DHA/EPA, including the n-3 phospholipid complex from krill.
Health benefits of bio-functional marine lipids
While the wild salmon stocks are shrinking, concerns are being voiced about the
increasing use of krill for salmon farming. Krill is thought to be the largest single
biomass on the planet and is a life-sustaining food for diverse marine animals. The
Antarctic stocks (Euphausia superba) are estimated at 50 to 500 million metric tonnes
(McMichael et al., 2005). Cultivated microalgae are a good source of DHA. Although
high doses of ALA can increase tissue EPA levels, ALA does not have the same effect
on DHA levels, rendering supplementation necessary. How does one know whether
supplementation is necessary? Physical signs and symptoms of deficiency include
excessive thirst, frequent urination, rough dry hair and skin, and follicular keratosis
(Richardson, 2006; Stevens et al., 1996). Harris (2007) developed an “omega-3 index”
(RBC DHA/EPA) as a marker and perhaps also a risk factor for coronary heart disease
and suggests that adequate sufficiency is likely to have been attained when DHA and
EPA exceed eight percent of the total membrane fatty acids. The evidence presented
in this review clearly suggests that the fundamental basis for applying DHA/EPA to
human health is their presence in cell membranes. Additional investigations into the
use of supplementation with fish oils in patients with neural injury, cancer, ocular
diseases, and critical illness have recently been conducted. It concluded that the n-3
PUFAs have been shown to be efficacious in treating and preventing various diseases.
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223
Vacuum and modified atmosphere
packaging of fish and seafood
products
Bernard Leveau1 and Bruno Goussault2
1
Symbaconsultant
La Marsa, Tunisia
2.
CREA
Paris, France
Introduction
In trends observed over the last few years, the distribution of fish and seafood products
shows a growing development in packaging options used in the marketplace and an
increasing sophistication in their presentation.
Nowadays, various packaging techniques are used to address different problems
faced in the distribution of fish, from the need to maintain hygiene in the value chain,
through innovations in product development, to maintaining or improving profitability
of the product line.
Some major facts are presented below, summarizing the market trends of fish
products and packaging, followed by a reminder of the constraints relating to the use
of fish as a raw material, and finally on the advantages offered by vacuum and modified
atmosphere packaging.
Some major facts concerning fish and seafood markets GLOBALLY
The image of fish in developed countries
In developed countries, fish has a very positive image with respect to its food value and
effects on health. Because of the discovery of omega-3 fatty acids, the awareness raising
about problems linked to obesity and its effects on life expectancy and the negative
images conveyed by meat (BSE) and poultry (bird flu), fish consumption is increasing
and will continue to do so significantly over the next ten years.
Distribution of fish in developed countries
The intensive development of supermarket stores has increased the demand for
more and more processed, packaged and easy-to-use (ready-to-cook, ready-to-heat,
ready-to-eat) products with a long shelf-life.
The retail consumer unit (for 1 or 2 persons) is being continually refined, whereas
fresh fish stalls, where fish is displayed on ice and not packaged, are in significant
decline due to two main reasons; (a) the cost – the space taken up in the shop/food
hall, labour, cleaning the food hall department, logistics, loss of unsold goods, etc., and
(b) the inconvenience related to the products (odours, hygiene risks, practicality, etc.).
Evolution of food practices and consumer behaviours
Over the last ten last years, purchasing habits of households have been transformed by
the increase in the number of women at work, of single-parent families and of single
people. Consumers increasingly want prepared products that are ready-to-cook and
easy-to-prepare and that do not require a high level of cooking skills.
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Purchases are made once a week in supermarkets and the fresh products must
have a long shelf-life (at least 6 to 10 days). Appropriate packaging and preparation
(filleting, convenience meals) remove the most frequent objections to buying fish,
namely odour, preparation, viscous feel, poor shelf-life, etc.
Consumers also like to have a choice. They are used to making quick decisions
and varying their purchases according to the visual stimuli (packaging and innovative
products). To some extent, they are becoming fickle, even if they consider themselves
loyal to the brand.
