Manual on norms and standards for environment Government of India

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A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
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Manual on norms and standards for environment
clearance of large construction projects
Ministry of Environment and Forests,
Government of India
Manual on norms and standards for environment
clearance of large construction projects
Ministry of Environment and Forests,
Government of India
Suggested format for citation
Manual on norms and standards for environment clearance of
large construction projects
New Delhi.
PREFACE
“………Presently, we are generating one trillion units of power for a
billion population with certain economic strengths. And also we are
using nearly 800 billion cubic meters (BCM) water both ground and
surface. Our aim should be to conserve at least 10 to 15% of energy
i.e. 100 billion units and 10% of water namely 80 BCM which will
have a large impact on our economy. A good part of the nation’s
energy is consumed by the construction industry and the household.
By saving energy through Green buildings, we will make the air
much purer to breathe. Green is safer, economically attractive and
above all healthy. I would suggest that this should be the basis
………… to deliberate and prepare a decadal plan for the nation for
implementation. ”
(Excerpts from the speech on 15.9.05 at the Green Building Congress in New Delhi by
Dr A P J Abdul Kalaam, President of India)
Contents
Page No.
Introduction
Background
A. Broad framework of notification
Application for Prior Environmental Clearance (EC)
Stages in the Prior Environmental Clearance (EC) Process for New Projects: Grant or Rejection of Prior Environmental Clearance (EC):
About the manual:
11
11
12
13
13
15
16
1 Sustainable site planning
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Scope of work
1.2 Site selection
1.2.1 Concerns
1.2.2 Guidelines/Recommendations for Site Selection
1.3 Site analysis
1.3.1 Concerns
1.3.2 Recommendations and guidelines
1.4 Mitigation options for controlling air environment
1.4.1 Mitigation measures for wind erosion
1.4.2 Mitigation measures to control air pollution by plants
1.4.3 Mitigation measures for dust control
1.5 Water conservation
1.6 Health and well being of construction workers
1.7 Conclusive remarks
Reference
19
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32
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2 Water management
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Issues of concern
2.2 Scope of the section
2.3 Mitigation technology options
2.3.1 Water conservation within buildings
2.3.2 Water quality
2.3.3 Water use reduction
2.3.4 Water conservation in landscape
2.3.5 Water quality standards for irrigation
2. 4 Water conservation in process (air-conditioning)
2. 4.1 Estimation of water demand
2. 4.2 Mitigation options
2.4.3 Water quality standards for air- conditioning
2.5 Water use during construction
2.5.1 Parameters for water quality
2.5.2 Measures for reducing water demand during construction
2.6 Waste water generation
2.6.1 Introduction
2.6.2 Issues of concern
59
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C H AP T E R
C H AP T E R
2.6.3 Estimation of waste water generated
2.6.4 Mitigation options
2.6.3 Standards for disposal of waste water
2.7 Construction wastewater management
2.8 Sanitation facilities for construction workers
2.9 Rain water harvesting
2.9.1 Introduction
2.9.2 Issues of concern
2.9.3 Measures to be taken
Annexure 2.1 Drought Resistant Plants
Annexure 2.2 : Native species for different agro-climatic zones
Central Highlands
Deccan Plateau
Eastern Plains
Eastern Plateau
Northern Region and North Eastern Hills
Western Region
Annexure 2.3 : Rain water run-off for different roof top areas
Annexure 2.4 : Details of filtration systems
Chapter 3 Managing transport including noise and air
3.0 Introduction
3.1 Scope
3.2 Pre construction (Site Planning) Guidelines
3.2.1 Concerns
3.2.2 Mitigation Options
3.3 Guidelines for reduction of pollution during construction and demolition
activities
3.3.1 Concerns
3.3.2 Mitigation Options
Annexure 3.1 Area requirements for parking in different types of cities
Reference
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4 Building materials and technologies
4.0 Introduction
4.1 Scope
4.2 Issues and concerns
4.2.1 High consumption of resources
4.2.2 High Transportation Cost
4.2.3 Inefficient technologies and High consumption of materials
4.2.4 High life cycle cost of materials
4.2.5 Constituents of concern
4.3 Mitigation options
4.3.1 Envelope
4.3.2 Options for Superstructure
4.3.3 Alternatives for Finishes
4.3.4 Alternatives for roads and open spaces
Reference :
127
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5 Solid waste management
5.0 Introduction
5.1 Scope
5.2 Concerns
5.3 Mitigation options
5.3.1 Good practices in construction management
149
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152
C H AP T E R
C H AP T E R
5.4 Construction and demolition Waste management
154
5.4.1 Waste recycling Plan
154
5.4.2 Handling
154
5.4.3 Demolition
154
5.4.4 Waste Segregation
155
5.4.5 Storage
155
5.4.6 Access to and from bin storage areas
155
5.5 Guidelines for municipal waste management
155
5.5.1 Collection
156
5.5.2 Storage
159
5.5.3 Bin area design and layout
159
5.5.4 Resource recovery or recycling
161
5.6 Hazardous Waste Management
164
5.6.1 Collection and storage of hazardous wastes during Pre construction and Post
construction
166
5.6.2 Treatment
166
5.7
E-waste management
166
5.7.1 Collection and storage
167
5.7.2 Processing of e-waste
167
Reference
167
6 Energy conservation
6.1 Introduction
6.1.2 Scope
6.1.3 Issues of concern
6.1.4 Recommendations and guidelines for solar passive architecture
6.2 Prescriptive requirements
6.2.1 Roofs
6.2.2 Opaque walls
6.2.3 Vertical fenestration
6.2.4 Skylights
6.3 Building envelope trade-off option
6.4 Lighting
6.4.1 Design for specified illumination level as recommended by the National
building code 2005
6.4.2 Interior lighting power
6.4.3 Exterior lighting power
6.4.4 Lighting controls
6.5 Daylight integration in buildings
6.6 Solar Photovoltaic Systems (SPV)
6.7 Heating, ventilation and air conditioning
6.7.1 Heat load estimation
6.7.2 Green Refrigerant
6.7.3 Minimum equipment efficiencies
6.7.4 Controls
6.7.5 Piping & ductwork
6.7.6 Variable flow hydronic systems
6.8 Electrical system
6.8.1 Transformers
6.8.2 Energy Efficient Motors
6.8.3 Power Factor Correction
6.8.4 Diesel generator Captive Power Plants
6.8.5 Check-Metering and Monitoring
6.8.6 Power Distribution Systems
Reference
C H AP T E R
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Annexure I Mandatory and expected criteria
Mandatory criteria
Sustainable Site Planning
Water Demand Management
Managing Transport, Noise and Air
Waste Management
Energy conservation
Expected Criteria
Scoring Weightage :
231
231
231
232
233
233
234
236
Error! Bookmark not defined.
Annexure II FORM-1 A (only for construction projects listed under item 8 of the
Schedule)
Check List Of Environmental Impacts
1. Land Environment
2. Water Environment
3. Vegetation
4. Fauna
5. Air Environment
6. Aesthetics
7. Socio-Economic Aspects
8. Building Materials
9. Energy Conservation
10. Environment Management Plan
239
239
239
240
241
241
241
242
242
242
243
244
Annexure III Indicative list of submittals as required to fill in form I A
Annexure for submittals
6.8.7 Building Energy Performance Index (BEPI)
6.8.8 BEPI calculation method
245
253
253
253
List of tables
Table 1.1: National ambient air quality standards for different building typologies as per
CPCB ............................................................................................................................ 24
Table 1.2 Water quality standard for drinking water...................................................... 25
Table 1.3: Ambient Standards for noise............................................................................ 26
Table 1.4: Rating chart for soil test values of primary nutrients ..................................... 34
Table 1.5 Runoff coefficients of various surfaces .............................................................. 35
Table 1.6: NBC Standards for imperviousness.................................................................. 36
Table 1.7: Degree of maintenance required (for vegetation)............................................ 50
Table 1.8 Factors influencing degree and kind of wind erosion .......................................51
Table 2.1: Water requirements for different types of buildings........................................61
Table 2.2 Standards for drinking water............................................................................ 64
Table 2.3 Water quality standards for freshwater classification ..................................... 64
Table 2.4 : Estimation of water use reduction .................................................................. 65
Table 2.5 Efficiency of irrigation equipment.................................................................... 67
Table 2.6: Estimate of savings in water............................................................................. 68
Table 2.7: Standards for irrigation..................................................................................... 68
Table 2. 8 Permissible limits for effluent disposal........................................................... 78
Table 2.9 Runoff coefficients for different surfaces...................................................... 82
Table 2.10 Hydraulic conductivities of soil ...................................................................... 85
Table 2.11 Infiltration Rate of Different Texture (CM\Hour) ......................................... 86
Table 2.12 Specific Yield of Different Formation .............................................................. 86
Table 2.13 Typical Porosities of soil .................................................................................. 86
Table 3.1: Design considerations for Roads of different Hierarchy ............................... 112
Table 3.2 Space standards for footpath ............................................................................ 112
Table 3.3: Space standards for bicycle tracks .................................................................. 113
Table 3.4 Area requirements for different types of parking............................................ 116
Table 3.5 Space standards for Car Parking ...................................................................... 117
Table 3.6 Typical noise levels of some point sources ...................................................... 119
Table 3.7: Stack Height standards for D.G. Sets ..............................................................123
Table 3.8: Emission limits for Noise.................................................................................123
Table4.1: Embodied energy Content of the materials ....................................................128
Table 5.1: Wastes produced by building construction industry......................................150
Table 5.2: Garbage Management in Some Cities ............................................................. 151
Table 5.3 : Quantities of municipal and solid wastes, generation in metro cities ......... 157
Table 5.4 Composition of Municipal Solid Waste............................................................158
Table 5.5 : Space required for waste storage....................................................................158
Table 6.1 Climate zone and their characteristics ............................................................170
Table 6.2 Roof assembly U-factor and insulation R-value requirements* ...................185
Table 6.3: Opaque wall assembly U-factor and insulation R-value requirements....... 186
Table 6.4: Vertical fenestration U-factor and SHGC requirements .............................. 186
Table 6.5: SHGC “M” factor adjustments for overhangs and fins ..................................187
Table 6.6: Minimum VT requirements............................................................................ 188
Table 6.7: Skylight U-factor and SHGC Requirements .................................................. 188
Table 6.8: Envelope performance factor coefficients – Composite climate ................. 189
Table 6.9: Envelope performance factor coefficients – Hot dry climate....................... 189
Table 6.10: Envelope Performance Factor Coefficients – Hot Humid Climate............ 190
Table 6.11: Envelope Performance Factor Coefficients – Moderate Climate ............... 190
Table 6.12: Envelope Performance Factor Coefficients – Cold Climate........................ 190
Table 6.13: Recommended Values of illuminance for some common activities as
recommended by National Building Code 2005 .....................................................193
Table 6.14 Interior lighting power – building area method..........................................204
Table 6.15 Interior lighting power – space function method........................................ 205
Table 6.16 Exterior Building Lighting Power ................................................................. 207
Table no. 6.17 Luminous efficacy of lamps......................................................................208
Table 6.18: Inside design conditions for some applications ...........................................216
Table 6.19: Summary for outdoor conditions Source .....................................................218
Table 6.20: Minimum air requirements for ventilation of all common areas and
commercial facilities................................................................................................. 220
Table 6.21: Unitary air conditioning equipment............................................................. 222
Table 6.22: Chillers ........................................................................................................... 222
Table 6.23: Heating pumps heating mode ...................................................................... 223
Table6.24: Furnaces.......................................................................................................... 223
Table 6.25: Boilers ............................................................................................................ 224
Table 6.26: Ductwork Insulation .................................................................................... 225
Table 6.27: Maximum Allowable Losses of 11, 22 kV Transformers ............................. 226
Table 6.28 : Minimum acceptable motor efficiencies .................................................... 227
Table 6.29 Recommended specific fuel consumption of DG sets................................. 228
Table 6.30: Recommended BEPI for different types of buildings................................. 253
Table 6.31: Estimation of energy consumption in lighting system................................ 253
Table 6.32 : Estimation of energy consumption in air conditioning system ................ 255
Table 6.33 : Estimation of building energy performance index ................................... 256
Introduction
Background
With an economic growth rate of 8.9%, which is the second
fastest in the world, India is fast seen emerging as a major
global business giant. With 35 cities with populations in excess
of 1 million, and more cities joining the list, investments in
urban infrastructure are projected to be higher than ever before.
This of course is besides the investments already coming into
the economy via ‘foreign direct investments’ into urban real
estate development. This is one sector of the Indian economy
that has activities, which are directly or indirectly linked to
every other economic sector. The gross built-up area added to
commercial and residential spaces was about 40.8 million
square meters in 2004-05; the trends show a sustained growth
of 10% over the coming years.
Construction activities in India have been pursued without
giving much attention on environmental issues. This has
resulted in pressure on its finite natural resources, besides
creating impacts on human health and well-being. Unplanned
and unsustainable urban development has lead to severe
environmental pressures. The green cover, ground water
resources have been forced to give way to the rapidly developing
urban centres. Modern buildings built in our cities have high
levels of energy consumption because of requirements of airconditioning and lighting.
The objectives of the Notification dated 15th September
2006 is to set procedures of environmental clearance before
establishment of a project of identified nature and size. The
suitability of site for a proposed development is` one of primary
concerns in according environmental clearance to a project.
This will include detailed examination of the nature of receptors
and magnitude of anticipated impact on account of the
proposed project.
Large projects tend to have associated and consequential
impacts. Innovative approaches should be adopted to conserve
resources, in particular, energy and water. Backward linkages of
the proposed project, such as the source and manner of
procurement of materials and forward linkages, such as kind
and manner of disposal of debris, should be duly considered
along with the proposed project.
Besides environment, the aspects related to security, health
and equity should be duly considered. Government will
facilitate, not merely regulate, development related to all
projects covered by this notification. The guidelines outlined
here have been prepared to help the proponents in the
preparation of documents to be submitted for environmental
clearance. The guidelines outline the following:
A. Revised requirement of environmental clearance for
construction projects.
B. Impacts and mitigation Measures for Site, Planning &
Development
C. Impacts and mitigation for Water Management
D. Impacts and Mitigation Measures for transport
Management and Air Pollution Control
E. Impacts from Building materials and Constructions
including Solid Waste Management
F. Energy conservation Measures including Bio-climatic
Design
G. Set of mandatory and expected criteria to be followed by
the developer
H. Submittals required to address questions in Form1 and
1A of the notification
A. Broad framework of notification
The Government of India enacted Environment Protection Act,
in 1986. The process of Environmental Impact Assessment was
made mandatory in 1994 under the provisions of the Act. From
time to time amendments have been made to the EIA
Notifications. Extending the provisions of the Act to cover
additional activities, the notification was amended on 7.7.04 to
include large construction projects including new townships
and industrial estates. The notification was further amended on
14.09.06 and the environmental clearance for large
construction projects was redefined and modified. The
environmental clearance for large construction projects can be
summarised as follows:
• All Building /Construction projects/Area Development
projects and Townships with threshold limits as given in
table below shall need environmental clearance.
Category with threshold limit
Conditions if any
Project or Activity
(a)
(2)
A
B
(3)
(4)
(5)
(1)
8
8(a)
8(b)
Building /Construction projects/Area Development projects and Townships
Building and
≥20000 sq.mtrs and
#(built up area for covered construction; in the
Construction
<1,50,000 sq.mtrs. of built-up
case of facilities open to the sky, it will be the
projects
area#
activity area)
Townships and
Covering an area ≥ 50 ha and or
++All
Area Development
built up area ≥1,50,000 sq .mtrs
as Category B1
projects.
++
projects under Item 8(b) shall be appraised
The environmental clearance procedure for project under above
category can be summarised as below:
Start
Total = 90 days
(with certainty)
Part of normal
Project
Checklist and conceptual plan by PP
Preparatio
Technical review by State Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA)
Appraisal by State/UT Level Expert Appraisal Committee (SEAC)
60 days
SEAC meets at least
once a month on a
fixed date
Recommended ?
End
Yes
Issue of in-principle EC/EMP by SEIAA
Preparation of building plans with Environment Management Plan by PP
Project
Proponent
SEAC
SEIAA
Confirmation of the revised plan by SEAC
End
Part of normal
Project
Preparation
30 days SEAC
meets at east once a
month on a fixed
date
Application for Prior Environmental Clearance (EC)
An application seeking prior environmental clearance in all
cases shall be made in the prescribed Form 1 annexed herewith
and Supplementary Form 1A as given in Appendix II, after the
identification of prospective site(s) for the project and/or
activities to which the application relates, before commencing
any construction activity, or preparation of land, at the site by
the applicant. The applicant shall furnish, along with the
application, in addition to Form 1 and the Supplementary Form
1A, a copy of the conceptual plan.
Stages in the Prior Environmental Clearance (EC) Process for New
Projects: The environmental clearance process for new projects will
comprise of a maximum of 2 stages. These stages in sequential
order are
• Screening
• Appraisal
Screening:
This stage will entail the scrutiny of an application seeking
prior environmental clearance made in Form 1 and Form 1A by
the concerned State level Expert Appraisal Committee (SEAC)
for determining whether or not the project or activity requires
further environmental studies for preparation of an
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for its appraisal prior
to the grant of environmental clearance depending up on the
nature and location specificity of the project. The projects
requiring an Environmental Impact Assessment report shall be
termed Category ‘B1’ and remaining projects shall be termed
Category ‘B2’ and will not require an Environment Impact
Assessment report. For categorization of projects into B1 or B2
except item 8 (b), the Ministry of Environment and Forests
shall issue appropriate guidelines from time to time.
All projects and activities listed as Category ‘B’ in Item 8 of
the Schedule (Construction/Township/Commercial Complexes
/Housing) shall not require scoping and will be appraised on
the basis of Form 1/ Form 1A and the conceptual plan.
Applications for prior environmental clearance may be
rejected by the regulatory authority concerned on the
recommendation of the EAC or SEAC concerned at this stage
itself. In case of such rejection, the decision together with
reasons for the same shall be communicated to the applicant
in writing within sixty days of the receipt of the application.
Appraisal:
1. Appraisal means the detailed scrutiny by the Expert
Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal
Committee of the application and other documents like the
Final EIA report, submitted by the applicant to the
regulatory authority concerned for grant of environmental
clearance. This appraisal shall be made by Expert Appraisal
Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee
concerned in a transparent manner in a proceeding to which
the applicant shall be invited for furnishing necessary
clarifications in person or through an authorized
representative. On conclusion of this proceeding, the Expert
Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal
Committee concerned shall make categorical
recommendations to the regulatory authority concerned
either for grant of prior environmental clearance on
stipulated terms and conditions, or rejection of the
application for prior environmental clearance, together with
reasons for the same.
2. The appraisal of all projects or activities which are not
required to undergo public consultation, or submit an
Environment Impact Assessment report, shall be carried out
on the basis of the prescribed application Form 1 and Form
1A as applicable, any other relevant validated information
available and the site visit wherever the same is considered
as necessary by the Expert Appraisal Committee or State
Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned.
3. The appraisal of an application be shall be completed by the
Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal
Committee concerned within sixty days of the receipt of the
final Environment Impact Assessment report and other
documents or the receipt of Form 1 and Form 1 A, where
public consultation is not necessary and the
recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or
State Level Expert Appraisal Committee shall be placed
before the competent authority for a final decision within
the next fifteen days .
Grant or Rejection of Prior Environmental Clearance (EC):
1. The regulatory authority shall consider the
recommendations of the EAC or SEAC concerned and
convey its decision to the applicant within forty five days of
the receipt of the recommendations of the Expert Appraisal
Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee
concerned within one hundred and five days of the receipt of
the complete application with requisite documents, except
as provided below 90 days?
2. The regulatory authority shall normally accept the
recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee or
State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned. In cases
where it disagrees with the recommendations of the Expert
Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal
Committee concerned, the regulatory authority shall request
reconsideration by the Expert Appraisal Committee or State
Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned within forty
five days of the receipt of the recommendations of the
Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal
Committee concerned while stating the reasons for the
disagreement. An intimation of this decision shall be
simultaneously conveyed to the applicant. The Expert
Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal
Committee concerned, in turn, shall consider the
observations of the regulatory authority and furnish its
views on the same within a further period of sixty days. The
decision of the regulatory authority after considering the
views of the Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level
Expert Appraisal Committee concerned shall be final and
conveyed to the applicant by the regulatory authority
concerned within the next thirty days.
3. In the event that the decision of the regulatory authority is
not communicated to the applicant within the period
specified in sub-paragraphs (1) or (2) above, as applicable,
the applicant may proceed as if the environment clearance
sought for has been granted or denied by the regulatory
authority in terms of the final recommendations of the
Expert Appraisal Committee or State Level Expert Appraisal
Committee concerned.
4. On expiry of the period specified for decision by the
regulatory authority under paragraph (1) and (2) above, as
applicable, the decision of the regulatory authority, and the
final recommendations of the Expert Appraisal Committee
or State Level Expert Appraisal Committee concerned shall
be public documents.
5. Clearances from other regulatory bodies or authorities shall
not be required prior to receipt of applications for prior
environmental clearance of projects or activities, or
screening, or scoping, or appraisal, or decision by the
regulatory authority concerned, unless any of these is
sequentially dependent on such clearance either due to a
requirement of law, or for necessary technical reasons.
6. Deliberate concealment and/or submission of false or
misleading information or data which is material to
screening or scoping or appraisal or decision on the
application shall make the application liable for rejection,
and cancellation of prior environmental clearance granted
on that basis. Rejection of an application or cancellation of a
prior environmental clearance already granted, on such
ground, shall be decided by the regulatory authority, after
giving a personal hearing to the applicant, and following the
principles of natural justice.
For other relevant clauses as below:
Validity of Environmental Clearance (EC):
Post Environmental Clearance Monitoring:
Transferability of Environmental Clearance (EC),
please refer to the website of The Ministry of Environment and
Forests, Government of India
About the manual:
The manual has been developed to assist developers and project
proponents measure and quantify environmental impacts of
proposed construction, and derive mitigation options to
minimise impacts. The manual also shall enable evaluation of
construction projects by the expert appraisal committee. The
proponent may use mitigation options, other than the ones
described in the manual, to mitigate environmental impacts of
respective projects.
The manual provides a range of environmental issues that need
to be considered in assessing the environmental impacts of
construction projects and how to identify and assess the issues
relevant to the particular project. The measures are suggestive
and intended to assist project specific environmental
management practices.
List of submittals required to fulfil requirements of Form 1
and 1A have been appended. This manual also comprises of a
list of mandatory and expected criteria that needs to be adopted
in a project for getting necessary clearance from regulatory
authority.
CHAPTER
1 Sustainable site planning
1.0 Introduction
Site planning is a vital component of any type of building
activity and is the first step. With growing urban development
and environmental degradation it has become imperative to
determine landscape design parameters, and also provide rules,
regulations, controls and procedures for the protection,
preservation and modification of surrounding environment. In
most of the cases the site is selected by the developer before
commencement of design phase. However, ideally the design
team should be involved in site selection and should assess the
appropriateness of the site relative to the proposed
development. Analysis and assessment of the site characteristics
in terms of its capacity to provide natural resources inside the
building such as light, air and water without damaging the
natural environment should be carried out during site selection
and analysis process. The process has been divided into two
parts: site selection and site analysis. The concerns related to all
natural resources during site planning are covered in the site
analysis section. The aim is to integrate an architecturally
sustainable design with the natural environment with least
damage to the nature and at best improving it by restoring its
balance.
1.1 Scope of work
Sustainable site planning section of the manual covers two
aspects: first site selection process, which brings it upfront all
elements that would affect future development of the project.
The second part is site analysis, which brings it upfront all those
elements and natural resources that would get affected by the
project.
The elements that get affected on site due to project
development are: - Soil conditions if not preserved, hydrology of
the site, topography and characteristics of land due to hard
paving and built up spaces on the site, existing vegetation, solar
access, and wind patterns. Mitigation options are provided in
the site analysis section that would help reduce the negative
impact of large construction projects on natural resources.
Site analysis section of this manual focuses on the need to
consider management of resources during the design and
development of the project at macro level with respect to the
overall site. Impact on the resources, guidelines to mitigate
negative impact, best practices, mandatory clauses, dos and
don’ts for management of following resources are covered:
1. Soil
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Land use
Vegetation
Air
Water
Waste
Health and well-being of construction workers
1.2 Site selection
The process of site selection for sustainable development
involves identifying and weighing the appropriateness of the
site with respect to sustainable building design criteria. This
step is the first step and needs to be done long before the
project’s design phase commences. Appropriate site selection
procedure reduces the negative impacts and requirement for
mitigation measures for large construction projects.
Site selection and analysis should be carried out to create living
spaces for people in harmony with the local environment. The
development of a project should not cause damage to the
natural surrounding of the site but in fact should try to improve
it by restoring its balance. Thus site selection should be carried
out in light of a holistic perspective of land use, development
intensity, social well-being and preservation of the
environment. The selection should be based upon several
feasibility and impact studies related to sustainability such as
existing wind pattern, solar access, soil, air, water conditions,
noise pollution, and bio diversity.
1.2.1 Concerns
1.2.1.1 Land use
The first feature, which should influence development of a new
project, is the existing land use pattern of the neighbourhood of
the project: whether the proposed development conforms to the
development for that area. Recommendations for site selection
are provided in this chapter.
1.2.1.2 Location of site with respect to existing eco-system on
site
Development of new construction projects should not have a
negative impact on the existing bio diversity and ecosystem of
the site. Development of the project on the located site should
not disturb sites with heritage and cultural values such as
protected monuments. Constructed projects on selected sites
should not disturb aesthetics and scenic beauty of a location.
1.2.1.3 Ambient environment quality in the region
Levels of air, noise and water pollution should be surveyed and
considered carefully before implementing the building design.
For example: High level of air, noise and water pollution and
location near pollution sources such as heavy traffic roadways
should be considered carefully to implement residential
building.
1.2.1.4 Availability of infrastructure
The fourth feature which should influence site selection for the
development of a project are the infrastructure and utilities
available, expected water and power requirement by the
proposed new buildings and feasibility study of how much is
available and what is the source of supply for power and water.
The developer should submit the list of items asked in Form 1
and 1A as a proof to confirm the availability of infrastructure.
1.2.2 Guidelines/Recommendations for Site Selection
Site selection process includes analysis of several site factors.
These are land-use, eco-system and diversity history and
heritage, urban context and the environmental considerations.
This part of chapter suggests guidelines for site selection
including all these features.
1.2.2.1 Land use
The first concern while selecting the site should be suitability of
the site. This should be analysed with respect to the
surrounding existing development, natural environment and
urban environment to define whether the site should be built or
not and secondly to judge whether the proposed development is
best suited on the considered site. Proposed land use must
conform to the approved Master Plan/Development plan of the
area. If there is no approved Plan, consent from appropriate
authority should be taken and should be submitted for
Environment clearance. If the area is outside municipal limits
/outside planning area, full justification for the proposed
development should be provided.
1.2.2.2. Ecosystems and diversity
Sites for new developments should be carefully assessed in
context of the wider environment particularly in relation to the
habitats dwelling on site or on adjacent sites. There may exist
on the site some rare or endangered species of plants and
animals, such sites are considered unsuitable for development.
The site(s) selection can be an effective approach in minimising
the requirement of mitigation measures.
Project siting restrictions depend on the sensitivity of the site
and its surrounding environment and the following
considerations should be made while selecting a site.
1.2.2.3 Analysis of cultural/historical considerations
1. Review the traditional or vernacular architecture of the
region. : The regional architectural style may be
revealed through the use of vernacular architecture to
form a design that is responsive to the local cultural
characteristics, thus enhancing community values.
2. Restore historical or cultural resources on-site:
Historical features on-site can be integrated by either
modifying or incorporating parts of the existing
structure into the proposed design, thus adding to the
cultural fabric of the area provided that these structures
are not legally protected.
3. Use of historical, energy efficient building techniques
Historical, energy efficient building techniques that
have been involved and sustained in response to local
climatic or cultural characteristics can be used or
modified to suite the proposed suitable design.
1.2.2.4 Analysis of urban context considerations
1. Analyse the city form: The delineation of the city form
due to layout of roads, open spaces, or architectural
forms should be analysed. For example, a building may
be visually unifying element, providing connections and
continuity with adjacent buildings. Sites at the end of
important vistas or adjacent to major city squares
should be reserved for important public buildings.
2. Review the potential of views: Important city views of
plazas, squares, monuments, and natural features (such
as parks and water fronts) should be considered. It is
important to design the proposed building in a manner
that will enhance and preserve such views for the public.
1.2.2.5 Urban availability of water and other critical
infrastructures like electricity, roads with adequate width and
capacity.
1. The design team should gauge whether the site takes
maximum advantage of natural resources, such as solar
energy, natural vegetation, and geographical features,
and should also analyse the proximity or remoteness of
the site from existing transportation corridors, and its
ability to match the needs of the building owner, users,
and their occupancy patterns.
2. Resource and needs’ assessment of the project should
be done at this pre-design stage. Issues which need to be
identified at pre design and site selection stage are:
connectivity to infrastructure and public transport
networks, power requirement and power source, water
requirement and water source, waste management on
the site.
3. Urban infrastructure and facilities, public transport,
infrastructure for power, water supply to meet the
estimated requirement, sewage system network should
be available nearby or should be made available with
minimum environment impact. For example the
residential areas should be well connected to the
utilities like school, market place, sports and
recreational facilities to meet the basic needs of a
residential society. The team should also see whether
the waste output could be dealt with acceptable
environmental costs and whether development impacts
can be minimised on site. It is desirable to integrate the
existing utility and infrastructure, and identify whether
additional infrastructure needs to be planned for the
proposed project. Whatever, the case may be, additional
cost or the associated disruption to the environmental
or surrounding system may sometimes question the
project’s integrity.
4. Take into consideration the impact of proposed future
development on the infrastructure.
5. Sharing of existing transportation or parking facilities
may minimise the budget for infrastructure.
1.2.2.6 Onsite management of waste
1. Land acquired should be minimum but sufficient to
provide for a green belt wherein the treated wastewater,
if possible/ suitable, could be utilised from wastewater
treatment systems.
2. Space onsite for solid waste: Enough space may be
provided for storing solid wastes. The space and the
waste can be made available for possible reuse in future.
3. Reuse negative urban spaces or industrial site: This
should be done when existing urban amenities and
infrastructure can be utilized, thus reducing the
pressure on undeveloped land. If possible and justified
in terms of sustainable design goals, select a site that
offers a possibility of urban redevelopment, (or where
development is constrained due to environmental
pollution or increasing urban pressure), or which uses
existing urban infrastructure confirming the desired
density goals. This would help reduce the perennial
pressures on the undeveloped land to some extent.
4. Conformance to existing landscape: Layout and form of
the project must conform to the landscape of the area
without unduly affecting the scenic features of that
place.
1.2.2.7 Environmental consideration
In addition to the siting criteria listed above, the proposed
project location should meet the standards prescribed by the
Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) and IS standards for
the following environment parameters:
Ambient air, water and noise quality standards
Natural disaster prone areas
Ecologically sensitive areas
For example, high level of air, noise and water pollution and
location near pollution sources such as heavy traffic roadways
should be considered carefully to implement residential
building.
1. Ambient air: Assess the existing air quality of the site to
determine if it falls under the permissible average levels
as prescribed by Central Pollution Control Board
(CPCB). It should also be ensured that the development
would not further deteriorate the air quality. Air quality
monitoring involves estimation of concentration levels
of suspended particulate matter (SPM), Respirable
suspended particulate matter (RSPM), Sulphur dioxide
(SO2), oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and Carbon monoxide
(CO) in the study area.
The methodology and permissible levels are given below.
Testing should be carried out by standard and certified national
laboratories.
Method of analysis:
The air quality parameters are analysed as per IS-5182 –
Method of measurement of pollution
SPM: Gravimetric Analysis (IS-5182, Part-II)
SO2: Modified west & gaeke method (IS-5182, Part IV)
NOx: Jacobs & Hochheiser Method (IS-5182, Part X)
CO: Indicator Tube method (IS-5182, Part-I)
The gaseous pollutant concentrations are compared with
National Ambient Air quality standards prescribed by CPCB for
i) Industrial area ii) Residential, rural and other areas, iii)
sensitive areas
Table 1.1: National ambient air quality standards for different building typologies
as per CPCB
Pollutant
Sulphur di Oxide
Oxides of Nitrogen
Suspended Particle Material
SO2
(NO2)
SPM
Time
Annual
24 hours
Annual
24 hours
Annual
24 hours
Weighted
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
Average
80 ug/m3
120 ug/m3
80 ug/m3
120 ug/m3
360 ug/m3
500 ug/m3
60 ug/m3
80 ug/m3
60 ug/m3
80 ug/m3
140 ug/m3
200 ug/m3
15 ug/m3
30 ug/m3
15 ug/m3
30 ug/m3
70 ug/m3
100 ug/m3
Average
Industrial
Area
Residential
Rural and
other area
Sensitive Area
Source: CPCB
•
Annual Arithmetic Mean of minimum 104 measurements in
a year taken twice a week 24-hourly at uniform interval.
•
24-hourly/8-hourly values should be met 98% of the time in
a year. However 2% of the time, it may exceed but not two
consecutive days.
Notes:
1. The level of air quality necessary with an adequate
margin of safety, to protect the public health, vegetation
and property.
2. Whenever and wherever two consecutives values
exceeds the limit specified above for the respective
category, it would be considered adequate reason to
institute regular/continuous monitoring and further
investigations.
(Source: http://envfor.nic.in/cpcb/aaq/aaq_std.html)
Mitigation measures to control air pollution:
Air pollution may be caused by areas or point sources such as
cities, industrial areas, factories or by linear sources such as
highways. Vegetation buffers can minimize the build-up of
pollution levels in urban areas by acting as pollution sinks. For
details please refer section 1.3.2.4.
1.
Water quality: Ensure water from all sources such as
ground water, municipal water meets the water quality
norms as prescribed in the Indian Standards for
drinking, IS: 10500-1991 and CPWD specifications to
meet the specifications prescribed for construction
water.
Table 1.2 Water quality standard for drinking water
Parameter
Drinking water
(IS 10500: 1991)
Total hardness (as
300
CaCO3) (mg/litre)
Total dissolved solids
500
(mg/litre)
Chlorides as chlorine
250
(mg/litre)
Colour (hazen)
5
Turbidity (NTU)
5
Alkalinity (mg/l)
200
Calcium (as Ca), mg/l
75
Boron (mg/litre)
1
Sulphates (as
200
SO4)(mg/litre)
Nitrates (as NO3)
45
(mg/litre)
Conductivity at 25o C
-
(us/cm)
pH
6.5 – 8.5
Parameter
Drinking water
(IS 10500: 1991)
Anionic detergents as
0.2
MBAS (mg/l)
Arsenic (mg/litre)
0.05
Iron (mg/litre)
0.3
Fluorides (mg/litre)
1
Lead (mg/litre)
0.05
Copper (mg/litre)
0.05
Zinc (mg/litre)
5
Phenolic compounds (as 0.001
C6H5OH) (mg/l)
Cyanide (mg/l)
0.05
Chromium (mg/l)
0.05
Source: (IS 10500: 1991)
Mitigation measures to obtain the prescribed water quality:
Please refer Water Section 2.3.1 to consider options and
measures which should be adopted on site to meet the
standards of water required for construction during
construction stage and to meet the drinking water standards, if
the source of supply for drinking water does not comply to the
prescribed standards.
1.
Noise quality: Noise level survey should be carried out
with respect to the proposed project in order to assess
the background levels and to ensure that the outdoor
noise levels conform to the standards prescribed by
Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) for industrial,
commercial, residential and silence zones. The CPCB –
Environmental Standards – Noise (ambient standards)
are given below:
Table 1.3: Ambient Standards for noise
Area code
A
Area
Limit in dB (A) Leq
category
Daytime
Night time
Industrial
75
70
65
55
55
45
50
40
area
B
Commercial
area
C
Residential
area
D
Silence
zone
Source: CPCB
Note 1:
Daytime is reckoned in between 6 a.m. and 9 p.m.
Note 2:
Night time is reckoned in between 9 p.m. and 6 a.m.
Note 3:
Note 4:
Silence zone is defined as areas up to 100 metres
around such premises as hospitals, educational
institutions, and courts. The silence zones are
declared by a competent authority.
Mixed categories of areas should be declared as ‘one
of the four above mentioned categories by the
competent authority and the corresponding
standards shall apply.
The purpose of noise control is to ensure that people are not
harmed or disturbed by noise. Whenever necessary, experts in
the field may be consulted for complex situations. Some generic
guidelines are given in this section as provided in National
Building Code 2005. Noise is either generated by traffic (road,
rail and underground railway) or it arises from zones and
buildings with in the built up area (industry, commerce, offices
and public buildings). During site selection survey should be
conducted to examine all possible causes of noise, nuisance and
consider ways and measures to maintain the ambient noise
levels as prescribed by CPCB. While planning care should be
taken that the housing colonies are adequately setback from
busy airports, state and national highways, factories, main
railway lines and marshalling yards.
Mitigation options to control noise pollution:
It is important that no new development is carried out within
areas where expected noise levels will cause mental and physical
fatigue or permanent loss of hearing. In case development in
such areas is essential, adequate sound insulation shall be
provided for the building.
1. Control measures: There are two ways of applying
controls or measures. The first is to plan so as to keep
the noise at a distance. Under this aspect comes the
separation of housing from traffic noise by interposing
buffer zones, and the protection of schools and hospitals
by green belts, public gardens, etc. The second is the
principle of shading or screening. This consists of
deliberately interposing a less vulnerable building to
screen a more vulnerable one or by providing a solid
barrier such as a wall between the source and the
location to be protected.
2. Control of Aircraft noise: The problem caused by
aircraft noise have become very acute, therefore a
commonly used criterion is the noise exposure forecast
(NEF). Aircraft noise can seriously affect living
conditions no matter how much insulation has been
applied. For this reason it is recommended that no
residential development should be allowed beyond NEF
35 level. For very critical buildings such as buildings
necessary for maintaining and supplementing the
airport services, and for commercial development, such
as hotels, it is possible to provide sealed windows and to
centrally air condition the entire building.
3. Control of noise from railway lines: Wherever possible
no residential or public building zone should abut onto
railway lines. The appropriate zones along side railway
lines are industrial and commercial buildings other than
office buildings.
4. Control of noise from road traffic: Road traffic can be
more nuisance than rail traffic. Care should be taken
that local housing roads do not provide short cuts for
heavy traffic zones through residential areas. Trees with
heavy foliage planted on both sides of carriage way help
slightly muffle the noise provided; the foliage extends
for a considerable distance of 30m or above.
Highway noise barriers are effective means of reducing
traffic noise around residential areas. There are two
types of barriers that can be built to protect sites; one
which are built to solely for the purpose of reducing
noise and two, which forms a part of the building
complex (barrier blocks). Freestanding walls and
artificial mounds are typical examples of the first type
and multi-storied dwellings and garages are the most
common of type two. Out of the two types, barrier
blocks are more widely used because they are cheaper
and also tend to form a more effective barrier because of
their greater height and width.
5. Setting up the barriers: National Building Code 2005
suggests that design solutions such as barrier blocks
should be used to reduce external LA10 noise levels to at
least 60-70dB(A) at any point 1.0 m from any inward
looking façade. Green belts and landscaping could act
as an effective means to control noise pollution. In case
of railway tracks, a minimum distance of 50m to 70m
may be provided between the buildings and the tracks.
Thick belts of planting greater than 30 meters are useful
for cutting the noise levels from road traffic. Strong leafy
trees may be planted to act as noise baffles. Shrubs and
creepers may also be planted for additional protection
between tree trunks; artificial mounds and banks shall
be formed where practicable. As little hard paving and
as much grass as possible may be used. The creation of
green belt is particularly advisable on the perimeter of
aerodromes, along railway lines and arterial roads,
through or past built up areas and adjoining industrial
zones.
1.2.2.8 Natural disaster prone areas
Examine historical data for past trends of natural hazards, such
as earthquakes, floods, or landslides, so that proposed
development can be designed with the ability to withstand such
eventualities. Other investigations may be carried out on
relative mappings of natural winds, floods, or climatic data to
ascertain the possibility of any other risks involved. If possible,
new choices or other complementary structural techniques
should be developed for the site.
1.3 Site analysis
After the first analysis of the site evaluation and site selection,
the site should be analysed with respect to all the issues
involved in its sustainable development. The natural functions
of a plot of land (hydrology, geology and microclimate) could be
seriously disrupted by the placement of buildings on it if site
analysis for optimum placement and design of buildings is not
carried out. Layout the site activities and building requirements
after carrying out detailed site analysis so as to ensure
sustainable site development is in tune with its topography,
climate, ecological character and functional requirements of the
building. The main objective is to allocate and define the use of
various parts of the site in a manner that is most appropriate to
specific building activities to be carried on the proposed site.
The purpose of site analysis is also to determine the site
characteristics so that proper drainage pattern and system,
circulation pattern, landscape design and other site
development features can be considered in relation to the
existing site features and proposed building design parameters
such as building form, solar orientation, shape, skin to volume
ratio, materials etc.
The site analysis evaluates all the environmental
determinants, which include (soil, air, water, solar access,
noise), that could get affected due to development on the
proposed site. All the concerns and mitigation options for the
concerns at site level are covered in this section. Impact of
development of the project on ecology and available resources
on site, example impact of building shade on open spaces,
existing wind patterns on the site, impact on soil erosion,
existing vegetation, habitat protection, water and air pollution
and waste handling should be assessed and mitigation options
to reduce the negative impact on the resources as suggested in
this document should be carried out.
1.3.1 Concerns
1.3.1.1 Building siting
Geographical latitude and microclimatic factors such as wind
loads and solar access: Improper planning and layout of
buildings can affect the availability of natural resources to the
occupants. For example, Large built volumes perpendicular to
the wind divert the latter and tend to create a wind shadow of a
length equal to 15 times the building’s height (with wind
velocity halved down). Design of buildings could result in
overshadowing existing buildings and sometimes also result in
cutting down the availability of natural light in adjacent
buildings. The way in which a building or group of buildings are
sited in relation to other buildings, natural topography and
landscape could have detrimental effects on its potentialities.
1.3.1.2 Impact on soil due to land disturbance :
Top soil conservation: Topsoil is rich in organic content and is
essential to establish new vegetation. Development projects
involve disturbance to the existing soil conditions, removal of
existing trees, which result into soil erosion, instability and
overall change in the microclimate and drainage pattern of the
site. Erosion, by the action of water, wind and ice, is a natural
process in which soil and rock material get loose and removed.
There are two major classifications of erosion - (1) geological
erosion, and (2) man-made erosion.
Geological erosion, includes soil-forming as well as soilremoving, has contributed to the formation of soils and their
distribution on the surface of the earth. Man-made erosion,
which greatly accelerates the natural erosion process, includes
the breakdown of soil aggregates and the increases removal of
organic and mineral particles. This could be caused due to
clearing, grading or otherwise altering the land. Erosion of soils
that occur at construction sites is man – made erosion.
1.3.1.3 Preservation of vegetation and landscape
Preservation of natural vegetation and protection of landscape
during construction : Development projects involve disturbance
to the existing soil conditions, removal of existing trees and
overall change in the microclimate and drainage pattern.
Measures to minimize hazardous effects should be put into
effect as explained in this manual.
1.3.1.4 Preservation of Air environment
Air environment of the proposed site gets affected due to wind
erosion, construction on site, transportation on site and heat
island effect.
Dense urban areas tend to have higher air temperatures as
compared to the surrounding low-rise rural areas because of the
absorption and storage of a high percentage of radiation
received by the built mass and minimised radiative heat losses
from it. This gives rise to warmer air temperature in urban
localities, which might reach 1-2deg.C more than that of the
surrounding green areas. This phenomenon is called as the heat
island effect.
Principle surfaces that contribute to the heat island effect
include streets, sidewalks, parking lots, and buildings. Heat
island effect can be minimized by use of shading or reflective
surfaces. As mentioned, hard paved surfaces are one of the
major constraints of heat in land effect. In addition to causing
heat island effect, hard pavements also reduce perviousness of
site. Enhanced perviousness of site minimizes storm water runoff and is beneficial for localized aquifer recharge. This method
aims to encourage design measures to minimize negative
impacts of the paved areas. Design methodologies, which
address the heat island phenomenon, affect the size and density
and provide control for desired conditions, should be
considered.
The transport related environmental aspects having impact
on ambient air quality are explained in transport section
(Section 3.2 and 3.3) of this manual.
1.3.1.5 Hydrology on site
This coves two aspects, i.e. natural hydrology and quality of
water.
1. Natural hydrology: Undeveloped land has a certain
capacity to absorb rainfall in the soils, vegetation and
trees. The site before construction also has a natural
drainage pattern. Clearing of vegetation and or
construction of impervious surfaces (like roads, parking
lots and buildings) reduce the capacity of land to absorb
rainfall and increase the amount of storm water runoff
and change the natural pattern of drainage.
Increase in the frequency and magnitude of storm water
run off due to new developments can cause overflow of
water on adjacent sites. As a result, the streambed and
banks are exposed to highly erosive flows more
frequently and for longer periods.
2. Quality of water: Storm water run off volumes generated
from imperviousness of the developed site is transported
into the receiving waters via urban infrastructure like
gutters, pipes and sewers. The storm water volumes
contain sediment and other contaminants that have a
negative impact on water quality, navigation and
recreation. Storm water pollution sources include
atmospheric deposition, vehicle fluid leaks, and
mechanical equipment wastes. During storm events,
these pollutants are washed away and discharged to
receiving waters or get infiltrated inside the ground
water.
1.3.1.6 Waste management on site
Pre construction, during construction and post construction
guidelines for handling waste on site should be referred in
Chapter 3, Construction waste management.
1.3.1.7 Health and well being of construction workers
Construction activities are large polluters of environment. Large
volumes of suspended particulate matters are released during
construction work leading to air pollution. Unhygienic site
sanitation facilities cause damage to environment and to health
of the construction workers. Buildings sensitive to the
environment and its resources should address these issues.
1.3.2 Recommendations and guidelines
1.3.2.1 Design layout should ensure adequate solar access and
ventilation.
Depending upon the geographical latitude and sky conditions a
precise analysis of the local climate; surroundings, urban
development and surrounding terrain in relation to solar access,
daylight availability and predominant air movement should be
carried out. This would control minimum distances to be kept
between the built up volume and open spaces. The design of the
layout should allow for wind protection and solar access in
winter, and at the same time provide adequate sun protection
and ventilation in summer months. The size and density of the
layout should provide desired comfort levels maximum from
natural resources. Solar path analysis and wind pattern
assessment should be carried out in the design stage that would
help developers decide upon the alternatives for the type of
layout and the proportion of the built volume and open space in
the layout. For this section the submittals should be provided
only to indicate the optimised layout of buildings on the site
with respect to sun path and optimised solar access and
availability of wind for natural ventilation. Following are the
factors, which shall affect the layout of a sustainable design:
• Solar access
Solar access in the morphology of clusters can be understood in
terms of utilization of direct (and not reflected or diffused) solar
radiation mainly for day lighting and heat gain. Solar path
analysis would help define the minimal distances between the
buildings and the relations between built-up volume and open
space.
• Building types
Choice of building types depends mainly on the cost of the land,
infrastructure, land availability and suitability as per the
requirements. Each building type and combination of different
type forms a matrix of environmental conditions, which affect
the macro as well as the microclimate around and inside the
building. Building types may be detached/semi-detached, with
courtyard /patio, high-rise, row house.
• Open spaces
The proportion of open space and its built-up edges should be
designed such that it ensures winter solar access and summer
ventilation. Vegetation may provide as shading and promote
evaporative cooling. In hot dry climates, evaporative cooling
through appropriately sized wet surfaces or fountains have a
desirable effect.
1.3.2.2 Soil Conservation
Topsoil removal and preservation shall be mandatory for
development projects larger than 1, 00 hectare (Source:
National Building Code 2005). Topsoil shall be stripped to a
depth of 200 mm from areas proposed to be occupied by
buildings, roads, paved areas and external services. Top soil
shall be stockpiled to a height of 400 mm in pre - designated
areas for preservation and shall be reapplied to site during
plantation of the proposed vegetation. Measures should be
applied to control erosion of preserved top soil. Top soil shall
be separated from sub-soil debris and stones larger than 50 mm
diameter.
Sites that have area less than 1,000 hectare, soil should be
preserved if soil test reports predict that its nutrient rich and
landscape consultant finds it usable for re application in post
construction landscape design. In any case, measures on site
should be adopted both during construction stage and post
construction to minimise soil erosion through wind and storm
water run off.
• Top soil characteristics:
Top soil consists of organic carbon that helps in soil aggregation
and also improves water holding capacity of the soil which in
turn helps in slowing down the flow of water through the soil.
Basic inorganic nutrients present in the soil in adequate amount
are required for healthy growth of vegetation. Thus, it is
important to preserve top soil from soil pollution which is
caused by construction materials and equipment during
construction. The optimum levels for various organic and
inorganic nutrients required for health vegetation growth is
given below:
• Fertility:
The optimum level of organic carbon in soil ranges from 0.5-1.0
%. Maintain pH of 6.0–7.5; add lime where pH<6.0 to adjust to
6.5 or higher up to 7.5. Any soil having soluble salt content >500
ppm (parts per million) shall not be used for the purpose of
landscaping. Ensure presence of basic inorganic nutrients i.e.
nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in adequate amount for
healthy growth of vegetation. If application of fertilizers is
required to enhance fertility, ensure proper and timely
application.
Deficiency of organic and inorganic material can be
improved by application of fertilizers, but care should be taken
so as to avoid over fertilization. The soil should be tested from
ICAR (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) accredited
laboratory for primary plant nutrient and pH.
Table 1.4: Rating chart for soil test values of primary nutrients
Nutrient
Rating*
Recommended test**
Low
Medium
High
Organic carbon
<0.50
0.50-0.75
>0.75
Colorimetric method; Datta et
Available nitrogen
<280
281-560
>560
Kjeldahl apparatus
<10
11-25
>25
Olsen method
<120
121-280
>280
Ammonium acetate extraction
al
alkaline KMnO4-N
(Kg/ha)
Available
phosphorus
Olsen’s P (Kg/ha)
Available
potassium
method
Ammonium
Acetate-K (Kg/ ha)
*Subject to minor variation as per local conditions.
**Tests to be performed at ICAR (Indian Council of Agricultural Research)–
accredited laboratory.
Source: Singh D, Chhoker, P K and Pandey, R N. 2000. Soil plant water analysis: a
methods manual. New Delhi: Indian Agricultural Research Institute, 160 pp.
Landscape architect/horticulturist recommendation of
improving deficient nutrient, timing of application of fertilizers
and warning of excessive nutrient levels should be adopted.
Judicious and timely applications of fertilizer are more
beneficial to the plant’s health and are less likely to cause
environmental damage than infrequent, heavy, ill-timed
applications
1.3.2.3 Soil preservation
It is important to consider and understand factors such as soil
characteristics, climate, rainfall intensity and duration,
vegetation and topography to predict the extent and
consequences of soil erosion. Sedimentation occurs when soil
particles are suspended in surface runoff or wind and are more
dependable in streams and other water bodies.
