Antibiotics February 2012 Vol. 16 • No. 2

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February 2012 Vol. 16 • No. 2
A monthly international biotechnology publication
www.asiabiotech.com
Antibiotics
A Crisis in the Development of Antibiotics
Bacterial Culture and Anti-microbial Susceptibility Testing
– their Use in Guiding Therapy
Epidemiology and Impact of Multi-Drug Resistant Gram
Negative Infections in Critically Ill Patients in Asia
Antibiotics and Resistance in Ocular Infections
– Indian Perspective
KH Biotech Services is an imprint of World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. MICA (P) 037/04/2011. © KH Biotech Services
KH Biotech Services Pte. Ltd.
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Editorial Contact:
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CONTENTS
EDITORIAL
BIOBOARD
AUSTRALIA
5
Deadly Mosquito Virus on Rise in Australia
5
Hope for Ovarian Cancer Diagnosis
6
Malaria Decloaked
6
Eye Contact Helps Detect Autism
7
Simple Hair Test to Find Breast Cancer
CHINA
8
Fatal Bird Flu Can’t Spread Between Humans
8
China to Monitor Radiation in Water Around N-Plants
9
China Approves World’s First Hepatitis E Vaccine
10 China Scientists Given US Award for Cancer Breakthrough
INDIA
11 Molecular Pathology Boon for Prenatal Diagnosis
11 Tulsi May Help Treat Adverse Effects of Radiation: DRDO Scientists
NEW ZEALAND
Call for Contributions: Asia Pacific
Biotech News (APBN) is aimed at
serving as a platform for providing
regional biotechnology and related
news as well as a venue for experts
in the field to share their views.
(Minimum article length: 500 words).
Authors’ Guide available at:
www.asiabiotech.com/contributions.html
12 New Corn Hybrid Could Benefit NZ Growers
SINGAPORE
13 Derivatives from a Common Edible Southeast Asian Fruit, Mangosteen, are being
Examined as Potential New Antibiotics
OTHER REGIONS
13 New Lung Cancer Test Predicts Survival
14 Study Confirms Groundbreaking Advance in Stem Cells
14 Brain ‘Hears’ from Different Location than Earlier Thought
FEATURES
15 A Crisis in the Development of Antibiotics
19 Bacterial Culture and Anti-microbial Susceptibility Testing – their Use in Guiding Therapy
22 Epidemiology and Impact of Multi-Drug Resistant Gram Negative Infections in Critically
Ill Patients in Asia
28 Antibiotics and Resistance in Ocular Infections – Indian Perspective
REVIEW
35 Opening Minds: The Use of Technology to Provide a Personalised Population-based
Mental Health Programme
39 Future Perspectives for Influenza Prevention – A Global Paradox
INSIDE INDUSTRY
44 Circadian Commences First Phase 1 Clinical Trial of VEGF-C Antibody VGX-100 in Cancer
Patients
45 Life Technologies Partners With DaAn Gene to Develop and Commercialize Molecular
Diagnostic Assays in China
46 Brain Cancer Patient Receives First TrueBeam STx Treatment in Asia at BGS Global
Hospitals in Bangalore
47 Lancaster Laboratories and BioAzure Enter Partnership
48 NovAliX Enters into Multi-Target Integrated Drug Discovery Collaboration with Teijin
Pharma
49 Otsuka Pharmaceutical and UCB Focus Collaboration in the Area of Central Nervous
System (CNS) Disorders
50 BIOTRONIK Opens New Asia Pacific Headquarters in Singapore
51 A*STAR, GE Global Research Join Forces to Develop Integrated Advanced Medical
Imaging Technologies for Improved Clinical Diagnosis
52 Alpha to Build $50m Plant in Thailand
RESEARCH FINDINGS
53 Researchers to Grow Smooth Muscle Cells from Patient Skin Cells
54 Singapore Scientists Identify Lung Cancer Stem Cells and New Drug Targets
55 T-rays Technology Could Help Develop Star Trek-Style Hand-held Medical Scanners
56 Human Brain Cells Created from Skin Samples
CONFERENCE CALENDAR
Upcoming Issues
March
Stem Cells
April
BioEthics
May
Biofuels
EDITORIAL
Antibiotics–Still Fighting the Good Fight
Virtually everyone has either had the experience of becoming ill with an infection, themselves
or often for their child and the doctor prescribing an antibiotic for resolution of the condition.
In fact, we essentially expect that virtually any infection will be quickly cured with an antibiotic.
Expectations are that when a new infection is found as has happened many times in the last
few years, it will also submit to our present inventory of antibiotics or a new antibiotic will
quickly be available. However, there have been some serious concerns about that scenario.
These concerns originate from several sources. The most important is the emergence of
antibiotic resistance bacteria and the diminished pipeline of development of new antibiotics.
In current news, NDM1 (found in India 2010), antibiotic resistant pneumonia as well as the
continued problems with various types of gram negative bacteria rapidly becoming antibiotic
resistant increases the concerns about these strains. More than 20 years ago, it was found
that some strains of Staphyscoccus aureus developed antibiotic resistance and came to be
known as MRSAs, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This type of bacteria was at
first largely found in hospitals but these organisms are now found in the community and
although susceptible to some antibiotics, these infections lead to many additional hospital
days and heightened costs. An antibiotic developed to deal with MRSAs, vancomycin, has
not lived up to this promise and has itself shown resistance in a form of organism known
as VRSAs, vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. However, slowly new antibiotics are
being developed, but resistance adds markedly to human suffering and health care costs.
Adding to the problem of resistance has been our overuse of antibiotics which are still
largely seen as ‘wonder drugs’. However, we now understand that unlimited use of antibiotics
only adds to the problems of the development of resistance, encouraging the emergence of
“superbugs” that cause significant problems with our ability to deal with them. Europe has
added another dimension to the problem of resistance with the development of resistant
fungal disease which has been suggested to be related to the large amount of cheeses which
are protected by chemical relatives of the antifungals used to treat infections. The growing
aging population, people with reduced immune responses- as a result of some disease or
treatment, such as chemotherapy- and increased international travel has increased the
world-wide concern for adequate drugs to fight infectious diseases from bacteria and fungus.
Viral infections are not included in this analysis as antivirals are a separate class and
are not considered in this analysis as antibiotics and antifungals usually do not have effective
therapeutic action against viruses.
3
The solution seems obvious: develop new antibiotics and that certainly seems to be
what is expected. However, as it turns out that there has been a significant crisis in the
development of new antibiotics as the developmental pipeline has slowed down for over a
decade or more. Reasons for this are several, but the increasing antibiotic resistance means that
after years of effort necessary to have a new antibiotic approved by the FDA, the therapeutic
becomes ineffective, thereby, decreasing the returns. Also, the work to develop new antibiotics
has not been as effective as planned. Antibiotics are largely derived from natural sources,
often fungus, and the process of isolating and screening potential antibiotics requires time
and considerable funding. The big pharmaceutical companies have left this work for small
companies and academic institutions. However, some of this effort is now beginning to yield
results and there is renewed effort in antibiotic development.
Antibiotics have a special meaning for Southeast Asia as the warm, humid environment
allows bacteria and fungus to thrive. Human suffering in terms of loss of life, illnesses and
disabilities such as blindness as the outcome of infections is very serious. Development of
better antibiotics and antifungals, in particular, should be a healthcare priority for nations
in this region.
Prof Roger Beuerman
Senior Scientific Director, Singapore Eye Research Institute
Professor Duke-NUS, SRP Neuroscience and Behavioral Disorders
Adjunct Professor of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, NUS
Roger Beuerman is currently the Senior Scientific Director of the Singapore Eye Research Institute,
Professor of Neuroscience and Behavioral Disorders at DUKE-NUS School of Medicine and Adjunct
Professor of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine at the National University of Singapore,
Adjunct Professor of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering at Nanyang Technological University and
Senior Scientist at the Bioinformatics Institute.
Prof Beuerman has more than 20 years of experience in ophthalmology. Proteomic biomarkers of eye
disease and development of new antimicrobial peptides are his major areas of interest. He has worked
to develop methods for analyzing the microliter volumes of tears from the eye as a diagnostic source
and looks to develop population based studies in proteomics. He has edited three texts in ophthalmology
including one on dry eye disease. He is an ARVO Fellow, a Fellow of the Alcon Research institute, and
the Paolo Foundation in Helsinki, Finland. In 2009, Prof Beuerman was the recipient of the President’s
(Singapore) First Science and Technology Award. Overall, he has more than 220 publications, and is a
part of several editorial boards and grant award committees in Singapore and abroad.
4
BIOBOARD
AUSTRALIA
Deadly Mosquito Virus on Rise in Australia
C
ases of a deadly mosquito-borne virus
increased dramatically in Australia
last year, with further outbreaks
possible. Three people died and there were 16
confirmed cases of Murray Valley encephalitis
virus in 2011, according to an article in the
Medical Journal of Australia.
There were no cases reported in 2010
and just four confirmed cases of the virus
in 2009, data from the National Notifiable
Diseases Surveillance System shows.
The virus is endemic in northern
Australia but re-emerged in southeastern
Australia last year, according to author Dr
Jack Richards, of the Victorian Infectious
Disease Service at Royal Melbourne Hospital,
and his co-authors.
The increase in cases came in the
wake of significant regional flooding, with
deaths occurring in Western Australia, South
Australia and the Northern Territory. “The risk
during this summer and the coming autumn
remains uncertain, especially in areas that
remain flooded,” the report said.
“Recent circumstances remind us
of the limited information we have about
this disease, the challenges of clinical
management and the need to prepare for
future outbreaks.” The virus, which causes
brain inflammation, is fatal in about 15 to 30
per cent of cases, with long-term neurological
problems occurring in 30 to 50 per cent of
survivors. Just 40 per cent of sufferers make
a complete recovery. Symptoms include
fever and headache, lethargy, confusion and
sometimes seizures. There is no cure and no
vaccine.
The researchers said they are eagerly
awaiting further trial data on interventions
and the future development of effective
antiviral agents. In the meantime, prevention
relies on the use of sentinel chicken flocks whose sera are tested regularly to provide
an early warning of virus activity - and on
mosquito control.
People are advised to use insect
repellents and wear long and loose clothing
to help reduce mosquito bites.
Hope for Ovarian Cancer Diagnosis
A
ustralian scientists are one step
closer to improving the diagnosis
of ovarian cancer, which is infamous
for spreading quickly and being difficult
to detect.
A team from Sydney’s Garvan Institute
of Medical Research has been comparing
tumour samples from ovarian cancer patients
to tissue samples from normal ovaries since
2008. By scanning the genome, the team has
been able to pinpoint changes in the DNA of
six specific genes, which they believe could
be used to identify ovarian cancer. Scientists
hope the findings, which were published in
the journal Cancer Letters, could one day lead
to earlier diagnosis.
‘In the future high-risk patients, such
as post-menopausal women, would actually
be able to go in for a yearly blood test and
we would be able to pick up these changes
in the DNA,’ researcher Brian Gloss said. ‘The
idea would be that on a screening basis we
would be able to pick up early disease before
it spreads.’
Mr Gloss said the biggest problem with
the gynaecological disease, which is the
seventh most common cause of cancer death
in Australian women, was that it was very
difficult to spot, with ubiquitous symptoms
that include bloating or abdominal pain. Once
it has invaded the pelvis and other organs,
including the stomach, bowel and lungs, it is
often very difficult to treat. ‘We haven’t been
able to improve significantly on the survival of
ovarian cancer patients for a while,’ he said.
The findings will now materialise in general
practice for some time, but Mr Gloss said he
hoped the team could expand the study and
eventually begin clinical trials.
5
BIOBOARD
Malaria Decloaked
R
esearchers at the Walter and Eliza Hall
Institute have identified a molecule
that helps the malaria virus hide from
the immune system.
The malaria parasite could soon find it
a lot harder to hide from the immune system
now that researchers from the Walter and
Eliza Hall Institute have discovered a key
molecule that acts like a ‘cloak of invisibility.’
In research published in the journal Cell
Host and Microbe, Professor Alan Cowman
from the institute’s Infection and Immunity
division and colleagues reveal details about
the first molecule found to control the
genetic expression of PfEMP1 (Plasmodium
falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1),
a protein that is known to be a major cause
of disease during malaria infection.
“The molecule that we discovered,
named PfSET10, plays an important role in
the genetic control of PfEMP1; an essential
parasite protein that is used during specific
stages of parasite development for its
survival,” Professor Cowman said.
“This is the first protein that has been
found at what we call the ‘active’ site, where
control of the genes that produce PfEMP1
occurs. Knowing the genes involved in the
production of PfEMP1 is key to understanding
how this parasite escapes the defenses
deployed against it by our immune system,”
he said.
PfEMP1 plays two important roles in
malaria infection. It enables the parasite to
stick to cells on the internal lining of blood
vessels, which prevents the infected cells
from being eliminated from the body.
It is also responsible for helping the
parasite to escape destruction by the immune
system, by varying the genetic code of the
PfEMP1 protein so that at least some of the
parasites will evade detection.
This variation lends the parasite the
‘cloak of invisibility’ which makes it difficult
for the immune system to detect parasiteinfected cells, and is part of the reason a
vaccine has remained elusive.
Professor Cowman said identification
of the PfSET10 molecule was the first step
towards unveiling the way in which the
parasite uses PfEMP1 as an invisibility cloak
to hide itself from the immune system.
“As we better understand the systems
that control how the PfEMP1 protein is
encoded and produced by the parasite,
including the molecules that are involved in
controlling the process, we will be able to
produce targeted treatments that would be
more effective in preventing malaria infection
in the approximately three billion people who
are at risk of contracting malaria worldwide,”
he said.
Eye Contact Helps Detect Autism
U
nusual patterns of eye contact
could help detect developing autism
symptoms in babies just six months
old, reveals a study. La Trobe University
psychologist Kristelle Hudry, a key researcher
in the study, says the results of the study are
linked with emerging autism. Hudry and her
UK colleagues studied six to 10-month-old
babies who were at risk of developing autism
because they had a sibling with the condition,
the journal Current Biology reported.
They placed sensors on the babies’
scalps to register their brain activity, while
they viewed videos of faces that switched
from looking at them to looking away, or
vice versa, said a university statement. “These
results are important because early diagnosis
6
can secure the best possible outcome for
individuals with autism spectrum disorders
(ASD), through early access to intervention,”
Hudry said.
While behaviours characteristic of
autism emerge over the first few years of life,
a firm diagnosis using existing methods can
usually only be made after the age of two.
In reality, however, diagnosis often
doesn’t happen until much later, so most
autism research has concentrated on children
older than two years, which means we still
know very little about the very earliest
symptoms and signs, said Hudry.
Releasing the report in the UK, Mark
Johnson, professor and chief investigator,
University of London, said: “Our findings
demonstrate for the first time that direct
measures of brain functioning during the first
year of life associate with a later diagnosis
of autism - well before the emergence of
behavioural symptoms.”
BIOBOARD
Simple Hair Test to Find Breast Cancer
A
Hair test to screen for breast cancer
is being developed by an Australian
company, which says it could become
a viable alternative to mammography.
SBC Research is conducting an
80-patient trial to test its hypothesis that
women with breast cancer have higher levels
of phospholipids in their bloodstream that can
be detected in their hair.
The company aims to commercialise
the test and says it could be made available
to women of all ages as an initial screening,
unlike mammography which is largely
restricted to women over 50.
Those involved in the consortium began
developing a test based on their discovery
that hair from women with breast cancer
had a different cell structure to hair from
other women.
They used synchrotron X-ray technology
to detect 70 per cent of women who had
breast cancer in a series of trials, by observing
a ring in their hair not present in diseasefree hair.
But researchers are now taking a
different approach that they believe will
deliver a more accurate test.
They made the lipid discovery when
researcher Dharmica Mistry noticed her
hair developed a ring, despite being a clear
negative for breast cancer.
‘’I was looking at X-ray diffraction
patterns of hair and I used to use my hair as
a regular control,’’ she said. ‘’The only thing I
did differently was using olive oil in my hair
every now and then. I stopped using it and
the feature disappeared.
‘’That led to a series of experiments to
assess if what we were seeing was lipid in
nature. The hypothesis is that the tumour
causes increased lipids in the patient,
which is released into the bloodstream and
incorporated into the hair fibre.’’
Chief scientist Peter French said there
was evidence to show increased lipid content
in the membranes for cancer cells compared
with normal tissue. ‘’Cell membranes are
comprised of lipids, and what appears to
happen in breast cancer is that there is
increased fluidity of those lipids. We think
that’s why cancer is able to invade.’’
Ms Mistry said the test required her to
extract internal lipids from hair, rather than
any secretions or products on its surface.
‘’I grind the hair, put it in a vial with an
extraction solvent and shake it around to
extract the lipids from the fibre.’’ The resulting
liquid was then analysed to determine its
lipid content.
The hair test is among 49 Australian
entries for funding from a $100 million
global research and development challenge
by the company GE, which aims to accelerate
innovations in breast cancer.
Mr French said a larger second study
was needed to confirm the accuracy of the
hair test, but results were encouraging. The
test was ‘’probably a year or two away’’ from
being commercially available.
7
BIOBOARD
CHINA
Fatal Bird Flu Can’t Spread Between Humans
T
he strain of bird flu that killed a Chinese
man cannot spread among people, a
health agency said, appealing for calm
after the country’s first reported case of the
disease in humans in 18 months.
Genetic analysis indicated the virus
spread directly from poultry to the victim,
who died in the southern city of Shenzhen,
the Shenzhen Disease Control Center said in
a statement reported by the official Xinhua
News Agency.
“Though it is highly pathogenic to
human beings, the virus cannot spread
among people,” the statement said, according
to Xinhua. “There is no need for Shenzhen
citizens to panic.”
H5N1 rarely infects humans and
usually only those who come into close
contact with diseased poultry. Scientists are
closely watching the virus for any signs it
is becoming more easily transmissible from
human to human.
Xinhua said health authorities still were
trying to figure out where he was infected.
The Guangdong health department has
said 120 people who had close contact with
the infected victim have not developed any
abnormal symptoms.
The World Health Organization says
globally 336 people have died from 573
confirmed bird flu cases since 2003. Of
these, 40 cases were in China, 26 of which
were fatal. His death was a week after two
dead birds tested positive for the virus in
Hong Kong, which is just across a river from
Shenzhen.
More than 19,000 birds at a Hong Kong
market were slaughtered and imports and
sales of live poultry were banned for three
weeks after a chicken carcass tested positive
for H5N1. Lab tests later confirmed that an
Oriental magpie robin found dead on Dec. 17,
2011 was also infected.
China’s last reported human case of
H5N1 was in June 2010. A pregnant 22-yearold woman from central Hubei province died
after being exposed to sick and dead poultry.
China to Monitor Radiation in Water Around N-Plants
C
hina’s health authorities have been
told to check for radiation in drinking
water around the country’s nuclear
power plants.
The monitoring will cover areas within
30 km of plants that are both in operation and
under construction, according to a national
8
working plan for drinking water monitoring
in 2012, which was published on the website
of the Ministry of Health Tuesday.
The document also specified that the
plants will include the Tianwan nuclear power
plant in Jiangsu province, Qinshan plant in
Zhejiang, Daya Bay and Ling’ao nuclear power
stations in Guangdong, as well as those under
construction in Zhejiang, Liaoning, Fujian,
Shandong, Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan
provinces, said Xinhua.
The plan asked the authorities to
consider both natural radiation conditions
and artificial radioactive matters that may
have leaked from the nuclear power plants.
BIOBOARD
China Approves World’s First Hepatitis E Vaccine
C
hina has approved the world’s first
hepatitis E virus (HEV) vaccine, said
C hina’s Ministry of Science and
Technology.
HEV is transmitted via the fecal-oral
route, by consuming contaminated water or
food. In China, HEV is the most common type
of hepatitis but no commercially available
vaccine previously existed, said the World
Health Organization.
The HEV 239 vaccine, sold under
the trade name Hecolin™, was developed
by a team of researchers from Xiamen
University and Xiamen Innovax Biotech Co.
Ltd. in China’s Fujian province. After 2005,
the Chinese National High-tech R&D Program
(863 program) began to sponsor the research.
The recombinant vaccine is prepared
using virus-like particles (VLPs) of the
HEV structural protein, and administered
intramuscularly as three separate doses, with
the second and third dose given 1 months and
6 months after the first dose.
Results of a Phase III trial involving
97,356 healthy participants aged 16 to
65 years in China’s Jiangsu province were
published in The Lancet in August 2010. Half
of the participants were given the vaccine,
while the other half received a placebo.