Decline in the catch resource and the development of aquaculture
The decline in wild resources and the considerable increase in demand for fish has led
to an increase in prices, making it possible for processed products to support the cost
of packaging.
Packaging also contributes to reduced fish wastage and increased efficiencies in
product handling, while facilitating improved hygiene.
The development of aquaculture has given rise to the supply of a raw material
that can maximise the advantages offered by the use of packaging techniques, such
as vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging (more commonly called MAP). Total
control of the date of harvest as well rapid handling and processing will mean that
farmed products have a shelf-life that is particularly attractive to distributors and
consumers.
An opportunity for developing countries
The increase in the demand for fish and the globalization of trade, together with the
need to reduce production overheads (labour costs) and combined with the trends
mentioned above, present many opportunities for developing countries to create added
value in their fishery and aquaculture value chains.
Packaging and logistics are important factors in the success of outsourcing fish
processing operations to lower cost countries. It is thus possible to prepare the product
(gutting, filleting, pasteurization, pre-cooking, etc.) in a developing country so it can
be delivered in bulk packs to factories located in developed countries for a second level
of processing (convenience food, smoking, putting in salads, etc.). Because packaging
facilitates good hygiene of the product, a product’s organoleptic qualities are preserved
for the duration of its shelf-life.
Packaging as a creative factor
The new techniques described below enable the development of new distribution
systems and the appearance of new products, thereby increasing consumer choice and
the upgrading of species not yet marketed.
Packaging is being increasingly integrated into the manufacturing process, thus
contributing considerably to the development of the basic commodity (cooking under
vacuum, pasteurization, etc.).
Packaging as a factor of differentiation
The development of products containing fish or seafood for the supermarket shelf also
involves the need to make these products attractive to the consumer. This requirement
has driven the development of the whole packaging sector and contributes strongly to
a positive product image with the consumer (Figure 1).
Increasing the number of different products on offer leads to improved sales
simply by making the product display attractive.
Vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging of fish and seafood products
225
Figure 1
Some examples of the importance of packaging on a sophisticated market
Some major facts about freshness and shelf-life
Many studies have been published on fish processing, hygiene, deterioration of fish and
seafood, as well as the toxicological risks related to fishery products. Some important
points related to the hygiene and organoleptic qualities of packaged fish are mentioned
below.
Freshness and stress
The first requirement is to work only with very fresh fish caught under the best
conditions. In aquaculture, gentle killing techniques that do not cause stress are
favoured, in particular stunning by immersion in ice slurries before bleeding.
Recent studies have shown that processing the fish in the pre-rigor phase
significantly extends the shelf-life of the product (Table 1).
TABLE 1
Onset and duration of rigor mortis in various fish species
Species
Condition
Temperature (°C)
Time from death
to onset of rigor
mortis (hours)
Time from death to
end of rigor mortis
(hours)
Cod
Stressed
0
2–8
20–65
Stressed
10–12
1
20–30
Stressed
30
0.5
1–2
Unstressed
0
14–15
72–96
Blue tilapia
Stressed
0
1
20–40
Unstressed
0
6
40–80
Tilapia
Unstressed
0–2
2–9
26
Plaice
Stressed
0
7–11
54–55
Redfish
Stressed
0
22
120
Grenadier
Stressed
0
1
35–55
Chilling
The second requirement is the rapid chilling of fish. This is important as temperature
reduction restricts microbial growth. A temperature ranging between minus two and
zero degrees Celsius is considered as ideal.
Rapid and careful gutting
The third requirement relates to gutting which must be done as early as possible.
Internal organs can cause contamination in the muscle tissues, in particular when the
animals are stressed. Contamination crosses the intestinal barrier and enters the blood
vessels. Gutting is itself an operation which involves large risks of contamination
of the abdominal cavity. A gutted fish is preserved much better than a whole fish,
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
but it is necessary to pay attention to drying the abdominal cavity in order to avoid
proliferation of bacteria.
Filleting immediately before packaging
The last requirement relates to filleting (or portioning) which must take place
immediately before packaging the products, so as to ensure a good shelf-life (Figure 2).
