AMERICAN COLLEGE OF VETERINARY RADIOLOGY 2012 Annual Scientific Conference October 18-21

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AMERICAN COLLEGE OF VETERINARY RADIOLOGY
2012 Annual Scientific Conference
October 18-21
M Resort Spa Casino
LAS VEGAS, NEVADA
PROGRAM COMMITTEE
Nathan Nelson, Program Chair
Federica Morandi, Program Co-Chair (Forum Focus)
Sheri Siegel, Program Co-Chair (Radiation Oncology)
Randi Drees, Program Co-Chair (Image Interpretation Session)
David Reese, Program Co-Chair (Meet the Residents Session)
Anthony Pease, President, Ultrasound Society
Clifford R. (Kip) Berry, President, Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine
Shannon Holmes, President, CT/MRI Society
Natasha Werpy, President, Large Animal Diagnostic Imaging Society
Jessica Winger, ACVR Meeting Manager
Susie Wilson, ACVR Administrator
ACVR ADMINISTRATION
Kari Anderson, President
Clifford R. (Kip) Berry, President - Elect
Rob McLear, Treasurer
Tom Nyland, Webmaster/Secretary
Mary K. Klein, President, Radiation Oncology
Robert D. Pechman, Executive Director
Darryl N. Biery, Assistant Executive Director
1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.
2012 Conference General Information ..................................................................... 4
Hotel floor plan
Registration will be located at Registration Desk 1, Office A
II.
Corporate Partners .................................................................................................. 5
III.
Program Overview ................................................................................................. 12
IV.
Wednesday, October 17, 2012 .............................................................................. 17
Interventional Radiology Laboratory
Sponsored by Infiniti Medical, Offsite Location
V.
Thursday, October 18, 2012………………………………………………………….….17
ACVR Forum
Welcome Reception ACVR/VCS
Sponsored by Universal Medical Systems, Inc.
and scil animal care company
VI.
Friday, October 19, 2012………………………………………….……........….….……18
Veterinary Ultrasound Society Meeting
Conference Welcome, Drs. Nathan Nelson and Andrew Vaughan
ACVR/VCS Keynote Address, Dr. Landis Griffeth
ACVR Presidential Address, Dr. Kari Anderson
Resident Authored Paper Award
Roundtable Discussion
General Radiology Session
Ultrasound Roundtable Discussion
Ultrasound Scientific Session
Meet the Residency Directors
Poster Presentation and ACVR/VCS Reception
VII.
Saturday, October 20, 2012, ACVR. ...................................................................... 68
Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine Meeting
Nuclear Medicine/Ultrasound Scientific Session
CT/MRI Scientific Session
ACVR Image Interpretation Session
Confirmation and Recognition of New ACVR Diplomates
ACVR Business Meeting (Diplomates Only)
Large Animal Diagnostic Imaging Society Meeting
VCS Awards Reception, Offsite location
2
VIII.
Saturday, October 20, 2012, RO..............................................................................88
RO/VCS Joint Keynote Address, Dr. Bruce Chabner
VRTOG/RO Scientific Session
RO Business Meeting
Confirmation and Recognition of New ACVR Diplomates
ACVR Business Meeting (Diplomates Only)
Large Animal Diagnostic Imaging Society Meeting
VCS Awards Reception, Offsite location
IX.
Sunday, October 21, 2012 ..................................................................................... 98
CT/MRI Society Meeting
CT/MRI Society Keynote Address, Dr. Geoffrey Rubin
CT/MRI Scientific Session
Topics in Equine Imaging
Large Animal Scientific Session
X.
Special Activities ..................................................................................................118
XI.
Conference Registrants ........................................................................................119
Identification of Registrants
Registrant list
3
4
THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF VETERINARY RADIOLOGY
GRATEFULLY ACKNOWLEDGES THE SUPPORT OF THE
FOLLOWING COMPANIES AND WISHES TO THANK THEM
FOR THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS
ANTECH IMAGING SERVICES
17672-B Cowan Avenue
Irvine, CA 92614
Phone: 877-727-6800
Website: www.antechimagingservices.com
For more than 10 years, AIS has been providing telemedicine and cloud storage to more
veterinarians and clinics than any other service in the world. AIS has over 20 full time staff
radiologists, and sponsors radiology residents at 6 Universities. We are proud to play a leading
role in the advancement of telemedicine and the radiology profession.
5
ASTERIS, INC.
PO Box 285
Stephentown, NY 12168
Phone: 877-7ASTERIS
877-727-8374
Email: [email protected]
Website: www.asteris.biz
Asteris is an independently-owned company that develops, supports, and has provided
technology solutions for the veterinary community for more than seven years. From the single
radiologist to a university imaging department, our client-inspired Keystone© product suite
offers unparalleled digital image management and bridges the gaps left by the lack of
standards in the veterinary community. Keystone© allows you to simply collaborate with
referring practices or individual veterinarians as if they were just down the hall. Scheduling
exams, creating professional quality reports, and staying connected with colleagues and
clients has never been this easy – work smarter, not harder.
COACTIV PACS 4VETS
900 Ethan Allen Highway
Ridgefield, CT 06877
Phone: 877-COACTIV
877-262-2848
Fax: 203-438-5004
Email: [email protected]
Website: www.pacs4vets.com
CoActive Medical develops and markets a complete line of PACS and Medical Imaging
products and services for the management of digital radiography images. CoActiv has
designed PACS4VETS®, a state-of-the-art PACS, based on EXAM-PACS®, CoActiv’s human
PACS, which enables veterinarians to view, manage, distribute and archive exams produced
by imaging modalities. CoActiv is dedicated to delivering affordable and easy-to-use digital
imaging management tools to the veterinary profession, resulting in improved diagnostic
capabilities that also have FDA and HIPAA certification.
CUATTRO
1618 Valle Vista Blvd.
Pekin, IL 61554 USA
Phone: (309) 349-8900 or (855) 877-1212
Website: http://www.cuattro.com/
Cuattro’s flat panel digital radiography systems improve efficiency and workflow, for increased
productivity and lower costs. Cuattro digital flat panel same-day retrofits, complete rooms and
mobile digital X-ray systems, and cloud–based archiving and PACS, deliver better
performance, perfect images, in half the time of CR or film.
6
ELSEVIER
1600 JFK Blvd.
Suite 1800
Philadelphia, PA 19103
Phone: 215-239-3490
Fax: 215-239-3494
Website: www.us.elsevierhealth.com
ELSEVIER is a leading publisher of health science publications, advancing medicine by
delivering superior reference information and decision support tools to doctors, nurses, health
practitioners and students. With an extensive media spectrum — print, online and handheld,
we are able to supply the information you need in the most convenient format.
FUJIFILM MEDICAL SYSTEMS U.S.A., INC.
419 West Avenue
Stamford, CT 06902
Website: www.fujiprivatepractice.com
FUJIFILM Medical Systems, the inventor and world leader in digital x-ray, will showcase the
FDR D-EVO, a new digital flat panel detector enabling veterinary practices to transition to DR
with no modification to an existing radiographic room. The digital flat panel detector was
designed to deliver Fujifilm’s renowned image quality and intuitive functionality designed to
address the needs of your practice. Systems for viewing, archiving and storing digital x-rays
are also available. For more information: www.fujiprivatepractice.com.
HITACHI ALOKA MEDICAL
10 Fairfield Boulevard
Wallingford, CT 06942
Phone: 203-269-5088
Toll Free: 1-800-872-5652
Fax: 203-269-6075
Email: [email protected]
Website: www.hitachi-aloka.com
Hitachi Aloka Medical offers small, portable, easy to use systems for every veterinary
application. Known for our unparalleled image quality, superior system reliability, and
incredible penetration, our systems employ innovative technologies for easier diagnosis and
faster exam times.
7
IDEXX LABORATORIES
One Idexx Drive
Westbrook, ME 04092
Website: www.idexx.com
So you can focus on productivity and quality of care at every touch point of your day, we focus
on innovative products and services that create efficiencies and ensure dependability and
accuracy. We’re here to help you deliver real-time care during your patients’ visits, increase
client satisfaction and compliance and grow a healthier, more profitable practice. From SNAP®
pet-side diagnostic tests, IDEXX VetLab® diagnostic instruments and advances reference
laboratory and consulting services to digital radiography systems, information integration
solutions, dependable service and support and education- we have the tools you need to reach
your practice’s potential.
ORTHOPEDIC FOUNDATION FOR ANIMALS
2300 East Nifong Boulevard
Columbia, MO 65201-3806
Phone: 573-442-0418
Fax: 573-875-5073
Email: [email protected]
Website: www.offa.org
Established as a 501c(3) not-for-profit organization in 1966, the OFA has funded over two
million dollars towards animal wellness. The OFA has evolved from solely a hip registry into
genetic counseling for hip and elbow dysplasia, congenital cardiac disease, autoimmune
thyroiditis, patella luxation, and other inherited canine diseases.
SCIL ANIMAL CARE COMPANY
151 N Greenleaf Street
Gurnee, IL 60031
Phone: 847-223-6323
Fax: 847-223-3374
Website: www.scilvet.com
Scil animal care company is a global organization dedicated to delivering the highest quality
products to the animal healthcare professional. At scil we offer a wide range of diagnostic
chemistry and hematology, digital imaging, ultrasound, digital dental, orthopedic, and point of
care testing products. We make adding more value to your business a priority, that is why we
offer the highest level of customer service backed with 24/7 technical support and product
warranties. Come see us at our booth to find out how scil can help better your practice or visit
us at www.scilvet.com.
8
SOUND-EKLIN
6359 Paseo Del Lago
Carlsbad, CA 92011
Phone: (800) 268-5354
Website: www.soundeklin.com
Sound-Eklin is the industry’s uncontested leader in veterinary imaging including digital
radiography, ultrasound, imaging data management, viewing, and advanced imaging tools.
Sound-Eklin is driving the industry forward with a commitment to open standards supported by
strength, synergy and freedom of choice.
UNIVERSAL IMAGING
299 Adams Street
Bedford Hills, NY 10507
Phone: (800) 842-0607
Email: [email protected]
Website: www.universalultrasound.com
Universal Imaging has been setting the standard for veterinary imaging for over 37 years. Over
16,000 veterinarians have trusted us to supply superior imaging diagnostic equipment and
training. Universal Ultrasound offers the largest variety of ultrasound and digital radiography
packages featuring all-digital technology, portability, veterinary-specific applications, complete
connectivity and PACS. Our technology partners include Toshiba, Sedecal, Fuji, Canon, and
SonoScape. Universal is proud to be named both Canon and S8 Dealers of the Year. Visit our
booth or website to learn how we can help you provide the best veterinary care.
UNIVERSAL MEDICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
29500 Aurora Road, Unit 16
Solon, OH 44139
Phone: (440) 349-3210
Fax: (440) 498-2188
Website: www.veterinary-imaging.com
Universal Medical Systems, Inc. (Ohio) is the only LICENSED AUTHORIZED DISTRIBUTOR
serving the veterinary market selling CT and MRI scanners exclusively from Toshiba, Esaote,
Neurologica and Philips designed specifically to meet your needs. New or certified systems are
available with a variety of financing and service options. Visit us today.
9
VETEL DIAGNOSTICS, INC.
4850 Davenport Creek Road
San Luis Obispo, CA 93401
Phone: 1-800-458-8890
Fax: 805-980-4543
Email: [email protected]
Website: www.veteldiagnostics.com
Love your Imaging. Vetel Diagnostics is a diagnostic imaging company devoted exclusively to
the Veterinary practitioner. With imaging tools including Flat Panel and Computed
Radiography, Ultrasound, Dental Digital Radiography, CT and MRI, and Thermography Vetel
offers specific imaging solutions for every veterinarian. Add imaging software, PACS, data
archival and great after the sale support for a complete offering of all your diagnostic imaging
needs. Vetel Diagnostics, for a Better Look Inside.
VET RAY TECHNOLOGY BY SEDECAL
230 Lexington Drive
Buffalo Grove, IL 60089
Phone: (847) 394-6960
Fax: (847) 394-6966
Website: www.vetray.com
Vet Ray Technology by Sedecal is the world’s largest manufacturer of Veterinary specific x-ray
equipment. Vet Ray Technology has the top selling small animal table for both digital and film
applications and supplies a wide variety of large animal products.
10
American College of Veterinary Radiology
Special Thanks to the following Corporate Partners:
2012 Conference Bag Sponsor
CoActiv PACS 4 Vets
Badge Neck Lanyard Sponsor
Universal Imaging
Cyber Café
Veterinary Information Network (VIN)
ACVR Reception Sponsor
Universal Medical Systems, Inc.
scil animal care company
Break Sponsor
Orthopedic Foundation for Animals
11
Program Overview
2012 ACVR Scientific Conference
October 18-21, 2012
M Resort Spa and Casino
Las Vegas, NV
Wednesday, October 17, 2012
8:00 am - 4:00 pm
Interventional Radiology Laboratory
Sponsored by Infiniti Medical
Offsite location
Thursday, October 18, 2012
7:00 am
Registration Opens
Registration Desk 1, Office A
8:00 am
ACVR Forum
Molecular and Functional Imaging Forum
Introductory Comments: Dr. Federica Morandi
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
8:10 am
PET/CT: Basics of Instrumentation, Radiopharmaceuticals and Routine Clinical
Imaging in Humans
Dr. Landis Griffeth
9:10 am
Development and Execution of Offsite PET/CT Imaging Studies
Dr. Amy LeBlanc
10:10 am
Break
10:30 am
Initial Experiences with In-house PET/CT – Clinical Value, Procedural Notes and
Current Research
Dr. Susan Kraft
11:30 am
“Conventional” Nuclear Medicine – Still Useful?
Dr. Greg Daniel
12:30 pm
Lunch on Your Own
1:30 pm
MRI Spectroscopy and Diffusion/Perfusion Imaging
Dr. James Sutherland-Smith
2:30 pm
Diffusion Tensor Imaging-Fractional Anisotropy to Fiber Tracking
Dr. Anthony Pease
3:30 pm
Break
3:50 pm
Final Discussion/Question and Answer Period
5:00 pm
Adjourn for the Day
5:00 pm
Poster Presentations Set-up
Messina
6:30 -8:30
Welcome Reception ACVR/VCS
Villaggio Del Sole Terrace #1
12
Friday, October 19, 2012
7:00 am
Registration Opens
Registration Desk 1, Office A
7:30 am
Veterinary Ultrasound Society Meeting
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
8:00 am
Conference Welcome
Drs. Nathan Nelson and Andrew Vaughan
2012 ACVR and VCS Program Chairs
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
8:10 am
ACVR/VCS Keynote Address
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
PET/CT: Fundamentals and Clinical Applications in Humans
Dr. Landis Griffeth, MD, PhD
Baylor University Medical Center
9:10 am
Break with Exhibitors
Molise
9:30 am
ACVR President Address
Dr. Kari Anderson
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
9:50 am
Resident Authored Paper Award
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
10:00 am
Roundtable Discussion:
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
PACS and Teaching Library Management
for the Radiologist Using Free and Open-Source Software
11:00 am
General Radiology Scientific Session 1
12:00 pm
Lunch on Your Own
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
1:00 pm
General Radiology Scientific Session 2
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
2:00 pm
Roundtable Discussion:
The Use of Ultrasound Technicians
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
3:00 pm
Break with Exhibitors
Molise
3:30 pm
Ultrasound Scientific Session 3
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
5:00 pm
Adjourn for the Day
5:30 pm
Meet the Residency Directors
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
6:308:30 pm
Poster Presentations and ACVR/VCS Reception
Messina
13
Saturday, October 20, 2012 - ACVR
7:00 am
Registration Opens
Registration Desk 1, Office A
7:30 am
Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine Meeting
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
8:00 am
Nuclear Medicine/Ultrasound
Scientific Session 4
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
10:00 am
Break with Exhibitors
Molise
10:30 am
CT/MRI Scientific Session 5
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
12:00 pm
Lunch on Your Own
1:00 pm
ACVR Image Interpretation Session
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
2:30 pm
Confirmation and Recognition
of New ACVR Diplomates
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
3:00 pm
Break with Exhibitors
Molise
3:30 pm
ACVR Business Meeting (Diplomates only)
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
5:00 pm
Adjourn for the Day
5:00 pm
Large Animal Diagnostic Imaging Society Meeting Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
7:00 pm 10:00 pm
VCS Awards Reception
Palms Resort (Offsite)
14
Saturday, October 20, 2012 – Radiation Oncology
7:00 am
Registration Opens
Registration Desk 1, Office A
8:00 am
RO/VCS Joint Keynote Address
Milan 1, 2, 3, 6
A Dog’s Life: What Can Animals Teach Us About Cancer?
Dr. Bruce Chabner, MD, PhD
Massachusetts General Hospital
9:15 am
VRTOG/RO Scientific Session 1
Modena 1 - 3
10:00 am
Break with Exhibitors
Molise
10:30 am
VRTOG/RO Scientific Session 2
Modena 1 - 3
12:00 pm
Lunch on Your Own
1:00 pm
RO Business Meeting
Modena 1 - 3
2:00 pm
Break with Exhibitors
Molise
3:30 pm
ACVR Business Meeting (Diplomates Only)
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
5:00 pm
Adjourn for the Day
7:00 pm 10:00 pm
VCS Awards Reception
Palms Resort (Offsite)
15
Sunday, October 21, 2012
7:00 am
Registration Opens
and CE Certificates Available
Registration Desk 1, Office A
7:30 am
CT/MRI Society Meeting
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
8:00 am
CT/MRI Keynote Address
CT Angiography
Geoffrey Rubin, MD
Duke University Medical Center
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
9:00 am
CT/MRI Scientific Session 6
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
10:00 am
Break with Exhibitors
Molise
10:30 am
CT/MRI Scientific Session 7
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
12:00 pm
Lunch on Your Own
1:00 pm
Topics in Equine Imaging
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
3:00 pm
Break with Exhibitors
Molise
3:30 pm
Large Animal Scientific Session 8
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
4:30 pm
Meeting Concludes
16
Wednesday, October 17, 2012
8:00 am - 4:00 pm
Interventional Radiology Laboratory
Sponsored by Infiniti Medical
Offsite location
Thursday, October 18, 2012
7:00 am
Registration Opens
Registration Desk 1, Office A
8:00 am
ACVR Forum
Molecular and Functional Imaging Forum
Introductory Comments: Dr. Federica Morandi
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
8:10 am
PET/CT: Basics of Instrumentation, Radiopharmaceuticals and Routine
Clinical Imaging in Humans
Dr. Landis Griffeth
9:10 am
Development and Execution of Offsite PET/CT Imaging Studies
Dr. Amy LeBlanc
10:10 am
Break
10:30 am
Initial Experiences with In-house PET/CT – Clinical Value, Procedural Notes
and Current Research
Dr. Susan Kraft
11:30 am
“Conventional” Nuclear Medicine – Still Useful?
Dr. Greg Daniel
12:30 pm
Lunch on Your Own
1:30 pm
MRI Spectroscopy and Diffusion/Perfusion Imaging
Dr. James Sutherland-Smith
2:30 pm
Diffusion Tensor Imaging-Fractional Anisotropy to Fiber Tracking
Dr. Anthony Pease
3:30 pm
Break
3:50 pm
Final Discussion/Question and Answer Period
5:00 pm
Adjourn for the Day
5:00 pm
Poster Presentations Set-up
Messina
6:30 -8:30
Welcome Reception ACVR/VCS
Villaggio Del Sole Terrace #1
17
Friday, October 19, 2012
7:00 am
Registration Opens
Registration Desk 1, Office A
7:30 am
Veterinary Ultrasound Society Meeting
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
8:00 am
Conference Welcome
Drs. Nathan Nelson and Andrew Vaughan
2012 ACVR and VCS Program Chairs
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
8:10 am
ACVR/VCS Keynote Address
PET/CT: Fundamentals and Clinical Applications in Humans
Dr. Landis Griffeth, MD, PhD
Baylor University Medical Center
9:10 am
Break with Exhibitors
Molise
9:30 am
ACVR Presidential Address
Dr. Kari Anderson
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
9:50 am
Resident Authored Paper Award
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
10:00 am
Roundtable Discussion:
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
PACS and Teaching Library Management
for the Radiologist Using Free and Open-Source Software
Dr. Rob McLear
Dr. Allison Zwingenberger
Dr. Ian Robertson
General Radiology Scientific Session 1
(Moderator: Dr. Elizabeth Ballegeer)
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
11:00 am
ASSOCIATION OF THORACIC RADIOGRAPHS AND SEVERITY OF
PULMONARY ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DIAGNOSED IN 66 DOGS VIA
DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY. D.S. Adams, A.
Valdés-Martínez, E.K. Randall, A.J. Marolf. Colorado State University, Colorado,
80523.
11:12 AM
NORMAL STERNAL MENSURATION OF THE CARDIAC SILHOUETTE
(STERNEBRAL CARDIAC SILHOUETTE SCALE) IN SIX BREEDS OF NORMAL
DOGS BASED ON THE RIGHT LATERAL RADIOGRAPH. Erin Carr, Clifford R.
Berry, Matthew D. Winter. UF | Veterinary Hospitals, Department of Small Animal
Clinical Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.
11:24 am
RADIOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION OF LIVER SIZE IN DOGS. A. Weissman,
S.P. Holmes, J. Smith, A.M. Jeffers, D. Jimenez. University of Georgia - College of
Veterinary Medicine, Georgia, 30602.
18
11:36 am
COMPARISON
OF
DIGITAL
RADIOGRAPHY,
ULTRASOUND
AND
VAGINOURETHROGRAPHY IN THE DETERMINATION OF REPRODUCTIVE
STATUS OF FERAL AND SHELTER QUEENS. L. Pack, M.L. Woodland, B. Crane,
P.M. Rist. Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island,
Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3.
11:48 am
RADIOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSIS OF MECHANICAL OBSTRUCTION IN DOGS
BASED ON RELATIVE SMALL INTESTINAL LUMINAL DIAMETERS. C. Finck,
MA. d’Anjou, K. Alexander, G. Beauchamp. Faculty of veterinary medicine,
Université de Montréal, 3200 rue Sicotte, St-Hyacinthe (QC), J2S 7C6 Canada.
12:00 pm
Lunch on Your Own
General Radiology Scientific Session 2
(Moderator: Dr. James Brown)
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
1:00 pm
PAPERS ® ORGANIZATION AND SOCIAL NETWORKING FOR YOUR DATA.
E.D. Brochtrup. Kansas State University, Kansas, 66502.
1:12 pm
WHAT DO ABNORMAL GAS ACCUMULATIONS IN MARINE MAMMALS MEAN?
S.E. Dennison1,2,3, M. Moore4, J. St. Leger5, K. Danil6, M. Flannery7, T. Rowles8.
1
Marine Mammal Radiology, San Francisco, CA 94107, 2Animal Scan, Redwood
City, CA 94063, 3University of Wisconsin, School of Veterinary Medicine, Madison,
WI 53707, 4Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543,
5
Seaworld, San Diego, CA 92109, 6Southwest Fisheries Science Center, La Jolla,
CA 92037, 7California Academy of Science, San Francisco, CA 94118, 8NMFS,
Silver Spring, MD 20910.
1:24 pm
AN ARTIFACTUAL RADIOLUCENT LINE ON POSTOPERATIVE RADIOGRAPHS
IN DOGS FOLLOWING TIBIAL PLATEAU LEVELLING OSTEOTOMY. J. Olive, N.
Chailleux, M. Thiery, L. Blond. CHUV, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Montreal
University, QC, J2S5Z5, Canada.
1:36 pm
PREVALENCE, HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION, AND POTENTIAL
SIGNIFICANCE OF A TIBIAL TUBERCLE RADIOLUCENCY IN DOGS. M. Paek,
J.B. Engiles, W. Mai. School of Veterinary Medicine Section of Radiology University
of Pennsylvania, PA, 19104.
1:48 pm
COMPARISON OF THE ACCURACY, TIMING AND ERGONOMICS OF A
WIIMOTE
TO
A
STANDARD
COMPUTER
MOUSE
FOR
IMAGE
1
2
2
INTERPRETATION. A.R. zur Linden , R.T. Stone , A. Clemens , College of
Veterinary Medicine1, College of Engineering2, Iowa State University, Ames, IA,
50011.
2:00 pm
Ultrasound Roundtable Discussion:
The Use of Ultrasound Technicians
(Moderator: Dr. Anthony Pease)
3:00 pm
Break with Exhibitors
Molise
19
Ultrasound Scientific Session 3
(Moderator: Dr. Anthony Pease)
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
3:30 pm
THE SONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF GASTROINTESTINAL LYMPHOMA IN
DOGS. M. Frances, A, Lane, Z. Lenard, Perth Veterinary Specialists, Perth,
Western Australia 6017.
3:42 pm
ULTRASONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE RELATIVE THICKNESS OF
WALL LAYERS IN THE CANINE INTESTINAL TRACT. N.E. Geyer, D.G. Penninck,
C.R.L. Webster. Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North
Grafton, MA 01536.
3:54 pm
ULTRASONOGRAPHIC THICKENING OF THE MUSCULARIS PROPRIA IN
FELINE SMALL INTESTINAL T-CELL LYMPHOMA AND INFLAMMATORY
BOWEL DISEASE. L. Daniaux, M. Laurenson, S. Marks, P. Moore, S. Taylor, R.
Chen, A. Zwingenberger, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
4:06 pm
ULTRASONOGRAPHIC AND CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF FELINE
GASTROINTESTINAL EOSINOPHILIC SCLEROSING FIBROPLASIA. A.
Weissman1, D. Penninck2, C. Webster2, S. Hecht3, J. Keating2, L.E.
Craig3. 1University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine Department of
Anatomy and Radiology, Athens, Georgia, 30602. 2 Cummings School of Veterinary
Medicine, Tufts University Department of Clinical Sciences, North Grafton, MA
01536. 3University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine Department of
Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Knoxville, TN 37996.
4:18 pm
ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE OUTER MEDULLAR OF CANINE
KIDNEYS IN DOGS WITHOUT CLINICAL EVIDENCE OF RENAL DISEASE. DJ
VanderHart, CR Berry, MD Winter, DJ Reese, SL Reese, JA Conway. UF
Veterinary Hospitals, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.
4:30 pm
EFFECT OF SPATIAL COMPOUND IMAGING ON RENAL CORTICAL
ANISOTROPY ARTIFACT IN DOGS. J.D. Ruth, H.G. Heng, P.D. Constable. Purdue
University College of Veterinary Medicine, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907.
4:42 pm
CORRELATION
BETWEEN
ULTRASONOGRAPHIC
PATTERN
OF
GALLBLADDER MUCOCELE AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE IN DOGS. A.Y.
Kim1, J.Y. Oh2, S.Y. Keh1, H.W. Kim1, D.W. Chang3, H.J. Choi4, J.H.
Choi2. 1Haemaru Referral Animal Hospital, Seongnam, South Korea 463050, 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South
Korea 500-757, 3College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University,
Cheongju, South Korea 361-763, 4College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam
National University, Daejeon, South Korea 305-764.
5:00 pm
Adjourn for the Day
5:30 pm
Meet the Residency Directors
6:30 pm 8:30 pm
Poster Presentation and ACVR/VCS Reception Messina
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
20
STUDENTS’ AND RECENT GRADUATES’ PERCEPTIONS OF RESOURCES FOR
LEARNING VETERINARY RADIOLOGY. K. Alexander , S. Dallaire*, M. Bélisle, N.
Fernandez, M. Doucet. Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Centre d'études et de
formation en enseignement supérieur (CEFES), Centre de pédagogie appliquée aux
sciences de la santé (CPASS), Université de Montréal and *Léger Marketing,
Montreal, Québec, Canada.
DETERMINATION OF TIME TO MAXIMAL T1 ENHANCEMENT AND EFFECT ON
SIGNAL INTENSITY IN T2 WEIGHTED IMAGES OF A HEPATOBILIARY MR
CONTRAST AGENT (GADOXETIC ACID) IN HEALTHY DOGS. A.K. Bratton, S.G.
Nykamp, R. Cruz-Arambulo, T.W.G. Gibson, S.A. Kruth. Ontario Veterinary College,
University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1G 2W1.
RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF PULMONARY FIBROSIS IN 7 CATS.
M. Evola,1 J.K. Reichle,1 D. Biller,2 C. Mitchell,3 A. Valdes-Martinez,4 E. Edmondson.5
1
. Animal Specialy & Emergency Center, West LA CA 90025. 2. Kansas State
University College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Health Center, Manhattan KS
66506. 3. Toronto Veterinary Emergency Hospital and Referral Services, Toronto,
Ontario Canada M1R 3B1. 4. Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching
Hospital, Fort Collins CO 80523-1601. 5. Colorado State University Veterinary
Diagnostic Laboratories, Fort Collins CO 80523-1601.
CT MORPHOMETRY OF PARASPINAL MUSCLES IN LABRADOR RETRIEVERS
WITH VERSUS WITHOUT LUMBOSACRAL PAIN. B. Francis1, J. Jones1, B.
Pierce2, K. Childs3, P. Grimm3, M. Mukherjee1. 1West Virginia University, WV, 265066108; 2Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, VA, 24061-0442;
3
Department of Defense Military Working Dog Veterinary Service, TX, 78236.
PRESENCE OF ATLANTOAXIAL LIGAMENTOUS ABNORMALITIES ON
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES IN DOGS WITH AND WITHOUT CHIARI-LIKE
MALFORMATION. 1E.B. Garcia*, 1N. Rademacher,2 A. Shores and 1L.
Gaschen.1Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge,
LA, 70803, USA.2 Mississippi State College of Veterinary Medicine, Starkville,
MS,39762, USA.
INFLUENCE OF A DELAYED POST CONTRAST SEQUENCE ON CONTRAST
ENHANCEMENT OF INTRACRANIAL LESIONS IN CATS AND DOGS. D. Gorgas1,
R. Schibler1, S. Dürr2, J. Lang1. 1Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine and
2
Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health, Vetsuisse Faculty Bern, 3012 Bern,
Switzerland.
RADIOGRAPHIC VISIBILITY AND MEASUREMENTS OF CAUDAL LOBAR
PULMONARY VESSELS IN HEMODYNAMICALLY NORMAL CATS.
T.Gregori1, N.X. Harran1, V.Barberet1, D. Casamian Sorrosal1. 1Clinical Veterinary
Science, Division of Companion Animals, University of Bristol, Langford, BS40 5DU,
United Kingdom.