In the year following the receipt of the
third dose, 15 participants in the placebo
group developed hepatitis E compared with
none in the vaccine group, with vaccine
efficacy after three doses reported as 100
percent.
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9
BIOBOARD
China Scientists Given US Award for Cancer Breakthrough
T
wo China scientists have been
awarded a prestigious US prize for their
groundbreaking work with a form of
leukemia. By combining traditional Chinese
medicine and western approaches, they
increased the five-year survival rate of acute
promyelocytic leukemia (APL) from 25% to
an astonishing 95%. In recognition of their
contribution, Drs. Zhen-Yi Wang and Zhu
Chen were named recipients of the 7th SzentGyörgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research
by the National Foundation for Cancer
Research in the US. In the early 1980s, Dr.
Wang was a clinical researcher at the Ruijin
Hospital in Shanghai. He performed the first
successful induction therapy on APL patients
using all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). The use
of ATRA produced a significant increase in
survival rates.
Dr. Chen, who had been one of Wang’s
Master’s students, added a TCM to the mix.
Dr. Chen helped to identify the molecular
mechanisms of both ATRA and arsenic
trioxide, a TCM that had been in use for 2,400
years, on APL. Starting in the 1990s, Drs.
Wang and Chen together conducted clinical
trials combining ATRA and arsenic trioxide
in patients with APL, the current standard of
care. APL is a subtype of acute myelogenous
leukemia (AML), a cancer of the blood and
bone marrow, representing about 5% to 8%
of all cases of AML. Median age of onset for
the disease is 40, which is much younger than
other forms of AML, about 70. Its incidence
is higher in people of Latin American origin.
Dr. Wang is currently Professor Emeritus
at the Medical School of Shanghai Jiao Tong
University and is recognized as the one of the
first experts in thrombosis and hemostasis
in China. He published 320 scientific papers
during his distinguished career. In the past,
Dr. Wang served as honorary editor-in-chief
of The Chinese Journal of Hematology, and
former council member of International
Society for Heart Research and International
Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis
(ISTH).
Dr. Chen is the current Minister of
Health for the Peoples Republic of China,
a position he has held since 2007. Dr. Chen
10
is the only non-party member to hold that
post since the 1970s. Sent to the countryside
for “re-education” during the Cultural
Revolution, Dr. Chen learned medicine on his
own for two years. He was a “barefoot doctor”
practicing many of the traditional Chinese
therapies. Recognized for his medical work
by the local rural population, Dr. Chen was
selected to attend medical school at Shangrao
Health School Jiangxi. He later received his
Master’s degree from the Shanghai Second
Medical University and his Doctorate from
the University of Paris VII.
The Szent-Györgyi Prize includes a
$25,000 honorarium. An official ceremony
will be held on March 6, 2012 in New York
City to award the Prize to Dr. Wang and Dr.
Chen.
“Drs. Wang and Chen have quite literally
changed the face of medicine for those
patients suffering from APL. Their combined
work has saved millions of lives around the
world both today and for future generations,”
said Dr. Beatrice Mintz, Fox Chase Cancer
Center, Chair of the 7th Selection Committee
of Szent-Györgyi Prize and winner of the 6th
Annual Albert Szent-Gyorgyi Prize. “I cannot
imagine a better testament to the outcomes
of investing in cancer research than what
these two distinguished scientists have
achieved.”
“In keeping with the spirit of
nonconformity that NFCR founder Albert
Szent-Györgyi is known for, the selection
of Drs. Wang and Chen has a significant
meaning to those who work in the trenches
of cancer research each day,” said Sujuan Ba,
Ph.D., Co-Chair of the Szent-Györgyi Prize
Selection Committee and Chief Operating
Officer of NFCR. “True scientific discovery
comes from ideas and basic research. These
two scientists are inspirational as they both
have dedicated their lives to this work that
will impact the world for generations to
come.”
“I am so glad to see that the efforts we
have devoted to research on Leukemia these
last several decades have led to solid clinical
benefits to APL patients around world. We will
continue our efforts in finding more effective
therapies to treat cancers,” said Dr. Wang.
“It is quite humbling to know that
our colleagues across the various scientific
disciplines selected us. We know there are
thousands of scientists worldwide working
every day to cure cancer. I hope our work
may continue to inspire others,” said Dr. Chen.
“This is a great honor for Dr. Wang and me.”
BIOBOARD
INDIA
Molecular Pathology Boon for Prenatal Diagnosis
A
round half a million newborns in
India suffer from congenital genetic
disorders every year - the highest
in the world - but advances like molecular
pathology have helped detecting these
disorders at early stages, an expert said.
“The number of children born with
genetic disorders in India is highest in the
world,” I.C. Verma, director, Sir Ganga Ram
hospital, said at International Symposium on
Molecular Pathology.
However, because of advancements like
molecular pathology, the cases of genetic
disorders are being detected at an early
stage, he said.
“There has been an increase in prenatal
diagnosis in such cases and its success is
above 30 percent,” Verma claimed.
Molecular pathology is a discipline
within pathology which focuses on the
study and diagnosis of disease through the
examination of molecules within organs,
tissues or bodily fluids.
Tulsi May Help Treat Adverse Effects of Radiation:
DRDO Scientists
I
ndian Basil, popularly known as Tulsi, can
be used effectively in treating patients
who are exposed to radiation according
to scientists at the Defense Research and
Development Organization (DRDO).
The scientists are developing a herbal
medicine based on the plant and will be
conducting the second phase of trials to test
the effectiveness of the medicine.
According to the scientists at DRDO,
tulsi contains anti-oxidant properties that
not only negates the ill effects of radiation,
but can also be used among patients who
undergo chemotherapy for cancer.
Speaking to the press, DRDO’s chief
controller (R&D) W Selvamurthy said that the
project cost around Rs 7 crore and added that
the medicine could be commercially available
in the near future. “Tulsi-based medicine is
already in second phase of clinical trials. It
has to undergo some more trials before it is
finalized and goes for commercial production.
Animal trials have also been conducted and
their results were quite encouraging”, he said.
11
BIOBOARD
NEW ZEALAND
New Corn Hybrid Could Benefit NZ Growers
A
new variety of corn that is suitable
for organic and biological farming
systems could benefit New Zealand
farmers who rely on corn seed imports.
A new corn hybrid developed by Blue
River Hybrids has been shown to protect corn
from pollen drift including GMO pollen. The
corn called PuraMaize has been developed
through selective traditional parent - line
breeding of corn plants which are able to
block pollen from other varieties. This gene
blocking mechanism is found mainly in
tropical corn plant species.
New Zealand farming sector has a zerotolerance policy for commercial GE crops. This
stand supports our clean green and safe food
reputation, but in the last decade farmers
have experienced a number of instances of
GE contamination of corn seed, which have
harmed farmers and threatened exports.
The corn variety gives farmers a solution in
the fight against deliberate or accidental
contamination of the food supply by GE
constructs.
“This is a welcome development. The
new variety has good yields and if grown
organically has no chemicals. This is in stark
contrast to GE grown crops which have
unstable yields, are laden with insecticidal
toxins and heavily sprayed with herbicides
that affect reproduction and the endocrine
system,” says Claire Bleakley, president of
GE-Free NZ in food and environment.
In the US 88% of the corn that is grown
is genetically engineered. This imported corn
seed carries a high-risk of GE contamination
for farmers and consumers. With the
globalization of food chain, imports of US GE
corn and soy foods have impacted countries
around the world, including New Zealand.
After 15 years of commercialization
of GE, there is now greater risk of exposure
to higher level of pesticides in foods than
ever before, this is especially concerning
for pregnant mothers, children, those with
compromised immunity and the elderly. Yet
GE crops have been approved through the
revolving door of regulatory and business
12
interests, which continues to this day with
new untested varieties.
“The promises by some scientists, like
Tony Connor and Colin Eddie of Plant and
Food, that GE we would get rid of the toxic
agricultural pesticides, have been proven to
be fairy tales” says Claire Bleakley.
In Africa there are many varieties of
corn that have been developed through
traditional breeding to withstand droughts
and pests, yet instead of focusing on the
sustainable traditional varieties Agri-biotech
see companies are pirating these communal
traits then adding their patented genes and
claiming the benefits.
The handful of GE food crops approved
for commercialisation - corn, soy, canola,
cottonseed, sugar beets, sugar, potatoes are mostly now engineered with insecticidal
genes and herbicide resistance genes so they
can be sprayed through their growth with a
cocktail of herbicides like RoundupReady,
Busta, 2,4-D, and Targa.
In stark contrast to non-GE food plants
that cannot withstand herbicides while
growing, GE varieties survive and absorb
the pesticides, increasing the exposure of
consumers to chemicals that are known to
be toxic.
“Importers of seed must take care to
stay within the law and it is encumbent on
them to seek varieties that can give farmers
assurance that they are growing seed that is
uncontaminated with GE” said Mrs Bleakley.
BIOBOARD
SINGAPORE
Derivatives from a Common Edible Southeast Asian Fruit,
Mangosteen, are being Examined as Potential New Antibiotics
T
he health care crisis in the development
of new antibiotics has reached worldwide dimensions and many academic
and small companies are involved in the
race to bring a new antibiotic for patient
use. The pharmaceutical industry since the
seminal finding of penicillin, has relied on
screening natural products derived mostly
from various types of fungus for succeeding
generations of antibiotics. Mangosteen
(Garcinia mangostana) is a tropical plant
from South East Asia, India and Sri Lanka
with a long history of use as a traditional
medical plant for the treatment of chronic
diarrhea, infected wounds, skin infections
and dysentery. Research efforts to find useful
new derivatives of this plant have intensified
with the identification of major bioactive
secondary metabolites of mangosteen such
as the xanthone derivatives, which display
potent pharmacological activities including
antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-
tumoral, anti-inflammatory and anti-allergy
properties. One of these derivatives is
alpha-mangostin, which has demonstrated
bactericidal activity in vitro against gram
positive bacteria including S. aureus and
MRSA. These findings suggest that alphamangostin has potential for the treatment
of MRSA infections; however, developing new
molecules is a difficult and risky business as
there are essentially an unlimited number of
possible modifications and the standards for
new antibiotics are high.
Scientists from the Singapore Eye
Research Institute and their colleagues at
the Bioinformatics Institute of Singapore
and Nanyang Technological Institute have
made progress in understanding how the
alpha-mangostin derivative works to disrupt
the bacteria membrane which paved the way
for new modifications. It has also been found
that alpha mangostin has outstanding killing
action on one of the most deadly bacteria, the
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,
which has become a major focus for the
development of new antibiotics. This type of
bacteria is often found in hospitals and shows
significant mortality world-wide. It is hoped
that this fundamental understanding of the
mechanism of action will be useful for more
rapid progress towards better antibiotics to
fight these deadly infections.
OTHER REGIONS
New Lung Cancer Test Predicts Survival
C
linical trials in the United States
and China have shown that a new
gene-based test for patients with
lung cancer beats standard methods in
predicting survival, researchers reported.
The findings, published in the British
medical journal, The Lancet, should help
doctors to make more accurate prognoses and
better choices for treatment, the scientists
said.
Lung cancer is the most lethal type of
the disease worldwide, claiming some 1.4
million lives - more than breast, colon and
prostate cancers combined - each year.
The experimental test measures the
activity of fourteen genes within cancerous
tissue, and is especially effective is assessing
a form called non-squamous non-small cell
cancer, commonly brought on by tobacco
use. “This has the potential to help hundreds
of thousands of people every year to survive
longer,” said David Jablons, the main architect
of the study and a professor at the University
of California in San Francisco (UCSF).
Currently, doctors classify early-stage
lung cancers by their size, location and
microscopic profile. Known as staging, this
type of assessment guides decisions on the
use of supplementary treatment - including
chemotherapy - after cancerous tissue is
removed. A more precise prognosis would
mean “more people who might benefit from
additional therapy could receive it after
surgery, before any residual cancer has had
a chance to grow,” Jablons explained in a
statement.
Previous research has shown that
chemotherapy given in early-stage lung
cancer helps thwart recurrence when there
is evidence of lymph node involvement. The
problem, however, is that this especially
insidious form of the disease is hard to spot
early on.
Only some 30 percent of patients in
the United States, for example, are detected
in the earliest stage, and even then survival
is far from guaranteed - 35 to 45 percent
of patients identified with Stage One lung
cancer die within five years. “The prognostic
test would address the inability to identify
these patients,” Jablons said.
In the US trial, the new testing method
- designed at UCSF and developed by the
California-based company Pinpoint Genomics
- used an algorithm to calculate the risk
of death after examining the tissue of 361
patients at the UCSF Medical Centre as low,
medium or high. All of these patients had
had surgery to treat non-squamous, noncell lung cancer. The algorithm was then
applied to 433 other patients with the earliest
stage of the same type of cancer, and their
survival rate was monitored over five years.
The method accurately identified patients
with high, intermediate and low risks of
death, the researchers said. A similar study
in China, conducted by the China Clinical
Trials Consortium, confirmed the results. A
disclosure notice in The Lancet notes that
Jablons and several of the co-authors have
paid consultant relationships with Pinpoint
Genomics.
13
BIOBOARD
Study Confirms Groundbreaking Advance in Stem Cells
T
he first use of embryonic stem cells in
humans eased a degenerative form of
blindness in two volunteers and showed
no signs of any adverse effects, according to
a study published by The Lancet.
Publication in the peer-reviewed journal
marks an important step for embryonic stem
cells, which were hailed as a miracle cure
after they were discovered in 1998 but then
ran into technical and political hurdles.
The results of the cautious firststage test, designed to evaluate whether
the treatment is safe, had been previously
announced by Massachusetts biotech firm
Advanced Cell Technology (ACT) Inc. The
positive outcome in the United States opened
the way to the first trials in Europe. Embryonic
stem cells are extraordinarily versatile cells,
found in early-stage embryos, that can
differentiate into any tissue of the body.
Scientists have been hoping to turn them into
replacement for tissue lost through disease
or lost in accidents or war. The quest to use
embryonic stem cells has been arduous.
One problem is biological: that donated
stem cells, provoking an immune response,
can be rejected by the body or cause cancer.
The other is ethical, with moral conservatives
contending that an embryo is a human life.
Addressing the biological question,
ACT used the stem cells at a so-called
“immunoprivileged” site, the eye, where there
is not a strong immune response because of
a shield known as the blood-ocular barrier.
Around 50,000 embryonic stem cells
that had diversified into replacement cells
for the pigmented layer of the retina
were transplanted into two legally-blind
volunteers.
One, a woman in her 70s, had a
condition called dry age-related macular
degeneration, the leading cause of blindness
in the developed world; the other was a
woman in her fifties who had Stargardt’s
macular dystrophy, the commonest form of
vision loss among young people.
For the next six weeks, the patients
received treatment to prevent their immune
systems from attacking the implanted cells,
but this was gradually scaled back. In the first
four months, no signs of cancer, rejection
or other safety concerns emerged and both
patients recovered a little vision, although
this was not the point of the test.
At the outset, the older patient was able
to read 21 letters on a standard chart of visual
acuity. This rose to 33 letters after two weeks
before settling at a stable ability to read
28 letters, the study said. The woman with
Stargardt’s disease, a former graphic artist,
at first could only see hand movements, but
this improved after the transplant to being
able to see single fingers and to reading five
letters of the alphabet. “However, that doesn’t
really capture the difference it has made in
their life,” Bob Lanza, ACT’s chief scientific
officer, said in an email to AFP.
“The Stargardt’s patient reports that she
can see more colour and has better contrast
and dark adaptation out of the operated eye.
In fact, she started using her computer and
could even read her watch... (and) says she
can even thread a needle now.”
Lanza noted that the improvements
occurred in patients who were already at a
very advanced state of the disease, so the
trials were encouraging for patients at an
earlier stage of degeneration.
Clinical trials of novel drugs or
treatments typically undergo a three-phase
process, enrolling a progressively larger
number of patients, to make sure they are
firstly safe and, secondly, effective.
Twelve patients with Stargardt’s have
been cleared by British medical authorities
to undergo transplant, with progressively
higher doses of cells, at the Moorfields Eye
Hospital in London.
Brain ‘Hears’ from Different Location than Earlier Thought
N
ow hear this! The part of the brain
used for speech processing is in a
different location than originally
believed, according to a US study Monday
that researchers said will require a rewrite
of medical texts.
Wernicke’s area, named after the
German neurologist who proposed it in the
late 1800s, was long believed to be at the
back of the brain’s cerebral cortex, behind
the auditory cortex which receives sounds.
But a review by scientists at Georgetown
University Medical Center of more than 100
imaging studies has shown it is actually
three centimeters closer to the front of the
brain, and is in front of the auditory cortex,
not behind.
“Textbooks will now have to be
14
rewritten,” said neuroscience professor
Josef Rauschecker, lead author of the study
which appears in the Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences. “We gave
old theories that have long hung a knockout
punch.” Rauschecker and colleagues based
their research on 115 previous peer-reviewed
studies that investigated speech perception
and used brain imaging scans -- either MRI
(functional magnetic resonance imaging) or
PET (positron emission tomography).
An analysis of the brain imaging
coordinates in those studies pointed to the
new location for Wernicke’s area, offering
new insight for patients suffering from brain
damage or stroke. “If a patient can’t speak,
or understand speech, we now have a good
clue as to where damage has occurred,”
said Rauschecker. It also adds an intriguing
wrinkle to the origins of language in humans
and primates, who have also been shown to
process audible speech in the same region
of the brain. “This finding suggests the
architecture and processing between the
two species is more similar than many people
thought.” Lead author Iain DeWitt, a PhD
candidate in Georgetown’s Interdisciplinary
Program in Neuroscience, said the study
confirms what others have found since brain
imaging began in earnest in the 1990s,
though some debate has persisted.
“The majority of imagers, however,
were reluctant to overturn a century of prior
understanding on account of what was then
a relatively new methodology,” he said.
“The point of our paper is to force a
reconciliation between the data and theory.”
FEATURE
A Crisis in the
Development of
Antibiotics
Prof Roger Beuerman
Causes for Antibiotic
Resistance
Senior Scientific Director,
Singapore Eye Research Institute
Professor Duke-NUS, SRP Neuroscience
and Behavioral Disorders
Adjunct Professor of Ophthalmology,
Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, NUS
W
h e n t h e f i r s t a n t i b i o t i c ,
penicillin, was discovered (some
say rediscovered) by Alexander
Flemming who received the Nobel Prize in
1928 for the achievement, it was indeed an
incredible event as the balance of morbidity
from infections was quickly shifted toward
recovery rather than death. The name
originated from the source, a mold named
Penicillium (Figure 1), and indeed natural
sources are still an important source of new
antibiotics (see BioBoard for a SE Asian fruitMangosteen- that is being investigated as a
source of new anti-microbials). In healthcare
systems world-wide, most patients assume
that there will be an antibiotic available to
fight whatever infection they might have
contacted. However, for a number of reasons
some serious issues have been met with in
the advancement of new antibiotics which
have slowed their development, especially at
a time when many bacteria are not affected
by some of the existing antibiotics and new
forms of common bacteria have emerged that
find ways of changing their biological activity
so that antibiotics lose their potency.
Figure 1. The light micrograph depicts Penicillium, a
mold with over 300 species including P. chrysogenum
which is a source for the antibiotic penicillin;
however, many of these fungi are also the cause
of food spoilage. Chemicals extracted from wild
type bacteria and fungus have been the source
for many of the antibiotics used today and which
have been modified into classes of antibiotics as
with the various penicillins. However, there are no
exact methods for discovering molecules from these
sources and the work is very labor intensive. Today
some antibiotics such as linezolid are completely
synthetic but molecules from natural sources are
still investigated.
The list of antibiotics is extensive, but issues
complicating their use, such as harmful
side-effects, specificity in their action, has
resulted in limitations in their use and more
importantly, the overuse of antibiotics has
led to problems affecting their development.
Overuse has become a major factor in the
development of what is widely known as
“antibiotic resistance” resulting in hesitation
by the pharmaceutical industry to put
effort into discovering or synthesizing new
antibiotics resulting in a diminished pipeline
of new drugs (Table 1). The term “antibiotic
resistance” is fairly common in both the public
press and it has been the subject of numerous
news reports as well as many scientific papers
(1-4). So what exactly is antibiotic resistance
and why is it such an issue?
Table 1. This table represents the profile for major classes of antibiotics. Dates largely represent the times that primary members of a class of antibiotics was
approved except for penicillin which was discovered in 1928 but not approved until 1940.
