International Society for Medical Shockwave Treatment
13th International Congress
of the ISMST
Hyatt Regency Chicago
151 East Wacker Drive
Chicago, IL 60601- USA
… … … … … … … … … … … … … …..
June 24th-26th, 2010
9731 AT Groningen
+31 (0)50 549 22 06
+31(0)50 201 11 74
(1)Home training, local corticosteroid injection, or radial
shock wave therapy for greater trochanter pain
Jan D. Rompe, Neil Segal, Angelo Cacchio, John Furia,
Antonio Morral, Nicola Maffulli
Department of Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation, University of Iowa, Iowa City,
Department of Physical medicine and Rehabilitation, "La Sapienza" School
of Medicine, Rome, Italy
SUN Orthopaedics, Lewisburg, PA, USA
Centre de Fisioteràpia Salut i Esport (Sta. Perpètua), EUIFN Blanquerna,
Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Barts and the London School of
Medicine and Dentistry, London, Great Britain
Introduction: There are no controlled studies testing the efficacy of various
nonoperative strategies for treatment of greater trochanter pain syndrome.
The null hypothesis was that local corticosteroid injection, home training,
and repetitive low-energy shock wave therapy produce equivalent outcomes
4 months from baseline.
Methods: Two hundred twenty-nine patients with refractory unilateral
greater trochanter pain syndrome were assigned sequentially to a home
training program, a single local corticosteroid injection (25 mg
prednisolone), or a repetitive low-energy radial shock wave treatment.
Subjects underwent outcome assessments at baseline and at 1, 4, and 15
months. Primary outcome measures were degree of recovery, measured on
a 6-point Likert scale (subjects with rating completely recovered or much
improved were rated as treatment success), and severity of pain over the
past week (0-10 points) at 4-month follow-up.
Results: One month from baseline, results after corticosteroid injection
(success rate, 75%; pain rating, 2.2 points) were significantly better than
those after home training (7%; 5.9 points) or shock wave therapy (13%; 5.6
points). Regarding treatment success at 4 months, radial shock wave
therapy led to significantly better results (68%; 3.1 points) than did home
training (41%; 5.2 points) and corticosteroid injection (51%; 4.5 points). The
null hypothesis was rejected. Fifteen months from baseline, radial shock
wave therapy (74%; 2.4 points) and home training (80%; 2.7 points) were
significantly more successful than was corticosteroid injection (48%; 5.3
Discussion: The significant short-term superiority of a single corticosteroid
injection over home training and shock wave therapy declined after 1
month. Both corticosteroid injection and home training were significantly
less successful than was shock wave therapy at 4-month follow-up.
Corticosteroid injection was significantly less successful than was home
training or shock wave therapy at 15-month follow-up.
Conclusion: The role of corticosteroid injection for greater trochanter pain
syndrome needs to be reconsidered. Subjects should be properly informed
about the advantages and disadvantages of the treatment options, including
the economic burden.
Device and producing company: EMS Dolorclast
(2)No effect of extracorporeal shockwave therapy in
jumping athletes with patellar tendinopathy; a
randomized controlled trial
Johannes Zwerver (1), Inge van den Akker-Scheek (1),
Fred Hartgens (2), Henk van de Worp (1), Evert Verhagen
Ron Diercks (1)
1 Center for Sports Medicine, University Center for Sport, Exercise and
University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700 RB Groningen,
2 Maastricht University Medical Center, Research school CAPHRI,
Departments of Epidemiology and Surgery, PO Box 616, 6200 MD
Maastricht, The Netherlands
3 Department of Public and Occupational Health, The EMGO Institute for
Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Van der
Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Introduction: Patellar tendinopathy is a major problem for many athletes,
especially those involved in jumping activities. Despite its frequency and
negative impact on athletic careers, no evidence-based guidelines for
management of this overuse injury exist. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy
(ESWT) appears to be a promising treatment in patients with chronic
patellar tendinopathy. ESWT is most often applied after other conservative
treatments have failed. However, its effectiveness as primary therapy has
not been studied in athletes who keep playing sports despite having patellar
tendon pain. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of
ESWT in athletes with patellar tendinopathy who are still in training and
Methods: The TOPGAME-study (acronym of Tendinopathy Of Patella
Groningen Amsterdam Maastricht ESWT) is a multicenter two armed
randomized controlled trial with blinded participants and outcome
assessors. Volleyball, handball and basketball players with symptoms of
patellar tendinopathy for a minimum of 3 to a maximum duration of 12
months who were still able to train and compete were included. After
establishing a clinical diagnosis they were randomly allocated to either an
ESWT (treatment) or placebo group. The ESWT group received 3 patient
guided piezoelectric focused medium energy density ESWT treatments
without local anesthesia at a weekly interval in the first half of the
competition. The placebo group received sham-ESWT treatment using the
same equipment and procedure. No restrictions with regard to sport
participation and concurrent medical treatment were given. The follow-up
measurements took place 1, 12 and 22 weeks after the final ESWT or
placebo treatment, when athletes were still in competition. Primary outcome
measure was the VISA-P score, a symptom based questionnaire specifically
designed for patellar tendinopathy. During the follow-up period participants
also registered pain, symptoms, sports participation, side effects of
treatment and additional medical consumption in an internet based diary.
Results: Out of 113 athletes who volunteered, 62 met the inclusion criteria
and were randomized to either the ESWT (n = 31) or placebo group (n = 31).
Duration of symptoms was comparable in both groups, 7.3 ± 3.6 and 8.1 ±
3.8 months respectively. The mean VISA-P scores before and at 1, 12 and 22
weeks after treatment are summarized in table 1. There was a significant
effect for time (p
Discussion: There was no effect of this ESWT treatment protocol on the
course of symptomatic patellar tendinopathy in jumping athletes who
continued to train and compete during and after the treatment period.
Device and producing company: Piezowave, Wolf
(3)ESWT treatment protocols for jumper’s knee: a
Henk Van der Worp, Hans Zwerver, Inge van den AkkerScheek
Center for Sports Medicine, University Center for Sport, Exercise and
Health, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9700 RB
Groningen, The Netherlands
Introduction: A recent review by the authors concluded that ESWT
(Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy) is a promising treatment for jumper’s
knee (patellar tendinopathy). It was also concluded that based on the
current knowledge it is impossible to recommend a specific treatment
protocol. This raises the question of what treatment protocols are used in
practice to treat jumper’s knee with ESWT.
Methods: A cross-sectional study using an online-questionnaire among
ISMST-members concerning the treatment of jumper’s knee with ESWT. The
questionnaire consisted sections about 1) respondent characteristics, 2)
used shockwave device 3) treatment protocol and 4) treatment results.
Descriptive statistics of the results of the questionnaire will be obtained.
Results: The survey is currently taking place. Results are expected in
March/April 2010 and will be analyzed before the ISMST-congress takes
place. Preliminary results of a similar questionnaire within the Netherlands
showed a lot of variation between therapists in ESWT treatment protocols
for jumper’s knee.
Discussion: The results of the questionnaire will be compared with existing
Conclusion: No conclusions can be drawn yet.
(4)Shockwave treatment for chronic patellar
tendinopathy of the knee
Re-Wen Wu, Ching-Jen Wang, Jih-Yang Ko
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital /
Kaohsiung Medical Center, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsing, Kaohsiung,
Introduction: Patellar tendinopathy (Jumper’s knee) is a common
orthopedic problem characterized by pain and inflammation below, and less
commonly above the patella. The etiologies of patellar tendinopathy are
multi-factorial including overuse injuries, trauma and surgery.
Methods: 50 patients (54 knees) were included in this study. The source of
shockwave was from an OssaTron (Sanuwave). In study group, each knee
received 1500 impulses of shockwave at 14 Kv under no anesthesia. The
location was focused with the laser control guide of the device and the
depth by ultrasound guide.
Results: There were 27 patients (30 knees) in study group and 23 patients
(24 knees) in control group. There were significant improvements of VAS
pain scores, VISA scores, ROM of knee and functional improvement in
Discussion: Chronic patellar tendinopathy manifested as mucoid and
chondroid degeneration and formation of plump tenocytes and increased
fibroblastic and myofibroblastic cells and absent inflammatory cells. The
exact mechanism of extracorporeal shockwave remains unknown. In this
study, ultrasonographic examinations showed significant increase in the
vascularity of the patellar tendon and a trend of decrease of the tendon
thickness after shockwave treatment. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe
that extracorporeal shockwave relieved pain by hyper-stimulation analgesia,
improvement in blood supply and promotion of tissue regeneration in
chronic patellar tendinopathy.
Conclusion: Extracorporeal shockwave is more effective than conventional
conservative treatments for patients with chronic patellar tendinopathy.
Shockwave treatment is effective and safe for chronic patellar tendinopathy
with negligible complications.
Device and producing company: OssaTron (Sanuwave, Inc.)
(5)Efficiency of shockwave treatment for pain reduction
in the shoulder
Erich Georgi 1, Thomas Georgi 2
Institution: 1 Trauma Hospital of Graz, Austria; 2 Medical University of Graz,
Introduction: From 2006 – 2009, shockwave therapy was performed in the
Trauma Hospital of Graz on patients with pain in the shoulder. Patient
complaints were pain when raising the arm higher than 60° and pain during
the night with trouble of continuous sleep. The aim of this study was to
evaluate the rate of success and to detect any hints for predictable success
of this treatment.
Methods: Patients suffering from tendinitis of the rotator cuff tendon (n=42)
with or without calcification were treated. 86% patients (n=36) were
available for follow up. Shockwaves were applied using an Orthowave 180
shockwave machine. Each patient received 2000 - 2500 impulses under
Results: Post treatment evaluation included measurement of ROM and
additional assessment of the patients condition. Therefore we created four
categories ranging from success to impairment. 64% showed complete
success with pain relief ranging from immediate to 4 months after
treatment. 11% of patients continued to have painful restrictions but nightly
pain attacks disappeared. No improvement could be achieved in 25%. These
patients ultimately underwent surgery after additional treatment. Impairment
of the situation was not observed in any subject.
Discussion: Although we received a high rate of success (75%), we could
not find any parameters which can predict the success of the treatment.
Conclusion: In summery, the collected data on this topic explicitly proves
that shockwave therapy can substitute surgery. Due to pain relief, the
quality of life can be improved.
Device and producing company: Orthowave 180, MTS Europe
(6)Increasing the efficieny of RSWT, by optimizing the
differential diagnostic strategy by means of a
standardized orthopaedic assessment form.
Steven L.H. De Coninck
Institution: European Teaching Group of Orthopaedic Medicine (ETGOM)
Lepelemstraat 4, B 8421 De Haan
Introduction: The efficient use of RSWT automatically implies we first reach
an accurate and valid diagnosis. The more focused the diagnosis, the better
we can incorporate RSWT locally. This might be the biggest problem facing
therapists. It is not always easy to reach a valid and useful diagnosis with
patients who suffer from soft tissue lesions of the musculoskeletal system.
By relying on medical imaging, we have to take into account a serious
number of false positive and false negative images. Therefore it is probably
more reliable to focus on a relevant functional examination first. For that
purpose, ETGOM developed standardized Orthopaedic Assessment Forms
(OAF) for different joints. In this article I would like to put emphasis on the
diagnostic implications of the shoulder examination procedure and the
differential diagnosis between various inert and contractile lesions.
