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25
MOLECULAR BASIS
OF
INHERITANCE
CHAPTER REVIEW
DNA, the genetic material, is a double helix containing
the nitrogen bases A (adenine) paired with T (thymine)
and G (guanine) paired with C (cytosine). During replication, DNA “unzips,” and then a complementary strand
forms opposite to each original strand.
DNA specifies the synthesis of proteins because it
contains a triplet code: every three bases stand for one
amino acid. During transcription, mRNA is made complementary to one of the DNA strands. mRNA, bearing
codons, moves to the cytoplasm, where it becomes associated
with the ribosomes. During translation, tRNA molecules, attached to their own particular amino acids, travel
to a ribosome, and through complementary base pairing between anticodons and codons, the tRNAs and
therefore the amino acids in a polypeptide are sequenced
in a predetermined way.
The following levels of control of gene expression
are possible in eukaryotes: transcriptional control, posttranscriptional control, translational control, and posttranslational control.
The prokaryote operon model explains how one
regulator gene controls the transcription of several struc-
tural genes, genes that code for proteins. In eukaryotes,
the chromosome has to decompact before transcription
can begin. Transcription factors attach to DNA and turn
on particular genes.
In molecular terms, a gene is a segment of DNA,
and a mutation is a change in the normal sequence of
nucleotides of this segment. Frameshift mutations result when a base is added or deleted and the result is a
nonfunctioning protein. Point mutations can range in effect, depending on the particular codon change. Gene
mutation rates are rather low, because DNA polymerase
proofreads the new strand during replication and because there are repair enzymes that constantly monitor
the DNA.
Cancer is characterized by a lack of control: the
cells grow uncontrollably and metastasize. Cancer development is a multistep process involving the mutation of genes. Proto-oncogenes and tumor-suppressor
genes are normal genes that bring on cancer when they
mutate because they code for factors involved in cell
growth.
S T U DY E X E R C I S E S
Study the text section by section as you answer the questions that follow.
25.1 DNA STRUCTURE
AND
REPLICATION (P. 506)
• DNA is the genetic material, and therefore, its structure and functions constitute the molecular basis of
inheritance.
• DNA is able to replicate, and in this way genetic information is passed from one cell generation to the next.
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1. The diagram of the Hershey and Chase experiment that follows shows that the two separate experiments used
32 P to label a. ______________ and 35 S to label b. ______________ of viruses. In each experiment, the viruses
were allowed to infect bacteria, and then a blender was used to separate the viral coats from the bacteria.
Radioactivity was found inside the cell only when c. ______________ was labeled. Since replication of viruses
followed, the hypothesis that d. ______________ is the genetic material was supported.
Label the diagram.
Viral DNA Labeled
Viral Coat Labeled
e. ________________
f. _______________
g. _______________
h. ______________
i. ________________
j. _______________
k. _____________
2. Four different nucleotides are found in DNA. Check the way(s) these nucleotides differ.
a. They differ in their sugar content.
b. They differ in their phosphate content.
c. They differ in their base content.
3. What are the four different nucleotide bases in DNA? __________________________________________________
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4. Examine the following diagram, which shows the ladder structure of
DNA:
5' End
3' End
G
A
DNA is a polymer of
T
a. ______________.
Draw a box around one nucleotide. b.
The molecules making up the sides of the ladder are c. ______________.
C
Label a sugar and a phosphate. d.
What is meant by the phrase complementary base pairing?
e. ______________
G
Fill in the bases that are complementary to those on the left. f.
What do you have to do to the ladder structure to have it match the
Watson and Crick model? g. ______________
Explain what is meant by “double-stranded helix.”
3' End
h.
5' End
___________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Explain what is meant by “antiparallel strands.” i. ______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
5. Study the following diagram of replication:
The bases in parental DNA are held together by what type
of bond (not shown)? a. ______________
What happens to these bonds for replication to take place?
b. ______________
During replication, new nucleotides move into proper
position by what methodology? c. ______________
Elongation of DNA is catalyzed by an enzyme called
d. ______________.
