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Licensed to: iChapters User
Licensed to: iChapters User
5e
Human Resource Development
Jon M. Werner
University of Wisconsin-Whitewater
Randy L. DeSimone
Rhode Island College
Australia . Brazil . Japan . Korea . Mexico . Singapore . Spain . United Kingdom . United States
Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
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Human Resource Development,
5th Edition
Jon M. Werner and Randy L. DeSimone
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© 2009 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
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Licensed to: iChapters User
For Barbara and Taina
“Pass on what you heard from me . . . to reliable leaders who are competent to teach
others.” (II Timothy 2:2; Message translation)
Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
Licensed to: iChapters User
Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
Licensed to: iChapters User
Preface
Employee skills and motivation are critical for organizational success. This has
always been true, but the pace and volume of modern change is drawing increased
attention to the ways that human resource development (HRD) activities can be used
to ensure that organization members have what it takes to successfully meet their
challenges. While there is solid evidence that HRD works, it is not a magic bullet.
The challenges many organizations face are complex, and new dimensions, such as
globalization and an increasingly diverse workforce, make it more difficult to ensure
HRD efforts will succeed. Unless those responsible for training and development
make informed choices about the content of a developmental experience and the
methods of delivering it, the results of many HRD efforts will fail to meet
expectations.
Fortunately, there is a growing base of theory, research, and practical experience
to support HRD efforts. We wrote this book to help students, HRD professionals, and
managers at all levels take advantage of this knowledge and experience. We firmly
believe that if they do so, they will increase their effectiveness, along with that of
individuals with whom they work and the organizations of which they are a part.
Intended Audience. We wrote Human Resource Development to serve primarily
as a comprehensive text for undergraduate and graduate courses in business, management, public administration, educational administration, and other fields that
prepare individuals to train and develop other people. As such, the book:
•
•
•
•
•
Covers the entire field of HRD (as defined by two different competency studies
by the American Society for Training and Development), from orientation and
skills training, to career development and organizational development
Provides a clear understanding of the concepts, processes, and practices that
form the basis of successful HRD
Shows how concepts and theories can and have been put into practice in a variety of organizations
Focuses on the shared role of line management and human resource specialists in
HRD
Reflects the current state of the field, blending real-world practices and up-to-date
research
In addition to being an appropriate text for academic courses, this book is an excellent resource for HRD professionals. It can serve as a comprehensive introduction
for managers and supervisors who have had limited (or no) coursework or experience with HRD. Not only can they become better trainers and developers, they
will become more informed consumers of the HRD efforts offered by their
organizations.
v
Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
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vi
Preface
Pedagogical Features. We have included a number of pedagogical aids in the
text to enhance student learning and interest. These aids include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Learning objectives and opening questions at the beginning of each chapter
An opening case in each chapter that places the contents of the chapter into a
meaningful context
Illustrations, examples, and boxed inserts throughout the book to help readers
better assimilate the information
A return to the opening case to provide closure and show how the chapter contents may be used to address the issues in the case
A list of key terms and concepts at the end of each chapter
End-of-chapter discussion questions to stimulate thought and provide students
with an opportunity to discuss and apply the information in the chapter
Exercises have been included in every chapter to provide further experience with
applying materials from the text, or to see how the materials relate to a realworld setting
A glossary of key terms and concepts is included at the end of the book
Numerous examples from organizations, along with perspectives offered by organization leaders and HRD professionals, are used to reinforce concepts and demonstrate the importance of effective HRD to organizational success.
New to the Fifth Edition. The fifth edition of this book has been updated to
reflect the thinking on HRD theory and practice that has taken place since 2005.
Information from more than 675 new sources has been added. Some examples of
material added to the fifth edition are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Increased discussion of ethical dilemmas in HRD, as well as discussion of certification as a learning professional (based on the HRD roles and competencies
identified in the 2004 ASTD competency study, Chapter 1)
Updated discussion of the many influences on employee behavior to include
recent research (Chapter 2)
An increased emphasis on individual learning styles and preferences, along with
a new discussion of how technology changes employee learning (Chapter 3)
Revised discussions of needs assessment activities, especially in relation to
changes caused by technological advances (Chapter 4)
Updated information concerning the use of particular training topics and
approaches used to design training and other HRD interventions (Chapter 5)
Updated coverage of major methods of providing HRD programs, with
expanded emphasis on experiential and computer-based training (Chapter 6)
A new emphasis on a stakeholder approach to HRD evaluation, an expanded
Kirkpatrick evaluation framework, while maintaining the emphasis on the use of
return on investment (ROI) and utility estimates for communicating HRD
effectiveness (Chapter 7)
Condensed coverage of people processing models of socialization, with expanded discussion of ways to effectively use technology in orientation programs
(Chapter 8)
A new case added on customer service at Amazon.com, as well as extensive updating concerning the various forms of skills and technical training (Chapter 9)
Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
Licensed to: iChapters User
Preface
•
•
•
•
•
•
An expanded focus on both coaching and performance management, including
the growing trend towards “e-coaching” (Chapter 10)
Updated research on the need for, and effectiveness of, employee counseling and
worksite health promotion programs to address such issues as alcohol and drug
abuse, stress, hypertension, and fitness (Chapter 11)
Updated discussion of the shifts occurring in career development, including the
changing employment relationship, new models of career development, teambased career development, a new case on learning portfolios, and the individual’s responsibility in career development (Chapter 12)
Discussion of recent thinking about the nature of managerial work, strategic
management development, global management development, competency-based
management education, ethics instruction in management education, and new
practices in leadership development, including transformational leadership and
experience-based approaches (Chapter 13)
Updated discussion of the concept of organizational development in today’s
business environment (Chapter 14)
A new case on global diversity at IBM, while strengthening the focus on ways
organizations can go beyond training to effectively manage diversity to serve the
needs of all employees (Chapter 15)
We have worked hard to maintain the elements that made the previous editions
a useful and meaningful resource to students and practitioners, including clear writing, a comprehensive approach to HRD, a strong research base, and a balance between theory, research, and practice. To promote ease of reading, yet still provide
easy access to the reference materials, all citations are included as endnotes at the
end of the book.
We welcome questions, comments, and suggestions from users and potential
adopters of this book. You can reach Jon Werner at the Department of Management, University of Wisconsin–Whitewater, Whitewater, WI 53190, by telephone at
(262) 472-2007, or by e-mail at [email protected] You can reach Randy DeSimone
at the Department of Management & Marketing, Rhode Island College, 600
Mt. Pleasant Avenue, Providence, RI 02908, by telephone at (401) 456-9533, or by
e-mail at [email protected]
Ancillaries. A number of excellent supplements have been developed to accompany the fifth edition.
•
•
Instructor’s Manual with Test Bank (0-324-57928-4). the Instructor’s Manual
(IM) contains chapter outlines, sample syllabi, and follow-up materials for the
opening cases and many of the exercises in the text. An updated test bank, prepared by Richard Wagner of the University of Wisconsin–Whitewater, is available in both paper and computerized forms. the test bank has been greatly
expanded and now contains numerous objective questions and short-answer
essay questions for each chapter
Instructor’s Resource CD-ROM (0-324-57930-6). Key instructor ancillaries
(Instructor’s Manual, Test Bank, ExamView, and PowerPoint® slides) are provided on CD-ROM, giving instructors the ultimate tool for customizing lectures
and presentations. The PowerPoint slides are designed to be used supplementally
with class lectures. Each chapter includes session objectives, key points, and
Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
vii
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viii
Preface
•
selected chapter figures and tables, and presents the complete chapter as a
dynamic lecture guide. The PowerPoint® slides were created by Wells Doty of
Clemson University
Website. A host of ancillary materials are available for students and instructors
on the text website (academic.cengage.com/management/werner). For students,
there are useful web links for each chapter, a glossary of key terms, and flashcards. For faculty, there are PowerPoint® slides available for each chapter, a test
bank, and a Harvard Case Map. This case map provide an easy way for instructors to find relevant cases for their courses. The case map can be found by visiting
the Instructor Companion Site that accompanies Human Resource Development or
by visiting Harvard Business Online for Educators. (http://harvardbusinessonline.
hbsp.harvard.edu/b01/en/academic/edu_teachres_textcase.jhtml)
Acknowledgments. We are impressed by and grateful to the talented and dedicated team put together by Cengage Learning. We thank Joe Sabatino for his ongoing commitment to the project, and the South-Western leadership team for their
support for a fifth edition of this book. We also thank Kimberly Kanakes for her superb marketing of the text. Elizabeth Lowry deserves special thanks for her expert
guidance in revising the text for the fifth edition. We are grateful to Lysa Oeters for
her skill in shepherding the completed manuscript through the production process.
We thank Tippy McIntosh for the new look and text design for the fifth edition and
Kristen Meere for her assistance with the technology features related to the text. We
also thank Patrick Franzen and his team at Pre-Press PMG for their expertise in
turning drafts into page proofs and Tricia Lawrence for copyediting. Many, many
thanks to all of you.
Jon Werner thanks his wife, Barbara, and his children, Hans, Noelle, and Abigail,
for their love and patience during the latest revision process. This was another amazing
year for all of us! To my wife: you are the best—period! To my children: as each of
you develops into unique and delightful young people, I want to express again how
much you mean to me. Never forget: Ich liebe Euch! I thank my mother, Dorothy, for
her sacrificial love and support throughout my life. What a model you are of a successful career professional and loving mother. I thank mentors such as Ken Wexley, John
Hollenbeck, and Dan Ilgen for shaping my academic career, as well as my uncle,
Robert Davis, whose guidance and insights have meant so much to me. I am grateful
for the encouragement I have received from my department colleagues, and the support
provided by my out-going department chair, Yezdi Godiwalla, and my dean, Christine
Clements. I thank Dick Wagner and Roger Yin for their valuable assistance with particular topics in the text, and Mindy Parker for her work on the project.
Randy DeSimone thanks his colleagues at Rhode Island College for their enthusiasm for this project. In particular, he thanks I. Atilla Dicle, Crist Costa, and Halil
Copur, who each served as department chairperson during the development of this
book, for their support, especially by way of sympathetic class scheduling and arranging release time from teaching. His department’s student assistants, Jen Richard and
Beth Winsor, earned thanks for their help in doing some of the clerical tasks that
were a part of producing a manuscript. Randy DeSimone thanks his family and
friends for their support. In particular, he thanks his mother and father, Mary and
Carmen DeSimone, for their continued love and support, and for their pride in the
work that he has done. Thanks especially to his mother, who not only read the
book, but put it to use in her work and encouraged her colleagues to do the same.
Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
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Preface
How many management authors can say that? He is also grateful for the encouragement he has received from his brothers and sisters, aunts and uncles, and his wife’s
mother and sister. Thanks are due to John Fiore, Marjorie Roemer, Meg Carroll,
and David Blanchette for their support, friendship, and wisdom during the writing
process. Above all, he thanks his wife and best friend, Taina, for her unwavering
love, wisdom, and bedrock support. Thank you, Taina.
Both Jon and Randy would like to express their enduring gratitude to David
M. Harris, coauthor on earlier editions of the book. Although no longer with us,
David was instrumental in creating the kind of book you see before you. Even
though it was the third edition that was “In Memorium” to David, we continue to
lift up his memory with thankfulness for what he did to create the first edition of
the book.
The publisher and the authors wish to acknowledge the following reviewers for
providing extremely valuable input and suggestions on the development of this
edition:
Dow Scott, Loyola University
Brien Smith, Ball State University
John Knue, Baylor University
Tracy Jennings, University of Colorado at Boulder
Edward Ward, St. Cloud State University
George Dreher, Indiana University
Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
ix
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Brief Contents
Part 1
Foundations of Human Resource
Development
1
Chapter 1
Introduction to Human Resource Development
2
Chapter 2
Influences on Employee Behavior
33
Chapter 3
Learning and HRD
63
Part 2
Framework for Human Resource
Development
103
Chapter 4
Assessing HRD Needs
104
Chapter 5
Designing Effective HRD Programs
138
Chapter 6
Implementing HRD Programs
163
Chapter 7
Evaluating HRD Programs
196
Part 3
Human Resource Development
Applications
247
Chapter 8
Employee Socialization and Orientation
248
Chapter 9
Skills and Technical Training
278
Chapter 10
Coaching and Performance Management
312
Chapter 11
Employee Counseling and Wellness Services
343
Chapter 12
Career Management and Development
379
Chapter 13
Management Development
426
Chapter 14
Organization Development and Change
462
Chapter 15
HRD and Diversity: Diversity Training and Beyond
501
Glossary
531
Name Index
547
Subject Index
557
Endnotes
567
x
Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
Licensed to: iChapters User
Contents
Part 1
Foundations of Human Resource Development
1
Chapter 1
Introduction to Human Resource Development
2
Introduction 3
The Progression Toward a Field of Human Resource
Development 5
Early Apprenticeship Training Programs 5
Early Vocational Education Programs 5
Early Factory Schools 6
Early Training Programs for Semiskilled and Unskilled
Workers 6
The Human Relations Movement 7
The Establishment of the Training Profession 7
Emergence of Human Resource Development 7
The Relationship Between Human Resource Management
and HRD/Training 8
Secondary HRM Functions 9
Line versus Staff Authority 9
Human Resource Development Functions 10
Training and Development (T&D) 10
Organization Development 11
Career Development 11
The “New Learning and Performance Wheel” 11
Strategic Management and HRD 13
The Supervisor’s Role in HRD 15
Organizational Structure of the HRD Function 15
Roles and Competencies of an HRD Professional 15
The HRD Executive/Manager 18
Other HRD Roles and Outputs for HRD Professionals 18
Certification and Education for HRD Professionals 19
Challenges to Organizations and to HRD Professionals 21
Increasing Workforce Diversity 22
Competing in a Global Economy 23
Eliminating the Skills Gap 23
The Need for Lifelong Learning 23
Facilitating Organizational Learning 24
Addressing Ethical Dilemmas 24
A Framework for the HRD Process 26
Needs Assessment Phase 26
Design Phase 27
xi
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xii
Contents
Implementation Phase 28
Evaluation Phase 28
Organization of the Text 28
Summary 31
Key Terms and Concepts 31
Questions for Discussion 32
Exercise: Interview an HRD Professional
Chapter 2
32
Influences on Employee Behavior
Introduction 34
Model of Employee Behavior 35
Major Categories of Employee Behavior 36
External Influences on Employee Behavior 37
Factors in the External Environment 37
Factors in the Work Environment 38
Motivation: A Fundamental Internal Influence on
Employee Behavior 44
Need-Based Theories of Motivation 44
Cognitive Process Theories of Motivation 47
Reinforcement Theory: A Noncognitive Theory
of Motivation 53
Summary of Motivation 53
Other Internal Factors that Influence Employee Behavior
Attitudes 55
Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSAs) 58
Summary 59
Key Terms and Concepts 60
Questions for Discussion 61
Exercise: Increasing Employee Motivation 62
Chapter 3
Learning and HRD
33
55
63
Introduction 64
Learning and Instruction 65
The Search for Basic Learning Principles 66
Limits of Learning Principles in Improving
Training Design 67
The Impact of Instructional and Cognitive
Psychology on Learning Research 67
Maximizing Learning 68
Trainee Characteristics 69
Training Design 73
Retention of What Is Learned 76
Transfer of Training 76
Individual Differences in the Learning Process 81
Rate of Progress 81
Attribute-Treatment Interaction (ATI) 81
Training Adult and Older Workers 84
Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
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Contents
Learning Strategies and Styles 89
Kolb’s Learning Styles 89
Learning Strategies 90
Perceptual Preferences 91
Recent Developments in Instructional and Cognitive
Psychology 92
The ACT*/ACT-R Approach to Learning Procedural
Skills 92
Learning to Regulate One’s Own Behavior 93
Expert and Exceptional Performance 94
Gagné’s Theory of Instruction 95
Summary 100
Key Terms and Concepts 101
Questions for Discussion 101
Exercise 1: Learning Styles 102
Exercise 2: Vark Questionnaire 102
Part 2
Chapter 4
Framework for Human Resource
Development
103
Assessing HRD Needs
104
Introduction 105
Definition and Purposes of Needs Assessment 107
What Is a Training or HRD Need? 108
Levels of Needs Analysis 109
Strategic/Organizational Analysis 110
Components of a Strategic/Organizational Need
Analysis 110
Advantages of Conducting a Strategic/
Organizational Analysis 112
Methods of Strategic/Organizational Analysis 112
Task Analysis 116
An Example of a Task Analysis: Texas Instruments 122
A Unique Task Analysis Approach at Boeing 123
Summary of Task Analysis 123
Person Analysis 124
Components of Person Analysis 124
Performance Appraisal in the Person Analysis
Process 124
Developmental Needs 129
The Employee As a Source of Needs Assessment
Information 130
The “Benchmarks” Specialized Person Analysis
Instrument 130
Prioritizing HRD Needs 131
Participation in the Prioritization Process 131
The HRD Advisory Committee 131
The HRD Process Model Debate 132
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xiii
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xiv
Contents
How Technology Changes Needs Assessment
Summary 135
Key Terms and Concepts 136
Questions for Discussion 136
Exercise: Conducting a Task Analysis 137
Chapter 5
134
Designing Effective HRD Programs
138
Introduction 139
Defining the Objectives of the HRD Intervention 142
The “Make versus Buy” Decision: Creating or
Purchasing HRD Programs 146
Selecting the Trainer 148
Train-the-Trainer Programs 149
Preparing a Lesson Plan 150
Selecting Training Methods and Media 154
Preparing Training Materials 156
Program Announcements 156
Program Outlines 156
Training Manuals or Textbooks 157
Scheduling an HRD Program 157
Scheduling during Work Hours 158
Scheduling after Work Hours 158
Registration and Enrollment Issues 159
Summary 161
Key Terms and Concepts 161
Questions for Discussion 161
Exercise 1: Objective Writing for a Diversity Training
Program 162
Exercise 2: Objective Writing for a Training Program of
Your Choice 162
Chapter 6
Implementing HRD Programs
Introduction 164
Training Delivery Methods 165
On-the-Job Training (OJT) Methods 167
Job Instruction Training (JIT) 168
Job Rotation 170
Classroom Training Approaches 171
The Lecture Approach 171
The Discussion Method 172
Audiovisual Media 173
Experiential Methods 178
Computer-Based Training (Classroom-Based) 183
Self-Paced/Computer-Based Training Media and Methods
Some Final Issues Concerning Training Program
Implementation 189
Arranging the Physical Environment 189
163
183
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Contents
Getting Started 191
Summary 193
Key Terms and Concepts 193
Questions for Discussion 194
Exercise 1: Generating Questions for Discussion
Leading 194
Exercise 2: Designing E-Learning Materials 195
Chapter 7
Evaluating HRD Programs
Introduction 197
The Purpose of HRD Evaluation 198
How Often Are HRD Programs Evaluated? 199
The Evaluation of Training and HRD Programs Prior to
Purchase 200
Changing Evaluation Emphases 200
Models and Frameworks of Evaluation 201
Kirkpatrick’s Evaluation Framework 201
Other Frameworks or Models of Evaluation 203
Comparing Evaluation Frameworks 204
A Stakeholder Approach to Training Evaluation 208
Data Collection for HRD Evaluation 208
Data Collection Methods 209
Choosing Data Collection Methods 210
Types of Data 212
The Use of Self-Report Data 214
Research Design 215
Ethical Issues Concerning Evaluation Research 217
Confidentiality 218
Informed Consent 218
Withholding Training 218
Use of Deception 219
Pressure to Produce Positive Results 219
Assessing the Impact of HRD Programs in Monetary Terms
Evaluation of Training Costs 220
How Technology Impacts HRD Evaluation 228
Closing Comments on HRD Evaluation 229
Summary 230
Key Terms and Concepts 231
Questions for Discussion 231
Exercise: Calculating the Costs and Benefits of
Training 232
Appendix 7-1 More on Research Design
196
220
235
Research Design Validity 235
Nonexperimental Designs 237
Experimental Designs 239
Quasi-Experimental Designs 241
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xv
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xvi
Contents
Statistical Power: Ensuring that a Change Will Be
Detected If One Exists 242
Selecting a Research Design 244
Part 3
Human Resource Development Applications
247
Chapter 8
Employee Socialization and Orientation
248
Introduction 249
Socialization: The Process of Becoming an Insider 250
Some Fundamental Concepts of Socialization 251
Content of Socialization 253
Outcomes of Socialization 254
Various Perspectives on the Socialization Process 255
Stage Models of Socialization 255
People Processing Tactics and Strategies 257
Newcomers as Proactive Information Seekers 257
What Do Newcomers Need? 258
The Realistic Job Preview 259
How Realistic Job Previews Are Used 261
Are Realistic Job Previews Effective? 262
Employee Orientation Programs 264
Assessment and the Determination of Orientation
Program Content 264
Orientation Roles 268
Problems with Orientation Programs 270
Designing and Implementing an Employee
Orientation Program 271
Evaluation of Orientation Program Effectiveness 272
Summary 275
Key Terms and Concepts 276
Questions for Discussion 276
Exercise: Designing a Technology-Enhanced Orientation
Program 277
Chapter 9
Skills and Technical Training
278
Introduction 279
Basic Workplace Competencies 280
Basic Skills/Literacy Programs 281
Addressing Illiteracy in the Workplace 282
Designing an In-House Basic Skills/Literacy
Program 283
Federal Support for Basic Skills Training 283
Technical Training 285
Apprenticeship Training Programs 285
Computer Training Programs 287
Technical Skills/Knowledge Training 288
Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
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Contents
Safety Training 289
Quality Training 293
Interpersonal Skills Training 297
Sales Training 298
Customer Relations/Service Training 298
Team Building/Training 301
Role of Labor Unions in Skills and Technical Training
Programs 302
Joint Training Programs 303
Professional Development and Education 304
Continuing Education at Colleges and Universities
Continuing Education by Professional
Associations 306
Company-Sponsored Continuing Education 306
HRD Departments’ Role in Continuing
Education 307
Summary 309
Key Terms and Concepts 310
Questions for Discussion 310
Exercise: Evaluating a Class Project Team 311
Chaptert 10 Coaching and Performance Management
Introduction 313
The Need for Coaching 314
Coaching: A Positive Approach to Managing Performance
Coaching and Performance Management 315
Definition of Coaching 316
Role of the Supervisor and Manager in Coaching 318
The HRD Professional’s Role in Coaching 318
Coaching to Improve Poor Performance 319
Defining Poor Performance 319
Responding to Poor Performance 321
Conducting the Coaching Analysis 322
The Coaching Discussion 326
Maintaining Effective Performance and Encouraging
Superior Performance 329
Skills Necessary for Effective Coaching 330
The Effectiveness of Coaching 333
Employee Participation in Discussion 334
Being Supportive 334
Using Constructive Criticism 334
Setting Performance Goals during Discussion 335
Training and the Supervisor’s Credibility 335
Organizational Support 335
Closing Comments on Coaching and Performance
Management 335
xvii
305
312
314
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xviii
Contents
Summary 339
Key Terms and Concepts 340
Questions for Discussion 340
Exercise: Design Your Own Performance Management
System 341
Chapter 11
Employee Counseling and Wellness Services
343
Introduction 344
Employee Counseling As an HRD Activity 346
The Link Between Employee Counseling
and Coaching 346
An Overview of Employee Counseling Programs 347
Components of a Typical Program 347
Who Provides the Service? 348
Characteristics of Effective Employee Counseling
Programs 349
Employee Assistance Programs 350
Substance Abuse 350
Mental Health 351
The EAP Approach to Resolving Employee Personal
Problems 352
Effectiveness of EAPs 356
Stress Management Interventions 358
Defining Stress 359
A Model of Stress Management Interventions 361
The Effectiveness of Stress Management
Interventions 362
Employee Wellness and Health Promotion Programs 362
Exercise and Fitness Interventions 365
Smoking Cessation 367
Nutrition and Weight Control Interventions 367
Control of Hypertension 368
Overall Effectiveness of Health and Wellness
Programs 369
Issues in Employee Counseling 370
Effectiveness of Employee Counseling
Interventions 370
Legal Issues in Employee Counseling Programs 371
Whose Responsibility Is Employee Counseling? 372
Ethical Issues in Employee Counseling 373
Unintended Negative Outcomes of Employee
Counseling Programs 374
Closing Comments 375
Summary 376
Key Terms and Concepts 376
Questions for Discussion 377
Exercise: How Are You Dealing with Stress? 378
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Contents
Chapter 12
Career Management and Development
379
Introduction 380
The “New Employment Relationship” 381
Impact of the “New” Employment Relationship on
Organizational Career Management and
Development 383
Defining Career Concepts 384
What Is a Career? 384
Relationship of Career to Nonwork Activities 385
Career Development 385
Career Planning and Career Management 386
Stages of Life and Career Development 387
Stage Views of Adult Development 388
Models of Career Development 392
Traditional Models of Career Development 392
Reconciling the Traditional and Contemporary
Career Models 396
Life Stage and Career Models as the Conceptual
Base for Career Development 397
The Process of Career Management 397
An Individually-Oriented Career Management
Model 397
Organizationally Oriented Career Management
Models 400
Roles in Career Management 401
The Individual’s Role 401
The Manager’s Responsibility 403
The HRD and Career Development Professional’s
Responsibility 403
Career Development Practices and Activities 404
Self-Assessment Tools and Activities 404
Individual Counseling or Career Discussions 407
Internal Labor Market Information Exchanges and Job
Matching Systems 408
Organization Potential Assessment Processes 410
Developmental Programs 412
Issues in Career Development 414
Developing Career Motivation 414
The Career Plateau 415
Career Development for Nonexempt Employees 417
Enrichment: Career Development without
Advancement 418
Delivering Effective Career Development Systems 419
Summary 422
Key Terms and Concepts 423
Questions for Discussion 424
Exercise: A Career Planning Essay 424
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Contents
Chapter 13
Management Development
426
Introduction 427
Extent of Management Development Activities 429
Organization of the Chapter 429
Describing the Manager’s Job: Management Roles and
Competencies 429
Approaches to Understanding the Job of Managing 430
Managers As Persons: A Holistic View of the
Manager’s Job 433
Importance of Needs Assessment in Determining
Managerial Competencies 436
The Globally Competent Manager 437
What Competencies Will Future Managers Need? 439
Making Management Development Strategic 439
Management Education 441
Bachelor’s or Master’s Degree Programs in Business
Administration 442
Executive Education Programs 444
Management Training and Experiences 446
Company-Designed Courses 446
Corporate Universities 447
On-the-Job Experiences 448
Examples of Approaches Used to Develop Managers 452
Leadership Training 453
Behavior Modeling Training 455
Designing Effective Management Development Programs 458
Summary 460
Key Terms and Concepts 460
Questions for Discussion 461
Exercise: Profiling an Effective Leader 461
Chapter 14
Organization Development and Change
462
Introduction 463
Organization Development Defined 463
Plan of the Chapter 464
Organization Development Theories and Concepts 464
Change Process Theory 464
Implementation Theory 466
Limitations of Research Supporting OD Theories 468
Model of Planned Change 468
Designing an Intervention Strategy 471
Specific Roles 471
Steps for Designing an Intervention Strategy 474
Role of HRD Practitioners in the Design of OD
Interventions 476
The Role of Labor Unions in OD Interventions 476
Types of Interventions: Human Process-Based 477
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Contents
Survey Feedback 477
Team Building 478
Effectiveness of Human Process-Based
Interventions 479
Types of Interventions: Technostructural 479
Job Enlargement 479
Job Enrichment 480
Alternative Work Schedules 480
Effectiveness of Technostructural Interventions 481
Types of Interventions: Sociotechnical Systems 482
Quality Circles 482
Total Quality Management 483
Self-Managing Teams 485
Differences Between TQM and SMT Interventions 487
HRD Programs As Sociotechnical Intervention
Techniques 487
Types of Interventions: Organizational Transformation 488
Cultural Interventions 488
Strategic Changes 489
Organizational Learning 489
High Performance Work Systems 492
Effectiveness of Organizational Transformation Change
Strategies 495
Role of HRD Practitioners in Organizational
Transformation 495
Whither Organization Development? 496
Summary 497
Key Terms and Concepts 498
Questions for Discussion 499
Exercise: Force Field Analysis and You 499
Chapter 15
HRD and Diversity: Diversity Training and Beyond
501
Introduction 502
Organizational Culture 503
Labor-Market Changes and Discrimination 505
Discrimination 505
Equal Employment Opportunity 508
The Glass Ceiling 508
Impact of Recent Immigration Patterns 509
Adapting to Demographic Changes 510
Affirmative Action Programs 510
Valuing Differences and Diversity Training 512
Managing Diversity 514
Cross-Cultural Education and Training Programs 518
Human Resource Development Programs for Culturally
Diverse Employees 522
Socialization and Orientation 522
Career Development 523
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xxii
Contents
Mentoring to Promote Diversity 524
Sexual and Racial Harassment Training 525
Other Human Resource Management Programs and
Processes 527
Closing Comments 527
Summary 528
Key Terms and Concepts 529
Questions for Discussion 529
Exercise: Views on Diversity 530
Glossary
531
Name Index
547
Subject Index
557
Endnotes
567
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Glossary
360-degree performance appraisal (Chapter 4): An approach to performance evaluation
that generally uses peer, subordinate, superior,
and customer feedback to obtain as complete
a picture as possible of an employee's
performance.