Methods: The OAF needs to be practical in use and has to give an
immediate and clear overview of the positive findings in the total
examination process. Each OAF has a standardized structure and consists
of several basic sections:
• Specific and general history
• Basic and accessory functional examination
• Clinical reasoning strategy
• Treatment strategy
Depending on the specific answers the patient gives during the history and
the overview of different positive and negative tests one can reach a
conclusion in a more reliable and efficient way. This optimizes the
indication-area for RSWT.
In the abstract the clinical implications of each section are explored. In the
oral powerpoint presentation we focus on the specific differential diagnosis
between inert and contractile lesions and its implications for RSWT.
Results: This OAF allows one to reach a more objective and accurate
diagnosis, automatically increasing the therapeutic strategy. It also
stimulates standardization in the diagnostic process.
Discussion: One needs to have a basic knowledge of examination and
clinical reasoning procedures in orthopaedic medicine in order to fully
appreciate the advantage of using an OAF.
Conclusion: According to a study of Pellechia et al., the shoulder
examination procedure is very reliable (kappa factor 0.87). In order to
complete the total assessment procedure one needs only about 10 minutes.
This I call the “ten minute investment of the first session”. This procedure
will not only allow us to make e.g. the clinical distinction between
contractile and inert lesions, but we will also be able to further differentiate
the diagnosis such as if it is a contractile and/or inert lesion, which
structure are we talking about, where in this structure lies the lesion ?
This clinical reasoning process is a valuable extra tool to optimize the
indication area and thus efficiency of our RSWT treatment strategy.
Device and producing company: Shockmaster 500 - Gymna-Uniphy
(7)Effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on
postoperative rotator cuff tendon healing--Preliminary
results of a prospective study
Sergio Russo (1), S. Russo (1), A. Cozzolino (1),
G. Della Rotonda (1), E. Astarita (1), A. Carretta (1),
M. Ciccarelli†, R. Russo†
(1) Orthopaedic Department of the University Hospital “Federico II” of
(†) Orthopaedic Department of the “Pellegrini” Hospital of Naples, Italy
Introduction: Rotator cuff tendon re-tears are frequent and caused by a lack
of cellular response to the surgical repair linked to the healing process and
to the quality of tissue, more than to the repair technique. Several solutions
were proposed to stimulate the tendon healing to reduce rotator cuff repair
The effects of ESWT on rotator cuff tendinopathy have been largely
discussed. Different studies show its effects on the improvement of tendon
healing process. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and
structural effects of ESWT on patients who have undergone a rotator cuff
Methods: Patients were recruited at the time of surgery according to
specific inclusion criteria. The surgical procedure was performed with a
variable number of double loaded suture anchors according to the size of
the lesion (min 1, max 4). After the surgical procedure, patients were
immobilized for 6 weeks in abduction-neutral rotation or in adductioninternal rotation. 1 week after surgery patients started the treatment: 4
applications with power between 0.15mJ/mm2 and 0.3mJ/mm2. Total
number of impulses: 12000 for a total of applied energy ranging between 60
and 90 J. A Duolith (Storz) device was used.
Results: The clinical results have been evaluated with a Costant score
performed the day before surgery, at 1, 3 and 6 month and at one year.
Structural results were evaluated by ultrasound.
Discussion: Patients treated with ESWT showed an improved clinical
outcome after the surgical repair.
Conclusion: The initial clinical data seem to confirm a better outcome with
respect to the control group values.
Device and producing company: Storz Medical A.G.
(8)Monitoring cavitations during shockwave therapy
Michael Chang 1, Marla Paun 2, Tom Matula 2
Institution: 1 Physical Medicine Institute, Bellevue, WA 98005, USA
2 Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington , Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Introduction: Shear stress and cavitations are physical effects induced by
positive and negative shockwave pressures, respectively. Cavitations are
known cause of tissue injury in shockwave lithotripsy (SWL). In shockwave
therapy (SWT), cavitations may play an important role in bringing desirable
biological responses, such as angiogenesis, disintegrating dystrophic
calcifications or disrupting bacteria biofilms. Therefore, monitoring and
controlling of in-vivo cavitations are important to SWT outcomes.
Methods: Real-time cavitations were searched/recorded using B-mode cine
loops and continuous video capture with ultrasonographic device, HD 11XE.
L12-3 or C5-2 transducer, which generally orientated
perpendicular/transverse to SWT axis, was used for recording. SWT include
OssaTron for Achilles tendinosis/enthesopathy and hip heterotopic
ossifications; D-Actor for plantar fasciitis, tennis elbow, Achilles
tendinosis/enthesopathy, and shoulder supraspinatus/subscapularis
Results: Cavitations are usually observed after few thousand shocks and
can be anywhere within shockwave fields, but tend to scatter around soft
tissue-bone surface. Appearance of cavitations is especially consistent
using high-energy focused shockwave device, OssaTron. Cavitations are
much less obvious using low-energy unfocused shockwave device, D-Actor.
Cavitations are usually less obvious in tendon/ligament than in muscle.
Higher shockwave PRF (4 or 5 Hz) at later stage of SWT usually show more
persistent and wider spread cavitations.
Discussion: Cavitations are likely first observed within part of the tissue
where there is abundant fluid, such as in renal pelvis (urine) or within
vessels (blood). Cavitations may interact with subsequent shockwaves and
cause blood vessel wall damage, which results in leaking/pooling of blood
in local interstitial space. This hematoma may seed more persistent and
wider spread tissue cavitations.
Conclusion: Prevalence of cavitations seems to depend on
characteristics/location of the tissue, shockwave device (pressure
waveforms), PRF and stage of the SWT.Device and producing company:
OssaTron (SanuWave), D-Actor 100 (Storz Medical), HD 11XE (Philips
(9)Changes in connexine expression of cardiomyozytes
after in vitro shock wave treatment
Johannes Holfeld 1, Barbara Kapeller 2, Can Tepeköylü
1, Fabian Hack 1, Barbara Thometich 2, Julia Dumfarth 1,
Daniel Zimpfer 1, Wolfgang Schaden 3, Michael Grimm 1,
Karin Macfelda 2
Institution: 1 Dept. of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Medical University of Vienna,
2 Core Unit for Biomedical Research, Medical University of Vienna, Austria
3 AUVA Trauma Center Meidling, Vienna, Austria
Introduction: Recently shock wave therapy (SWT) at low energy levels is
well known to effect tissue regeneration in ischemic myocardium. However,
the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown.
Methods: Primary cell cultures of endothelial cells and fibroblasts were
established from native rat hearts. Additionally H9C2-cardiomyocytes
(American Type Culture Collection) were used. A thermostatically controlled
water bath was designed to avoid distracting physical effects. Adherent
cells in common cell culture flasks fully filled with culture medium were
dunked into the water bath. Unfocused SWT at an energy flux density of
0.15 mJ/mm2 were applied with an frequency of 5 Hz. Non-treated cells were
used as controls. Several analyses of immunohistochemistry and molecular
biology were performed.
Results: SWT causes significant changes in expression of connexines
Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45 in cardiomyozytes. The expression of connexines is
largely disproportionate in differentiated and normal cells. Changes in
metabolic and electrical coupling of cardiomyozytes may cause
considerable effects onto the myocardium.
Discussion: Gap junctions are water-filled pores formed by the docking of
two hemi-channels (connexons), contributed by each of the adjoining cells.
Gap junctions are responsible for direct exchange of small hydrophilic
molecules and ions between neighboring cells. Therein metabolites and
messengers such as sodium, potassium, calcium, cAMP/cGMP, ADP/ATP
and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate are included. This results in metabolic and
electrical coupling of cells. Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45 are expressed between
cardiomyocytes. Changes in their expression cause alteration of cell
Conclusion: SWT causes significant changes in connexine expression of
cardiomyozytes. The expression of connexines is largely disproportionate
in differentiated and normal cells. This alteration of cell communication may
at least be part of the tissue regenerative effect mediated by SWT in
Device and producing company: DermaGold CP-155 (Tissue Regeneration
Technologies, LLC, Woodstock, USA manufactured by MTS Europe GmbH,
(10)Growth promoting effect of ESWT on primary
cultured human tenocytes
Maria Chiara Vulpiani, Mario Vetrano, Vincenzo Visco,
Federica D’Alessandro, Maria Rosaria Torrisi, Andrea
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Unit, Department of Experimental
Medicine and Pathology, Orthopaedic Unit and Kirk Kilgour Sports Injury
Center, Sapienza University School of Medicine, Sant’Andrea Hospital,
Introduction: Extracorporeal Shock-Wave Therapy (ESWT) is currently used
to treat musculoskeletal disorders and ESWT stimulation has been
previously analyzed on cell lines or animal culture systems.
Methods: In order to investigate the effects of exposure to a range of energy
levels (0.08, 0.14 and 0.17 mJ/mm2) and impulses (500 and 1000) of ESWT which are known to provide clinical benefits, we have used primary cultures
of human tenocytes (HT) harvested from tendon of semitendinosus muscle
during arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction. According
to the results obtained by the MTT (tetrazolium) colorimetric assay, we have
selected the dose of 0.14 mJ/mm2 at the amount of 1000 impulses, which
represents a good compromise between the in vitro cell viability (>80%) and
the clinical benefits.
Results: The cytoskeleton organization analyzed by staining for the
intermediate filament component vimentin and the overall cell morphology
were not affected by different doses and times of culture (24 and 48 hours
after treatment) utilized in our model. Furthermore, immunofluorescence
microscopy for the proliferation marker Ki67 showed a significant (p
Discussion: This effect can be important during tendon healing and repair,
when active proliferation is required.
Conclusion: We believe our results are the first to demonstrate a growth
promoting effect of ESWT on primary cultured human tenocytes, at the dose
selected for both experimental and clinical efficacy.
Device and producing company: Modulith® SLK, Storz Medical AG
(11)Bactericidal effect of extracorporeal shock waves on
an in vitro biofilm implant infection model
Scott McClure (1), Matthew M. Madron (1), Ronald Griffith
(2), Chong Wong (3)
Institution: Iowa State University, Ames, IA:
1) Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences,
2) Dpt. of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventative Medicine
3) Dpt. of Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary
Medicine and the Department of Statistics, College of Liberal Arts and
Introduction: It has been shown that shockwaves can be bactericidal to
organisms in suspension. We hypothesize that shockwaves will be
bactericidal to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis organisms
in biofilm on cortical bone screws.
Methods: Screws were monocultured with either E. coli or S. epidermidis for
to form a biofilm. The screws with biofilm were treated with shockwaves at
an EFD of 0.15 mJ/mm2 for 250, 500, 1000 or 2000 pulses. The 2000 pulse
groups were also treated with the screws parallel or perpendicular to the
shockwave. Untreated controls and shockwave treated screws were
sonicated to disrupt any remaining biofilm then bacterial plate counts
performed. Plate count data were log transformed and a mixed effects
model with treatment as a fixed effect and run as a random effect was used.
Pairwise comparisons were performed with Tukey-Cramer’s adjustment.
Results: There was a significant increase in plate counts from nonsonicated
to sonicated (P = 0.0091). There as a significant (P = 0.0445) increase in
plate counts between the sonicated Staph. biofilms and the 2000 pulse
perpendicular treated Staph. biofilms.