When replication is finished there will be two DNA
molecules.
Each double helix consists of an e. ______________ strand and a f. ______________ strand. Therefore, the process is
called g. ______________.
Each double helix has (the same, a different)
h. ______________ sequence of complimentary paired bases.
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25.2 GENE EXPRESSION (P. 510)
• DNA specifies the synthesis of proteins, a process that also requires the participation of RNA.
6. Place an x beside all those statements that are true concerning gene expression.
a. Inborn errors of metabolism are due to the inheritance of faulty enzymes.
b. Inborn errors of metabolism are due to the inheritance of faulty proteins.
c. A gene is a segment of DNA that specifies the sequence of amino acids in a protein.
d. A gene is a segment of DNA that specifies the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide.
7. Since genes (DNA) reside in the a. ______________ of the cell and polypeptide synthesis occurs in the
b. ______________,
they must have a go-between. The most likely molecule to fill this role is c. ______________.
8. Indicate whether the following statements about differences between DNA and RNA are true (T) or false (F):
a. DNA is double stranded; RNA is single stranded.
b. DNA is a polymer; RNA is a building block of that polymer.
c. DNA occurs in three forms; RNA occurs in only one.
d. The sugar of DNA is ribose, which is absent in RNA.
e. Uracil, in RNA, replaces the base thymine, found in DNA.
9. Complete this table to describe the function of the various types of RNA involved in protein synthesis.
RNA
Function
messenger RNA (mRNA)
a. _______________________________________________
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
b. _______________________________________________
transfer RNA (tRNA)
c. _______________________________________________
10. Label this diagram, which pertains to the central dogma of molecular biology.
DNA
double helix
DNA
a.
mRNA
codon 1
codon 2
codon 3
b.
polypeptide
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11. Study the following figure which lists the mRNA codons.
First
Base
U
C
A
G
Second
Base
Third
Base
U
C
A
G
UUU
phenylalanine
UUC
phenylalanine
UUA
leucine
UUG
leucine
CUU
leucine
CUC
leucine
CUA
leucine
CUG
leucine
AUU
isoleucine
AUC
isoleucine
AUA
isoleucine
AUG (start)
methionine
GUU
valine
GUC
valine
GUA
valine
GUG
valine
UCU
serine
UCC
serine
UCA
serine
UCG
serine
CCU
proline
CCC
proline
CCA
proline
CCG
proline
ACU
threonine
ACC
threonine
ACA
threonine
ACG
threonine
GCU
alanine
GCC
alanine
GCA
alanine
GCG
alanine
UAU
tyrosine
UAC
tyrosine
UAA
stop
UAG
stop
CAU
histidine
CAC
histidine
CAA
glutamine
CAG
glutamine
AAU
asparagine
AAC
asparagine
AAA
lysine
AAG
lysine
GAU
aspartic acid
GAC
aspartic acid
GAA
glutamic acid
GAG
glutamic acid
UGU
cysteine
UGC
cysteine
UGA
stop
UGG
tryptophan
CGU
arginine
CGC
arginine
CGA
arginine
CGG
arginine
AGU
serine
AGC
serine
AGA
arginine
AGG
arginine
GGU
glycine
GGC
glycine
GGA
glycine
GGG
glycine
U
C
A
G
U
C
A
G
U
C
A
G
U
C
A
G
What does it mean to say that the genetic code is a triplet code? a. ________________________________________
What are the mRNA codons for leucine? b. ____________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
12. Complete this paragraph to describe transcription.
During transcription, an RNA molecule is formed that has a sequence of bases a. ______________ to a
portion of one DNA strand.
The bases pair in this manner: A in DNA pairs with b. ______________ and G pairs with c. ______________
(and vice versa) in the mRNA being formed. If the sequence of bases in DNA is CGA AGC TCT, then the
sequence in mRNA is d. __________________________________________________________________________
Why is there a space between every three bases? e. ___________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
13. Which one, exons or introns, is spliced out when primary RNA is processed? a. ____________________________
Organic catalysts called b. ______________________ do the splicing.
