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CIPRO®
(ciprofloxacin hydrochloride)
TABLETS
CIPRO®
(ciprofloxacin*)
ORAL SUSPENSION
08918468, R.0
10/04
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of CIPRO®
Tablets and CIPRO Oral Suspension and other antibacterial drugs, CIPRO Tablets and CIPRO Oral
Suspension should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be
caused by bacteria.
DESCRIPTION
CIPRO (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride) Tablets and CIPRO (ciprofloxacin*) Oral Suspension are
synthetic broad spectrum antimicrobial agents for oral administration. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride,
USP, a fluoroquinolone, is the monohydrochloride monohydrate salt of 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,
4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid. It is a faintly yellowish to light
yellow crystalline substance with a molecular weight of 385.8. Its empirical formula is
C17H18FN3O3•HCl•H2O and its chemical structure is as follows:
Ciprofloxacin is 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid.
Its empirical formula is C17H18FN3O3 and its molecular weight is 331.4. It is a faintly yellowish to light
yellow crystalline substance and its chemical structure is as follows:
CIPRO film-coated tablets are available in 100 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg and 750 mg (ciprofloxacin
equivalent) strengths. Ciprofloxacin tablets are white to slightly yellowish. The inactive ingredients are
cornstarch, microcrystalline cellulose, silicon dioxide, crospovidone, magnesium stearate,
hypromellose, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol and water.
Ciprofloxacin Oral Suspension is available in 5% (5 g ciprofloxacin in 100 mL) and 10% (10 g
ciprofloxacin in 100 mL) strengths. Ciprofloxacin Oral Suspension is a white to slightly
yellowish suspension with strawberry flavor which may contain yellow-orange droplets. It is
composed of ciprofloxacin microcapsules and diluent which are mixed prior to dispensing (See
instructions for USE/HANDLING). The components of the suspension have the following
compositions:
Microcapsules - ciprofloxacin, povidone, methacrylic acid copolymer, hypromellose,
magnesium stearate, and Polysorbate 20.
Diluent - medium-chain triglycerides, sucrose, lecithin, water, and strawberry flavor.
* Does not comply with USP with regards to “loss on drying” and “residue on ignition”.
CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
Absorption: Ciprofloxacin given as an oral tablet is rapidly and well absorbed from the gastrointestinal
tract after oral administration. The absolute bioavailability is approximately 70% with no substantial loss
by first pass metabolism. Ciprofloxacin maximum serum concentrations and area under the curve are
shown in the chart for the 250 mg to 1000 mg dose range.
Maximum
Area
Dose
Serum Concentration
Under Curve (AUC)
(mg)
(µg/mL)
(µg•hr/mL)
250
1.2
4.8
500
2.4
11.6
750
4.3
20.2
1000
5.4
30.8
Maximum serum concentrations are attained 1 to 2 hours after oral dosing. Mean concentrations 12
hours after dosing with 250, 500, or 750 mg are 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 µg/mL, respectively. The serum elimination half-life in subjects with normal renal function is approximately 4 hours. Serum concentrations
increase proportionately with doses up to 1000 mg.
A 500 mg oral dose given every 12 hours has been shown to produce an area under the serum
concentration time curve (AUC) equivalent to that produced by an intravenous infusion of 400 mg
ciprofloxacin given over 60 minutes every 12 hours. A 750 mg oral dose given every 12 hours has been
shown to produce an AUC at steady-state equivalent to that produced by an intravenous infusion of 400
mg given over 60 minutes every 8 hours. A 750 mg oral dose results in a Cmax similar to that observed
with a 400 mg I.V. dose. A 250 mg oral dose given every 12 hours produces an AUC equivalent to that
produced by an infusion of 200 mg ciprofloxacin given every 12 hours.
Steady-state Pharmacokinetic Parameters
Following Multiple Oral and I.V. Doses
Parameters
AUC (µg•hr/mL)
Cmax (µg/mL)
a
AUC 0-12h
b
AUC 24h=AUC0-12h x 2
c
AUC 24h=AUC0-8h x 3
500 mg
q12h, P.O.
13.7a
2.97
400 mg
q12h, I.V.
12.7a
4.56
750 mg
q12h, P.O.
31.6b
3.59
400 mg
q8h, I.V.
32.9c
4.07
Distribution: The binding of ciprofloxacin to serum proteins is 20 to 40% which is not likely to be high
enough to cause significant protein binding interactions with other drugs.
After oral administration, ciprofloxacin is widely distributed throughout the body. Tissue concentrations
often exceed serum concentrations in both men and women, particularly in genital tissue including the
prostate. Ciprofloxacin is present in active form in the saliva, nasal and bronchial secretions, mucosa of
the sinuses, sputum, skin blister fluid, lymph, peritoneal fluid, bile, and prostatic secretions. Ciprofloxacin
has also been detected in lung, skin, fat, muscle, cartilage, and bone. The drug diffuses into the
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); however, CSF concentrations are generally less than 10% of peak serum
concentrations. Low levels of the drug have been detected in the aqueous and vitreous humors of the eye.
Metabolism: Four metabolites have been identified in human urine which together account for approximately 15% of an oral dose. The metabolites have antimicrobial activity, but are less active than
unchanged ciprofloxacin.
Excretion: The serum elimination half-life in subjects with normal renal function is approximately 4
hours. Approximately 40 to 50% of an orally administered dose is excreted in the urine as unchanged
drug. After a 250 mg oral dose, urine concentrations of ciprofloxacin usually exceed 200 µg/mL during
the first two hours and are approximately 30 µg/mL at 8 to 12 hours after dosing. The urinary excretion
of ciprofloxacin is virtually complete within 24 hours after dosing. The renal clearance of ciprofloxacin,
which is approximately 300 mL/minute, exceeds the normal glomerular filtration rate of 120
mL/minute. Thus, active tubular secretion would seem to play a significant role in its elimination.
Co-administration of probenecid with ciprofloxacin results in about a 50% reduction in the
ciprofloxacin renal clearance and a 50% increase in its concentration in the systemic circulation.
Although bile concentrations of ciprofloxacin are several fold higher than serum concentrations after
oral dosing, only a small amount of the dose administered is recovered from the bile as unchanged drug.
An additional 1 to 2% of the dose is recovered from the bile in the form of metabolites. Approximately
20 to 35% of an oral dose is recovered from the feces within 5 days after dosing. This may arise from
either biliary clearance or transintestinal elimination.
With oral administration, a 500 mg dose, given as 10 mL of the 5% CIPRO Suspension (containing
250 mg ciprofloxacin/5mL) is bioequivalent to the 500 mg tablet. A 10 mL volume of the 5% CIPRO
Suspension (containing 250 mg ciprofloxacin/5mL) is bioequivalent to a 5 mL volume of the 10%
CIPRO Suspension (containing 500 mg ciprofloxacin/5mL).
Drug-drug Interactions: When CIPRO Tablet is given concomitantly with food, there is a delay in the
absorption of the drug, resulting in peak concentrations that occur closer to 2 hours after dosing rather
than 1 hour whereas there is no delay observed when CIPRO Suspension is given with food. The
overall absorption of CIPRO Tablet or CIPRO Suspension, however, is not substantially affected. The
pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin given as the suspension are also not affected by food. Concurrent
administration of antacids containing magnesium hydroxide or aluminum hydroxide may reduce the
bioavailability of ciprofloxacin by as much as 90%. (See PRECAUTIONS.)
The serum concentrations of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole were not altered when these two drugs
were given concomitantly.
Concomitant administration of ciprofloxacin with theophylline decreases the clearance of theophylline
resulting in elevated serum theophylline levels and increased risk of a patient developing CNS or other
adverse reactions. Ciprofloxacin also decreases caffeine clearance and inhibits the formation of
paraxanthine after caffeine administration. (See PRECAUTIONS.)
Special Populations: Pharmacokinetic studies of the oral (single dose) and intravenous (single and
multiple dose) forms of ciprofloxacin indicate that plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin are higher in
elderly subjects (> 65 years) as compared to young adults. Although the Cmax is increased 16-40%, the
increase in mean AUC is approximately 30%, and can be at least partially attributed to decreased renal
clearance in the elderly. Elimination half-life is only slightly (~20%) prolonged in the elderly. These
differences are not considered clinically significant. (See PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use.)
In patients with reduced renal function, the half-life of ciprofloxacin is slightly prolonged. Dosage
adjustments may be required. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
In preliminary studies in patients with stable chronic liver cirrhosis, no significant changes in
ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics have been observed. The kinetics of ciprofloxacin in patients with
acute hepatic insufficiency, however, have not been fully elucidated.
Following a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg ciprofloxacin suspension to 16 children ranging in
age from 4 months to 7 years, the mean Cmax was 2.4 µg/mL (range: 1.5 – 3.4 µg/mL) and the
mean AUC was 9.2 µg*h/mL (range: 5.8 – 14.9 µg*h/mL). There was no apparent
age-dependence, and no notable increase in Cmax or AUC upon multiple dosing (10 mg/kg TID).
In children with severe sepsis who were given intravenous ciprofloxacin (10 mg/kg as a 1-hour
infusion), the mean Cmax was 6.1 µg/mL (range: 4.6 – 8.3 µg/mL) in 10 children less than 1 year
of age; and 7.2 µg/mL (range: 4.7 – 11.8 µg/mL) in 10 children between 1 and 5 years of age.
The AUC values were 17.4 µg*h/mL (range: 11.8 – 32.0 µg*h/mL) and 16.5 µg*h/mL (range:
11.0 – 23.8 µg*h/mL) in the respective age groups. These values are within the range reported
for adults at therapeutic doses. Based on population pharmacokinetic analysis of pediatric
patients with various infections, the predicted mean half-life in children is approximately 4 - 5
hours, and the bioavailability of the oral suspension is approximately 60%.