Discussion: We did see a significant increase in bacterial counts following
sonication, so it is confirmed the bacteria were free from the biofilm for
counting. While there was no bactericidal effect, it would appear that the
shock waves did further disrupt the bioflim because plate counts increased.
Direct bactericidal effects of shockwaves on biofilms will require further
evaluations with higher energy levels.
Conclusion: In this model, shockwaves were not bactericidal.
Device and producing company: Equitron, PulseVet, Alpharetta Georgia
(12)Extracorporeal pulse activation on the mitochondrial
function and nitric oxide release in LPS-treated
Roger Lyon (1), XueCheng Liu (1), JiangZ An (2),
Joseph Schwab (1)
Institution: 1) Dept. orthopaedic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin,
2) Children's Research Institution, Medical College of Wisconsin
Introduction: The efficacy and mechanism of the extracorporeal pulse
activation treatment (EPAT) on the in-vitro chondrocytes remain unclear.
Our current study is 1) to investigate how different dosages of EPAT affect
the oxygen consumption and viability for lipopolysaccharides (LPS) treated
chondrocytes, 2) to compare biological responses between EPAT treated
and non-EPAT treated in-vitro LPS-treated chondrocytes.
Methods: Human chondrocyte cell line was maintained in an incubator at
37°C and 5% CO2. The chondrocytes were cultured in 24-well culture plates
containing LPS (200 µg/ml) at a density of 1.3 x 105 cells/well under nutrition
deprived culture condition (no serum). Cells were divided into two groups
for the EPAT treatment (Duolith SD1®, CuraMedix Inc., MA). The EPAT
group consisted of three subgroups in which cells received low (0.1
mJ/mm2, 4.0Hz, and 2000 impulse), middle (0.25 mJ/mm2) and high doses
(0.55 mJ/mm2), respectively. The cells in the Control group did not receive
EPAT. After 24 hours EPAT, mitochondrial O2 consumption, cell viability,
and cytokine IL-1ȕ were measured.
Results: The Control group presented with larger areas having apparent
chondrocyte apoptosis. Following EPAT, both low and middle power
subgroups displayed significant improvements of cell viability, while cell
morphology deteriorated in the high EPAT subgroup. EPAT significantly
decreased oxygen consumption in all three EPAT subgroups (P
Discussion: Middle dose EPAT significantly decreased cell apoptosis, and
oxygen consumption, indicative of an improved physiological impact on
mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) activity.
Conclusion: EPAT may provide a new approach to treating chondral defects
such as osteochondritis dissecans and inflammatory joint conditions.
Device and producing company: Duolith SD1®, CuraMedix Inc., MA
(13)The effects of extracorporeal shockwave on
subchondral bone and articular cartilage of the knee in
Ching-Jen Wang, Lin-Hsiu Weng, Yi-Chih Sun, Jih-Yang
Ya-Ju Yang, Feng-Sheng Wang
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
Chang Gung Memorial Hospital / Kaohsiung Medical Center
123 Ta-Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsing
Kaohsiung, Taiwan 833
Introduction: This study evaluated the effects of extracorporeal shockwave
technology (ESWT) on subchondral bone and articular cartilage of the knee
Methods: Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into
three groups, the control, ACLT (anterior cruciate ligament transected) and
ACLT plus ESWT groups. The control group received neither surgery nor
shockwave. The ACLT group underwent ACL resection of the knee. The
ACLT plus ESWT group underwent ACL excision and received ESWT after
surgery. The evaluations included radiograph, bone mineral density, blood
and urine assessments, bone strength, histomorphological examination and
Results: The ACLT group showed significant increases in cartilage
degradation (CTX-II, COMP, Mankin score and Safranin O stain); decreases
in angiogenesis (vWF and VEGF), osteogenesis (BMP-2, osteocalcin), bone
mass and bone strength as compared to the control group and the ACLT
plus ESWT group (P
Discussion: Subchondral bone remodeling plays an important role in the
pathogenesis of OA. Both pharmaco-therapy with alendronate and physical
shockwave are shown disease-modifying effects in OA knee in rats. These
findings suggest a new insight that the management of OA should initially
focus on the subchondral bone rather than the articular cartilage.
Conclusion: ESWT shows chondroprotective effect in ACLT knee model in
Device and producing company: OssaTron orthotriptor (High Medical
Technology, Kruealigen, Switzerland. Sanuwave, Alpharetta, GA, U.S.A.)
(14)In vitro shock wave treatment – How to apply shock
waves onto cells
Johannes Holfeld 1, Fabian Hack 1, Can Tepeköylü 1,
Julia Dumfarth 1, Daniel Zimpfer 1, Wolfgang Schaden 2,
Michael Grimm 1
Institution: 1 Dept. of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Medical University of Vienna,
2 AUVA Trauma Center Meidling, Vienna, Austria
Introduction: Literature reveals very diverse methods of in vitro shock wave
treatment (IVSWT). Most research groups use different methods of applying
shock waves onto cells. Some of them are associated with distinct
limitations, especially distracting physical effects. In particular, reflections
can cause negative pressure onto the cells and interference with upcoming
Methods: The proposed in-vitro model consists of a plexiglass built water
bath. It is filled with degassed water to avoid cavitation, a heater at the
bottom with a temperature sensor connected to a control unit enables
regulation of temperature for imitation of in-vivo conditions. The distance
between the target tube and the shock wave applicator can be varied. An
absorber is mounted to the back of the water bath to avoid reflection.
Results: The IVSWT water bath is a recommendable and useful tool for
applying shock waves onto cells. It thereby avoids distracting physical
effects that may change the shock waves functionality. The proposed model
enables perfect reproducibility to in vitro results.
Discussion: The distinct difference in the impedance of culture medium and
the ambient air causes reflection of shock waves when applied to cell
cultures. Reflection itself causes negative pressure onto the cells and is
also disturbing upcoming waves by interference.
Conclusion: Since results of equal cells treated in different ways are not
comparable, establishing a standardized model for future in-vitro trials is
needed. The proposed model of a thermostatically controlled water bath
may enhance intergroup communication, which could help everyone
working on IVSWT to learn more about the shock waves’ mechanism by
being able to compare the results.
Device and producing company: IVSWT water bath produced by
Hohenegger Technical Products ([email protected])
(15)Long-term ultrasonographic evaluation of the
effectiveness of extracorporeal pulse activated treatment
(EPAT) on chronic recalcitrant plantar fasciitis
Robert Gordon, Charles Wong, Eric Crawford
Introduction: Plantar fasciitis is the most common etiology of inferior heel
pain, and is estimated to account for eleven to fifteen percent of all foot
symptoms requiring professional care. Most patients (90%) recover
naturally over time or with conservative treatment which may include ice,
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), ultrasound treatment, or
massage. Surgical treatment, typically endoscopic plantar fasciotomy, is
often recommended for individuals resistive to conservative treatment, but
evidence of the effectiveness of these invasive techniques are largely
unfavourable. Clinical trials have now demonstrated the effectiveness of
EPAT on chronic recalcitrant plantar fasciitis as an alternative to surgery.
The vast majority of the available literature have thus far relied upon
subjective outcome measures (pain score) which are low in validity,
reliability and responsiveness. The purpose of this study is, 1) to show the
effectiveness of EPAT in treating plantar fasciitis using ultrasonographic
measurement as an objective outcome measure, and 2) to observe the longterm effect of EPAT.
Methods: Patients were recruited retrospectively at a university-affiliated
orthopaedic practice. Inclusion into the study required a medical diagnosis
of chronic recalcitrant plantar fasciitis for at least one year, having failed
traditional treatment modalities including orthotics, physiotherapy, NSAIDs
and local steroid injections. Patients who had undergone surgery of the heel
were excluded. A minimum washout period of six months was applied to
any patient who had received NSAIDs or local steroid injections. Patients
must have also had baseline ultrasonographic analyses of both heels before
shockwave therapy was administered. A follow-up ultrasound was
requested of all patients after at least one year post-treatment. Informed
consent was obtained from each patient, and ethical approval was granted
by the William Osler Health Centre Research Ethics Board.
Ultrasonographic analyses of both heels were performed by a blinded
ultrasound technician to measure the thickness of the plantar fascia at the
[site of measurement]. Where available, patient-assessed pain evaluation on
a visual analogue scale from 0 to 10 with 10 being the greatest possible
pain, and 0 being no pain) was also obtained. Patients were not informed of
their previous self-ratings in subsequent ratings.
Patients then received standard EPAT treatment of three sessions at one
week intervals (2000 pulses, 2.6 barr). Treatment was patient-guide,
targeting the point of maximal tenderness. Anaesthetic was not
Results: Fifty-five feet (41 patients) were found to have met the inclusion
criteria. All 55 feet had ultrasound-measured plantar fascia thickness prior
to treatment and at follow-up (at least 12 months post-treatment). The
average pre-treatment thickness pre-treatment was 7.37± 1.88 mm, and
post-treatment was 6.20±1.42. This represents an average change of 1.17±1.44 mm (p<0.001). Average length of follow-up was 27.5±11.8 months,
ranging from 12 to 54 months. No association was found between change in
plantar fascia thickness and length of follow-up. For all unilaterally afflicted
patients, plantar fascia thickness actually increased slightly, on average
(from 5.20±1.46mm to 5.47±1.65mm); however, this change was not
statistically significant (P=0.183). Of the total patient group, 34 feet had VAS
pain intensity ratings both before and after treatment. Pain score “at rest”
decreased from 7.0 ± 2.9 mm to 0.7 ± 1.5 mm (P<0.001). Pain score “in
activity” decreased from 8.5 ± 1.9 mm to 1.4 ± 2.0 mm (P<0.001). Overall,
clinical success (60% decrease in pain) was achieved for 90.9 % and 85.3%
of patients, with regard to pain intensity at rest and in activity, respectively.
No association was found between change in plantar fascia thickness and
change in pain intensity at rest or with activity. A median split was
performed with respect to pre-treatment ultrasound measured plantar fascia
Discussion: There have been excellent blinded randomised controlled
studies showing the effectiveness of radial shockwave on the treatment of
plantar fasciitis. The ultrasonographic assessment as shown by Wall et al
also demonstrated that a plantar fascial thickness greater than 4.5 mm is
indicative of plantar fasciitis.
The results of this study indicate two parameters. That after a minimum of
1 yr follow-up the plantar fascia thickness decreases in size towards a more
normal measurement. Moreover 90.9% of patients had at least a 60%
decrease in pain with rest and 85.3% with activity. The average length of
follow up was 27 months.
EPAT can be safely recommended for the treatment of plantar fasciitis
whereby both the thickness of the plantar fascia decreases and pain scores
are significantly reduced over time.
Conclusion: EPAT significantly reduces the objective measurement of
plantar fascia thickness in symptomatic patients and improves pain in
patients affected with plantar fasciitis.
Name of device and producing company: Storz Medical Instruments
(16)Successful treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis with
two sessions of radial extracorporeal shock wave
Mahmoud Ibrahim, Robert Donatelli, Christoph Schmitz,
Madeleine Hellman, Frederick Buxbaum
Institution: Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions, USA
Introduction: Radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (RSWT®) has been
previously demonstrated as an efficient treatment option for chronic plantar
fasciitis (PF) when administered in three sessions, each two weeks apart.