Human activities during construction can accelerate erosion
by removing vegetation, compacting or disturbing the soil,
changing natural drainage patterns, and by covering the ground
with impermeable surfaces (pavement, concrete, buildings).
When the land surface is developed or “hardened “in this
manner, storm water and snowmelt cannot seep into or
“infiltrate” the ground. This results in larger amounts of water
moving more quickly across a site which can carry more
sediment and other pollutants to streams and rivers. (Source:
Chapter 3, EPA) Disruption to the natural hydrology of the site
could be minimised by reducing impervious cover, increasing
on site infiltration and managing storm water run off.
The net flow reaching the storm water drain is called runoff.
Systems should be employed on the site, such that the
sediments from the run off are retained in the site, before the
storm water goes into the drain. This calculation can be carried
out by multiplying imperviousness and quantity of rainfall
falling on the surface. (Refer section 2.9 on rainwater
harvesting). This quantity should be used to quantify the
capacity for sedimentation basin.
The soil conditions and the ground slope determine the
impermeability factor. Impermeability factor is the proportion
of the total rainfall received on the surface which gets
discharged into the storm water drainage, after the initial
absorption though evaporation, vegetation and other losses. The
net flow reaching the storm water drain is called as runoff.
Imperviousness (%) is calculated as:
Impervious area on ground and roof (m2) = Surface area Χ
Runoff coefficient
Imperviousness (%) = Total Impervious area / Total site area
Runoff co efficient for various surfaces is as follows:
Table 1.5 Runoff coefficients of various surfaces
Surface type
Runoff coefficient
Roofs conventional
0.95
Roof garden <100 mm
0.50
thick
Roof garden 100 –200
0.30
mm thick
Roof garden 200 -500
0.20
mm thick
Roof garden >500 mm
0.10
thick
Concrete/ Kota Paving
0.95
Gravel
0.75
Brick Paving
0.85
Vegetation
Slope 0-1%
0.10
Slope 1% to 3%
0.2
Slope 3% to 10%
0.25
>Slope 10%
0.3
Turf slopes
0% to 1%
0.25
1% to 3%
0.35
3% to 10%
0.4
> 10%
0.45
(Source LEED version 2.1)
The following sections describe stabilization practices and
structural practices for erosion and sediment control. Using the
measures to control erosion and sedimentation is an important
part of storm water pollution and prevention. Details of storm
water management could be referred in section 2.8, chapter 2.
National Building Code restricts the imperviousness of sites,
which shall not be exceeded.
NBC (National Building Code 2005) standards for
imperviousness factor applicable to different types of area.
Table 1.6: NBC Standards for imperviousness
Type of area
Imperviousness
factor (%)
Commercial and industrial
70-90
areas
Residential areas (high
60-75
density)
Residential areas (low
35-60
density)
Parks and underdeveloped
10-20
areas
Measures for soil preservation and erosion control are well
established, and in this document have been brought together.
Measures and recommendations to preserve top soil :
During construction soil becomes unconsolidated due to
removal of stabilizing material such as vegetation and
disturbance of stabilized existing grade resulting in loss of top
soil and also deposition in undesirable places. A soil erosion
and sedimentation control plan should be prepared prior to
construction. The soil erosion, sediment control and storm
water practices mentioned in this document should be
incorporated depending upon the site characteristics to control
soil erosion and loss of top soil during construction.
Mitigation options
1. When opening the site, care should be taken to keep
vegetation clearing at a minimum.
2. To keep the damage to topsoil minimum, excavators
must be used for construction. The excavated material
such as topsoil and stones should be stacked at safe
places for reuse at a later stage of construction.
3. Prevent soil erosion for large sites during construction
by providing sedimentation basin, contour trenching,
mulching, as required. Some generic soil erosion control
measures are described below:
Soil erosion and sedimentation control measures
1. On the proposed site the net imperviousness of the site
should not exceed the imperviousness factor as
prescribed by the National Building Code 2005; Part 9
(Plumbing services) Section 5.5.11.2.1.
2. Preserving existing vegetation or revegetating disturbed
soils is one of the most effective ways to control soil
erosion.
There are two types of soil erosion control:
1. Temporary controls – provide cover to the soil for a
short period of time, till the permanent measures are
adopted. These are usually applicable during
construction.
2. Permanent controls – These measures are incorporated
on soil, when activities that disturb the soil are over.
These measures could be applicable post construction in
the proposed landscape plan.
Temporary control measures
1. Temporary seeding: This is carried out to reduce
erosion and sedimentation from disturbed areas that
will not be stabilised for long period and where
permanent plant growth is not appropriate. Temporary
seeding means growing vegetative cover for a short
period of time on disturbed site areas that are prone to
soil erosion. Fast growing grasses are used in this
system whose root systems hold the soil together so that
they are not carried away by storm water run off and
wind. Temporary seeding also helps in reducing the
problem of dust from bare soil due to construction.
Temporary seeding should be performed on areas which
have been disturbed during construction and which are
likely to be disturbed after a few weeks. For this time
gap the top soil should be preserved from erosion
through temporary measures like temporary seeding.
Application: This method of soil stabilization heavily
depends upon the season and rainfall rate for success. In
semi-arid regions the climate prevents fast plant growth
particularly during dry seasons and therefore other
temporary measures such as mulching, geo-textiles etc
should be considered. Information on best seed mixes
and soil conditioning methods should be carried out in
consultation with a landscape architect. Seeding on
slopes of 2:1 or more, in adverse soil conditions, regions
where hot or dry season is expected or where heavy rains
are expected should be followed by spreading mulch.
2. Earth dikes and contour trenching: An earth dike is a
ridge and channel arrangement constructed parallel to
the contours along the face of the slope at regular
intervals on the lengths and slopes greater than 10%
(1:10). They are used to protect the work areas from
upslope runoff and to divert the sediment –laden water
to sediment traps. They are used for reducing runoff
velocity, increasing the distance of overland runoff flow,
and to hold moisture and minimize sediment loading of
surface runoff. The dike consists of compacted soil and
stone, riprap or vegetation to stabilise the channel.
Improper design of earth dikes should be avoided
therefore it is important that the landscape consultant
designs it right according to the conditions of the site.
Application: Earth dikes find its application above
disturbed existing slopes to prevent the flow of water above
the slope. It could be used below slopes to divert excess run
off to stabilised outlets, and at the periphery of construction
area to retain the sediments inside the site.
Figure 1.1
(Source: www.epa.com)
3. Mulching: Mulch is simply a protective layer of a
material that is spread on the top of the soil. Mulching is
a temporary soil stabilization technique. Mulches can
either be organic, such as grass, hay, straw, wood chips,
and similar materials, or inorganic, such as stones and
brick chips. Mulching should be used with seedlings and
plantings in steep slope areas (slopes>33%). Steep
slopes are prone to heavy erosion. Netting or anchoring
should be used to hold it in place. Other surface runoff
control measures like contour terracing to break up
concentrated flows shall be installed prior to seeding
and mulching. In addition to stabilizing soils, mulching
will reduce the storm water runoff over an area.
Mulching when done with seedlings or plantings, aids
plant growth by holding the seed, fertilizers, and top soil
in place. It retains moisture and insulates the soil
against extreme temperatures.
Application: Mulching provides immediate protection in
areas which need heavy erosion and temporary seeding
is not applicable because of season and climate.
Mulching should be anchored to the ground to hold the
mulch in place, where the land has steep slopes. Mulch
is required for seeded and planted areas where slopes
are steeper than 2:1. (Source: EPA, Chapter 3 –
Sediment and erosion control).
4. Geotextiles: Geotextiles are porous fabrics which are
manufactured by weaving or bonding fibres made from
synthetic materials. Geotextiles like nets when
combined with mulch act as stronger mulch. Nets are
made from jute or other wood fibres and can be used to
stabilise soil while plants are growing. Geotextiles could
also be used to stabilise the flow on channels and
swales. It could also be used to protect seedlings until
they become established.
Application: Geotextiles could be used alone as a soil
stabilising technique. When used alone it could be used
as a mat to stabilise the flow on channels and swales.
Matting could also be used to stabilise recently planted
slopes to protect the seedlings till they get established.
Geotextiles could also be integrated for embankment
stabilisations through rip rap where extreme steep
slopes exist that are subject to storm water run off.
Fabric as a filter could be used to protect the soil
beneath from effects of flowing water.
Figure 1.2
Source: www.epa.com
5. Silt fence: A silt fence is a temporary measure for
sedimentation control. This system consists of a filter
fabric which is supported by posts. The lower edge of
the fence is vertically trenched and covered by backfill.
This system is most effective where there is overland
flow. It controls sediment run off from the site from
entering into the receiving waters. For large areas, silt
fence is not appropriate to control the run off; however,
it could be used in combination with other erosion and
sediment control measures. The sediments should be
removed and disposed once it is one third or one half
the height of fence.
Application: A stilt fence is used to detain sediments
from a small drainage area. A silt fence should be
installed prior to major soil disturbance in the drainage
area. The fence should be placed at the bottom of the
slope and perpendicular to the direction of flow. It could
be used at the boundary end of construction area.
Figure : 1.3
6. Sediment trap: A sediment trap can be constructed by
excavating a pond across a low-lying area on the site.
The trap should retain the run off enough to allow the
sediment to settle before they are released. The outlet is
constructed using large stones and aggregate to slow
down the release of run off. This system is appropriate
for small drainage areas not more than 10 acres (Source:
EPA, Chapter 3 – Sediment and Erosion Control). The
volume of the storage required depends upon the
surface type and rainfall intensity. Please check
rainwater harvesting section to determine the volume of
storm water run off and design capacity of sediment
trap.
Application: A temporary sediment trap could be
used in conjunction with swales, contour trenches, earth
dikes, diversion channels. Sediment traps are suitable
for small drainage areas, less than 10 acres. The traps
should be maintained till the site *area is permanently
stabilised through vegetation and or when permanent
structures are in place.
Figure 1.4
Figure 1.5
7. Post landscape practices: The soil conservation,
sediment control and storm water management
practices given below shall be practiced after
construction is complete.
8. Top soil laying: Placement of topsoil or other suitable
plant material over disturbed lands should be carried
out to provide suitable soil medium for vegetative
growth. Prior to spreading the topsoil, the sub-grade
shall not be loosened to a depth of 50 mm to permit
bonding. Topsoil shall be spread uniformly at a
minimum compacted depth of 50 mm on grade of 1:3 or
steeper slopes; a minimum depth of 100 mm on
shallower slopes is essential. A depth of 300 mm is
preferred on relatively flatter land.
If top soil is brought from another site, it is important
that the texture of new soil is compatible with sub soils
on site. Topsoil stock piled on site should be preserved
from erosion through temporary seeding, mulching etc.
9. Permanent soil stabilisation:
Permanent planting: The most effective way to prevent
soil erosion, sedimentation and to stabilise disturbed
and undisturbed land is through the provision of
vegetative cover by effective planting practices. The
foliage and roots of plants provide dust control and a
reduction in erosion potential by increasing the
infiltration, trapping sediment, stabilizing soil and
dissipating the energy of hard rain. Permanent seeding
of grass and planting trees not only provide permanent
stabilisation of soil but also reduce sedimentation run.
Permanent seeding and planting is appropriate in all
those areas where land is cleared and long lived plant
cover is desired. To establish the plants however, it is
important that the trees are local and need low
maintenance.
Application: Permanent planting is appropriate in all
those areas where the land is cleared and long lived
plant cover is desired. The technique is applicable to all
soil types. Areas where permanent seeding and planting
are particularly beneficial are buffer areas, vegetated
swales, steep slopes and stream banks, flood plains,
wetlands, and other areas where erosion control would
be difficult to establish, install and or maintain.
Figure 1.6
Structural Erosion and sedimentation control measures:
Structural practices used in sediment and erosion control divert
storm water flows away from exposed areas, convey run off,
prevent sediments from moving off site. These controls could be
either temporary or permanent measures to control erosion.
Following are some of the measures: For common drainage
locations that serve an area with 10 acres pr more at one time, a
temporary (or permanent) sediment basin providing 3,600
cubic feet of storage per acre drained, or equivalent control
measures, shall be provided where attainable until final
stabilisation of the soil.
Earth dikes and contour trenching: An earth dike is a ridge and
channel arrangement constructed parallel to the contours along
the face of the slope at regular intervals on the lengths and
slopes greater than 10% (1:10). They are used to protect the
work areas from upslope runoff and to divert the sediment –
laden water to sediment traps. They are used for reducing runoff
velocity, increasing the distance of overland runoff flow, and to
hold moisture and minimize sediment loading of surface runoff.
The dike consists of compacted soil and stone, riprap or
vegetation to stabilise the channel. Improper design of earth
dikes should be avoided therefore it is important that the
landscape consultant designs it right according to the conditions
of the site.
Application: Earth dikes find its application above disturbed
existing slopes to prevent the flow of water above the slope. It
could be used below slopes to divert excess run off to stabilised
outlets, and at the periphery of construction area to retain the
sediments inside the site.
Figure 1.7
Drainage swales: Drainage swales are vegetated channels with a
slope similar to that of standard storm drain channels (less than
0.6 percent), but wider and shallower to maximize flow
residence time and promote pollutant removal by filtration
through the use of properly selected vegetation. It has to be
designed to trap particulate pollutants (suspended solids and
trace metals), promote infiltration and reduce the flow velocity
of the storm water runoff. It must be integrated with storm
water system. (Source: National Building Code 2005)
Application: A drainage swale is applied where water run off is
conveyed without causing soil erosion. Drainage swales can be
used to convey runoff from the bottom or top of a slope. For
swales that are draining water from a disturbed area, the outlet
should be sediment trapping device prior to its release.
Figure 1.8
Sediment basin: Sediment basins are appropriate for disturbed
site areas larger than 5 acres. A sediment basin could be defined
as a settling tank with a controlled storm water release structure
which is used to collect and store sediment produced from
disturbed sites where construction activities are carried out. It is
important that the basin size should be calculated to handle the
maximum amount of drainage expected from the site. The
embankment which forms the sedimentation pool should be
compacted and stabilised with vegetation. The outlet of the
basin should be as far as possible from the entrance to provide
maximum retention time. The outlet should be a gravel outlet to
slow down the run off and provide extra sediment filtration.
Application: These are suitable for large disturbed construction
sites larger than 5 acres. The biggest advantage of sedimentation
basins is that a well built sedimentation basin that is large
enough to handle post construction run off volume could be
converted into a permanent storm water management structure.
Sedimentation basins could be used in conjunction with seeding
and mulching.
Rain Water Harvesting Structure: Different types of rain water
harvesting structures also act as erosion control devices to
preserve soil and water. For details on different types of rain
water harvesting structures, refer section 2.9.
10. Preservation of vegetation and landscape on site
Pre construction and during construction measures for
protection and preservation of landscape
Measures for the prevention of soil erosion, sediment
control and management of storm water shall be
implemented as follows:
Timing of construction: Construction work and erosion
control applications shall be scheduled and sequenced
during dry weather periods when the potential for
erosion is the lowest. Slope protection techniques to
control erosion shall be used when construction during
wet season is unavoidable. Sedimentation collection
systems, drainage systems, and runoff diversion devices
shall be installed before construction activity. The
Architect / Landscape Architect / Engineer-in -charge
shall monitor the site conditions and progress of work
and schedule appropriate timing and sequencing of
construction.
Preservation of existing vegetation:
When opening the site, care should be taken to keep
vegetation clearing at a minimum.
Vegetation cleared should be monitored and
documented in terms of area, species, densities /
numbers of trees etc.
Compensatory forestation should be practiced
wherever vegetation removal has been done
Mark existing vegetation on site in surveys and
follow detailed guidelines of tree preservation as per
draft National building code; Part 10:Landscaping,
signs, and outdoor display structures.
Protection of existing vegetation (including trees, shrubs,
grasses and other plants) where possible, by preventing
disturbance or damage to specified areas during construction is
recommended. Preservation of natural vegetation acts a
permanent control measure. It minimises erosion potential,
protects water quality and provides aesthetic benefits. The
technique is applicable to all soil types. The technique is
applicable to all soil types. Areas where preservation of existing
vegetation are particularly beneficial are buffer areas, vegetated
swales, steep slopes and stream banks, flood plains, wetlands,
and other areas where erosion control would be difficult to
establish, install and or maintain.
This practice minimizes the amount of bare soil exposed to
erosive forces. All existing vegetation shall be marked on a site
survey plan. A tree survey in prescribed format shall be carried
out as indicated in Table-3. The landscape plan should indicate
trees, which have been preserved, and also those, which had to
be transplanted or removed clearly differentiating between
these three categories.
Tree survey format
Serial No.
Botanical
Common
identifiable in
name
name
Girth
Height
Spread
Condition
Protected1/
preserved2 /
transplanted 3/
survey plan
removed4
Trees retained on the project site shall be protected during the
construction period by following measures:
• Damage to roots shall be prevented during trenching, placing
backfill, driving or parking heavy equipment, dumping of
trash, oil, paint, and other materials detrimental to plant
health by restricting these activities to outside the area of
the canopy of the tree.
• Avoid cut and fill in the root zones, through delineating and
fencing the drip line (the spread limit of a canopy projected
on the ground) of all the trees or group of trees. Separate the
zones of movement of heavy equipment, parking, or
excessive foot traffic from the fenced plant protection zones.
• Trees will not be used for support; their trunks shall not be
damaged by cutting and carving or by nailing posters,
advertisements or other material.
• Lighting of fires or carrying out heat or gas emitting
construction activity within the ground, covered by canopy
of the tree is not to be permitted.
• Young trees or saplings identified for preservation (height
less than 2.00m, 0.10m trunk girth at 1.00m height from
finish ground, 2.00m crown diameter) within the
construction site have to be protected using tree guards of
approved specification.
• Existing drainage patterns through or into any preservation
area shall not be modified unless specifically directed by the
Landscape Architect / Architect/ Engineer-in-charge.
• Existing grades shall be maintained around existing
vegetation and lowering or raising the levels around the
vegetation is not allowed unless specifically directed by the
Landscape Architect /Architect / Engineer-in-charge.
• Maintenance activities shall be performed as needed to
ensure that the vegetation remains healthy.
• The preserved vegetated area shall be inspected by the
Landscape Architect / Architect / Engineer-in-charge at
regular intervals so that they remain undisturbed. The date
1
Protected trees are the trees that are undisturbed during the construction.
trees are the ones that are uprooted and preserved for re-plantation at original
location after the construction activity is over.
3 Transplanted trees are the trees that are uprooted and replanted at different location.
4 Removed trees are the ones that are uprooted for construction.
2 Preserved
of inspection, type of maintenance or restorative action
followed shall be recorded in the logbook.
Staging areas: Staging is dividing a construction area into two
or more areas to minimize the area of soil that will be exposed
at any given time. Staging should be done to separate
undisturbed land from land disturbed by construction activity
and material storage. Measures shall be followed for collecting
drainage water runoff from construction areas and material
storage sites; diverting water flow away from such polluted
areas, so that pollutants do not mix with storm water runoff
from undisturbed areas. Temporary drainage channels,
perimeter dike/swale, etc. shall be constructed to carry the
pollutant-laden water directly to the treatment device or facility
(municipal sewer line). The plan shall indicate how the above is
accomplished on-site, well in advance of the commencing of the
construction activity.
Spill prevention and control: Spill prevention and control plans
should be made, clearly stating measures to stop the source of
the spill, to contain the spill, to dispose the contaminated
material and hazardous wastes, and stating designation of
personnel trained to prevent and control spills. Hazardous
wastes include pesticides, paints, cleaners, and petroleum
products.
Preservation of top soil: During construction, soil becomes
unconsolidated due to removal of stabilizing material such as
vegetation and disturbance of stabilized existing grade resulting
in loss of top soil and also deposition in the undesirable places.
A soil erosion and sedimentation control plan to be prepared
prior to construction and should be applied effectively.
Measures for preservation of topsoil are mentioned in the Soil
resource section above.
Planting for shelter and soil conservation: The use of vegetation
for controlling wind is widely recognised as an effective way of
conserving soil and reducing erosion by wind. Vegetation may
therefore be used for modifying the microclimate, by
obstructing, guiding, deflecting or filtering wind current.
Vegetation areas designed to fulfil these general functions are
usually classified as windbreakers and shelterbelts. The term
windbreaker refers to protective planting around gardens and
orchards. Windbreakers generally consist of single or double
row of trees. The term shelterbelt refers to extensive barrier of
trees with several rows of trees. Plant species are chosen with
particular regard to their physical and growth characteristics,
and their effectiveness in achieving the desired results. Both
windbreakers and shelterbelts have considerable visual impact
in the landscape in which they are situated, they therefore need
to be designed so that they make a positive visual and aesthetic
contribution to their environment.
Function: Windbreaker and shelterbelts are very important for
agriculture under arid and semi-arid conditions; they also fulfil
essential micro-climatic functions in rural and urban
environments. Benefits accruing from plantation of shelter
planting can be listed as follows (Sitaram Rao 1979, Leloup
1955):
• Reduction in wind velocity resulting in the arrest of
movements of sand and soil particles.
• Prevention of soil erosion.
• Modification of micro-climate; change in air temperature are
moderated.
• Protection of crops from being blown by high winds
• Protection of livestock
• Reduction in evaporation of soil moisture. Increase in soil
moisture content varies from 3 to 7.8 %. Water loss due to
evaporation is lessened. This is estimated to increase
production by 15%.
• Increase in soil moisture due to greater dewfall in sheltered
areas has been found to be 200 per cent higher than on
exposed ground. Heaviest dew fall is over a distance of 2-3
times the height of the shelterbelt.
• Beneficial effect on growth of plants that are affected by high
winds.
• Extensive shelterbelts can also be used to augment the
supply of fuel in rural areas.
• The zone of influence of shelterbelt on crop yield extends to a
distance of 20 times the height of the belt, with the
maximum effect being observed 10 times the height of the
tree belt, on the leeward side.
Recommendations for planting design considerations:
Plant materials are a very important component of landscape
design, and planting design is integral to the landscape plan.
Designing with plants requires awareness and knowledge of a
broad range of aspects including (a) Ecology (b) Botany (c)
Horticulture (d) Aesthetic Value (e) Growth and Survival and (f)
Use of Plants to fulfill environmental design functions.
Plant material
The major sets of factors that influence the choice of plant
material are related to the characteristics, both botanical and
physical of plant material and the context in which the plant
material is to be used. The inter-relationship of these sets of
factors is the basis for developing a sound approach to the
process of designing with plants.
Physical and Botanical Characteristics of Plant Material
The information on plant material should be available in a
systematic format to include definition, significance and design
implications of the following aspects:
• Nomenclature, Latin and common
• Origin, family, natural habitat
• Growth characteristic, form as a function of habit
• Physical characteristics, e.g. bark texture, foliage etc.
• Propagation and maintenance
• Use in Landscape Design
Vegetation Types: Evergreen and deciduous:
Some examples of the functional implications of using
evergreen and deciduous plant material for specific situations
are:
•
Evergreen trees for:
i.
places requiring shade throughout the year
ii.
strong visual screening
iii.
part of windbreak or shelter planting
iv.
areas where leaf litter is to be discouraged
•
Deciduous trees for:
i.
greater visual variety
ii.
partial visual barrier
iii.
areas where under-planting is to be
encouraged (e.g. grass)
iv.
emphasis on branching and flowering pattern.
v.
areas where shade is not required throughout
the year.
Growth rate and age of the vegetation: Growth rate is directly
related to the life-span of a tree and slower growing trees have a
life-span extending to hundreds of years. The fast growing trees
to the exclusion of other slower growing varieties is not
recommended. Landscapes are developed to sustain future
generations; slow growing & native trees must be included in all
major planting schemes, especially those related to institutional
campuses and large urban development. However, fast growing
species do have a limited role, and are appropriate in situations
where:
• Quick effects are required-for instance in windbreaks and
shelterbelts.
• Immediate results with regards to stabilization of soil etc. are
necessary as for instance in soil conservation schemes.
• As ‘nurse plants’ to protect slower growing sensitive species
when necessary.
The slower growing species would generally be appropriate in
situations where sustained environmental benefits are required
such as roadside planting, campuses, townships, industrial
areas, and other public landscapes.
Maintenance: The success of a designed landscape depends
upon the growth of vegetation over an extended period of time;
therefore maintenance of landscape is also a design component.
Maintenance needs and a practice in any given situation arises
out of the inter-relationship between the growth requirements
of plant material chosen and the environmental conditions
existing on site.
The likely degree of maintenance should be assessed based
on the following:
• Scale of the Design Project
• Financial and manpower resource
• Availability of manures
• Future intensity of site
• Environmental conditions
In small-scale projects such as gardens and small parks the
natural environmental conditions can be changed and
maintained in this changed state by management practices such
as irrigation and application of fertilisers. The choice of plant
species is therefore not very strictly limited by the existing
environmental conditions. On larger scale schemes, such as very
large parks, campuses and townships, this kind of intensive
maintenance is not possible, and any planting scheme, which
does not take this into consideration, fail. The process of
choosing plants must therefore respond to the existing
environmental conditions and also in such cases the choice of
plant material is restricted by these conditions and suitable
species are limited. The type of treatment adopted also serves as
a guide to the degree of maintenance required:
Table 1.7: Degree of maintenance required (for vegetation)
a)
Low Maintenance
The lowest degree of maintenance is usually possible
in areas treated with native species of trees only.
A slightly higher degree is necessary where native
shrubs are also used, as these may require pruning
b)
Medium
Areas treated with a mixture of native and exotic
trees
Exotic shrubs and trees
c)
High
Exotic shrubs and ground covers
Lawns and maintained grass areas
Annual flowers, special schemes
1.4 Mitigation options for controlling air environment
Ambient air quality has already been tested during the site
selection process. In the site analysis process, the aim is to
ensure that ambient quality is not deteriorated due to wind
erosion, dust generation on site during construction, increased
traffic generation and heat island effect due to post construction
landscape design.
1.4.1 Mitigation measures for wind erosion
As already mentioned, some of the basic functions of
windbreaks and shelterbelts in arid and semiarid areas are to
conserve soil, improve productivity, and reduce erosion by
wind. The latter is a natural phenomenon in and lands having
very little rainfall (125mm-250mm) and in areas adjoining a
river, lake or sea. Wind erosion is a serious problem in areas
where the ground is virtually bare and devoid of vegetation. To
understand the techniques used for the control of wind erosion
it is important to know how eroding action by wind occurs:
Factors, which influence the degree and kind of wind
erosion, are as follows (Rama Rao 1974):
Table 1.8 Factors influencing degree and kind of wind erosion
Features of wind
Speed, direction, temperature, humidity, burden carried
Character of surface
Rough or smooth plant cover, obstruction, temperature
Topography
Flat, undulating broken
Character of soil
Texture, organic matter, moisture content
Techniques:
The principal method of reducing surface velocity of wind, upon
which depends the abrasive and transportation capacity of
wind, is by vegetation measures (Raina Rao 1974). Vegetation
methods are found to be most effective in the form of
windbreaks and shelterbelts. In aerodynamic terms, these
provide protection as follows (Konda Reddy 1979):
• Sheltered zone on the leeward side extends to approximately
15-30 times the height of the belt
• A dense belt provides greater shelter immediately to leeward
but the sheltered area is not as extensive as when a more
permeable zone of vegetation is provided.
• Porosity is important in the effectiveness of shelterbelt and
proper selection of free species is necessary. Porosity near
ground level is desirable.
• Effectiveness of shelter planting depends more on height and
permeability than on width. The width influences the
general microclimate but above a certain minimum width, it
does not effect greater reduction in wind velocity.
Protection obtained varies in relation to height (H) of
shelterbelts (FAO 1957)
Distance H - wind reduced by 90%
Distance 2H - wind reduced by 75%
Distance 5H - wind reduced by 50%
Distance 10H- wind reduced by 20%
This indicates that it is better to have several windbreaks
printed 5H to 6H apart rather than large forest stands with wide
open spaces in between.
Profiles:
A belt which rises and falls abruptly on windward and leeward
sides is said to be more effective. Smaller trees and shrubs
should occupy the inter-spaces between the tall trees. Some
authorities (Rama Rao 1974) maintain that triangular section of
shelterbelt planting is more effective.
The depth of the shelterbelt should be approximately ten times
its height. This is, however, only a thumb rule. Much lesser
widths of 20 m - 30 m have also been found to be useful in
particular situations; 15 m should be considered as a minimum
width.
Apart from factors such as climate, soil, fast rate of growth, one
of the more significant considerations in choosing species for
shelter planting is the possibility of a particular species serving
the dual role of wood-production 9for fuel, fodder) as well as
shelter.
1.4.2 Mitigation measures to control air pollution by plants
Air Pollution may be caused by areas or point sources such as
cities, industrial areas, factories or by linear sources such as
highways. Vegetation buffers can minimize the build –up of
pollution levels in urban areas by acting as pollution sinks.
Studies have established that air pollution, smoke and sulphur
di oxide leads to an exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases
and they are linked to lung cancer, pneumonia, tuberculosis,
chest disease in children, stomach cancer and cardiovascular
diseases. Lead from vehicle exhausts may have an adverse effect
on mental health of children, asbestos from disintegrating
clutch and break linings has been considered as a casual factor
in lung cancer.
1. Effect of Plants
Plant leaves function as efficient gas exchange system. Their
internal structure allows rapid diffusion of water soluble
gases. These characteristics allow the plant to respire and
photosynthesise, and they can also remove pollutant from
the air. Some of the beneficial results of plantations may be
• They are good absorbers of sulphur di oxide.
•
•
•
•
1.
Parks with trees have an SO2 level lower than city
streets.
Roadside hedges can reduce traffic generated air
borne lead, on leeward side.
Heavy roadside planting in the form of shelterbelts
can result in reduction in airborne lead
Complete dust interception can be achieved by a 30
m belt of trees. Even a single row of trees may bring
about 25 percent reductions in airborne particulate.
Choosing plants
The three main criteria for selection of plants may be:
• Trees, shrubs should have dense foliage with a large
surface area, because leaves absorb pollutants.
• Evergreen trees are found to be more effective.
• The species chosen must be resistant to pollutants,
particularly in the early stages of their growth.
The following species may be examined for their likely potential
for pollution control:
• Acacia arabica (Babul)
• Citrus species
• Dyospyros species
• Ficus bengalensis (Banyan)
• Ficus religiosa (Peepal)
• Lillium spp. (Lily)
• Polyathia lotigifolia
(Ashok)
• Tamarindus indica (Imli)
• Thuja occidentallis (Cedar)
• Prospis Juliflora (Mesquite)
• Zizypus jujuba (jujuba), etc.
Filtering of pollutants is most effective when plants are close to
the source of pollution. The design of shelterbelts against
pollution is similar to those for protection from wind. They
should be permeable to encourage air turbulence and mixing
within the belt. There should be no large gaps. The profile
should be rough and irregular and should present a tall vertical
leading edge to the wing. Spaces should be left within the
shelterbelt to allow gravity settlement of particles.
Applications
Air pollution shelterbelts may be used to protect sensitive land
uses from air pollution. For instance school playgrounds,
children play area and residential estates close to major roads
may be so protected. Shelterbelt protection may also be
provided for hospitals, institutions, etc, where the vegetation
may also be a visual screen and partial noise barrier. Vegetation
may also be used where the existing means of pollution control
have proved inadequate.
1.4.3 Mitigation measures for dust control
1.
Paving - Paving is a more permanent solution to dust
control, suitable for longer duration projects. High cost
is the major drawback to paving. Paving may be an
appropriate solution for access roads to large
development projects, where the road can eventually be
incorporated in the overall plan for the area. Another
appropriate use of paving might be "maintenance"
projects, such as parking lots and material storage areas,
where gravel cover is not adequate for dust control or
erosion.
Applying Dust Suppressants - There are many types and
brands of chemical dust suppressants which work by
binding lighter particles. Biodegradable suppressants
may be applied as a surface treatment to "seal" the top of
an area, or may be applied using a mixing method that
blends the product with the top few inches of the land
surface material. It is important to note that used oil
may NOT be used as a suppressant.
2. Graveling - Applying locally found gravel to access roads
and lots adds a protective layer over the exposed soil
and helps control dust generation in some situations. It
is important that gravel contain a minimal percentage of
fines and clean gravel be added periodically, as the fines
migrate to the surface and create dust.
3. Using Water Sprays - Water spray, whether through a
simple hose for small projects, or a water truck for large
projects, is an effective way to keep dust under control.
Misting systems and sprinklers are mechanisms that can
be employed to deliver continuous moisture. Keep in
mind, however, that fine mists should be used to control
fine particulate. The size of the water droplet must be
comparable to the size of the dust particle so that the
dust adheres to the water.
There are several constraints to using water. Water can
be very costly for larger projects in comparison to other
methods. Heavy watering can also create mud, which
when tracked onto paved public roadways, must be
promptly removed. Also, there must be an adequate
supply of clean water nearby to ensure that spray nozzles
don’t get plugged.
4. Reducing Vehicle Speed - High vehicle speeds increase
the amount of fugitive dust created from unpaved areas.
Reducing the speed of a vehicle to 20 kmph can reduce
emissions by a large extent. Speed bumps are commonly
used to ensure speed reduction. In cases where speed
reduction cannot effectively reduce fugitive dust, it may
be necessary to divert traffic to nearby paved areas.
5. Material storages / warehouses – Care should be taken
to keep all material storages adequately covered and
contained so that they are not exposed to situations
where winds on site could lead to dust / particulate
emissions. Fabrics and plastics for covering piles of soils
and debris is an effective means to reduce fugitive dust.
However, these materials can be costly and are subject
to degradation from the sun, weather, and human
contact. Straw and hay can also be used to cover exposed
soil areas, although they can be disturbed by wind and
vehicles.
Reducing Wind Speed at Ground Level - Plants, bushes,
trees, earthen banks and rock walls provide natural, and
more permanent, windbreaks. Because enclosures and
wind screens can be costly, the feasibility of using this
type of control must be determined on a case-by-case
basis.
Restricting Activities During High Wind Periods Rescheduling work around especially windy days
potentially can be one of the least expensive and easiest
dust control measures, provided work crews are not
idled and/or this is a project with significant time
constraints. Limited use of rescheduling might be
appropriate in extreme weather conditions, given the
availability of other tasks for employees.
The high visibility of certain projects and population
impacted should be taken into consideration when
scheduling dust producing work. Evenings and
weekends are possible alternatives for scheduling work
in business and school locations; while mid day may be
more appropriate for residential areas because people
are more likely to be away from home.
Cleaning Up Spills Promptly - Spills of dirt or dusty
materials must be cleaned up promptly so the spilled
material does not become a source of fugitive dust.
When cleaning up the spill, ensure that the clean-up
process does not generate additional dust. Similarly,
spilled concrete slurries or liquid wastes should be
contained / cleaned up immediately before they can
infiltrate into the soil / ground or runoff in nearby areas.
6. Mitigation measures to reduce heat island effect:
Planting trees, bushes, or a properly planned
landscaping can help reduce the heat island effect by
reducing ambient temperatures through evapotranspiration. Plant vegetation around the building to
intercept solar radiation and to shade the walls and
windows of buildings (with S, SW or SE exposure) to
prevent heat gain. This would also help in reducing airconditioning load/use.
Use light coloured, reflective roofs having an SRI (solar
reflectance index) of 50% or more. The dark coloured,
traditional roofing finishes have SRI varying from 5% to
20%. The fine example of higher SRI is the use of broken
china mosaic, light coloured tiles as roof finish, which
reflects the heat off the surface because of high solar
reflectivity, and infrared emittance which prevents heat
gain.
Use commercially available, high solar reflective (albedo) roof
coatings or heat reflective paints on roofs used to shade paved
areas. Don't use stone mulches such as fine gravel, crushed
granite or pebbles in unplanted areas immediately adjacent to
buildings, as they can heat up, reflect solar radiation inside, and
also cause glare.
Use high albedo or reflective pavements to keep parking lots,
pavements and inside roads cool because the increase in albedo
decreases the pavement temperature approximately by 8°F for a
change in albedo of 0.1.
Use light coloured aggregates or ‘whitetop’ the pavements
with 50 mm thick layer of cement concrete. Stabilize the
pavements with porous or permeable materials such as sand,
crushed bricks, broken mosaic tiles or stones where the soil is
stable or the traffic load is quite low. Recycled materials such as
demolished concrete (rubble), broken china and mosaic tiles
could also be used.
Total paved area of site under parking, roads, paths or any
other use should not exceed 25% of the site area.
Imperviousness of the site should not exceed the
imperviousness factor as prescribed by the National Building
Code of India, Bureau of Indian Standards, 2005; Part 9
(Plumbing services) section 5.5.11.2.1.
Total surface parking should not exceed the area as
permissible under the local bylaw
Obtain minimum 50% of paved area on site to have pervious
paving or shaded under vegetation or topped with finish having
solar reflectance of 0.5 or higher.
1.5 Water conservation
Disruption of natural hydrology could be limited by reducing
impervious cover, increasing on site infiltration and managing
storm water run off. Following are some recommendation
strategies:
1. Net imperviousness of the site should not exceed the
imperviousness factor as prescribed by the National
Building Code of India, Bureau of Indian Standards,
2005; Part 9 (Plumbing services) Section 5.5.11.2.1.
2. Implement vegetated roofs, pervious paving and other
measures to minimise impervious surface on site. The
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
most effective method to minimise storm water run off
volume is to reduce the amount of impervious area. By
reducing impervious area, storm water infrastructure
can be minimised or deleted from the project. (Source:
LEED Reference Guide version 2.2).
Some of the strategies to mitigate impervious surfaces
are:
• Smaller building footprint.
• Pervious paving
• Underground parking, as pervious paving systems
usually have a limit on transportation loads.
• Green roofs
• Bioswales/vegetated filter strips
• Retention ponds
• Clustering the development together to reduce the
paved surface required for roads and sidewalks.
Implement a storm water management plan that
prevents the post development peak discharge quantity
from exceeding the pre-development peak discharge
quantity.
Implement a storm water management plan that
protects the drains and receiving channels from eroded
soil.
Storm water run off outside the site could be
significantly reduced by reuse storm water volumes
generated for non-potable applications such as
landscape irrigation, toilet and urinal flushing. Storm
water capture and rain water harvesting guidelines are
provided in section 2.8.
Reduction in the generation of storm water volumes
would help maintain aquifer recharge cycle and in
addition storm water volumes would not have to be
conveyed to the receiving waters by the municipality,
which reduces the load on municipality drainage
system, and receiving waters are not impacted.
Best Management Practices employed to capture and or
treat storm water run off.
1.6 Health and well being of construction workers
The objective is to ensure health and safety of the workers
during construction, with effective provisions for the basic
facilities of sanitation, drinking water, safety of equipments or
machinery etc.
Following are the recommendations to be followed:
1. Comply with the safety procedures, norms and
guidelines (as applicable) as outlined in the document
Part 7 _Constructional practices and safety, 2005,
National Building code of India, Bureau of Indian
Standards
2. Provide clean drinking water to all workers
3. Provide adequate number of decentralized latrines and
urinals to construction workers.
4. Guarding all parts of dangerous machinery.
5. Precautions for working on machinery.
6. Maintaining hoists and lifts, lifting machines, chains,
ropes, and other lifting tackles in good condition.
7. Durable and reusable formwork systems to replace
timber formwork and ensure that formwork where used
is properly maintained.
8. Ensuring that walking surfaces or boards at height are
of sound construction and are provided with safety rails
or belts.
9. Provide protective equipment; helmets etc.
10. Provide measures to prevent fires. Fire extinguishers
and buckets of sand to be provided in the fire-prone
area and elsewhere.
11. Provide sufficient and suitable light for working during
nighttime.
12. Dangers, health hazards, and measures to protect
workers from materials of construction, transportation,
storage etc.
13. Safety policies of the construction
firm/division/company.
1.7 Conclusive remarks
The aim and advantage of comprehensive and careful site
assessment is to enable developers to optimize site’s potential.
Optimum use of identified natural climatic parameters existing
on site could reduce the dependence of building on artificial
forms of lighting, heating, cooling and ventilation and would
also significantly contribute to the preservation of nonrenewable resources. Appropriate and careful site analysis and
site assessment would help in protection of ecologically
sensitive areas and would reduce the damage of natural
ecosystem on proposed site to the minimum.
Reference
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
National building Code, 2005
Central Pollution Control Board standards
The Sustainable Design Handbook, China
TERI–Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment
Soil plant water analysis : a methods manual, IARI, New
Delhi
6. www.moef.nic.in
7. http://envfor.nic.in/cpcb/aaq/aaq_std.htm
8. www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/chap03_conguide
CHAPTER
2 Water management
2.0 Introduction
In India, there is a growing demand on the existing water
resources, which includes the river water sources, precipitation
and ground water sources. Estimates reveal that by 2020,
India's demand for water will exceed all sources of supply. It is
projected that India would fall into the water-stressed category
by 2025. Per capita water consumption in 1990 was 2,464 m3
per capita per annum, but by 2025 with an expected population
of 1.4 billion, it will almost certainly be in the stress category
with less than 1,700 m3 per capita per annum. The demand
supply gap by 2050 shall be about 50 billion m3 which translates
into nearly 0.3 billion individuals foregoing water (assuming a
per capita requirement of 150 L/ day). In addition to the huge
gap in demand-supply, the distribution across various regions
and zones of cities is highly varied.
2.1 Issues of concern
Water is the most important component for any society and is
an important sustainable development indicator. The objective
of any planned development should be to provide and ensure
adequate, reliable and good quality potable water to its
inhabitants. Water use in a residential building includes the
demand for human consumption, cleaning, washing, flushing
and gardening. The proportion of water use for various
applications is shown in Figure 2. 1. For the commercial and
institutional buildings, the additional demand include those for
the utilities such as air conditioning, fire protection etc. It is
important that any sustainable urban development project
should integrate the sustainable and environment friendly
water management plan at the design stage
Gardening and
others
20%
Human
consumption
Bathing
7%
13%
Washing
30%
Human consumption
Bathing
Flushing
30%
Flushing
Figure 2.1: Water use in buildings
Washing
Gardening and others
2.2 Scope of the section
Water management includes various aspects such as water
conservation, wastewater treatment, rainwater harvesting,
reuse and recycling of water etc. The objective of this section of
the manual is to give guidelines to the developers and builders,
on various aspects of water management. This section covers
following issues:
1. Minimizing the demand of water required within
building, landscape, process (air-conditioning etc) and
construction.
2. Techniques, best practices and standards for recycling
of wastewater
3. Minimize the load on the municipal supply and
groundwater sources through recycling of water
4. Techniques for rainwater harvesting including
estimation of the potential of rainwater harvesting for
different region.
5. Measures for quality control of various water source
such as fresh water, underground water, municipal,
tankers, rainwater and recycled water.
2.3 Mitigation technology options
2.3.1 Water conservation within buildings
Minimizing the water demand within buildings is the first and
foremost step in water management. Water conservation helps
to ensure that this important resource will be available for many
generations to come. Conserving water also indirectly saves
energy, which is needed to process, treat, transport and in cases
of areas having cold climate to heat water. Hence to have the
maximum savings, optimal and economical use of water
through water conservation should be the priority of the new
constructions. In addition to technical measures such as use of
water efficient domestic appliances, there is a need to create
awareness and to educate people to address water leakage
problems through proper maintenance of fixtures.
2.3.1.1 Water usage within buildings.
In India, the average domestic water consumption is 4.1% of the
total water use. As per the Bureau of Indian Standards, the per
capita water requirement varies with building type.
As per BIS, for residential buildings with a population of
20,000-1,00,000, the per capita consumption is 100-150 lpcd
and for those with population above 1,00,000 , the
consumption is 150-200 lpcd. Out of the 150 to 200 litres per
head per day, 45 litres per head per day may be taken for
flushing requirements and the remaining quantity for other
domestic purposes.
For the other types of buildings, the water requirement varies
between 30 to 340 LPCD. The details of the water demand of
other buildings is given in Table 2.1.
Table 2.1: Water requirements for different types of buildings
Sl. No
Type of Buildng
Consumption
i)
Factories with bath rooms
45 per head
ii)
Factories without bath rooms
30 per head
iii)
Hospital (including laundry):
(litres/day)
a) Number of beds not exceeding 100
iv)
340 per head
b) Number of beds exceeding 100
450 per head
Nurses’ homes and medical quarters
135 per head
v)
Hostels
135 per head
vi)
Hotel (up to 4 star)
180 per head
vii)
Hotel (5 star and above)
320 per head
viii)
Offices
45 per head
ix)
Restaurants
70 per seat
x)
Cinemas, concert halls and theaters
15 per seat
xi)
Schools
a) Day schools
45 per head
b) Boarding schools
135 per head
In addition, water demand of visitors to these building is considered as 15 LPCD
Source: National Building Code, 2005
2.3.1.2 Quantification of water demand in buildings
For every new development/construction, the initial step should
be to assess the impact of the development on the available
water resource. The amount of water demand can be calculated
based on the occupancy of the building and the per capita
consumption as given by BIS for different categories.
Total quantity of water used= Occupancy x Quantity (LPCD)
2.3.1.3 Water saving practices and their potential
Water usage for applications such as flushing, bathing and
washing is as high as 93% of water demand in any building.
However, measures can be adopted to reduce this demand
through use of water efficient practices and devices (efficient
plumbing fixtures). These would result in significant saving of
water and contribute towards protection of the environment.
Some of the common practices and devices that can save water
are covered below:
1. Monitoring water use: Use of water meter conforming
to ISO standards should be installed at the inlet point of
water uptake and at the discharge point to monitor the
daily water consumption. This would also enable the
user to identify if there are any points of leakages.
2. Use of water saving devices/ fixtures: About 40% of all
water used indoors is in the bathroom and toilets and
more than 10% of that used is in the kitchen. The
conventional fixtures used in toilets use water at the rate
of 12-15 litres per flush. In normal scenario, the taps and
showerheads in buildings consume water at the rate of
20 litres of water per minute. The flow rates of these
fixtures depend on the pressure at which these are
operated. However there exists the opportunity to lower
the consumption through the use of following efficient
fixtures:
Low flow flushing systems: Water consumption is more
for flushing applications in any building. Use of more
efficient water saving toilets having dual flush system
can result in a saving of atleast 50% of water. Dual flush
systems can be installed in order to allow different
volume of water for flushing liquids and solids. To
facilitate efficient cleaning at low volume, it is possible
to install suitable water closets.
Sensor based fixtures: Sensors based fixtures functions
only in the presence of user. Various types of sensor
based technologies are magic eye sensor for urinals,
solenoid self-operating valves etc. Infrared and
ultrasonic sensors discharge a set amount of water only
when the taps are being used thus resulting in water
saving as compared to manually operated valves. In
addition to its advantage in reducing water
consumption, sensor-operated taps also result in better
hygiene particularly in a public place.
Urinals: By using automated flushing urinals usage of
water is very high. By replacing these with sensor-based
urinals such as magic eye sensor, the water use is
reduced to 0.4 litres per flush. In place of conventional
urinals, if the low flow urinals are used, water saving
amounts to 3 litres per flush.
Waterless urinals: Waterless urinals are an efficient
technique to save water. The system works without any
water but with the use of biodegradable liquid in the
cartridge fitted at the bottom of the urinal. Each
cartridge is adequate for 7000 uses.
Water taps: A normal tap works at a flow rate as high as
20 lpm. Use of low flow faucets along with other water
saving devices such as auto control valves, pressure
reducing devices, aerators and pressure inhibitors for
constant flow, magic eye solenoid valve, self operating
valves can result in 25 – 50% of water savings.
Showerheads: In a conventional shower, water is
delivered at the rate of 20 litres of water per minute at a
pressure of 60 psi. A significant reduction in water
consumption is possible through use of low flow shower
which results in a flow of 7.5 lpm at design pressure of
80 psi. Flow restrictors and temporary cut-off valves can
further save water. In addition to the use of low water
consuming fixtures, it is also possible to introduce other
features such as aerators, use of spray nozzles,
automatic shut-off nozzles and pressure reducing valves
along with these fixtures.
Tap aerators: Tap aerators can be effective by
facilitating cleaning through increasing the pressure at
which the water is delivered even at low flow rates.
Installation of flow regulators can be done where the
aerators cannot be installed.
Auto control valves: Automatic shut-off valves can be
used to control the flow of water for a preset time limit
and with use, which is linked to the release of the lever
or handle.
Pressure reducing device: The reducers can be used to
control the pressure in the water line, which will affect
the discharge rate and also to maintain uniform flow at
different levels. A pressure reduction device can be
installed when the pressure in the line exceeds 50-60
psi. It is observed that a reduction of pressure from 80
to 65 and 50 psi can result in a reduction of water flow
of 10% and 25%, respectively.
2.3.1.4 Other appliances
Water efficient washing machines
One of the most effective water saving mechanisms in clothes
washers is a horizontal- axis tub or drum. These kind of
machines can clean as many clothes as comparable vertical axis
or ‘agitator washers’, but with less water. Manufacturers
estimates of water saving obtainable with horizontal axis
washing machines range from one-third to one-half the water
and energy used by conventional, vertical axis machines. These
types of machines can be used in big hotels etc.
2.3.1.5 Dual pipe plumbing
Introduction of dual pipe in the buildings for use of water with
different water quality namely ground water with high
hardness, municipal supply water, treated soft water and
recycled water can result in optimal use of water for different
applications thus saving on the high quality water. Installation
of dual pipe plumbing for using recycled water / rain water can
save the potable water from municipal supply or ground water.
There can be two lines, one supplying fresh water for drinking,
cooking and bathing etc and other for supply of recycled water
for flushing, landscape irrigation, car washing, thermal
conditioning etc. This results in saving of more than one-third
of fresh water demand and life of existing sewerage can be
improved and also promotes decentralized treatment system.
This system needs space for establishment and initial
investment and retrofitting.
2.3.2 Water quality
In addition to providing adequate water supply for building
occupants, quality of water is also a key concern. Bureau of
Indian Standards has recommended a set of parameters, which
should be complied with. These are given in Table 2.2.
Table 2.2 Standards for drinking water
Parameter
Drinking water
Total hardness (as CaCO3) (mg/litre)
300
Total dissolved solids (mg/litre)
500
Chlorides as chlorine (mg/litre)
250
Colour (hazen)
5
Turbidity (NTU)
5
Alkalinity (mg/l)
200
Calcium (as Ca), mg/l
75
Boron (mg/litre)
1
Sulphates (as SO4)(mg/litre)
200
Nitrates (as NO3) (mg/litre)
45
Conductivity at 25o C (us/cm)
PH
6.5 – 8.5
Anionic detergents as MBAS (mg/l)
0.2
Arsenic (mg/litre)
0.05
Iron (mg/litre)
0.3
Fluorides (mg/litre)
1
Lead (mg/litre)
0.05
Copper (mg/litre)
0.05
Zinc (mg/litre)
5
Phenolic compounds (as C6H5OH) (mg/l)
0.001
Cyanide (mg/l)
0.05
Chromium (mg/l)
0.05
Source: IS: 10500:1991
Further as per the CPCB, water quality standards for different
classes of inland waters have been given for different
applications which should be followed. (Table 2.3)
Table 2.3 Water quality standards for freshwater classification
Characteristic
Designated use class of inland waters
A
B
C
D
E
Dissolved oxygen (mg/l), minimum
6
5
4
4
-
pH
6.5-8.5
6.5-8.5
6.5-8.5
6.5-8.5
6.5-8.5
Biochemical oxygen demand (5 days at 20oC), mg/l
2
3
3
-
-
Total coliform organisms, MPN/100 max.