15
FEATURE
Antibiotic resistance has a genetic basis
and from an evolutionary view, bacteria
has always had the potential for resistance,
but the widespread use of antibiotics
in healthcare, food preservation and for
animal use has provided the opportunity for
resistance to become operational by selecting
for bacteria expressing mutated genes (2). As
bacteria are hardy organisms, the mutated
genes can be shared between bacteria
increasing the spread of resistance. It is
important to note that resistance in this sense
has been an issue mainly for bacteria, but
more recently resistance has been recognized
for fungal infections as well (5). There are
many different types of antibiotics (Table 1),
some have very specific action while others
are termed broad spectrum, killing both
Gram Positive and Gram negative bacteria.
When bacteria develops resistance one or
more antibiotics may become ineffective and
these bacteria are termed “superbugs” and of
course, it is more difficult to overcome the
infection. Confounding factors are the fact
that patients overuse antibiotics, doctors
frequently overprescribe their use and in
some countries, antibiotics can be readily
purchased over the counter (2). The medical
community is actively attempting to limit the
use of antibiotics to situation where they are
clearly needed. In fact, many patients assume
that any type of infection can be killed by
antibiotics; however, many infections such
as the common cold are viral in nature and
antibiotics have no effect on viruses. When
antibiotics are tested for their effectiveness
on bacteria, a common method used in the
pathology and microbiology laboratory is
the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration, MIC
value which is often expressed in amount
per volume, such as ug/ml. Note that the
MIC value is for growth inhibition not actual
killing. If, as happens, bacteria normally
have a MIC value for penicillin of 1-2ug/ml
and when resistance occurs this value may
increase by more than four times. In the
laboratory, we can simulate the selective
pressure of the overuse of antibiotics by
constantly exposing an organism to an
antibiotic and then testing to determine if
the MIC value changes. An example of this
method is seen in Fig. 2. In this example, a
standard strain of Pseudomonas was tested
for the ability to develop resistance to two
different current antibiotics, gentamicin
16
Figure 2. This graph depicts a laboratory simualtion of the development of resistance. The organism is a
standard strain of Pseudomonas obtained from the American Type Culture Collection. The bacteria is exposed
to a constant concentrationof each of the three different antibotics: SERI-B2 (a new antibiotic synthesized
at the Singapore Eye Research Institute), gentamicin and norfloxicin. Gentamicin and norfloxicin are both
broad spectrum antibitoics; gentamicin is an aminoglycoside and norfloxicin is a quinolone and SERI-B2
is a patented broad spectrum antimicropeptide. As seen on the left hand axis the MIC value increased
dramatically for gentamicin and norfloxicin with the bacteria becoming resistant to these drugs; however,
the bacteria does not become resistant to the SERI-B2.
and norfloxicin. Both of these antibiotics
showed signs of developing resistance by
the increase in MIC values. However, the
push in current new antimicrobial research
is to develop drugs to which bacteria do
not easily develop resistance. As seen at the
bottom of Fig. 2, SERI-B2 which has been
designed and synthesized at the Singapore
Eye Research Institute as a new antibiotic
did not show resistance (resistance is defined
as more than a 4-fold increase in MIC). It is
easy to extrapolate this laboratory example
to the real world where many thousands
of patients are taking antibiotics with the
ensuing development of resistance.
Emergence of
Multi-drug
Resistance Bacteria
As bacteria are small organisms they thrive
in enormously large numbers and they
multiply rapidly. Thus, like all organisms,
the expressed genome can vary somewhat
through mutations. Billions of bacteria
when treated with an antibiotic will usually
be killed by the drug; however, a few may
express a gene which is mutated either
spontaneously or by selection, producing a
product that essentially escapes the action
of the antibiotic. An often used example is
of the beta-lactamases, an enzyme that both
Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria
can express. Beta-lactam antibiotics include
penicillin and cephalosporin (see Table 1)
which are inactivated by the presence of
a beta-lactamase and it includes a large
number of antibiotics developed over the
years which have been in the market.
An important structural chemical
component of these antibiotics is a betalactam ring which is disrupted by the
beta-lactamase, rendering the antibiotic
ineffective. As the antibiotic interferes
with the synthesis of the bacteria cell wall
making the organism fragile, formation of
resistance overcomes the antibiotic and
making infectious bacteria multiply rapidly.
To overcome the beta-lactamase resistance,
some antibiotics, such as augmentin have
been developed that included a specific
inhibitor of the beta-lactamase. Resistance
carries an economic toll increasing health
care costs as well as increased suffering and
morbidity for affected patients (6). At present,
resistance is very common particularly to
Gram–positive, MRSA, Enterococcus and
more recently to Gram–negative bacteria
such as Pseudomonas sp. and these infections
account for a large number of hospital and
nursing home associated deaths (7-9).
Although resistance to penicillin was
initially seen in the 1940s, issues with
increasing resistance moved slowly despite an
increasing number of scientific publications
FEATURE
noting various aspects of resistance. As
bacteria modified the structure of the
proteins to which penicillin binds a new
bacteria emerged, the methicillin–resistant
Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA which has
had a major impact on health care costs and
mortality. The basic organism, Staphylococcus
arueus, is a common pathogen often living on
the skin or in the nose (Figure 3).
Serious infections are often associated
with patients with weak immune systems,
the sick, elderly, or in long term care facilities.
The term methicillin resistant is from
the antibiotic, methicillin, a beta-lactam
antibiotic that was used for treatment of
MRSA, but although replaced now, it is still
used to define this type of bacteria. The
infection caused by MRSA is not always
more serious than other infections, but the
problems arises due to the resistance as the
bacteria cannot be brought under control,
prolonging recovery and tissue destruction.
As MRSA was primarily a hospital acquired
infection, it was not so widely spread, but now
there is a community acquired MRSA, ComMRSA, which is seen in otherwise healthy
people who have not been in the hospital.
Com-MRSA is often seen as a serious skin
infection which is not easy to treat and can
spread to other vital organs. On a practical
note, the hand-washing campaigns that are
frequently seen throughout Southeast Asia
are an attempt to diminish the number of
skin associated MRSA infections.
Antibiotics Fighting
Resistance
The broad range of beta-lactam antibiotics
which account for a large majority of
antibiotics in the market or that have been
developed are ineffective against MRSA,
these antibiotics include the penicillin
and cephalosporin. The penicillin include a
chemical family of methicillin, dicloxacillin,
nafcillin, oxacillin, as well as other members.
Although, methicillin is resistant to betalactamase and is able to bind to penicillinbinding proteins and inhibit the synthesis of
an important component of the cell wall of
the Gram–positive bacteria, peptidoglycan, it
is no longer used due to the fact that other
antibiotics have fewer side effects and are
easier to administer. However, it is important
Figure 3. Scanning electron micrograph of a MRSA isolated from a patient. The bacteria are visualized as
small round organisms about 1-2 microns in diameter. (Singapore Eye Research Institute).
to notice that the critical need to eliminate
this infection has prompted the development
of specific antibiotics that deal effectively
with MRSA and by extension Gram-positive
organisms. However, the antibiotics that
have been developed for this purpose are
generally used specifically for MRSA and
some variants such as VRE, vancomycin
resistant Enterococcus.
The first of these “last resort” antibiotics
was vancomycin, a glycopeptide which was
actually discovered in 1953 (Table 1). It
originated from soil bacteria and was found
to avoid the development of resistance
from Gram-positive bacteria making it the
choice for treatment of MRSA. This property
led to rapid approval in 1958. Although
vancomycin had drawbacks, it has poor
absorption when taken orally so the usual
route of administration is intra-venous, but
an oral version was approved in 1986 for use
with C. difficle. A second antibiotic in this
category is daptomycin, a lipopeptide from
natural sources. It is a soil bacteria which
was actually discovered in the 1980s but
not approved until 2003. It shows efficacy
in treating resistant forms of Gram-positive
bacteria by disrupting several aspects of
bacteria cell membrane function and leads
to a loss of membrane potential, as well as
inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA synthesis
and finally bacteria cell death. A recent entry
into the antibiotic spectrum for serious Grampositive infections, linezolid is somewhat
unique as it is a completely synthetic
antibiotic. Linezolid was discovered in the
1990s and its approval for clinical use was
granted in 2000. The mechanism of action
is not completely understood but it seems
to inhibit protein synthesis at the stage of
initiation. It has a good safety profile as it
is not broken down through the cytochrome
P450 mitochondrial pathway which is
unlike many antibiotics and antifungals
in current use. Resistance to vancomycin
and daptomycin has been noted for MRSA
as well as another Gram-positive bacteria,
Enterococcus (10, 11); however, daptomycin
may have more robust activity compared
to vancomycin and it may actually be a
treatment option in the case of vancomycin
resistance.
Developing
Antibiotics for the
Future
It is important to be aware that bacteria
resistance will not go away, bacteria that
are now showing resistance will remain
and others may still develop as genes can
be shared laterally. Even if new types of
antibiotics are successfully developed that
17
FEATURE
do not select resistant bacteria, it would not
be possible to eliminate all resistant bacteria.
The question is then how the situation
stands now. In the early days of developing
antibiotics, it was necessary to show their
efficacy. Now, there is an emphasis on
showing that resistance develops more
slowly or not at all. Vancomycin was an
early attempt at that concept which was not
successful. A recent review has found that 20
antibiotics were approved since 2000 and
about 40 new antibiotics are in the current
pipeline (12). Of these new antibiotics,
11 were from natural products and 9 are
synthetic. However, the antibiotics from
natural sources, largely fungi and mold, are
of a class that has already shown resistance
and similar issues are expected when their
usage increases. From the class of synthetic
antibiotics, most are from the quinolone class.
Other members of that class show toxicity
and resistance.
An unique class of antimicrobials is
found in nature which function similar to
those derived from fungus. They protect
the organism from pathogenic invasion and
are referred to as host defense peptides or
defensins (13). These have not found clinical
application as yet but there are a number
of potential advantages such as the ability
to modulate the host immune response and
some may be anti-inflammatory. Reviewing
this area of research shows that it is feasible
to use some of the chemical features of
naturally occurring antimicrobials to create
new molecules that are actually much more
active against bacteria than the naturally
derived molecules (14).
References
1. Gottlieb T. Nimmo GR. Antibiotic resistance is an emerging threat to public health: an urgent call to action at the Antimicrobial Resistance
Summit 2011. Med J Aust 2011 Mar 21;194(6):281-3
2. Morgan DJ, Okeke IN, Laxminarayan R, Perencevich EN, Weisenberg S. Non-prescription antimicrobial use worldwide: a systematic review.
Lancet Infect Dis 2011 Sept;11(9):692-701
3. Andersson DI, Hughes D. Persistence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2011 Sep;35(5):901-11
4. Partridge SR. Analysis of antibiotic resistance regions in Gram-negative bacteria. FEMS Microbial Rev 2011 Sep;35(5):820-55
5. Musiol R, Kowalczyk W. Azole Antimycotics – a Highway to New Drugs or a Dead End? Curr Med Chem 2012 Jan 17 (Epub ahead of print)
6. de Oliveira AC, Silva RS. Diaz ME, Iquiapaza RA. Bacterial resistance and mortality in an intensive care unit. Rev Lat Enfermagem 2010
Nov-Dec:18(6):1152-60
7. Engel LS. The dilemma of multidrug-resistance gram-negative bacteria. Am J Med Sci 2010 Sep;340(3):232-7
8. Chamchod F, Ruan S. Modeling the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nursing homes for the elderly. PloS One
2012:7(1):e29757, ePub 2012 Jan 6.
9. Csaffrey AR, Laplante KL. Changing epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the Veterans Healthcare System,
2002-2009. Infection. 2011 Dec 13, Epub ahead of print).
10.Gupta M, Durand ML, Sobrin LS. Vancomycin resistance in ocular infections. Intl. Ophthalmol. Clins. 2011, 51: 4(167-181).
11. Sader HS, Farrell DJ, Jones RN. Antimicrobial activity of daptomycin tested against gram-positive strains collected in European hospitals:
results from 7 years of resistance surveillance (2003-2009). 2011 J. Chemother. 23(4):200-206.
12.Butler MS, Cooper MA. Antibiotics in the pipleline in 2011. J Antibiotics 2011 64: 413-425.
13.Fjell CD, Hiss JA, Hancock REW, Schneider G. Desiging antimicrobial peptides: form follows function. Nature Rev Drug Discovery 11: 2012:
37-53.
14.Liu SP, Zhou L, Lakshminarayanan R, Beuerman RW. Multivalent Antimicrobial Peptides as Therapeutics: Design Principles and Structural
Diversities. Int J Pept Res Ther. 2010 Sep;16(3):199-213.
Roger Beuerman is currently the Senior Scientific Director of the Singapore Eye Research Institute,
Professor of Neuroscience and Behavioral Disorders at DUKE-NUS School of Medicine and Adjunct
Professor of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine at the National University of Singapore,
Adjunct Professor of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering at Nanyang Technological University and
Senior Scientist at the Bioinformatics Institute.
Prof Beuerman has more than 20 years of experience in ophthalmology. Proteomic biomarkers of eye
disease and development of new antimicrobial peptides are his major areas of interest. He has worked
to develop methods for analyzing the microliter volumes of tears from the eye as a diagnostic source
and looks to develop population based studies in proteomics. He has edited three texts in ophthalmology
including one on dry eye disease. He is an ARVO Fellow, a Fellow of the Alcon Research institute, and
the Paolo Foundation in Helsinki, Finland. In 2009, Prof Beuerman was the recipient of the President’s
(Singapore) First Science and Technology Award. Overall, he has more than 220 publications, and is a
part of several editorial boards and grant award committees in Singapore and abroad.
18
FEATURE
Bacterial Culture
and Anti-microbial
Susceptibility Testing
— their Use in Guiding Therapy
Dr Tan Ai Ling
Senior Consultant, Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore
Microscopic examination of a pus sample showing
Gram positive cocci, consistent with Staphylococcus
aureus
Staphylococcus aureus: Growth on blood agar
plate
O
ver dinner one day, my General
Practitioner friend recalled how
his daughter developed wheezing
while travelling in Australia, and how he
had put her on antibiotics in case she had
bronchiolitis and he did not wish to take
“chances” in a foreign land. The Australian
doctors were quite shocked at the practice,
as the cause for bronchiolitis is almost
always viral. However, at the same dinner
conversation, another doctor friend who
is prone to recurrent sinusitis, mentioned
that while she knew the cause of sinusitis is
mainly viral in aetiology, she has had enough
experience that in her case, she often ended
up with a secondary bacteria infection, and
so she takes antibiotics empirically. She does
not send specimen for culture and testing; she
knows what works best for her.
So are doctors over treating with
antibiotics? Should they send specimens
for culture, and treat with antibiotics only
when it is confirmed that there is bacterial
growth? And if it is bacterial in aetiology,
should doctors use susceptibility results to
guide them on the choice of the antibiotics?
Being a microbiologist and specifically a
bacteriologist, I may have a bias for culture
and susceptibility testing. I believe there is
value in culture, and indeed there is a time
and place for all things, and certainly a time
for culture.
Most times, when a patient consults
a doctor for the common diseases with
infectious aetiology, the problem is more
likely viral than bacterial, so there is certainly
19
FEATURE
Antibiotic susceptibility testing using disk diffusion –
the bacteria is a methicillin resistant Staphylococcus
aureus (MRSA)
Corneal scrape showing Gram-negative bacilli.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly
isolated Gram-negative bacilli from cornea.
Antibiotic susceptibility testing of Pseudomonas
aeruginosa. This bacteria produces a green pigment.
no need to do any microbiological tests or
bacterial cultures. There is certainly no need
for antibiotic therapy in such cases.
There are however, infections at certain
sites which are more likely bacterial, and
these are urinary tract infection, keratitis,
cutaneous abscesses and other wound
infections, as elaborated below. The value
in culturing infections from these sites
is first of all, we can confirm what is the
causative microbial agent, and secondly, if
it is a bacterial infection, we know what
antibiotics are expected to work. Giving
the appropriate antibiotics will enable the
patient to make quick recovery, and save the
patient from suffering prolonged illness with
inappropriate treatment, sometimes with
serious consequences.
The following clinical conditions (with
focus on community-acquired infections),
may be bacterial in aetiology, and hence
benefit from laboratory work-up including
bacterial culture and susceptibility testing:
Streptococcus, which remains susceptible to
usual therapy, and in reality is often difficult
to get a sample for bacterial culture, and is
thus often treated empirically.
6. Gastroenteritis
Mainly viral, for example Norovirus which
can cause outbreaks in closed community,
or toxin-related (hence, non-culturable).
Less commonly are bacterial causes like
Salmonella Enteritidis and other Salmonella
species, Campylobacter species, Vibrio
species, Shigella species. Some of these
bacteria are getting more resistant, although
most Salmonella gastroenteritis is generally
self-limiting and should not be given
antibiotics as this may prolong the carriage
state. Laboratory support is also useful to
diagnose parasitic causes.
So the pertinent question is, ‘Can we just
give a guess and start empirical treatment?’
Much will depend on the experience of the
physician. If the physician is quite sure it is
bacterial infection, antibiotics may be needed,
but he/she will need to hazard guesses, and
the antibiotic chosen may not be suitable. If
there are no facilities for culture, this may
have to be the route to adopt. However,
in countries with good laboratory services,
the service should be taken up and cultures
done as a good clinical practice, and to guide
treatment.
With the rising trend of bacterial
resistance, it can no longer be assumed that
what worked just last year, may still work
now. Bacterial resistance has escalated very
quickly, and this is a worldwide trend. With
mobility of people, resistance strains cross
borders with ease, so we are seeing foreign
patients with unusual bacterial resistance.
And our local population may have picked up
a resistant strain overseas, and returned with
these resistant strains. It is no longer possible
to guess what is happening to patients, and
so sending specimens for bacterial culture
1. Urinary tract infection
This is the bugbear of many females, and
is invariably bacterial in aetiology, with
Escherichia coli the most common bacteria.
However, there is increasing rate of resistance,
and many oral antibiotics are now no longer
effective.
2. Wound infections
Wounds are often caused by bacteria.
Staphylococcus aureus is often the cause
of abscesses, and although standard
antibiotics are often effective, there is
now an increasing incidence of community
acquired MRSA, which only bacterial culture
with susceptibility testing will reveal.
Cellulitis, on the other hand, is largely due to
20
3. Keratitis
Its causes can be bacterial, fungal, viral or
parasitic. Bacterial infection is quite common
especially if trauma-associated. Common
bacteria are Staphylococcus aureus and
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, both of which are
generally quite susceptible to the standard
antibiotics, but there could be exceptions.
4. Genital infections
They can be sexually transmitted like
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which usually needs
culture proof.
Non-sexually transmitted infections
include Candida vaginitis, which is fungal but
can be easily cultured using bacteriological
methods, and possibly bacteria like anaerobic
bacterial vaginosis.
5. Pneumonia
Pneumonia usually affects high risk people
like the elderly, the very young, and those with
risk factors like immunosuppression, heart and
lung disease. Community-acquired bacterial
pneumonia can be due to Streptococcus
pneumoniae (trend of increasing resistance
world-wide), Haemophilus influenzae,
Branhamella catarrhalis, or other nonculturable/hard to culture bacteria like
Legionella, Mycoplasma and Chlamydia, which
may require other diagnostic modalities like
serology or PCR. Other causes of pneumonia
can be viral, for instance, Influenza, RSV etc.
Hospital acquired pneumonias are caused by
a numerous number of bacterial species, and
are often multi-resistant, that is, resistant to
several groups of antibiotics.
FEATURE
and antibiotic susceptibility testing may be
necessary.
There are certain things/pitfalls that have
to be noted, when doing bacterial cultures.
The quality of the specimen is of utmost
importance. As the saying goes, “rubbish
in, rubbish out”. The patient should not be
paying for a test that is not useful, or even
inaccurate. The following must be observed:
1. The specimen collected must be in
sufficient amount. Too small a quantity may
lead to a sampling of an area without the
microbe (or insufficient microbe), hence
leading to a false negative result – when
there was a bacterial infection
2. The specimen must be correctly
collected. Incorrect collecting could lead
to problems in interpretation and spurious
results. A typical example is urine culture
from an ambulant person. The person should
be taught to clean the perineum area well,
then submit a mid-stream urine. Otherwise
the perineal flora could be mixed with the
urine, get into the urine, and get cultured
and reported, when these are not the cause
of the urinary infection.
3. There must be timely delivery of the
specimen to the lab for culture, otherwise the
bacteria may become non-viable, or in the
case of urine, because urine is a good culture
medium the bacterial starts multiplying to a
level that is deemed significant, when they
may not be actually significant.
