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NHS DUMFRIES AND GALLOWAY
MANAGEMENT OF INFECTION: ANTIBIOTIC GUIDANCE FOR PRIMARY CARE
1
Aims
to provide a simple, empirical approach to the treatment of common infections
to promote the safe, effective and economic use of antibiotics
to minimise the emergence of bacterial resistance in the community
Principles of Treatment
1.
This guidance is based on the best available evidence but professional judgment should be used and patients should be involved
in decisions.
2. Prescribe an antibiotic only when there is likely to be a clear clinical benefit
3. Do not prescribe an antibiotic for viral sore throat, simple coughs and colds.
4. Limit prescribing over the telephone to clinically appropriate cases.
5. Lower threshold for antibiotics in immunocompromised or those with multiple morbidities; consider culture and seek advice.
6. Use simple generic antibiotics first whenever possible.
7. The use of antibiotics associated with a higher risk of developing Clostridium Difficile infection, MRSA and resistant UTIs (eg
cephalosporins, co-amoxiclav, quinolones and clindamycin) is inappropriate when effective alternatives are available
8. Avoid widespread use of topical antibiotics (especially those agents also available as systemic preparations).
9. In pregnancy AVOID tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, quinolones, high dose metronidazole. Short-term use of trimethoprim
(theoretical risk in first trimester in patients with poor diet, as folate antagonist) or nitrofurantoin (at term, theoretical risk of
neonatal haemolysis) is unlikely to cause problems to the foetus.
10. Where a ‘best guess’ therapy has failed or special circumstances exist, microbiological advice can be obtained from Dr Connor
and Dr Batchelor. Tel: Microbiology Dept 01387 241560
11. For the management of MRSA please refer to the D&G Infection Control Manual at:Good practice guidance for screening, treatment and management of patients with MRSA
ILLNESS
COMMENTS
DRUG
DOSE
DURATION OF
Tx
UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS: Consider delayed antibiotic prescriptions
Acute sore
throat
CKS
Avoid antibiotics as 90% resolve in 7 days without, and pain only reduced by 16 hours 2A+ Patients with 3 of 4 centor criteria
(history of fever, purulent tonsils, cervical adenopathy, absence of cough)3A- or history of otitis media may benefit more from
antibiotics – consider 2 or 3 day delayed or immediate antibiotics 1,A+. Number Needed to Treat (NNT) with antibiotics to prevent
1 episode of Quinsy is >4000 4B-. NNT to prevent 1 episode of otitis media is 200 2A+
Evidence indicates that penicillin 500 mg for
7 days is more effective than 3 days Twice
daily higher dose can also be used.6A+ QDS
may be more appropriate if severe.7D
Acute Otitis
media
(child doses)
CKS
Optimise analgesia 2,3BTarget antibiotics appropriately – Otitis
Media resolves in 60% of cases within 24
hours without antibiotics: they only reduce
pain at 2 days (NNT=15) and do not
prevent deafness 4A+
Consider 2 or 3-day delayed 1A+ or
immediate antibiotics for pain relief in the
following instances:
• < 2yrs with bilateral acute otitis media
(NNT=4) or bulging membrane and ≥4
marked symptoms5A+
• All ages with otorrhoea (NNT=3) 6A+
NNT with an antibiotic to prevent one case
of mastoiditis is >4000 7B
Phenoxymethylpenicillin
5B-
500 mg QDS
Or
1g BD (QDS in severe
infections)
7-10 days 8A-
clarithromycin
if allergic to penicillin
500 mg BD
5 days 9A+
Amoxicillin 8A+
<2 yrs 125 mg TID
2-10 yrs 250 mg TID
>10 yrs 500 mg TID 9B-
5 days 10A+
Bodyweight <8kg:7.5mg/kg BD
5 days 10A+
Clarithromycin
if allergic to penicillin
1 to 2yrs 62.5mg BD
3 to 6yrs 125mg BD
7 to 9 yrs 187.5mg BD
10 to 12 yrs 250mg BD
5 days 10A+
Haemophilus is an extracellular pathogen,
thus macrolides, which concentrate
intracellularly, are less effective treatment.
Note: Doses are oral and for adults unless otherwise stated. Please refer to BNF for further information.
Letters indicate strength of evidence:
A+ = systematic review: D = informal opinion
Issued: February 2014
Next Review: February 2015
NHS DUMFRIES AND GALLOWAY
MANAGEMENT OF INFECTION: ANTIBIOTIC GUIDANCE FOR PRIMARY CARE
ILLNESS
COMMENTS
DRUG
DOSE
2
DURATION OF
Tx
UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS (Continued)
Acute Otitis
externa
CKS
Important to exclude an underlying chronic
otitis media before commencing treatment.