Cold chain
After packaging, strict compliance with the cold chain (at chilled or frozen temperatures)
is a legal requirement to minimize microbiological hazards.
Figure 2
An example of hygienic working conditions in gutting and filleting operations
Advantages related with packaging
Packaging is becoming an important factor in the development of the entire fish sector,
at a time when the product is enjoying a healthy image in the mind of many consumers.
The packaging of fish products and the processing techniques to be used are among
the most important points to be considered in any producers’ business strategy. They
are the key points for real success in the marketing and development of the sector
(Figure 3). They are also an effective means of adding value (Table 2).
Control of on-board handling, processing and storage during fishing, as well as
temperature control, hygienic work conditions and compliance with the cold chain
requirements are all factors which cannot be circumvented if you are to maintain the
quality of the product.
Vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging of fish and seafood products
227
Figure 3
Supermarket shelf containing attractively packaged fish products
Note: The packaging also helps with good hygiene.
TABLE 2
Advantage of packaging for producer, distributors and end user
Product Storage
Longer period of storage: several days in vacuum or protective atmosphere*
Industrial
Distributor
Consumer
X
X
X
X
X
X
Less handling of products: no direct contact with product, guaranteed
cleanliness
Storage of product for optimal freshness
X
X
Reduced microbiological damage ( hygiene )
X
X
Protection against physical damage: the packaging avoids desiccation ( drying
out ) of product and direct contact with ice
X
X
Protection against perforations ( fish bones ) thanks to the re-injection of gas
X
X
No contamination possible because product is protected in airtight packaging:
guarantee of healthy food
X
X
Protection against chemical damage: oxidation of vitamins, flavours and fats
is avoided by very high elimination of oxygen
X
X
Presentation of product
Industrial
Distributor
No deformation or loss of product, an economic advantage
X
X
Product hygiene and removal of unpleasant smells
X
X
Practical product: easy to open, simple to use and cook thanks to
microwavable trays
X
X
Consumer
X
X
Expansion in varieties of fish in fish world thanks to longer use-by dates
X
X
Display of product in selling shelves ( differentiation through packaging:
attractive, practical and “marketed” packaging )
X
X
Communication of brand thanks to printing, possibility of informing and
communicating information ( recipes )
X
X
X
Consumer
Logistics
Industrial
Distributor
Easy to transport through use of stackable trays
X
X
Simplified logistics thanks to longer use-by date of products
X
X
X
Eliminates effects of cross contamination
X
X
X
Traceability of product thanks to labelling on consumer industrial sale unit
X
X
X
Less labour in fish sector
X
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
Vacuum And Modified Atmosphere Packaging Techniques
Vacuum packaging
This process consists of removing the maximum possible amount of air from a
packaged product, using a vacuum pump to achieve a vacuum state in the packaged
product (Figure 4). The aim is to improve the shelf-life of the foodstuff by reducing the
oxygen concentration in the packaged product to as low a level as possible (Figure 5).
The absence of oxygen in contact with the product reduces the growth of aerobic
bacteria, which are a primary cause of spoilage in fish.
Figure 4
Air level in the pack is near 1
mbar
Figure 5
Vacuum packed salmon
The higher the level of vacuum in the package,
the longer the conservation of the product. For the
majority of products, the residual amount of oxygen
in the packaging should not exceed 0.5 percent of
the volume of the package, which is equivalent to a
vacuum pressure of lower than 1 millibar.
Because the pressure of the air inside the
packaging is almost at zero, the external atmosphere
will exert a pressure of about 1 bar on the package.
Mechanical effects must be taken into account
when packaging more fragile products that could
be crushed under vacuum. Such effects include
large amounts of exudation in the package or
the deformation of the product itself. Similarly,
packaging of products that have sharp edges (e.g.
lobsters) requires special consideration (Figure 6).
For presentation purposes, it is common to insert
the vacuum packaged product into a cardboard box
or sleeve containing a “window”, thus protecting
the package while allowing the product to be seen
(Figure 7).
Generally, vacuum packaging techniques are
used for processed fish (cured, marinated, cooked)
to improve the shelf-life. For unprocessed fish, a
variant of vacuum packaging is used, called modified
atmosphere packaging.
