Guidelines for Molecular Imaging and PET-CT in Cancer Vol VIII

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Guidelines for
Molecular Imaging and
PET-CT in Cancer
Vol VIII
Part C
Editors
Dr. Venkatesh Rangarajan DRM, DNB.
Professor & Officer in Charge,Bio-Imaging Unit,
Tata Memorial Hospital
Dr. Nilendu C Purandare DMRD,DNB.
Assistant Professor ,Bio-Imaging Unit,
Tata Memorial Hospital.
Dr. Anshu Rajnish Sharma DRM,DNB.
Associate Professor ,Bio-Imaging Unit,
Tata Memorial Hospital.
Published by
Tata Memorial Hospital
Mumbai
Tata Memorial Hospital
Dr. Ernest Borges Road, Parel
Mumbai 400 012. INDIA.
Tel.: +91-22-2417 7000 Fax: +91-22-2414 6937
Email: [email protected]
Website: http: //tmc.gov.in
Evidence Based Management of Cancers in India Vo. VIII
Year 2009
Three Parts
Set ISBN: 978-81-904583-6-8
Guidelines for Complications of Cancer Treatment
Part A ISBN: 978-81-904583-7-5
Guidelines for Complications of Cancer Treatment
Part B ISBN: 978-81-904583-8-2
Guidelines for Molecular Imaging and PET-CT in Cancer
Part C ISBN: 978-904583-9-9
Set ISBN: 978-81-904583-6-8
Part C ISBN : 978-904583-9-9
Published by the Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai,
Printed at the Sundaram Art Printing Press, Mumbai.
© 2008 Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai.
All rights reserved.
Dedicated to
All our patients at
The Tata Memorial Hospital
Contents
Section I
Approach to Evidence Collection for PET/CT
1
Section II
Haematolymphoid Malignancies
1.
Lymphoma
2.
Multiple Myeloma
9
11
33
Section III
Hepatobiliary & Gastrointestinal Malignancies
1.
Gastric Carcinoma
2.
Colorectal Carcinoma
3.
Hepatocellular Carcinoma & PET/CT
4.
Cholangio Carcinoma
5.
Gall bladder Carcinoma
6.
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST)
7.
Pancreatic Carcinoma
43
45
55
67
74
86
92
98
Section IV
Genitourinary Malignancies
1.
Renal Cell Carcinoma
2.
Ca Prostate
3.
FDG PET in Testicular Tumors
113
115
121
128
Section V
Gynecological Malignancies
1.
PET/PET-CT in Cervical Cancers
2.
PET/PET-CT in Endometrium Cancers
3.
Epithelial Ovarian Cancers and PET Imaging
135
137
149
158
Section VI
Bone & Soft Tissue Malignancies
1.
Osteogenic Sarcoma
2.
Ewing’s Sarcoma and Primitive Neuroectodermal
Tumours (PNET)
3.
Soft Tissue Sarcomas
4.
Melanoma
169
171
190
206
217
Section VII
Head & Neck Malignancies
239
Section VIII
Breast Cancer
251
Section IX
Endocrines
1.
Thyroid Cancer
2.
Neuroendocrine Tumor/ Carcinoid
275
277
295
Section X
Thoracic Malignancies:
1.
Lung Cancer & Solitary Pulmonary Nodule
2.
Esophagus Cancer
309
311
321
Section XI
Brain Tumors
339
Section XII
Pediatric Tumors
349
Section XIII
Guidelines & Recommendations
369
Preface
Imaging has played an important role in cancer diagnosis and
management. Developments in integrated modalities
incorporating morphological imaging and functional imaging
in the form of Positron Emission Tomography (PET-CT) and
Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECTCT) have contributed significantly and brought about a
paradigm shift in cancer imaging. In the past few years these
modalities, have been subjected to critical evaluation, both
with regards to utility as well as cost-effectiveness. Health
Technology assessment (HTA) initiatives by several countries
have lead to an evidence based evaluation of FDG PET &
PET-CT technology. Current practice of PET/CT integrates
anatomical and functional imaging within a single modality
and this has had a considerable impact on the’ decision-making
process in oncology.
Tata Memorial Centre was the first in the country to introduce
this hybrid imaging modality when a dedicated PET-CT
scanner was installed in December 2004.The eighth volume
of Evidence Based Management guidelines brought out by
the Tata Memorial Centre addresses the issue of molecular
imaging and its utility in cancer through an evidence based
perspective. It represents a continuation of the our long
standing commitment to improve overall cancer care in India.
Not only is the best available evidence presented in this
volume, but areas where evidence is lacking are also
highlighted. It is sincerely hoped that this volume would not
only enable cancer specialists to optimize their reference and
utility of these molecular imaging tools, but also stimulate
researchers to improve the evidence-base in areas where it is
lacking.