The present study tested the hypothesis that chronic PF can also be treated
with RSWT when only two treatment sessions are performed one week
Methods: A total of n=50 patients with unilateral, chronic PF were randomly
assigned to either RSWT (n=25) or placebo treatment (n=25). RSWT was
applied in two sessions one week apart (2,000 impulses per session).
Placebo treatment was performed with a clasp on the heel. Endpoints were
changes in the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score and the modified Roles &
Maudsley score from baseline to four weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks
Results: Mean VAS scores were reduced after RSWT from 8.52 ± 0.34 (mean
± SEM) at baseline to 0.64 ± 1.52 at 4 weeks, 1.08 ± 0.28 at 12 weeks and 0.52
± 0.14 at 24 weeks after treatment. Similar changes were found for mean RM
scores after RSWT but were not observed after placebo treatment.
Statistical analysis demonstrated that RSWT resulted in significantly
reduced mean VAS scores and mean RM scores at all followup intervals
compared to placebo treatment (each with p
Discussion: The results of the present study demonstrate that RSWT for
chronic PF resulted in profound and lasting reduction in pain as well as
improvement of the patients’ quality of life, with short-term treatment
success of 92% and long-term treatment success of 100% compared to only
4% short-term and 16% long-term treatment success in the group of
patients treated with placebo.
Conclusion: RSWT is efficient in the treatment of chronic PF even when
only two sessions with 2,000 impulses each are performed one week apart.
Device and producing company: EMS Swiss Dolorclast® (EMS Electro
Medical Systems Corporation; Dallas, TX, USA)
(17)ESWT for the treatment of plantar fasciitis: A nineyear follow-up
Lowell Weil Jr, Kelly Ann Malinoski, Lowell Scott Weil,
Anthony Borrelli, Wendy Benton-Weil
Institution: Weil Foot & Ankle Institute, Des Plaines, IL, USA
Introduction: ESWT for the treatment of plantar fasciitis is a well accepted
treatment alternative world wide. ESWT has been studied and early and
midterm results have shown successful with a variety of orthopedic
disorders including plantar fasciitis. However, there have been very few
long term studies that have assessed how patients have done beyond their
first several years post treatment. We present patient satisfaction eight
years subsequent to having been treated for plantar fasciitis with ESWT at
the Weil Foot & Ankle Institute.
Methods: The number of patients with plantar fasciitis treated with ESWT in
2001-2002 was identified using retrospective chart review (N=197).
A 10-item paper pencil retrospective survey was mailed to each patient and
was used to document level of function, pain, patient satisfaction, level of
improvement, time necessary to resume regular activities, and
Descriptive statistics were used to examine the distribution for all key
variables. For categorical variables (i.e., level of satisfaction, level of
function, and etc..), frequency counts were calculated. For continuous
variables (i.e., level of improvement, level of pain), measures of central
tendency and dispersion were calculated. Additional analyses included
cross tabulation and correlations of key variables to further understand the
data. SAS version 9.1 was used for all analyses.
Results: Of the 197 patients identified for inclusion in the study, 75 patients
returned the survey (38.1%).
65 patients (87.84%) reported moderate to high satisfaction with ESWT.
Of those patients, 58 reported high satisfaction. For those patients, the
percentage of improvement in heel pain was 96.4% (SD=6.16) with an
average pain rating of 0.77 (SD=1.10) after the procedure.
Of the 63 patients (87.50%) able to return to regular activities after ESWT,
the amount of time was 3.44 weeks and average pain rating after the
procedure was 1.21.
There was a significant negative correlation between percentage of
improvement in heel pain and average pain rating after the procedure (r=0.801, pl rupture reported.
Discussion: ESWT has been shown to be highly effective in treating
numerous musculoskeletal conditions, including chronic plantar fasciitis, in
patients as early as three months following treatment. To date, there have
been no studies evaluating these patients beyond five years.
Conclusion: We have evaluated a limited number of patients,
retrospectively, who were an average of nine-years post-ESWT treatment of
plantar fasciitis. Our early results have continued to be beneficial and
satisfying to the great majority of patients
Device and producing company: Orbasone; Orthometrix
(18)The effectiveness of radial extracorporeal shock
wave therapy for patients with chronic plantar fasciitis:
Randomized controlled trial
Ahmed Zaky Hussein, Mahmoud Ibrahim, Robert
Health Check Centers, Brooklyn, NY, USA
Introduction: Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain, affecting 10%
of the general population. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) has
been recommended as treatment for chronic plantar fasciitis in patients
unresponsive to conservative treatment. The primary goal of this study was
to determine the effectiveness of radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy
compared with placebo in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis.
Methods: A randomized, blinded, controlled study with two groups of
subjects each was proposed. 104 patients (104 heels), including 52 patients
(52 heels) in the shockwave treatment group and 52 patients (52 heels) in
the control group. All patients had been suffering from plantar fasciitis for at
least 6 months. Pre-treatment measurements included a visual analog pain
scale (VAS) and the modified Roles and Maudsley scale. In the shockwave
group, Therapy was applied twice within a one week interval, 2000 impulses
at an air pressure of 3.5 bars and frequency of 8 Hz were given at each
sitting. The patients in the placebo group received treatment with the clasp
on the heel. ESWT was performed without local anaesthesia. At the fourth
week, the subjects again completed a VAS and the modified Roles and
Maudsley score (R&M).
Results: At 4 weeks, there was a mean VAS decrease of 6.56 (79.7%) for the
experimental group; there was a mean decrease of 2.94 (32.5%) for the
control group. There was a statistically significant ANOVA group by time
interaction indicating that the experimental group had a greater decrease in
pain when compared to the control group p ease in quality of life when
compared with the control group p
Discussion: Extracorporeal shock wave therapy has a statistically
significant decrease in pain scores than placebo for patients with plantar
fasciitis. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy has a statistically significant
increase in functional outcome (better quality of life) than placebo on
patients with plantar fasciitis.
Conclusion: Radial Shock wave therapy is effective and safe for the
treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis.
Device and producing company: EMS
(19)Plantar stretching vs. radial SWT for acute plantar
Jan D., Rompe, Angelo Cacchio, Joachim Haist, Volker
Reiners, John Furia, Christoph Schmitz, Lowell Weil Jr.,
Nicola Maffulli OrthoTrauma Evaluation Center, Mainz,
Introduction: To evaluate the effectiveness of repetitive plantar fasciaspecific stretching (PFSS) or of repetitive low-energy radial shock wave
therapy (RSWT) for patients with a previously untreated monolateral plantar
fasciopathy (PF) of up to six-week duration.
Methods: 102 patients with an acute PF were randomly assigned to perform
an eight-week PFSS program (Group I, n=54) or to receive repetitive lowenergy RSWT without local anesthesia, given weekly for three weeks (Group
II, n=48). All patients completed the pain subscale of the Foot Function
Index and a subject-relevant outcome questionnaire (SROM) including
generic and condition-specific outcome measures related to pain, function,
and satisfaction with treatment outcome. Patients were evaluated at
baseline, and at two, four, and fifteen months from baseline. Calculations
were based on intention-to-treat.
Results: No difference (age gender, duration or symptoms) was found
between the groups at baseline (all p > 0.1). At two months, and at four
months from baseline, the pain subscale scores of the Foot function Index
showed significantly better results for the patients managed with PFSS, with
respect to all seven items, including worst pain (p= 0.002), pain at first steps
in the morning (p= 0.004), and walking barefoot (p= 0.001). Analysis of the
response rates to the SROM questionnaire also revealed significant
differences in favor of Group I, with respect to pain, activity limitations, and
patient satisfaction at two and four months from baseline (p > 0.001). At 15
months from baseline, there was no significant between-group difference.
Discussion: A program of non-weight-bearing stretching exercises specific
to the plantar fascia is superior to repetitive low-energy radial shock wave
therapy for the treatment of acute symptoms of proximal plantar
Conclusion: Radial SWT is ineffective in acute PF.Germany
Device and producing company: StorzMedical Duolith SD1
(20)Focused shock wave therapy in chronic plantar heel
pain--A randomized placebo controlled trial
Ludger Gerdesmeyer, Hans W Gollwitzer, Amol Saxena,
Louis Galli, Lawrence Didomenico, Richard T Bouche
MedBaltic, Dept. Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology, Kiel, Germany
Introduction: To determine the long time efficacy of extracorporeal shock
wave therapy on chronic plantar heel pain a prospective randomized multi
center trial was performed.
Methods: A total of 250 patients were enrolled and assigned to ESWT or
identical placebo. 2000 treatment-impulses were applied at 0.25 mJ/mm2
without local anesthesia. 3 ESWT sessions were done with 2 weeks in
between. The primary Criteria were: Heel pain when taking the first steps
and during daily activities. Second criteria were local pain on pressure,
Roles and Maudsley-Score and SF-36. The end point was 12 months after
last ESWT. The study was performed in accordance to GCP guidelines.
Results: 12 month after ESWT success was observed in all criteria’s. The
rate difference in all items after ESWT were statistically significant better in
favor of the ESWT treatment. Regarding the change of pain score after
ESWT the VAS composite score decrease from 8.3 at baseline down to 2.7
after ESWT, compared to 5.31 after identical placebo after 3 month. 12
month after ESWT th VAS score droped down to 0.8. The percent change
was '69% after ESWT and '34% after placebo. The same outcome was found
in all secondary criteria as well. The a priori ordered hypotheses of the final
statistical analysis plan was statistically significant (P
Discussion: The long term results show further improvement up to 12
month. Placebo improved as well and but the difference remains significant
in favor to the active group. Bio feed back localizing technique seems to be
Conclusion: The focused shock wave therapy is effective and safe in
treatment of chronic heel pain. Excellent outcome was found after 3 and 12
month. The effect size reached clinical relevance without relevant side
Device and producing company: Storz Duolith
(21)Retrospective ESWT studies
Dornier Epos Ultra- a group submission
David Harris Zuckerman, Denise Ashcraft(USA)
Introduction: This is a retrospective study of over 800 tendopathy cases
involving the upper and lower extremity.
Methods: Use of the dornier epos ultra for plantar fasciosis, Achilles
tendinosis, Tennis Elbow
Results: Results showed that the use of ESWT with the dornier epos ultra
was safe and effective method for tendopathy treatment.
Discussion: Outcomes were discussed using direct patient surveys.
Conclusion: ESWT is safe and effective treatment modality for upper and
lower extremity tendon pathology.Device and producing company: Dornier
(22) Topaz, radiofrequency Coblation for the treatment of
chronic plantar fasciitis;
A randomized, double blind study
Lowell Scott Weil,Sr, Lowell Weil,Jr, Robert Fridman, Wendy
Benton-Weil, Anthony Borrelli, Gregory Amarantos (USA)
Institution: Weil Foot & Ankle Institute
Introduction: The use of plasma ablation microtenotomy is becoming well
established for treating chronic tendinopathy in the elbow and shoulder.