Abilities (Chapter 2): General human capacities
related to the performance of a set of tasks.
Abilities develop over time through the interaction of heredity and experience, and are longlasting. Over 100 different types of abilities have
been identified, including general intelligence,
verbal comprehension, numerical ability, and inductive reasoning.
Access discrimination (Chapter 15): An
example of one type of discrimination in the
workplace. It occurs when an organization
places limits on job availability through such
things as restricting advertisement and
recruitment, rejecting applicants, or offering
a lower starting salary to certain types of
individuals.
Action learning (Chapter 13): A concept developed to encourage line managers to provide
input to modify existing operating systems.
Action learning involves having participants
select an organizational problem, write a case
study describing it, and meet with a group of
other managers who face similar problems
to discuss ways of dealing with the problem.
Action plan (Chapter 14): A change intervention
strategy. An action plan should specify the
objective of each change activity, who will be
involved, who is responsible, and when the
activity must be completed. Implementation of
the action plan involves carrying out each step in
the intervention strategy.
Active practice (Chapter 3): A condition of practice that suggests that learners should be given
an opportunity to repeatedly perform the task
or use the knowledge being learned.
Affirmative action (Chapter 15): An organizational program or effort intended to bring
members of underrepresented groups, usually
groups that have suffered discrimination,
into a higher degree of participation in the
organization.
Alpha change (Chapter 14): The type of change
that occurs when individuals perceive a change
in the levels of variables (e.g., a perceived improvement in skills) within an existing paradigm, without altering the basic configuration of
the system.
Alternative work schedules (AWS) (Chapter 14): A technostructural intervention strategy that allows employees to modify their
work requirements to satisfy their personal
needs.
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
(ADA) (Chapter 11): A law that prohibits employers from discriminating against individuals
with disabilities and requires that employers
make “reasonable accommodations” to help
such employees perform their essential job
functions.
Analytic needs (Chapter 4): Needs that identify
new, better ways to perform tasks.
Andragogy (Chapter 3): A term coined by
Malcolm Knowles that refers to an adultoriented approach to learning. It assumes that,
compared to children, adult learners are more
self-directed and interested in immediate
application.
Anticipatory socialization (Chapter 8): The
first stage of the new employee socialization
process, which begins before the individual
joins the organization. In this stage, the person
forms an impression about what membership
in an organization is like from a variety of
sources, such as rumors, anecdotes, advertisements, the media, and recruiters.
Apprenticeship training (Chapters 1 and 9):
A type of training whereby an owner or a shopkeeper educates and trains his or her own
workers without any vocational or technical
schools. In the eighteenth century, the shopkeepers were the trainers. This is one of the
origins of the HRD field.
Assessment center (Chapter 12): A tool used
in employee selection, this method can also be
used to assess potential for advancement. In
an assessment center, small groups of employees perform a variety of exercises while being
evaluated by a group of trained assessors.
531
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532
Glossary
Association (Chapter 3): A form of learning;
association is the process by which two
cognitions become paired together (e.g.,
“dozen” and “twelve items”), so that thinking
about one evokes thoughts about the other.
ASTD (Chapter 1): American Society for Training
and Development; an organization for human
resource development professionals, which
also establishes standards within the training
and development profession.
Attitudes (Chapter 2): An attitude represents a
person’s general feeling of favorableness or unfavorableness toward some stimulus object.
Attitudes are always held with respect to a particular object—whether the object is a person,
place, event, or idea—and indicate one's feelings or affect toward that object. Attitudes also
tend to be stable over time and are difficult to
change. They are made up of beliefs, feelings,
and behavioral tendencies. They affect behavior
indirectly through intentions. Attitudes combine
with the perception of social pressure to form
intentions, which in turn directly affect
behavior.
Audiovisual media (Chapter 6): A method of
classroom training that takes advantage of various media to illustrate or demonstrate the
training material. Audiovisual media can bring
complex events to life by showing and describing details that are often difficult to communicate in other ways.
Basic skills/literacy education (Chapter 9): A
type of training that focuses on upgrading the
reading, writing, and computation skills needed
to function in most any job.
Behavior modeling (Chapters 2, 6, and 13):
A training method where trainees observe a
model performing a target behavior correctly
(usually on a film or video). This is followed by a
discussion by trainees of the key components
of the behavior, practicing the target behavior
through role playing, and receiving feedback
and reinforcement for the behavior they demonstrate. Behavior modeling is widely used for
interpersonal skill training and is a common
component of many management-training programs. Research has shown behavior modeling
to be one of the more effective training
techniques.
Behavior modification (Chapter 2): A set of four
techniques for controlling an employee's behavior. Positive reinforcement refers to increasing
the frequency of a behavior by following the behavior with a pleasurable consequence. Negative reinforcement increases the frequency of a
behavior by removing something aversive after
the behavior is performed. Extinction seeks to
decrease the frequency of a behavior by removing the consequence that is reinforcing it.
Punishment seeks to decrease the frequency
of a behavior by introducing an aversive consequence immediately after the behavior.
Behavioral intentions model (Chapter 2): A
model that seeks to explain the relationship between attitudes and behavior. This model
states that it is the combination of attitudes
with perceived social pressure to behave in a
given way (called subjective norms) that influences an individual's intentions. These intentions, in turn, more directly influence behavior.
When attitudes and subjective norms conflict,
the stronger of the two plays the dominant role
in determining what the individual's intentions
will be. According to the behavioral intentions
model, attitudes affect behavior only to the extent that they influence one's intentions.
Beta change (Chapter 14): A type of change
where individuals perceive a change in the value of variables (e.g., change in work standards)
within an existing paradigm without altering
their basic configuration.
Blended learning (Chapter 6): A combination of
traditional (classroom-based) and technologyenhanced training.
Business games (Chapter 6): A training method
that is intended to develop or refine problemsolving and decision-making skills. This technique tends to focus primarily on business
management decisions (such as maximizing
profits).
Career (Chapter 12): A pattern of work-related
experiences that span the course of one's life.
Career concept (Chapter 12): A broad idea that
includes various subjective and objective
components, such as a person's occupation,
advancement, status, involvement, and the
stability of one's work-related experiences.
Career development (Chapters 1 and 12): An
ongoing process by which individuals progress
through a series of stages, each of which is
characterized by a relatively unique set of
issues, themes, and tasks.
Career management (Chapters 1 and 12): An
ongoing process undertaken by organizations
to prepare, implement, and monitor the career
plans of individual employees, usually in concert with the organization's career management system.
Career motivation (Chapter 12): A significant
objective of effective career management; career motivation affects how people choose
their careers, how they view their careers, how
hard they work in them, and how long they stay
in them.
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Glossary
Career path (Chapter 12): A sequence of jobs,
usually involving related tasks and experiences,
that employees move through over time (typically within one organization).
Career planning (Chapters 1 and 12): A deliberate process of (1) becoming aware of oneself,
opportunities, constraints, choices, and consequences; (2) identifying career-related goals; and
(3) programming work, education, and related
developmental experiences to provide the direction, timing, and sequence of steps to attain a
specific career goal. Viewed in this way, career
planning is an activity performed by the individual
to understand and attempt to control his or her
work life.
Career plateau (Chapter 12): The point in a career where the likelihood of additional hierarchical promotion is low (or is perceived to be
low).
Case study method (Chapter 6): A training
method that help trainees learn analytical and
problem-solving skills by presenting a story
(called a case) about people in an organization
who are facing a problem or a decision. Cases
may be based on actual events involving real
people in an organization, or they can be fictitious. Trainees should be given enough information to analyze the situation and recommend
their own solutions. In solving the problem, the
trainees are generally required to use a rational
problem-solving process.
Causal attribution theory (Chapter 10): A process by which people assign causes to their
own and other peoples' behavior.
Certification (Chapter 9): An outcome granted
by a professional organization after a candidate completes prescribed coursework and/or
passes an examination, for example, the
Professional in Human Resources (PHR)
certification.
Change agent (Chapter 14): An individual who
typically works with a change manager to design and implement a change strategy. Among
other things, the change agent has primary responsibility for facilitating all of the activities
surrounding the design and implementation of
the strategy.
Change and acquisition (Chapter 8): The last
stage in the new employee socialization stage,
which occurs when new employees accept the
norms and values of the group or organization,
master the tasks they must perform, and resolve any role conflicts and overloads.
Change manager (Chapter 14): A person who
oversees the design of the intervention strategy. This person has overall responsibility for
assessing the need for change, determining
533
the appropriate intervention activities, implementing the strategy, and evaluating the
results.
Characteristics
approach
(Chapter
13):
Observing the tasks managers perform and
grouping them into meaningful categories.
Classroom training (Chapter 6): Instructional
methods that take place away from the normal
work setting. In this sense, a classroom can be
any training space that is away from the work
site, such as a lecture hall, a company cafeteria,
or a meeting room. It is a common instructional
method.
Coaching (Chapters 1 and 10): A process of
treating employees as partners in achieving both
personal and organizational goals. In the process, individuals are encouraged to accept
responsibility for their actions, to address any
work-related problems, and to achieve and to
sustain superior performance.
Coaching analysis (Chapters 1 and 10): An activity in coaching that involves analyzing employee performance and the conditions under
which it occurs.
Coaching discussion (Chapter 10): An activity
in coaching where there is face-to-face communication between an employee and his or her
supervisor. The purpose is to solve problems,
as well as to enable the employee to maintain
and improve effective performance.
Cognitive architecture (Chapter 3): A foundational idea in cognitive psychology, it is defined
as a fixed system of mechanisms that underlies and produces cognitive behavior.
Cognitive
resource
allocation
theory
(Chapter 3): An attribute-treatment interaction
(ATI) theory that uses an information processing
perspective to explain the existence of an interaction between cognitive ability and motivation
for both the acquisition and performance of
moderately difficult tasks.
Cohesiveness (Chapter 2): Cohesiveness is an
important concept for teamwork. It is the members' sense of togetherness and willingness to
remain as part of the group. Given team members' high level of interdependence, they must
trust one another and feel a sense of cohesiveness if the team is to work together and be
successful.
Communication skills (Chapter 10): Communication skills are needed to be an effective
coach. Unless a manager has the ability both to
listen to employees and to get them to understand what effective performance is and how
to achieve it, coaching will not succeed.
Competencies (Chapter 1): Training and development (T&D) competencies are interpersonal
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534
Glossary
skills such as coaching, group process
facilitation, and problem solving. For professional employees to develop such skills, they
may need to take advantage of continuing education opportunities.
Compliance needs (Chapter 4): Needs that are
mandated by law.
Component task achievement (Chapter 3):
Each component task must be fully achieved
before the entire task may be performed
correctly.
Compressed workweek (Chapter 14): An
alternative work schedule that involves
reducing the number of workdays in a week,
usually from five to four.
Computer-aided instruction (CAI) (Chapter 6):
An instructional program that uses a computer
system. CAI programs can range from electronic workbooks, using the drill-and-practice
approach, to compact disc read-only memory
(CD-ROM) presentation of a traditional training
program.
Computer-based training (CBT) (Chapters 5
and 6): An instructional method that uses computer technology, CBT can be implemented
using a computer at an employee's desk or
workstation, in a company classroom, or even
at an employee's home. The primary advantage
of CBT is its interactivity and flexibility.
Confidentiality (Chapters 7 and 11): A commitment not to disclose information regarding an
individual's performance in training (Chapter 7),
or other personal matters (Chapter 11).
Constructive confrontation (Chapter 11): A
strategy calling for supervisors to monitor their
employees' job performance, confront them
with evidence of their unsatisfactory performance, coach them on ways to improve it, urge
them to use the counseling services of an employee assistance program if they have personal
problems, and emphasize the consequences of
continued poor performance. Constructive confrontation proceeds in progressive stages; at
each stage, employees must choose whether to
seek help from the EAP, manage their problems
themselves, or suffer the consequences of their
actions.
Contiguity (Chapter 3): A basic learning theory
about association that suggests that objects
experienced together tend to become associated with each other.
Continuing education (Chapter 9): A concept
that promotes lifelong learning at the professional and/or personal levels.
Continuous-learning work environment
(Chapter 3): A work environment where
organizational members share perceptions and
expectations that learning is an important part
of everyday work life.
Control group (Chapter 7): A group of employees similar to those who receive training, yet
who don't receive training at the same time as
those who are trained. However, this group
receives the same evaluation measures as the
group that is trained, and this allows for a comparison of their scores to those who received
the training.
Corporate universities (Chapter 9): Internal
learning programs that organizations develop
and deliver using an academic framework.
Cost-benefit analysis (Chapter 7): Comparing
the monetary costs of training to the benefits received in nonmonetary terms, such as improvements in attitudes, safety, and health.
Cost-effectiveness analysis (Chapter 7): The
financial benefits accrued from training, such as
increases in quality and profits, or reduction in
waste and processing time.
Counseling (Chapters 1 and 11): A variety of
activities, from informal discussions with a
supervisor to intensive one-on-one discussions
with a trained professional.
Craft guilds (Chapter 1): A network of private
“franchises” built by early master craftsmen so
that they could regulate such things as product
quality, wages, hours, and apprentice testing
procedures.
Critical incident technique (Chapter 4): A
technique used for task identification. It involves having individuals who are familiar with
the job record incidents of particularly effective
and ineffective behavior that they have seen on
the job over a period (e.g., one year). This can
be done by individuals or in groups. For each incident, the observer is asked to describe the
circumstances and the specific behaviors involved, and suggest reasons why the behavior
was effective or ineffective. It results in an understanding of what is considered both good
and poor performance.
Cross-cultural training (Chapter 15): Training
that is typically provided to individuals who
will be working in a culture other than their native culture (e.g., expatriates). It usually seeks
to raise awareness of cultural differences, as
well as build skills in the areas of language,
nonverbal communication, stress management, and cultural adjustment.
Cultural change (Chapter 14): A complex process of replacing an existing paradigm or way
of thinking with another.
Cultural diversity (Chapter 15): The existence
of two or more persons from different cultural
groups in any single group or organization.
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Glossary
Most organizations today are culturally diverse
because their employees are from different
cultural subgroups.
Culture (Chapter 15): A set of shared values,
beliefs, norms, and artifacts that are used to interpret the environment and as a guide for all
kinds of behavior.
Customer
service
training
(Chapter
9):
Education that focuses on improving the interpersonal relations, problem-solving, leadership,
and teamwork skills of employees who interact
with customers.
Declarative knowledge (Chapter 3): The
knowledge a learner needs in order to know
what to do, as compared to knowing how to do
it (cf. procedural knowledge).
Degree of original learning (Chapter 3): The
more effectively that information is initially
learned, the more likely it will be retained.
Deliberate practice (Chapter 3): An effortful
activity motivated by the goal of improving performance. It provides the best opportunity for
learning and skill acquisition.
to voluntarily reduce its workforce, usually in an
effort to reduce cost.
Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988 (Chapter 11):
A law that mandated drug-free awareness programs among federal contractors and grant receivers. This includes informing employees about
the availability of drug counseling, rehabilitation,
and employee assistance programs.
Dynamic media (Chapter 6): Techniques used
to present dynamic sequences of events.
It includes audiocassettes and compact discs
(CDs), film, videotape, and videodisc.
Educational
interventions
(Chapter
11):
Programs designed to inform the employee
about the sources of stress, what stress feels
like, how stressors can be avoided, and how
the individual can better cope with stress.
Ego integrity (Chapter 12): A person's understanding and acceptance of the choices he or
she has made in life.
Employee
assistance
program
(EAP)
(Chapter 11): A job-based program operating
based on the research investigating job features that could be developmental.
within a work organization for the purposes of
identifying troubled employees, motivating them
to resolve their troubles, and providing access to
counseling or treatment for those employees
who need these services.
Deviant workplace behavior (Chapter 10):
Employee counseling services (Chapter 11):
A voluntary employee behavior that violates significant organizational norms, and in doing so
threatens the well-being of an organization, its
members, or both.
Diagnostic needs (Chapter 4): Needs that
focus on the factors that lead to effective
performance and prevent performance problems, rather than emphasizing existing
problems.
Discussion method (Chapter 6): The discussion method of training involves the trainer in
two-way communication with the trainees, and
the trainees in communication with each other.