February, 2009
Mumbai, India
R. A. Badwe
Director, Tata Memorial Centre
Contributors
Dr. Anshu Rajnish Sharma, DRM, DNB
Dr. Aditya Daftary, MD
Dr. Nilendu C Purandare, DMRD, DNB
Dr. Pramesh C S, MS, FRCS,
Dr. Sneha Shah, DRM, DNB
Dr. Umesh Mahantshetty, MD
Dr. Venkatesh Rangarajan, DRM, DNB
Section — I
Approach to Evidence
Collection for PET/CT
Approach to Evidence Collection for
PET PET/CT
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Computerized
Tomography (CT) is an imaging modality. The following
approaches were used for the evidence documentation for PET/
CT.
1.
HTA – Health Technical Assessment Approach. Here
Fryback and Thornbury’s Hierarchy of Diagnostic
Efficacy was used. This is summarized in the following
table.
Level
Title
Description
Level 1
Technical Efficacy
Level 2
Diagnostic Accuracy
The ability to produce
usable information
Diagnostic Accuracy
Refers to the test’s ability
to detect or exclude disease
in patients compared with
a criterion standard or
reference test. Test
characteristics
are
sensitivity, specificity,
predictive
values,
3
likelihood ratios and ROC
curves
Assessment of the effect of
test information on
diagnostic reasoning and
disease categorization. It
serves as a proxy for
estimating the effect of a
test on patient care
Level3
Diagnostic Thinking
Level 4
Therapeutic Impact
In what proportion of
patients did the information
change the intended
management?
Level5
Patient Outcome
Knowledge about patient
outcome efficacy.
At this level expected
harm, such as burden, pain,
risk due to the test , can be
weighed directly against its
expected benefit, such as
improving life expectancy,
quality of life, disease
related morbidity,
Level 6
Cost-Effectiveness
Analysis
whether the cost for use of
a given test is acceptable
for society. Is the price for
the positive effect on
patient
outcome
worthwhile?
A diagnostic test does not necessarily have to demonstrate
effectiveness at each level before it can be used in clinical
practice, but the possible gain and remaining uncertainty on
the test’s efficacy is clearly presented by this approach.
4
Definitions of the appropriateness criteria for
the utility of PET
Relevance of Test
Description
Appropriate
Evidence of improved diagnostic
performance (higher sensitivity and
specificity) compared with other
current techniques
The information derived from the
PET scan influences clinical practice
The information from PET has a
plausible impact on the patient’s
outcome, either through adoption of
effective practice or non adoption
of ineffective or harmful practice
Probably Appropriate
evidence of improved diagnostic
performance (higher sensitivity and
specificity) compared with other
current techniques, but lacking
evidence for an impact on treatment
and outcome
Potentially Appropriate Insufficient evidence available for
assessment, although there is a strong
rationale for a benefit of PET.
Inappropriate
Clinical situations for which
improved accuracy of stage will not
alter management, or for which the
performance of PET is inferior to
other current techniques.
5
Definitions of the Timing for PET scanning
Diagnosis
Characterization of mass
lesion – indication whether a
mass Lesion is benign or
malignant.
PET guided biopsy –
assistance in guiding biopsy to
the most
PET intense region of a tumor.
Detection of occult primary
raised tumor markers –
determine the presence of
cancer
metastasis – determine the
primary site when metastases
have been detected
to determine the extent of disease
prior to initiation of treatment
Response Evaluation
assessment of treatment response
during or after therapy
following initial therapy or when
recurrence has been confirmed
determine the presence of cancer
following clinical suspicion of
recurrence
surveillance in the absence of
clinical evidence of recurrence
To aid the placement of radiation
fields
Staging
Restaging
Suspected Recurrence
Followup
RT Planning
6
Level of Evidence based on the type of study : Oxford Centre
for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence (May 2001)
( DIAGNOSIS)
Level
Diagnosis
1
Systematic review of prospective studies /
prospective study
Retrospective study, databases ,poor follow up
Systematic review of homogenous case control
studies
Case control study, poor, non independent
reference standard
Opinion
2
3
4
5
7
Section — II
Haematolymphoid
Malignancies
Lymphoma
Introduction
Hodgkin’s lymphoma & Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma are most
commonly occurring hematological malignancies. However
they also have the reputation of being potentially curable
disease. Hence accurate staging, risk stratification, treatment
planning could make this mission possible.
Conventional staging/imaging:
Hematological, biochemical profile, bone marrow studies, CSF
analysis are performed. X-ray chest, USG provides useful
information. But multiregional CECT is performed on most
patients. MRI is preferred in CNS lymphoma.
Ga67 Citrate Planar Nuclear scans which were popular before
have been replaced by FDG PET where available.
Summary of Evidence for FDG PET :
Initial diagnosis
Due to the necessity of a histological diagnosis, the role of
PET in the initial diagnosis of lymphoma is very limited.
