2. Confusable diseases

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Interstitial cystitis: definitions and confusable diseases
ESSIC Meeting 2005 Baden
Joop P. van de Merwe (left), Departments of
Immunology and Internal Medicine
Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
e-mail: [email protected]
Jørgen Nordling (right), Department of Urology
Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen,
Denmark, e-mail: [email protected]
This report is the summary of the consensus
obtained on definitions and confusable
diseases for painful bladder syndrome /
interstitial cystitis (PBS/IC) during the ESSIC
(European Society for the Study of IC/PBS)
Meeting in Baden, 16-18 June 2005
(www.ESSICoffice.org).
The report consists of 6 sections:
1. Definitions
2. Confusable diseases
3. Procedures /tests that are necessary to
detect the confusable diseases
4. Proposed sequence of actions in patients
with interstitial cystitis-like symptoms
5. Summary of the Report of the ESSIC
Meeting
Copenhagen
2003
with
modifications
6. Comments
1. Definitions
1.1 Interstitial cystitis (IC)
The ICS definition 20021 of interstitial cystitis
was adopted with modifications:
Interstitial cystitis is PBS (see 1.2) with typical
cystoscopic and/or histological features in the
absence of infection or other pathology; this
definition differs from the ICS definition in the
word and/or instead of and.
ICS definition 2002, modified ESSIC 2005
This results in the following preliminary
definition of interstitial cystitis:
Interstitial cystitis is a disease of unknown
origin consisting of the complaint of
suprapubic pain related to bladder filling,
accompanied by other symptoms, such as
increased daytime (>8x) and night-time (>1x)
and
with
cystoscopic
frequency2,
(glomerulations and/or Hunner’s lesions)
and/or histological features3 (mononuclear
inflammatory cells including mast cell
infiltration and granulation tissue) in the
absence of infection or other pathology.
1
2
3
ICS definition 2002 refers to the following
publication: Abrams P, Cardozo L, Fall M, et
al. Neurourology and Urodynamics
2002;21:167-178 [PMUI: 11857671]
preliminary cut-off points; optimal cut-off
points will be determined during the
classification tree analysis
according to ESSIC definitions
1.2 Painful bladder syndrome (PBS)
Painful bladder syndrome is the complaint of
suprapubic pain related to bladder filling,
accompanied by other symptoms, such as
increased daytime and night-time frequency, in
the absence of proven urinary infection or
ICS definition 2002
other obvious pathology.
Page 6 March 2006 European Urology Today
1.3 Frequency
Daytime frequency is the number of voids
recorded during waking hours and includes the
last void before sleep and the first void after
waking and rising in the morning.
ICS definition 2002
1.4 Nocturia
Nocturia is the complaint that the individual
has to wake at night one or more times to void.
ICS definition 2002
1.5 Urgency
Urgency is the complaint of a sudden
compelling desire to pass urine, which is
difficult to defer.
ICS definition 2002
Comment: during the discussion several people
said that this definition is not adequate. It is
the definition given in the ICS definition 2002
paper, but it will probably be changed in the
near future.
1.6 Pain
An unpleasant sensory and emotional
experience associated with actual or potential
tissue damage, or described in terms of such
IASP Pain Terminology
damage.
http://www.iasp-pain.org/terms-p.html#Pain
1.7 Urethral pain
Urethral pain is felt in the urethra and the
individual indicates the urethra as the site.
ICS definition 2002
1.8 Hunner’s lesion
Comment
Hunner’s ulcer is not in fact an ulcer; the term
was replaced by Hunner’s lesion with the
following definition.
The Hunner’s lesion typically presents as a
circumscript, reddened mucosal area with
small vessels radiating towards a central scar,
with a fibrin deposit or coagulum attached to
this area. This site ruptures with increasing
bladder distension, with petechial oozing of
blood from the lesion and the mucosal margins
in a waterfall manner. A rather typical, slightly
bullous edema develops post-distension with
varying peripheral extension.
Magnus Fall, e-mail 1 August 2005
1.9 Bladder mastocytosis
Definition of bladder mastocytosis:
< 20 mast cells/mm2 : no detrusor mastocytosis
20-28 mast cells/mm2 : grey zone
> 28 mast cells/mm2 : detrusor mastocytosis
ESSIC Copenhagen 2003
Nordling J et al. Eur Urol 2004;45:662-9
1.10 Glomerulations
Historically, glomerulations are pinpoint
haemorrhages (petechiae) seen in the bladder
mucosa following hydrodistension of the
bladder. This term should be replaced by the
classification grading (ESSIC Copenhagen
2003), summarized as follows:
Grade 0 : normal mucosa
Grade I : petechiae in at least two
quadrants
Grade II : large submucosal bleeding
(ecchymosis)
Grade III : diffuse global mucosal bleeding
Grade IV : mucosal disruption, with or
without bleeding/oedema
ESSIC Copenhagen 2003
Nordling J et al. Eur Urol 2004;45:662-9
1.11 Overactive bladder syndrome
Urgency, with or without urge incontinence,
usually with frequency and nocturia, can be
described as the overactive bladder syndrome,
urge
syndrome
or
urgency-frequency
ICS definition 2002
syndrome.
