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Contents
Volume 1
Section 1: Milestone of Urology
1. History of Urology
MA Salam
Prehistoric Urology in Different Parts of World 4; Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century 6;
Nineteenth Century 7; Great Mind and Philosophers in Urology 22
3
Section 2: Presentation of Urological Disease
2. Presentation of Urological Disease
MA Salam, Mohammad Shafiqur Rahman
Art of History Taking (Careful Listening to the Patient is an Art) 33; Smoking and Urological Disease 41;
Drug Allergies 41; Physical Examination of Urological Patients 42
33
Section 3: Investigations of Urological Disease
3. Laboratory Test for Urological Work-up
47
4. Application of X-ray in Urology
57
5. Intravenous Urography and Contrast Study of Lower Urinary Tract
64
6. Principles of the Ultrasound and its Applications in Urology
68
7. Computed Tomography
85
MA Salam, MA Wahab
Urinalysis 47; Laboratory Tests 51; Hormonal Studies in Urine 55
AKM Zamanul Islam Bhuiyan
Radiology Techniques 57; Radiation Exposure Hazard 57; Contrast Media 58; Anaphylactic Reactions 59;
Nephrotoxicity 59; Cardiovascular Toxicity 59; Radiological Investigations for Urological Patients 59
AKM Anwarul Islam, Zahirul Islam Miah
Procedure 64; Basic Techniques and Principle of Intravenous Urography 64;
Contraindications of Intravenous Urography 65; Indications of Intravenous Urography 65;
Advantages of Intravenous Urography 65; Limitations of Intravenous Urography 65;
The Future of the Intravenous Urography 65; Antegrade Urography and Retrograde Urography 66;
Voiding Cystourethrogram or Micturating Cystourethrogram 66; Cavernosography and Cavernosometry 67
MA Salam
Physics of Medical Ultrasound 68; Ultrasound Imaging Methods 68; Intraoperative Use of Ultrasound 72;
Renal Ultrasound 72; Bladder Ultrasound 76; Ultrasound Imaging of Prostate Prelude 78;
Determination of Prostate Volume with Ultrasound 78; Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy 78; Prostate Cancer 78;
Prostatic Infection 79; Techniques of Ultrasound Study of Prostate 79; Perineal Approach 79;
Biopsy of Prostate 80; Seminal Vesicle Cyst 80; Ultrasound Scan of Urethra 80;
Scrotal Ultrasonography 81; Doppler Principles 82
Jahangir Kabir
History of CT Scan 85; Principle of Techniques of CT Scan 85; Principles of Three-dimensional Image Reconstruction 87;
Recent Advances in CT 87; Common Problems in Interpreting CT Scan 87; Limitations of CT Scan 87;
Criteria for CT 87; CT Renal Arteriography 89; Digital Subtraction Angiography 89; CT Urography 89
xx
Principles and Practice of Urology
8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
9. Nuclear Medicine in Genitourinary Tract
Abdul Mannan Khan
Physics of MRI 92; Recent Advances of Mri 92; Basic Principles of Mri 93; Clinical Applications of Mri 94;
Advantages of Mri 97; Contraindications of Mri 97; Magnetic Resonance Urography 97;
Advantages and Disadvantages of Mri 98
SA Khan, Shankar Kumar Biswas
Radioisotope Measurement of Glomerular Filtration Rate 101;
Radionuclide Techniques Available for Studying the Function of the Renal Tract 102
10. Abdominal Positron Emission Tomography or Computed Tomography
Ali Akbor
Radioisotopes 108; Cyclotron Centers 109; Indications of Pet/CT 110; Transitional Cell Carcinoma 110;
Renal Cell Carcinoma 110; Testicular Malignancies 110
92
101
108
Section 4: Emergency Urology
11. Acute Ureteric Colic
115
12. Acute Urinary Retention
126
13. Renal Trauma
130
14. Ureteral Injury
137
15. Lower Genitourinary Tract Trauma
142
16. Urinary Bladder Injury
145
MA Wahab, MA Salam
Presentation 115; Diagnosis 115; Differential Diagnoses of Flank Pain 118; Management 121
SAM Golam Kibria, AKM Anwarul Islam
Etiology 126; History 127; Physical Examination 127; Management 127; Complications of Relieving Obstruction 128
Shivaji Basu
Principle of Treatment of Acute Upper Genitourinary Tract Injury 130;
Upper Tract Trauma (Renal Injuries and Ureteral Injuries) 130
MA Salam, AKM Khurshidul Alam
Etiology of Ureteric Trauma 137; Clinical Diagnosis 137; Radiological Diagnosis 137;
Classification of Ureteric Injury 138; Management of Ureteric Injury 138
MA Salam, Md Sayedul Islam
Causes of Lower Genitourinary Tract Trauma 142; Pathophysiology of Lower Genitourinary Tract Trauma 142;
History 142; Physical Examination 143; Prehospital Care 144;
Principle of Management of Lower Urinary Tract Trauma 144
K Sasidharan
Diagnosis of Bladder Injury 145; Cause and Pathophysiology of Bladder Injury 145;
Classification of Bladder Injury 146; Computed Tomography Scan 148;
Cystography 148; Excretory Urography 148; Management of Bladder Rupture 148;
Penetrating Bladder Injury 148; Postoperative Care 148; Follow-up 149
17. Urethral Injury
150
18. Penile Injuries
156
Sanjay Kulkarni, MA Salam
Applied Anatomy and Pathophysiology 150; Etiology 151; Mechanism of Injury 151; Clinical Assessment 152;
Classification of Urethral Injury 152; Presentation 152; Work-up 152; Anterior Urethral Injuries 153;
Posterior Urethral Injuries 153; Female Urethral Injuries 154; Complications of Urethral Injury 154;
Outcome and Prognosis 154
MA Salam, SM Mahbub Alam