Figure 6
Figure 7
Example of atmospheric
pressure on a package
Vacuum packed sliced fish
with a cardboard outer pack
Vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging of fish and seafood products
Modified Atmosphere Packaging
This technique uses vacuum packaging principles (described above) by removing the
air from inside the container and then re-injecting one or several food grade gases into
the package. The altered gaseous atmosphere further inhibits bacterial growth when
compared with a pure vacuum (Figure 8).
Also, by re-injecting gas, or gases, into the package, the external atmospheric
pressure can be prevented from crushing the contents, as can happen in vacuum
packaging, as mentioned. In this way, the product will have a more attractive
presentation to the consumer (Figure 9).
The gases used in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) are only those normally
contained in the air, but in a purified form and devoid of any bacteria. They are checked
and certified as food grade gases.
Figure 8
Figure 9
Diagram of gas-flushing programme
in a sealing die
Example of a raw fish with
MAP packaging
Note: The process is: (a) Air evacuation through the
vacuum pump; (b) Gas flushing from the gas bottle or
container; and (c) Sealing of the top film.
Which choice? Vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging
These two techniques are the most appropriate to extend the shelf-life of some
products (Figures 10 and 11). But it is important to define what kind of product is
being packaged.
Figure 10
Figure 11
Vacuum packed salmon
Examples of vacuum packed or
MAP fish products
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Fresh fish (whole or fillets)
Vacuum packaging does not extend shelf-life more than traditional wrap packaging.
One of the main reasons for this is the development of histamine and total volatile base
amines (TVBA). MAP is preferred for such products. There are some exceptions with
shellfish, for example, with mussels.
Processed fish
Cooked, cured, smoked or marinated fish can be vacuum packed, having a longer
shelf-life than traditional packaged fish products but also longer than with MAP.
What are different gas and properties
Nitrogen forms 80 percent of the air that surrounds us. Without any taste or odour
it does not have any effect on food and is known as an “inert” gas. Its function is to
replace the evacuated volume of air in the package, helping to avoid physical damage
to the products by atmospheric pressure.
Carbon dioxide dissolves readily in the liquids and fatty substances contained in
the product. It combines with water to form carbonic acid and thus decreases the pH
on the surface of the product. Because of this, the growth of microorganisms and the
formation of moulds are inhibited and shelf-life is consequently extended (Table 3).
Carbon dioxide also impacts on the formation of histamine that occurs in raw
scombroid species of fish, reducing the impact of this food safety hazard and extending
shelf-life.
Oxygen is generally used to preserve the red colour of tuna meat. At saturation
levels of 70 to 80 percent, over-oxygenation can improve the conservation for some
products. A small injection also reduces the risk of botulism (10 percent of the total
volume of the tray).
TABLE 3
Average shelf-life in different packaging solutions
Products
Vacuum
(%)
Nitrogen
(%)
Carbon
dioxide
(%)
Oxygen
(%)
Temperature
(°C)
Shelf-life
(days)
Whole fish gutted
100
Not
Not
Not
2–4
7–9
Filets
100
Not
Not
Not
2–4
5–6
Whole fish gutted
100
40
60
Not
2–4
9–13
Filets
100
60
40
Not
2–4
7–10
8–10
Tuna steaks
100
Not
20
80
2–4
Live Mussels
20
Not
Not
Not
2–4
8–9
Live Oysters
20
Not
Not
Not
2–4
8–9
Live Mussels
100
Not
20
80
2–4
11–13
Live Oysters
100
Not
20
80
2–4
11–13
Shrimps
100
30
40
30
2–4
8–10
Shrimps coated with
lactic acid
100
30
40
30
2–4
18–21
Marinated herrings
100
Not
Not
Not
2–4
> 30
Smoked fish sliced
100
Not
Not
Not
2–4
> 30
Skin Packaging
Using the same basic technology as vacuum packaging, skin packaging consists of
draping a highly heat–deformable film over the product, while carrying out a vacuum
pumping sequence at the same time. The base support is generally rigid or semi-rigid.