Because active participation is encouraged, the
discussion method offers trainees an opportunity for feedback, clarification, and sharing
points of view.
Diversity training (Chapter 15): Training programs designed specifically to address issues of
cultural diversity in the workforce. A “valuing
differences” approach to diversity training
emphasizes building awareness of differences
between various demographic or cultural
groups, whereas a “managing diversity” approach is more likely to emphasize the skills
needed to work successfully in a multicultural
environment.
Downsizing (Chapters 2 and 14): A term commonly associated with an organization's efforts
Programs that seek to ensure that employees
can overcome personal and other problems
(such as alcohol or substance abuse or stress)
and remain effective in the workplace.
Employee orientation (Chapters 1 and 8): A
program that is designed to introduce new employees to the job, supervisor, coworkers, and
the organization. Orientation programs typically
begin after the newcomer has agreed to join
the organization, usually on the individual's first
day at work.
Developmental Challenge Profile (DCP)
(Chapter 13): A ninety-six-item questionnaire
535
Employee wellness program (EWP) (Chapter
11): Programs that promote employee behavior
and organizational practices that ensure employee health and fitness.
Encounter (Chapter 8): A step in the new
employee socialization process that begins
when a recruit makes a formal commitment to
join the organization by either signing an employment contract or simply accepting an offer
of employment or membership. At this point,
an individual crosses the inclusionary boundary
separating the organization from the outside
environment and begins to discover what the
organization is really like. During this stage, employment expectations may be confirmed or
rejected.
Equal employment opportunity (EEO) (Chapter 15): The right of applicants to be hired and
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536
Glossary
employees to get promoted, paid, and treated
on the basis of job-related performance, and
not on the basis of legally protected factors
such as race, color, religion, gender, national
origin, age, disability, veteran status, or
pregnancy.
Equity theory (Chapter 2): A motivation theory
that proposes that employee perceptions of
outcomes are important determinants of behavior. Equity theory states that outcomes are
evaluated by comparing them to the outcomes
received by others. If employees perceive an
inequity, they may change their performance or
cognitions, or both, to reduce the inequity. Outcomes can also serve as a form of feedback to
employees. Bonuses and recognition, for example, let employees know if they have performed appropriately and if their performance is
valued by the organization.
Executive education (Chapter 13): Educational
programs that range from condensed M.B.A.
programs to short courses delivered by colleges and universities, consulting firms, private
institutes, and professional and industry
associations.
between their performance and the desired
outcomes and thus choose to behave differently. Further, if outcomes are not as rewarding
as anticipated, the employees may revise their
judgments about the value of that outcome and
perform different behaviors.
Expectation (Chapter 8): In the context of new
employee socialization, an expectation is a
belief about the likelihood that something will
occur and can encompass behaviors, feelings,
policies, and attitudes.
Expert performance (Chapter 3): A consistently superior performance on a specified set
of representative tasks for a given area or
domain.
Feedback (Chapter 10): Communication to an
employee regarding work performance that is
provided by a supervisor or peer.
Feedback phase (Chapter 13): The fourth step
in behavior modeling, in which each trainee receives feedback on his or her performance
based on what was done well and what should
be improved.
Executive M.B.A. (E.M.B.A.) programs (Chapter 13): An M.B.A. program that condenses or
ees some latitude in determining their starting
and ending times in a given workday.
Force field analysis (Chapter 14): A strategy
used to analyze the driving and restraining
forces of change. The value of a force field analysis is that it allows the intervention strategists
to pinpoint specific support and resistance to a
proposed change program.
Four-dimensional model (Chapter 13): This
model describes the managerial job and can be
used to design management development efforts. Along with the integrated competency
model, it provides a conceptual basis to view
the role of managers within a specific organization and the competencies managers need to
perform effectively.
accelerates the coursework, with courses
meeting once per week (typically on weekends). These programs are typically designed
so that they can be completed in two years.
Students tend to be older, full-time managers
from a variety of organizations who have a significant amount of experience as managers.
Expectancy (Chapter 2): A belief representing
the individual's judgment about whether
applying (or increasing) effort to a task will result in its successful accomplishment. People
with high expectancy believe that increased
effort will lead to better performance, while
people with low expectancy do not believe that
their efforts, no matter how great, will affect
their performance. All other things being equal,
people should engage in tasks for which they
have high expectancy beliefs.
Expectancy theory (Chapter 2): A motivation theory that proposes that employee
perceptions of outcomes are important
determinants of behavior. The three major components of the theory are expectancies, instrumentality, and valence. Expectancy theory
states that people will perform behaviors that
they perceive will bring valued outcomes. If
employees fulfill certain obligations to the organization but do not receive promised outcomes (such as promotions or pay raises), they
may reduce their expectations about the link
Flextime, flexible work schedules (Chapters
14 and 15): A technique that allows employ-
Fundamental attribution error (Chapter 10):
An error that is the tendency to overattribute a
behavior to a cause within a person (e.g., effort
or ability) rather than to the situation (e.g., task
difficulty or luck). A supervisor who commits
this error is likely to overlook real environmental
causes of poor performance and thus blame
the employee for poor performance that was
not under the employee's control.
Gamma change (Chapter 14): Gamma A and
gamma B are two types of change. Gamma A
occurs when individuals perceive change within
an existing paradigm or way of thinking.
Gamma B occurs when individuals perceive a
replacement of one paradigm with another
paradigm that contains new variables.
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Glossary
Generativity (Chapter 12): The development of
High performance work system (Chapter 1):
a capacity to focus on the generations that will
follow oneself.
Gerontology (Chapter 3): The study of older individuals. This approach suggests that while it
may take longer for older adults to learn new
knowledge and skills and that they tend to
make more errors during learning, older adults
can and do attain performance levels equal to
those achieved by younger adults.
Glass ceiling (Chapter 15): The subtle attitudes
and prejudices that block women and minorities from upward mobility, particularly into
management jobs. More specifically, the glass
ceiling symbolizes prevailing attitudes about different cultural groups and their general abilities,
or the lack thereof, to perform some role or
occupation.
Goal-setting theory (Chapters 2 and 10): A
cognitive theory of motivation that is relevant to
HRD. Goal-setting theory states that performance goals play a key role in motivation. The
theory proposes that the presence of performance goals can mobilize employee effort, direct their attention, increase their persistence,
and affect the strategies they will use to accomplish a task. Goals influence the individual's
intentions, that is, the cognitive representations
of goals to which the person is committed. This
commitment will continue to direct employee
behavior until the goal is achieved, or until a
decision is made to change or reject the goal.
Group dynamics (Chapter 2): Group dynamics
influence the way an employee may behave
when interacting in a group. That is, the performance of individuals within a group can differ
from their behavior alone. Groupthink and social
loafing are aspects of group dynamics.
Groupthink (Chapter 2): A group dynamic that
occurs when group members are primarily concerned with unanimity, making poor decisions
by failing to realistically assess alternatives.
A workplace or work system where the various
parts or subsystems are aligned or fit together
in a way that leads to increased productivity,
quality, flexibility, and shorter cycle times, as
well as increased customer and employee
satisfaction and quality of work life.
HR strategic advisor (Chapter 1): An individual
who consults strategic decision makers on
HRD issues that directly affect the articulation
of organization strategies and performance
goals.
Harassment, sexual and racial (Chapter 15):
Unsolicited, intimidating behavior, via verbal or
nonverbal communication, that is directed toward an individual or a group. A hostile work
environment can also be considered a form of
harassment in the workplace.
Hazing (Chapter 8): A situation where new employees are targets of practical jokes or are harassed because they lack certain information.
Health promotion program (HPP) (Chapter 11):
A program similar to employee wellness programs (EWPs) that is made up of activities that
promote employee behavior and organizational
practices that ensure employee health and
fitness.
537
HR systems designer and developer
(Chapter 1): An individual who assists HR
management in the design and development
of HR systems that affect organization
performance.
HRD evaluation (Chapter 7): The systematic
collection of descriptive and judgmental
information necessary to make effective training decisions related to the selection, adoption,
value, and modification of various instructional
or HRD activities.
Human
process-based
interventions
(Chapter 14): A change theory that focuses on
changing behaviors by modifying individual attitudes, values, problem-solving approaches, and
interpersonal styles.
Human relations (Chapter 1): A movement in
the early twentieth century that advocated
more humane working conditions. It was formulated as a response to the frequent abuse of
unskilled workers. Among other things, the
human relations movement provided a more
complex and realistic understanding of workers
as people, instead of merely cogs in a factory
machine.
Human Resource Certification Institute
(HRCI) (Chapter 1): An organization run
in conjunction with the Society for Human Resource Management. HRCI oversees and administers the Professional in Human Resources
(PHR) and Senior Professional in Human Resources (SPHR) examinations.
Human
resource
development
(HRD)
(Chapter 1): A set of systematic and planned
activities designed by an organization to provide
its members with the necessary skills to meet
current and future job demands.
Human resource management (HRM)
(Chapter 1): The effective utilization of employees to best achieve the goals and strategies of the organization, as well as the goals
and needs of employees.
Hypertension (Chapter 11): A blood pressure
greater than 140/90 millimeters of mercury
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538
Glossary
(mm Hg) over repeated measurements; high
blood pressure.
Identical elements (Chapter 3): A principle
suggesting that the more similar the training
and the performance situations are in terms of
the stimuli present and responses required, the
more likely it is that positive transfer of training
will occur.
In-basket exercise (Chapter 6): A type of simulation used in management development programs and assessment centers that assesses
the trainee's ability to establish priorities, plan,
gather relevant information, and make decisions.
Individual development (Chapter 1): The process of building an individual's skills or
competencies over time. Organizations often
offer career counselors to facilitate the process
of individual development.
Individual development and career counselor
(Chapter 1): An individual who assists
employees in assessing their competencies
and goals in order to develop a realistic career
plan.
Information overload (Chapter 8): The idea
that a person can absorb only so much information in a given period before learning efficiency
drops and stress increases.
Informed consent (Chapter 7): A form stating
that the participants in an evaluation study have
been informed of these facts and agree to participate in the study.
Instructional psychology (Chapter 3): An academic field of study that emphasizes how the
learning environment can be structured to maximize learning. It focuses on what must be done
before learning can take place and on the acquisition of human competence.
Instructor/facilitator (Chapter 1): An individual
who presents materials and leads and facilitates
structured learning experiences. Within the HRD
framework, the outputs for such an individual
would include the selection of appropriate instructional methods and techniques and the actual HRD program itself.
Instrumentality (Chapter 2): The connection an
individual perceives (if any) between his or her
own task performance and possible outcomes.
Integrated competency model (Chapter 13):
A model that can be used to describe the
managerial job and design management
development efforts. Along with the fourdimensional model, it provides a conceptual
basis to view the role of managers within a
specific organization and the competencies
managers need to perform effectively.
Intelligent computer-assisted instruction
(ICAI) (Chapter 6): An instructional program
that is able to discern the learner's capability
from the learner's response patterns and by
analyzing the learner's errors. The goal of ICAI
systems is to provide learners with an electronic teacher's assistant that can patiently offer
advice to individual learners, encourage learner
practice, and stimulate learners' curiosity
through experimentation.
Interference (Chapter 3): A factor that affects
the extent to which learning is retained. There
are two types of interference. First, material or
skills learned before the training session can
inhibit recall of the newly learned material. Second, information learned after a training session
may also interfere with retention.
Internal validity (Appendix 7-1): A judgment
about the accuracy of the conclusions made
concerning the relationship between variables
in a given study. For example, it seeks to answer the question of whether changes in
employee performance were due to the HRD
intervention, or whether there were other
causes of this change in performance.
Interpersonal skills training (Chapters 9 and
10): Training that focuses on an individual's relationships with others, including communication and teamwork.
Intervention strategy (Chapter 14): A framework for diagnosing, developing, and evaluating
the change process in an organization.
Intranet-based training (IBT) (Chapter 6): A
training method that uses internal computer
networks for training purposes. Through IBT,
trainers and HRD professionals are able to communicate with learners, conduct needs assessment and other administrative tasks, transmit
course materials and other training documents,
and administer tests at any time and throughout the organization, whether an employee is in
the United States or located overseas.
Intranets (Chapter 6): Computer networks that
use Internet and World Wide Web technology,
software tools, and protocols for finding, managing, creating, and distributing information
within one organization.
ISO 9000 (Chapter 9): A set of standards that is
directed at the quality of the processes used to
create a product or service.
Job analysis (Chapter 4): A systematic study of
a job to identify its major tasks or components,
as well as the knowledge, skills, abilities, and
other characteristics necessary to perform that
job.
Job characteristics model (Chapter 14): An
approach to job enrichment. The job characteristics model is based on the premise that
jobs have five core dimensions (i.e., skill variety,
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Glossary
task identity, task significance, autonomy, and
feedback).
Job description (Chapter 4): The portion of the
job analysis that focuses on the tasks and
duties in a given job.
Job design/enlargement (Chapters 2 and
14): Job design is the development and
alteration of the components of a job (such as
the tasks one performs, and the scope of one's
responsibilities) to improve productivity and the
quality of the employee's work life. Job enlargement refers to adding more tasks of a
similar nature to an existing job.
Job enrichment (Chapters 2 and 14): An approach to job design that emphasizes that
workers can be motivated by satisfying their
survival needs, and then adding motivator factors to create job satisfaction. It typically adds
tasks or responsibilities that provide more variety, responsibility, or autonomy to a given job.
Job instruction training (JIT) (Chapter 6):
A set sequence of instructional procedures
used by the trainer to train employees while
they work in their assigned job. It is most
commonly used by supervisors to train new
employees in the basic elements of their job.
Job inventory questionnaire (Chapter 4): An
approach to task analysis. A questionnaire is
developed to ask people familiar with the job to
identify all of its tasks. This list is then given
to supervisors and job incumbents to evaluate
each task in terms of its importance and the
time spent performing it. This method allows
for input from many people and gives numerical
information about each task that can be used to
compute measures that can be analyzed with
statistics.
Job posting (Chapter 12): One of the most
common career development activities, job
posting involves making open positions in the
organization known to current employees before advertising them to outsiders.
Job rotation (Chapters 6 and 12): A technique
that is intended to develop job-related skills,
which involves a series of assignments to different positions or departments for a specified
period. During this assignment, the trainee is
supervised by a department employee who is
responsible for orienting, training, and evaluating
the trainee. Throughout the training cycle, the
trainee is expected to learn about how each
department functions, including key roles, policies, and procedures.
Job specification (Chapter 4): A summary of
the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) that are required of employees to successfully perform a job.
539
Job Training and Partnership Act (JTPA)
(Chapter 9): A law that established a federal
skills training program. The JTPA replaced the
Comprehensive Employment and Training Act
(CETA). The goal of this program was to provide
training opportunities to the unemployed,
displaced, and economically disadvantaged in
order to help them obtain permanent jobs. Beginning July 1, 2000, the JTPA was replaced by
the Workforce Investment Act.
Job-duty-task method (Chapter 4): A type of
task analysis method that divides a job into the
following subparts: job title, job duties, and the
knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics required to perform each identified task.
Knowledge (Chapter 2): An understanding of
factors or principles related to a particular
subject.
Law of effect (Chapters 2 and 3): The theory
that behavior that is followed by a pleasurable
consequence will occur more frequently
(a process called reinforcement), and that behavior that is followed by an aversive consequence
will occur less frequently.
Leadership (Chapter 2): The use of noncoercive
influence to direct and coordinate the activities of
a group toward accomplishing a goal.
Learning (Chapter 3): A relatively permanent
change in behavior, cognition, or affect that
occurs as a result of one's interaction with the
environment.
Learning curve (Chapter 3): A graph that shows
the rates of learning. It is typically plotted on a
graph, with learning proficiency indicated vertically on the y-axis and elapsed time indicated
horizontally on the x-axis.
Learning organization (Chapters 1 and 14):
An organization that seeks to learn, adapt, and
change in order to create fundamental or deeplevel change. Learning organizations generally
embrace the following five principles: systems
thinking, person mastery, mental models, building shared vision, and team learning.
Learning points (Chapter 13): In behavior modeling training, learning points highlight the key
behaviors that make up an overall desired
behavior that is presented during a modeling
phase.
Learning program specialist (or instructional
designer) (Chapter 1): An individual who
identifies needs of the learner, develops and
designs appropriate learning programs, and prepares materials and other learning aids.
Learning strategy (Chapter 3): A learning
strategy represents the behavior and thoughts
a learner engages in during learning. Learning
strategies are the techniques learners use to
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540
Glossary
rehearse, elaborate, organize, and/or comprehend new material as well as to influence selfmotivation and feelings.
Learning style (Chapter 3): A learning style
represents how individual choices made during
the learning process affect what information is
selected and how it is processed.
Lecture method (Chapter 6): A training method
that involves the oral presentation of information by a subject matter expert to a group of
listeners. It is a widely used training technique
because of its efficiency in transmitting factual
information to a large audience in a relatively
short amount of time. When used in conjunction
with visual aids, such as slides, charts, maps,
and handouts, the lecture can be an effective
way to facilitate the transfer of theories, concepts, procedures, and other factual material.
Lesson plan (Chapter 5): A guide for the delivery of the content of a training program. Creating a lesson plan requires the trainer to
determine in advance what is to be covered
and how much time to devote to each part of
the session.
Licensure (Chapter 9): A credential granted by
a governmental agency indicating that an individual is official/officially qualified.
Managed care (Chapter 11): An arrangement
where an organization, such as a health maintenance organization (HMO), insurance company,
or doctor-hospital network, acts as an intermediary between a person seeking care and the physician. The general purpose of managed care is to
increase the efficiency and decrease the costs of
healthcare.
Management education (Chapter 13): The
acquisition of a broad range of conceptual
knowledge and skills in formal classroom
situations in degree-granting institutions.
Management training (Chapter 13): A component of management development that
focuses on providing specific skills or knowledge that could be immediately applied within
an organization and/or to a specific position or
set of positions within an organization.
Management training and development
(Chapters 1 and 13): Training programs that
focus on current or future managers, and
that emphasize strategic management concepts as well as developing a broader or
more global perspective among managers. This
broader perspective is considered essential for
managing in today's highly competitive
environment.
Managing diversity (Chapter 15): A comprehensive managerial process for developing an
environment (or organizational culture) that
works to the benefit of all employees. This
approach focuses on building an environment
for everyone and on the full utilization of the
total workforce. It does not exclude women or
minorities, nor does it exclude whites or males.
It attempts to create a level playing field
for all employees without regard to cultural
distinction.
Material safety data sheets (MSDS) (Chapter
9): Sheets containing information provided by
manufacturers explaining potential product hazards and safety information. This information is
part of an employee's legal right to know what
products are within their working environment.
Meaningfulness of material (Chapter 3): The
extent to which material is rich in associations
for the individual learner.
Mental Health Parity Act of 1996 (Chapter 11): A law that took effect on January 1,
1998. It states that private employers with
more than fifty employees who offer mental
health coverage must offer annual and maximum lifetime dollar limits equal to those
offered for “regular” medical benefits.
Mental practice (Chapter 3): The cognitive
rehearsal of a task in the absence of overt physical movement.
Mentoring (Chapters 12 and 15): A relationship
between a junior and senior member of an
organization that contributes to the career development of both members.
Meta-analysis (Chapter 7): A research technique where the researchers combine the
results from many other studies on a given topic to look for average effects or correlations
between variables. Meta-analyses can sometimes overcome the problems of small sample
sizes that often are experienced by HRD evaluation studies.
Mode of learning (Chapter 3): An individual's
orientation toward gathering and processing information during learning.
Modeling phase (Chapter 13): The first step of
behavior modeling, in which trainees are
usually shown a video clip in which a model
performs the behavior to be learned.
Motivation (Chapter 2): The psychological processes that cause the energizing, direction, and
persistence of voluntary actions that are goal
directed.
Needs (Chapter 2): A deficiency state or imbalance, either physiological or psychological, that
energizes and directs behavior.
Needs assessment (Chapter 4): A process by
which an organization's HRD needs are identified and articulated. It is the starting point of the
HRD and training process.
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Glossary
Norms (Chapters 2 and 8): Informal rules con-
Organization design consultant (Chapter 1):
cerning appropriate behavior that are established
within work groups. These unwritten rules often
serve to control behavior within the group. At
the least, norms serve as guidelines for appropriate behavior, if the employee chooses to comply. Norms send a clear message about what
behavior is expected, and may lead employees
to behave in ways that differ from their typical
patterns.
An individual who advises management on
work systems design and the efficient use of
human resources.
Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
(Chapter 9): A Congressional Act passed in
1970 that promotes safety in the workplace
and created the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) (Chapter 9): This agency has
four primary responsibilities: (1) establish safety
standards, (2) conduct safety inspections, (3)
grant safety variances for organizations unable
to comply with standards, and (4) cite organizations where standards are violated.
On-site safety observation (OSO) (Chapter
9): A way for organizations to take a proactive
approach to improve their safety training efforts. An OSO is a formal, structured approach
for conducting a safety needs assessment.
On-the-job experiences (Chapter 13): Planned
or unplanned opportunities for a manager to gain
self-knowledge, enhance existing skills and abilities, or obtain new skills or information within
the context of day-to-day activities (e.g., mentoring, coaching, or assignment to a task force).
On-the-job training (OJT) (Chapter 6): A training method that involves conducting training at
a trainee's regular workstation (desk, machine,
etc.). This is the most common form of training; most employees receive at least some
training and coaching on the job. Virtually any
type of one-on-one instruction between coworkers or between the employee and supervisor can be classified as OJT. On-the-job training has recently been promoted as a means
for organizations to deal with the shortage of
applicants who possess the skills needed to
perform many current jobs.
Opportunity to perform (Chapter 3): The
extent to which a trainee is provided with or
actively obtains work experiences relevant
to tasks for which he or she was trained.
Organization change agent (Chapter 1): An
individual who advises management in the design and implementation of change strategies
used to transform organizations. The outputs or
end results for such an individual could include
more efficient work teams, quality management, and change reports.
541
Organization development (OD) (Chapters 1
and 14): The process of enhancing the effectiveness of an organization and the well-being of
its members through planned interventions that
apply behavioral science concepts. It emphasizes both macro-level and micro-level organizational changes.
Organization transformation (OT) (Chapter 14):
A theory that views organizations as complex,
human systems, each with a unique character,
its own culture, and a value system, along with
information and work procedures that must be
continually examined, analyzed, and improved if
optimum productivity and motivation are to
result.
Organizational culture (Chapters 2 and 14):
A set of values, beliefs, norms, and patterns of
behavior that are shared by organization members and that guide their behavior.
Organizational socialization (Chapter 8): The
process of adjusting to a new organization. It is
a learning process whereby newcomers must
learn a wide variety of information and behaviors
to be accepted as an organizational insider.