50
500
5000
-
-
Colour Hazen units
10
300
300
-
-
Chlorides (as Cl), mg/l, maximum
250
-
600
-
600
Sodium absorption ratio, max
-
-
-
-
600
Boron(as B), mg/l Max
2
Sulphates (as SO4), mg/l
400
400
1000
Nitrates (as NO), mg/l max
20
50
-
Characteristic
Designated use class of inland waters
A
B
C
D
E
Free ammonia (as NH3), mg/l
1.2
-
Conductivity at 25oC microhm/cm max.
1000
2250
Arsenic (as AS), mg/l max.
0.05
Iron (as Fe), mg/l
0.3
0.2
Fluorides (as F), mg/l
1.5
Lead (as Pb), mg/l Max
0.1
0.1
Copper (as Cu), mg/l
1.5
1.5
Zinc (mg/l), max
1.5
1.5
Manganese (as Mn), mg/l
0.5
Total dissolved solids (mg/l)
500
Total Hardness (as CaCO3), mg/l
300
Magnesium (as Mg), mg/l
100
Chlorides (as Cl), mg/l
250
600
Cyanides (as CN), mg/l
0.05
0.05
1.5
0.2
-
50
-
1.5
-
1500
600
0.05
A-
Drinking water sources without conventional treatment but after disinfecting
B-
Outdoor Bathing (Organised)
C-
Drinking water source with conventional treatment followed by disinfecting
D-
Propagation of wildlife, fisheries
E-
Irrigation, industrial cooling
2.3.3 Water use reduction
To estimate the reduction in water use achieved by the building
by following the mitigation measures, use following steps:
Step 1: Estimate total water demand based on the occupancy
and type of building
Step 2: List various efficient fixtures and other measures
Step 3: Calculate demand reduction as compared to the BIS per
capita water consumption
Under normal conditions, water consumption per person for
flushing is 45 litres (9 litre/flush with 5 number of uses).
With efficient fixture (3 and 6 litre/flush), water use is 21 litre (3
litre/flush with 3 uses and 6 litre /flush with 2 uses).
Water use per person for washing with normal fixture with a
flow rate of 20 litres per minute is 40 litre (assuming use for 2
minutes), while with efficient fixture (flow rate of 7.5 lpm) is 15
litres.
Table 2.4 : Estimation of water use reduction
Category
Human
consumption
Bathing
Flushing
Washing
Miscellaneous
Total
Consumption
(lpcd)
7
Reduced
Consumption (lpcd)
7
20
45
40
23
135
20
21
15
23
86
Reduction
(%)
53%
62%
36%
2100
2.3.4 Water conservation in landscape
Landscape forms an important part of the building
environment. This is constituted by combination of vegetation,
paving and various other landscape features such as water
bodies. The vegetation includes lawns, shrubs, herbs and trees.
In general, the water demand for lawns and shrubs are higher
as compared to trees, which does not require or require less
water after establishment. In addition, native species also
require less water.
2.3.4.1
Estimation of water demand for landscape
The water requirement of the landscape can be estimated using
the following equation:
Water requirement (lpd ) = Canopy area ( sq.m) × Evapotranspiration rate (mpd ) × plantfactor × 1000
irrigationefficiency
1.
Monthly Evapotranspiration rate (ET0): The potential
evapotranspiration rate (PET) is the climate factor,
refers to the amount of water required by the plant for
healthy growth (depending on the climate).
Evapotranspiration rate determines the rate at which
plants lose water through evaporation. It is affected by
humidity and temperature at a given time. These rates
vary with the season and are different for different
months. The data is available with the Indian
Meteorological Department for different stations. The
data can be procured from Additional Director General
of Meteorology (Research), Shivajinagar, Pune – 411
005.
2. Canopy area is the area covered by shrubs, grass covers,
and for trees it is the plan view and is assumed as 25 sq.
m per tree.
3. The plant factors are categorized as
1 for evergreen fruit trees, small shrubs, lush ground
covers
0.7 for Newly planted native plants in semiarid and
arid regions; ornamental or shade trees and shrubs
native to more humid areas
0.4 for plants native to the areas
2.3.4.2 Measures for reducing water demand for landscape
The water consumption for the gardening depends on the type
of plant species and the plant factors. As the plant factor for
native species and trees is the minimum, one of the options to
reduce the water demand for gardening is to include more
native species and low water consuming species. Other options
include use of efficient fixtures for watering, following certain
best practices to minimise losses and optimise consumption.
1. Xeriscaping: Xeriscape is one of the efficient ways to reduce
water consumption through creative landscaping. This
involves plantation of dry plants and those plants, which can
live, once established, with little or no supplemental
watering. Some of these are also drought tolerant and can
survive even in areas with minimal rainfall. Annexure 1
gives the list of trees which requires minimum rainfall and
can survive without water after establishment. Some of the
palm trees such as Phoenix dactylifera, Yucca starlite and
groundcovers such as Asparagus sprengeri, which is
succulent, can be used as part of the landscape to conserve
water. Other species namely, Pandanus Dwarf, which is
xerophytic, and Bougainvillea which is a climber would also
help in water use minimization.
2. Native vegetation : Native vegetation is original to a
particular place, including trees, shrubs, and other plants.
These generally require less water and less maintenance. In
Annexure 2, list of species for various agro climatic regions
are given .
3. Efficient irrigation equipments
Drip irrigation : To save water, drip irrigation is an
efficient technique as it prevents loss of water due to
evaporation, run – off and percolation. Further, it
has a better control and facilitates uniform water
distribution. However, this system cannot be used
for lawns and ground covers but for non –native turf
and other non-xerophytic plants.
Sprinkler irrigation : Sprinkler irrigation system
requires a network of pipes and pumping system to
maintain sufficient pressure for uniform
distribution. It is best suited for areas with sandy
soils which have high infiltration rates. To prevent
water logging, the system should be designed in such
a way that infiltration rate exceeds the application
rate. Sprinklers which can produce fine sprays are
more efficient as compared to those that produce
large water droplets.
The efficiencies of irrigation systems differ widely. Further, to
improve the efficiency certain measures can be followed, which
includes use of a pressure regulator for pressures greater than
30 psi which will significantly reduce the loss during watering.
Efficiencies of different kinds of irrigation equipment are given
in table 2.5 below
Table 2.5 Efficiency of irrigation equipment
Irrigation system
Micro, drip
Micro, spray
Multiple sprinkler
Sprinkler, container nursery
Sprinkler, large guns
Seepage
Crown flood
Source : TERIGRIHA
Efficiency
85%
80%
75%
20%
70%
50%
50%
Efficient central systems
An auto irrigation system with programmed time schedule can
be installed for optimal use of water. To avoid over watering
particularly during the rainy season, a rain shut-off device and
soil moisture sensor should be used. It is also advisable to group
the plants based on their water needs to minimize water loss.
4. Fixed time schedule for watering : Time schedule for
watering of plants plays an important role in saving water.
Irrigation should be done during the coolest time of the day
(early mornings and evenings) to avoid loss due to
evaporation and wind drift. Also, the frequency of irrigation
should be reduced during the winters. Regular flushing of
the irrigation lines and other parts should be done. The
use of combination of mitigation options can result in
savings of water as indicated in Table 2.6 below. The table
indicates the reduction in water that is possible by stepwise
reduction in areas of high water consuming species. By
reducing the lawn area by 50% and replacing it with shrubs,
it is possible to achieve 32 % savings and by further
introducing native species to the level of 25%, further
increase in savings of 42% is achieved.
Table 2.6: Estimate of savings in water
Options
Savings in water
(%)
100% Lawn
50% lawn: 50% shrubs
32
50%lawn: 25%shrubs: 25%native
42
100% native
64
2.3.5 Water quality standards for irrigation
The BIS standards for irrigation is indicated in Table 2.7. It is
important to conform to the prescribed standards while using
water from various sources such as ground water, municipal
water, rain water or treated water.
Table 2.7: Standards for irrigation
Parameter
Irrigation
Total dissolved solids (mg/litre)
2100
Chlorides as chlorine (mg/litre)
500
Boron (mg/litre)
2
Sulphates (as SO4)(mg/litre)
1000
Conductivity at
pH
25o C
(us/cm)
2.25
6.0 – 8.0
2. 4 Water conservation in process (air-conditioning)
In industrial as well as commercial applications, cooling towers
are the largest consumer of potable water. Though there is
continuous re circulation of water in cooling towers, still there is
major loss associated with evaporation and drift losses.
However, proper operations and maintenance of cooling towers
can lead to significant savings in water consumption.
2. 4.1 Estimation of water demand
Water consumption in air conditioning :
W =12 × t × C , where
W = annual water consumption
t = Hours of operation { 2500 h per annum}
C= Capacity of plant (in TR)
Water consumption in evaporative cooling :
In Single stage system
W = R ×q× 1
, where
1000
W = annual water consumption
R = water consumption rate (12 litre/hr)
q = air quantity (in CFM)
In Double stage
W = R ×q× 1
, where
1000
W = annual water consumption
R = water consumption rate (16 litre/hr)
q = air quantity (in CFM
2. 4.2 Mitigation options
2.4.2.1 Measures for reducing water demand in evaporative
cooling process
In the conventional cooling system, water consumption is quite
high. Hence, alternative systems such as evaporative cooling
unit, which can result in, water saving upto 40% can be used to
replace the conventional system.
Evaporative cooling unit produces effective cooling by
combining the natural process of water evaporation with air. It
uses right combination of controlled air flow passage across
adequately designed wet surface to provide optimum efficiency.
Adopting a two stage system where the air is precooled
indirectly by circulating water in the first stage and the pre
cooled air is further cooled by water through direct contact in
place of single stage system would result in 20% savings of
water. It can be observed that although the water consumption
rate is higher for 2 stage, there is a net reduction in water
requirement due to the overall reduction in air quantity
2.4.3 Water quality standards for air- conditioning
Water with hardness less then 50 ppm of CaCO3 is
recommended for air-conditioning applications. Untreated
water if used in air – conditioning system can lead to scale
formation, corrosion and organic growth. Hence, it is essential
to analyse the supply source for various constituents including
dissolved solids.
Hardness in water is represented by calcium and magnesium
salts, which may also include aluminium, iron, manganese, zinc
etc. Temporary hardness is attributed to carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium and / or magnesium expressed in parts
per million (ppm) as CaCO3. The permanent hardness is due to
sulphates, chloride, nitrites of calcium and / or magnesium
expressed in ppm as CaCO3.
Temporary hardness is primarily responsible for scale
formation, which results in poor heat transfer resulting in
increased cost of energy for refrigeration and air conditioning.
Permanent hardness (non-carbonate) is not a critical factor in
water conditioning due to its solubility. In many cases, water
may contain as much as 1 200 ppm of non-carbonate hardness
and not deposit a calcium sulphate scale.
A chemical analysis of water sample should provide number of
total dissolved solids (TDS) in parts per million (ppm) as also
composition of each of the salts in parts per million. Also, water
with pH less than 5 is quite acidic and corrosive to ordinary
metals and needs to be treated.
(Source: National Building Code 2005)
2.5 Water use during construction
2.5.1 Parameters for water quality
Water used shall be clean and reasonably free from injurious
quantities of deleterious materials such as oils, acids, alkalis,
salts and microbial growth. Generally, potable water shall be
used. Where water can be shown to contain any sugar or an
excess of acid, alkali or salt, that water should not be used. As a
guide, the following concentrations may be taken to represent
the maximum permissible limits of deleterious materials in
water.
1. Limits of acidity: To neutralize 200 ml sample of water,
it should not require more than 2 ml of 0.1 N caustic
soda solution.
2. Limits of Alkalinities: To neutralize 200 ml sample of
water it should not require more than 0.1 ml of 0.1 N
hydrochloric acid.
3. Percentage of solids should not exceed:
Organic . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 ppm (0.02%)
Inorganic . . . . . . . . . . . 3000 ppm (0.30%)
Sulphates . . . . . . . . . . . 500 ppm (0.05%)
Alkali chlorides. . . . . . . . 1000 ppm (0.1%)
During the construction process, it is necessary to use pure
drinking water to prepare lightweight concrete. (Refer table 2.2,
standards for drinking water). In the absence of pure water, the
sea water may be used with hydraulic lime and cement. It helps
in preventing too quick drying of the mortar. However, it is not
advisable to use sea water in making pure lime mortar or surkhi
mortar because it will lead to efflorescence.
Source : CPWD manual
2.5.2 Measures for reducing water demand during construction
To avoid wastage of curing water, following guidelines are to be
followed:
1. Curing water should be sprayed on concrete structures;
free flow of water should not be allowed for curing.
2. After liberal curing on the first day, all concrete
structures should be painted with curing chemical to
save water. This will stop daily water curing hence save
water.
3. Concrete structures should be covered with thick
cloth/gunny bags and then water should be sprayed on
them. This would avoid water rebound and will ensure
sustained and complete curing.
4. Ponds should be made using cement and sand mortar to
avoid water flowing away from the flat surface while
curing.
5. Water ponding should be done on all sunken slabs, this
would also highlight the importance of having an
impervious formwork.
Source: TERI GRIHA
2.6 Waste water generation
2.6.1 Introduction
Every building generates wastewater amounting to almost 80%
of total water consumed. The major source of wastewater
includes the grey water from kitchens, bathrooms and black
water from toilets. To maintain the surrounding environment
and to reduce the demand on potable water by providing
secondary and tertiary treated water, it is important for every
new construction to ensure treatment of the wastewater
generated from the building through centralized or
decentralized systems.
2.6.2 Issues of concern
There is lack of proper drainage systems in case of new
developments in certain cities. In some of the cities, the existing
sewerage and the centralized sewerage treatment plant is not
adequate to cater to the additional load of the new development.
2.6.3 Estimation of waste water generated
Waste water generated = 80% of water used (For water
demand, refer to table 2.1)
2.6.4 Mitigation options
2.6.4.1 Measures for reducing waste water generation
Waste water generated can be reduced through water use
reduction by using efficient plumbing fixtures. {Refer section
2.3.1.3 to see the description for efficient plumbing fixtures.}
2.6.4.2 Treatment techniques
Waste water which includes both black water from toilets and
grey water from bathrooms and kitchens, washings can be
suitably treated and reused for non potable applications such as
irrigation, flushing etc. Different treatment techniques can be
adopted depending on the land availability, quantity and
characteristics of the wastewater. Treatment plants normally
used for building sewage are based on biological processes. In
addition, artificial wetlands or reed bed systems for waste water
treatment based on the use of deep – rooted plants can also be
used at decentralized level.
1. Aerobic treatment systems: These processes are based
on the biological conversion of organic contaminants in
the wastewater in the presence of oxygen; carbon
dioxide is given off and sludge produced leaving the
water relatively clean. The wastewater is generally
pretreated by passing it through a settling chamber
before aeration; the system could be based on either
suspended growth or attached growth.
Advantages:
Complete treatment of the wastewater
Used as the final polishing step before discharge of
wastewater
Disadvantages:
High Land requirement
High Energy required for operation of the treatment
plant
Figure 2.2 : Aerobic design
2. Anaerobic treatment systems: These systems are also
based on the degradation of pollutants in the
wastewater by microorganisms but reactions occur in
the absence of oxygen. Conventional digesters such as
sludge and anaerobic CSTR (continuous stirred tank
reactors) have been used in India for many decades in
sewage treatment plants for stabilizing activated sludge
and sewage solids. Presently, high rate biomethanation
systems based on the concept of sludge immobilization
techniques (UASB, fixed films, etc.) is also being
considered. In the case of upflow anaerobic sludge
blanket (UASB) reactors, the treatment efficiencies are
high even for a very short retention time. This is being
used for treatment of domestic wastewater for small
towns. An advantage with this type of reactor is the
generation of useful by products – high calorific value
fuel biogas and digested sludge that can be used as
manure.
Advantages
Lower energy requirement combined with the
production of biogas
Low nutrient requirement
High degree of waste stabilization
Handling high organic loading rates
Lower production of excess sludge, which in
addition, is well-stabilized and therefore easier to
dispose.
Easier preservation of well-adapted sludge which
can be kept unfed for a period of more than one year
without any deterioration.
Disadvantages
Requires skilled operation
Capital cost is high
3. Root zone treatment system: The system is suitable for
the treatment of wastewater from various sources
containing biodegradable compounds. The process was
developed in 1970 by Dr Reinhold Kickuth of Germany.
The system is most suited to decentralized wastewater
treatment in small colonies, hotels, etc. It is based on
the principle of attached growth biological reactors
similar to conventional trickling filters with a
combination of aerobic and anaerobic zones. The
contaminants present in the wastewater are treated as
they seep through the root-zone of the plants by a
combination of plants, soil, bacteria and hydraulic flow
systems resulting in physical, chemical, and
microbiological processes. Oxygen present in the zones
facilitates the degradation of wastewater. A wide variety
of micro organisms present in the root-zone of the
plants result in efficient removal. There is efficient
reduction of pathogens also by percolation through the
bed material.
Advantages
Low capital costs
Low operating and maintenance costs
No chemicals required for the treatment process
Absence of byproducts requiring treatment
Technical expertise for the operation not required
Effective treatment resulting in tertiary standards
Disadvantages:
High land requirement
2.6.2.4
DEWATS
DEWATS stands for “Decentralized Wastewater Treatment
Systems”. DEWATS system consists of four basic technical
treatment modules, namely,
1. Primary treatment: sedimentation and floatation
2. Secondary anaerobic treatment in fixed-bed reactors:
baffled upstream reactors or anaerobic filters
3. Tertiary aerobic treatment in sub-surface flow filters
4. Tertiary aerobic treatment in polishing ponds
Advantages
1. Low maintenance without technical energy inputs
2. Affordable prices due to locally available materials
3. Flexible treatment capacity ranging between 1- 1000 m3
per day.
4. Reliable, long lasting and tolerant towards inflow
fluctuation.
DEWATS applications are designed and dimensioned in such a
way that treated water meets requirements stipulated in
environmental laws and regulations.
Figure 2. 3 Dewats modules for wastewater treatment:
1. Settler 2. Anaerobic Baffled Reactor 3. Anaerobic Filter 4. Planted Gravel Filter
Source: BORDA-net.org
2.6.2.5 Soil Biotechnology (SBT)
Soil Biotechnology (SBT) process for organic waste (solid and
liquid) processing developed at Chemical Engineering
Department IIT Bombay has the necessary features of green
technology that are cost effective, energy efficient and is
available to the users at the scales required. The intellectual
property rights of the technology are covered under Indian and
US Patent.
The science, technology and performance features of SBT are
outlined below.
Process Description & Design :
A typical SBT plant consists of impermeable floor (PCC or
HDPE membrane depending upon the terrain) & containment
with suitable water proofing (UCR/RCC walls), raw water tank,
filtered water tanks, bioreactor containing suitable media,
culture and bio indicator plants required for the wastewater
renovation.
The bioreactor is constructed over the impervious floor. It
consists of soil bays containing media, which is cultured and
planted with select bio-indicators. Plant operation is set to
achieve the required level of purification. Plant operation
involves pumping the raw water into the soil bays, sprinkling
specified additives and maintaining the bio-indicators and all
functions s prescribed and demonstrated during training. The
renovated water is to be pumped via suitable distribution
system for gardening.
Figure 2.4 Flow Diagram for Liquid Waste (Sewage/Effluent) treatment by SBT
2.6.2.6 INDION Membrane Bio - Reactor
INDION Membrane Bio – Reactor is among the latest
technologies in bio-chemical treatment. It is designed to
produce high quality treated water from wastewater with
highest possible contaminant reduction without using any
chemicals.
The characteristics of the INDION MBR process is the use of
revolutionary submerged micro and ultra filtration membranes
in the biological process water tank, to produce high quality
permeate from domestic sewage, primary and secondary
wastewater, cooling tower blow down etc. The submerged
membranes used in the biological process water tank totally
removes suspended sludge from the activated sludge liquid and
long term stable MBR operation is achieved with high permeate
flow rates.
MBR can be applied in housing complexes, townships,
hotels, golf and country clubs, industrial estates and existing
plant upgradation.
Figure 2.5: Typical treatment scheme
Advantages
1. Low energy consumption (0.30 kwh/m3) for filtration.
2. Upto 99.9999% removal of total coliform
3. Compact, requires ½ to 1/3 space over a conventional
system.
4. Modular in construction and design
2. 6.2.7
INDION Package sewerage treatment plant
It is unique combination of lamella plate clarification and
results in a ready to operate, prefabricated solution of
outstanding performance and efficiency.
Treatment process
Primary settlement
Aerobic treatment
Final settlement
Primary settlement: Sewage initially enters the primary
settlement tank. The tank incorporates lamella parallel plates,
which aid in reducing the suspended solids by 75% and the BOD
by 25%. This zone is relatively maintenance free and contains
no moving mechanical or electrical devices.
Aerobic treatment: The effluent then enters the aerator biozone, which is a combined fixed film reactor, and active aeration
system is mounted on a horizontal shaft. The aerator provides a
solid surface area for microorganisms to attach themselves;
these then feed on the organic matter present in the effluent.
The rotation of the drum creates an aeration of the liquid. The
bio-zone is self-cleansing and does not require extraneous
pumping or sludge return.
Final Settlement: The treated effluent then moves to a
settlement area. This area contains a lamella parallel plate
assembly for settling finer particles. The submersible pump
removes sludge to a sludge storage compartment on a regular
time basis.
Figure 2.6 : Packaged Treatment Plant
2.6..2.8 Akar Wastewater treatment plants
AKAR range of ADBR (Akar Dynamic Bio-Reactor System) is a
dynamic bio-reactor waste water treatment packaged plants of
different capacities from 10 KLD to 1000 KLD. ADBR systems
works fast that the process reaction time reduces by more than
35%. This helps in saving space by more than 35% and saving in
energy consumption by almost 35%.
Advantages:
1. No time is needed in erecting and commissioning the
system and this system is ready to use.
2. These systems are mounted on skids therefore easily
transportable and are compact. Hence it requires no
excavation, no major concrete work, no major onsite
fabrication and pipe / fittings.
2.6.3 Standards for disposal of waste water
Maximum permissible limits (mg/litre) for effluent discharges
are given in Table 2.8.
Table 2. 8 Permissible limits for effluent disposal
Parameter
Into inland surface
Into public sewers
On land for irrigation
waters Indian
Indian Standards:
Indian Standards:
Standards:
3306 (1974)
3307 (1974)
2490 (1974)
pH
5.5.-9.0
5.5-9.0
5.5-9.0
Biological oxygen
30
350
100
250
-
-
demand (for five
days at 20oC)
Chemical oxygen
demand
Parameter
Into inland surface
Into public sewers
On land for irrigation
waters Indian
Indian Standards:
Indian Standards:
Standards:
3306 (1974)
3307 (1974)
2490 (1974)
Suspended solids
100
600
200
Total dissolved solids
2100
2100
2100
(inorganic)
Temperature (oC)
40
45
-
Oil and grease
10
20
10
Phenolic compounds
1
5
-
Cyanides
0.2
2
0.2
Sulphides
2
-
-
Fluorides
2
15
-
Total residual
1
-
-
Pesticides
-
-
-
chlorine
Arsenic
0.2
0.2
0.2
Cadmium
2
1
-
Chromium
0.1
2.0
-
(hexavalent)
Copper
3
3
-
Lead
0.1
1.0
-
Mercury
0.01
0.01
-
Nickel
3
3
-
Selenium
0.05
0.05
-
Zinc
5
15
-
Chlorides
1000
1000
600
Boron
2
2
2
Sulphates
1000
1000
1000
Sodium (9%)
-
60
60
Amoniacal nitrogen
50
50
-
materials
10-7
10-7
10-8
Alpha emitters (milli
10-6
10-6
10-7
Radioactive
curie/millitre)
Beta emitters (micro
curie/millitre)
Source : CPCB, 1998, Pollution Control Acts, Rules, and Notifications issued thereunder. Volume I,
pp. 311-312. New Delhi: Central Pollution Control Board, MoEF. 501 pp.
2.7 Construction wastewater management
Wastewater generated from the site during the construction
contains suspended materials, spillage and washings from the
various areas which can be hazardous and should not be mixed
with the sewage water or allowed to percolate into the ground. A
separate drainage should be provided for the construction
wastewater and collected in a separate basin. The water should
be discharged into the sewage drain after pre treatment
including filtration and removal of contaminants to the
standards prescribed for disposal.
2.8 Sanitation facilities for construction workers
Sewage generated from the areas occupied by the construction
labourers have to be directed into the existing sewage drain of
the area. In case of non availability of the sewer system, an
onsite decentralized treatment system has to be provided.
2.9 Rain water harvesting
2.9.1 Introduction
With burgeoning population and rising demands the pressure
on the existing water resources has grown many folds. Largescale construction and urban development projects catering to
the need of growing urbanization lead to land use modification
increasing exploitation of scarce water resources and
subsequent increase in generation of waste water discharges
and surface runoff. Rainwater harvesting is the age-old concept,
which holds immense potential in the current times in
controlling runoff and resulting water logging problems besides
assuring an alternative source of water and a supplement to
existing natural resources in a wide variety of circumstances.
2.9.2 Issues of concern
Despite having some clear advantages over other sources,
rainwater use has frequently been rejected on the grounds of its
limited capacity or due to water quality concerns. This is
unfortunate as in many cases some simple upgrading and the
integrated use of rainwater collection with other technologies is
all that is required to obtain a cost effective and reliable water
supply solution. (Gould, 1999)
Predictions regarding global warming could have a major
effect in significantly increasing water demand in many cities.
Increased climatic variability and the greater frequencies of
droughts and floods possible in many areas will also make the
role of rainwater harvesting systems even more important as
sources of supplementary, back-up, or emergency water supply.
This will particularly be the case in areas where increasing
pressure is put on existing water resources. (Gould, 1999)
At the same time, while rainwater harvesting can be done in
almost all environment and conditions, it is important that the
concept is not followed blindly but based on site-specific
scientific assessment. The amount of rainfall available varies
from region to region. There are several methods by which
rainwater can be stored, used and conserved. Each system
depends on the amount of precipitation, the period in which the
rainfall occurs in a year and the physical infrastructure, for
example the space available to store the water, etc. Two major
systems that are ideal for urban and semi-urban developed
areas are artificial ground water recharge, and roof top
rainwater harvesting (NBC, 2005).
The parameters to be considered for determining the
feasibility and design of an appropriate rainwater harvesting
system have been discussed in detail in the following sections.
2.9.3 Measures to be taken
2.9.3.1
At the planning stage
While planning for rainwater harvesting, site specific
assessment needs to be undertaken to ensure the techno- social
and economic feasibility of rainwater harvesting system. This is
necessary both for the type of structures planned and the
proposed use of the harvested rainwater. The need for rainwater
harvesting in an area may be broadly determined by:
1. The existing regulations and notifications (such as building
byelaws) to check whether rainwater harvesting is
mandatory for the area.
2. This must be further analysed in the light of site specific
needs as well, such as
Available sources and their sustainability both in
terms of surface water and ground water sources.
Existing or perceived water logging problem due to
low lying area and related issue of water borne
diseases.
Depleting/over-exploited groundwater aquifer or
areas having high rate of decline of groundwater
table
Poor quality groundwater/threat from salt intrusion
in case of coastal/island states
Problems of accessibility in hilly terrains. Even in
case of sufficient rainfall, most hill town face water
shortages due to lack of provisions for capturing the
runoff.
BOX 2.1: When not to do RWH
Using storage (Surface/ subsurface) structures
•
If the gap between rainy days is too large, it may be uneconomical to build storage to
•
Open surface storage structures may not be feasible in case of high rate of
cater to the dry period
evaporation
Using artificial recharge structures
In general, CGWB norm suggests not to do artificial recharge if water table is less than
8 m. However one must also look at trend & future development possibilities, which may
exert pressure on ground water resources and plan for recharge accordingly. In any case
water table must not be less than 4 m. to avoid any water logging and damage to structure.
(Refer State Ground Water Agency and Central Ground Water Board Data)
Artificial recharge is not recommended for aquifers with TDS levels higher than 4000
mg/L or high levels of chemical components such as Nitrate, Fluoride, Arsenic. (Refer
State Ground Water Agency and Central Ground Water Board Data). Existence of potential
contamination environments such as landfill sites, industries, cemeteries in vicinity also
need to be considered.
2.9.3.2 At implementation stage
Once the need for rainwater harvesting is established,
implementation of rainwater harvesting systems should be
carried out as follows:
1. Estimate total annual rainwater harvesting potential
using the following formula.
Total annual RWH potential (cubic metre) = Rainfall (m) x Area of
catchment (square metre) x Runoff coefficient x filter efficiency
Where,
Rainfall (m) : Annual average rainfall data for at least 10 years
is used here. This dataset is available from IMD & should be
taken for the nearest station with comparable conditions.
Annual average rainfall for some of the cities in India are given
below:
Delhi
= 611.0 mm = 0.61 m
Mumbai = 2,170 mm= 2.17 m
Chennai = 1200 mm =1.2 m
Cochin = 3099 mm =3 m
Darjeeling = 3200 mm = 3.2 m
Area of catchment : Roof Area (sq.m)= Width x Length of Roof.
In a sloping roof, only the section of the roof to be used for
collection is measured.
Run-Off coefficient : Runoff depends upon the area and type of
the catchment over which it falls as well as surface features. All
calculations relating to the performance of rainwater catchment
systems involve the use of runoff coefficient to account for
losses due to spillage, leakage, infiltration, catchment surface
wetting and evaporation, which will all contribute to reducing
the amount of runoff. (Runoff coefficient for any catchment is
the ratio of the volume of water that runs off a surface to the
volume of rainfall that falls on the surface). Run off coefficients
for some surfaces is given in table 2.8
Table 2.9
Runoff coefficients for different surfaces
Surface type
Runoff coefficient
Roofs conventional
0.70 to 0.80
Roofs inclined
0.85 to 0.95
Concrete/Kota Paving
0.60 to 0.70
Gravel
0.50 to 0.60
Brick Paving
0.75
Vegetation
1%–3%
0.20
3%–10%
> 10%
(more the vegetation cover – less the runoff coefficient)
Turf slopes
0.15
0.10
0%–1%
0.25
1%–3%
0.35
3%–10%
0.40
Surface type
Runoff coefficient
> 10%
0.45
Filter efficiency : The efficiency value shall depend on the type
of filter used. There are many filtration systems that can be
used. Example of some filter systems are given in section on:
“measures to ensure water quality”.
A reference table to estimate rainwater availability for a given
roof top area and rainfall is presented below. {Refer Annexure
2.3}
2. Prepare rainwater harvesting site plan with defined
catchments and identify location for siting the rainwater
harvesting structures.
This would include identification of abandoned bore wells/ dug
wells/ ponds, which can be used for the purpose after studying
the feasibility. For eg: Abandoned borewells / dugwells may be
used as artificial recharge structures after testing the intake
rate. Also see box 2.2 .
Box 2.2: Using existing site features for rainwater harvesting
Existing ponds/ tanks in the development sites hold immense potential for harvesting
surface run off. Traditionally these have been common water storage structures for meeting
demand for irrigation and cattle. Most ponds/ tanks may have their own catchments, which
can serve to arrest surface runoff from the new development if appropriate measures are
taken to conserve the natural catchment. These ponds in the modern context can be used
for fire fighting/ horticulture by integrating them in the landscaping.
Alternatively the existing ponds/ tanks, which are often damaged or silted, can be modified
to serve as recharge structures
While planning for ground water recharge structures in large
scale development projects, the following tools may be used to
identify appropriate location for the structures:
Satellite imagery : Satellite data of ground water maps is
available from various national agencies such as Space
Application Centre, Ahmedabad and NGRI, Hyderabad &
concerned State Departments.
Ultrasound seismo-resisitivity sub soil investigation method :
This technique is used to determine:
Location and profile of each aquifer (Commercial
availability, time & cost)
TDS Concentrations
Hardness characteristics
Other chemical parameters that are critical like
Nitrate, Fluoride, Arsenic, etc.
3. Design storage/recharge structures : Rainfall pattern and
quantity is the prime determinant of the type of structures to
be constructed for harvesting rainwater in a site. The
number of annual rainy days also influences the need and
design for rainwater harvesting. The fewer the annual rainy
days or longer the dry period, the more the need for
rainwater collection in a region. However, if the dry period is
too long, big storage tanks would be needed to store
rainwater. Hence in such regions, it is more feasible to use
rainwater to recharge groundwater aquifers rather than for
storage. The details of the structures are given in Sections
2.9.3.3 and 2.9.3.4.
4. Plan for overflow and drainage and use of the harvested
rainwater
5. Vetting of Designs by authorities concerned (if specified in
the existing regulation) or by hydrologist/hydrogeologist to
ensure aquifer safety and civil engineer/architect to ensure
structural safety.
6. Construction to be done by contractors trained and
approved by CGWB as per designs specified by CGWB of
India.
2.9.2.3 Artificial recharge structures
In urban areas with the rainfall limited during the monsoon
period ( usually from 15-90 days) rooftop rainwater cannot be
stored and used as mentioned above and is best used for
recharging the ground water ( NBC,2005). Artificial recharge to
ground water aims at augmentation of ground water
reservoir by modifying the natural movement of surface water
utilizing suitable civil construction techniques. The main
objectives achieved may be:
• Enhancement of the sustainable yield in areas where there is
over-development and depletion of the aquifers.
• Conservation and storage of excess surface water in the
aquifers
• Improve the quality of existing ground water through
dilution.
• Remove bacteriological and suspended impurities during
the surface water transition within the subsoil.
• Maintain the natural balance of the ground water and its
usage as the rainwater is a renewable supply source. A well
managed and controlled tapping of the aquifers will provide
constant, dependable and safe water supply. ( NBC, 2005)
The artificial recharge of ground water is normally
recommended in areas where:
• Ground water levels show a declining trend
• Substantial amount of aquifer has already been desaturated.
• Availability of ground water is inadequate in lean months.
• Salinity ingress is taking place.
• Large scale development is planned and the surface water
availability is limited.
Basic Requirement for Artificial Recharge :
In planning and designing the ground water recharge structures
following points should be taken into consideration:
1.
Annual rainfall (for estimating approx. rainwater
recharge per year, as demonstrated in section above).
2. Peak intensity and duration of each storm : For design
of recharge structure, hourly runoff i.e. maximum
hourly intensity occurring maximum number of time in
5- 10 years is used. (25-35 mm/ hour for Delhi/
Chandigarh/ Bhopal; 30-45 mm/ hr for Bombay/
Chennai/ Kolkatta)
(This dataset is available from IMD & should be taken for the nearest station
with comparable conditions. )
3. Type of soil and subsoil conditions and their
permeability factor : Infiltration rates of soil and
hydraulic conductivities of water transmission are
required to be considered while constructing recharge
systems. Infiltration capacity of different soils types are
carried out by State agriculture departments and/ or
land use survey organisations. This data/ information
together with maps showing infiltration rates is usually
available in their department reports published
periodically and are available with district agriculture
officer. At the district level, this information is available
in the departmental reports of the Central and State
ground water boards. Normally hydraulic conductivities
( K- values) of various soils in m/ day , which can serve
the purpose of assessing the final infiltration rates of
soils are given in table 2.10. These can be used in the
absence of measured values of soils under recharge. Kvalues however, must be measured for a particular site
for efficient results.
Table 2.10 Hydraulic conductivities of soil
S no.
Soils
K- values ( m/ day)
1
Clay surface
0.01-0.2
2
Deep clay
10-8- 10-2
3
Loam
0.1-10
4
Fine sand
1-5
5
Medium sand
5-20
6
Coarse sand
20-100
7
Gravel
100-1000
8
Sand and
5-100
layer
gravel
9
Clay, sand &
0.001-0.1
gravel
Source: MoWR, GoI, 2004, pg. 15, 84
The infiltration rates for various types of surface soils which
facilitate entry into vadose zone are given in table 2.11.
Table 2.11 Infiltration Rate of Different Texture (CM\Hour)
Coarse sand
:
2.00 – 2.50
Lateritic red sandy soil
:
1.50-2.00
Fine sand
:
1.30-2.00
Fine sandy loam
:
1.20
Silty loam
:
1.00
Clay loam
:
0.80
Clay
:
0.50
Table 2.12 Specific Yield of Different Formation
Yield (%)
Sand
:
10-30
Gravelly Sand (coarse sand)
:
15-30
Sand and Gravel
:
15-25
Sand stone coarse-grained
:
10-15
Sand stone fine–grained
:
5-15
Thick plastic clay
:
3-5
Weathered rock
:
2-5
Clay
:
1-10
Fractured and jointed rock
:
0.50-5
Table 2.13 Typical Porosities of soil
Soil Texture
Porosity
Sandstone
0.19
Sandy loam sub soil
0.36
Sandy loam plough layer
0.42
Clay loam subsoil
0.44
Recently ploughed clay loam
0.58
4. Hydrogeological studies : Detailed knowledge of
geological and hydrological features of the area is
necessary for adequately selecting the site and the type
of recharge structure. In particular, the features,
parameters and data to be considered are: geological
boundaries; hydraulic boundaries; inflow and outflow of
waters; storage capacity; porosity; hydraulic
conductivity; transmissivity; natural discharge of
springs; water resources available for recharge; natural
recharge; water balance; lithology; depth of the aquifer;
and tectonic boundaries. The aquifers best suited for
artificial recharge are those aquifers which absorb large
quantities of water and do not release them too quickly.
Theoretically this will imply that the vertical hydraulic
conductivity is high, while the horizontal hydraulic
conductivity is moderate. These two conditions are not
often encountered in nature.
(Source: Guide on Artificial recharge to ground water, Ministry of Water Resources, New Delhi 2000)
Data of existing borewells should also be collected to determine
the intake capacity of the recharge wells, which is generally 70%
to 80% of the yield of wells in the specified area. (Refer State
Ground Water Agency and Central Ground Water Board Data)
5. Location of recharge structures : The basic purpose of
artificial recharge of ground water is to restore supplies
from aquifers depleted due to excessive ground water
development. Some of the structures generally used are:
Recharge pits
Recharge trenches
Recharge shaft
Trench with recharge well
Shaft with recharge well
Recharge through abandoned hand pumps
Recharge through abandoned tube well
Recharge well
Injection well
Percolation tank
Check dam
Gabion bund
Sub-surface dyke
Roof top rain water harvesting
Recharge wells/ tidal regulators to arrest salinity
ingress in coastal aquifers
Design details of a few structures are described below.
Trench with recharge well
For recharging the shallow as well as deeper aquifers, lateral
trench of 1.5 to 3 m wide & 10 to 30 m long depending upon
availability of water with one or more bore wells may be
constructed. The lateral trench is back filled with boulders,
gravels and coarse sand.
Figure 2.7 Recharge well
Source: Central Ground Water Board
Shaft with recharge well
In case of aquifer depths greater than 20m or more, shaft of 2 to
5 m diameter and 3 to 5 m deep may be constructed depending
upon availability of runoff. Inside the shaft a recharge well of
100 to 300 mm diameter is constructed for recharging the
available water to the deeper aquifer. At the bottom of the shaft
a filter media is provided to avoid choking of the recharge well.
Figure 2.8 Recharge well shaft
Source: Central Ground Water Board
Abandoned tubewell
Abandoned tubewell may be used for recharging the shallow /
deep aquifers. These tube wells should be redeveloped before
use as recharge structure. Water should pass through filter
media before diverting it into recharge tube well.
Figure 2.9 Abandoned tubewell
Source: Central Ground Water Board
Checkdams
Check dams are constructed across small streams having gentle
slopes and are feasible both in hard rock and in alluvial
formations. The site selected for check dam should have
sufficient thickness of permeable bed or weathered formation to
facilitate recharge of stored water within short spell of time. The
water stored in these structures is mostly confined to stream
course. The height is kept at about 1 to 5 meters
Figure 2.10 : Check dams
Source: Central Ground Water Board
2.9.3.4 Roof top rainwater harvesting using (surface/
subsurface) Storage structures
In areas having rainfall of considerable intensity, spread over a
large period in a year with short dry spells rainwater harvesting
from roof tops is an ideal option for augmenting water supply.
Rainwater is essentially bacteriologically pure, free from organic
matter and soft in nature and hence can be an ideal solution for
areas where there is inadequate ground water supply and
surface water resources are either lacking or insignificant.
Himalayan region, North-eastern states, Andaman Nicobar,
Lakshadweep islands and southern parts of Kerala and Tamil
Nadu are the regions where rainwater can be usefully harvested
and stored in suitable storage tanks (surface / sub surface). The
water is collected through roof gutters and down take pipes.
In case of storage structures, the size of the tanks should ideally
be enough to supply sufficient water during the dry (non rainy)
period. Factors considered in design include demand, duration
of dry spell, catchment area available and rainfall. Assuming a
full tank at the beginning of the dry season (and knowing the
average length of the dry season and average water use) the
volume of the tank can be calculated by the following formula:
V
= ( T × N × Q ) + Et
Where,
V= volume of the tank (litres)
T= length of the dry season (days)
N= number of people using the tank
Q= consumption per capita per day ( litres)
Et= evaporation loss during dry period (which may be ignored
in case of closed storage tanks)
( MoRD, GoI, 2004)
The five main site conditions to be assessed in case of (surface/
subsurface) storage structures are:
• Availability of suitable catchments (Rooftops are usually
recommended as against surface catchments in this case as
quality control measures can be relatively easier to apply
and monitor).
• Foundation characteristics of soil near the house
• Location of trees
• Estimated runoff to be captured per unit of the catchment
• Availability and location of construction material (MoRD,
GoI, 2004)
Measures to ensure water quality
Rainwater is generally devoid of any impurities and can ensure
good quality water if certain precautions are taken. These
include :
• Catchments such as roofs should be accessible for regular
cleaning and ensuring no dead animals etc are present on
the surface.
• The roof should be made of non- toxic material, have
smooth, hard and dense surface which is less likely to be
damaged allowing release of material into the water. Roof
painting is no advisable since most paints contain toxic
substances and may peel off.
• All gutter ends must be fitted with a wire mesh screen and a
first flush device must be installed. Most of the debris
carried by the water from the rooftop like leaves, plastic bags
and paper pieces can be arrested by the mesh at the terrace
outlet and contamination can be prevented to a large extent
by ensuring that the runoff from the first 10-20 minutes of
rainfall is flushed off. Remaining contaminants like silt and
blow dirt can be removed by installing appropriate filters.
(Refer Annexure 2.3 on details of filtration systems”)
• No sewage or wastewater should be admitted into the
system.
• No wastewater from areas likely to have oil, grease, or other
pollutants should be connected to the system. For runoff
from parking lots and roads, grease filters etc may be
necessary to prevent risk of contamination from chemical
spillage.
Some specific measures with respect to artificial recharge
structures and storage tanks are listed below :
In case of artificial recharge structures,
• Each structure/ well should have an inlet chamber with a silt
trap to prevent any silt from finding its way into the sub soil
water.- The wells should be terminated at least 5 mt above
the natural static sub soil water at its highest level so that
the incoming flow passes through the natural ground
condition and prevents contamination hazards. ( NBC,
2005)
• It needs to be ensured that no recharge structure or a well is
used for drawing water for any purpose.
In case of surface / subsurface storage tanks,
• The location of the tank should be such that it is not exposed
to any hazard of water contamination from any other
sources.
• Appropriate measures for disinfection and maintaining
quality of the stored water such as chlorination must be
used. In case of chlorination, water shall be chlorinated
maintaining a residual chlorine of approximately 1mg/l.
• The tank must have an overflow leading to a natural water
course or to any additional tank or ground water recharge
structure. (Also see box 4)
• At the end of the dry season just before the onset of the rains,
the storage tank should be flushed of all sediments and
debris ( the tank should be re-filled afterwards with a few
centimetres of clean water to prevent cracking). Ensure
timely service (before the first rains are due) of all the tank
features, including replacement of all worn screens etc. It is
also advisable to monitor rainwater quality periodically to
check presence of air pollutants, which may be addressed
specifically if occurring at frequent intervals.
Box4: Integrating storage with ground water recharge in Germany
In Germany there is currently a growing interest in the promotion of rainwater collection
particularly at local government level. Due to serious industrial air pollution and strict
regulations regarding drinking water standards, household rainwater supplies are limited to
non-potable uses such as toilet flushing, clothes washing, and garden watering. In addition
to reducing overall domestic water demand, benefits from rainwater utilization include flood
control and reduced stormwater drainage capacity requirements. When used in conjunction
with a seepage well to return any overflow to the ground, the systems also enhance
groundwater recharge. Most storage tanks are constructed underground and recent
designs incorporate a porous ring at the top of the tank so when it is more than half full,
water seeps back into the ground. The main advantage of designing rainwater collection
systems in this way or in conjunction with seepage wells is that many German cities charge
householders an annual rainwater drainage fee, which is waived if rainwater runoff is
retained or returned to the ground allowing significant savings.