11
Staging and recurrence diagnosis
FDG uptake seems related to the histological grade of
lymphoma with higher uptake in the more aggressive forms
(high grade lymphoma according to the European American
Lymphoma classification from the International Lymphoma
Study Group). However, PET could give very good results in
low grade Follicular NHL. The role of PET in the initial staging
of the disease implies a non-invasive evaluation of lymph node
involvement and locating the preferred biopsy sites with more
accuracy than CT. In that indication, the sensitivity of PET is
99.2% and the specificity is 100%, compared with CT
sensitivity of 83.2% and specificity of 99.8% 84. PET done in
the staging process could represent a good reference
investigation allowing comparison with a PET done in the
follow up process
For other localizations of the disease, PET has a global
sensitivity of 77% to 100%, specificity of 72% to 100% and
an accuracy of 83% to 100%, compared with 50% to 95%,
51% to 95% and 63% respectively for gallium scintigraphy
and 20% to 100%, 33% to 100 % and 73% for CT. The positive
predictive value of PET varies between 62% to 100%, and
the negative predictive value from 50% to 100%.
For bone marrow involvement, PET showed a sensitivity of
79%, a specificity of 76%, a positive predictive value of 62%
and a negative predictive value of 90% and bone marrow
biopsy showed a sensitivity of 58% and specificity of 100%.
The role of PET for detection of lesions in bones or bone
marrow is controversial.
For evaluation of spleen involvement, PET has a sensitivity
of 92%, specificity of 100% and an accuracy of 97%. For the
evaluation of extra lymphatic localizations, several studies
have shown that PET is responsible for a change in patient
management in 14% to 23% of cases (change in staging or
12
change in treatment). Therefore, PET could be indicated in
addition to classical imaging techniques in the initial staging
of Hodgkin’s disease, aggressive NHL and low grade Follicular
NHL if a staging change could affect the therapy. The
recurrence diagnosis is not different from initial staging.
For Pediatric lymphomas the PET sensitivity and specificity
was 100% and 93% versus 94% sensitivity and 72.4%
specificity for Conventional Imaging.
Residual mass evaluation, prognosis and treatment
response:
For the evaluation of a residual mass the sensitivity and
specificity of PET spans from 43% to 100% and from 69% to
100%, compared with CT sensitivity of 71% to 100% and
specificity of 17% to 65% The positive predictive value of
PET spans from 44% to 100% and the negative predictive
value from 67% to 100%, compared with CT PPV and NPV
of 19% to 60% and 50% to 100%, respectively. In case of a
positive PET the global survival of patients is 20%to 18%
after 1 year and 0% to 4% after 2 years with 100% recurrence,
but in case of a negative PET, the survival is 87% to 100%
after 1 year and 79% 11% to 85% after 2 years with 17%
recurrence. Therefore, PET should be indicated for the
diagnosis of residual disease (Hodgkin’s disease and
aggressive or follicular Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma) in case of
intense FDG uptake during initial staging and for early
evaluation of therapeutic response. Clearly in that case, it is
assumed that a PET examination would have to be done during
the initial staging work up to all patients with Hodgkin’s disease
and aggressive or follicular non Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Furthermore, the NHS Scotish Executive Health Department
recommends on the basis of the HTBS HTA report, the use of
PET in case of Diffuse Large B Cell Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma,
after 6 weeks treatment for patients with extensive disease to
13
assess response to treatment and at the completion of
chemotherapy to assess the need for consolidation
radiotherapy. However, the external Experts Group found that
PET is not indicated to decide whether to irradiate or not
because it is unable to detect a small amount of residual disease
(External Experts Group). Mostly, PET is indicated for
Hodgkin’s disease patients after initial therapy in order to select
those for whom no further treatment is needed or additional
consolidation is needed.
The intensity of FDG uptake (standardized uptake value SUV) before treatment could serve as a prognotic indicator.
The interest of disposing a good prediction technique rests on
the possibility for the clinician to intensify the treatment and
to plan a bone marrow transplant. Several studies have shown
the good prognotic value of PET for recurrence before and
after bone marrow transplant. Other studies have shown that
the FDG uptake estimated with SUV has dropped down after
chemotherapy. The best results to estimate the prognosis seem
to be obtained after one course of chemotherapy (sensitivity
of 82%, positive predictive value of 90%), or at mid term of
the treatment and not after completion of treatment (sensitivity
of 45%, positive predictive value of 83%)
In a Phase II study of risk-adapted therapy of newly diagnosed,
aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma based on midtreatment
FDG-PET scanning; Those with negative PET on
semiquantitative visual interpretation completed standard
therapy. Those with positive PET received platinum-based
salvage chemotherapy, high-dose therapy, and autologous stem
cell transplantation (ASCT). Midtreatment PET was positive
in 33 (56%); 28 received ASCT with an actuarial 2-year EFS
of 75% (95% confidence interval, 60%-93%). On intentionto-treat analysis, 2-year EFS was 67% (53%-86%) in all PETpositive patients and 89% (77%-100%) in PET-negative
patients. No association was found between the International
14
Prognostic Index category and the mid treatment PET result.