MICROBIOLOGY
Ciprofloxacin has in vitro activity against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive
microorganisms. The bactericidal action of ciprofloxacin results from inhibition of the enzymes
topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV, which are required for bacterial DNA
replication, transcription, repair, and recombination. The mechanism of action of fluoroquinolones,
including ciprofloxacin, is different from that of penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides,
macrolides, and tetracyclines; therefore, microorganisms resistant to these classes of drugs may be
susceptible to ciprofloxacin and other quinolones. There is no known cross-resistance between
ciprofloxacin and other classes of antimicrobials. In vitro resistance to ciprofloxacin develops slowly by
multiple step mutations.
Ciprofloxacin is slightly less active when tested at acidic pH. The inoculum size has little effect when
tested in vitro. The minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) generally does not exceed the minimal
inhibitory concentration (MIC) by more than a factor of 2.
Ciprofloxacin has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both in
vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section of the
package insert for CIPRO (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride) Tablets and CIPRO (ciprofloxacin*) 5% and
10% Oral Suspension.
Aerobic gram-positive microorganisms
Enterococcus faecalis (Many strains are only moderately susceptible.)
Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible strains only)
Staphylococcus epidermidis (methicillin-susceptible strains only)
Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-susceptible strains only)
Streptococcus pyogenes
Aerobic gram-negative microorganisms
Campylobacter jejuni
Proteus mirabilis
Citrobacter diversus
Proteus vulgaris
Citrobacter freundii
Providencia rettgeri
Enterobacter cloacae
Providencia stuartii
Escherichia coli
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Haemophilus influenzae
Salmonella typhi
Haemophilus parainfluenzae
Serratia marcescens
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Moraxella catarrhalis
Morganella morganii
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Shigella boydii
Shigella dysenteriae
Shigella flexneri
Shigella sonnei
Ciprofloxacin has been shown to be active against Bacillus anthracis both in vitro and by use of serum
levels as a surrogate marker (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE and INHALATIONAL
ANTHRAX – ADDITIONAL INFORMATION).
The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown.
Ciprofloxacin exhibits in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 1 µg/mL or less against
most (≥ 90%) strains of the following microorganisms; however, the safety and effectiveness of
ciprofloxacin in treating clinical infections due to these microorganisms have not been established in
adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.
Aerobic gram-positive microorganisms
Staphylococcus haemolyticus
Staphylococcus hominis
Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin-resistant strains only)
Aerobic gram-negative microorganisms
Acinetobacter Iwoffi
Pasteurella multocida
Aeromonas hydrophila
Salmonella enteritidis
Edwardsiella tarda
Vibrio cholerae
Enterobacter aerogenes
Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Klebsiella oxytoca
Vibrio vulnificus
Legionella pneumophila
Yersinia enterocolitica
Most strains of Burkholderia cepacia and some strains of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia are
resistant to ciprofloxacin as are most anaerobic bacteria, including Bacteroides fragilis and
Clostridium difficile.
Susceptibility Tests
Dilution Techniques: Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimum inhibitory
concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial
compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized procedure. Standardized procedures
are based on a dilution method1 (broth or agar) or equivalent with standardized inoculum concentrations
and standardized concentrations of ciprofloxacin powder. The MIC values should be interpreted
according to the following criteria:
For testing aerobic microorganisms other than Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus
parainfluenzae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeaea:
MIC (µg/mL)
Interpretation
≤1
Susceptible (S)
2
Intermediate (I)
≥4
Resistant
(R)
a
These interpretive standards are applicable only to broth microdilution susceptibility tests with
streptococci using cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth with 2-5% lysed horse blood.
For testing Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzaeb:
MIC (µg/mL)
Interpretation
≤1
Susceptible (S)
b
This interpretive standard is applicable only to broth microdilution susceptibility tests with
Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae using Haemophilus Test Medium1.
The current absence of data on resistant strains precludes defining any results other than “Susceptible”.
Strains yielding MIC results suggestive of a “nonsusceptible” category should be submitted to a
reference laboratory for further testing.
For testing Neisseria gonorrhoeaec:
MIC (µg/mL)
Interpretation
≤ 0.06
Susceptible (S)
0.12 – 0.5
Intermediate (I)
≥1
Resistant
(R)
c
This interpretive standard is applicable only to agar dilution test with GC agar base and 1% defined
growth supplement.
A report of “Susceptible” indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial
compound in the blood reaches the concentrations usually achievable. A report of “Intermediate”
indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and, if the microorganism is not fully susceptible
to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical
applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where high
dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone, which prevents small uncontrolled
technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of “Resistant” indicates that
the pathogen is not likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the
concentrations usually achievable; other therapy should be selected.
Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory control microorganisms to
control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. Standard ciprofloxacin powder should provide
the following MIC values:
MIC (µg/mL)
Organism
E. faecalis
ATCC 29212
0.25 – 2.0
E. coli
ATCC 25922
0.004 – 0.015
ATCC 49247
0.004 – 0.03
H. influenzaea
N. gonorrhoeaeb
ATCC 49226
0.001 – 0.008
P. aeruginosa
ATCC 27853
0.25 – 1.0
S. aureus
ATCC 29213
0.12 – 0.5
a
This quality control range is applicable to only H. influenzae ATCC 49247 tested by a broth
microdilution procedure using Haemophilus Test Medium (HTM)1.
b
This quality control range is applicable to only N. gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226 tested by an agar dilution
procedure using GC agar base and 1% defined growth supplement.
Diffusion Techniques: Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters also provide
reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such
standardized procedure2 requires the use of standardized inoculum concentrations. This procedure uses
paper disks impregnated with 5-µg ciprofloxacin to test the susceptibility of microorganisms to
ciprofloxacin.
Reports from the laboratory providing results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with a 5-µg
ciprofloxacin disk should be interpreted according to the following criteria:
For testing aerobic microorganisms other than Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus
parainfluenzae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeaea:
Zone Diameter (mm)
≥ 21
16 – 20
≤ 15
Interpretation
Susceptible (S)
Intermediate (I)
Resistant
(R)
a
These zone diameter standards are applicable only to tests performed for streptococci using
Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% sheep blood incubated in 5% CO2.
For testing Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzaeb:
Zone Diameter (mm)
Interpretation
≥ 21
Susceptible (S)
b
This zone diameter standard is applicable only to tests with Haemophilus influenzae and
Haemophilus parainfluenzae using Haemophilus Test Medium (HTM)2.
The current absence of data on resistant strains precludes defining any results other than “Susceptible”.
Strains yielding zone diameter results suggestive of a “nonsusceptible” category should be submitted to a
reference laboratory for further testing.
For testing Neisseria gonorrhoeaec:
Interpretation
Zone Diameter (mm)
≥ 41
Susceptible (S)
28 – 40
Intermediate (I)
≤ 27
Resistant
(R)
c
This zone diameter standard is applicable only to disk diffusion tests with GC agar base and 1% defined
growth supplement.
Interpretation should be as stated above for results using dilution techniques. Interpretation involves
correlation of the diameter obtained in the disk test with the MIC for ciprofloxacin.
As with standardized dilution techniques, diffusion methods require the use of laboratory control
microorganisms that are used to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. For the
diffusion technique, the 5-µg ciprofloxacin disk should provide the following zone diameters in these
laboratory test quality control strains:
Zone Diameter (mm)
Organism
E. coli
ATCC 25922
30 – 40
H. influenzaea
ATCC 49247
34 – 42
b
N. gonorrhoeae
ATCC 49226
48 – 58
P. aeruginosa
ATCC 27853
25 – 33
S. aureus
ATCC 25923
22 – 30
a
These quality control limits are applicable to only H. influenzae ATCC 49247 testing using
Haemophilus Test Medium (HTM)2.
b
These quality control limits are applicable only to tests conducted with N. gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226
performed by disk diffusion using GC agar base and 1% defined growth supplement.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
CIPRO is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated
microorganisms in the conditions and patient populations listed below. Please see DOSAGE AND
ADMINISTRATION for specific recommendations.
Adult Patients:
Urinary Tract Infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter
cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia rettgeri, Morganella morganii,
Citrobacter diversus, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus
epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, or Enterococcus faecalis.
Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis in females caused by Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus
saprophyticus.
Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis caused by Escherichia coli or Proteus mirabilis.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae,
Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae,
Haemophilus parainfluenzae, or Streptococcus pneumoniae. Also, Moraxella catarrhalis for the
treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.
NOTE: Although effective in clinical trials, ciprofloxacin is not a drug of first choice in the treatment of
presumed or confirmed pneumonia secondary to Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Acute Sinusitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Moraxella
catarrhalis.
Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae,
Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia stuartii, Morganella
morganii, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus
(methicillin-susceptible), Staphylococcus epidermidis, or Streptococcus pyogenes.
Bone and Joint Infections caused by Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, or
Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections (used in combination with metronidazole) caused by
Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or
Bacteroides fragilis.
Infectious Diarrhea caused by Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic strains), Campylobacter jejuni,
Shigella boydii †, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri or Shigella sonnei† when antibacterial
therapy is indicated.
Typhoid Fever (Enteric Fever) caused by Salmonella typhi.
NOTE: The efficacy of ciprofloxacin in the eradication of the chronic typhoid carrier state has not been
demonstrated.
Uncomplicated cervical and urethral gonorrhea due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Pediatric patients (1 to 17 years of age):
Complicated Urinary Tract Infections and Pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli.
NOTE: Although effective in clinical trials, ciprofloxacin is not a drug of first choice in the
pediatric population due to an increased incidence of adverse events compared to controls,
including events related to joints and/or surrounding tissues. (See WARNINGS,
PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use, ADVERSE REACTIONS and CLINICAL STUDIES.)
Ciprofloxacin, like other fluoroquinolones, is associated with arthropathy and
histopathological changes in weight-bearing joints of juvenile animals. (See ANIMAL
PHARMACOLOGY.)