Source : Source: Gauld, 1999
Annexure 2.1 Drought Resistant Plants
Annual rainfall required
Drought resistance
Minimum
During Planting
Tree species
Common Name
Maximum
Mature Tree
Prosopis cineraria
Khejri
75
800
8
10
Capparis deciduas
Kiari , Caperbrush
100
1500
9
10
Tamarix aphylla
100
500
8
10
Acacia tortillas
100
1000
10
10
Zizyphus nummularia
Jungli Ber
125
2225
6
10
Prosopis juliflora
Kikar
150
750
10
10
Tecomella undulata
Rugtora/Wavy leafed Tufmella
150
500
8
10
Colophospermum mopane
150
800
8
10
Salvadora oleoides
180
1000
8
10
Acacia aneura
200
500
9
10
Parkinsonia aculeate
200
1000
8
10
Dichrostachys cineraria
200
700
8
10
Acacia holosericea
200
1500
8
9
8
Borassus flabellifera
Tar
?20
1000
6
Grewia tenax
Falsa
200
1000
5
7
Commiphora wightii
Guggal
225
500
7
10
250
1000
7
9
Eucalyptus
250
2000
7
8
250
1500
7
8
Acacia seyal
Eucalyptus camaldulensis
Hardwickia binnata
Pithecelobium dulce
?250
1250
6
7
Celtis australis
Jungle Jalebi
250
800
5
6
Acacia albida
300
1800
8
10
Albizia lebbek
Shirish
300
2500
8
8
Acacia nilotica
Babul
350
2000
8
9
350
750
7
9
Acacia ferruginea
Casuarina equisetifolia
Jhar
350
5000
7
8
Leucaena leucocephala
Subabul
350
2000
5
6
Melea azedirach
350
2000
6
7
Sesbania grandiflora
350
1200
5
6
Imli
350
1500
5
8
400
800
8
10
Mulberry
400
2000
6
10
400
850
7
8
8
Tamarindus indica
Wrightia Tinctoria
Morus indica/alba
Ailanthus excelsa
Dalbergia sissoo
Sheesham
400
4500
6
Anona squamosa
Custard Apple
400
2000
7
9
Emblica officinalis
Amla
400
2500
6
8
425
875
7
8
9
Anogeissus pendula
Acacia leucophaloea
450
1500
6
Azadirachta indica
Neem
450
1150
7
8
Diospyros melanoxylon
Tendu
450
1500
7
8
Ougeinia oojeinensis
450
1750
5
6
Commiphora caudata
500
850
7
10
500
2750
7
9
500
1500
7
7
Bauhinia variegata
Eucalyptus tereticornis
Kachnar
Tree species
Common Name
Pongamia Pinnata
Karanj
Casia siamea
Anacardium occidentale
Cashew
Holoptelia integrifolia
Annual rainfall required
Drought resistance
Minimum
Maximum
During Planting
Mature Tree
7
500
2500
7
500
700
6
7
500
3500
6
8
500
2000
7
8
Acacia catechu
Katha
500
2000
5
7
Boswellia serrata
Lobaw
500
1250
6
7
Butea monosperma
Palash
500
4500
6
6
Cassea fistula
Amaltas
500
3000
6
6
500
1000
6
7
Eastern Rosewood
500
5000
5
6
Albizia amara
Dalbergia latifolia
Erythrina Indica
Coral Tree
500
1500
5
6
Ficus bengalensis
Banyan
500
4000
6
7
Ficus religiosa
Peepal
500
5000
6
7
Santalum album
Sandal
500
1500
6
7
Syzgium cuminii
Clove
500
5000
5
5
500
3650
5
6
Mahua
550
1500
8
9
6
Terminalia alata
Madhuca latifolia
600
1800
6
Terminalia bellirica
Acacia auriculiformis
Harad
600
3000
5
6
Dendrocalamus strictus
Lathi Baans
750
5000
5
6
Moringa oleifera
Drumstick
750
2000
5
5
Terminalia arjuna
Arjun
750
1750
5
5
Annexure 2.2 : Native species for different agro-climatic zones
Central Highlands
Agro-climatic zone
Central Highlands (1)
Central Highlands (2)
Soil type
Red and black soils
Medium to dark black soils
Climatic condition
Sub-humid
Semi-arid
Shrubs with fragrant flowers
Lawsonia alba
Tabernaemontana coronaria
Nyctanthes arbortristis
Lawsonia alba
Thevetia neriifolia
Nyctanthes arbortristis
Mimusops elengi
Murraya exotica
Cestrum nocturnum
Thevetia neriifolia
Ornamental and flowering trees Cochlospermum gossypium Jacaranda mimosaefolia
Terminalia arjuna
Cochlospermum gossypium
Lagerstroemia flosreginae Terminalia arjuna
L. thorellii
Lagerstroemia flosreginae
Peltophorum inerme
L. thorellii
Butea frondosa
Peltophorum inerme
Bauhinia purpurea
Butea frondosa
B. tomentosa
Bauhinia purpurea
B. triandra
B. tomentosa
B. variegata
B. triandra
B. acuminata
B. variegata
B. corymbosa
B. acuminata
B. alba
B. corymbosa
Browne coccinia
B. alba
B. ariza
Browne coccinia
B. grandiceps
B. ariza
Cassia fistula
B. grandiceps
C. javanica
Cassia fistula
Caesalpinioideae nodosa
C. javanica
Poinciana elata
Caesalpinioideae nodosa
Pongamia glabra
Milletia ovalifolia
Hibiscus collinus
Poinciana elata
Kydia calycina
Pongamia glabra
Ficus bengalensis
Hibiscus collinus
Moringa oleifera
Kydia calycina
Madhuka latifolia
Ficus bengalensis
Pithecolobium dulce
Moringa oleifera
Mangifera indica
Madhuka latifolia
Bamboo sps
Pithecolobium dulce
Mangifera indica
Bamboo sps
Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
D
Deccan Plateau (3)
(4)
eccan Plateau (5)
Soil type
Red and black soils
Black soils
Red and black soils
Climatic condition
Arid
Semi-arid
Semi arid
Shrubs with fragrant
Tabernaemontana
Tabernaemontana Tabernaemontana
flowers
coronaria
coronaria
Agro-climatic zone
coronaria
Lawsonia alba
Nyctanthes arbortristis
Murraya exotica
Lam
Hiptage madablota
Hiptage
Nyctanthes
madablota
arbortristis
Nyctanthes
arbortristis
Gardenia florida
Gardenia florida
G.lucida
G.lucida
G. latifolia
G. latifolia
Ixora parviflora
Ixora parviflora
Gardenia resinifera
Gardenia
Anthocephalus
resinifera
cadamba
Anthocephalus
cadamba
Mimusops elengi
Mimusops elengi Murraya exotica
Murraya exotica
Cestrum nocturnum
Cestrum
nocturnum
Thevetia neriifolia
Thevetia neriifolia
Ornamental and flowering
trees
Terminalia arjuna
Plumeria acutifolia Plumeria acutifolia
Lagerstroemia flosreginae P. rubra
P. rubra
L. thorellii
P. alba
P. alba
Bauhinia purpurea
Bignonia crispa
Bignonia crispa
Jacaranda
Jacaranda
mimosaefolia
mimosaefolia
Spathodea
Spathodea
campanulata
campanulata
B. tomentosa
B. triandra
Millingtonia
B. variegata
hortensis
Millingtonia hortensis
Cochlospermum
Cochlospermum
B. acuminata
gossypium
gossypium
B. corymbosa
Cordia sebestena Cordia sebestena
B. alba
Terminalia arjuna Terminalia arjuna
Browne coccinia
Crataeva religiosa Crataeva religiosa
Lagerstroemia
Lagerstroemia
B. ariza
flosreginae
flosreginae
B. grandiceps
L. thorellii
L. thorellii
Enterolobium
Peltophorum ferrugineum saman
Enterolobium saman
Deccan Plateau
D
Agro-climatic zone
Deccan Plateau (3)
(4)
eccan Plateau (5)
Soil type
Red and black soils
Black soils
Red and black soils
Climatic condition
Arid
Semi-arid
Semi arid
Peltophorum
inerme
Peltophorum inerme
Pongamia glabra
Butea frondosa
Butea frondosa
Mangifera indica
Bauhinia purpurea Bauhinia purpurea
Bamboo sps
B. tomentosa
B. tomentosa
B. triandra
B. triandra
Poinciana elata
B. variegata
B. variegata
B. acuminata
B. acuminata
B. corymbosa
B. corymbosa
B. alba
B. alba
Browne coccinia
Browne coccinia
B. ariza
B. ariza
B. grandiceps
B. grandiceps
Cassia fistula
Cassia fistula
C. javanica
C. javanica
Caesalpinioideae Caesalpinioideae
nodosa
nodosa
Gliricidia maculata Gliricidia maculata
Milletia ovalifolia
Milletia ovalifolia
Enterolobium
saman
Enterolobium saman
Peltophorum
Peltophorum
ferrugineum
ferrugineum
Saraca indica
Saraca indica
Poinciana regia
Poinciana regia
Poinciana elata
Poinciana elata
Pongamia glabra Pongamia glabra
Pterocarpus
indicus
Pterocarpus indicus
Hibiscus collinus Hibiscus collinus
Kydia calycina
Kydia calycina
Thespesia
populnea
Thespesia populnea
Ficus bengalensis Ficus bengalensis
Moringa oleifera
Moringa oleifera
Madhuka latifolia Madhuka latifolia
Guaiacum
officinale
Sterculia foetida
Terminalia
catappa
Guaiacum officinale
Pithecolobium
dulce
Pithecolobium dulce
Mangifera indica Mangifera indica
Bamboo sps
Bamboo sps
Deccan Plateau
D
Agro-climatic zone
Deccan Plateau (3)
(4)
eccan Plateau (5)
Soil type
Red and black soils
Black soils
Red and black soils
Climatic condition
Arid
Semi-arid
Semi arid
Trees with ornamental
foliage
Polyalthia
Tamarindus indica
longifolia
Polyalthia longifolia
Putranjiva
Azadirachta indica
roxburghii
Putranjiva roxburghii
Tamarindus indica Tamarindus indica
Acacia
auriculiformis
Acacia auriculiformis
Azadirachta indica Azadirachta indica
Moringa
Moringa
plerygosperma
plerygosperma
Callistemon
Callistemon
lanceolatus
lanceolatus
Eucalyptus
citriodora
Shade trees
Eucalyptus citriodora
Tamarindus indica
Tamarindus indica Azadirachta indica
Azadirachta indica
Azadirachta indica Azadirachta indica
Mangifera indica Mangifera indica
Eastern Plains
Agro-climatic zone
Soil type
Eastern coastal plain (6) Eastern Plain (8) Eastern Plain (9)
Alluvium derived
Alluvium
soils
Red and yellow soils
Climatic condition
Sub-humid
Shrubs with fragrant flowers
Artabotrysodoratissimus
Subhumid
Perhumid-subhumid
Artabotrysodoratissi
mus
Hiptage madablota
Magnolia grandiflora
Ixora parviflora
Michelia champaca
Gardenia resinifera
Ixora parviflora
Anthocephalus
cadamba
Ornamental and flowering trees Plumeria acutifolia
P. rubra
Dillenia indica
Plumeria acutifolia
P. rubra
P. alba
P. alba
Bignonia crispa
Bignonia crispa
Jacaranda
mimosaefolia
Dillenia indica
Agro-climatic zone
Soil type
Eastern coastal plain (6) Eastern Plain (8) Eastern Plain (9)
Alluvium derived
Alluvium
soils
Red and yellow soils
Climatic condition
Sub-humid
Lagerstroemia
flosreginae
L. thorellii
Subhumid
Perhumid-subhumid
Millingtonia hortensis
Amherstia nobilis
Dillenia indica
Lagerstroemia
flosreginae
Enterolobium saman
L. thorellii
Cassia fistula
Amherstia nobilis
C. javanica
Enterolobium saman
Caesalpinioideae
nodosa
Butea frondosa
Gliricidia maculata
Cassia fistula
Enterolobium saman
Peltophorum
ferrugineum
C. javanica
Caesalpinioideae
nodosa
Saraca indica
Erythrina indica
Poinciana regia
E. Blakei
Pterocarpus indicus
E. crista-galli
Thespesia populnea
Mussaenda glabrata
Enterolobium saman
Peltophorum
ferrugineum
Casuarina equisitifolia
Saraca indica
Poinciana regia
Poinciana elata
Pongamia glabra
Kydia calycina
Chorisia speciosa
Thespesia populnea
Ficus bengalensis
Moringa oleifera
Madhuka latifolia
Sterculia foetida
Mesua ferra
Bamboo sps
Trees with ornamental foliage
Polyalthia longifolia
Sapium sebiferum Polyalthia longifolia
Putranjiva roxburghii
Grevillea robusta Putranjiva roxburghii
Casuarina equisitifolia
Azadirachta indica
Melia azedarach
Moringa
plerygosperma
Shade trees
Casuarina equisitifolia
Grevillea robusta Azadirachta indica
Melia azedarach
Eastern Plateau
Soil type
Red loamy soils
Eastern Plateau
(10)
Red and lateritic
soils
Climatic condition
Semi-arid
Sub-humid
Shrubs with fragrant flowers
Tabernaemontana
coronaria
Tabernaemontana Tabernaemontana
coronaria
coronaria
Hiptage madablota
Gardenia florida
Agro-climatic zone
Eastern Ghats Tamil
Nadu Uplands (7)
Eastern Plateau (11)
Red and yellow soils
Sub-humid
Lawsonia alba Lam
Nyctanthes arbortristis G.lucida
Gardenia florida
Gardenia florida
G. latifolia
G.lucida
G.lucida
Ixora parviflora
Anthocephalus
cadamba
G. latifolia
G. latifolia
Ixora parviflora
Gardenia resinifera
Anthocephalus
cadamba
Mimusops elengi
Mimusops elengi Thevetia neriifolia
Cestrum
nocturnum
Mimusops elengi
Murraya exotica
Cestrum nocturnum
Ornamental and flowering trees
P. rubra
Jacaranda
Plumeria acutifolia mimosaefolia
Cochlospermum
P. rubra
gossypium
P. alba
P. alba
Cordia sebestena
Bignonia crispa
Millingtonia hortensis
Bignonia crispa
Millingtonia
hortensis
Terminalia arjuna
Lagerstroemia
flosreginae
Cochlospermum
gossypium
Cochlospermum
gossypium
L. thorellii
Terminalia arjuna
Cordia sebestena Butea frondosa
Plumeria acutifolia
Crataeva religiosa
Terminalia arjuna Bauhinia purpurea
Dillenia indica
Lagerstroemia
flosreginae
Crataeva religiosa B. tomentosa
B. triandra
L. thorellii
Dillenia indica
Lagerstroemia
flosreginae
Enterolobium saman
L. thorellii
B. acuminata
Butea frondosa
Bauhinia purpurea
Amherstia nobilis B. corymbosa
Enterolobium
saman
B. alba
B. tomentosa
Butea frondosa
B. triandra
Bauhinia purpurea B. ariza
B. variegata
B. tomentosa
B. variegata
Browne coccinia
B. grandiceps
B. acuminata
B. triandra
Cassia fistula
B. corymbosa
B. variegata
B. alba
B. acuminata
C. javanica
Caesalpinioideae
nodosa
Browne coccinia
B. corymbosa
Saraca indica
B. ariza
B. alba
Poinciana regia
B. grandiceps
Browne coccinia
Pongamia glabra
Cassia fistula
B. ariza
Hibiscus collinus
C. javanica
Caesalpinioideae
nodosa
B. grandiceps
Kydia calycina
Cassia fistula
Thespesia populnea
Gliricidia maculata
C. javanica
Ficus bengalensis
Caesalpinioideae
nodosa
Moringa oleifera
Milletia ovalifolia
Enterolobium saman
Peltophorum
ferrugineum
Erythrina indica
Saraca indica
Poinciana elata
E. crista-galli
Enterolobium
saman
Peltophorum
ferrugineum
Pongamia glabra
Saraca indica
Poinciana regia
Madhuka latifolia
E. Blakei
Pterocarpus indicus
Poinciana elata
Hibiscus collinus
Pongamia glabra
Kydia calycina
Hibiscus collinus
Thespesia populnea
Kydia calycina
Moringa oleifera
Mussaenda glabrata
Chorisia speciosa
Thespesia
populnea
Madhuka latifolia
Ficus bengalensis
Sterculia foetida
Moringa oleifera
Guaiacum officinale
Madhuka latifolia
Casuarina equisitifolia
Sterculia foetida
Bamboo sps
Mangifera indica
Morus alba
Bamboo sps
Trees with ornamental foliage
Polyalthia longifolia
Putranjiva roxburghii
Tamarindus indica
Acacia auriculiformis
Azadirachta indica
Polyalthia
longifolia
Putranjiva
roxburghii
Putranjiva roxburghii
Tamarindus indica Tamarindus indica
Acacia
auriculiformis
Acacia auriculiformis
Azadirachta indica
Moringa
Moringa plerygosperma plerygosperma
Callistemon
Callistemon lanceolatus lanceolatus
Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus citriodora
citriodora
Shade trees
Polyalthia longifolia
Azadirachta indica
Melia azedarach
Moringa
plerygosperma
Eucalyptus citriodora
Tamarindus indica
Eugenia cuspidata Melia azedarach
Azadirachta indica
Tamarindus indica Tamarindus indica
Northern Region and North Eastern Hills
Northern Plain
Agro-climatic zone
North Eastern Hills (12) Northern Plain (13)
(14)
Alluvium derived
Soil type
Red and lateritic soils
Alluvium derived soils
soils
Climatic condition
Perhumid
Semi-arid
Sub-humid
Tabernaemontana
Tabernaemontana
Shrubs with fragrant
flowers
Artabotrysodoratissimus coronaria
coronaria
Lawsonia alba
Lam
Magnolia grandiflora
Hiptage madablota
Michelia champaca
Nyctanthes arbortristis grandiflora
Ixora parviflora
Gardenia florida
Gardenia florida
G.lucida
G.lucida
G. latifolia
G. latifolia
Ixora parviflora
Ixora parviflora
Magnolia
Anthocephalus
Anthocephalus
cadamba
cadamba
Mimusops elengi
Mimusops elengi
Murraya exotica
Murraya exotica
Citrus aurantium
Citrus aurantium
Cestrum nocturnum
Thevetia neriifolia
Ornamental and
flowering trees
Jacaranda
Plumeria acutifolia
Plumeria acutifolia
mimosaefolia
P. rubra
P. rubra
S. nilotica
Cochlospermum
P. alba
P. alba
gossypium
Jacaranda
mimosaefolia
Terminalia arjuna
flosreginae
S. nilotica
Crataeva religiosa
L. thorellii
Millingtonia hortensis
Dillenia indica
Lagerstroemia
Lagerstroemia
flosreginae
Cochlospermum
Amherstia nobilis
gossypium
L. thorellii
Enterolobium saman
Cordia sebestena
inerme
Cassia fistula
Terminalia arjuna
Cassia fistula
C. javanica
Crataeva religiosa
C. javanica
Caesalpinioideae
Lagerstroemia
Caesalpinioideae
nodosa
flosreginae
nodosa
Enterolobium saman
L. thorellii
Erythrina indica
Peltophorum inerme
E. Blakei
Peltophorum
Peltophorum
ferrugineum
Saraca indica
Butea frondosa
E. crista-galli
Poinciana regia
Bauhinia purpurea
Poinciana regia
Northern Plain
Agro-climatic zone
North Eastern Hills (12) Northern Plain (13)
(14)
Soil type
Red and lateritic soils
Alluvium derived soils
soils
Climatic condition
Perhumid
Semi-arid
Sub-humid
Mesua ferra
B. tomentosa
Poinciana elata
Bamboo sps
B. triandra
Pongamia pinnata
cadamba
B. variegata
Hibiscus collinus
Saraca indica
B. acuminata
Kydia calycina
B. corymbosa
Chorisia speciosa
Alluvium derived
Anthocephalus
B. alba
Ficus bengalensis
Browne coccinia
Moringa oleifera
B. ariza
Morus alba
B. grandiceps
Bamboo sps
Cassia fistula
C. javanica
Caesalpinioideae
nodosa
Erythrina indica
E. Blakei
E. crista-galli
Milletia ovalifolia
Poinciana regia
Poinciana elata
Pongamia pinnata
Hibiscus collinus
Kydia calycina
Thespesia populnea
Ficus bengalensis
Moringa oleifera
Dalbergia sissoo
Pithecolobium dulce
Morus alba
Bamboo sps
Trees with ornamental
foliage
Polyalthia
Delonix regia
Polyalthia longifolia
longifolia
Putranjiva
Anogeissus pendula
roxburghii
Putranjiva roxburghii
Tamarindus indica
Acacia
Tamarindus indica
auriculiformis
Acacia auriculiformis
Azadirachta indica
Moringa
Azadirachta indica
plerygosperma
Melia azedarach
Callistemon
Northern Plain
Agro-climatic zone
North Eastern Hills (12) Northern Plain (13)
(14)
Soil type
Red and lateritic soils
Alluvium derived soils
soils
Climatic condition
Perhumid
Semi-arid
Sub-humid
Alluvium derived
lanceolatus
Eucalyptus
Moringa plerygosperma citriodora
Callistemon lanceolatus Bamboo sps
Eucalyptus citriodora
Bamboo sps
Shade trees
Delonix regia
Diospyros embryopteris Eugenia cuspidata
Eugenia cuspidata
Ficus infectoria
Ficus infectoria
F. retusa
F. retusa
Dalbergia sissoo
Western Region
Western
Agro-climatic
zone
Western
Himalayas
Western Ghat (15) Himalayas (16)
(17)
Western Plain (18)
Red and laterite
Brown soils and
Shalow skeletol
Desert and saline
Soil type
soils
podzolic soils
soils
soils
Climatic
Perhumid to
condition
subhumid
Sub-humid
Arid
Arid
Shrubs with
fragrant
Artabotrysodoratis
flowers
simus
Lawsonia alba Lam
Hiptage
madablota
Thevetia neriifolia
Nyctanthes
arbortristis
Gardenia
resinifera
Murraya exotica
Ornamental
and flowering
trees
Plumeria acutifolia Salix spp
Salix spp
Tecomella undulata
P. rubra
Pinus spp
Peltophorum inerme
Pinusspp
P. alba
Cedrus deodara
Cedrus deodara
Butea frondosa
Bignonia crispa
Rhododendron
Rhododendron
Ficus bengalensis
Aurocaria
Spathodea
Abies
Pithecolobium dulce
Crataeva religiosa Abies
campanulata
Picea
Prosopis cineraria
Dillenia indica
Aurocaria
Acacia nilotica
Platanus
Acacia tortilis
Lagerstroemia
Picea
Western
Western
Agro-climatic
zone
Himalayas
Western Ghat (15) Himalayas (16)
(17)
Western Plain (18)
Red and laterite
Brown soils and
Shalow skeletol
Desert and saline
Soil type
soils
podzolic soils
soils
soils
Climatic
Perhumid to
condition
subhumid
Sub-humid
Arid
Arid
flosreginae
kashmeriana
[Chinar]
L. thorellii
Salvadora persica
Enterolobium
saman
Azadirachta indica
Bauhinia purpurea
B. tomentosa
B. triandra
B. variegata
B. acuminata
B. corymbosa
B. alba
Browne coccinia
B. ariza
B. grandiceps
Cassia fistula
C. javanica
Caesalpinioideae
nodosa
C. renigera
Gliricidia maculata
Enterolobium
saman
Peltophorum
ferrugineum
Poinciana regia
Pterocarpus
indicus
Kydia calycina
Thespesia
populnea
Mussaenda
glabrata
Madhuka latifolia
Sterculia foetida
Casuarina
equisitifolia
Bamboo sps
Trees with
ornamental
Polyalthia
foliage
longifolia
Sapium sebiferum
Anogeissus pendula
Western
Western
Agro-climatic
Himalayas
Western Ghat (15) Himalayas (16)
zone
(17)
Western Plain (18)
Red and laterite
Brown soils and
Shalow skeletol
Desert and saline
Soil type
soils
podzolic soils
soils
soils
Climatic
Perhumid to
condition
subhumid
Sub-humid
Arid
Arid
Putranjiva
roxburghii
Azadirachta indica
Moringa
plerygosperma
Eucalyptus citriodora
Bamboo sps
Annexure 2.3 : Rain water run-off for different roof top areas
Rain Fall
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
1800
1900
2000
in mm
Roof Top
Area
Harvested water from Roof Tops m3
m2
(80% of gross precipitation)
20
2
3
5
6
8
10
11
13
14
16
18
19
21
22
24
26
27
29
30
32
30
2
5
7
10
12
14
17
19
22
24
26
29
31
34
36
38
41
43
46
48
40
3
6
10
13
16
19
22
26
29
32
35
38
42
45
48
51
54
58
61
64
50
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40
44
48
52
56
60
64
68
72
76
80
60
5
10
14
19
24
29
34
38
43
48
53
58
62
67
72
77
82
86
91
96
70
6
11
17
22
28
34
39
45
50
56
62
67
73
78
84
90
95
101
106
112
80
6
13
19
26
32
38
45
51
58
64
70
77
83
90
96
102
109
115
122
128
90
7
14
22
29
36
43
50
58
65
72
79
86
94
101
108
115
125
134
144
154
100
8
16
24
32
40
48
56
64
72
80
88
96
104
112
120
128
136
144
152
160
110
9
18
26
35
44
53
62
70
79
88
97
106
114
123
132
141
150
158
167
176
120
10
19
29
38
48
58
67
77
86
96
106
115
125
134
144
154
163
173
182
192
130
10
21
31
42
52
62
73
83
94
104
114
125
135
146
156
166
177
187
198
208
140
11
22
34
45
56
67
78
90
101
112
123
134
146
157
168
179
190
202
213
224
150
12
24
36
48
60
72
84
96
108
120
132
144
156
168
180
192
204
216
228
240
200
16
32
48
64
80
96
112
128
144
160
176
192
208
224
240
256
272
288
304
320
250
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
320
340
360
380
400
300
24
48
72
96
120
144
168
192
216
240
264
288
312
336
360
384
408
432
456
480
400
32
64
96
128
160
192
224
256
288
320
352
384
416
448
480
512
544
576
608
640
500
40
80
120
160
200
240
280
320
360
400
440
480
520
560
600
640
680
720
760
800
1000
80
160
240
320
400
480
560
640
720
800
880
960
1040
1120
1200
1280
1360
1440
1520
1600
2000
160
320
480
640
800
960
1120
1280
1440
1600
1760
1920
2080
2240
2400
2560
2720
2880
3040
3200
3000
240
480
720
960
1200
1440
1680
1920
2160
2400
2640
2880
3120
3360
3600
3840
4080
4320
4560
4800
Annexure 2.4 : Details of filtration systems
The following section gives details of a few filtration systems,
which can be used during conveyance of harvested water before
it enters the storage tank or recharge structures:
1. Pop up filter
Popup Filter is a form of first flush device, which includes three
components namely rainwater receptor, flush valve, and filter
element. Rainwater receptor is where the rainwater is allowed
to flow from down pipes and a flush valve is provided to flush
the first flow of the rainwater along with leaves, dust etc. Water
received in the receptor flows upwards against gravity through a
filter element to filter most floating elements and allow water to
stabilize in this filtration zone. Rainwater passing through this
filter element (which is relatively cleaner), flows out through an
outlet, which can lead to storage device. Filter element is
mounted on a vertical stabilizer pipe with a friction fit. In the
normal course, rainwater gets filtered and flows through outlet
into the storage device. Filter element needs to be cleaned
periodically during the rainy season to remove the material and
to keep the filtration system clean. In the event where the filter
is not cleaned and the filter element is getting clogged, the
'PopUp Filter' has a built-in safety feature to push out the filter
element from the stabilizer pipe and allow the water to flow out
freely. This safety feature will avoid flooding of the rooftop
because of clogged filter. The first indication of the filter getting
clogged is rainwater flowing out of a vent hole provided on the
top of the filter element. These pop up filters are simple in
design and are very flexible to install in varying field conditions.
2. Sand bed filter
Sand Bed filter is a simple filtration system, which includes
layers of pebbles, aggregates and coarse riverbed sand laid one
over other in a confined masonry structure. Rainwater is
allowed on the top from one end and filtered water is drawn
from the other end.
3. Stabilization tank
Stabilisation tanks can be used to trap light and heavy
impurities with out having any filter media, especially in case of
large volumes of water. Rainwater is allowed to flow through a
series of small tanks and by providing an entry and exit for
water at strategic positions, impurities can be trapped in the
stabilization tanks for subsequent cleaning. Heavier impurities
will get trapped in the first two tanks as the water flows out at
the higher level. Lighter and floating impurities get trapped in
the third and fourth tanks as the water flows out at the bottom
or lower level. Periodic cleaning of these tanks is required to
remove the impurities.
(Source: KSCST, IIS, Amruthavarshini: A guide for rainwater harvesting, Bangalore2005)
4. Oil and grease filter
Rainwater Harvester, which filters runoff water from roads,
which generally contains oil and grease has been developed by
EA water Pvt. Ltd. This system has a sand filter, which filters silt
from runoff harvested from roof, lawns and parking area. The
cost of the filter is around Rs 60,000.
Source : www.eawater.com
Reference :
1. National Building Code of India, 2005
2. Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking water mission,
Technical document on Water harvesting and Artificial
recharge, Delhi, December 2004. (p.45)
3. Assessment of water supply options, contributing paper
on Rainwater harvesting submitted to the World
Commission on Dams, Gould John, 1999.
(http://www.dams.org/docs/kbase/contrib/opt163.pdf)
4. Shivakumar A.R, Amruthavarshini- A guide for
rainwater harvesting, Karnataka State Council for
Science & Technology, IIS, Bangalore, 2005
5. Central Ground Water Board publications
6. TERI–Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment
Chapter 3 Managing transport including noise and air
3.0 Introduction
Transportation and operation of construction machinery are
integral part of large construction projects. Any large
construction site is never an individual unit, but it is a part of
city’s system. Road layout affects the users and use patterns on
one hand and the operation of construction machinery affect
the people residing or working near the site on the other. Both
of these activities affect the environment. Right from the
commencement of the work, the transportation system and
construction activities have to interact with the existing system
of the city. This interaction with city’s system might be in terms
of resource consumption or in the form of power and energy
usage, transportation (materials and labour) or the
environmental impacts. It is required that these activities may
not disturb the balance of city’s system in terms of environment
and resource consumption.
Some of the factors are important and must be taken into the
consideration, while planning, i.e., these activities are generator
of noise and air pollution. There is a risk of surface erosion by
heavy traffic loads and operation of construction machinery as
well. Construction machinery due to its operation produces
smoke, dust and noise and vibration. To minimize these
negative impacts it is important to design a transportation
system with considerations for environment. The design and
operational mechanism of Transportation system should aim at
easy and fast movement. It should also aim at protection of the
site from noise and air pollution on one hand and encouraging
the use of non-motorized vehicular movement on the other.
This chapter deals with the management of transport and
construction activities for reduction of its negative impact on
environment.
3.1 Scope
The sources of noise and air pollution due to transportation and
construction activities can be classified under three heads.
Use of heavy machineries and vehicles during
construction and demolition
Use of transportation during building operation period
Operation of D.G. sets
Based over these three heads, the guideline for managing
transport (including noise and air) are divided into two parts,
first is the planning, i.e., pre-construction stage and second is
the construction stage.
3.2 Pre construction (Site Planning) Guidelines
A good transportation system is the one, which is safe for users
and facilitates direct, and easy pedestrian and bicycle
circulation between the residence and schools, shops, and work
places. The design, scale and development plan of
neighbourhood should suit such type of safe movement. There
should be coordination of land use decisions with existing and
planned public transportation services and the needs for nonmotorized access. The concerns pertaining to design of such
system and the mitigation options have been discussed below.
3.2.1 Concerns
3.2.1.1 Excessive uses of fuel
People tend to use motorized vehicle even for the short
distances because of shortage of time, and unsafe conditions
for bicycling. This leads excessive use of fuel.
3.2.1.2 Danger of accidents
The danger of accidents in residential areas is very obvious
when the roads are not designed properly. The road sections
designed without any consideration for footpaths and
bicycle tracks result in mixed traffic and accidents. Other
consequences of bad transportation system design are
traffic congestion and inconvenience to users.
3.2.1.3 Air and noise pollution
Air and noise pollution are the results of the inefficient
design of the engines in the vehicles and also the close
vicinity of heavy traffic. The short distances between roads
and buildings increase the effect of pollution on the
buildings and users.
3.2.2 Mitigation Options
Road design should be done with due consideration for
environment, and safety of users. Users here are the road users
and the people residing or working near the roads. Elements of
transport system altogether should create a controlled sense of
place, where the chances of accidents are minimized and
pollution could be reduced. Following measures should be
adopted for this.
Design with clusters layout instead of the linear development:
Clusters reduce the long lengths of road and also the vehicular
speeds. The parking spaces in cluster development can be
provided outside the cluster and building can be protected from
heavy vehicular circulation.
Creation of Calm transportation system: Create a transport
system where traffic will be calm in neighbourhoods and
provide a pedestrian and bicycle friendly travel environment.
Traffic in residential, school area, park and commercial areas
111
Managing transport including noise and air
can be restricted by regulation and even by the narrow road
widths in the campus premises.
Facilities of bicyclists and pedestrians: Construct pedestrian
and bicycle facilities with appropriate amenities (i.e. drinking
water fountains, benches, bicycle parking, etc.) to encourage
and support the use of bicycles. Bicycle tracks should be covered
or shadowed by tree canopy.
Promotion of public transport: Enhance High Capacity Transit
use through the provision of adequate access for pedestrians
and bicycles at bus stops, transit centres, park-and-ride lots and
transit stations. Parking spaces near bus stops must be a part of
the design. This will encourage the public mode of
transportation.
Promotion of use of less polluting vehicle engine: Promote the
use of the least polluting type of transportation.
Transportation system is dependent on a number of factors, like
design of the engine of the vehicles, traffic rules and regulations,
etc., but from construction and development point of view, the
above-mentioned mitigation options can be incorporated in
design in the form of following heads.
Hierarchy of roads.
Road geometry and traffic calming
Traffic Regulations
Entry and exit points
Parking norms
3.2.2.1 Hierarchy of roads
The road system should clearly identify the vehicular and
pedestrian circulation. The system should be such that the
pedestrian may have ease in moving in whole site in both
directions without walking on the major traffic streets.
Hierarchy in roads should be adopted to segregate the traffic
according to the size, frequency and density of traffic. Following
are the norms for the roads of different hierarchy.
Arterial road: These roads are meant for intra-urban through
traffic. These roads have no frontage access, no standing vehicle
and very little cross traffic and minimum roadway intersection
spacing 500 m.
Sub-Arterial Road: These Roads are meant for intra-urban
through traffic with frontage access, no standing vehicles having
high cross traffic, high capacity intersections and minimum
roadway intersection spacing 300 m.
Collector Street: These are the Streets for collecting and
distributing traffic from and to local streets and also for
providing access but no parked vehicles and having heavy cross
traffic and minimum roadway intersection traffic spacing 150 m.
Local Street: Street for access to residence, business or other
abutting property, having necessary parking and pedestrian
movement.
The Considerations given in Table 3.1 should be incorporated in
design to adopt the above-mentioned hierarchy.
Table 3.1: Design considerations for Roads of different Hierarchy
S. No,
Type of Road
Design Speed
Right of way
1
Arterial
80 kph
50-60m
2
Sub-arterial
60 kph
30-40 m
3
Collector street
50 kph
20– 30 m
4
Local Street
30 kph
10-20 m
S ou rc e UDPFI guidelines volume i august 1996
The Carriageway widths for the different lane widths will vary.
Minimum standard width for single lane road without kerbs
should be 3.5 m, for 2-lane without kerb road the carriageway
width should be 7.0 m and for 2-lane with kerbs it should be 7.5
m.
Following points should be considered for non-motorized
transportation for the cases where the motorized and nonmotorized traffic are together.
(i) Footpath/ Sidewalk
Footpaths must be given for safe and easy movement of
pedestrians along both the sides of roads. The footpaths should
be partly or fully shadowed by trees. Other considerations
include width and cross section, materials, lighting and shading,
removal of encroachment (hawkers), public toilets and drinking
water fountains.
Footpaths should be designed with consideration for restricting
hawkers. Some additional space should be provided for hawkers
and customers (which can be legally given to a hawkers with
nominal rent). Footpath should be made free from hawkers for
easy and safe pedestrian movement. The regulation for not
allowing hawkers 5shops should be made strict6. The space
standards for footpath have been given in Table 3.2.
Table 3.2 Space standards for footpath
Capacity (Persons)
Required width
All in one
In both
of footpath (m)
direction
directions
1220
800
1.5
2400
1600
2.0
3600
2400
2.5
4800
3200
3.0
6000
4000
4.0
Source: UDPFI Guidelines volume 1 August 1996
5 Although
traffic regulations and protection of vulnerable road users is not the part of duty
of a developer, but the design of site should be helpful to accommodate the same.
6 Non-Motorised vehicles in Ten Asian cities, (Washington DC, World Bank), 1995
113
Managing transport including noise and air
The width of sidewalk depends upon the expected pedestrian
flows and should be fixed with the help of guidelines given by
IRC in IRC: 103-19887.
Footpath design should meet with the requirements and
standards (guard rail, Gaps/ setback distances, crossings,
lighting) given in IRC: 103-19888.
(ii) Bicycle track
When the number of motor vehicles using the route is more
than 200 per hour, separate, cycle tracks may be justified even
if the cycle traffic is only 100 per hour. The space standards for
bicycle tracks have been given in Table 3.3. Bicycles and cycle
rickshaws’ movement should be made safe an comfortable by
providing separate tracks, with tough and uniform paving, and
easy gradients, and trees. According to IRC: 11-1962, separate
cycle track can be provided when the peak hour cycle traffic is
400 or more on routes with a traffic of 100 motor vehicles or
more but not more that 200 per hour. For further details of
design and layout of cycle tracks, IRC: 11-1962 should be
referred9.
Table 3.3: Space standards for bicycle tracks
Width of Cycle
(m)
Track
Capacity (Cycles/hr)
One way
Two Way
Two lanes
3
250-600
50-250
Three lanes
4
7600
250-600
Four lanes
5
>600
Source: UDPFI Guidelines volume 1 August 1996
(iii) Foot over Bridges and Subways
The foot over bridges and subways must be a part of footpath
design. These should have ramps and accelerators for
convenience of senior citizens and people with disability. Over
bridges must be provided with adequate vertical clearance as
stipulated in IRC: 86-1983.
Norms given in Section 8.4 and 8.5 of IRC: 103-1988, must be
followed for design and layout of subway.
3.2.2.2 Geometric Design Improvements for Road Safety
Geometric design of the roads must ensure safety. Some of the
crucial elements in geometric design are given below10.
Developers must design the system with the standards given
with the heading given below.
1. Horizontal alignment (refer section 10 of IRC: 86-1983)
7 IRC
: 103-1998
: 11-1962
9 IRC : 11-1962
10 Indian Road Congress Codes
8 IRC
2. Vertical alignment (refer section 11 of IRC: 86-1983)
3. Sight distance (refer section 9 of IRC: 86-1983)
4. Longitudinal section and Cross section (pavement width,
shoulder width and type, lane width), roadside design
(width, slopes and condition).
5. Medians (refer section 6.2.3 of IRC: 86-1983)
6. Design of intersections, turns and rotaries (refer IRC: 651976)
7. Blind corner design with rectified sight distances (refer
section 9 of IRC: 86-1983)
8. Reduction of vehicular damage by improving upon road
surface pavement (for this refer “Tentative Guidelines on the
provision of speed breakers for control of vehicular speeds
on the minor roads”, IRC: 99-1988)
Apart from this some general points should be considered, these
are:
Visibility over footpaths and Bicycle track: The landscaping
must be done in a way that its elements should not obstruct the
visibility as well the movement. Lighting must be adequate for
visibility during nighttimes.
Landscaping of street: Landscape plan must have
consideration for efficient functioning of the road system as well
as the physical and visual comfort and aesthetics. Green belt
should help to demarcate the automobile highway unite with the
one glance. Pedestrian promenade should be covered with shade
along the shops. Motorized vehicular lane (MV lanes) can be
provided with single or double-sided high foliage trees, which
permit the visibility. For pedestrians, a multiple row of trees
with very heavy deciduous foliage is required so that the sun
rays may pass through in winter. There must be some evergreen
trees also with dark and glistening foliage.
Vertical and Horizontal clearances of overhead electric
power and telecommunication lines11 - Minimum vertical
clearance for different categories of overhead conductor
installation should be as under:
for ordinary wires and lines carrying very low voltage up
to and including 110 volts, e.g., telecommunication
lines- 5.5 M
for electric power lines carrying voltage up to and
including 650 volts- 6M
for electrical power lines carrying voltage exceeding 650
volts-6.5 M
Guard cradle or screen should be provided for electrical power
lines carrying voltage exceeding 110 volts while crossing the
road. The cradle should extend desirably over the full right-ofway. However, guards may be omitted in the case of extra high
11
Notes from IRC : 32 - 1969
115
Managing transport including noise and air
voltage lines strung on self-supporting towers designed wit
adequate safety.
The standards for horizontal clearance laid down above shall
not apply to roads situated in hilly areas. In such areas the poles
should be erected preferably on the valley side, as far away from
the edge of the road as practicable.
Horizontal clearances in respect of poles erected for the
purpose of street lighting shall be as under:
For Roads with raised kerb : Minimum 300 mm from
the edge of the raised kerb; 600mm being preferable.
For roads without raised kerbs: At least 1.5 meter from
the edge of the carriageway, subject to minimum of 5.0
meter from the center line of the carriage way.
3.2.2.3 Traffic Calming
Traffic calming is a good measure to reduce the vehicular speed
and reducing the noise and air pollution and make the system
pedestrian and bicyclist friendly. Traffic calming improves the
transportation system in terms of visual comfort too. This
should be done by the use of physical fixtures such as speed
humps and traffic circles to control the speed and movement of
vehicles. These measures are effective on the roads passing
through universities, hospital zones, residential areas and
schools.
The tools of traffic calming are
1. Installation of speed humps by raising the surface of the
street in certain spots.
2. Narrowing the street to give drivers the feeling they are
in a crowded place, which will make them slow down
and totally or partially blocking half the entrance to a
side street so drivers cannot turn in but still can come
out.
3. Speed tables, build outs, etc.
The Regulations in traffic should be done by Traffic
regulation although is a managerial and operational
topic, still the considerations for this are required for
geometric design.
Enactment of laws is required for
1. Regulation of stopping, standing and parking of vehicles
2. Regulation of traffic by police officers or traffic control
devices
3. Regulation of speed
4. Designation of one-way streets, through streets and
truck rates
5. Establishment of turn prohibitions and non-passing
zones
6. Control of access and improving visibility
Enactment and enforcement of such regulations can enhance
urban road safety in a significant manner.
3.2.2.4 Entry and Exit point Design
The entry and exit points should be designed in such a way that
1. These should not disturb the existing traffic.
2. There should be adequate provision for parking.
Visitors parking should not disturb the traffic of
surrounding area.
3. Additional space should be left for the lanes as per the
design of existing road, surrounding the site.
4. Bell mouth or arrangement shown in figure 3.1 can be
adapted for the safe vehicular movement.
SIT
Figure 3.1: Entry and Exit Points
3.2.2.5 Parking requirements
Parking requirement is a function of the use pattern of vehicles.
The requirements will vary depending upon the type of the city.
The ownership of vehicles and use pattern in India is very
diverse, but the standards can be derived from some of the
sample cities, which are having different character in terms of
population. Area requirement for different types of vehicles is
given in Table 3.4. According to population size, the cities have
been classified into five categories, i.e., less than 50,000,
50,000 to 2,00,000, 2,00,000 to 10,00,00, 10,00,000 to
50,00,000, and above 50,00,000. Parking requirements have
been given for these five categories in Annexure 3.1
Table 3.4 Area requirements for different types of parking
Vehicle type
Area required for parking (m)
car
2.5x5
Clear height (m)
2.2
scooter cycle
3x1.4
2.2
trucks
3.75x10
4.75
Parking requirement for per Car space is as per the floor type.
Basement
35 sqm
Stilts
30 sqm
Open
25 sqm
Source: National Building Code of India
Based on Annexure 3.1, the parking requirement should be
calculated for the respective size of the city. This requirement
should be compared with the requirement as per the city norms
and then the greater one should be implied. For metropolitan
117
Managing transport including noise and air
cities, the norms given in Master plan of Delhi 2001 should be
followed as Delhi has maximum usage of cars.
Some special provisions should be done for parking and
vehicular operation on railway stations and bus terminals.
There should be reservation of 80 per cent site area for the
operation of transportation system and 20 per cent of site area
for buildings in Rail terminals, integrated passenger terminal,
metropolitan passenger terminals, bus terminals and depots,
inter-state bus terminals and metro yards for car parking.
The space standards for car parking should be followed as
specified in Table 3.5.
Table 3.5 Space standards for Car Parking
S.No.
Use Premise
Permissible Equivalent Car
Spaces (ECS) per 100 sq. m. of floor area
1
Residential
2.0
2
Commercial
3.0
3
Manufacturing
2
4
Government
1.8
5
Public and Semi Public facilities
2.0
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
In existing building having plot area of more than 2000
sq. m., extra ground coverage of 5% shall be permissible
for construction of automated multilevel parking to
provide dedicated parking structures for additional needs.
In all premises, parking on the above standards shall be
provided within the plot (where the provision exists).
Basement(s) up to the setback line maximum equivalent to
parking and services requirement, such as installation of
electrical and fire fighting equipments, and other services
required for the building with prior approval of the
concerned agencies, could not be permitted and not to be
counted in FAR. However, the area provided for services
should not exceed 30% of the basement area. The storage,
if provided in the basement, shall be counted in
permissible FAR except in the case of residential plotplotted housing and cluster housing.
The side of basement should not project out of the side of
the building. The basement(s) beyond the ground
coverage shall be kept flushed with the ground and shall
be ventilated with mechanical means of ventilation; and
Basement(s) shall be designed with due considerations for
structural and fire safety.
Parking charges should be increased to discourage the use
of cars in public spaces.
For Multilevel parking following norms must be followed.
Multilevel parking facility is to be preferably
developed in the designated parking spaces or in the
vacant area, with the following Development
control:
Minimum Plot Size 1000 sqm (However specific
proposal, which are technically feasible and viable,
could be considered on a cases by case basis for
smaller plots by the Authority)
In addition to the permissible parking spaces (ECS)
on max. FAR, 3 times additional space (ECS) has to
be provided for parking component only.
There is no limit for number of basements subject to
adequate safety measures.
3.3 Guidelines for reduction of pollution during construction and demolition
activities
3.3.1 Concerns
The mains concerns during demolition and construction
activities are the emissions generated by the vehicles and the
machineries. The main emissions are the dust, noise and the
vibrations, which have been discussed below.
3.3.1.1 Dust and emissions
The building material carrying vehicles as well as the
construction machinery generate emissions and pollute the
environment. Dusts include brick and silica dusts, wood dust
from joinery and other woodworking and from earthmoving and
other vehicle movements within the site. Asbestos-containing
dust especially during the demolition of buildings is very
harmful. It is a difficult task to separate these particles. In this
way, construction machineries pose a special threat to air
quality. They emit a toxic cocktail of nearly 40 carcinogenic
substances, and are major sources of fine particulate matter
(PM2.5, which lodges deeply in the human lung) and oxides of
nitrogen (NOx), a key ingredient in the formation of groundlevel ozone and urban smog.
Non-road engines as a class emit more fine particles than the
vehicles, trucks. Diesel particles pose the single greatest source
of cancer risk from air pollution due to construction machinery.
Non-road engines are more polluting than their highway
counterparts. Non-road engines remain in use for a very long
time, and work on traditional technologies. Since these are very
expensive machineries, it is very uneconomical to replace them
with machineries with the new machineries with moderate
technologies.
3.3.1.2 Noise pollution
Noise generation disturbs the community residing nearby
the site. The main sources of noise in the process of
construction and demolition activities are pulverizing,
cement concrete mixing, welding, aluminium channel
119
Managing transport including noise and air
folding, drilling and several other machineries. The noise
level of some of these machineries has been given in Table
3.6.
Table 3.6 Typical noise levels of some point sources12
Source
Air compressor
110 KVA diesel generator
Lathe Machine
Milling Machine
Oxy-acetylene cutting
Pulveriser
Riveting
Power operated portable saw
Steam Turbine (12,500 kW)
Pneumatic Chiseling
Trains
Trucks
Car horns
Jet takeoff
Noise Level
dB (A)
95-104
95
87
112
96
92
95
108
91
118
96
90-100
90-105
120
3.3.1.3 Excessive energy consumption and fuel usage
In the absence of good technologies the fuel usage is going on
increasing. The conventional diesel driven machines are huge
consumers of fuel and produce smoke as well.
3.3.1.4 Vibrations
Vibrations are caused due to heavy dumpers, DG sets,
machineries and bulk careers. These affect the forest,
vegetation, organisms as well as the structures on the site too.
There is a risk of hearing disorder in the workers. The chopping
tools with a vibration effect of more than 120 dB (hand-arm),
especially the handheld jackhammer might cause "white finger"
disease 13. The surrounding structures may be damaged or show
signs like cracks, etc.
3.3.1.5 Chemical emissions
Construction and demolition activities generate the emissions
of toxic substances too, for example magnesium and limestone
dust. There is a risk of fire from the tankers carrying chemicals.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from emissions from
vehicles, fuel tanks and fuel systems and solvents also possess
health risk.
12
http://discovery.bitspilani.ac.in/dlpd/courses/coursecontent/courseMaterial%5Cetzc362%5CNoice_Pollution_n
otes.pdf
13 http://www.eco-web.com/editorial/010802.html#il
White finger disease is a disorder that affects the blood vessels in the fingers, toes, ears,
and nose. Its characteristic attacks results from constriction of these blood vessels.
Patients initially notice skin discolouration upon cold exposure. They may also experience
mild tingling and numbness of fingers or other affected digits that will disappear once the
colour returns to normal. When the blood vessel spasms become more sustained, this can
cause pain as well as ulceration at the fingertips. Ulcerated fingers or toes can become
infected and, with continued lack of oxygen, gangrene may set in.
3.3.2 Mitigation Options
The concerns pertaining to the emissions can be minimised by
setting up some norms for air and noise quality. Adopting some
technologies can do control on the emissions. Following
mitigation options have been given for the same.
3.3.2.1 Control of dust
Adopting techniques like, air extraction equipment, and
covering scaffolding, hosing down road surfaces and cleaning of
vehicles can reduce dust and vapour emissions. Other measures
include appropriate containment around bulk storage tanks and
materials stores to prevent spillages entering watercourses.
Dust and smoke is a very general problem with the operation
of machinery. Construction machinery needs more information
about applications of modified machinery, and effectiveness of
these applications. There are many examples of construction
machinery improvement, such as using ultra low sulphur fuel,
retrofits, and early adoption of filter technology, etc.
Construction machineries should be operated with following
considerations. The standard limits for this check are given for
gasoline driven vehicles and diesel driven vehicles. With effect
from 1st April 1996, emission standards are given below:
Pollution under control (PUC) norms of India should be
adopted for maintaining the minimum desired quality of air.
This check needs to be performed on all vehicles initially one
year after its first registration and thereafter once in every six
months as per Motor Vehicles Rules, 1989. During PUC test, the
following parameters must be measured and assured as per the
standards given here:
Gasoline driven 2/3 wheelers: CO < 4.5% by vol., during idling.
Gasoline driven 4 wheelers: CO < 3.0% by vol., during idling.
Diesel driven vehicles: Smoke density < 65% by vol., during
both idling & high speed.
For Diesel driven vehicles (Gross vehicle weight < 3500kg and
cold start):
CO: 5.0 to 9.0 gm/minute
HC+NOx: 2.0 to 4.0 gm/minute
Smoke density: 65%
The other measures to reduce the air pollution on site are given
below.
Pollution control Check Points should be set up on site.
On-Road- Inspection should be done for black smoke
generating machinery.
Promotion of use of cleaner Fuel (such as bio-diesel) and
Fuel Quality Improvement should be done.
Inspection should be done for use of covering sheet to
prevent dust dispersion at buildings and infrastructure sites,
which are being constructed.
121
Managing transport including noise and air
Use of Covering Sheets should be done for trucks to prevent
dust dispersion from the trucks, implemented by district
offices.
3.3.2.2 Control of noise and vibrations
Equipment like earmuffs, earplugs etc. should be used for
hearing protection for workers. For Vibration control damped
tools must be used and the number of hours that a worker uses
them must be limited.
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has published several
codebooks for sampling and analysis of noise pollution and
guidelines for control of noise pollution. These codes should be
referred for noise control and maintaining minimum standards.
IS-4954-1968 for Noise abatement in town planning
recommendations
IS-3098-1980 for Noise emitted by moving road
vehicles, measurement
IS-10399-1982 for Noise emitted by stationary road
vehicles, methods of measurement
IS-6098-1971 for Air borne noise emitted by rotating
electrical machinery
IS-4758-1968 for Noise emitted by machines
The noise pollution can be controlled at the source of generation
itself by employing techniques like Control in the transmission
path Installation of barriers etc. Barriers between noise source
and receiver can minimize the noise levels. For a barrier to be
effective, its lateral width should extend beyond the line-ofsight at least as much as the height (See Fig. 3.2).
Figure 3.2: Noise barrier
R is the distance between source and barrier. D, the lateral
width, is the distance between the receiver and barrier. The light
horizontal line shows the line of sight. Barrier should be set in
such a way that the height of barrier may break the visual
contact of the receiver with the source and the audibility is
reduced to standard level, i.e., the levels mentioned in codes given
above.
3.3.2.3 Provision for DG sets14
The other norms for DG sets15 are that the diesel generator sets
should be provided with integral acoustic enclosure at the
manufacturing stage itself. There must be sufficient space for
Fuel Tank inside canopy. There must be enough space to
house panel. There must be Strong and Heavy-duty steel base
frame for housing D.G. Set. There must be provision for AirIntake and Air-Exhaust silencer(s) for preventing leakage of
sound. There must be a provision of Operable doors for easy
access to virtually every part of D.G. Sets . There must be
Provision of additional screen and hoods for multi-medium
noise suppression.
Noise limits for DG sets- The maximum permissible sound
pressure level for new diesel generator (DG) sets with rated
capacity upto 1000 KVA, manufactured on or after the 1st July,
2003 shall be 75 dB(A) at 1 metre from the enclosure surface.
The Canopies are must for DG sets and must meet CPCB
norms of government of India for noise Pollution effective July
2004 and Environment protection Rules, 1986 schedule 1, by
Ministry of Environment Forest.
Stack Height :
The minimum height of stack to be provided with each
generator set can be worked out using the following formula:
H = h + 0.2 × ÖKVA
H = Total height of stack in metre
h = Height of the building in metres where the generator set is
installed
KVA = Total generator capacity of the set in KVA
Based on the above formula the minimum stack height to be
provided with different range of generator sets may be
categorised as per Table 3.7:
14
Applicability : These rules shall apply to all new diesel engines for genset applications
(hereinafter referred to as ‘engine’) manufactured in India and all diesel engines for genset
applications and diesel gensets (hereinafter referred to as ‘product’, imported into India,
after the effective date. Provided that these rules shall not apply to :
1. any engine manufactured or engine or product imported for the purpose of
export outside India , or,
2. any engine or product intended for the purpose of sample only and not for sale
outside India.
15 Standards/Guidelines for control of Noise Pollution from Stationary Diesel Generator
(DG) sets by Delhi government.
123
Managing transport including noise and air
Table 3.7: Stack Height standards for D.G. Sets
For Generator Sets Total Height of stack in metre
50 KVA
Ht. of the building + 1.5 metre
50-100 KVA
Ht. of the building + 2.0 metre
100-150 KVA
Ht. of the building + 2.5 metre
150-200 KVA
Ht. of the building + 3.0 metre
200-250 KVA
Ht. of the building + 3.5 metre
250-300 KVA
Ht. of the building + 3.5 metre
The certification of space design for DG sets must be done by
any one of the following.
1. Automotive Research Association of India, Pune
2. National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi
3. Naval Science & Technology Laboratory, Visakhapatnam
4. Fluid Control Research Institute, Palghat
5. National Aerospace Laboratory, Bangalore
The norms for emissions from D.G. sets have been given by
Central pollution control board, these have been given in Table
3.8
Table 3.8: Emission limits for Noise16
Smoke limit
(light
Capacity
Date of
of diesel
impleme
engines
ntation
Emission Limits
absorption
G/kw-hr) for
coefficient,
Test cycle
m-1)(at full
load)
NO2
HC
CO
PM
%
Fact
ors
Upto 19
1.7.200
KW
3
1.7.200
9.2
1.3
5.0
0.6
0.7
100
0.05
9.2
1.3
3.5
0.3
0.1
75
0.25
9.2
1.3
5.0
0.5
0.7
50
0.30
9.2
1.3
3.5
0.3
0.7
25
0.30
9.2
1.3
3.5
0.3
0.7
10
0.10
9.2
1.3
3.5
0.3
0.7
4
> 19 kw
1.7.200
upto 50
3
kW
1.7.200
4
>50kW
1.7.200
upto 260
3
kw
>260
1.7.200
kW upto
4
800kW
Source: CPCB Norms, The Environment (Protection) Second Amendment Rules, 2002, vide
notification G.S.R. 371(E), dated 17th May, 2002, at serial no. 94 (paragraph 1 & 3),
16
The Environment (Protection) Second Amendment Rules, 2002, vide notification no.