The favorable outcome achieved here in historically poor-risk
patients warrants further, more definitive investigation of
treatment modification based on early PET scanning.
Even in follicular lymphoma PET scan has the potential to
impact staging and thereby treatment.
PET is not indicated in the initial diagnosis.
•
•
•
•
For initial staging and recurrence diagnosis (lymph nodes
involvement and extra lymphatic localization), there is
evidence for diagnostic accuracy including the
determination of sensitivity and specificity but without
mentioning a post-test probability or diagnostic
threshold. There are some studies treating changes in
patient management but with high heterogeneity
(level 2).
For residual mass evaluation, there is clinical evidence
up to the diagnostic thinking level because PET allows
directing the medical decision on the follow up strategy
(level 3). There is evidence from one modeling study
for cost-effectiveness of PET for re-staging Hodgkin’s
disease.
For prognosis, there is evidence of diagnostic accuracy
including the determination of sensitivity and specificity
(level 2).
For evaluation of treatment response, there is evidence
of diagnostic accuracy including the determination of
sensitivity and specificity (level 2).
15
Timing of the
PET/CT
Hierarchy of
Diagnostic
Efficacy
Relevance of
Test
Level of
Evidence
Diagnosis
Level1
Potentially
appropriate
( site of biopsy)
Staging
Level3
appropriate
Level1
Response
evaluation
Level4
appropriate
Level1
Restaging
Level3
Appropriate
Level2
Suspected
recurrence
Level3
Appropriate
Level2
Follow up
Level2
Possibly
appropriate
Level3
RT planning
Level2
Potentially
useful
Level2
Selected Abstracts:
[Diagnostic value of FDG-PET in the detection of bone
marrow involvement in patients with diffuse large B-cell
lymphoma.] Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. Zhang X, Fan
W, Lin XP, et al. 2008 Dec., 29(12) 832-5.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic value of bone marrow
(BM) involvement detected by F-18-flurodeoxyglucosepositron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)FFDG PET/CT) in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large
B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). METHODS: The study
population comprised 81consecutive patients with newly
diagnosed DLBCL. All patients had both (18)F-FDG PET/
CT and standard BM biopsy at iliac crest. In 9 patients,
additional direct BM biopsy at FDG-avid bone lesion was
performed. RESULTS: Among all 81 cases, 23 were diagnosed
as BM involvement by PET/CT. Of the 23 positive cases 17
were confirmed by biopsy. However, only 11 cases were
diagnosed by merely bilateral iliac crest biopsy. In patients in
16
early stage of disease (18)F-FDG PET/CT had the same results
as bilateral iliac crest biopsy. CONCLUSION: (18)F-FDG
PET/CT is superior to standard BM biopsy in detecting BM
involvement in newly diagnosed DLBCL patients. In patients
with FDG-avid bone lesions, direct PET/CT-guided bone
biopsy seems to be more accurate than standard BM biopsy.
PMID: 19176040
Phase II study of risk-adapted therapy of newly diagnosed,
aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma based on midtreatment
FDG-PET scanning. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant.
Kasamon YL, Wahl RL, Ziessman HA et al. 2009
Feb;15(2): 242-8.
In newly diagnosed aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma
(NHL), a positive midtreatment fluorine-18
fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) scan
often carries a poor prognosis, with reported 2-year eventfree survival (EFS) rates of 0% to 30% after standard therapy.
To determine the outcome of early treatment intensification
for midtreatment PET-positive disease, a phase II trial of riskadapted therapy was conducted. Fifty-nine newly diagnosed
patients, 98% with B cell lymphoma, had PET/CT performed
after 2 or 3 cycles of first-line chemotherapy. Those with
negative PET on semiquantitative visual interpretation
completed standard therapy. Those with positive PET received
platinum-based salvage chemotherapy, high-dose therapy, and
autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Midtreatment
PET was positive in 33 (56%); 28 received ASCT with an
actuarial 2-year EFS of 75% (95% confidence interval,
60%-93%). On intention-to-treat analysis, 2-year EFS was
67% (53%-86%) in all PET-positive patients and 89%
(77%-100%) in PET-negative patients. No association was
found between the International Prognostic Index category
and the midtreatment PET result. The favorable outcome
17
achieved here in historically poor-risk patients warrants further,
more definitive investigation of treatment modification based
on early PET scanning.
PMID: 19167684
The role of FDG-PET imaging and involved field
radiotherapy in relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell
lymphoma. Hoppe BS, Moskowitz CH, Zhang Z et al. Bone
Marrow Transplant. 2009 Jan 12.
We examined the role of flourodeoxyglucose-positron
emission tomography (FDG-PET) and the addition of involved
field radiotherapy (IFRT) as potential modifiers of salvage
therapy. From January 2000 to June 2007, 83 patients with
chemosensitive relapsed or primary refractory diffuse large
B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) underwent FDG-PET scans
following second-line chemotherapy before high-dose therapy
with autologous stem cell rescue (HDT/ASCR). We evaluated
the prognostic value of having a negative FDG-PET scan
before HDT/ASCR and whether IFRT improved the outcomes.