4. All patients should be cultured before
the start of antibiotic therapy. Even one
dose of antibiotics can compromise recovery
and growth of the bacteria, even though
the antibiotic may be sub-optimal, that is,
the bacteria is resistant to the antibiotic.
This point is very important, but often
overlooked. We see this problem often in
our laboratory practice, whereby the patient
may be suspected of a bacterial infection, but
all cultures are negative. It is likely that the
patient could have presented to the General
Practitioner and given antibiotics, and now
presents to a hospital specialist, who then
orders cultures, which unfortunately, may
be negative. It is a really good practice,
that if bacterial infections are suspected,
to send off for cultures before starting
antibiotics. Culture results may take a few
days to complete, and in the meantime some
empirical treatment could be given. Other
tests could also be done at the same time if
indicated, such as full blood count, to see if
the infection is more viral or bacterial; and
if the picture is more like viral, antibiotics
can be withheld.
Clinical information is very useful,
and can be important when requesting for
bacterial culture. Such information will
help the laboratory perform the testing
as best as possible targeted to the type
of aetiologic agents suspected. So clinical
diagnosis, relevant history including travel,
any suspected aetiologic agent, and antibiotic
given or to be given will be useful.
There are some fastidious bacteria
that require special media – eg directly
plating onto media at beside for Neisseria
gonorrhoea, the use of transport media
for anaerobic bacteria, the maintenance in
cold (ice) for Helicobacter pylori, etc. The
laboratory staff or Microbiologist can advise
the appropriate specimen to collect, and any
special procedures required for delivery and
transport of the specimen.
In summary, there are benefits of doing
bacterial culture and susceptibility testing,
especially in some clinical conditions.
Much will depend on the experience of the
physician whether therapy should be started
without doing laboratory tests. But where in
doubt, and if laboratory support is available,
it is good practice to send off laboratory tests,
which could include microbiological tests like
bacterial culture and antibiotic susceptibility
testing. The microbiologist can also advise
what is the best specimen to submit, and
how to collect specimens, and also suggest
empirical antibiotic therapy based on
laboratory trends, if necessary. However,
susceptibility testing of bacteria for the
individual patient with a bacterial infection
is best, rather than rely on epidemiological
trends, in view of the rate of increase in
antibiotic resistance amongst some bacteria.
Patients who have been healthy with no
significant past medical history or recent
antibiotic use have been infected with multiresistant bacteria – this is, indeed, a cause for
concern and makes antibiotic susceptibility
testing worth doing.
About the Author
Dr Tan Ai Ling is Senior Consultant and Head of the Diagnostic Bacteriology section of the Department
of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital. She graduated from the National University of Singapore in
1981, and subsequently trained in Microbiology. She obtained the Diploma in Bacteriology (University
of Manchester) in 1986 and the Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia in 1989. She
was awarded a HMDP Fellowship in Mycology and Laboratory Quality Assurance from October 1993
to January 1994. Her interests are in Mycology and general Bacteriology. She is the chairman of the
department’s Laboratory Quality Committee which oversees quality, accreditation and safety issues. She
is also a member of the hospital’s Infection Control Committee.
She has been appointed by the Specialist Accreditation Board to chair the Microbiology Subcommittee
of the Pathology Specialist Training Committee since August 2004. The committee sets the direction of
training of Microbiologists in Singapore.
She received the Minister of Health Award on 10 July 2006 for work done in Fusarium keratitis outbreak.
She was the Singapore Society of Pathology Becton Dickinson Award recipient in 2008, an award given
to Pathologists in Singapore for contributions to Pathology.
21
FEATURE
Epidemiology and Impact of
Multi-Drug Resistant Gram
Negative Infections in
Critically Ill Patients in Asia
Dr Paul Anantharajah Tambyah1 and Dr Anupama Vasudevan2
1. Department of Medicine, National University of Singapore
2. Department of Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore
T
he development of antibiotics was truly
one of the greatest advances in medical
science whereby previously untreatable
and feared infections became readily curable.
However, soon after the first antibiotics
were developed, antibiotic resistance was
detected – mainly in vitro but also in nature.
Currently, efficient treatments of many
common infections are complicated by the
development of drug resistance in causative
bacteria.
22
There are four major means by which the
antibacterial agents destroy the bacteria1.
They are (1) interference with cell wall
synthesis, (2) inhibition of protein synthesis,
(3) interference with nucleic acid synthesis
and (4) inhibition of a critical metabolic
pathway. Some bacteria are inherently
resistant to one class of antibiotics but
usually susceptible to others. The concern
is for acquired resistance where once
susceptible bacteria develop resistance to
widely used antibacterials.
Bacteria often develop resistance 2
to antibacterials by new mutations. This
“vertical evolution” may occur in bacteria by
different mechanisms such as (1) Altering
the target protein to which the antibacterial
agents bound to. This may be by either
modifying or eliminating that site so that
the antibiotics cannot be bound – this
occurs with alterations in the penicillin
binding protein in the pneumococcus or
FEATURE
Staphylococci. (2) Increasing or producing
enzymes that inactivate the antimicrobial
agent – most commonly with betalactamases which inactivate beta-lactam
antibiotics. (3) Altering the bacterial outer
membrane, thereby decreasing the entry
of the antibacterials into the bacterial cell
which can occur with a range of bacteria (4)
Efflux pumps in the bacteria which expel the
antibiotics, most commonly in Pseudomonas
and other gram-negative bacterial species.
Bacteria can also acquire drug resistance
by gaining genetic material from other
resistant bacteria in the environment or
horizontal evolution. This may occur by
(1) Conjugation: Transfers of plasmids
containing resistant genes directly from
another bacterium (2) Transduction: Transfers
resistance genes from one bacterium to
another by bacteriophages. This method
is now considered to be uncommon. (3)
Transformation: Bacteria acquire and
incorporate the DNA segments that
were released by other bacteria into the
environment.
Multi-drug resistance is clearly a potential
public health threat given the emergence of
many of these antibiotic resistant strains
worldwide. According to the US Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), more
than 70% of the hospital acquired infections
in the US are resistant to at least one class
of antibiotics. Industry funded studies MYSTIC (Meropenem Yearly Susceptibility
Test Information Collection)3 and SENTRY
Antimicrobial Surveillance program, are
involved in monitoring antibiotic resistance
worldwide. Their results indicate that the
antibiotic resistance pattern of bacteria
has increased globally in most study sites4,5.
A laboratory based surveillance program
involving six acute care hospitals in Singapore
to monitor the drug resistance pattern of six
pathogens namely Staphylococcus aureus,
Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella
pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and
Acinetobacter spp. showed that the problem
of antibiotic resistance in Singapore is on the
increase6. Drug resistance spares no continent
and is, in fact, becoming a major concern
in Asia. Hospitals, and in particular, the
intensive care units are proliferation zones
for antimicrobial drug resistance. This is due
to the increased usage of antibiotics together
with the risk of cross infection in severely
ill patients7. Many risk factors have been
identified for the occurrence of drug resistant
bacterial infections among these critically
ill patients. These include broad spectrum
antibiotic usage, presence of invasive devices
such as endotracheal tubes, vascular and
urinary catheters, prolonged hospital stay,
immunosuppression and malnutrition8. Failure
to adhere to infection control measures
by the healthcare staff, contamination
of equipment and the environment are
also important modes of transmission of
these drug resistant organisms. These drug
resistant bacteria among these critically
ill patients have consistently been shown
to increase the length of stay in hospital,
thus increasing the financial burden on the
patient as well as on society9. The increased
mortality due to the presence of these
drug resistant organisms is controversial as
certain studies have shown limited impact
of the multi-drug resistant organisms on
overall mortality10. This may be related to
the fact that many of these infections occur
in patients who have multiple comorbidities
and are already critically ill from other causes.
In these patients, infection with multi-drug
resistant bacteria might in fact be a marker
for increased mortality rather than a cause
of the increased mortality per se.
Among the different groups of resistant
bacteria, it has been observed that resistant
gram negative organisms are increasing and
today the majority of infections especially
in ICUs in Asia are caused by multi-drug
resistant gram negative bacteria7. This trend
is also being observed all around the world
and is a potentially dangerous threat11. These
organisms are associated with pneumonia,
blood stream infections, urinary infections
and surgical site infections. Data from the
US National Healthcare Safety Network
(NHSN) has shown that 30% of overall
hospital acquired infections are due to gram
negative bacilli largely associated with
pneumonia and urinary tract infections12. The
annual report of the European Antimicrobial
Resistance Surveillance (EARS) network has
stated that the resistant Escherichia coli,
Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas
aeruginosa have been steadily showing
an increase 13 . Studies from Singapore
have also shown that there is diminishing
susceptibility to antibiotics among the
gram negative bacteria 14. The important
23
FEATURE
gram negative bacteria in health care
settings that are difficult to treat because
of resistance are Acinetobacter baumanii,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ESBL producing
Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli.
Antibiotic susceptibility patterns in the
ICU of a hospital in Indonesia showed the
predominant pathogens were Pseudomonas
aeruginosa (26.5%) followed by Klebsiella
pneumoniae (15.3%)15. In Thailand, among
device associated infection from the medical
and surgical ICUs showed that among
the resistant gram negative organisms,
Acinetobacter baumanii was the commonest
followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia
coli16. The International Nosocomial Infection
Control Consortium findings pertaining to
device associated infections in ICU of seven
Indian cities showed that 27.3% of hospital
acquired infections were caused by multidrug resistant Pseudomonas spp followed
by multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter
baumanii17. Many studies from other parts of
Asia have also shown that these drug resistant
Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and
Escherichia coli were the organisms that were
most frequently isolated from the cultures of
the critically ill patients18,19,20,21. The Study for
Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends
(SMART) investigating the antimicrobial
profile of intra-abdominal infections due to
Gram negative bacilli in Asia has showed that
there are a few of Extended-spectrum betalactamase (ESBL) producing K.pneumoniae
that were resistant to carbapenems especially
from the isolates from ICU signaling the
emergence of extremely difficult to treat
infections22. More recently, the emergence
of NDM-1 and KPC beta-lactamases23,24,25
has raised the specter that these resistant
gram-negative infections can even become
untreatable or pan-drug resistant with
only recourse to much older and more toxic
antibiotics such as the polymyxins including
colistin.
Studies have been carried out on these
critically ill patients to determine the major
risk factors predicting the occurrence of
these resistant gram negative rods (RGNR)
in the Asian context. In general, risk factors
identified in Asian hospitals tend to be similar
to those found in the west26,27,28,29.
24
ICU admissions, higher severity of illness,
increasing age, and surgery have been
documented as independent risk factors
by many studies30,31,32,33,34. The presence of
invasive devices such as the endotracheal
tubes, central venous catheters and urinary
catheters are also important factors for the
acquisition of the RGNR infection35,36. Almost
all of the studies have pointed out that
previous use of broad spectrum antibiotics
carries a higher risk of resistance among
the gram negative bacilli37,38. These studies
suggest that empirical antibiotics should be
used judiciously so as to reduce occurrence
of multi-drug resistant gram negative
organisms.
The impact of these RGNR can be
evaluated from both clinical and financial
aspects. From a clinical point of view, the
outcomes that are most important are the
attributable mortality and the length of
stay at the hospital or the ICU. The clinical
outcome of mortality that is attributed to
the multi-drug resistant gram negative
organisms’ remains controversial. Certain
studies have showed that the resistance of
the gram-negative bacilli such as Escherichia
coli, Acinetobacter spp are a cause for
increased mortality39,40 whereas it has been
highlighted by others that the resistant
gram negative bacterial infections are
not associated with increased hospital
mortality41,42. Patients with RGNR infections
have been found to have longer hospital stays
or ICU stays, although their overall mortality
outcome was similar to those without
resistant bacterial infections43,44. It is felt
by many that initial appropriate antibiotic
therapy is the reason for better outcomes
amongst these groups of Resistant GramNegative Rods (RGNR) patients rather than
the effects of drug resistance per se. On the
other hand, it has also been shown that even
short durations of broad spectrum antibiotics
can lead to the development of antimicrobial
resistance45, thus calling into question a
strategy of de-escalation from empiric broad
spectrum initial antibiotic therapy.
As these RGNR infections increase the
hospital stay for a patient, they usually
result in an increase in the total costs for the
patient and loss of bed days to the hospital.
A retrospective matched cohort study from
Taiwan showed that patients with multi-
drug resistant Acinetobacter bacteremia
experienced two times more hospital costs
as compared with the controls. In addition,
they also showed that the costs for antibiotic
therapy were higher among the cases46.
There are mixed reviews of utilizing
routine surveillance cultures which detect
asymptomatic carriers to select empirical
antibiotics and control cross infection in ICU
patients. A study by Hayon et al47 obtained
surveillance cultures to effectively treat even
before the onset of Ventilator Associated
Pneumonia (VAP) found that only 33% of
surveillance cultures matched the actual
organisms causing VAP which required
microbiologic processing of protected
specimen brush (PSB) or bronchoalveolar
lavage (BAL) samples. In another study by
Bouza et al48, similar results were obtained
where only one third of the patients with a
VAP had the same microorganism causing
pneumonia as the surveillance culture.
Routine and strict surveillance may be
necessary to identify the high risk patients
colonized with resistant organisms who might
then go on to develop clinical infections or
act as sources for cross transmission. On
the other hand, routine surveillance if not
properly handled can lead to inappropriate
treatment. Organisms which are simply
colonizers may end up getting treated and
this paradoxically increases the risk of even
more resistance being selected out.
Invasive devices are a major risk
factor for resistant gram negative bacterial
infections; steps should be put in place
to either reduce the use of these devices
or to use novel coated devices or other
technological solutions. Studies have shown
that impregnated devices reduce adherence
of bacteria to the devices potentially reducing
the incidence of RGNR infections 49,50 .
Unfortunately, clinical trials have failed to
show consistent improvements in infection
rates or mortality although there have been
some promising results – in particular with
silver coated endotracheal tubes51 or with
coated central venous catheters 52,53. One
problem with these devices is the need to
maintain antibacterial activity over time
while not releasing potentially toxic products
into the host.
New antibacterial agents are not being
introduced in pace with the growth of
FEATURE
multi drug resistant organisms. Many novel
antibiotics are targeted at gram-positive
organisms which are more common in Europe
and North America. There are no new agents
in the pipeline for resistant gram-negatives
as the current reimbursement structure for
medications does not encourage innovation
in antibiotics. Antibiotics are used for short
term critically ill patients as compared to
drugs for hypertension or hyperlipidemia or
even HIV which are used lifelong.
The Infectious Diseases Society of
America’s (IDSA) antimicrobial availability
task force has identified six pathogens, the
so-called ESKAPE organisms (Enterococcus
faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella
pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter
species) as problematic organisms and is
encouraging new antimicrobial research to
combat them. IDSA has called for combined
efforts from industry, academia, the National
Institutes of Health, the Food and Drug
Administration, the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention, the US Department
of Defense, and the new Biomedical Advanced
Research and Development Authority at the
Department of Health and Human Services to
combat this issue54. The IDSA has launched
the attractively named “Bad bugs no drugs”
campaign to lobby for increased funding for
antibiotic development.
Antimicrobial resistance is a major
worldwide problem. Untreatable infections
threaten the gains of healthcare in the
last century. Advances in chemotherapy
as well as the use of new monoclonal
therapies have improved outcomes in many
areas of healthcare but many of these are
accompanied by increased risk of infection. In
the recent past, these infections were easily
treated but the same unfortunately cannot
be said today. A concerted effort by industry
and academia is needed to find solutions to
this pressing problem.
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33. Panhotra BR, Saxena AK, Al-Ghamdi AM. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae hospital acquired
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34. Akinci E, Colpan A, Bodur H, Balaban N, Erbay A. Risk factors for ICU-acquired imipenem-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.
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35. Surasarang K, Narksawat K, Danchaivijitr S, Siripanichgon K, Sujirarat D, Rongrungrueng Yet al. Risk factors for multi-drug resistant
Acinetobacter baumannii nosocomial infection. J Med Assoc Thai 2007;90:1633-1639.
36. Ozgunes I, Erben N, Kiremitci A, Kartal ED, Durmaz G, Colak Het al. The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta lactamase-producing
Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in clinical isolates and risk factors. Saudi Med J 2006;27:608-612.
37. Cao B, Wang H, Sun H, Zhu Y, Chen M. Risk factors and clinical outcomes of nosocomial multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
infections. J Hosp Infect 2004;57:112-118.
38. Kang CI, Kim SH, Kim DM, Park WB, Lee KD, Kim HBet al. Risk factors for and clinical outcomes of bloodstream infections caused by
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39. Ho PL, Chan WM, Tsang KWT, Wong SSY, Young K. Bacteremia caused by Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase:
a case-control study of risk factors and outcomes. Scand J Infect Dis 2002;34:567-573.
40. Prashanth K, Badrinath S. Nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter species: Clinical findings, risk and prognostic factors. Indian J
Med Microbiol 2006;24:39-44.
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41. Du B, Long Y, Liu H, Chen D, Liu D, Xu Yet al. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae
bloodstream infection: risk factors and clinical outcome. Intensive Care Med 2002;28:1718-1723.
42. Song JY, Cheong HJ, Choi WS, Heo JY, Noh JY, Kim WJ. Clinical and microbiological characterization of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter
baumannii bloodstream infections. J Med Microbiol 2011;60:605-611.
43. Aloush V, Navon-Venezia S, Seigman-Igra Y, Cabili S, Carmeli Y. Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: risk factors and clinical
impact. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006;50:43-48.
44. Kim BN, Woo JH, Kim MN, Ryu J, Kim YS. Clinical implications of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae
bacteraemia. J Hosp Infect 2002;52:99-106.
45.Donaldson AD, Razak L, Liang LJ, Fisher DA, Tambyah PA. Carbapenems and subsequent multiresistant bloodstream infection: does
treatment duration matter? Int J Antimicrob Agents 2009;34:246-251.
46. Lee NY, Lee HC, Ko NY, Chang CM, Shih HI, Wu CJet al. Clinical and economic impact of multidrug resistance in nosocomial Acinetobacter
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47. Hayon J, Figliolini C, Combes A, Trouillet JL, Kassis N, Dombret MCet al. Role of serial routine microbiologic culture results in the initial
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48. Bouza E, Pérez A, Muñoz P, Jesús Pérez M, Rincón C, Sánchez Cet al. Ventilator-associated pneumonia after heart surgery: a prospective
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49. Hanna H, Bahna P, Reitzel R, Dvorak T, Chaiban G, Hachem Ret al. Comparative in vitro efficacies and antimicrobial durabilities of novel
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50. Raad I, Mohamed JA, Reitzel RA, Jiang Y, Raad S, Al Shuaibi Met al. Improved Antibiotic Impregnated Catheters with Extended Spectrum
Activity Against Resistant Bacteria and Fungi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2011.
51. Kollef MH, Afessa B, Anzueto A, Veremakis C, Kerr KM, Margolis BDet al. Silver-coated endotracheal tubes and incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia: the NASCENT randomized trial. JAMA 2008;300:805-813.
52.Borschel D, Chenoweth C, Kaufman S, Hyde K, VanDerElzen K, Raghunathan Tet al. Are antiseptic-coated central venous catheters
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53. Fraenkel D, Rickard C, Thomas P, Faoagali J, George N, Ware R. A prospective, randomized trial of rifampicin-minocycline-coated and
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Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2009;48:1-12.
About the Authors
Dr Paul Anantharajah Tambyah is currently the Associate Professor of Medicine and the Senior Consultant
Infectious Diseases Physician at the Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore. He
is also the President of the Society of Infectious Disease (Singapore). His past appointments have included
Assistant Dean of the School of Medicine, Founding Head of the Division of Infectious Diseases. He was
also the international councilor of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology in America until December 2009
and is currently a council member of the Western Pacific Society for Chemotherapy. His research interests
are in nosocomial infections in particular device associated infections and emerging infectious diseases.
Dr Anupama Vasudevan is currently pursuing her doctorate at Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National
University of Singapore. She is also a clinical researcher with presentations in multiple International
conferences, one of which won the top prize at the International Conference of the Infection Control
Association of Singapore. She is technologically savvy and has pioneered the use of statistical tools and
novel software in infection control surveillance. She holds her Masters in Public Health from NUS, added
to her Bachelors in Dental Surgery from MGR Medical University, India.
27
FEATURE
Antibiotics and Resistance
in Ocular Infections –Indian
Perspective
Savitri Sharma, MD, FAMS
Director, Laboratory Services, LVPEI-Network
L V Prasad Eye Institute
Patia, Bhubaneswar- 751024
Orissa, India.