G.S.R. 371 (E), dated 17th May, 2002, at serial no. 95,
Annexure 3.1 Area requirements for parking in different types of cities
Sl
Occupancy
One Car parking Space for Every
No.
Populaton
Population
Population between
less than
between
200 000 to 1 000 000
50 000
50 000 to
Population between
Population above
1 000 000 to 5 000
5 000 000
000
200 000
(1)
(2)
i)
Residential
(3)
(4)
a)
(5)
(6)
(7)
a) 2 tenements having
I tenement of 100 m2
1 tenement of 75 m2
built-up area 101 to
built up area
built up area
4 guest rooms
3 guest rooms
2 guest rooms
70 m2 area or fraction
50 m2area or fraction
35 m2 area or fraction
thereof of the
thereof of the
thereof of the
administrative office
administrative office
administrative office
area and public service
area and public service
area and public service
areas
areas
areas
10 beds (Private)
5 beds (Private)
2 beds (Private)
15 beds (Public)
10 beds (Public)
5 beds (Public)
10 seats
200 m2
b)
Lodging establishments,
12 guest
8 guest
tourist homes and
rooms
rooms
hotels, with lodging
accommodation
ii)
(iii)
(iv)
Educational
Institutional (Medical)
20 beds
15 beds
(Private)
(Private)
30 beds
25 beds
(Public)
(Public)
20 seats
80 seats
25 seats
15 seats
b) Restaurants
60 seats
40 seats
20 seats
10 seats
5 seats
c) Marriage Halls,
600 m2 plot
400 m2 plot
200 m2 plot area
50 m2 plot area
25 m2 plot area
community halls
area
area
d) Stadia and exhibition
240 seats
160 seats
50 seats
30 seats
20 seats
a) Assembly halls,
cinema theatres
center
v)
Business Offices and
300 m2 area
200 m2 area
100 m2 or fraction
50 m2 area or fraction
25 m2 area or fraction
a)
firms for private
or fraction
or fraction
thereof
thereof
thereof
business
thereof
thereof
Public or semi-public
500 m2 area
300 m2 area
200 m2 area or fraction
100 m2 area or fraction
50 m2 area or fraction
offices
or fraction
or fraction
thereof
thereof
thereof
thereof
thereof
300 m2 area
200 m2 area
100 m2 area or fraction
50 m2 area or fraction
25 m2 area or fraction
or fraction
or fraction
thereof
thereof
thereof
thereof
thereof
b)
vi)
vii)
viii)
Mercantile (See Note 2)
Industrial
Storage
400 m2 area
300 m2 area
200 m2 area or fraction
100 m2 area or fraction
50 m2 area or fraction
or fraction
or fraction
thereof
thereof
thereof
thereof
thereof
500 m2 area or fraction
250 m2 area or fraction
125 m2 area or fraction
thereof
thereof
thereof
Source: National Building Code of India
125
Managing transport including noise and air
Notes
1. In the case of auditoria for educational buildings,
parking space shall be provided as per Sl. No. (iv)
2. For plots upto 50 sq. m , as in case of shops, parking
spaces need not be insisted upon.
3. For other institutions, transport/communication center,
parking space requirement should be assessed based on
the proposed building.
4. Not more than 50 % of space in setbacks should be
taken up for parking rest under stilts or in basement
5. Minimum width of circulation should be provided for
adequate manoeuvring shall be 4m for cars, 5m for
trucks.
6. Off street parking should be provided with proper
vehicular access. The area for vehicular access shall not
be included in the parking area
7. In case of parking in basement at least 2 ramps of
adequate size must be provided preferably at the
opposite ends.
8. The parking layout should be prepared in such a way
that every vehicle becomes directly accessible from
circulation driveway
9. For building with different uses parking area required
should be calculated on the basis of respective use
separately.
10. In case plot containing more than one building parking
area should be calculated on the basis of consideration
the area of respective uses.
Reference
1. Indian Road Congress Standards
2. Tiwari G., Urban Transport in India, Transportation
Research & Injury Prevention Programme, Indian
Institute of technology (IIT), Delhi
3. Sustainable Buildings Guidelines 2003 BBC
4. www.arbeidstilsynet.no
5. Official website of Bhaskar power project India
6. Standards/Guidelines for control of Noise Pollution
from Stationary Diesel Generator (DG) Sets by Delhi
Government
7. System & Procedure For Compliance With Noise Limits
For Diesel Generator Sets (Upto 1000 Kva) by Central
Pollution Control Board
8. National Road Transport Policy, India
9. Measures for Controlling Vehicle Emissions in Bangkok,
Air Quality and Noise Management Division, Air Quality
and Noise Management Division, Department of
Environment, Bangkok
10. “Inspection maintenance and certification system for inuse vehicles” an article from Parivesh (newsletter from
Central pollution control board India) 2006
http://www.bharatpetroleum.com/index.asp
11. Air Quality and Noise Management Division,
Department of Environment www.bma.go.th/anmd
12. Parivesh: a newsletter from CPCB, India
13. Norms of PUC check by Bharat Petroleum
CHAPTER
4 Building materials and technologies
4.0 Introduction
Sustainability and efficiency of a building is largely dependent
on the sustainability of building materials. Building industry is
dependent on endless supply of high quality materials and
energy resources. This can be justified by the fact that buildings
on a global scale consume about 40 percent of the raw stone,
gravel and sand, 25 percent of wood, 40 percent of energy and
16 percent of the water each year. These result in depletion of
non-renewable materials and resources, production of waste byproducts, release of pollutants and deterioration of the air,
water, soils and the habitat that surrounds it.
The present time demands use of sustainably managed
materials. These are the materials that are environmentally
preferable and have a mitigated degree of adverse impact on
environment and human ecosystem when compared with
equivalent products for the same application. Use of sustainably
managed materials is an environmental responsibility in
contributing towards a sustainable habitat. Their basic
characteristics that are required in the present scenario are,
ability of natural resource conservation, low embodied energy,
potential of recyclability and reuse and low emission levels of
toxic substances or pollutant release in each stage of material
life cycle.
4.1 Scope
The conventional materials and methods of construction are
energy intensive in nature. Scope of this chapter covers the
selection guidelines for alternate materials and technologies at
various stages of building construction. The alternatives for
construction of various parts of building have been given in this
chapter, i.e., envelope, superstructure, internal paneling roads
and surrounding areas.
4.2 Issues and concerns
4.2.1 High consumption of resources
Building materials consume huge amount of natural
resources in manufacturing and processing. The whole
process of manufacture and processing in fact is extractor of
various resources at various stages, e.g., resources like
energy, water, fuel, and human resources are used in
various stages of extraction and processing.
4.2.2 High Transportation Cost
Locally available materials are not used and materials from
longer distances are transported. This increases the
transportation cost as well as the energy consumption. Use
of locally available materials is most suitable to local climate
and incurs less transportation cost.
The concern of depleting natural resources indicates the
need of using recyclable materials. Use of waste products
from other industries in the form of building material is
required.
4.2.3 Inefficient technologies and High consumption of materials
Because of inefficient methods of construction the
requirement of material goes on increasing. There is thus a
need to develop the technologies for construction that
require less material and possess high strength.
4.2.4 High life cycle cost of materials
Consumption of natural resources, processing and
manufacture, transportation, use in building and
maintenance altogether make life cycle cost of conventional
materials very high. Some examples are masonry, cement,
concrete, timber etc. The materials with low embodied
energy17 and high strength are required as an alternative to
the conventional materials. The embodied energies for
some conventional materials have been given in Table 4.1.
Table4.1: Embodied energy Content of the materials
Primary energy
Material
requirement
Very High
Energy
High Energy
Medium
Primary energy requirement
(Gj/tonne)
Aluminum
200-250
Stainless
50-100
steel
Plastic
100+
Copper
100+
Steel
30-60
Lead
25+
Glass
12-25
Cement
5-8
Plasterboard
8-10
Lime
3-5
Clay bricks
2-7
and tiles
Embodied energy is the energy consumed by all of the processes associated with the production of
a building, from the acquisition of natural resources to product delivery. This includes the mining and
manufacturing of materials and equipment, the transport of the materials and the administrative
functions. Embodied energy is a significant component of the lifecycle impact of a home.
17
Primary energy
Material
requirement
Primary energy requirement
(Gj/tonne)
Gypsum
1-4
plaster
Concrete
In-situ
0.8-1.5
Blocks
0.8-3.5
Pre-cast
0.1-5
Sand,
<0.5
aggregate
Low
Fly-ash
<0.5
Blast
<0.5
furnace slag
Source: UNCHS (1991)
4.2.5 Constituents of concern
Some of the facts and figures related to building materials are
given below:
India’s fertile topsoil is being destroyed at an alarming rate
by the clay brick industry, at 20234 hectares a year. The
Indian brick industry, with more than 1 lakh production
units producing about 100 billion bricks annually, is the
second largest brick producer in the world after that of
China. This huge brick manufacturing process is a major
consumer of clay, water and fuel.
The conventional practice of firing clay bricks in Bull’s
Trench Kilns (BTK) and rural country clamps consumes
huge quantity of energy in terms of coal, firewood and other
fuels, which are non-renewable and cost high to natural
exploitation.
Brick kilns are also notorious as highly polluting
establishments, affecting not just the flora and fauna, but
also posing severe threats to human health. The pollution by
these units has attracted considerable attention and strict
action by the environmental authorities.
Water requirement of building industry in India is also very
intensive.
India is the second largest cement producing country. In the
last decade, installed production capacity of Indian cement
industry has increased almost two fold (from 61 to 110
million tonnes / annum). At present, there are large cement
plants in the country. Cement dust is generally suspended
into air and this suspended particulate matter is harmful for
health of the workers.
The energy requirement of cement industry is very high. In
2003-04, 11,400 million kWh of power was consumed by
the Indian cement industry18.
18
http://www.cseindia.org/programme/industry/cement_rating.htm as viewed on Sept. 29,
2006
Construction of concrete requires a set of form -work, which
consists of aluminium, steel, tin or wood, and due to
mishandling and wrong practices in use, these forms get
damaged. Although these are re-usable components, every
year a huge number of new forms are required to fulfil the
damages and increasing demand.
There are about 157 cement manufacturing plants in India.
40 out of 157 operating kilns are based on wet process or
semi-dry process of cement manufacturing which puts very
negative impact over environment19.
Mining is one of the most destructive industries. Limestone
mining badly influences land-use patterns and local water
regimes. Ambient air quality is polluted by mining industry.
Blasting causes problems of vibrations cracks and flies
rocks. The impact of mining is especially high in ecologically
sensitive areas.
India faces problems of poor mine management and poor
planning for rehabilitation of exhausted land. Mining is one
of the reasons for the high environmental impact of the
industry20.
Steel is manufactured by non-renewable resource. Its
frequent use puts regular pressure on even the kilns, which
are flamed by coal, or electricity, which are again nonrenewable sources of energy.
Conventional Materials used for construction of openings
are non renewable. Even the constituents of these materials
are not renewable.
4.3 Mitigation options
Mitigation options are given for each component of the
building, i.e., envelope, superstructure, finishes and the road
and surrounding areas. The options are given for alternatives of
materials and technological options in the order of structure as
shown in figure 4.1
19
http://www.cseindia.org/programme/industry/cement_rating.htm as viewed on Sept. 29,
2006
20 CSE Cement industry ratings releases.htm
Figure 4.1 Mitigation options for building materials
4.3.1 Envelope
The alternative options for envelope are given under three
headings, i.e., walls, roof and the openings.
4.3.1.1 Walls
The conventional materials used for walling are the clay bricks
with cement mortar. The following substitutes should be
considered as alternate to bricks.
Alternate Materials for Walls
1. Earth blocks- Earth blocks stabilized with 5%–15% of
cement are good choice for low cost, low-rise
construction in hot-humid climates. Brick and block
products with waste and recycled contents such as fly
ash (waste from coal burning plants), blast furnace slag,
sewage sludge, waste wood fibre, rice husk ash, etc.
Concrete blocks using lime or waste wood fiber provide
reduction of waste and saves energy. Fly ash can be used
to replace about 15% to 35% of the total cementitious
material. The slag content can be used to replace the
same between 20% and 25%. Concrete masonry units
with finished faces can be used for interior or exterior
surface of a wall, in order to reduce the whole layers of
additional material. For energy efficiency and comfort,
the best practice is to locate the CMU (concrete masonry
unit) on the inside and the insulating finish on the
exterior. Concrete blocks are also made from sintered
clays, PFA (pulverized fuel ash) and lime, which sinter
the waste product using the residual fuel in the waste,
and thus have a very low embodied energy content.
2. Fly ash-based lightweight aerated concrete blocks- Fly
ash is a waste product of thermal power plant. Fly ashbased lightweight aerated concrete blocks are
manufactured for walling and roofing purposes by
mixing fly ash, quick lime, or cement and gypsum with a
foaming agent like aluminium powder. These are
considered excellent products for walling blocks.
3. Fal-G (Fly ash, lime, and gypsum)- Fal-G products are
manufactured by binding fly ash, lime, and calcined
gypsum (a by-product of phosphogypsum or natural
gypsum). They can be used as a cementitious material
for mortar/plasters and for masonry blocks of any
desired strength. Fal-G stabilized mud blocks are
stronger with less water absorption capacity and are
cheaper than cement stabilized blocks. With 5-10% of
Fal- G, 30% of cement can be saved in addition to the
utilization of waste products like fly ash. These blocks
can be manufactured at any low level where good
quality burnt clay bricks are not available.
4. Perforated brick masonry- Perforated brick masonry is
a good option for material reduction. Hollow brick units
with perforations up to 50%–60%, are sound in
structure and as well as heat insulators. . Various types
of perforated bricks used in construction are shown in
Figure 4.2. The method of construction is the same as
the solid bricks, but this type of brick offers high
compressive strength, and low water absorption. These
bricks save clay, dry faster, and require less fuel for
burning.
Economy
Double
Figure 4.2 Perforated brick masonry
Precast hollow concrete blocks- Use of hollow
units is a good option for material reduction.
These are manufactured by using lean cement
concrete mixes and extruded through blockmaking machines of egg laying or static type.
These blocks need lesser cement mortar and
enable speedy construction as compared to brick
masonry. Some of the standard types are shown in
Figure 4.3. The cavity in the blocks provides better
thermal insulation and also does not need
external/internal plastering. These can be used for
walling blocks or as roofing blocks along with
inverted precast ‘T’ beams.
Figure: 4.3 Standard types of pre-cast hollow concrete blocks
Alternate Techniques for Walls
1. Hollow/reinforced unit masonry- Method of construction
Hollow unit masonry is the type of wall construction that
consists of hollow masonry units set in mortar as they are
laid in the wall. All units are laid with full-face mortar
beds, with the head or end joints filled solidly with mortar
for a distance from the face of the unit not less than the
thickness of the longitudinal face. This type of construction
can also be reinforced. Bonding where the wall thickness
consists of two or more hollow units (Figure 4.4) placed
side by side, the stretcher unit must be bonded at vertical
intervals, which does not exceed 34 inches (860 mm).
Fig. 4.4- Hollow / reinforced unit masonry
This bonding is accomplished by lapping a block at least
4 inches (100 mm) over the unit below or by lapping
them at vertical intervals, which do not exceed 17 inches
(432 mm), with units that are at least 50% greater in
thickness than the units below. They can also be bonded
together with corrosion-resistant metal ties as in the
cavity walls. Ties in alternate courses should be
staggered with 18 inches (460 mm) as the maximum
vertical distance between ties, and 36 inches (90 mm)
as the maximum horizontal distance. When this material
is not reinforced, the maximum thickness to height ratio
is 1:18 with a minimum thickness of eight inches (200
mm).
2. Some Options for walls: Some other options for material
reduction in walls are 230-mm thick wall in lower floors
(load bearing) in place of 330mm brick walls, 180mm
thick wall in place of 230mm brick walls, 115mm thick
recessed walls in place of 230mm brick walls,
150/200mm stone block masonry in place of random
rubble Ashlar masonry etc.
3. Interlocking concrete blocks or Lock blocks- The concrete
blocks measuring 298 × 149 × 200 mm have raised rims
surrounding two hollow cores on the upper surface, and
corresponding recesses on the lower surfaces to receive
the projecting rims of the blocks below. The blocks also
have narrow vertical recesses and a central hole which,
when assembled, form continuous, vertically aligned
holes over the full height of the walls. Various types are
shown in Figure4.5.
Fig. 4.5: Interlocking concrete blocks or Lock blocks
When cement grout is poured into them, the blocks
become permanently locked together. Wherever
necessary at the corners, in cross walls or around
openings, the large hollow cores, which are always
vertically aligned, can be filled with reinforcement and
concrete, allowing for building multi-storeys and
earthquake resistance. Special blocks like channel blocks
are also used to make reinforced concrete beams and
triangular blocks for sloping roofs.
4. Composite ferro-cement system -This is simple method
of construction with ferro-cement, which is actually
made of rich mortar reinforced with chicken and welded
wire mesh. This type of construction reduces the wall
thickness and thus increase the carpet area. Precast
ferro-cement units in a trough shape are integrated with
RCC columns. Ferro-cement units serve as a permanent
skin unit and as a diagonal strut between columns. The
inside cladding can be done with mud blocks or any
locally viable material. The details of the system are
given in following Figure 4.6. The advantages of the
ferro-cement wall over traditional techniques are:
Self weight is only about 10% of that of a five-inch (125
mm) thick brick wall
It can be used as an external wall to resist the soaking of
facades by rainwater.
It can be effectively used as a partition wall.
It saves space.
Plastering is not required and even whitewashing can be
avoided.
Construction procedure is very simple, quick and less
skilled labour is required.
Heavy equipment for centering and shuttering work or
sophisticated workmanship is not required.
Cheaper than that of a five-inch (125 mm) thick brick
Savings up to 40%.
Fig 4.6: Composite Ferro cement system
This method is particularly suitable in areas where
transport facilities are not available and in hilly areas
and also suitable for seismic areas.
5. Rattrap bond in place of English / Flemish bond- The
rat-trap bond (Fig.4.7) is an alternative brick bonding
system to the English and Flemish bond. This system of
bonding saves 25% of the total number of bricks and
40% of mortar. The bricks are placed on the edge in a
1:6 ratio of cement and mortar. After the first layer of
bricks has been laid, a gap is left between the bricks
within the interior of the wall in the remaining courses.
This means that compared to a 230-mm thick solid
brick wall, the amount of bricks required to build the
wall is reduced by 25% and consequently the amount of
cement mortar needed is also reduced.
Fig. 4.7 Rattrap bond
6. Reinforced/hollow brick masonry- Reinforced/hollow
brick masonry is used as structural members for floors,
roofs, and walls, and as filler blocks to replace concrete
in the tensile zone. The overall dimensions available are
25 × 27 × 10.3 cm with various configurations of
rectangular hollows in it (Figure 4.8). These blocks are
also designed separately as bond beams, joist members
as well as filler blocks. The reinforcement is placed in
the hollows and concreting is done over the brick. The
maximum thickness to height ratio is 1:25, with the
minimum thickness being six inches (150 mm). Hollow
unit masonry is a type of wall construction that consists
of hollow masonry units set in mortar as they are laid in
the wall. All units are laid with full-face mortar beds,
with the head or end joints filled solidly with mortar.
The distance from the face of the unit should not be less
than the thickness of the longitudinal face. This type of
construction can also be reinforced.
Fig. 4.8: Reinforced bricks
7. Hollow unit masonry- All units are laid with full-face
mortar beds, with the head or end joints filled solidly
with mortar for a distance in from the face of the unit
not less than the thickness of the longitudinal face. This
type of construction can also be reinforced (Figure
4.9a). They can also be bonded together with corrosionresistant metal ties as in cavity walls. Ties in alternate
courses should be staggered with the maximum vertical
distance between ties being 18 inches (460 mm) (Figure
4.9b), while the maximum horizontal distance being 36
inches (915 mm). The floor/roof assembly is a joist and
filler block type of construction with cast-in-situ deck
concrete over it. To prefabricate the joist member, the
top panels of the units are placed in a row one after the
other, with a one cm thick 1:3 cement and sand mortar
joint on a pre-casting platform to the desired length.
The reinforcement is placed within and then filled with
concrete of the desired strength.
b
a
Figure 4.9: Hollow unit masonry
4.3.1.2 Roofing
The conventional material used for roofing is RCC, as it is
suitable for longer spans. The constituents of RCC, i.e, cement,
sand, aggregate and steel all are energy intensive materials and
high-embodied energy content. This section of the chapter gives
alternatives is given as a substitute of the conventional
materials.
Alternate Materials for roofing
1. Use of lightweight synthetic aggregate- The example is
Fly ash based aggregate, which is suitable for
manufacture of brick, blocks, and is good substitute for
clinker and natural aggregates.
2. Pre-cast/aerated cellular concrete walling blocks and
roofing slabs- These are manufactured by the aerated
cellular concrete manufacturing process. When used in
multi- storied structures, they reduce the weight,
resulting in a more economical design. They have high
rating to fire resistance and provide better insulation.
Alternate techniques for roofing
Construction in concrete put high cost on environment and as it
has become a very common practice to use RCC for construction
of frames, some alternatives must be used to minimize its use.
These are :
1.
Zipbloc system- This system developed in India, utilizes
a single precast element, a hourdi-type hollow block 530
× 250 × 140 mm for walls and roofs.
Figure 4.10. Zip block system
2. Pre-stressed slab elements- This roofing system was
developed at the Structural Engineering Research
Centre in Chennai. The hollow blocks used are ‘Hourdi’
or similar blocks, and may be placed in one or more
rows. Concrete ribs of at least a four-centimetre width
run around the periphery of the row of blocks forming
the slab. The prestressing wires are located in these ribs.
For units longer than two metres, intermediate ribs with
nominal reinforcement are provided in the traverse
direction, at spacing that does not exceed two metres.
The hollow clay blocks, which have grooves on their
surfaces, remain exposed at the top and bottom of the
precast element. In situ concrete screed is laid on the
top and plastering is done on the underside. The
advantage over traditional systems is that the slab
elements are about 25% lighter than conventional RCC
slabs.
3. Extruded structural clay joist and filler unit
floor/roof- This roofing system was developed by CBRI
(Central Building Research Institute), Roorkee, India.
The overall dimensions of the unit are 165 × 150 × 190.
mm as shown in Figure 4.11a. It has three rectangular
cavities, which account for 37% of the total volume, and
the outer faces have grooves for better bonding of
mortar and concrete.
Prefabrication of joists : This is done by laying the fired
clay units end to end on a flat surface, in a row of the
desired length, with the wider base below, and joined
with a 1:3 cement and sand mortar. Two wooden planks
are placed on either side and held by clamps as shown in
Figure 4.11b.
a
b
c
Figure 4.11 Extruded cultural clay-joist and filter unit floor/roof
The gap between clay units and planks is filled with
concrete, in which the reinforcing rods are embedded,
ensuring good cover from all sides. The joists is
manually laid in parallel lines as shown in Figure 4.11c,
at distances of 300 mm c/c. The structural clay units,
with their wider base below, are laid between the joists
as filler units, ensuring that the joints in the joist
member and filler units are broken (using half length
units at the ends). The joints and gaps are filled with
mortar, reinforcement, and concrete. The completed
slab is kept wet for 14 days before finishing the floor or
roof surface.
4.
Hollow floor slabs – This is one more option for
material reduction. The overall dimensions of the unit
are 3500 × 600 × 120 mm. In this method the steel endpieces with four openings define a trapezium-shaped
cross section of the floor slab, so that when finally
assembled, the V-shaped gaps between the slabs can be
easily filled with concrete. Reinforcement is laid and
four GI pipes are pushed lengthwise (Figure 4.12)
through the holes in the end. The concrete is poured and
compacted simultaneously to ensure that no air pockets
are developed around the pipes. The concrete is cast
very dry so that it does not collapse when the pipes are
removed. The pipes are later pulled out with an electrical
winch as shown in Figure.
Figure 4.12. Hollow Floor slabs
5. Precast ferro-cement folded plate-roofing elementFolded plates with a trapezoidal cross-section either in
the form of a ‘hat’ or in the form of a trough section give
high rigidity and ensure safety. Such a trough section
can be conveniently made of ferro-cement. Roofs made
of such trough sections can be constructed by simply
assembling such precast FCFP (ferro-cement folded
plate) elements side by side on supports (sectional
details are given in Figure 4.13), which may be of wall or
beam with no in-filling. When required it can be shifted
and re-erected as desired. The span length of FCFP
element up to 12 feet 6 inches (3810 mm) is adopted for
the sake of convenience in handling/hoisting and
placing without any mechanical aid. Design of a precast
FCFP element (with no diaphragm) may be done as an
inverted T-beam replacing a trough section. The details
of FCFP elements are a six-inch (150 mm) base, eightinch (200mm) depth and thickness of a half to threequarters of an inch (12-18 mm). Tension reinforcement
as per the design requirement is provided and
transverse reinforcement is also to be provided in the
shape of the profile of the trough section. Skeletal
reinforcement of two layers of 24-gauge GI wire mesh at
the rate of a half-inch (13mm) c/c with a one-third inch
(10mm) cover on either side.
Figure 4.13. Folded plate Roof
6.
Some other techniques for roofing are
Brick panel with joists
L-panel sloping roofing
Prestressed RCC planks over RCC joists
Ferrocement shell roofing
Filler Slab roofing
Waffle roofing
RCC channel units
Funicular shell roofing
Brick funicular shell roofing
Precast blocks over inverted T-beams in place of RCC
Tiles over RCC rafters in place of Tiles over timber
rafters
Micro-concrete roofing tiles in place of Clay tile roofing,
AC sheet roofing
Fibre Reinforced Polymer Plastics instead of PVC and
Foam PVC, Polycarbonates, acrylics & plastics
Micro Concrete Roofing Tiles and/or Bamboo Matt
Corrugated Roofing Sheet
4.3.1.3 Openings :
The options for openings are given for each individual
component, i.e., lintel, frame and panels.
Alternate materials and Technologies for Lintels :
The openings consists of lintels, frames and panels. Following
options have been given in replacement of conventional PCC
lintels.
1. Use of Precast-thin-lintels
2. Ferrocement-sunshades-cum-lintel
3. Brick-on-edge-lintels
4. Corbelling-for-lintels
5. Brick arch for lintels in place of RCC lintel
6. Ferro cement and Pre cast R.C.C. lintel (IS9893)
Alternate materials for frames of doors and windows
1. Timber used must be renewable timber from
plantations with species having not more than 10 year
cycle or timber from a government certified forest /
plantation or timber from salvaged wood.
2. Steel with a verified recycled content- The recycled
content varies based on the type of furnace used for
processing and ranges from 30% (in a BOF [basic
oxygen furnace) to 100% (in an electric arc furnace).
Plates, sheets, and tubes are usually manufactured using
the BOF. Steel regardless of coating treatments and
alloy can be recovered and easily recycled.
3. Aluminium with a verified recycled content- Using
recycled aluminium reduces the total energy
requirements by 90%–95%. However, only 15%–20% of
the aluminium is usually recovered, as it is bound with
other materials and is difficult to separate.
4. Scrap components- Salvaged steel and aluminium beam
and bar sections made from the recovered scrap for
nonstructural uses. Building components such as
antique iron and brass fixtures for lighting, decoration,
and doorframes can also be reused.
5. Resin or oxychloride cement- bonded, saw dust based
door and window frames
These are made from forest and industrial wastes such
as sawdust and wood chips with suitable bonded
alternatives and are good substitutes for wood products.
Alternate technologies for frames of door and windows:
1. Some combinations- Ferrocement and Precast R.C.C.
Frames. (as per IS6523)/ Frameless Doors (IS15345)
and/or Bamboo Reinforced Concrete Frames or by
hollow recycle d steel channels (IS1038,7452) and
Recycled Aluminium Channels (IS1948) and
Components.
2. Precast RCC doors and window frames- These are
cheaper, stronger, fire-resistant, and termite resistant,
sustain temperature and humidity variations, and are
effective substitutes to timber/wood. Different frame
sizes can be made in adjustable wooden moulds,
ensuring at least a 10-mm concrete cover in the finished
element. Concrete of grade C15 is used. Provision for
fitting grills and fixing of boltholes is also made in the
proper position in the frame during casting. Precast
door/window frames can be made with ordinary
concrete (1:2:4). Precast frames may be used for any
conventional cross sections. RC frames for
doors/windows are designed and cast separately as
horizontal and vertical members to prevent
damage/breakage at the time of handling and
transportation.
Alternate materials for panels
The conventional material for panel are plywood, glass and
aluminium shutters. Following options have been given for
panels :
1. Ferro-cement shutters- These shutters are one-third in cost
if compared with even second-grade timber. They can be
manufactured on a small-scale level for mass application,
and can be painted like timber shutters.
2. Natural fibre-reinforced polymer composite door panelsThey are made from plastic components, are cheaper, but
look elegant and can compete with wood products.
3. PVC doors and windows- PVC doors, window frame profiles,
shutters, and partition panels are made from polymeric
building materials using an extruded structural foam
polymer made from PVC/ polystyrene and result in a
revolutionary synthetic wood. This wood is amenable to
carpentry operations, cheaper, provides better thermal and
sound insulation, and is non-combustible and maintenance
free compared to wood-based products.
4. Medium-density fibre board- This can be used for doors and
windows, panelling, ceiling, flooring, partitioning, and builtin furniture.
5. Rice husk board- Doors, partitions, false ceiling boards/
panel, etc. made from rice husk are superior in quality and
lower in price compared to products made from wood-based
board and are also good substitutes for wood which is a
scarce material.
6. Gypsum-based boards- Ceiling tiles, panel blocks, and door
and window shutters are manufactured from calcined
gypsum obtained by processing photogypsum—an industrial
waste of fertilizer plants. Mineral gypsum can also be
utilized with suitable processing. Glass fibre or natural fibrereinforced gypsum panels can also be made. These panels
are strong, lightweight, fire-resistant, and provide thermal
insulation.
7. Bamboo Boards: Bamboo board can be produced after
processing split bamboo with machines and glue. These
boards can be used for almost all purposes where timber are
now used.
8. Bamboo Mat boards: Bamboo sliced into slivers and woven,
are hot pressed to produce bamboo mat board, which is
superior to plywood in strength and life period.
9. Bamboo Ply boards: Bamboo mats and slivers are hot
pressed to produce bamboo ply board. Bamboo ply board is
very strong and as it can be made water resistant, it has
applications for construction boards etc.
10. Bamboo strip boards: Round bamboo is made flattened
either by using special techniques or by applying heat, which
is then hot pressed with glue. Bamboo strip boards are used
for floors of truck body, railway carriages and container.
Unbroken breadth larger than available timber can be
achieved with bamboo strip board.
11. Bamboo particleboards: Bamboo particleboard, which is
bamboo in combination with other cementing materials are
also developed and are useful for finishes.
Technologies for panels
1. Masonry bond combinations for jali work (achievable in
rat trap bond)- Jali work can be alternatively done using
simple masonry bonds such as the rattrap bond. Area
such as duct and niches can be covered up using this
technique. A high aesthetic value and simplicity of
workmanship makes this alternative a preferred choice.
Walls and partitions made using this type of bond can
also serve as insulating members owing to the cavity
formed within. This cavity can be filled with the in-fill
type insulation. Being a simple modification of a wall
construction, the cost incurred is the same as that of
walling units. Moreover, cost of lintels, opening frames
and precast or fabricated jails is completely eliminated.
2. Energy-efficient windows- It has been found that the
PVC-based window frames provide more energy
efficient windows. PVC being a poor heat conductor
offers better thermal insulation as compared to
aluminium or steel. The design of these windows is such
that suitable gaskets in the frames remove the air gap
between the window and the wall. These gaskets also
reduce noise considerably.
3. Some other options for Shutters- Ferro cement door
shutters, Use of MDF Board (IS12406), Rubber wood
(LSL, LVL), poplar wood, red-mud polymer composite.
Use of any of the following individually or in
combination can be done for construction of shutters.
Red Mud based Composite door shutters,
Laminated Hollow Composite Shutters,
Fibre Reinforced Polymer Board,
Coir Composite Board (Medium Density IS 15491),
Bamboo Mat Board ( IS 13958),
Bamboo mat Veneer Composite (IS 14588),
Bagasse Board,
Finger Jointed Plantation Board,
Recycled Laminated Tube Board
Aluminium Foil+ Paper+ Plastic Composite Board.
4.3.2 Options for Superstructure
Structural frame of building comprises of footing, columns,
beams and lintels, over which the envelope of building is
supported. These members take total weight of the building
envelopes. Load over structural members is a combination of
dead load and live load. In multi-storeyed buildings the dead
load of building is more than the live load, so to reduce this
load, lightweight materials and some other techniques are
required. Some alternatives are given here.
Alternate Materials for superstructure
1. Ferro cement- The composite Ferro cement system is simple
to construct and is made of Ferro cement—a rich mortar
reinforced with chicken or/and welded wire mesh. These
reduce the wall thickness and allow a larger carpet area. Precast Ferro cement units have a trough shape and are
integrated with RCC columns. They serve as a permanent
skin unit and as a diagonal strut between columns. The
inside cladding can be done with mud blocks or any locally
viable material. Ferro cement is suitable for seismic areas.
2. Metals- A variety of metals are used in buildings, but the
major building material used structurally is steel. Steel has a
high-embodied energy and recyclable content, as well as
scrap value. Aluminium forms the second most common
material used for roofing sheets, window frames, and
cladding systems, which has the highest recyclable content.
Other metals such as zinc and lead, which also have
recyclable content, are used for roof covering, zinc for
galvanizing, and copper for electric cables and so on.
Stainless steel and brass products are alloy products that are
recyclable, if carefully separated by type. The actual
embodied energy costs of the metal products used in
building depend on the energy utilized in fabrication and on
the waste generated.
3. Use of fly ash and/or blast furnace slag concrete -The
amount of cement used in concrete can be reduced by
replacing a portion of the cement with coal fly ash (waste
material from coal burning power plants) and/or GGBF
(ground-granulated blast furnace) slag in conventional
mixes. They can be used to replace about 15%–35% of the
total cement used and replace up to 70% when used in the
construction of massive walls, dams, road bases, etc. The
level of GGBF slag should usually range from 25% to 50%,
which constitutes the percentage of fly ash or slag used in
concrete. Fly ash provides an excellent finish; however,
some types of fly ash often contain high concentrations of
natural radioisotopes. The proportions and residual impact
of radioactivity should be evaluated and conform to
technical standards.
4. Recycled aggregates Recycled aggregates- Crushed concrete,
brick, glass, or other masonry waste can also be used in
conventional mixes.
5. Lightweight concrete- Aluminium powder when added to
lime reacts and form hydrogen bubbles, and a lightweight
cementitious material (high strength to weight ratio and an
insulation value of R-10 in a 20.32-cm thick wall) is formed
which could be used in conventional mixes.
Alternate Techniques for Superstructure
With the combination of the materials given above the
structural system of the building can be altered. Another
criterion for material reduction is applicable to formwork and
an alternative is suggested below.
Slip - Form- The technique serves a number of forms in
concreting of high-rise buildings The basic elements of the
formwork are the two sides made of timber planks, plywood
boards with adequate bracing, vertical posts 50–70 cm apart
held together on top and below with transverse ties of wood or
rope, wooden spacers to keep the sides apart at the desired
distance, and an end board to close off the open side of the
formwork. The length of the formwork can vary between 150 cm
and 300 cm, and the height between 50 cm and 100 cm.
Formwork is normally moved horizontally after each section is
completed. The details for climbing formwork are shown in
Figure 4.14 (a and b).
Figure 4.14 (a): Section showing slip form for columns
Figure 4.14 (b): Slip form for beams
4.3.3 Alternatives for Finishes
1. Fly ash / industrial waste / pulverized debris blocks in BPC
and/or lime-pozzolana concrete paving blocks (as per
IS10359) to be used for all outdoor paving (as per IS7245).
2. Bedding sand for pavement and outdoor hard surfaces has
to be from pulverized debris.
3. Terrazzo floor for terraces and semi covered areas (IS2114) .
4. Ceramic tiles (non-vitrified)(IS 13712)/ Mosaic Tiles/
Terrazzo Flooring (IS2114)/ Cement Tiles (IS1237, 3801)/
Phospho-Gypsum Tiles (IS12679)/ Bamboo Board Flooring,
individually or in combination for interior spaces.
4.3.4 Alternatives for roads and open spaces
This part of housing units consists of compound walls, grills,
roads, sidewalks, parking lots, drains, curbs, landscaped areas,
street furniture, tree covers, flowerbeds etc., although these are
not the part of building, but a very necessary part of housing.
1. Permeable paving- Permeable (porous) paving should be
used to control surface water runoff by allowing storm water
to infiltrate the soil and return to the ground water.
Permeable paving includes methods for using porous
materials in locations that would otherwise be covered with
impermeable materials (parking areas, walkways, and
walkways and patio areas). These materials include:
Permeable pavers- Paving stones placed in an
interlocking fashion over pedestrian surfaces (such as
walkways and patios).
Gravel/crusher fines- Loose aggregate material used to
cover pedestrian surfaces.
Open cell pavers- Concrete or plastic grids with voids
that are filled with a reinforced vegetative turf or an
aggregate material (sand, gravel, crusher fines). These
are applicable to limited- vehicle-use areas.
Porous asphalt (bituminous concrete)- A porous asphalt
layer constructed with “open- graded” aggregate (small
fines removed), which leaves voids between the large
particles unfilled by smaller fine. An open graded stone
base holds water until it filters through into the
underlying soil. This will be applicable to generalvehicle-use areas.
Porous Concrete- A concrete mix without the fine
aggregate, and with special additives for strength.
Permeable paving is not intended to replace standard
impervious paving, but to limit the use of impermeable
paving to heavy traffic areas. The availability of recycled
content, salvaged materials, and locally manufactured
products depends on the specific techniques
implemented.
2. Use of grass pavers- Use of grass pavers on the road, parking
and pedestrian areas is a solution to reduce the heat island
effect. The proposed grass pavers not only help in reducing
heat island effect but also minimize storm water runoff and
are beneficial for localized aquifer recharge. Grass pavers
are perforated material that sits on gravel bed, positioned
under the grass surface, they distribute loads from
pedestrian and vehicular traffic to the base course below.
3. Use of Bamboo in Road construction- Bamboo has been used
for road reinforcements in Orissa, which has proved its
credibility.
4. Use of bamboo fence instead of steel grills- Use of steel in
fencing, grills, tree covers, and benches and even in
streetlights can be easily replaced by bamboo. Bamboo is a
versatile material, very fast growing variety of trees and can
be grown anywhere.
Reference :
Sustainable Building Design Manual, Volume 2,TERI
CHAPTER
5 Solid waste management
5.0 Introduction
Urbanization and industrialization have resulted in increasing
amounts of municipal, industrial, and health care wastes in the
country. Waste management in construction industry is very
important as it consumes and generates huge quantities of solid
waste. According to the materials used and type of
construction, the age of building varies from 25 to 100 years.
During its whole life span, and even after its use, buildings are
the biggest producers of waste, including wastewater and solid
waste. Construction waste is bulky and heavy and is mostly
unsuitable for disposal by thermal or biological process such as
incineration or composting.
Solid wastes from construction sector can be categorized into
two phases i.e. during construction & during operation. The
construction phase waste will comprise of excavated &
demolition material while operational phase waste may
comprise of domestic, commercial, biomedical & industrial
hazardous wastes, depending upon the type of the project. The
different type of wastes need to be handled as per their needs
and regulatory requirements. It is not possible to dispose off all
type of wastes onto the land and has to be dealt with depending
upon their type and characteristics. The growing population in
the country and requirement of land for other uses have
reduced the availability of land for waste disposal. Re-utilization
or recycling is an important strategy for management of such
waste.
Building construction leads to generation of sand, gravel,
concrete, stone, bricks, wood, metal, glass, polythene sheets
plastic, paper etc. as waste. Management of waste during
construction and demolition of buildings is a great challenge for
planners and urban managers in India.
Central Pollution Control Board has estimated current
quantum of solid waste generation in India to the tune of 48
million tons per annum, out of which 25% of waste accounts for
construction industry. Management of such high quantum of
waste puts enormous pressure on solid waste management
system.
Wastes produced by building construction industry are given
in table 5.1
Table 5.1: Wastes produced by building construction industry
S. no.
Constituent
1
Soil, sand and
Quantity of waste generated
(tonnes per anum)
4.20 to 5.14
Gravel
2.
Bricks and
3.60 to 4.40
3.
Concrete
2.40 to 3.67
4.
Metals
0.60 to 0.73
5.
Bitumen
0.25 to 0.30
6.
Wood
0.25 to 0.30
7
Others
0.10 to 0.15
Masonry
Source: http://www.tifac.org.in/offer/tlbo/rep/TMS150.htm
This data reveals the potential for collection and recycling of
waste generated from the construction sites. Management in
orderly manner is important to improve the recovery of
resources from the waste.
5.1 Scope
The scope of this chapter covers the management of waste
generated at various stages of building construction and
operation. Waste generation by buildings is started, even before
its construction. The stages of waste generation are, during
preparation of site, during construction and during its use.
During these stages, the type of wastes, which are generated,
can be classified into four categories.
1. Construction or demolition waste, i.e., massive and inert
waste
2. Municipal waste, i.e., biodegradable and recyclable
waste
3. Hazardous waste,
4. E-waste
In this chapter the guidelines for management have been
framed according to these waste types.
5.2 Concerns
Various operations during the construction and demolition
leads to the varied compositions in the total solid waste stream
and affects the site.
5.2.1 Topsoil erosion
Debris, waste plastic pieces, and demolition waste laid over the
site destroy topsoil. After this, the land remains unfertile for any
kind of vegetation. Light materials like polythene bags; plastics
can lead to choking of the drains. Timber pieces generated
from beams, window frames, doors, partitions and other
fittings, which are treated with chemicals, have adverse effect on
environment.
5.2.2 Emissions from waste
Loading and unloading operations are often carried out in open
areas on the site which results in suspension of light materials
due to winds. In addition, spillages due to manual and
uncontrolled methods can result in losses as well as adverse
impacts on the local soil and groundwater. In addition, there is
danger of contamination with various hazardous wastes. The
dangers of disposal of these wastes might not be immediately
obvious, but improper disposal of these wastes can pollute the
environment and pose a threat to human health. Along with the
demolition activities, the removal of vegetation, levelling of the
site also adds to dust and noise pollution. The suspended soil
particles and vegetative matter are rich in organic content and
can be used in an efficient manner. Use of asbestos in building
has a major impact on human health. When asbestos is
disturbed or damaged, the fibers are released into the air and
represent a potential risk to human health through inhalation.
The fibers measure >5µm long and <3µm wide, and can
penetrate the lungs. Therefore, the main health consequences of
exposure to asbestos fibers are associated with the respiratory
system21.
6.2.3 Insufficient collection and segregation
In general, there is tendency to dump the wastes without
segregation on the same site. This results in mixing of recyclable
, biodegradable and inert wastes, which in turn would lead to
partial reduction and consequently bad odour and air-pollution.
The soil near waste storage surface is also polluted. Cities of
India are yet to develop an efficient system for collection and
disposal of solid waste. Table 5.2 presents the data of solid waste
management efficiency for major cities of India.
Table 5.2: Garbage Management in Some Cities
City
Garbage Generated
(tonne per day)
Garbage
Cleared (tonne
per day)
Clearing Efficiency
(%)
Delhi
3880
2420
62.37
Calcutta
3500
3150
90.00
Bombay
5800
5000
86.20
Bangalore 2130
1800
84.50
Madras
2675
2140
80.00
Lucknow
1500
1000
66.66
Patna
1000
300
30.00
Ahmedabad 1500
1200
80.00
Surat
1000
80.00
1250
Source: www.indiastat.com
21
http://www.voelckerconsultants.co.uk/asbestos/asbestos%20uses.htm
This table shows that none of these cities has 100 per cent
solution for cleaning of the waste. Even the capital city of India
is yet unable to clear more than one third of the solid waste
generated, i.e., 37.63 per cent in the city.
5.2.4 Lack of onsite treatment
Generally the onsite treatment of waste is not done. Various
methods for reduction and recycling of waste is rarely practiced.
Similarly primary treatment of construction waste, i.e., grinding
or crushing etc., are also rarely practiced.
Difficult quantification
It has been very difficult to establish statistics with any degree
of confidence because the waste is deposited in a range of places.
In addition, the construction waste is often not recorded as a
separate waste stream, or it is incorrectly recorded. Generation
and composition of construction and demolition waste is very
site specific and dependent on issues such as design, location
and the previous use of the site. As such, the waste stream over a
period can be extremely variable.
5.3 Mitigation options
5.3.1 Good practices in construction management
Some good practices in construction facilitate waste reduction,
easy collection and segregation as given below.
1. The explosive for blasting and excavation should be
stored in a standard container. Hazardous materials
must not be stored near surface waters and should be
stored near plastic sheeting to prevent leaks and spills.
The handling of explosives should be strictly according
to the guidelines as prescribed by the Department of
Explosives.
2. Delivery of material on site must be done over a
durable, impervious and level surface, so that first batch
of material does not mix with the site surface.
Availability of covered storage should be assured.
Mobile and covered storage boxes with easy drawing
and filling mechanism can be used, which can be used
over a number of sites.
3. Demolished brick masonry and concrete is a good
material for filling. Steel from RCC must be carefully
segregated and rest of the material should be crushed on
site only. Crushed masonry and concrete is even good
for manufacture of synthetic aggregate.
4. The recyclable items like metal, plastic should be sent to
recyclable industry, and rest of this scrap should be
stored in a covered area.
5. Dry processes of construction are effective for reduction
of water requirements and even the waste generation.
Use of Interlocking bricks, pre-cast roofing and wall
panels etc. will be suitable for this purpose.
6. Materials, which are durable and do not require
frequent maintenance, should be used. Exposed
brickwork in hot and dry climate with Class I bricks
requires minimum maintenance. Instead of using stone
masonry, stone cladding is a better way to minimize the
maintenance.
7. Wherever materials (aggregates, sand, etc.) are more
likely to generate fine airborne particles during
operations, nominal wetting by water could be
practiced. Workers / labour should be given proper air
masks and helmets.
8. Skilled labour and good workmanship is must for
judicial utilization of materials and minimizing the
waste.
9. Construction is more of management. Proper estimate
of material is a very first measure to minimize the undue
wastage.
10. Contaminated runoff from storage should be captured
in ditches or ponds with an oil trap at the outlet.
Contaminated plastic sheeting should be packed and
disposed off site.
11. Communities nearby the blasting site should be
consulted before deciding blasting timings / durations
and they should be informed / evacuated as required
with the knowledge of the district collector’ office .
12. Bitumen emulsion should be used wherever feasible.
Contractors should be encouraged to heat with
kerosene, diesel or gas to gradually substitute fuel wood.
Fuel wood usage for heating should be limited to
unsound log i.e. dead and fallen trees.
13. Bitumen should not be applied during strong winds to
avoid danger of forest fire. Bitumen emulsion should not
be used in rains. No bitumen must be allowed to flow
into the side drain. The bitumen drums should be stored
in a designated place and not be scattered along the
roadside.
14. Rubbish, debris and bitumen wastes remaining after
blacktop works should be cleaned and disposed off in a
safe place.
15. Materials wasted on site should be reused at the same
place. For example, use of excavated earth in
landscaping, or use of waste pieces of floor tiles in floor
of porch or outdoor spaces, or use of remaining pieces of
glass from window panes into ventilators, skylights and
boundary wall, or reuse of ply and other timber pieces
into furniture etc.
(Source : 1 Ecohousing mainstreaming project, science and Technology Park, Pune
2 Queensland Government (EPA))
These practices suggest the measures for reduction of waste.
However, each type of waste needs special attention and specific
kind of management, as the wastes from different activities
poses different characteristics. The part of waste management,
which comes under the domain of builder, is the good building
and site design for facilitation of better management of waste,
waste management for construction sites and considerations for
hazardous and e-waste management in overall process of work.
The sections of this chapter deal with four types of waste, i.e.,
the construction and demolition waste, municipal waste,
hazardous waste and e-waste.
5.4 Construction and demolition Waste management
The construction and demolition waste includes debris,
concrete (often recycled and reused at the site), steel and other
metals, pallets, packaging and paper products, fluorescent
tubes, wood beams, joists, studs, baseboards, cabinets and
cupboards, railings, brick, doors and casings, interior windows,
bathroom fixtures, light fixtures, ceiling grid and tile,
furnishings, replant trees, shrubs.
5.4.1 Waste recycling Plan
Waste and recycling plans should be developed for construction
and demolition projects, prior to beginning construction
activity. The plans should identify wastes to be generated, and
designate handling, recycling and disposal method to be
followed.
5.4.2 Handling
Handling of waste material requires special precautions such as
personal protective equipment and special procedures to
prevent the injury. Developers must operate safe methods for
waste collection, storage, and disposal operations in a manner
to protect the health and safety of personnel, minimize
environmental impact and promote material recovery and
recycling.
5.4.3 Demolition
Orderly deconstruction is the proper measure for reuse of the
demolished matter. In contrast to demolition, where buildings
are knocked down and materials are either land filled or
recycled, deconstruction involves carefully taking apart portions
of buildings or removing their contents with the primary goal
being reuse. It can be as simple as stripping out cabinetry,
fixtures, and windows, or manually taking apart the building
frame 22.
22
http://www.ciwmb.ca.gov/condemo/
A detailed estimate of the valuable materials, which are likely to
be obtained during demolition process, is required before the
demolition work starts. An evaluation should be conducted to
determine if hand deconstruction and salvage is an appropriate
and cost effective technique for the project.
5.4.4 Waste Segregation
Gross segregation of construction and demolition wastes into
roadwork materials, structural building material, salvaged
building parts and site clearance wastes is necessary. Additional
segregation is required to facilitate reuse/ recycling.
5.4.5 Storage
Adequate provision shall be made for storage of solid waste and
for easy access to the dustbins;
• for labours from source to the place of storage, and
• from the place of storage to a collection point specified by
the waste collection authority and/or contractor
Three colours of wheeled bins: - dark grey for inert waste, green
for wood and ply waste and blue for hazardous waste can be
used.
A minimum of 4% of the total site area should be allocated
for storage and pre treatment of the waste. This storage area
should be covered and the pollutants from the waste should not
affect the surrounding.
5.4.6 Access to and from bin storage areas
Wheeled bins should be made access with ramps. To ensure this
vehicle access, paths should be paved and at least 1.2 metres
wide with a maximum gradient of 1 in 10. The surface of the
path shall be smooth, continuous and hardwearing. Ramped
kerbs shall be provided where the path meets the highway, and
bins shall not have to pass across designated parking spaces.