Common Injuries of Penis 156; Strangulation of Penis by Metallic or Nonmetallic Ring 160
xxi
Contents
19.Scrotal and Testicular Injury
MA Salam, Mirza M Hasan
Mechanism of Injury 162; Etiology 162; Presentation 162; Physical Examination 162; Imaging of Scrotal Injury 163;
General Management of Scrotal Injury 163; Complications of Scrotal Injury 164; Indications for Scrotal Exploration 164;
Follow-up 164; Complications of Testicular Injury 164
162
Section 5: Genitourinary Infection
20. Urinary Tract Infections
169
21. Urinary Tract Infection in Children
179
22.Urosepsis
187
23. Prostatitis or Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome
193
24. Epididymitis and Orchitis
197
25. Perioperative Antibacterial Prophylaxis in Urology
200
26. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection
204
27. Sexually Transmitted Diseases
212
28. Genitourinary Tuberculosis
217
29. Interstitial Cystitis
221
Jahangir Kabir
Pathogenesis of Urinary Tract Infection 169; Bacteriological Evidence of Infection 169; Pathophysiology 170;
Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection 171; Risk, Mortality and Morbidity 171;
The Natural History of Urinary Tract Infection 171; Physical Examination 172; Differential Diagnoses 172;
Work-up of Urinary Tract Infection 172; Treatment 174; Prevention of Urinary Tract Infection 177; Complications 177
Isteaq Ahmed Shameem
Etiology 179; Pathogenesis and Risk Factors 179; Signs and Symptoms 179; Classification 179;
Diagnosis 180; Schedule of Investigation 183; Treatment 183; Management 184
Rajeev Kumar
Definition 187; Pathophysiology of Sepsis 188; Clinical Manifestation of Urosepsis 188; Treatment 189;
Focus on the Management of the Septic Patient 190; Focus on Outcome from Sepsis 191
AKM Khurshidul Alam
Diagnosis 193; Classification Systems 194; Treatment 195
Golam Mowla Chowdhury
Incidence and Prevalence 197; Pathogenesis and Pathology 197; Diagnosis 197; Treatment 198
AKM Khurshidul Alam, MA Salam
Aims and Objectives 200; Risk Factors 201; Principles of Antibiotic Prophylaxis 201;
Regimens for Prophylaxis for Different Procedures 202
Mohammad Shafiqur Rahman
Definitions 204; Risk Factors 204; Diagnosis 205;
Antimicrobial Strategy for the Treatment of Urinary Tract Infection 205; Management of Specific Urological Infection 206;
Recommendations on Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection 210; Conclusion and Future 210
Pranashish Saha, Kazi Rafiqul Abedin
Factors Responsible for the Sexually Transmitted Diseases 212; Nongonococcal Urethritis 212; Gonorrhea 213;
Syphilis 213; Chancroid 214; Lymphogranuloma Venereum 214; Granuloma Inguinale 214;
Condyloma Acuminata or Venereal Warts 214; Genital Herpes Simplex 215;
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome 215; Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 215
NP Gupta, Md Sayedul Islam
Incidence 217; Etiopathogenesis 217; Pathogenesis 218; Presentation 218; Diagnosis 218; Treatment 218;
Follow-up of Genitourinary Tuberculosis 219; Management of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis 219
Shahidul Islam Sugom
New Concepts 221; Interstitial Cystitis Symptoms 221; Diagnosis 221;
Potassium Test (Persons Test) 222; Management 222
xxii
Principles and Practice of Urology
Section 6: General Urology
30.Advances of Radiation Oncology and its Applications to Urology
227
31. CyberKnife in Urology
236
32. Application of Gene Therapy in Urology
239
33. Lasers in Urology
243
34. Image-guided Percutaneous Treatment of Genitourinary Cancer
259
AFM Kamal Uddin, Afiquor Rahman
Kidney Tumors 227; Role of Radiotherapy in Renal Cell Carcinoma 227;
Carcinoma of Bladder 229; Carcinoma Prostate 231
Dev Narayan Dutta
Important Features 236; Imaging Techniques of CyberKnife 236;
Other Stereotactic Systems 238; Clinical Uses 238
AFM Kamal Uddin, MA Salam
Gene Therapeutic Strategies 239; The Future of Gene Therapy 241
Prem Nath Dogra, Prabhjot Singh
History 243; Basic Principle of Laser 243; Components of Laser System 244; Laser Tissue Interaction 245;
Types of Lasers 246; Laser Applications in Urology 249; Lasers in Laparoscopy 255
MA Salam, Md Faisal Islam
Indications 259; Patient Preparation/Anesthesia 260; Image Guidance 260;
Image-guided Tumor Ablation Modalities 261;
Complications of Percutaneous Ablation 263; Follow-up 264
35. Stem Cells Research and its Practical Applications
266
36. Telemedicine in Urology
270
37. Tissue Engineering in Urology
273
Laila Anjuman Banu, Mohsin Uddin
Embryonic Stem Cell Lines 266; Adult Stem Cells 266; Amniotic Stem Cells 267;
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells 267; Practical Applications of Stem Cell Research 269
Ishtiak Al Mamoon, MA Salam
History of Telemedicine 270; Types of Telemedicine 270
Mohsin Uddin, MA Salam
Principles of Tissue Engineering 273; Application of Stem Cells 274;
Urological Applications of Tissue Engineering 274;
Generation of Histocompatible Tissues Using Nuclear Transplantation 275
38. Ideal Operating Theater Complex 277
39. High Frequency Electrosurgical Apparatus (Diathermy Equipment)
284
40. Ultrasonic Surgical Shears (Harmonic Scalpel)
292
MA Salam, Nitin S Kekre