Adult and Pediatric Patients:
Inhalational anthrax (post-exposure): To reduce the incidence or progression of disease following
exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis.
Ciprofloxacin serum concentrations achieved in humans serve as a surrogate endpoint reasonably
likely to predict clinical benefit and provide the basis for this indication.4 (See also,
INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX – ADDITIONAL INFORMATION).
†
Although treatment of infections due to this organism in this organ system demonstrated a clinically
significant outcome, efficacy was studied in fewer than 10 patients.
If anaerobic organisms are suspected of contributing to the infection, appropriate therapy should be
administered. Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in
order to isolate and identify organisms causing infection and to determine their susceptibility to
ciprofloxacin. Therapy with CIPRO may be initiated before results of these tests are known; once
results become available appropriate therapy should be continued. As with other drugs, some strains of
Pseudomonas aeruginosa may develop resistance fairly rapidly during treatment with ciprofloxacin.
Culture and susceptibility testing performed periodically during therapy will provide information not
only on the therapeutic effect of the antimicrobial agent but also on the possible emergence of bacterial
resistance.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of CIPRO Tablets
and CIPRO Oral Suspension and other antibacterial drugs, CIPRO Tablets and CIPRO Oral
Suspension should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be
caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should
be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local
epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
CONTRAINDICATIONS
CIPRO (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride) is contraindicated in persons with a history of hypersensitivity to
ciprofloxacin or any member of the quinolone class of antimicrobial agents.
WARNINGS
Pregnant Women: THE SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN
PREGNANT AND LACTATING WOMEN HAVE NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED. (See
PRECAUTIONS: Pregnancy, and Nursing Mothers subsections.)
Pediatrics: Ciprofloxacin should be used in pediatric patients (less than 18 years of age) only
for infections listed in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section. An increased incidence of
adverse events compared to controls, including events related to joints and/or surrounding
tissues, has been observed. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS.)
In pre-clinical studies, oral administration of ciprofloxacin caused lameness in immature dogs.
Histopathological examination of the weight-bearing joints of these dogs revealed permanent
lesions of the cartilage. Related quinolone-class drugs also produce erosions of cartilage of
weight-bearing joints and other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species.
(See ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY.)
Central Nervous System Disorders: Convulsions, increased intracranial pressure, and toxic
psychosis have been reported in patients receiving quinolones, including ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin
may also cause central nervous system (CNS) events including: dizziness, confusion, tremors,
hallucinations, depression, and, rarely, suicidal thoughts or acts. These reactions may occur following
the first dose. If these reactions occur in patients receiving ciprofloxacin, the drug should be
discontinued and appropriate measures instituted. As with all quinolones, ciprofloxacin should be used
with caution in patients with known or suspected CNS disorders that may predispose to seizures or
lower the seizure threshold (e.g. severe cerebral arteriosclerosis, epilepsy), or in the presence of other
risk factors that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g. certain drug therapy,
renal dysfunction). (See PRECAUTIONS: General, Information for Patients, Drug Interactions
and ADVERSE REACTIONS.)
Theophylline: SERIOUS AND FATAL REACTIONS HAVE BEEN REPORTED IN
PATIENTS RECEIVING CONCURRENT ADMINISTRATION OF CIPROFLOXACIN
AND THEOPHYLLINE. These reactions have included cardiac arrest, seizure, status epilepticus,
and respiratory failure. Although similar serious adverse effects have been reported in patients
receiving theophylline alone, the possibility that these reactions may be potentiated by ciprofloxacin
cannot be eliminated. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, serum levels of theophylline should be
monitored and dosage adjustments made as appropriate.
Hypersensitivity Reactions: Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic)
reactions, some following the first dose, have been reported in patients receiving quinolone therapy.
Some reactions were accompanied by cardiovascular collapse, loss of consciousness, tingling,
pharyngeal or facial edema, dyspnea, urticaria, and itching. Only a few patients had a history of
hypersensitivity reactions. Serious anaphylactic reactions require immediate emergency treatment with
epinephrine. Oxygen, intravenous steroids, and airway management, including intubation, should be
administered as indicated.
Severe hypersensitivity reactions characterized by rash, fever, eosinophilia, jaundice, and hepatic
necrosis with fatal outcome have also been rarely reported in patients receiving ciprofloxacin along
with other drugs. The possibility that these reactions were related to ciprofloxacin cannot be excluded.
Ciprofloxacin should be discontinued at the first appearance of a skin rash or any other sign of
hypersensitivity.
Pseudomembranous Colitis: Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all
antibacterial agents, including ciprofloxacin, and may range in severity from mild to
life-threatening. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with
diarrhea subsequent to the administration of antibacterial agents.
Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of
clostridia. Studies indicate that a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile is one primary cause of
“antibiotic-associated colitis.”
After the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis has been established, therapeutic measures
should be initiated. Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to drug
discontinuation alone. In moderate to severe cases, consideration should be given to
management with fluids and electrolytes, protein supplementation, and treatment with an
antibacterial drug clinically effective against C. difficile colitis. Drugs that inhibit peristalsis
should be avoided.
Peripheral neuropathy: Rare cases of sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy
affecting small and/or large axons resulting in paresthesias, hypoesthesias, dysesthesias and
weakness have been reported in patients receiving quinolones, including ciprofloxacin.
Ciprofloxacin should be discontinued if the patient experiences symptoms of neuropathy
including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness, or is found to have deficits in
light touch, pain, temperature, position sense, vibratory sensation, and/or motor strength in
order to prevent the development of an irreversible condition.
Tendon Effects: Ruptures of the shoulder, hand, Achilles tendon or other tendons that required
surgical repair or resulted in prolonged disability have been reported in patients receiving quinolones,
including ciprofloxacin. Post-marketing surveillance reports indicate that this risk may be increased in
patients receiving concomitant corticosteroids, especially the elderly. Ciprofloxacin should be
discontinued if the patient experiences pain, inflammation, or rupture of a tendon. Patients should rest
and refrain from exercise until the diagnosis of tendinitis or tendon rupture has been excluded.
Tendon rupture can occur during or after therapy with quinolones, including ciprofloxacin.
Syphilis: Ciprofloxacin has not been shown to be effective in the treatment of syphilis. Antimicrobial
agents used in high dose for short periods of time to treat gonorrhea may mask or delay the symptoms
of incubating syphilis. All patients with gonorrhea should have a serologic test for syphilis at the time
of diagnosis. Patients treated with ciprofloxacin should have a follow-up serologic test for syphilis after
three months.
PRECAUTIONS
General: Crystals of ciprofloxacin have been observed rarely in the urine of human subjects but more
frequently in the urine of laboratory animals, which is usually alkaline. (See ANIMAL
PHARMACOLOGY.) Crystalluria related to ciprofloxacin has been reported only rarely in humans
because human urine is usually acidic. Alkalinity of the urine should be avoided in patients receiving
ciprofloxacin. Patients should be well hydrated to prevent the formation of highly concentrated urine.
Central Nervous System: Quinolones, including ciprofloxacin, may also cause central nervous
system (CNS) events, including: nervousness, agitation, insomnia, anxiety, nightmares or paranoia.
(See WARNINGS, Information for Patients, and Drug Interactions.)
Renal Impairment: Alteration of the dosage regimen is necessary for patients with impairment of renal
function. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
Phototoxicity: Moderate to severe phototoxicity manifested as an exaggerated sunburn reaction has
been observed in patients who are exposed to direct sunlight while receiving some members of the
quinolone class of drugs. Excessive sunlight should be avoided. Therapy should be discontinued if
phototoxicity occurs.
As with any potent drug, periodic assessment of organ system functions, including renal, hepatic, and
hematopoietic function, is advisable during prolonged therapy.
Prescribing CIPRO Tablets and CIPRO Oral Suspension in the absence of a proven or strongly
suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and
increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Information for Patients:
Patients should be advised:
• that antibacterial drugs including CIPRO Tablets and CIPRO Oral Suspension should only be used
to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When CIPRO
Tablets and CIPRO Oral Suspension is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be
told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be
taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1)
decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria
will develop resistance and will not be treatable by CIPRO Tablets and CIPRO Oral Suspension or
other antibacterial drugs in the future.
• that ciprofloxacin may be taken with or without meals and to drink fluids liberally. As with other
quinolones, concurrent administration of ciprofloxacin with magnesium/aluminum antacids, or
sucralfate, Videx® (didanosine) chewable/buffered tablets or pediatric powder, other highly buffered
drugs, or with other products containing calcium, iron or zinc should be avoided. Ciprofloxacin may
be taken two hours before or six hours after taking these products. Ciprofloxacin should not be taken
with dairy products (like milk or yogurt) or calcium-fortified juices alone since absorption of
ciprofloxacin may be significantly reduced; however, ciprofloxacin may be taken with a meal that
contains these products.
• that ciprofloxacin may be associated with hypersensitivity reactions, even following a single dose,
and to discontinue the drug at the first sign of a skin rash or other allergic reaction.
• to avoid excessive sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light while receiving ciprofloxacin and to
discontinue therapy if phototoxicity occurs.
•that peripheral neuropathies have been associated with ciprofloxacin use. If symptoms of
peripheral neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness and/or weakness develop,
they should discontinue treatment and contact their physicians.
• to discontinue treatment; rest and refrain from exercise; and inform their physician if they experience
pain, inflammation, or rupture of a tendon.
• that ciprofloxacin may cause dizziness and lightheadedness; therefore, patients should know how
they react to this drug before they operate an automobile or machinery or engage in activities
requiring mental alertness or coordination.
• that ciprofloxacin may increase the effects of theophylline and caffeine. There is a possibility of
caffeine accumulation when products containing caffeine are consumed while taking quinolones.
• that convulsions have been reported in patients receiving quinolones, including ciprofloxacin, and to
notify their physician before taking this drug if there is a history of this condition.