Ph: 91-0674-3987 129
Email: [email protected]
Abstract
As in many parts of the world, infections
of the eye are common in India and a wide
variety of antibacterial as well as antifungal
antibiotics are available in the market.
Antibiotics can be administered in the eye by
a number of routes; topical, subconjunctival,
subtenon and intraocular. Peculiar to the
treatment of eye infections, fortified eye
drops from parenteral formulations are
often used. These preparations achieve high
concentrations; usually much above the
minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Fair
amount of research on antibiotic resistance
in India deals with bacterial infections,
however, studies on antibiotic susceptibility
of fungal isolates are limited. The resistance
in bacteria seems to be increasing in parallel
with the increase seen over the years in
bacteria associated with systemic infections.
Although it is believed that the rise in
resistant ocular bacterial isolates is linked
to the rise in resistant systemic pathogens,
recent evidence has correlated the emergence
of resistant bacteria in the eye to prior topical
antibiotic therapy. Probably, either of these
contributes to the emergence of resistance
among bacteria and fungi associated with eye
infections. This review describes the current
scenario of antifungal and antibacterial
28
susceptibility of fungi and bacteria associated
with eye infections with special reference to
the Indian subcontinent.
Introduction
Micro-organisms are closely associated with
the eye forming the microbial flora of the
external ocular surface at birth while the
inner parts of the eye remain sterile. Several
mechanisms in the extraocular surface
protect the eye and only a breach in surface
epithelium due to trauma or lowering of local
or systemic immunity may predispose the
eye to infections. In addition, the number
and virulence of the invading organisms play
an important role in launching an infection.
The resident bacteria of the conjunctival sac
or the environmental bacteria or fungi can
establish infection and need to be treated
with antibiotics. Occasionally, endogenous
infections arising from other parts of the
body may affect the eye. Ophthalmologists
have at their disposal a large repertoire of
antibacterial and antifungal antibiotics (eye
drops, ointments, tablets and parenteral).
These are in use since the beginning of the
antibiotic era and similar to other infections.
Antibiotic resistance in eye infections is a
matter of concern to the ophthalmologists
and microbiologists. Until recently it was
thought that the source of resistant bacteria
or fungi in eye infections is an outcome of
the organisms acquiring resistance during
treatment of systemic diseases. Although
not yet demonstrated for fungi, evidence in
literature suggests emergence of resistant
bacteria in the eye owing to prior antibiotic
therapy of the eye.[1] This review presents
the Indian perspective of antibiotic resistance
among bacteria and fungi causing eye
infections.
FEATURE
Barriers to entry of
drugs into the eye
In a normal eye, transfer of antibiotics from
ocular surface to the inside of the eye and
from blood to ocular tissues is hindered at
various levels (Figure 1). The surface epithelia
of the bulbar conjunctiva and the cornea are
relatively impermeable, especially to water
soluble agents.
A breach in surface epithelium allows
the entry of these drugs more effectively in
the anterior segment of the eye. However,
because of the diffusion barrier across the
lens zonule compartment and anterior
vitreous, entry of drugs through cornea and
conjunctiva does not reach the posterior
segment of the eye. Inability of the drugs to
reach the posterior segment from the anterior
segment is also due to movement of the
aqueous from the posterior chamber through
the pupil and its drainage into the venous
circulation. Barriers of the surface epithelium
may be overcome by subconjunctival and
subtenon injections. While a blood-aqueous
barrier inhibits the entry of water soluble
drugs across the ciliary body epithelium, the
blood-retinal barrier limits the entry of drugs
into the retina. Diffusion across the outer
retina is blocked by cells of retinal pigment
epithelium which constitute the outer bloodretinal barrier. Resistance across the retinal
capillaries by endothelial tight junctions
is known as inner blood-retinal barrier.
These barriers are partially broken down in
presence of inflammation. Understandably,
direct intraocular injections always achieve
higher concentration compared to systemic
administration of drugs.
Figure 1. Entry of drugs in to the eye can be blocked by various structures such as corneal epithelium (E),
epithelium of the iris and ciliary body forming blood- aqueous barrier (B-A), retinal capillary endothelium
forming internal blood-retinal barrier (B-Ri) and retinal pigment epithelium forming external blood-retinal
barrier (B-Re).
Antibacterial
and antifungal
drugs used for the
treatment of eye
infections
Unlike many other organs in the body the
eyes are amenable to antibiotic therapy
by a number of routes such as topical,
subconjunctival, subtenon, intraocular etc.
Several commercial eye drops are available
in the required concentration. However,
eye is probably the only structure for which
fortified drops at higher concentrations are
used that may achieve bio-availability of
the drugs higher than minimum inhibitory
concentrations (MIC) for the offending
organisms. Antifungal as well as antibacterial
fortified topical drops are generally prepared
aseptically from parenteral drugs. Using
distilled water as solvent to make fortified
drops runs the risk of contamination.
Therefore, they are preferably dissolved and
diluted in artificial tear preparations to avoid
contamination. Table 1 lists the antibacterial
drugs that are currently in use, and their
mode of action. [2]
The major groups of antifungal drugs
are azoles (ketoconazole, fluconazole,
itraconazole, voriconazole, imidazole,
miconazole) and polyenes (amphotericin B,
natamycin, nystatin) that are respectively
fungistatic with interference in protein
sysnthesis and fungicidal with action on
cell wall function. Antifungal activity of
cationic antiseptics such as chlorhexidine
and polyhexamethylene biguanide, which are
amoebicidal and function by creating pores
in the cell membrane, is also well known.
For most eye infections the therapy
is topical instillation of antimicrobial eye
drops. In bacterial and fungal keratitis the
patient is given a topical commercially
available eye drop or fortified eye drop, with
or without systemic treatment. Frequency of
instillation varies from disease to disease. In
contrast, intravitreal therapy is preferred for
many intraocular infections with or without
systemic therapy. Subconjunctival and
subtenon injections may be preferred under
special circumstances.
29
FEATURE
CLASS OF DRUG
TYPE OF DRUG
MODE OF ACTION
Penicillins/cephalosporins
Bactericidal
Cell wall inhibitor
Fluoroquinolones
Bactericidal
DNA gyrase inhibitor
Tetracyclines
Bacteriostatic
Inhibitor of protein synthesis
Erythromycin/azithromycin
Bacteriostatic/Bactericidal
Inhibitor of protein synthesis
Chloramphenicol
Bacteriostatic
Inhibitor of protein synthesis
Aminoglycosides
Bactericidal
Inhibitor of protein synthesis
Table 1: Common antibacterial drugs used to treat eye infections and their mode of action
Development of
Drug Resistance
among Ocular
Pathogens
Resistance among ocular pathogens seems
to be increasing in consonance with the
increase of resistance among bacteria and
fungi associated with systemic infections.
The factors contributing to development
of drug resistance among ocular bacterial
isolates include overuse of antibiotics for
systemic infection as well as overuse of
topical antibiotics in the eye. [1] Other
factors that may contribute are improper
dosing regimen, misuse of antibiotics for viral
infections, extended duration of therapy and
not to a small extent current globalization
and migration of populations.
Topical antibiotics that are in common
usage for the treatment of bacterial
conjunctivitis include aminoglycosides,
polymyxin B combinations, macrolides
and fluoroquinolones. Although not used
in the United States for its side effects,
chloramphenicol is commonly used in India.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common
cause of conjunctivitis and usually a sensitive
organism to large repertoire of antibiotics.
However, resistance to gentamicin,
tobramycin and polymyxin B has been
reported among Streptococcus pneumoniae
isolates from acute conjunctivitis in children.
[3] No resistance to gentamicin was reported
in S. pneumoniae between 1989 and 1992,
30
however, resistance to gentamicin was
reportedly 42.3% in 1997 which increased
to 56% in the year 2000.[4] Similarly,
resistance to tobramycin rose from 43.6%
in 1997 to 46% in 2000. Azithromycin is a
recently recommended broad spectrum drug
for the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis,
however, moderate to very high resistance
to azithromycin has been reported for
H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, S. aureus
and S. epidermidis isolates from bacterial
conjunctivitis. Fortunately, Haemophilus
influenzae, a common cause of bacterial
conjunctivitis, remains sensitive to
aminoglycosides and polymyxin B.
Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA)
has emerged as a dreaded organism for its
wide range of resistance to several groups
of antibiotics. Its prevalence in conjunctivitis
is highly variable. One study has shown an
increase in MRSA in bacterial conjunctivitis
from 4.4% (1994-5) to 42.9% (2002-3).[5]
Situation in cogulase negative staphylococci
(CoNS), a common cause of keratitis and
endophthalmitis, is no less precarious. Until
2003 approximately 19% of CoNS were
reported to be resistant to gentamicin and
2% were resistant to gatifloxacin. [6,7]
However, by the year 2006, nearly 11%
of CoNS from normal ocular surface and
53% of CoNS from endophthalmitis were
reported to be resistant to gatifloxacin.
[8] All ciprofloxacin resistant MRSA and
methicillin resistant S. epidermidis (MRSE)
demonstrate resistance to 4th generation
fluoroquinolones such as gatifloxacin and
moxifloxacin but not to besifloxacin, the
latest among the fluoroquinolones. [9]
Currently not available in India, besifloxacin
is the first fluoroquinolone that has been
developed only for ophthalmic use. In vitro
activity of besifloxacin shows lower minimum
inhibitory concentration (MIC) compared to
all other fluoroquinolones and azithromycin.
[10] Reduced susceptibility of S. aureus
to vancomycin was first noted in Japan in
1997 in systemic infections.[11] Using disc
diffusion susceptibility testing method there
are some reports of vancomycin resistant
S. aureus (VRSA) ocular infections [12-14]
however, till date there are no confirmed
VRSA ocular isolates.
Pseudomonas comes next to
staphylococci in its importance as a causative
agent of eye infections. It tops the list of
challenging organisms to treat because of
high prevalence of resistant strains. Most
strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from contact
lens associated corneal ulcers were resistant
to ampicillin, cephalothin, neomycin and
tetracyclins.[15] In the last decade topical
ciprofloxacin replaced aminoglycosides
and became the best drug to treat P.
aeruginosa keratitis. It probably resulted
in over use as the preferred antibiotic for
preoperative prophylaxis in eye surgeries.
Multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa have been
reported from keratitis and endophthalmitis
patients leaving no choice but to use
piperacilin/tazobactum or imipenem for
the treatment of such cases.[16,17] The
landmark multicentric study from the United
States - Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Studyreported 11% of gram negative organisms
FEATURE
to be resistant to amikacin and ceftazidime.
[18] In contrast, the level of resistance in
gram negative organisms associated with
endophthalmitis was higher in a study from
India at 39% to ceftazidime, 18% to amikacin
and 13% to ciprofloxacin. [19] The same
group has recently reported with serious
concern a high level of multidrug resistance
(MDR) among gram negative bacteria causing
endophthalmitis in Indian patients. [20] This
study also reported MDR enteric bacteria such
as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae
from patients with endophthalmitis with poor
visual outcome. Among Enterobacteriaceae
isolated from eye infections in another study,
the resistance to gatifloxacin was 3.4%, to
ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin was 5.1% and to
gentamicin was 8.5%.[21]
Information about use of linezolid to treat
ocular infections is limited. In a patient with
vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium
endophthalmitis, intravenous and oral
linezolid led to resolution of infection.[22]
Reports of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus
(VRE) ocular infections are rare. In a series
of 26 cases of E. faecalis endophthalmitis,
between 1995-2007 from India, there was
one VRE. [23]
The drug of choice for the treatment
of infections caused by non-tuberculous
mycobacteria and Nocardia species is
generally amikacin and all ocular isolates are
reported to be susceptible to this drug.[24,25]
Closely classified with these organisms are
non-diphtherial Corynebactrium species
which have recently been recognized as
ocular pathogens. C. macginleyi is said to be
associated with conjunctivitis and keratitis
and reported to be sensitive to a large number
of antibiotics including fluoroquinolones.
However, what may be an alarming signal,
11 out of 16 C. macginleyi isolates from
normal conjunctiva were found to be resistant
to three fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin,
norfloxacin, levofloxacin) by E test.[26]
Susceptibility test results for fungal
isolates from the eye against antifungal
antibiotics are limited. A recent study from
L V Prasad Eye Institute in India, tested
60 isolates from fungal keratitis against
natamycin and found low MIC of natamycin
(<16 μg/ml) for all isolates except Aspergillus
flavus. [27] Sometime back, another study
from India reported the susceptibility of
fungal keratitis isolates to ketoconazole and
fluconazole. While two thirds of the isolates
were resistant to fluconazole, variable
sensitivity ranging from MIC of 0.5-10 mg/
ml was found among others. Most of the
isolates were Aspergillus species. [28] The
authors however, did not comment on the
breakpoint they considered for determining
the susceptibility level of the isolates. An
interesting study from Aravind Eye Hospital
in India showed antifungal activity of
antibacterial antibiotics such as tobramycin,
moxifloxacin and chloramphenicol against
Fusarium and Aspergillus species isolated
from fungal keratitis patients. [29] This
may explain the anecdotal reports of fungal
keratitis responding to inadvertent treatment
with antibacterial antibiotics. However, the
MIC90 of these drugs was much higher
(500-1000µg/ml) than what is achieved with
antifungal agents and surely they are not
recommended for the treatment of fungal
keratitis. The same study showed a low MIC90
(16-32 µg/ml) of benzylkonium chloride
against these fungal isolates. Benzylkonium
chloride is a common preservative used
in commercial eye drops and this may
further explain the occasional response to
antibacterial antibiotics. Over 90% isolates
of Fusarium and Aspergillus were found to
be sensitive to natamycin and itraconazole
respectively in a study on large number of
fungal keratitis isolates from China. [30]
Currently, natamycin remains the drug
of choice for fungal keratitis caused by
filamentous fungi.
Testing of bacterial
and fungal isolates
for susceptibility to
Drugs
Emergence of antifungal drug resistance has
made it important to test for susceptibility
although the in vitro results may not correlate
with the treatment outcome. Techniques for
performing antifungal susceptibility testing
have usually been difficult which has led to
dearth of studies on antifungal susceptibility,
especially in ocular microbiology. Antibiotic
concentration in ocular tissues during topical
therapy is difficult to measure, therefore,
ocular tissue-specific breakpoints are not
yet available to use for determining the
susceptibility of ocular fungal or bacterial
isolates to antibiotics. Clinical and Laboratory
Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines based
on breakpoints derived from serum/plasma/
cerebrospinal fluid levels of antibiotics are
used for determining susceptibility of bacterial
and fungal isolates from the eye. These
systemic breakpoints, however, may have
limited predictive value for ocular isolates.
Studies are needed to resolve the dynamics
of breakpoint versus antibiotic resistance
of ocular isolates and their relationship to
clinical response. Nevertheless, in absence
of a better alternative, the current systemic
therapy based breakpoints to determine
susceptibility of ocular isolates remains
useful. User friendly, well standardized
procedure yields consistent results and helps
to track trends of susceptibility and compare
data. [6] Parmar et al found comparable
results between keratitis cure rates and in
vitro susceptibility results by disc diffusion
method in patients treated with topical
gatifloxacin and ciprofloxacin, thus justifying
the use of CLSI standards for testing ocular
isolates. [31] A good correlation between
results obtained with MIC and disc diffusion
tests vis-à-vis clinical outcome has been
shown in Pseudomonas isolates against
ciprofloxacin. [32]
A notable publication by Prajna
et al has convincingly shown that eye
drop preparations are an alternative to
pharmaceutical grade natamycin (not
available to most laboratories) for testing
antifungal susceptibility.[33] Susceptibility
breakpoints for natamycin have not been
described so far in CLSI guidelines, however,
MIC of 16 μg/ml or less is considered to
indicate susceptibility of a fungal isolate.[33]
In conclusion, the treatment of ocular
infections is challenging in the face of
antibiotic resistance among ocular pathogens.
Resistance to most groups of antibiotics is
increasing throughout the world including
India. There are not many newer antibiotics
on the horizon except for few antibacterials
such as besifloxacin and antifungals such as
voriconazole and posaconazole. Judicious use
of antibiotics along with development of new
products is the only way forward.
31
FEATURE
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18. Hans DP, Wisniewski SR, Wilson LA, et al. Spectrum and susceptibilities of microbiologic isolates in the endophthalmitis vitrectomy study.
Am J Ophthalmol 1996;122:1-17.
19. Kunimoto DY, Das T, Sharma S, et al. Microbiologic spectrum and susceptibility of isolates;Part I. Postoperative endophthalmitis. Am J
Ophthalmol 1999;128:240-2.
20. Pathengay A, Moreker MR, Puthussery R, et al. Clinical and microbiological review of culture proven endophthalmitis caused by multi
drug resistant bacteria in patients seen at a tertiary eye care centre in southern India. Retina 2011;31:1806-11.
21. Morrissey I, Burnett R, Viljoen L, et al. Surveillance of the susceptibility of ocular bacterial pathogens to the fluoroquinolone, gatifloxacin
and other antimicrobials in Europe during 2001/2002. J Infect 2004; 49:109–114.
32
FEATURE
22. Sharma S, Desai RU, Pass AB, et al. Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal endophthalmitis. Arch Ophthalmol 2010;128:794-5.
23. Rishi E, Rishi P, Nandi K, et al. Endophthalmitis caused by Enterococcus faecalis. a case series. Retina 2009;29: 214-7.
24. Sridhar MS, Sharma S, Garg P, et al. Treatment and outcome of Nocardia keratitis. Cornea 2001;20:458-62.
25. Reddy AK, Garg P, Hari Babu K, et al. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from
patients with microbial keratitis. Curr Eye Res 2010;35:34-8.
26. Eguchi H, Kuwahara T, Miyamoto T, et al. High -level fluoroquinolone resistance in ophthalmic clinical isolates belonging to the species
Corynebacterium macginleyi. J Clin Microbiol 2008; 46:527-32.
27. Pradhan L, Sharma S, Nalamada S, et al. Natamycin in the treatment of keratomycosis: Correlation of treatment outcome and in vitro
susceptibility of fungal isolates. Indian J Ophthalmol 2011;59:512-4
28. Arora U, Aggarwal A, Joshi V. Fungal profile and susceptibility pattern in cases of keratomycosis. JK Science 2006;8:39-41.
29. Day S, Lalitha P, Haug S, et al. Activity of antibiotics against Fusarium and Aspergillu. Br J Ophthalmol 2009;93:116-9.
30. Xuguang S, Zhixin W, Zhiqun W, et al. Ocular fungal isolates and antifungal susceptibility in Northern China. Am J Ophthalmol
2006;143:131-3.
31. Parmar P, Salman A, Kalavathy CM, et al. Comparison of topical gatifloxacin 0.3% and ciprofloxacin 0.3% for the treatment of bacterial
keratitis. Am J Ophthalmol 2006; 141:282–6.
32. Garg P, Sharma S, Rao GN. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas keratitis. Ophthalmology 1999; 106:1319-23.
33. Lalitha P, Vijaykumar R, Prajna NV, et al. In vitro natamycin susceptibility of ocular isolates of Fusarium and Aspergillus species: Comparison
of commercially formulated natamycin eye drops to pharmaceutical-grade powder. J Clin Microbiol2008;46:3477-8.
About the Author
Dr. Savitri Sharma is the Director of Laboratory Services of L.V. Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI) network at
Hyderabad, Bhubaneswar, Vishakhapatnam and Vijayawada in India. An alumnus of JIPMER, Pondicherry
(MD-1982) her field of microbiology focused on the eye when she joined Aravind Eye Care System, Madurai
in 1986 where she diagnosed the first case of Acanthamoeba keratitis in India. She moved to the L.V.
Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad in 1991, and reported the first case of ocular microsporidiosis in India in
2003. She is the recipient of several grants and awards from DBT, CSIR, DST, Bausch & Lomb International
Research Program, British Contact Lens Association, American Academy of Ophthalmology, All India
Ophthalmological Society, Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists etc. Several randomized clinical
trials involving contact lenses and treatment of bacterial and fungal keratitis have been monitored by her.
She was involved in the development of the Vision Chip (Xcyton) under CSIR (NMITLI) grant. She has been
the Editor-in-chief of Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology (IJMM) for eight years and the President of
Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists (IAMM) from 2008-9. She has authored a book on “Ocular
Microbiology” and has published 12 book chapters and 176 papers (National- 63, International-113) in
peer reviewed journals. Her research interests are ocular microsporidiosis, molecular diagnosis, virulence
factors, antibiotic susceptibility and pathogenesis of Staphylococcus, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Candida,
Pseudomonas associated with eye infections.