Where collection vehicles have to enter developments, there
should be sufficient space on paved roads with turning circles
for easy circulation. This ensures the refuse vehicles to enter
the vicinity of the site without being prevented from doing so by
cars parked close to the entrance. Vehicles should never have to
reverse onto or from a highway to make a collection. Roadways
used by refuse vehicles must be designed to withstand a laden
weight of not less than 28 tonnes.
5.5 Guidelines for municipal waste management
The plan should involve the provision of collection and disposal
of wastes on site. Planning of a construction project should have
due consideration for waste management. Builders are required
to keep space reserved for waste storage, collection and
treatment in site planning and architectural designs.
5.5.1 Collection
Waste, generated by residential buildings is generally from
kitchen, paper and dusting. Waste generation can be broadly
classified under three categories.
1. Waste generated by building during its maintenance- These
waste can further be classified into daily wastes and long
term wastes. Dust deposition is very common phenomenon
in hot dry climatic zones. Daily some amount of dust is
deposited over the floor and furniture surfaces. The long
term waste include broken parts of components of building,
e.g., glass pieces, electric fixtures like fused bulbs, tube
lights, batteries, rotten parts of door window frames, used
carpets, and damaged furniture.
2. Waste generated by landscape areas- These wastes include
litter, garden trimmings, tree cuttings, mowing etc.
3. Waste generated by users- Domestic wastes food leftovers,
vegetable peels, plastic, house sweepings, clothes, ash, etc.
commercial waste generally comprises of paper, cardboard,
plastic, wastes like batteries, bulbs, tube lights etc.
Three-bin system is a good option for segregation at household
level. Storage facilities shall be created and established by
taking into account quantities of waste generation in a given
area and the population densities. A storage facility shall be so
placed that it is accessible to users, within a radius of 25 meter
from the source. Local authorities should provide different
coloured bins for different categories of waste.
Some of the good practices have been practiced in smaller cities
of India. Figure 5.1 and figure 5.2 shows the community
participation in Vellore, Tamilnadu
Fig 5.1 Primary collection using
bicycles
Fig 5.2 Facilitating source Segregation
Quantification of Wastes
Household level- The collection at the source means the
provision of waste collection at household level. This will lead to
waste minimization at the source itself. If the waste is disposed
off in separate bins according to its quality, it will lead to a
better way to manage it. The capacity of dustbins should be
calculated by assuming the following.
• The use period of a building is about 50 year.
• Annual per capita increase in waste generation is 1.33 %23 .
• Collection period from household is 2 days, and from storage
area dustbins is 2 days.
The average quantity and composition of waste in India varies
from state to state, and even city to city. Quantities of waste
generated in metro cities and composition have been given in
Table 5.3 and Table 5.4. Based over this data of the waste
generated in metropolitan cities and the general composition of
Municipal solid waste. The average size of the space required
can be calculated as per the criterion given in the table (Table
5.4). The space requirements in the sites of larger construction
are dependent over the quantity of waste generated. Separation
and collection of the waste is the responsibility of the local
urban bodies. Design of site and the building should facilitate
the easy and convenient collection of waste. The wastes from
the buildings should be easy to salvage if it is applicable or to
send it to recycling industries. This is possible when the
disposal from users has been done in separate bins. The
capacity of bins can be calculated based on general composition
of solid waste, and per capita waste generated by the major
cities. The cities, which do not come into these, can be classified
under Class I and Class II cities. The capacity of household bins
can be calculated accordingly. The average per capita per day
waste production of Class I cities in India is 0.4 kg, and Class II
cities 0.2 kg .
Table 5.3 : Quantities of municipal and solid wastes, generation in metro cities
City
Municipal Solid
Per Capita Waste
Waste (TPD)
(Kg/day)
Ahmedabad
1683
0.585
Bangalore
2000
0.484
Bhopal
546
0.514
Bombay
5355
0.436
Calcutta
3692
0.383
Coimbatore
350
0.429
Delhi
4000
0.475
Hyderabad
1566
0.382
Indore
350
0.321
Jaipur
580
0.398
Kanpur
1200
0.640
Kochi
347
0.518
23
Ref : Solid Waste management in India, TERI
City
Municipal Solid
Per Capita Waste
Waste (TPD)
(Kg/day)
Lucknow
1010
0.623
Ludhiana
400
0.384
Madras
3124
0.657
Madurai
370
0.392
Nagpur
443
0.273
Patna
330
0.360
Pune
700
0.312
Surat
900
0.600
Vadodara
400
0.389
Varanasi
412
0.400
Visakhapatnam
300
0.400
Abbre. : TPD : Tonne per day.
Source : Management of Municipal Solid Waste, Central Pollution Control Board, MOEF
Table 5.4 Composition of Municipal Solid Waste
Description
Percent by Weight
Vegetable, Leaves
40.15
Grass
3.80
Paper
0.81
Plastic
0.62
Glass/Ceramics
0.44
Metal
0.64
Stones/Ashes
41.81
Miscellaneous
11.73
Source : Management of Municipal Solid Waste, CPCB,MOEF.
Table 5.5 : Space required for waste storage
Per capita
Space required in lit. for a
Space required in lit for a
waste
group of 20 families in the year group of 20 families in year
City
(kg/day)
2006
Ahmedabad
0.584
Bangalore
0.484
Bhopal
0.514
Bombay
0.436
Calcutta
0.383
Coimbatore
0.429
Delhi
0.475
Hyderabad
0.382
Indore
0.321
Jaipur
0.398
Kanpur
0.64
Kochi
0.518
Lucknow
0.623
Ludhiana
0.384
2016
104.0
86.2
123.4
102.3
91.5
77.6
108.6
92.1
68.2
76.4
84.6
68.0
57.1
70.8
113.9
92.2
80.9
90.6
100.4
80.7
67.8
84.1
135.2
109.4
110.9
68.4
131.6
81.1
Per capita
Space required in lit. for a
Space required in lit for a
waste
group of 20 families in the year group of 20 families in year
City
(kg/day)
2006
Madras
0.657
Madurai
0.392
Nagpur
0.273
Patna
0.36
Pune
0.312
2016
116.9
69.8
48.6
64.1
55.5
106.8
138.8
82.8
57.7
76.1
65.9
126.8
Surat
0.6
Vadodara
0.389
Varanasi
0.4
69.2
71.2
82.2
84.5
Visakhapatnam
0.4
71.2
84.5
Source: Derived from Table 5.3 and Table 5.4
Similar to the water supply and sanitation system, developer
has to assure the availability and sufficiency of local municipal
body to collect the waste from the proposed site, as the entire
treatment may not be done at the site. Existing landfill or
dumping grounds must have capacity to accommodate the
waste generated by the proposed site.
5.5.2 Storage
Adequate provision shall be made for storage of solid waste.
Adequate means of access shall be provided
For people in the building to the place of storage
From the place of storage to a collection point
specified by the waste collection authority and/or
contractor
Three colours of wheeled bins: - dark grey for non-recyclable
waste, green for kitchen food/ compostable garden waste and
blue for paper (generally used for flats, schools, offices etc). In
addition, boxes must be provided for the collection of other
recyclable materials; a green box is used for paper and a black
box is used for cans and plastic collections. Individual
properties should be allocated a 20-litter bin although for
single-family occupancy.
Boxes should have lids. Flats and multi-storeyed buildings
should have bulk dustbin type container, with a general guide of
one 1100 litre bin being adequate for every 60 units, for smaller
blocks The one to five ratio outlined above could be increased or
decreased according to the number or properties with greater or
less than two bedrooms per unit. The ratio of approx one paper
bin to three residual waste bins is only a guide. Waste and
Cleansing Section can advise on individual cases.
5.5.3 Bin area design and layout
The diagram (Figure 5.3) shows a suggested possible layout for
1100 litter bin and is only to illustrate the practical set out. A
minimum clearance of 150mm is required around all sides of
the bins. Design and choice of construction materials for the bin
area will depend upon the individual site. The bins should be
placed side by side so that residents do not have to squeeze past
to access other bins.
All bin storage areas should have: • Adequate lighting – natural and / or artificial;
• Good natural ventilation if completely enclosed e.g. high and
low level air bricks;
• A smooth, easily cleanable floor e.g. paving or concrete float
finished;
• The floor laid to a fall with suitable drainage;
• A suitable enclosure e.g. wooden fencing, brick or bamboo
walls: The diagram below shows a typical wall construction.
In addition, bin storage areas for flats and Multi-storeyed
buildings should have:• A notice showing which properties are entitled to deposit
refuse;
• Suitable “bump strips” provided internally on doors and
walls to help prevent damage from loaded bins; and
• Double doors with a clear opening of at least 1500mm and a
facility to hold doors open during collection.
1500 lit
Figure 5.3 : Bin Layout
1500 lit
Figure 5.4 : An example of Bin Area Storage
5.5.4 Resource recovery or recycling
Explore the possibility of recycling items that cannot be reused.
After storage, the next step in waste management is recycling.
The households and users of the new development should be
instructed to avoid disposing paper and cardboard wastes along
with other organic waste such as vegetable and food waste
items. Recycling of these items through the local authorities
engaged in these activities should be facilitated. Subsequently
provision can be made at the time of design and construction of
onsite treatment of waste.
5.5.4.1 Onsite treatment of waste
Provision for primary treatment over the site is part of site
planning, and site plan must include a space for primary
treatment of waste. Site plan must include space for biological
processing of the vegetable wastes and leafy matter. The
biodegradable wastes shall be processed by composting, vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion or any other appropriate
biological processing for stabilization of waste.
Biological processing- This technique is most appropriate for
organic and high-moisture wastes and includes two main
processing mechanisms: composting and anaerobic digestion /
biomethanation. Composting and anaerobic digestion are
techniques that involve the conversion of biodegradable wastes
into useful products. This results in the generation of useful
resources. Manure or both manure and energy in the form of
high-calorific-value fuel
Compost Facilities- composting facilities can be established in
developments including the communal gardens space in multioccupation premises for treatment of organic waste as on-site
treatment is recognized as the most sustainable method . This
should include sites where management contracts are in place
and these should use the space for onsite composting of garden
waste. Gardens should be laid out in such a way, that sufficient
space has been allowed for home composting.
In the composting process , heterotrophic micro organisms act
on the organic matter in the waste. Because of the action of
enzymes, the organic compounds are first converted into
simpler intermediates like alcohol or organic acids, and later
into simple compounds like sugars. Further conversion results
in humic acid and available plant nutrients in the form of
soluble inorganic minerals like nitrates, sulphates, and
phosphates. The steps involved in composting process are
shown in figure 5.5.
Organic waste
(complex organic
compounds)
Enzymatic
degradation
Oxygen
moisture
and
Simple
sugars
Microbial
conversion
Inorganic nutrients,
CO2, water and
energy
Figure 5.5 : Steps involved in composting
Vermicomposting- This is a process where food material and
kitchen waste, including vegetable and fruit peels, and papers,
can be converted into compost through the natural action of
worms. An aerobic condition is created due to exposure of the
organic waste to air. Many Asian countries are adopting this
process for waste disposal. Although there are thousands of
species of earthworm, Eisenia foetida and Eisenia andrei are
widely used for decomposition of organic waste. Certain
biochemical changes in the earthworm’s intestine result in the
excretion of cocoons and undigested food known as
vermicastings, which make excellent manure due to the
presence of various rich nutrients such as vitamins and
enzymes, nitrates, phosphates, and potash. The enzymes
produced also facilitate the degradation of various biomolecules
present in solid waste into simple compounds for utilization by
microorganisms. The innovative collection systems with built-in
bins for waste segregation and promotion of home composting
in designated areas are being adopted developed countries.
(Figure 5.6).
Figure 5.6 Household Composting Programme
Chamber Method : This method of preparing compost was
developed and popularised by Dr. Rekha Saxena of Society for
Environment and Development. This is suitable in cities for
management of household municipal waste. In this method 8
chambers were constructed above ground in a row (Figure 4).
The segregated biodegradable waste was filled in the first
chamber for a week. Simultaneously, appropriate quantity of
cow-dung slurry was sprinkled over the waste each day, to
enhance bio-degradation. After one week the waste collected in
the first chamber was transferred manually to the second
chamber and the emptied first chamber was ready for fresh
waste. Following this process in 8 weeks all the chambers were
filled and the waste in the 8th chamber became compost.
Under hot tropical climates, the evaporation from waste
becomes it dry quickly. Hence water should be sprinkled in
each chamber , on the waste to kep it moist so that biodegradation proceeds smoothly. From here after drying and
sieving the compost was ready to use. The size of the chambers
depend on the quantity of waste generated and can be increased
or decreased. For a block consisting of 500 houses, the land
required is approximately 4 m x 9m.
Figure 5.7 : Chamber method
Anaerobic digestion - This is a process suitable for food material
and kitchen waste, including vegetable and fruit peels.
Anaerobic digestion involves the decomposition of organic
compounds by microorganisms in absence of oxygen to produce
biogas, which is a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide. The
optimum temperature for the anaerobic digestion process is
37oC with a pH of 7. In addition to waste treatment, the process
of anaerobic degradation is advantageous because of the
generation of clean fuel that can be used for various thermal
applications and for power generation. The digested sludge can
also be used as manure.
TEAM process for disposal of organic waste : The TEAM
(TERI’s enhanced acidification and methanation) technology is
a source of fuel for thermal applications, especially cooking in
the form of biogas by acting on the Organic solid waste. The
system has a series of acidification and methanation
bioreactors. In the acidification reactor, the waste bed is kept
submerged in water. Organic acids formed as a result of waste
degradation lead to the formation of leachate.
Once a high Concentration of organic is extracted in the
leachate, which occurs in a retention time of six days, anaerobic
degradation of the leachate occurs resulting in biogas. The
phase separation provides suitable environment to the micro
organisms in acidification and methanation stages, thus
enhancing the activity.
The residue inside the acidification reactor is dried in the sun
and then used as manure. The microbial consortia present in
the anaerobic reactor destroys 90% of the COD, and forms
biogas that comprises 70%–75% methane (a high calorific value
fuel), carbon dioxide, nitrogen, traces of hydrogen sulphide, and
moisture.
The technology will be of great application to municipal
corporations and sectors that generate organic waste in large
amounts. The biogas produced through this process can be
piped and put in use as domestic fuel, and also be used for
thermal application.
5.6 Hazardous Waste Management
The buildings produce hazardous wastes also. Leftover products
from households and offices that contain corrosive, toxic,
ignitable, or reactive ingredients are considered “hazardous
waste” . Products, such as paints, cleaners, oils, batteries, and
pesticides that contain potentially hazardous ingredients
require special care when you dispose of them. Improper
disposal of household hazardous wastes can include pouring
them down the drain, on the ground, into storm sewers, or in
some cases putting them out with the trash.
Hazardous wastes from construction and demolition activities
are centering oil, formwork oil, tar and tar products (bitumen,
felt, waterproofing compounds, etc.), wood dust from treated
wood, lead containing products, chemical admixtures, sealants,
adhesive solvents, Explosives and related products and
equipment used in excavation, acrylics, and silica, etc.
Many of these when come into direct contact with skin, can
cause health hazards. Apart from this, there are many other
hazardous wastes; The expected hazardous products, which
need to be disposed off separately is listed below . The dustbins
for these wastes should be made of durable materials like metal
or even masonry if the projects spans for more than a year.
List of Hazardous wastes from construction projects
Asbestos products24 – insulation, tiles etc
Fuels and Heating oils and other volatile /
flammable liquids such as coolants, grease etc.
Centering oil, formwork oil
Tar and Tar products (bitumen, felt, water proofing
compounds25 etc.)
Wood Dust
Lead containing products
Chemicals26 , admixtures, sealants, adhesives
solvents etc.
Paints27 , pigments, dyes and primers28
Carbon black29
Pesticides
Tarpaulin
Explosives and related products and equipment used
in excavations
Product packaging (cement bags, cartons,
containers, plastic covers etc.)
Plastics, Acrylics, Silica, PVC
Fluorescent Lamps Intact and Crushed, Halogen
Lamps, Arc Lamps, UV Lamps, High Pressure
Sodium Lamps, , Neon Lamps, Incandescent Lamps.
Mercury Containing Lamps and Tubes, Mercury
Vapour Lamps, Mercury Containing Devices –
Mercury switches, relays, regulators, thermostats,
thermometers, manometers and debris containing
mercury30
All types of Batteries
Electronic Ballasts, PCBs, Transformers, capacitors,
switchgear, Lead Cable, Oil filled / gel filled cables
Electronic Waste– computer products, circuit
boards, CRTs, electronic parts, solder dross, weld
waste.
24
Asbestos safe Work practices for handling
http://www.woksafebc.com/publications/health_and_safety_information/bytopic/assets/pdf/asbestos.pdf
25 Dictionary of toxins (http://www.budgetartmaterials.com/diofto.html)
26 Human resources development Canada, occupational safety and heath Hand’s Off
(http://worksafesask.ca/files/hrdc/handsen.htm )
27 Paint, Preparation and Existing Paint Safety
(http://www.seemydesign.com/livingroom/considerthis/safety/paint.htm )
28 Dictionary of toxins (http://www.budgetmaterials.com/diofto.htm )
29 Genes,Ethics and Environment – the Ramazzini institute of Occupational and
environmental Health Research (http://www.ramazziniusa.org/sept02/humanecology.htm)
30 Medical waste pollution prevention : Keeping mercury out of the wastewater stream
(http://www.p2pays.org/ref/01/00790.htm )
Due to the characteristics, the wastes generated from the
healthcare establishments are also hazardous in nature.
Biomedical wastes have to be dealt with as per the Biomedical
Wastes (Handling & Management) Rules, 2000.
Following guidelines can be followed for handling these.
5.6.1 Collection and storage of hazardous wastes during Pre
construction and Post construction
Lead based paints and other hazardous materials
may be removed from the structure prior to
deconstruction or demolition activities to minimize
special handling and disposal requirements for the
construction and demolition waste. These activities
must be conducted by qualified personnel using
appropriate health and safety procedures in
accordance with the regulatory requirements.
Isolated storage for hazardous wastes released from
the whole site should be provided on site.
Source segregation of similar wastes is highly
recommended.
Installation of fire extinguisher is mandatory near
storage of hazardous wastes.
5.6.2 Treatment
Thermal processes of treatment are recommended for
hazardous wastes. This method of processing includes direct or
indirect burning of waste material, resulting in heat generation
through technique such as incineration or plasma gasification.
Incineration is more suitable for hazardous waste and requires
burning of the waste material at a high temperature of 1000 0C
in presence of air.
5.6.3 Disposal
There are some type of wastes which need to be disposed off
in the secured landfills. The SLFs should be designed as per
the guidelines prescribed by the Central Pollution Control
Board. Depending upon the situation, the SLF has to be
Single or double liner along with leachate collection &
Removal system. The ash generated from the incineration
Need to be disposed of in the SLF.
5.7 E-waste management
E-waste is one of the fastest growing waste streams around the
world today, fuelled by the exponential growth of electronic
equipments, especially personal computers and their rapid rate
obsolescence. Present estimate shows that, more than 1.38
million PCs are already obsolete in India in both business sector
as well as individual households; and this number is expected to
increase further. In India, E-wastes recycling is done mainly in
unorganized sector which is emerging as a threat to the
environment and health. These wastes contain both precious
metals and toxic substances, which if handled properly can
result in resource recovery.
5.7.1 Collection and storage
Various types of electrical and electronic wastes generated in
the building, which includes PC in case of offices and homes,
Xerox machine components from office and shops, should be
collected separately for transportation to the authorized
recyclers approved by the state/Central pollution control
boards. There should also be provision for storage of these
wastes in the building before transportation.
5.7.2 Processing of e-waste
The e-waste collected should be processed in authorized
recycling unit. The processing steps include
1. Dismantling to isolate the various components
containing reusable materials and metals
2. Extraction of metals from individual component through
efficient and environment friendly technologies
3. Disposal of waste generated during the processing as per
the regulations
Reference
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling)Rules,
1989. Department of Environment, Forests and Wildlife,
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND FORESTS
The e-Waste Guide by Indo-German-Swiss Partnership
for e-waste.
www.indiastat.com, Compendium of Environment
Statistics, 2001, Ministry of Statistics, and Programme
Implementation, Govt. of India.
Asbestos Hazards Handbook - Chapter 4, © 1995
London Hazards Centre, Interchange Studios,
Hampstead Town Hall Centre, 213 Haverstock Hill,
London NW3 4QP, UK
Construction and Demolition Waste management and
resource use opportunities July 2002, Queeensland
Government, Environmental Protection Agency
Solid Waste and Emergency, Response (5305W),
Washington, DC 20460, EPA530-F-04-008,
www.epa.gov/osw
Handling and Disposal of Hazardous Materials at
Construction Site, 1989, under the provision of the
Environment (Protection) Act 1986, by Ministry of
environment and forest
CHAPTER
6 Energy conservation
6.1 Introduction
One of the primary requirements of a building is that it should
have optimum energy performance and yet would provide the
desirable thermal and visual comfort. The three fundamental
strategies adopted to optimise energy performance in a building
can be broadly classified as:
1. Incorporate solar passive techniques in a building design
and enhanced building material specifications to
minimise load on conventional systems (heating,
cooling, ventilation and lighting)
2. Design energy-efficient lighting and HVAC systems
(heating, ventilation and air-conditioning)
3. Use renewable energy systems (solar photovoltaic
systems/ solar water heating systems) to meet a part of
building load
The primary function of a building is to provide comfortable
indoor environment. Traditional buildings of earlier times had
built in architectural features that took maximum advantage of
climate and its surrounding, which was reflected in the planning
and design of the buildings. Modern buildings on the other
hand require help of electromechanical devices, which consume
enormous amount of energy to provide indoor comfort to the
occupants. A growing worldwide concern for the conservation of
energy has reawakened interest in ecologically sustainable
materials, design strategies that respond to the outdoor climate
to achieve comfort conditions inside with minimal dependence
upon electromechanical devices. A climate sensitive design
approach helps achieve thermal and visual comfort with less
dependence upon artificial systems, which results in energy
saving with environmental benefits.
This method of achieving thermal and visual comfort with
minimum or no use of artificial energy is termed as Solar
Passive Architecture.
6.1.2 Scope
This chapter introduces various design concepts , low energy
strategies and energy efficient techniques and technologies that
could be adopted in various climate zones of India. Simple solar
passive techniques such as landscaping, optimum building
orientation, arrangement and shape of buildings, effective
surface to volume ration, proper location and size of opening,
glazing type, shading of windows and judicious selection of
building materials are described in this chapter with reference
to different climate zones of our country. The chapter covers
the recommendation of the energy conservation building code
and the National building code 2005 on energy conservation.
6.1.3 Issues of concern
1.
In the hot climatic zones of the country, the major
concern to achieve comfortable conditions inside
buildings, to resist heat gain and promote heat loss
through the selection of building materials and design
features.
2. In the cold climatic zones of the country, the major
concern is to achieve comfortable conditions inside the
building, to resist heat losses and promote heat gain.
3. The composite zones of the country, the concern is to
resist heat gain in summers and resist heat loss in
winters.
6.1.4 Recommendations and guidelines for solar passive
architecture
The country has been divided into five major climatic zones, the
basis of classification is provided in the Table 6.1. The five
climatic zones are:
1. Hot and dry
2. Warm and humid
3. Composite
4. Temperate
5. Cold
Table 6.1 Climate zone and their characteristics
Sl. No.
Climate zone
Mean monthly
Mean monthly relative
maximum
humidity percentage
temperature
(oC)
i)
Hot-dry
Above 30
Below 55
ii)
Warm-humid
Above 30
Above 55
Above 25
Above 75
iii)
Temperature
Between 25–30
Below 75
iv)
Cold
Below 25
All values
v)
Composite
Source : National Building code, 2005, Part 8
A climate zone that does not have any season for more than six
months is classified as composite zone.
6.1.4.1 Building design components
Building form : Building form can affect solar access and wind
exposure as well as the rate of heat loss or heat gain through the
external envelope. Built form and environment share the most
complementary relationship in a sustainable design process.
The built form in terms of its built mass proportions, density
and size, surface to volume ratio and zoning of the built form on
site should be modulated as per the wind direction and solar
orientation. A compact building form gains less heat during the
day time and loses less heat at night time. The compactness of
the building is measured using a ratio of surface area to volume.
Compactness = S/V,
where, S = Surface area and V = Compactness
Orientation : The amount of solar radiation falling on surfaces
of different orientation varies considerably depending on the
view or exposure to the sun. Orientation of building façade is an
important parameter of solar passive building design. In
tropical climates, northward orientation has a very brief period
of exposure to solar radiation: early morning and late
afternoons on clear summer days. East and west receive
maximum solar radiation during the summer months.
Southward orientations are exposed to solar radiation during
the winter months, which can be potentially used during the
cold periods. Orientation also plays an important role with
respect to wind direction, especially in the hot and humid
climate zones of the country.
6.1.4. 2 Building envelope
Opaque surfaces : Conductivity (K) is defined as the rate of heat
flow through a unit of area of unit thickness of the material, by
unit temperature difference between the two sides. The unit is
W/mK (watt per meter-degree Kelvin). The conductivity value
varies from 0.03 W/mK for insulators to 400 W/mK for metals.
The lower the conductivity, the better the material is as an
insulator. Density is an indicator of conductivity – normally the
higher the density, higher will be the K- value. However, this
does not hold true for insulation materials. Denser insulation
tends to be porous and contains a lot of air, thus keep the
conductivity very low (0.026 W/mK).
Resistance of a surface ( R) = thickness / K – value.
Transmittance (U-value) is defined as i/R.
The unit is W/m2K. Usually, the lower the U-value of the
material, the better is the resistance of the material to transfer
heat.
Thermal insulation : Thermal insulation plays an important role
in reducing the U value for the wall section. Insulation is always
placed on the hotter side of the surface. In case of summer
cooling strategies, insulation is placed on the external side,
while in the case of heating the building; insulation should be
placed on the internal side. A disadvantage with insulation is
that it can prevent the building form to cool down at night.
Roof : Roof receives a significant amount of solar radiation;
therefore the roof structure plays an important role in providing
comfort levels inside the building. In hot climatic zones
sometimes the roof is covered by inverted earth pots with a
layer of earth above them. The earth and air inside the pots
provide good insulation for resisting heat gains.
Walls : Walls constitute a major part of the building envelope
and receive a large amount of direct solar radiation. Depending
upon the climatic zone and requirement for the building for
heating or cooling, wall thickness and composition should be
decided. Wall should confirm to Table 6.3 ( from ECBC 2006)
Thermal storage / Thermal Capacity : Thermal capacity is the
measure of the amount of energy required to raise the
temperature of a layer of material, it is the product of density
multiplied by specific heat and volume of construction layer.
The main effect of heat storage within the building structure is
to moderate the fluctuation in the indoor temperature profile.
The most important aspect to be considered along with the Uvalue of the building section is thermal storage.
Solar heat gain factor : The rate of heat flow through the
construction due to radiation is expressed as a percentage of the
incident solar radiation is known as solar feat gain factor.
SHF (%)= transmitted solar energy / incident solar energy x
100
This is an important criterion for selecting material for areas
with intense solar radiation. Roof is one of the major heat gain
sources in hot tropical regions. In such climate zones the
surface finish should be of high reflective quality, such as light
coloured china mosaic tiles.
Fenestration (Openings) : Window design forms an important
aspect of passive building design. Openings are provided for the
purpose of heat gain, ventilation and daylight. Appropriate
design of window size, glazing and shading devices help to keep
the sun and wind out or allow them inside depending upon the
climatic zone and building typology.
Vertical fenestration shall comply with the recommended Uvalues as well as the maximum solar heat gain factor or Solar
heat gain coefficient (SHGC) requirements as given in the Table
6.4 (Source: Energy Conservation Building Code, 2006). In case
of windows, the solar heat gain includes directly transmitted
solar heat and absorbed solar radiation, which is then
reradiated, conducted or connected into the space. The solar
heat gain coefficient requirement can be achieved by the
selection of glass or selection of glass in combination with
shading devices.
Shading devices : Shading devices can reduce solar gains
through windows. Shading devices that provide significant
shading and are permanent in nature could help in reducing the
solar heat gain factor (SHGC) through the windows. An
adjusted SHGC, accounting for overhangs and or side fins, is
calculated by multiplying the SHGC of the unshaded
fenestration product times a multiplication (M) factor. Refer
section 6.2.3 to optimise the size of shading devices.
6.1.4.3 Climate zones, comfort requirement and passive design
features
1. Hot and dry climatic zone :
The main objective is to resist heat gain and promote
heat loss. Strategies such as low surface by volume ratio
(S/V), increased thermal resistance, increased thermal
capacity (time lag), introduction of buffer spaces,
decreasing the air exchange during the day time,
integration of shading devices and increased surface
reflectivity would enable to reduce heat gains inside the
building.
Design features which shall enable developers
achieve the above defined strategies are: right
orientation and shape of the building, selection of the
building envelope, integration of design features such as
balconies, lobbies, verandas, overhangs, external
shading devices, and integration of landscape design and
trees around the buildings.
The second objective in hot and dry regions is to
promote heat loss. This could be achieved through
ventilation strategies, increased ventilation rates during
night time, increasing the humidity levels.
The above defined strategies could be achieved in the building
design through appropriate window and exhaust design,
integration of courtyards, wind towers in the planning of the
building and the humidity levels could be increased through
integrating water bodies, evaporative cooling and plantation of
trees.
2. Warm and humid region
The passive strategies and design features to achieve comfort is
similar to hot and dry climatic zones. The only difference is the
requirement to decrease humidity levels and continuous high
air exchange rate, ventilation throughout the day is required.
To adequately cross ventilate the occupied areas of a house,
doors and windows should be provided on both windward and
leeward sides of the building. Open planning and wide free
spaces between buildings, courtyard planning between
buildings would help achieve good ventilation. Ventilation of
roof construction would further enhance heat loss through the
building structure.
Thus the requirements to be satisfied by the design and
construction of a building in warm and wet climate are:
provision of continuous and efficient ventilation, protection
from the sun, rain and insects, prevention of internal
temperature to rise during day through right building envelope
selection and ventilation strategies. In certain months where
comfort conditions are impossible, dehumidifiers and desiccant
cooling would be desired.
3. Moderate regions
Similar to hot, dry and warm and humid climatic
zones, the main objective of the building design is to
resist heat gain and promote heat loss. Strategies
such as low surface to volume ratio (S/V), increased
thermal resistance and increased thermal capacity
(time lag), optimised shading and increased surface
reflectivity of the external surfaces would help
reduce heat gain inside buildings.
Design features which enable the developers achieve
the above defined strategies are: right orientation
and shape of the building, insulation on the roof,
east and west orientations, glass surfaces on the east
and west orientations should be protected by
optimised overhang designs, louvers and trees.
External surfaces should be finished in light or pale
colours, roof to be finished in glazed china mosaic
tiles.
The second objective is to promote heat loss, which
could be achieved through ventilation of appliances
and increased air exchange rates. Design features
such as correct window design, optimum spacing
between building locks, courtyard planning would
enable developers achieve passive strategies into the
building design.
4. Cold regions
The main objective of passive building designs in
cold regions is to resist heat loss and promote heat
gain. Low surface to volume ratio, increased thermal
resistance, increased thermal capacity (time lag),
increased buffer zones, decrease in air exchange rate
and increased surface absorptivity are some of the
design strategies that shall enable building designers
and developers to resist heat losses from the
building.
Physical design features that shall enable developers
achieve the desired strategies are: right orientation
and shape of the building, use of trees to act as wind
barriers, use of double glazed windows with weather
stripping that shall reduce infiltration of outside air,
insulation on the roof and external walls, thick walls
to increase thermal capacitance and the external
finish of walls should be dark in colour to increase
surface absorptivity.
The second objective in cold climatic zones is to
promote heat gain, which is achieved through
maximum exposure of external surfaces to solar
radiation, therefore reduce shading over windows.
Heat gains from appliances could be utilised to
increase internal air temperature. Heat inside the
building could also be trapped through
incorporation of sun spaces, green houses and
trombe walls in the building design.
5. Composite region
Composite climate region, the building design should resist heat
gain in summers and resist heat loss in winters. And the
building should promote heat loss in summer and monsoon
months.
Passive strategies and building design features which the
developers should consider while designing buildings in the
composite climate zones are: low surface to volume ratio, which
is obtained through optimised building shape and form, with
respect to correct orientation. Increase thermal resistance and
thermal capacity which is achieved through insulating roof,
walls and designing thick walls. Increase buffer zones to protect
the building mass from direct exposure to solar radiation. This
is achieved through incorporating verandas and balconies in the
design. Decrease outside air exchange rate during day time
while increase air exchange rate during night time. Increase
shading, by protecting glazed surfaces through overhangs,
louvers and trees. Increase external surface reflectivity through
selecting light or pale colour finish of the building envelope and
finish the roof via glazed china mosaic tiles. In the summer
months, increase the humidity, which could be obtained
through plantation of trees and water bodies for evaporative
cooling. During the monsoon months, if comfort inside the
building is not achievable, it is recommended to incorporate
dehumidifiers or desiccant cooling in the building.
6.1.4.4 Advanced solar passive techniques
Passive heating : When the temperature outside is lower than
inside, heat flows away from a building through its external
envelope and by air exchange. The rate of heat loss is
determined by building geometry and constructional properties,
and by the temperature difference between the inside and
outside.
In well-insulated buildings, heat is lost mostly when ventilation
by fresh air takes place. Careful consideration should be given to
the following:
1.
An airtight construction with controllable means of
ventilation to minimize unwanted infiltration of outdoor
air while providing an adequate supply of fresh air
2. Heat recovery from the outgoing indoor air as a means
of reducing the heat deficit imposed by ventilation in
the cool period.
Passive solar heating is the spontaneous warming effect
resulting from the absorption of solar radiation. The
temperature rise this induces leads to heat flow from the
affected surface to other surfaces and indoor air, as well as to
heat storage within the building structure. Heat storage
modulates the excess and deficit in solar gain over the daily
cycle, and is a critical design consideration.
The scope for passive solar heating increases with the
temperature difference that needs to be bridged between the
inside and the outside. However, while maximizing the
admission of solar heat into the building, one should keep in
mind that this at times may lead to over-heating.
Passive solar heating relies on one or more of the following:
Windows, clerestories, and skylights; these expose
occupied spaces to the sun
Glazed walls and roofs; these collect and store solar
energy without exposing occupied spaces to the sun
directly
Free-running transitional spaces such as
conservatories and glazed atria.
Direct gain method: Direct gain is a passive heating technique
used in cold climates. It is the most common, simple, cheap and
effective approach for heating the interiors of a building.
Sunlight is permitted into the habitable spaces through an
opening to directly strike and heat the floor, walls or other
internal objects, which, in turn, heat the air within the room.
Glazed windows are located to face the south (in the
northern hemisphere) to receive maximum sunlight in winter.
To reduce heat losses during the night these windows are often
double-glazed and have insulating curtains.
During the day, the area of the building directly exposed to
sunlight tends to over-heat and hence high thermal mass is
provided as storage for the heat in the form of bare massive
walls or floors to arrest the increase in room temperature.
During the night when night temperature falls, heat stored in
the mass is released into the interiors. However care should be
taken to see that carpets or curtains do not cover the floor or
walls as this prevents heat exchange.
An appropriately designed overhang may be provided to
avoid undesired over-heating. In addition to windows, direct
gain may be achieved by openings such as clerestories,
skylights, greenhouses or glass curtain walls.
Some examples of thermal storage materials are concrete,
bricks, stone, and water. The high thermal mass is usually
located in the internal or external walls, floors or other built-in
structures that receive sun directly.
Indirect gain : In this strategy, a thermal storage wall is placed
between the glazing and habitable space. This prevents solar
radiation from directly entering the living space. It is absorbed
by the storage and then indirectly transferred to the habitable
space.
Trombe wall : A trombe wall is a thick solid wall with vents at
its lower and upper ends. This wall is placed directly behind the
glazing with an air gap in between. The vents act as inlets of
warm air into the room and as outlets for flushing out cool air
from the room.
The trombe wall is usually painted black or a dark colour to
increase its heat absorptive capacity. The air in the space
between the glazing and wall gets heated and enters the
habitable room through the upper vents. A natural convection
air current is set up when the cool air in the room takes its place
through the lower vents.
A part of the heat absorbed by the wall is transferred to the
room by conduction and radiation as well. Usually the thickness
of the mass wall is between 200 and 450 mm, the air gap is 50–
150 mm and the total area of vents is about 1% of the wall area.
Water can also be used as a thermal storage material similar to
the trombe wall. A water wall can be made up of drums of water
stacked up behind the glazing. The external surface needs to be
painted black whereas the internal can be any colour. Since
storage in the wall is a convective body of mass, heat transfer is
more rapid as compared to a masonry wall. Tin cans, bottles,
tubes, bins or barrels can also be used to provide different heat
exchange surfaces to the storage mass ratio.
Solar chimneys : This system is a kind of modified trombe wall
that is incorporated into the roof. A solar chimney is essentially
a collector panel with minimum thermal inertia on the south
face (in the northern hemisphere) of the building. It absorbs
incident solar radiation and heats up the air in the air space.
The collector needs to be well insulated to prevent heat loss
to the outside. Hot air forces itself into the living space and
warms it. Cooler air takes its place and the convection loop
repeats itself.
Sunspaces/solaria : A sunspace is an integration of direct gain
and thermal storage concepts. Solar radiation admitted into the
sunspace heats up the air which, by convection and conduction
through the mass wall reaches the habitable space. It essentially
consists of a greenhouse constructed on the south side of the
building with a thick mass wall linking the two.
Passive cooling : Passive cooling systems rely on natural heat
sinks to remove heat from a building. They derive cooling
directly from evaporation, convection radiation without using
any intermediate electrical devices. All passive cooling
strategies rely on daily changes in temperature and relative
humidity. The applicability of each system depends upon the
prevailing climatic conditions.
Relatively simple techniques that could be adopted to provide
natural cooling in the building have been elaborated earlier.
These are:
1. Reduction of solar and connective heat import by:
orientation of the building
shading by adjoining buildings
landscaping
window-shading devices
surface texture and colour
2. Reduction of heat transmission in the building by
thermal insulation
air cavities
The above-mentioned design strategies reduce heat gains to
internal spaces.
This section briefly elaborates passive techniques that aid heat
loss from a building by convection, radiation, evaporation or by
utilizing the storage capacity of surrounding spaces e.g. earth
berming. The passive cooling techniques described are
Evaporative cooling
Radiative cooling
Ground cooling
Ventilation
Evaporative cooling : Principle: Evaporation occurs whenever
the vapour pressure of water is higher than the partial pressure
of water vapour in the adjacent atmosphere. The phase change
of water from liquid to vapour is accompanied by the absorption
of a large quantity of sensible heat from the air that lowers the
dry bulb temperature of the air while the moisture content of
the air is increased.
The evaporative cooling with increase in moisture content of
the air is called direct evaporative cooling and when there is no
increase of moisture content it is called indirect cooling.
Evaporative cooling lowers indoor air temperatures by
evaporating water. It is partially effective in hot, dry climates
where the atmospheric humidity is low. In evaporative cooling,
the sensible heat of air-cools the living space of the building.
The presence of a water body such as pond, lake, or sea near the
building or even a fountain in a courtyard can provide a cooling
effect. The most commonly used system is a desert cooler,
which comprises water, evaporative pads, a fan and a pump.
Indirect evaporative cooling systems : Roof sprays: External
cooling through humidification can be achieved by keeping the
surfaces of roofs moist using sprays or a lawn sprinkler. The
surface temperature can be reduced significantly, but large
amounts of water are used.
Roof pond: A water body covering the roof functions similarly to
a soil cover, it minimizes the diurnal temperature range. It is a
technically demanding and expensive solution.
Radiative cooling : Principle: Any object emits energy by
electromagnetic radiation. If two elements at different
temperatures are facing one another, a net radiant heat loss
from the hotter element will occur till equilibrium is reached.
Any buildings, which see the sky, exchange heat with it. In order
to have an appreciable net heat flux between two bodies, the
temperature difference should be significant (typically at least 7
ºC).
Factors affecting radiative cooling are as follows:
Temperature difference between the sky and surface.
(Tsky – Tsurface)
Emissivity of the surface
Emmissivity of sky (E = 1 for clear sky)
Depends on the sky condition
Radiative coefficient (function wind velocity)
Radiative cooling strategies :
Nocturnal cooling: Night sky cooling can use very low-energy
passive systems and can be very effectively used for office
buildings, institution, residential buildings.
The heat storage by the envelope can be removed with nocturnal
cooling so that the envelope is ready to store the day heat gain.
Roof pond: Movable insulation : A roof pond system with
movable insulation is a perfect example of radiative cooling.
In summer : the roof pond is covered with insulation with a
surface finish of low absorbtivity. During the daytime, this
minimizes the solar radiation impact on the roof, as the water in
the pond holds the heat gain and further increase the time lag.
During the night the insulation is removed and the heat stored
in the daytime is exchanged with the night sky.
In winter: The operation of the movable insulation is reversed
to allow heat gain in daytime and reduce heat loss during the
night.
Courtyards : Due to incident solar radiation in courtyards, the
air gets warmer and rises. Cool air from ground level flows
through louvered openings of rooms producing an air flow.
At night, the warm roof surface gets cooled by convection and
radiation. If that exchange reduces the roof’s surface
temperature to the wet bulb temperature of air, condensation of
atmospheric moisture takes place on roof and that gain due to
condensation limits further cooling.
If the roof surfaces slope towards the internal courtyard, the
cooled air sinks into the court and enters the living space
through low-level openings and leaves through higher level
openings.
Temperature depressions of 4 to 7 °C below the ambient can be
obtained during clear night-sky conditions.
Limitations : When the courtyard is allowed to receive intense
solar radiation, much heat is conducted and radiated into the
building.
Intense solar radiation in courtyard also produces immense
glare.
Ground cooling : Principle: Thought the year the earth’s
temperature below a depth of 2.5 metres remains more or less
constant thus offering an important sink for the dissipation of a
building’s excess heat. Heat dissipation to the ground can be
achieved by conduction or by convection.
Ground cooling strategies :
Earth berm structure : Underground structures in contact with
the earth are benefited by the huge thermal mass of the adjacent
ground and are thus not affected by hot days or chilly nights.
Factors affecting earth berm structures are
Ground water table
Daylighting
Structural stability
Ventilation
Geothermal cooling or earth-air tunnel systems :
Principle: These work on the principle of conduction and
convection. The earth has very stable thermal properties. It has
been scientifically proven and validated that temperature at a
depth of above 4 m below ground is equal to the annual average
temperature of a particular place. This means that on summer
days when the outside temperature in some places goes up to 45
°C or goes down to 4 °C in the winter, the temperature at a
depth of 4 m depth is constant and equal to the annual average
temperature of that place.
Hot summer air is passed through a buried pipe and as it passes
through there is an exchange of heat between the air and the
surrounding earth. Hence, during the summer, the air gets
cooled up and during the winter it gets heated up. This air is
circulated to the living spaces where it takes up the humidity
and cools the structure by convection. It works in a similar
manner during the winter, picking up the earth’s heat and
releasing it to the structure.
Factors to be considered in the system design are:
Depth of the buried pipe below the ground
Diameter of the pipe
Material of the pipe
Length of the pipe
Wind speed (minimum of 2 m/s)
Temperature difference between air temperature
and ground temperature.
Ventilation :
The ventilation of indoor spaces provides a means to control
indoor air quality and achieve thermal comfort. Air movement
can provide appropriate air velocities for thermal comfort, even
when the temperature and humidity are not the most
appropriate.
Where outdoor air conditions allow it, natural conditions
may prove to be a way to reduce internal cooling load. Natural
ventilation may result from air penetration through a variety of
unintentional openings in the building envelope, but it also
occurs as a result of manual control of a building's openings
(like doors and windows). In both cases, air is driven in and out
of the building as a result of pressure difference across the
openings, which are due to the combined action of wind and
buoyancy-driven forces.
The term natural ventilation is used to describe ventilation
processes caused by naturally produced pressure differences
due to wind and the stack effect. Natural ventilation is achieved
by 'infiltration' and/or by allowing air to flow in and out of a
building by openings doors and windows. The term 'infiltration'
is used to describe the random flow of air through leakage paths
in the building's envelope. The presence of cracks and a variety
of unintentional openings, their sizes and distribution
determine the leakage characteristics of a building and its
potential for air infiltration. The distribution of air leakage
paths in a building determines the magnitude of wind-and
stack-driven infiltration and the nature of airflow patterns
inside the building.
The ventilation of a building can have a significant effect on
energy consumption and a thorough assessment of natural as
against mechanical ventilation should be made as the decision
could significantly affect the energy efficiency of a building.
Ventilation is carried out by one of these two methods:
Stack effect :
Air movement due to the stack effect occurs when temperature
differences between a zone and the environment adjacent to it,
be it another zone or the exterior, cause light warm air to rise
and flow out of the warm zone, while cooler air flows in. The
stack effect occurs in tall buildings, particularly in places with
vertical passages such as stairwells, elevators, and shafts.
The chimney effect occurs when a density differential is created
because of a temperature difference between the interior and
the exterior of a building. A higher building temperature causes
reduction in the density of air within it and causes it to rise. If
there is an opening at a higher level, the hot air exits through it
and is replaced by cooler air infiltrating the building through a
lower opening. The efficiency of ventilation depends on the
temperature difference between the inside and outside, the size
of inlets and outlets and height difference between the entry
and exit openings. The magnitude of airflow associated with the
stack effect and infiltration grows with the temperature
difference.
Wind-induced pressure differences
Positive pressure is created on the side of the building that faces
the wind (windward side) whereas suction regions are formed
on the opposite sides (leeward sides) and on the other sidewalls.
This results in a negative pressure inside the building, which is
sufficient to introduce large flows through the building
openings. In general, an inflow of air is induced on the
windward side and an outflow on the leeward side.
The action of external wind on the walls of the building may be
used to effect ventilation inside.
Wind pressure on a building depends on wind direction,
wind speed, and the shape of the building and location of its
openings. The size of the inlet and outlet affect internal wind
speed and direction in the following manner:
1. Small inlets and large outlets will result in high maximum
speed but poor distribution, with large areas of the room
experiencing low wind speeds.
2. Large inlets and small outlets will result in lower maximum
speeds but better distribution of air movement throughout
the room, with only a small area having low speeds.
3. Internal wind speed does not increase significantly when
window size is increased beyond 40% of wall area.
Location of openings for ventilation : The proper location of
openings is of primary importance in obtaining natural and
efficient ventilation.
The following observations have been recorded in wind tunnel
studies:
1. Changing the location of the outlet does not affect the
airflow pattern in the building.
2. Changing the location of the inlet affects air-flow pattern
in the building in the following manner:
Direction of airflow and speed are both dependent on the
location of the inlet. Bringing the opening closer to the floor or
the ceiling will accordingly divert the flow. It is usually desirable
to place the inlet between 1 m and 2 m from the floor to direct
airflow towards the heads of the occupants.
3. Overhangs or awnings increase the air velocity through
windows below themRoof-level vertical fins may be added to the side of the
windows to increase air speed.
4. The configuration of sashes may significantly affect flow
of air through openingSashes opening on vertical or horizontal pivots allow reflection
and control of air current direction.
A continuous flow of air will be ensured if there are no
significant barriers (like walls or internal partitions) between
entry and exit openings.
In cross-ventilation, the airflow depends directly on the
difference in pressure at the openings. The main parameters
influencing airflow levels are:
• Inlet and outlet surfaces of the openings
• Wind velocity and direction
• Temperature difference between the indoor and outdoor
environments
• The relative positions of the openings
• The relative wind shadowing of the building
These parameters can be combined in almost infinite ways and
therefore it is virtually impossible to classify and present in a
simple way results of all possible configurations. However, it is
possible to study the impacts of some decisive architectural
design parameters under certain urban and climatic conditions.
Night ventilation
Daytime ventilation introduces fresh outdoor air, which is
necessary in order to maintain acceptable indoor air quality. In
addition to these amounts of outdoor air, ventilation can also
provide appropriate means for passive cooling, once the
outdoor air is at a lower temperature.
Alternatively, ventilation can also continue into the night
time, with positive results on reducing the cooling load of the
building. During the night, outdoor temperatures are lower than
indoor ones. Consequently, it is possible to ventilate the
building by allowing the outdoor air to enter the spaces and
remove the stored heat that has been trapped during the day.
The air movement increases the heat dissipation from the
building materials and the warmer air is then exhausted into the
low temperature atmospheric heat sink. This process continues
during the night and, as a result, the indoor air temperature and
mass of the building are at lower levels when the temperature-
increase cycle starts again the following day. Consequently, in
the morning, occupants enter a cooler environment, which
means that even in air-conditioned buildings, one could have
substantial energy savings from the reduced operation of the
mechanical system.
Night ventilation of a high mass structure can lower internal
temperatures by 7 °C in a hot-dry climate. Even though this
temperature is still higher than the comfort range, the
difference can be overcome with the use of cross ventilation and
ceiling fans. Similarly in hot, humid climates the temperature
drop due to night ventilation is 3 °C but can be aided by good
cross-ventilation.
Ventilation strategies
Chimneys
Chimney or stacks can be used to provide high-level ventilation
outlet devices. They work mainly through the stack effect,
allowing the warm air at high level in rooms to escape to
outside.
Although windows and other openings are key components
that induce natural ventilation, there are some additional
means of enhancing air movement (e.g wind towers and solar
chimneys). Wind towers use the kinetic energy and wind, which
is properly channelled into a building to generate air movement
within a space. Solar chimneys are constructions used to
promote air movement throughout a building using solar gains.
Wind towers
Wind towers are generally used in hot and dry climates for
cooling. Wind towers operate in many ways depending on the
time of day and wind availability. Wind towers work on the
principle of changing air density in and around the tower.
During daytime, hot ambient air comes into contact with the
cool, top part of the tower and gets cooled. Cool, dense air sinks
through the tower and into living species (through vents and
openings). Increased wind velocity improves the performance of
wind towers. During the night the reverse takes place. Cool air
comes in contact with the warm inner surface of the tower. This
air in turn gets warmed up, rises and is exhausted through
openings. The pressure difference thus created pulls the cool
night air through the doors and windows into the building.
Due to small storage capacities, sensible cooling may stop
after several hours of operation on hot summer days. In order to
improve the efficiency of its operation, evaporating cooling is
used in conjunction with sensible cooling. Wind towers can
bring about a difference of 10–15 oC in arid climates. Wind
towers can be combined with ground cooling to give better
performance and have been used effectively in several buildings
in the Middle East and West Asia.
It may be noted that wind towers are used only for summer
cooling. Proper care should be taken to close the vents and
openings during the winter.