• that ciprofloxacin has been associated with an increased rate of adverse events involving
joints and surrounding tissue structures (like tendons) in pediatric patients (less than 18 years
of age). Parents should inform their child’s physician if the child has a history of joint-related
problems before taking this drug. Parents of pediatric patients should also notify their child’s
physician of any joint-related problems that occur during or following ciprofloxacin therapy.
(See WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use and ADVERSE REACTIONS.)
Drug Interactions: As with some other quinolones, concurrent administration of ciprofloxacin with
theophylline may lead to elevated serum concentrations of theophylline and prolongation of its
elimination half-life. This may result in increased risk of theophylline-related adverse reactions. (See
WARNINGS.) If concomitant use cannot be avoided, serum levels of theophylline should be
monitored and dosage adjustments made as appropriate.
Some quinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have also been shown to interfere with the metabolism of
caffeine. This may lead to reduced clearance of caffeine and a prolongation of its serum half-life.
Concurrent administration of a quinolone, including ciprofloxacin, with multivalent cation-containing
products such as magnesium/aluminum antacids, sucralfate, Videx® (didanosine) chewable/buffered
tablets or pediatric powder, other highly buffered drugs, or products containing calcium, iron, or zinc
may substantially decrease its absorption, resulting in serum and urine levels considerably lower than
desired. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for concurrent administration of these agents
with ciprofloxacin.)
Histamine H2-receptor antagonists appear to have no significant effect on the bioavailability of
ciprofloxacin.
Altered serum levels of phenytoin (increased and decreased) have been reported in patients receiving
concomitant ciprofloxacin.
The concomitant administration of ciprofloxacin with the sulfonylurea glyburide has, on rare occasions,
resulted in severe hypoglycemia.
Some quinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have been associated with transient elevations in serum
creatinine in patients receiving cyclosporine concomitantly.
Quinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have been reported to enhance the effects of the oral
anticoagulant warfarin or its derivatives. When these products are administered concomitantly,
prothrombin time or other suitable coagulation tests should be closely monitored.
Probenecid interferes with renal tubular secretion of ciprofloxacin and produces an increase in the level
of ciprofloxacin in the serum. This should be considered if patients are receiving both drugs concomitantly.
Renal tubular transport of methotrexate may be inhibited by concomitant administration of
ciprofloxacin potentially leading to increased plasma levels of methotrexate. This might
increase the risk of methotrexate associated toxic reactions. Therefore, patients under
methotrexate therapy should be carefully monitored when concomitant ciprofloxacin therapy is
indicated.
Metoclopramide significantly accelerates the absorption of oral ciprofloxacin resulting in shorter time to
reach maximum plasma concentrations. No significant effect was observed on the bioavailability of
ciprofloxacin.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (but not acetyl salicylic acid) in combination of very high doses
of quinolones have been shown to provoke convulsions in pre-clinical studies.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility: Eight in vitro mutagenicity tests have been
conducted with ciprofloxacin, and the test results are listed below:
Salmonella/Microsome Test (Negative)
E. coli DNA Repair Assay (Negative)
Mouse Lymphoma Cell Forward Mutation Assay (Positive)
Chinese Hamster V79 Cell HGPRT Test (Negative)
Syrian Hamster Embryo Cell Transformation Assay (Negative)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Point Mutation Assay (Negative)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitotic Crossover and Gene Conversion Assay (Negative)
Rat Hepatocyte DNA Repair Assay (Positive)
Thus, 2 of the 8 tests were positive, but results of the following 3 in vivo test systems gave negative
results:
Rat Hepatocyte DNA Repair Assay
Micronucleus Test (Mice)
Dominant Lethal Test (Mice)
Long-term carcinogenicity studies in rats and mice resulted in no carcinogenic or tumorigenic effects
due to ciprofloxacin at daily oral dose levels up to 250 and 750 mg/kg to rats and mice,
respectively (approximately 1.7- and 2.5- times the highest recommended therapeutic dose
based upon mg/m2).
Results from photo co-carcinogenicity testing indicate that ciprofloxacin does not reduce the time to
appearance of UV-induced skin tumors as compared to vehicle control. Hairless (Skh-1) mice were
exposed to UVA light for 3.5 hours five times every two weeks for up to 78 weeks while concurrently
being administered ciprofloxacin. The time to development of the first skin tumors was 50 weeks in
mice treated concomitantly with UVA and ciprofloxacin (mouse dose approximately equal to maximum recommended human dose based upon mg/m2), as opposed to 34 weeks when animals were
treated with both UVA and vehicle. The times to development of skin tumors ranged from 16-32
weeks in mice treated concomitantly with UVA and other quinolones.3
In this model, mice treated with ciprofloxacin alone did not develop skin or systemic tumors. There are
no data from similar models using pigmented mice and/or fully haired mice. The clinical significance
of these findings to humans is unknown.
Fertility studies performed in rats at oral doses of ciprofloxacin up to 100 mg/kg (approximately
0.7-times the highest recommended therapeutic dose based upon mg/m2) revealed no evidence of
impairment.
Pregnancy: Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category C: There are no adequate and
well-controlled studies in pregnant women. An expert review of published data on experiences with
ciprofloxacin use during pregnancy by TERIS – the Teratogen Information System – concluded that
therapeutic doses during pregnancy are unlikely to pose a substantial teratogenic risk (quantity and
quality of data=fair), but the data are insufficient to state that there is no risk.7
A controlled prospective observational study followed 200 women exposed to
fluoroquinolones (52.5% exposed to ciprofloxacin and 68% first trimester exposures) during
gestation.8 In utero exposure to fluoroquinolones during embryogenesis was not associated
with increased risk of major malformations. The reported rates of major congenital
malformations were 2.2% for the fluoroquinolone group and 2.6% for the control group
(background incidence of major malformations is 1-5%). Rates of spontaneous abortions,
prematurity and low birth weight did not differ between the groups and there were no clinically
significant musculoskeletal dysfunctions up to one year of age in the ciprofloxacin exposed
children.
Another prospective follow-up study reported on 549 pregnancies with fluoroquinolone exposure (93%
first trimester exposures).9 There were 70 ciprofloxacin exposures, all within the first trimester. The
malformation rates among live-born babies exposed to ciprofloxacin and to fluoroquinolones overall
were both within background incidence ranges. No specific patterns of congenital abnormalities were
found. The study did not reveal any clear adverse reactions due to in utero exposure to ciprofloxacin.
No differences in the rates of prematurity, spontaneous abortions, or birth weight were seen in women
exposed to ciprofloxacin during pregnancy.7,8 However, these small postmarketing epidemiology studies,
of which most experience is from short term, first trimester exposure, are insufficient to evaluate the risk
for less common defects or to permit reliable and definitive conclusions regarding the safety of
ciprofloxacin in pregnant women and their developing fetuses. Ciprofloxacin should not be used during
pregnancy unless the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to both fetus and mother (see
WARNINGS).
Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and mice using oral doses up to 100 mg/kg (0.6 and
0.3 times the maximum daily human dose based upon body surface area, respectively) and have revealed
no evidence of harm to the fetus due to ciprofloxacin. In rabbits, oral ciprofloxacin dose levels of 30 and
100 mg/kg (approximately 0.4- and 1.3-times the highest recommended therapeutic dose based
upon mg/m2) produced gastrointestinal toxicity resulting in maternal weight loss and an increased
incidence of abortion, but no teratogenicity was observed at either dose level. After intravenous
administration of doses up to 20 mg/kg (approximately 0.3-times the highest recommended
therapeutic dose based upon mg/m2) no maternal toxicity was produced and no embryotoxicity or
teratogenicity was observed. (See WARNINGS.)
Nursing Mothers: Ciprofloxacin is excreted in human milk. The amount of ciprofloxacin absorbed by
the nursing infant is unknown. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in infants nursing
from mothers taking ciprofloxacin, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to
discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Pediatric Use: Ciprofloxacin, like other quinolones, causes arthropathy and histological changes in
weight-bearing joints of juvenile animals resulting in lameness. (See ANIMAL
PHARMACOLOGY.)
Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)
Ciprofloxacin is indicated in pediatric patients for inhalational anthrax (post-exposure). The
risk-benefit assessment indicates that administration of ciprofloxacin to pediatric patients is appropriate.
For information regarding pediatric dosing in inhalational anthrax (post-exposure), see DOSAGE AND
ADMINISTRATION and INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX – ADDITIONAL INFORMATION.
Complicated Urinary Tract Infection and Pyelonephritis
Ciprofloxacin is indicated for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and
pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli. Although effective in clinical trials, ciprofloxacin is not
a drug of first choice in the pediatric population due to an increased incidence of adverse events
compared to the controls, including events related to joints and/or surrounding tissues. The
rates of these events in pediatric patients with complicated urinary tract infection and
pyelonephritis within six weeks of follow-up were 9.3% (31/335) versus 6.0% (21/349) for
control agents. The rates of these events occurring at any time up to the one year follow-up
were 13.7% (46/335) and 9.5% (33/349), respectively. The rate of all adverse events regardless
of drug relationship at six weeks was 41% (138/335) in the ciprofloxacin arm compared to 31%
(109/349) in the control arm. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS and CLINICAL STUDIES.)
Cystic Fibrosis
Short-term safety data from a single trial in pediatric cystic fibrosis patients are available. In a
randomized, double-blind clinical trial for the treatment of acute pulmonary exacerbations in
cystic fibrosis patients (ages 5-17 years), 67 patients received ciprofloxacin I.V. 10 mg/kg/dose
q8h for one week followed by ciprofloxacin tablets 20 mg/kg/dose q12h to complete 10-21
days treatment and 62 patients received the combination of ceftazidime I.V. 50 mg/kg/dose q8h
and tobramycin I.V. 3 mg/kg/dose q8h for a total of 10-21 days. Patients less than 5 years of age
were not studied. Safety monitoring in the study included periodic range of motion
examinations and gait assessments by treatment-blinded examiners. Patients were followed for
an average of 23 days after completing treatment (range 0-93 days). This study was not
designed to determine long term effects and the safety of repeated exposure to ciprofloxacin.