Median follow-up was 45 months, and the 3-year PFS, diseasespecific survival (DSS) and OS were 72, 80 and 78%,
respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that a positive
FDG-PET scan had worse PFS (hazard ratio=(HR) 3.4;
P=0.014), DSS (HR=7.7; P=0.001) and OS (HR=5.4;
P=0.001), and that patients not receiving IFRT had worse PFS
(HR=2.7; P=0.03) and DSS (HR=2.8, P=0.059). Patients who
received IFRT had better local control with fewer relapses
within prior involved sites compared with those that did not
receive IFRT (P=0.006). These outcomes confirm the
important prognostic value of FDG-PET scans before
undergoing HDT/ASCR. It also suggests that the role of IFRT
should be evaluated further.Bone Marrow Transplantation
advance online publication, 12 January 2009; doi:10.1038/
bmt.2008.408.
PMID: 19139730
18
The majority of transformed lymphomas have high
standardized uptake values (SUVs) on positron emission
tomography (PET) scanning similar to diffuse large
B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Noy A, Schöder H, Gönen M,
et al. Ann Oncol. 2009 Jan 12.
BACKGROUND: We previously correlated non-Hodgkin’s
lymphoma (NHL) histology with (18)fluoro-2-deoxyglucosepositron emission tomography (FDG-PET) intensity: a
standardized uptake value (SUV) >10 predicted aggressive
lymphoma with >80% certainty and an SUV >13, with >90%
certainty. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To evaluate SUV in
transformed lymphoma, we identified all FDG-PET scans for
NHL at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer 1999-2007 with
(i) biopsy-proven transformation, (ii) no therapy 60 days before
PET scan and (iii) FDG-PET scans no more than 60 days
before or 90 days after transformation. RESULTS: In 5 of 40
patients, the biopsy site was excised before PET; in two, only
marrow was biopsied. In the remaining 33 patients, the SUV
of the biopsy site ranged from 3 to 38, mean 14, median 12.
Eighteen of 33 biopsies (55%) had an SUV >10 and 16 (48%)
>13. The highest SUV in a transformed lymphoma PET scan
(SUV(study-max)) ranged from 3.2 to 40, mean 15, median
12. Twenty-five of 40 patients (63%) presented with an
SUV(study-max) >10 and 20 (50%) >13. CONCLUSIONS:
Like de novo aggressive lymphomas, the majority of
transformations have a high SUV(study-max) for a given
pretreatment staging study, although many do not have very
high values. Transformation should be suspected in indolent
lymphoma with high SUVs on FDG-PET. Biopsies should be
directed to the site of greatest FDG avidity.
PMID: 19139176
19
(18)F-FDG PET in Pediatric Lymphomas: A Comparison
with Conventional Imaging. Lopci E, Burnelli R,
Ambrosini V et al. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2008
Dec. 27.
This study reports on our experience with
(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission
tomography (PET) in pediatric patients affected by Hodgkin’s
disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). We
studied 20 pediatric subjects (12 males, 8 females; mean age,
10 years; range, 6 months to 14 years) with malignant
lymphoma (9 HD, 11 NHL) for a 4-year period of time.
Overall, 45 PET scans were performed: 7 at disease
presentation and 38 for evaluation of response to therapy or
follow-up study. All PET results were compared with
conventional imaging (CI), mainly computed tomography (CT)
and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and supported by
clinical follow-up and/or histologic data. In 18 of 20 patients,
PET findings correctly identified the status of disease. Two
(2) subjects (respectively, 1 HD and 1 NHL, both at followup) resulted falsely positive: 1 due to prominent thymic uptake,
and the other due to nonspecific inflammation. Of 45 scans,
PET findings were consistent with clinical follow-up and other
CI data in 43 cases (16 true-positive and 27 true-negative
results) and resulted falsely positive in the remaining 2 scans.
On a lesion-by-lesion basis (overall, 153 lesions: 84 nodal
and 69 extranodal), we found a concordance between CI and
PET findings in 25 nodal (29.8%) and in 22 extranodal sites
(32%). PET was more accurate than CI, as it identified active
disease in 1 patient negative at CI and excluded relapse in
6 patients with inconclusive CI and in 2 patients with a falsely
positive CI. Overall, PET sensitivity and specificity was 100%
and 93% versus 94% sensitivity and 72.4% specificity for CI.
This comparative study shows FDG PET to be more accurate
20
than CI in evaluating children with lymphoma. Our data also
confirms that 18 F-FDG PET may show false-positive findings.