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14. Label the following diagram to describe translation.
a.
b.
C
G
U
C
A
c.
U
U GG
A
CAC CA A A G
GG
A
U
d.
e.
15. Two types of RNA are seen in the previous diagram. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) plus proteins make up the
ribosomes. Each ribosome is composed of a a. ______________ subunit and a b. ______________ subunit.
Transfer RNA is the second type of RNA in the diagram. At one end an c. ______________ attaches and at the
other end there is an d. ______________, which is complementary to a codon in mRNA.
16 The three steps in protein synthesis are a. ______________, when the ribosomal subunits b. __________; and
c. ______________, when a polypeptide is d. ______________; and e. ______________, when the last tRNA,
the mRNA, and the ribosome f. ______________.
17. During elongation, the sequence of a. ______________ in mRNA dictates the order of b. ______________ in
the polypeptide. For example, if the sequence of bases in mRNA is UUU UUA AUU GUC CCA, the sequence
of amino acids in the polypeptide according to the figure in question 18 will be c. _______________________.
Because several ribosomes called a d. ______________ can move along one mRNA molecule, (one/many)
e. ______________ polypeptides of the same type can be synthesized at a time.
25.3 CONTROL
OF
GENE EXPRESSION (P. 517)
• In prokaryotes, regulator genes control the activity (expression) of other genes.
• In eukaryotes, the control of gene expression occurs at all stages, from transcription to the activity of proteins.
18. Complete the following table:
Levels of Control of Gene Activity
Affects the Activity of
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19. Label this diagram of a lac operon using the following terms:
mRNA
operator
promoter
regulator gene
repressor protein
structural genes
transcription is prevented
g.
c.
b.
d.
a.
e.
f.
What type of cell utilizes operators? h. ______________
20. What are transcription factors? a. ________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________________________
What type of cell has transcription? b. ____________________________________________________________________
25.4 GENE MUTATIONS (P. 520)
• Gene mutations range from those that have little effect to those that have an extreme effect.
21. Match these terms to the statements following: frameshift, point, mutagen transposons
a. type of mutation (requires two)
b. environmental influence that causes mutations
c. DNA sequence that can move between chromosomes
d. The codons AAU GUA CCU GGU become AUG UAC CUG GU
e. The codons AAU GUA CCU GGU become AUU CUA CCU GGU
25.5 CANCER: A FAILURE
OF
GENETIC CONTROL (P. 522)
• Cancer develops when there is a loss of genetic control over genes involved in cell growth and/or cell
division.
22. Complete the following table:
Characteristics of Normal Cells
Characteristics of Cancer Cells
controlled growth
a.
contact inhibition
b.
one organized layer in tissue culture
c.
differentiated cells
d.
normal nuclei
e.
23. Instead of growing in a. ______________ layer(s), as normal cells do, cancer cells grow in b. ______________
layer(s), losing the property of c. ______________ inhibition. Cancer cells divide to form a growth, or
d. ______________.
The cells of e. ______________ tumors remain in one place. The cells of f. ______________
tumors wander, a characteristic called g. ______________.
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24. Put an x beside those items that pertain to a regulatory network that controls the cell cycle in cells.
a. growth factor receptors in plasma membrane
b. signaling proteins within cytoplasm
c. various genes in nucleus
d. proteins that directly control the cell cycle
e. oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes
25. Match the statements following with proto-oncogenes (P), oncogenes (O), tumor-suppressor genes (T), or
mutated tumor-suppressor gene (MT)
a. cell division is always promoted (requires two)
b. normal genes in cells that regulate cell division (requires two)
c. mutated genes that cause cancer (requires two)
Gene Expression Maze
Can you find your way through the maze to a polypeptide by identifying each of the components depicted?
a.
b.
d.
c.
f.
j.
g.
h.
i,
e.
a. _________________________________________
g. _________________________________________
b. _________________________________________
h. _________________________________________
c. _________________________________________
i. ______________________________________
d. ______________________________________
j. __________________________________________
e. _________________________________________
f. __________________________________________
If you identified all correctly, you have found
your way out.