Recently, this technology has been applied to the treatment of chronic foot
and ankle pathology as well, including plantar fasciosis, Achilles and
posterior tibial tendinosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the
effectiveness of plasma RF-based fasciotomy for relieving pain associated
with recalcitrant plantar fasciosis and, secondarily, to determine whether
additional benefits, such as reduced incidence of postoperative
complications and improved function, were observed compared to
conventional surgical fasciotomy.
Methods: Patients with chronic, refractory plantar fasciosis treated
unsuccessfully using conservative care measures and whose next step was
surgery were approached to participate in the study. Random assignment
into surgical group (fasciotomy or microtenotomy) took place during the
surgery; both patients and the physicians conducting the follow-up
examinations were blinded to treatment. The intention is to follow patients
for up to 2 years post-procedure; this is an interim analysis conducted at 6
months. Clinical evaluation measures included ankle-hindfoot index score,
visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score, SF-36 quality of life assessment,
Roles and Maudsley score, and patient satisfaction.
Results:: Pain associated with the surgical incision was the most important
and commonly observed significant clinical event. Both surgical groups
demonstrated significantly improved AHI and Roles and Maudsley scores
and significantly reduced pain scores. Function and pain scores did not
differ significantly between treatment groups. Quality of life (SF-36) scores
were also statistically similar for both surgical groups; both groups
demonstrated significantly improved quality of life scores post-operatively.
The proportion of patients satisfied with each surgical procedure at 3 and 6
months post-operatively was 80%.
Conclusion: Micro-fasciotomy performed using plasma ablation appears to
provide equally successful clinical results as plantar fasciotomy. As an
added benefit, this procedure is fascia sparing and therefore may be
associated with less long-term morbidity.
Device and producing company: Arthrocare Sports Medicine
(23)Recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells after
direct epicardial shock wave treatment of ischemic heart
failure in rats
Johannes Holfeld 1, Daniel Zimpfer 1, Raphael Rosenhek
2, Anita Thomas 3, Patrick Paulus 3, Julia Dumfarth 1,
Seyedhossein Aharinejad 3,
Wolfgang Schaden 4, Michael Grimm 1
Institution: 1 Dept. of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Medical University of Vienna,
2 Dept. of Cardiology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria
3 Laboratory for Cardiovascular Research, Medical University of Vienna,
4 AUVA Trauma Center Meidling, Vienna, Austria
Introduction: Shock wave therapy (SWT) reportedly improves ventricular
function by enhancing angiogenesis in ischemic myocardium. We
hypothesized that recruitment of Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPC) may
therein be involved.
Methods: Adult Sprague Dawley rats were subdivided in 3 groups: shamoperated (sham), infarcted myocardium with epicardial SWT (SWT group)
and infarcted myocardium without epicardial SWT (control). Four weeks
following myocardial infarction (MI), SWT (100 impulses at 0.15 mJ/m²) was
applied directly to the infarcted region in the SWT-group, control animals
were left untreated. Cardiac function was evaluated using
echocardiography. Angiogenesis was evaluated by analysis of several RNA
and protein expressions.
Results: Fourteen weeks after epicardial SWT, left ventricular function
improved in the SWT-group as compared to 4 weeks after MI and as
compared to the controls. Quantitative histology revealed more vital cells
and more endothelial cells in the SWT group.
SDF-1 and its receptor CXCR-4 were both upregulated in the treatment
group as shown by immunohistochemistry. FACS analysis of peripheral
blood showed significantly more circulating EPCs in the treatment group.
Discussion: It is well known that SWT causes neo-vascularization. The
chemoattractant SDF-1 is responsible for recruitment and homing of EPCs.
We found high numbers of circulating EPCs in peripheral blood of the
treatment group after direct epicardial SWT. At the same time SDF-1 and its
receptor CXCR-4 were upregulated in the myocardium. These findings
indicate that one of the main mechanisms of SWT may be recruitment of
vessel forming cells.
Conclusion: Direct epicardial shock wave therapy induces neovascularisation in an experimental model of ischemic heart failure in rats.
Thereby high numbers of circulating endothelial progenitor cells can be
found in peripheral blood. Therefore, one of SWT’s main mechanism may be
recruitment of vessel forming cells.
Device and producing company: CardioGold® CG050 (CRT - Cardiac
Regeneration Technologies, Woodstock, USA / manufactured by MTSEurope GmbH, Konstanz, Germany)
(24)Comparison of the effects of human mesenchymal
stem cells cultured into osteoblasts by extracorporeal
shock waves and dexamethasone
Baijing An, Xing Gengyan
Institution: Department of Orthopedics General Hospital of Chinese
Peoples’ Armed Polices Forces, Beijing 100039,China
Introduction: To observe the effects of extracorporeal shock waves
therapy(ESWT) and dexamethasone on the differentiation of human
mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)
Methods: Bone marrow was collected and isolated the hMSCs from ten
healthy volunteers and then cultured the hMSCs with 10% FBS. The hMSCs
were then inducted into osteoblast. The cells induced were compared with
ALP quantitative assay, ALP staining ,alizarin red staining and RT-PCR of
the osteogenic gene expression
Results: In cell differentiation, the two groups have significant differences in
ALP quantitative assay, ALP staining, alizarin red staining and osteogenic
gene expression. ESWT is superior to dexamethasone.
Discussion: ESWT through a variety of cytokines and mechanical
stimulation to promote stem cells to differentiate into osteoblasts, which
have more advantages than the dexamethasone.
Conclusion: ESWT and dexamethasone were compared and the ESWT is
more favorable to promote osteoblastic differentiation of hMSCs.
(25)Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells by
extracorporeal shock waves
Joerg Hausdorf, Susanne Mayer, Tolga Goeren, Birte
Sievers, Volkmar Jansson
Institution: Orthopaedic Department, Ludwig-Maximilians-University,
Introduction: The delayed healing or nonunion of bone is a common
problem as it occurs in 5 - 10 % of all fractures. Hypertrophic non-unions
need only to be stabilized and they will usually unite. But the treatment of
the aseptic, atrophic nonunion is a clinically relevant problem, because of
its biological inactivity. The current treatment is accompanied by an
extended surgical procedure including resection of necrotic bone and bone
grafting and therefore causing a large amount of stress, hospitalization and
a prolonged work disability for the patient. Extracorporeal Shockwave
Therapy (ESWT) is a possible non-invasive treatment, as recent clinical
trials show. In basic research the application of extracorporeal shock waves
has been shown to enhance new bone formation in healthy bone. Target
cells are fibroblasts, osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells in the bone
marrow. Therefore we investigated whether extracorporeal shock waves
may differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into an osteoblastic lineage.
Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells were cultured and treated by shock
waves with 15 and 25 kV. Supernatant was investigated by ELISA for bone
markers. Also expression of bone markers like cbfa1, collagen1 and ALP
was examined by lightcycler. Histology was performed by a v. Kossa
Results: In the group of 15 kV marked elevations in the expression of bone
markers cbfa1, collagen1 and ALP were found. Histology showed a positive
v. Kossa stain for the treated cells. ELISA did show only slight changes in
the production of bone markers.
Discussion: The results reveal new insights in the mechanism of bone
healing by extracorporeal shock waves. Until now, many authors have
shown the production of bone growth factors by osteoblasts or fibroblasts,
whether this leads to a differentiation or direct mechanical effects on the
stem cells has to be clarified in the future.
Conclusion: Extracorporeal shock wave treatment of mesenchymal stem
cells shows in vitro signs of a differentiation into an osteoblastic lineage.
This may contribute to the healing of non unions.
Device and producing company: XL 1, Dornier
(26)Stem and progenitor cells in shock wave science
Low energy shock waves are well known to induce tissue regenerative
effects. Clinical findings in the treatment of several kinds of skin lesions
suggest that there is not only wound healing but some kind of repair
process involved. In some cases, tissue integrity and functionality could be
completely restored. Besides the involvement of interleukins, growth
factors and a suppression of the acute pro-inflammatory response (leading
to a repair mechanism that is close to fetal wound repair), there is some
evidence in the literature that even recruitment of progenitor cells may be
involved. This and findings of wound healing with hardly any or even
without scar tissue suggest that the shock wave induced effects may, in
fact, be closer to fetal regeneration than to adult wound repair.
At least in part the tissue regenerative effect of shock waves may be
explained by recruitment of progenitor cells. This has already been shown
in some basic research studies, including our own findings of endothelial
progenitor cells (EPCs) migrating into infarcted myocardium after direct
epicardial shock wave treatment in rats. Release of a chemoattractant for
recruitment and homing of stem/ progenitor cells in the treated tissue was
Findings of other groups show that pre-treatment with ESWT of ischemic
limbs enhances migration of systemically injected EPCs into the target area.
ESWT therefore seems to be a potent adjunct to all kinds of cell therapies.
However, the question remains whether subsequent injection of stem or
progenitor cells following ESWT is necessary.
Numerous studies showed the potential of ESWT on stem and progenitor
cells in vitro. Findings include the promotion of differentiation as well as an
increase of proliferation of the cultured cells.
An important point of interest therefore remains whether progenitor cells
can be recruited and stem cells can be positively influenced by shock
waves. ESWT may have a systemic effect when treating these cell types at
their origin, e.g. bone marrow. If this hypothesis would work, ESWT would
no longer be limited to the area of injury or disease. For example, treating
bone marrow to heal stroke as released stem/ progenitor cells would
migrate to the brain and could be a major target of future research.
Contact: [email protected]
Friday, June 25
(27)Shockwave therapy response on
Paolo Buselli 1, Sara Messina 2,Valeria Coco 3,Vincenzo
1 Spinal Unit Department, Hospital of Valtellina and Valchiavenna, Sondrio,
2 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, IRCCS Policlinico
San Matteo, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
3 Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Center, Acireale, Catania, Italy
4 Casa di Cura Madre Fortunata Toniolo, Bologna, Italy
Introduction: ParaOstheoArthropathies (POA) are frequent in post-coma or
spinal injury. The incidences are around 10%. POA reduce Range of Motion
(ROM), patient autonomy and increase medical complications.
Methods: From April 1997 to December 2009, 41 patients with 45 POA
suffering from Heterotopic Ossification (HO) at the hip were treated with
shock-wave (ESWT) therapy and an associated intensive rehabilitation
program immediately after ESWT.
Results: 45 POA were evaluated one and three months after the treatment.
For the patients treated less than 12 months after the injury, with
biochemical signs of active process, we noted an improvement of the ROM
in 87,5 % of cases; in patients treated more than 18 months after the injury,
without biochemical signs of active process, we noted an improvement of
the ROM in only 49% of cases. Only a partial reduction of the ossification
was observed in the X-ray images, 3 months after treatment, despite
patients showing signs of functional improvement after therapy.
Discussion: The different response between precocious and belated
treatment is probably related to the evolution of connective tissues in HO.
The particular X-ray response on the ossificated tissue depends on the
specific osteogenic characteristic of HO compared to tendinopathy
calcification with different histological structure.
Conclusion: According to our results, we propose treating POA as soon as
ROM reduction and associated X-ray imaging becomes evident. These
encouraging results push us to continue these treatments, associated to
rehabilitation, and will allow us to clarify better the therapeutic approach
and the tissue response in POA.
Device and producing company: Ossatron OSA 140, Evotron - HMT s.r.l.