Statutory Regulations for Operating Theater Complex 277; Different Zones of Operation Theater Complex 277;
Sub Areas 278; Types of Operating Theater Complex 279;
Principles to be Taken into Consideration While Planning an Operating Theater (Physical/Architecture) 279;
Usual Disadvantages of Existing OT in Old Hospitals 282; Operating Theater for the Urologist 283
Prem Raj Gyawali
Technical Concept 284; Tissue Effect 284; Unipolar Diathermy 285; Bipolar Diathermy 286;
Urological Applications 286; Mode of Action 287; Quality of High-frequency Current (Modulation) 288;
Factors Influencing the Therapeutic Effect 288; Safety Considerations 288
Jahangir Kabir, MA Salam
Mechanism of Tissue Coagulation 292;
Use of the Ultrasonic Surgical Shears or Harmonic Scalpel 292
xxiii
Contents
41.Tissue Fusion System (LigaSure) and Evident Microwave Ablation System
294
42. Principles of Intravesical Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy
297
Pranjal R Modi
The Evident™ Microwave Ablation System 295
Hemant B Tongaonkar
Intravesical Chemotherapy 297; Intravesical Immunotherapy 297; Indications of Intravesical Chemotherapy 297;
Contraindications 297; Prerequisite for Intravesical Therapy 297
Section 7: Pediatric Urology
43. Applied Anatomy of Genitourinary Tract
301
44. Developmental Anomalies of the Upper Urinary Tract
306
45. Polycystic Kidney Disease
309
46. Wilms’ Tumor
311
47. Congenital Ureteral Obstruction (Congenital Pelviureteric Junction and Vesicoureteral
Junction Obstruction) 317
48. Abdominal Masses in Children
324
49. Bladder Exstrophy Complex
326
50. Diseases of Urachus
330
51. Prune Belly Syndrome
332
52. Vesicoureteric Reflux
334
53. Neuropathic Bladder in Children
342
Laila Anjuman Banu
Development of Kidney 301; Kidney 302; Ureter and Renal Pelvis 304
Zahid Hossain Bhuiyan
Clinical Embryology of the Upper Urinary Tract 306; Renal Agenesis 306; Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney 306
Mozzam Hossain
Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease 309; Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease 309;
Multilocular Renal Cyst 310; Solitary Renal Cyst 310
Shafiqul Haque, Matiur Rahman
Etiology 311; Causes 311; Pathology 311; Work-up 312; Presentation 313; Staging of Wilms’ Tumor 313;
Management Principles 313; Treatment by Type and Stage of Wilms’ Tumor 314; Prognostic Factors 316
Jahangir Kabir, MA Salam
Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction 317; Bilateral Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction 321; Complications 322;
Outcome and Prognosis 322; Future and Controversies 322; Follow-up 322
Isteaq Ahmed Shameem
Imaging Techniques 324
Paddy Dewan
Cloacal Exstrophy (10%) 326; Classical Bladder Exstrophy (60%) 326; Epispadias (30%) 326;
Diagnosis of Bladder Exstrophy 328; Management of Bladder Exstrophy 328; Prognosis and Natural History 328
Ishteaq Ahmed Shameem
Patent Urachus 330; Urachal Cyst 330
Matiur Rahman
Major Characteristics 332; Associated Anomalies 332; Management 332; Work-up 333; Treatment 333
Paddy Dewan
Incidence 334; Pathophysiology 334; Causes 335; Consequences 335; Incidence 335; Grading System 335;
Diagnosis 336; Work-up 336; Management 337; Surgical Techniques 340; Follow-up 340
Paddy Dewan
Definition 342; Classification 342; Urodynamic Studies 342;
Management 343; Follow-up of Neurogenic Bladder Patients 344
xxiv
Principles and Practice of Urology
54. Nocturnal Enuresis
346
55.Rhabdomyosarcoma
348
Pranashish Saha
Definition 346; Diagnosis 346; Treatment 346
Shahadat Hossain
Presentation of Rhabdomyosarcoma 348; Pathology 348; Pathologic Classification 348;
Clinical Groups of Rhabdomyosarcoma 349; Management 349
56. Acute Scrotum in Children
57. Empty Scrotum or Undescended Testis
381
Emdadul Haque
Diagnosis 381; Treatment 381
65. Repair of Hypospadias: Current Trend
375
Shafiqul Haque
Mechanisms of Sexual Differentiation 375; Disorders of Sexual Differentiation 376;
Work-up of Ambiguous Genitalia 376; Gender Assignment 378;
Timing of Genital Reconstruction 378; Management 378
64.Micropenis
373
Ishteaq Ahmed Shameem
Presentation of Paraphimosis 373; Manual Reduction 373; Follow-up 374; Complications 374
63. Ambiguous Genitalia
368
MA Salam, Shahidul Islam Sugom
Diagnosis 368; Treatment 368; Methods of Circumcision 369
62.Paraphimosis
364
Paddy Dewan
Classification of Posterior Urethral Valves 364; Presentation of Posterior Urethral Valve or Membrane 364;
Work-up of Posterior Urethral Valves 365; Management of Posterior Urethral Valves 365;
Antenatal Treatment 365; Postnatal Treatment 366; Vesicostomy 366; Follow-up 366
61.Phimosis
361
K Sasidharan
Diagnosis 361; Treatment of Varicocele 362
60. Posterior Urethral Valves or Membrane
359
MA Salam, Md Saiful Islam
Diagnosis 359; Treatment 359
59. Varicocele in Children and Adolescents
355
Paddy Dewan
Significance 355; Classification 355; Diagnosis 356; Investigations 356;
Treatment 357; Advantages of Early Orchidopexy 357; Prognosis 358
58.Hydrocele
350
Shafiqul Haque
Diagnosis 350; Treatment of Testicular Torsion 352; Prognosis 352;
Perinatal Torsion 353; Epididymitis 353; Testicular Cancer 353
Paddy Dewan