Many cases recover after thorough cleansing
of the external ear canal by suction or dry
mopping.
1st line:
Betamethasone 0.1%
drops
Cure rates similar at 7 days for topical acetic
acid or antibiotic +/- steroid 1A+
2nd line:
Neomycin suphate with
corticosteroid 3A-, 4D
If cellulitis, or disease extending outside ear
canal, start oral antibiotics based on previous
sensitivities, if available, and also send a
swab for culture2A+
Do not prescribe blindly more than once.
Rhinosinusitis
acute 5C or
chronic
CKS
Avoid antibiotics as 80% resolve in 14 days
without, and they only offer marginal benefit
after 7 days NNT=15 2,3A+
Use adequate analgesia 4B+
Consider 7-day delayed or immediate
antibiotic when purulent nasal discharge
NNT=8 1,2A+
In persistent infection, an agent with antianaerobic activity should be considered 6B+
If suspected fungal
infection:
Clotrimazole 1%
solution
amoxicillin 4A+, 7A
or doxycycline
or
phenoxymethylpenicillin
Apply 2 to 3 drops every
3 to 4 hours; reduce
frequency when relief
obtained
7 days
3 drops three TID
7 days
Apply BD to TID
Continue for at least 14
days after infection
clears
500 mg TID
1G if severe10D
200 mg stat/100 mg OD
7 days 9A+
7 days
500mg QID
7 days
625mg TID
7 days
8B+
Only for use in
persistent symptoms:co-amoxiclav 6B+
LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS
Note: Low doses of penicillins are more likely to select out resistance1. Quinolones are not to be used first line due to poor
activity against pneumococcal infections and association with a higher risk of causing Clostridium Difficile. All quinolones must be
reserved for proven resistant organisms..
Acute cough,
bronchitis
CKS6
NICE 69
Systematic reviews indicate antibiotics are
of little benefit in otherwise healthy
adults.1,4A+
amoxicillin
or doxycycline
500 mg TID
200 mg stat/100 mg OD
5 days
5 days
1st line:Amoxicillin
500 mg TID
5 days
2nd line:doxycycline
200 mg stat/100 mg OD
5 days
Penicillin allergy:doxycycline
200 mg stat/100 mg OD
5 days
500mg BD
5 days
200mg stat/100mg OD
5 days
Consider 7-14 day delayed antibiotic with
symptomatic advice/leaflet 1, 5AConsider immediate antibiotics if >80 years
with ONE of the following OR >65 years
with TWO of the following:hospitalisation in past year, taking oral
steroids, diabetic, congestive heart failure.
Acute
exacerbation
of COPD
NICE 12
GOLD
Antibiotics not indicated in absence of
purulent/mucopurulent sputum Treat
exacerbations promptly with antibiotics if
purulent sputum and increased shortness of
breath and/or increased sputum volume 1,
3B+
In penicillin allergy use
clarithromycin if doxycycline
contraindicated
Risk factors for antibiotic resistant
organisms include co-morbid disease, severe
COPD, frequent exacerbations, antibiotics
in last 3 m
or clarithromycin if
doxycycline
contraindicated
If resistance risk
factors:doxycycline
Note: Doses are oral and for adults unless otherwise stated. Please refer to BNF for further information.
Letters indicate strength of evidence:
A+ = systematic review: D = informal opinion
Issued: February 2014
Next Review: February 2015
NHS DUMFRIES AND GALLOWAY
MANAGEMENT OF INFECTION: ANTIBIOTIC GUIDANCE FOR PRIMARY CARE
ILLNESS
COMMENTS
DRUG
DOSE
3
DURATION OF
TX
LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS (Continued)
Communityacquired
pneumonia treatment in the
community 2,3
BTS/SIGN 101
Use CURB65 score to help guide and
review:1 Each scores 1:
Confusion (new) (MSQ<8);
Urea >7mmol/l (if available)
Respiratory rate >30/min;
BP systolic <90 or diastolic ≤ 60;
Age ≥ 65 years
Score = 0: suitable for home treatment;
Score = 1-2: consider hospital assessment
or admission
Score = 3-4: urgent hospital admission
If CURB 65=0:
Amoxicillin A+
or doxycycline D
or clarithromycin AIf CURB65=1 at home:
Amoxicillin A+
AND clarithromycin Aor
Doxycycline alone
500 mg TID
200 mg stat / 100 mg OD
500 mg BD
7 days
7 days
7 days
500mg TID
500mg BD
7-10 days
200mg stat / 100mg OD
7-10 days
If no response in 48 hours consider
admission or add clarithromycin first line or
a tetracycline to cover Mycoplasma
infection (rare in over 65s)
In delayed admission/life threatening cases,
give immediate parenteral benzylpenicillin
or amoxicillin 1g orally before admission
and seek risk factors for Legionella and
Staph. aureus infection
MENINGITIS
Suspected
meningococcal
disease
HPA
Transfer all patients to hospital
immediately. Administer benzylpenicillin
prior to admission, unless definite history of
anaphylaxis,B- NOT allergy. Ideally IV but
IM if a vein cannot be found.