Outcome expectation (Chapter 2): A person's
belief that performing a given behavior will lead
to a given outcome.
Outcomes (Chapter 2): The results of performing a behavior in a particular way. Outcomes
can be personal or organizational in nature. Personal outcomes are those that have value to
the individual, such as pay, recognition, and
emotions. Organizational outcomes are things
valued by the organization, such as teamwork,
productivity, and product quality.
Outplacement counseling (Chapter 12): Counseling that focuses on assisting terminated
employees in making the transition to a new
organization.
Overlearning (Chapter 3): An amount of practice beyond the point at which the material or
task is mastered.
Participative management (Chapter 10): An
approach that requires supervisors, managers,
and even executives to function primarily as
coaches for those who report to them.
Pedagogy (Chapter 3): The term traditionally
used for instructional methodology. This approach has most often emphasized educating
children and teenagers through high school.
People processing strategies (Chapter 8):
Actions that organizations use when socializing
newcomers.
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542
Glossary
Performance appraisal (Chapter 10): An eval-
Practice (Chapter 3): A theory of learning by as-
uation system that typically makes use of a
standardized rating form that is used to
measure various aspects of employee performance. Numerical values or ratings are
generally assigned to each performance
dimension.
sociation that holds that repeating the events in
an association will increase the strength of that
association.
Preretirement counseling (Chapter 12): Activities that help employees prepare for the transition from work to nonwork. Preretirement
counseling programs typically involve discussions about financial planning, social adjustment, family issues, and preparing for leisure
activities.
Pretest-post-test (Chapter 7): A practice that
should be included in research design
that allows the trainer to see what has changed
after the training.
Procedural knowledge (Chapter 3): A focus on
how a learner is supposed to do something, as
compared to knowing what to do (cf. declarative knowledge).
Process consultation (PC) (Chapter 14): A
technique that is important to team building. It
is used by change agents to facilitate meetings
and encounters with the team or workgroup.
Professional association (Chapter 9): A private
group that exists to advance and protect the interests of the profession and to offer services to
its members (e.g., certification, publications,
educational opportunities).
Protean career (Chapter 12): The concept
that individuals drive their own careers, not
organizations, and that individuals reinvent their
careers over time as needed.
Psychological fidelity (Chapter 3): The extent
to which trainees attach similar meanings to
both the training and performance situations.
Psychological fidelity would be encouraged in a
learning experience that imposes time limits on
training tasks that are similar to those that exist
on the job.
Quality circle (Chapter 14): An approach of involving employees in meaningful work decisions, including solving job-related problems.
Quality training (Chapter 9): One of the five
categories of technical training programs.
Random assignment (Chapter 7): A process in
training program design and evaluation whereby
the trainer randomly assigns individuals to
the training and control groups. This increases
the researcher's confidence that any differences
between the training and the control condition
were brought about by the training, and not
some factor that differed between individuals in
the two conditions.
Realistic job preview (RJP) (Chapter 8): Providing recruits with complete information about
the job and the organization (including both
positive and negative information).
Performance appraisal interview (Chapter 10):
A meeting between a supervisor and subordinate in which the supervisor reviews the
evaluation of an employee's performance
and seeks to help the employee maintain and
improve performance.
Performance consultant (or coach) (Chapter 1): An individual who advises line management on appropriate interventions designed to
improve individual and group performance.
Performance management (Chapter 10): A
management tactic that goes beyond the annual appraisal ratings and interviews, and seeks
to incorporate employee goal setting, feedback,
coaching, rewards, and individual development.
Performance management focuses on an ongoing process of performance improvement,
rather than primarily emphasizing an annual
performance review.
Person analysis (Chapter 4): The part of the
needs assessment process that reveals who
needs to be trained, and what kind of training
they need.
Personality (Chapter 3): The stable set of personal characteristics that account for consistent
patterns of behavior.
Physical fidelity (Chapter 3): The extent to
which the physical conditions of the training
program, such as equipment, tasks, and surroundings, are the same as those found in the
performance situation.
Poor performance (Chapter 10): Specific,
agreed-upon
deviations
from
expected
behavior.
Potential assessment (Chapter 12): The
means by which organizations ensure that they
have available individuals who are qualified and
ready to fill key positions when these positions
become vacant. This can be done through
potential ratings, assessment centers, and by
succession planning.
Potential ratings (Chapter 12): An assessment
process that measures multiple dimensions
and includes a summary or overall rating of the
employee's potential for advancement.
Practicality (Chapter 7): A vital issue to consider
when selecting a data collection method. Practicality is concerned with how much time,
money, and resources are available for the evaluation method.
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Glossary
Reasonable accommodation (Chapter 11):
Under the Americans with Disabilities Act, employers must make reasonable accommodations for employees with covered disabilities,
before disciplining or terminating such employees. For employees with a covered condition
(such as mental illness or substance abuse),
this means that the employee must be offered
the opportunity for treatment and have the necessary time for the treatment to take effect
before firing for poor performance is justified.
Rehearsal phase (Chapter 13): The third step in
behavior modeling, in which each trainee role
plays the desired behavior with another trainee.
Reinforcement theory (Chapter 2): A noncognitive theory of motivation that argues that behavior is a function of its consequences.
Rooted in behaviorism, it attempts to explain
behavior without referring to unobservable internal forces such as needs or thoughts.
Reliability (Chapter 7): The consistency of
results from a test or evaluation measure. Reliability concerns freedom from error and bias in
a data collection method. A method that has little or no error or bias is highly reliable, whereas
the results of a method that has significant error or bias is unreliable and cannot be trusted.
Research design (Chapter 7): A plan for conducting an evaluation study.
Researcher (Chapter 1): An individual who can
assess HRD practices and programs using appropriate statistical procedures to determine
their overall effectiveness, and then communicate the results of this assessment to the
organization or public at large. Outputs include
research designs, research findings, recommendations and reports
Retention phase (Chapter 13): The second
step in behavior modeling, in which trainees
perform activities to enhance the memory of
what they have observed.
Return on investment (ROI) (Chapter 7): A
measure of the benefit the organization
receives by conducting the training program. It
is the ratio of the results divided by the training
costs.
Reward structure (Chapter 2): The types of
rewards an organization uses, how rewards
are distributed, and the criteria for reward
distribution.
Role (Chapter 8): A set of behaviors expected of
individuals who hold a given position in a group.
Roles define how a person fits into the organization and what he or she must do to perform
effectively.
Role ambiguity (Chapter 8): A situation where
the employee feels his or her role is unclear.
543
This is often the result of assuming a newly
created position.
Role conflict (Chapter 8): When an employee
receives mixed messages about what is expected of him or her by others, such as a boss
and coworkers.
Role orientation (Chapter 8): The extent to
which individuals are innovative in interpreting
their organizational roles, versus “custodial” in
maintaining what has been done in that role
previously.
Role overload (Chapter 8): A situation where
the employee perceives the role as being more
than he or she can reasonably do.
Role playing (Chapter 6): A training method in
which trainees are presented with an organizational situation, assigned a role or character
in the situation, and asked to act out the role
with one or more other trainees. The role play
should offer trainees an opportunity for selfdiscovery and learning.
Safety training (Chapter 9): Organizational
training efforts designed to promote workplace
safety.
School-to-work
programs
(Chapter
9):
Efforts to prepare young people for skilled positions. Many such programs emphasize youth
apprenticeships and technical preparation.
Self-assessment
activities
(Chapter
12):
Activities, such as self-study workbooks or career and retirement planning workshops, that
focus on providing employees with a systematic way to identify capabilities and career
preferences.
Self-efficacy (Chapter 2): A person's judgments
of his or her capabilities to organize and execute
a course of action required to attain a designated
type or level of performance. Self-efficacy is not
as focused on the skills one has, but with the
judgments of what one can do with whatever
skills one possesses.
Self-fulfilling prophecy (Chapter 2): The
notion that expectations of performance can become reality because people strive to behave
consistently with their perceptions of reality.
Self-managed teams (SMTs) (Chapter 14):
Formal groups in which the group members are
interdependent and have the authority to regulate the team's activities.
Self-report data (Chapter 7): Data provided
directly by individuals involved in the training
program. It is the most commonly used type of
data in HRD evaluation, but also has serious
weaknesses in terms of the potential value for
HRD evaluation.
Self-selection (Chapter 8): A process that an applicant goes through to evaluate whether the
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544
Glossary
job and the organization match his or her individual needs. If they are incompatible, the applicant will probably not accept the position, thus
keeping the organization from hiring someone
who would likely be dissatisfied and quit.
Skill-acquisition interventions (Chapter 11):
Programs designed to provide employees with
new ways to cope with stressors affecting their
lives and performance and help keep the
effects of stress in check.
Skills (Chapter 2): A combination of abilities and
capabilities that are developed as a result of
training and experience.
Skills training (Chapter 1): A training program
that is typically more narrow in scope. Skill
training is often used to teach a new employee
a particular skill or area of knowledge. It includes ways to ensure that employees possess
the specific skills (such as literacy, technological,
and interpersonal skills) that they need to perform effectively and contribute to the organization's success.
Social learning theory (Chapter 2): A cognitive
theory of motivation that holds that outcomes
and self-efficacy expectations affect individual
performance. It highlights the judgments that a
person makes concerning what he or she can
do with the skills she or he possesses. It also
emphasizes that most behavior is learned
through a process called modeling, that is, by
observing others.
Social loafing (Chapter 2): The tendency for
group members to reduce their effort as the
size of the group increases.
Sociotechnical systems (STS) interventions
(Chapter 14): A change theory that emphasizes the fit between the technological configuration and the social structure of a work unit.
The relationship between social and technical
systems can impact the roles, tasks, and
activities in the work unit. Emphasis is often
placed on developing self-maintaining, semiautonomous groups.
Static media (Chapter 6): Fixed illustrations that
use both words and images. This can include
printed materials, computer slides, and overhead transparencies.
Statistical power (Appendix 7-1): The ability to
detect statistically significant differences between a group that gets trained and one that
does not. There are practical limitations in many
HRD interventions that limit the number of people receiving the intervention (or in the control
group) to a relatively small number, thus limiting
the statistical power of many HRD interventions.
Statistical process control (SPC) (Chapter 9):
A quality tool that helps to determine if a
process is stable and predictable, identify
common causes of variation, and clarify
when employee intervention is needed. The
principle underlying SPC is that most processes demonstrate variations in output and
that it is important to determine whether the
causes of such a variation are normal or abnormal. SPC focuses on training employees
to be able to discern abnormal variations, so
that adjustments can be made to the process
in order to improve quality.
Stimulus-response-feedback method (Chapter 4): A method for identifying and describing
the major tasks that make up a job. The stimulusresponse-feedback method breaks down each
task into three components. The first component
is the stimulus, or cue, that lets an employee
know it is time to perform a particular behavior.
The second component is the response or behavior that the employee is to perform. The third
component is the feedback the employee
receives about how well the behavior was
performed.
Strategic change (Chapter 14): Any fundamental change in the organizational purpose or mission requiring systemwide changes.
Strategic/organizational analysis (Chapter 4):
An aspect of needs assessment that reveals
where in the organization training is needed
and under what conditions it will occur.
Strategic/organizational analysis focuses on the
organization's goals and its effectiveness in
achieving those goals, organizational resources,
the climate for training, and any environmental
constraints.
Stress (Chapter 11): A common aspect of
the work experience. It is expressed most
frequently as job dissatisfaction, but it is
also expressed in more intense affective states
— anger, frustration, hostility, and irritation.
More passive responses are also common, for
example, boredom and tedium, burnout, fatigue, helplessness, hopelessness, lack of vigor,
and depressed mood. Job stress is related to
lowered self-confidence and self-esteem. Complaints about health can be considered as
psychological responses to stress, or they can
be treated as indicative of some illness.
Stress management intervention (SMI)
(Chapter 11): Any activity, program, or opportunity initiated by an organization that focuses
on reducing the presence of work-related stressors or on assisting individuals to minimize the
negative outcomes of exposure to these
stressors.
Stressor (Chapter 11): An environmental force
affecting an individual.
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Glossary
Subject matter expert (SME) (Chapter 5):
Technostructural theory (Chapter 14): A type
Individuals with particular expertise on a given
topic. Many train-the-trainer programs seek to
provide SMEs with the necessary knowledge
and skills to design and implement a training
program.
Succession planning (Chapter 12): A way of
conducting evaluations of employee potential. This process, which is done primarily for
senior management positions, requires senior
managers to identify employees who should
be developed to replace them.
Survey feedback (Chapter 14): The systematic
feedback of survey data to groups with the intent of stimulating discussion of problem areas,
generating potential solutions, and stimulating
motivation for change.
Task analysis (Chapters 3 and 4): An aspect of
needs assessment that emphasizes what trainees need to be able to do to do their job or
complete a process effectively.
Task identification (Chapter 4): A step in
the task analysis process. It focuses on the
behaviors performed within the job, including
the major tasks within the job, how each task
should be performed (i.e., performance standards), and the variability of performance (how
the tasks are actually performed in day-to-day
operations).
Task sequencing (Chapter 3): A principle concerning how learning can be improved. It suggests that the learning situation should be
arranged so that each of the component tasks
is learned in the appropriate order before the
total task is attempted.
Team building (Chapters 9 and 14): An effort
to unify varied individual energies, direct these
energies toward valued goals and outputs, and
link these efforts to organizational results. It
typically refers to a collection of techniques that
are designed to build the trust, cohesiveness,
and mutual sense of responsibility that are
needed for effective teamwork.
Team training (Chapter 9): Training that
emphasizes the use of teams as the basic organizational unit; it requires that workers be
adaptable and able to form and re-form relationships with coworkers quickly and smoothly.
Teamwork (Chapter 2): Emphasizes the influence of coworkers on individual behavior and
brings other interpersonal dynamics to the forefront. Two important issues for teamwork are
trust and cohesiveness.
Technical training (Chapter 9): A type of training that involves upgrading a wide range of technical skills (such as computer skills) needed by
particular individuals in an organization.
of change intervention that is designed to (1)
improve work content, work method, and the
relationships among workers and (2) lower
costs by replacing inefficient materials, methods, equipment, workflow designs, and unnecessary labor with more efficient technology.
Telecommunications (Chapter 6): Methods for
transmitting training programs to different locations, such as via satellite, microwave, cable
(CATV), and fiber-optic networks.
Time sampling (Chapter 4): A task identification
method that involves having a trained observer
watch and note the nature and frequency of an
employee's activities. By observing at random
intervals over a period, a clearer picture of the
job is understood and recorded.
Time series design (Chapter 7): The collection
of data over time, which allows the trainer to
observe patterns in individual performance.
545
Total quality management (TQM) (Chapter 14): A set of concepts and tools intended
to focus all employees on continuous improvement, emphasizing quality as viewed through
the eyes of the customer.
Trainability (Chapter 3): The trainee's readiness
to learn. It combines the trainee's levels of ability
and motivation with his or her perceptions of
support in the work environment.
Training and development (T&D) (Chapter 1):
Training and development focus on changing
or improving the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of individuals. Training typically involves
providing employees the knowledge and skills
needed to do a particular task or job, though
attitude change may also be attempted (e.g.,
in sexual harassment training). Developmental
activities, in contrast, have a longer-term focus
on preparing for future responsibilities while
also increasing the capacities of employees to
perform in their current jobs.
Training competency (Chapter 5): The knowledge and varied skills needed to design and
implement a training program.
Training design (Chapter 3): Adapting the learning environment to maximize learning.
Training manual (Chapter 5): The instructional
materials used for training. This can include basic instructional material, readings, exercises,
and self-tests.
Training methods (Chapter 5): Instructional approaches including both on-the-job training as
well as various classroom (off-site) techniques.
The selection of the appropriate technique
should be guided by the specific objectives
to be obtained, as well as by participant
expertise.
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546
Glossary
Training program objectives (Chapter 5): A
collection of words, symbols, pictures and/or
diagrams describing what you intend for trainees to achieve.
Train-the-trainer programs (Chapter 5): A
training program that identifies in-house content experts (subject matter experts) who lack
training skills, and then trains them to become
effective trainers.
Transfer of training (Chapter 3): The ability to
apply what is learned in training back on the
job. Transfer can be viewed as ranging on a
scale from positive to zero to negative. Positive
transfer occurs when job performance is improved as a result of training, zero transfer
when there is no change in performance, and
negative transfer when performance on the job
is worse as a result of training.
Transfer of training climate (Chapter 3):
Those situations and consequences that either
inhibit or help to facilitate the transfer of what
has been learned in training back to the job
situation.
Transfer of training phase (Chapter 13): The
fifth step in behavior modeling, in which trainees are encouraged to practice the newly
learned behavior on the job.
Transformational leadership (Chapter 13):
The idea that leaders are those who capture our
attention, present us with a vision of what
could be, inspire us to pursue the vision, and
show us the way to get there.
Treatment discrimination (Chapter 15): A
type of discrimination that occurs after a person
is hired; it takes the form of limiting opportunities (e.g., training, promotion, rewards) or
harassing certain individuals because of who
they are (e.g., women, minorities).
Trust (Chapter 2): The expectations that
another person (or group of people) will act
benevolently toward you.
Utility analysis (Chapter 7): A computation that
measures in dollar terms the effect of an HRD
program in terms of a change in some aspect
of the trainee's performance.
Valence (Chapter 2): Valence refers to the
value the person places on a particular outcome. Valence judgments range from strongly
positive (for highly valued outcomes), through
zero (for outcomes the person doesn't care
about), to strongly negative (for outcomes the
person finds aversive).
Validity (Chapter 7): A vital issue to consider
when selecting a data collection method.
Validity is concerned with whether the data collection method actually measures what it is
intended to measure, that is, are we hitting the
right target?
Value shaping (Chapter 10): A way to encourage continued effective performance through
coaching. Value shaping begins with recruiting
and orientation of new employees and continues through training and in the manner that
the manager relates to employees every day.
Valuing differences (Chapter 15): An approach
to workforce diversity that emphasizes building
employee awareness of differences between
members of various demographic categories.
Videoconferencing (Chapter 6): Conducting
conferences between remote locations using
telecommunications technology.
Voluntary Protection Program (Chapter 9):
An effort to help organizations meet the
demands of proper safety training that has been
developed by OSHA. This program encourages
organizations to work in conjunction with OSHA
to establish workplace safety programs.
Wellness (Chapter 11): Condition of being mentally and physically healthy, usually as a result
of an individual's diet and exercise.
Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act (Chapter 9): An act that
requires any employer with 100 or more
employees to give sixty days advance notice of
a plant closure to both the employees and the
unions.
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Licensed to: iChapters User
Name Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f” indicate figures; “n” notes; “t” tables.
A
Abbot, J., 304
Abram, S., 174, 175t
Abernathy, D. J., 192
Abrahamson, L., 183
Adams, J. S., 51
Addison, S., 439
Adler, N. J., 437, 438
Agnew, T., 319
Ajzen, I., 57
Akabus, S., 372
Al-Gattan, A. A., 40
Al-Lamki, S. M., 266
Albanese, R., 431
Albrecht, C., 299
Alderfer, C. P., 11, 45, 47, 463, 468, 477
Aldrich, C., 181
Alexander, R. A., 226
Alker, L. P., 333
Allan, P., 37
Allen, Charles, 6
Allen, M., 306, 447
Allen, N. J., 252, 257
Allen, R., 52
Allen, T. D., 412, 413
Alliger, G. M., 203, 206
Allred, B. B., 400, 439
Altany, D., 484
Altman, B. W., 382
Alutto, J. A., 446
Alvarez, K., 199, 206
Aly, M., 172
Ambrose, M. L., 321
Amodeo, M., 474, 476
Anastasi, A., 211
Anderson, D., 293
Anderson, John, 92
Anderson, J. R., 66
Anderson, P. H., 180
Andres, H. P., 178
Andrews, E. S., 179
Andrews, K. R., 445
Andrews, M., 52
Anger, W. K., 292
Aquila, A. J., 475
Ardts, J., 258
Argyris, C., 24, 179, 466, 490
Ariga, K., 167
Armenakis, A. A., 464, 466
Armstrong, Lance, 94
Arnolds, C., 47
Arnone, M., 176
Arthur, M. B., 382, 383, 404, 407
Arthur, W., Jr. 119, 203
Arvey, R. D., 217, 242, 243
Arwedson, I. L., 373
Ashford, B. E., 254, 257
Ashford, S. J., 258
Atkinson, W., 293
Attridge, M., 355, 356, 358
Atwater, L. E., 129, 335
Ausburn, L., 180
Auster, E. R., 183, 190, 192, 444
Austin, N., 317, 330, 333
Avery, D. R., 253
Axel, H., 371
Axland, S., 484
B
Bachman, R. E., 352
Bahls, J. E., 358
Baird, L., 452
Baker, B., 182
Baldwin, T. T., 49, 51, 65, 71–72, 78f,
80t, 181, 206, 207, 428, 429, 448,
452, 457, 458
Ballard, A., 250
Baltes, B. B., 481
Bamburger, P., 13
Bandura, A., 50, 455, 457
Bangert, M., 296
Banker, R. D., 301, 302
Bannister, B. D., 335
Barnard, Chester, 7
Barnard, J. K., 204
Barnes, L. B., 179
Barnow, B. S., 284
Baron, R. A., 335
Barrett, G. V., 432
Barrett, I. C., 413
Barrick, M., 118, 121t
Barron, T., 306
Bartholomew, D., 180
Bartlett, C. A., 437, 438, 459
Barling, J., 453
Bartram, D., 439
Baruch, Y., 382, 420
Bass, B. M., 172, 453
Basset, G. A., 335
Bassi, L., 28
Bassok, M., 68
Bates, S., 315, 320
Bates, T., 182
Bauer, J., 365t
Bauer, T. N., 254, 257
Baulcomb, J. S., 475
Bavetta, A. G., 51
Beatty, R. W., 430, 493
Beaumont, P., 309n
Beaven-Marks, K., 290
Beaver, H. D., 175t
Bechky, B. A., 402
Becker, L. R., 48, 349, 354, 355, 357, 373
Becker, W. S., 299
Beckhard, R., 11, 463, 467–468
Becton-Dickinson, 14
Beer, M., 11, 463, 468, 469, 474, 485
Beggs, J. M., 24, 25, 456
Behling, O., 48
Belaiche, M., 258t
Belcourt, M., 207
Belden, N., 187
Belilos, C., 144
Bell, B., 124
Bell, S. T., 203
Belton, R., 112
Bennett, J. B., 294, 295
Bennett, W., Jr., 203, 206
Bennis, W. G., 456n, 466
Benson, A. D., 336
Benson, G., 123, 230
Berdiansky, H., 177
Berger, M. A., 179, 282
Bergmann, T. J., 37
Berk, J., 209
Berk, Warner, 38
Berman, S. J., 483
Bernerth, J., 463, 465, 466
Bernthal, P. R., 11, 15, 19, 21, 431
Berry, L. L., 333
Bettenhausen, K. L., 129
Beyer, J., 454
Bhadury, J., 170
Bhagat, R. S., 252, 358, 359
Bilginsoy, C., 304
Bilimoria, D., 446
Bills, S., 153
Bingham, T., 65
Bird, M., 201
Bjorklund, C., 478
Black, S., 287
Black, J. S., 23
Black, S. E., 170
Blair, C., 36, 146
Blair, S. N., 366
Blakely, G., 52
Blessing, L., 250
Blum, T., 356, 357
Blum, T. C., 350
Bobko, P., 51
Bodimer, J., 140
Boehle, S., 150
547
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Licensed to: iChapters User
548
Name Index
Bogorya, Y., 437
Bohlander, G., 310
Bolch, M., 57n
Bolino, M. C., 336
Bolles, R. N., 406
Bolt, M. A., 288
Bond, J., 481
Bongiorno, L., 455
Borgen, W. A., 408, 415
Borman, W. C., 36, 129
Boshoff, C., 47
Böstrom, L., 229
Botch, K., 483
Boudreau, J. W., 226
Boulware, L. E., 369
Bourgeon, L., 412
Bowen, D. E., 484
Bowen, D. W., 413
Bower, G. H., 66
Bowsher, J. E., 18, 134
Boyatzis, R. E., 334, 431, 432, 443
Boyce, C., 204
Bradford, D. L., 463
Braito, R., 47
Brandon, C., 259
Branzburg, J., 174
Bray, D. W., 430
Breaugh, J. A., 261, 262
Brechlin, J., 265
Brennan, K. N., 353
Brenner, S. L., 456
Brett, J. F., 129
Brewster, C., 23, 437
Bridwell, L. G., 47
Brief, A. P., 51
Briner, R., 362
Brink, S., 350
Brinkerhoff, R. O., 20, 108, 201, 204,
206, 228, 230
Brinthaupt, T. M., 264
Briscoe, J. P., 383, 395
Broad, M. I., 208
Brockbank, W., 13
Brodt, S. E., 43
Brogden, H. E., 226
Brookfield, S. D., 428
Brooks, A. K., 421
Brousseau, K. R., 395, 396, 400
Brown, B., 254
Brown, D., 393
Brown, K. G., 177
Brown, M. V., 177
Brown, T. C., 234n
Browne, S. E., 176
Brownell, J., 439, 456n
Brownell, K. D., 368
Brumwell, I., 333
Brunello, G., 167
Bruner, J. S., 67
Buchanan, B., 255
Buchner, T. W., 316
Buckman, J. M., 140
Budhwar, P. S., 404
Buisine, M., 411
Bullock, R. J., 468
Bunce, D., 204, 206
Bunker, K. A., 183, 421
Burack, E. H., 440, 441
Burack, N. L., 406, 407
Burger, M. J., 210
Burke, L. A., 80t
Burke, M. J., 172, 182, 217, 292
Burke, R. J., 37, 334
Burke, W. W., 38, 463, 472, 473t, 482,
495, 496
Burns, A. C., 67
Burton, W. N., 366
Bushnell, D. S., 201, 203
Buss, W. C., 174, 175t
Butler, C., 160n
Butler, J. L., 181
Butterfield, L. D., 408
Byham, W. C., 181
Byosiere, P., 359
Byrne, J. A., 443, 444, 445
C
Cabrera, R. V., 170
Caffarella, R., 392
Cairo, P. C., 333, 411
Calhoun, C. J., 210
Callaghan, D. R., 283
Callahan, G. A., 50
Callahan, J. S., 172
Callahan, M. R., 298
Cameron, I., 292
Cameron, K. S., 157
Campbell, D., 207
Campbell, D. T., 207, 211, 215, 219,
235, 236, 239, 241
Campbell, J. P., 36, 39, 44, 51, 55,
120, 428
Campion, M. A., 396, 412, 480, 486, 525
Cannell, M., 168
Cannon-Bowers, J. A., 51, 200, 302
Cappellen, T., 438
Cappelli, P., 333
Capulet, G., 374
Cardy, R. L., 119, 129, 316, 321
Carlisle, K. E., 283
Carlson, L., 350
Carnevale, A. P., 112, 113t–114t, 146,
147, 147t, 148, 286, 297
Carrell, M., 51
Carroll, S. J., 172, 431
Carson, M., 129, 323
Cascio, W F., 37, 220, 226, 236t, 241,
242, 254, 350, 356, 367
Cashman, J. F., 41
Casper, W., 215, 235, 236
Caston, R. J., 47
Catano, V. M., 335
Caudron, S., 86t, 184, 185
Ceniceros, R., 357, 368
Cervone, D., 51
Chan, D. W. L., 51, 182
Chang, I., 350
Chang, V., 14
Chao, G. T., 254, 275n, 399, 413,
416–417
Chapman, L. S., 363, 369
Charles, A. C., 129
Charness, G., 382
Chase, N., 167
Chastain, T., 186
Chatman, J., 14
Chau, C.-T., 416
Chen, C. C., 183, 190, 288
Chen, G., 40
Chen, H.-C. 181, 453
Chen, M., 279n
Cherns, A., 467
Childress, G. W., 306
Chipman, P., 187
Chiu, W., 436
Choi, T. Y., 485
Christensen, C. R., 179
Christensen, K., 477, 481, 486
Chu, G. C., 177
Cianni, M., 400, 401
Clark, A. D., 356
Clark, S. G., 483
Clarke, S., 290
Clawson, J. G., 413, 414
Clegg, C., 351
Cleveland, J. N., 129, 180, 181
Clinard, H., 30, 331
Clinton, DeWitt, 5
Clute, P. W., 338–339
Coco, M. L., 189, 229
Cohen, C., 271
Cohen, D. J., 172
Cohen, E., 452, 454
Cohen, N., 186
Cohen, S., 186
Cohen, S. G., 40, 485, 486
Cohen, W. S., 368
Cohn, J. M., 459
Coker, A. L., 352
Colakoglu, S., 35
Colarelli, S. M., 261
Cole, D. A., 217, 242
Cole, M. S., 463
Coley, D. B., 412
Colligan, M., 203
Collins, E. J., 358
Collins, K., 333, 344, 346, 448
Colteryahn, K., 11, 21, 22f
Combs, G., 51
Cone, J., 299
Conger, J. A., 454
Conrad, P., 366
Cook, E. P., 421
Cook, J., 128
Cook, T. D., 211, 215, 219, 235, 236,
239, 241
Coomes, A., 444
Coppola, N. W., 189
Corley, K. G., 465
Costello, D., 358
Courtney, R. S., 309
Crampton, S. M., 182
Crane, J., 359
Crary, C., 287
Crockett, R. O., 177
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Licensed to: iChapters User
Name Index
Croft, B., 186
Cronbach, L. J., 226
Cronshaw, S. F., 226
Crosby, O., 285
Cross, D. R., 68
Cross, T., 172
Crossman, A., 128
Crosson, C., 305, 306
CrossTec Corporation, 153
Crow, S. M., 254
Cullen, J. G., 220, 428
Cummings, T. G., 112, 463, 489
Cureton, J. H., 120
Curphy, G. J., 210
Currie, G., 396, 454
Curtin, C., 186, 187
Cyphert, D., 174
D
Dade, S., 222
Daft, R. L., 13, 315
Dailey, N., 85t
Dalton, G. W., 384
D'Amico, C., 22, 284
Daniels, S., 146
Danielson, C., 65
Danielson, E. M., 251, 265
Dansereau, F., 40
Dany, F., 382
Daudelin, M. W., 452
Davenport, R., 23, 280
David, George, 34
Davis, A., 287
Davis, F. D., 288
Davis, M. F., 365t
Davis, P., 11, 21, 22f, 431, 439
Davis, P. Naughton, 12f, 17f
Davis, W. D., 40
Davison, L., 295
Day, E. A., 146
Day, R. R., 172, 182, 217
de Janasz, S. C., 414
De Vany, C., 301
De Vries, J., 413
Dean, K. L., 456
Decker, P. J., 51, 457, 458
Decker, Philip, 75
Deci, E. L., 42
DeCotiis, T, 335
DeFillippi, R. J., 382, 383, 396, 402,
404, 407
DeFrank, R. S., 362
Dehler, G. E., 179, 452
DeMarie, S., 21
Demers, R., 472
DeMeuse, Kenneth, 37
Den Hartog, D. N., 13, 230
DeNisi, Angelo, 40, 75
Densford, L. E., 448
Dent, E. B., 465
DeRouin, R. E., 160, 189
Derr, D. W., 358
DeSimone, L. M., 380
Desatnick, R. L., 299, 300
Deterline, W. A., 119
Dick, W., 68
Dickman, F., 355
Digman, L. A., 433
Dirkx, J. M., 464
Dipboye, R., 22
Dittrich, J. E., 51
Dobbins, G. H., 128
Dobbs, K., 187
Dobbs, R. L., 140
Dooley, K. E., 134–135
Dorestani, A., 172
Dorfman, P. W., 334
Dorsey, D. W., 129
Dotlich, D. L., 23
Doverspike, D., 127, 127t, 128
Downham, T. A., 439, 447, 452
Doyle, M., 472
Dreher, G. F., 227, 413
Driver, M. J., 395
Driver, R. W., 363
DuBois, D., 108, 132
Duffett, A., 281
Duffy, J. A., 416
Duguay, S. M., 142
Dumas, M. A., 150
Dunét, D. O., 228
Dunham, K. J., 358
Dunham, R. B., 481
Dunnette, M. D., 58
Dutsch, J. V., 189, 229
Dutton, P., 112, 114t–115t, 116t, 117t,
125t–126t
Dyer, L., 13, 37
Dyer, W. G., 478
E
Early, P. C., 172
Eby, L. T., 385, 392, 404, 413, 417, 421
Eden, Dov, 40
Edens, P. S., 203
Edlin, M., 351
Edmonds, R. K., 179
Edwards, B. D., 302
Edwards, J. R., 480
Edwards, M. R., 128
Egan, T. M., 419
Eggland, S. A., 150–151
El-Shamy, S., 181, 182
Elen, J., 172
Elliott, M., 228
Ellis, H. C., 80t
Ellis, K., 14, 35, 222, 224, 225, 228,
230, 257, 265
Ellis, S. K., 175t
Ellis, Y. M., 15
Ellstrom, P.-E., 448
Elsass, P. M., 416
Elsey, B., 249
Emener, W. S., 355
Enders, J., 41
Engleken, C., 351
Erdogan, B., 41
Erfurt, J. C., 349, 363
549
Ericsson, T., 170
Ericsson, K. A., 68, 330
Erickson, E. H., 387, 389
Ettington, 416, 417
Ettorre, J., 304
Eurich, N. P., 176, 177, 187, 430, 445,
447, 448
Evans, M. G., 44
Evered, R. D., 317, 330, 333
Everly, G. S., 359
Evenson, R., 298
Ewen, A. J., 128
Ewert, A., 182
Eyre, M., 175t
F
Faerman, S. R., 306
Fagan, M. H., 288
Fagenson, E. A., 482
Fairbairn, U., 488
Falkenberg, L. E., 366
Farias, G., 473, 496
Farrell, C., 181
Farrell, J. N., 188n
Fayol, H., 431
Federico, R. F., 269
Fedor, D. B., 129, 334
Feinberg, J., 366
Feldman, D. C., 43, 252, 254, 255,
255f, 256, 264, 269, 271, 272,
273–274, 383, 384, 392, 404, 416,
421
Ferguson-Amores, M. C., 485
Ferketish, B. J., 484
Ferraro, C. M., 285
Ferrence, T. P., 415
Ferris, G. R., 40
Fetteroll, E. C., 192
Feuer, B., 355, 372
Feuer, D., 368
Fichter, D., 186
Fiedler, F. E., 183
Field, H. S., 118, 121t
Fielding, J. E., 355, 363, 366
Filipczak, B., 172, 282
Finison, K., 132
Finkel, C., 190
Firnstahl, T. W., 299
Fishbein, M., 57
Fisher, C. D., 254
Fiske, E. B., 282
Fister, S., 160n
Fitzgerald, M. P., 42
Fitzgibbons, D. E., 172, 183
Flanagan, J. C., 119
Fleishman, E. A., 58
Fleming, Neil, 91
Flick, J. P., 292
Foegen, J. H., 185
Fogarty, S., 367
Follett, Mary Parker, 7
Foote, A., 369
Ford, Henry, 6
Ford, J., 124
Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
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550
Name Index
Ford, J. K., 78f, 80t, 130, 199, 202,
202t, 203, 204, 205t, 207, 209, 235
Foshay, R., 201
Forsyth, S., 305
Fossum, J., 37
Foster, J., 227
Fournies, F. F., 314, 316, 317, 322,
326, 327–329, 331
Fox, W. M., 482
France, D. R., 264, 270, 274n
Francis, L., 414
Frankforter, S. A., 477, 486
Franta, B. A., 289
Frauenheim, E., 336
Frayne, C. A., 51
Frederick, E., 51
French, M. T., 355
French, J. R. P., 334
French, W. L., 463, 464
Fresina, A. J., 445
Freud, S., 387
Fried, Y., 480
Friedlander, F., 463, 467, 477, 479
Fritzsche, B. A., 160, 189
Fromkin, H. L., 219
Frost, P. J., 176
Fry, J. M., 336
Fuller, J., 182
Fulmer, R. M., 451, 452
G
Gael, S., 118
Gagne, K., 316
Gagné, Robert, 66, 67, 68, 95–98,
96t–97t, 165
Gainer, L. J., 112, 113t–114t, 146, 147,
147t, 148
Gainey, T. W., 148
Galbraith, Michael, 91
Gale, S. F., 14, 36, 160n
Galli, A. L., 177
Galvin, J. C., 201, 204
Ganger, R. E., 184
Ganster, D. C., 358, 359
Garavaglia, P. L., 80t
Garavan, T. N., 258
Gardner, P. D., 254, 275n
Gardner, W. L., 40
Garofano, C. M., 199
Garvin, D. A., 179
Gascó, J. L., 186
Gatewood, R. D., 118, 121t, 356
Gayeski, D., 135
Geber, B., 315, 318
Gebhardt, D. L., 362, 366, 367, 371
Geisler, C. D., 296
Geller, E. S., 293, 315
George, M. A., 264, 269
Gephart, M. A., 24
Gerbman, R. V., 448
Gerstein, M. S., 479
Ghoshal, S., 437, 438, 459
Giacolone, R. A., 456
Giannetto, D. F., 330
Gibson, F. W., 210
Gibson, S. K., 13, 455, 528
Gilbert, J. A., 513, 515, 518, 518t
Gilbert, J. J., 142
Gilbertson, K., 182
Gilbreth, Lillian, 7
Gillespie, J., 24
Gillette, B., 358
Gilley, J. W., 8, 150–151, 316, 317, 319
Gioia, D. A., 322
Gist, M. E., 49f, 51, 288, 457
Glaser, Robert, 66, 67, 68, 73
Glasgow, R. E., 333
Glanz, K., 368, 370
Glener, D., 186
Glover, R. W., 304
Godbell, B. C., 40
Godshalk, V. M., 50
Goff, L., 170
Gogus, C. I., 253, 271
Gold, L., 169
Goldman, E. F., 448
Goldstein, A. P., 26, 51, 59, 455, 456,
458
Goldstein, D. B., 352
Goldstein, I. L., 110, 112, 115, 116,
120, 198, 199, 200, 201, 226
Goldwasser, D., 28, 225
Golembiewski, R. T., 470
Gomersall, E. R., 264, 268, 270
Gomez, J., 333
Gómez, P. J., 170, 223
Gonzales, Bob, 15, 18
González, M. R., 186
Good, R. K., 372
Goode, E., 352
Goodman, F. F., 289
Gordon, E. E., 22
Gordon, J., 14, 65, 106, 132, 133–134,
219, 230
Gorman, P., 116
Gorosh, M. E., 204f
Gosen, J., 455
Gosling, J., 444
Gosselin, A., 128, 315, 316
Grace, A. P., 24
Graen, George, 40
Graesser, A., 187
Graham, M., 207
Graham, T. S., 182
Gravells, J., 473
Graves, B., 287
Graves, P. R., 175t
Gray, G. R., 124
Gregersen, H. B., 23
Green, S. G., 254
Greenberg, J., 334
Greenhalgh, A. M., 179, 453
Greenhaus, J. H., 11, 49, 384, 386,
392, 393t, 396, 397, 398t, 399t,
400, 402, 407
Greenlund, K. J., 368
Greenslade, M., 515, 517t
Greenspan, A., 4
Greer, J. E., 187
Gregory, C., 350
Greller, M. M., 334
Grieves, J., 8
Gronstedt, A., 187
Gropper, D. M., 430
Grossman, R. J., 170, 264
Grote, D., 315, 335
Grove, D. A., 230
Gruman, J. A., 258
Guichard, J., 421
Guilbert, J. J., 142
Guilford, J. P., 57
Gumbus, A., 35
Gupta, K., 110
Gurchiek, K., 271, 350
Gustafson, J., 140
Gutteridge, T. G., 307, 404, 406t, 407,
408, 410, 420t, 421t, 422
Guzzo, R. A., 301, 468, 477, 479, 481,
482, 486
H
Haccoun, R. R., 210, 230, 244
Hacker, C. A., 258t, 264t–265t, 265
Hackey, M. K., 290
Hackman, J. R., 42, 255, 467, 478,
480, 484
Haga, W., 40
Hakim, C., 401
Halfhill, T. R., 301, 444
Hall, D. T., 382, 383, 384, 385, 386, 387t,
392, 395, 402, 403, 411, 412, 421
Hall, J. E., 208
Hall, M. E., 124
Hall, R. J., 204
Hall-Sheey, J. 288
Hallé, N., 128
Hamilton, R., 40
Hammer, M., 463
Handlin, O., 503t
Hampton, D., 178
Hansen, A. J., 179
Hansen, J. W., 140
Hanson, R., 477
Harden, A., 368
Hargis, K., 199
Harkins, S., 43
Harlow, K. C., 355
Harp, C., 288
Harper, J., 192
Harris, I., 228
Harris, J., 454
Harris, K. J., 314
Harris, M. M., 129, 349, 356, 357
Harris, P. R., 366
Harris-Bowlsbey, J., 135, 419
Harrison, L. M., 10
Hartanto, F. M., 217, 242
Hartley, D., 184
Hartley, D. E., 132, 184
Hartman, S. J., 254
Hartmann, L. C., 293
Hasan, B., 288
Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
Licensed to: iChapters User
Name Index
Hatcher, T., 25, 217
Hatfield, D., 52, 403
Hattie, J., 40
Haueter, J. A., 254
Hawk, L., 142, 207
Haynes, B., 187
Hays, S., 264
Hayton, J. C., 431
Hazer, J. T., 227
Hazucha, J. F., 129, 217, 242, 317
Healy, A. F., 68
Heathfield, S., 335
Hegstad, C. D., 413
Heirich, M. A., 349, 355, 356
Heller, F., 451
Hellervik, L. W., 316
Heneman, H. G., III, 37
Heneman, R. L., 41, 316, 335
Henneback, C., 289
Henneman, T., 28
Hennestad, B. W., 497
Hennrikus, D. J., 368
Henry, D., 25
Hequet, M., 446
Herbert, G. R., 124, 126, 127, 127t, 127f
Herzberg, F. H., 47
Heslin, P. A., 257, 265, 333, 421
Hess, P. W., 182
Heyes, J., 302
Hezlett, S. A., 412
Hicks, S., 265, 266t, 268
Hicks, W. D., 218
Highhouse, S., 227, 262
Hill, A., 178
Hill, S., 178
Hillelsohn, M. J., 184
Hiltz, S. R., 189
Hilyer, B., 293
Hirsh, W., 419–421
Hirst, G., 452
Hitt, M. A., 21
Hodges, H. G., 5
Hodgetts, R., 485, 490, 492
Hoff, D. J., 281
Hoffman, B. J., 36
Hogan, P. M., 457
Holbrook, J., 477
Holland, J. L., 406
Holland, K., 362
Holland, P., 306, 448
Holland, S. L., 146, 147, 147t, 148
Hollenbeck, G. P., 445
Hollenbeck, J. R., 44, 51, 54, 54f
Holley, W. H., Jr., 284
Holman, T., 182
Holsinger, L., 316
Holt, K. E., 129
Holton, E. E., III, 189, 203, 204, 207,
229, 474
Homan, G., 228
Homes, V., 130
Honeycutt, A., 483
Honore, S., 189
Hoogstraten, J., 215
Hoover, K., 148
Hoover, S. K., 292
Hopkins, A., 290
Horton, W., 228
Houlihan, A., 315
House, Robert, 40
Howard, A., 430
Howard, J., 366
Howell, A., 294, 294t
Hoyman, M., 303
Huang, S. C., 229
Hufffaker, J. S., 182
Huling, E., 140
Hunger, J. D., 13
Hunt, E., 187
Hunter, J. E., 226
Hunt, J. G., 454, 470
Huse, E. F., 112
Huseman, R. C., 52
Hymowitz, C., 358
I
Ileris, K., 178
Ilgen, D. R., 44, 322
Ireland, R. D., 157
Irving, P. G., 253, 263
Isaac, R., 48
Ivancevich, J. M., 172, 359, 360, 361,
362, 367, 369, 370, 373, 513, 515,
518, 518t
Iverson, D. C., 365
Ivey, A., 331
J
Jackson, G. B., 287
Jackson, S. E., 252
Jacobs, R. L., 167, 168
Jago, A. G., 40
Jaffe, G., 174
James, M. L., 176
James, Wayne, 66, 91
Janak, E. A., 203, 206
Janicak, C. A., 292
Janis, I., 43
Jankowski, P., 177
Jarrett, M. Q., 227
Järvi, M., 170
Jarvis, R. L., 256, 270, 274, 275n
Javitch, D., 323, 334
Jayne, M. E. A., 22
Jeary, T., 65
Jenkins, J. A., 290
Jennings, K. R., 483
Jessup, P. A., 329, 335
Jex, S. M., 362
Jimmieson, N. L., 466
Johnson, A., 257, 258t
Johnson, G., 189, 306
Johnson, J., 281
Johnson, J. G., 484
Johnson, T. R., 200
Johnson-Bailey, J., 413
Jolley, J. M., 235
551
Jones, A., 304
Jones, C., 382, 396, 402
Jones, D. L., 362
Jones, G. R., 252, 257
Jones, M. J., 167, 168
Jossi, F., 156
Joyce, K., 22
Judy, R. W., 22, 284
K
Kahn, R. L., 359, 360
Kahnweiler, W. M., 392, 402, 404
Kaleba, K., 285
Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D., 254, 265
Kanfer, R., 48, 391
Kanter, R. M., 413, 474, 487, 523
Kaplan, K., 219
Kaplan, R. E., 180
Kaplan, R. S., 224
Karaevli, A., 386, 411
Kartha, C. P., 296
Karren, R. J., 49
Kataoka, H. C., 336
Katz, Daniel, 37
Katzell, R. A., 47
Katzell, R., 44
Katzman, J., 187
Kaufman, R. 109, 109t, 201, 204, 206
Kaumeyer, R. A., 410
Kawalek, J. P., 460
Kay, E., 334
Kaye, B., 403, 410, 414, 420t
Kayes, D. C. & Kayes, A. B., 183, 446
Kazanas, H. C., 14, 168, 178
Kearsley, G., 174, 175t, 176, 177, 183
Keating, P., 303
Keats, B. W., 21
Keblis, M. E., 279n
Keenan, W., Jr., 298
Keller, J. M., 204, 206
Kelley, S., 296
Kelly, Tom, 14
Keon, T. L., 48
Kessler, R. C., 351
Ketter, P., 4, 10, 15, 21
Keys, B., 178, 179, 180, 181, 428, 448,
451
Keys, J. B., 181
Kidd, J. M., 422
Kiker, D. S., 172
Kikoski, J. F., 331
Kimmerling, G. F., 290, 292
Klaas, B. S., 148
Kim, H., 208
Kim, T. Y., 258, 270
Kimball, B., 178
King, Z., 422
Kinlaw, D. C., 316, 317, 318, 326, 331,
333
Kirby, J., 8, 230
Kirkbride, P., 453
Kirkpatrick, D. L., 201, 202t, 203, 204,
316
Kirkpatrick, J., 142, 207
Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
Licensed to: iChapters User
552
Name Index
Kirkpatrick, J. D., 201
Kirsch, I. S., 282
Kiser, K., 19, 20
Klein, C., 479
Klein, H. J., 44, 58, 204, 254,
265–266
Kleiner, A., 24
Klesges, R. C., 367
Kligyte, V., 146
Klimoski, R. J., 40, 211, 212, 215, 217,
218, 235, 237, 240, 244
Kluger, Avraham, 75
Knight, J., 168
Knouse, S. B., 302
Knowles, Malcolm, 84
Knowlton, W. A., Jr., 322
Kogut, B. H., 281
Kohonen, E., 23, 437
Kohler, W., 66
Kolb, David, 89–90
Kompier, M. A. J., 362
Konrad, A., 471, 528
König, C., 44
Korbar, T., 181
Korbut, K. A., 142
Korman, A. K., 172
Kornik, J., 18
Korsgaard, M. A., 43
Korte, R. F., 164
Kosarzycki, M. P., 200
Kosnik, T., 148
Kowske, B. J., 439
Kozlowski, S. W. J., 254, 257, 258,
268, 269, 270, 302
Kozma, R. B., 68
Kraiger, K., 202t, 203, 204, 205t, 207,
209, 215, 231, 235, 236, 245
Kram, K. E., 412, 414
Krohe, J., Jr., 359
Kruse, K., 186
Kulik, C. T., 109
Kupsch, J., 175t
Kur, C. E., 205f
Kuri, F., 282
Kurtz, N. R., 356
Kutner, M., 281–282
L
Laabs, J. J., 284, 472
Laff, M., 358
LaHote, D., 437
Laird, J., 68
Laker, D. R., 392
Landy, F. J., 48, 335
Langbert, M., 4
Langdon, D., 146
Lansing, R. L., 483
Lantz, G., 478
Lapham, S. C., 350
Larson, J. R., Jr., 211, 215, 235, 322
Larson, M., 296, 297
Lassen, L. M., 229
Latack, J. C., 48, 416
Latane, B., 43
Latham, G. P., 49, 51, 116, 119, 169t,
200, 227, 228, 333, 334, 335, 457,
463
Lawler, E. E., III, 255, 315, 478, 484,
489, 493
Lean, E., 412
Leana, C. R., 383
Lee, C., 51, 446, 457
Lee, C. H., 421
Lee, F. C., 351
Lee, I., 368
Lee, L. Y., 439
Lee, P. C. B., 417
Lehman, A. C., 68
Leibman, M., 411
Leibowitz, Z. B., 403, 404, 406t, 408,
411, 417, 418, 420t
Leigh, D., 201
Lemire, L., 416
Lengnick-Hall, M. L., 87, 88t
Lepack, D. P., 35
Lester, S. E., 140
Lester, S. W., 302, 302t
Levasseur, R. E., 453
Levinson, D. J., 385, 387, 388, 389, 390,
390t, 391, 392, 394, 412, 422, 424
Lew, E. A., 368
Lewin, K., 464–466, 474, 497
Lewis, A. C., 285, 287
Li, S. X., 234n
Liao, H., 453
Lievens, F., 432
Lim, C. P., 160
Linden, R. C., 41
Linder, J. C., 444
Lindo, D. K., 258t, 269
Lindsey, E. H., 130
Lingard, H., 403
Lipkins, S., 269
Litterer, J. A., 331
Little, B., 189
Liu, X. F., 243
Llopis, J., 186
Locke, E. A., 49, 51, 463
Loher, B. T., 42, 72, 480
Lombardo, M. M., 130, 131, 180
London, M., 126, 128, 129, 335, 414,
415, 415t, 416t, 418
Long, L. K., 186
Longenecker, C. O., 318, 437, 459, 460
Loomis, L., 359
Lopes, T. P., 415
Lord, R. M., 68
Lorente, J. J. C., 170
Lorge, S., 300
Losyk, B., 358
Louis, M. R., 250, 253, 257, 258, 259,
268, 269
Lowe, J. L., 183, 229
Lowenthal, J., 177
Lublin, J. S., 358
Luck, P., 191
Lund Dean, K., 24
Lundberg, C. C., 179
Lussier, R. N., 157
Luthans, F., 50, 51, 53, 333, 355, 356,
357, 370, 372
Lynch, L. M., 170
Lynham, S. A., 463
M
Mabey, C., 13, 446
Macan, T. H., 227, 254
Machles, D., 108
Macey, W. H., 115, 116, 120
Macfarlane, B., 455
Macomber, G., 210
Macpherson, A., 228
Madsen, W., 356
Mager, R. F., 142, 143, 143t, 144, 145,
145t, 322, 323–324
Magjuka, R. J., 72
Magnus, M., 256
Maher, J. H., Jr., 205f
Maher, K., 68, 358
Mainiero, L., 385, 396
Mainstone, L. E., 295
Major, D. A., 254, 268
Malik, S. D., 248
Malos, S. B., 382, 396
Mandal, P., 294, 294t
Mankani, S. K., 367
Mann, S. E., 350, 351, 356
Manners, G., 431
Manzi, J., 25
Maples, M. F., 408
Markle, G. L., 315
Markus, L. H., 432
Marquardt, M. J., 173, 183, 186, 428,
452
Marquez, J., 15, 320
Marsick, V. J., 24, 448, 452, 486
Martin, D., 331
Martin, G., 309n
Martin, T. N., 485
Martineau, J. W., 51
Martocchio, J. J., 288
Marx, R. D., 176
Masi, D. A., 344, 349, 350, 351, 352,
358, 371
Maslow, A. H., 45
Maslow, Abraham, 7
Matherne, B. P., 455
Matson, D. M., 367
Mason, H., 520t
Matson-Koffman, D. M., 366
Matteson, M. T., 360, 361, 362, 367,
369, 370, 373
Mattieu, J. E., 51, 302
Mattzarro, J. D., 366
Mauland, W., 242
Maurer, T. J., 129
Mausner, B., 47
Maxwell, S. E., 243
May, G. L., 455
Maycunich, A., 8
Mayer, R. C., 43
Mazique, M. S., 180
Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
Licensed to: iChapters User
Name Index
McAvoy, L. H.., 182
McCabe, J., 282
McCain, D. V., 191
McCall, M. W., 130, 180, 428, 430,
448, 449, 451t
McCalla, G. I., 187
McCarthy, G. J., 484
McCarthy, K., 182
McCauley, C. D., 130, 131, 448, 449,
451
McCleese, C. S., 392, 417
McClellan, P., 150
McCloy, R. A., 36
McColgan, E. A., 300
McConnon, A., 182
McCormack, S. P., 483
McCown, S., 187
McCullough, R. C., 157
McDermott, M., 315
McDonald, K. S., 414, 419
McEnery, J. & McEnery, J. M., 130
McEvoy, G. M., 254
McFadden, K. L., 290
McGarrell, E. J., Jr., 267t–268t, 269,
270, 271
McGehee, W., 56, 109, 116, 124, 457
McGill, I., 452
McGillicuddy, J., 264
McGoldrick, J., 309n
McIlheran, J., 191
McKay, P. F., 253
McKeachie, W. J., 68
McLagan, P., 10, 12, 18, 149
McLaughlin, S. D., 200
McLaughlin, T., 182
McLean, G. N., 4, 331
McLean, L., 4
McLinden, D., 215, 235, 236, 245
McMillan-Capehart, A., 257, 262
McMurrer, D. P., 28, 35, 64, 99
McNamara, D., 68
McNulty, T., 189
McShulskis, E., 271
McWilliams, G., 485
McWilliams, V., 179, 455
Meglino, B. M., 263
Meister, J. C., 448
Mello, J. A., 461
Mento, A. J., 49
Meriac, J. P., 36
Merritt, D. M., 334
Merritt, J., 444
Mescon, M. H. & Mescon, T. S., 298
Meshoulam, I., 13
Meyer, H. H., 334, 457
Meyer, J. P., 182, 252, 257, 255
Mikula, J., 298
Miles, E. W., 52
Miller, K. D., 256, 269
Miller, N. E., 366
Miller, R. B., 118
Miller, T. O., 294, 299
Miller, V. A., 5, 6, 7
Mills, G. E., 6, 119, 120f
Miner, J. B., 49
Minstrell, J., 187
Mintzberg, H., 431, 433, 434, 435,
435t, 444
Mirvis, P. H., 382, 395
Mishra, A. K., 37
Mishra, K., 37
Mitchell, A., 189
Mitchell, M. L., 235
Mitchell, T., 183
Mitchell, T. R., 44, 48, 49f, 51, 320,
321, 322
Mitchell, Terry, 44
Mitchell, W. S., Jr., 105
Mitchell, V. F., 47
Modway, R. T., 53
Mol, S. T., 439
Mobley, M., 514t, 518
Mohrman, A. J., Jr., 40
Mohrman, S. A., 40
Moeller, N. L., 42
Molina, O., 354
Mone, E. M., 126
Mone, M. A., 242
Moore, M. L., 112, 114t–115t, 116,
117t, 125t–126t
Moore, P., 122–123
Moorman, R., 52
Moran, T., 357
Morgan, G., 451
Morgeson, F. P., 480, 486
Morin, L., 448
Morin, W. J., 401
Morris, J. A., 182
Morrison, A. M., 130
Morrison, E. W., 254, 257, 258, 268
Morrow, C. C., 227
Motowidlow, S., 36
Moudgill, P., 47
Mount, M. K., 129
Mullen, E. J., 216, 237, 238, 243, 244
Mueller, G. C., 242
Mulhausen, D. B., 285
Mumford, A., 452
Mumford, M. D., 59, 146, 454
Munger, P. D., 185
Murphrey, T. P., 134–135
Murphy, K. R., 36, 129
Murphy, L. R., 349, 356, 357, 359
Murphy, S. M., 41
Murray, Henry, 44
Musich, S. A., 371
Musteen, M., 470
Mutzabaugh, B., 269
Myers, M. S., 264, 268, 270
N
Nadler, L., 5, 7, 8, 145, 151f
Nadler, Z., 5, 7, 8, 145, 151f
Nahavandi, A., 179
Natale, S. M., 334
Nathan, B. R., 51
Nathans, S. F., 176
Naughton, J., 11
553
Naumes, M. J., 179
Naumes, W., 179
Neary, D. B., 336
Nedelko, Z., 178
Neely, A., 315
Nelson, D. L., 37, 468, 477, 479, 480,
481
Nemeroff, W. F., 334
Neuman, G. A., 453, 463, 465, 466
New, J. R., 157
Newell, A., 68
Newman, J. D., 348
Newstrom, J. W., 87, 88t, 181, 191
Newton, A. F., 120
Ng, T. W., 421
Ng, Y. C., 142
Ngai, E. W. T., 130
Nguyen, T., 203
Nicholas, J. M., 467, 468, 477, 478,
479, 481, 482
Nicholson, N., 396, 400
Nickols, F.W., 35, 201, 208, 209f, 315
Nikendei, C., 182
Noe, R. A., 42, 56, 58, 73, 130, 204,
320, 398, 412, 414, 418
Noel, J. L., 23, 179
Normand, J., 350
Norton, D. P., 224
Nowak, L. I., 294
Nunberg, G., 174
O
Oakes, K., 337
O'Brien, K. S., 356
O'Connell, D. J., 444
Odiorne, G. S., 447, 448
O'Donnell, M. P., 363, 370
O'Hara, S., 468, 489
Oldham, G. R., 42
O'Leary, C., 64
O'Leary-Kelly, A. M., 49, 80t, 206, 254,
266n
Olesen, M., 317
O'Neill, C., 315
Olney, A., 187
Ones, D. S., 129
Oppler, S. H., 36
Oreg, S., 465
O'Reilly, C. A., 14, 320, 321
Organ, D. W., 36, 214
Orlov, A., 503t
Ortega, J., 170
Osigweh, C. A. B., 179, 180
Ospina, S., 14
Oss, M. E., 345, 350
Ostroff, C., 210, 214f, 229, 254, 257,
258, 268, 269, 270
Overmyer-Day, L., 123
P
Pace, R. W., 6, 119, 120f
Page, M. J., 445
Paine, F. T., 172
Pampino, R. N., 332
Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
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554
Name Index
Pandey, A., 484
Pannese, L., 453
Pantazis, C., 285
Paradise, A., 154, 155t, 200, 203
Park, S., 483
Parker, D. F., 349, 362, 366
Parker, V. A., 385
Parrott, S., 367
Parry, K. W., 453, 454
Parry, S. B., 8, 224, 458
Parsons, J. G., 228
Pate, J., 309n
Pater, R., 150
Patton, W. D., 437
Payne, T., 514t, 518
Pearce, C., 111
Pearce, C. L., 474
Pearlman, K., 226
Pentland, B. T., 410
Penuel, W. R., 183
Pepper, M. B., 109
Peracchio, L., 211, 242
Perlis, G., 372
Pescuric, A., 458
Peters, T., 317, 330, 333, 441
Peters, T. J., 441
Peterson, B. D., 119, 120f
Peterson, D. K., 321
Peterson, R. T., 298
Petty, M. M., 41
Phillips, D. A., 349
Phillips, J. J., 15, 199, 204, 206, 212,
213t, 222, 224
Phillips, K. R., 327
Phillips, P. P., 222
Phillips, V., 444
Piczak, M. W., 483
Pierce, J. L., 481
Pillsbury, D. H., 366
Pinder, C. C., 47, 51
Pintrich, P. R., 68
Pisinger, C., 367
Pitt, D., 49
Podsakoff, P. M., 214
Poell, R. F., 448
Polich, J. M., 357
Pollitt, D., 300, 447, 448, 453, 454
Popper, M., 453
Popple, P. R., 333
Porac, J., 42
Porras, J. I., 468, 469, 469t, 470
Porter, L. W., 253, 255, 441, 443, 444,
445m, 518
Prager, H., 301
Premack, S. L., 263
Preskill, H., 228
Prien, E. P., 115, 116, 120
Price, A., 427
Price, J., 412
Prince, M., 203, 333, 358
Pringle, J. K., 370
Pritchard, R. D., 39, 51
Proper, K. I., 366
Purington, C., 160n
Q
Quiñones, M. A., 80
Quinn, R. W., 13, 431
Quintance, M. K., 59
R
Rackham, N., 201
Radovilsky, Z., 170
Raelin, J. A., 452
Ragins, B. R., 413
Ragsdale, M. A., 256
Rainbird, H., 421
Raines, C., 172
Ramsey, K. B., 373, 374
Ramsey, V. J., 172, 183
Randall, R., 362
Ranning, S., 333
Rao, T. V., 129
Ravid, G., 40
Rau, R., 129
Ray, R. D., 187
Reddy, E. R., 448
Reed, J., 474
Rees, R. T., 464
Rehling, L., 190
Reichers, A. E., 248, 258
Reilly, A. H., 453
Reilly, R. R., 254
Reimann, C. W., 296
Reinhart, C., 184
Reinhardt, C., 269
Reio, T. G., Jr., 258
Resnick, L. B., 67
Revans, R., 451
Reyes, M., 228
Reynolds, L., 484
Rice, B., 315
Richardson, H. A., 230
Rietz, T. A., 177
Riffel, P. J., 15
Riley, P., 317
Riordan, C. M., 230
Rivera, R. J., 154, 155t, 200, 203
Robbins, R. L., 258t
Robbins, S. P., 157
Roberson, L., 109
Roberts, C., 24
Roberts, G. E., 322
Roberts, P. B., 26, 132
Robertson, P. J., 468, 469
Robinson, D. G. & Robinson, J. C.,
109, 112, 131, 207, 212, 214, 220,
221t–222t, 222, 223t–224t, 225t
Robinson, S. L., 321
Robson, A. K. R., 140
Roche, T., 336
Roehling, M. V., 108, 368, 383
Roland, C. C., 182
Rollag, K., 250, 264, 270
Roman, P. M., 356
Romiszowski, A. J., 134, 178
Rooney, M. C., 415
Roraff, C. E., 37
Roschelle, J., 183
Rosen, B., 51
Rosen, R. H., 356
Rosenbaum, B. L., 458
Rosenberg, K., 365
Rosenbloom, P. S., 68
Ross, J., 57
Ross, R., 24
Rosset, A., 107, 132, 146, 336
Rossi, J., 30
Roth, G., 24
Rothenberg, P. V., 480
Rothwell, W. J., 11, 12f, 14, 17f, 19,
132, 168, 178, 283, 290
Rotter, N. G., 189
Rouiller, J. Z., 111
Rouse, B. A., 351
Routhieaux, R. L., 293, 295
Rowold, J., 453
Rubie-Davies, C., 40
Ruiz, G., 355, 357
Ruona, W. E. A., 13
Rupinski, M. T., 227
Russ-Eft, D. F., 25, 51, 56, 182, 217, 228
Russell, I., 307
Russell, M., 418
Rynes, S. L., 263
S
Saari, L. M., 49, 200, 429, 436, 446,
457
Sackett, P. R., 211, 215, 216, 227,
235, 237, 238, 243, 244
Sadu, G., 348
Sager, C. E., 36
Sahl, R. J., 110
Saks, A. M., 207, 210, 230, 244, 254,
257
Salas, E., 51, 160, 189, 199, 200, 202t,
203, 204, 205t, 209, 243, 302, 479,
519
Salemme, T., 483
Salopek, J. J., 167, 437
Sampson, J., 135
Santa-Barbara, J., 354
Santora, F. R., 18
Sargent, L. D., 234n
Sarkar, N. I., 183
Savickas, M. L., 407
Saylor, T., 271
Scandura, T. A., 412, 413
Scannell, E., 181, 191
Schaubroeck, J., 129, 453
Schein, E. H., 42, 251, 252, 256, 257,
371, 372, 374, 379, 411, 464, 465t,
495, 504
Schettler, J., 264, 266
Schilder, J., 302
Schiller, N. A., 173
Schmidt, F. L., 129, 226
Schmidt, J., 189
Schmidt, L, 225
Schmier, J. K., 368
Schmitt, N. W., 36, 58, 211, 215, 218,
235, 236, 240, 244, 259
Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
Licensed to: iChapters User
Name Index
Schneider, B., 259
Schneier, C. E., 315
Schoenfeldt, L. F., 428, 430, 431, 432,
432t, 433
Schonberger, R. J., 483, 484
Schott, F. W., 364
Schraeder, M. 335
Schramm, W., 177
Schriesheim, C., 40
Schuler, R. S., 13, 252
Schumann, P. L., 180, 455
Schwab, D., 37
Schwade, S., 184
Schwandt, D. R., 428
Schwartz, R., 173
Schwarz, R. M., 301
Schwering, R. E., 475
Schworer, C., 51
Schult, T. M., 375
Scott, J., 167
Scott, J. C., 126
Scott, M., 314
Scott, T. W., 180
Sego, D. J., 80t
Seibert, K. W., 439, 440, 441
Selman, J. C., 317, 330
Senge, P. M., 24
Selvarajan, T. T., 119
Sensenbrenner, J., 484
Shani, A. B., 40
Shamir, B., 454
Shapiro, D. L., 53
Shapiro, J. R., 368
Sharma, A., 304
Sharpe, M. E., 316
Shaw, K. N., 49
Shaw, M., 252
Shaw, R. S., 183, 190, 288
Sheeran, P., 57
Shepherd, L. C., 362
Shepard, R. J., 366
Sheppard, L., 202
Sherman, S., 452, 454
Shiarella, A. H., 36
Shin, S. J., 439
Shippeck, M. A., 409
Shoobridge, G. E., 22
Shore, J. E., 404, 406t
Shore, T., 52
Shotland, A., 206
Shreve, M., 366
Shula, D., 317
Sidebotham, E. J., 329
Siegel, Arthur, 72
Silberman, M. L., 458
Silverman, S. B., 333
Simmons, B. L., 360
Simon, S. J., 183, 288, 457
Sims, D. M., 250, 271
Sims, R. R., 140, 141–142, 156
Sinclair, R. C., 203, 292
Singleton, M. G., 367
Sisaye, S., 467
Sisson, G. R., 220
Siu, N. N. Y. M., 142
Skinner, B. F., 53
Skinner, M., 339
Sleight, D., 202
Smith, B., 24
Smith, C., 335
Smith, C. B., 404
Smith, M. E., 431
Smith, P. C., 6
Smith, P. M., 268, 291
Smith, R., 203
Smith, R. D., 186
Smith, S., 293
Smither, J. W., 128
Snyderman, B. B., 47
Sohal, A. S., 294, 294t
Solomon, R. I., 240
Sonnenstuhl, W. J., 350, 352, 353, 357
Sorcher, M., 51
Sorensen, G., 367, 368, 370
Sorohan, E., 23
Sorra, J. S., 80t
Spector, B., 485
Speizer, I., 445
Spich, R. S., 520t
Spiro, M. S., 24
Sprangers, M., 215
Spreitzer, G. M., 37, 438–439, 466, 485
St. John, W. D., 265
Stajkovic, A., 51, 53
Stamps, D., 287
Stackel, L., 176
Stanley, J. C., 215, 235, 241
Stansfeld, S., 359
Stanton, M. D., 374
Starcke, A. M., 264, 271
Starke, F. A., 48
Stavrou, E. T., 481
Staw, B. M., 57
Stayner, L., 203
Steck, R. N., 281
Steele, R. P., 44, 49, 483
Steele, P. D., 372
Steers, R. M., 53, 253
Steinhardt, M. A., 368
Steinmetz, C. S., 5, 6
Stetar, B., 108
Stevens, C. K., 51
Stivers, B. P., 335
Stoel, D., 207
Stoller, J., 168
Stone, D. L., 335
Stone, F., 401
Stone, N., 282
Stivers, B. P., 335
Storey, W. D., 386
Straczynski, S., 174
Strauss, J., 52
Strauss, U., 180
Streufert, S., 219
Stringer, R. A., 110, 336
Stum, D. L., 299
Sturman, M. C., 227
Subramony, M., 228
555
Sue-Chan, C., 323
Sugrue, B., 177
Sullivan, R. L., 122–123
Sullivan, S. E., 382, 383, 385, 396, 414
Summers, L., 316, 337
Super, D. E., 385, 387, 392, 413
Sussman, D., 334
Sutton, G., 253
Suutari, V., 23
Swain, H., 172
Swanson, N. G., 349, 350, 356, 357
Swanson, R. A., 14, 23, 200, 220
Swazin, S. A., 220
Sy, T., 52
Sytsma, M. R., 129
Szedlak, F., 132
T
Tai, W. T., 288
Tan, J. A., 204
Tang, T. L., 483
Tannenbaum, S. I., 51, 206, 244, 302
Tarasco, J. A., 409
Tarulli, B. A., 129
Tasa, K., 234n
Taurone, D., 354, 373
Taylor, D. L., 169
Taylor, M. S., 457
Taylor, P. J., 51, 182, 316, 337, 457
Tedeschi, B., 176
Templin, N., 284
Tepper, B. J., 413
Terborg, J., 365, 368, 369
Terry, J., 23
Tersine, R. J., 356
Tesolowski, D. G., 120
Tesoro, F., 112, 214
Tett, R. P., 439
Tham, C. M., 186, 445
Thayer, P. W., 56, 109, 116, 124
Thernstrom, S., 503t
Thewlis, M., 259
Thiederman, S., 521t–522t
Thierry, H., 48
Thissen-Roe, A., 187
Thomas, D. A., 412, 413
Thomas, H. C., 258
Thompson, D. E., 44, 49
Thompson, R., Jr., 358
Thompson, R. C., 470
Thorndike, E. L., 53, 66
Thornton, G. C., 180, 181, 411
Tichy, N. M., 447, 452, 454, 455
Tobey, D., 191
Tompson, H. B., 36
Toossi, M., 281
Tootson, J., 112, 214
Tornow, W. W., 431
Torraco, R. J., 14
Toto, J., 318
Totty, P., 186
Townsend, P., 439
Tracey, J. B., 111
Trader-Leigh, K. E., 465
Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
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556
Name Index
Traver, H., 206
Treinen, D., 303
Tremblay, M., 417
Triandis, H. C., 183
Trice, H. M., 349, 350, 353, 356, 357,
372, 373
Tucker, R., 409, 410
Turban, D. B., 413, 421
Tyler, K., 264, 265, 266t, 269, 270, 282
U
Uehlein, C., 189
Uhl-Bien, M., 40
Ulrich, D., 13, 116
Ulrich, T. A., 172
Urbaniak, A., 170
Urbanski, J., 182
Usher, C. J., 130
Uusitalo, T., 170
V
Vaill, P. B., 382, 433, 434, 435
Valentine, S., 268, 370
Van Buren, M. E., 8, 13, 24, 37, 38, 64,
99, 486, 493, 494f
Van den Berg, N., 303
van der Veen, R., 13
Van Eerde, W., 48
Van Maanen, J., 250, 251, 252, 257, 384
Vandenberg, R. J., 230
Vanderheiden, P. A., 37
VanLehn, K., 68
Vascellero, J. E., 279n
Vasilash, G. S., 295
Vaughn, J. A., 172
Vecchio, R. P., 40, 54, 251
Velocci, A. L., 485
Verburg, R. M., 13, 230
Verney, T., 483
Vernon, T. M., 365
Verser, T. G., 183
Veverka, M., 177
Viadero, D., 188
Viega, J. F., 319
Villet, J., 112t, 113t–114t, 146, 147,
147t, 148
Visher, M. G., 287
Viswesvaran, C., 129, 367
Vroom, V., 47
W
Waddill, D. D., 428, 452
Wagner, J. A., 44, 54, 54f
Wagner, R. J., 182, 229n, 230
Wahba, M. A., 47
Wailerdsak, N., 412
Wakabayashi, M., 40
Waldman, D. A., 181, 444, 454
Waldroop, J., 315, 317, 333, 338
Walker, J. W., 409, 410
Wall, T. D., 485, 486
Walley, E. N., 305
Walsh, D. C., 354, 355, 356, 372
Walter, D., 168
Walton, E., 11
Wanberg, C. R., 254, 265
Wang, C., 58, 204
Wang, G. G., 200, 230
Wang, J., 230
Wang, K. H., 229
Wang, P., 453
Wang, T. H., 229
Wang, W. L., 229
Wang, Y., 368
Wanous, J. P., 48, 253, 255, 256, 257,
259–261, 260t, 262, 263t
Ward, F., 157
Warner, K. E., 367
Warr, P., 201, 204, 206
Wassermann, S., 179
Wat, F. K. T., 130
Watad, M., 14
Watkins, B. T., 176
Watkins, R., 201, 204, 207
Watson, J. B., 53
Watson, S., 453
Watson, W., 370
Wayhan, V. B., 294
Wayne, S. J., 41
Weatherby, N. L., 204f
Weatherly, L. A., 319
Weaver, M., 182
Weaver, N. A., 265–266
Webb, T., 57
Webster, J., 288
Weick, K. E., 428, 446
Weigand, R. J., 229, 230
Weiner, B., 321
Weinstein, M., 18, 300, 306, 448, 484
Weir, D., 446
Weiss, H. M., 68
Weiss, J. W., 421
Weiss, R. M., 357
Wellins, R., 11, 19, 316, 318
Welty, W. M., 173
Wendel, S., 364
Wentling, R.M., 22
Werner, J. M., 8, 13, 24, 36, 37, 41,
43, 49, 80t, 126, 128, 182, 183,
186, 206, 209, 288, 302, 302t, 336,
367, 445, 455, 457, 458, 493, 494f
Wertheimer, M., 66
Wesson, M. J., 262, 271
West, B., 134, 159
West, E., 182
West, K. L., 264
Wexley, K. N., 49, 80t, 116, 119, 169t,
181, 185, 194, 200, 203, 333, 334,
335, 428, 429, 448, 458
Wheelen, T. L., 13
Whetton, D., 428
White, C., 52
White, L. A., 129
White, M., 369
White, R. P., 412
Whitely, W., 413
Whitener, E. M., 43, 333
Whyte, G., 227
Wiggenhorn, W., 295
Wilbanks, L. A., 210
Wilber, C. S., 363
Wilcox, D., 200
Wilcox, J., 64
Wildermuth, C., 455
Wile, D. E., 150