(28)Shockwave therapy for mature heterotopic
ossifications – A case report
Michael Chang 1, Tom Matula 2
Institution: 1 Physical Medicine Institute, Bellevue, WA 98005, USA
2 Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington , Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Introduction: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the formation of lamellar bone
in soft tissue, commonly seen among patients with burns, orthopedic
fractures/procedures, brain/spinal cord injuries, muscle contusions and rare
hereditary disorders. Patients with HO often experience functional disability
due to joint limitations. Reduction of HO preventively and for treatment has
been attempted, but with limited success. Encouraging recent HO outcomes
using shockwave therapy (SWT) have been presented but with unclear
Methods: 46 yo male recovered from traumatic brain injury 4 years earlier
but functionally limited by hip and elbow contracture due to mature
heterotopic ossifications. 3D fine-cut CT angiography and dynamic
ultrasonography were investigated for SWT planning. Etidronate was
started at 1mg/Kg/d before, during and after two separate SWT sessions for
each joint. Using fluoroscopic/ultrasonographic guidance to focus on the
HO, shockwave energy of OssaTron was ramped to 20 kV (1Hz), then 20-21
kV (4 Hz) for the elbow (7-8000); to 24-26 kV (1Hz), then 24-26 kV (4Hz) for
the hip (7000). Vascular and nervous systems across shockwave focus were
Results: SWT for HO was well tolerated. 35 and 55-degree flexion/extension
range of motion were gained in hip and elbow, respectively. Functional
improvements noted in gait, standing and upper limb use.
Discussion: Physical mechanisms such as spallation, cavitation, squeezing,
super-focusing, fatigue and layer separation have all been proposed for
shockwave lithotripsy. These mechanisms may well apply to HO. Biological
responses, such as controlled inflammation, neovascularization, and
modification of soft tissue matrix may also contribute to favorable
Conclusion: SWT provides a safe and efficacious therapeutic option for
Device and producing company: OssaTron (SanuWave)
(29)Shock waves in the treatment of post-traumatic
Sara Messina (1), Paolo Buselli (2), Valeria Coco (3),
Angela Notarnicola (4), Biagio Moretti (4)
1) Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, IRCCS Policlinico
San Matteo, University of Pavia, Italy
2) Department of Spinal Unit, Hospital of Valtellina and Valchiavenna,
3) Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Center, Acireale, Catania, Italy
4) Department of Clinical Methodology and Surgical Techniques,
Orthopedics Section, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery of University of Bari,
Introduction: Myositis Ossificans traumatica (MO) occurs after blunt trauma
to muscle tissue. Patients experience tenderness and swelling at the site of
injury and symptoms are generally unresponsive to one week of rest. The
traditional therapeutic approach relies on a variety of treatments, such as
physical therapy but evidence of their proven clinical efficacy is lacking.
The aim of this clinical study is to assess the efficacy of extracorporeal
shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of MO.
Methods: We illustrate a case series of 24 sportsmen with post-traumatic
MO. After treatments with rest, ice, pharmacological therapies and daily
physiotherapy, without any improvement, we administered three sessions
of ESWT. Evaluations were made before treatment and 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12
months after treatment, and consisted of clinical and functional assessment
and X-ray evaluation.
Results: Only a partial reduction of the ossification was observed in the Xray images but all the patients showed signs of functional improvement
immediately after therapy. Two months after the therapy, a normal range of
motion and no signs of weakness were observed. Three months after
treatment, 87.5% of patients resumed regular sports activities.
Discussion: Our clinical findings demonstrate that ESWT treatment
improved the trophic changes of the damaged muscle tissue and induced a
statistically significant functional recovery. The results of the current
clinical experience reveal that when ESWT were associated to
physiotherapy, the management of MO became efficacious.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that ESWT offers an interesting therapeutic
opportunity for restoring the physiologic conditions of muscle extensibility
in post-traumatic MO, associated to traditional rehabilitation.
Device and producing company: Ossatron OSA 140, Evotron - HMT s.r.l.
(30)Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in osteonecrosis
of the talus
Geng-Yan Xing, Zhan Shi
Department of Orthopedics, The General Hospital of the Chinese People's
Armed Police Forces, Beijing, China
Introduction: Osteonecrosis of the talus is an often tragic and devastating
bone disease. It has always been a surgical challenge because the talus is
hidden by its anatomic location and lead to complications. Consequently,
there is interest in developing an effective nonsurgical technique for
treating osteonecrosis of the talus.
Methods: We treated six patients with three sessions of 2000 impulses of
shockwaves each, at 0.14~0.16 mJ/mm of energy flux density with two days
intervals between treatment using EMS Swiss Dolorclast ESWT generator
(produced by EMS company Switzerland) and followed them up for two
years. They were examined clinically and radiographically, and the clinical
data were obtained at the time of presentation and at the most recent followup examination.
Results: Our results showed improvement in pain, function over a sixmonth period. At one year after ESWT, their symptoms were markedly
relieved and no complications were observed. The MRI also showed that the
low-signal-intensity segment in the talar dome was reduced and the
articular surface was clearer than before.
Discussion: Shock waves induce hyperstimulation analgesia by increasing
the threshold of pain and promote bone-healing as a result of microfracture.
It is reasonable to believe that physical shockwaves provide analgesic
effect and may alter the pathophysiology of osteonecrosis of the talus by
altering the vascularity of the affected parts of the talus and improvement in
blood supply and restoration of talus affected by osteonecrosis processes.
Conclusion: We suggest that this favorable result may be due to the
beneficial effects of ESWT.
Device and producing company: Swiss DolorClast, EMS
(31)Extracorporeal shock wave therapy combined with
autograft of bone mesenchymal stem cells treatment of
osteonecrosis of the femoral head
Geng-Yan Xing, Zhan Shi
Department of Orthopedics, The General Hospital of the Chinese People's
Armed Police Forces, Beijing, China
Introduction: Extracorporeal shockwave treatment has been shown effective
in early osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Since osteonecrosis
may be a disease of mesenchymal cells or bone cells, the possibility has
been raised that bone marrow containing osteogenic precursors implanted
into a necrotic lesion of the femoral head may be of benefit in the treatment
of this condition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of
ESWT combined with autograft of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs)
Methods: We studied 92 patients (108 hips) with stage-I or II osteonecrosis
of the femoral head, according to the system of the ARCO. The hips were
allocated to a program of either ESWT (the control group) or ESWT and
implantation of BMSCs (the BMSCs group). Each subject received threesessions of ESWT. The primary outcomes studied were safety, clinical
symptoms, and disease progression.
Results: After 12 months, significant improvement in the mean Harris hip
score and decreases on the proportion of MRI low signal region were noted
at both groups. When compared with the control group, BMSCs group was
found to have better results, especially in stage II . Moreover, five hips in the
control group had deteriorated to stage III, whereas only one hip in the
BMSCs group had progressed to this stage.
Discussion: This method decreased the pain and other joint symptoms
caused by the osteonecrosis and delayed the progression of the disease
preventing collapse during the 12 month follow-up period. Long-term
results are needed to confirm the efficacy of this novel treatment for ONFH.
Conclusion: ESWT combined with autograft of BMSCs appears to be a safe
and effective treatment for early stages of ONFH.
Device and producing company: HKSW-O (produced by Shenzhen Huikang
(32)Shock wave therapy verses intramedullary screw
fixation for nonunion of the proximal fifth metatarsal
metaphyseal diaphyseal (Jones) fracture
John Patrick Furia 1, Paul J. Juliano 2, Allison M. Wade
2, Wolfgang Schaden 3, Rainer Mittermayr 4
Institution:1. SUN Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, 2. Chief Foot and
Ankle Division, Dep. of Orthopedics, 3 AUVA Trauma Center Meidling,
Ausstria, 4 Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical
1090 Vienna, Austria
Introduction: The current “gold standard” for treatment of chronic fracture
nonunion of the fifth metatarsal metaphyseal diaphyseal region is
intramedullary screw fixation (ISF). Complications with this procedure,
however, are not uncommon. Shock wave therapy (SWT) can be an effective
treatment for fracture nonunions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate
the safety and efficacy of SWT as a treatment for fracture nonunions of the
fifth metatarsal metaphyseal diaphyseal region.
Methods: Twenty-three patients with a fracture nonunion of the fifth
metatarsal metaphyseal diaphyseal region received high-energy SWT (SWT
Group; 2000 to 4000 shocks; energy flux density per pulse, 0.35mJ/mm2).
Twenty patients with a fracture nonunion of the fifth metatarsal metaphyseal
diaphyseal region were treated with ISF. Evaluation was by determination of
the number of fractures healed at 3 and 6 months post-treatment and by
incidence of complications.
Results: 20/23 nonunions in the SWT group and 18/20 nonunions in the ISF
group were healed 3 months post-treatment. 21/23 nonunions in the SWT
group and 18/20 nonunions in the ISF group were healed 6 months posttreatment. There was one complication in the SWT group ( one case of posttreatment petechiae) and 11 complications in the ISF group ( 1 refracture, 1
cellulitis, and 9 cases of symptomatic hardware).
Discussion: The present study evaluated the effects of SWT on a series of
patients with a nonunion of a proximal fifth metatarsal metaphyseal
diaphyseal fracture who had not responded to nonoperative management.
The outcome for the entire population was evaluated and compared to a
group of similar patients treated with ISF. Unlike prior studies, and one of
the strengths of this trial, the patient groups were homogenous.
Eight-seven percent (20/23) of the SWT fractures and 90% (18/20) of the ISF
fractures were healed 3 months post-treatment; 91% (21/23) of the SWT
fractures and 90% (18/20) of the ISF fractures were healed 6 months posttreatment. SWT was well tolerated and yielded only one complication. ISF
yielded 11 complications including 9 cases of symptomatic hardware that
required a second surgical procedure and one refracture that required
Conclusion: Both ISF and SWT are effective treatments for fracture
nonunions of the fifth metatarsal metaphyseal diaphyseal region. ISF is
associated with complications that frequently result in additional surgery.
Device and producing company: OssaTron® device (High Medical
Technologies, Lengwil, Switzerland);Orthowave 280® device (MTS,
(33)Focused low energy ESWT for treatment of bony
spur and pain condition in disabled double amputee
Hannes Mueller-Ehrenberg, Helmut G. Neuland
Orthopedic Practice Muenster, Germany
Introduction: Painful condition due to bony spur and trigger points after a
calf amputation is not a rare complication. Very often a surgical revisionary
operation is offered, to remove the bony spur, but success not consistent.
Methods: A disabled athlete double amputee ( Sport class T44) with bony
spur at the amputation was treated four times at the bony structure and the
trigger points in the remaining calf muscle
Results: After four sessions of focused low energy ESWT the patient was
back to full training and qualified for The World Championships, where he (
6 months later ) won 1 Gold and 2 Silver medals.
Discussion: The successful treatment of bony structures such as
pseudarthrosis by ESWT is well known. This case report shows that painful
conditions due to a bony spur can be treated successfully with ESWT.
Conclusion: Focused low energy ESWT is a good alternative for treating
bony spurs and pain conditions after amputation in disabled athletes.