Musculoskeletal adverse events in patients with cystic fibrosis were reported in 22% of the
patients in the ciprofloxacin group and 21% in the comparison group. Decreased range of
motion was reported in 12% of the subjects in the ciprofloxacin group and 16% in the
comparison group. Arthralgia was reported in 10% of the patients in the ciprofloxacin group
and 11% in the comparison group. Other adverse events were similar in nature and frequency
between treatment arms. One of sixty-seven patients developed arthritis of the knee nine days
after a ten day course of treatment with ciprofloxacin. Clinical symptoms resolved, but an MRI
showed knee effusion without other abnormalities eight months after treatment. However, the
relationship of this event to the patient’s course of ciprofloxacin can not be definitively
determined, particularly since patients with cystic fibrosis may develop arthralgias/arthritis as
part of their underlying disease process.
Geriatric Use: In a retrospective analysis of 23 multiple-dose controlled clinical trials of ciprofloxacin
encompassing over 3500 ciprofloxacin treated patients, 25% of patients were greater than or equal to 65
years of age and 10% were greater than or equal to 75 years of age. No overall differences in safety or
effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported
clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger
patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals on any drug therapy cannot be ruled
out. Ciprofloxacin is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse
reactions may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. No alteration of dosage is
necessary for patients greater than 65 years of age with normal renal function. However, since some
older individuals experience reduced renal function by virtue of their advanced age, care should be taken
in dose selection for elderly patients, and renal function monitoring may be useful in these patients.
(See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
ADVERSE REACTIONS
Adverse Reactions in Adult Patients: During clinical investigations with oral and parenteral
ciprofloxacin, 49,038 patients received courses of the drug. Most of the adverse events reported were
described as only mild or moderate in severity, abated soon after the drug was discontinued, and
required no treatment. Ciprofloxacin was discontinued because of an adverse event in 1.0% of
orally treated patients.
The most frequently reported drug related events, from clinical trials of all formulations, all dosages, all
drug-therapy durations, and for all indications of ciprofloxacin therapy were nausea (2.5%),
diarrhea (1.6%), liver function tests abnormal (1.3%), vomiting (1.0%), and rash (1.0%).
Additional medically important events that occurred in less than 1% of ciprofloxacin patients are listed
below.
BODY AS A WHOLE: headache, abdominal pain/discomfort, foot pain, pain, pain in
extremities, injection site reaction (ciprofloxacin intravenous)
CARDIOVASCULAR: palpitation, atrial flutter, ventricular ectopy, syncope, hypertension,
angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, cardiopulmonary arrest, cerebral thrombosis,
phlebitis, tachycardia, migraine, hypotension
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: restlessness, dizziness, lightheadedness, insomnia, nightmares,
hallucinations, manic reaction, irritability, tremor, ataxia, convulsive seizures, lethargy,
drowsiness, weakness, malaise, anorexia, phobia, depersonalization, depression,
paresthesia, abnormal gait, grand mal convulsion
GASTROINTESTINAL: painful oral mucosa, oral candidiasis, dysphagia, intestinal perforation,
gastrointestinal bleeding, cholestatic jaundice, hepatitis
HEMIC/LYMPHATIC: lymphadenopathy, petechia
METABOLIC/NUTRITIONAL: amylase increase, lipase increase
MUSCULOSKELETAL: arthralgia or back pain, joint stiffness, achiness, neck or chest pain,
flare up of gout
RENAL/UROGENITAL: interstitial nephritis, nephritis, renal failure, polyuria, urinary
retention, urethral bleeding, vaginitis, acidosis, breast pain
RESPIRATORY: dyspnea, epistaxis, laryngeal or pulmonary edema, hiccough,
hemoptysis, bronchospasm, pulmonary embolism
SKIN/HYPERSENSITIVITY: allergic reaction, pruritus, urticaria, photosensitivity,
flushing, fever, chills, angioedema, edema of the face, neck, lips, conjunctivae or hands,
cutaneous candidiasis, hyperpigmentation, erythema nodosum, sweating
SPECIAL SENSES: blurred vision, disturbed vision (change in color perception,
overbrightness of lights), decreased visual acuity, diplopia, eye pain, tinnitus, hearing loss, bad
taste, chromatopsia
In several instances nausea, vomiting, tremor, irritability, or palpitation were judged by investigators to
be related to elevated serum levels of theophylline possibly as a result of drug interaction with
ciprofloxacin.
In randomized, double-blind controlled clinical trials comparing ciprofloxacin tablets (500 mg BID) to
cefuroxime axetil (250 mg - 500 mg BID) and to clarithromycin (500 mg BID) in patients with
respiratory tract infections, ciprofloxacin demonstrated a CNS adverse event profile comparable to the
control drugs.
Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients: Ciprofloxacin, administered I.V. and /or orally, was
compared to a cephalosporin for treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) or
pyelonephritis in pediatric patients 1 to 17 years of age (mean age of 6 + 4 years). The trial was
conducted in the US, Canada, Argentina, Peru, Costa Rica, Mexico, South Africa, and
Germany. The duration of therapy was 10 to 21 days (mean duration of treatment was 11 days
with a range of 1 to 88 days). The primary objective of the study was to assess musculoskeletal
and neurological safety within 6 weeks of therapy and through one year of follow-up in the 335
ciprofloxacin- and 349 comparator-treated patients enrolled.
An Independent Pediatric Safety Committee (IPSC) reviewed all cases of musculoskeletal
adverse events as well as all patients with an abnormal gait or abnormal joint exam (baseline or
treatment-emergent). These events were evaluated in a comprehensive fashion and included
such conditions as arthralgia, abnormal gait, abnormal joint exam, joint sprains, leg pain, back
pain, arthrosis, bone pain, pain, myalgia, arm pain, and decreased range of motion in a joint.
The affected joints included: knee, elbow, ankle, hip, wrist, and shoulder. Within 6 weeks of
treatment initiation, the rates of these events were 9.3% (31/335) in the ciprofloxacin-treated
group versus 6.0 % (21/349) in comparator-treated patients. The majority of these events were
mild or moderate in intensity. All musculoskeletal events occurring by 6 weeks resolved
(clinical resolution of signs and symptoms), usually within 30 days of end of treatment.
Radiological evaluations were not routinely used to confirm resolution of the events. The
events occurred more frequently in ciprofloxacin-treated patients than control patients,
regardless of whether they received I.V. or oral therapy. Ciprofloxacin-treated patients were
more likely to report more than one event and on more than one occasion compared to control
patients. These events occurred in all age groups and the rates were consistently higher in the
ciprofloxacin group compared to the control group. At the end of 1 year, the rate of these events
reported at any time during that period was 13.7% (46/335) in the ciprofloxacin-treated group
versus 9.5% (33/349) comparator-treated patients.
An adolescent female discontinued ciprofloxacin for wrist pain that developed during
treatment. An MRI performed 4 weeks later showed a tear in the right ulnar fibrocartilage. A
diagnosis of overuse syndrome secondary to sports activity was made, but a contribution from
ciprofloxacin cannot be excluded. The patient recovered by 4 months without surgical
intervention.
Findings Involving Joint or Peri-articular Tissues as Assessed by the IPSC
Ciprofloxacin
All Patients (within 6 weeks)
95% Confidence Interval*
Age Group
≥ 12 months < 24 months
≥ 2 years < 6 years
≥ 6 years < 12 years
≥ 12 years to 17 years
All Patients (within 1 year)
95% Confidence Interval*
Comparator
31/335 (9.3%)
21/349 (6.0%)
(-0.8%, +7.2%)
1/36 (2.8%)
5/124 (4.0%)
18/143 (12.6%)
7/32 (21.9%)
0/41
3/118 (2.5%)
12/153 (7.8%)
6/37 (16.2 %)
46/335 (13.7%)
33/349 (9.5%)
(-0.6%, + 9.1%)
*The study was designed to demonstrate that the arthropathy rate for the ciprofloxacin group did not exceed
that of the control group by more than + 6%. At both the 6 week and 1 year evaluations, the 95% confidence
interval indicated that it could not be concluded that ciprofloxacin group had findings comparable to the
control group.
The incidence rates of neurological events within 6 weeks of treatment initiation were 3%
(9/335) in the ciprofloxacin group versus 2% (7/349) in the comparator group and included
dizziness, nervousness, insomnia, and somnolence.
In this trial, the overall incidence rates of adverse events regardless of relationship to study
drug and within 6 weeks of treatment initiation were 41% (138/335) in the ciprofloxacin group
versus 31% (109/349) in the comparator group. The most frequent events were gastrointestinal:
15% (50/335) of ciprofloxacin patients compared to 9% (31/349) of comparator patients.
Serious adverse events were seen in 7.5% (25/335) of ciprofloxacin-treated patients compared
to 5.7% (20/349) of control patients. Discontinuation of drug due to an adverse event was
observed in 3% (10/335) of ciprofloxacin-treated patients versus 1.4% (5/349) of comparator
patients. Other adverse events that occurred in at least 1% of ciprofloxacin patients were
diarrhea 4.8%, vomiting 4.8%, abdominal pain 3.3%, accidental injury 3.0%, rhinitis 3.0%,
dyspepsia 2.7%, nausea 2.7%, fever 2.1%, asthma 1.8% and rash 1.8%.
In addition to the events reported in pediatric patients in clinical trials, it should be expected
that events reported in adults during clinical trials or post-marketing experience may also occur
in pediatric patients.