History 382; Pathophysiology of Hypospadias 382; Classification System of Hypospadias 383;
Risk Factors for Hypospadias 383; Differential Diagnosis of Hypospadias 384;
Objectives of Repair of Hypospadias 384; Diagnosis 384; Treatment of Hypospadias 384;
Techniques for Posterior Hypospadias 387; Two-stage Hypospadias Repair 389;
Bladder/Buccal Mucosa Technique 390; Operative Technical Points 392; Complications of Hypospadias Repairs 393;
Hypospadias Patients with Multiple Failures 394; Long Term Follow-up 394
382
xxv
Contents
Section 8: Neurourology
66. Applied Anatomy of Bladder
399
67. Flaccid Type of Neuropathic Bladder
406
68.Incontinence
411
69.Myelomeningocele
418
70. An Overview of Neuropathic Bladder
421
71. Overactive Bladder
428
72. Spastic Type of Neuropathic Bladder
434
73. Spinal Cord Injury
440
Laila Anjuman Banu
Gross Anatomy 399; Histology 399; Bladder Innervation 400; Sphincteric Mechanisms 400;
Bladder Neck in Male 401; Bladder Neck in Female 401;
The Physiology of Vesicourethral Segment 402; Uropharmacology 403
MA Salam, ATM Aman Ullah
Etiology of Flaccid Type of Neuropathic Bladder 406; Pathophysiology 406; Clinical Presentation 407;
Laboratory Study 407; Management of Flaccid Neuropathic Bladder 407;
Supplies Required for Self-catheterization Technique 408
MA Salam
Pathophysiology of Incontinence 411; Mechanism of Incontinence 412; Classification of Incontinence 412;
History 414; Causes of Neuropathic Bladder/Urethral Dysfunction 415; General Management 416
Jahangir Kabir
Causes 418; Symptoms 418; Classification 419; Work-up 419; Management 419;
Prognosis 420; Possible Complications 420
AKM Anwarul Islam
Functional Features of Bladder 421; Pathophysiology of Neuropathic Bladder 421;
Classification of Neuropathic Bladder 422; Outline of Diagnosis of Neuropathic Bladder 422;
Complications of Neuropathic Bladder 425;
Principle of Treatment of Neuropathic Bladder 427; Prognosis 427
Farakh Khan
Definition 428; Pathophysiology 428; Management 429
Jahangir Kabir
Pathophysiology 434; Clinical Presentation 435; Investigations 436; Management 437
MA Salam
Pathophysiology 440; History 440; Complete Spinal Cord Transection Syndromes 441;
Physical Examination of Spinal Cord Injury Patients 442; Causes of Spinal Injury 442;
Goals in the Management of Neuropathic Bladder in Spinal Injury 443;
Urodynamic Classification of Spinal Injury 443;
Prehospital Care and Transportation of Spinal Injury Patients 444;
Emergency Department Care 444; The Therapeutic Goal for Neurogenic Shock 445;
Complications 446; Prognosis 447; Lifelong Surveillance 447
74. Urodynamic Studies
MA Salam
Components of Urodynamics 449; Simple Urodynamics 450;
Complex Urodynamics 455; Practical Points of Urodynamic Study 457
449
xxvi
Principles and Practice of Urology
Section 9: Female Urology
75. Stress Urinary Incontinence
471
76. Vesicovaginal Fistula
486
77. Ureteric Injury in Pelvic Surgery
493
78. Interstitial Cystitis
501
79. Urethral Caruncles
504
Ajit Vaje
Definition 471; History 471; Mechanism of Stress Incontinence in Female 471;
Mechanism of Stress Incontinence in Male 472; Classification 472;
Work-up of Stress Urinary Incontinence 472; Treatment Options 476; Postoperative Care 483;
Risks and Complications 483; Selection of Therapy for an Individual Patient 483
Ajit Vaje
History of the Procedure 486; Incidence 486; Etiology 486; Pathophysiology 487; Risk Factors 487;
Presentation 487; Work-up 487; Treatment 488; Complications 490
Khoorsheed Jahan Maula
History of the Procedure 493; Incidence 493; Etiology 493; Classification 494;
Pathophysiology 494; Diagnosis 495; Management 497
Afiquor Rahman
New Concepts 501; Interstitial Cystitis Symptoms 501; Diagnosis 501; Management 502
Ajit Vaje, MA Salam
Frequency 504; Pathophysiology 504; Presentation 504; Work-up 504; Treatment 504;
Follow-up 505; Complications 505; Outcome and Prognosis 506; Future and Controversies 506
Section 10: Urinary Tract Obstruction
80. Urinary Tract Obstruction
509
81. Retroperitoneal Fibrosis
519
82.Ureterocele
528
83. Primary Obstructive Megaureter
533
84. Fetal Lower Urinary Tract Obstruction
537
Jahangir Kabir, MA Salam
History 509; Etiology 509; Pathophysiology of Obstructive Nephropathy 509; Presentation 510;
Work-up 511; Imaging Studies 512; Diagnostic Procedures 515; Treatment 515; Follow-up 517;
Complications 517; Outcome and Prognosis 517
MA Wahab, KM Monwarul Karim
Pathophysiology 519; Mortality/Morbidity 520; Presentation 520; Physical Examination 520;
Causes of Retroperitoneal Fibrosis 520; Differential Diagnosis 521;
Work-up 521; Histologic Findings 523; Treatment 523
Pranashish Saha
Classification 528; Incidence of Ureterocele 528; Etiology 528; Presentation 528; Laboratory Studies 529;
Imaging Studies 529; Principle of Treatment of the Ureterocele 531; Follow-up 532;
Complications of Surgical Intervention 532; Outcome and Prognosis 532
AKM Anwarul Islam
Prevalence 533; Pathophysiology 533; Presentation 533; Work-up 534;
Histologic Findings 535; Treatment 535; Follow-up 536; Complications 536
Paddy Dewan
Cause of Fetal Lower Urinary Tract Obstruction 537; Pathophysiology 537;