2. Confusable diseases
Diagnostic criteria are needed for diseases
with unknown origin and overlapping features
with other diseases, the so-called confusable
diseases.
Possible confusable diseases (CD) for PBS/IC
were discussed during the meeting. The
participating ESSIC members were asked to
indicate or discuss:
- whether the disease was considered to be a
true confusable disease;
- whether the disease could be ignored in
situations where there is no clinical
suspicion for the disease (“ignored unless”);
- the way in which the disease can be
distinguished from PBS/IC;
- to classify the disease as “rare” or “not rare”;
The following diseases or disease groups are
considered to be confusable diseases:
2.1 Bladder malignancies
Bladder carcinoma (not rare) and carcinoma in
situ (rare) are true confusable diseases and
diagnosed by cystoscopy and biopsy. Metastatic
bladder disease, primary lymphoma and
plasmacytoma can be “ignored unless”.
2.2 Bladder infections
More information and clear guidelines are
probably needed to ensure the correct
exclusion of all known microbiological causes
(other than by the common uropathogens) of
inflammation of the bladder and lower urinary
tract.
- Herpes simplex
- Human Papilloma Virus
are considered to be true confusable diseases
but can be ignored unless physical examination
indicates otherwise.
2.3 Bladder inflammation induced by physical
or chemical agents
Bladder inflammation as a result of radiation,
chemotherapy
and/or
therapy
with
cyclophosphamide (Endoxan®) and tiaprophenic acid (Surgam®) are considered to be
true confusable diseases but can be “ignored
unless” the disease history indicates otherwise.
2.4 Bladder
inflammation:
various
mechanisms
Eosinophilic and plasma cell cystitis and
isolated bladder vasculitis are considered to be
true confusable diseases that can be “ignored
unless”. Furthermore, a biopsy will reveal
these diseases.
Endometriosis in or near the bladder is
considered to be a true confusable disease that
can be excluded as he cause of the IC-like
symptoms
by
disease
history
and
gynaecological examination.
A myofibroblastic tumor is a true confusable
disease that can be “ignored unless”.
Cystitis glandularis is not considered to be a
true confusable disease.
Bladder sarcoidosis can be “ignored unless”.
–
Bacterial infections
Infections with:
- common intestinal bacteria (not rare)
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis (rare in most
western countries)
- Chlamydia trachomatis (not rare)
- Ureaplasma urealyticum (not rare)
- Mycoplasma genitalium (rare)
- Corynebacterium urealyticum (prevalence
unknown)
were considered to be true confusable diseases.
Infections with common intestinal bacteria can
be diagnosed with urinalysis and routine
bacterial culture. In situations of “sterile”
pyuria, additional cultures should be
performed to detect bladder tuberculosis.
These cultures must also be done in regions
with a high prevalence of tuberculosis.
Infections with Chlamydia trachomatis,
Ureaplasma
urealyticum,
Mycoplasma
genitalium and Corynebacterium urealyticum
must be excluded with special culture
methods.
Mycoplasma hominis was not discussed but
should be added to the list of special urine
cultures as the literature indicates that it is a
common cause of cystitis symptoms.
–
Parasitic infections
Bladder bilharziasis is considered to be a true
confusable disease that can be “ignored
unless”. If relevant, the disease can be
diagnosed by the finding of parasite eggs in the
urine.
–
Fungal infections
Bladder infection with Candida species is
considered to be a true confusable disease that
must be excluded by special culture.
–
Viral infections
Urogenital infections with:
- Herpes zoster
2.5 Abnormal bladder function
Bladder outlet obstruction
Bladder neck obstruction and neurogenic
outlet obstruction are considered to be true
confusable diseases. Disease history, flow rate
and ultrasound are the diagnostic methods.
Detrusor muscle function
Incomplete bladder emptying (retention) is
considered to be a true confusable disease that
can be diagnosed on the basis of post-void
residual urine volume measured by ultrasound
scanning.
Overactive bladder is not considered to be a
true confusable disease as it is not associated
with pain.
Bladder stones
Bladder stones and lower ureteric stones are
considered to be true confusable diseases that
can be diagnosed on the basis of imaging
techniques and history, respectively.