Post-Marketing Adverse Events: The following adverse events have been reported from worldwide
marketing experience with quinolones, including ciprofloxacin. Because these events are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their
frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Decisions to include these events in
labeling are typically based on one or more of the following factors: (1) seriousness of the event, (2)
frequency of the reporting, or (3) strength of causal connection to the drug.
Agitation, agranulocytosis, albuminuria, anaphylactic reactions (including life-threatening
anaphylactic shock), anosmia, candiduria, cholesterol elevation (serum), confusion, constipation,
delirium, dyspepsia, dysphagia, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, fixed eruption, flatulence,
glucose elevation (blood), hemolytic anemia, hepatic failure, hepatic necrosis, hyperesthesia,
hypertonia, hypesthesia, hypotension (postural), jaundice, marrow depression (life threatening),
methemoglobinemia, moniliasis (oral, gastrointestinal, vaginal), myalgia, myasthenia, myasthenia
gravis (possible exacerbation), myoclonus, nystagmus, pancreatitis, pancytopenia (life threatening or
fatal outcome), peripheral neuropathy, phenytoin alteration (serum), potassium elevation (serum),
prothrombin time prolongation or decrease, pseudomembranous colitis (The onset of
pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antimicrobial treatment.), psychosis
(toxic), renal calculi, serum sickness like reaction, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, taste loss, tendinitis,
tendon rupture, torsade de pointes, toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell’s Syndrome), triglyceride
elevation (serum), twitching, vaginal candidiasis, and vasculitis. (See PRECAUTIONS.)
Adverse Laboratory Changes: Changes in laboratory parameters listed as adverse events without
regard to drug relationship are listed below:
Hepatic
– Elevations of ALT (SGPT) (1.9%), AST (SGOT) (1.7%), alkaline phosphatase
(0.8%), LDH (0.4%), serum bilirubin (0.3%).
Hematologic – Eosinophilia (0.6%), leukopenia (0.4%), decreased blood platelets (0.1%),
elevated blood platelets (0.1%), pancytopenia (0.1%).
Renal
– Elevations of serum creatinine (1.1%), BUN (0.9%), CRYSTALLURIA,
CYLINDRURIA, AND HEMATURIA HAVE BEEN REPORTED.
Other changes occurring in less than 0.1% of courses were: elevation of serum gammaglutamyl
transferase, elevation of serum amylase, reduction in blood glucose, elevated uric acid, decrease in
hemoglobin, anemia, bleeding diathesis, increase in blood monocytes, leukocytosis.
OVERDOSAGE
In the event of acute overdosage, reversible renal toxicity has been reported in some cases. The
stomach should be emptied by inducing vomiting or by gastric lavage. The patient should be carefully
observed and given supportive treatment, including monitoring of renal function and administration of
magnesium, aluminum, or calcium containing antacids which can reduce the absorption of
ciprofloxacin. Adequate hydration must be maintained. Only a small amount of ciprofloxacin (< 10%)
is removed from the body after hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
Single doses of ciprofloxacin were relatively non-toxic via the oral route of administration in mice, rats,
and dogs. No deaths occurred within a 14-day post treatment observation period at the highest oral
doses tested; up to 5000 mg/kg in either rodent species, or up to 2500 mg/kg in the dog. Clinical signs
observed included hypoactivity and cyanosis in both rodent species and severe vomiting in dogs. In
rabbits, significant mortality was seen at doses of ciprofloxacin > 2500 mg/kg. Mortality was delayed
in these animals, occurring 10-14 days after dosing.
In mice, rats, rabbits and dogs, significant toxicity including tonic/clonic convulsions was observed at
intravenous doses of ciprofloxacin between 125 and 300 mg/kg.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION - ADULTS
CIPRO Tablets and Oral Suspension should be administered orally to adults as described in the Dosage
Guidelines table.
The determination of dosage for any particular patient must take into consideration the severity and
nature of the infection, the susceptibility of the causative organism, the integrity of the patient’s
host-defense mechanisms, and the status of renal function and hepatic function.
The duration of treatment depends upon the severity of infection. The usual duration is 7 to 14 days;
however, for severe and complicated infections more prolonged therapy may be required.
Ciprofloxacin should be administered at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after magnesium/aluminum
antacids, or sucralfate, Videx® (didanosine) chewable/buffered tablets or pediatric powder for oral
solution, other highly buffered drugs, or other products containing calcium, iron or zinc.
Infection
ADULT DOSAGE GUIDELINES
Severity
Dose
Frequency
Usual Durations†
Urinary Tract
Acute Uncomplicated
Mild/Moderate
Severe/Complicated
250 mg
250 mg
500 mg
q 12 h
q 12 h
q 12 h
3 Days
7 to 14 Days
7 to 14 Days
Chronic Bacterial
Prostatitis
Mild/Moderate
500 mg
q 12 h
28 Days
Lower Respiratory Tract Mild/Moderate
Severe/Complicated
500 mg
750 mg
q 12 h
q 12 h
7 to 14 days
7 to 14 days
Acute Sinusitis
Mild/Moderate
500 mg
q 12 h
10 days
Skin and
Skin Structure
Mild/Moderate
Severe/Complicated
500 mg
750 mg
q 12 h
q 12 h
7 to 14 Days
7 to 14 Days
Bone and Joint
Mild/Moderate
Severe/Complicated
500 mg
750 mg
q 12 h
q 12 h
≥ 4 to 6 weeks
≥ 4 to 6 weeks
Intra-Abdominal*
Complicated
500 mg
q 12 h
7 to 14 Days
Infectious Diarrhea
Mild/Moderate/Severe
500 mg
q 12 h
5 to 7 Days
Typhoid Fever
Mild/Moderate
500 mg
q 12 h
10 Days
Urethral and Cervical
Gonococcal Infections
Uncomplicated
250 mg
single dose
500 mg
q 12 h
Inhalational anthrax
(post-exposure)**
single dose
60 Days
* used in conjunction with metronidazole
† Generally ciprofloxacin should be continued for at least 2 days after the signs and symptoms of
infection have disappeared, except for inhalational anthrax (post-exposure).
** Drug administration should begin as soon as possible after suspected or confirmed exposure.
This indication is based on a surrogate endpoint, ciprofloxacin serum concentrations achieved in
humans, reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit.4 For a discussion of ciprofloxacin serum
concentrations in various human populations, see INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX –
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION.
Conversion of I.V. to Oral Dosing in Adults: Patients whose therapy is started with CIPRO I.V.
may be switched to CIPRO Tablets or Oral Suspension when clinically indicated at the discretion of the
physician (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and table below for the equivalent dosing regimens).
Equivalent AUC Dosing Regimens
Cipro Oral Dosage
Equivalent Cipro I.V. Dosage
250 mg Tablet q 12 h
200 mg I.V. q 12 h
500 mg Tablet q 12 h
400 mg I.V. q 12 h
750 mg Tablet q 12 h
400 mg I.V. q 8 h
Adults with Impaired Renal Function: Ciprofloxacin is eliminated primarily by renal excretion;
however, the drug is also metabolized and partially cleared through the biliary system of the liver and
through the intestine. These alternative pathways of drug elimination appear to compensate for the
reduced renal excretion in patients with renal impairment. Nonetheless, some modification of dosage is
recommended, particularly for patients with severe renal dysfunction. The following table provides
dosage guidelines for use in patients with renal impairment:
RECOMMENDED STARTING AND MAINTENANCE DOSES
FOR PATIENTS WITH IMPAIRED RENAL FUNCTION
Creatinine Clearance (mL/min)
Dose
> 50
See Usual Dosage.
30 – 50
250 – 500 mg q 12 h
5 – 29
250 – 500 mg q 18 h
Patients on hemodialysis
250 – 500 mg q 24 h (after dialysis)
or Peritoneal dialysis
When only the serum creatinine concentration is known, the following formula may be used to estimate
creatinine clearance.
Men: Creatinine clearance (mL/min) = Weight (kg) x (140 - age)
72 x serum creatinine (mg/dL)
Women: 0.85 x the value calculated for men.
The serum creatinine should represent a steady state of renal function.
In patients with severe infections and severe renal impairment, a unit dose of 750 mg may be administered
at the intervals noted above. Patients should be carefully monitored.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION - PEDIATRICS
CIPRO Tablets and Oral Suspension should be administered orally as described in the Dosage
Guidelines table. An increased incidence of adverse events compared to controls, including
events related to joints and/or surrounding tissues, has been observed. (See ADVERSE
REACTIONS and CLINICAL STUDIES.)
Dosing and initial route of therapy (i.e., I.V. or oral) for complicated urinary tract infection or
pyelonephritis should be determined by the severity of the infection. In the clinical trial,
pediatric patients with moderate to severe infection were initiated on 6 to 10 mg/kg I.V. every 8
hours and allowed to switch to oral therapy (10 to 20 mg/kg every 12 hours), at the discretion of
the physician.
Infection
PEDIATRIC DOSAGE GUIDELINES
Route of
Dose
Frequency
Administration
(mg/kg)
Complicated
Urinary Tract
or
Pyelonephritis
Intravenous
(patients from
1 to 17 years of
age)
Oral
Inhalational
Anthrax
(PostExposure)**
Intravenous
Oral
6 to 10 mg/kg
(maximum 400 mg per
dose; not to be exceeded
even in patients weighing
> 51 kg)
10 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg
(maximum 750 mg per
dose; not to be exceeded
even in patients weighing
> 51 kg)
10 mg/kg
(maximum 400 mg per
dose)
15 mg/kg
(maximum 500 mg per
dose)
Total Duration
Every 8
hours
10-21 days*
Every 12
hours
Every 12
hours
Every 12
hours
60 days
* The total duration of therapy for complicated urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis in the clinical trial
was determined by the physician. The mean duration of treatment was 11 days (range 10 to 21 days).
**
Drug administration should begin as soon as possible after suspected or confirmed exposure to Bacillus
anthracis spores. This indication is based on a surrogate endpoint, ciprofloxacin serum concentrations
achieved in humans, reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit.4 For a discussion of ciprofloxacin serum
concentrations in various human populations, see INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX – ADDITIONAL
INFORMATION.