Device and producing company: Piezoson 100 plus, Wolf
(34)Shockwave therapy in the management of complex
regional pain syndrome in medial femoral condyle of the
Biagio Moretti, Angela Notarnicola, Lorenzo Moretti,
Antonio Panella, Silvio Patella
Institution: Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Bari, General
Hospital, Piazza G. Cesare, 11, 70124, Bari, Italy
Introduction: The aim of this prospective study was to assess the efficacy of
shockwave (SW) therapy in the management of complex regional pain
Methods: In this study, 30 patients (pts) who were affected by CRPS of the
medial femoral condyle and unresponsive to previous standard
physiotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment underwent 3 SW sessions
at 72-hour intervals, each consisting of 4000 shocks emitted by a MiniLith
SL1 Storz electromagnetic generator. An Energy Flux Density (EFD) of 0.035
or 0.09 mJ/mm2 was used, depending on how well the patient endured the
pain during the treatment.
Results: Satisfactory results were observed in 76.7% of the cases (23 pts) at
the 2-month follow-up (FU) visit, and in 80% (24 pts) at the 6-month FU visit.
Discussion: The CRPS is triggered by pain following trauma, which leads to
capillary vasospasm causing edema of the spongious bone due to the
lymph stasis and localized osteopenia that results from the reduced blood
flow. It is recognized that SW treatment is able to bring about immediate
pain relief due to desensitization of the local nociceptive fibers and the
release of substance P. The early clinical efficacy in the treatment of
osteonecrosis of the head of the femur is largely dependent on this effect.
Conclusion: The therapeutic effects of SW were caused by decreasing pain.
The significant improvements we obtained bear witness to the potential
value of SW therapy in the management of CRPS.
(35)Watching a Walt Disney video before shock wave
therapy reduces procedure related pain: A randomized
Antonio Morral (1), Jan D. Rompe (2), Reme Ruiz (1),
Lluis Costa (1), Mariano Fernández-Fairen (1), Bibiana
1 Salut i Esport Rehabilitation Center. Santa Perpètua de Mogoda.
Facultat de Ciències de la Salut Blanquerna, Universitat Ramon Llull,
2 OrthoTrauma Evaluation Center. Mainz. Germany
Introduction: Shock wave therapy is an effective, safe and non-invasive
therapeutic option for some chronic tendinopathies. Shock wave therapy is
designed as a local anesthetic-free procedure. However, it is sometimes
perceived as an uncomfortable and painful procedure by the patients. Pain
experience is related significantly to the context of the treatment (prior
information, consequences, hope, fear, distraction, trust, setting, treatment
purpose, etc ...)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of adding metaphoric
information (Walt Disney video) to our usual pre-procedural information in
alleviating procedure related pain.
Methods: There were 40 patients with chronic tendinopathies, of which 22
were men and 18 women. The ages ranged from 26 to 65 years, with a mean
age of 52 years. The pathology distribution was: 24 patients with plantar
fasciopathy, 5 with lateral epicondylopathy, 4 with greater trochanter pain
syndrome, 3 with shoulder impingement syndrome, 2 with achilles
tendinopathy, and 2 with patellar tendinopathy. The 40 patients were divided
in two groups using a computerized random-number generator. A video
group of 20 patients that watched the video and a Non-Video Group of 20
patients that did not. All patients received the same prior information about
the pathology and effect of shock wave therapy. But one group received the
information with video support and another group without. The video was a
9 minute musical segment taken from Fantasia (Firebird. Fantasia 2000 Walt
Disney. Music: Igor Stravinsky.) The video was a metaphoric representation
of pain and tissues regeneration with shock wave therapy.
Procedure variables: Device used: Swiss DolorClast (EMS-Switzerland).
Number of impulses: 2000. Frequency: 8 Hz. Energy flux density: the
maximum tolerated by the patient; between 0.10mJ/mm² and 0.18mJ/mm².
The patients rated pain associated with the procedure according to a 100mm visual analog scale (VAS). Pain was assessed by a blinded evaluator.
The evaluation was performed immediately after procedure. The t-test for
independent samples was used for statistical analyses. In terms of baseline
characteristics, there were no statistically significant differences between
the two groups
Results: There were significant differences between the video and nonvideo group. The mean VAS score was 42 mm (SD: 2,1) in video group
versus 68 mm (SD: 1,6) in non-video group. (p .15 mJ/mm² (SD: 0,03) in the
video group versus 0.12 mJ/mm² (SD: 0,03) in non- video group. (p = 0.001).
Discussion: Local anesthetics inhibit the release of substance P and CGRP
from the nociceptive nerve endings. It could be for this reason that local
anesthesia applied prior to treatment reduced the efficiency of shock wave
therapy. Pain is a complex experience and it is not only the activation of
nociceptive neurons. Sensory information from the peripheral neurons
needs to be evaluated by the central nervous system. The evaluation of
sensory information is extremely comprehensive. It involves complex
memory, reasoning and emotional processes. The context and central
mechanisms can influence pain perception. Two questions emerge:
1. Can these central mechanisms influence the release of neuropeptides
from primary sensory nerve terminals?
2. Would it affect the clinical results either positively or negatively?
Basic research & further large randomized controlled studies are necessary
to support the results of our clinical trial.
Conclusion: Watching a Walt Disney video before shock wave therapy is a
simple, inexpensive and effective way of reducing the pain associated with
a shock wave application. We propose the use of metaphoric information
about pain and tissue regeneration prior to using shock wave therapy to
reduce the pain associated with a shock wave application.
Device and producing company: Swiss DolorClast (EMS-
(36)Neurophysiological monitoring during shockwave
therapy for elbow heterotopic ossifications
Michael Chang, Tom Matula
Institution: Physical Medicine Institute, Bellevue, WA 98005, USA
Introduction: There’s increasing concern over potential neurological injury
during shockwave therapy (SWT), especially if neurovascular bundles are
close to target tissues. A clinical case is presented for neurophysiological
monitoring during two SWT sessions for elbow heterotopic ossifications
Methods: Peripheral nerves/vasculatures near the HO were traced using
electrodiagnostic inching and ultrasonographic/duplex techniques. Using
fluoroscopic/ulrasonographic guidance to target the HO, shockwave energy
of OssaTron was ramped to 20 kV (1Hz), then to 20-21 kV (4Hz) for
cumulative 7-8000 shocks. Real-time eletromyography (EMG) were
monitored with electrodes on abductor digiti minimi/first dorsal
interosseous (ulnar), abductor pollicis brevis (median) and extensor indicis
(radial) muscles. With nerves stimulated supra-maximally proximal to SWT
region, compound muscle action potential (CMAP) of ulnar, median and
radial nerves were closely monitored before SWT, and at each 2000 shock.
Results: Increased EMG response to shockwaves noted as SWT proceed. In
one occasion, there’s transient loss of median CMAP, which recovered after
SWT focus readjusted. Noticeable CMAP amplitude reduction and latency
increase during SWT, indicating conduction block across SWT region. Full
recovery of CMAP amplitude/latency noted after SWT.
Discussion: Increases of EMG responses to shockwaves probably due to
cavitations that interact/respond to shockwaves, resulting in evoked nerve
action potential. Transient CMAP loss and delay in nerve conduction across
nerve segments exposed to shockwaves probably result from alterations of
local blood perfusion to nerves.
Conclusion: Shockwaves may evoke nerve action potential probably
through its interaction with cavitations. This interaction becomes more
apparent when tissue cavitations increase. Transient conduction block
across nerve segments exposed to shockwaves recovers quickly after SWT.
Device and producing company: OssaTron (SanuWave), Sierra Wave
(37)Correlation between total energy emitted and efficacy
Maria Cristina Ottone (1), Filippo Fagnani (2), Emanuela
1 ASL AL-Distretto di Tortona - Via Milazzo,1 - Tortona, Italia
2 Alliance Medical Group - Via Alunno,23 – Milano, Italy
Introduction: We aim to verify the efficacy of total energy emitted comparing
the results of different number of sessions and different pulses per session.
Methods: The treatment was carried out using Piezoson 300 from Wolf, a
focused piezoelectric generator with three different focal dimensions and
we used large focus and low energy density (0,06 mJ/mmq) with a total
energy of 6,8 J.
This study includes 200 patients:
Group A: 150 patients, 4 applications, 2000 shock waves/session
Group B: 50 patients, 3 applications, 2700 shock waves/session
Results: The follow-up is ongoing and we will present the results during the
meeting. Discussion: Last year we compared different protocols varying the
focus dimension and energy density with a stable value of total Joules
emitted: we obtained the same results in both groups, confirming a strong
link between the efficacy of ESWT and the total energy emitted. Now we
want to verify the results using the same total energy distributed in three
sessions: if the results are similar it is possible to further confirm that the
most important factor in shock waves therapy is the total energy emitted.
Conclusion: If the results will confirm the efficacy of treatment using the
same total energy, but with a reduction of sessions, it means that we can
have the same efficacy with a shorter treatment and this is important
because it is less expensive: more patients are treated and less working
days are lost. We are currently evaluating the patients in order to obtain
final data to draw final conclusions that will be presented at the Congress.
Device and producing company: Piezoson 300 - WOLF
(39)Mathematical modeling of shockwave therapy for
Kevin Seals (1), James Bryers (1), Michael Chang (2)
1 Dept of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington,
2 Physical Medicine Institute, Bellevue, Washington, USA
Introduction: Mathematical modeling has been widely used in science and
engineering to investigate and optimize complex problems. Chronic
osteomyelitis, usually associated with complex bony/hardware geometry,
persists despite aggressive current clinical treatments. Evidences suggest
shockwaves have the potential to treat osteomyelitis, likely through biofilm
disruption and regional neovascularization. Mathematical modeling of
shockwave propagation within osteomyelitis may help to optimize
shockwave therapy. Methods: COMSOL Multiphysics is used to construct
an acoustic model with Gaussian explosion at source F1. An ellipsoidal
reflector of OssaTron focuses the shockwave to F2, where a tibia/fibula
(separated by 3.5 cm) osteomyelitis model is placed. Anatomical features of
osteomyelitis such as sequestra and drainage sinuses are introduced to
these models. The distribution of pressure, von Mises stress, and shear
stress are characterized as a function of time.
Results: Pressure traces suggest that sequestra should be placed on the
F1/F2 axis, and multiple sequestra in the shockwave propagation pathway
can be treated without a reduction of the therapeutic effect. Optimal
treatment of osteomyelitis in the tibia is seen to occur when the tibia/fibula
axis is perpendicular to the F1/F2 axis. The rotational orientation of an
asymmetrical sequestrum does not seem to influence the treatment.
Discussion: Shockwave interactions with bony anatomy/hardware near the
osteomyelitis may significantly impact treatment outcomes. Modeling
provides unique insights into shockwave propagation/focus within such a
complex target environment. Conclusion: Modeling can be used to
investigate shockwave propagation within osteomyelitis. Models that
incorporate images for osteomyelitis can be constructed to develop optimal
patient-specific ESWT protocols.
Device and producing company: OssaTron, SanuWave
(40)Extracorporeal cardiac shockwave therapy in severe
coronary artery disease unsuitable for percutaneous
coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass
surgery(CABG)--A single center experience.