Comment. In patients with PBS/IC-like
symptoms, there is no need to exclude bladder
stones by imaging techniques as stones will be
found at cystoscopy. Lower ureteral stones will
be found because the patients either have
typical history and one-sided symptoms or
haematuria implying some kind of upper
tract imaging (CT or i.v. pyelography).
Various
Urethral diverticulum is a true confusable
disease that can be excluded by disease history
and digital vaginal examination.
2.6 Sex dependent diseases
Female diseases
Endometriosis, vaginal candidiasis and Herpes
simplex infection have been discussed above.
Infection with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is
considered to be a true confusable disease that
Continued on page 7
Continued from page 6
5. cystoscopy and biopsy if indicated
can be excluded on the basis of physical
examination (see above).
Male diseases
Benign prostatic obstruction (BPO), chronic
bacterial prostatitis, chronic non-bacterial
prostatitis and prostate cancer were considered
to be true confusable diseases that should not
be ignored.
3.1 Medical history
A general thorough medical history should be
taken with emphasis paid to:
- previous pelvic operations
- previous urinary tract infections
- bladder history/urological diseases
- location of pelvic pain (referred pain) and
relation to bladder filling/emptying
- characteristics of pain: onset, correlation
with other events, description of pain
- previous pelvic radiation treatment
- autoimmune diseases
ESSIC, Copenhagen 2003
BPO can be excluded on the basis of flow rate
measurement and pressure-flow studies.
Chronic prostatitis can be excluded on the
basis of disease history, physical examination
and culture.
In addition, emphasis should also be paid to
previous medication such as chemotherapeutics, immunosuppressants such as
cyclophosphamide and anti-inflammatory
drugs such as tiaprophenic acid.
Prostate cancer can be excluded as the cause of
PBS/IC-like symptoms on the basis of digital
rectal examination and measurement of PSA
3.2 Physical examination
A common physical examination should be
performed including palpation of the lower
abdomen for bladder fullness and tenderness:
- standing: kyphosis, scars, hernia
- supine: abduction/adduction of the hips,
hyperaesthetic areas
Cervical, uterine and ovarian cancer can be
excluded as the cause of PBS/IC-like symptoms
on the basis of physical examination.
Comment: PSA should be measured in every
male patient over 40 yrs.
2.7 Abnormal bowel function
Irritable bowel syndrome, constipation and
Crohn’s disease were not considered to be true
confusable diseases.
2.8 Summary
Table 2.1 shows a list of relevant confusable
diseases and how they can be excluded or
diagnosed.
3. Procedures/tests necessary to
detect the confusable diseases
From the list of diseases that are true
confusable diseases and cannot be ignored, it
can be concluded that the following
procedures / tests are necessary to detect these
confusable disease:
1.
2.
3.
4.
medical history
physical examination
selected laboratory tests
urodynamics and ultrasound scanning if
indicated
–
Females
In females, physical examination should
include a vaginal examination with pain
mapping of the vulvar region and vaginal
palpation for tenderness of the bladder,
urethra, levator and adductor muscles of the
pelvic floor. Tenderness might be graded as
mild, moderate or severe.
Pain mapping inspection:
• vulva
- exclusion of vulvar/vestibular diseases
(vulvitis, dermatosis etc.)
- evaluation
of
introital
area
(endometriosis)
- tenderness of vestibular glands or vulvar
skin (Touch Test: use wet cotton stick or
fingertip)
• vagina
- tenderness during insertion and opening
of speculum
- cervical pathology
- vaginal fornices (endometriosis)
• bimanual physical examination
- tenderness of urethra, trigone and bladder
- superficial/deep vaginal tenderness
- tenderness of pelvic floor muscles (levator,
adductor)
- tenderness in adnexal areas
–
Males
In males digital rectal examination should be
performed with pain mapping of the scrotalanal region and palpation of tenderness of the
bladder, prostate, levator and adductor muscles
of the pelvic floor and the scrotal content.