PMID: 19111053
PET scanning and prognosis in Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Brepoels L, Stroobants S. Curr Opin Oncol. 2008
Sep;20(5):509-16.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Risk-adapted treatment strategies
are currently under investigation in the management of patients
with lymphoma. This review presents the latest evidence for
the use of early interim [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron
emission tomography for risk-adapted treatment in Hodgkin’s
lymphoma. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, PET after
two cycles of ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin, vincristin, and
dexamethasone) was shown to be the only independent
prognostic factor for the prediction of relapse in Hodgkin’s
lymphoma and to have at least the same prognostic accuracy
as end-of-treatment PET. A high prognostic value of PET was
reported even earlier, before the second cycle of chemotherapy.
The earlier PET becomes negative, the more chemosensitive
the disease, which may offer opportunities toward the
limitation of the therapy. However, more false-positive lesions
occur at earlier time points, and preliminary results indicate
that accuracy of PET results differs after BEACOPP
(bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide,
vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) and immunotherapy.
SUMMARY: [(18)F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission
tomography after two cycles of ABVD is now recognized as
the single most important factor in defining disease-specific
outcome and is highly promising for investigation of responseadapted treatment strategies. It is now recognized that the
optimal time point of PET for response evaluation is crucial
and dependent on the administered treatment. Standardization
21
of PET-response is essential and should be adapted to timedependent and therapy-dependent changes.
PMID: 19106652
Bone marrow involvement in diffuse large B-cell
lymphoma: correlation between FDG-PET uptake and
type of cellular infiltrate. Paone G, Itti E, Haioun C, et al.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2008 Dec 19.
PURPOSE: To assess, in patients with diffuse large B-cell
lymphoma (DLBCL), whether the low sensitivity of
(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography
(FDG-PET) for bone marrow assessment may be explained
by histological characteristics of the cellular infiltrate.
METHODS: From a prospective cohort of 110 patients with
newly diagnosed aggressive lymphoma, 21 patients with
DLBCL had bone marrow involvement. Pretherapeutic
FDG-PET images were interpreted visually and
semiquantitatively, then correlated with the type of cellular
infiltrate and known prognostic factors. RESULTS: Of these
21 patients, 7 (33%) had lymphoid infiltrates with a prominent
component of large transformed lymphoid cells (concordant
bone marrow involvement, CBMI) and 14 (67%) had lymphoid
infiltrates composed of small cells (discordant bone marrow
involvement, DBMI). Only 10 patients (48%) had abnormal
bone marrow FDG uptake, 6 of the 7 with CBMI and 4 of the
14 with DBMI. Therefore, FDG-PET positivity in the bone
marrow was significantly associated with CBMI, while
FDG-PET negativity was associated with DBMI (Fisher’s
exact test, p=0.024). There were no significant differences in
gender, age and overall survival between patients with CBMI
and DBMI, while the international prognostic index was
significantly higher in patients with CBMI. CONCLUSION:
Our study suggests that in patients with DLBCL with bone
marrow involvement bone marrow FDG uptake depends on
22
two types of infiltrate, comprising small (DBMI) or large
(CBMI) cells. This may explain the apparent low sensitivity
of FDG-PET previously reported for detecting bone marrow
involvement.
PMID: 19096842 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
18F-FDG PET/CT for Monitoring the Response of
Lymphoma to Radioimmunotherapy. Jacene HA, Filice R,
Kasecamp W, et al. J Nucl Med. 2009 Jan;50(1):8-17. Epub
2008 Dec 17.
We retrospectively evaluated (18)F-FDG PET/CT for
monitoring the response of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma to
radioimmunotherapy. METHODS: A total of 33 clinical
patients received (131)I-tositumomab (n = 23) or
(90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (n = 10) and underwent
(18)F-FDG PET/CT scans before radioimmunotherapy and
at 12 wk after radioimmunotherapy. A third scan was performed
on 13 patients at 24 wk after radioimmunotherapy, 12 of whom
did not receive interval therapy. Tumor metabolic activity was
assessed before and after radioimmunotherapy visually and
quantitatively by lean maximum standardized uptake value
(SUV(lean) max). Response was assessed by the International
Workshop Criteria (IWC) and Revised IWC, which includes
(18)F-FDG PET (IWC-PET). RESULTS: Mean SUV(lean)
max decreased from baseline in 244 target lesions 12 wk after
radioimmunotherapy (from 6.51 +/- 4.05 to 3.94 +/- 4.41;
P < 0.01), regardless of response at 12 wk after
radioimmunotherapy (P </= 0.02). After radioimmunotherapy,
SUV(lean) max was lower for responders than for
nonresponders (P </= 0.01). Median percentage change in
SUV(lean) max of target lesions per patient was -51% (-95%
to 97%). No significant difference in decline in SUV(lean)
max between patients who received (131)I-tositumomab and
those who received (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan was
demonstrated (-31% +/- 51% vs. -47% +/- 46%; P = 0.38).
23
Patients with greater than a 52% decline in SUV(lean) max
tended toward longer survival (P = 0.09) than those with lesser
declines. The 12-wk overall response rate to
radioimmunotherapy based on IWC was 42% (14/33);
complete response rate was 15% (5/33). Eleven of 12 patients
with progression at 12 wk had new disease sites, and in 4
patients, new disease sites were the only sites of progression.