33
REVIEW
Opening Minds:
The Use of Technology to Provide
a Personalised Population-based
Mental Health Programme
Dr Daniel Fung1 and Ms Nikki Lim-Ashworth2
1. Chairman Medical Board, Institute of Mental Health Singapore, Adjunct Associate Professor,
Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Yong Loo Lin Medical School and Division of Psychology NTU
2. Research Psychologist, Child Guidance Clinic, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore
C
omputers, the Internet and mobile
communication devices now permeate
every aspect of our lives. In 2011,
there were nearly 2.1 billion Internet users
(or approximately 30.2% of the world’s
population) around the globe. In Singapore,
78% of the population are Internet users, a
doubling of the 37% just 10 years ago. Nearly
80% of the world’s population own a mobile
phone and a quarter of these are smart phone
users. Different industries have embraced
the marriage between technology and the
platform it offers to improve accessibility,
propagate information rapidly and streamline
processes. Technology has changed the way
we buy things, make transactions at the bank
and travel. Its impact on traditional areas
of education and healthcare is less even.
Teachers still largely teach in classrooms and
physicians continue to provide medical care
in clinics and hospitals. But this is changing.
Technology in
Mental Health
The mental health industry is traditionally
specialist knowledge driven, labour-intensive
and focused on person-centred therapeutic
alliance. There is little in terms of using
technology in patient care. The argument
that because it is a relational science that
requires individualised care, technology will
only serve to hinder its practice and take
away the holistic element of illness recovery
centred around the person. In essence, it
dehumanises the clinical relationship through
the cold application of a standardised process
via technology. Yet, there is evidence for
the application of technology in mental
healthcare. Screening instruments such
as structured diagnostic interviews are
increasingly computerised. Many other
clinical scales are made available for purchase
and/or download online. There are websites
established by reputable agencies offering
materials about mental health issues as well
as an abundant number of individuals on
the World Wide Web offering therapeutic
help. Numerous publications are dedicated
to chronicling technological advances in
psychiatry and psychology such as the
35
REVIEW
Journal of CyberTherapy and Rehabilitation
and Cyberpsychology and Behavior. Other
traditional scientific journals have started to
include special issues on specific, innovative,
technology-based treatment modality
(e.g. “Cognitive and Behavioral Practice”,
volume 6). Extensive literature has also
been published on the efficacy of the various
software and computer systems developed
specifically to provide intervention for
diverse diagnostic groups. The immersion
of technology in mental health has come a
long way since the early days when Joseph
Weizenbaum wrote the Eliza programme in
the 1960s to mimic the human interaction of
what a therapist could offer. Eliza responds
and replies to typewritten inputs on the
keyboard. Technology is more sophisticated
now and allows audio and visual inputs to be
considered. Take the Xbox Kinect or the Apple
Siri systems as examples. This progress has
made it possible for clinicians to adapt novel
ways of including technology in treatment.
Telepsychiatry
One of the most common examples of the
use of technology in mental health would
be telepsychiatry. Using video-conferencing
technology, it offers remote access to
assessment and interventions. An example
of this was developed by the Division of
Child Psychiatry, University of Toronto
more than 10 years ago allowing any child
mental health agencies within the preidentified remotes sites to have access to
education, consultation and support via
tele-conferencing technology from more
than 70 faculty members. The programme
provided mental healthcare accessibility to
the rural communities which might otherwise
be disadvantaged by geographical isolation.
Therapy
Transformation
Cognitive behavioural approaches which are
a mainstay for psychological interventions in
emotional disorders have been translated into
computer programmes. Many programmes
36
have been written onto handheld computers
that give specific prompts to remind
individuals on their treatment goals, therapy
homework and self-evaluation. Today,
computer-simulated virtual environments are
more sophisticated since its earliest inception
as a cumbersome head-mounted device in
1968. This allowed clinicians to capitalize
its usage as an important technological tool
for exposure therapy in anxiety intervention.
Exposure exercises that might otherwise
be difficult and/or not possible within the
constraints of the consult room are now
possible with the adaptation of virtual
reality. For example, several case studies
attested that a computer-simulated airplane
environment was effective in treating the fear
of flying. Varying degrees of exposures (e.g.
takeoffs and landings) can be incorporated
in the virtual reality for a tailored treatment
plan.
Technology
Enhancement
Technology can also be adapted for use
as an appendage to standard intervention
processes. Preset wrist watches designated
to sound at a specific time were given to
a group of individuals with binge-eating
behaviours. When the wrist watch goes off,
the individuals would be required to record
down their emotions, distress they might be
experiencing, hunger level, food cravings as
well as the intensity of their urge for binge
eating. Awareness of the severity of their
own conditions, coupled with the availability
of continuous information recorded will give
therapists invaluable materials to work with.
The Drinker’s Check-Up is a software
programme catering to problem drinkers
ambivalent about changing their behaviours.
Incorporated with the programme is a
comprehensive battery of assessment as well
as different treatment strategies sensitive
to the motivation to change of the user. It
can be administered as a treatment protocol
by individuals without formal training in
substance abuse and hence, offering a certain
level of flexibility in the manpower resource
management.
Youths and
Technology
Youths have a natural affinity for embracing
the use of technology in their lives. Mental
health professionals are exploring creative
ways of incorporating novel technical
elements into clinical work with this
population. New generation game consoles
such as the Nintendo Wii and the Kinect for
Microsoft Xbox360 have been introduced to
therapeutic work for a range of therapeutic
outcomes. Consequently, clinicians have
experimented by using game consoles in
various child and adolescent mental health
population including children with Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),
behavioural difficulties and Asperger’s
syndrome. Other professionals have developed
their own web-based games to target specific
areas for change; for example the Reach Out
Central web portal (www.reachoutcentral.
com.au ) aims to teach adolescents adaptive
coping strategies, tolerate psychological
distress and cultivate resilience.
At Singapore’s Institute of Mental
Health, child psychiatrists and their teams
have started examining the effectiveness of
technology in treating childhood disorders.
Using brain-computer interface (BCI; a direct
communication pathway between a human
brain and an external device), a series of
non-invasive interactive training games
were developed to alleviate the inattentive
symptoms associated with ADHD; henceforth
improving a child’s ability to concentrate. A
collaborative study is also underway with
the Nanyang Technological University on
developing behaviour-based interaction
architecture (BIA) for a humanoid robot
as a vehicle for therapeutic intervention
among children with autism spectrum
disorder (ASD). It is postulated that a robot
is a more predictable medium and can
alleviate a certain level of anxiety and stress
related to human interactions for a child
with ASD. The usage of robotic technology
in intervention provides a platform for the
child to breakdown learning into smaller
more palatable components without being
overwhelming.
REVIEW
Vision for the Future
We believe that the vision for mental
healthcare like most of healthcare will be
a population based one. This population
based strategy is necessary because of dual
challenge of increasing demands and limited
manpower resources. Such a strategy will
address the treatment gaps we find in many
chronic conditions which are often identified
late. Late discovery of illness results in
heavy burden for society and the need to
build more hospitals and other acute care
facilities. Early identification of illness and
prevention in high risk individuals require a
system that is self-driven yet personalised.
As it is impossible to have a large number
of clinicians and healthcare providers, such
systems would require technology and its
applications for every person to be their
own specialist. The problem with evidence
based treatments is that it is well applied
only in excellent medical facilities and will
benefit only a portion of society. In the
US, this means those who can afford it. In
jurisdictions that practice socialised medicine
like the UK, it can lead to long waiting times
for treatment and usually is for the most
severely ill. Technology has the possibility
of changing this by identifying problems
early or even in implementing preventative
strategies within the comfort of ones home,
school or workplace. Some of these strategies
are already being implemented leveraging on
technology and innovation.
Singapore rolled out the National
Mental Health Blueprint in 2007. The
focus of the Blueprint for children and
adolescents is in the school system, as
primary school education is mandatory and
schools form the most appropriate avenue for
preventative and intervention efforts. This
led to a partnership between the Ministry
of Health, the Ministry of Education and
the Ministry of Community Development
and Sports to form a community mental
health pilot program called “Response, Early
Intervention and Assessment in Community
Mental Health for Students” (REACH). The
primary aims of the REACH program are
to train and support school counsellors in
the early identification and management
of children with behavioural and emotional
difficulties. The REACH program comprises a
multidisciplinary team of psychiatric residents,
psychologists, medical social workers, nurses
and occupational therapists. The REACH
team works closely with each school to
identify children at risk for behavioural and
emotional disturbance, including violence,
and engages these children and their families
into services before the emerging problems
become severe. A network of family doctors
and social service agencies within the school’s
vicinity are also engaged to provide support
for these children and their families. The
REACH program helps to reduce the stigma
associated with seeking mental health
services. REACH adopted a variety of tools
and resources that were originally designed
for use in tertiary child psychiatric settings
and then modifies (if necessary) these tools
for use in the community, leveraging on
technology. A web portal (www.roc-n-ash.
com) was used as the entry point for parent
and teacher education as well as providing
novel web based interventions for anxiety
and ADHD. Prototype research on serious
games focused on mental health issues such
as anger management are being developed as
add-ons through the portal including access
for counsellors to share materials.
The development of the REACH program
is an evolving one that will continue to
require an open mind with a passionate heart.
The paradigm shift from acute tertiary care
in hospitals and clinics to personalised self
and family based interventions is not an easy
one to accept. Evidence based medicine must
move forward for an evidence based delivery
system to get the best care to the majority
of the population.
37
REVIEW
About the Authors
Dr Daniel Fung is the Chairman Medical Board at the Institute of Mental Health, Singapore since Dec 2011.
He was formerly the Chief at the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry from 2006 to 2011. He is
an Adjunct Associate Professor with both the Yong Loo Lin Medical School and Duke-NUS Graduate Medical
School, National University of Singapore and the Division of Psychology, School of Humanities and Social
Sciences, Nanyang Technological University. He has received several awards including the NHG Distinguished
Achievement Award in 2010, PS21 Star Service Award in 2009, National Council for Social Services long
service award 2008, the Singapore Children’s Society Silver Service Award 2007.
Dr Fung is the Secretary General of the International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and
Allied Professions and the Immediate Past President of the Asian Society of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
and Allied Professions. He is also the President of the Singapore Association for Mental Health, an NGO that
supports mentally ill persons and their families in the community.
Dr Fung is a Principal Investigator and Co-Investigator for various studies involving innovative clinical
interventions on disruptive behaviour disorders and anxiety disorders. He is also the Vice chairman of
the Clinical Research Committee of the Institute of Mental Health. Dr Fung conducts clinical research on
disruptive behaviour disorders (E.g. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) and emotional disorders (E.g.
Anxiety disorders). His recent work involves a randomized controlled trial of fatty acids supplementation and
social skills training for children and adolescents with disruptive behaviour disorders. His current interests
include new media interventions for psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Dr Fung has been
involved in over 10 research grants and is a PI in several NMRC funded grants. He has coauthored over 40
research papers, more than10 books and five book chapters.
Dr Fung is also the programme director of REACH (Response, Early interventions and Assessment in
Community mental Health), a community based mental health programme which is part of the National
Mental Health Blueprint.
Ms. Nikki Lim-Ashworth has been a Research Psychologist at the Child Guidance Clinic within the Institute
of Mental Health, Singapore since 2008. She is currently involved in several clinical research projects on
disruptive behaviour disorders. She also provides cognitive behavioural therapy to children with mood and
anxiety concerns.
She started her career in as a counsellor in 2004 where she provided therapy for families, conducted
behavioural modification workshops for children and was also responsible for managing a major joint
HomeCare project with a Children’s Hospital in Singapore. She has since worked as a research assistant
for the Ministry of Education in Singapore, the Department of Paediatrics at a Singapore hospital before
joining the Institute of Mental Health.
Ms Lim-Ashworth received her B.A. in Psychology from the National University of Singapore and M.A. in
Applied Psychology from the National Institute of Education, Singapore
38
REVIEW
Future Perspectives for
Influenza Prevention –
A Global Paradox
A.M. Palache
MSc, PhD IFPMA-IVS
A.M. Palachea,* on behalf of the
International Federation of Pharmaceutical
Manufacturers and Associations Influenza
Vaccine Supply international task force
(IFPMA IVS)b
a
Co-ordinator, IFPMA IVS, 15 Chemin
Louis-Dunant, PO Box 195, 1211 Geneva 20,
Switzerland.
Tel: +41 22 338 32 00, Fax: +41 22 338 32
99, Email: [email protected]
b
Introduction
of complications associated with influenza
infections. Over time, these countries
developed different strategies to advocate
vaccine usage and implement vaccination
guidelines.
Although influenza immunization
implementation strategies need to fit the
country-specific circumstances, the collective
experience gained during the last 60 years of
usage may offer guidance for other countries
which may decide to initiate active influenza
prevention policy.
In this article, we discuss seasonal
influenza disease and control measures as
recommended by WHO and many national
health authorities. The article provides data to
demonstrate the current discrepancy between
the target rates for seasonal immunization
of elderly and at-risk patients and the
actual influenza vaccine distribution rates.
This “influenza paradox” is discussed in the
context of 1) global efforts to improve vaccine
uptake rates, 2) global and regional health
initiatives, such as the global action plan
for non communicable diseases and healthy
ageing and 3) global pandemic influenza
preparedness.
According to WHO, vaccines are the
cornerstone for the control of influenza.
Therefore, this global health organization, and
many national health authorities, recommend
annual immunizations against influenza. The
WHO runs a global surveillance system to
monitor the continuously changing influenza
viruses to identify and recommend each
year the best possible vaccine composition
for both the Northern- and the Southern
Hemisphere.
Influenza surveillance, epidemiological
and vaccine research is, relatively, quite new
in Asia, and, as a consequence, much of our
knowledge of the epidemiology of influenza
disease and the vaccines used to protect
against it is derived from research carried
out in the western world.
In more recent years, particularly since
the emergence of the highly pathogenic
H5N1 avian influenza virus in the late 1990s,
interest in influenza and influenza control
has been aroused in developing countries in
South East Asia.
For many years, developed countries in
the western world have recommended the
use of influenza vaccines for certain groups,
who were believed to be at increased risk
Secretariat, 15 Chemin Louis-Dunant, PO
Box 195, 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland.
Tel: +41 22 338 32 00, Fax: +41 22 338 32
99, Email: [email protected]
*Corresponding author
39
REVIEW
Seasonal Influenza
prevention in the
past
The global annual disease burden associated
with influenza infections is well documented
in the literature. Local annual epidemics
may be as variable and unpredictable as the
influenza viruses causing them. In some years,
epidemics can have a serious impact whereas
in other years the impact may be much less.
WHO estimates that, on average, 3 – 5 million
cases occur on an annual basis and 250,000
-500,000 people, mostly elderly, may die
as a direct or indirect consequence of an
influenza infection . Particularly, older people
and patients with chronic underlying disease
may experience serious complications and
become hospitalized. In many cases, these
patients are treated for the clinical condition
for which they are hospitalized, without
recognizing the underlying viral influenza
infection which may have exacerbated
their condition. Therefore, clinicians may
not always recognize the impact influenza
infections may have had upon their patients.
For the same reasons, the protective
effectiveness of influenza vaccines is difficult
to assess based on purely clinical grounds.
Many symptoms of influenza infections are
similar to symptoms caused by other, noninfluenza pathogens. Obviously, influenza
vaccines will protect only against disease
caused by the influenza viruses and not
by other pathogens causing influenza-like
illnesses.
Recognizing the annual burden of
influenza disease for people and populations,
WHO has, since the 1950’s, been maintaining
it’s Global Influenza Surveillance and Response
System (GISRS). This group of specialist
scientists is tasked with identifying the most
commonly circulating influenza viruses and
ensuring the best possible antigenic match
in the annual influenza vaccines. The GISRS
makes recommendations on the appropriate
vaccine compositions for both the Northern
and the Southern Hemispheres each year.
Although antigenic mismatches can occur
occasionally, for most years there is a good
antigenic match between the epidemic and
vaccine strains, indicating the success of this
global program.
40
The method of growing influenza
virus, form which to produce a vaccine,
in eggs was developed in the late 1940’s
and the vaccines so produced have been
investigated and used extensively over the
last 65 years. Despite the methodological
complexities involved in measuring the
benefits of the vaccines on society , the safety
and efficacy of the vaccines in preventing
serious influenza associated complications,
hospitalizations and deaths, particularly of
the elderly have been extensively documented
in the literature. Recommendations of the
WHO (1, 2) and other Health Authorities
are based on this documented scientific
evidence and represent a strong foundation to
advocate and implement seasonal influenza
vaccination.
Unfortunately, in many countries,
inactivated influenza vaccines are seriously
under-utilized despite the global and
publically driven efforts of WHO and
other health organizations and institutes.
The documented evidence, as basis for
immunization recommendations, is not
always fully appreciated and is sometimes
debated. As a consequence, many people
at-risk of complications associated with
influenza infections, such as the elderly
and those with chronic conditions, are not
vaccinated and afforded potential protection
against negative impacts on their health.
On a societal level, the burden imposed by
these infections and complications represent
an avoidable cost for the healthcare system
and budget.
Based on such considerations, the
World Health Assembly has adopted a
resolution calling for a vaccination rate of
75% of the elderly by the year 2010. From
available global vaccination distribution
data and published uptake rates, these target
rates are not yet met in many countries,
although over the period 2004-2009, the
global vaccine usage increased by 70% to a
total volume of 450 million doses. In Europe,
new target vaccine uptake rates have been
formulated to reach 75% uptake by elderly
and at-risk patients in 2015.
Global efforts to
improve seasonal
influenza prevention
in the future
As outlined above and depicted in Figure 1,
there is a clear need to improve the level
of seasonal influenza prevention in many
countries. Improved seasonal influenza
control measures, by fully implementing
current recommendations, are important for
individual at risk patients but also for global,
regional and national pandemic preparedness
efforts. As the H1N1 pandemic experience
has demonstrated, pandemic control is very
much linked to existing vaccine- and antiviral
production capabilities and existing health
infrastructures before the pandemic.
REVIEW
Figure 1: Global seasonal influenza vaccine dose distribution 2004 - 2009 split by WHO region (AF = African, AM = Americas, EM = Eastern Mediterranean,
EU = European, SEA = South-East Asian, WP = Western Pacific) WHO’s Global
Action Plan-II
(GAP-II)
In 2006, the WHO launched its first Global
Action Plan (GAP-I) in anticipation of an
emerging pandemic. In 2011, the WHO started
a consulting procedure to define its followup Global Action Plan for the next 5 years
(GAP-II). Increasing uptake rates of seasonal
influenza vaccines is one of the three main
pillars of the GAP program with the aim to
respond to the direct need of annual disease
prevention for patients and society as well
as indirect needs to be better prepared for
future pandemics.
One of WHO’s key GAP-I objectives was
to facilitate and support initiatives to create
local influenza vaccine production capacity
in some developing countries. Today, such
facilities have been realized in countries such
as Thailand, Korea, India, and Indonesia.
It is of interest to note that, in many
of these countries, the distribution rates
of seasonal influenza vaccines are low.
To achieve the full benefits of these local
production facilities at a future influenza
pandemic, it is important that these facilities
routinely produce influenza vaccines in
volumes which are relevant for pandemic
containment. The WHO-recommended
increased seasonal vaccination uptake rates
will provide a realistic economic basis for the
new production facilities to be sustainable.
2011 between WHO, World health Assembly
member states and industry to ensure global
“sharing of influenza viruses and access to
vaccines and other benefits” to strengthen
the global infrastructure for pandemic
influenza preparedness. As part of this
process, WHO’s GISRS will be strengthened
and access to pandemic vaccines for middleand low income countries will be secured,
according to the principles laid down in the
global Pandemic Influenza Preparedness
Framework Agreement.5
Global Pandemic
Influenza
Preparedness
Framework
Agreement (PIPFA)
Factors to
understand the
influenza paradox
and examples for
solutions
In addition to WHO’s GAP-II program, an
international agreement was reached in
Although recommendations and global
initiatives are indispensible to guide and
41
REVIEW
drive health programs, the success of these
programs heavily depend on their acceptance
and implementation in countries by the
relevant stakeholders. If influenza is often
poorly recognized and considered a “hidden
disease”, one can easily understand the
barriers to fully comply with the vaccination
recommendations and the programs to
increase vaccine uptake rates. It seems that
there is a gap between well documented
epidemiological and vaccine data and the
personal “experience” of physicians and at risk
individuals. It seems apparent that awareness
and knowledge of the annual burden of
influenza disease in specific population
segments and the benefits and (minimal) risks
of the vaccines may not be sufficiently high
in important groups such as policy makers,
nurses,physicians and the ‘at risk’ patient
populations.