ESSIC, Copenhagen 2003
3.3 Laboratory tests
- urine dipstick (ABS, pH, leukocytes, nitrate)
- urine culture (standard and special; see
below)
- if sterile pyuria: culture for Mycobacterium
tuberculosis
- urine cytology in risk groups
- investigations for vaginal Ureaplasma and
Chlamydia in females and prostatitis in men
are optional
- serum PSA level in every male over 40 years
of age
ESSIC, Copenhagen 2003; Baden 2005
infection with Chlamydia trachomatis
infection with Ureaplasma urealyticum
infection with Mycoplasma hominis
infection with Mycoplasma genitalis
infection with Corynebacterium urealyticum
infection with Candida species
infection with Herpes simplex
infection with Human Papilloma Virus
radiation
chemotherapy
immunotherapy with cyclophosphamide
anti-inflammatory therapy with tiaprophenic
acid
bladder neck obstruction
neurogenic outlet obstruction
bladder stone
lower ureteric stone
urethral diverticulum
endometriosis
vaginal candidiasis
cervical, uterine and ovarian cancer
incomplete bladder emptying (retention)
prostate cancer
benign prostatic obstruction
chronic bacterial prostatitis
chronic non-bacterial prostatitis
excluded or diagnosed by
cystoscopy and biopsy
cystoscopy and biopsy
routine bacterial culture
dipstick; if “sterile” pyuria culture for
M. tuberculosis
special culture
special culture
special culture
special culture
special culture
special culture
physical examination
physical examination
medical history
medical history
medical history
medical history
flow metry and ultrasound
medical history, flow metry and ultrasound
imaging or cytoscopy
medical history and/or haematuria (➝ upper
urinary tract imaging such as CT or IVP)
medical history and physical examination
medical history and physical examination
medical history and physical examination
physical examination
post-void residual urine volume measured
by ultrasound scanning
physical examination and PSA
flow metry and pressure-flow studies
medical history, physical examination, culture
medical history, physical examination, culture
3.6 Additional comments on diagnostic
procedures
–
Potassium Sensitivity Test
It was concluded on the basis of presentations
by Gero Hohlbrugger and Claus Riedl and the
discussions that followed that the Potassium
Sensitivity Test lacks properties to allow its use
as an aid for the diagnosis of PBS/IC. It was also
concluded that no efforts should be
undertaken to evaluate its possible value for
the diagnosis of PBS/IC in connection with the
future data collection for the development of
diagnostic criteria.
Gero Hohlbrugger gave an additional comment
(see paragraph 6.1).
Special cultures are done to detect infection
with micro-organisms as the cause of PBS/IClike symptoms that are not detected with
routine urine cultures:
- Chlamydia trachomatis
- Ureaplasma urealyticum
- Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma
hominis
- Corynebacterium urealyticum
- Candida species
–
Antiproliferative Factor and other markers
It was concluded that no efforts should be
undertaken to evaluate the possible value of
the Antiproliferative Factor (APF) and other
possible disease markers for the diagnosis of IC
in connection with the future data collection
for the development of diagnostic criteria.
3.4 Urodynamics and ultrasound scanning
A post-void residual urine volume measured by
ultrasound scanning to detect incomplete
bladder emptying (retention) as the cause of
PBS/IC-like symptoms.
4.1 Medical history eliminates PBS/IC-like
symptoms due to radiation, therapy with
cyclophosphamide or tiaprophenic acid and
lower ureteric stone (see Table 2.1)
Flow rate measurement and pressure-flow
study if indicated to detect bladder neck
obstruction and neurogenic outlet obstruction
as the cause of PBS/IC-like symptoms.
In males, a flow metry should be done in all,
and if maximum flow rate < 20 ml/sec a
pressure-flow study and measure of residual
urine volume should be done.
Table 2.1 List of relevant confusable diseases and how they can be excluded or diagnosed
confusable disease
carcinoma
carcinoma in situ
infection with common intestinal bacteria
infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis
muscle under good visibility and not at full
bladder capacity. A minimum of three biopsies
are taken plus a biopsy from an area with
maximum post-distension reaction.
ESSIC, Copenhagen 2003
–
Biopsies
For technical details of biopsies and the
pathology report see paragraph 7 of the
Summary of the ESSIC Meeting, Copenhagen
2003.
3.5 Cystoscopy and biopsy if indicated
Cystoscopy under anaesthesia, either spinal or
general, is mandatory in cases with suspected
IC. ESSIC, Copenhagen 2003
Cystoscopy with biopsy if indicated are
necessary to detect bladder carcinoma,
carcinoma in situ and bladder stones as the
cause of IC-like symptoms. For technical
details see paragraph 5.7 of the Summary of
the ESSIC Meeting with modifications,
Copenhagen 2003 (section 5).
–
Inspection
Describe lesions in anterior wall, posterior
wall, lateral quadrants and fundus. At the
fundus one should be alert for possible
artefacts if there is blind introduction of the
scope. Bladder mapping by drawing is
mandatory. Photographs are recommended but
optional.