Of 108 lesions evaluated at 12 and 24 wk after
radioimmunotherapy, 49 resolved at 12 wk and remained
resolved at 24 wk, 17 gradually declined in SUV over 24 wk,
and 37 initially decreased at 12 wk but increased at 24 wk.
PET showed disease progression at 24 wk in 10 of 13 patients;
7 patients had new lesions and 1 was reclassified from partial
response to complete response. CONCLUSION: In nonHodgkin’s lymphoma, (18)F-FDG uptake in tumors typically
drops significantly after radioimmunotherapy. A continued
decline in tumor SUV(lean) max between 12 and 24 wk without
additional therapy can occur, suggesting a need for delayedresponse assessment. In patients who progress after
radioimmunotherapy, new sites of disease commonly develop,
rather than recurrence or progression at previous disease sites.
Large declines in (18)F-FDG uptake tend to be seen in those
with the longest progression-free survival.
PMID: 19091903
(18)F-FDG-PET/CT evaluation of response to treatment
in lymphoma: when is the optimal time for the first
re-evaluation scan? Iagaru A, Wang Y, Mari C, et al. Hell
J Nucl Med. 2008 Sep-Dec;11(3):153-6.
Assessing the response to treatment as soon after treatment
initiation is one of the key reasons for imaging lymphoma
patients. The optimal time after initiating treatment for
assessing response to treatment has yet to be determined.
Therefore, we were prompted to review our experience with
serial (18)F-FDG PET/CT in patients undergoing treatment
24
for Hodgkin’s disease (HD) and non Hodgkin’s lymphoma
(NHL). This is a retrospective study (Feb 2003 - Oct 2004) of
20 patients, 11 men and 9 women, with age range of 7-75
years with diagnosis of HD (10) and NHL (10), who had PET/
CT at our institution prior, during and at the completion of
therapy. Restaging PET/CT was done after 2 cycles of
chemotherapy in 10 patients (group A) and after 4 cycles of
chemotherapy in 10 pts (group B). A total of 60 scans were
reviewed. The DeltaSUV from baseline to first PET/CT was
on average 67.6% in group A and 75.1% in group B. This had
no statistical significance (P value: 0.31). The DeltaSUV from
baseline to post-therapy PET/CT was on average 72.9% in
group A and 79.8% in group B. This difference also had no
statistical significance (P value: 0.24). The correlation
coefficient was 0.98 in group A and 0.80 in group B. Results
of PET/CT after 2 cycles of chemotherapy did not statistically
differ from the results of PET/CT after 4 cycles of
chemotherapy. These results need to be confirmed in larger,
prospective, randomized trials.
PMID: 19081857
Response assessment after an inductive CHOP or CHOPlike regimen with or without rituximab in 103 patients with
diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: integrating 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography to the
International Workshop Criteria. Dupuis J, Itti E,
Rahmouni A, Hemery F, et al. Ann Oncol. 2008 Dec 11.
BACKGROUND: Revised response criteria for aggressive
lymphomas have been proposed (Cheson, J Clin Oncol, 2007)
stressing the role of (18)fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission
tomography (PET) in posttreatment evaluation. The value of
PET after four cycles compared with the International
Workshop Criteria (IWC) remains to be established.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In all, 103 patients with
25
untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were prospectively
enrolled to evaluate the prognostic impact of PET after two
and four cycles. RESULTS: Median age was 53 years
(19-79), 68% male. The International Prognostic Index was
low = 22%, low-intermediate = 19%, intermediate-high = 33%
and high risk = 26%. Treatment consisted of
cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone
(CHOP) (30%) or dose-intensified CHOP (70%), with
rituximab (49%) or without (51%). Ninety-nine patients were
evaluated by PET and IWC at four cycles: 77 (78%) had a
negative PET, while 22 (22%) remained positive. The 5-year
event-free survival (EFS) was 36% for patients with a positive
PET versus 80% with a negative examination, whatever the
response [complete response (CR) versus partial response
(PR)] according to IWC (P < 0.0001). Positive PET patients
had a 5-year EFS of 58% if in CR/CR unconfirmed by IWC
and 0% if not (P < 0.0001). The same observations could be
made in patients treated with and without rituximab.
CONCLUSION: The integration of PET in treatment
evaluation offers a powerful tool to predict outcome.
PMID: 19074215
Phase II trial of short-course CHOP-R followed by 90Yibritumomab tiuxetan and extended rituximab in
previously untreated follicular lymphoma. Jacobs SA,
Swerdlow SH, Kant Jet al. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Nov
1;14(21):7088-94.
PURPOSE: Radioimmunotherapy has been approved for
relapsed follicular lymphoma (FL), including rituximabrefractory FL. This study was designed to determine the CR
rate with short-course chemoimmunotherapy with
cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, and
rituximab (CHOP-R) followed by 90-Y ibritumomab tiuxetan
(RIT) with extended rituximab as first-line treatment.