Pediatric patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency were excluded from the clinical
trial of complicated urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis. No information is available on
dosing adjustments necessary for pediatric patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency
(i.e., creatinine clearance of < 50 mL/min/1.73m2).
HOW SUPPLIED
CIPRO (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride) Tablets are available as round, slightly yellowish film-coated
tablets containing 250 mg ciprofloxacin. The 250 mg tablet is coded with the word “CIPRO” on one side
and “250” on the reverse side. CIPRO is also available as capsule shaped, slightly yellowish film-coated
tablets containing 500 mg or 750 mg ciprofloxacin. The 500 mg tablet is coded with the word “CIPRO”
on one side and “500” on the reverse side. The 750 mg tablet is coded with the word “CIPRO” on one
side and “750” on the reverse side. CIPRO 250 mg, 500 mg, and 750 mg are available in bottles of 50,
100, and Unit Dose packages of 100.
Bottles of 50:
Bottles of 100:
Strength
750 mg
250 mg
500 mg
NDC Code
NDC 0085-1756-01
NDC 0085-1758-01
NDC 0085-1754-01
Tablet Identification
CIPRO 750
CIPRO 250
CIPRO 500
Unit Dose
Package of 100:
250 mg
500 mg
750 mg
NDC 0085-1758-02
NDC 0085-1754-02
NDC 0085-1756-02
CIPRO 250
CIPRO 500
CIPRO 750
Store below 30°C (86°F).
CIPRO Oral Suspension is supplied in 5% and 10% strengths. The drug product is composed of two
components (microcapsules containing the active ingredient and diluent) which must be mixed by the
pharmacist. See Instructions To The Pharmacist For Use/Handling.
Total volume
Ciprofloxacin
Ciprofloxacin
Strengths
after reconstitution
Concentration
contents per bottle
NDC Code
5%
100 mL
250 mg/5 mL
5,000 mg
0085-1777-01
10%
100 mL
500 mg/5 mL
10,000 mg
0085-1773-01
Microcapsules and diluent should be stored below 25°C (77°F) and protected from freezing.
Reconstituted product may be stored below 30°C (86°F) for 14 days. Protect from freezing. A
teaspoon is provided for the patient.
ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY
Ciprofloxacin and other quinolones have been shown to cause arthropathy in immature animals of most
species tested. (See WARNINGS.) Damage of weight bearing joints was observed in juvenile dogs and
rats. In young beagles, 100 mg/kg ciprofloxacin, given daily for 4 weeks, caused degenerative articular
changes of the knee joint. At 30 mg/kg, the effect on the joint was minimal. In a subsequent study in
young beagle dogs, oral ciprofloxacin doses of 30 mg/kg and 90 mg/kg ciprofloxacin
(approximately 1.3- and 3.5-times the pediatric dose based upon comparative plasma AUCs)
given daily for 2 weeks caused articular changes which were still observed by histopathology
after a treatment-free period of 5 months. At 10 mg/kg (approximately 0.6-times the pediatric
dose based upon comparative plasma AUCs), no effects on joints were observed. This dose was
also not associated with arthrotoxicity after an additional treatment-free period of 5 months. In
another study, removal of weight bearing from the joint reduced the lesions but did not totally prevent
them.
Crystalluria, sometimes associated with secondary nephropathy, occurs in laboratory animals dosed with
ciprofloxacin. This is primarily related to the reduced solubility of ciprofloxacin under alkaline conditions,
which predominate in the urine of test animals; in man, crystalluria is rare since human urine is typically
acidic. In rhesus monkeys, crystalluria without nephropathy was noted after single oral doses as low as 5
mg/kg. (approximately 0.07-times the highest recommended therapeutic dose based upon
mg/m2). After 6 months of intravenous dosing at 10 mg/kg/day, no nephropathological changes were
noted; however, nephropathy was observed after dosing at 20 mg/kg/day for the same duration
(approximately 0.2-times the highest recommended therapeutic dose based upon mg/m2).
In dogs, ciprofloxacin at 3 and 10 mg/kg by rapid I.V. injection (15 sec.) produces pronounced
hypotensive effects. These effects are considered to be related to histamine release, since they are
partially antagonized by pyrilamine, an antihistamine. In rhesus monkeys, rapid I.V. injection also
produces hypotension but the effect in this species is inconsistent and less pronounced.
In mice, concomitant administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as phenylbutazone
and indomethacin with quinolones has been reported to enhance the CNS stimulatory effect of
quinolones.
Ocular toxicity seen with some related drugs has not been observed in ciprofloxacin-treated animals.
CLINICAL STUDIES
Complicated Urinary Tract Infection and Pyelonephritis – Efficacy in Pediatric Patients:
NOTE: Although effective in clinical trials, ciprofloxacin is not a drug of first choice in the
pediatric population due to an increased incidence of adverse events compared to controls,
including events related to joints and/or surrounding tissues.
Ciprofloxacin, administered I.V. and/or orally, was compared to a cephalosporin for treatment
of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) and pyelonephritis in pediatric patients 1 to 17
years of age (mean age of 6 + 4 years). The trial was conducted in the US, Canada, Argentina,
Peru, Costa Rica, Mexico, South Africa, and Germany. The duration of therapy was 10 to 21
days (mean duration of treatment was 11 days with a range of 1 to 88 days). The primary
objective of the study was to assess musculoskeletal and neurological safety.
Patients were evaluated for clinical success and bacteriological eradication of the baseline
organism(s) with no new infection or superinfection at 5 to 9 days post-therapy (Test of Cure or
TOC). The Per Protocol population had a causative organism(s) with protocol specified colony
count(s) at baseline, no protocol violation, and no premature discontinuation or loss to
follow-up (among other criteria).
The clinical success and bacteriologic eradication rates in the Per Protocol population were
similar between ciprofloxacin and the comparator group as shown below.
Clinical Success and Bacteriologic Eradication at Test of Cure (5 to 9 Days
Post-Therapy)
CIPRO
Comparator
Randomized Patients
337
352
Per Protocol Patients
211
231
Clinical Response at 5 to 9 Days
95.7% (202/211)
92.6% (214/231)
Post-Treatment
95% CI [-1.3%, 7.3%]
Bacteriologic Eradication by
84.4% (178/211)
78.3% (181/231)
Patient at 5 to 9 Days
Post-Treatment*
95% CI [ -1.3%, 13.1%]
Bacteriologic Eradication of the
Baseline Pathogen at 5 to 9 Days
Post-Treatment
156/178 (88%)
161/179 (90%)
Escherichia coli
* Patients with baseline pathogen(s) eradicated and no new infections or superinfections/total
number of patients. There were 5.5% (6/211) ciprofloxacin and 9.5% (22/231) comparator
patients with superinfections or new infections.
INHALATIONAL ANTHRAX IN ADULTS AND PEDIATRICS – ADDITIONAL
INFORMATION
The mean serum concentrations of ciprofloxacin associated with a statistically significant
improvement in survival in the rhesus monkey model of inhalational anthrax are reached or exceeded
in adult and pediatric patients receiving oral and intravenous regimens. (See DOSAGE AND
ADMINISTRATION.) Ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics have been evaluated in various human
populations. The mean peak serum concentration achieved at steady-state in human adults receiving
500 mg orally every 12 hours is 2.97 µg/mL, and 4.56 µg/mL following 400 mg intravenously every
12 hours. The mean trough serum concentration at steady-state for both of these regimens is 0.2 µg/mL.
In a study of 10 pediatric patients between 6 and 16 years of age, the mean peak plasma concentration
achieved is 8.3 µg/mL and trough concentrations range from 0.09 to 0.26 µg/mL, following two
30-minute intravenous infusions of 10 mg/kg administered 12 hours apart. After the second
intravenous infusion patients switched to 15 mg/kg orally every 12 hours achieve a mean peak
concentration of 3.6 µg/mL after the initial oral dose. Long-term safety data, including effects on
cartilage, following the administration of ciprofloxacin to pediatric patients are limited. (For additional
information, see PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use.) Ciprofloxacin serum concentrations achieved in
humans serve as a surrogate endpoint reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit and provide the basis
for this indication.4
A placebo-controlled animal study in rhesus monkeys exposed to an inhaled mean dose of 11 LD50
(~5.5 x 105 spores (range 5-30 LD50) of B. anthracis was conducted. The minimal inhibitory
concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin for the anthrax strain used in this study was 0.08 µg/mL. In the
animals studied, mean serum concentrations of ciprofloxacin achieved at expected Tmax (1 hour
post-dose) following oral dosing to steady-state ranged from 0.98 to 1.69 µg/mL. Mean steady-state
trough concentrations at 12 hours post-dose ranged from 0.12 to 0.19 µg/mL5. Mortality due to anthrax
for animals that received a 30-day regimen of oral ciprofloxacin beginning 24 hours post-exposure was
significantly lower (1/9), compared to the placebo group (9/10) [p= 0.001]. The one ciprofloxacin-treated
animal that died of anthrax did so following the 30-day drug administration period.6
Instructions To The Pharmacist For Use/Handling Of CIPRO Oral Suspension:
CIPRO Oral Suspension is supplied in 5% (5 g ciprofloxacin in 100 mL) and 10% (10 g ciprofloxacin
in 100 mL) strengths. The drug product is composed of two components (microcapsules and diluent)
which must be combined prior to dispensing.
One teaspoonful (5 mL) of 5% ciprofloxacin oral suspension = 250 mg of ciprofloxacin.
One teaspoonful (5 mL) of 10% ciprofloxacin oral suspension = 500 mg of
ciprofloxacin.