–
Classification
Grade 0 : normal mucosa
Grade I : petechiae in at least two
quadrants
Grade II : large submucosal bleeding
(ecchymosis)
Grade III : diffuse global mucosal bleeding
Grade IV : mucosal disruption, with or
without bleeding/oedema
The highest grade is to be reported and the
observations should be detailed. It is
recommended to take the biopsies including
4. Proposed sequence of actions in
patients with IC-like symptoms
4.2 Physical examination further eliminates
infections with Herpes simplex and Human
Papilloma Virus, urethral diverticulum,
endometriosis, vaginal candidiasis, cervical
cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, chronic
bacterial prostatitis and chronic nonbacterial
prostatitis (confirmed by culture), prostate
cancer (initial confirmation with PSA),
The following diseases are not yet excluded:
- carcinoma
- carcinoma in situ
- infection with common intestinal bacteria
- infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis
- infection with Chlamydia trachomatis
- infection with Ureaplasma urealyticum
- infection with Mycoplasma hominis
- infection with Mycoplasma genitalis
- infection with Corynebacterium urealyticum
- infection with Candida species
- incomplete bladder emptying (retention)
- bladder neck obstruction
- neurogenic outlet obstruction
- bladder stone
- benign prostatic obstruction
4.3 Dipstick urinalysis, routine and special
cultures eliminate the various infectious
causes.
The following diseases are not yet excluded:
- carcinoma
- carcinoma in situ
- bladder neck obstruction
- neurogenic outlet obstruction
- incomplete bladder emptying (retention)
- bladder stone
- benign prostatic obstruction
4.4 Flow metry and post-void residual urine
volume measured by ultrasound scanning
detects benign prostatic obstruction,
neurogenic outlet obstruction, bladder neck
obstruction and incomplete bladder emptying
(retention).
Continued on page 16
European Urology Today March 2006 Page 7
Continued from page 7
The following diseases are not yet excluded:
- carcinoma
- carcinoma in situ
- bladder stone
4.5 Cystoscopy detects carcinoma, carcinoma
in situ (confirmation with biopsy) and bladder
stones.
Biopsy further excludes rare causes of PBS/IClike symptoms due to e.g. vasculitis, lymphoma
and eosinophilic cystitis.
4.6 Confirmation of the diagnosis of IC
The diagnosis of IC is confirmed by cystoscopy
with hydrodistension if glomerulations and/or
Hunner’s lesions are seen and/or biopsies show
mononuclear inflammatory cells including
mast cell infiltration and granulation tissue.
patient with PBS/IC-like symptoms
medical history
physical examination
dipstick urinalysis
various urine cultures
serum PSA in males > 40 yrs
flow metry
post-void residual urine volume
by ultrasound scanning
cystoscopy
and if indicated
biopsy
diagnosis
Figure 4.1 Schematic representation of the
sequence of actions to detect confusable diseases,
painful bladder syndrome and interstitial cystitis
in patients with PBS/IC-like symptoms
5. Summary ESSIC Meeting
Copenhagen 2003 with
modifications
The following recommendations were accepted
by al participants.*
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is characterized by
urinary frequency, urgency and pelvic pain
often localized to the bladder or urethra. The
disease is poorly defined and epidemiological
and clinical investigations often difficult to
compare due to differences in definition.
5.1 Medical history
A general thorough medical history should be
taken with emphasis paid to:
- previous pelvic operations
- previous urinary tract infections
- bladder history/urological diseases
- location of pelvic pain (referred pain) and
relation to bladder filling/emptying
- characteristics of pain: onset, correlation
with other events, description of pain
- previous pelvic radiation treatment
- autoimmune diseases
* The consensus and recommendations report has been
5.2 Physical examination
A common physical examination should be
performed including palpation of the lower
abdomen for bladder fullness and tenderness:
- standing: kyphosis, scars, hernia
- supine: abduction/adduction of the hips,
hyperaesthetic areas
–
Females
In females physical examination should
include a vaginal examination with pain
mapping of the vulvar region and vaginal
palpation for tenderness of the bladder,
urethra, levator and adductor muscles of the
pelvic floor. Tenderness might be graded as
mild, moderate or severe.
Pain mapping inspection:
• vulva
- exclusion of vulvar/vestibular diseases
(vulvitis, dermatosis etc.)
- evaluation
of
introital
area
(endometriosis)
- tenderness of vestibular glands or vulvar
skin (Touch Test: use wet cotton stick or
fingertip)
• vagina
- tenderness during insertion and opening
of speculum
- cervical pathology
- vaginal fornices (endometriosis)
• bimanual physical examination
- tenderness of urethra, trigone and bladder
- superficial/deep vaginal tenderness
- tenderness of pelvic floor muscles (levator,
adductor)
- tenderness in adnexal areas
–
Males
In males, digital rectal examination (DRE)
should be performed with pain mapping of the
scrotal-anal region and palpation of tenderness
of the bladder, prostate, levator and adductor
muscles of the pelvic floor and the scrotal
content.