21
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) SPINAL CORD AND CANAL
MEASUREMENTS IN NORMAL DOGS. S.Hecht1, M. M. Huerta1, R. B. Reed2.
Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences1 and Department of Biomedical and
Diagnostic Sciences2, University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine,
Knoxville, TN, USA.
COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC ANATOMY OF THE THORAX OF THE LIVE
COMMON BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN. M. Ivančić1, M. Solano2, C.R. Smith1.
1
National Marine Mammal Foundation, San Diego, CA 92106 and 2Cummings
School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.
MODEL SYSTEMS FOR INVESTIGATION OF TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR
FELINE INJECTION SITE SARCOMAH. Petznek1, M. Kleiter1, M. König-Schuster1,2,
M. Renner1, C. Hohenadl1. 1University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, A-1210;
2
Marinomed Biotechnologie GmbH, A-1210, Austria.
MEDICAL INFRARED IMAGING (THERMOGRAPHY) IN CATS WITH
HYPERTHYROIDISM. D.J. Marino. Long Island Veterinary Specialists, New York,
11803.
EFFECT OF UPPER AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION ON THORACIC WALL
CONFORMATION IDENTIFIED ON ROUTINE THORACIC RADIOGRAPHS.
J.S. Matheson, K. Stadler. University of Illinois-Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA
61802.
COMPARISON OF RADIOGRAPHIC AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC
MEASUREMENTS OF TRACHEAL DIAMETER AND LENGTH IN DOGS.
J.E. MontgomeryA, K.G. MathewsB, D.J. Marcellin-LittleB, S. HendrickA, J.C. BrownB.
A
Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus
Dr. Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4, BCollege of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State
University, 4700 Hillsborough St., Raleigh, NC, 27606.
REDUCTION IN DOSE OF SCATTER RADIATION USING PROTECTIVE LEAD
SHIELDING ON DOGS RECEIVING ELBOW RADIOGRAPHS.
S. Nemanic, B.K. Nixon, R.A. Francis, R.H. Farmer, D.L. Harlan, W.I. Baltzer.
Oregon State University, OR 97331.
ASSESSMENT OF RESPIRATION INDUCED DISPLACEMENT OF CANINE
ABDOMINAL STRUCTURES IN DORSAL VERSUS VENTRAL RECUMBENCY
USING COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGING. C.R. Oliveira1, R. Drees1, M.A.
Henzler2. 1School of Veterinary Medicine, and 2 School of Medicine and Public
Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706.
CT MEASUREMENT OF THE INCLINATION ANGLES AND MOTION OF THE
SACROILIAC JOINT IN GERMAN SHEPHERD DOGS AND GREYHOUNDS. F.C.
Saunders, N.J. Cave, K.M. Hartman, E.K. Gee, A.J. Worth, J.P. Bridges, A.C.
Hartman. Institute of Veterinary, Animal & Biomedical Sciences, Massey University,
Palmerston North, New Zealand.
22
FEASIBILITY FOR USING DUAL-PHASE CONTRAST-ENHANCED MULTIDETECTOR HELICAL CT TO EVALUATE AWAKE AND SEDATED DOGS WITH
ACUTE ABDOMINAL SIGNS. M.M. Shanaman, S.K. Hartman, R.T. O’Brien.
Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, IL, 61802.
THREE CASES OF ENLARGED UTERUS MASCULINUS DIAGNOSED VIA
ULTRASOUND. J.H. Sheridan, H.G. Heng, J.D. Ruth, L.G Adams, C. Thompson,
and M. Childress. Purdue University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of
Veterinary Clinical Sciences, IN 47907.
VOLUMETRIC ESTIMATION OF THE PROSTATE GLAND USING COMPUTED
TOMOGRAPHY IN NORMAL BEAGLE DOGS. Y.M. Song, 1H.C. Lee, J.Y. Lee,
J.W. Lee, W.C. Jung, S.Y. Choi, I. Lee, 2W.S. Choi, 2D.W. Chang, Y.W. Lee, H.J.
Choi. College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon,
South Korea 305-764; 1College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National
University, Jinju, South Korea 660-701; 2College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk
National University, Cheonju, South Korea 361-763.
COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF PRESUMPTIVELY NORMAL
ABDOMINAL LYMPH NODES IN DOGS. J.E. Stein, R. Drees. University of
Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences,
Madison, WI., 53706.
IMAGING FINDINGS IN DOMESTIC FERRETS (Mustela putorius furo) WITH
LYMPHOMA. J.N. Suran, N.R. Wyre. University of Pennsylvania, PA, 19104.
THORACIC DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY: EVALUATION OF IMAGE QUALITY
USING A CDRAD PHANTOM. R. Tyson, D.A. Neelis, G.B. Daniel. VirginiaMaryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA
24061.
THORACIC
RADIOGRAPHIC
ANATOMY
IN
VERVET
MONKEYS
(CHLOROCEBUS SABAEUS). A.N. Young, D. Rodriguez, W.M. du Plessis. Ross
University, School of Veterinary Medicine, Basseterre, St. Kitts and Nevis.
OPTIMISED MULTISLICE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC (CT) PROTOCOL FOR
THE NORMAL CANINE BRAIN. M. Zarelli1, T. Schwarz2, A. Puggioni1, M. Pinilla3,
H. McAllister1. 1UCD, Ireland, 2The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies,
Edinburgh, Scotland and 3Southern Counties Veterinary Specialists, Ringwood, UK.
RADIOGRAPHIC, CLINICAL AND CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF
ANGIOSTRONGYLOSIS IN DOGS FROM IRELAND. M. Zarelli; B. Gallagher; S.
Brennan; C. Mooney. University College Dublin, D4, Ireland.62
MULTI-DETECTOR CT UROGRAPHY PROTOCOL DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION.
A.R. zur Linden1, E.A. Riedesel1, K. Alexander2. College of Veterinary Medicine,
Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 500111; Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université
de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada, J2S 7C6.2
23
ASSOCIATION OF THORACIC RADIOGRAPHS AND SEVERITY OF PULMONARY
ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DIAGNOSED IN 66 DOGS VIA DOPPLER
ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY.
D.S. Adams, A. Valdés-Martínez, E.K. Randall, A.J. Marolf. Colorado State University,
Colorado, 80523.
Introduction/Purpose: Echocardiography is a non-invasive method for diagnosing
PAH. PAH is commonly graded as mild, moderate, or severe using tricuspid
regurgitation velocity and modified Bernoulli equation. Thoracic radiographs for
evaluation of cardiac silhouette and pulmonary arterial vasculature and parenchyma
often accompany these exams. No current literature correlates thoracic radiographic
findings to severity of PAH. We hypothesize that the more severe the PAH, the greater
the number and conspicuity of radiographic findings suggestive of hypertension.
Methods:
Inclusion criteria consisted of dogs with suspected PAH that had
echocardiographic and thoracic radiographic examinations performed within a 24 hour
interval. A group of normal dogs were included for control. The radiographs of PAH
and control dogs were randomized and scored by three board certified radiologists
blinded to the echocardiographic results for the following: right ventricular enlargement,
main pulmonary artery (MPA) enlargement, and lobar pulmonary artery enlargement,
tortuosity, and blunting. A “reverse D” appearance, elevation of the cardiac apex, and
an estimation of right (3/5) to left (2/5) heart ratio on the lateral projection were utilized
to determine right ventricular enlargement. A soft tissue bulge at the 1-2 o’clock
position of the heart was utilized to determine main pulmonary artery enlargement.
Comparison of the cranial lobar arteries to the 4th ribs on a lateral and comparison of the
caudal lobar arteries to the 3rd and 9th ribs on a DV/VD projection were utilized to
evaluate lobar artery enlargement. Tortuosity and blunting were subjectively evaluated.
Presence or absence of each finding was scored "1" or "0" respectively for a cumulative
score in the range of 0-9 for each dog. Cumulative scores per dog by each reviewer
were averaged to determine a mean score for each grade of PAH.
Results: Seventy-seven dogs were included in the study, of which 20 were mild, 21
moderate, 25 severe, and 11 absent (control) PAH dogs. The presence of the following
radiographic findings (expressed as a percentage) increased as PAH severity
increased: A. Reverse D (mild 36%, moderate 39%, severe 49%, absent 0%); B. 3/52/5 ratio (mild 33%, moderate 42%, severe 51%, absent 6%); C. MPA enlargement
(mild 26%, moderate 37%, severe 48%, absent 12%); D. Caudal lobar artery
enlargement by 3rd rib method (mild 44%, moderate 51%, severe 59%, absent 9%).
Mean scores for PAH grade were: mild (1.91), moderate (2.27), severe (2.84), and
absent (0.39).
Discussion/Conclusion:
The radiographic evidence of right ventricular, main
pulmonary artery, and caudal pulmonary lobar artery enlargement by some of the
evaluation methods tended to increase along with severity of PAH. However, even for
severe PAH cases the presence of any particular finding only occurred in approximately
one-half of cases, indicating a single radiographic finding should not be utilized to
determine PAH severity. On the other hand, the presence of multiple findings is
suggestive of an increased severity of PAH.
24
NORMAL STERNAL MENSURATION OF THE CARDIAC SILHOUETTE
(STERNEBRAL CARDIAC SILHOUETTE SCALE) IN SIX BREEDS OF NORMAL
DOGS BASED ON THE RIGHT LATERAL RADIOGRAPH.
Erin Carr, Clifford R. Berry, Matthew D. Winter. UF | Veterinary Hospitals, Department
of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0102.
Introduction/Purpose: Increased cardiac silhouette sternal contact (CsSC) has been
reported in dogs to be an indicator of right ventricular enlargement. However, an
objective method for determining CsSC has not been defined. The purpose of this study
was to establish an objective measure of sternal contact for 6 different breeds of dogs;
Dachshunds, Poodles, Golden Retrievers, Labradors, Doberman and Greyhounds.
Methods: A total of 161 sets of thoracic radiographs from 6 breeds of dogs without
prior cardiac abnormalities where analyzed. The sternebral cardiac silhouette scale
(SCsS) was defined as a parallel line drawn dorsal to the 6th sternebrae; the line was
then moved dorsally until it touched the ventral most aspect of the cardiac silhouette.
The linear measure of contact between the cardiac silhouette and the ventral line was
recorded and then measured against the thoracic vertebrae (v) starting at T4, using a
method as previously described for calculating the vertebral heart score (VHS).1 A nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis Test was used to determine significant differences between
VHS and SHS in the 6 breeds evaluated. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered
significant.
Results: The SCsS mean v (vertebrae) ± SD for each breed were: Dachshund 2.2v ±
0.6; Poodle 2.2v ± 0.5; Golden Retriever 1.4v ± 0.4; Greyhound 1.4v ± 0.5; Labrador
1.3v ± 0.3 and Doberman 0.7v ± 0.2. Significant differences of SHS (all p values <
0.01) were noted between most breeds except between the following: poodle and
dachshund, and between the Golden Retriever, Labrador retriever and the Greyhound
groups. In the Doberman pinscher, the SCsS was the smallest and was significantly
different (p < 0.01) from all other breeds evaluated in this study. The SCsS was larger in
small breeds (Dachshunds, Poodles) and smaller in the large dog breeds evaluated
(Doberman, Greyhound, Golden Retriever, Labrador retriever). The VHS between the
different breeds was not significantly different except the Greyhound breed was noted to
be significantly greater compared to the Poodle and Doberman pinscher groups (p <
0.01) as previously described.2
Discussion/Conclusion: This initial study has shown differences in the SCsS for 6
dog breeds. Further investigation is needed in order to understand the potential role that
this measurement may have for helping to determine right or left sided cardiac
abnormalities in the dog.
1. Buchanan JW, Bücheler J. Vertebral scale system to measure canine heart size in radiographs.
J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1995; 206:194-9.
2. Marin LM, Brown J, McBrien C, Baumwart R, Samii VF, Couto CG. Vertebral heart size in retired
racing Greyhounds. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2007; 48:332-4.
25
RADIOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION OF LIVER SIZE IN DOGS.
A. Weissman, S.P. Holmes, J. Smith, A.M. Jeffers, D. Jimenez. University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, Georgia, 30602.
Introduction/Purpose: Classic radiographic evaluation of hepatic size has relied upon
three subjective criteria: gastric axis position, caudoventral hepatic margin and
caudoventral hepatic position relative to the costal arch. In a canine population with both
normal and abnormal hepatic screening examinations, the objectives of this study were
to compare the subjective assessment of liver pathology, determine how the classic
methods of hepatic measurement relate to liver enzymes and the subjective
assessment of liver size, and develop a novel objective measurement of hepatic size.
Methods: Dogs with a normal abdominal ultrasound, ALT, and ALP (n=21) and dogs
with abnormal abdominal ultrasound and/or ALT and ALP (n=19) were included.
Orthogonal abdominal radiographs were reviewed by two ACVR diplomats and one
radiology resident. Reviewers subjectively assessed hepatic size and the three classic
criteria were evaluated for each patient. A novel objective measurement of hepatic size,
the vertebral liver score (VLS), was tested. The VLS was defined on the lateral
projection as the distance from the point where the ventral margin of the caudal vena
cava crossed the diaphragm, to the caudoventral tip of the liver, relative to the length of
L2.
Results: Forty dogs with a mean age of 6.0 years (0.5-14.1 years) and mean weight of
15.1 kg (1.0-42.5 kg) were included in the study. In cases when reviewers were of
uniform opinion, they correctly correlated subjective radiographic hepatic size with liver
enzymes in 12/14 (86%) normal dogs and 5/15 (33%) abnormal dogs. Inter-reviewer
variability was not significantly affected by experience. None of the classic criteria
individually (T-test, p ≥ 0.07) or in combination (3-way ANOVA, p ≥ 0.23) were a reliable
predictor of liver pathology. Based on Odds Ratios, each reviewer weighted the classic
criteria differently and no pattern in weighting emerged superior in the prediction of liver
pathology. When measuring the VLS, the variability among reviewers was
approximately 7% of the average measurement. The VLS was a significant predictor of
ALT and ALP (p = 0.03 and 0.0006, respectively). The VLS 95% prediction interval was
determined to be 2.6-6.5 for dogs with normal liver enzymes and abdominal ultrasound.
Discussion/Conclusion: Reviewers were more likely to correctly predict normal than
abnormal liver values. The three classic criteria had high inter-reviewer variability and
none, alone or in combination, were a significant predictor of liver enzyme alterations.
The VLS proved to be a highly reproducible objective measurement for discriminating
between normal and abnormal liver enzymes. The application of the normal VLS range
of 2.6-6.5 is potentially superior to classic subjective interpretation criteria when
screening for liver pathology. A larger sample size is needed to confirm the strength of
this finding.
26
COMPARISON OF DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY, ULTRASOUND AND VAGINOURETHROGRAPHY IN THE DETERMINATION OF REPRODUCTIVE STATUS OF
FERAL AND SHELTER QUEENS.
L. Pack, M. L. Woodland, B. Crane, P.M. Rist. Atlantic Veterinary College, University of
Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, C1A 4P3.
Introduction/Purpose: Many cats that are presented to feral cat spay/neuter programs
or shelters have an unknown medical history. It is not always possible to identify female
cats which have undergone previous ovariohysterectomy based on physical
examination alone, necessitating surgery. It would be advantageous to have an easy,
cost-effective method for screening female cats for reproductive status to avoid
performing an unnecessary exploratory laparotomy.
Methods: A prospective randomized study on 50 recently euthanized female cats of
unknown medical history and reproductive status was performed. Digital abdominal
radiography, digital abdominal radiography with compression, abdominal
ultrasonography and positive contrast vaginourethrography was performed in sequence
by a board certified radiologist and a second-year radiology resident. Immediately
following these procedures, necropsy was performed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive
predictive value, negative predictive value and McNemar’s test statistic were calculated
to compare the use of different modalities for determining the reproductive status of cats
with unknown medical history.
Results: In the current study population of 50 cats, ultrasound had the highest
sensitivity (87%) for determining reproductive status of all the imaging modalities tested.
The specificity was 83%, and the positive predictive value and negative predictive value
were 94% and 67%, respectively. The calculated sensitivities and specificities of the
other modalities were as follows: digital radiographs (32%, 100%), digital compression
radiographs (55%, 100%) and vaginourethrogram (37%, 100%). Based on McNemar’s
test statistic, there was a significant difference in the sensitivities of ultrasound
compared to digital radiographs, compression radiographs and vaginourethrogram.
Discussion/Conclusion: Ultrasound
sensitivity for correctly identifying
vaginourethrograms are more readily
and shelter situations, due to poor
reproductive status.
was the imaging modality with the highest
intact queens. Although radiography and
available imaging modalities in private practice
sensitivity, they are not reliable predictors of
27
RADIOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSIS OF MECHANICAL OBSTRUCTION IN DOGS BASED
ON RELATIVE SMALL INTESTINAL LUMINAL DIAMETERS.
C. Finck, MA. d’Anjou, K. Alexander, G. Beauchamp. Faculty of veterinary medicine,
Université de Montréal, 3200 rue Sicotte, St-Hyacinthe (QC), J2S 7C6 Canada.
Introduction/Purpose: While ultrasonography provides superior accuracy for
identifying intestinal obstruction, radiography remains a pertinent technique allowing a
global assessment of intestinal contents and diameters. Several studies focused on the
use of anatomical landmarks, and particularly the height of L5 vertebral body, to
discriminate dogs requiring surgery. However, the potential value of comparing
intestinal diameters for predicting obstruction has not been reported.
Methods: Abdominal digital radiographs of dogs with acute vomiting, due to obstructive
(group 1, n=25) or non-obstructive (group 2, n=25) processes were retrospectively
assessed blindly and randomly. Small intestinal (SI) maximal diameter (SImax) was
measured and compared to the height of L5 vertebral body, to the minimal SI diameter
(SImin), and to the estimated average of SI diameters using 2 intestinal loops considered
representative ( SImed), forming 3 ratios, R1, R2 and R3, respectively. Finally, the
pattern of SI ileus was defined as segmental when involving less than 25% of SI,
regional when 25-50% of loops were affected, or diffuse when >50%
Results: Ratios were significantly higher with SI obstruction. Using receiver operating
curve (ROC) analysis, optimal thresholds for diagnosing mechanical ileus were the
following: R1≥1.8 (Se92%, Sp84%), R2≥2.3 (Se88%, Sp84%), R3≥1.5 (Se80%,
Sp80%). All ratios and thresholds considered, R1 and R3 respectively with thresholds
≥2.4 (Se 68%) and ≥1.9 (Se 64%) allowed the diagnosis of a greater number of true
positives (dogs with true mechanical ileus and none without); R2 ≤2.0 (Sp 68%) allowed
the diagnosis of a greater number of true negatives (dogs without true mechanical ileus
and none with), [95% confidence intervals]. Segmental ileus was significantly more
prevalent in obstructed dogs p<0.008), while diffuse ileus was significantly more
prevalent for non-obstructed dogs.
Discussion/Conclusion: Ratios comparing SI maximal diameter to other intestinal
segments or to L5 all enable a reliable discrimination of mechanical obstruction from
non-obstructive processes. The pattern of SI ileus can also help in discriminating dogs
that require surgery from dogs in which a conservative approach can be recommended.
28
PAPERS ® ORGANIZATION AND SOCIAL NETWORKING FOR YOUR DATA.
E.D. Brochtrup. Kansas State University, Kansas, 66502.
Introduction/Purpose: Radiologists are bombarded daily with incredible amounts
digital media and information, as well as multitudes of print media. Processing this
information is hard enough, but organizing it all in a manner in which it is easily
searched, retrieved, and notated can be a daunting task. There are a multitude of PDF
readers which allow storage and annotation abilities for digital articles. There are
multiple differing search engines that allow for retrieval of digital and print articles. And
there are varying methods such as file trees or commercially available programs
designed for storing and minimal organization of large numbers of PDF style articles.
Discussion/Conclusion: Papers 2.0®, by Mekentosj, is a program that is designed for
all of these functions, seamlessly with your current PDF reader, search engines, proxy
libraries, and word processing programs. Within the limitations of this presentation all
features of this program cannot be discuss, and thus only those thought most innovative
and/or useful for the clinician, researcher, and resident will be discussed.
Papers 2.0® program is based on a layout similar to a well known program iTunes®,
allowing for intuitive maneuvering and manipulation of the articles, including creating
manual and smart folders, click and drag functions, annotations and notes. The internal
search function of this program is based on the metadata of the PDF allowing for
organization or search and retrieval by: title, author, date published, year, periodical,
read, filed, rating, etc. Papers 2.0® also has an external search function allowing one to
use many of the popular search engines (PubMed, web of science, Google scholar,
etc.) as well a proxy library access to search and retrieve articles from the web without
ever leaving the program.
Papers 2.0® is not just a PDF reader, nor just a file system. This program integrates
with your e-mail to allow 1 click sharing of articles. Papers can handle up to 74 different
types of media including: PDFs, word document, Power point, excel file, scanned
document, web pages, pictures, audio. Allowing for varying forms of data to be
organized together. Paper 2.0® goes beyond the obtaining, reading, annotating, and
storing of information, but continues into the creation of such works with Magic
manuscripts, a unique program that allows for seamless citations within your authored
works. This program works with a multitude of word processing programs: word, key
note, power point, e-mail, etc. allowing you to use the programs of your choice. Magic
manuscripts allows for insertion of citations with automatic formatting of the citation and
bibliography with an extensive list of citation styles available. These citation styles can
be changed with a single click, no more hours of rewriting citations and renumbering of
bibliographies. Papers 2.0® also includes Livef, a web based unique and innovative
way of creating libraries and sharing data between private and public arenas. Livef
allows for clinicians/residents separated by offices, miles, or oceans to easily share
articles, data, information, as well as chat or brainstorm. Papers 2.0® continues to
evolve, creating innovative and intuitive ways to help obtain, store, annotate, share, cite,
and search the multitudes of data bombarding us.
29
WHAT DO ABNORMAL GAS ACCUMULATIONS IN MARINE MAMMALS MEAN?
S.E. Dennison1,2,3, M. Moore4, J. St. Leger5, K. Danil6, M. Flannery7, T. Rowles8.
1
Marine Mammal Radiology, San Francisco, CA 94107, 2Animal Scan, Redwood City,
CA 94063, 3University of Wisconsin, School of Veterinary Medicine, Madison, WI 53707,
4
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543, 5Seaworld, San
Diego, CA 92109, 6Southwest Fisheries Science Center, La Jolla, CA 92037, 7California
Academy of Science, San Francisco, CA 94118, 8NMFS, Silver Spring, MD 20910.
Introduction/Purpose: Abnormal gas accumulations found in cetaceans that died
following exposure to Naval sonar suggested that this might indicate that sonar was the
cause of the stranding and led to a policy of imaging dead stranded cetaceans to
evaluate for abnormal gas when sonar –related stranding is suspected. Our purpose
was to determine if the presence of abnormal gas was sonar-specific.
Methods: Cetaceans that were healthy or stranded unrelated to Naval sonar exercises
were opportunistically evaluated for abnormal gas accumulations. Cetaceans were
divided into the following groups: 1) stranded live and released (ultrasound); 2) stranded
live and died (ultrasound, CT, necropsy); 3) stranded dead (CT, necropsy); 4) captive
(ultrasound, CT); 5) free-ranging healthy (ultrasound); 6) died due to known barotrauma
(CT, gas analysis, necropsy); 7) stranded dead and imaged pre and post decapitation
(CT, necropsy) and 8) stranded dead and allowed to decompose (serial CT, necropsy).
Results: 22/22 live stranded free ranging cetaceans had evidence of renal gas
accumulations on renal ultrasound compared to 0/50 shallow water dwelling cetaceans.
Of these 14/22 live stranded dolphins were released uneventfully indicating gas
accumulations were asymptomatic in those dolphins. The remaining 8/22 underwent CT
and necropsy that confirmed multifocal abnormal gas accumulations. 3/3 cetaceans that
died due to known barotrauma had multifocal abnormal gas accumulations confirmed as
air emboli on gas analysis. 9/9 cetaceans that stranded dead due to unknown causes
had evidence of trauma to air-filled structures (aural or thoracic) and variable associated
patterns of multifocal abnormal gas accumulations. Decapitation resulted in the
widespread introduction of air. Decomposition resulted in progressive multifocal
abnormal gas accumulations with the addition of marked intestinal dilatation.
Discussion/Conclusion: The asymptomatic presence of gas in live-stranded dolphins
indicates that de novo formation can occur. In fresh dead animals that can be scanned
intact, CT permits thorough evaluation of the distribution and amount of abnormal gas
present. However caution must be exercised when interpreting the presence and likely
etiology of that gas. Intestinal gas dilatation may indicate decomposition and little
significance can be applied to gas within the head following decapitation. Correlation of
imaging findings with gas analysis and histology is needed to ultimately determine the
significance.
30
PREVALENCE, HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION, AND POTENTIAL
SIGNIFICANCE OF A TIBIAL TUBERCLE RADIOLUCENCY IN DOGS.
M. Paek, J.B. Engiles, W. Mai. School of Veterinary Medicine Section of Radiology
University of Pennsylvania, PA, 19104.
Introduction/Purpose: On lateral radiographs of the stifle in dogs, at the level of the
proximal-cranial aspect of the tibia, a focal, ill-defined tibial tubercle radiolucency (TTR)
is sometimes identified and was reported in textbooks to be of no clinical significance.
The purpose of this study was to investigate its prevalence, histopathological
correlation, and clinical association with conditions such as medial patellar luxation
(MPL) and cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR).
Methods: The electronic database was searched for all canine stifle radiographs over
the past 5 years. One author blindly assessed all images for the presence of a TTR and
subjectively graded it as mild, moderate, or marked. The medical records were then
evaluated for the signalment and underlying stifle condition. Dogs were categorized into
two groups based on breed size: group 1) toy and small breeds or group 2) medium,
large, and giant breeds. Additionally, four small breed dogs that were euthanized for
unrelated causes underwent radiographs, computed tomography (CT), and
histopathology of the stifles. Two of the cadavers had normal stifles while two of the
cadavers had TTRs with MPLs.
Results: A TTR was found in 145/675 (21.5%) dogs, of which 78 had an MPL, 57 had
a CCLR and the remaining had varying diagnoses. Multinomial logistic regression
showed a significant association between TTR and type of stifle disease (p<0.0001), or
breed size (p=0.040), but not with sex (p=0.575). In our study group, dogs with a TTR
had higher odds of having an MPL than dogs without (OR=9.854, p<0.0001, 95% CI
6.422-15.120). There was no association between the severity of the TTR and grade of
MPL (χ2, p=0.945). Dogs with a TTR had lower odds of having a CCLR than dogs
without TTR (OR=0.418, p<0.0001, 95% CI 0.287-0.609). Toy and small breed dogs
had a higher prevalence of a TTR compared with medium to giant breed dogs (33.1%
vs. 18.9% respectively, χ2, p<0.0001). When the analysis was stratified by dog size,
there was still a significant association between TTR and MPL in both toy/small breeds
(χ2, p<0.0001) and medium to giant breeds (χ2, p<0.0001). CT revealed a
hypoattenuating cortical bony defect in the lateral aspect of the tibial tubercle
immediately cranial to the muscular groove. Histopathologic examination showed that
this site is a hyaline cartilaginous focus with mild peri-lesional osteoclastic resorption
and marrow space edema. The contiguous cortical bone was thin to absent.
Discussion/Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that a TTR is more
prevalent in small breeds of dogs and also suggests a possible association between
TTR and MPL. Histopathologically, the TTR appears to represent an aberrant focally
retained cartilage core within the proximal tibia that may be a manifestation of the tibial
conformational changes that predispose to MPL. Although technically abnormal, the
radiographic and CT appearance of a TTR should not be confused with malignant
pathology.
32
COMPARISON OF THE ACCURACY, TIMING AND ERGONOMICS OF A WIIMOTE
TO A STANDARD COMPUTER MOUSE FOR IMAGE INTERPRETATION.
A.R. zur Linden1, R.T. Stone2, A. Clemens2. College of Veterinary Medicine1, College of
Engineering2, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, 50011.
Introduction/Purpose: Digital imaging studies require the use of a computer mouse
for image manipulation. Using a mouse for such purposes has been associated with
upper extremity disorders including carpal tunnel syndrome. A Nintendo© Wiimote was
considered to offer a solution for improved ergonomics and makes a suitable mouse
replacement as it can recognize gestures and point through the use of accelerometers.
The Wiimote was integrated with the Mac-based imaging software OsiriX using
DarwiinRemote, and computer code written for efficient integration. The purpose of this
study was to compare and evaluate the accuracy and time to interpretation of computed
tomography (CT) studies using the Wiimote and a standard mouse. Our hypotheses
were that there would be no difference in accuracy of interpretation between the mouse
and the Wiimote and that the ergonomics would be improved with the Wiimote.
Methods: Four board certified specialists and five residents in training (radiology,
surgery and neurology) participated in this study. Each subject evaluated a randomly
assigned set of 10 CT studies (axial volume data) of canine patients with intervertebral
disk disease using a mouse and then the Wiimote in a standing position. Subjects
determined the location of intervertebral disk extrusion, mineralized intervertebral disks
and transitional vertebrae. A maximum of 180 seconds was allowed for each case to
introduce a reasonable approximation of time pressure. During the task subjects wore
electromyography (EMG) sensors on key muscles associated with wrist movement as
well as lower arm rotation and electronic goniometers to measure wrist flexion/extension
and radial/ulnar deviation. Prior to the Wiimote session, each subject underwent a 20minute training session to gain familiarity with the device.
Results: A significant difference (p < 0.05 with a 95% CI) between the mouse and the
Wiimote was not identified with respect to accuracy of clinically significant findings
(84.4% accuracy by mouse and 81.1% accuracy by Wiimote) for the site of
intervertebral disk extrusion and time to interpretation (164 seconds by mouse and 151
seconds by Wiimote). A trend indicated increased deltoid muscle activation when using
the Wiimote, but this was not statistically significant. The forearm muscles had
significantly increased activation rates and increased flexion/extension of the wrist when
subjects were using the mouse, with no significant difference in ulnar/radial deviation.
Discussion/Conclusion: The Wiimote was found to be comparable to the mouse with
respect to accuracy of the most clinically relevant findings and time to interpretation.