Diagnosis and Prognostic Criteria 537; Management Options and Outcomes 538;
Indications and Contraindications for Fetal Treatment 538; Follow-up 538
xxvii
Contents
Volume 2
Section 11: Urolithiasis
85. Urinary Tract Stone Disease
Ravindra Bhalchandra Sabnis
The Incidence of Urinary Tract Stone Disease 543; Pathophysiology of Urolithiasis 543;
Causes of Urolithiasis 543; Types of Stones 545; Mortality/Morbidity Related to Urolithiasis 546;
Clinical Review 546; Physical Examination 547; Differential Diagnosis 547;
Work-up 547; Treatment 549; Follow-up 551; Complications of Stone Disease 551;
Medical Treatment for Stone Disease 552; Prognosis 552
543
86. Acute Renal Colic
554
87. Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy
560
Md Fakhrul Islam
Clinical Findings 554; Work-up 554; Management of Acute Renal or Ureteric Colic 557;
Surgery for Recurrent Renal Colic 559
Isteaq Ahmed Shameem
Technical Aspects 560; Evolution of Shockwave Lithotripters 561;
Indications of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy 562; Work-up 563;
Factors Affecting the Outcome of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy 563;
Preoperative and Intraoperative Stenting 564;
Techniques of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy and Patient Care 564;
Follow-Up 564; Complications 564; Future and Controversies 565
88. Intracorporeal Lithotripsy
566
89. Percutaneous Endourological Procedures
570
Agrawal Madhu Sudan
Different Energy Sources Used in Intracorporeal Lithotripsy 566; Postoperative Care 567; Complications 568;
Outcome and Prognosis 568; Intracorporeal Lithotripsy and its Future 568
Mahesh R Desai
History 570; Relevant Anatomy 570; Indications 570; Contraindications 575;
Work-up 575; Treatment 576; Postoperative Care 577; Complications 577
Section 12: Benign Prostatic Disease
90. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
KT Foo
Pathophysiology 583; Presentation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia 584;
International Prostate Symptom Score Index 584;
Work-up 586; Imaging Studies 586; Histological Findings 587;
Staging of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia 588; Open Prostatectomy 590;
Transurethral Resection of the Prostate 590; Transurethral Incision of Prostate 591;
Transurethral Needle Ablation of the Prostate 593; Follow-up 595; Complications 595
583
Section 13: Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men and Women
91. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
KT Foo, MA Salam
Epidemiology 599; Presentation 599; International Prostate Symptom Score Index 599; Assessment 599;
Differential Diagnoses 601; Indications for Referral 601; Management of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms 601;
Risk Factors for Urinary Incontinence 602; Presentation 602; Differential Diagnoses 603;
Investigations 603; Management 603; Complications 603; Prevention 603
599
xxviii
Principles and Practice of Urology
Section 14: Diseases of the Adrenal Gland
92. Adrenal Mass
605
93. Cushing’s Syndrome
615
94.Pheochromocytoma
619
Jagdeesh N Kulkarni
Anatomy of Adrenal Glands 607; Physiology of Adrenal Glands 607; Work-up of Adrenal Masses 608;
Adrenal Cysts 608; Aldosteronoma (Conn’s Syndrome) 609; Neuroblastoma 609;
Myelolipoma 609; Pheochromocytomas 609; Medical Therapy 610;
Postoperative Care 613; Follow-up 613; Complications 613; Prognosis of Adrenal Tumor 613
SAM Golam Kibria
Pathophysiology 615; Etiology 615; Pathology 616; Clinical Presentation 616; Laboratory Work-up 616;
Complications 617; Treatment 617; Prognosis 618
Hemant B Tongaonkar
Pathophysiology 619; Mortality/Morbidity 619; History 620; Physical Examination 620; Work-up 621;
Additional Tests after the Diagnosis of Pheochromocytoma 622; Histologic Findings 622;
Staging 622; Treatment 623; Follow-up 623
Section 15: Practical Urology
95. Catheters for Urinary Tract
627
96. Male Urethral Catheterization
633
97. Female Urethral Catheterization
641
Fazal Naser, Md Waliul Islam Maruf
Urethral Catheters 627
Moudud Hossain Alamgir, Shohrab Hossain
History of Catheterization 633; Indications 634; Contraindications 634; Materials for Urethral Catheterization 634;
Applied Anatomy 634; Catheters and Basic Designs 634; Urethral Catheterization in the Male Patient 635;
Catheter Maintenance 636; Problems during Urethral Catheterization 636; Contraindications 637;
Technique 638; Complications 639; Long-term Indwelling Catheters 639
AKM Khurshidul Alam
Indications for Catheterization in Female Patients 641;
Contraindications for Catheterization in Female Patients 641;
Equipment 641; Practical Anatomy 642; Procedure 642; Complications 642;
Difficult Catheterizations 642
98. Common Practical Problem for the Residents
644
99. Image Reproduction for Teaching, Documentation and Research
648
100. Principles of Intravesical Chemotherapy and Immunotherapy
650
Ahsan Kabir
Practical Urological Problem 644; Tips for Post-transurethral Resection Bleeding 644;
Management of Intractable Hematuria 644; Practical Urological Problem: Treatments for Intractable Hematuria 645;
Practical Urological Problem: Transurethral Resection Syndrome 645;