Building envelope recommendations as per ECBC 2006
The building envelope for all air conditioned buildings and air
conditioned spaces have to comply with prescriptive
requirements of Energy conservation building code or with the
requirements of the Building envelope trade off option (The
building envelope complies with the code if the building
envelope performance factor (EPF) of the proposed design is
less than the standard design, where the standard design exactly
complies with the criteria in 4.1. The envelope trade-off
equation is found in Appendix 13 of ECBC (Download from
[email protected])
6.2 Prescriptive requirements
6.2.1 Roofs
Roofs shall comply with either the maximum assembly U-factor
or the minimum insulation R-value in Table 6.2. R-value is for
the insulation alone and does not include building materials or
air films. The roof insulation shall not be located on a
suspended ceiling with removable ceiling panels.
Table 6.2 Roof assembly U-factor and insulation R-value requirements*
Climate
Zone
24-Hour use buildings Hospitals,
Daytime use buildings Other Building
Hotels, Call Centers etc.
Types
Maximum U-
Minimum R-
Maximum U-
Minimum R-
factor of the
value of
factor of the
value of
overall assembly
insulation alone
overall assembly
insulation alone
(W/m2-°C)
(m2-°C/W)
(W/m2-°C)
(m2-°C/W)
U-0.261
R-3.5
U-0.409
R-2.1
U-0.261
R-3.5
U-0.409
R-2.1
U-0.261
R-3.5
U-0.409
R-2.1
Moderate
U-0.409
R-2.1
U-0.409
R-2.1
Cold
U-0.261
R-3.5
U-0.409
R-2.1
Composite
Hot and
Dry
Warm and
Humid
*See Appendix 12.3 for typical complying roof constructions
6.2.2 Opaque walls
Opaque walls shall comply with either the maximum assembly
U-factor or the minimum insulation R-value in Table 6.3. Rvalue is for the insulation alone and does not include building
materials or air films.
Table 6.3: Opaque wall assembly U-factor and insulation R-value requirements
Hospitals, Hotels, Call Centers (24-Hour)
Other Building Types (Daytime)
Minimum R-
Climate
Maximum U-factor of
Minimum R-value
Maximum U-factor of
value of
Zone
the overall assembly
of insulation alone
the overall assembly
insulation
(W/m2-°C)
(m2-°C/W)
(W/m2-°C)
alone (m2°C/W)
Composite
U-0.352
R-2.35
U-0.352
R-2.35
U-0.369
R-2.20
U-0.352
R-2.35
U-0.352
R-2.35
U-0.352
R-2.35
Moderate
U-0.431
R-1.80
U-0.397
R-2.00
Cold
U-0.369
R-2.20
U-0.352
R-2.35
Hot and
Dry
Warm and
Humid
See Appendix 12.4 for typical complying wall constructions
Exception: Until December 31, 2007, the wall assembly U-factor
is allowed to be U-0.440 maximum or insulation R-2.10
minimum
6.2.3 Vertical fenestration
Vertical fenestration shall comply with the maximum area
weighted U-factor and maximum area weighted SHGC
requirements of Table 6.4. Vertical fenestration area is limited
to a maximum of 40% of the gross wall area for the prescriptive
requirement.
Table 6.4: Vertical fenestration U-factor and SHGC requirements
Maximum UClimate
factor
Maximum SHGC
(W/m2-°C)
Composite
3.177
0.25
Hot and Dry
3.177
0.25
Warm and Humid
3.177
0.25
Moderate
6.922
0.40
Cold
4.085
0.51
Exception to Table 6.2.3: Overhangs and/or side fins may be
applied in determining the SHGC for the proposed design. An
adjusted SHGC, accounting for overhangs and/or sidefins, is
calculated by multiplying the SHGC of the unshaded
fenestration product times a multiplication (M) factor. If this
exception is applied, a separate M Factor shall be determined
for each orientation and unique shading condition.
The M factor could be determined by the Projection Factor (PF),
which is the ratio of the overhang projection (P) divided by the
sum of the height of the fenestration and the distance from the
top of the fenestration to the bottom of the farthest point of the
external projection in consistent units (H). Thus, PF = P/H
For example: Window on South orientation,
H
=
P
=
Glass selected has SHGC
=
PF
=
M
=
1200mm,
900mm
0.46
0.46M
0.52
Adjusted SHGC = M*SHGC of glass = 0.52*0.46 = 0.24
Table 6.5: SHGC “M” factor adjustments for overhangs and fins
Vertical Fin “M” Factors for 4
Overhang “M” Factors for 4 Projection Factors
Project
Orien-
0.25–
0.50–
Overhang+Fin “M” Factors for 4
Projection Factors
0.75–
1.00
0.25–
0.50–
Projection Factors
0.75–
1.00
0.25–
0.50–
0.75
1.00
Location
tation
0.49
0.74
0.99
+
0.49
0.74
0.99
+
0.49
0.74
0.99
+
North
N
.88
.80
.76
.73
.74
.67
.58
.52
.64
.51
.39
.31
latitude 15°
E/W
.79
.65
.56
.50
.80
.72
.65
.60
.60
.39
.24
.16
or greater
S
.79
.64
.52
.43
.79
.69
.60
.56
.60
.33
.10
.02
Less than
N
.83
.74
.69
.66
.73
.65
.57
.50
.59
.44
.32
.23
15° North
E/W
.80
.67
.59
.53
.80
.72
.63
.58
.61
.41
.26
.16
latitude
S
.78
.62
.55
.50
.74
.65
.57
.50
.53
.30
.12
.04
Exception to SHGC Requirements in Table 6.2.3 :Vertical
Fenestration areas located more than 2.2 m (7 ft) above the level
of the floor are exempt from the SHGC requirement in Table
6.4, if the following conditions are complied with:
1. Total Effective Aperture: The total Effective Aperture for the
elevation is less than 0.25, including all fenestration areas
greater than 1.0 m (3 ft) above the floor level; and,
2. An interior light shelf is provided at the bottom of this
fenestration area, with an interior projection factor (PF) not
less than:
i.
1.0 for E-W, SE, SW, NE, and NW orientations
ii.
0.5 for S orientation, and
iii. 0.35 for N orientation when latitude is < 23
degrees.
6.2.3.1 Minimum Visible Transmission (VT) of Glazing for
Vertical Fenestration
To permit the use of available day lighting in place of electric
lighting, glazing products used in offices, banks, libraries,
classrooms with predominant daytime usage, must have the
minimum visual transmittance (VT), defined as function of
WWR, where Effective Aperture >0.1, equal to or greater than
the Minimum VT requirements of Table 6.6. The table also
indicates recommended VT ranges for daylight applications in
such spaces.
Table 6.6: Minimum VT requirements
WWR
Minimum VT
0–0.3
0.27
0.31–0.4
0.20
0.41–0.5
0.16
0.51–0.6
0.13
0.61–0.7
0.11
6.2.4 Skylights
Skylights shall comply with the maximum U-factor and
maximum SHGC requirements of Table 6.7 Skylight area is
limited to a maximum of 5% of the gross roof area for the
prescriptive requirement.
Table 6.7: Skylight U-factor and SHGC Requirements
Maximum U-factor
Climate
With
curb
Maximum SHGC
w/o curb
0-2% SRR
2.1–5%
SRR
Composite
11.24
7.717
0.40
0.25
Hot and Dry
11.24
7.717
0.40
0.25
Warm and Humid
11.24
7.717
0.40
0.25
Moderate
11.24
7.717
0.61
0.4
Cold
11.24
7.717
0.61
0.4
SRR = Skylight roof ratio which is the ratio of the total skylight area of the
roof, measured to the outside of the frame, to the gross exterior roof.
6.3 Building envelope trade-off option
The building envelope complies with the code if the building
envelope performance factor (EPF) of the proposed design is
less than the standard design, where the standard design exactly
complies with the criteria in § 4.3. The envelope trade-off
equation is as below:
Appendix E – Building Envelope Trade off Method
Equation
The envelope performance factor shall be calculated using the
following equations.
where
,
EPFRoof – Envelope performance factor for roofs. Other
subscripts include walls and fenestration.
As, Aw – The area of a specific envelope component referenced
by the subscript "s" or for windows the subscript "w".
SHGCw – The solar heat gain coefficient for windows (w).
SHGCs refers to skylights.
Mw – A multiplier for the window SHGC that depends on the
projection factor of an overhang or sidefin.
Us – The U-factor for the envelope component referenced by
the subscript "s".
CRoof – A coefficient for the "Roof" class of construction. Values
of "c" are taken from Table 6.7 through Table 6.11 for each class
of construction.
Table 6.8: Envelope performance factor coefficients – Composite climate
Daytime occupancy
24-Hour Occupancy
U-factor
SHGC
U-factor
Mass walls
6.01
--
13.85
SHGC
Curtain walls, Other
15.72
--
20.48
Roofs
11.93
North windows
-1.75
40.65
-4.56
Non-North windows
-1.25
54.51
0.68
86.57
Skylights
-96.35
311.71
-294.66
918.77
24.67
58.15
Table 6.9: Envelope performance factor coefficients – Hot dry climate
Daytime
24-Hour
Occupancy
Occupancy
U-
U-factor
SHGC
Mass Walls
5.48
-
15.01
-
Curtain Walls, Other
6.38
-
22.06
-
Roofs
11.14
-
25.98
-
North Windows
-2.40
36.57
-1.49
56.09
Non-North Windows
-1.86
46.79
1.187
81.79
Skylights
-96.27
SHGC
factor
-
309.33
923.01
295.81
Table 6.10: Envelope Performance Factor Coefficients – Hot Humid Climate
Daytime
24-Hour
Occupancy
Occupancy
U-factor
SHG
U-
C
factor
SHGC
Mass Walls
6.42
-
9.60
-
Curtain Walls, Other
14.77
-
19.71
-
Roofs
9.86
-
14.11
-
-7.29
64.19
-6.48
76.83
-295.45
893.55
North Windows
-1.58
Non-North Windows
-1.00
Skylights
-96.11
34.9
5
43.0
9
305.
45
Table 6.11: Envelope Performance Factor Coefficients – Moderate Climate
Daytime
24-Hour
Occupancy
Occupancy
U-
U-
factor
SHGC
factor
SHGC
Mass Walls
2.017
-
3.11
-
Curtain Walls, Other
2.72
-
4.11
-
Roofs
5.46
-
5.86
-
North Windows
-3.10
29.66
-11.95
62.14
Non-North Windows
-2.98
34.86
-11.62
68.45
Skylights
-96.21
298.82
294.12
876.70
Table 6.12: Envelope Performance Factor Coefficients – Cold Climate
Daytime
24-Hour
Occupancy
Occupancy
U-
U-
factor
SHGC
factor
SHGC
Mass Walls
5.19
-
5.19
-
Curtain Walls, Other
6.76
-
6.76
-
Roofs
5.69
-
5.67
-
North Windows
1.55
9.13
1.55
9.13
Non-North Windows
-1.13
16.32
-1.13
16.32
Skylights
-93.44
283.18
-93.44
283.18
Overhang and side fin coefficients
The “M” multiplication factor can also be calculated using
equation below. If the equation is used, a separate calculation
shall be made for each orientation and unique shading
condition.
Equation: M= a. PF 2 + b. PF + 1
Budget building definition
1. The following rules shall be used to define the budget
building.
2. The budget building shall have the same building floor
area, gross wall area and gross roof area as the proposed
design. If the building has both 24-hour and daytime
occupancies, the distribution between these shall be the
same as the proposed design.
The U-factor of each envelope component shall be equal
to the criteria from Table 6.2 for each class of
construction.
3. The vertical fenestration area shall be equal to the
proposed design or 40% of the gross exterior wall area,
which ever is less. The skylight area shall be equal to the
proposed design or 5% of the gross exterior roof area,
which ever is less.
4. The SHGC of each window or skylight component shall
be equal to the criteria from 6.2
6.4 Lighting
India generates about 101 630 MW (megawatts) of electricity
(as of 2001). Of this, approximately 17% is consumed in the
commercial/public sector and about 10% in the domestic sector.
Lighting constitutes a key component of energy consumption in
buildings. Typically in a fully air conditioned office building in
India, lighting constitutes about 20% of total energy
consumption. According to TERI’s estimates, in India , about
15% of the total electricity generated is used for lighting in
various sectors. However, with advent of new technological
solutions and knowledge on harnessing natural sources of
energy, energy consumption in lighting can be significantly
reduced.
Good lighting aims at illuminating the task effectively and
the general surroundings appropriately. Good lighting design
enhances architecture but energy-efficient lighting design
enhances both the design and the performance of building.
Energy-efficient lighting design focuses on methods and
materials that improve both quality and efficiency of lighting. A
good lighting design should be able to provide desired quantity
and quality of light at minimum energy consumption
An energy efficient approach to design for energy efficient
lighting aims to cover the following aspects.
• Illuminance level for specified task
• Use of efficient lighting equipment e.g. lamps, luminaries
and control gears
• Use of appropriate controls.
• Explore possibilities of daylight integration
• Ensure effective maintenance
Additionally the following parameters are also critical to a good
lighting design:
• Room surface brightness
• Glare reduction
• Uniform light distribution
• Good lamp coloration
6.4.1 Design for specified illumination level as recommended by the
National building code 2005
The basic intent in an efficient lighting design to achieve the
desired illumination level and light quality at minimum energy
use. For the purpose of achieving the desired objectives, the
following procedure should be followed to ensure efficient
lighting
Illumination level for specified task should be maintained at all
times as recommended by National building code 2005.
The National Building Code recommends a range of
illumination levels for a activity as circumstances may be
significantly different for different interiors used for the same
application or for different conditions for the same kind of
activity. Each range consists of three successive steps of
recommended scale of illuminance. For working interiors, the
middle value of each range represents the recommended service
illuminance that should be used unless one or more of the
factors mentioned below apply.
The higher value of the range should be used when:
• Unusually low reflectance or contrasts are present in the
task;
• Errors are costly to rectify
• Visual work is critical
• Accuracy or high productivity is of great importance; and
•
The visual capacity of the worker makes it necessary.
The lower value of the range may be used when:
• Reflectance or contrast are unusually high;
• Speed and accuracy is not important; and
• The task is executed only occasionally.
Where a visual task is required to be carried out through an
interior, general illumination level meeting the recommended
value on the working plane is necessary; where the precise
height and location of the task are not known or cannot be
easily specified, the recommended value is that on horizontal
850 mm above floor level.
Note: For an industrial task, working plane for the purpose of
general illumination levels is that on a work place which is
generally 750 mm above the floor level. For certain purposes,
such as viewing the objects of arts, the illumination levels
recommended are for the vertical plane at which the art pieces
are placed.
Where the task is localised, the recommended value is that for
the task only; it need not, and sometimes should not, be the
general level of illumination used throughout the interior.
Some processes, such as industrial inspection process, call for
lighting of specialized design, in which case the level of
illumination is only one of the several factors to be taken into
account.
Table 6.13: Recommended Values of illuminance for some common activities as
recommended by National Building Code 2005
Range of
Quality class
service
of direct
Type of interior
Illuminance
glare
Sl. No.
or activity
in Lux
limitation
1
Commerce
1.1
Offices
1.1.1
General Offices
300-500-700
1
1.1.2
Deep plan
500-750-
1
general offices
1000
Computer work
300-500-750
1
300-500-750
1
300-500-750
1
1.1.3
stations
1.1.4
Conference
rooms,
executive
offices
1.1.5
Computer and
data
preparation
rooms
Remarks
Range of
Quality class
service
of direct
glare
Type of interior
Illuminance
Sl. No.
or activity
in Lux
limitation
1.1.6
Filing rooms
200-300-500
1
1.2
Drawing offices
1.2.1
General
300-500-750
1
1.2.2.
Drawing boards
500-750-
1
Remarks
1000
1.2.3
Computer
-
-
aided design
Special lighting is
required
and drafting
1.2.4
Print rooms
1.3
Banks and
200-300-500
1
300-500-750
1
200-300-500
1
300-500-750
1
300-500-750
1
building
societies
1.3.1
Counter office
area
1.3.2
Public area
2
Retailing
2.1
Small shops
2.2
Small service
The service illuminance
should be provided on
with counters
the horizontal plane of
shops with
the counter. Where wall
Island Displays
displays are used, a
similar illuminance on
the wall is desirable.
2.3
Supper
markets, Hyper
Markets
2.3.1
General
300-500-750
2
2.3.2
Checkout
300-500-750
2
2.3.3
Showroom for
300-500-750
1
100-150-200
2
200-300-500
1
150-200-300
-
large objects,
for example,
cars, furnitures.
2.3.4
Shopping
precincts and
arcades
3
Places of
Public
Assembly
3.1
Public rooms,
village halls,
worship halls
3.2
Concert Halls,
Cinemas and
Theaters
3.2.1
Foyer
Range of
Quality class
service
of direct
glare
Type of interior
Illuminance
Sl. No.
or activity
in Lux
limitation
Remarks
3.2.2
Booking Office
200-300-500
-
Local or localized
lighting may be
appropriate
3.2.3
Auditorium
50-100-150
-
Dimming facilities will
be necessary. Special
lighting of the aisles is
desirable.
3.2.4
Dressing rooms
200-300-500
-
Special mirror lighting
for make up may be
required.
3.2.5
Projection room
100-150-200
-
3.3
Churches
3.3.1
Body of church
100-150-200
2
3.3.2
Pulpit, lectern
200-300-500
2
Use local lighting
3.3.3
Choir stalls
200-300-500
2
Local lighting may be
3.3.4
Alter,
100-150-200
2
Additional lighting to
appropriate.
communion
provide emphasis is
table, chancel
desirable
3.3.5
Vestries
100-150-200
2
3.3.6
Organ
200-300-500
-
3.4
Hospitals
3.4.1
Anaesthatic
rooms
3.4.1.1
General
200-300-500
-
3.4.1.2
Local
750-1000-
-
3.4.2
Consulting area
3.4.2.1
General
200-300-500
-
3.4.2.2
Examination
750-1000-
-
1500
1500
3.4.3
Corridors
3.4.3.1
General
3.4.4
Ward corridors
3.4.4.1
Day, screened
100-150-200
-
150-200-300
-
from bays
3.4.4.2
3.4.4.3
Day, open to
150-200-300
natural light
(Total)
Morning/
100-150-200
-
5-10
-
Evening
3.4.4.4
Night
3.4.5
Cubicles
3.4.5.1
General
200-300-500
-
3.4.5.2
Treatment
750-1000-
-
1500
3.4.6
Examination
Range of
Quality class
service
of direct
Type of interior
Illuminance
glare
Sl. No.
or activity
in Lux
limitation
3.4.6.1
General
200-300-500
3.4.6.2
Local
750-1000-
inspection
1500
3.4.7
Intensive
Remarks
therapy
3.4.7.1
Bed head
30-50
3.4.7.2
Circulation
50-100-150
between bed
ends
3.4.7.3
Observation
200-300-500
3.4.7.4
Local
750-100-
Observation
1500
3.4.7.5
Staff base (day)
200-300-500
3.4.7.6
Staff base
30
-
(night)
3.4.8
Laboratories
3.4.8.1
General
200-300-500
-
3.4.8.2
Examination
300-500-750
-
3.4.9
Nurse’s station
3.4.9.1
Morning/day/ev
200-300-500
-
ening
3.4.9.2
Night desks
30
-
3.4.9.3
Night, medical
50-100-150
-
trolleys
3.4.10
Operating
Theatres
3.4.10.1
General
300-500-750
3.4.10.2
Local
10000 to
50000
3.4.11
Pathology
3.4.11.1
General
200-300-500
3.4.11.2
Examination
300-500-750
3.4.11.3
Pharmacies
200-300-500
3.4.11.4
Reception/
200-300-500
departments
enquiry
3.4.11.5
Recovery
200-300-500
rooms
3.4.12
Wardcirculation
3.4.12.1
Day
50-100-150
3.4.12.2
Morning /
50-100-150
Evening
3.4.12.3
Night
3.4.13
Ward-bed head
3-5
-
Special operating lights
are used
Range of
Quality class
service
of direct
Type of interior
Illuminance
glare
Sl. No.
or activity
in Lux
limitation
3.4.13.1
Morning/
30-50
Remarks
Evening
3.4.13.2
Reading
3.4.14
Night
100-150-200
3.4.14.1
Adult
3.4.14.2
Pediatric
1
3.4.14.3
Psychiatric
1-5
3.4.14.4
Watch
5
3.4.15
X-Ray areas
3.4.15.1
General
150-200-300
3.4.15.2
Diagnostic
150-200-300
3.4.15.3
Operative
200-300-500
3.4.15.4
Process dark
50
0.1-1
room
3.4.16
Surgeries
3.4.16.1
General
150-200-300
3.4.16.2
Waiting rooms
100-150-200
3.4.17
Dental
Surgeries
3.4.17.1
Chair
Special
3.4.17.2
Laboratories
300-500-750
3.4.18
Consulting
3.4.18.1
General
200-300-500
3.4.18.2
Desk
300-500-750
-
3.4.18.3
Examination
300-500-750
-
300-500-750
-
lighting
-
Rooms
Couch
3.4.18.4
Ophthalmic
Walls and near
–vision charts
3.5
Hotels
3.5.1
Entrance Halls
50-100-150
3.5.2
Reception,
200-300-500
-
cashier’s and
Localised lighting may
be appropriate
porter’s desk
3.5.3
Bars, Coffee
50-200
The lighting should be
base, dining
designed to create an
rooms, grill
appropriate
rooms,
atmosphere.
restaurants,
lounges
3.5.4
Cloak Rooms,
baggage rooms
50-100-150
3
Range of
Quality class
service
of direct
glare
Type of interior
Illuminance
Sl. No.
or activity
in Lux
limitation
Remarks
3.5.5
Bed Rooms
30-50-100
-
Supplementary local
lighting at the bed head,
writing table should be
provided.
3.5.6
Bathroom
50-100-150
-
Supplementary local
lighting near the mirror
is desirable
3.5.7
Food
-
-
preparation and
See ‘General Building
Areas’
stores, cellars,
lifts and
corridors
3.6
Libraries
3.6.1
Lending Library
3.6.1.1
General
200-300-500
1
3.6.1.2
Counters
300-500-750
1
Localised lighting may
3.6.1.3
Bookshelves
100-150-200
2
The service illuminance
be appropriate
should be provided on
the vertical face at the
bottom of the
bookstack.
3.6.1.4
Reading
200-300-500
1
200-300-500
1
Rooms
3.6.1.5
Reading Tables
Localised lighting may
be appropriate
3.6.2
Catalogues
3.6.2.1
Card
100-150-200
2
3.6.2.2
Microfiche/
100-150-200
2
Visual display
units
3.6.3
Reference
Libraries
3.6.3.1
General
200-300-500
1
3.6.3.2
Counters
300-500-750
1
Localised lighting may
be appropriate
3.6.3.3
Bookshelves
100-150-200
2
The service illuminance
should be provided on a
vertical surface at the
foot of the bookshelves.
3.6.3.4
Study tables,
300-500-750
1
200-300-500
1
carrels
3.6.3.5
Map room
3.6.4
Display and
exhibition areas
Range of
Quality class
service
of direct
glare
Type of interior
Illuminance
Sl. No.
or activity
in Lux
limitation
3.6.4.1
Exhibits
200-300-500
-
50 to 150
-
300-500-750
2
300-500-750
2
100-150-200
3
200-300-500
-
150
-
Remarks
insensitive to
lights
3.6.4.2
Exhibit
sensitive to
light, for
example,
pictures, prints,
rare books in
archives
3.6.5
Library
Workrooms
3.6.5.1
Book repair and
book binding
3.6.5.2
Catalogue and
3.6.5.3
Remote book
sorting
stores
3.7
Museums and
3.7.1
Exhibits
Art Galleries
insensitive to
light
3.7.2
Light sensitive
This is the maximum
exhibits for
illuminance to be
example, oil
provided on the
and temper
principal plane of the
paints, undyed
exhibit.
leather, bone,
ivory, wood etc.
3.7.3
Extremely light
-
This is the maximum
illuminance to be
exhibits, for
provided on the
example, oil
principal plane of the
and temper
object.
paints, undyed
leather, bone,
ivory, wood,
etc.
3.8
50
sensitive
Sports Facilities
Sl. No.
Range of
Quality class
service
of direct
Type of interior
Illuminance
glare
or activity
in Lux
limitation
Remarks
Multi purpose
300-750
-
The lighting system
sports halls
should be sufficiently
flexible to provide
lighting suitable for the
variety of sports and
activities that take place
in sports halls. Higher
illuminance of 10002000 lux would be
required for television
coverage.
4
Education
4.1
Assembly Halls
4.1.1.
General
200-300-500
3
4.1.2.
Platform and
-
-
stage
Special lighting to
provide emphasise and
to facilitate the use of
the platform/stage is
desirable.
4.2
Teaching
spaces
General
200-300-500
1
4.3
Lecture
4.3.1
General
200-300-500
1
4.3.2
Demonstration
300-500-750
1
Localised lighting may
4.4
Seminar rooms
300-500-750
1
Localized lighting may
Theatres
benches
be appropriate
be appropriate
4.5
Art rooms
300-500-750
1
4.6
Needlework
300-500-750
1
300-500-750
1
Rooms
4.7
Laboratories
4.8
Libraries
200-300-500
1
4.9
Music Rooms
200-300-500
1
4.10
Sports Halls
200-300-500
1
4.11
Workshops
200-300-500
1
5
General
5.1
Entrance
5.1.1
Entrance halls,
150-200-300
2
Building Areas
lobbies, waiting
rooms
5.1.2
Enquiry desks
300-500-750
2
5.1.3
Gatehouses
150-200-300
2
Localised lighting may
be appropriate.
Range of
Quality class
service
of direct
Type of interior
Illuminance
glare
Sl. No.
or activity
in Lux
limitation
5.2
Circulation
areas
5.2.1
Lifts
50-100-150
-
5.2.2
Corridors,
50-100-150
2
passageways,
stairs
5.2.3
Escalators,
100-150-200
travelators
5.3
Medical and
First aid
centers
5.3.1
Consulting
300-500-750
2
rooms,
treatment
rooms
5.3.2
Rest rooms
100-150-200
1
5.3.3
Medical stores
100-150-200
1
50-100-150
-
100-150-200
1
150-200-300
2
200-300-500
2
300-500-750
2
100-150-200
2
200-300-500
2
5.4
Staff Rooms
5.4.1
Changing,
locker and
cleaners
rooms,
cloakrooms,
lavatories
5.4.2
Rest rooms
5.5
Staff
5.5.1
Canteens,
Restaurants
cafeterias,
dining rooms,
mess rooms
5.5.2
Servery,
vegetable
preparation,
washing-up
area
5.5.3
Food
Preparation
and cooking
5.5.4
Food stores,
5.6
Communication
cellars
s
5.6.1.
Switchboard
rooms
Remarks
Range of
Quality class
service
of direct
glare
Type of interior
Illuminance
Sl. No.
or activity
in Lux
limitation
5.6.2
Telephone
100-150-200
2
300-500-750
2
200-300-500
2
Remarks
apparatus
rooms
5.6.3
Telex room,
post room
5.6.4
Reprographic
room
5.7
Building
Services
5.7.1
Boiler houses
5.7.1.1
General
50-100-150
3
5.7.1.2
Boiler Front
100-150-200
3
5.7.1.3
Boiler Control
200-300-500
2
Room
Localized lighting of the
control display and the
control desk may be
appropriate
5.7.1.4.
Control rooms
200-300-500
2
Localized lighting of the
control display and the
control desk may be
appropriate
5.7.1.5
Mechanical
100-150-200
2
100-150-200
2
50-100-150
3
Plant room
5.7.1.6
Electrical power
supply and
distribution
rooms
5.7.1.7
Store rooms
5.8
Car Parks
5.8.1
Covered Car
5.8.1.1
Floors
5-20
-
5.8.1.2
Ramps and
30
-
50-100-150
-
Parks
Corners
5.8.1.3
Entrances and
exits
5.8.1.4
Control booths
150-200-300
-
5.8.1.5
Outdoor Car
5-20
-
Parks
The lighting design should conform to following
recommendations of the Draft Energy Conservation Building
Code 2006 drafted by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, GoI.
Follow the mandatory and prescriptive requirements of the
energy conservation building code as detailed below:
General
Lighting systems and equipment shall comply with the
provisions of Energy conservation building Code as outlined
below:
The lighting requirements in this section shall apply to:
(a) Interior spaces of buildings,
(b) Exterior building features, including facades, illuminated roofs, architectural features,
entrances, exits, loading docks, and illuminated canopies, and,
(c) Exterior building grounds lighting that is provided through the building's electrical service.
Exceptions to above:
(a) Emergency lighting that is automatically off during normal building operation and is
powered by battery, generator, or other alternate power source; and,
(b) Lighting in dwelling units except for dwelling units where the developer is providing lighting
fixtures inside the units (however, common area lighting of residential complexes fall under
purview of the code)
6.4.2 Interior lighting power
The installed interior lighting power for a building shall not
exceed the interior lighting power allowance determined in
accordance with either Table 6.14 or 6.15.
Exceptions:
The following lighting equipment and applications shall not be considered when determining the
interior lighting power allowance, nor shall the wattage for such lighting be included in the
installed interior lighting power. However, any such lighting shall not be exempt unless it is an
addition to general lighting and is controlled by an independent control device.
Display or accent lighting that is an essential element for the function performed in galleries,
museums, and monuments,
Lighting that is integral to equipment or instrumentation and is installed by its manufacturer,
Lighting specifically designed for medical or dental procedures and lighting integral to
medical equipment,
Lighting integral to food warming and food preparation equipment,
Lighting for plant growth or maintenance,
Lighting in spaces specifically designed for use by the visually impaired,
Lighting in retail display windows, provided the display area is enclosed by ceiling height
partitions,
Lighting in interior spaces that have been specifically designated as a registered interior
historic landmark,
Lighting that is an integral part of advertising or directional signage,
Exit signs,
Lighting that is for sale or lighting educational demonstration systems,
Lighting for theatrical purposes, including performance, stage, and film or video production
Athletic playing areas with permanent facilities for television broadcasting.
Building area method
Determination of interior lighting power allowance (watts) by
the building area method shall be in accordance with the
following:
a. Determine the allowed lighting power density from Table
6.15 for each appropriate building area type.
b. Calculate the gross lighted floor area for each building area
type.
c. The interior lighting power allowance is the sum of the
products of the gross lighted floor area of each building area
times the allowed lighting power density for that building
area types.
Table 6.14 Interior lighting power – building area method
Building Area Type
LPD
Building Area
LPD (W/m2)
(W/m2)
Type
Automotive Facility
9.7
Multifamily
7.5
Convention Center
12.9
Museum
11.8
Court House
12.9
Office
10.8
Dining: Bar
Lounge/Leisure
Parking Garage
14.0
3.2
Penitentiary
Dining:
Cafeteria/Fast Food 15.1
Dining: Family
10.8
Performing Arts
17.2
Dormitory
Theater
17.2
Police/Fire
10.8
Station
10.8
Exercise Center
10.8
Post Office
11.8
Gymnasium
11.8
Religious Building 14.0
Healthcare-Clinic
10.8
Retail
Hospital/Health
Care
16.1
School/University
12.9
12.9
Hotel
10.8
Sports Arena
11.8
Library
14.0
Town Hall
11.8
Manufacturing
Transportation
Facility
14.0
Motel
10.8
Motion Picture
Theater
10.8
Warehouse
8.6
Workshop
12.9
15.1
In cases where both a general building area type and a specific building
area type are listed, the specific building area type shall apply.
Or,
Space Function Method
Determination of interior lighting power allowance (watts) by
the space function method shall be in accordance with the
following:
a. Determine the appropriate building type from Table 6.16 and
the allowed lighting power density.
b. For each space enclosed by partitions 80% or greater than
ceiling height, determine the gross interior floor area by
measuring to the center of the partition wall. Include the
floor area of balconies or other projections. Retail spaces do
not have to comply with the 80% partition height
requirements.
c. The interior lighting power allowance is the sum of the
lighting power allowances for all spaces. The lighting power
allowance for a space is the product of the gross lighted floor
area of the space times the allowed lighting power density
for that space.
Table 6.15 Interior lighting power – space function method
Space Function LPD (W/m2) Space Function LPD (W/m2)
Space Function
LPD
Space Function
LPD (W/m2)
(W/m2)
Office-enclosed
11.8
Library
11.8
Cataloging
11.8
Stacks
18.3
12.9
Office-open plan
Card File &
Conference/Meeting/Multipurpose 14.0
Classroom/Lecture/Training
15.1
Reading Area
Lobby
14.0
Hospital
For Hotel
11.8
Emergency
29.1
For Performing Arts Theater
35.5
Recovery
8.6
For Motion Picture Theater
11.8
Nurse Station
10.8
Audience/Seating Area
9.7
Exam Treatment
16.1
For Gymnasium
4.3
Pharmacy
12.9
For Exercise Center
3.2
Patient Room
7.5
For Convention Center
7.5
Operating Room
23.7
For Religious Buildings
18.3
Nursery
6.5
For Sports Arena
4.3
Medical Supply
15.1
For Performing Arts Theater
28.0
Physical Therapy
9.7
For Motion Picture Theater
12.9
Radiology
4.3
For Transportation
5.4
Laundry – Washing
6.5
6.5
Repair
Atrium-each additional floor
2.2
Manufacturing
Lounge/Recreation
12.9
Low Bay (<8m ceiling) 12.9
Atrium-first three floors
Automotive – Service
For Hospital
7.5
High Bay (>8m
8.6
Dining Area
ceiling)
18.3
Detailed
9.7
Manufacturing
22.6
For Hotel
14.0
Equipment Room
12.9
For Motel
12.9
Control Room
5.4
For Bar Lounge/Leisure Dining
Hotel/Motel Guest
15.1
For Family Dining
Rooms
11.8
Dormitory – Living
22.6
Quarters
Food Preparation
12.9
Museum
Laboratory
15.1
General Exhibition
10.8
Restrooms
9.7
Restoration
18.3
Dressing/Locker/Fitting Room
11.8
Bank Office – Banking
6.5
Activity Area
16.1
Corridor/Transition
5.4
Religions Buildings
For Hospital
10.8
Worship-pulpit, choir
25.8
For Manufacturing Facility
5.4
Fellowship Hall
9.7
Space Function LPD (W/m2) Space Function LPD (W/m2)
Space Function
LPD
Space Function
LPD (W/m2)
(W/m2)
Stairs-active
6.5
Retail
Active Storage
8.6
Sales Area
18.3
For Hospital
9.7
Mall Concourse
18.3
Inactive Storage
3.2
Sports Arena
For Museum
8.6
Ring Sports Area
29.1
Electrical/Mechanical
16.1
Court Sports Area
24.8
15.1
Workshop
20.5
Indoor Field Area
Sleeping Quarters
3.2
Warehouse
Convention Center – Exhibit
Space
Fine Material Storage
14.0
15.1
Medium/Bulky
Material Storage
9.7
Parking Garage –
Garage Area
2.2
Transportation
Airport – Concourse
6.5
Air/Train/Bus –
Baggage Area
10.8
Terminal – Ticket
Counter
16.1
Installed interior lighting power
The installed interior lighting power calculated for compliance
with 6.3 shall include all power used by the luminaires,
including lamps, ballasts, current regulators, and control.
Exception to 6.6.3: If two or more independently operating lighting systems in a space
are controlled to prevent simultaneous user operation, the installed interior lighting
power shall be based solely on the lighting system with the highest power devices
except as specifically exempted in 7.1.
Luminaire wattage
Luminaire wattage incorporated into the installed interior
lighting power shall be determined in accordance with the
following:
a. The wattage of incandescent luminaires with medium base
sockets and not containing permanently installed ballasts
shall be the maximum labeled wattage of the luminaires.
b. The wattage of luminaires containing permanently installed
ballasts shall be the operating input wattage of the specified
lamp/ballast combination based on values from
manufacturers’ catalogs or values from independent testing
laboratory reports.
c. The wattage of all other miscellaneous luminaire types not
described in (a) or (b) shall be the specified wattage of the
luminaires.
d. The wattage of lighting track, plug-in busway, and flexiblelighting systems that allow the addition and/or relocation of
luminaires without altering the wiring of the system shall be
the larger of the specified wattage of the luminaires included
in the system or 135 W/m (45 W/ft). Systems with integral
overload protection, such as fuses or circuit breakers, shall
be rated at 100% of the maximum rated load of the limiting
device.
6.4.3 Exterior lighting power
For building exterior lighting applications specified in Table
6.16, the connected lighting power shall not exceed the specified
lighting power limits specified for each of these applications.
Exterior lighting for all other applications (except those
included in the Exceptions to Table 6.16) shall comply with the
requirements of 6.7
Table 6.16 Exterior Building Lighting Power
Exterior Lighting Applications
Power Limits
Building entrance (with canopy)
13 W/m2 (1.3 W/ft2) of canopied area
Building entrance (without canopy)
90 W/lin m (30 W/lin f) of door width
Building exit
60 W/lin m (20 W/lin f) of door width
Building facades
2 W/m2 (0.2 W/ft2) of vertical facade area
Exceptions 6.4.3: Lighting used for the following exterior applications is exempt when
equipped with an independent control device:
(a) Specialized signal, directional, and marker lighting associated with transportation;
(b) Lighting used to highlight features of public monuments and registered historic landmark structures or
buildings;
(c) Lighting that is integral to advertising signage; or
(d) Lighting that is specifically designated as required by a health or life safety statute, ordinance, or
regulation.
Energy efficient lighting: some basic steps
The light power densities as recommended by the ECBC are the
maximum recommended standards. It is strongly
recommended to design lighting schemes with LPD values
lower than as specified by the ECBC, yet achieving the NBC
specified lighting levels. The following section provides select
information on lighting equipment which would be useful for
designers.
Energy conservation in lighting can be achieved
by use of efficient lamps, luminaries and control
devices
by reducing wastage
by ensuring proper utilization of daylight and
control glare from windows
by maintaining lighter finishes of ceiling, walls and
furnishings,
by implementing periodic schedule for cleaning of
luminaries and group replacement of lamps at
suitable intervals.
Choice of light sources with higher luminous efficacy and
luminaries with appropriate light distribution is the most
effective means of energy saving in lighting. The major
considerations in selection of the lamps and luminaires are the
following.
Illuminance level for the task
CRI of the light source
Arrangement of the lamp, including mounting
height
Lamp type (lumen output), size (watt), and likely
lifespan (hours)
Type of luminaire, including mirror optics
Luminous efficacy of some of the lamps used in lighting of
buildings are given in Table 6.17 along with average life in
burning hours, Colour Rendering Index and Colour
Temperature (ref NBC2005).
Table no. 6.17 Luminous efficacy of lamps
Sl. No.
Light Source
i)
Incandescent
Efficacy
Average
CRI
CCT
Lm/W
Life h
8-18
1000
100
2800
Tungsten halogen
10% higher than
2000
100
2800-3200
incandescent
comparable GLS
lamps
Lamps
lamps
GLS 25 W – 1000
W
ii)
Mains – voltage
types :
60 W – 2000 W
low-voltage types
with reflector have
low wattages
iii)
Fluorescent Lamps
(FTL)
a)
Standard
Lamps
38 mm (T12)
20W-65W
26 mm (T8)
18W-58W
Cool daylight
61
5000
72
6500
Warm White
67
5000
57
3500
Sl. No.
Light Source
b)
Efficacy
Average
Lm/W
Life h
CRI
CCT
85-95
2700-6500
Tri-Phosper
lamps
38 mm (T12)
20 W – 65 W
880-104
1200018000
26 mm (T8)
18 W- 58 W
iv)
Compact
Fluorescent
Lamps (CFL)
Similar
40-80
8000
36-60
5000
45
4000
11-26
5000
61
3600
23
2000
68-92
3000-5000
to FTL
5 W-25 W
v)
High Pressure
Mercury vapour
lamps
80 W- 400 w
vi)
Blended – Light
Lamps
vii)
High Pressure
sodium Vapour
Lamps
69 – 130
10000 –
15000
50 W – 1000 W
viii)
Metal halide lamps
35 w – 2000 W
69 –83
10000
Notes
1. The table includes lamps and wattages currently in use in buildings in India.
2. Luminous efficacy varies with the wattage of the lamp.
3. Average life values are from available Indian Standards. Where Indian Standards is not
available, values given are only indicative.
4. CRI and CCT values are only indicative.
5. For exact values, it is advisable to contact manufacturers.
Luminiare efficiency
The efficiency of a luminaire is the percentage of lamp lumens
produced that exit the fixture. Use of louvers improve visual
comfort, reduce glare but reduces efficiency. It is thus important
to determine the best compromise between efficiency and visual
comfort probability while choosing luminaries. A lighting
simulation is necessary to determine the type of luminaire and
lamp combination for a specific application.
Efficient luminaire also plays an important role for energy
conservation in lighting. The choice of a luminaire should be
such that it is efficient not only initially but also throughout its
life. Following luminaries are recommended by the NBC 2005
for different locations:
For offices semi-direct of luminaries are
recommended so that both the work plane
illumination and surround luminance can be
effectively enhanced.
For corridors and staircases direct type of luminaries
with wide spread of light distribution are
recommended.
In residential buildings, bare fluorescent tubes are
recommended. Wherever the incandescent lamps
are employed, they should be provided with white
enameled conical reflectors at an inclination of
about 45°from vertical.
Ballasts
All discharge lamps, including fluorescents, require a ballast for
proper operation. Typical ballast losses are taken as
approximately 15% of the lamp wattage. It is important to
include calculation of ballast losses when comparing
consumption and savings fo different kinds of lamps. New
electronic or solid state ballasts, now available in market, save
approximately 20—30% in energy consumption over standard
ballasts.
6.4.4 Lighting controls
Reducing the connected load of the lighting system represents
partly the potential for maximizing energy savings. Lighting
controls play a major role in reducing energy consumption by
avoiding wastages. There are numerous choices available today
from simple light switches to fully automated systems.
Automatic controls switch off or dim the lights based on the
time, occupancy, illumination requirements, or a combination
of all three.
Following are the recommendations of the ECBC on
provision for lighting control in buildings
Automatic Lighting Shutoff
Interior lighting systems in buildings larger than 500 m2 (5,000
ft²) shall be equipped with an automatic control device. Within
these buildings, all office areas less than 30 m2 (300 ft2)
enclosed by walls or ceiling-height partitions, all meeting and
conference rooms, all school classrooms, and all storage spaces
shall be equipped with occupancy sensors. For other spaces, this
automatic control device shall function on either
a.
A scheduled basis at specific programmed times. An
independent program schedule shall be provided for
areas of no more than 2,500 m2 (25,000 ft²) and not
more than one floor; or,
b.
Occupancy sensors that shall turn the lighting off within
30 minutes of an occupant leaving the space. Light
fixtures controlled by occupancy sensors shall have a
wallmounted , manual switch capable of turning off
lights when the space is occupied. Exception to 6.4.4.:
Lighting systems designed for 24-hour use.
Space Control
Each space enclosed by ceiling-height partitions shall have at
least one control device to independently control the general
lighting within the space. Each control device shall be activated
either manually by an occupant or automatically by sensing an
occupant. Each control device shall
a. Control a maximum of 250 m2 (2,500 ft2) for a space
less than or equal to 1,000 m2 (10,000 ft2), and a
maximum of 1,000 m2 (10,000 ft2) for a space greater
than 1,000 m2 (10,000 ft2).
b. Be capable of overriding the shutoff control required no
more than 2 hours, and
c. Be readily accessible and located so the occupant can see
the control.
Exception to 6.4.4 The required control device may be remotely
installed if required for reasons of safety or security. A remotely
located device shall have a pilot light indicator as part of or next
to the control device and shall be clearly labeled to identify the
controlled lighting.
Control in Daylighted Areas
Luminaires in daylighted areas greater than 25 m2 (250 ft2)
shall be equipped with either a manual or automatic control
device that:
a. Is capable of reducing the light output of the luminaires
in the daylit areas by at least 50%, and
b. Controls only the luminaires located entirely within the
daylit area.
Exterior Lighting Control
Lighting for all exterior applications not exempted in 6.4 shall
be controlled by a photosensor or astronomical time switch that
is capable of automatically turning off the exterior lighting when
daylight is available or the lighting is not required.
Additional Control
The following lighting applications shall be equipped with a
control device to control such lighting independently of general
lighting:
a. Display/Accent Lighting. Display or accent lighting
greater than 300 m2 (3,000 ft2) area shall have a
separate control device.
b. Case Lighting. Lighting in cases used for display
purposes greater than 300 m2 (3,000 ft2) area shall be
equipped with a separate control device.
c. Hotel and Motel Guest Room Lighting. Hotel and motel
guest rooms and guest suites shall have a master control
device at the main room entry that controls all
permanently installed luminaires and switched
receptacles.
d. Task Lighting. Supplemental task lighting including
permanently installed under shelf or under cabinet
lighting shall have a control device integral to the
luminaires or be controlled by a wall-mounted control
device .
e. Nonvisual Lighting. Lighting for nonvisual applications,
such as plant growth and food-warming, shall be
equipped with a separate control device.
f. Demonstration Lighting. Lighting equipment that is for
sale or for demonstrations in lighting education shall be
equipped with a separate control device accessible only
to authorized personnel.
Exit Signs
Internally - illuminated exit signs shall not exceed 5 W per face.
Exterior Building Grounds Lighting
Lighting for exterior building grounds luminaires which operate
at greater than 100 W shall contain lamps having a minimum
efficacy of 60 lm/W unless the luminaire is controlled by a
motion sensor or exempt under 7.1
Common types of controls
Timers
These represent the most basic type of automation, and are very
popular for outdoor applications. Timers can be simple
(responding to one setting all year round) or sophisticated
enough to contain several settings that go into effect over time.
Occupancy sensors
These devices – also known as ‘motion detectors’ – turn lights
off and on in response to human presence. Once sensitivity and
coverage area is established, sensors are selected from two
predominant technology types.
1. Passive infrared sensors – These detect the motion or
heat between vertical and horizontal detection zones.
This technology requires a direct line of sight and is
more sensitive to lateral motion, but it requires layer
motion as distance from the sensor increases. The
coverage pattern and field of view can also be precisely
controlled. It typically finds its best application in
smaller spaces with a direct line of sight, such as
restrooms.
2. Ultrasonic sensors – These detect movement by sensing
disturbances in high-frequency ultrasonic patterns.
Because this technology emits ultrasonic waves that are
reflected around the room surfaces, it does not require a
direct line of sight. It is more sensitive to motion
towards and away from the sensor and its sensitivity
decreases relative to its distances from the sensor. It
also does not have a definable coverage pattern or field
of view. These characteristics make it suitable for use in
layer-enclosed areas that may have cabinets, shelving,
partitions, or other obstructions. If necessary, these
technologies can also be combined into one product to
improve detection and reduce the likelihood of
triggering a false on or off mode.
Photocells
These measure the amount of natural light available and
suitable for both indoor and outdoor applications. When
available light falls below a specified level, a control unit
switches the lights on (or adjusts a driver to provide more light).
Photocells can be programmed so that lights do not flip on and
off on partially cloudy days.
Energy management systems
Sometimes known as building automation systems, these
computer-driven systems also control lighting. An EMS (energy
management system) is most effectively employed in the initial
construction of a building, not as a retrofit application. By using
a variety of control units tied to a centralized system, the
building monitors its lighting system itself. However, settings
can usually be overridden manually.
6.5 Daylight integration in buildings
Architectural form, from ancient history to modern times has
always responded to daylight, the primary source of natural
light from the sun. Daylight that enters a window can come
from several sources: direct sunlight, clear (blue) sky, clouds,
and reflections from the ground and nearby buildings.
It becomes important to distinguish between sunlight,
intense direct beams of light from the sun, and daylight, which
is the more gentle, useful and diffuse light. Daylighting has a
major effect on the appearance of space and also has energy
efficiency implications. It becomes important particularly in
day-use buildings.
Thus window design is very critical to daylight integration in a
buildings. A proper planning and window design along with
daylight integration of artificial lights with help of daylinked
controls can save 80-100% of lighting energy use during
daytime. The following section gives window design guidelines
to enable daylighting of interior spaces.
Window design guidelines
Windows are very important component of building envelope,
which in addition to providing connection to exterior, bring in
heat and light. The incoming solar radiation through windows
provides natural lighting and heat gain to a space, thus
impacting energy usage of the space. The main purpose of a
building and its window is to provide thermal and visual
comfort to the occupants and if this comfort can be achieved
while lower energy use, so much the better. Windows contribute
significantly to energy use for space conditioning or natural
lighting.
Glazing, framing and shading devices (internal and external)
are primary components of a window having significant impact
on energy use as well as on cost in buildings. Glazing usually
forms the largest component that affects energy usage and cost.
It is advisable to cut off solar gains before it reaches window (in
cooling dominated climates) to maximize energy savings. On
the other hand in heating dominated climates solar gain is
welcome, but associated glare, overheating and UV degradation
has to be dealt with at design stage.
Recommendation for a “good” window design can be
summarized as follows:
Minimize east and west exposure in cooling dominated climates
–it is difficult to provide protection on east and west façade.
South orientation is most preferred for heating dominated
climate. For cooling dominated climates, south should be
adequately protected from direct solar gain by shading devices.
North facing windows should be maximized for cooling
dominated climate. Heat gain from north windows is minimum,
and north windows offer significant daylight integration
opportunities. In heating dominated climates, it is important to
reduce heat losses through north windows by providing air tight
windows and use of glazing with low U-factor.
It is advisable to keep natural shading and not to cut down
shading trees prior to construction. Experience shows that the
best exterior shade for east or west facing windows is a tall tree
full with leaves. Deciduous trees are an effective shading device
for south facing windows in climatic zones with substantial
winter/summer temperature difference (composite climate).
It is far better, for heat prevention to block sunlight before it
reaches window, thereby dissipating the absorbed heat outside
where it can be carried away by air currents.
If exterior shades are unwanted, use of light coloured
interior blinds could be considered. However, opening and
closing of blinds as per changing outdoor condition needs to be
followed to take advantage of daylighting when desirable.
The next step would be select glazing system for the window
based on its functional, aesthetic and energy aspects.
Glazing selection guidelines
Glazing properties and their significance:
Glazing should be selected after careful evaluation of its
properties, costs, applicability, energy saving potential and
architectural requirements. The critical parameters which
should be reviewed while selecting glazing are as follows:
Selection process
Choose between dual-pane and single-pane glazing.
Choice of single vs. double glazing is governed by first costs, and
the energy saving potential. Although higher in first cost, dualpane insulating glazing typically improves comfort in perimeter
zones, reduces mechanical cooling loads and improves acoustic
performance. Double glazed windows with solar control
coatings have better solar control properties and also allow
flexibility for daylight integration. Double glazing with
spectrally selective coating further improves its insulating
properties. Non air conditioned buildings in which windows are
typically left open need not use double glazing. Buildings with
both cooling and heating requirement need to weigh out the
impact of double glazing on its heating and cooling loads. Use of
double glazing would have positive impact on the cooling loads
in summer months but may simultaneously increase the heating
load in the same building during winter months.
Choose a spectrally selective glazing.
Choice of visible light transmittance in glass would depend on
visual tasks, window size and glare sensitivity; the larger the
windows or the more critical the glare control, the lower the
desirable visible transmittance. Select glass with desirable
visible transmittance and the lowest possible solar heat gain
coefficient in a cooling dominated climate. For a heating
dominated climate glass with high SHGC may be chosen.
Spectrally selective glazing is typically a high cost option and its
application should be governed by careful cost benefit analysis.