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CHAPTER TEST
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
Do not refer to the text when taking this test.
1. Hershey and Chase found that
a. the entire virus enters bacteria, so determining whether the protein coat or the DNA controls replication of viruses is difficult.
b. just the protein coat enters bacteria and controls replication of viruses.
c. just the DNA enters bacteria and controls
replication of viruses.
d. the protein coat must be digested for DNA to
control replication of viruses.
2. In a DNA molecule, the sugar
a. bonds covalently to phosphate groups.
b. bonds covalently to nitrogen-containing bases.
c. is deoxyribose.
d. All of these are correct.
3. If the structure of DNA is compared to a ladder,
then the
a. sides of the ladder consist of phosphate and
sugar.
b. rungs of the ladder are hydrogen-bonded bases.
c. ladder is twisted.
d. All of these are correct.
4. Semiconservative replication means that
a. sometimes DNA can replicate and sometimes
it cannot—this accounts for aging.
b. sometimes daughter DNA molecules are exact
copies of parental molecules and sometimes
they are not, so that genetic variability may
occur.
c. DNA molecule consists of an old strand and
a new strand.
d. All of these are correct.
5. Which is(are) correct regarding DNA?
a. C is paired with G.
b. The sugar is deoxyribose.
c. Hydrogen bonds exist between the bases.
d. All of these are correct.
6. Before replication begins,
a. enzymes must be present.
b. the parental strands must unzip.
c. “free” nucleotides must be present.
d. All of these are correct.
7. Select the incorrect association.
a. mRNA—takes DNA message to the ribosome
b. mRNA—takes amino acids to the ribosome
c. rRNA—combines with protein in ribosomal
subunits
d. tRNA—has an anticodon
8. The base sequence of DNA is ATAGCATCC. The
sequence of RNA transcribed from this strand is
a. ATAGCATCC.
b. CCTACGATA.
c. CCUACGAUA.
d. UAUCGUAGG.
9. An mRNA base sequence is UUAGCA. The two
anticodons complementary to this are
a. AAT CGT.
b. AAU CGU.
c. TTA GCA.
d. UUA GCA.
10. A DNA base sequence changes from ATGCGG
to ATGCGC. This type of mutation is
a. deletion.
b. frameshift.
c. point.
d. translocation.
11. Which of the following pairs is NOT a valid comparison of DNA and RNA?
DNA
RNA
a. double helix
single stranded
b. replicates
replicates
c. deoxyribose
ribose
d. thymine
uracil
12. Which of these is true of an anticodon but is not
true of a codon?
a. part of an RNA molecule
b. sequence of three bases
c. part of a tRNA molecule
d. part of a mRNA molecule
13. RNA nucleotides are joined during transcription
by
a. helicase.
b. DNA polymerase.
c. RNA polymerase.
d. ribozymes.
14. In the DNA double helix, if 20% of the bases are
A, then ______________ of the bases are G.
a. 10%
b. 20%
c. 30%
d. 80%
15. Which of these is happening when translation
takes place?
a. mRNA is still in the nucleus.
b. tRNAs are bringing amino acids to the
ribosomes.
c. rRNA is exposing its anticodons.
d. DNA is being replicated.
e. All of these are correct.
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16. If the triplet code in DNA is TAG, what is the
anticodon?
a. UTC
b. AUG
c. UAG
d. ATG
17. A drug prevents the exit of mRNA from the nucleus. This control is
a. transcriptional.
b. posttranscriptional.
c. translational.
d. posttranslational.
18. Which of the following does NOT describe the
behavior of cells in a malignant tumor?
a. carry out metastasis
b. lose the ability of contact inhibition
c. multiply rapidly
d. remain in one site
19. Which of the following is NOT a suggested measure to prevent cancer?
a. Avoid foods of the cabbage family.
b. Cut down on salt-cured foods.
c. Eat more high-fiber foods.
d. Increase the intake of vitamins A and C.