This technique allows the film to mould perfectly around the shape of the product,
which can be in relief compared with the rim of the receiving tray. It can only be
implemented with thermoforming or tray-sealing machines.
Vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging of fish and seafood products
The products packaged by this technique are particularly attractive and provide a
clear difference in terms of marketing on the supermarket shelf. The cost of packaging
can only be justified by using products with high added value. Figure 12 shows how
skin packaging forms around the product.
This technique is used
extensively in southern Europe
for the packaging of deep frozen
shellfish. The film used is a made
from a special material, which
becomes extremely stretchable
when heated. The machines are
also specifically adapted to
this technology. They must be
equipped with a system for guiding
and heating the top film. Figure 13
shows examples of some skin
packaged products.
Figure 12
Skin packaging
Note: Using the same basic technology as vacuum
packaging, skin packaging consists of draping
a highly heat-deformable film over the product,
while carrying out a vacuum pumping sequence
at the same time. The base is generally rigid or
semi-rigid.
Figure 13
Some samples of skin packaging products, mainly used in frozen products
Packaging Machines For Vacuum And Modified Atmosphere
Packaging
Vacuum chamber machines
These machines are used for packing products using plastic sachets that are specially
designed for vacuum conditions. These sachets are barriers to gas and consist of several
layers of various composition. (polyamide, polyethylene and aluminium, amongst
others).
The packaging is flexible, because the thickness of the material used rarely exceeds
120 microns. The primary function of this equipment is to remove the air contained
in the packaging. After evacuation of the air by means of a vacuum pump, which is
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
incorporated in the machine or is located nearby, the open end of the filled sachet is
sealed. The product can be inserted by itself into the sachet, or it can be placed on a tray
or a cardboard base prior to insertion into the sachet. An example of the latter is sliced
cold smoked salmon. Figures 14 and 15 show examples of vacuum packaging machines.
Figure 14
Figure 15
Whole Inox double chamber machine
Whole Inox double chamber machine
Note: While vacuum pumping and sealing action are
carried out in the closed chamber, unloading and
reloading of product are done in the other one. The
surface of each chamber allow also to run many packs
together. This allows a high production with a single
person to run the machine.
The operation of a vacuum chamber machine is simple (Figure 16):
1. Place the bag with product in the machine;
2. Close the chamber;
3. Vacuum and sealing are done automatically;
4. Re-opening of the chamber. The bag is vacuumed packed.
Figure 16
Operation of a vacuum chamber machine
Vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging of fish and seafood products
Some sachets are designed to be shrinkable. Using such sachets offers the possibility
to shrink the film around the product by a thermal treatment, generally with hot water
(either through sprinkling or by immersion). This technique provides for an attractive
presentation for certain products and can help in preventing the exudation of fluids.
The following figures (Figures 17 and 18) show examples of sachets and of
vacuum packaged product.
Figure 17
Vacuum packaging sachets: aluminium and plastic sachets
Figure 18
Some samples of package made with bags and chamber machine
Thermoforming machines (Form Fill Seal)
Intended for industrial production, these machines form, fill and seal packaging
materials which are run from reels of film of various thicknesses. They are generally
used to carry out packaging under vacuum or modified atmospheres.
By mean of specific tooling, thermoforming machines can run flexible or rigid
materials with packaging dimensions that are fully adapted to the packaged product.
Feeding of the product into the machine is facilitated by the design of the loading area,
and by the loading from above.
The use of film reels has a cost advantage over packaging using preformed
packaging such as sachets or trays. The component parts of a typical thermoforming
machine is shown in Figure 19 and a typical machine in Figure 20.
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Second International Congress on Seafood Technology on Sustainable, Innovative and Healthy Seafood
Figure 19
Thermoforming machine
Note: Diagram of operation
1: Reel of lower thermoformable film; 2: Station for heating and thermoforming lower film. Depending of the type
of film there may be several heating stations; 3: Filling station; 4: Product loaded manually or automatically; 5: Reel
of top film ( can be printed film); 6: Station of vacuum, re-injection of gas (if necessary) and sealing; 7: Cross cutting
station; 8: Length cutting station; 9: Finished package with product inside.