5.3 Laboratory tests
- urine dipstick (ABS, pH, leukocytes, nitrate)
- urine culture in all
- if sterile pyuria culture for Mycobacterium
tuberculosis
- urine cytology in risk groups
- investigations for vaginal Ureaplasma and
Chlamydia in females and prostatitis in men
are optional
5.4 Symptom evaluation
• voiding diary with volume intake and output
for 3 days at initial evaluation; patient
sensation at voiding might be recorded
• at follow-up, only number of voidings during
day and night time is necessary; morning
volume might be recorded as a help to
monitor highest functional capacity
• the O’Leary-Sant Symptom Score supplemented with a sex score (suitable sex
score to be constructed) should be used as
basic symptom score supplemented with the
Quality of Life Score from the International
Prostate Symptom Score
• pain should be recorded using a Visual
Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain during the
last 24 hours (to match the voiding diary);
separate scores for the average, mildest and
worst pain should be obtained:
- average pain during the last 24 hours: no
pain intolerable pain
- worst pain during the last 24 hours: no pain
intolerable pain
- least pain during the last 24 hours: no pain
intolerable pain
5.5 Urodynamics
Filling cystometry is helpful in overactive
bladder (OAB) for diagnosing detrusor
overactivity as IC and OAB may coexist. This
might have implications for treatment.
published: Nordling J et al. Primary evaluation of patients
suspected of having interstitial cystitis (IC). Eur Urol
2004;45:662-9.
Page 16 March 2006 European Urology Today
In males, bladder outlet obstruction can be a
differential diagnosis. It is therefore
recommended to perform filling cystometry
with a filling rate of 50 ml/sec (to comply with
the revised Potassium Test - see below) to look
for overactivity, volume at first desire to void
and cystometric capacity.
In females, flow metry, post-void residual urine
volume and pressure-flow study are optional.
In males, a flow metry should be done in all,
and if maximum flow rate < 20 ml/sec a
pressure-flow study and measure of residual
urine volume should be done.
The revised Potassium Test has shown
prognostic value in bladder irrigation studies,
but is considered optional. If performed it
should be performed according to Daha et al.
(J Urol 2003;170:807-9)
5.6 Potassium sensitivity test
Modified KCl test: comparative assessment of
maximum bladder capacity
A Foley balloon catheter (14F) is inserted and
the bladder drained. Instill into the bladder
500 ml saline (0.9%) at a rate of 50 ml/min via
an infusion set until the maximum capacity is
reached. Drain the bladder and measure the
saline filling volume. Repeat the instillation
and measurement with 500 ml 0.2 M potassium
chloride at a rate of 50 ml/min (taking care that
filling lines are emptied of all saline before KCl
instillation), and calculate the filling volume
difference.
A difference in bladder capacity > 30% is
considered positive. Besides reduction in
bladder capacity by 0.2 M KCl, there is a
stronger sensation of urgency in IC patients
compared to the saline filling, which is also
clinically relevant.
5.7 Cystoscopy
Cystoscopy under local anaesthesia might be
part of the general urological workup to
exclude diagnoses other than IC.
Cystoscopy under anaesthesia, either spinal or
general, is mandatory in cases with suspected IC.
–
Technique
A rigid cystoscope is preferred to facilitate
taking of adequate biopsies. Glycine or
corresponding filling fluid should be used to
allow for coagulation after biopsies. Infusion
height should be approximately 80 cm above
the symphysis pubis. A dripping chamber is
used and the bladder is filled until fluid
dribbling stops. If necessary, a digital block is
applied around the urethra to prevent leakage.
Pre-distension inspection includes observation
for radiating vessels, coagulum or fibrine
deposits, white spots, hyperaemia, oedema,
cracks, scars or any other mucosal changes.
Continuous inspection while filling the bladder
is advised.
When maximum capacity is reached, the
distension is maintained for 3 minutes. The
bladder is emptied and the colour of the fluid
checked for the degree of bleeding. The total
volume drained is the measured maximum
bladder capacity.
During a second filling, the bladder is filled to
approximately 1/3rd to 2/3rd of the bladder
capacity to achieve optimal vision for
inspection and biopsies. The bladder should
not be filled to maximum capacity or distended
again to avoid further provocation of changes
with doubtful reproducibility.
–
Inspection
Describe lesions in anterior wall, posterior
wall, lateral quadrants and fundus. At the
fundus one should be alert for possible
artefacts if there is blind introduction of the
scope. Bladder mapping by drawing is
mandatory. Photographs are recommended but
optional.
–
Classification
Grade 0 : normal mucosa
Grade I : petechiae in at least two
quadrants
Grade II : large submucosal bleeding
(ecchymosis)
Grade III : diffuse global mucosal bleeding
Grade IV : mucosal disruption, with or
without bleeding/oedema
The highest grade is to be reported and the
observations should be detailed. It is
recommended to take the biopsies including
muscle under good visibility and not at full
bladder capacity. A minimum of three biopsies
are taken plus a biopsy from an area with
maximum post-distension reaction.
–
Biopsies
During cystoscopy the bladder is distended to
full capacity. After draining the bladder,
bladder biopsies are taken at roughly half-full
bladder capacity: Biopsy procedures should be
performed by using large forceps and include
detrusor muscle; alternatively double punch
biopsies or resections of lesions can be used.
Number of biopsies
At least 3 biopsies from the two lateral walls
and bladder dome should be taken in addition
to biopsies from lesional areas. The biopsies are
to be immediately fixed in neutral buffered 4%
formalin.
Biopsy handling
Biopsies are treated conventionally according
to routine procedure at the Department of
Pathology. Six adjacent 3 µm sections are cut
and placed with 3 specimens on each of two
specimen slides. The first slide is stained with
H&E, the next with a connective tissue stain
suitable for the individual institute. Twentyfour 10 µm sections are then cut and every
third section is mounted on a specimen slide
for mast cell counting (see below). The
specimens are stained by Leder-stain
(naphtolesterase) according to routine
procedures. Finally, a 3 µm section is obtained
to ensure the presence of detrusor muscle in
the specimens.
Mast cell counting
The use of a measuring grid (Leitz periplan 6F
10N ocular containing a standardized grid) is
necessary. Previous standardized measurements have been done on a grid containing
25 squares, each square measuring 0.21 mm2.
The counting of mast cells in the detrusor is
preferably made in 20 squares, but at least 7
squares should be counted on a magnification
of 25. If less than 7 squares with detrusor are
represented, the biopsy is insufficient. Only
mast cells containing nucleus are included.
When counting the cells, those covering or
touching the bottom - and a right line - should
be excluded, whereas those covering the upper
and left line are included. In this way a
maximum of 20 squares may be encounted in
the total counting i.e. 20 squares: 20 x 0.21 mm2
= 4.2 mm2.
At least 3 biopsies must be the subject of mast
cell counting and if possible one including a
lesional area.
The total number of mast cells per mm2 is:
the total number of mast cells
the number of squares included in the
counting x 0.21
If biopsies for mast cell counting do not contain
detrusor muscle, new biopsies must be
obtained.
–
The pathology report
• epithelium
- not present / present
- dysplasia with grading
Continued on page 17
Continued from page 16
•
•
•
•
- abnormal but no dysplasia: description is
mandatory
propria
- normal
- inflammation: description with a grading
- other findings are described
detrusor muscle
- abnormal muscle cells: describe
intrafascicular fibrosis
- not present / present
mast cell count: at least three biopsies
should be included in the counting; only the
biopsy with the highest number of mast
cells per mm2 should be reported
The enzymatic (naphtolesterase) staining is, for
the time being, recommended since
standardized values are available:
< 20 mast cells/mm2 : no detrusor mastocytosis
20-28 mast cells/mm2 : grey zone
> 28 mast cells/mm2 : detrusor mastocytosis
The use of immunohistochemical stainings (i.e.
antitryptase) is not at the present time
recommended since no reference material
employing standardized cutting procedures
and counting procedures exist. However, it is
the aim of this study group to collect a
reference/normal material for immunohistochemical staining and, when available,
cutting and staining procedures will be
changed accordingly.
6. Comments
6.1 Comment Prof. Gero Hohlbrugger on the
draft version of this report
Prof. Gero Hohlbrugger gave the following
comment on the discussions of the Potassium
Sensitivity Test.
Conclusion:
To test the effect of urinary K+ on the bladder
wall, there are two options: Parsons’ potassium
sensitivity test (PST) with 0.4 M KCl, or our
comparative
evaluation
of
maximum
cystometric capacity with normal saline vs. 0.2
M KCl. We nicknamed the potassium impact on
capacity PIC. In the symptomless bladder with
normal capacity and without post-void residual
urine, negative PST/PIC might show a normal
“impermeable” blood-urine barrier. A number
of arguments support the idea that it is not the
upregulated urothelial C-fiber endings, but
rather K+-induced depolarization of the
detrusor and the associated firing of the Adelta
fibers and myogenic C-fibers that lies at the
root of a positive PST/PIC in IC. Urothelial
hyperpermeability together with relative
ischemia of the bladder wall enable urinary K+
to reach the detrusor. It is highly probable that
it is not the GAG deficit that is directly
responsible for the urothelial hyperpermeability of the IC bladder, but rather
sympathetic hyperactivity that is triggered by a
defective mucus layer and by abnormal firing
of A-delta fibers. Accordingly, the interpretation of the positive PST/PIC should be
extended to include the following: it is a triad
of relative ischemia due to urothelial hyperpermeability and despite sympathetic
hyperactivity.
The negative PST/PIC of the small capacity
bladder can then be explained as the result
either of urothelial impermeability as a
consequence of sympathetic hypoactivity
and/or of a silencing of the A-delta fibers as a
consequence of sustained depolarization of the
muscle nerve unit. The fact that the PST/PIC
yields a relatively high percentage of negative
outcomes makes it unsuitable as a reliable
diagnostic tool for IC. Moreover, it does not
help in identifying patients who may not at all
benefit or those likely to benefit only for a
short period, from GAG substitution therapy. To
be able to screen such patients, specific skin,
blood or urine tests need to be developed by
future research. To ensure that a sub-group of
PST/PICpositive IC bladders do not progress to
a completely different pathophysiological
infrastructure in endstage disease with
negative PST/PIC, the currently available
diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines are not
adequate. Because it is totally painless, we
prefer to evaluate the PIC. When it is
supplemented with EMG flow metry, the
method enables easy identification of the
vesicogeneity of the painful pelvic floor.
Despite proven shortcomings, it must be
mentioned that PST as well as PIC still have a
considerable role in the investigation of IC and
most likely other bladder diseases.
e-mail Gero Hohlbrugger, 15 August 2005
Dear colleagues,
Dear all,
It is a great pleasure and honour to invite you to the 6th
Central European Meeting, which will take place in Prague
September 15th-16th, 2006.
It also gives me great pleasure to invite you to the 6th
Central European Meeting in Prague.
On behalf of the Czech urologists I can assure you that we
secured a wonderful congress venue and that the
scientific programme will be enhanced with some very
interesting social activities. The scientific programme
clearly relies on the quality of the abstracts submitted
and maybe the awards established for f.i. Best-Poster
presentation are an added incentive to submit highquality material in time for the deadline of 18 June 2006!
The 6th Central European Meeting will also feature worldexperts giving state-of-the-art lectures on a range of
topics, among which prostate cancer, neurogenic bladder
and urethral surgery.
Objective of this EAU regional meeting is to develop a
platform, where new experimental and clinical work from
the region is presented to an international audience. It is
the ideal forum for urologists to meet colleagues with
similar interests and to develop urological networks
within the region.
Topics that will be covered in the plenary session are:
• Prostate cancer
• Renal cell cancer
• Female urology
• Neurogenic bladder dysfunction
• State of the art lectures on Paediatric urology
(hypospadias), Transplant surgery, Reconstructive
surgery (of the urethra)
We herewith invite you to submit abstracts. The Advisory
Board will make the final selection. There will be
prestigious awards for the best presentations. In addition
state of the art presentations by invited speakers will
highlight topics of current controversy.
M. Marberger, Chairman
n off the
e EAU
U Regionall Office
Do remember that 15 September 2006 coincides with
European Prostate Day!
Join us, present your papers, see your friends from other
Central European countries and enjoy ‘tasty’ Prague.
We are looking forward to seeing you all in the heart of
Europe in September 2006.
^
T. Hánus, Chairman
n off the
e EAU
U 6th
h Centrall European
Meeting
g and
d Presidentt off the
e Czech
h Urological
Association
Advisory Board
J. Breza, Bratislava (SK)
A. Borkowski, Warsaw (PL)
A. Borówka, Warsaw (PL)
Z. Dobrowolski, Cracow (PL)
P. Geavalete, Bucharest (RO)
T. Hanus, Prague (CZ)
G. Janetschek, Linz (AT)
J. Kliment, Martin (SK)
O. Kraus, Zagreb (HR)
M. Marberger, Vienna (AT)
I. Romics ,Budapest, HU)
I. Sinescu, Bucharest (RO)
N. Vodopija, Slovenj Gradec (SI)
^
Announcement
6th Central European Meeting (CEM)
Prague, Czech Republic, 15–16 September 2006
Calll forr Abstracts!
Authorss are
e invited
d to
o submitt abstractss forr posterr presentation
n on
n these
e topicss orr anyy otherr clinicall or
experimentall recentt work, priorr to
o the
e deadline
e off 18
8 June
e 2006.
Submission
n off abstractss can
n be
e made
e on-line
e through
h www.uroweb.org
g in
n the
e ‘meetingss and
d events’
section.
1 (0)26
6 389
9 1751,
Forr more
e information
n on
n registration, abstractt submission
n and
d accommodation, please
e checkk www.uroweb.org
g orr contactt Congresss Consultantss B.V., Phone: +31
Fax: +31
1 (0)2
26 389
9 1752, Email: [email protected]
European Urology Today March 2006 Page 17

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