IV or IM
benzylpenicillin
Adults and children
10 yr and over: 1200 mg
Children 1 - 9 yr: 600 mg
Children <1 yr: 300 mg
Prevention of secondary case of meningitis: Only prescribe following advice from Public Health Doctor: 9 am – 5 pm:
01387 272726
Out of hours: Contact on-call doctor via DGRI switchboard
01387 246246
URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS UTI quick reference guide ESBL CKS SIGN 88
Note:. In the elderly (>65 years), do not treat asymptomatic bacteriuria; it is common but is not associated with increased
morbidity.1B+
In the presence of a catheter, antibiotics will not eradicate bacteriuria; only treat if systemically unwell or pyelonephritis likely.2B+
Do not use prophylactic antibiotics for catheter changes unless history of catheter-change-associated UTI3B
Lower UTI in
non-pregnant
women
HPA QRG
Over 33% of symptomatic women have no
identifiable bacterial infection15
Severe (≥ 3 symptoms): treat empirically
Trimethoprim 6B+
or nitrofurantoin 7B+, 8C,
200 mg BD
50-100 mg QDS
9B+
1,2C
3 – 5 days (consider a
delayed prescription in
women presenting with
mild symptoms)
SIGN
CKS, CKS
Mild (≤ 2 symptoms): use dipstick to guide
treatment and send MSU for culture 3A-.
Consider the use of delayed prescriptions in
women with mild symptoms16, 17, 18, 19 There
is also evidence that ibuprofen plus general
advice about maintaining fluid intake is
non-inferior to using ciprofloxacin and can
provide resolution of symptoms without the
need for antibiotics19.
2nd line - Perform culture in all treatment failures1B.
Amoxicillin resistance is common, therefore ONLY use if culture confirms
susceptibility10b+.
Multi-resistant ESBL E. Coli are increasing but often remain sensitive to
nitrofurantoin and pivmecillinam 11, 12B Evidence that addition of co-amoxiclav to
pivmecillinam may prevent treatment failure 13
Nitrofurantoin should be used with caution
in the elderly and is contraindicated in
individuals with an eGFR <60ml/min.
Note: Doses are oral and for adults unless otherwise stated. Please refer to BNF for further information.
Letters indicate strength of evidence:
A+ = systematic review: D = informal opinion
Issued: February 2014
Next Review: February 2015
NHS DUMFRIES AND GALLOWAY
MANAGEMENT OF INFECTION: ANTIBIOTIC GUIDANCE FOR PRIMARY CARE
ILLNESS
COMMENTS
DRUG
DOSE
DURATION OF
Tx
URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS (Continued)
UTI in men
SIGN 88
HPA
Consider prostatitis and send pre-treatment
MSU 1,4C OR if symptoms mild/nonspecific, use –ve dipstick to exclude UTI 5C
Uncomplicated UTI
Trimethoprim
OR
Nitrofurantoin
200mg BD
7 days
50-100mg QDS
7 days
500mg BD
28 days
200mg BD
28 days
2nd line:Trimethoprim
200mg BD
28 days
1st trimester
nitrofurantoin
50 mg – 100 mg QDS
7 days
2nd trimester
nitrofurantoin
or trimethoprim
50 mg – 100 mg QDS
200 mg BD
7 days
7 days
3rd trimester
trimethoprim
200mg BD
7 days
See BNF for dosage
3 days 1A+
Ciprofloxacin 3AOR
Co-Amoxiclav
500 mg BD
7 days 3A-
625mg
14 days
If susceptible,
trimethoprim
200 mg BD
14 days
Men with uncomplicated UTI can be treated
with trimethoprim or nitrofurantoin.
Men with symptoms suggestive of
prostatitis (abrupt onset of voiding
symptoms, distressing but poorly localised
pain and systemic symptoms such as fever
and malaise) should be treated with a
quinolone. 14
Signs and symptoms
suggestive of prostatitis
Ciprofloxacin
OR
Ofloxacin
<10% of men who receive a diagnosis of
prostatitis have a proven bacterial infection
14
UTI in
pregnancy
HPA QRG
CKS
SIGN 88
UTI in children
HPA QRG
Send MSU for culture and sensitivity and
start empirical antibiotics 1A. A repeat urine
culture should be performed 7 days after the
completion of the antibiotic course as a test
of cure.
Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy
should be treated with an antibiotic
Short-term use of nitrofurantoin in
pregnancy is considered safe 2C .Likewise,
trimethoprim is considered safe 2C except in
women with established folate deficiency,
low dietary folate intake or on a folate
antagonist medication (e.g. antiepileptic or
proguanil) and it should be avoided in such
individuals 2, 3.
Due to the availability of effective
alternatives, nitrofurantoin is preferred over
trimethoprim in the 1st trimester (antifolate
effect), while in the 3rd trimester,
trimethoprim is preferred over
nitrofurantoin (potential for neonatal
haemolysis)
Child < 3 months: refer urgently for
assessment1C
CKS
NICE
Child ≥ 3 months: use positive nitrile to
start antibiotics 1A+. Send pre-treatment
MSU for culture and sensitivity for all..
Waiting 24 hours for results is not
detrimental to outcome.A-
Acute
pyelonephritis
If admission not needed, send MSU for
culture and sensitivities and start antibiotics
CKS
SIGN 88
1C
If no response within 24 hours, admit2C.
Trimethoprim 1A
or nitrofurantoin 1AIf susceptible,
amoxicillin 1A
Note: Doses are oral and for adults unless otherwise stated. Please refer to BNF for further information.
Letters indicate strength of evidence:
A+ = systematic review: D = informal opinion
4
Issued: February 2014
Next Review: February 2015
NHS DUMFRIES AND GALLOWAY
MANAGEMENT OF INFECTION: ANTIBIOTIC GUIDANCE FOR PRIMARY CARE
ILLNESS
COMMENTS
DRUG
DOSE
5
DURATION OF
Tx
URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS (Continued)
Recurrent UTI
in women (≥ 3
infections per
year OR ≥2 in 6
months)
Catheter
Infection
50 mg-100mg
100 mg
1g BD
Stat post coital 2B+, 3C or
od at night 1A+
1st line:
Trimethoprim
200mg BD
7 days
2nd line:
Ciprofloxacin
250mg BD
7 days
1st line:Metronidazole
400mg TID
10 days
2nd line:Vancomycin
125mg QID
10 days
Try simple measures to prevent further
infections, i.e. better hydration, urge
iniated voiding and postcoital voiding if
appropriate, cranberry products
Post coital prophylaxis is as effective as
prophylaxis taken nightly 1.
The use of “standby” antibiotics may be a
useful method of avoiding daily
prophylactic antibiotics in recurrent UTI3B+
Where continued problems exist, consider
renal tract ultrasound and post void bladder
residual volume scan and in new
presentations in post-menopausal women,
also consider referral for cystoscopy
nitrofurantoin
or trimethoprim
or methenamine hippurate
Treat empirically if symptomatic. 60% of
cases are sensitive to trimethoprim.
Asymptomatic colonisation is common and
should not be treated – consider other
inflammatory markers e.g. WBC, CRP.
Change catheter after 24 hours of antibiotic
treatment.
Do not give prophylactic antibiotics to
prevent catheter associated UTI
take cranberry juice
consider the use of standby
trimethoprim or
nitrofurantoin at usual
treatment doses to be taken
at first sign of UTI
symptoms
GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS
Clostridium
Difficile
Stop unnecessary antibiotics and/or PPIs
1,2B+
If ANY severity markers present (Temp
>38.5; WCC >15, creatinine >1.5 x
baseline, albumin<25g/l, ileus, colonic
dilatation), discuss with microbiologist.
Do not give concurrent antimotility agents
For patients who do not respond to 1st line
antibiotic after 5 days treatment, consider
need for admission for IV fluid
replacement and surgical assessment
See Health Protection Network guidance
Gastroenteritis
Traveller’s
diarrhoea
Threadworms
CKS
Recurrencies:Discuss with microbiologist.
Prolonged or pulsed
treatment with vancomycin
or fidaxomycin may be
required
The aim of antibiotic therapy in gastroenteritis is to treat those with invasive Salmonella infection to prevent life-threatening
complications – this can be predicted by those with dysenteric symptoms plus another risk factor such as achlorhydria,
age>65years, immunosuppression, inflammatory bowel disease or vascular disease. Antibiotics increase the risk of haemolytic
uraemic syndrome in E. Coli 0157 and have a small effect on reducing duration in non-life threatening Campylobacter but
where antibiotic treatment is deemed to be indicated, clarithromycin 500mg bd for 7 days is recommended.
Limit prescription of antibacterial to be carried abroad as standby treatment to people travelling to remote areas and for
those in whom an episode of infective diarrhoea could be dangerous 1, 2C. Recommended treatment is azithromycin 500mg
given as a stat dose 3B+ in view of increasing resistance to ciprofloxacin and the C. Diff risk associated with quinolones. In all
cases, this should be supplied via private prescription.
Treat household contacts. Advise morning
shower/baths, hand hygiene and nightime
pants for 2 weeks PLUS wash sleepwear,
bed linen, dust and vacuum on day 1 1C.
2 years: mebendazole
Stat
These simple hygiene measures are the
100mg 1C
preferred treatment option in pregnant
patients. If drug treatment is deemed
3 months to 2 yrs:
Stat, repeat after 2
3 months to 1 yr: 2.5ml
necessary in pregnant patients then it is best
piperazine + senna
weeks
spoonful
st
avoided in the 1 trimester
1yr – 2yrs: 5ml
spoonful
In children aged under 3months, a 6 week
hygiene regimen is recommended 1C
Note: Doses are oral and for adults unless otherwise stated. Please refer to BNF for further information.
Letters indicate strength of evidence:
A+ = systematic review: D = informal opinion
Issued: February 2014
Next Review: February 2015
NHS DUMFRIES AND GALLOWAY
MANAGEMENT OF INFECTION: ANTIBIOTIC GUIDANCE FOR PRIMARY CARE
ILLNESS
COMMENTS
GENITAL TRACT INFECTIONS
DRUG
6
DURATION OF
Tx
DOSE
BASHH
The following guidelines are recommended for further information:
•
•
•
BASHH guidelines
FSRH and BASHH guidelines on management of women of reproductive age attending non-genitourinary setting complaining of vaginal
discharge
West of Scotland Sexual Health MCN guidelines
Acute and
chronic
prostatitis
BASHH
CKS
SIGN 88
Bacterial
vaginosis
BASHH
CKS
HPA
Send MSU for culture and start antibiotics
1C
Quinolones achieve higher prostate levels
however, trimethoprim also achieves good
prostate levels 2. Trimethoprim is
associated with a lower risk of causing C.
Diff infection than quinolones and is
preferred in the treatment of Chronic
Bacterial Prostatis for this reason.
Oral metronidazole is as effective as
topical treatment 1A+ but is cheaper.
Less relapse with 7 day than 2g stat at
4 wks 3A+
Pregnant2A+/breastfeeding: avoid 2g stat
500mg BD
14 days usually however
can give 28 days in
severe illness 3
200mg BD
2nd line
Trimethoprim 1C
200mg BD
14 days usually however
can give 28 days in
severe illness 3
Chronic
Trimethoprim 3
200mg BD 3
4 to 6 weeks 3
400 mg BD
7 days 1A+
5 g applicatorful at night
5 nights 1A+
5 g applicatorful at night
7 nights 1A+
5B+
metronidazole1, 3A+
or
metronidazole
0.75% vag gel 1A+
or
clindamycin 2%
cream1A+
Opportunistically test all sexually active
individuals under 25 years of age
Genital and Pharyngeal
Azithromycin 3A+
1 g stat (use 2 x 500mg)
1 hr before or
2 hrs after food
doxycycline 3A+
100 mg BD
7 days 3A+
Pregnant /
breastfeeding:
Azithromycin 4A+
1g (off-label use)
Stat 4A+
500 mg BD
or 500 mg QDS
14 days 4A+
7 days 4A+
500mg TID
7 days 4A+
100mg BD
7 days
3A+ ,4B-
Treating partners does not reduce relapse
Chlamydia
trachomatis
BASHH
Acute
1st line:
Ciprofloxacin 1C
OR
Ofloxacin
Current partner(s) require treatment and
previous partner(s) require
testing. Assistance is available from
Sexual Health. Patients should be
encouraged to have full STI testing.
Patients should be offered a test of reinfection at 3-12 months or sooner if there
is a change of partner.
Pregnancy1C or breastfeeding:
azithromycin is the most effective
option4 A+; 5BDue to lower cure rate in pregnancy, test
for cure 6 weeks after treatment 2C
or
erythromycin 4A+
or
amoxicillin 4A+
Rectal Chlamydia
Women:
Doxycycline
Men:
Refer to Sexual Health
Note: Doses are oral and for adults unless otherwise stated. Please refer to BNF for further information.
Letters indicate strength of evidence:
A+ = systematic review: D = informal opinion
Issued: February 2014
Next Review: February 2015
NHS DUMFRIES AND GALLOWAY
MANAGEMENT OF INFECTION: ANTIBIOTIC GUIDANCE FOR PRIMARY CARE
ILLNESS
COMMENTS
DRUG
GENITAL TRACT INFECTIONS (Continued)
Epididymoorchitis
BASHH
In men < 35 years old infection likely to
be due to a sexually transmitted pathogen.
Gonorrhoea infection is increasing with a
2-3 fold increase anticipated this year.
BASHH guidelines for gonorrohoea now
recommend the need to provide antibiotic
cover for gonorrhoea unless it can be
actively excluded.
In men >35 years, infection is usually
caused by an enteric organism but sexual
history is essential to assess risk of
gonorrhoea infection.
A painful swollen testicle in an adolescent
boy or a young man should be managed
as torsion until proven otherwise but if an
infective cause cannot be excluded,
antibiotics should be prescribed in
addition to the emergency surgical
referral.
Genital herpes
BASHH
Genital warts
WoS Sexual
Health MCN
guidelines
Podophyllotoxin solution is regarded as
first line because it is more effective than
the cream although the cream is easier to
use and may therefore be a suitable 2nd
line option for those unable to use the
solution effectively.
Imiquimod has lower recurrence rates but
is currently reserved for refractory cases
because it is around 4 times more
expensive than podophyllotoxin solution.
N Gonorrhoea
Pelvic
Inflammatory
Disease
(PID)
BASHH
7
DURATION OF
Tx
DOSE
BASHH
Likely sexually
transmitted pathogen
and gonorrhoea not
excluded:
ceftriaxone
500mg intramuscularly
Likely sexually
transmitted pathogen
and gonorrhoea not
excluded:
Stat dose
100mg BD
14 days
Likely infection due to
enteric organisms:
Ofloxacin
Or
Ciprofloxacin
Likely infection due to
enteric organisms:
200mg BD
Likely infection due to
enteric organisms:
14 days
500mg BD
10 days
Aciclovir
200mg five times a day
5 days
Suppressive therapy in
recurrent disease:
Aciclovir
400mg BD
Up to 1 year – then
assess ongoing need
1st line:Podophyllotoxin 0.5%
soln
Apply BD
2nd line:Podophyllotoxin 0.15%
cream
Apply BD
Podophyllotoxin
soln/cream should be
applied for 3 days
followed by 4 days rest
with this cycle repeated a
total of 4 times.
Refractory cases:
Imiquimod 5% cream
Apply 3 times per week
AND
doxycycline
Likely sexually
transmitted pathogen and
gonorrhoea not excluded:
Use until warts are
visibly cleared or for a
maximum of 16 weeks,
whichever comes first.
Discuss urgently with Sexual Health D&G for recommendations regarding management which includes the latest national advice
on choice of antibiotics. A patient's identity does not have to be released.
Always test for chlamydia & gonorrhoea
2B+
Refer to Sexual Health for partner
notification (current partner as a
minimum needs chlamydia treatment)
If gonorrhoea likely (previous gonorrhoea
infection, known contact of
gonorrhoea, has a male partner who has
sex with men, sex overseas or severe
symptoms) then patient should be
discussed with Gynaecology
1st Line:
metronidazole +
ofloxacin 1, 2, 4B+
400mg BD
400mg BD
14 days
2nd Line:
metronidazole +
doxycycline 1, 2, 4B+
400 mg BD
100 mg BD
14 days
42.9% of gonorrhoea isolates now
resistant to ciprofloxacin 3B+
Note: Doses are oral and for adults unless otherwise stated. Please refer to BNF for further information.
Letters indicate strength of evidence:
A+ = systematic review: D = informal opinion
Issued: February 2014
Next Review: February 2015
NHS DUMFRIES AND GALLOWAY
MANAGEMENT OF INFECTION: ANTIBIOTIC GUIDANCE FOR PRIMARY CARE
ILLNESS
DRUG
COMMENTS
GENITAL TRACT INFECTIONS (Continued)
DURATION OF
Tx
DOSE
BASHH
Syphillis
Refer urgently to Sexual Health D&G
Trichomoniasis
Refer to Sexual Health D&G. Treat
partners simultaneously 1B+
In pregnancy and breastfeeding avoid 2g
single dose metronidazole 2B-
Metronidazole
All topical and oral azoles give 75%
cure.1A+
In pregnancy avoid oral azole.2B- and use
intravaginal treatment for 7 days 2, 3A+, 4B-
Vaginal
candidiasis
8
400mg BD
Or
2g
5 to 7 days
fluconazole
150mg orally
stat
or clotrimazole pessary
500mg pessary
stat
or clotrimazole 10%
cream
5g vaginal cream
stat
or clotrimazole 500mg
pessary + clotrimazole
2% topical cream
Pessary – 1 x 500mg
Topical Cream - apply
sparingly to surrounding
area
stat
2-3 times a day until
resolution of symptoms
Pregnancy:
Clotrimazole 3A+
or miconazole 2% cream
100mg pessary at night
5g intravaginally at night
6 nights
7 nights
flucloxacillin 2C
500 mg QID
7 days
If penicillin allergic:
oral clarithromycin 2C
topical fusidic acid 3B+
250-500 mg BD
TID
7 days
5 days
TID
5 days
Stat
SKIN / SOFT TISSUE INFECTIONS
Impetigo
CKS
For extensive, severe, or bullous impetigo,
use oral antibiotics 1C
Reserve topical antibiotics for very
localised lesions to reduce the risk of
resistance 1,5C, 4B+
Reserve Mupirocin for MRSA.
MRSA only:
mupirocin 3A+
Eczema
CKS
Cellulitis
CKS
Leg ulcers
CKS
HPA
If no visible signs of infection, use of antibiotics (alone or with steroids) encourages resistance and does not improve healing 1B In
eczema with visible signs of infection, use treatment as in impetigo 2C
If patient afebrile and healthy other than
cellulitis, use oral flucloxacillin alone 1,2C
If river or sea water exposure, discuss
with microbiologist.
If febrile and ill, admit for IV treatment 1C
Bacteria will always be present.
Antibiotics do not improve healing
unless active infection1A+ Culture swabs
and antibiotics are only indicated if there
is evidence of clinical infection such as
inflammation/redness/cellulitis; increased
pain; purulent exudate; rapid deterioration
of ulcer or pyrexia 2C. Sampling for
culture requires cleaning then vigorous
curettage and aspiration. Culture swabs
should be sent pre-treatment 3C and
treatment reviewed following culture
results.
flucloxacillin 1,2,3C
500 mg QID
If penicillin allergic:
clarithromycin 1,2,3C
500 mg BD
facial: co-amoxiclav 4C
625mg TID
Flucloxacillin
Penicillin allergic:
Clarithromycin
500mg QID
500mg BD
All for 7 days.
If slow response,
continue for a further 7
days 1C
For 7 days.
If slow response
continue for a further 7
days
Note: Doses are oral and for adults unless otherwise stated. Please refer to BNF for further information.
Letters indicate strength of evidence:
A+ = systematic review: D = informal opinion
Issued: February 2014
Next Review: February 2015
NHS DUMFRIES AND GALLOWAY
MANAGEMENT OF INFECTION: ANTIBIOTIC GUIDANCE FOR PRIMARY CARE
ILLNESS
COMMENTS
DRUG
DOSE
9
DURATION OF
Tx
SKIN / SOFT TISSUE INFECTIONS (Continued)
Animal bite
CKS
Surgical toilet most important 1C.
Assess tetanus and rabies risk 2C.
Antibiotic prophylaxis advised for – puncture
wound; bite involving hand, foot, face, joint,
tendon, ligament; immunocompromised,
diabetics, elderly, asplenic. If bite is from an
animal living in an aquatic environment then
consider adding in ciprofloxacin 500mg bd
to cover pseudomonas infection. For all other
animal bites, contact Consultant
Microbiologist for advice.
Human bite
Antibiotic prophylaxis advised 3B-.
Assess HIV/hepatitis B & C risk 1C
Scabies
CKS
Treat whole body from ear/chin downwards
and under nails. In individuals under 2 yrs of
age and the elderly include the face and
scalp2.Treat all household and sexual contacts
within 24 hours 1C.
Dermatophyte
infection of the
proximal
fingernail or
toenail
CKS
Dermatophyte
infection of the
skin
CKS
Chickenpox
&
Shingles
CKS
Take nail clippings: Start therapy only if
infection is confirmed by laboratory 1C.
Terbinafine is more effectivethan azoles 6A+
Idiosyncratic liver reactions occur only rarely
with oral antifungals 2A+
For children, seek specialist advice 3C
First line animal &
human
prophylaxis and
treatment
co-amoxiclav
If penicillin allergic:
metronidazole PLUS
doxycycline
(animal/human)
or
metronidazole PLUS
clarithromycin
(human)
and review at
24&48hrs7C
permethrin3A+
If allergic to
permethrin:
375mg-625mg TID 4C
7 days
200mg-400mg TID
100mg BD 5C
7 days
7 days
200mg-400mg TID
500mg BD 6C
7 days
7 days
5% cream
2 applications one week
apart for both treatment
options 1C
0.5% aqueous liquid
malathion
Terbinafine 6A+-
250 mg OD
fingers
toes
6 – 12 weeks
3 – 6 months
Pulsed itraconazole monthly is recommended
for infections with candida and nondermatophyte moulds 3B+, 4C
Itraconazole 6A+
200 mg BD
fingers
7 days monthly
2 courses
7 days monthly
3 courses
One week of terbinafine is as effective as 4
weeks azole since it is fungicidal whilst the
azoles are fungistatic 1
Take If candida possible, use imidazole 1
skin scrapings for culture if intractable2C. If
infection confirmed then consider oral
terbinafine or itraconazole 3B+
Discuss scalp infections with specialist.
Topical terbinafine 4A+
OD - BD
1 week4A+
or topical imidazole 4A+
if candia possible
OD - BD
4 – 6 weeks4A+
or (athlete’s foot only):
Topical undecenoates 4B+
BD
4 – 6 weeks 4A+
800 mg 5x/day (Use
dispersible tablets)
7 days 3B+
1 g TID
7 days 10B+
250mg TID
7 days
If pregnant seek urgent specialist advice re
treatment and prophylaxis 1B+
Chicken pox: Immunocompromised patients,
including those on steroids, are considered
high risk and specialist advice should be
sought in these cases.
A low threshold for treatment is advised in all
adults but treatment is especially warranted if
it can be started within 24 hours in asian
patients, obese patients, smokers, secondary
household cases and those with an extensive
rash and/or oral rash 2-4. Treatment should
also be started in these patients beyond 24
hours if they are unwell, febrile and new
lesions are still appearing.
toes
1st line, both indications:
acyclovir 3B+, 5A+
2nd line, shingles only:
Valaciclovir 10B+
Or
Famciclovir 11B+
11B+
Shingles: treat if >50 yrs 5A+ and within 72
hrs of rash 6B+ (PHN rare if <50yrs7B-); or if
active ophthalmic 8B+ or Ramsey Hunt 9C or
eczema, severe pain, severe skin rash or
prolonged prodromal pain.
Note: Doses are oral and for adults unless otherwise stated. Please refer to BNF for further information.
Letters indicate strength of evidence:
A+ = systematic review: D = informal opinion
Issued: February 2014
Next Review: February 2015
NHS DUMFRIES AND GALLOWAY
MANAGEMENT OF INFECTION: ANTIBIOTIC GUIDANCE FOR PRIMARY CARE
ILLNESS
COMMENTS
DRUG
DOSE
10
DURATION
OF Tx
SKIN / SOFT TISSUE INFECTIONS (Continued)
Cold sores
Cold sores resolve after 7–10days without treatment. Topical antivirals applied prodromally reduce duration by 12-24hrs 1,2,3B+,4
MRSA
Colonisation with MRSA is common and
does not require treatment unless there is
active infection.
MRSA infection
Doxycycline
100mg BD
7 days
If severe: 4,5B+,6Bchloramphenicol 0.5% drop
and 1% ointment
2 hourly for 2 days then
4 hourly (whilst awake)
at night
All for 48 hours after
resolution
EYE INFECTIONS
Conjunctivitis
CKS
Treat if severe, as most viral or self-limiting.
Bacterial conjunctivitis is usually unilateral
and also self-limiting;2C it is characterised by
red eye with mucopurulent, not watery,
discharge;
65% resolve on placebo by day five 1A+
Fusidic acid has little Gram-negative activity3
Second line:
fusidic acid 1% gel
Apply BD
Grading of guidance recommendations
The strength of each recommendation is qualified by a letter in parenthesis.
Study design
Recommendation
grade
Good recent systematic review of studies
A+
One or more rigorous studies, not combined
A-
One or more prospective studies
B+
One or more retrospective studies
B-
Formal combination of expert opinion
C
Informal opinion, other information
D
Note: Doses are oral and for adults unless otherwise stated. Please refer to BNF for further information.
Letters indicate strength of evidence:
A+ = systematic review: D = informal opinion
Issued: February 2014
Next Review: February 2015

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