Morgan Mao-Young Fu, Ching-Jen Wang, Hon-Kan Yip,
Chiung-Jen Wu, Chu-Yuan Fang, Sarah Chua, Chun-Jen
Chen, Su-Ming Chen, Wen-Hou Leu,
Institution: Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical Center, 123,
Ta-Pei Road, Niao-Sung Hsiang, Kaohsiung Hsien, Taiwan,
Introduction: To test the effectiveness and feasibility of extracorporeal
cardiac shockwave(SW) therapy in patients(pts) with severe coronary artery
disease (CAD) unsuitable for revascularization.
Methods: Extracorporeal SW is performed with the application of 100
shocks/spot at 0.09mJ/mm2 energy flux density for 3-6 spots each time,
with three times per week at each series for three series at 1, 5, 9 weeks.
The location and depth of SW application are based on thallium scan
findings guided by echocardiography. The following parameters will be
evaluated including symptoms of angina and needs of nitroglycerine use.
The exercise tolerance and dipyridamole thallium 201 myocardial perfusion
scan and echocardiography will be followed up after 6 months of initial
Results: This study included 27 pts, 18 males and 9 females with mean age
of 70 + 9 (50-89) yrs old. 14 pts had DM, 7 had CVA, 7 had previous CABG,
15 had old MI. 25 pts had triple vessel disease and 2 had two vessel disease.
Each patient received 1200 to 5200 shocks (3881 + 935) respectively during
the whole course of therapy. One patient did not complete the study due to
recurrent CVA. Among the remaining 26 pts, 11 pts could perform treadmill
exercise test, the maximal exercise duration increased from 248 to 319
second (P=0.007). 21 of 26 (80%) pts showed improvement of reversible
ischemia by follow up thallium scan. Two patients received coronary
angiography and coronary artery showed new neovascularization after SW
Discussion: Extracorporeal cardiac SW therapy can ameliorate myocardial
ischemia detected by thallium 201 myocardial perfusion scan and improve
symptoms of angina.
Conclusion: Extracorporeal cardiac SW is feasible and effective in patients
with CAD unsuitable for PCI and CABG.
Device and producing company: Medispec LTD, Israel
(41)Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for
chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) in a randomized
placebo-controlled double-blind study: One year follow
Reinhold P. Zimmermann (1), Alin Cumpanas (2), Florin
Miclea (2), Gunter Janetschek (1)
1 Dept. of Urology, Medical School, Paracelsus Medical University, Muellner
Hauptstr. 48, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
2 Dept. of Urology, Medical School, University of Timisoara, Timisoara,
Introduction: ESWT has been shown to be an effective treatment for CPPS
but effects are considered to be transitory. This investigation reports a
prospective, randomized 1-year follow up.
Methods: 60 patients with CPPS (NIH classification IIIb) were treated by
ESWT (focused shock wave, once weekly, perineal approach, Duolith, Storz
Medical AG, Switzerland). For placebo treatment SW application was
stopped within the transducer by membrane interposition. Pain was
evaluated by visual analogous scale (VAS, 0-10), micturition by international
prostate symptom score (IPSS, 0-35), specific complaints by NIH chronic
prostatitis symptom index (NIH-CPSI, 0-43) and erectile function by the IIEF
(international index of erectile function).
For the active-placebo relationship the Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test was
used (p = 0.05). Differences before/after ESWT were evaluated using the
Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (p = 0.05). Statistical analysis were done using
SigmaStat 3.5 (Systat Software Inc, San Jose, CA, USA).
Results: The 1 year follow up (FU) was completed in 44 of 60 patients. In the
1 year FU, all parameters were still significantly improved in the active
group. Side effects were excluded. VAS showed the clearest improvement
(50% after 1 year).
Discussion: The long term FU proved ESWT as safe and effective. Pain and
complaints were reduced permanently. Side effects were not seen. ESWT
represents an optimal outpatient treatment option with attractive relation of
costs/benefit in particular for private offices.
Conclusion: ESWT is now established as one of the very few CPPS therapy
options whose efficacy has been proven by placebo control in long term FU
nder economic aspects.Device and producing company: Duolith, Storz
(42)Shockwave therapy in treatment of chronic bacterial
Boris A. Garilevich, Anton Rotov, Alexandr Levkovsky
Institution: Central Clinical Aviation Hospital, Moscow, Russia
Introduction: The antibacterial therapy of patients with chronic bacterial
prostatitis (CBP) seems difficult because the epithelium of the prostate is a
barrier for the diffusion of antibiotics from the blood plasma into the nidus
of the inflammation and the prostate secretion.
Methods: The experiment showed the influence of shockwaves on
Escherichia coli in vitro and the level of the concentration of gentamicin in
the tissues of the prostate against the background of shockwave influence.
The active group in the clinical study was 28 patients, who received
shockwave therapy according to the technique developed by us. The
control group was 25 patients, to whom shockwave therapy was not
Results: After the influence of shockwaves on Escherichia coli, their
concentration was 25.4±1,5ɯ107 in 1 ml, while the control group showed
54.6±1,7ɯ107 in 1 ml, which testifies the reduction of the intensity of their
In the experiment where gentamicin was applied to animals with shockwave
influence, its concentration in the tissue of the prostate grew up to 2,000
mgr/gr, while the control group showed 25 to 30 mgr/gr.
The basic group of the patients showed the average term of the elimination
of the agent from the prostate gland was 7.8 ± 1.2 days, while the control
group showed the sanition of the prostate gland occurred 14.2 days (p
Discussion: Bacteriostatic action of shockwaves and elevation of local
bioavailability of the antibiotic show reduction of the terms of the prostate
sanation among the patients with CBP.
Conclusion: Shockwave therapy promotes the elevation of efficiency in
Device and producing company: Compact
(43)Extracorporeal shockwaves in tissue specific
regeneration of paw pad in canine –Clinical observations
Los Boliches, Spain and Denmark
Introduction: Left metacarpal paw pad injury to Chow-Chow female causing
inflammation. No results with conservative medical intervention. Outcome:
the dog chewed off the pad completely causing a non-healing wound lasting
Treatment objectives: increase the local blood flow and activate “dormant”
stem cells/progenitor cells in the pad tissue.
Methods: Extracorporeal shockwaves were administered six times over a
period of three months using the #1 focal head of the Storz DuolithTT. 1st –
5th treatment 2 - 3.6 Joules total used per treatment at settings of 0.2 to 0.25
mJ/mm² at 1.5Hz. 6th: 1.38 Joule administered at 0.3 mJ/mm² Shockwaves
were administered in specific angles at the proximal muscular tissues and
into the wound.
Results: Treatments: 1st: bleeding resumed for a few days. The color of the
tissue changed from deep red to pinkish. 2nd: cellular activity was noted at
the perimeter; membrane over the tissue developing. 3rd – 4th: pad tissue
grew rapidly from the perimeter. 5th: paw pad tissue had grown to cover
90% of wound. 6th: 100% completion of paw pad.
Discussion: Visual re-growth of an anatomical structure that would normally
not regenerate to its full form and function, without activation of stem cells.
Conclusion: ESWT is a valid treatment for non-healing wounds. Further
scientific work must be made to clearly identify the underlying histological
processes and the roles of the blood vessels imbedded in adjacent tissues.
Elastrographic ultrasound scanning of compromised soft tissues and
vessels would enhance the visual understanding.
(44)Effects of shock wave therapy in the skin of patients
with progressive systemic sclerosis: A pilot study
Ernesto Amelio, Elisa Tinazzi, Claudio Guerra, Claudio
Institution: Shock Wave Unit - Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata di
Verona - Largo L.A. Scuro,10 37134 Verona AG
Introduction: Vasculopathy, immunological abnormalities, and excessive
tissue fibrosis are key elements in the pathogenesis of progressive
systemic sclerosis (SSc). Extracorporeal shock waves (ESW) have antiinflammatory and regenerative effects on different tissues. We hypothesized
that ESW can reduce endothelial cell damage and skin fibrosis in patients
Methods: We enrolled 30 patients affected by SSc, 29 females and 1 male.
Rodnan Skin Score (RSS) and Visuo-Analogical Scale (VAS) for skin
wellness were performed before and immediately after ESW
therapy (ESWT) and at 7, 30, 60, and 90 days after the treatment.
Sonographic examination of the patients’ arms was performed before and 7,
30, 60, 90 days after treatment. Blood samples were obtained before and 30
and 60 days after treatment to measure serological levels of von Willebrand
factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, intracellular adhesion molecule-1,
monocyte chemotactic protein-1. The number of endothelial progenitor cells
(EPCs) and circulating endothelial cells (CECs) were determined at the same
Results: After ESWT we observed a rapid and persistent reduction of RSS
and decrease of VAS. There was no difference in skin thickness before and
after ESWT; however, we observed a more regular skin structure and an
improvement in skin vascularization 90 days after treatment. EPCs and
CECs increased 60 and 90 days after treatment, while serological
biomarkers showed no variation before and after therapy.
Discussion: The present study demonstrates that, in patients affected by
SSc, skin application of ESW causes a rapid and persistent
improvement of clinical parameters (RSS and VAS for skin
wellness) and a late increase in skin vascularization and in
number of EPCs and CECs.
Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that ESWT is a novel and
efficacious treatment that can be added to the pharmacological therapy in
order to decrease endothelial cell damage and skin fibrosis in patients
affected by SSc. This treatment is well tolerated and can be repeated
without side effects; in the majority of cases it determines a rapid
improvement of skin elasticity and skin wellness, even if the effects tend to
reduce during the time.
Device and producing company: Duolith SD1 - Storz Medical
(45)Blood perfusion and molecular changes in diabetic
foot ulcers: Extracorporeal shockwave vs. hyperbaric
Ching-Jen Wang, Yur-Ren Kuo, Re-Wen Wu, June-Ming
Chen, Rue-Tsuan Liu, Feng-Sheng Wang
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital /
Kaohsiung Medical Center, 123 Ta-Pei Road, Niao Sung Hsing, Kaohsiung,
Introduction: Extracorporeal shockwave technology (ESWT) may be more
effective than hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in diabetic foot ulcers.
Methods: The ESWT group consisted of 38 patients who received ESWT.
The HBOT group consisted of 45 patients who received HBO.
The evaluations included clinical assessment, blood flow perfusion scan
and biopsy of the ulcers before and after treatment. The biopsy specimens
were subjected to histopathological examination and immunohistochemical
Results: The ESWT group showed significantly better clinical results than
the HBOT group. Blood flow perfusion rates were significantly improved
after ESWT as compared to HBOT. The ESWT group showed significant
increases in cell concentration, cell proliferation and reduced cell apoptosis
than the HBOT group. Immuno-assays revealed significantly higher vWF,
VEGF, eNOS, PCNA and EGF, and a decrease in TUNEL expression in the
ESWT group, whereas the changes in the HBOT group were not significant.
Discussion: Managements of chronic diabetic foot ulcers require multidisciplinary approaches including surgery in selected cases. Many
adjunctive therapies are designed for the care of chronic diabetic foot
ulcers including HBOT. Many studies have reported beneficial effects of
HBOT, but none have showed universal success. The results of this study
showed that ESWT is more effective than HBOT in chronic diabetic foot
Conclusion: ESWT showed significant increases in neo-angiogenesis, and
improvements in blood flow perfusion and tissue regeneration relative to
HBOT in chronic diabetic foot ulcers.
Device and producing company: dermaPACE device (SANUWAVE,
Alpharetta, GA, USA)
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