26
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Between March 2004 and
February 2007, 60 patients with stage II to IV symptomatic or
bulky FL from a single institution supported by a large
community network entered this phase II trial. Patients received
CHOP-R for three treatment cycles before RIT followed by
four additional weekly treatments with rituximab. Response
was determined using fusion [(18) F] fluorodeoxyglucosepositron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography
(CT) imaging. RESULTS: Of the 60 patients entering this trial,
55 patients completed all protocol therapy. The median follow
up was 19.7 months (range, 0.26-35.9 months). For intent-totreat analysis, the complete response (CR) rate after
CHOP-R, as assessed by CT and PET imaging, was 40% and
46%, respectively. After RIT, the CR rate improved, as assessed
by CT and PET imaging, to 82% and 89%, respectively. Ten
patients have progressed, including eight from best response
of CR. Seven of 18 patients who were PET positive after
CHOP-R progressed compared with 3 of 37 patients who were
PET negative (P=0.010). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with
previously untreated, symptomatic or bulky FL, short-course
chemoimmunotherapy and consolidation RIT and extended
rituximab resulted in a high CR rate. Failure to achieve an
early PET CR after CHOP-R indicated high risk of relapse.
PMID: 18981007
The utility of 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission
tomography in evaluation of bone marrow involvement
by non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Muslimani AA, Farag HL,
Francis S et al. Am J Clin Oncol. 2008 Oct;31(5):409-12.
PURPOSE: In non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs), the bone
marrow (BM) involvement is a sign of extensive disease and
the iliac crest BM biopsy (BMB) is the established method
for the detection of BM infiltration. However, iliac crest BMB
is associated with a high rate of false negative results. We
27
assess the ability of 18-F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron
emission tomography (F-FDG PET) scan to ascertain the
presence of BM involvement in NHL. METHODS: After
reviewing charts of histologically proven NHLs, 97 patients
were eligible for our study. All patients were examined by
whole-body F-FDG PET scan for initial staging, and all had
unilateral posterior iliac crest BMB. BM involvement was
established after the result of unilateral posterior iliac crest
BMB and image-guided BMB after positive F-FDG PET scan
in selected patients. RESULTS: Our data demonstrate an
overall sensitivity of 79% for the F-FDG PET scan detecting
BM involvement in all patients and specificity of 91%. Further
analysis revealed no significant difference in the ability of the
F-FDG PET scan to detect BM involvement between the
indolent-NHL and the aggressive/highly aggressive-NHL
groups (sensitivity P = 0.23, specificity P = 0.64).
CONCLUSION: F-FDG PET scan shows potential to detect
BM involvement in NHL. In particular, image-guided repeat
BMB should be considered in patients with negative initial
iliac crest BMB, whose F-FDG PET scan demonstrates BM
involvement in a different site.
PMID: 18838874
Pretransplantation positron emission tomography scan is
the main predictor of autologous stem cell transplantation
outcome in aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Derenzini E, Musuraca G, Fanti S, et al. Cancer. 2008 Nov
1;113(9):2496-503.
IBACKGROUND: Limited data exist about the role of secondline chemotherapy response assessed by positron emission
tomography (PET) as a prognostic factor in patients with
aggressive non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) who undergo
autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). The objective
of this analysis was to investigate the main determinants of
prognosis in patients with aggressive B-cell NHL who undergo
28
ASCT, focusing on the impact of pretransplantation PET,
secondary age-adjusted International Prognostic Index
(sAA-IPI) score, histology, and previous response to first-line
chemotherapy. METHODS: Seventy-five patients with diffuse,
large B-cell lymphoma or grade 3 follicular lymphoma who
were treated at the author’ institution with second-line
chemotherapy (combined ifosfamide, etoposide, and
epirubicin [IEV]) followed by ASCT between September 2002
and September 2006 were included. All patients were evaluated
by PET after 1 to 3 courses of IEV chemotherapy before ASCT,
and all patients received a conditioning regimen of combined
carmustine, etoposide, cytosine arabinoside, and melphalan.
The prognostic impact of pretransplantation PET, sAA-IPI
score, histology, and previous response to first-line
chemotherapy was evaluated by univariate and multivariate
analyses. RESULTS: Seventy-two of 75 patients underwent
ASCT. In a univariate analysis for progression-free survival
(PFS) and overall survival (OS), a significant association was
observed with pretransplantation PET (PFS, P< .00001; OS,
P< .01) and previous first-line response (PFS, P= .02; OS,
P= .04). In the multivariate framework, pretransplantation PET
was identified as the only independent prognostic factor (PFS,
P< .001; OS, P= .01). CONCLUSIONS: The current data
indicated that pretransplantation PET is the main prognostic
predictor in patients with aggressive B-cell NHL who are
scheduled for ASCT.
PMID: 18833583
Positron emission tomography in mantle cell lymphoma.
Brepoels L, Stroobants S, De Wever W, et al. