Fever, CVA tenderness, mild abdominal tenderness.
Renal stones, renal infarcts, cholecystitis, appendicitis, diverticulitis, acute
UA shows pyuria and bacteriuria and may also exhibit hematuria or WBC
casts. CBC reveals leukocytosis with left shift. Urine culture is usually positive, and blood culture may be positive as well.
are seen in pyelonephritis but
not in cystitis.
Fever and WBC casts on UA
Fluoroquinolone × 7 days or ampicillin + gentamicin or ceftriaxone × 14
Radiologic evaluation for complications may be useful in patients who are
severely ill or immunocompromised, who are not responding to treatment,
or in whom complications are likely (e.g., pregnant patients, diabetics, and
those with nephrolithiasis, reflux, transplant surgery, or other GU surgery).
X-rays can detect stones, calcification, masses, and abnormal gas collections.
Ultrasound is rapid and safe.
Contrast-enhanced CT is most sensitive but may affect renal function.
I N FECTIOUS DISEASES
Perinephric abscess should be considered in patients who remain febrile 2–3
days after appropriate antibiotics; UA may be normal and cultures negative. Patients are treated by percutaneous or surgical drainage plus antibiotics. Intrarenal
abscesses (e.g., infection of a renal cyst) < 5 cm in size usually respond to antibiotics alone. Diabetics may develop emphysematous pyelonephritis, which
usually requires nephrectomy and is associated with a high mortality rate.
R O C K Y M O U N TA I N S P OT T E D F E V E R
A tick-borne illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. The vector is the Dermacentor tick, which needs to feed for only 6–10 hours before injecting the organism (a much shorter attachment time than for Lyme disease). Most commonly occurs in the mid-Atlantic and South Central states (not the Rocky
Mountain states). The highest rates are seen in late spring and summer and
in children and men with occupational tick exposures.
Think of Rocky Mountain
Initial symptoms (seven days after a tick bite): Fever, myalgias, and
Maculopapular rash (in 90%) starts four days later and progresses to petechiae or purpura. The rash first appears on the wrists and ankles and
then spreads centrally and to the palms and soles.
Patients may develop severe headache, irritability, and even delirium or
spotted fever and start
treatment early in patients
with a recent tick bite
(especially in the mid-Atlantic
or South Central states) along
with fever, headache, and
myalgias followed by a
Meningococcemia, measles, typhoid fever, ehrlichiosis (HME or HGE), viral
hemorrhagic fevers (e.g., dengue), leptospirosis, vasculitis.