Balance the conflict between glare and useful light.
If glare is an anticipated problem try to use architectural
interventions (deep reveals, shading systems etc) to cut down
on glare. then select a glazing visible transmittance that is a
compromise between glare and light. A visible transmittance of
as low as 25% may still provide adequate daylight.
Glare problem if un anticipated at design stage could lead to
incorrect design decisions e.g. Daylight linking of artificial lights
may be planned in a day use building as a major component of
energy savings. Accordingly, the designer would be selecting
spectrally selective glazing with low shading coefficient and high
visible light transmission. However in reality it may so happen
that due to glare from the windows, one has to keep the internal
blinds closed for most part of the day. This would nullify the
daylight based savings and in turn increase energy consumption
(due to artificial lighting being kept on during daytime and also
due additional cooling load from the heat generated by these
lights). Hence glare control strategies should be applied prior to
final glazing selection.
Dark glass need not necessarily provide good solar control.
Many dark glazings block more light than heat, and therefore
only minimally reduce cooling load. Dark glass not only reduces
daylight, it also increases occupant discomfort on a sunny day,
particularly in single glazed form. The glass absorbs solar
energy and heats up, turning it into a virtual furnace for anyone
sitting near it. Today, solar control is available in much clearer
glazings.
Don’t count on glazing alone to reduce heat gain and
discomfort. If direct solar beams come into the building, they
still create a mechanical cooling load and discomfort for
occupants in their path. Exterior shading combined with a good
glazing selection is the best window strategy. Interior shading
options can also help control solar heat gain.
6.6 Solar Photovoltaic Systems (SPV)
Solar Photovoltaic systems enables direct conversion of sunlight
into electricity and is viable option for lighting purpose in
remote non grid areas. The common SPV lighting systems are:
Solar lantern, Fixed type solar home lighting system, and
Street lighting system.
6.7
Heating, ventilation and air conditioning
6.7.1 Heat load estimation
6.7.1.1 Inside design conditions
The inside design conditions of a conditioned space should
conform to as indicated in Table 6.18.
Table 6.18: Inside design conditions for some applications
Source: Table-2 of Part 8 Building services – section 3 – Air conditioning, heating and
mechanical ventilation of National Building Code – 2005
6.7.1.2
Outdoor design conditions
The outdoor design conditions shall be in accordance with the
conditions given in Table 6.19.
Table 6.19: Summary for outdoor conditions Source
Source : Table-3 of Part 8 Building services – section 3 – Air conditioning,
heating and mechanical ventilation of National Building Code – 2005
Values of ambient dry-bulb and wet-bulb
temperatures against the various annual percentiles
represent the value that is exceeded on average by
the indicated percentage of the total number of
hours.
The 0.4 %, 1.0% and 2.0% values are exceeded on
average 35, 88 and 175 hours in a year.
The 99.0% percent and 99.6 percent values are
defined in the same way but are usually reckoned as
the values for which the corresponding temperatures
are less than the design conditions for 88hours and
35 hours.
For normal comfort jobs values in 1% column should
be used for cooling loads and 99% column for
heating loads.
For critical applications values in 0.4% column
should be used for cooling loads and 99.6% column
for heating loads.
6.7.1.3
Minimum outside fresh air
The fresh air supply is required to maintain good indoor air
quality. The minimum fresh air required in a mechanically
ventilated or air conditioned spaces should be as recommended
in Table 6.20.
Table 6.20: Minimum air requirements for ventilation of all common areas and
commercial facilities
Table 6.20 continued
Source: Table-4 Part 8 Building Services – Section 3 – Air conditioning, heating and
mechanical ventilation of National Building Code – 2005.
6.7.2 Green Refrigerant
Refrigerant used in all air-conditioning machines should be CFC
free as per India’s commitment to Montreal protocol.
6.7.3 Minimum equipment efficiencies
6.7.3.1 Cooling & heating equipment
All cooling & heating equipment shall meet or exceed the
minimum efficiency requirements presented in Tables 6.21 to
6.25 (Source: Draft of energy conservation building code-2006
of Bureau of Energy Efficiency).
Table 6.21: Unitary air conditioning equipment
S No.
1
Equipment Class
Minimum COP
Unitary Air Cooled Air Conditioner ≥19
3.08
ARI 210/240
3.08
ARI 340/360
to <70 kW (≥11 to <20 tons)
Unitary Air Cooled Air Conditioner ≥70
3
ARI 340/360
4.1
ARI 210/240
4.1
ARI 210/240
≥19 and <40 kW (≥5.4 and <11 tons )
Unitary Water Cooled Air Conditioner
6
2.99
<19 kW (<5.4 tons)
Unitary Water Cooled Air Conditioner
5
2.93
kW (≥20 tons)
Unitary Water Cooled Air Conditioner
4
Test Standard
and <40 kW ( ≥5.4 and <11 tons )
Unitary Air Cooled Air Conditioner ≥40
2
Minimum IPLV
3.22
3.02
ARI 210/240
Test Standard
≥<40 kW (≥11 tons )
Table 6.22: Chillers
S No.
Equipment Class
Minimum COP
Minimum IPLV
Air Cooled Chiller <530 kW (<150
2.9
3.16
1
tons)
2
tons)
Air Cooled Chiller ≥530 kW (≥150
Centrifugal Water Cooled Chiller <
3
3.05
3.32
5.8
6.09
5.8
6.17
6.61
ARI 550/5901998
4.2
5.05
4.7
5.49
Cooled Chiller all sizes
Rotary Screw and Scroll Compressor,
7
6.3
1050 kW (≥ 300 tons)
Reciprocating Compressor, Water
6
ARI 550/5901998
tons)
Centrifugal Water Cooled Chiller ≥
5
ARI 550/5901998
≥530 and <1050 kW ( ≥150 and <300
4
ARI 550/5901998
530 kW (<150 tons)
Centrifugal Water Cooled Chiller
ARI 550/5901998
ARI 550/5901998
Water Cooled Chiller <530 kW
ARI 550/5901998
(<150 tons)
Rotary Screw and Scroll Compressor,
8
Water Cooled
Chiller ≥530 and <1050 kW
ARI 550/5905.4
6.17
1998
S No.
Equipment Class
Minimum COP
Minimum IPLV
5.75
6.43
Test Standard
(≥150 and <300 tons)
Rotary Screw and Scroll Compressor,
9
ARI 550/590-
Water Cooled Chiller ≥ 1050 kW
1998
(≥ 300 tons)
Table 6.23: Heating pumps heating mode
S No.
Equipment type
Size
Subcategory or
Performance
Test
Category
rating condition
required
procedure
Split System
6.8 HSPF
ARI 210/240
(Input)
1
Air Cooled
<19 kW
(Heating Mode)
(Cooling
(before
Capacity)
1/23/2006)
7.4 HSPF
(as of
1/23/2006)
Single Package
6.6 HSPF
(before
1/23/2006)
7.4 HSPF
(as of
1/23/2006)
2
Air Cooled
≥19 kW and
8°C db/6°C wb
(Heating Mode)
<40 kW
Outdoor air
3.2 COP
ARI 340/360
(Cooling
Capacity)
-8°C db/-9°C wb
2.2 COP
Outdoor Air
≥40 kW
8°C db/6°C wb
(Cooling
Outdoor air
3.1 COP
Capacity)
-8°C db/-9°C wb
2.0 COP
Outdoor Air
Table6.24: Furnaces
S No.
Equipment type
1
Warm Air
Size Category
Subcategory or rating
(Input)
condition
<66 kW
Furnace, Gas-
Performance
Test
required
procedure
78% AFUE or 80%
DOE 10 CFR
Et d
Fired
Part 430 or
ANSI Z21.47
≥66 kW
2
Warm Air
Maximum Capacitye
<66 kW
Furnace, Oil-
80% Ec c
ANSA Z21.47
78% AFUE or 80%
DOE 10 CFR
Et d
Fired
Part 430 or
ANSI Z21.47
3
Warm- Air Duct
≥66 kW
Maximum Capacitye
81% Et f
UL 727
All Capacities
Maximum Capacitye
80% Ec g
ANSI Z83.9
S No.
Equipment type
Size Category
Subcategory or rating
Performance
Test
(Input)
condition
required
procedure
All Capacities
Maximum Capacitye
80% Ec g
ANSI Z83.8
All Capacities
Maximum Capacitye
80% Ec g
UL 731
Furnaces, GasFired
4
Warm Air Unit
Heaters, GasFired
5
Warm Air Unit
Heaters, Oil-Fired
Table 6.25: Boilers
S No.
1
Equipment
Size Category
Subcategory or rating
Performance
type
(Input)
condition
required
Boilers, Gas-
<88 kW
Hot Water
80% AFUE
Steam
75% AFUE
kW
Maximum Capacityd
75% Et b
>733 kWa
Hot Water
80% Ec
>733 kWa
Steam
80% Ec
Test procedure
DOE 10 CFR
Fired
Part 430
≥88 kW and ≤733
H.I. Htg Boiler
Std.
Boilers, Oil2
Fired
<88 kW
80% AFUE
DOE 10 CFR
Part 430
≥88 kW and ≤733
Maximum Capacityd
78% Et b
>733 kWa
Hot Water
83% Ec
kW
3
H.I. Htg Boiler
Std.
>733 kWa
Steam
83% Ec
Oil-Fired
≥88 kW and ≤733
Maximum Capacityd
78% Et b
(Residual)
kW
>733 kWa
Hot Water
83% Ec
>733 kWa
Steam
83% Ec
H.I. Htg Boiler
Std.
6.7.4 Controls
All mechanical cooling and heating systems shall be
controlled by a tim eclock that:
a. Can start and stop the system under different
schedules for three different day-types per week,
b. Is capable of retaining programming and time
setting during a loss of power for a period of at least
10 hours, and
c. Includes an accessible manual override that allows
temporary operation of the system for up to 2 hours.
d. However cooling systems < 28 kW (8 tons) and
Heating systems < 7 kW (2 tons) are not included
All heating and cooling equipment shall be
temperature controlled. Where a unit provides both
heating and cooling, controls shall be capable of
providing a temperature dead band of 3°C (5°F)
within which the supply of heating and cooling
energy to the zone is shut off or reduced to a
minimum. Where separate heating and cooling
equipment serve the same temperature zone,
thermostats shall be interlocked to prevent
simultaneous heating and cooling.
All cooling towers and closed circuit fluid coolers
shall have either two speed motors, pony motors, or
variable speed drives controlling the fans.
6.7.5 Piping & ductwork
Piping for heating systems with a design operating
temperature of 60°C (140°F) or greater shall have at
least R-0.70 (R-4) insulation. Piping for heating
systems with a design operating temperature less
than 60°C (140°F) but greater than 40°C (104°F),
piping for cooling systems with a design operating
temperature less than 15°C (59°F), and refrigerant
suction piping on split systems shall have at least R0.35 (R-2) insulation. Insulation exposed to weather
shall be protected by aluminum sheet metal, painted
canvas, or plastic cover. Cellular foam insulation
shall be protected as above, or be painted with water
retardant paint.
Ductwork shall be insulated in accordance with
requirement of ECBC-2006 of BEE which is also
reproduced below in Table 6.27.
Table 6.26: Ductwork Insulation
Required Insulation a
Duct Location
Supply Ducts
Exterior
R-1.4 (R-8)
R-0.6 (R-3.5)
Ventilated Attic
R-1.4 (R-8)
R-0.6 (R-3.5)
R-1.4 (R-8)
R-0.6 (R-3.5)
Unventilated Attic with Roof Insulation
R- 0.6 (R-3.5)
No Requirement
Unconditioned Space b
R- 0.6 (R-3.5)
No Requirement
No Requirement
No Requirement
R- 0.6 (R-3.5)
No Requirement
Unventilated Attic without Roof
Insulation
Indirectly Conditioned Space
Buried
a
c
Return Ducts
Insulation R-value is measured on a horizontal plane in accordance with ASTM C518 at a
mean temperature of 24°C (75°F) at the installed thickness
b
Includes crawlspaces, both ventilated and non-ventilated
C
Includes return air plenums with or without exposed roofs above.
6.7.6 Variable flow hydronic systems
Chilled or hot-water systems shall be designed for variable fluid
flow and shall be capable of reducing pump flow rates to no
more than the larger of:
(a) 50% of the design flow rate, or
(b) The minimum flow required by the equipment manufacturer
for proper operation of the chillers or boilers.
Water cooled air-conditioning or heat pump units with a
circulation pump motor greater than or equal to 3.7 kW (5 hp)
shall have two-way automatic isolation valves on each water
cooled air-conditioning or heat pump unit that are interlocked
with the compressor to shut off condenser water flow when the
compressor is not operating.
Chilled water or condenser water systems that must comply
with either of above two and that have pump motors greater
than or equal to 3.7 kW (5 hp) shall be controlled by variable
speed drives.
6.8 Electrical system
6.8.1 Transformers
Maximum Allowable Power Transformer Losses
Power transformers of the proper ratings and design must be
selected to satisfy the minimum acceptable efficiency at their
full load rating. In addition, the transformer must be selected
such that it minimizes the total of its initial cost in addition to
the present value of the cost of its total lost energy while serving
its estimated loads during its respective life span. Transformers
used in buildings shall be constructed with high quality grain
oriented low loss silicon steel and virgin electrolytic grade
copper and the manufacturer’s certificate to this effect shall be
obtained.
Table 6.27: Maximum Allowable Losses of 11, 22 kV Transformers
S No.
Transformer capacity (kVA)
Maximum allowable losses
Maximum allowable
at full load in % of rating in
losses at full load in %
11kV transformer
of rating in 22 kV
transformer
1
100
2.5
2.7
2
160
2.3
2.2
3
250
2.1
1.8
4
400
1.5
1.5
5
630
1.4
1.5
6
800
1.4
1.5
7
1000
1.2
1.2
Reference conditions: 100% of nameplate load at temperature
of 75o C
6.8.2 Energy Efficient Motors
Motors shall comply with the following:
All permanently wired polyphase motors of 0.375
kW or more serving the building and expected to
operate more than 1,500 hours per year and all
permanently wired polyphase motors of 50kW or
more serving the building and expected to operate
more than 500 hours per year shall have a minimum
acceptable nominal full load motor efficiency not
less than shown in Table 6.28 or the BIS for energy
efficient motors.
Motors of horsepower differing from those listed in
the table shall have efficiency greater than that of the
next listed kW motor.
Motor horsepower ratings shall not exceed 200% of
the calculated maximum load being served.
Motor nameplates shall list the nominal full-load
motor efficiencies and the full-load power factor.
Motor users should insist on proper rewinding
practices for any rewound motors. If the proper
rewinding practices cannot be assured, the damaged
motor should be replaced with a new, efficient one
rather than suffer the significant efficiency penalty
associated with typical rewind practices.
Certificates shall be obtained and kept on record
indicating the motor efficiency. Whenever a motor is
rewound, appropriate measures shall be taken so
that the core characteristics of the motor is not lost
due to thermal and mechanical stress during
removal of damaged parts. After rewinding, a new
efficiency test shall be performed and a similar
record shall be maintained.
Table 6.28 : Minimum acceptable motor efficiencies
S
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
Motor size (kiwi)
2-pole motor efficiency
4-pole motor efficiency
1.1 (1.5 hp)
1.5 (2 hp)
2.2 (3 hp)
3.0 (4 hp)
4.0 (5.5 hp)
5.5 (7.5 hp)
7.5 (10 hp)
11.0 (15 hp)
15.0 (20 hp)
18.5 (25 hp)
22.0 (30 hp)
30.0 (40 hp)
37.0 (50 hp)
45.0 (60 hp)
55.0 (75 hp)
75.0 (100 hp)
82.2
84.1
85.6
86.7
87.6
88.5
89.5
90.6
91.3
91.8
92.2
92.9
93.3
93.7
94
94.6
83.8
85
86.4
87.4
88.3
89.2
90.1
91
91.8
92.2
92.6
93.2
93.6
93.9
94.2
94.7
6.8.3 Power Factor Correction
All electricity supplies exceeding 100 A, 3 phase shall maintain
their power factor between 0.98 lag and unity at the point of
connection.
6.8.4 Diesel generator Captive Power Plants
The specific fuel consumption (lit/kWh) of diesel generating
sets shall not exceed the values given in table below.
Table 6.29 Recommended specific fuel consumption of DG sets
S
Electricity
Type
Specific fuel
No.
generating capacity
of
consumptions (lit/kWh)
(kW)
fuel
1
200
HSD
0.325
2
292
LDO
0.335
3
400
HSD
0.334
4
480
LDO
0.334
5
800
HSD
0.29
6
880
LDO
0.307
7
920
LDO
0.297
used
Use turbochargers along with diesel generating sets. With the
arrival of modern, high efficiency turbochargers, it is possible to
use an exhaust gas driven turbine generator to further increase
the engine rated output. This results in lower fuel consumption
per kWh and further increases in overall thermal efficiency.
6.8.5 Check-Metering and Monitoring
Buildings whose maximum demand is greater than
250 kVA shall have the electrical distribution system
with their energy consumption being check-metered.
Services exceeding 1000 kVA shall have
permanently installed electrical metering to record
demand (kVA), energy (kWh), and total power
factor. The metering shall also display current (in
each phase and the neutral), voltage (between
phases and between each phase and neutral), and
total harmonic distortion (THD) as a percentage of
total current.
Services not exceeding 1000 kVA but over 65 kVA
shall have permanently installed electric metering to
record demand (kW), energy (kWh), and total power
factor (or kVARh).
Services not exceeding 65 kVA shall have
permanently installed electrical metering to record
energy (kWh).
6.8.6 Power Distribution Systems
All the power junction boxes and main power distribution board
and cable termination points shall be provided with
temperature monitoring mechanism comprising of sensors in
the enclosed chambers and properly visible temperature
indicators outside. Record of temperature during
commissioning and subsequently on a daily basis shall be
maintained.
The power cabling shall be adequately sized as to maintain
the distribution losses not to exceed 1% of the total power usage.
Record of design calculation for the losses shall be maintained.
Reference
1. National Building Code, 2005
2. Energy Conservation Building Code, 2005
3. Guide to Sustainable Building Design, Ministry of Nonconventional Energy sources, Government of India
Annexure I
Mandatory and expected criteria
Mandatory criteria
Sustainable Site Planning
Site Selection
• Land Use- The land use in the site should be as per Master
Plan / Local Development Plan. If the Master plan is not
available then UDPFI(Urban Development and Plans
Formulation and Implementation) guidelines should be
followed.
• Ambient environment quality- The project design shall
ensure that the occupants of sites where the environment is
already polluted are safeguarded against the adversities. Pre
construction air, water and noise quality shall be monitored
and it shall be ensured that the ambient environment quality
is minimally impacted upon by the proposed construction.
The governing standards for air, water and noise are as
below:
•
Air quality standards as per IS-5182,
•
Drinking water standards as per IS: 10500-1991
•
Construction water standards as per CPWD
Specifications
•
Ambient noise standards as per Central Pollution
Control Board (CPCB)
• The proponent shall also take suitable measures to ensure
improvement of environmental quality (if the ambient
standards are not met) through suitable mitigation
measures .
• Infrastructure- There must be a justification and proof of the
availability of water, energy, waste disposal and transport
network for the sustainability of the project.
Site Analysis and planning
• Site Planning- Site planning must have consideration for
efficient utilization of existing resources, i.e., the sunlight,
wind etc. It must be ensured that solar access and wind
access to neighbouring developments is minimally impacted
upon due to the proposed construction.
• Analysis should be carried out to ensure that there is
adequate solar and wind access for the proposed buildings
• Conservation of soil – Fertility of top soil shall be tested to
check appropriateness of top soil preservation and re use.
This test is mandatory for sites having area more than 1000
•
•
hectares. If suitable, preservation and re use of top soil
should be done, as per National building code 2005.
Landscaping- The existing landscape (e.g mature trees)
must be preserved to the extent feasible, during construction
and during use . Sustainable landscape practices should be
adopted to ensure erosion and sedimentation control, storm
water management, minimized heat island effects and water
conservation. Attempt shall be made to minimally disrupt
natural site features e.g landforms, contours etc.
Health and well being of construction workers- Minimum
level of hygiene must be maintained over the site by
providing the basic services in terms of safe drinking water
supply, sanitation facilities, etc. Construction safety norms
as recommended by National building Code shall 2005 be
followed.
Water Demand Management
Building (Internal) Demand Management
• Water availability: Water demand for the building (internal
use only) shall not exceed limits as defined by the National
Building Code 2005.
• Quality of water – The water quality for drinking purposes
shall meet standards defined by IS 10500-1991 and water
quality for other uses shall meet CPCB standards.
• Fixtures – Low flow/ dual flushing devices should be used
for water closets.
Landscape water quality
• Quality of water – Quality of water for gardening should
meet quality standards as per IS 11624-1986
Wastewater
• Separation of grey and black water- Separation of grey and
black water must be done by the use of dual plumbing line
for separation of grey and black water .
• Treatment- The treated waste water shall meet with CPCB
standards for discharge. The grey and black water must be
piped in separate line and there must be 100 per cent
treatment of grey water and re use for flushing , gardening
etc.
Rainwater harvesting
• Storm /rain water control and re use is mandatory and the
system must be as per Central Ground Water Board (CGWB)
and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS standards) for reuse in
various applications.
Managing Transport, Noise and Air
Transportation (Internal) Plan
Hierarchy of Road
The road pattern and hierarchy must meet with the standards
as recommended by Indian Road Congress (IRC)
Traffic Calming measures
Traffic calming measures must be taken in all the sensitive
zones to reduce noise and air pollution, and to improve safety.
• Safety for vulnerable road users- The traffic system must be
made safe for vulnerable road users by providing footpath,
bicycle track, foot- over bridges and subways and ramps.
Traffic system must be accessible and usable for people with
disability.
• Entry and exit design – The entry and exit to the site should
be designed with precision so as to ensure that the
development does not disturb traffic on adjoining/abutting
Street.
• Parking norms- The metropolitan cities in India must follow
the Parking policy as defined by latest master plan for Delhi.
The other cities should follow the norms given n the NBC,
i.e., National Building Code 2005 / UDPFI Guidelines/local
building bye laws , whichever is higher.
Site Transportation (During construction/ demolition)
• Norms for Emission- Construction equipment and heavy
duty vehicles must conform to pollution norms as per CPCB.
Adequate measures to reduce air and noise pollution during
construction should be taken. CPCB norms and standards
should be followed in this aspect.
Waste Management
Construction and Demolition Waste
• Onsite Provisions- There must be adequate space for
separate storage of waste on construction site. Along with
this, on site pre processing of collected waste through
grinding and pulverising must be given adjoining to the
storage areas.
Municipal Waste
• Storage facilities- There must be provision for separate
collection and segregation of household waste, waste from
offices and landscape waste in the form of three-bin system
in houses. Community level space for separate dustbins as
per land use pattern and class of city should be provided
• Disposal- Suitable waste disposal technique should be
planned and implemented.
Hazardous Waste
• Storage facility- There must be a permanent and durable
space for collection and disposal of paints, asbestos dust and
other hazardous wastes.
E-waste
• Storage facility- E-waste is generated occasionally, so there
must be provision for its storage at community or group
level. Depending upon the office type, the developer or
owner must make a long time contract with the
manufacturer of electronic items supplier or the recycling
industry for sending the wastes. Architectural design must
include the space for storage of e-waste, according to the
type of office, and e-product usage.
Energy conservation
Solar Passive Architecture
• Strategies- The climatic zones have been defined by the
National Building Code 2005. Passive strategies as required
in the specific climatic zone should be applied.
•
Day lighting- BIS standards for daylighting design should be
followed.
Building Envelope requirement
• Roof design- Roof should meet prescriptive requirement as
per Energy Conservation Building Code (download from
www.bee-nic.in) by using appropriate thermal insulation
material to fulfil requirement.
• Walls- Opaque wall should meet prescriptive requirement as
per Energy Conservation Building Code, which is mandatory
for all air-conditioned spaces. Vertical fenestration should
comply with the maximum area weighted U-factor as per
Energy Conservation Building Code which is mandatory for
all air-conditioned spaces.
• Vertical fenestration - Vertical fenestration should comply
with maximum area weighted SHGC requirements to meet
prescriptive requirement as per Energy Conservation
Building Code by use of appropriate solar control strategies.
• Skylights – Skylights shall comply with the maximum Ufactor and maximum SHGC requirements to meet
prescriptive requirement as per Energy Conservation
Building Code by use of efficient glazing material to reduce
heat gain through skylight
• Glazing- For all day use buildings glazing products must
have the minimum visual transmittance (VT), defined as
function of WWR, where Effective Aperture >0.1, equal to or
greater than the Minimum VT requirements and to meet
prescriptive requirement as per Energy Conservation
Building Code
Building Lighting Demand Management
• Lighting load- Lighting load must not exceed the specified
light power densities (for the specific building type or space
function) as per Energy conservation Building Code . Use of
energy efficient lamps, luminaries and electronic ballasts is
recommended to achieve the desirable LPDs
• Lighting equipment for common areas - Energy efficient
lamps (e.g compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) or energy
efficient tube lights which use electronic ballasts) should be
used for internal, Common Area and Exterior Lighting.
• Day lighting controls- Use of maximum day lighting is
mandatory for day use buildings by day linking lights in day
lit areas (by use of daylight sensors) to avail energy savings.
• Lighting level- Minimum level of lighting should be
maintained as per NBC 2005.
Water heating
• Service water heating by use of renewable energy sources
(e.g solar) should be done as per Energy Conservation
building Code
Building HVAC system
• Ventilation- Minimum ventilation rate in the building for
heat load estimation should be maintained as specified by
National Building Code2005
• Refrigerant- Refrigerant used in air conditioning machines
must be as per India’s commitment to Montreal protocol
• Equipments- Cooling & heating equipment must conform to
minimum efficiency requirement as per the Energy
Conservation Building Code.
Building Electrical System
• Power loss in transformers- Power loss in transformers
should be minimized as per Energy Conservation Building
Code by use of transformers constructed with high quality
grain oriented silicon steel and virgin electrolytic grade
copper
• Electric motors- Electric motors must ensure the standards
given by Energy conservation Building Code by use of
energy efficient motors.
• Power factor- Power factor must be maintained as per
Energy conservation Building Code by use of auto power
factor correction relays.
• D.G. Sets- Diesel generating sets must meet the norms of
CPCB. Suitable stack heights shall be provided as
recommended by the CPCB.
Expected Criteria for Environmental Grading
(1) Site Planning
1)
2)
3)
4)
Orientation, excavation/filling
Landscape, open spaces and parks
Circulation and parking
Social acceptability
-
(2) Management of Water
(3) Building Materials
(4) Management of Energy
1) Use of alternate energy
* wind mill
* energy through waste
2) passive solar architectural features
-
5
5
-
5
5
-
-
5
-
5
(6) Management of Storm Water
1) Obstruction to others
2) Capacity of SW drainage
3) Outfall and prevention of flooding
(7) Management of Solid wastes
1) Biodegradable
2) Non-biodegradable
3) Hazardous
10
3
4
3
-
(5) Renewable Energy Technology
20
4
4
4
4
4
-
1) Use of local materials & construction techniques2) Use of fly ash and other industrial wastes
3) Use of less energy intensive materials
-
1) Energy consumption per sq.m. of area
2) Use of energy saving materials (min. use
Of Glass)
3) Insulation to achieve ECBC norms
4) Use of solar energy for lighting and hot
water systems.
2
3
2
3
-
1) Adequate and suitable source
2) Management of Demand
3) Recycling of treated waste water
4) Rain water Harvesting – quantity & safeguard5) Collection, treatment and disposal of waste water-
10
-
3
3
4
-
4
3
3
20
10
10
10
(8)
Management of Noise and Odour
1) Containment of noise & odour
2) Abatement of noise & odour
3) Design and lay out of green belt
-
TOTAL
-
3
2
5
10
--------100
---------
Grading:
Platinum
Gold
Silver
Bronze
90-100
80-89
60-79
40-59
Proposals getting less than 40 points will get 0 grading.
Minimum expected grading is as follows:
Eco-sensitive areas and metro cities, NCR and regional development areas of
Metros: Gold
Other cities with > 1 million populations as per latest available census: Silver
Other areas: Bronze
Annexure II FORM-1 A (only for construction projects listed
under item 8 of the Schedule)
Check List Of Environmental Impacts
(Project proponents are required to provide full information
and wherever necessary attach explanatory notes with the Form
and submit along with proposed environmental management
plan & monitoring programme)
1. Land Environment
(Attach panoramic view of the project site and the vicinity)
1.1.
Will the existing landuse get significantly altered
from the project that is not consistent with the
surroundings? (Proposed landuse must conform to
the approved Master Plan / Development Plan of the
area. Change of landuse if any and the statutory
approval from the competent authority be
submitted). Attach Maps of (i) site location, (ii)
surrounding features of the proposed site (within
500 meters) and (iii)the site (indicating levels &
contours) to appropriate scales. If not available
attach only conceptual plans.
1.2.
List out all the major project requirements in terms
of the land area, built up area, water consumption,
power requirement, connectivity, community
facilities, parking needs etc.
1.3.
What are the likely impacts of the proposed activity
on the existing facilities adjacent to the proposed
site? (Such as open spaces, community facilities,
details of the existing landuse, disturbance to the
local ecology).
1.4.
Will there be any significant land disturbance
resulting in erosion, subsidence & instability?
(Details of soil type, slope analysis, vulnerability to
subsidence, seismicity etc may be given).
1.5.
Will the proposal involve alteration of natural
drainage systems? (Give details on a contour map
showing the natural drainage near the proposed
project site)
1.6.
What are the quantities of earthwork involved in the
construction activity-cutting, filling, reclamation etc.
(Give details of the quantities of earthwork involved,
transport of fill materials from outside the site etc.)
1.7.
Give details regarding water supply, waste handling
etc during the construction period.
1.8.
1.9.
Will the low lying areas & wetlands get altered?
(Provide details of how low lying and wetlands are
getting modified from the proposed activity)
Whether construction debris & waste during
construction cause health hazard? (Give quantities
of various types of wastes generated during
construction including the construction labour and
the means of disposal)
2. Water Environment
2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.
2.5.
2.6.
2.7.
2.8.
2.9.
2.10.
Give the total quantity of water requirement for the
proposed project with the breakup of requirements
for various uses. How will the water requirement
met? State the sources & quantities and furnish a
water balance statement.
What is the capacity (dependable flow or yield) of the
proposed source of water?
What is the quality of water required, in case, the
supply is not from a municipal source? (Provide
physical, chemical, biological characteristics with
class of water quality)
How much of the water requirement can be met from
the recycling of treated wastewater? (Give the details
of quantities, sources and usage)
Will there be diversion of water from other users?
(Please assess the impacts of the project on other
existing uses and quantities of consumption)
What is the incremental pollution load from
wastewater generated from the proposed activity?
(Give details of the quantities and composition of
wastewater generated from the proposed activity)
Give details of the water requirements met from
water harvesting? Furnish details of the facilities
created.
What would be the impact of the land use changes
occurring due to the proposed project on the runoff
characteristics (quantitative as well as qualitative) of
the area in the post construction phase on a long
term basis? Would it aggravate the problems of
flooding or water logging in any way?
What are the impacts of the proposal on the ground
water? (Will there be tapping of ground water; give
the details of ground water table, recharging
capacity, and approvals obtained from competent
authority, if any)
What precautions/measures are taken to prevent the
run-off from construction activities polluting land &
aquifers? (Give details of quantities and the
measures taken to avoid the adverse impacts)
2.11.
2.12.
2.13.
2.14.
How is the storm water from within the site
managed?(State the provisions made to avoid
flooding of the area, details of the drainage facilities
provided along with a site layout indication contour
levels)
Will the deployment of construction labourers
particularly in the peak period lead to unsanitary
conditions around the project site (Justify with
proper explanation)
What on-site facilities are provided for the collection,
treatment & safe disposal of sewage? (Give details of
the quantities of wastewater generation, treatment
capacities with technology & facilities for recycling
and disposal)
Give details of dual plumbing system if treated waste
used is used for flushing of toilets or any other use.
3. Vegetation
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
Is there any threat of the project to the biodiversity?
(Give a description of the local ecosystem with it’s
unique features, if any)
Will the construction involve extensive clearing or
modification of vegetation?
(Provide a detailed
account of the trees & vegetation affected by the
project)
What are the measures proposed to be taken to
minimize the likely impacts on important site
features (Give details of proposal for tree plantation,
landscaping, creation of water bodies etc along with
a layout plan to an appropriate scale)
4. Fauna
4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
Is there likely to be any displacement of fauna- both
terrestrial and aquatic or creation of barriers for
their movement? Provide the details.
Any direct or indirect impacts on the avifauna of
the area? Provide details.
Prescribe measures such as corridors, fish ladders
etc to mitigate adverse impacts on fauna
5. Air Environment
5.1.
5.2.
Will the project increase atmospheric concentration
of gases & result in heat islands? (Give details of
background air quality levels with predicted values
based on dispersion models taking into account the
increased traffic generation as a result of the
proposed constructions)
What are the impacts on generation of dust, smoke,
odorous fumes or other hazardous gases? Give
details in relation to all the meteorological
parameters.
5.3.
5.4.
5.5.
5.6.
Will the proposal create shortage of parking space
for vehicles? Furnish details of the present level of
transport infrastructure and measures proposed for
improvement including the traffic management at
the entry & exit to the project site.
Provide details of the movement patterns with
internal roads, bicycle tracks, pedestrian pathways,
footpaths etc., with areas under each category.
Will there be significant increase in traffic noise &
vibrations? Give details of the sources and the
measures proposed for mitigation of the above.
What will be the impact of DG sets & other
equipment on noise levels & vibration in & ambient
air quality around the project site? Provide details.
6. Aesthetics
6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.4.
Will the proposed constructions in any way result in
the obstruction of a view, scenic amenity or
landscapes? Are these considerations taken into
account by the proponents?
Will there be any adverse impacts from new
constructions on the existing structures? What are
the considerations taken into account?
Whether there are any local considerations of urban
form & urban design influencing the design criteria?
They may be explicitly spelt out.
Are there any anthropological or archaeological sites
or artefacts nearby? State if any other significant
features in the vicinity of the proposed site have
been considered.
7. Socio-Economic Aspects
7.1.
7.2.
7.3.
Will the proposal result in any changes to the
demographic structure of
local population?
Provide the details.
Give details of the existing social infrastructure
around the proposed project.
Will the project cause adverse effects on local
communities, disturbance to sacred sites or other
cultural values? What are the safeguards proposed?
8. Building Materials
8.1.
8.2.
May involve the use of building materials with highembodied energy. Are the construction materials
produced with energy efficient processes? (Give
details of energy conservation measures in the
selection of building materials and their energy
efficiency)
Transport and handling of materials during
construction may result in pollution, noise & public
8.3.
8.4.
nuisance. What measures are taken to minimize the
impacts?
Are recycled materials used in roads and structures?
State the extent of savings achieved?
Give details of the methods of collection, segregation
& disposal of the garbage generated during the
operation phases of the project.
9. Energy Conservation
9.1.
9.2.
9.3.
9.4.
9.5.
9.6.
9.7.
9.8.
9.9.
Give details of the power requirements, source of
supply, backup source etc. What is the energy
consumption assumed per square foot of built-up
area? How have you tried to minimize energy
consumption?
What type of, and capacity of, power back-up to you
plan to provide?
What are the characteristics of the glass you plan to
use? Provide specifications of its characteristics
related to both short wave and long wave radiation?
What passive solar architectural features are being
used in the building? Illustrate the applications
made in the proposed project.
Does the layout of streets & buildings maximise the
potential for solar energy devices? Have you
considered the use of street lighting, emergency
lighting and solar hot water systems for use in the
building complex? Substantiate with details.
Is shading effectively used to reduce cooling/heating
loads? What principles have been used to maximize
the shading of Walls on the East and the West and
the Roof? How much energy saving has been
effected?
Do the structures use energy-efficient space
conditioning, lighting and mechanical systems?
Provide technical details. Provide details of the
transformers and motor efficiencies, lighting
intensity and air-conditioning load assumptions?
Are you using CFC and HCFC free chillers? Provide
specifications.
What are the likely effects of the building activity in
altering the micro-climates? Provide a self
assessment on the likely impacts of the proposed
construction on creation of heat island & inversion
effects?
What are the thermal characteristics of the building
envelope? (a) roof; (b) external walls; and (c)
fenestration? Give details of the material used and
the U-values or the R values of the individual
components.
9.10.
9.11.
9.12.
9.13.
What precautions & safety measures are proposed
against fire hazards? Furnish details of emergency
plans.
If you are using glass as wall material provides
details and specifications including emissivity and
thermal characteristics.
What is the rate of air infiltration into the building?
Provide details of how you are mitigating the effects
of infiltration.
To what extent the non-conventional energy
technologies are utilised in the overall energy
consumption? Provide details of the renewable
energy technologies used.
10. Environment Management Plan
The Environment Management Plan would consist of all
mitigation measures for each item wise activity to be
undertaken during the construction, operation and the entire
life cycle to minimize adverse environmental impacts as a result
of the activities of the project. It would also delineate the
environmental monitoring plan for compliance of various
environmental regulations. It will state the steps to be taken in
case of emergency such as accidents at the site including fire.
Annexure III Indicative list of submittals as required to fill in form I A
•
•
•
•
•
•
Topic
1.
Land
Environment
Orientation of all maps should be with north pointing towards the top of the page.
Maps showing topography should not merely have spot levels but should have contours.
The scale of the map should be neither too small nor too large to interfere with comprehension of the project.
The maps, tables and graphics should not be reduced in scale to an extent that the text becomes illegible.
The units used should be the Standard International (SI) units on the metric system.
The source of information must be indicated both in the text of project report and in the supporting documents such
as drawings, maps, graphics and tables.
Submittals
Conformity of proposed land use with the Development/Master Plan
If there is no approved Plan, availability of consent from appropriate authority
If the area is outside municipal limits /outside planning area, full justification for the proposed
development and confirmation of the norms of UDPFI guidelines.
Surrounding features of the proposed site (within 500 meters)
Photographs showing the surrounding areas.
Site plan with contours and levels
Aerial image of site and immediate surroundings within 500 m.
Documents showing the following
Total site area
Total built up area(provide area details)
Water consumption
Source of water supply
Quality tests of water
Sewage system of the site
Power requirement
Source of Power
Back up systems, if any
Connectivity to the city center, utilities and transportation networks
Form IA
1.1
1.2
Topic
Submittals
Community facilities
Air quality and ambient noise levels
Parking needs
Provide details of impacts on existing facilities adjacent to existing site eg. Storm water drainage,
traffic, noise and air quality, ecology, open spaces, utilities etc.
The answers should be suitably annexed with photographs, impact analysis and projections as
required.
Provide details of soil type, slope analysis, vulnerability to subsidence, seismicity.
Provide details of mitigation options adopted to reduce impacts of proposed construction with
respect to above factors.
Provide details of erosion control plan.
Provide details of existing drainage plan, calculations of pre and post-construction run-off and
detailed storm-water management plan with necessary drainage details.
Details of quantities of earthwork involved, transport of fill materials from outside the site.
Provide soil quality test of top soil.
If top soil is proposed to be preserved, provide details of quantity of top soil stored, demarcated
area on plan where top soil shall be stored and preservation plan.
Water supply source during construction. Certificate from the local authority like Jal Board etc to
confirm availability of water, indicate the groundwater level, yield of the tube well.
Quality test report to prove water is suitable for construction activity.
Narrative on waste handling mechanism installed on site for storage and transportation schedule
to managed landfills and recyclers depending upon the type of waste.
Provide details of how low lying and wetlands are getting modified from the proposed activity.
Give quantities of various types of wastes generated during construction including the
construction labour and the means of disposal.
Document indicating the water demand of the building, landscape, construction and process
water use through water balance chart; source of water supplies (Groundwater, municipal, tanker
etc.) and the break up of the supply for each source
Details of the proposed development around the site; Certificate from the local authority (Jal
Board) indicating the groundwater level, yield of the tubewell; Certificate from the municipality
indicating the capacity of the source of water supply for the region specifying the demand it will
cater to.
Form IA
2
Water
Environment
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.1
2.2, 2.5
Topic
Submittals
Form IA
Impact on other users if any
Water quality certificate for each source from accredited lab
2.3
Calculation indicating the amount of wastewater generated
details of disposal of waste water
Treatment plant capacity and details of the treatment system
Details and drawings of the dual plumbing system for separation of grey and black water or for
recycling of treated water or other source of water
Wastewater characteristics and Projected treated water quality
Details of the supply and storage system for reuse of the treated water
Water balance indicating the various points and quantity of treated water application
2.4, 2.6,
2.13, 2.14
Quantity of wastewater generated during construction
Characteristics of the waste stream including total suspended materials and list of chemicals from
the construction site
Proposed treatment system along with the technical specifications and the capacity , storage plans
for hazardous waste, if any.
2.10, 2.12
Site plan with contours showing location of
Low lying areas
Trees to be retained
Building plans with extent of foundations
Rainwater harvesting structures planned
Hydrogeology information and map in case of ground water recharge structure showing the
following
Soil characteristics. Certificate showing soil analysis, soil structure indicating infiltration rate
Aquifer profile including Groundwater potential of different hydro-geological units and the
level of ground water development; Chemical quality of water in different aquifers
Total run-off from the site (reconstruction) and Total rainwater harvesting potential of the
scheme from various land uses and catchments in the planned development including projected
water quality concerns from various catchments. Also attach the rainfall data used.
2.7,2.8,2.9,
2.11
Topic
3
4
Vegetation
Submittals
Total rainwater planned to be harvested as a percentage of the total demand
Detail design of rainwater harvesting structures
Proposed water quality remedial measures including details of filters to be used.
Approval certificates from
Central/ State ground water board in case of ground water recharge structure
Civil engineers/ Architect if storage tanks are being planned
Plan indicating supply and delivery system from the storage facilities created and in case of
ground water recharge structures, plan demonstrating adequacy of recharge structures during
peak runoff. (Data of existing borewells should also be collected to determine the intake capacity
of the recharge wells)
Post implementation Operations, maintenance & monitoring plan proposed. Eg: AMC offered in
contractual document; instruction and user manual; signages planned.
Site plan along with a narrative showing existing vegetation, existing buildings, proposed buildings,
existing slopes and existing site drainage pattern, staging and spill prevention measures, erosion and
sedimentation control measures.
Tree survey plan in the table 1 indicating protected / preserved / transplanted / removed trees.
Provide proposed landscape plan with identification of trees (different colour coding for trees to
be used for protected, preserved, transplanted, removed trees) corresponding to the existing and
new buildings and existing tree survey table. Explain in brief measures adopted for protecting
existing landscape.
Site plan along with a narrative to demarcate areas on site from which top soil has to be gathered,
designate area where it will be store, measures adopted for top soil preservation and indicate
areas where it would be reapplied after construction is complete.
Indicate the time of construction with respect to rains.
Proposed landscape plan, clearly highlighting the trees removed (indicating the number of trees),
if applicable, List details about species, which existed, and the species that have been replanted on
site.
Give details of proposal for tree plantation, landscaping, creation of water bodies etc along with a
layout plan to an appropriate scale.
A narrative over displacement of fauna- both terrestrial and aquatic or creation of barriers for
their movement. Provide the details.
Form IA
3.1, 3.2,3.3
4.1
Topic
5
Air
environment
Submittals
6
Aesthetics
Form IA
A narrative on direct or indirect impacts on the avifauna of the area.
A narrative describing mitigation options to overcome the adverse impacts on fauna
A document showing the following
The air quality parameters and pollution levels as analyzed as per IS-5182.
Mitigation measures adopted to reduce air pollution, dust generation due to construction
activity.
Predicted values of air quality due to increased traffic (use dispersion model)
Provide mitigation options to reduce heat islands
Predict impacts of dust , fumes, smoke, hazardous gases on all meteorological parameters.
4.2
4.3
5.1, 5.2
Road sections showing facilities for pedestrians and bicyclists.
Layout plan showing the entry and exit points, parking and circulation plan of vehicles.
Architectural site plan showing all the buildings and surrounding roads and open spaces,
confirming the guidelines given in section 3.2.2.2, geometric design improvement and road safety.
Provide detailed parking place and provide detailed parking estimate vis-à-vis NBC norms and
local bye-laws.(Cars, Two-wheelers, buses etc)
Site plan showing buildings, roads and open spaces, confirming the hierarchy of roads as per the
rules given by UDPFI guidelines
Site plan for construction management showing the layout of noise and dust barriers
Proof of PUC check of vehicles and machinery between every 3 months period of construction
work
Give post construction estimate of increase in noise and mitigation options.
Drawings and specification of DG room and DG sets with acoustic enclosure and stack height
details.
Site location along with panoramic view of the project site and vicinity.
Surrounding features of the proposed site (within 500 meters).
Buildings sited near potential views, monumental, natural, city views, narrative and details of
design considerations incorporated in building design to preserve the views should be provided.
Provide a detailed narrative with photos addressing the queries in 6.1 to 6.4.
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
6.1,6.2,6.3,
6.4
Topic
7
Socioeconomic
Aspects
8
Building
Materials
Submittals
9
Energy
Conservation
The density and projected demographic profile of the proposed development
A narrative over the detail of the existing social infrastructure around the proposed project.
Give details as requested for in questions 7.1 to 7.3.
Details of recycled materials used in roads and structures
Site plan showing construction management plan presenting the material storage spaces, layout
of machinery and waste disposal
Specifications of materials used in each component part of the building and landscape (envelope,
superstructure, openings and roads and surrounding landscape), Plans and sections of buildings
showing effective methods of construction, Justification of the water saving methods in
construction techniques,
Details of the new technologies or non-conventional materials used
Application for planning permission accompanied by site waste management plan, including
identification of volume and type of structures to be demolished and excavations, reuse and
recovery of the materials
Review and detailed survey and documentation of waste generated at the demolition site and
quantities of the elements to be taken out and preserved before demolition, e.g. door and window
frames, glass pans, wooden panels, grills, floor tiles trees, steel members and other recyclables.
A document showing the following
Form IA
7.1, 7.2
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.4
9.1, 9.2
Details of total power requirements in KVA
Source of supply
Back up source and capacity
Back up sizing
Fuel consumption by the back up source
Energy consumption per sqm using the BEPI method as elaborated in section 6.5
Narrative on energy conservation techniques (solar passive, building materials, systems,
renewable energy sources)
Fenestration schedule and provide details in conformance to ECBC recommendations as
highlighted in Table 4.1.3
U factor and SHGC of glass. Indicate if overhangs or side fins are used for compliance purposes. If
so, provide projection factor calculations
One drawing showing the following
9.3
9.4
Topic
Submittals
Site plan with north line.
Building plan with internal layouts showing all functional spaces.
Building section and detailed typical wall sections indicating the material and thickness of
each material.
Narrative on solar passive architectural techniques used
Provide Bill of Quantities indicating the selected building materials.
Provide details of renewable energy systems including system sizing and design energy delivered ,
building costs and integration details.
Cut sheet for each window and shading size clearly dimensioned. Along with each window cut
sheet, the orientation should be marked.
Provide window details in the format given in Table 2
Provide details of shading on East, West walls and roof.
Form IA
Narrative demonstrating the measures incorporated to mitigate negative impacts on the
microclimate of the site due to building activity.
Compliance document demonstrating conformance to prescriptive requirement of energy
conservation building code or building envelope tradeoff options
9.5,9.13
9.6
9.8
9.9, 9.7,
9.11
Annexure for submittals
6.8.7 Building Energy Performance Index (BEPI)
Building energy performance index is the ratio of annual energy
consumed in a building to the total built-up area and provides
comparisons across same building type of different sizes or
different types of buildings.
Table 6.30: Recommended BEPI for different types of buildings
S No.
Bldg.
Occupancy
Building Energy
Building
Building Energy
classifications
(Sq ft/
performance
Energy
performance
performance
index (kWh/m2)
person)
index
(kWh/m2)
index
(kWh/m2)
Warm & humid
Composite/H
Moderate
ot & dry
Apartment,
1
High Rise
175
100
90
75
11
300
150
100
Auditoriums,
Theatres
2
Educational
3
Facilities
25
200
175
125
4
Hospitals
80
500
400
350
5
Hotels
150
300
250
200
Libraries &
6
Museums
60
150
125
100
7
Offices
110
150
125
100
8
Malls
75
250
200
150
* The above BEPI includes energy consumption in lighting & air
conditioning systems
6.8.8 BEPI calculation method
Table 6.31: Estimation of energy consumption in lighting system
Total indoor
lighting load
S No.
Building type
(Kilo watt)
Operating
hours/Day
Diversity Factor
for lighting load
operation
Energy
consumption in
lighting system
(kWh)
Col F
Col C
Col D
Col E
(Col C*Col
D*Col E)
Apartment,
1
High Rise
2
Theatres
10
0.6
10
0.7
10
0.6
Auditoriums,
Educational
3
Facilities
Total indoor
lighting load
(Kilo watt)
Operating
hours/Day
Diversity Factor
for lighting load
operation
4
Hospitals
12
0.7
5
Hotels
12
0.8
Libraries &
6
Museums
10
0.8
7
Offices
10
0.7
8
Malls
10
0.9
Energy
consumption in
lighting system
(kWh)
Table 6.32 : Estimation of energy consumption in air conditioning system
S No.
Building
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Total
Chiller
System
Total
Total
Operating
Diversity
Energy
type
cooling
connected
connected
connected
connected
system load
efficienc
efficienc
connected
connected
hours/Day
Factor for
consumpt
load
load of chiller
load of
load of
load of
(Kilo watt)
y
y
load of AHUs
load of FCUs
AC load
ion in AC
(TR)
plants (Kilo
Chilled
condenser
cooling
(IKW/T
(IKW/T
fans (kilo watt)
fans (kilo watt)
operation
system
watt)
water
water
tower fans
R)
R)
pumps (kilo
pumps (kilo
(kilo watt)
watt)
watt)
Col E
Col F
Col C
Col D
Col G
(kWh)
Col H
Col I
Col J
(Col D+Col
( Col D/
(Col H/
Col K
Col L
Col M
Col N
{(Col
E+Col
Col C)
Col C)
H+ColK+
F+Col G)
Col O
ColL)*Col
M*Col
N*275
Apartment,
1
High Rise
10
0.6
10
0.7
Auditorium
s,
2
Theatres
Education
3
al Facilities
10
0.7
4
Hospitals
24
0.7
5
Hotels
24
0.7
Libraries &
6
Museums
10
0.6
7
Offices
10
0.7
8
Malls
10
0.9
Table 6.33 : Estimation of building energy performance index
S No.
Building
Energy
Energy
Total energy
Built-up Area
Energy
type
consumptio
consumption in
consumption
(m2)
Performance
n in lighting
AC system
(kWh)
system
(kWh)
Index
(kWh/m2)
(kWh)
Col C
Col D
Col E
(Col C+Col
D)
Apartment,
1
High Rise
2
s, Theatres
Auditorium
Educationa
3
l Facilities
4
Hospitals
5
Hotels
Libraries &
6
Museums
7
Offices
8
Malls
Col F
Col G
(Col E/Col F)

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