Practical Urological Problem: Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolus 645; Pulmonary Embolus 646;
Practical Urological Problem: Elective Surgery on Anticoagulated Patients 646; Blocked Catheter 646;
Practical Urological Problem: Failure of Catheter Balloon to Deflate 647
ABM Golam Rabbani
Videoendoscopic Surgery 648; Protocol for the Trainee and Students 648
Promode Ranjan Singh
Contraindications 650; Dose and Duration of Therapy 651
xxix
Contents
101. Urological Equipment
652
102. Irrigating Solutions for Urological Endoscopic Surgery
664
103. Clean Intermittent Self-catheterization
666
Mir Ehteshamul Haque
Telescopic System 652; Urological Equipment for Lower Tract 653; Equipment for Upper Tract 657;
General Equipment in Urology Operation Theater 658; Sterilization and Care of Endoscopic Instruments 660;
Sterilization Methods for Urological Endoscopes 661
Nurul Hooda, Md Abdul Awal
Characteristics of Ideal Irrigating Solution for Transurethral Resection 664
Shailesh Raina, BK Dastur
History 666; Effects of Intermittent Catheterization 666;
Prerequisites of Clean Intermittent Self-catheterization 666;
Catheters and Catheter Care 667; Follow-up 668; Complications 668
Section 16: Operative Urology
104. Circumcision
673
105. Penile Zipper Injury
677
106. Suprapubic Urinary Bladder Catheterization
679
107. Cystoscopy
684
108. Ureteroscopy
689
109. Acute Hemodialysis Vascular Access
695
110. Transrectal Ultrasound Guided Prostate Biopsy
698
111. Urethral Dilatation
703
112. Vasectomy: No Scalpel Method
705
Mohsin Uddin
Ethical Issues 673; Indications 673; Routine Circumcision 673; Caution 674;
Circumcision for Patients with Phimosis 674
Shahidul Islam Sugom
Prelude 677; Management 677; Complications 677
SM Mahbub Alam, AKM Zamanul Islam Bhuiyan
Anesthesia 679; Equipment 679; Positioning 680; Technique 680; Complications 680;
Open Suprapubic Cystostomy 681
MA Salam, Shadrul Alam
Indications of Cystoscopy 684; Sterilization of Cystoscope 684; Chromocystoscopy 687;
Complications 687; Narrow Band Imaging 688
SA Khan, Jahangir Kabir, M Hasan Akther
History of Ureteroscope 689; Indication of the Procedure 690; Work-up 690; Diagnostic Ureteroscopy 690;
Therapeutic Ureteroscopy 691; Postoperative Care 692; Complications of Ureteroscopy 692
Muhammad Hossain
Prevention of Complications 697
MA Salam
Techniques of Transrectal Ultrasound-guided Prostate Biopsy 698; Complications 701; Future Guidelines 702
MA Salam, MA Wahab
Indications 703; Patient Preparation 703; Technique 703
Ahsan Kabir
Indications 705; Anesthesia 705; Equipment 705; Positioning 706; Technique 706;
Complications 707; Postvasectomy Success Rates 707
xxx
Principles and Practice of Urology
113. Transurethral Resection of the Prostate and Bladder Neck Incision
709
114. Bladder Tumor: Endoscopic Assessment and Treatment
725
115. Ureterolithotomy
734
116. Radical Nephrectomy
741
117. Radical Orchiectomy
748
118. Varicocelectomy
752
119. Radical Cystoprostatectomy
756
120. Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy
770
121. Pyeloplasty
777
Deen Sharma
History 709; Differential Diagnosis 709; Basic Applied Anatomy for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia 711;
Equipment, Irrigation, Diathermy, Surgeon’s Chair 711; Technique of Transurethral Resection of the Prostate 711;
Postoperative Care 715; Histology of Transurethral Resection Chips 716;
Immediate Complications of Transurethral Resection of the Prostate 716;
Late Complications of Transurethral Resection of the Prostate 718;
Transurethral Resection in Carcinoma of the Prostate 720;
Transurethral Resection of the Prostate in Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis 720;
Transurethral Resection of the Prostate in Prostatic Abscess 720;
Transurethral Resection of the Prostate in Hypertrophy of the Bladder Neck 720
Makarand V Khochikar
Bladder Tumor (Endoscopic Assessment) 725; Urethroscopy 726; Cystoscopy 726; Bimanual Examination 727;
Biopsy Technique 727; Cytology 729; Resection of Bladder Tumor 730; Special Points of Technique 731
Prem Nath Dogra
History of the Procedure 734; Etiology 734; Presentation 734; Indications 735; Relevant Anatomy 735;
Contraindications 735; Laboratory Studies 735; Imaging Studies 735; Other Tests 735; Treatment 735;
Open Ureterolithotomy 737; Follow-up 739; Complications of Ureterolithotomy 739
Ganesh Gopalakrishnan
Indications 741; History of the Procedure 742; Work-up 742; Technique of Radical Nephrectomy 743;
Techniques of Open Radical Nephrectomy 744; Postoperative Complications 745; Outcome and Prognosis 746
Prem Nath Dogra
Etiology of Testicular Cancer 748; Pathology of Testicular Cancer 748; Differential Diagnoses 748;
Presentation of Testicular Cancer 748; Indications for Radical Orchiectomy 748;
Work-up 749; Surgery 749; Complications 750; Outcome and Prognosis 750
Mir Ehteshamul Haque
Cause 752; Pathophysiology 752; Diagnosis 753; Treatment 753
MA Salam
Indications for Radical Cystectomy 756; Indications for Urethrectomy 756; Work-up 756;
Biopsy for Bladder Cancer (Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor) 757;
Radical Cystoprostatectomy 758; Radical Cystectomy in Women 761;
Laparoscopic or Robot-assisted Laparoscopic Cystectomy 762; Postoperative Care 766; Complications 767;
Outcome and Prognosis 767; Alternative Therapy 767
Hemant B Tongaonkar
History of Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy 770; Work-up 770; Preoperative Care 771;
Division of the Puboprostatic Ligaments and Control of the Dorsal Venous Complex 771; Complications 773;
Outcome and Prognosis 774; Follow-up 774; Future and Controversies 774
Rajeev Kumar
Pathophysiology 777; Work-up 777; Preoperative Preparation 778; Postoperative Details 780;
Outcome and Prognosis 781
xxxi
Contents
122. Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection
782
123. Endoscopic or Intracorporeal Lithotripsy
785
124. Laparoscopic Cystoprostatectomy with Urinary Diversion
790
125. Evolution of Laparoscopic Technique in Urology
794
126. Outline of Laparoscopic Urological Surgery
800
127. Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy
809
128. Laparoscopic Radical Nephrectomy
813
129. Laparoscopic Nephron Sparing Surgery
817
130. Laparoscopic Nephroureterectomy
821
131. Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty
827
132. Robotic Radical Prostatectomy
832
Muhammad Choudhury
Open Technique of Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection 782; Follow-up 783
Mahesh R Desai
Various Energy Sources Used in Urinary Stone Management 785;
Indications and Technique of Management of the Urinary Stones 786; Postoperative Care 788;
Complications 788
Muhammad Choudhury
History 790; Preoperative Preparation 790;
Technique for Laparoscopic Cystoprostatectomy 790
MA Salam
History of Laparoscopy 794; Preoperative Patient Management 795;
Instrumentation for Developing the Extraperitoneal Space 796; Laparoscopic Hand Instruments 797;
Port Removal and its Closure 798
Shailesh Puntambekar
History of Laparoscopy 800; Physiology 801; Preoperative Preparation 802;
Laparoscopic Video Instrumentation and Cart 806; Postoperative Care 807; Complications 807;
Future of Laparoscopy 807
Muhammad Choudhury
Techniques of Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy 809; Hand-assisted Laparoscopic Surgery 811
Ganesh Gopalakrishnan
Definition 813; History 813; Approaches for Laparoscopic Nephrectomy 813;
Retroperitoneoscopic Laparoscopic Nephrectomy 815; Complications 815; Outcomes 816
Shailesh Puntambekar
Indications 817; Technique of Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy 817
SA Khan, MA Salam
History 821; Technique of Laparoscopic Nephroureterectomy 821; Management of the Distal Ureter 821
NP Gupta
Diagnosis 827; Indications 827; Complications 829
NP Gupta
Techniques of Radical Prostatectomy 833; Robotic Radical Prostatectomy 834;
Robotic Transperitoneal Approach 834;
Lymph Node Dissection and Development of the Extraperitoneal Space 835;
Advantages and Disadvantages of Robotics Versus Laparoscopy 836
133. Laparoscopic Orchidopexy
Jahangir Kabir, NI Bhuiyan
838
xxxii
Principles and Practice of Urology
Section 17: Reconstructive Urology
134. Urethral Strictures and Management
843
135. Reconstruction of Urinary Bladder (Cystoplasty)
861
136. Urinary Diversion
868
137. Urinary Fistula
883
Sanjay Kulkarni
History 843; Definition 843; Applied Anatomy of Male Urethra and Distal Sphincter Mechanism 843;
Female Urethra and Distal Sphincter Mechanism 845; Patch Urethroplasty of the Fossa Navicularis 849;
Urethroplasty 851; Onlay Graft Orientation 855; Oral Complications after Buccal Mucosal Harvesting 856;
Complications 858; Outcome and Prognosis 858;
Postoperative Erectile Dysfunction 859; Future of Urethral Stricture Management 860
MA Salam
Types of Cystoplasty 861; Indications of Cystoplasty 861; Contracted Bladder 861; Overactive Bladder 861;
Augmentation Cystoplasty 862; Substitution Cystoplasty 864; Postoperative Management 865;
Complications of Cystoplasty 866; Quality of Life 867
MA Salam
Definition 868; History of the Procedure 869; Indications 869; Classification of Urinary Diversion 869;
Work-up 870; Principles of Noncontinent Urinary Diversion 870;
Principles of Continent Urinary Diversion 873; Selection of Types of Urinary Diversion 875;
Preoperative Preparation and Care of Patients for Urinary Diversion/Orthotopic Bladder 877;
Postoperative Care of Urinary Diversion/Orthotopic Bladder 878;
Early Complications of Urinary Diversion/Orthotopic Bladder 879;
Late Complications of Urinary Diversion/Orthotopic Bladder 879;
Outcome and Prognosis of Urinary Diversion/Orthotopic Bladder 881;
Future of Urinary Diversion/Orthotopic Bladder 881
K Sasidharan
Vesicovaginal Fistula 883; Cystoscopy and Vaginoscopy 884; Principle of Operative Management 885;
Urethrovaginal Fistula 886; Ureterovaginal Fistula 887; Prostatic Fistula 888; Transrectal Repair 888;
Vesicoenteric Fistulas 889; Renal and Upper Urinary Tract Fistulas 890; Fistula of Urinary Diversion 890
Section 18: Transplant
138. Renal Physiology
895
139. Acute Kidney Injury
898
140. Chronic Kidney Disease
913
141. Immunosuppression in Renal Transplantation
920
142. Retroperitoneoscopic Donor Nephrectomy
924
Nurjahan Begum
Matiur Rahman
Definition 898; Epidemiology 898; Causes 899; Pathophysiology 901; Diagnosis 903; History 903;
Management of Acute Kidney Injury 907; Renal Replacement Therapy 909
Harun-ur-Rashid
Pathophysiology 913; Work-up 914; Management of Chronic Kidney Disease and End-stage Renal Disease 915;
Management of the Coexisting Disease or Abnormalities in Chronic Kidney Disease 918;
Mortality/Morbidity 918; Prevention 918; Complications 918; Prognosis 918
Muhammad Rafiqul Alam
History 920; Drugs Used for Immunosuppression 920; Biologic Agents 921;
Primary Immunosuppressive Agents 922; Infection and Malignancy Issues 923
Pranjal R Modi
Technique 924; Hand-assisted Retroperitoneoscopic Donor Nephrectomy 926; Complications 926
xxxiii
Contents
143. Renal Transplantation Surgery
928
144. Transperitoneal Donor Laparoscopic Nephrectomy
941
145. Medical Complications of Renal Transplants
944
MA Salam
History of Kidney Transplant 928; Concept of Histocompatibility 928; Identification of Suitable Donor 930;
Nephrectomy for Live Donor 931; Antegrade Pyelography 937; Surgical Complications 937;
Skin Cancers 939; Outcome of Renal Transplantation 939
Mahesh R Desai
History of Lap Donor Nephrectomy 941; Complications 943
Harun-ur-Rashid
Post-transplantation Morbidity and Mortality 944;
Important History in Transplantation Complications 945;
Renal Transplantation Complications 945; Chronic Allograft Injury 946;
Management Strategies for Common Presentations 947
Section 19: Uro-oncology
146. Renal Tumors
951
147. Renal Cell Carcinoma
956
148. Urothelial Cancer
974
149. Upper Tract Transitional Cell Tumors
979
150. Bladder Cancer
989
151. Prostate Cancer
1019
Jagdeesh N Kulkarni
Benign Tumors 951; Other Rare Benign Renal Tumors 953
Muhammad Choudhury
Pathophysiology 956; Work-up of Renal Cell Carcinoma 957;
Work-up 958; Classification 959; Types of Renal Tumors 959;
Multikinase Inhibitors 967; Biologic Therapies 969;
Summary of Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma 970
MA Salam
Normal Urothelium 974; Risk Factors and Pathogenesis 974; Histopathology 975;
Treatment Options for Urothelial Cancer 977; Prognosis of Urethelial Cancer 978
MA Salam, Golam Mowla Chowdhury
Prelude 979; Epidemiology 979; Etiology 979; Pathophysiology 979; Diagnostic Procedures 983;
Staging 984; Treatment 985; Complications 987; Follow-up 987
MA Salam
External Beam Radiation Therapy 990; Pathology 990; Transitional Cell Carcinoma 991;
Work-up of Patient with Bladder Cancer 994; Imaging for Bladder Cancer 995;
Radical Cystoprostatectomy (Men) 1006; Anterior Pelvic Exenteration (Women) 1006;
Urinary Diversions 1008; Neobladder 1009; First-line Chemotherapy for ‘Fit’ Patients 1013;
Adenocarcinoma of the Bladder 1013
Christopher Cheng, MA Salam
History of Prostate Cancer 1019; Etiology of Prostate Cancer 1020;
Pathophysiology of Prostate Cancer 1022; Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia 1023;
Work-up and Histologic Findings 1026; Management of Prostate Cancer 1028; Radical Prostatectomy 1029;
Follow-up of Prostate Cancer Patients 1035; Castrate-resistant Prostate Cancer 1036
xxxiv
Principles and Practice of Urology
152. Testicular Cancer
1041
153. Penile Cancer
1058
MA Salam, Sajid Hasan
Epidemiology 1041; WHO Classification of Testicular Tumors 1043;
Etiological Factors In Testicular Tumor 1044; Investigations 1045; Ct/Mri/Pet 1046;
Staging of Testicular Tumor 1047; Treatment 1048; Chemotherapy Regimens 1052;
Follow-up of Testicular Cancer 1054; Complications 1055; Prognosis 1055
MA Salam, Mohammad Shafiqur Rahman
Applied Anatomy of Penis 1059; Problem 1059;
Emotional and Physical Burden of Penile Cancer and its Treatment 1059;
Epidemiology 1059; Etiology 1060; Pathology 1060; Penile Malignant Tumor 1060;
Presentation 1061; Work-up 1061; Histological Diagnosis and Staging 1062;
Treatment 1063; Complications 1067; Prevention of Penile Cancer 1067
Section 20: Reproductive Urology
154. The Testis and Epididymis
1073
155. Peyronie’s Disease
1076
156. Male Infertility
1081
157. Assisted Reproduction Technology
1100
158. Erectile Dysfunction
1105
159. Penile Prosthesis Implantation
1120
160. Ejaculatory Disorders
1126
Laila Anjuman Banu
Macroscopic Anatomy 1073; Histology 1073; The Vas Deferens and Seminal Vesicle 1074
MA Salam, Kazi Rafiqul Abedin
Pathophysiology 1076; Causes of Peyronie’s Disease 1077; Work-up 1077; Treatment 1077;
Prognosis and Complications 1079
Rajeev Kumar
Work-up 1083; Respiratory Disease 1085; Physical Examination for Male Infertility 1085;
Causes of Male Infertility 1086; Other Tests 1092; Treatment 1094
Rupin Shah
Cause of Infertility 1100; Diagnostic Tests 1100; Treatment 1102; Assisted Reproductive Techniques 1103
Rupin Shah
Prevalence 1105; Risk Factors for Erectile Dysfunction 1105;
Physiology of Erection 1107; Etiology of Erectile Dysfunction 1108; Work-up of Erectile Dysfunction 1108;
Causes of Erectile Dysfunction 1109; Sexual Function Score 1110;
Evaluation of Erectile Dysfunction 1110; Management of Erectile Dysfunction 1112
Rupin Shah
History of the Procedure 1120; Selection of Prosthesis 1122
Rupin Shah
Mechanism of Ejaculation 1126; Classification and Etiology 1126
Index
1131

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