Many studies have been done to
understand factors contributing to the
phenomenon of the “influenza paradox”.
A number of these factors appear to be
perceptions about the disease and the
vaccines which are often not based on
evidence, but merely on subjective opinions
and behavior patterns.
In a sub-analysis of a recently reported
study on the influenza vaccine distribution
rates in 157 countries, it was found that
reimbursement for patients and public
awareness campaigns and communications
by national Health Authorities were the
two policy actions which were highly
correlated with vaccine distribution rates.
Formal recommendations per se, although
a prerequisite to support vaccination
campaigns, were not found to be correlated
with vaccine distribution rates.
Healthcare workers
and influenza
prevention
In many countries in Europe and most likely
in other countries as well, at risk individuals
are vaccinated if advised by their physicians.
Hence, these healthcare providers are
instrumental for the implementation of
42
programs to increase vaccine uptake rates.
Global, regional and national efforts to
achieve these goals should therefore be a
focus of both, education about the disease
and its control measures as well as behavioral
aspects.
Healthcare workers are included in many
of the existing vaccination commendations
by WHO and national Health Authorities.
Vaccine uptake rates in healthcare workers
have increased in recent years, particularly
in the USA. However, generally speaking,
in many countries there is not yet an
acceptable level of vaccination amongst
these professionals which bear a special
responsibility for patients’ safety.
As influenza infections belong to the
group of nosocomial infections, there is an
increased tendency, particularly in the USA, to
consider influenza vaccination for employees
as a patient safety consideration. Many
programs and initiatives have been tried in
institutions to increase vaccination rates
amongst healthcare workers on a voluntary
basis. In general, these efforts had some
positive effect, and stimulated uptake rates
somewhat but not to acceptable levels and
many times the results were not sustainable.
Today, an increasing number of healthcare
institutions in the USA are taking a leadership
position and require their employees to be
vaccinated against influenza as part of the
internal infection control and institutional
quality programs.
Link between
International
health initiatives
and influenza
immunizations
Recently, a number of important global health
initiatives were initiated such as the Global
Action Plan for Non-Communicable Diseases
(NCDs) which primarily focus on diabetes,
respiratory illness, cardiac disease and cancer.
In addition, there are various initiatives
looking at maternal and child health as well
as healthy aging. Although these initiatives
are not focused on influenza disease, annual
immunizations against influenza infections fit
very well with the overall objectives of these
health programs.
Patients with diabetes, acute and
chronic respiratory disease, cardiac disease
and the elderly in general, are all known to
be at increased risk of influenza infections
which often can provoke deterioration of
their underlying medical conditions. Influenza
immunization of these patients, according
to current recommendations will therefore
protect these vulnerable patients against
influenza-induced disease and exacerbations
of their underlying disease. Thus, annual
influenza prophylaxis will contribute to the
positive management of these important non
communicable diseases and contribute to
health initiatives to address these diseases
and promote healthy aging. Incorporating
influenza immunization into these programs
could protect patients and reduce the overall
burden on healthcare systems.
Conclusion and
Recommendations
Despite the availability of safe and effective
influenza vaccines and independent
recommendations for their use by WHO and
other Public Health Authorities, influenza
still constitutes a “preventable disease not
being prevented”.
The successful implementation of
global efforts and initiatives to increase
seasonal vaccine uptake rates and pandemic
preparedness depends on alignment of all
respective stakeholders at national and
local levels.
Educational programs, public
campaigns of independent health authorities,
reimbursement and institutional leadership
to promote influenza prophylaxis will be
beneficial to patients and society and support
global and national efforts for pandemic
preparedness and contribute to public health.
Countries within the Asian region have a
real opportunity to successfully implement
effective influenza immunization programs
early-on and leverage many of the public
health studies and experiences which are
available today.
REVIEW
References
1. WHO. Influenza (Seasonal), Fact sheet 211, April 2009.
2. WHO. Influenza vaccines, WHO position paper. Weekly Epidemiol Rec 2005:33:279-287.
3. World Health Assembly. Resolution of the World Health Assembly. Prevention and control of influenza pandemics and annual
epidemics. WHA 56.19, 28 May 2003
4. Palache A. Seasonal influenza vaccine provision in 157 countries (2004 to 2009) and the potential influence of national public health
policies. Vaccine 2011;29(51):9459-9466
5. WHO’s Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework: A Milestone in Global Governance for Health
http://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1681&context=facpub&sei redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.
google.nl%2Fsearch%3Fhl%3Dnl%26source%3Dhp%26q%3Dpandemic%2Binfluenza%2Bpreparedness%2Bframework%26gbv%3D2
%26oq%3Dpandemic%2Binfluen%26aq%3D2%26aqi%3Dg4%26aql%3D%26gs_sm%3Dc%26gs_upl%3D2719l6578l0l12047l16l14l0l
5l5l0l406l2295l0.3.3.2.1l9l0#search=%22pandemic%20influenza%20preparedness%20framework%22
6. Blank P, Schwenkglenks M, Szucs T. Vaccination coverage rates in eleven European countries during two consecutive influenza seasons. J Infect 2009;58(6):446-458
7. WHO 2008-2013 Action plan for the global strategy for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases
http://www.who.int/nmh/publications/9789241597418/en/index.html
8. WHO Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health
http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/about/en/index.html
9. EU Commission, Healthy ageing Healthy ageing: keystone for a sustainable Europe, Discussion Paper, January 2007
About the Author
Dr. Palache (1952) is currently Global Government Affairs Director, Vaccines at Abbott Biologicals (formerly
Solvay) in Weesp, the Netherlands.
Dr. Palache received his MSc degree in Biochemistry at the University of Amsterdam in 1980. After
graduation, he initiated his professional career as a Clinical Research Associate at Solvay Pharmaceuticals
in the Netherlands. He gained a lot of experience in clinical development of new drugs in various fields.
Prior to his current position, he held different ‘Clinical Group-leader’ functions. In such position he directed
the clinical development program of Solvay’s new cell-cultured influenza vaccine (MDCK), which was
registered in 2001 in the Netherlands.
He was an Influenza Research Fellow at the Dutch National Influenza Centre: Erasmus University, Rotterdam
(chair: Professor A. Osterhaus), where he received his PhD in Medical Science in 1991.
He is a co-founder of the European Scientific Working Group on Influenza (ESWI, 1992).
Since 2001, he is member of the Public Health Working Group of the Association of the European Vaccine
Manufacturers (EVM) and in 2005, he joined the Influenza Working Group, which he co-chairs since
January 2009.
In 2003, he became founding member of the Influenza Vaccine Supply International Task Force (IVS)
and since 2004, he chairs the Policy Practice and Communication subgroup (PPC) of the IVS. In 2006, he
joined the APACI (Asian Pacific Advisory Committee Influenza) group as Solvay Biologicals representative.
Dr. Palache is the author of over 50 papers most of which were published in peer-reviewed medical
scientific journals. He is co-author of the Rapid Reference book Influenza which is published by Elsevier
in 2006 and has been translated in four languages.
43
INSIDE
INDUSTRY
Circadian Commences First Phase 1 Clinical Trial of VEGF-C
Antibody VGX-100 in Cancer Patients
C
ircadian Technologies Limited
announced that it has commenced
the first Phase 1 clinical trial of its
fully human monoclonal antibody against
VEGF-C, VGX-100, at a leading US-based
cancer treatment centre.
The Phase 1 study will examine the
safety and tolerability of escalating doses
of VGX-100 in patients with advanced
solid tumours who have no other standard
treatment options both as a monotherapy
and also when used in combination with
other anti-angiogenic agents. Results from
the trial are expected to be available in the
second half of 2012.
“We are extremely proud to have
completed the translation of VGX-100 from
early discovery to the clinical development
stage. We are committed to improving
outcomes for patients suffering from cancer,
44
and believe that VGX-100, especially when
combined with existing therapies could
make a significant difference. Commencing
clinical trials with VGX-100 is an extremely
important achievement for Circadian and a
major step in our goal to develop VGX-100 as
a new therapeutic agent in the fight against
cancer,” said Robert Klupacs, CEO of Circadian
Technologies Limited.
VGX-100 is a human antibody that acts
against the human VEGF-C protein. Treatment
for cancers, particularly glioblastoma and
metastatic colorectal cancers, are the first
target indications for VGX-100. Additionally,
Circadian is developing VGX-100 for a
number of other cancer indications, as well
as an agent to treat front-of the-eye diseases.
Studies in animal model studies across
a wide range of tumour types have shown
that when combined with Avastin and/or
chemotherapy, VGX-100 can significantly
reduce tumour growth and tumour spread
as well as significantly improve tumour
inhibition over and above that of Avastin and/
or chemotherapy alone. Recent studies have
also implicated VEGF-C as a key mediator of
disease progression during Avastin treatment,
implying that combination therapy with VGX100 and Avastin could significantly improve
treatment outcomes in cancer patients.
Circadian’s wholly owned subsidiary,
Vegenics Pty Ltd, owns worldwide rights
to an extensive intellectual property
portfolio covering the angiogenesis and
lymphangiogenesis targets VEGF-C, VEGF- D
and the receptor protein VEGFR-3. Vegenics
has also been granted exclusive worldwide
rights to intellectual property filed by
Schepens Eye Research Institute covering the
use of anti-lymphangiogenic molecules for
the treatment of Dry Eye Disease.
INSIDE
INDUSTRY
Life Technologies Partners With DaAn Gene to Develop and
Commercialize Molecular Diagnostic Assays in China
L
ife Technologies Corporation LIFE
+0.02% announced that it has signed
an agreement with DaAn Gene, a
leading Chinese company in molecular
in-vitro diagnostics (IVD), to form Life
Technologies DaAn Diagnostics, a joint
venture diagnostics business in China. The
move is expected to contribute to the early
diagnosis of oncology, infectious diseases and
genetic diseases. Financial terms of the deal
were not disclosed.
Life Technologies DaAn Diagnostics
with its headquarters in Guangzhou, will
develop and commercialize a portfolio
of molecular diagnostic assays using
Life Technologies’ 3500Dx Capillary
Electrophoresis instrument and the Big Dye
Cycle Sequencing technologies, focused
on IVD assays for oncology, infectious and
genetic diseases. The joint venture allows
both companies to expand the use of Capillary
Electrophoresis technology into the Chinese
clinical diagnostics market.
“This joint venture strengthens the
foundation of our clinical diagnostics
business and represents a big leap forward for
our business in China,” said Gregory Lucier,
Chairman and CEO of Life Technologies. “As
a leading biotechnology company, we are at
the forefront of a rapidly evolving healthcare
landscape. This joint venture and its products
will play a key role in disease prevention and
therapy selection and is complementary to
the Chinese government’s 12th five-year
plan to promote national economic and social
development.”
“The joint venture will help us offer
leading medical diagnostic technologies
with cost-effective solutions to Chinese
healthcare professionals,” said Dr. Siddhartha
Kadia, President of Life Technologies, Greater
China. “This approach leverages our expertise
in platform development and DaAn’s expertise
in regulated markets with kit development
and commercialization.”
“Twenty years ago, the cooperation
between DaAn and Applied Biosystems
brought PCR technology into China’s
molecular diagnostic field, positioning
China with the most potential to become
the world’s largest PCR market for clinical
diagnostics. Today, the cooperation with Life
Technologies introduces DaAn’s products to
the global marketplace, while bringing Life’s
superior technologies into China’s IVD market.
Together, we are working toward becoming a
premium IVD product supplier that has global
impact,” said Zhou Xinyu, CEO of DaAn Gene.
Life Technologies’ 3500Dx instrument is
a capillary-based Sanger Sequencer intended
for use in the analysis of human DNA for the
detection of genetic changes that may lead
to disease presence or improved response
to various therapies. Life Technologies’
Sanger Sequencers supplied the technology
that powered the Human Genome Project.
Sanger instruments remain the sequencing
gold-standard for accuracy, reliability and
ease of use. The 3500Dx Genetic Analyzer
was approved by China State Food and Drug
Administration (SFDA) for IVD diagnostic use
in China in October 2011.
45
INSIDE
INDUSTRY
Brain Cancer Patient Receives First TrueBeam STx Treatment
in Asia at BGS Global Hospitals in Bangalore
D
octors at BGS Global Cancer Institute
at BGS Global Hospitals in Bangalore
have begun delivering advanced
radiotherapy treatments using the first clinical
TrueBeam STx medical linear accelerator in
Asia. A 57-year-old female patient with
a brain metastasis received whole brain
radiotherapy and this will be followed by
stereotactic radiosurgical boosts to the lesion
using the fast and precise system.
“The whole procedure, the imaging
and treatment, was completed within five
minutes,” says Dr. Nirmala Srikantia, senior
consultant and chief of radiation oncology
services at BGS Global Cancer Institute.
“TrueBeam STx gives our oncologists the
flexibility to deliver multiple high precision
treatments such as this while minimizing
46
the time required and, potentially, the
inconvenience to the patient.”
“The new system’s advantages of speed
and precision will help benefit our patients
in receiving timely treatments. Our specialists
will be able to offer high quality treatments to
more patients and deliver them more quickly
than has been possible in the past,” adds Dr.
Srikantia.
Designed to advance the treatment of
lung, breast, prostate, gynaecologic, liver,
head and neck, and other types of cancer,
the TrueBeam platform from Varian Medical
Systems was engineered from the ground
up to treat tumors with unprecedented
speed and accuracy. It features a multitude
of technical innovations that dynamically
synchronize imaging, patient positioning,
motion management, and treatment delivery.
With its High Intensity Mode, TrueBeam
machines can deliver very high doses quickly
and accurately, more than twice as fast
as earlier generations of technology. The
TrueBeam STx is a high-end model optimized
for radiosurgical applications, where very
large doses are delivered in a single treatment
or only a few sessions.
Initial TrueBeam STx treatments at BGS
Global Hospitals will focus on brain, head
and neck, gastro-intestinal and gynaecologic
cancers using advanced techniques such as
IMRT (intensity modulated radiotherapy).
The team intends to commence stereotactic
radiosurgery treatments. “Since the hospital
was established, our specialists have routinely
treated various types of cancers using medical
oncology and surgery, but the TrueBeam
STx means we can now offer advanced
radiosurgery treatments in addition,” says
Dr. K. Ravindranath, chairman and managing
director of Global Hospitals Group.
Global Hospitals has acquired three
TrueBeam STx systems – ordered in 2010
-- for its sites in Bangalore, Chennai and
Mumbai, because of the rapidly increasing
cancer incidence in these major population
centers, along with the strength of the
neuroscience departments in those hospitals.
“This will make some of the world’s most
advanced treatment capabilities accessible
for cancer patients in these major Indian
cities,” adds Dr. Ravindranath. “This country
needs more radiotherapy equipment to help
its cancer patients and we believe we can help
relieve this situation by installing the most
modern and advanced devices available.”
Rolf Staehelin, international head of
marketing operations for Varian’s Oncology
Systems group, says, “Varian is at the
forefront in offering advanced systems for
radiosurgical and neurosurgical treatments
in India and we are delighted to be working
closely with Global Hospitals Group as they
introduce this ground-breaking technology
for the benefit of cancer patients.” India has
a population of over a billion people and there
are an estimated one million new cases of
cancer diagnosed in the country each year.
INSIDE
INDUSTRY
Lancaster Laboratories and BioAzure Enter Partnership
U
S-based Lancaster Laboratories, a
Eurofins Scientific company, and
Mumbai-based BioAzure Technologies
have announced a partnership to provide
Lancaster Laboratories’ contract laboratory
services to the Indian biotech market in
support of product development regulatory
compliance goals.
A global leader in comprehensive
laboratory services, Lancaster Laboratories
enables pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical
companies to advance candidates from
development through to commercialization
while ensuring regulatory compliance, cost
effectiveness, and achievement of timelines.
The company provides an unmatched breadth
of GMP and GLP services, including protein
characterization, cell bank testing, viral
clearance studies and method validation to
clients around the world, including some of
the world’s largest biotechnology companies.
“With the progress of India’s significant
biotechnology presence, including its focus
on biosimilars and biobetters, Lancaster
Laboratories looks forward to working closely
with BioAzure to enable Indian biotech
companies to achieve their regulatory
compliance objectives for their product
development and manufacturing activities,”
says Timothy S Oostdyk, PhD, president of
Lancaster Laboratories. “With the goal of
delivering a seamless service experience,
we plan to focus on ways to customize
our service models to cater specifically to
Indian companies. We expect this part of
our business to grow rapidly, along with the
Indian biotech industry.”
Commenting on the partnership, Dr
Adrian Almeida and Karl Pinto, co-founders
of BioAzure stated, “Working with Lancaster
Laboratories enables BioAzure to provide a
complete spectrum of solutions to our biotech
clients here in India. BioAzure was founded
with the intent of supporting Indian biotech
from in-licensing cell line clones to scale-up
process development and GMP manufacturing
along with complete regulatory-approved
analytics and formulation capability through
our exclusive relationships with name-brand,
world class companies in this space.”
47
INSIDE
INDUSTRY
NovAliX Enters into Multi-Target Integrated Drug Discovery
Collaboration with Teijin Pharma
N
ovAliX SAS announced that it has
entered into a multi-target integrated
drug discovery collaboration with
Teijin Pharma Limited of Tokyo, Japan.
Within the alliance the companies
will collaborate to develop novel drug
candidates against multiple targets across
different therapeutic areas. NovAliX will
initially use its protein biochemistry expertise
in combination with its comprehensive
biophysical technology platform. NovAliX
will apply its proprietary Graffinity SPR-based
screening technology for the identification
of novel chemotypes, and then engage its
48
native nano-MS technology for further
characterization of selected small molecule
hit structures.
This arrangement represents NovAliX’
first discovery collaboration with Teijin
Pharma. Under the terms of the agreement
NovAliX will receive technology access fees
as well as further research funding payments.
Financial details of the transaction were not
disclosed.
Stephan Jenn, President of NovAliX,
stated, “We are confident that this alliance
will be very productive and are proud to be
associated with Teijin’s technology-driven
team. In this collaboration Teijin will have the
opportunity to leverage the entire spectrum
of our capabilities in biochemistry, biophysics
and medicinal chemistry. For NovAliX this
integrated collaboration represents a
significant milestone as Teijin is the second
Japanese pharmaceutical company to partner
with us this year. This alliance underlines
again the competitive edge of our scientific
expertise and biophysical technologies as well
as our commitment to serve the Japanese
pharmaceutical research market that is
strongly driven by science and innovation.”
INSIDE
INDUSTRY
Otsuka Pharmaceutical and UCB Focus Collaboration in
the Area of Central Nervous System (CNS) Disorders
O
tsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. and UCB
announced that the companies have
agreed to focus their collaboration
on the therapeutic area of Central Nervous
System (CNS) disorders and to discontinue
their collaboration in immunology.
The companies will end their codevelopment and co-promotion agreement
for certolizumab pegol in Japan followed by
an agreed upon transition period.
UCB is preparing to file certolizumab
pegol for marketing authorisation with the
Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and
Welfare (MHLW) in the first quarter of 2012.
Positive Japanese Study Results, showing
that certolizumab pegol was associated
with significant inhibition of structural
joint damage progression and significant
improvements in physical function compared
to placebo, were published at the recent
American College of Rheumatology’s (ACR)
2011 Annual Scientific Meeting.
The decision to discontinue its
collaboration in immunology is in line with
Otsuka Pharmaceutical’s clear priorities to
focus in the future on CNS and oncology in
its pharmaceutical business.
I n D e c e m b e r 2 0 11 , O t s u k a
Pharmaceutical filed rotigotine for marketing
authorisation in Japan with the MHLW for
the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and
restless legs syndrome. In 2010, E Keppra
(levetiracetam), was approved and launched
in Japan for the adjunctive treatment of
partial onset seizures in adults with epilepsy
which offers many patients a new option of
treatment.
“Otsuka will strengthen the partnership
with UCB in Japan while focusing on CNS
compounds such as E Keppra, an antiepileptic drug, and rotigotine, a dopamine
agonist patch,” said Dr. Taro Iwamoto,
President and Representative Director of
Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. “we remain
dedicated to maximising the value of
these two compounds while continuing to
investigate additional indications. Otsuka
and UCB will build a strong sales base so that
our compounds can positively contribute to
a number of patients in need.”
“We are happy to continue our successful
partnership with Otsuka Pharmaceutical
in the area of CNS, namely E Keppra and
rotigotine.” said Mark McDade, Executive
VP, Chief Operating Officer, UCB. “And in
the interest of Japanese patients living with
severe immunological disorders, UCB is
committed to building on the franchises of
the immunology therapeutic area in Japan
starting with certolizumab pegol.