20. A promoter
a. turns on and off the transcription of a set of
structural genes.
b. binds to RNA polymerase.
c. codes for the enzymes necessary for the transcription of polypeptides.
d. is an intron that breaks up a structural gene.
THOUGHT QUESTIONS
Answer in complete sentences.
21. Compare the Mendelian concept of a gene to the biochemical concept of a gene.
22. Cancer research shows that there is communication from cytoplasm to the nucleus and from the nucleus to the
cytoplasm. Explain.
Test Results: ______ Number right ÷ 22 = ______ × 100 = ______ %
ANSWER KEY
STUDY EXERCISES
1. a. DNA b. protein coats c. DNA d. DNA e.–k. see
Figure 25.1 in text 2. c 3. adenine (A), guanine (G),
cytosine (C), thymine (T) 4. a. nucleotides b. see figure that follows c. sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphate
d. see figure that follows e. A binds with T, and G binds
with C. f. see figure that follows g. twist h. Each nucleotide polymer is a strand; when the ladder twists, a
helix results. i. The strands run opposite to one another.
G
C
A
T
T
A
C
G
G
C
sugar
phosphate
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5. a. hydrogen bond b. They become unzipped. c. complementary base pairing d. DNA polymerase e. old
f. new g. semiconservative h. the same. 6. a, b, c, d
7. a. nucleus b. cytoplasm c. RNA. 8. a. T b. F c. F
d. F e. T 9. a. takes a message from DNA in the nucleus
to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm b. is found in ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized c. transfers amino
acids to the ribosomes 10. a. transcription b.translation
11. a. Every three bases stands for an amino acid. b. UUA,
UUG, CUU, CUC, CUA, CUG 12. a. complementary
b. U c. C d. GCU UCG ACA e. The code is a triplet
code and each codon contains three bases. 13. a. introns b. ribozymes 14. a. amino acid b. mRNA c. anticodon d. codon e. ribosome 15. a. large b. small
c. amino acid d. anticodon 16. a. initiation b. associate c. elongation d. lengthened e. termination f. dissociate 17. a. bases b. amino acids c. phenylalanine,
leucine, isoleucine, valine, proline d. polyribosome
e. many
18.
Levels of Control
of Gene Activity
Affects the
Activity of
transcriptional
DNA
posttranscriptional
mRNA during formation
and processing
translational
mRNA life span during
protein synthesis
posttranslational
protein
protein g. mRNA h. prokaryotes 20. a. factors that
must bind to DNA before transcription can begin. b. eukaryotes 21. a. frameshift, point b. mutagen c. transposons d. frameshift e. point 22. a. uncontrolled growth
b. no contact inhibition c. disorganized, multilayered
d. nondifferentiated cells e. abnormal nuclei 23. a. one
b. multiple c. contact d. tumor e. benign f. malignant
g. metastasis 24. a, b, c, d, e 25. a. O, MT b. P, T
c. O, MT
GENE EXPRESSION MAZE
a. DNA b. mRNA c. nuclear pore d. ribosomal subunits e. ribosome f. amino acids g. tRNA h. anticodon i. codon j. peptide chain
CHAPTER TEST
1. c 2. d 3. d 4. c 5. d 6. d 7. b 8. d 9. b
10. c 11. b 12. c 13. c 14. d 15. b 16. c
17. b 18. d 19. a 20. b 21. According to the
Mendelian concept, genes are portions of a chromosome
that are passed from one generation to the next. According to the biochemical concept, a gene is a portion of a
DNA molecule that specifies the sequence of amino acids
in a protein. The biochemical concept explains how genes
control metabolism. 22. Growth factors received by
plasma membrane receptors set in motion a series of
events in the cytoplasm that ends when certain genes are
turned on in the nucleus. These genes in turn control proteins in the cytoplasm, some of which are involved in the
cell cycle.
19. a. regulator gene b. promoter c. operator d. structural genes e. repressor bound to operator f. repressor
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