Appropriate Dosing Volumes of the Oral Suspensions:
5%
Dose
250 mg
5 mL
500 mg
10 mL
750 mg
15 mL
10%
2.5 mL
5 mL
7.5 mL
Preparation of the suspension:
1.
3.
1. The small bottle
contains the
microcapsules, the
large bottle
contains the
diluent.
2.
2. Open both bottles.
Child-proof cap: Press
down according to
instructions on the cap
while turning to the
left.
3. Pour the
microcapsules
completely into the
larger bottle of
diluent. Do not add
water to the
suspension.
4.
4. Remove the top layer
of the diluent bottle
label (to reveal the
CIPRO Oral
Suspension label).
Close the large bottle
completely according
to the directions on the
cap and shake
vigorously for about
15 seconds. The
suspension is ready for
use.
CIPRO Oral Suspension should not be administered through feeding tubes due to its
physical characteristics.
Instruct the patient to shake CIPRO Oral Suspension vigorously each time before use for
approximately 15 seconds and not to chew the microcapsules.
References:
1. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial
Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically-Fifth Edition. Approved Standard
NCCLS Document M7-A5, Vol. 20, No. 2, NCCLS, Wayne, PA, January, 2000. 2. National
Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk
Susceptibility Tests-Seventh Edition. Approved Standard NCCLS Document M2-A7, Vol. 20,
No. 1, NCCLS, Wayne, PA, January, 2000. 3. Report presented at the FDA’s Anti-Infective
Drug and Dermatological Drug Product’s Advisory Committee meeting, March 31, 1993,
Silver Spring, MD. Report available from FDA, CDER, Advisors and Consultants Staff,
HFD-21, 1901 Chapman Avenue, Room 200, Rockville, MD 20852, USA. 4. 21 CFR 314.510
(Subpart H – Accelerated Approval of New Drugs for Life-Threatening Illnesses). 5. Kelly DJ,
et al. Serum concentrations of penicillin, doxycycline, and ciprofloxacin during prolonged
therapy in rhesus monkeys. J Infect Dis 1992; 166:1184-7. 6. Friedlander AM, et al.
Postexposure prophylaxis against experimental inhalational anthrax. J Infect Dis 1993;
167:1239-42. 7. Friedman J, Polifka J. Teratogenic effects of drugs: a resource for clinicians
(TERIS). Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000:149-195. 8. Loebstein R,
Addis A, Ho E, et al. Pregnancy outcome following gestational exposure to fluoroquinolones: a
multicenter
prospective
controlled
study.
Antimicrob
Agents
Chemother.
1998;42(6):1336-1339. 9. Schaefer C, Amoura-Elefant E, Vial T, et al. Pregnancy outcome
after prenatal quinolone exposure. Evaluation of a case registry of the European network of
teratology information services (ENTIS). Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1996;69:83-89.
Patient Information About:
CIPRO®
(ciprofloxacin hydrochloride) TABLETS
CIPRO®
(ciprofloxacin*) ORAL SUSPENSION
This section contains important patient information about CIPRO (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride)
Tablets and CIPRO (ciprofloxacin*) Oral Suspension and should be read completely before you begin
treatment. This section does not take the place of discussion with your doctor or health care
professional about your medical condition or your treatment. This section does not list all benefits and
risks of CIPRO. If you have any concerns about your condition or your medicine, ask your doctor. Only
your doctor can determine if CIPRO is right for you.
What is CIPRO?
CIPRO is an antibiotic used to treat bladder, kidney, prostate, cervix, stomach, intestine, lung, sinus,
bone, and skin infections caused by certain germs called bacteria. CIPRO kills many types of bacteria
that can infect these areas of the body. CIPRO has been shown in a large number of clinical trials to be
safe and effective for the treatment of bacterial infections.
Sometimes viruses rather than bacteria may infect the lungs and sinuses (for example the common
cold). CIPRO, like all other antibiotics, does not kill viruses. You should contact your doctor if your
condition is not improving while taking CIPRO.
CIPRO Tablets are white to slightly yellow in color and are available in 250 mg, 500 mg and 750 mg
strengths. CIPRO Oral Suspension is white to slightly yellow in color and is available in concentrations
of 250 mg per teaspoon (5%) and 500 mg per teaspoon (10%).
How and when should I take CIPRO?
CIPRO Tablets:
Unless directed otherwise by your physician, CIPRO should be taken twice a day at approximately the
same time, in the morning and in the evening. CIPRO can be taken with food or on an empty stomach.
CIPRO should not be taken with dairy products (like milk or yogurt) or calcium-fortified juices alone;
however, CIPRO may be taken with a meal that contains these products.
You should take CIPRO for as long as your doctor prescribes it, even after you start to feel better.
Stopping an antibiotic too early may result in failure to cure your infection. Do not take a double dose
of CIPRO even if you miss a dose by mistake.
CIPRO Oral Suspension:
Take CIPRO Oral Suspension in the same way as above. In addition, remember to shake the bottle vigorously each time before use for approximately 15 seconds to make sure the suspension is mixed well.
Be sure to swallow the required amount of suspension. Do not chew the microcapsules. Close the
bottle completely after use. The product can be used for 14 days when stored in a refrigerator or at
room temperature. After treatment has been completed, any remaining suspension should be discarded.
Who should not take CIPRO?
You should not take CIPRO if you have ever had a severe reaction to any of the group of antibiotics
known as “quinolones”.
CIPRO is not recommended during pregnancy or nursing, as the effects of CIPRO on the unborn child
or nursing infant are unknown. If you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant while taking CIPRO
talk to your doctor before taking this medication.
Due to possible side effects, CIPRO is not recommended for persons less than 18 years of age
except for specific serious infections, such as complicated urinary tract infections.
What are the possible side effects of CIPRO?
CIPRO is generally well tolerated. The most common side effects, which are usually mild, include
nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain/discomfort. If diarrhea persists, call your health care
professional.
Rare cases of allergic reactions have been reported in patients receiving quinolones, including CIPRO,
even after just one dose. If you develop hives, difficulty breathing, or other symptoms of a severe
allergic reaction, seek emergency treatment right away. If you develop a skin rash, you should stop
taking CIPRO and call your health care professional.
Some patients taking quinolone antibiotics may become more sensitive to sunlight or ultraviolet light
such as that used in tanning salons. You should avoid excessive exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet light
while you are taking CIPRO.
You should be careful about driving or operating machinery until you are sure CIPRO is not causing
dizziness. Convulsions have been reported in patients receiving quinolone antibiotics including
ciprofloxacin. Be sure to let your physician know if you have a history of convulsions. Quinolones,
including ciprofloxacin, have been rarely associated with other central nervous system events
including confusion, tremors, hallucinations, and depression.
CIPRO has been rarely associated with inflammation of tendons. If you experience pain, swelling or
rupture of a tendon, you should stop taking CIPRO and call your health care professional.
CIPRO has been associated with an increased rate of side effects with joints and surrounding
structures (like tendons) in pediatric patients (less than 18 years of age). Parents should inform
their child’s physician if the child has a history of joint-related problems before taking this drug.
Parents of pediatric patients should also notify their child’s physician of any joint related
problems that occur during or following CIPRO therapy.
If you notice any side effects not mentioned in this section, or if you have any concerns about side
effects you may be experiencing, please inform your health care professional.
What about other medications I am taking?
CIPRO can affect how other medicines work. Tell your doctor about all other prescription and
non-prescription medicines or supplements you are taking. This is especially important if you are
taking theophylline. Other medications including warfarin, glyburide, and phenytoin may also interact
with CIPRO.
Many antacids, multivitamins, and other dietary supplements containing magnesium, calcium,
aluminum, iron or zinc can interfere with the absorption of CIPRO and may prevent it from working.
Other medications such as sulcrafate and Videx® (didanosine) chewable/buffered tablets or pediatric
powder may also stop CIPRO from working. You should take CIPRO either 2 hours before or 6 hours
after taking these products.
What if I have been prescribed CIPRO for possible anthrax exposure?
CIPRO has been approved to reduce the chance of developing anthrax infection following exposure to
the anthrax bacteria. In general, CIPRO is not recommended for children; however, it is approved for
use in patients younger than 18 years old for anthrax exposure. If you are pregnant, or plan to become
pregnant while taking CIPRO, you and your doctor should discuss if the benefits of taking CIPRO for
anthrax outweigh the risks.
CIPRO is generally well tolerated. Side effects that may occur during treatment to prevent anthrax
might be acceptable due to the seriousness of the disease. You and your doctor should discuss the risks
of not taking your medicine against the risks of experiencing side effects.
CIPRO can cause dizziness, confusion, or other similar side effects in some people. Therefore, it is
important to know how CIPRO affects you before driving a car or performing other activities that
require you to be alert and coordinated such as operating machinery.
Your doctor has prescribed CIPRO only for you. Do not give it to other people. Do not use it for a
condition for which it was not prescribed. You should take your CIPRO for as long as your doctor
prescribes it; stopping CIPRO too early may result in failure to prevent anthrax.
Remember:
Do not give CIPRO to anyone other than the person for whom it was prescribed.
Take your dose of CIPRO in the morning and in the evening.
Complete the course of CIPRO even if you are feeling better.
Keep CIPRO and all medications out of reach of children.
* Does not comply with USP with regards to “loss on drying” and “residue on ignition”.
Manufactured by:
Bayer Pharmaceuticals Corporation
400 Morgan Lane
West Haven, CT 06516
Distributed by:
Schering Corporation
Kenilworth, NJ 07033
CIPRO is a registered trademark of Bayer Aktiengesellschaft and is used under license by Schering
Corporation.
Rx Only
08918468, R.0
10/04
Bay o 9867
5202-2-A-U.S.-17
12542
©2004 Bayer Pharmaceuticals Corporation
Printed in U.S.A.
CIPRO (ciprofloxacin*) 5% and 10% Oral Suspension Made in Italy.
CIPRO (ciprofloxacin HCl) Tablets Made in Germany

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