49
INSIDE
INDUSTRY
BIOTRONIK Opens New Asia Pacific Headquarters in Singapore
B
IOTRONIK, a leading manufacturer
of high quality products for vascular
intervention, implantable cardiac
pacemakers and defibrillators, and the
pioneer of wireless remote monitoring
technology, announced the opening of a
new regional headquarters location based
in Singapore—a move that emphasizes the
strategic commitment of the company to
build a powerful leadership position in the
Asia Pacific region.
BIOTRONIK is a global enterprise that
has achieved consistent double-digit growth
in revenue during the last seven years, as
well having doubled its job opportunities for
employees. In Asia Pacific alone, BIOTRONIK
has tripled its revenue over the last five years
and employs more than 250 representatives.
Further short-term growth is expected to
be driven by a broadly expanded service
50
network, as well as new and innovative
product introductions such as the Orsiro,
the company’s unique hybrid drug-eluting
stent technology for coronary vascular
intervention, and Lumax 740, the first
ProMRI ICD in the market, for patients with
tachycardia heart rhythm disorder.
“BIOTRONIK will fully leverage the
accelerated development of the Asia Pacific
countries to further propel the industryleading growth trajectory that the company
has maintained during previous years despite
the global economic downturn,” commented
Dr. Werner Braun, Global Managing Director,
BIOTRONIK. “The economic independence
of BIOTRONIK has allowed us to deliver a
uniquely sustainable value proposition to
our customers—one that includes investment
in activities, such as our landmark clinical
research program and best-in-class clinical
education—in an environment where we have
seen our competitors de-investing.”
Braun continued, “Our further plans
for full-scale business development in Asia
Pacific, which will be coordinated by a highly
professional team based out of the new
headquarters in Asia, are the latest milestone
of many more to come for BIOTRONIK and our
customers in this region.”
“BIOTRONIK is one of the leading
cardiovascular companies in the world, and we
are proud BIOTRONIK has chosen Singapore
to be its Asia Pacific headquarters. Singapore,
with its strong regional connectivity and
talent base, is well positioned as the
strategic base to help companies access,
manage and grow the diverse Asia Pacific
market,” said Mr. Kevin Lai, Deputy Director,
Biomedical Sciences, Singapore Economic
Development Board.
INSIDE
INDUSTRY
A*STAR, GE Global Research Join Forces to
Develop Integrated Advanced Medical Imaging Technologies
for Improved Clinical Diagnosis
G
E Global Research, the central
technology development arm for GE
Healthcare and all of GE’s businesses,
has signed a Memorandum of Understanding
(MOU) with Singapore’s Agency of Science,
Technology and Research (A*STAR). This
agreement will focus on advancing current
medical imaging technologies and diagnostics
to enable more accurate, earlier and faster
clinical diagnoses of cancer and other
diseases. The partnership between A*STAR
and GE Global Research brings together two
world-class research institutions, integrating
their deep domain expertise in biomedical,
science, and engineering capabilities to
support this effort.
This MOU expands upon a productive
collaboration between GE and A*STAR’s
Singapore Bioimaging Consortium (SBIC)
using Hyperpolarized Carbon-13 technology.
Early results exploring sub second biochemical imaging in Oncology applications
helped pave the way for a broader scientific
collaboration on projects in medical
diagnostics and medical imaging. The
goal is to improve diagnosis and tissue
characterization in diseases that are prevalent
in the Asian population, such as liver, lung,
and gastric cancers.
Michael Idelchik, Vice President of
Advanced Technology Programs at GE Global
Research, said, “To more effectively combat
cancer and other deadly diseases, more
advanced diagnostic tools will be needed
to help doctors become more prescriptive
in their diagnoses and treatment regimens.
Combining A*STAR’s world-class biomedical
and clinical expertise with GE’s strengths in
diagnostic and molecular imaging, we have
an exciting opportunity to take medical
diagnosis to this next level. Specifically,
A*STAR will help us address cancers and other
diseases more common in Asia and where
pathology and outcomes are different as
compared to the rest of the world.”
Professor Low Teck Seng, Managing
Director of A*STAR, said, “This win-win
public-private partnership between A*STAR
and GE comes at an opportune time with
the increasing research interest in diseases
affecting the Asian population. I am confident
that A*STAR’s cross-disciplinary capabilities
in both the biomedical, and physical sciences
& engineering research will complement
GE’s expertise in diagnostic and molecular
imaging to meet today’s complex healthcare
challenges and enhance lives.”
As part of the MOU, A*STAR and
GE Global Research will collaborate to
enhance medical imaging technologies in
imaging modalities, ranging from magnetic
resonance imaging (MRI) and positron
emission tomography (PET) to computed
tomography (CT). In a Frost & Sullivan
global market analysis report, the medical
imaging sector was valued at about US$25
billion as of 2008, with MRI and CT scanners
accounting for a combined 40% of the total
global device medical imaging market. In one
project, scientists from A*STAR’s Institute of
Microelectronics (IME) and GE scientists will
explore the development of new imaging
technologies to improve the speed and
accuracy of clinical cancer diagnosis.
Leveraging IME’s network and partnerships
with the microelectronics industry, this
project could result in the development of
a new local industry for Singapore in the
healthcare technologies area.
In another project, A*STAR’s Singapore
Bioimaging Consortium (SBIC) and GE plan
to develop novel imaging markers for hepatic
cellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common
type of liver cancer in Asia. This project will
integrate biomedical imaging and pre-clinical
model development expertise from SBIC
with GE’s molecular diagnostics technology
to develop innovative, proprietary platforms
to help advance the unique characterization
of HCC in each patient. In this manner, the
goal is that a specific type of cancer would
be identified and the therapy tailored to each
patient. This project encompasses a range
of medical diagnostic technologies from
imaging to molecular pathology biomarkers
appropriate to HCC, relevant to the Asian
population. Building on a close partnership
with local hospitals, success in this project
may lead to accelerated and accurate cancer
diagnosis that enables more prescriptive and
effective cancer treatments for patients.
This will support A*STAR’s efforts to develop
Singapore as a Center for Oncology and
Molecular Pathology.
51
INSIDE
INDUSTRY
Alpha to Build $50m Plant in Thailand
A
lpha Group Holdings, a China-based
biotech company, plans to build
a US$50-million manufacturing
facility in Thailand over the next two years
to capitalize on Thai herbs.
Headquartered in Auckland, Alpha
Group operates manufacturing facilities
in China, New Zealand and Australia for
health supplements, functional food and
skin-care products. Its subsidiaries operate
in 19 countries including Hong Kong, Korea,
Taiwan, Macau, the US and Canada.
Singapore, Malaysia, Burma and
52
Thailand are major markets for Alpha, as
Asean generates one-third of the company’s
turnover or about $750 million last year.
Indonesia is considered a high-potential
market given its population.
Thailand is famous for natural herbs in
provinces such as Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai.
“We are considering having a plant
in Asean, perhaps in Thailand or Burma,
but Thailand is our priority, as the market
for weight-loss products and male sex
performance enhancers is growing. We will
start with a research center first and spend
a couple years for market development since
we are new in Thailand,” said Mr Wei Gao,
Alpha chief executive, as he visited Bangkok
with a group of Chinese government officials
and trade associations to mark the 20th
year of China-Asean economic relations.
“The Thai plant will be a manufacturing
centre for Asean, enabling lower costs and
the benefits of free-trade agreements,” Mr
Wei added. Alpha Bio-Technology started
distributing products in Thailand last year,
all imported from New Zealand, resulting in
high transportation costs.
RESEARCH
FINDINGS
Researchers to Grow Smooth Muscle Cells from Patient Skin Cells
A
*STAR scholar, Ms Christine Cheung
was the first author of a Nature
Biotechnology paper published this
month. The Cambridge team has for the first
time, discovered a method of generating
different types of vascular smooth muscle
cells (SMCs) – the cells which make up
the walls of blood vessels - using cells
from patients’ skin. This work could lead to
new treatments and better screening for
cardiovascular disease.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading
cause of death in the world. It also accounts
for one in three deaths each year in Singapore.
These deaths are mainly caused by the
hardening and subsequent blockage of blood
vessels due to the accumulation of fatty
materials, a condition called atherosclerosis.
As not all patients are suitable for conventional
stenting or bypass treatment, an option in the
future may be to grow new blood vessels to
bypass their own blocked vessels.
The team from the University of
Cambridge worked with embryonic stem
cells and reprogrammed skin cells, collectively
known as human pluripotent stem cells
(hPSCs), which have the potential to form
any cell type in the body. They discovered
a method of creating all the major vascular
smooth muscle cells in high purity using
hPSCs which can also be easily scaled up
for production of clinical-grade SMCs. This
is the first time that such a system has
been developed and will open the door for
comparative studies on different subtypes of
SMCs to be carried out, which are otherwise
extremely difficult to obtain from patients.
The scientists created three subtypes
of SMCs from different embryonic tissues
which they reproduced in the culture dish
and showed that the various SMC subtypes
responded differently when exposed to
substances that cause vascular diseases. They
concluded that differences in the embryonic
origin play a role in their susceptibility to
diseases and may play a part in determining
where and when common vascular diseases
such as aortic aneurysms or atherosclerosis
develop.
Dr Alan Colman, Principle Investigator of
the Institute of Medical Biology under A*STAR
and Executive Director of the Singapore Stem
Cell Consortium, said, “This is a major advance
in vascular disease modelling using patient-
derived stem cells. The development of robust
methods to make multiple, distinct smooth
muscle subtypes provides tools for scientists
to model and understand a greater range of
vascular diseases in a culture dish than was
previously available. It is a significant stride
forward in being able to construct new blood
vessels which will benefit a whole range of
patients including those with cardiovascular
diseases, renal failure and genetic disorders
such as Marfans Syndrome that affect the
normal function of their blood vessels.”
Dr Lim Khiang Wee, Executive Director
of the A*STAR Graduate Academy (A*GA),
said, “Christine’s work reflects the calibre
of our scholars - they do excellent research
and grow into scientists who will contribute
to Singapore when they return.”
Ms Christine Cheung is a National
Science Scholarship (NSS) scholar and is
doing her final year PhD studies at Cambridge
University (UK). The NSS scholarship is
one of the programmes offered by A*GA,
to attract and develop outstanding young
talent passionate about research who will
spearhead Singapore’s drive to becoming
Asia’s Innovation Capital.
53
RESEARCH
FINDINGS
Singapore Scientists Identify Lung Cancer Stem Cells
and New Drug Targets
S
ingapore scientists, headed by Dr Bing
Lim, Associate Director of Cancer Stem
Cell Biology at the Genome Institute
of Singapore (GIS), a research institute under
the umbrella of the Agency for Science,
Technology and Research (A*STAR), and Dr
Elaine Lim, medical oncologist affiliated with
Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH) and National
Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS), have for
the first time, identified a gene responsible
for lung cancer. The finding, reported in the
advanced online issue of Cell on 5 January
2012, is a huge step towards finding a cure
for the disease.
A small number of cells, known as
cancer stem cells or tumor-initiating cells
(TIC), are responsible for the promotion
of tumor growth. Dr Bing Lim’s team was
successful in finding a marker, known as
CD166, to identify these cells. With the
finding of this marker, the team then made
more inroads into the genomic study of the
TICs, and discovered several genes that were
important for the growth of cancer cells.
The metabolic enzyme known as
glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) is a normal
occurring enzyme in cells, present in small
quantities. The scientists discovered that in
abnormal instances when the level of GLDC
rises significantly, it causes changes in the
behavior of the cell, making it cancerous.
“The manuscript from Dr Bing
Lim’s laboratory provides a very exciting
breakthrough about the unique metabolism
of tumor initiating cells” said Dr Lewis
Cantley of Harvard Medical School. “This
study builds on recent observations that a
subset of cancer cells have enhanced serine/
glycine metabolism. Importantly it shows
that the enzyme glycine decarboxylase,
which contributes to nucleotide synthesis,
is elevated in lung tumor initiating cells
and that it is critical for the ability of these
cells to form tumors in vivo. Since glycine
decarboxylase does not appear to be generally
required for the growth of normal adult
tissues, these results raise the possibility
that this enzyme could be a target for cancer
therapy.”
54
“This research is exemplary of the
synergy between cancer researchers and
clinicians that led to a breakthrough in our
understanding of the metabolic pathway in
lung cancer. I congratulate Dr Bing Lim and
Dr Elaine Lim for leading this impressive
multi-institutional study,” said Dr Huck Hui
Ng, Acting Executive Director of GIS. “The
discovery of the biomarker has profound
implications in cancer diagnostics and
stratified medicine. It is hopeful that the
metabolic enzyme GLDC will be a good target
for drug development by the pharmaceutical
industries.”
Dr Bing Lim added “This is one of
the most satisfying pieces of work I have
orchestrated and the biggest credit must go
to my post doctoral fellow, Dr Wen Cai Zhang,
who took the project from first establishing
a xenograft model for human lung cancer to
the identification of CD166 as a marker for
lung cancer stem cell and culminating with
the amazing discovery of the impact of a
regular metabolic enzyme in carcinogenesis.
It is doubly satisfying that we may have also
identified a major drug target for controlling
cancers”.
Dr John Wong, Vice Provost (Academic
Medicine) of the National University of
Singapore, explained that “Lung cancer is
one of the most common causes of cancer
death in Singapore and the region. There is
an urgent need to better understand what
drives this disease, especially as lung cancer
in Asians appears to have major biological
differences compared to that commonly
seen in the West. The authors of this
seminal paper should be congratulated as
they represent the best of Team Science in
Singapore, comprising both basic scientists
and clinician investigators, all working to
develop better therapies for Singaporeans
and the community we live in. The findings
from Dr Bing Lim’s team strongly support the
cancer stem cell paradigm and similar studies
in other cancers need to be done.”
Elaine Lim, co-corresponding author
and co-principal investigator in this project
said, “This paper is the result of successful
co-operation between scientists and doctors
from the Singapore Lung Cancer Consortium,
with the Stem Cell division in GIS. The
thoracic surgeons from TTSH, NCCS and NUHS
have made outstanding contributions to this
homegrown scientific project”
Prof Soo Khee Chee, Director of
NCCS, said that “NCCS has made important
contributions to medical research through
the years, both in clinical as well as basic
research. This paper is an example of a very
satisfying outcome when medical doctors
and scientists huddle together to produce
high-quality work. Co-operation between
seemingly disparate disciplines amongst the
different institutions in Singapore, led by
Elaine and Bing, was critical to this success –
and there will be many more to come”
“This study has made significant
contributions to our fundamental
understanding of lung cancer,” added Prof
Philip Choo, Chief Executive Officer at TTSH.
“The study also represents an exceptional
step forward for medical research involving
doctors and scientists. We look forward
to more of such collaborative efforts in
the future.”
RESEARCH
FINDINGS
T-rays Technology Could Help Develop Star Trek-Style Hand-held
Medical Scanners
T
-rays technology could help develop
Star Trek-style hand-held medical
scanners. Scientists who have developed
a new way to create a type of radiation known
as Terahertz (THz) or T-rays - the technology
behind full-body security scanners - say their
new, stronger and more efficient continuous
wave T-rays could be used to make better
medical scanning gadgets and may one day
lead to innovations similar to the “tricorder”
scanner used in Star Trek.
In a study published recently in Nature
Photonics, researchers from the Institute of
Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE),
a research institute of the Agency for
Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR)
in Singapore and Imperial College London in
the UK have made T-rays into a much stronger
directional beam than was previously thought
possible and have efficiently produced
T-rays at room-temperature conditions. This
breakthrough allows future T-ray systems to
be smaller, more portable, easier to operate,
and much cheaper.
The scientists say that the T-ray scanner
and detector could provide part of the
functionality of a Star Trek-like medical
“tricorder” - a portable sensing, computing
and data communications device - since the
waves are capable of detecting biological
phenomena such as increased blood flow
around tumorous growths. Future scanners
could also perform fast wireless data
communication to transfer a high volume of
information on the measurements it makes.
T-rays are waves in the far infrared part
of the electromagnetic spectrum that have
a wavelength hundreds of times longer than
visible light. Such waves are already in use in
airport security scanners, prototype medical
scanning devices and in spectroscopy systems
for materials analysis. T-rays can sense
molecules such as those present in cancerous
tumours and living DNA as every molecule
has its unique signature in the THz range.
T-rays can also be used to detect explosives
or drugs, in gas pollution monitoring or
non-destructive testing of semiconductor
integrated circuit chips. However, the current
continuous wave T-rays need to be created
under very low temperatures with high energy
consumption. Existing medical T-ray imaging
devices have only low output power and are
very expensive.
In the new technique, the researchers
demonstrated that it is possible to produce
a strong beam of T-rays by shining light of
differing wavelengths on a pair of electrodes
- two pointed strips of metal separated by a
100 nanometre gap on top of a semiconductor
wafer. The unique tip-to-tip nano-sized gap
electrode structure greatly enhances the
THz field and acts like a nano-antenna that
amplifies the THz wave generated. The waves
are produced by an interaction between the
electromagnetic waves of the light pulses
and a powerful current passing between the
semiconductor electrodes from the carriers
generated in the underlying semiconductor.
The scientists are able to tune the wavelength
of the T-rays to create a beam that is useable
in the scanning technology.
Lead author Dr Jing Hua Teng, from
A*STAR’s IMRE, said: “The secret behind the
innovation lies in the new nano-antenna that
we had developed and integrated into the
semiconductor chip.” Arrays of these nanoantennas create much stronger THz fields that
generate a power output that is 100 times
higher than the power output of commonly
used THz sources that have conventional
interdigitated antenna structures. A stronger
T-ray source renders the T-ray imaging
devices more power and higher resolution.
Research co-author Stefan Maier,
a Visiting Scientist at A*STAR’s IMRE and
Professor in the Department of Physics at
Imperial College London, said: “T-rays promise
to revolutionise medical scanning to make
it faster and more convenient, potentially
relieving patients from the inconvenience
of complicated diagnostic procedures and
the stress of waiting for accurate results.
Thanks to modern nanotechnology and
nanofabrication, we have made a real
breakthrough in the generation of T-rays that
takes us a step closer to these new scanning
devices. With the introduction of a gap of
only 0.1 micrometers into the electrodes, we
have been able to make amplified waves at
the key wavelength of 1000 micrometers that
can be used in such real world applications.”
The research was led by scientists
from A*STAR’s IMRE and Imperial College
London, and involved partners from A*STAR
Institute for Infocomm Research (I2R) and the
National University of Singapore. The research
is funded under A*STAR’s Metamaterials
Programme and the THz Programme, as well
as the Leverhume Trust and the Engineering
and Physical Sciences Research Council
(EPSRC) in the UK.
55
RESEARCH
FINDINGS
Human Brain Cells Created from Skin Samples
I
n a startling medical breakthrough,
scientists in Scotland have created brain
tissue from skin samples of patients who
are suffering from mental illnesses such as
schizophrenia and depression.
The latest achievement was made
by researchers at Edinburgh’s Centre for
Regenerative Medicine.
“A patient’s neurones can tell us a great
deal about the psychological conditions that
affect them, but you cannot stick a needle in
someone’s brain and take out its cells,” the
Daily Telegraph quoted Professor Charles
ffrench-Constant, the center’s director, as
56
telling the Guardian.
“However, we have found a way round
that. We can take a skin sample, make stem
cells from it and then direct these stem cells
to grow into brain cells. Essentially, we are
turning a person’s skin cells into brain,” he
stated.
The scientists hope that studying these
manufactured brain cells will reveal clues
to the conditions of patients with mental
illnesses - a task that had been challenging
in the past.
“It is very difficult to get primary tissue
to study until after a patient has died,” said
the Royal Edinburgh Hospital’s Professor
Andrew McIntosh, who is collaborating with
the center on the project.
“Even then, that tissue is affected by
whatever killed them and by the impact of
the medication they had been taking for
their condition, possibly for several decades.
So having access to living brain cells is a
significant development for the development
of drugs for these conditions,” McIntosh
added.
If successful, the same methods could
be used for other organs, including the liver
and heart.
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57
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Editorial Board Members
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Hong Kong Biotechnology Organization, Hong Kong
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Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore
National University of Singapore, Singapore
National University of Singapore, Singapore
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Academia Sinica, Taiwan & National Taiwan University, Taiwan
Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore
National University of Singapore, Singapore
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University College London
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Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Korea
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Duke-National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, Singapore
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Kingmed Center for Clinical Laboratory, China
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University of Konstanz, Germany
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Hisun Pharmaceuticals Co. Ltd., China
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Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
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Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, CAS, Shanghai, China
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