Willems, G., 172
Williams, K., 43
Williams, S. D., 182
Williams, S. W., 149
Williamson, A. D., 14
Willmore, J., 8, 38
Willyerd, K. A., 224
Wilson, J. M., 318
Wilson, L. S., 283
Wilson, M. G., 349, 362, 369, 370
Winkler, C., 262
Winn, J., 179
Winter, J., 254
Wircenski, J. L., 122–123
Wirt, J. G., 287
Wirtenberg, J., 463, 469
Wittock, M., 177
Woehr, D. J., 36
Wojcik, J., 333
Wolf, S., 254, 266n
Wolfe, J., 178, 179, 180, 181
Wolfe, R. A., 349, 362
Wolfensohn, J., 455
Wolfson, R., 183
Wong-MingJi, D. J., 148
Woodberry, P., 286
Woodill, G., 99, 134, 160
Woodman, R. W., 464, 467, 468, 488t
Woods, S. B., 244
Woodwell, W. H., Jr., 62, 96
Worren, N. A. M., 473, 496
Wrich, J. T., 356
Wylie, K. K., 183, 190, 192
Y
Yager, D., 15
Yandrick, R. M., 346, 358, 375
Yang, H., 243
Yelon, S., 202
Yi, M. Y., 288
Yin, L. R., 165, 166f, 185t
Yorks, L., 8, 452
Yu, L., 333
Yusof, S. M., 485
Z
Zarowin, S., 269
Zaslow, R., 283
Zemke, R., 106, 107, 116, 132, 133–
134, 146, 172, 316, 448
Zerbe, W., 49
Zenger, J., 189, 199
Ziegler, R. J., 5
Zielenski, D., 187
Zimmerle, D. M., 200
Zingheim, P. K., 316, 337
Zwerling, C., 350
Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
Licensed to: iChapters User
Subject Index
Note: Page numbers followed by “f” indicate figures; “n” notes; “t” tables.
360-degree performance
appraisal, 124, 128
A
AACSB International, 442
A DimE framework
Orientation programs, 264
Abilities, 58
Impact on training, 70
Academic community
connections, HRD profession,
21
Academy of Human Resource
Development, 21
“Standards on Ethics and
Integrity”, 25, 200
access discrimination, 505
active practice, 73
action plan, 475
action learning, 451
ADEPT (appraising and developing
employee performance
training), 333
Adult development stages,
388–392
Affirmative action programs,
510–512
Agilent Technologies, 336
Alliance for Employee Growth and
Development, Inc., 303
Alpha changes, 470
Alternative work schedules
(AWS), 480
Alverno College case study,
380–422
Amazon.com, 279, 309
American Management
Association (AMA), 445
American National Standards
Institute (ANSI), 296
American Society for Training and
Development (ASTD), 8, 283,
306
2004 ASTD Competency
Model, 17f
Academic Relations
Committee, 21
Benchmarking Forum, 4
Benchmarking Service on
employer-provided training,
64, 99
Certification program, 19–20,
306
Code of Ethics, 25t
Downsized organizations
study, 37
HR wheel by McLagan, 10
Learning and performance
wheel, 11–12
Professor’s Network, 21
State of the Industry Report
(2003), 203
American Society for Training
Directors (ASTD), 7
Americans with Disabilities Act
(ADA) of 1990, 351, 371, 372
Analytic needs, 108
Andragogy, 84–86
Comparison to pedagogy, 85t
Anticipatory socialization, 255
Apple Computer, 265
Apprenticeship training, 5, 285–287
Positive outcomes of a
successful program, 286t
Assessment centers, 411
Assessment-designimplementation-evaluation.
See A DimE framework
Association, 66
AT&T, 303, 430
Attitudes, 55, 57–58
Behavioral intentions model, 58f
Impact on trainability, 73
Attribute-treatment interaction
(ATI), 81
Audiovisual methods, 173–178
Dynamic media, 174–176
Guidelines for slides and
overhead transparencies,
175t
Static media, 174, 175t
Telecommunications, 176–178
B
Basic skills/literacy education,
281–285
Addressing illiteracy in the
workplace, 282–283
Designing an in-house
program, 283
Federal support for basic skills
training, 283–285
Behavior, employee. See
employee behavior
Behavior modeling, 51, 182,
455–458
Behavior modification, 53
Behavioral intentions model, 57, 58f
Benchmarks (person analysis),
130–131
Beta changes, 470
Blended learning, 189
BLP (Business Leadership
Program), 3
BMW manufacturing plant in
South Carolina, 72
Boeing Corporation, 123
Boundaryless career, 383
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Employee assistance program
statistics, 346
Managerial occupation
statistics, 428
Business games, 180
Business Leadership Program
(BLP), 3
Business/management skills
(HRD), 16–18
Business partner role, 16–17
C
CAI. See Computer-aided
instruction
Campbell Soup Company, 93
Career, 384
Career concepts, 395
Career management and
development, 11, 379–425,
523–524
Career development, 385
Career development practices
and activities, 404–414
Career management process,
397–401
557
Copyright 2009 Cengage Learning, Inc. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.
Licensed to: iChapters User
558
Subject Index
Career planning and career
management, 386–387
Definition of a career, 384
Effective career development
systems, 419–420
Impact of new employment
relationship, 383–384
Issues in career development,
414–419
Models of career
development, 392–397,
393t
New employment relationship,
383–384
Relationship of career to
nonwork activities, 385
Roles in career management,
401–404
Spectrum of career
development activities,
387f
Stage views of adult
development, 388–392
Career motivation, 414
Career path, 409
Career planning, 11, 386
Career plateau, 392, 415–417
Case study method, 178, 237
Cathay Pacific Airways, 105, 135
Causal attribution theory, 321
CBT (computer-based training),
154
Center for Creative Leadership,
130
Central States Health & Life
wellness program, 363–364
Certification, 305
for HRD professionals, 19–21
Certified Professional in Learning
and Performance (CPLPTM),
19
Challenges, organizational and
professional, 21–25
Competing in a global
economy, 23
Eliminating the skills gap, 23
Emerging workplace trends, 22f
Facilitating organizational
learning, 24
Increasing workplace diversity,
22
Need for lifelong learning,
23–24
Change and acquisition (in
socialization), 256
Change agent, 11, 19, 472–474,
473t
Change manager, 471
Change process theory, 464–466
Characteristic approach, 430
“Chief Learning Officer” (CLO),
18
Cisco Systems, 14
CIT (critical incident technique),
119
Classroom training, 171, 188
Coaching, 7, 10–11, 316–318
Counseling and, 346
On-the-job training (OJT), 167
Performance consultant or
coach role, 19
Coaching analysis, 318, 322–326,
323t
Coaching discussions, 318,
326–329
Coaching and performance
management, 312–342
Coaching discussions,
326–329, 329t
Conducting coaching analysis,
322–326, 323t
Constructive criticism,
334–335
Defining poor performance,
319–321
Definition of coaching,
316–318
Effectiveness of coaching, 333
Employee participation in
discussion, 334
Improving poor performance,
319
Maintaining performance while
encouraging superior
performance, 329–330
Need for coaching, 314
Organizational support, 335
Performance management,
315–316
Positive approach to managing
performance, 314–315
Recommendations for
performance management
systems, 337t
Recommendations to promote
effective coaching, 336t
Responding to poor
performance, 321–322
Role of HRD professional in
coaching, 318–319
Role of supervisor and
manager in coaching, 318
Setting performance goals
during discussion, 335
Skills needed for effective
coaching, 330–333
Supportiveness, 334
Supervisor’s credibility, effect
on training, 335
Technology and, 336
Cognitive architectures, 66
Cognitive motivation theories,
47–53
Equity theory, 51–53
Expectancy theory, 47, 48f
Goal-setting theory, 49
Social learning theory, 50
Cognitive psychology, 68
Recent developments, 92–98
Cognitive resource allocation
theory, 82
Cohesiveness, 43
Communication skills, 331
Competencies, 15–17. See also
roles and competencies of
HRD professionals
2004 ASTD competency
model, 17f
compliance needs, 108
component task achievement, 67
compressed workweek, 481
computer-aided instruction (CAI),
95, 184, 292
computer-based training (CBT),
155, 183–189, 292
self-paced media and
methods, 183–189
computer-managed instruction
(CMI), 292
computer skills training, 287–288
confidentiality, 373
constructive confrontation, 352
contiguity, 66
continuing education, 305–306
company-sponsored, 306
HRD department role, 307
by professional associations,
306
continuous improvement
philosophy, 169
continuous learning work
environment, 79
control group, 216, 239
nonequivalent control group
design, 241
cost analysis (example), 223t–224t
cost-benefit analysis, 220
cost-effectiveness analysis, 220
Corning, 262, 268, 269–272
Corporate universities, 306,
447–448
Counseling, 11
career counseling, 404
outplacement counseling, 408
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Subject Index
pre-retirement counseling,
389, 408
Counseling and wellness services,
343–378
Characteristics of effective
counseling services, 349
Components of a typical
program, 347–348
Determining who provides
services, 348–349
Effectiveness of health and
wellness programs, 369–370
Employee assistance
programs (EAPs), 350–358
Employee counseling as an
HRD activity, 346
Exercise and fitness programs,
365–367
Health risk appraisal for
alcohol use, 348t
Issues in employee
counseling, 370–374
Hypertension control, 368–369
Stress management
interventions (SMIs),
358–362
Link between employee
counseling and coaching,
346
Lovelace Health Systems case
study, 344, 375
Nutrition and weight control
programs, 367–368
Smoking cessation, 367
Wellness and health
promotion programs,
362–365
Coworkers
influence on employee
behavior, 43
role in employee orientation,
269
Cracker Barrel Restaurants, 26
Craft guilds, 5
Critical incident technique (CIT), 119
Cultural changes, 488
Cultural diversity, 510
Culture, 503
Body language in cultures
worldwide, 521t–522t
Common cultural
characteristics, 503t
Cross-cultural education and
training, 518–521
Culture (organizational), 42, 488, 504
Cummins Engine Company, 169
Customer relations/services
training, 298–300
D
Data collection methods, 209–212
Advantages and limitations of,
213f
Guidelines for writing
questionnaires, 212f
For HRD evaluation, 210t
Participant reaction
questionnaire, 211f
Scripted situation data
collection method, 214f
Declarative knowledge, 92, 166
Degree of original learning, 76
Deliberate practice, 94
Dell Computer Corporation, 112,
164, 193
Design phase (HRD process),
138–162
Creating versus purchasing
HRD programs, 146–148
Defining program objectives,
142–146
Effects of technology on
design, 159–160
Employee orientation
programs, 271, 273t–274t
Guidelines for developing
objectives, 145f
Key activities involved, 140
Overarching responsibilities of
HRD professionals,
140–142
Preparing a lesson plan,
150–153
Preparing training materials,
156–157
Qualities of useful objectives,
143f
Rockwell Collins case study,
139, 160
Scheduling the program,
157–160
Developmental activities in HRD,
10. See also management
development
Career management, 412–414
Developmental challenge profile
(DCP), 449
Developmental needs, 129–130
Deviant workplace behavior,
320–321
Diagnostic needs, 108
Discrimination, 505–509
Equal employment opportunity
(EEO), 508
Glass ceiling, 508–509
Treatment discrimination
against minorities, 507–508
559
Treatment discrimination
against women in
organizations, 505–507
Discussion methods, 172–73
Distance learning, 99
Diversity, 501–530
Adapting to demographic
changes, 510–514
Cross-cultural education and
training, 518–521
Discrimination, 505–508
Equal employment opportunity
(EEO), 508
The glass ceiling, 508–509
HRD programs for culturally
diverse workforce, 522–526
IBM case study, 502, 528
Impact of recent immigration,
509
Increasing workforce diversity,
22
Managing diversity, 514–518
Other HRM programs and
processes, 527
Diversity training, 512
Cross-cultural education and
training, 518–521
Potential problems with, 514t
Downsizing, 37
Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988,
350, 371
Dynamic media, 174
E
E-coaching, 336
E-learning, 99, 134–135, 186–189
Benefits of classroom training
versus, 188–190
Blended with classroom
training, 189
Design principles for
interactive E-learning
materials, 185t
Design recommendations for
programs, 160
Internet-based training, 186
Intranet-based training (IBT), 186
e-mentoring, 414
EAPs. See employee assistance
programs
Education for HRD professionals,
19–21
Education system (U.S.), failures
of, 23
Educational interventions, 361
EEOC. See Equal Employment
Opportunity Commission
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560
Subject Index
Ego integrity, 389
Emerging workplace trends, 21f
Employee Assistance
Professionals Association
(EAPA), 358
Advice on establishing an EAP,
358
Employee assistance programs
(EAPs), 350–358
Approach to resolving
employees’ personal
problems, 352–356
Conceptual framework, 353t
Effectiveness of EAPs, 356–358
Mental health, 351–352
National estimates of service
provision by type of EAP,
355t
Substance abuse, 350
Employee behavior, 35–62
Deviant workplace behavior,
320–321
External influences, 37–43
Internal influences, 43–59
Major categories of, 36
Model of, 35, 36f
Patterns indicative of potential
substance abuse, 354t
Employee counseling and
wellness services. See
counseling and wellness
services
Employee orientation, 10,
264–275. See also socialization
Assessment and
determination of program
content, 264–265
Design and implementation of
programs, 271, 273t–274t
Diversity and, 522–523
Evaluation of program
effectiveness, 272–274
Orientation roles, 268–270
Problems with programs,
270–271
Sematech case study, 249, 275
Employee wellness programs
(EWPs), 362. See also
wellness and health
promotion programs
Encounter (socialization stage),
256, 264
Enrichment programs, 418, 480
Equal Employment Opportunity
Commission (EEOC), 26–27,
111
Americans with Disabilities Act
(ADA) of 1990, 351
Enforcement guidance on ADA
and psychiatric disabilities,
372
Mental Health Parity Act of
1996, 352
Position on EAPs, 372
Equity theory, 39, 51–53
Graphic representation of, 52f
Reducing feelings of inequity, 51
ERG (existence, relatedness, and
growth) theory, 45
Erickson’s adult development
model, 388–389, 388t
Executive/manager, HRD, 27
Ethics
Addressing ethical dilemmas,
24–25
ASTD Code of Ethics, 25t
Issues in employee
counseling, 373–374
Issues in evaluation research,
217–220
Management education and
leadership development,
456
Evaluation phase (HRD programs),
28, 196–234
Assessing program impact in
monetary terms, 220
Brinkerhoff’s model, 202,
203–204
Changing emphases, 200–201
CIPP (Context, Input, Process,
Product) model, 204
Classification scheme for
learning outcomes, 205t
Comparing evaluation
frameworks, 204–208
Data collection methods,
209–212, 211f, 212f, 213t,
214f
Employee orientation
programs, 272–274
Ethical issues in evaluation
research, 217–220
Frequency of, 199–200
Impact of technology on
evaluation, 228–229
Informed consent of research
participants, 218
Kirkpatrick’s evaluation
framework, 201–203
LensCrafters case study, 197,
230
Models and frameworks, 201,
202t
Organization development and
change interventions, 476
Other frameworks or models,
203–204
Pressure to produce positive
results, 219–220
Prior to purchase of programs,
200
Purpose of, 198–199
Realistic job previews (RJPs),
259–261, 260t
Research design, 215–217,
235–245
Stakeholder evaluation
approach, 208
Training costs, evaluating,
220–228, 230
Types of data, 212–214
Use of self-report data,
214–215
Executive education programs,
444–446
Executive MBA (EMBA)
programs, 444
Exercise and fitness interventions,
265–267
Existence, relatedness, and
growth (ERG) theory, 45
Expectancy, 47, 55
Expectancy theory, 39, 47, 55
Graphic representation of, 48f
Expectation, 253
Experiential methods, 178–183
Behavior modeling, 182
Business games and
simulations, 180–181
Case study method, 178
Outdoor-based education, 182
Role playing, 181
Summary of, 182–183
Experimental designs, 239
Expert performance, 94
External influences on employee
behavior, 35, 37–43
Factors in the external
environment, 36
Factors in the work
environment, 38–43
Extinction, 53
F
Facilitating change, 11
Factory schools, 6
Federal support for basic skills
training, 283–285
FedEx, practices fostering high
performance, 13
FedEx Kinko, 177
Feedback, 323, 331t–332t
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Licensed to: iChapters User
Subject Index
behavior modeling, 456
survey feedback in OD
interventions, 477
Fieldcrest Mills, 56–57
First Citizens Bank, 153
Flextime schedules, 481
Foundational competencies for
HRD professionals, 15–17
Force field analysis, 474
Four-dimensional model, 432
Framework for the HRD process,
25–28
Design phase, 27
Evaluation phase, 28
Implementation phase, 28
Needs assessment phase, 26
Training and HRD process
model, 26f
Fundamental attribution error, 322
G
Gagné’s theory of instruction,
95–98, 96t–97t
Gamma changes, 470
General Accounting Office (GAO),
285
General principles theory, 78
Generativity, 389
Gerontology, 87
Glass ceiling, 508–509
Global Leadership Program (GLP), 3
Global Professional in Human
Resources (GPHR)
certification, 20
Global economy, competing in, 23
Globally competent managers,
437–439
Goal-setting, 49, 329
Group dynamics, 43
Group process facilitation, 7
Groupthink, 43
H
Hard Rock Café, 168
Harvard University, 178
Hazing, 269
HAZWOPER program, 151
Health promotion programs
(HPPs), 362. See also
Wellness and health
promotion programs
High performance work systems
(HPWS), 8, 492–493, 494f
Desired outcomes, 13
Downsizing and, 37–38
Higher order (psychological)
human needs, 7
HRD. See human resource
development
HRM. See human resource
management
Human process-based
interventions, 466, 477–479
Human relations movement, 7
Human Resource Certification
Institute (HRCI), 19–20
Human Resource Development
(HRD)
defined, 4
employee counseling
activities, 346
emergence of, 7
evaluation, 198
history of, 5
organization development (OD)
function, 11
relationship to human resource
management, 8–10
responsibilities in career
development, 403–404
role in designing OD
interventions, 476
role in OT interventions,
495–496
role of professionals in
coaching, 318
role of staff in employee
orientation, 270
training and development
(T&D) function, 10–11
Human Resource Development
Quarterly, 21
human resource information
system (HRIS), 130
human resource management
(HRM)
depiction in learning and
performance wheel, 12
integration with strategic
needs, 14
line versus staff authority, 9–10
organizational chart of large
HRM division, 9f
primary functions, 8
secondary functions, 9
human resource systems, 13
hypertension control
interventions, 368–369
I
IBM
Diversity and global workforce,
502, 528
Human Resource Center, 14–15
561
ICAI (intelligent computer-assisted
instruction), 187
Identical elements, 77
Implementation phase (HRD
programs), 28, 163–195
Arranging the physical
environment, 189–191
Audiovisual media, 173–178
Classroom training
approaches, 171
Classroom training versus
technology-based, 188–190
Computer-based training
(CBT), 183–189
Discussion method, 172–173
Employee orientation
programs, 271
Experiential methods, 178–183
Getting started, 191–192
Lecture approach, 171–172
On-the-job-training (OJT)
methods, 167–171
Tips for trainers, 192t
Training and HRD process
model, 165t
Training delivery methods,
165–166, 167t
Implementation theory, 466
In-basket exercise, 180
Individual development, 24
Information overload, 271
Informed consent, 218
Instrumentality, 47, 55
Instruction, learning and, 65–67