Figure 20
Thermoforming machine
The lower film is gripped as it is fed into the machine. The film is conveyed to the
thermoforming station where, after heating, it will be formed according to form inserts
which define the depth and shape of the package to be realized. The following figures
show various functions (forming and sealing) of a typical thermoforming machine.
Vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging of fish and seafood products
Forming station (Figures 21 and 22).
Figure 21
Figure 22
Forming station
Forming insert designing the form of the
final pack
Note: 1) Pre-heating film plate; 2) Form inserts;
3) Thermoformed package.
Sealing station (Figure 23).
Figure 23
Sealing station on a thermoforming machine
Note: 1) Top film; 2) Top film conveyor chain (for
specifics applications); 3) Heating plate; 4) Sealing
station; 5) Lower part of the mould with height
inserts to maintain the product.
The cells thermoformed in this way are conveyed to the loading point where the
products are inserted, either manually or by using robots. The cells then move towards
the sealing station, where air evacuation and, possibly, gas re-injection are carried out,
and then the package is sealed on four sides. The packages are conveyed to the cutting
stations to be separated from the film substrate and then moved onto a discharge belt.
Intermediate stations for marking, labelling and weighing can be set up on the
machine, making it possible to work in concurrent operations without re-handling
of the product at the discharge end. Machines are generally equipped with modular
tooling, which allows the dimensions and depth of the packaging to be varied rapidly
and economically.
Several different types of packaging can thus be carried out on the same machine,
owing to modular inserts as explained in the diagram below (Figure 24).
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Figure 24
Modular inserts for use in a thermopackaging machine
Tray sealing machines
In contrast to thermoforming machines, tray sealing machines do not thermoform
the lower part of the packaging, but instead make use of preformed trays which can
be composed of various materials e.g. plastic, cardboard, lacquered aluminium, etc.
(Figure 25).
Figure 25
Examples of products in preformed trays
There are machine of various sizes meeting different production needs, ranging
from manually operated machines to fully automatic lines mainly used for MAP
packaging.
On automated lines, the trays can be placed manually on the conveyor chain or
set down using an automatic unstacking machine. In the case of manual loading, the
product can be put in the tray before it is placed on the conveyor chain. As regards
sealing, these machines have generally the same functions as the thermoforming
machine describe above. Figure 26 shows a diagram of the components of a typical
tray sealing machine.
Vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging of fish and seafood products
Figure 26
Diagram of the components of a tray sealing machine
The operation is not complex. Filled trays are introduced by a conveyor towards
the loading point which transfers them to the vacuum , gas re-injection, sealing and
cutting sections, and finally onto the discharge belt.
These machines (Figure 27) are more flexible to use than thermoforming machines,
as it is much simpler and faster to change the format of the die. A range of small
machines also allows the development of highly market-orientated products for a
relatively low investment, which is not possible with thermoforming techniques.
Figure 27
Tray sealers
Note: Clockwise: Semi-automatic tray sealer; Fully automatic machine.
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Trays can also be manufactured in various materials which are non thermoformable
or are thermoformable only with difficulty, like cardboard, aluminium, crystallized
polyester, very thick plastic and special shapes. Some examples of non thermoformable
trays using Form Fill Seal are shown in Figure 28.
Figure 28
Examples of non thermoformable trays
Note: Clockwise: PETC difficult to thermoform; Very special shape; Injected rigid plastic; Thickness over 1200 microns
(injected).
However, it is important to note that the price of the trays and the volume of
storage needed compared with reels of thermoforming film can increase the price of
the packaging up to a ratio of one to three.
Conclusion
Everywhere in the world, where there is a supermarket in a city you will find vacuum
or modified atmosphere packaged products. The more sophisticated and competitive
a market is, the more there will be sophisticated designs in packaged products, for
instance, for shrimp and mussel product offerings.
Consumers continually want more convenient packaging for their products that
will give improved shelf-life and also be easy to handle. The trend over the next
10 years will be further development of packaging techniques and for an increasing
diversity of products.
It is important that packaging is always considered as one of the most important
components of any new product development process.

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