Use of the Wiimote resulted in decreased forearm muscle activation and
flexion/extension of the wrist compared to the mouse, with the larger muscles possibly
taking over some of the work with the Wiimote. With improved ergonomics, the Wiimote
may offer an alternative solution to a mouse for individuals with upper extremity injuries.
A future goal is to test a sterilized Wiimote for use in the surgical or interventional suite.
33
ULTRASONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE RELATIVE THICKNESS OF WALL
LAYERS IN THE CANINE INTESTINAL TRACT.
N.E. Geyer, D.G. Penninck, C.R.L. Webster. Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine,
Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.
Introduction/Purpose: The normal appearance of the gastrointestinal tract in pediatric
and adult dogs has been previously described, including weight-correlated references
for total wall thickness. In dogs up to 12 weeks of age, the thickness of individual wall
layers for the stomach, duodenum, and jejunum has been reported, however, these
values have not been reported in the adult dog or correlated to body weight. The
purpose of this study is to establish weight-correlated references for ultrasonographic
thickness of the individual wall layers for the duodenum, jejunum, and colon.
Methods: After careful evaluation of the medical record of adult dogs presenting for an
abdominal ultrasound, all dogs with a history of gastrointestinal disease in the preceding
two months or dogs that had received steroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories,
antibiotics, or chemotherapeutics within 30 days prior to the abdominal ultrasound were
excluded. The remaining dogs were categorized according to weight, including 26 small
(<15 kg), 25 medium (15-30 kg), and 34 large (>30 kg) dogs. Electronic calipers were
used to measure the mucosal, submucosal, muscularis, and serosal layers as well as
the total wall thickness for the duodenum, jejunum, and colon.
Results:
Mean +/- SD for Duodenal, Jejunal, and Colonic variables
Mucosa
Submucosa Muscularis
Serosa
(mm)
(mm)
(mm)
(mm)
Duodenum 2.4 +/- 0.5
0.6 +/- 0.1
0.5 +/- 0.1
0.4 +/- 0.1
Small
Jejunum
1.8 +/- 0.4
0.5 +/- 0.1
0.5 +/- 0.1
0.4 +/- 0.1
Colon
0.4 +/- 0.1
0.4 +/- 0.1
0.4 +/- 0.1
0.4 +/- 0.1
Duodenum 2.6 +/- 0.6
0.6 +/- 0.2
0.5 +/- 0.1
0.4 +/- 0.1
Medium Jejunum
2.0 +/- 0.4
0.6 +/- 0.2
0.5 +/- 0.1
0.4 +/- 0.1
Colon
0.4 +/- 0.1
0.3 +/- 0.1
0.3 +/- 0.1
0.4 +/- 0.1
Duodenum 2.8 +/- 0.5
0.6 +/- 0.2
0.6 +/- 0.2
0.4 +/- 0.1
Large
Jejunum
2.2 +/- 0.5
0.6 +/- 0.1
0.5 +/- 0.2
0.4 +/- 0.1
Colon
0.5 +/- 0.1
0.4 +/- 0.1
0.4 +/- 0.1
0.4 +/- 0.1
Total
(mm)
3.8 +/- 0.5
3.0 +/- 0.5
1.5 +/- 0.3
4.1 +/ 0.7
3.5 +/- 0.5
1.4 +/- 0.5
4.4 +/- 0.7
3.8 +/- 0.4
1.6 +/- 0.4
Discussion/Conclusion: In our opinion, the thickness of individual wall layers may
play an important role in characterizing inflammatory conditions in combination with
other changes such as wall echogenicity.
35
ULTRASONOGRAPHIC THICKENING OF THE MUSCULARIS PROPRIA IN FELINE
SMALL INTESTINAL T-CELL LYMPHOMA AND INFLAMMATORY BOWEL
DISEASE.
L. Daniaux, M. Laurenson, S. Marks, P. Moore, S. Taylor, R. Chen, A. Zwingenberger.
University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
Introduction/Purpose: To quantify the full thickness of the intestinal wall of small cell
T-cell intestinal lymphoma and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) compared to healthy
cats, and to assess if there is a relationship between the thickness of the muscularis
layers of the intestinal wall and the affected segments.
Methods: This prospective study included 8 lymphoma cats, 7 IBD cats and 19 healthy
cats. At least 3 images of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were obtained in
orthogonal planes with abdominal ultrasound. All affected cats underwent exploratory
laparotomy with full thickness biopsies of the small intestine. Each bowel segment was
assessed for the presence of lymphoma with histopathology, immunohistochemistry,
and PCR clonality for rearrangement of T-cell receptor gamma. From the ultrasound
images, full thickness measurements and thickness of each layer of the intestinal wall
were measured in orthogonal planes.
Results: For the duodenum, the widths of the muscularis and the full thickness of the
intestinal wall were significantly thicker in cats with IBD or lymphoma than normal cats
(muscularis: diff 0.24 mm, p= 0.006 and diff 0.19 mm, p=0.015, respectively; full
thickness: diff 0.56 mm, p=0.009 and diff 0.46 mm, p= 0.012, respectively). For the
jejunum, both the muscularis (diff 0.25 mm, p = 0.011) and the full wall thickness (diff
0.38 mm, p = 0.023) were thicker in cats with lymphoma versus normal cats, but only
the muscularis differed significantly in IBD cats versus healthy cats (diff 0.26 mm, p =
0.046) (Table 1). Healthy cats have a significantly lower muscularis to submucosa ratio
than cats with IBD for the duodenum (p=0.005) and jejunum (p=0.023) and for the
jejunum in the lymphoma cats (p=0.029).
Discussion/Conclusion: The thickness of the muscularis propria in the duodenum
and jejunum were greater in IBD and lymphoma compared to healthy cats. When full
thickness was increased, it was due to the increase in the muscularis layer. Muscularis
propria thickening is an indicator of IBD and lymphoma, however does not distinguish
between the two diseases. A muscularis:submucosa ratio >1 is likely to be associated
with IBD or lymphoma.
36
ULTRASONOGRAPHIC AND CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF FELINE
GASTROINTESTINAL EOSINOPHILIC SCLEROSING FIBROPLASIA.
A. Weissman1, D. Penninck2, C. Webster2, S. Hecht3, J. Keating2, L.E. Craig3.
1
University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine Department of Anatomy and
Radiology, Athens, Georgia, 30602. 2 Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts
University Department of Clinical Sciences, North Grafton, MA 01536. 3University of
Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine Department of Small Animal Clinical
Sciences, Knoxville, TN 37996.
Introduction/Purpose: Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia
(FGESF) describes a recently classified nodular, non-neoplastic, inflammatory response
in cats.1 Grossly, it commonly appears as an ulcerated mural mass with a necrotic
center.1 Intracellular bacteria are found in 56% of the cats with FGESF.1 The
pathogenesis of feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia lesions is
unknown. Thus far, there is minimal data that details clinicopathological or diagnostic
imaging findings associated with FGESF. The goals of this paper are to report the
sonographic and clinical features seen in 4 cats with a confirmed diagnosis of FGESF
and to evaluate if any of the features may assist the clinician in including this condition
in a differential diagnosis list.
Results: Four cats with histopathologically diagnosed FGESF were included in this
retrospective case series. The study population was predominantly adult male cats that
presented with gastrointestinal signs. A total of 5 masses were identified in the 4 cats,
which included stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and colon (2). FGESF appeared
ultrasonographically as a focal mass with loss of layering in all cats. The lesions
exhibited mixed echogenicity with hyperechoic regions. Bacteria were identified in 2
cats of this study. Peripheral eosinophilia was noted in 2/4 cats. Neutrophilia (2/4),
relative basophilia (2/3) and lymphopenia (3/4), hyperproteinemia (2/3), and
hyperglobulinemia (2/4) were also noted. Two cats are still alive at time of abstract
submission (40 and 15 months).
Discussion/Conclusion: On ultrasound, FGESF lesions appear as a mass distorting
the wall architecture, which is usually supportive of a neoplastic process. Since the
ultrasonographic appearance of neoplasia and FGESF overlap, FGESF cannot be
diagnosed based on ultrasound alone. The only particular feature that was present in
the cats of this series is the presence of hyperechoic areas, likely representing fibrotic
regions, which are not commonly seen in neoplasia. We recommend this newly
described entity be added to a list of differential diagnoses in cats with focal and
inhomogeneous intestinal masses, especially if fine-needle aspirates or biopsies reveal
the presence of eosinophilic inflammation, mast cells, and fibroblasts. Surgical biopsy
and/or resection of the mass is recommended as FGESF may carry a good prognosis
depending on its location.
1.
Craig L, Hardam E, Hertzke D, Flatland B, Rohrbach B, Moore R. Feline Gastrointestinal
Eosinophilic Sclerosing Fibroplasia. Vet Pathol. 2009;46: 63-70.
37
ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF THE OUTER MEDULLA OF CANINE
KIDNEYS IN DOGS WITHOUT CLINICAL EVIDENCE OF RENAL DISEASE.
D.J. VanderHart, C.R. Berry, M.D. Winter, D.J. Reese, S.L. Reese, J. A. Conway. UF
Veterinary Hospitals, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0102.
Introduction/Purpose: Traditionally, the ultrasonographic (US) appearance of the
kidney includes a hyperechoic renal cortex and a hypo to anechoic medulla. An
alteration in this appearance is often associated with disease processes. It has been
our observation that the US appearance of the kidney, specifically the outer medulla can
be hyperehcoic (HOM) to the renal cortex in normal dogs, especially small and toy
breed dogs. The purpose of this study is to describe the appearance of the outer
medulla in dogs with no clinical evidence of renal disease. Our null hypothesis was that
the renal cortex and outer medulla are isoechoic in all dog breeds.
Methods: Sequential abdominal ultrasound examinations over a 6-month period were
reviewed in all dogs without historical or biochemical evidence of renal dysfunction.
Exclusion criteria included any dog with any of the following abnormalities: active urine
sediment, low urine specific gravity (USG < 1.018), abnormal elevations in BUN,
creatinine or serum calcium, diagnosis of portosystemic shunt or US abnormalities
associated with the urinary tract. Dogs were subdivided based on weight (6 groups
including: <4.9 kg, 5.0 to 9.9 kg, 10 to 19.9 kg, 20 to 29.9 kg, 30 to 39.9 and≥ 40 kg ).
Chi square analysis was used to evaluate for significant differences (presence of the
HOM) between these groups (p value < 0.05 considered significant). The influence of
sex and age in dogs with or without a HOM was evaluated.
Results: Of 145 dogs that met inclusion criteria, 45 had an outer medulla that was
hyperechoic relative to the renal cortex. The remainder of the dogs had an outer
medulla that was isoechoic to the renal cortex making the two regions indistinguishable
on US. Dogs weighing less than 5 kg had a significantly increased probability of having
a HOM and dogs greater than 40 kg had no likelihood of having a HOM (p<0.0001).
Sex had no influence on the presence or absence of the HOM. The dogs with the HOM
were significantly younger (6.4 ± 0.6 yrs) than dogs without the HOM (7.8 ± 0.4 yrs; p =
0.04).
Discussion/Conclusion: Descriptions of the US appearance of the normal canine
kidney have not taken into account the relative contribution of the outer medulla.
Histologically, the outer medulla contains capillary networks and vascular bundles also
found in the cortex, but not the inner medulla. Based on the results of this study, the
outer medulla can be isoechoic or hyperechoic to the renal cortex. An HOM is more
commonly seen in small breed dogs. This US finding should not be misinterpreted as a
medullary rim sign or as pathology.
38
EFFECT OF SPATIAL COMPOUND IMAGING ON RENAL CORTICAL ANISOTROPY
ARTIFACT IN DOGS.
J.D. Ruth, H.G. Heng, P.D. Constable. Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine,
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907.
Introduction/Purpose: Evaluation of the echogenicity of the renal cortex is an important
parameter in canine patients that are suspected to have renal dysfunction. Focal increases
in echogenicity have been attributed to neoplasia, infection, calcification, fibrosis, gas, and
older infarcts. The use of internal reference standards (spleen and liver) requires careful
attention to maintaining similar depth, focus, and gain settings as the standard. In addition,
the influence of insonation angle and ultrasound machine settings on renal cortical
echogenicity must be understood. Anisotropic backscatter has been described as an
artifactual source of focally increased renal cortical echogenicity in several species. The
source of backscatter appears to be the tubules and medullary rays, which are oriented
perpendicular to the renal capsule. Spatial compound imaging (SCI) is an ultrasound
machine setting that uses beam steering to acquire and average several overlapping scans
of an object from different view angles, creating a compound image that is updated realtime. SCI improves perceived image quality and reduces or eliminates some artifacts. The
purpose of this study was to evaluate whether SCI reduces or eliminates renal cortical
anisotropy in dogs.
Methods: Eight canine kidneys were evaluated ex vivo in a water bath phantom. Each
kidney was examined in two different planes (sagittal and transverse) and two insonation
angles using both microconvex and linear transducers. Following image acquisition, two
regions of interest (ROI) in each plane were selected for analysis. In the sagittal plane, the
cranial pole and the ventral margin were evaluated. In the transverse plane, the ventral and
lateral aspects of the cortex were evaluated. Mean pixel intensity of each ROI was
measured at 0 and 90-degree insonation angles, using both transducers, and with both
conventional and spatial compound imaging modes. Mean pixel intensities for different
combinations of ROI, transducer type, insonation angle, and ultrasound mode (SCI or
conventional) were compared using multivariable least squares regression with P < 0.05
being significant.
Results: Significant angle-dependent differences in cortical echogenicity were detected
with both microconvex and linear transducers in that echogenicity was increased when the
insonation angle was oriented perpendicular to the renal tubules. Furthermore, these angledependent echogenicity differences persisted even when spatial compound imaging mode
was used (P < 0.05).
Discussion/Conclusion: This study demonstrates that there are significant angledependent regions of artifactually increased renal cortical echogenicity when ultrasound is
performed in sagittal and transverse planes of the normal canine kidney. Furthermore,
these regions of increased echogenicity are not significantly reduced when SCI is used.
Regardless of machine setting, when focal regions of increased renal cortical echogenicity
are detected, the insonation angle should be altered in order to differentiate a true lesion
from an artifact caused by anisotropy.
39
POSTER PRESENTATION
ACVR/VCS RECEPTION
Friday, October 19, 2012
6:30 pm - 8:30 pm
MESSINA
41
STUDENTS’ AND RECENT GRADUATES’ PERCEPTIONS OF RESOURCES FOR
LEARNING VETERINARY RADIOLOGY.
K. Alexander, S. Dallaire*, M. Bélisle, N. Fernandez, M. Doucet. Faculté de médecine
vétérinaire, Centre d'études et de formation en enseignement supérieur (CEFES),
Centre de pédagogie appliquée aux sciences de la santé (CPASS), Université de
Montréal and *Léger Marketing, Montreal, Québec, Canada.
Introduction/Purpose: For modern veterinary radiology educators, there are many
learning resources that can be used to teach students the principles of radiographic and
sonographic technique/interpretation. It is important to promote a diversity of resources
that are beneficial to student learning. This study explored students’ perceptions of the
usefulness of various resources in order to improve/eliminate resources that were
deemed unhelpful to learn veterinary radiology.
Methods: Twelve learning resources were studied. Via electronic questionnaires and
voluntary participation, novice (n=139) and advanced (n=105) students and recent
graduates (n=56) reported the perceived usefulness of each radiology learning resource
for course/rotation preparation and practice preparation. Resources were grouped into 4
categories and compared: abstract/low complexity (i.e. notes and multimedia
presentations), abstract/high complexity (i.e. web-based and film case repositories),
concrete/low complexity (large-group “clicker” workshops) and concrete/high complexity
(i.e. small-group techniques and interpretation workshops).
Results: Novice students considered abstract/low complexity radiology learning
resources significantly more useful (p = 0.000-0.004) for course/rotation preparation and
estimated both categories of concrete resources more useful for practice preparation (p
= 0.000-0.005). Advanced students and recent graduates also considered abstract/low
complexity resources significantly more useful than most other categories (p = 0.0000.113) for course/rotation preparation; for practice preparation, no specific category was
clearly more useful (p=0.009-0.999) and categories were generally perceived as less
useful than for course/rotation preparation (p=0.000-0.355). For all student levels,
lecture notes scored high for course/rotation preparation (mean score 8.9-9.3/10) and
practice preparation (8.3-8.5/10). Multimedia slideshows (8.5-9.2/10) and small-group
interpretation sessions (8.6-9/10) scored high for course/rotation preparation. The Webbased case repository (6.4/10) scored low for novice course preparation, and radiology
publications (6.1-7.4/10) scored low for advanced students and recent graduates for
course/rotation and practice preparation.
Discussion/Conclusion: Traditional abstract/low-complexity resources and particularly
lecture notes are a staple of our students’ diet; they are considered useful at more levels
and in broader contexts than expected. Multimedia slideshow interactivity (i.e. using
animation to show radiographic abnormalities) and availability increases their value to
complement lecture notes. To improve usefulness, Web-based radiology case-series will
be made more accessible and congruent with student level. Concrete/high-complexity
learning resources will be modified to better represent everyday general practice in
radiology and ultrasound and thus improve their usefulness for practice preparation.
42
DETERMINATION OF TIME TO MAXIMAL T1 ENHANCEMENT AND EFFECT ON
SIGNAL INTENSITY IN T2 WEIGHTED IMAGES OF A HEPATOBILIARY MR
CONTRAST AGENT (GADOXETIC ACID) IN HEALTHY DOGS.
A.K. Bratton, S.G. Nykamp, R. Cruz-Arambulo, T.W.G. Gibson, S.A. Kruth. Ontario
Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1G 2W1.
Introduction/Purpose: Focal liver nodules are frequently encountered during
ultrasound examination of dogs. Definitive diagnosis of benign or malignant nodules
requires tissue sampling. Gadoxetic acid, a bolus-injectable liver-specific contrast agent
that is taken up by normally functioning hepatocytes, is shown to differentiate benign
and malignant nodules in people. The purpose of this study was to determine the time
to peak delayed hepatocyte phase enhancement of gadoxetic acid in healthy dogs and
to determine the effect of gadoxetic acid on T2 signal intensity in an effort to develop an
efficient and clinically applicable hepatic MR imaging protocol.
Methods: Six healthy adult beagle dogs were anesthetized and imaged with a 1.5T GE
Signa MR. Contrast enhancement was evaluated using serial transverse T1w (LAVA)
and T2w (SSFSE) images obtained immediately pre-and post intravenous injection of
0.1ml/kg gadoxetic acid and every 5 minutes for 45 minutes. Three observers
independently evaluated the images. For each series a single slice at the porta hepatis
was selected and regions of interest (ROI) were drawn in three locations in the liver
avoiding major vessels. A background region of interest was drawn outside the patient
) and ∆SNR (
) were
to measure noise. Signal to noise ratio (
calculated. Effect of time on contrast enhancement of T1w sequences was determined
using non-linear curve-fitting software (TableCurve). Maximal contrast enhancement
(∆SNR) and time to maximal enhancement among slice locations, ROI locations, and
observers were compared using an analysis of variance. ∆SNR on T2w images preand post contrast was compared using an analysis of co-variance.
Results: On T1w images time to maximal enhancement following injection of gadoxetic
acid occurred at 10-15 minutes post-injection. Absolute signal intensity varied by
location in the liver (p<0.0001), however the time to maximal enhancement was not
significantly different among ROI locations (p=0.22), slice locations (p=0.058) or
observers (p=0.94). ∆SNR of T2w images was not affected by gadoxetic acid (slope of
enhancement curves was not significantly different from zero (p=0.129)). No adverse
effects were observed.
Discussion/Conclusion: Peak T1 enhancement occurs at 10-15 minutes postinjection, which is the similar to current protocols reported in human patients. The
absence of affect of gadoxetic acid on T2w images indicates that these can be
acquired during the time between contrast injection and acquisition of delayed interstitial
phase images resulting in a clinically applicable hepatic MR imaging protocol for dogs.
Further research is required in clinical patients with known focal hepatic lesions.
43
RADIOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF PULMONARY FIBROSIS IN 7 CATS.
M. Evola,1 JK Reichle,1 D Biller,2 C Mitchell,3 A Valdes-Martinez,4 E Edmondson.5 1.
Animal Specialy & Emergency Center, West LA CA 90025. 2. Kansas State University
College of Veterinary Medicine Veterinary Health Center, Manhattan KS 66506. 3.
Toronto Veterinary Emergency Hospital and Referral Services, Toronto, Ontario
Canada M1R 3B1. 4. Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Fort
Collins CO 80523-1601. 5. Colorado State University Veterinary Diagnostic
Laboratories, Fort Collins CO 80523-1601.
Introduction/Purpose: The diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis is difficult and requires
biopsy for histopathological confirmation. Treatment options are limited and the disease
often leads to severe hypoxia, pulmonary hypertension, and right heart failure. Our goal
is to describe the thoracic radiographic findings of cats with definitively diagnosed
pulmonary fibrosis and to identify which of these, if any, demonstrate type II
pneumocyte hyperplasia.
Methods: An email was sent to American College of Veterinary Radiology members to
collect cases of feline patients with thoracic radiographs and a histopathological
diagnosis of pulmonary fibrosis. Images were reviewed by a board certified veterinary
radiologist (JKR) and a diagnostic imaging intern (ME) and graded for type(s) of
infiltrates, distribution of disease, and any other abnormal findings of the cardiovascular,
pleural, and mediastinal structures. All histopathology samples were reviewed by one
veterinary pathology resident (EE) and the severity and distribution of fibrosis were
graded, and whether this appeared to be type II pneumocyte hyperplasia or not. When
tissue is available, Masson’s trichrome stains will be performed to confirm the presence
of collagen.
Results: Seven cases were obtained, ranging from 2 to 15 years of age (mean 10
years; median 7 years). Four were spayed females and 3 were castrated males. Three
were domestic short hairs, 2 were Persian, and 1 each of Ragdoll and domestic long
hair. Clinical signs included lethargy, exercise intolerance, inappetance, weight loss,
coughing, and progressive respiratory distress. Five cats had moderate to severe,
diffuse, symmetrically distributed mixed interstitial and bronchial infiltrates; 2 had a
military to nodular pattern; 2 had focal soft tissue mass(-es). Two patients had pleural
effusion and 2 had cardiomegaly. No lymphadenopathy or other mediastinal
abnormalities were recognized. All patients were euthanized due to their respiratory
disease. The two patients with mass-type lesions seen radiographically underwent
thoracic computed tomography and surgical excisional biopsies; the remainder had
post-mortem histopathology.
Discussion/Conclusion: Radiographic appearance of severe, bilaterally symmetrical
broncho-interstitial disease and some pulmonary mass(-es) should have pulmonary
fibrosis as a differential diagnosis. These cats are often diagnosed as having “feline
asthma” but fail to respond to treatment. The disease can progress to right heart failure,
to include cardiomegaly and pleural effusion.
44
CT MORPHOMETRY OF PARASPINAL MUSCLES IN LABRADOR RETRIEVERS
WITH VERSUS WITHOUT LUMBOSACRAL PAIN.
B. Francis1, J. Jones1, B. Pierce2, K. Childs3, P. Grimm3, M. Mukherjee1. 1West Virginia
University, WV, 26506-6108; 2Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary
Medicine, VA, 24061-0442; 3Department of Defense Military Working Dog Veterinary
Service, TX, 78236.
Introduction/Purpose: Labrador Retrievers are the most popular dog breed in the
U.S., used for a wide variety of working tasks, and also predisposed to lumbosacral
disease (Bergknut & Meij 2010). Lumbosacral pain (LSP) is the most common clinical
sign and cause of disability in affected dogs. Human studies have identified decreased
CT areas and densities for multifidus, psoas, quadratus, and longissimus muscles in
patients with lower back pain and proposed that disuse atrophy of these stabilizing
muscles may contribute to recurrence or persistence of lower back pain (Daneels et al,
2000; Kamez et al, 2007, Bouche et al, 2011). The purpose of this study was to
describe CT areas and densities of similar muscles in Labrador Retrievers with versus
without LSP.
Methods: Medical record and CT databases at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College
of Veterinary Medicine and Department of Defense Military Working Dog Veterinary
Service were searched for Labrador Retrievers that had CT scans including the
lumbosacral region. Computed tomography data were imported into image analysis
freeware (Osirix version 4.1.2). A single observer unaware of medical record findings
used hand-traced regions of interest to measure transverse CT areas and mean CT
densities for multifidus, psoas/iliopsoas, quadratus, and longissimus muscles where
visible at L5-6, L6-7, L7-S1, and S1-2 vertebral levels (Smallwood and Thomas, 1982).
Vertebral body areas were measured at the same locations as muscle area
measurements and used to calculate muscle/body area ratios. After all CT
measurements were recorded, medical record data were reviewed and dogs were
divided into four groups: working dogs with LSP, working dogs without LSP, companion
dogs with LSP, and companion dogs without LSP. Lumbosacral pain was defined as
medical record evidence of a painful response to palpation of the lumbosacral region
and/or elevation of the tail. Mean CT area ratios and CT densities for each muscle were
calculated for each dog group and graphically compared.
Results: Eighteen Labrador Retrievers were included in the study, 12 males and 6
females. Groups consisted of 1 companion dog without LSP, 14 companion dogs with
LSP, 2 working dogs without LSP, and 1 working dog with LSP. Mean area ratios were
lower for all paraspinal muscles in working and companion dogs with LSP, except for
the longissimus lumborum. Mean CT densities were lower for all paraspinal muscles in
working dogs with LSP, except for the quadratus lumborum. Mean CT densities were
lower for longissimus and quadratus lumborum muscles and higher for psoas/iliopsoas
and multifidus muscles in companion dogs with LSP.
Discussion/Conclusion: Most of the findings in our study were similar to those
reported in human studies. Higher area ratios for longissimus muscles and higher mean
densities for psoas/iliopsoas, quadratus lumborum, and multifidus muscles in dogs with
LSP were unexpected and may warrant further investigation.
45
PRESENCE OF ATLANTOAXIAL LIGAMENTOUS ABNORMALITIES ON MAGNETIC
RESONANCE IMAGES IN DOGS WITH AND WITHOUT CHIARI-LIKE
MALFORMATION.
1
E.B. Garcia*, 1N.Rademacher,2A.Shores and 1L. Gaschen.1Louisiana State University
School of Veterinary Medicine, Baton Rouge, LA, 70803, USA.2 Mississippi State
College of Veterinary Medicine, Starkville, MS,39762, USA.
Introduction/Purpose: Chiari-like malformations (CM) in toy breed dogs are associated
with multiple craniocervical malformations, including decreased caudal fossa to cranial
cavity volume ratio. In people, thickening or mineralization of periodontoid tissue has
been identified in patients with clinical Chiari I malformations. Abnormalities of the
occipitoatlantoaxial ligaments in toy breed dogs with and without CMand atlantoaxial
instability has not been described. No correlations have been made regarding
ligamentous abnormalities and clinical signs in dogs with CM. Our purpose was to
evaluate the craniocervical junction for the presence of occipitoatlantoaxial ligamentous
abnormalities with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to determine their
association with CM and clinical signs.
Methods: 104 small and toy breed dogs with MRI of the craniocervical region were
divided into CM positive and negative groups based on established criteria.
Measurements of the apical, alar and transverse ligament, mid-sagittal cranial and
caudal fossae areas, and brain or spinal cord parenchymal changes were analyzed
statistically.
Results: 38 dogs were CM positive with a mean age of 6 years and 66 were CMnegative with a mean age of 7.6 years. Maltese, Shi Tzu, Yorkshire and Boston terriers
were the most common breeds. Atlantoaxial (AA) luxation was identified in 5 dogs.
Twenty-one percent (22/104) of dogs had one or more measurements that could not be
performed because of poor visualization or absence of the appropriate sequence.
Dorsal spinous ligament length and transverse ligament width were significantly longer
in dogs with AA luxations. Significantly more dogs with AA luxations had ligament
border irregularities or thickening. Few differences existed between CM and non-CM
dogs with ligament changes or clinical signs. CM dogs had a greater degree of AO
overlapping compared to non-CM dogs.
Discussion/Conclusion: Ligaments were significantly thicker or longer in dogs with AA
luxation. Ligament abnormalities have been described using MRI in dogs, but are not a
determining factor in the development of clinical CM. AO overlap is significantly greater
in CM dogs, possibly due to instability from malformed or hypoplastic supraoccipital
bones. Research with histopathologic correlation is needed.
46
INFLUENCE OF A DELAYED POST CONTRAST SEQUENCE ON CONTRAST
ENHANCEMENT OF INTRACRANIAL LESIONS IN CATS AND DOGS.
D. Gorgas1, R. Schibler1, S. Dürr2, J. Lang1. 1Department of Clinical Veterinary
Medicine and 2Clinical Research and Veterinary Public Health, Vetsuisse Faculty
Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.
Introduction/Purpose: Acquisition time of post contrast sequences in MRI
examinations of the brain is not standardized and reported to be best between 10
and 75 minutes with a possible benefit of a higher detection rate of lesions in late
post contrast (p.c.) sequences in people. In veterinary medicine short examination
times are requested and the benefit of a delayed p.c. sequence is unknown. Aim of
this prospective study was to evaluate whether an additional delayed p.c. sequence
influences contrast enhancement of intracranial lesions.
Methods: One hundred and two dogs and 21 cats underwent brain MR imaging with
T1 w p.c. sequences immediately after administration of 0.15mmol/kg Gadodiamide
and after a time delay of an average of 14 minutes. Both sequences were compared
concerning pattern, signal intensity, border definition, extent, and lesion detectability
by two board certified radiologist. The total number of lesions, defined by the
reference standard including the complete MRI study, radiology report and, in 8
cases histopathological examination, was 87 in 46 animals (36 dogs and 10 cats).
Results: Detection rate was higher in the delayed p.c. sequence (69%) compared to
the immediate p.c. sequence (54%); however, detection rate was lower compared to
FLAIR (90%). Comparison between both sequences showed increased signal
intensity of enhancement over time (p=0.0004). There was no significant difference
(p=0.199) concerning pattern, but a change of pattern was seen: one heterogeneous
lesion became homogeneous, and ring-like enhancing lesions became either
homogenous (1), or heterogeneous (2). Two of four rim-like enhancing lesions
became heterogeneous. None of the homogenous enhancing lesions changed
pattern. Ill-defined border (p=0.014) and increased lesion extent (p<0.0001) was
significantly more often seen in delayed p.c. sequences. Extra-axial lesions (24) did
not change border definition in contrast to intra-axial lesions (15), which also showed
increase of lesion extent (p< 0.0001) in the delayed p.c. sequence. Increase in
lesion extent (p=0.0004) was especially seen if perilesional edema was present, and
this was also associated with higher signal intensity of enhancement (p=0.0169) and
a less well defined border in the delayed p.c. sequence (p=0.025).
Discussion/Conclusion: Contrast enhancement of intracranial lesions is a dynamic
process and effects were visible even during the first 15 minutes after administration.
Extent, border definition, signal intensity of the enhancement, and in some cases the
pattern of the lesions changed, which was especially apparent for intra-axial lesions
and in presence of perilesional edema. Since no additional patients with lesions
were detected, the benefit of a delayed p.c. sequence as a standard sequence in the
examination protocol is questionable.
47
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) SPINAL CORD AND CANAL
MEASUREMENTS IN NORMAL DOGS.
S.Hecht1, M. M. Huerta1, R. B. Reed2. Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences1
and Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences2, University of Tennessee
College of Veterinary Medicine, Knoxville, TN, USA.
Introduction/Purpose: Imaging diagnosis of diffuse degenerative spinal cord diseases
is difficult. Myelography and computed tomography may demonstrate a smaller cord
than is seen in normal dogs. Normal spinal dimensions in dogs as measured on MRI
have not been published to date. The goal of this study was to establish MRI reference
ranges for spinal cord and spinal canal measurements in normal dogs. The hypothesis
was that an increase of spinal cord and spinal canal diameter would be noted with
increasing weight, and that the spinal cord-to-spinal canal ratio would remain constant
between different weight groups.
Methods: Following an initial preliminary investigation in a cadaver, 40 dogs were
enrolled in the study. Dogs were grouped according to weight (1-10 kg, 11-20 kg, 21-30
kg, >30 kg; 10 dogs per category). Spinal MRI (1.0T Siemens Magnetom Harmony) was
performed on all dogs. Spinal measurements were performed on sagittal T2-w images
at the level of T4, T9 and L3. Data are presented as mean (+/- SD) for normally
distributed data and median (interquartile range) for non normally distributed data. One
Way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA on Ranks were used for comparison between
groups. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant.
Results: Mean/median spinal canal diameter (mm) ranged from 6.07 ± 0.63 (1-10kg) to
8.27 ± 1.15 (>30kg) at the level of T4; 6.55 ± 0.61 (1-10kg) to 9.04 ± 1.26 (>30kg) at the
level at T9; and 6.80 (6.47 – 7.00; 1-10kg) to 9.00 (7.90 – 9.73; >30kg) at the level of
L3. There were significant differences in spinal canal measurements between groups
(p<0.05). Mean spinal cord diameter (mm) ranged from 4.46 ± 0.51(11-20kg) to 4.70 ±
0.35 (1-10kg) at the level of T4; 4.41 ± 0.50 (>30kg) to 4.85 ± 0.57 (1-10kg) at the level
of T9; and 4.52 ± 0.51 (>30kg) to 5.14 ± 0.68 (1-10kg). There were no significant
differences in spinal cord measurements between groups. Spinal cord-to-spinal canal
ratio varied significantly between different weight groups, ranging from 0.51 ± 0.08
(>30kg at L3) to 0.78 (0.69 – 0.80; 1-10kg at T4) (p<0.05).
Discussion/Conclusion: While a significant increase in spinal canal diameter was
noted with increasing weight as hypothesized, no significant differences were noted in
spinal cord diameter between weight groups. The spinal cord-to-spinal canal ratio was
significantly smaller in larger dogs. These findings are important when using MRI to
evaluate patients with suspected degenerative spinal cord disease.
49
COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC ANATOMY OF THE THORAX OF THE LIVE COMMON
BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN.
M. Ivančić1, M. Solano2, C.R. Smith1. 1National Marine Mammal Foundation, San Diego,
CA 92106 and 2Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North
Grafton, MA 01536.
Introduction/Purpose: Pulmonary disease is a leading cause of morbidity and
mortality in cetaceans, frequently affecting animals in the wild and under human care.
The purpose of this study was to present the normal computed tomographic
appearance of the thorax of the live common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)
and to describe the technical parameters and logistics involved in CT image acquisition
in this species.
Methods: Six normal thoracic CT evaluations of four adult dolphins were performed
between April 2007 and May 2012. Following voluntary beaching, animals were
transported from open ocean pens to the CT facility on protective foam pads in covered
trucks. Under light sedation, animals were secured in ventral recumbency for acquisition
of CT data using a GE Lightspeed® RT 16 helical CT (80cm gantry, 227kg limit).
Equipment was protected with plastic sheeting and water judiciously applied to the
animals’ skin. Non-contrast helical images were obtained during a normal prolonged
end-inspiratory breath hold using contiguous 1.25mm slices, a pitch of 1.75, 140 kVp,
and auto mA (300-175).
Results: Diagnostic, high quality images were obtained in all cases. Respiratory
motion was insignificant in these conscious animals due to their normal apneustic
respiratory pattern. Unique anatomical considerations included the presence of a right
accessory bronchus, thick airways due to cartilaginous reinforcement of terminal
bronchioles, broad aortic bulb, dorsoventrally compressed heart, marginal lymph nodes,
and notably oblique diaphragm.
Discussion/Conclusion: Thoracic CT in live dolphins is both feasible and clinically
valuable. A series of normal reference images is presented.
50
MEDICAL
INFRARED
IMAGING
(THERMOGRAPHY)
HYPERTHYROIDISM.
D.J. Marino. Long Island Veterinary Specialists, New York, 11803.
IN
CATS
WITH
Introduction/Purpose: Medical infrared imaging (MII) is an imaging technique that
measures skin surface temperature derived from cutaneous perfusion and generates
thermal pattern maps based on color scales. Recent advances in computer technology
have enhanced the utility MII in a variety of medical applications in both human and
veterinary medicine. Hyperthyroidism is the most common endocrine disorder of cats.
In cats exhibiting clinical signs of hyperthyroidism, an elevated serum T4 value is
considered diagnostic for hyperthyroidism. Cats with “occult” hyperthyroidism or sickeuthyroid syndrome may both have serum T4 values within the normal reference range.
Additional diagnostics may be required to identify early hyperthyroidism and sick
euthyroid cats including free T4, serial total T4, T3 suppression test and nuclear
scintigraphy. Nuclear scintigraphy is not readily available and can be found at select
specialty referral hospitals. The purpose of this study is to: 1) determine the success of
MII in identifying cats with hyperthyroidism 2) determine if the MII pattern was affected
by haircoat.
Methods: 20 cats with clinical signs related to hyperthyroidism and T4 levels greater
than 4.0 ug/dl and 24 “control” cats with no evidence of hyperthyroidism and T4 levels
between 0.8-4.0 ug/dl were included in this study. Complete physical examination,
complete blood count and serum biochemical profile, MII of the thyroid region before
and after clipping were performed. Computer recognition pattern analysis software was
utilized to differentiate between thermographic patterns in hyperthyroid and normal cats.
Results: Computer recognition pattern analysis was able to differentiate normal cats
from hyperthyroid cats both before and after shaving the thyroid region. The best MII
results (92.1%) were achieved using the NormGrey images in the unshaved group while
the best results (86.5%) were achieved using the NormGrey images in the shaved
group.
Discussion/Conclusion: MII has been used as a test for a variety of conditions in
veterinary medicine that cause autonomic dysregulation resulting in altered cutaneous
perfusion including cranial cruciate rupture, intervertebral disk disease, and chiari like
malformation. Difficulty handling cats with hyperthyroidism while performing sedation or
blood sampling can be difficult owing to the fractious nature of these patients. Clipping
of the hair coat and sedation were not necessary to create useful MII studies in the cats
included in this study. MII was successful in identifying cats with hyperthyroidism and
may be used as a screening test for cats suspected of having hyperthyroidism.
52
EFFECT OF UPPER AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION ON THORACIC WALL
CONFORMATION IDENTIFIED ON ROUTINE THORACIC RADIOGRAPHS.
J.S. Matheson, K. Stadler. University of Illinois-Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA
61802.
Introduction/Purpose: Chronic upper airway obstruction leads to increased
work of breathing. Ultimately this results in increased negative intrathoracic
pressure during inspiration, causing the caudal ribcage to collapse inward with
each inspiratory effort, reducing, rather than increasing the volume of the thorax.
Over time, it is hypothesized that this chronic paradoxical breathing pattern,
leads to changes in respiratory mechanics, resulting in anatomic changes to the
caudal thoracic wall and sternum that can be seen on routine thoracic
radiographs in many canine patients with upper airway disease. These changes
include dorsal deviation of the xiphoid (pectus excavatum), cranial displacement
of the diaphragm during inspiration (hypoinflation), and craniodorsal
displacement of the caudal costochondral junctions, causing a “wave”
appearance to the costal arch on lateral projections of the thorax.
Methods: A retrospective study of caudal thoracic confirmation was conducted
on left lateral thoracic radiographs of brachycephalic dogs seen in hospital from
2007-2011 with (n=74) and without (n=122) a clinical diagnosis of upper airway
obstruction (n=196 image sets).
In all radiographic image sets, the left lateral thoracic radiograph was evaluated
for the above described changes. Three measurements and ratios were
performed on the images in an attempt to objectify the subjectively abnormal
appearance of the caudal thoracic wall. Dogs with thoracic wall changes were
coded as 1, dogs without changes were coded as 0. Similar coding was done for
each dog regarding clinical diagnosis of upper airway obstruction.
Results: The logistic regression model found that thoracic wall changes were
predictive of upper airway obstruction. Animals with thoracic wall changes were
1.5 times (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-2.1) more likely to be diagnosed with upper
airway obstruction. Breed, sex, age, or weight was not found to be significant
(p=0.4).
Discussion/Conclusion: Brachycephalic dogs with upper airway obstruction
are more likely to have caudal thoracic wall and xiphoid conformational changes,
regardless of breed. Identifying these changes on routine thoracic radiographs
should indicate to the clinician to closely evaluate the upper airways.
53
COMPARISON OF RADIOGRAPHIC AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC
MEASUREMENTS OF TRACHEAL DIAMETER AND LENGTH IN DOGS.
J.E. MontgomeryA, K.G. MathewsB, D.J. Marcellin-LittleB, S. HendrickA, J.C. BrownB.
A
Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Dr.
Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4, BCollege of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State
University, 4700 Hillsborough St., Raleigh, NC, 27606.
Introduction/Purpose: Tracheal collapse is a common progressive disease affecting
predominately small and toy breed dogs. Currently radiography, bronchoscopy and
fluoroscopy are the imaging techniques used for diagnosing and monitoring this
condition. Tracheal stent placement is a palliative procedure for the management of
tracheal collapse when medical management is no longer effective. Accurate
measurement of tracheal luminal diameter is essential for selection of stent size. In
veterinary medicine, radiography is the most readily available and most commonly used
imaging modality for measuring tracheal diameter, but in humans, computed
tomography (CT) is the imaging modality of choice. The purpose of this study is to
compare tracheal lumen diameter and length measurements obtained via radiographs
and CT. In addition, we compared radiographic measurements obtained in multiple
degrees of obliquity to determine the most accurate patient position for radiographic
tracheal measurements as compared to CT.
Methods: Fifteen cadavers, euthanized for reasons not related to tracheal disease,
were imaged with CT and digital radiography within two hours of euthanasia. All
cadavers weighed ≤ 20 kg. All cadavers were manually ventilated to 20 cm H2O during
imaging. CTs were performed in dorsal recumbency with the ventral mandible at a 45˚
angle to the table. Radiographs were acquired in lateral, 15̊ oblique, and 45˚ oblique
recumbency. For each observer, the mean of three independent measurements was
determined at each of five locations on the trachea, as well as a mean of three
independent measurements of tracheal length. Separate mixed linear regression
models were constructed and the least-squares mean and standard error was reported
for each observer. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05.
Results: The mean difference for all observers shows the CT measurement of tracheal
diameter was larger than the radiographic measurement by 1.03 mm with a 95%
confidence interval of 0.83 mm to 1.23 mm (P < 0.001). With the exception of one
observer for the 45˚ oblique, this difference was also statistically significant for each
observer individually. No statistical difference was found when comparing the different
radiographic projections to each other. The tracheal lengths measured on radiographs
and CT did not differ statistically.
Discussion/Conclusion: Radiographic measurements of tracheal diameter were less
than measurements acquired in CT images for all observers. This has potential clinical
significance, as accurate measurements are essential in selecting the appropriate
tracheal stent size to minimize complications associated with this procedure. The
clinical outcome of undersized and oversized stents could be evaluated further.
54
REDUCTION IN DOSE OF SCATTER RADIATION USING PROTECTIVE LEAD
SHIELDING ON DOGS RECEIVING ELBOW RADIOGRAPHS.
S. Nemanic, B.K. Nixon, R.A. Francis, R.H. Farmer, D.L. Harlan, W.I. Baltzer. Oregon
State University, OR 97331.
Introduction/Purpose: In humans, protective lead shielding is routinely used to reduce
the dose of scatter radiation received to the patient during routine radiography. A
similar practice is not routinely used in veterinary patients. Our goal was to measure
the dose of radiation received by dogs during routine elbow radiographs, and to
measure the reduction in scatter radiation that results by using personal protective lead
shielding.
Methods: 8 Newfoundland puppies received bilateral elbow radiographs. Seven
dosimetry badges (1 mrem sensitivity, Mirion Technologies Type 36 TLD) were used
per puppy. They were placed 1) in the primary beam; 2) over the lead at the level of the
eyes 3) cranial abdomen and 4) gonads; 5) under the lead at the level of the eyes 6)
cranial abdomen and 7) gonads. We used 0.5mm equivalent lead gowns and thyroid
shields to cover the bodies and eyes, respectively. Dosimetry badges were processed
by standard methods with a control badge.
Results: All badges in the primary beam
detected radiation (average 34 mrem). Less
radiation was detected over the protective
shielding, and a significantly decreased
amount of radiation was detected under the
protective shielding (Figure 1).
p < 0.035
p < 0.006
p < 0.05
Figure 1: Radiation dose detected over the lead shielding (black)
was significantly greater than under lead shielding (white). Error
bars are the S.E.M. p Value at each location is shown.
Discussion/Conclusion: Protective shielding significantly reduces the dose of scatter
radiation to canine patients. Protective lead shielding is advised in veterinary patients.
55
ASSESSMENT OF RESPIRATION INDUCED DISPLACEMENT OF CANINE
ABDOMINAL STRUCTURES IN DORSAL VERSUS VENTRAL RECUMBENCY
USING COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGING.
C.R. Oliveira1, R. Drees1, M.A. Henzler2. 1School of Veterinary Medicine, and 2 School
of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706.
Introduction/Purpose: Respiration-related movement is an important source of
displacement in abdominal structures and the patient’s positioning could alter the
degree of organ displacement, influencing quality of diagnostic computed tomographic
(CT) studies and accuracy of dose delivery in radiotherapy. The goal of this study was
to quantify displacement of abdominal structures in dorsal recumbency (DR) versus
ventral recumbency (VR) in normal dogs using CT.
Methods: Transverse images of the abdomen of three normal beagles were acquired in
DR and VR in a caudal to cranial direction using a 64 multidetector CT unit. For each
position, an initial apnea exam was obtained followed by a 4D CT exam during free
breathing acquiring images at each couch position over a full breathing cycle resulting in
20 data sets for each recumbency. Using a dedicated workstation these image sets
were fused to the baseline apnea study on which the liver, skin, spine, pancreas,
kidneys, medial iliac lymph nodes and urinary bladder were contoured. The differences
between the structure positions were measured in cranial to caudal (CC), dorsal to
ventral (DV) and right to left (RL) directions. A Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to
compare structure displacement between DR and VR; p < 0.05 was considered
statistically significant.
Results: Overall structure displacements < 1cm in all directions were detected in both
DR and VR, except for liver (max 3.72 cm) and pancreas (max 1.33 cm). The liver was
displaced more frequently and to a higher degree compared to all other structures and
the DR showed significantly less displacement in the DV direction compared to VR. A
significant difference was also found for displacement between DR and VR for spine in
DV and RL directions, left kidney in DV, CC and RL directions, pancreas in DV and RL
directions, skin in DV and RL directions and urinary bladder in RL directions. For these
structures, the position with least displacement varied among directions, with the
exception of the urinary bladder for which VR had less displacement in RL direction and
no displacement was found in the other directions for both DR and VR. There was no
displacement in either direction for both DR and VR for the right sublumbar and only
minimal (0.2 cm) for the left sublumbar lymph node in the DV direction in VR.
Discussion/Conclusion: With exception of liver and pancreas, overall displacement of
canine abdominal structures was minimal for both DR and VR positions. For liver, the
DR provided least displacement while for urinary bladder the VR showed least
displacement which may be important both for diagnostic and radiotherapy purposes. In
the remaining structures, the large variability or complete absence of displacement
among the different directions precludes the choice of one position over the other.
56
FEASIBILITY FOR USING DUAL-PHASE CONTRAST-ENHANCED MULTIDETECTOR HELICAL CT TO EVALUATE AWAKE AND SEDATED DOGS WITH
ACUTE ABDOMINAL SIGNS.
M.M. Shanaman, S.K. Hartman, R.T. O’Brien. Department of Veterinary Clinical
Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, 61802.
Introduction/Purpose: Canine patients with acute abdominal signs are often clinically
unstable and therefore need both a rapid and accurate diagnosis. Contrast-enhanced
multi-detector computed tomography (CE-MDCT) is the current modality of choice for
evaluating acute abdominal pain in people. Advantages of MDCT include relative
rapidity of image acquisition and high spatial resolution. We hypothesized that dualphase CE-MDCT would be feasible and safe for use in both awake and minimally
sedated canine patients with acute abdominal signs.
Methods: Eighteen client-owned dogs were enrolled; all presenting with acute
abdominal signs. Dogs were scanned using an equivalent dual phase CE-MDCT
protocol that included pre-contrast, arterial and portal venous phases. An optional
delayed scan was added to the protocol for some dogs to document renal excretion of
intravenous contrast material. Overall scan time was recorded. Eight dogs were
scanned awake and 10 were given light sedation as chosen by the primary care
clinician. Two observers who were unaware of clinical findings and sedation status
scored image quality for each scan by consensus opinion.
Results: Median scan time for all patients was less than 10 minutes. Sixteen of 18
CE-MDCT scans were scored fair to excellent in diagnostic quality with no statistical
difference in diagnostic quality for awake versus sedated patients (p<0.05). Causes for
2 poor quality diagnostic scans included severe beam hardening from previously
administered barium contrast agent and severe motion artifacts. No intravenous
contrast-related adverse reactions were seen.
Discussion/Conclusion: Dual-phase CE-MDCT is both feasible and safe for use in
awake or minimally sedated dogs with acute abdominal signs. Our protocol may be
performed rapidly and with excellent diagnostic results. Image quality was sufficient to
permit the creation of maximum intensity projection and 3D volume rendering
reconstructions resolving sub-millimeter mesenteric arteries for multiple awake and
sedated dogs in our study. Limitations of our study included small sample size, unequal
group numbers, and non-randomized group assignments. A controlled clinical study
comparing this protocol with current standard imaging techniques has been performed
by our group to determine whether dual-phase MDCT should be the screening modality
of choice for dogs with acute abdominal disease.
58
THREE CASES OF ENLARGED UTERUS MASCULINUS DIAGNOSED VIA
ULTRASOUND.
J.H. Sheridan, H.G. Heng, J.D. Ruth, L.G Adams, C. Thompson, and M. Childress.
Purdue University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Clinical
Sciences, IN 47907.
Introduction/Purpose: The uterus masculinus or prostatic utricle is a vestigial
embryological remnant of the Mullerian duct in males. In a normal adult, it normally
persists as a small diverticulum in the dorsal aspect of the prostatic urethra in the
vicinity of the seminal colliculus. Enlargement of this structure can occur due to failed
involution during fetal development and has been associated with various clinical
manifestations in humans and dogs, most commonly dysuria, UTI and incontinence.
Previous reports in the veterinary literature have identified cystic uterus masculinus via
radiography and contrast cystography. This paper describes three case studies where
enlargement was diagnosed via ultrasonography, including one case with confirmed
metastatic infiltration of the structure due to multicentric intestinal lymphoma.
Methods: Three male dogs aged 8-11 years were diagnosed with enlarged uterus
masculinus via ultrasonography within the period of 2009-2011. In all three cases
digital images and/or real time recordings of the structure were available for review.
Results: Patient 1 presented for chronic vomiting, diarrhea and weight loss with
evidence of protein losing enteropathy, sepsis and multiple organ pathology. Abdominal
ultrasound detected two hypoechoic tubular structures extending cranially and dorsally
from the prostate. Hypoechoic nodules within multiple organs, corrugation of intestinal
loops and abdominal effusion were also noted. Necropsy confirmed multicentric
lymphoma, where the hypoechoic tubular structures were consistent with uterus
masculinus infiltrated with neoplastic cells. Patient 2 presented for chronic UTI and
incontinence. Feminization of the external genitalia and absence of os penis was noted
on physical exam. Ultrasound revealed prostatomegaly and a hypoechoic tubular
structure extending cranially and dorsally from the prostate to the level of the urinary
bladder. Aspirate of the prostate was consistent with infectious prostatitis. Patient 3
presented with multiple problems including electrolyte abnormalities, anemia, anorexia,
lethargy, and dysuria associated with UTI. Ultrasound revealed a hypoechoic tubular
structure approximately 3 mm in diameter extending cranially and dorsally from the
prostate to the level of the urinary bladder.
Discussion/Conclusion: Persistent enlarged uterus masculinus has been relatively
well studied in humans, but published cases are rare in veterinary medicine.
Ultrasonographic appearance of the uterus masculinus has not been previously
described in dogs, and neoplastic infiltration of this structure has not been reported.
These cases do not show extensive cystic enlargement as described in previous
studies. Patient 2 was presented with feminization of external genitalia, which is usually
reported in association with cystic uterus masculinus in humans. Concomitant urinary
tract infection was present in all three patients. This condition can likely be diagnosed
in most cases via abdominal ultrasound, and appears as a single or paired tubular,
hypoechoic structure(s) that originates from the prostate and extends cranially into the
abdominal cavity.
59
COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF PRESUMPTIVELY NORMAL
ABDOMINAL LYMPH NODES IN DOGS.
J.E. Stein, R. Drees. University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine,
Department of Surgical Sciences, Madison, W.I., 53706.
Introduction/Purpose: The appearance of visceral and parietal abdominal lymph
nodes on computed tomography (CT) studies has been described in general terms
previously, however the specific frequency of identification, size, shape, and possible
variation in attenuation characteristics and contrast enhancement are absent in current
literature to the authors’ knowledge. The aim of this study is to determine the relative
frequency of identification and CT characteristics of presumptively normal lymph nodes
of dogs undergoing CT of the abdomen.
Methods: The medical records of the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital of the
University of Wisconsin-Madison were retrospectively reviewed for all dogs undergoing
computed tomographic imaging of the abdomen between 2007 and 2012. Patients with
presenting signs and/or recent clinical history of neoplasia, gastrointestinal disease,
peritoneal effusion, or other conditions considered likely to affect abdominal lymph
nodes were excluded. Twenty dogs met the inclusion criteria and their post contrast CT
examinations were reviewed. For each dog the age, gender, breed, body weight in kg,
and recumbency were recorded. Visceral and parietal lymph nodes of the abdomen
were identified, assigned to one of eleven lymphocenter groups, their dimensions
measured, and shape and contrast enhancement subjectively characterized as either
regular or irregular and as homogeneous or inhomogeneous, respectively, by a
radiology resident (J.E.S.) individually and a consensus was made with a board
certified radiologist (R.D.). Dimensions were measured using electronic calipers for
height and width. Length was estimated using the number of slices in which a single
node was identified multiplied by the slice thickness.
Results: A total of 222 lymph nodes in 20 dogs were identified. Medial iliac and
mesenteric/jejunal lymph nodes were identified in 100% of the dogs, hepatic in 95%,
hypogastric in 85%, splenic in 80%, pancreaticoduodenal and colic/ileocecal in 60%
each, aortic/lumbar in 50%, sacral in 45%, and gastric in 20%. Renal lymph nodes were
not identified. All lymph nodes (100%) were categorized as having a regular shape and
exhibiting homogeneous contrast enhancement. Lymph nodes of all groups were either
round or elongated with dimensions ranging from 0.14 cm up to 6.5 cm, with sacral and
hypogastric nodes measuring the smallest, and mesenteric/jejunal, colic/ileocecal, and
hepatic nodes measuring the largest.
Discussion/Conclusion: Presumptively normal visceral and parietal lymph nodes of
the canine abdomen are readily identified during CT examination however there is
marked variation in the conspicuity and size of the nodes of different lymphocenter
groups.
61
IMAGING FINDINGS IN DOMESTIC FERRETS (Mustela putorius furo) WITH
LYMPHOMA.
J.N. Suran, N.R. Wyre. University of Pennsylvania, PA, 19104.
Introduction/Purpose: Lymphoma is the most common malignant neoplasia in
domestic ferrets, Mustela putorius furo, and overall the third most common neoplasia in
ferrets. Imaging findings in ferrets with lymphoma have not been described outside of a
few single case reports. Imaging findings in 13 ferrets with confirmed lymphoma are
described.
Methods: Ferrets with a confirmed diagnosis of lymphoma and diagnostic imaging
between 2002 and April 2012 were included. Signalment, clinical signs, concurrent
disease, clinicopathologic and histopathologic findings, and method of diagnosis were
recorded. Radiographs (n = 11), ultrasound (13), CT (1), and MRI (1) images were
evaluated. Because splenomegaly is a common finding of ferrets, most frequently due
to extramedullary hematopoiesis, when present splenomegaly was subjectively graded
as within incidental variation and larger than expected for “incidental splenomegaly.”
Results: Thirteen ferrets were included, with a median age at the time of diagnosis of 5
years (range 3.25 to 7.6 years). Clinical signs were generally nonspecific (n = 7), aside
from 3/13 ferrets with T3-L3 myelopathy, 1/13 with lameness, and 2/13 with no overt
signs. The time between the first imaging study and the confirmed lymphoma diagnosis
was 1 day or less in most ferrets (11) and in one ferret each, 7 days and 6.9 months.
Abnormalities were predominantly detected in the abdomen and sonographically
included: splenomegaly (12) with nodules (6) or a splenic mass (1); peritoneal effusion
(10); lymphadenopathy (10); hepatomegaly (2) with a cystic hepatic mass (1); and renal
masses (2). On radiographs poor serosal detail (9) with mottling (6); splenomegaly (9);
lymphadenopathy (7); and hepatomegaly (5) were detected. Splenomegaly was present
in all ferrets with lymphadenopathy. Overall, splenomegaly was considered within
incidental variation with ultrasound in 4/12 and in 2/9 on radiographs. Lymphoma was
confirmed in 3/6 ferrets with splenic nodules and 1/1 splenic mass, but was not
identified in 3/4 spleens with a normal echotexture and “incidental splenomegaly”
sonographically. Cytology or histopathology were not performed on the other spleens
(5/12). One ferret had mild anechoic peritoneal effusion and no other detected
abnormalities; lymphoma was identified postmortem in the descending colon of this
ferret without gross wall thickening. Pleural and pericardial effusions were present in
one ferret. Vertebral lysis and extensive femoral lysis were seen in ferrets with T3-L3
myelopathy (2/3) and lameness (1/1), respectively. On CT in one ferret with myelopathy,
hyperattenuating, enhancing masses with secondary cord compression were associated
with vertebral lysis. This ferret also had a heterogeneous, aggressive rib mass and
abdominal and thoracic lymphadenopathy. MRI performed in the one ferret with
myelopathy without vertebral lysis was inconclusive; however, only T2w and STIR
series were obtained. At necropsy lymphoma was identified in the brain and spinal cord.
Discussion/Conclusion: Abnormalities were predominantly noted in the abdomen and
most frequently included lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly (subjectively greater than
expected for “incidental splenomegaly”). Ferrets with myelopathy or lameness may have
radiographically detectable osteolysis. Few ferrets had inconclusive imaging findings.
62
THORACIC DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY: EVALUATION OF IMAGE QUALITY USING A
CDRAD PHANTOM.
R. Tyson, D.A. Neelis, G.B. Daniel. Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary
Medicine, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061.
Introduction/Purpose: Veterinarians have embraced computed and digital radiography
as a method to more easily obtain diagnostic quality radiographs of patients. However,
a basic understanding of quality control of digital images is largely deficient in adoptees
of this technology in general veterinary practice. Additionally, there is even debate
about appropriateness of grid use among radiologists. The goal of this project was to
use a contrast detail phantom to quantitatively evaluate digital radiography image
quality using a thoracic radiography phantom. Additional data was obtained for
entrance skin and scatter radiation dose, 1 cm from the patient.
Methods: With thoracic radiology phantom in place, ten radiographs were acquired on
a digital radiography system to estimate the average entrance detector dose using the
hospital’s current technique chart (17 cm thick, 109 kVp, 2.5 mAs, 40” FFD). This
entrance detector dose average was standardized using variable kVp (60, 79, 100, 117)
and presence of a grid, by manipulation of the mAs. In addition, the above kVp and grid
variables were repeated, with a fixed mAs (2.5). For each exposure, entrance detector,
entrance skin and scatter radiation dose, at 1 cm from the patient, was recorded. Ten
radiographs were performed at each technique to minimize the impact of noise. The
images were transferred to a digital workstation and automated analysis of the CDRAD
2.0 contrast detail phantom images was performed.
Results: The half value layer was calculated to be 2.83 mm Al, at a kVp of 81. The
mean entrance detector dose, using the hospital technique, was 1.46 mR ± 0.02. In the
results table below, the data on the left was obtained with an entrance detector dose of
approximately 1.46 mR. The data on the right was with a fixed mAs.
Grid
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
kVp
60
79
100
117
60
79
100
117
mAs
20
7.1
3.2
2
5.6
2.2
1.1
0.8
Detected %
76.13
75.51
74.4
72.98
63.6
63.16
63.24
62.62
Grid
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
kVp
60
79
100
117
60
79
100
117
mAs
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
Detected %
53.11
67.16
72
74.62
52.89
63.87
71.51
72.36
Discussion/Conclusion: Presence of a grid has a moderate positive impact on
phantom detection efficiency, at similar entrance detector doses. For identical
radiographic techniques, the presence of a grid was of marginal benefit. This is best
explained by increased signal to noise ratio from higher detector doses (SNR increase
of approximately 1.8).
63
THORACIC RADIOGRAPHIC ANATOMY IN VERVET MONKEYS (CHLOROCEBUS
SABAEUS).
A.N. Young, D. Rodriguez, W.M. du Plessis. Ross University, School of Veterinary
Medicine, Basseterre, St. Kitts and Nevis.
Introduction/Purpose: The vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus) is commonly used
in nonhuman primate research to evaluate important respiratory and cardiac pathogens.
Despite their widespread use, the normal radiographic anatomy of the vervet monkey or
closely associated species has not been described. Our goal was to establish reference
values and report on the normal appearance of key structures assessed during thoracic
radiographic evaluation, and to investigate appropriate radiographic technique.
Methods: Ten clinically healthy vervet monkeys from the research colony at the St.
Kitts Behavior Science Foundation were evaluated. Subjects were sedated and placed
under general anesthesia using ketamine and alfaxolone, respectively. Left to right
lateral and posteroanterior (PA) thoracic radiographs were made using an Agfa 30-X
computed radiography system.
Results: For lateral and PA radiographs, 2.5 mAs was used with a kVp (range 73-87)
based on thoracic width (range 4.0-8.5 cm) or depth (range 7.0-9.0 cm). Detail of the
superior thorax on PA radiographs improved when the limbs were extended laterally
compared to superiorly. The following descriptive statistics are reported as mean ±
standard deviation (range). The vertebral body lengths varied along the thoracic spine,
with a T12 to T2 length ratio of 1.85 ± 0.08 (1.71-1.97). A mild diffuse bronchointerstitial
pattern was present, partially obscuring evaluation of structures such as the inferior
vena cava, aorta and pulmonary vessels. The lateral vertebral heart score (VHS) was
9.63 ± 0.45 (9.00-10.40), the PA VHS was 9.34 ± 0.40 (8.80-9.80), and the
cardiothoracic ratio was 0.48 ± 0.03 (0.44-0.54). The inferior vena cava ratio to the aorta
could only be determined in one subject due to poor vascular visibility. The vena cava
ratio to the fourth rib could be assessed more readily (6/9), and measured 2.30 ± 0.36
(1.86-2.78). The pulmonary artery to ninth rib ratio on the right was 1.60 ± SD 0.30
(1.12-4.27). The ratio on the left was 1.54 ± SD 0.24 (1.29-1.99). The pulmonary veins
were visualized poorly.
Discussion/Conclusion: The variation of vertebral length from superiorly to inferiorly
in the thoracic spine may introduce inaccuracy in morphometric measurements made
against the vertebrae. Reference values incorporating multiple measurements along the
thoracic vertebrae, such as VHS, must be assessed critically, especially in light of
diseased states. Assessment of vascular structures can be obscured by the mild
bronchointerstitial lung pattern, believed to be attributed to mild atelectasis under
anesthesia. In assessing the vena cava diameter, a ratio with the fourth rib is more
consistently obtained as compared to a ratio with the aortic diameter. Evaluation of
pulmonary veins on PA views may be obscured because of conformational differences
of the vervet monkey in comparison to the dog or cat.
64
MULTI-DETECTOR CT UROGRAPHY PROTOCOL DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION.
A.R. zur Linden1, E.A. Riedesel1, K. Alexander2. College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa
State University, Ames, IA, 500111; Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de
Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, Québec, Canada, J2S 7C6.2
Introduction/Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) can be used for anatomical
imaging of the upper urinary tract; and dynamic CT used for functional imaging by
assessing the plasma clearance of iodinated contrast medium. Indications for CT
urography include hematuria without evidence of stranguria or pain, trauma,
assessment of congenital anomalies, neoplasia, and renal vasculature prior to renal
transplantation. A CT urography protocol was evaluated for its ability to provide
anatomical and functional information on the upper urinary tract in a single study,
minimize the number of CT images, and limit radiation exposure to the patient.
Methods: Six healthy adult Beagles (8.5-10 kg) were used to determine the optimal
contrast dosage to be used for a triple bolus CT technique, and develop a method to
image the hilus of each kidney with dynamic CT. All dogs were anesthetized with a
standardized protocol. Three dosages were tested (0.7, 1.05 and 1.4 ml/kg 240 mg/ml
iohexol, administered over 10 seconds) and image quality assessed subjectively. A
protocol was developed to move the CT table between the hilus of each kidney every 3
seconds to acquire functional data. Six client-owned dogs (various breeds, 9-31 kg)
were then used to assess the aid of furosemide for visualization of the ureters with
contrast medium using this protocol. Three dogs received furosemide (0.5 mg/kg
intravenously 15 minutes prior to contrast injection) and three control dogs were
administered an equal volume of saline. Ureteral filling was subjectively assessed and
CT-glomerular filtration rate (CT-GFR) was also calculated for each kidney using the
Patlak method.
Results: This protocol includes a non-contrast enhanced scan, a 3-minute dynamic
scan at each renal hilus, and a single post-contrast scan performed 8 minutes after the
initial dose of contrast. Optimal contrast dosage was 1.05 ml/kg. This dosage is
administered three times; first for the dynamic scan, the second one timed for
nephrographic phase enhancement and the third one timed for peak aortic
enhancement using the timing from the dynamic scan. These timed injections result in
contrast enhancement of the ureters, kidneys, and vasculature in a single scan.
Furosemide administration resulted in subjectively improved visualization of the kidneys
without contrast streaking artifacts in the renal pelvis, but did not improve contrast filling
of the ureters. CT-GFR results from this study were similar to those obtained in previous
studies; furosemide group 1.68-3.37 ml/min/kg and control group 1.58-2.40 ml/min/kg.
Discussion/Conclusion: This pilot study demonstrated that a triple-bolus technique
and single post-contrast CT scan results in a complete and optimized anatomical study
of the upper urinary tract. Furosemide administration improves the visualization of the
renal pelvis by diluting contrast medium but does not improve ureteral filling. CT-GFR
can be calculated for each kidney as part of this protocol, even in patients with
asymmetrically positioned kidneys.
67
Saturday, October 20, 2012 - ACVR
7:00 am
Registration Opens
Registration Desk 1, Office A
7:30 am
Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine Meeting
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
Nuclear Medicine/Ultrasound
Scientific Session 4
(Moderator: Dr. Kip Berry)
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
8:00 am
PRELIMINARY FINDINGS ON FDG PET AND MULTIPHASIC CT OF LIVER
MASSES IN DOGS. E. A. Ballegeer, C.M. Kunst, K.L. Berger, B. Stanley. Michigan
State University, MI 48824.
8:12 am
DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER-MEDIATED RADIONUCLIDE THERAPIES FOR
TARGETING OSTEOSARCOMA. S. Popwell1, C. Berry3, R. Milner3, W. Bolch1, C.
Batich1, K.B. Wagener2. 1College of Engineering, 2College of Liberal Arts and
Sciences and 3College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL,
32610.
8:24 am
μPET/CT ASSESSMENT OF LUNG METASTASIS IN A MOUSE MODEL OF
OSTEOSARCOMA. A.K. McMurray, M.J. Allen, W.T. Drost, B.K. Chaffee, K.A.
Powell. The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ohio, 43210.
8:36 am
PREVALENCE OF SUBCLINICAL THYROID NODULES IN DOGS PRESENTING
WITH HYPERCALCEMIA. L.K. Bohannon, R.E. Pollard, E.C. Feldman. School of
Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
8:48 am
ALTERATION OF THE ECHO DROP-OUT ARTIFACT ON THE BLADDER WALL.
N.C. Helfrich, H.G. Heng. Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine,
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
9:00 am
THE SONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF LIPIDURIA IN CATS. M.D. Sislak, K.A.
Spaulding, D. Zoran, J. Bauer, J. Thompson. College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas
A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.
9:12 am
ELASTOGRAPHY OF NORMAL CAT LIVER, SPLEEN AND KIDNEYS. J.W. White,
J.S. Mattoon. Washington State University, WA 99163.
9:24 am
B-MODE AND POWER DOPPLER ULTRASONOGRAPHIC FINDINGS IN CANINE
METASTATIC LYMPH NODES FROM MALIGNANT MAMARY TUMOR. C.
Muramoto, S.C.F. Hagen; A.C.B.C. Fonseca-Pinto, C.M. Oliveira; M. Faustino;
M.S.F. Talib; L.N, F.A. Sterman. Torres. School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal
Science, University of São Paulo, Brazil 05508 270.
9:36 am
ULTRASOUND-GUIDED CERVICAL FACET JOINT INJECTION IN THE DOG. M.
Levy1, A. LeRoux1, H. Bragulla2, N. Rademacher1, L.Gaschen1. Louisiana State
University, 1Veterinary Clinical Sciences and 2Comparative Biomedical Sciences,
Louisiana, 70803.
68
9:48 am
10:00 am
MICROBUBBLE ULTRASOUND FOR DRUG DELIVERY TO THE POSTERIOR
SEGMENT OF THE EYE USING THE SUPRACHOROIDAL SPACE. G.S. Seiler1,
S. Feingold2, P.A. Dayton2, S.E. Cartiff1, R. Mantuo1, J.H. Salmon1, B.C. Gilger1. 1NC
State University, NC 27607; 2NC State and UNC Chapel Hill, NC 27514.
Break with Exhibitors
Molise
CT/MRI Scientific Session 5
(Moderator: Dr. Silke Hecht)
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
10:30 am
COMPARISON
OF
1T-MRI
ARTHROGRAPHY
AND
64-SLICE
CT
ARTHROGRAPHY FOR DETECTION OF ARTHROSCOPICALLY INDUCED
LESIONS OF THE CANINE STIFLE. S. Nemanic, J.J. Warnock, S.M. StiegerVanegas. Oregon State University, OR 97331.
10:42 am
VALIDATION OF A SHORT PREOPERATIVE MR PROTOCOL IN DOGS WITH
CRANIAL CRUCIATE LIGAMENT DAMAGE. J. Olive, M.A. d’Anjou, N. Chailleux,
J. Cabassu, R. Bélanger, L. Blond. CHUV, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Montreal
University, QC, J2S5Z5, Canada.
10:54 am
CT
IDENTIFICATION
OF
DYSPLASIA
AND
PROGRESSION
OF
OSTEOARTHRITIS IN DOG ELBOWS PREVIOUSLY ASSIGNED OFA GRADE 1.
C.M. Kunst, G. Habing, E.A. Ballegeer. Michigan State University, MI 48824.
11:06 am
FEASIBILITY OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF POST-OPERATIVE
TIBIAL PLATEAU LEVELING OSTEOTOMY. S.L. Pownder1,2, M.F. Koff1, P.J.
Shah2, A.S. Levien2, R.A. Bennett1, H.G. Potter1. 1. Hospital for Special Surgery, NY,
10021; 2. Animal Medical Center, NY, 10021.
11:18 am
SENSITIVITY, POSITIVE PREDICTIVE VALUE AND INTEROBSERVER
VARIABILITY OF CT IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF BULLAE/BLEBS IN DOGS WITH
SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOTHORAX. J.A. Reetz1, A. Caceres1, J.N .Suran1, T.
Oura2, A. Zwingenberger3, W. Mai1. 1University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary
Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19104; 2North Carolina State University College of
Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC, 27607(2); 3University of California Davis School of
Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616.
11:30 am
COMPARATIVE IMAGING IN THE CANINE ACUTE ABDOMEN: SURVEY
RADIOGRAPHY, CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASOUND, AND CONTRASTENHANCED MULTI-DETECTOR HELICAL CT. M.M. Shanaman, T. Schwarz, A.
Gal, R.T. O’Brien. Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign, IL, 61802.
11:42 am
FELINE OBSTRUCTIVE URETEROLITHIASIS: UTILITY OF COMPUTED
TOMOGRAPHY AND ULTRASOUND IN CLINICAL DECISION MAKING. A.H.
Carr, E.R. Wisner, J.L. Westropp, P.D. Mayhew. Veterinary Medical Teaching
Hospital, University of California-Davis, CA, 95616.
12:00 pm
Lunch on Your Own
69
1:00 pm
ACVR Image Interpretation Session –
Dr. Randi Drees, Program Co-chair
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
2:30 pm
Confirmation and Recognition
of New ACVR Diplomates
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
3:00 pm
Break with Exhibitors
Molise
3:30 pm
ACVR Business Meeting (Diplomates only)
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
5:00 pm
Adjourn for the Day
5:00 pm
Large Animal Diagnostic Imaging Society Meeting Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
7:00 pm 10:00 pm
VCS Awards Reception
Palms Resort (Offsite)
70
PRELIMINARY FINDINGS ON FDG PET AND MULTIPHASIC CT OF LIVER MASSES
IN DOGS.
E. A. Ballegeer, C.M. Kunst, K.L. Berger, B. Stanley. Michigan State University, MI
48824.
Introduction/Purpose: The correlation of FDG PET signal, and simultaneously
collected contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) images in spontaneous canine
hepatic masses with histopathological diagnosis of the mass obtained with surgical
biopsy can lead to advancement towards non-invasive methods of diagnosing
underlying processes. Additional benefit to the patient exists as whole body PET scan
represents a screening process to rule out distant primary tumor or metastases.
Methods: Twelve client-owned dogs with spontaneous masses in the liver discovered
on ultrasound and exceeding 3 cm in diameter were enrolled between 1/2010 and
5/2012. Each received an intravenous injection of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose, dosage
ranging from 5.9 to 22.9 MBq/kg, 1 hour prior to scanning. A PET and multiphasic CT
was performed, with injection of 800 mg I/kg iopamidol administration before arterial and
venous phase images were collected. At review of images with the surgeon, therapy
decision changes based on imaging were recorded. Each patient then had a
laparoscopic or open surgical biopsy of the mass(es) within 1 week after imaging to
correlate with images with histopathology. Analysis of images for attenuation, contrast
enhancement, and radiopharmaceutical uptake was performed on MedView® software.
Results: Fifteen masses in the twelve dogs were histopathologically correlated with
imaging results. 4/15 (26.7%) masses were benign, while 11/15 (73.3%) were malignant
in origin. Malignant masses included 4 well differentiated hepatocellular carcinomas. All
masses with peripheral arterial enhancement pattern were malignant, and benign
masses tended to have higher magnitude increase in attenuation between arterial and
venous phases of contrast uptake. The highest standardized uptake value (SUVmax)
was in a plasma cell tumor at 7, but the lowest at 2.4 was also in a malignant mass, a
well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. The mean SUVmax for malignant masses
was 4.08, while for benign masses, it was 3.4. CT examination resulted in case
management decision change in 10/12 (83.3%) cases, while PET examination resulted
in change in 8/12 (66.7%).
Discussion/ Conclusion: Considerable overlap in quantification of signal between
benign and malignant hepatic processes on both CT and FDG PET examination exists,
though larger case numbers may elucidate a difference not yet seen. Whole body
screening commonly leads to therapeutic decision changes, and reveals distant disease
that can affect overall outcome or increase suspicion of malignancy in the canine
patient.
Funding for this study was provided by the Morris Animal Foundation.
71
DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER-MEDIATED RADIONUCLIDE THERAPIES FOR
TARGETING OSTEOSARCOMA.
S. Popwell, C. Berry, R. Milner, W. Bolch, C. Batich, K.B. Wagener. College of
Engineering (Popwell, Bolch, Batich), College of Liberal Arts and Sciences (Wagener)
and College of Veterinary Medicine (Berry, Milner), University of Florida, Gainesville,
FL, 32610.
Introduction/Purpose: A key limitation to current radionuclide therapies for treating
osteosarcoma is uptake of the radiopharmaceutical by healthy tissue, particularly bone
marrow. A potential novel solution is to increase the molecular weight of the
radiopharmaceutical, such that it is too large to pass through the endothelial junctions
and capillary beds of healthy tissue but is still small enough to pass through the
defective vasculature created during tumor angiogenesis. This method of cancertargeting drug design is termed the Enhanced Permeability and Retention (EPR) effect
and offers potential for the development of new systemic radiotherapies for the
treatment of osteosarcoma. A series of phosphonate-functionalized polymer ligands
(PEI-MP and PEI-EDTMP), capable of binding radionuclides, have been synthesized
and fully characterized for drug delivery applications.1
Methods: In the current study, client-owned dogs with a diagnosis of osteosarcoma
were administered approximately 370 MBq of 99mTc-PEI-MP (n=9) or 99mTc-PEI-EDTMP
(n=1). Scintigraphic images were collected as an initial dynamic study for 30 minutes
(right or left laterals centred over the thorax and abdomen) followed by static images
(45, 60, 120 and 180 minutes) of the thorax and abdomen and primary tumor. Decay
corrected, time-activity curves were created for analysis of biodistribution in non-target
organs and tumor uptake.
Results: 99mTc-PEI-MP and 99mTc-PEI-EDTMP was retained within the dogs with
osteosarcoma, with documented accumulation by 30 minutes. Peak radioactivity within
the tumor occurred by 120 minutes. There was additional localization in healthy, nontarget tissue that was noted to be less than current FDA approved small molecule
therapies. Of particular significance is that there was not significant uptake compared
with background radioactivity in potential dose limiting bone marrow (humeral, femoral
or vertebral regions of interest).
Discussion/Conclusion: High molecular weight, polymer-radiopharmaceuticals have
demonstrated uptake and retention in canine appendicular osteosarcoma tumors.
Uptake of the radiopharmaceutical was not seen in non-target bone and the doselimiting organ, bone marrow. These results offer promise for a new systemic therapy for
treating canine osteosarcoma. Additionally, spontaneously occurring osteosarcoma of
the canine has shown to be a good translational model for the study of osteosarcoma in
humans. The potential use of PEI-MP and PEI-EDTMP with Sm-153 for delivery of
significant radiation dose to these tumors without the rate limiting issues of bone
marrow toxicity as seen with Sm-153 Quadrimet® will be investigated in the future.
(1) Milner, R. J.; Dormehl, I. C.; Lowe, W. K.; Kilian, E. Eur J Nucl Med 1999, 26, 1220
72
μPET/CT ASSESSMENT OF LUNG METASTASIS IN A MOUSE MODEL OF
OSTEOSARCOMA.
A.K. McMurray, M.J. Allen, W.T. Drost, B.K. Chaffee, K.A. Powell. The Ohio State
University College of Veterinary Medicine, Ohio, 43210.
Introduction/Purpose:
Pulmonary metastatic load is a method of determining
treatment response in patients with many different types of cancer including
osteosarcoma, which is of significant importance in veterinary and human medicine. An
objective in-vivo method for measuring the efficacy of treatments is currently lacking,
with most studies involving euthanasia of mice at different time points to track the effect
of treatment via histopathology. This strategy requires large numbers of mice and
precludes the assessment of individual treatment response. Our purpose was to
determine whether μPET/CT is more sensitive for the detection of pulmonary metastasis
than μCT alone and whether active pulmonary metastatic load could be quantified using
μPET.
Methods: Twelve mice had canine osteosarcoma cells injected into their right tibias.
Mice were imaged at 3 and 5 weeks post-injection. The μCT and μPET/CT combined
images were evaluated for metastasis at each time point and the results compared.
Volumes of interest (VOI) were drawn around the lungs on each CT slice of all CTs.
The VOIs were applied to the corresponding co-registered PET images. The standard
uptake value (SUV) for the lungs was divided by the corresponding liver SUV. The SUV
ratios were compared between time points for each mouse, as well as between mice
within a given time point. Mice were euthanized after imaging at 5 weeks and
histopathology and stereologic analysis were performed on paraffin-embedded sections
of the lungs.
Results: CT images were reviewed for evidence of pulmonary metastasis with and
without the assistance of co-registered PET images. 9/12 (75%) mice had metastasis
at 3 weeks post-injection and 10/12 (83%) mice had metastasis 5 weeks post-injection.
PET and CT correlated for 70% of the nodules, 15% of the time PET lead to the
discovery of a nodule initially not detected on CT, 10% of the time PET indicated a
nodule that could not be seen on the corresponding CT, and 5% of nodules on CT did
not have 18F-FDG uptake. A statistical difference was not found between the 2 time
points (paired t test p= 0.075). SUV values at 5 weeks but did not correlate to
metastatic load.
Discussion/Conclusion: μPET/CT was helpful in detecting pulmonary nodules before
they were evident on μCT, as well as confirming those nodules that were not initially
detected or suspect on μCT. μPET does not quantitate pulmonary metastatic load.
Possible reasons for this include change in lung area that occurs with normal breathing
or atelectasis, variable uptake between the two time points, necrosis of tumor or overlap
of signal from other nearby anatomic structures (i.e. heart, ribs etc).
73
PREVALENCE OF SUBCLINICAL THYROID NODULES IN DOGS PRESENTING
WITH HYPERCALCEMIA.
L.K. Bohannon, R.E. Pollard, E.C. Feldman. School of Veterinary Medicine, University
of California, Davis, CA 95616.
Introduction/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of
subclinical thyroid nodules in dogs that undergo cervical ultrasound as a diagnostic
procedure for the assessment of hypercalcemia. Our hypothesis is that incidental
thyroid masses are present in dogs.
Methods: All dogs that underwent a cervical ultrasound examination as a component
of the diagnostic assessment for hypercalcemia at the University of California, Davis
Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital between January 2010 and December 2011 were
considered for inclusion. Dogs with a palpable neck mass where a thyroid gland lesion
might have been suspected were excluded. Medical records were reviewed for
signalment; clinical features; and results of clinicopathologic testing; endocrine testing
and diagnostic imaging. Retrospective evaluations of cervical ultrasound images were
performed and the presence or absence and number of thyroid nodules were recorded.
The length, width, and height of the thyroid nodule were determined. The results of
nodule aspirate, biopsy or necropsy were recorded when available.
Results: Fifty-four dogs met the inclusion criteria. Ultrasound found that 8/54 (15%)
dogs had at least one thyroid mass. Of the 8 dogs with a thyroid mass 3 had a
histological diagnosis. 1/8 (13%) had 2 thyroid masses 1 of which was a thyroid gland
follicular adenoma (length 0.52 cm, width 0.55 cm, height 0.50 cm) and the other was a
follicular cyst (length 1.1 cm, width 0.90 cm, height 0.91 cm), 1/8 (13%) had nodular
hyperplasia (length 2.75 cm, width 1.25 cm, height 1.19 cm), and 1/8 (13%) had thyroid
carcinoma (length 2.05 cm, width 2.16, and height 1.22 cm).
Discussion/Conclusion: The results suggest subclinical thyroid masses are present in
dogs who initially present for hypercalcemia without a palpable neck mass. The clinical
significance and management of incidentally identified thyroid nodules found during
cervical ultrasound deserves further investigation.
74
ALTERATION OF THE ECHO DROP-OUT ARTIFACT ON THE BLADDER WALL.
N.C. Helfrich, H.G. Heng. Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine,
Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
Introduction/Purpose: The echo drop-out artifact is commonly encountered along the
cranial curvature of a bladder wall in patients with peritoneal effusion. Formation of the
artifact is due to refraction of the ultrasound beam at this region in addition to the
different sound velocities through urine and the peritoneal effusion. The resultant
sonographic image is an incomplete or defect of the bladder wall which could be
mistaken by general practitioners for a pathologic condition. Spatial compound imaging
(SCI) has been shown to alter the appearances of some sonographic artifacts. The
effect of SCI on echo drop-out artifact, however, has not been investigated. The
purpose of this study was to investigate and report the optimal ultrasound modality for
prevention of echo drop-out artifact.
Methods: An abdominal ultrasound was performed on a patient with spontaneous
peritoneal effusion. The sonographic appearance of the cranial aspect of the urinary
bladder wall was examined using both conventional ultrasound imaging and SCI with
both microconvex and linear transducers. The influence of the focal spot locations was
investigated by placing the focal spot at the near, middle and far field. In additional to
this, the effect of the number of overlapping images with SCI of the linear transducer
was investigated by repeating the ultrasound examination with 3, 5 and 7 overlapping
images. With the microconvex transducer, only 3 overlapping images with SCI were
used. All still images were examined to determine the presence or absence of an echo
drop-out artifact. Sonographic examination of an additional 3 dogs with spontaneous
peritoneal effusion using the same setting that led to absence of the echo drop-out
artifact of the cranial bladder wall was performed.
Results: Echo drop-out artifact was present in studies performed with microconvex
transducer using both conventional and SCI modes. When using the linear array
transducer, the echo drop-out artifact was absent with SCI (5 and 7 overlapping images)
when the focal spot is located at the middle and far field. With the SCI of 3 overlapping
images, the echo drop-out artifact persists. The 3 other dogs with spontaneous
peritoneal effusion exhibited the same alteration of the echo drop-out artifact when they
were examined with a linear transducer with SCI of 5 overlapping images.
Discussion/Conclusion: SCI can prevent the echo drop-out artifact because of the
multiple insonation angles (multiple overlapping images) for image acquisition. The
absence of the artifact was best observed when the study was performed with SCI of at
least 5 overlapping images. The lack of a change in the appearance of the echo dropout artifact with microconvex transducer with SCI was attributed to less number of
overlapping images.
75
THE SONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF LIPIDURIA IN CATS.
M.D. Sislak, K.A. Spaulding, D. Zoran, J. Bauer, J. Thompson. College of Veterinary
Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.
Introduction/Purpose: Echoes in the urinary bladder of cats have been attributed to cells
(hematuria, pyuria), blood clots, crystals, calculi, and lipid. Fat deposition is common in the
feline kidney, resulting in hyperechogenicity of the kidney. Lipid droplets identified on urine
sediment analysis are due to lipid shedding from the renal proximal convoluted tubule and
are presumed a benign, normal occurrence in cats. In people, thin layer chromatography
(TLC) is used to characterize and quantitate urine lipid. TLC allows diagnosis of clinically
important lipiduria in patients with nephrotic syndrome, chronic renal disease, and
hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study was to determine the sonographic characteristics
of lipiduria in clinically healthy cats and quantify the amount of urine lipid using TLC.
Methods: Clinically healthy cats were included and assigned a body condition score (1-9
scale). All cats had a complete abdominal ultrasound, urinalysis (UA), and chemistry panel
performed. Cats were excluded if significant abnormalities were detected on ultrasound
(other than the presence of echoes in the urinary bladder), UA (other than the presence of
lipid), or the chemistry panel. The urinary bladder was scored as having none, few, mild,
moderate, or many echoes. The location of echoes was recorded as dependent,
suspended, or floating. The presence of twinkle artifact, reverberation artifact, or distal
acoustic shadowing associated with the echoes was recorded, as was the echogenicity of
each kidney with respect to the liver and spleen. Urine lipid on UA was graded as none,
few, moderate, or many. The amount of lipid present in the urine was determined by TLC
(mg / 500µL). A Fisher’s Exact Test was utilized to test for correlations with significance
defined as P < 0.05.
Results: Twenty-two cats were included. Twenty (91%) had echoes in the urinary bladder
on ultrasound (few=4, mild=12, moderate=4, many=0). Of these, nineteen (95%) had
suspended echoes and no distal acoustic shadowing, reverberation, or twinkle artifact. All
cats had urine lipid detected on UA (few=4, moderate=10, many=8) and TLC (1.6 – 33.0
mg/500 µL). There was no association between the sonographic score of echoes and the
amount of lipid detected on UA (p=0.61) or TLC (p=0.90). Cats with kidneys of equal or
greater echogenicity than the spleen were significantly more likely to have moderate or
many echoes detected in the urinary bladder (p=0.017). There was no association of body
condition score with the amount of echoes seen on ultrasound or the amount of lipid
detected by UA or TLC.
Discussion/Conclusion: We conclude that lipid can be detected by ultrasound in normal
cats as suspended echoes that do not cause distal acoustic shadowing, reverberation, or
twinkle artifact. However, ultrasound does not appear to be reliable for determining the
amount of urine lipid. Cats with hyperechoic kidneys tended to have more echoes detected
in the urinary bladder which suggests that these cats may be shedding more lipid from the
proximal convoluted tubule. The echogenicity of the kidney and amount of urine lipid is not
associated with total body fat as assessed by body condition score.
76
ELASTOGRAPHY OF NORMAL CAT LIVER, SPLEEN AND KIDNEYS.
J.W. White, J.S. Mattoon. Washington State University, WA 99163.
Introduction/Purpose: Elastography evaluates tissue compressibility from manual
oscillations of the ultrasound transducer, displayed as a color map overlay on a B-mode
image. Extensive research exists in human medicine. A recent study defined its use for
imaging equine distal limbs1 There are no publications of its utility in clinical small
animal medicine. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the technique and define
the appearance of normal cat liver, spleen and kidneys.
Methods: Ten healthy cats presented to the WSU VTH for routine spay/neuter from
animal shelters were included. Elastography was performed with a linear array
transducer on unsedated cats. Cytology confirmed normalcy of organs. In addition to
subjective evaluation, objective assessment was performed using custom software2
assigning numeric values (0 = greatest strain to 255 = no strain) to color pixels within
regions of interest (ROI) drawn in Image J. ROIs were placed within the body wall (BW),
spleen (SPL), liver (LIV), left renal cortex (LRC), left renal near field (LRNF), right renal
cortex (RRC) and right renal near field (RRNF).
Results: The mean ± standard deviation (SD) strain values were: BW 208 ± 14, CI(µBW,
0.95) = [199; 217]; SPL 135 ± 17 CI(µSPL, 0.95) = [125; 145]; LIV 125 ± 15, CI(µLIV, 0.95) = [115;
135]; LRC 81 ± 36, CI(µLRC, 0.95) = [58; 104], LRNF 128 ± 13, CI(µLRNF, 0.95) = [120; 136];
RRC 93 ± 29, CI(µRRC, 0.95) = [75; 111]; and RRNF 121 ± 17, CI(µRRNF, 0.95) = [110; 132].
Strain values were not significantly different between the following groups (p > 0.05):
SPL, LIV, LRNF and RRNF; LRC and RRC; RRC and RRNF. BW was significantly
different from all other groups (p < 0.05). Strain ratios ± SD between BW:SPL = 1.60 ±
0.20, BW:LIV = 1.74 ± 0.33, BW:LRC = 3.12 ± 1.83, BW:LRNF = 1.54 ± 0.31, BW:RRC
= 2.51 ± 0.93 and BW:RRNF = 1.79 ± 0.37.
Discussion/Conclusion: Elastography was found to be useful in assessment of the cat
body wall, liver, spleen and kidneys. Organ appearance was consistent within and
between cats. Elastic properties of liver, spleen and renal near field were similar; softer
renal cortex was easily differentiated from firmer medulla.
References: 1. GS Seiler, M Lustgarten, WR Redding. Elastographic evaluation of normal
tendons and ligaments of the equine distal forelimb. Abstract, Annual Meeting ACVR,
Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 11-14, 2011.
2. Kwang Gi Kim, Biomedical Engineering Brach, Division of Convergence Technology, National
Cancer Center, Korea.
77
ULTRASOUND-GUIDED CERVICAL FACET JOINT INJECTION IN THE DOG.
M. Levy1, A. LeRoux1, H. Bragulla2, N. Rademacher1, L.Gaschen1. Louisiana State
University, 1Veterinary Clinical Sciences and 2Comparative Biomedical Sciences,
Louisiana, 70803.
Introduction/Purpose: The ultrasound-guided injection of cervical facet joints is a wellestablished procedure in both humans and horses for neck pain resulting from
osteoarthritis, but it has not been described in dogs. Spondylomyelopathy is a common
disease in large breed dogs due to both disc disease and osseous lesions of the
cervical spine and is a common source of neck pain. The purpose of this study was: 1.
Describe the sonographic anatomy and landmarks for facet joint injections in the dog
and develop a technique for injections. 2. Determine the accuracy of injections and the
factors that may influence it. 3. Perform injections in affected dogs and assess clinical
outcome.
Methods: Bony landmarks for each cervical facet joint from C2-3 to C7-T1 were
established using linear ultrasound probe on a skeleton in a water bath. Each joint
space on the right and left sides was injected individually under ultrasound guidance
with 0.1 ml of solution of 10% gelatin and 33% Conray® iothalamate meglumine 282
mg/ml iodine. A computed tomographic (CT) scan was acquired following each injection,
and an injection score was assigned. Age, gender, weight, body condition score,
transverse and dorsal angle of each joint, neck diameter at each joint, and vertebral
mensuration for each vertebra were recorded for each dog. Three client-owned dogs
with cervical pain that had MRI to rule out compressive disc disease were injected at
multiple sites where arthropathy was diagnosed with a 6% solution of triamcinolone.
Results: The transverse processes serve as excellent sonographic landmarks for
identifying the cervical vertebral joints in dogs regardless of the size of the dog or
location along the vertebrae. Accuracy of ultrasound-guided facet joint injection in dogs
is high (83%) and similar to published techniques in horses. The three affected dogs all
had relief of their cervical pain within 24 hours following facet joint injection, which
lasted for at least 4 months.
Discussion/Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided intra-articular cervical facet joint injection
is a feasible technique in the dog. Ultrasound-guided injection of the cervical articular
facet joints with anti-inflammatory drugs warrants future clinical trials to determine safety
and efficacy in treating arthrosis in dogs with spondylomyelopathy.
79
MICROBUBBLE ULTRASOUND FOR DRUG DELIVERY TO THE POSTERIOR
SEGMENT OF THE EYE USING THE SUPRACHOROIDAL SPACE.
G.S. Seiler1, S. Feingold2, P.A. Dayton2, S.E. Cartiff1, R. Mantuo1, J.H. Salmon1, B.C.
Gilger1. 1NC State University, NC 27607; 2NC State and UNC Chapel Hill, NC 27514.
Introduction/Purpose: Drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye is to a
significant degree limited by the difficulty in delivering effective doses of drugs to the
targeted tissues. Traditionally available approaches are either not effective or
associated with potentially devastating side effects. Using the suprachoroidal space
(SCS), a potential space between the sclera and choroid, may reduce side effects
associated with intraocular injections, and may allow wide drug distribution to the
posterior segment of the eye. The purpose of this research was to determine the realtime distribution of microbubbles after injection into the anterior SCS, and to determine
feasibility of delivering dye to the retina using microbubbles as drug delivery vehicles.
Methods: SCS injections of 250, 500 and 800 uL of contrast agent (Targestar-P) were
perfomed in 4 porcine cadaver eyes each. Contrast distribution was recorded using a
Mylab70 ultrasound system. Percentage of distribution of contrast agent in the SCS was
determined as mean (SD). Regions of interest were placed over the SCS, and contrast
enhancement over time was measured using contrast detection software (Qontrast). For
assessment of drug delivery to the retina, fresh canine cadaver eyes received an
intravitreous (IV) or SCS injection (250 uL) of microbubble-incorporated dye
(Dioctadecyl-3,3,3’,3’-tetramethylindocarbocyanine iodide, DiI).
Eyes were
simultaneously imaged with ultrasound and either received 0, 1, or 3 destructive pulses
once the bubbles reached the ocular posterior segment. Eyes were frozen immediately
and the amount of dye in the retina as observed on a fluorescent microscope was semiquantified using a score of 0 (none) to 4 (retina saturated with DiI) by two masked
observers. Mean cumulative scores were analyzed using Wilcoxon rank sum test and
differences considered significant at P<0.05.
Results: Ultrasound imaging illustrated that microbubble contrast was present in the
ocular posterior segment within 10 seconds of injection. There were no significant
differences in the time of appearance or % distribution between the different volumes.
Mean contrast distribution in the posterior SCS was 27.2%, and the posterior SCS was
reached in 83.3% of eyes. Mean cumulative scores of retinal dye were similar between
IV (2.0 +/- 1.7) and SCS (1.8 +/- 0.88) for DiI delivery with no destructive pulse, and
slightly higher for 1 pulse microbubble delivery of DiI (IV: 2.9 +/- 1.4; SCS: 2.8 +/- 2.3).
However, 3 pulse microbubble destruction resulted in significantly higher delivery of DiI
to SCS (P=0.043) (4.1 +/- 0.8) compared to IV (2.7 +/- 1.1).
Discussion/Conclusion: The posterior SCS was rapidly and reliably reached when
injecting microbubbles in the anterior SCS. Contrast ultrasound-mediated drug delivery
via SCS injections may represent a novel, targeted and less invasive method for
treatment of posterior segment ocular disease.
80
COMPARISON OF 1T-MRI ARTHROGRAPHY AND 64-SLICE CT ARTHROGRAPHY
FOR DETECTION OF ARTHROSCOPICALLY INDUCED LESIONS OF THE CANINE
STIFLE.
S. Nemanic, J.J. Warnock, S.M. Stieger-Vanegas. Oregon State University, OR 97331.
Introduction/Purpose: Stifle injury is the leading cause of canine lameness. MRI is
superior to single-slice CT arthrography (CTA) in detecting stifle ligament lesions, and
single-slice CTA did not reliably detect meniscal injuries. In this study we assessed the
utility of 64-slice CTA to detect ligament, meniscal and cartilaginous injuries of the
canine stifle, and compared CTA and MRI arthrography (MRA) for detection of the same
arthroscopically induced lesions within the canine stifle.
Methods: 10 large breed (mean weight 30.4kg) canine cadaver stifles were utilized.
Stifles were randomly assigned to receive arthroscopy alone, or arthroscopy with
iatrogenic lesions to articular cartilage, menisci, and/or cruciate ligaments (0-4 lesions
per stifle). Imaging performed after arthroscopy included CTA (64-multislice helical CT
scanner, 80kVp, 350 mA, 1mm slice thickness; iopamidol 150mg I/ml, injected to joint
distension) and T1-weighted MRA (1-Tesla MR scanner, TR 400, TE 13, 14cmx14cm,
256 x 192, 2mm slice thickness; gadopentetate dimeglumine 1:100 dilution, injected to
joint distension) with images in transverse, sagittal, and frontal planes. Following
imaging, lesions were photographed; India ink was used to detect cartilage damage.
Images were assessed independently by 2 radiologists, blinded to lesion status.
Results: The number of arthroscopically induced lesions, number of lesions correctly
and incorrectly detected by at least one radiologist, and sensitivity and specificity of
CTA and MRA are listed in Table 1.
Table 1
Cranial
Cruciate
Ligament
Caudal
Cruciate
Ligament
Medial
meniscus
Lateral
meniscus
Medial femur
condyle
Lateral
femur
condyle
Medial
tibial
condyle
Lateral
tibial
condyle
CTA correct
4 of 5
4 of 7
6 of 6
1 of 1
2 of 4
0 of 1
1 of 5
0 of 3
3 of 5
1 of 3
2 of 4
4 of 9
0 of 6
0 of 9
0 of 5
1 of 7
80.0%
57.1%
100.0%
100.0%
50.0%
0.0%
20.0%
0.0%
40.0%
66.7%
50.0%
55.6%
100.0%
100.0%
100.0%
85.7%
5 of 5
5 of 7
6 of 6
1 of 1
2 of 4
0 of 1
1 of 5
0 of 3
2 of 5
2 of 3
1 of 4
5 of 9
1 of 6
2 of 9
1 of 5
0 of 7
100.0%
71.4%
100.0%
100.0%
50.0%
0.0%
20.0%
0.0%
60.0%
33.3%
75.0%
44.4%
83.3%
77.8%
80.0%
100.0%
CTA
incorrect
Sensitivity
CTA
Specificity
CTA
MRA
correct
MRA
incorrect
Sensitivity
MRA
Specificity
MRA
Discussion/Conclusion: Both 64-slice CTA and MRA detected stifle ligament and
meniscal injuries, but not cartilage damage. MRA was marginally better than CTA for
cranial cruciate ligament and medial meniscal lesions.
81
CT IDENTIFICATION OF DYSPLASIA AND PROGRESSION OF OSTEOARTHRITIS
IN DOG ELBOWS PREVIOUSLY ASSIGNED OFA GRADE 1.
C.M. Kunst, G. Habing, E.A. Ballegeer. Michigan State University, MI 48824.
Introduction/Purpose: Elbow dysplasia (ED) is a group of five recognized heritable
conditions that affect young large breed dogs and typically lead to development of
elbow osteoarthritis and pain. Radiography is not as sensitive as computed tomography
(CT) in the detection of dysplastic lesions, however is sensitive in the detection of
osteoarthritis. The Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) screens for ED by
assessing a mediolateral radiograph of the elbow in flexion, and assigns grades 0-3
based on the height of the bony proliferation on the ulnar anconeal process (anconeal
bump). Grades 1-3 are considered dysplastic, and those dogs are identified as poor
breeding candidates. Many dogs assigned a grade 1 are never clinically lame, leading
breeders to question the accuracy of the screening process. The purpose of this study
is to determine the incidence of ED, as detected with CT imaging, in elbows previously
assigned a grade 1 by the OFA. As CT is not 100% sensitive in the detection of ED, we
will also describe the progression of osteoarthritis (OA) in these elbows, which may be
indicative of ED in elbows otherwise normal on CT.
Methods: Twenty-three client-owned dogs who had at least one year previously been
assigned an OFA grade 1 in one elbow, and a grade 1 or 0 (used for a control group) in
the opposite elbow were recruited. CT and radiographic images of the elbows were
acquired, and the original elbow radiographs sent to the OFA were obtained. The
presence of ED and/ or OA on CT and radiographs, and progression of OA on the
radiographic studies from the two time points were compared between the grade 1 and
grade 0 elbows. In addition to gross fragments, fissures, abnormally shaped, and hypo
or hyperattenuating coronoid processes were defined as diseased.
Results: Of the 46 elbows (23 dogs), 13 were originally assigned a grade 0, and 33
were assigned a grade 1. On CT: of the 33 elbows assigned an OFA grade 1, 22 (67%)
had fragmented medial coronoid process (8/22) or evidence of medial coronoid process
disease (14/22). 4/33 (12%) elbows did not have evidence of fragmented nor diseased
medial coronoid processes, but had elbow osteoarthritis. 7/33 (21%) did not have
evidence of fragmented nor medial coronoid disease, nor elbow osteoarthritis. Of the
13 elbows assigned an OFA grade 0, 8 (62%) had fragmented medial coronoid process
(2/8) or evidence of medial coronoid process disease (6/8). Of the 5/13 (38%) that did
not have evidence of fragmented nor medial coronoid disease, none had evidence of
osteoarthritis. On the original OFA radiographs, 9 elbows had evidence of osteoarthritis
separate from the anconeal bump, only three of which demonstrated progression of
osteoarthritis on radiographs taken at the second time point. All three were originally
assigned a grade 1, and on CT had evidence of dysplasia.
Discussion/Conclusion: The proportion of elbows OFA grade of 1 and 0 with ED
identified using CT was not significantly different. Progression of osteoarthritis on
radiographs was identified in few elbows (3), all originally assigned grade 1 and positive
for medial coronoid disease on CT.
83
FEASIBILITY OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF POST-OPERATIVE
TIBIAL PLATEAU LEVELING OSTEOTOMY.
S.L. Pownder1,2, M.F. Koff1, P.J. Shah2, A.S. Levien2, R.A. Bennett1, H.G. Potter1.
1. Hospital for Special Surgery, NY, 10021; 2. Animal Medical Center, NY, 10021.
Introduction/Purpose: Evaluation of the instrumented canine stifle joint is technically
challenging, and conventional radiographs and computed tomography fail to adequately
address soft tissue injuries. MRI provides excellent soft tissue resolution; however, it
suffers from susceptibility artifact in the presence of indwelling hardware. Additionally,
common veterinary implants such as tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) are
stainless steel, which produces the greatest artifact among the metals available for
implantation. Protocols to create diagnostic images of the
canine stifle instrumented with stainless steel are needed
as none currently exist.
Methods: A pilot study was performed using a cadaveric
canine limb. A stainless steel TPLO implant was applied
to the right stifle, and MRI was performed using narrow
receiver bandwidth fast spin echo imaging (nbw-FSE),
wide bandwidth FSE (wbw-FSE), and a prototype pulse
sequence (multi-acquisition variable-resonance image
combination [MAVRIC]), which is optimized to provide
superior spectral coverage and reduced artifact. A scoring
system was created to determined conspicuity of soft
tissue structures (0-not seen, 1-seen). Twenty structures
of the medial stifle joint were assessed including meniscal
horns, ligament attachments, articular cartilage, and
neurovascular structures. Comparisons were made to a
non-instrumented limb using standard-of-care wbw-FSE.
Results: The instrumented limb received a score of 4/20
with nbw-FSE, 11/20 with wbw-FSE, and 14/20 with
MAVRIC. A score of 15/20 was achieved when combining
results of wbw-FSE and MAVRIC. The non-instrumented
limb yielded a score of 20. Wbw-FSE yielded higher
spatial resolution. MAVRIC demonstrated the greatest
artifact reduction. Only MAVRIC was able to evaluate the
medial meniscus in its entirety (Figure 1).
Discussion/Conclusion: Stainless steel TPLO implants
create large susceptibility artifact that precludes
evaluation of important soft tissue structures of the medial
stifle joint, including articular hyaline cartilage and
fibrocartilage when using traditional MRI pulse
sequences. A combination of wbw-FSE and MAVRIC
pulse sequences reduce susceptibility and aid in
evaluation of the joint.
84
SENSITIVITY,
POSITIVE
PREDICTIVE
VALUE
AND
INTEROBSERVER
VARIABILITY OF CT IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF BULLAE/BLEBS IN DOGS WITH
SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOTHORAX.
J.A. Reetz1, A. Caceres1, J.N. Suran1, T. Oura2, A. Zwingenberger3, W. Mai1. 1University
of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19104; 2North
Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC, 27607(2);
3
University of California Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95616.
Introduction/Purpose: Rupture of pulmonary bullae/blebs is a common cause of
spontaneous pneumothorax in dogs, but bullae/blebs are difficult to diagnose on
thoracic radiographs. CT can reportedly identify more bullae/blebs than radiographs, but
in the authors’ experience the use of CT in these cases can be unrewarding. The
purpose of the study was to assess the sensitivity, positive predictive value and
interobserver variability of CT for bulla/bleb visualization in dogs with spontaneous
pneumothorax due to bulla/bleb rupture.
Methods: Dogs that had CT for spontaneous pneumothorax were included in the study
if the diagnosis was bulla/bleb rupture, confirmed with surgery (median sternotomy) or
necropsy and histopathology. 17 dogs were identified; due to multiple lesions in several
dogs, lesion total was 24. Details obtained from the medical record included patient
signalment, CT protocols, and bullae/bleb location (affected lobe), size (available in 18
lesions), and exact number (available in 17 affected lobes). Three radiologists blinded to
final results reviewed the CT examinations and reported the number, size and location
of bullae/blebs. They also subjectively graded severity of pneumothorax. Sensitivity and
PPV were calculated, and interobserver variability was assessed using kappa statistics.
For each reader, multivariate logistic regression was used to assess whether a correct
diagnosis was associated with degree of pneumothorax, size of the bullae/blebs or slice
thickness. Statistical significance was p < 0.05.
Results: CT protocols varied, but 16/17 had high-resolution series available. Sensitivity
of bulla/bleb detection for the 3 readers was 41.7%, 54.2% and 58.3%. PPV value was
52.6%, 12.6% and 8%, with the latter 2 readers having a very high rate of false
positives. There was good interobserver agreement (κ=0.64). Increasing size of the
bulla/bleb was significantly associated with a correct CT diagnosis in one reader
(p=0.048) and trended towards significance in the other two readers (p=0.058; 0.051).
Correct diagnosis was not associated with slice thickness or degree of pneumothorax.
Discussion/Conclusion: Sensitivity of CT for bulla/bleb detection was relatively low.
Lesion visibility was not affected by degree of pneumothorax or slice thickness, but
there was a tendency for smaller lesions to be missed. When considering only the 24
confirmed lesions, interobserver variability was good for lesion detection, but there was
a tendency to over-read CT exams; this is attributed to expectation bias for visual
identification of bullae/blebs in patients with spontaneous pneumothorax. Although
further study in this area is warranted, the current data suggests that full exploratory
thoracotomy should be performed regardless of CT results, as bulla/bleb lesions can be
missed or potentially over-diagnosed.
85
COMPARATIVE IMAGING IN THE CANINE ACUTE ABDOMEN:
SURVEY
RADIOGRAPHY, CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASOUND, AND CONTRASTENHANCED MULTI-DETECTOR HELICAL CT.
M.M. Shanaman, T. Schwarz, A. Gal, R.T. O’Brien. Department of Veterinary Clinical
Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL, 61802.
Introduction/Purpose: Contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (CEMDCT) is the current modality of choice in evaluating the human emergency patient
with acute abdominal pain. The primary purpose of this study is to compare the
diagnostic potential and agreement of survey radiography, combined B-Mode/contrastenhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and CE-MDCT in evaluation of canine patients presenting
with acute abdominal signs. We hypothesized that CE-MDCT would provide the most
accurate staging and diagnosis of disease reliably differentiating surgical versus
medical underlying conditions.
Methods: Nineteen dogs with acute abdominal signs were prospectively enrolled. All
patients underwent routine abdominal radiography, B-mode and CEUS (the latter limited
to identified lesion(s) with questionable perfusion) and dual-phase CE-MDCT. B-mode
and CEUS images were evaluated prospectively by the primary author. Survey
radiographic and CT images were evaluated retrospectively in a randomized blinded
fashion by three independent reviewers (MMS, TS, RTO). Consensus was achieved for
specific imaging findings.
Results: Eleven dogs were diagnosed with a condition requiring surgical intervention
including hepatic abscessation (2), splenic abscess (sarcoma) with rupture (1), gastric
perforation (B-cell lymphoma) (1), traumatic diaphragmatic hernia (1), and small
intestinal mechanical ileus secondary to foreign body (6). CE-MDCT was the only
modality to correctly identify all conditions requiring immediate surgical intervention. All
small intestinal foreign bodies were visible on CT, 4 of which were linear in nature and
each revealing a distinct and accurate zone of transition (confirmed by exploratory
laparotomy).
Spontaneous pneumoperitoneum was detected by both survey
radiography and CT in two cases where routine ultrasound failed to do so. Routine
ultrasound was most sensitive for detection of free fluid. CEUS provided improved
sensitivity for detection of gastrointestinal hypoperfusion relative to CE-MDCT, although
restricted field of view and patient motion were significant limitations.
Discussion/Conclusion: Survey radiography and routine B-mode ultrasound have
inherent limitations including, but not limited to, superimposition of abdominal organs,
non-specific findings, patient stress induced by manual restraint, duration of image
acquisition and variable operator skill. We propose that CE-MDCT may effectively
replace combined survey radiography and B-mode ultrasound in screening dogs with
acute abdominal signs. A CT finding termed “mesenteric fat stranding” will be described
for the first time in the veterinary literature and may prove beneficial in future studies as
an estimation of severity of bowel ischemia. CEUS may be beneficial in evaluating
lesions with questionable perfusion deficits following preliminary CE-MDCT evaluation.
86
FELINE OBSTRUCTIVE URETEROLITHIASIS: UTILITY OF COMPUTED
TOMOGRAPHY AND ULTRASOUND IN CLINICAL DECISION MAKING.
A.H. Carr, E.R. Wisner, J.L. Westropp, P.D. Mayhew. Veterinary Medical Teaching
Hospital, University of California-Davis, CA, 95616.
Introduction/Purpose: The clinical utility of ultrasound (US), unenhanced computed
tomography (U-CT) and contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT) were evaluated to assess
diagnostic accuracy for detection of feline ureterolithiasis and ureteral obstruction.
Methods: Medical records were reviewed for feline patients with a diagnosis of ureteral
disease. Inclusion criteria were an abdominal US examination followed by a
contemporaneous abdominal CT study and either surgical or necropsy confirmation of
diagnosis. US, U-CT and CE-CT images were evaluated for evidence of ureteral
obstruction,
presence
of
ureteroliths,
and
renal
lesions
including
pylectasia/hydronephrosis.
Results: U-CT had the highest accuracy for detection of ureteroliths (78%) and ureteral
obstruction (79%). The combination of U-CT and US had the highest sensitivity (96.5%)
and negative predictive value (NPV, 96%) for the detection of ureteroliths; however, UCT alone had the highest specificity (85.5%) and positive predictive value (PPV, 86%).
The combination of U-CT and US had the highest sensitivity (96%) and NPV (96.5%) for
the detection of obstruction, but was only slightly higher than U-CT alone (sensitivity
92.5%, NPV 93.5%). US alone had the highest specificity (76.5%) and PPV (65.5%) for
obstruction, but had the same accuracy for obstruction as U-CT (79% for both). For
obstruction detection, the addition of CE-CT did not improve the sensitivity or NPV, and
diminished the specificity, PPV and accuracy of detection of obstruction.
Discussion/Conclusion: U-CT had the greatest accuracy for detection of ureteroliths
and ureteral obstruction. CE-CT did not improve the diagnostic accuracy for the
detection of ureteroliths or ureteral obstruction in cats. With the increased risk of
intravenous iodinated contrast administration in an azotemic patient, the inclusion of
CE-CT is not indicated for detection of collecting system obstruction from
ureterolithiasis.
87
Saturday, October 20, 2012 – Radiation Oncology
7:00 am
Registration Opens
Registration Desk 1, Office A
8:00 am
RO/VCS Joint Keynote Address
Milan 1, 2, 3, 6
A Dog’s Life: What Can Animals Teach Us About Cancer?
Dr. Bruce Chabner, MD, PhD
Massachusetts General Hospital
VRTOG/RO Scientific Session 1
(Moderator: Dr. Sheri Siegel)
Modena 1 - 3
9:15 am
FIRST PATIENT COHORT OF FELINE FIBROSARCOMAS TREATED WITH
CURATIVE INTENT RADIOTHERAPY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF VETERINARY
MEDICINE VIENNA. 1M. Kleiter M, 1I.T. Fiola, 1I. Flickinger, S. Kosik, 2A. Tichy, 1B.
Wolfesberger. 1Department for Companion Animals and Horses and 2Department for
Biomedical Sciences, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Vienna, 1210,
Austria.
9:30 am
TREATMENT SETUP AND PHYSICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR CANINE TOTAL
BODY IRRADIATION. D.W. Lewis, S.E. Suter, D.E. Thrall. North Carolina State
University, Raleigh NC, 27607.
9:45 am
DOSE VOLUME COMPARISON OF INTENSITY MODULATED RADIATION
THERAPY AND 3D PLANNING FOR CRANIAL MEDIASTINAL TUMORS IN
DOGS. N.J. Rancilio, S.P. Srivastava, J.M. Poulson. Department of Veterinary
Clinical Sciences, Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine, West Lafayette,
IN 47907.
10:00 am
Break with Exhibitors
Molise
VRTOG/RO Scientific Session 2
(Moderator: Dr. Sheri Siegel)
Modena 1 - 3
10:30 am
ELECTRONIC BRACHYTHERAPY FOR THE TREATMENT OF NASAL TUMORS
IN 14 DOGS AND 5 CATS. D.J.Marino, Long Island Veterinary Specialists, New
York, 11803.
10:45 am
ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION FOLLOWING RADIATION THERAPY: A CANINE
MODEL. S.M. LaRue, M.W. Nolan, H. Yoshikawa, A. Golden, P. Cuddon, A.
Marolf, E.J. Ehrhart, T. Wasserman, S. Kraft. Colorado State University, Fort Collins,
CO 80523.
11:00 am
DOSE TOLERANCE LIMITS FOR STEREOTACTIC BODY RADIOTHERAPY IN
THE DOG PELVIS. M.W. Nolan, E.J. Ehrhart, H. Yoshikawa, T. Wasserman, S.M.
LaRue. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
11:15 am
SURPRISING BLOODWORK RESULTS FOLLOWING TREATMENT OF 90
HYPERTHYROID CATS WITH RADIOACTIVE IODINE-131 (131I). E.W. Boshoven,
TS Conway. VCA Veterinary Referral Associates, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20877.
88
11:30 am
CAN WE COLLABORATE SUCCESSFULLY? A MULTI-CENTER VRTOG STUDY
EXAMINING THE EFFICACY OF TOCERANIB PHOSPHATE (PALLADIA®) AS A
PRIMARY AND/OR ADJUVANT AGENT IN THE TREATMENT OF CANINE
NASAL CARCINOMA. T.J. Ehling, M.K. Klein. Southwest Veterinary Oncology,
Arizona, 85705.
11:45 am
Lunch on Your Own
1:00 pm
RO Business Meeting
Modena 1 - 3
2:00 pm
Break with Exhibitors
Molise
3:30 pm
ACVR Business Meeting (Diplomates Only)
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
5:00 pm
Adjourn for the Day
7:00 pm 10:00 pm
VCS Awards Reception
Palms Resort (Offsite)
89
TREATMENT SETUP AND PHYSICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR CANINE TOTAL
BODY IRRADIATION.
D.W. Lewis, S.E. Suter, D.E. Thrall. North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC,
27607.
Introduction/Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) is commonly performed in people
as a component of bone marrow transplantation, but is performed only rarely in the dog.
Our purpose is to describe the physics and technique involved in the setup of canine
patients for total body irradiation as a component of bone marrow transplantation for
treatment of multicentric lymphoma.
Methods: Because it is necessary to expose the entire body in a single field, the
patient is positioned in sternal recumbency and treated at an extended distance with a
horizontally-directed beam and a large field. The isocenter is positioned at the midplane
of the patient. Tissue equivalent material is used to compensate for differences in
patient thickness and to provide superficial bolus. Parallel opposed fields are used to
maximize dose homogeneity.
Results: We found that a distance of 338 cm is adequate for exposing the entire body
of all dogs treated to date in a single field. A standard collimator setting of 40cm x 40cm
is always used. Solid water is used as the tissue equivalent material to create a subject
(the patient) of uniform thickness. Care is taken to assure that a thickness of tissue
equivalent material of at least 1cm covers the thickest part of the patient to act as bolus,
allowing the skin to receive the prescribed dose. The surface area of the patient is
estimated by making craniocaudal and dorsoventral measurements of the body/tissue
equivalent material construct. The use of different field and collimator sizes is important
to recognize when correction factors for collimator and field scatter are selected. The
dose rate used is 7cGy/min, to protect the gastrointestinal mucosa from denudement.
The prescribed dose is divided between left and right fields. The patient is turned endfor-end and the bolus construct reconfigured for the contralateral field.
Discussion/Conclusion: Using this technique it is possible to deliver a midline dose of
3Gy in approximately 30 minutes per field. The overall dose homogeneity along the
body axis is within ±10% of the prescribed dose, as verified by initial phantom and
chamber dosimetry. Based on hematologic response of patients treated to date,
marrow ablation is achieved consistently. This simple method is adequate for
incorporation of TBI in protocols for the treatment of canine lymphoid malignancies that
include bone marrow transplant.
91
DOSE VOLUME COMPARISON OF INTENSITY MODULATED RADIATION
THERAPY AND 3D PLANNING FOR CRANIAL MEDIASTINAL TUMORS IN DOGS.
N.J. Rancilio, S.P. Srivastava, J.M. Poulson. Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences,
Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine, West Lafayette, IN 47907.
Introduction/Purpose: Cranial mediastinal tumors are often not surgically resectable
and are commonly treated with radiation therapy. Common tumors associated with this
region are radiosensitive and include thymoma, lymphoma, and heart-based
chemodectoma. CT-based three-dimensional (3D) radiation treatment planning has
significantly improved our ability to spare the normal organs at risk in the treated volume
compared with simple manual treatment plans. Over the last decade intensity
modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become increasingly available in veterinary
medicine and allows for even more conformal dose distribution and normal tissue
sparing. IMRT may be particularly advantageous in the treatment of cranial mediastinal
tumors. Lung is the dose limiting normal organ in the thorax, and is particularly sensitive
to volume effects. Many patients with cranial mediastinal tumors are presented with
large tumors which compress a significant volume of normal lung. Sparing as much
normal lung as possible will minimize the probability of radiation pneumonitis and lung
fibrosis, which may in turn allow for dose escalation to the tumor volume.
Methods: The Purdue picture archiving server (PACS) was searched for thoracic
computed tomography scans in dogs with a cranial mediastinal mass during the past
eight years. CT Scans were imported into three -dimensional treatment planning
software, contoured, and planned. A dose of 2000 cGy delivered in five 400cGy
fractions was prescribed in all cases. Dose volume histograms were generated for each
plan and compared. Organs at risk were defined as spinal cord, esophagus, right lung,
left lung, total lung volume, and heart. Mean planning target volume (PTV), and gross
tumor volume (GTV) dose coverage between plans were also compared.
Results: 5 dogs with cranial mediastinal masses were identified. Tumor types included
epithelial neoplasm, thymoma, and chemodectoma (3). In each plan dose coverage for
PTV and GTV was at least 90% of the prescribed dose for IMRT and 3D Plans.
Evaluation of dose volume histograms for total lung volume revealed reductions in dose
to structure volume between 10% and 32% for the 1800 cGy isodose line when IMRT
plans were compared to 3D plans (4 of 5 cases). Dose volume histograms for right lung
revealed reductions in dose to structure volume between 18% and 32% for the 1800cGy
isodose line when IMRT plans were compared to 3D plans (4 of 5 cases). Dose volume
histograms for left lung revealed reductions in dose to structure volume between 24%
and 37% at the 1800cGy isodose line for IMRT compared to 3D plans (2 of 5 cases).
Dose volume histograms for heart, esophagus, and spinal cord were also evaluated and
were equivalent between IMRT and 3D plans in most cases.
Discussion/Conclusion: Computer generated IMRT plans for cranial mediastinal
tumors demonstrate larger dose sparing to normal lung when compared to simple 3D
plans. Prospective studies comparing outcomes in patients treated with IMRT and 3D
plans in the cranial mediastinum are needed to demonstrate clinical benefit.
92
ELECTRONIC BRACHYTHERAPY FOR THE TREATMENT OF NASAL TUMORS IN 14
DOGS AND 5 CATS.
D.J.Marino. Long Island Veterinary Specialists, New York, 11803.
Introduction/Purpose: The electronic brachytherapy (EB) system utilizes an electronic
50 kilo-voltage x-ray source without the drawbacks of an iridium-192 HDR source. The
EB system consists of a controller, and a miniaturized x-ray tube that is inserted into the
balloon catheter or a treatment cannula. This radiation therapy modality delivers X-rays
to the planning tumor volume with an output approximating 1Gy/min at 1cm from the
source, reducing the radiation load to normal tissue while shortening the therapy time.
The purpose of this study is to describe the use of EB in veterinary patients with nasal
tumors, report on the survival times and incidence of acute and late complications in this
group of dogs and cats.
Methods: 14 dogs and 5 cats with nasal tumors treated with EB with a median total
radiation dose of 45Gy delivered in twice daily 3Gy fractions over 4-8 days. A CT study
was performed for EB planning using Brachyvision planning software. No cytoreductive
surgery was performed or chemotherapy used. Signalment, tumor type, tumor location,
radiation dose, treatment fraction schedule, and acute and late complications Based on
the Veterinary Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (VRTOG), and survival were
recorded.
Results: Adenocarcinoma (n=6), carcinoma (n=5), sarcoma (n=2), and histiocytic
sarcoma (n=1) were found in 14 dogs and lymphosarcoma (n=2) and squamous cell
carcinoma (n=1), fibrosarcoma (n=1), and osteochondrosarcoma (n=1) in 5 cats. The
median acute biologic effective dose (BEDacute) and median late biologic effective
dose (BEDlate) were 62.4Gy and 120Gy respectively. The overall median survival times
were 14 months for adenocarcinoma, 5.6 months for carcinoma, 9 months for sarcoma,
and 3.5 months histiocytic sarcoma. Grade 0 and 1 (n=18) and grade 3 (n=1) acute skin
toxicities were seen with no acute oral or ocular toxicities noted. Grade 0 and 1 (n=10),
grade 2 (n=7), and grade 3 (n=1) late skin toxicities were seen with no late oral or ocular
toxicities noted.
Discussion/Conclusion: These findings suggest the EB system can be safely used in
veterinary patients with nasal tumors to deliver radiation doses in twice daily fractions
over 3 to 8 eight days. Although the case numbers are low, survival results are similar to
those in previously published reports of nasal tumor patients treated with radiation
therapy alone, indicating tumor control was acceptable. Early radiation “drop off”
associated with the EB system results in less opportunity for toxicity to surrounding
tissues without the construction costs associated with elaborate shielding associated
with teletherapy.
93
ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION FOLLOWING RADIATION THERAPY:
A CANINE
MODEL.
S.M. LaRue, M.W. Nolan, H. Yoshikawa, A. Golden, P. Cuddon, A. Marolf, E.J. Ehrhart,
T. Wasserman, S. Kraft. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
Introduction/Purpose: Erectile dysfunction (ED) occurs in 36-59% of men having
received radiation therapy for prostate cancer. The etiopathology of radiation-induced
ED (RI-ED) is poorly understood.
Purported mechanisms include cavernosal,
arteriogenic and neurogenic injuries. Radiation dose to the posterolateral prostatic
neurovascular bundles (NVB) and penile bulb (PB) have been associated with RI-ED.
This abstract describes a canine model that has been developed to study the
pathogenesis of RI-ED. The model will be used to define field areas associated with
presence or absence of RI-ED, and define the mechanisms leading to ED by correlating
the incidence of ED following irradiation of specific anatomic locations with changes in
perfusion, diffusion and innervation.
Methods: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) was used to irradiate the prostate
gland, NVB and PB of purpose-bred, intact male dogs. Manual evaluation was used to
characterize erectile function and quality. B-mode and Doppler ultrasound of the
internal pudendal arteries, prostate and penis, diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast
MRI of the NVB and prostate, and electrophysiology of sensory and motor nerves as
well as muscle were performed before and after irradiation. Results of these assays
were compared with results of physical evaluations to identify non-invasive functional
assays to quantify arteriogenic and neurogenic changes associated with incidence of
RI-ED. Gross necropsy and histopathology was also performed.
Results: Erectile dysfunction was a repeatable finding, as documented via subjective
and objective manual evaluations following irradiation. Physical changes in erectile
function correlated with vascular and neurogenic changes. Dogs with RI-ED are found
to have an increased mean time to enhancement of the prostate, longer systolic rise
times in the pudendal artery following papaverine injection, abnormal spontaneous EMG
activity in the bulbocavernosus muscle, and faster pudendal nerve motor conduction
velocities.
Discussion/Conclusion: ED occurs following SBRT in dogs. Measurable endpoints
have been developed for evaluation of ED that should help elucidate the etiopathologic
processes underlying RI-ED.
94
DOSE TOLERANCE LIMITS FOR STEREOTACTIC BODY RADIOTHERAPY IN THE
DOG PELVIS.
M.W. Nolan, E.J. Ehrhart, H. Yoshikawa, T. Wasserman, S.M. LaRue.
Introduction/Purpose: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an emerging means
for treating pelvic tumors in humans and various veterinary species. The objective of
this prospective study was to describe the dose-response relationship and timedependency of late radiation-induced colorectal complications following SBRT in the
dog.
Methods: Nineteen one-year intact male mixed breed hounds were irradiated with one
of four different dose/fractionation schemes (50 Gy over either 5 or 11 days, 40 Gy over
11 days, or 30 Gy over 11 days, all in 10 Gy fractions). Treatment volumes included the
prostate plus a margin of five millimeters. Subjects were monitored for signs of
colorectal toxicosis for up to one year following irradiation. Follow-up examinations
included regular physical examinations, periodic non-invasive imaging, as well as fecal
examinations and bloodwork (performed on an as-needed basis). Gross necropsy and
histopathology were performed upon euthanasia. All toxicoses were graded according
to the RTOG criteria for gastrointestinal toxicity.
Results: The severity of colorectal toxicity is lessened with increased interfraction
interval. The incidence of severe colorectal toxicity is lower when interfraction interval is
prolonged. There is a clear relationship between total dose and risk and severity of
colorectal toxicity. In this population of dogs, dose-volume histogram parameters did
not predict the likelihood or grade of colorectal toxicity, nor did they vary with duration of
interfraction interval.
Discussion/Conclusion: Severe gastrointestinal complications occur less frequently
when interfraction intervals are at least 48 hours. The mechanism for this timedependency is unclear, but likely related to completeness of epithelial regeneration.
95
SURPRISING BLOODWORK RESULTS FOLLOWING TREATMENT OF 90
HYPERTHYROID CATS WITH RADIOACTIVE IODINE-131 (131I).
EW Boshoven, TS Conway. VCA Veterinary Referral Associates, Gaithersburg,
Maryland 20877.
Introduction/Purpose: Radioactive Iodine-131 (131I) has long been used for the
treatment of patients with hyperthyroidism. Little information is available pertaining to
the outcome of such treatments in cats. In an effort to expand this knowledge,
bloodwork was obtained at three weeks and three months following 131I treatment of
hyperthyroidism in 90 cats.
Methods: To date, 90 cats have been injected with 131I for the treatment of
hyperthyroidism at our facility. The dose of 131I was determined based on a combination
of the peak total T4 (TT4), the response to methimazole (if given) and blood urea
nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Cr) and urine specific gravity levels. Nuclear imaging
was not available for any patient. Bloodwork was performed at approximately three
weeks and three months following 131I injection by our hospital or the referring
veterinarian. 131I was provided by a commercial nuclear pharmacy and arrived precalibrated.
Results: To date, 73 patients treated with 131I were rechecked at three weeks post 131I
injection, 56 patients were rechecked three months post 131I injection and 48 patients
have been evaluated at both three weeks and three months post 131I injection. At three
weeks, 37 patients (51%) were hypothyroid (TT4 < 1.0µg/dl), 30 (41%) were euthyroid
(TT4 1.0µg/dl – 4.0µg/dl) and six (8%) were hyperthyroid (TT4 > 4.0µg/dl). At three
months, 20 of 56 were hypothyroid (36%), 33 were euthyroid (59%) and three were
hyperthyroid (5%). Of the 20 hypothyroid cats at the three month point, fourteen (70%)
were hypothyroid at the three week point, one was hyperthyroid (5%) and five (26%)
were euthyroid. Of the three cats that were hyperthyroid at the three month point, one
(33%) was hyperthyroid at three weeks, one (33%) was euthyroid and one (33%) did
not have blood drawn at three weeks.
The average pre-treatment TT4 for cats that became hypothyroid at three months
following treatment was 9.6µg/dl (median 9.1, range 2.5-20). These cats received an
average dose of 4.1mCi (median 4.0, range 3.5-5.5) of 131I. They were diagnosed as
hyperthyroid for an average of 108 days prior to treatment (median 52, range 5-780).
The average pre-treatment TT4 for cats that were still hyperthyroid at three months
following 131I treatment was 11.3µg/dl (median 13.4, range 6.9-13.7). They received an
average dose of 4.5mCi (median 4.5, range 4-5). These cats were diagnosed as
hyperthyroid for an average of 428 days (median 367, range 17-901) prior to treatment
with 131I.
Discussion/Conclusion: Follow-up after 131I injection is important to determine the
efficacy and possible adverse outcomes such as iatrogenic hypothyroidism or persistent
hyperthyroidism. Additional means of determining the ideal 131I dose may improve our
ability to achieve euthyroidism and avoid iatrogenic hypothyroidism or persistent
hyperthyroidism.
96
CAN WE COLLABORATE SUCCESSFULLY? A MULTI-CENTER VRTOG STUDY
EXAMINING THE EFFICACY OF TOCERANIB PHOSPHATE (PALLADIA®) AS A
PRIMARY AND/OR ADJUVANT AGENT IN THE TREATMENT OF CANINE NASAL
CARCINOMA.
T.J. Ehling, M.K. Klein. Southwest Veterinary Oncology, Arizona, 85705.
Introduction/Purpose: A VRTOG study was started in October of 2010 to identify the
activity of toceranib phosphate alone or as a radiation-sensitizing agent in the treatment
of canine nasal carcinoma. This was the VRTOG’s first attempt to collaborate on a
large-scale, prospective study.
Methods: Data collection forms are completed by the radiation oncologist on site and
submitted to a single appointed investigator for review. These forms act as invoices for
disbursement of study funds from the ACVR treasurer. This study is funded by a grant
from Pfizer.
Results: At this time, 43 of the intended 60 patients are enrolled from 10 separate
study sites. Length of enrollment ranges from 1 to 86 weeks at the time of submission.
33 of 45 patients are enrolled with intent to treat in the radiation and toceranib
phosphate arm of the study at this time. 10 patients have been withdrawn due to
progression of disease documented with computed tomography or by recurrence of
clinical signs (7), for unacceptable side effects (2) and for other reasons (1). At time of
submission, 18 patients have completed the radiation portion of the protocol and
reached the computed tomography scan repeated at week 16 to document response to
therapy. There are 2 documented complete responses, 13 partial responses and 3
patients with stable disease. No patients within this arm of the study had progressive
disease at the time of the repeated CT.
11 of 15 patients are enrolled with intent to treat in the toceranib phosphate alone arm.
4 have been withdrawn either for progression of disease (2) or for unacceptable side
effects (2). The toceranib phosphate alone arm has 4 patients that have had a repeated
computed tomography scan. No patients have had complete responses, 1 patient had a
partial response, 1 patient had stable disease and 2 patients had progressive disease.
This data is continuing to mature and we will compare these patients’ response to an
age, gender and breed matched cohort of historical controls once data accumulation is
complete. We hope to have all cases entered by the end of 2012.
Discussion/Conclusion: This format has allowed timely case accrual with minimal
time commitment from individual sites but does require a single investigator dedicated
to the project for management and oversight. The VRTOG appears to be a viable entity
in which randomized clinical trials can be performed accurately and in a timely fashion
allowing the accrual of larger numbers of patients from a broad geographical crosssection.
97
Sunday, October 21, 2012
7:00 am
Registration Opens
and CE Certificates Available
Registration Desk 1, Office A
7:30 am
CT/MRI Society Meeting
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
8:00 am
CT/MRI Keynote Address
CT Angiography
Dr. Geoffrey Rubin
Duke University Medical Center
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
CT/MRI Scientific Session 6
(Moderator: Dr. Shannon Holmes)
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
9:00 am
COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGING CHARACTERISTICS OF CANINE
ODONTOGENIC TUMORS. J.T. Amory, J.A. Reetz, C.W. Bradley, M.D. Sanchez,
J.R. Lewis, W. Mai. University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine,
Philadelphia, PA 19104.
9:12 am
DIFFERENTIATING
NASAL
CHONDROSARCOMA
FROM
NASAL
ADENOCARCINOMA ON COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY. M.J. Enroth, A.J. Marolf,
A. Valdes-Martinez, E.K. Randall. Colorado State University, Colorado, 80523
9:24 am
CT APPEARANCE AND VASCULAR CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVER MASSES IN
DOGS. K. Phillips1, J.M. Cullen1, T. Van Winkle2, C. Arellano1, W. Mai2, G. Seiler1.
1
North Carolina State University, NC, 27607 and 2University of Pennsylvania, PA,
19104.
9:36 am
LIVER-SPECIFIC CONTRAST AGENT Gd-EOB-DTPA FOR MAGNETIC
RESONANCE IMAGING OF CANINE FOCAL LIVER LESIONS. D. Yo
Netomi, T. Nakade. Rakuno Gakuen University, Betsu, Hokkaido, 069-8501.
9:48 am
DYNAMIC SECRETIN-ENHANCED MAGNETIC RESONANCE CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY AND PANCREATIC ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN NORMAL
DOGS. J.Y. Heo, P.D. Constable, J.F. Naughton. Purdue University, College of
Veterinary Medicine, IN, 47907.
10:00 am
10:30 am
Break with Exhibitors
Molise
CT/MRI Scientific Session 7
(Moderator: Dr. Anthony Fischetti)
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) OF THE SPINE IN SMALL ANIMALS –
EVALUATION OF SEQUENCES AND PROTOCOL RECOMMENDATIONS. A.C.
Fonseca Pinto1, S. Hecht2. 1University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, 05508-900,
Brazil; 2University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, Knoxville, TN
37996.
98
10:42 am
MRI SIGNS OF INCREASED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE IN DOGS. S.
Bittermann1, D. Henke2, J. Lang1, D. Gorgas1. Department of Clinical Veterinary
Medicine, Division of 1Clinical Radiology and 2Neurology, Vetsuisse Faculty Bern,
3012 Bern, Switzerland.
10:54 am
MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF THE AGED CAT BRAIN AND
ITS RELATIONSHIP TO COGNITION. H. Dobson, M. Creed. CanCog Technologies,
Toronto, Ontario M5A 4K2.
11:06 am
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) OF THE LIVER IN NORMAL DOGS
USING THE SPECIFIC CONTRAST AGENT EOVIST®. A. Marks, S. Hecht, J.
Stokes, G. Conklin, K. DeAnna. Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences,
University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, Knoxville, TN, USA.
11:18 am
ABDOMINAL MRI AND MRCP FINDINGS IN CATS WITH PANCREATITIS AND
CHOLANGITIS/HEPATITIS AJ Marolf1, SL Kraft1, TR Dunphy2, D Twedt1, Colorado
State University1, Advanced Imaging Consultants2, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80523.
11:30 am
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS
SYSTEM IN LARGE FELIDS. S. Hecht, E.C. Ramsay, J. Schumacher, W.B.
Thomas, W.H. Adams, G.A. Conklin. Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences,
University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, Knoxville, TN, USA.
11:42 am
DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING ENHANCEMENT MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE
RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME. T.J. Oura1, R.M. Hanel1, J. Davies2, I.D.
Robertson1, D.E. Thrall1, G.S.Seiler 1, N. MacIntyre2. North Carolina State University
College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC, 27607 and 2Duke University Medical
Center, Durham, NC, 27705.
12:00 pm
Lunch on Your Own
1:00 pm
Topics in Equine Imaging
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
1:00 pm
Equine Dental Radiology
Dr. Sarah Pulchalski
1:30 pm
Clinical and Research Applications of CT in Equine Imaging
Dr. Sarah Pulchalski
2:00 pm
dGEMERIC and T2 Mapping for Evaluation of Equine Articular Cartilage
Dr. Anthony Pease
2:30 pm
Selection of Anatomic Regions for MR Examination Based on
Blocking Patterns
Dr. Natasha Werpy
3:00 pm
Break with Exhibitors
Molise
99
Large Animal Scientific Session 8
(Moderator: Dr. Lorrie Gaschen)
Milan 4, 5, 7, 8
3:30 pm
DETECTION OF FRACTURES OF THE PALMAR PROCESSES OF THE DISTAL
PHALANX IN FOALS. B. Faramarzi1, S. Halland1, H. Dobson2. 1Western University
of Health Sciences College of Veterinary Medicine, 309 E. 2nd St. Pomona, CA, USA
91766 and 2Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University
of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario.
3:42 pm
IDENTIFICATION OF MEDIAL & LATERAL OSTEOPHYTES OF THE METACARPOPHALANGEAL
JOINT USING
RADIOGRAPHY
AND MAGNETIC
RESONANCE IMAGING. N.M. Werpy, E.G. Porter, A.S. Graham. University of
Florida, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gainesville, Florida 32610.
3:54 pm
CHARACTERIZATION OF TENDON AND LIGAMENT INJURIES OF THE EQUINE
DISTAL FORELIMB USING ELASTOGRAPHY. M. Lustgarten, W. Redding, R.
Labens, M. Morgan, W. Davis, G. Seiler. North Carolina State University, North
Carolina, 27607.
4:06 pm
CORRELATION OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING AND COMPUTED
TOMOGRAPHIC ARTHROGRAPHY WITH GROSS CARTILAGE THICKNESS IN
THE EQUINE METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT. E. G. Porter, M.D. Winter, B.J.
Sheppard, C. R. Berry. University of Florida Veterinary Hospitals, FL, 32610.
4:18 pm
ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF NORMAL AND INJURED LATERAL
PATELLAR LIGAMENTS IN THE EQUINE STIFLE. R. Kaplan1, M.B. Whitcomb2, B.
Vaughan2, L.D. Galuppo2, M. Spriet2. 1William R Pritchard Veterinary Medical
Teaching Hospital and 2Department of Surgical & Radiological Sciences, University
of California, Davis, 95616.
4:30 pm
Meeting Concludes
100
COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGING CHARACTERISTICS OF CANINE
ODONTOGENIC TUMORS.
J.T. Amory, J.A. Reetz, C.W. Bradley, M.D. Sanchez, J.R. Lewis, W. Mai. University of
Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
Introduction/Purpose: Information regarding the imaging characteristics of canine
odontogenic tumors (COT) is limited. Computed tomography (CT) is frequently used to
assess oral neoplasia in small animal patients. The purpose of this study was to
investigate the CT imaging features of COT.
Methods: Medical records were searched between 2002 and 2012 for all dogs that
underwent CT and had a confirmed histopathologic diagnosis of COT. A board-certified
radiologist blindly reviewed all CT studies. A board-certified pathologist reviewed all
biopsy samples. CT criteria recorded included tumor location, tooth involvement, bone
lysis, bone production, bone expansion, cyst-like changes, extra-oral lesion invasion,
contrast enhancement, transverse diameter, and lymphadenopathy.
Results: Twenty-three dogs were included in this study: 14 canine acanthomatous
ameloblastoma (CAA), 2 amyloid-producing odontogenic tumors, 2 keratinizing
ameloblastomas, 1 compound odontoma, 1 ameloblastic fibroma, 1 ameloblastic fibroodontoma, 1 fibromatous epulis of periodontal ligament origin (FEPLO), and 1
odontogenic squamous epithelial tumor with features of an odontogenic ghost cell
tumor. Compared to the pool of 438 dogs with oral neoplasms presented to the VHUP
dentistry service over the same period of time, CAA was significantly over-represented
in the CT group (P=0.014) while FEPLO were significantly under-represented (P<0.001)
in the CT group. Of COT with CT examinations, mandibular masses (n=5) were
significantly under-represented (P=0.026). Masses were associated with teeth in 95.7%
(22/23) of patients, involving multiple teeth in 87% (20/23) and centered at a specific
tooth in only 8.7% (2/23) of individuals. Masses were primarily soft tissue attenuation in
43.5% (10/23) and contained regions of soft tissue and mineral attenuation in 56.5%
(13/23). Alveolar bone lysis was observed in 95.7% (22/23) and extended beyond the
alveolar margins in 69.6% (16/23). Bone expansion was observed in 65.2% (15/23), and
cortical bone lysis was observed in 91.3% (21/23). Mass extension into extra-oral
structures occurred with 55.6% (10/18) of maxillary masses. In all 22 cases where post
contrast series were acquired, there was contrast-enhancement that was
heterogeneous in 90.9% (20/22). Mass associated cyst-like structures were observed in
56.5% (13/23). Mandibular lymphadenopathy was observed in 81% (17/21) and medial
retropharyngeal lymphadenopathy in 33.3% (7/21).
Discussion/Conclusion: In our population, FEPLO and mandibular COT are rarely
referred for CT examinations. Imaging findings with COT are variable but tooth
association, alveolar and cortical bone lysis, and heterogeneous contrast enhancement
are very common, while expansile appearance and cyst-like components are fairly
common characteristics.
101
DIFFERENTIATING NASAL CHONDROSARCOMA FROM NASAL ADENOCARCINOMA ON COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY.
M.J. Enroth, A.J. Marolf, A. Valdes-Martinez, E.K. Randall. Colorado State University,
Colorado, 80523.
Introduction/Purpose: The most common type of nasal tumor in the dog is nasal
adenocarcinoma, representing approximately 60% of nasal tumors.
Nasal
chondrosarcoma is the most common non-epithelial nasal tumor diagnosed in dogs. In
veterinary medicine, no definitive criteria have been consistently identified on CT
examination to differentiate nasal adenocarcinoma and nasal chondrosarcoma. The
purposes of this retrospective study were to: 1) determine if nasal chondrosarcoma was
more likely to have internal mineralization than adenocarcinoma 2) evaluate any other
unique CT features of nasal chondrosarcoma versus nasal adenocarcinoma to aid in
tumor diagnosis.
Methods:
Computed tomographic images of 43 dogs with either nasal
chondrosarcoma (n=18) or adenocarcinoma (n=25) were evaluated by three board
certified radiologists. Criteria evaluated included: nasal cavity involvement, nasal cavity
occlusion, sinus involvement, nasal septum lysis or deviation, nasal turbinate lysis,
cribriform plate lysis, hard palate lysis, bony and soft tissue expansion, and destruction
or alteration of other surrounding bony structures. Additionally evaluated were
homogeneity of the mass, contrast enhancement, internal mineralization of the mass
and surrounding tissues, and lymph node involvement. Analysis of cross-classification
of potential predictors of nasal chondrosarcoma and nasal adenocarcinoma and
Fisher's exact test were performed. P-values of 0.05 or less were considered
significant.
Results: In patients with bilateral nasal cavity involvement, bilateral full nasal cavity
occlusion was present in 58%(7/12) of chondrosarcoma cases and 11.11%(2/18) cases
of adenocarcinoma. Those with both nasal cavities fully occluded were more likely to
have chondrosarcoma (p=0.0125). In patients with bilateral nasal cavity involvement,
those with one fully occluded nasal cavity occurred in 33.33%(4/12) cases of
chondrosarcoma and 66.67%(12/18) cases of adenocarcinoma. Bony expansion and
destruction of bone was present in 16%(4/25) of adenocarcinomas and in 38.89%(7/18)
of chondrosarcomas. Among tumors with bony expansion present, there were almost
twice as many nasal chondrosarcomas as nasal adenocarcinomas. Chondrosarcoma
more commonly had internal mineralization. Heterogeneous attenuation of the mass
was found in 48%(12/25) of adenocarcinoma cases and 77.78%(14/18) of
chondrosarcoma cases (p=0.0637). Among those with homogenous attenuation, there
were more than three times as many adenocarcinoma as chondrosarcoma.
Discussion/Conclusion:
When comparing CT characteristics of nasal
adenocarcinoma versus nasal chondrosarcoma, only weak statistically significant
differences were identified. Those tumors with internal mineralization, bony expansion,
and bilateral full nasal cavity occlusion were more likely to be chondrosarcoma. Those
tumors that were homogeneously attenuating were more likely to be adenocarcinoma.
Both tumor types need to be considered as possible differentials when nasal tumors are
identified on CT examination.
102
CT APPEARANCE AND VASCULAR CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVER MASSES IN
DOGS.
K. Phillips1, J.M. Cullen1, T. Van Winkle2, C. Arellano1, W. Mai2, G. Seiler1. 1North
Carolina State University, NC, 27607 and 2University of Pennsylvania, PA, 19104.
Introduction/Purpose: Multiphase CT is being successfully used to diagnose several
types of liver masses in human medicine. This is largely due to the neovascularization
of malignant neoplasms that can be detected as increased arterial blood supply
compared to benign lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine specific CT
findings, particularly contrast enhancement patterns during different vascular phases
that would differentiate between common types of liver masses in dogs.
Methods: This study included dogs that had a contrast enhanced CT of a liver mass
with a histopathologic diagnosis. All biopsies were reviewed by two pathologists
specializing in liver disease. Images were evaluated for morphologic criteria; including
size of hepatic lymph nodes, central hypoattenuating regions consistent with necrosis
and contrast enhancement of each available vascular phase. Regions of interest were
drawn around major vessels, normal hepatic parenchyma and through the lesion at its
maximum transverse diameter. The CT Hounsfield units during each vascular phase
and the difference between arterial and pre-contrast phases were examined by fitting a
linear model. Estimated least squares means were obtained and pairwise student t-test
were used to compare benign versus malignant lesions and between hepatocellular
carcinomas, hepatocellular adenomas and neuroendocrine tumors.
Results: A total of 37 cases met inclusion criteria: 14 hepatocellular carcinomas
(HCC), 11 hepatocellular adenomas (HA), 5 neuroendocrine tumors (NE) and 6 masses
of other origin. When all of the lesions were grouped as benign versus malignant, no
statistically significant differences were found in either morphologic or vascular
parameters. The only statistically significant difference in morphologic criteria was
neuroendocrine tumors had smaller hepatic lymph nodes than all the other groups
(p=0.0006). For the vascular parameters HCC demonstrated a statistically significant
increase in arterial contrast enhancement when compared to HA (p=0.024).
Discussion/Conclusion: The morphologic appearance of all the liver masses was
very similar in this study and the arterial phase contrast enhancement was unable to
determine malignancy when all of the tumor types were included. However the
differences in arterial blood flow, between hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas
that this study demonstrated are similar to what is reported in human literature.
103
DYNAMIC SECRETIN-ENHANCED MAGNETIC RESONANCE CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY AND PANCREATIC ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN NORMAL
DOGS.
J.Y. Heo, P.D. Constable, J.F. Naughton. Purdue University, College of Veterinary
Medicine, IN, 47907.
Introduction/Purpose:
Secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (SMRCP) is a diagnostic imaging method used to visualize the biliary
tract and pancreatic duct in humans. SMRCP is commonly used to make a diagnosis of
pancreaticobiliary disease in people because it provides a superior non-invasive
diagnostic test compared to other conventional diagnostic imaging modalities. The
technique may therefore have clinical utility in the diagnosis of pancreaticobiliary
disease in dogs. However, there is no known canine MRCP report in the veterinary
literature. Accordingly, the main objectives of this study were to identify
pancreaticobiliary structures using Single Shot Fast Spin Echo (SSFSE) MRCP and to
determine the influence of secretin stimulation on the visibility and diameter of the
pancreatic duct on MRCP and ultrasonographic images in dogs.
Methods: Six healthy adult dogs (body weight 17.5kg to 37.1kg) with no known history
of pancreatic, hepatobiliary or gastrointestinal diseases were examined. Pre-secretinenhanced MRCP (PreSMRCP) and dynamic SMRCP using SSFSE and secretinenhanced pancreatic ultrasonography (SPUS) were performed. Secretin was infused IV
over one minute, and images obtained for the following 15 minutes.
Results: On PreSMRCP, the gallbladder was visualized in all six dogs using. The
cystic and common bile ducts were identified in four and three dogs, respectively. The
intrahepatic bile ducts were not detected in any dogs. The pancreatic duct in the right
limb, body and left limb was seen in one, two and two dogs, respectively. The main
pancreatic duct and the accessory duct were seen in only one dog. On SMRCP, the
accessory duct was visualized in 53% of the dynamic scans. The pancreatic duct at the
right limb, body and left limb and the main pancreatic duct were detected in 32%, 42%,
38% and 18% of the scans, respectively. In SMRCP, the accessory duct diameter was
significantly increased (P<0.05) for three minutes after secretin administration, after
which time the diameter gradually decreased. The main pancreatic and right limb ducts
and body had similar but non-significant increases in their diameter after secretin
administration. On SPUS, the diameter of pancreatic duct at the right and left limbs and
body was not significantly increased after secretin administration. Average pancreatic
duct diameter at the body and left limb was significantly larger on SMRCP (1.11±0.06,
1.03±0.12mm; LSM±SE, P=0.0005) compared to SPUS (0.48±0.05, 0.50±0.08mm,
P=0.040), respectively.
Discussion/Conclusion: Biliary ductal structures could be visualized with SSFSE
MRCP with the exception of the intrahepatic bile duct. Visualization of the pancreatic
ductal structures was limited on MRCP using SSFSE sequences but was moderately
enhanced after secretin administration. Additional studies using SMRCP appear
indicated in dogs suspected to have pancreatobiliary disease.
105
MRI SIGNS OF INCREASED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE IN DOGS.
S. Bittermann1, D. Henke2, J. Lang1, D. Gorgas1. Department of Clinical Veterinary
Medicine, Division of 1Clinical Radiology and 2Neurology, Vetsuisse Faculty Bern, 3012
Bern, Switzerland.
Introduction/Purpose: Detection of increased intracranial pressure (IICP) is often
based on clinical or imaging findings. Reported imaging signs in dogs are mass effect,
hydrocephalus, reduced sulci size and herniation, either foramen magnum herniation
(FMH) or caudal transtentorial herniation (CTH). In people, other imaging signs are
known to indicate IICP. Aim of this prospective study is the description of MRI signs
associated with IICP in dogs.
Methods: 91 dogs presented for MRI examination of the head underwent neurologic
examination, fundoscopy and transcranial dopplersonography of the basilar and middle
cerebral artery for measurement of resistive index and flow pattern analysis. A scoring
based on the results classified dogs as having IICP, or not. Unaware of the scoring, MRI
examination was evaluated for presence of any herniation (FMH, CTH, rostral
transtentorial, subfalcine and cranium defect herniation), cerebellar shape, position of
quadrigeminal plate, size and shape of internal and external CSF spaces and of the
interthalamic adhesion, and presence of an empty sella. Additionally, shape of the
posterior sclera, optic papilla protrusion, optic nerve diameter and optic nerve sheath
diameter were determined. Sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP) and likelihood ratio (LR)
were calculated (95%CL). The level of statistical significance was determined to p<0.05.
Results: Eighteen/ 91 dogs were classified as having IICP. With the exception of
cranium defect, any type of herniation was associated with IICP (p<0.04), FMH being
the most common (19/91; p=0.0358) and subfalcine herniation showing the highest
association (p<0.0001). Other shifts of brain parenchyma associated with IICP were
flattening of the rostral cerebellar contour (p=0.0005; SE= 55.6%, SP=83.6%, LR=
3.38), caudal transposition of the quadrigeminal plate (p<0.0001; SE=27.8%, SP 98.6%,
LR= 20), midline shift (p<0.0001; SE=66.6%, SP=90.0%, LR= 6.67), and deformation of
the interthalamic adhesion (p=0.0046; SE= 64.7%, SP=71.8%, LR=2.3). Concerning
internal CSF spaces, compression of the 3rd or 4th ventricle was highly specific for IICP
(p=0.001; SE 72.2%, SP=87.6%, resp. p=0.0005; SE=35.3%; SP=94.4%), as well as of
the suprapineal recess (p<0.0001; SE= 44.4%, SP=98.6%, LR=32.4). Elapsed cerebral
sulci indicated IICP (p<0.0001, SE= 61.1%, SP= 94.5%, LR= 11.2). Protrusion of the
optic papilla was a rare sign (17/91), but associated with IICP (p=0.0017, SE=44.4%,
SP= of 87.7%, LR= 3.6).
Discussion/Conclusion: Since a direct measurement of intracranial pressure is
invasive, MRI is an important tool to detect and confirm IICP. A lot more imaging signs
than reported are associated with IICP and some of them are highly specific for IICP;
however, the sensitivity of the single signs is moderate. In presence of one or a
combination of these MRI signs, presence of IICP can be assumed.
107
MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF THE AGED CAT BRAIN AND ITS
RELATIONSHIP TO COGNITION.
H. Dobson, M. Creed. CanCog Technologies, Toronto, Ontario M5A 4K2.
Introduction/Purpose: Cognitive dysfunction syndrome is well recognized in the dog
has more recently been described in the cat. The age related dementia in the dog
associated with CDS is an established naturally occurring model of Alzheimer’s Disease
in people and the magnetic imaging and spectroscopy characteristics have been
described. The objective of this imaging study was to explore the relationship between
magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and cognitive function testing in cats.
Methods: Thirty six female short hair domestic cats were used in this study. Subjects
were divided into three age categories: Twelve adult (3.04-4.17yr), 12 old (7.96-9.03yr)
and 12 senior cats (10.91-15.05yr) female short haired domestic cats were enrolled in
the study. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was performed at 1.5T using the pointresolved spectroscopy (TR = 1500 msec, TE = 30 msec; NEX = 8 ) with a single voxel
of 6-8ml was individually fitted into the centre of the cerebrum of each subject, avoiding
contamination from either the skull or surrounding muscle. Data were analyzed using
the LC Model fitting procedure. Cognitive function was determined using an object
discrimination test.
Results: Levels of creatinine, inositol and N-acetyl-aspartate were lowest in the oldest
age group. Old, cognitively impaired subjects exhibited lower levels of inositol and Nacetyl-aspartate than non-impaired subjects Levels of glutamate and glutamine were
correlated with cognitive performance in the old and senior groups.
Discussion/Conclusion: The study indicates that MRS can provide biomarkers of
cognitive aging in the cat. The findings parallel those identified in both the dog an
humans.
108
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) OF THE LIVER IN NORMAL DOGS
USING THE SPECIFIC CONTRAST AGENT EOVIST®.
A. Marks, S. Hecht, J. Stokes, G. Conklin, K. DeAnna. Department of Small Animal
Clinical Sciences, University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine, Knoxville,
TN, USA.
Introduction/Purpose: The liver in humans and animals is frequently affected by a
variety of diseases requiring the use of different imaging modalities for diagnosis.
Gadoxetate disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA; Eovist®) is a newly developed paramagnetic
contrast agent with high specificity for the hepatobiliary system. This contrast agent has
proved useful in the diagnosis of focal and diffuse hepatic disease in humans. The
purpose of this study was to develop a protocol for the use of Eovist® in dogs and
characterize normal liver MR images before and after administration of Eovist® in
healthy dogs.
Methods: Abdominal MRI (1.0T Siemens Magnetom Harmony) was performed on
eight healthy mature dogs. Pre-contrast sequences performed on all dogs included
dorsal and transverse T1-weighted spin echo (T1-W SE) and T2-weighted fast spin
echo (T2-W FSE), and transverse volume-interpolated body examination (VIBE; T1-W
fat suppressed GRE sequence). Dogs 1, 3, 5, and 7 received one 0.05mL/kg
(0.0125mmol/kg) dose of Eovist® and dogs 2, 4, 6, and 8 received one 0.1mL/kg
(0.025mmol/kg) dose of Eovist®. The post-contrast sequences of dogs 1, 2, 3, and 4
were transverse VIBE initiated immediately after contrast medium administration
followed by transverse VIBE acquired every 5 minutes for 40 minutes, and transverse
and dorsal T1-W SE acquired after 40 minutes. The post-contrast sequences of dogs 5,
6, 7, and 8 were transverse T1-W SE acquired immediately and then every 5 minutes
for 40 minutes, and transverse and dorsal VIBE acquired after 40 minutes. Signal
intensity ratios (SIR) of post-contrast T1-W SE and VIBE, and SIR of ratios between the
two dose groups were evaluated using a student’s t-test. A p-value of <0.05 was
considered significant.
Results: No adverse effects to contrast medium administration were observed.
Contrast enhancement in most dogs peaked between 1 and 10 minutes and plateaued
for the remainder of the examination. The post-contrast SIR was significantly higher for
the VIBE than the T1-W SE images (p=0.027). There was no significant difference in
degree of enhancement between the two contrast dose groups (p=0.603).
Discussion/Conclusion: The administration of Eovist® during MRI examination
produces homogenous contrast enhancement of the liver in normal dogs. Peak
enhancement occurs early, and a significant parenchymal wash-out phase is not
observed during 40 minutes. These results provide a baseline for future studies in dogs
with liver disease.
Funding for this project was provided by the ACVR resident research grant.
109
ABDOMINAL MRI AND MRCP FINDINGS IN CATS WITH PANCREATITIS AND
CHOLANGITIS/HEPATITIS.
AJ Marolf1, SL Kraft1, TR Dunphy2, D Twedt1. Colorado State University1, Advanced
Imaging Consultants2, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80523.
Introduction/Purpose: Abdominal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging including MR
cholangiopancreatography is considered an accurate, highly sensitive and specific
imaging method for assessment of human biliary and pancreatic disorders including
biliary tract abnormalities, pancreatitis, and pancreatic tumors. Cholangitis is the
second most common liver disease among cats, and often times is associated with
pancreatitis. B-mode ultrasound is the currently recommended imaging method to
diagnose these conditions in cats but has suboptimal sensitivity and specificity. Cats
with suspected cholangitis and/or pancreatitis were enrolled in a prospective clinical trial
to evaluate these patients with abdominal MRI including cholangiopancreatography
(MRCP).
Methods: Seven cats with clinical signs, blood work, and/or previous abdominal
ultrasound findings consistent with cholangitis and/or pancreatitis were enrolled in this
prospective study. Cats had blood drawn for hematology, biochemistry profile, fPLI
assay, and an abdominal ultrasound scan. An MRI including post secretin assessment
was performed, followed by laparoscopic biopsies of the liver and pancreas with cats
under general anesthesia. The MRI sequences were evaluated via consensus by two
board certified radiologists and compared to the liver and pancreas histology.
Results: Six cats had an abnormal pancreas based on imaging including mild to
moderate enlargement of the gland, T1 hypointense and T2 hyperintense parenchyma
and a dilated pancreatic duct. 5 of these cats had histologically diagnosed pancreatitis.
One of these cats, which shared those same imaging findings, had a histologically
normal pancreas. All 6 cats had an abnormal pancreas laparoscopically, and 4 of these
cats had a normal fPLI assay. The seventh cat had a normal pancreas on imaging,
including normal gland size, T1 hyperintense and T2 hypointense parenchyma1, and
normal pancreatic histology. This cat had a normal pancreas laparoscopically and a
normal fPLI assay. All seven cats had histologic evidence of hepatitis or cholangitis;
however, after special stains one cat was rediagnosed with hepatic lymphoma. All cats
had a hypointense liver on all imaging sequences. 5/7 cats had multifocal cysts or
nodules in the liver. 6/7 cats had gallbladder debris, and 2/7 cats had a dilated common
bile duct.
Discussion/Conclusion: MRI correctly diagnosed pancreatitis in 5/6 cats and correctly
diagnosed a normal pancreas in 1 cat. The 1 cat with an abnormal pancreas based on
imaging but normal histology possibly had pancreatitis which may have been missed
due to the small, limited biopsy samples. A T1 hypointense, T2 hyperintense, enlarged
pancreas with dilated pancreatic duct is consistent with pancreatitis. Liver MRI imaging
findings were nonspecific but included cysts, nodules, and biliary abnormalities.
1
Marolf A, Stewart J, Dunphy T, Kraft S. Hepatic and Pancreaticobiliary MRI and MRI
cholangiopancreatography with and without secretin stimulation in normal cats. Vet
Radiol Ultrasound 2011; 52: 415-421.
110
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI) OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
IN LARGE FELIDS.
S. Hecht, E.C. Ramsay, J. Schumacher, W.B. Thomas, W.H. Adams, G.A. Conklin.
Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, University of Tennessee College of
Veterinary Medicine, Knoxville, TN, USA.
Introduction/Purpose: To date, reports describing CNS disorders in large felids and
their diagnosis have been limited to a few papers detailing the use of radiographs,
myelography and computed tomography (CT). MRI findings have been reported in lions
with hypovitaminosis A and in a tiger cub following hypoxic arrest during general
anesthesia. To our knowledge, MRI findings in a varied population of large felids with
CNS disease have not been reported. The goal of this study was to describe MRI
findings in large felids presented to UTVMC with brain or spinal disorders.
Methods: The MRI database was searched for large nondomestic cats in which MRI of
the brain or spine was performed. The scans were reviewed. The medical records were
evaluated and signalment, history, clinical signs and diagnosis/outcome were recorded.
Results: 14 MRI scans in 13 animals were available for review. All scans were
performed using a 1.0T scanner (Siemens Magnetom Harmony). Patients included 5
tigers (Panthera tigris), 4 lions (Panthera leo) and 1 each of cheetah (Acinox jubatus),
bobcat (Lynx rufus), caracal (Felis caracal), and leopard (Panthera pardus). Median age
was 14 years (range, 6 months – 17 years). Areas imaged included the head/brain (n =
11), cervical spine (n = 1) and thoracolumbar spine (n = 2). Six cats are alive at the time
of abstract submission, 6 animals had been euthanized. MRI sequences used for
evaluation of the head/brain included T2-w, T1-w, fluid attenuated inversion recovery
(FLAIR), T2*-w GRE and post contrast T1-w. MRI sequences used for evaluation of the
spine included T2-w, T1-w, short tau inversion recovery (STIR), and half-Fourieracquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE). Diagnoses based on imaging findings
were severe otitis media and cellulitis without intracranial extension (n = 1), Chiari-type
malformation (presumed hypovitaminosis A) (n = 1), hydrocephalus and ependymal
contrast enhancement due to intracranial blastomycosis (n = 1), normal brain MR
examination (n = 7), and intervertebral disc herniation (n = 3).
Discussion/Conclusion: MRI is feasible in large felids and provides important
information in the clinical evaluation of a variety of intracranial and spinal diseases.
111
DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING ENHANCES MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY
DISTRESS SYNDROME.
T.J. Oura1, R.M. Hanel1, J. Davies2, I.D. Robertson1, D.E. Thrall1, G.S.Seiler 1, N.
MacIntyre2. North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh,
NC, 27607 and 2Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 27705.
Introduction/Purpose: Hypoxemia secondary to acute respiratory distress syndrome
(ARDS) often necessitates mechanical ventilation that can cause further parenchymal
damage during alveolar recruitment. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was
used as the gold standard in a porcine model of ARDS to evaluate a novel technique for
assessing ventilator induced lung injury. HRCT techniques used during this study were
then applied to two mechanically ventilated canine patients with ARDS.
Methods: ARDS was created in five mechanically ventilated swine using a saline
lavage model. Inspiratory and expiratory HRCT and lung function testing using a novel,
three gas technique of methane, carbon monoxide, and acetylene were performed at
variable positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) settings. Quantification of alveolar
recruitment/derecruitment was calculated as the percentage of total voxels that changed
from >-500 HU to <-500 HU between expiration and inspiration. Overdistension was
calculated as the percentage of voxels at full inspiration having <-800 HU. The HRCT
results were compared to alveolar volume, diffusion capacity, and capillary pulmonary
capillary blood flow as calculated by the three gas technique. The technique for HRCT
of mechanically ventilated patients was applied to two canine patients with ARDS that
underwent HRCT within 12 hours of initiating mechanical ventilation and then again
within 24-36 hours.
Results: In the porcine model, increased PEEP settings resulted in a reduced mean
percentage of recruitment/derecruitment (4.7% ± SD 5.3) compared to a lower PEEP
setting (33.0% ± SD 6.3). Higher PEEP settings resulted in an increased percentage of
overdistended alveoli (33.7% ± SD 11.3) compared to lower PEEP settings (19.3% ±
SD 4.7). Diffusion and perfusion parameters increased at the highest PEEP compared
to the lowest PEEP as evaluated by pulmonary function testing. In the canine patients,
there was minimal evidence of recruitment/derecruitment or overdistension; however,
HRCT allowed monitoring of poorly aerated and normally aerated alveoli over time.
Discussion/Conclusion: HRCT can be used in an animal model of ARDS to assess
efficacy of mechanical ventilation, and these results correlate to a novel pulmonary
function testing method. Similar techniques can be applied to clinical veterinary patients
with ARDS/ALI to monitor lung response to mechanical ventilation.
112
DETECTION OF FRACTURES OF THE PALMAR PROCESSES OF THE DISTAL
PHALANX IN FOALS.
B. Faramarzi, S. Halland, H. Dobson. Western University of Health Sciences College of
Veterinary Medicine, 309 E. 2nd St. Pomona, CA, USA 91766-1854 USA (Faramarzi,
Halland) and Department of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of
Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1.
Introduction/Purpose: Incidence of fractures of the palmar processes (PP) of the
distal phalanx is higher than previously thought. A recent study (2010) showed that by 6
months of age, 100% of 17 examined foals had at least one fracture while 78% had
bilateral fractures. One reason for the under-reporting is the difficulty of viewing small
fractures on radiographs. The possibility of radiographic detection of all fractures is
further limited by the irregular structure of the distal phalanx, small size of the fractures,
and various stages of bridging and trabecular bone. Therefore, many PP fractures are
not detectable on routine radiographic surveys and will remain undiagnosed; those
fractures can lead to further complication such as club foot.
Methods: Using an IDEXX EquiView digital imaging system and a MinXray generator,
we radiographed both forehooves of 19 young foals (after cleaning and preparing the
hooves) using 5 radiographic projections: horizontal beam lateromedial (LM),
dorsopalmar
(DP),
dorso60°proximal-palmarodistal
oblique
(Dr60Pr-PaDiO),
dorso60°proximo45°lateral-palmarodistomedial oblique (Dr60Pr45L-PaDiMO) and
dorso60°proximo45°medial-palmarodistolateral oblique (Dr60Pr45M-PaDiLO).
Results: A total of 12 fractures were detected; 3 foals had fractures on both lateral and
medial PPs of one forelimb while 1 foal had fractures on both front hooves. Our data
showed that such fractures are barely visible on LM and routine DP views; while most
fractures can be viewed with Dr60Pr_PaDiO view when the foal stands on the cassette
tunnel. However, we found that 42% of the fractures were not identified on this view and
were only visible on Dr60Pr45L_PaDiMO and Dr60Pr45M_PaDiLO views. We also
found higher incidence of fractures in Thoroughbreds than Arabians.
Discussion/Conclusion: To view a minimally displaced fracture, the radiograph beam
should pass virtually parallel to the fracture line which is not always possible. While
detection of PP fractures is more likely with digital radiography, a complete survey,
including oblique views, provides the greatest likelihood of detecting small PP fractures.
This technique will improve the ability to differentiate between artifacts and true
fractures of the palmar processes.
113
IDENTIFICATION OF MEDIAL & LATERAL OSTEOPHYTES OF THE METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT USING RADIOGRAPHY AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
N.M. Werpy, E.G. Porter, A.S. Graham. University of Florida, College of Veterinary Medicine,
Gainesville, Florida 32610.
Introduction/Purpose: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) is
a common cause of lameness in horses. Osteophyte formation is considered one of the
main radiographic features of OA. In the equine MCP joint, MRI and CT were shown to
be superior to radiography for detection of osteophytosis1 while radiography was
reported superior in another study.2 Our hypothesis is that osteophytes not previously
evident can be identified on the dorsopalmar view if the clinician is aware of the sites of
predilection and specifically evaluates these areas.
Methods: Medical records of 20 horses with digital radiographs (DR) and high-field
MRI of the MCP joint were reviewed. Horses with evidence of osteoarthritis on MRI,
including medial or lateral distal MC3/proximal P1 osteophytosis were selected.
Radiographic studies followed by MRI studies of all horses were evaluated
retrospectively by a single radiologist and the presence of medial and lateral
osteophytes was recorded and described for both imaging modalities.
Results: All horses that had medial and/or lateral osteophytosis on MRI had visible
osteophytes on dorsopalmar projection DR. On DR images the osteophytes appeared
similar in shape and size when compared to the MRI studies.
Discussion/Conclusion: On MR images the medial and lateral osteophytes of the
third metacarpal bone are frequently located dorsal to the transverse ridge where the
bone is narrower than at the palmar condyles. Osteophytes in this location may not
extend beyond the peripheral margins of the palmar aspect of the condyles. Therefore,
specific evaluation of the periarticular margin distal to the collateral fossae provides a
method for identifying osteophytes in the MCP joint. These osteophytes can project
parallel to the joint margin and can result in thickening and increased opacity of the
periarticular margin on oblique projections without associated change in the profile of
the bone. Mild oblique projection may further aid in identification of osteophytosis in
these regions and investigation of additional views is indicated. In conclusion, advanced
imaging continues to improve our interpretation skills in other modal imaging modalities.
1. Olive J, D’Anjou M-A, Alexander K, Laverty S, Theoret C. Comparison of Magnetic Resonance
Imaging, Computed Tomography and Radiography for Assessment of Non-Cartilaginous Changes in
Equine Metacarpophalangeal Osteoarthritis.
12. Gonzalez LM, Schramme MC, Robertson ID, et al. MRI features of metacarpo(tarso)phalangeal
region lameness in 40 horses. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2010;51:404-414.
114
CHARACTERIZATION OF TENDON AND LIGAMENT INJURIES OF THE EQUINE
DISTAL FORELIMB USING ELASTOGRAPHY.
M. Lustgarten, W. Redding, R. Labens, M. Morgan, W. Davis, G. Seiler. North Carolina
State University, North Carolina, 27607.
Introduction/Purpose: Elastography is an ultrasonographic technique that evaluates
the stiffness of tissues by measuring the displacement of ultrasound echoes before and
after compression. Tendon and ligament injuries are among the most common causes
of equine musculoskeletal injury and frequently result in decreased athletic performance
and significant financial loss. Elastographic evaluation of the stiffness of equine
tendons and ligaments may allow more accurate characterization of lesion severity and
sequential examinations may optimize lesion management, rehabilitation, and return to
training. Recently, elastography has been proven to be a feasible and repeatable
imaging modality for evaluating normal tendons and ligaments of the equine distal
forelimb and the normal elastographic appearance of these structures has been
established. The purpose of this study was to characterize elastographic findings of
injuries to the superficial digital flexor tendon and branches of the suspensory ligament,
and to evaluate the differences in the elastographic appearance of acute versus chronic
injuries.
Methods: Seventeen horses with lameness originating from the tendons and ligaments
of the distal forelimb were evaluated with elastography and these findings correlated
with grey scale ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) when
available. Six horses were reevaluated during rehabilitation at 60 and 90 days post
injury to characterize the elastographic appearance of tendon and ligament healing,
again in correlation with evidence from clinical and grey scale ultrasonographic healing.
Images were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively.
Qualitative assessment
assigned scores of 1-4 (1=hard; 4=soft) where tissue stiffness is depicted by a color
scale (blue=hard; red=soft). For quantitative analysis a mixed effect, repeated measure
ANOVA was performed. Qualitative and quantitative assessments were made relative
to normal surrounding tissue, the same structure in the contralateral limb as well as with
normal horses.
Results: Areas of acute injury were significantly softer than surrounding normal tissue
and when compared with normal horses (p=0.007). As healing progressed, areas of
acute injury became progressively stiffer. Regions of irregular fiber pattern in horses
with long term injury were not different in stiffness compared with normal tendons and
ligaments (p=0.671) and the adjacent normal tissues occasionally exhibited small areas
of increased softness. Lesions which exhibited increased T2 signal on MRI (n=3) were
subjectively softer than surrounding normal tissue. Chronic lesions diagnosed with grey
scale ultrasound which did not exhibit increased T2 signal (n=3) exhibited similar
elastographic characteristics as the surrounding normal tissues.
Discussion/Conclusion: Elastography adds additional morphologic information to that
obtained by grey scale ultrasound, enhances evaluation of acute versus chronic injury
and correlates well with MRI examination.
115
CORRELATION OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING AND COMPUTED
TOMOGRAPHIC ARTHROGRAPHY WITH GROSS CARTILAGE THICKNESS IN THE
EQUINE METACARPOPHALANGEAL JOINT.
E. G. Porter, M.D. Winter, B.J. Sheppard, C. R. Berry. University of Florida Veterinary
Hospitals, FL, 32610.
Introduction/Purpose: Cartilage damage is the hallmark of early osteoarthrosis and
early detection of cartilage injury may allow for early interventional therapy and
subsequent mitigation of osteoarthrosis in equine athletes. The objective of this
prospective study was to determine the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MR),
magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) and multidetector CT arthrography (MDCTA),
for evaluation of articular cartilage thickness in equine metacarpophalangeal joints
(MCPJ) using macroscopic anatomic measurements as the gold standard.
Methods: Images of 6 equine cadaveric MCPJ were obtained using a 1.5 T MRI
before and after intra-articular administration of contrast media consisting of 0.5 ml
gadodiamide (287 mg/ml), 7 ml iohexol (300 mgI/ml) and 7 ml saline (0.9% NaCl) into
the MCPJ. MR images included proton density with fat saturation (PDFS), steady state
free procession (SSFP), T1W with fat saturation (T1FS) and spoiled gradient recalled
echo with fat saturation (SPGRFS). MDCTA images of the MCPJ were obtained
following intra-articular contrast injection. Cartilage thickness was measured by one
examiner on sagittal MR images and by a second examiner on sagittally reformatted
MDCTA images at 9 predetermined locations in the MCPJ. Gross cartilage
measurements were made by a third examiner at the same anatomic locations on the
disarticulated MCPJ. Each examiner was blinded to the measurements obtained by the
other examiners. Measurements were compared using a one-way ANOVA and a
student’s t-test. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.
Results: In general, imaging measurements underestimated gross measurements. On
the transverse ridge and sagittal ridge of metacarpal 3, most imaging measurements
were significantly smaller than gross measurements. At the corresponding locations on
the proximal phalanx, all imaging measurements were significantly smaller than gross
measurements. Fewer significant differences between imaging and gross
measurements were detected along the dorsal and palmar condyles of MC3.
Discussion/Conclusion: MRA and MDCTA did not significantly increase the accuracy
of cartilage measurements in the MCPJ. Imaging measurements made at the level of
the sagittal ridge, sagittal groove and transverse ridge are underestimated, likely due to
volume averaging and poor articular surface separation. Cartilage measurements can
be included in a whole organ assessment of all articular, periarticular and juxta-articular
structures in the MCP joint to allow for earlier detection of osteoarthrosis, more
appropriate intervention and better prognosis in Thoroughbred horses.
116
ULTRASONOGRAPHIC APPEARANCE OF NORMAL AND INJURED LATERAL
PATELLAR LIGAMENTS IN THE EQUINE STIFLE.
R. Kaplan1, M.B. Whitcomb2, B. Vaughan2, L.D. Galuppo2, M. Spriet2. 1William R
Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital and 2Department of Surgical &
Radiological Sciences, University of California, Davis, 95616.
Introduction/Purpose: Ultrasound is widely used in horses with lameness localized to
the stifle region, but there is limited information regarding the lateral patellar ligament
compared with the middle and medial patellar ligaments. This report describes the
normal appearance of the lateral patellar ligament (LPL) in non-lame horses and the
clinical and imaging features from a group of horses with LPL injury.
Methods: Twelve horses without stifle lameness underwent ultrasonographic
examination of both LPLs. Size, shape, echogenicity and fiber pattern were recorded at
6 levels from origin to insertion. Horses with LPL injury were identified from the records
of the UC Davis Large Animal Ultrasound Service. Signalment, history, clinical features,
imaging data and outcome were recorded for all cases.
Results: The appearance of the normal LPL changes greatly from origin (patella) to
insertion (tibial tuberosity). The LPL is poorly-defined at its origin but is well defined in
the proximal ligament region where it flattens to conform to the contour of the lateral
trochlear ridge. At the joint level, the LPL assumes an oval to triangular shape with deep
margins that are often irregular, including several LPLs that showed large, variably
shaped invaginations. These appeared as anechoic to hypoechoic areas with gaps in
linear fiber pattern on longitudinal views. The LPL tapers at its tibial insertion with
striations apparent in most horses. Review of 569 stifle exams from 1999-2011
revealed 18 horses with LPL injury involving the left (8) and right (10) stifles. Multiple
breeds and uses were represented. All injuries were acute, with 7 presumed due to kick
trauma. Clinical findings included regional wounds (12), swelling (10) and fibrous lumps
(2). Severe lameness (grade 4-5/5) was present in 11 horses (range 0-5/5).
Radiography identified fractures of the tibial tuberosity (6), patella (4) and lateral
trochlear ridge (1). Ultrasonographic lesions were graded as severe in 78% of cases
and most often involved the mid-insertional portion of the LPL. Ultrasound confirmed
that fractures directly involved the LPL in 9 horses. Three horses were euthanized due
to severe concurrent injuries. Recheck ultrasound in 4 horses showed stable to minimal
ultrasonographic improvement. Eight horses returned to their previous use, 2 were
retired, 2 were lost to follow-up and 3 remain in rehabilitation.
Discussion/Conclusion: The appearance of the normal LPL differs significantly from
that reported of the middle and medial PL. Normal variations in shape, echogenicity and
fiber pattern of the LPL are important considerations during ultrasound exams to
prevent false positive diagnoses. Although uncommon, LPL injury should be considered
in horses with craniolateral stifle trauma. Severe LPL injury was often associated with
direct trauma and most commonly involved the mid to insertional region. Prognosis
varied from fair to good in horses with primary LPL injury.
117
American College of Veterinary Radiology
ACVR 2012 Conference Special Activities
Thursday, October 18
Welcome Reception ACVR/VCS
Villaggio Del Sole Terrace 1
Reception supported by
Universal Medical Systems, Inc.
6:30 – 8:30 pm
Special dedication to the memory of Dr. Myron “Mike” Bernstein
Friday, October 19
Poster Presentations and ACVR/VCS Reception
Villaggio Del Sole Terrace 3
6:30 – 8:30 pm
118
IDENTIFICATION
OF
REGISTRANTS
Blue name badges
ACVR Diplomates
Gray name badges
ACVR Residents in Training
Green name badges
Post Trainees
ACVR Society Members
Veterinarians
Yellow name badges
Exhibitors/Sponsors
119

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