Instructional designer, 19
Instructional psychology, 67
Recent developments, 92–98
Instructional system design (ISD),
104t
Criticisms of, 132–134
Instrumentality, 55
Integrated competency model,
431, 432t
Intelligent computer-assisted
instruction (ICAI), 187
Interference, 76
Internal influences on employee
behavior, 35
Motivation, 44–55
International Organization for
Standardization (ISO), 296
Interpersonal skills, 7, 16
Needed for effective coaching,
330–333
Interpersonal skills training, 280,
297–302
Customer relations/services,
298–300
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562
Subject Index
Sales training, 298
Team building, 301–302, 302t
Intervention strategies, 464
Design process, 474
Intranet-based training (IBT), 186
Intranets, 186
ISO 9000, 296
J
Japanese philosophy of
continuous improvement
(Kaizen), 169
JDIT (Just Do It training), 169
JIT. See Job instruction training
Job analysis, 118
Job characteristics model, 480
Job description, 118
Job design, 42
Job-duty-task method, 119, 120t
Job enlargement, 479
Job enrichment, 46, 480
Job instruction training (JIT), 6,
168, 169t
Job inventory questionnaire, 119
Job postings, 409
Job rotation, 170, 412
Job specification, 118
Job Training and Partnership Act
(JTPA), 283
Just Do It training (JDIT), 169
K
Kaizen (Japanese philosophy of
continuous improvement), 169
Knowledge, 59
Declarative and procedural, 92,
166
Knowledge, skills, and abilities
(KSAs), 35, 58–59
Impact on learning, 70
Knowledge, skill, ability, and other
characteristics (KSAOs),
120–121
Definitions of, 121t
Gathering through use of
technology, 135
L
Labor unions
Role in OD interventions,
476–477
role in skills and technical
training, 302–303
Law of effect, 54, 67
Leader-member-exchange (LMX)
model of leadership, 40
Leadership, 40
Leadership training, 453–455
Learning, 65
Organizational learning,
489–492
Learning curves, 81–82, 82f
Learning management system
(LMS), 159
Learning organization, 24, 490
Learning outcomes, classification
scheme, 205t
Learning and performance wheel,
11–12, 12f
Learning points (behavior
modeling), 456
Learning program specialist, 19
Learning pyramid for selecting
training methods, 166f
Learning research, 63–102
Impact of instructional and
cognitive psychology, 67
Individual differences in
learning, 81–89
Limits of learning principles in
training design
improvement, 67
Learning strategies and styles,
89–92
Instruction and, 65–68
Maximizing learning, 68–80
Recent developments
instructional and cognitive
psychology, 92–98
Search for basic learning
principles, 66
Learning strategies, 90–91
Learning strategist role, 27
Learning styles, 89
Lecture method, 171
Legal issues, 111
In employee counseling
programs, 371–372
LensCrafters case study, 197, 230
Lesson plan, 150
General lesson plan template,
151f
Sample completed lesson
plan, 152–153f
Levinson’s adult development
model, 389–392
Contributions to career
development, 392
“Eras” model of adult
development, 390f
Licensure, 305
Life stages and career
development, 388–392
Lifelong learning, need for, 23–24
Line authority, 9–10
Literacy education, 281–285
LMX (Leader-member-exchange)
model of leadership, 40
Lovelace Health Systems case
study, 344–375
Lower order (basic survival)
human needs, 7
M
Macro and micro organizational
changes, 11
Managed care, 358
Management development, 11,
426–461
Approaches used to develop
managers, 452–458
Defined, 428
Designing effective programs,
458–459
Extent of activities, 429
Hospital case study, 427, 459
Management education,
441–446
Roles and competencies of
manager’s job, 429–439
Strategic management
development, 439–441
Training and experiences,
446–452
Management education, 428
Management practices
Management training, 11, 429
Managers
developmental needs of, 130
role in career management,
403
role in coaching, 318
managing diversity, 514–518
Master of Multimedia, 20
Material safety data sheets
(MSDS), 290
Maximization of learning, 68–80
Issues involved, 69t
Retention of learned material,
75
Trainee characteristics, 69–73
Training design, 73–75
Transfer of training, 76–80
Mayo Clinic, 268
Meaningfulness of material, 75
Mental health counseling, 345
Mental Health Parity Act of 1996,
352
Mental practice, 73
Mentoring, 168, 412–414, 525f
Promoting diversity, 524
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Subject Index
Meta-analysis, 217, 226
Metropolitan Life Insurance
Company, 381
Minorities, discrimination against,
507–508
Modeling, 51
Modeling phase, 456
Motivation, 44–55. See also
employee behavior
Approaches to explaining, 45t
Career motivation, 414, 415t
Cognitive process theories,
47–53
Defined, 44
Need-based theories, 44–47
Pretraining, 70
Reinforcement theory, 53
Summary of approaches to, 44
Multimedia master, 20
Prioritizing HRD needs,
131–132
Process model debate in HRD,
132–135
Strategic/organizational
analysis, 110–116
Task analysis, 116–123
Training and HRD process
model, 106f
Traps to avoid, 109t
Negative reinforcement, 53
Newcomer’s role in orientation, 270
Nonexempt employees, career
development, 417–418
Norms, 43, 252
North Carolina Office of Day Care
Services, 177
North West Company, 282
Nutrition and weight control
interventions, 367–368
N
National Council on Problem
Gambling, 351
National Institute of Mental
Health, 351
National Labor Relations Board
(NLRB), 477
National Semiconductor, 271
National Technological University
(NTU), 176
NCR education program, 307–308
Need-based theories of
motivation, 44–47
ERG (existence, relatedness,
and growth) theory, 45
Need activation-need
satisfaction process, 46f
Need hierarchy theory, 45–46
Two-factor theory, 45
Needs, 44, 107
Needs assessment (HRD
process), 26, 104–137
Cathay Pacific Airways case
study, 105, 135
Changes brought about by
technology, 134–135
Definition and purposes of, 107
Definition of training or HRD
needs, 107
Employee orientation
programs, 264, 271
Importance in determining
managerial competencies,
436–437
Levels of need analysis, 109,
110t
Person analysis, 124–131
O
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA),
289–293
OD. See organization
development
Office of Apprenticeship (U.S.
DOL), 286
On-site safety observations
(OSO), 292
On-the-job experiences
(management development),
429, 448–452
On-the-job training (OJT), 167–171
Opportunity to perform, 80
Organization change agent, 11, 19
Organization development (OD),
11, 463
Organization development and
change, 462–500
Case study of a Norwegian
organization, 463, 497
Change process theory,
464–466
Definition of organization
development, 463
Designing intervention
strategy, 471–477
Future of organization
development, 490–491
Human process-based
interventions, 466, 477
Limitations of research
supporting OD theories, 468
Model of planned change,
468–471, 469f
563
Organization transformation
(OT) change, 467, 488–496
Sociotechnical systems (STS),
467, 482–488
Technostructural interventions,
467, 479–482
Three-stage model of the
change process (Schein),
465t
Organization design consultant
(HRD), 19
Organizational citizenship
behaviors, 36
Organizational culture, 42, 488
Organizational learning, 489–492
Organizational needs analysis.
See strategic/organizational
needs analysis
Organizational outcomes of
employee behavior, 38
Organizational results, measuring
without measuring ROI, 229
Organizational socialization,
250–259
Organizational structure, 14
Of HRD function, 15
Organizational transformation
(OT), 467, 488–496
Cultural interventions, 488
High performance work
systems, 492–493, 494f
Mechanisms sustaining
organizational culture, 488t
Organizational learning,
489–493
Role of HRD practitioners,
487–488
Strategic changes, 489
Orientation. See employee
orientation; socialization
OSHA (Occupational Safety and
Health Administration),
289–293
Outcome expectation, 50
Outcomes (of employee
behavior), 38
Employee perceptions of
outcomes, 39
Outdoor-based education, 182
Outplacement counseling, 408
Overhead transparencies, 174, 175t
Overlearning, 74
P
Participative management, 315
Pay-for-knowledge system
(FedEx), 13
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564
Subject Index
Pedagogy, 84
Comparison to andragogy, 85t
People processing strategies, 257
Performance appraisal, 124–128,
315
Model in person analysis
process, 127f
Performance appraisal interviews,
334
Performance and self-efficacy,
relationship between, 50
Performance consultant (or
coach), 19
Performance improvement, 8
Performance management,
315–316. See also coaching
and performance management
Person analysis, 124–131
Benchmarks person analysis
instrument, 130
Components of, 124, 127t
Data sources, 125t–126t
Developmental needs,
129–130
Employee as source of
information, 130
Performance appraisal,
124–129
Personal competencies (HRD), 18
Personal outcomes of employee
behavior, 38
Personality, 73
Physical fidelity, 78
Pillsbury, program for managing
diversity, 515–517, 517t
Poor performance, 319
Positive reinforcement, 53
Posttest-only with control design,
240
Potential assessment, 410
Potential ratings, 410
Practicality, 211
Practice, 66
Issues relating to practice and
learning, 73–76
Pratt & Whitney, 34, 59
Pre-retirement counseling, 389,
408
Pretest and posttest, 216
Experimental design, with
control, 239
Nonexperimental, one-group
design, 237
Solomon four-group design,
240
Pretraining motivation, 70
Problem solving, 7
Procedural knowledge, 92, 166
Process consultation (PC), 479
Professional associations, 306
Professional in Human Resources
(PHR) certification, 20–21
Professional specialist role, 27
Project manager role, 16–17
Protean career, 395
Psychological fidelity, 78
Public education system (U.S.),
reforms needed, 22
Punishment, 53
Purchase of HRD programs,
factors to consider, 147t
Pygmalion effect (self-fulfilling
prophecy), 40
Q
Quality circles (QC), 482
Quality training, 293–297
And ISO 9000 standards, 296
Total quality management
(TQM), 483–485
Quasi-experimental designs, 241
Questionnaires, 212t
R
Racial harassment, 508, 525–526
Random assignment (to training
and control groups), 216, 239
Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 371,
372
Rehearsal phase, 457
Reinforcement theory, 53, 55
Relational research, 237
Reliability, 210
Realistic job preview (RJP),
259–264
Reasonable accommodations, 372
Research design, 215–217,
235–245
Experimental designs, 239
Nonexperimental designs,
237–239
Quasi-experimental designs,
241
Selecting a design, 244–245
Statistical analysis, 242–244
Validity, 235–237, 236t
Researcher role, 19
Response shift bias, 215
Retention of learned material, 76
Retention phase (behavior
modeling), 456
Retirement counseling, 408
Retraining workers, 37
Return on investment (ROI),
222–225, 229
Reward structure, 41
Rewards, 41
Rockwell Collins, 139, 160
Role ambiguity, 252
Role conflict, 252
Role orientation, 252
Role overload, 252
Role playing, 181
Roles, 251
Organization development and
change, 471–474
Orientation roles, 268–270
Roles and competencies of HRD
professionals, 15–21
Certification and education
of HRD professionals,
19–21
Executive/manager, 18
Foundational competencies,
15–16
Individual development and
career counselor, 19
Instructor/facilitator, 19
Key roles, 16–17
Learning program specialist
(instructional designer), 19
Organization change agent, 19
Organizational chart of large
HRD department, 19f
Organization design
consultant, 19
Performance consultant (or
coach), 19
Researcher, 19
Strategic advisor, 19
Systems designer and
developer, 19
S
Safety training, 289, 293
Sales training, 298
Scheduling of HRD programs,
157, 160
School-to-work programs, 287
Schwan Food Company, 168
Scott Paper, 110
Scripted situation data collection
method, 214f
Self-assessment activities, 404,
407
Self-efficacy, 50, 288
Self-fulfilling prophecy, 40
Self-managed teams (SMTs), 485,
487
Self-report data, 214
Self-selection, 260
Sematech case study, 249, 275
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Licensed to: iChapters User
Subject Index
Senior Professional in Human
Resources (SPHR)
certification, 20, 21
Sexual harassment, 111, 506
Training to reduce sexual and
racial harassment, 525, 526
Shipbuilder training (World War I),
6
Skill-acquisition interventions, 361
Skills, 58
Skills and competencies of HRD
professionals, 11
Skills gap, 23, 280
Skills and technical training, 10,
278–311
Amazon.com case study, 279,
309
Basic skills/literacy programs,
281, 285
Basic workplace
competencies, 280
Categories and subcategories
of, 280t
Interpersonal skills training,
297, 302
Professional development and
education, 304, 309
Role of labor unions, 302, 303
Technical training, 285, 297
Slides, 174, 175t
Smith-Hughes Act, 1917, 5
Smoking cessation programs, 367
Social learning theory, 50
Modeling, 51
Relationship between selfefficacy and performance,
50f
Social loafing, 53
Socialization, 250–259, 522–523 .
See also employee orientation
Content, 253
Expectations, 253
Determining needs of
newcomers, 271
Fundamental concepts, 251
Group norms, 252
Outcomes, 254
Newcomers proactively
seeking information, 257,
258
People processing strategies,
257
Realistic job preview (RJP),
259, 264
Stage models of socialization,
255
Society for Human Resource
Management, 19, 306
Sociotechnical systems (STS),
437, 482–488
Solomon four-group design, 240
Staff authority, 10
Stakeholder scorecard for training,
209f
Standards on Ethics and Integrity
(AHRD), 25, 200
Statistical conclusion validity, 242
Statistical power, 242
Statistical process control (SPC),
295
stimulus-response-feedback
method, 118, 119
Strategic advisor role (HR), 19
Strategic capability of HRD, 14
Strategic change, 489
Strategic management
development, 439, 441
Strategic management and HRD,
13, 15
Strategic roles for HRD, 8, 14
Strategic/organizational needs
analysis, 110, 116
Advantages of, 112
Components of, 110, 112
Methods, 112, 116
Questions to ask for strategic
information, 113t–114t
Sources of data, 114t–115t
Stress, 359
Stress management interventions
(SMIs), 358, 362
Defining stress, 359, 361
Effectiveness of SMIs, 362
Model of SMIs, 361, 361f
Organizational stressors, 360t
Stressors, 359
Subject matter expert (SME), 149
Substance abuse, 350
Behavior patterns indicative of,
354t
Health risk appraisal for
alcohol use, 348t
Succession planning, 411
Supervisors
Coaching analysis for
employee performance,
323t
Counseling training program,
374t
Influence on employee
behavior, 39, 41
role in career management,
403
role in coaching, 318
role in HRD, 15
role in orientation process, 268
565
support for training transfer in
work environment, 79
survey feedback, 477
systems designer and developer
(HR), 19
T
Task analysis, 65, 116–123
Example (Texas Instruments),
122
Process, 118, 121
Sources of data, 117t
Unique approach at Boeing,
123
Task identification, 118
Task sequencing, 67
Team training, 301
Team building, 301–302, 302t,
478
Team members’ influence on
employee behavior, 43
Team-based career development,
401
Teamwork, 43
Technical training, 280, 285–297
Apprenticeship training,
285–287, 287t
Computer skills training, 287,
288
Quality training, 293, 297
Role of labor unions in training
programs, 302, 304
Safety training, 289–293, 291t
Technical skills/knowledge
training, 288, 289
Technology
Coaching and performance
management, 336
HRD design, 159, 160
HRD evaluation, 228, 229
Mentoring, 412
needs assessment and, 134,
135
Technostructural interventions,
467, 479–482
Differences between TQM
and SMT interventions, 487
HRD programs and, 487, 488
Quality circles (QC), 482
Self-managed teams (SMTs),
485, 487
Total quality management
(TQM), 483, 485
Tenneco, suit filed under ADA
against EAP, 358
Texas Instruments Corporation
(TI), 122, 270, 271
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566
Subject Index
Time sampling, 119
Time series design, 217, 241
Total quality management (TQM),
293–294, 483–485
Differences from SMT
interventions, 487
Train-the-trainer programs, 149
Trainability, 69, 73
Personality and attitudes of
trainee, 72
Training, 10. See also skills and
technical training
Adult and older workers, 84, 89
Breakdown of content by
content area, 154t
Human Resource Service
Center (IBM), 14, 15
Management training, 446, 452
Preparing training materials,
156, 157
Tips for trainers, 192t
Training competency, 149
Training design
Issues related to practice and
learning, 73, 75
Limits of learning principles in
improving, 67
Training and development (T&D), 8
Definition of HRD function, 10
Training and HRD process model,
26f, 106f, 141f, 161f, 198f
Design phase, 2, 138–162
Evaluation phase, 28, 196–234
Implementation phase, 28,
163–195
Needs assessment phase, 27,
103–137
Training magazine HRD executive
salary survey, 18
Training manuals, 157
Training methods, 154, 165–166
Learning pyramid for selecting
methods, 162t
On-the-job (OJT) methods,
167, 171
Techniques and training
methods, 167t
Training program objectives, 142,
146
Training programs for semiskilled
and unskilled workers, 6
Training profession, establishment
of, 7
Training Within Industry (TWI)
Service, 7
Transfer of training, 76–80, 457
Baldwin and Ford’s model, 78f
Recommendations for
increasing, 80t
Transfer of training climate, 79
Transformational leadership, 453
Treatment discrimination, 505
Tribune Company, 170
Trust, 43
TRW Inc. case study, 3
U
Upjohn Institute for Employment
Research, 23
U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics,
279, 280
U. S. Department of Education,
281, 282
U. S. Department of Labor, Office
of Apprenticeship, 286
U. S. General Accounting Office
(GAO), 285
U. S. government support for
basic skills training, 283, 285
U. S. Shipping Board, 6, 7
U. S. Substance Abuse and
Mental Health Services
Administration, 350
United Technologies Corporation
(UTC), 34, 59
University Hospital case study,
233, 234
University of Michigan, 112
University of Minnesota, 271
Utility analysis, 225, 228
V
Valences, 48, 55
Validity, 210
Value shaping, 330
Verizon Wireless, 265
Videoconferencing, 174, 177
Vocational education
Early programs, 5
Voluntary Protection Program
(VPP), 292
W
Weight control interventions, 367,
368
Wellness, 362
Wellness and health promotion
programs, 362, 365
Activities that may be
included, 365t
Central States Health & Life
wellness program. 363,
364
Exercise and fitness, 365, 367
Hypertension control, 368, 369
Nutrition and weight control,
367, 368
Overall effectiveness of
programs, 369, 370
Smoking cessation, 367
Wisconsin Public Service
Corporation (WPSC), 64, 99
Work environment influences on
employee behavior, 38, 43
Coworkers and teams, 43
Organization reward structure,
culture, and job design, 41
Outcomes (of employee
behavior), 38
Supervision and leadership, 40,
41
Work motivation. See motivation
Work practices and systems, 13
Work systems design, 19
Worker Adjustment and
Retraining Notification (WARN)
Act, 284
Workforce diversity, 22
Workforce Investment Act (WIA),
285
Workplace trends (emerging), 21f
Y
yeomanries, 5
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Licensed to: iChapters User
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617
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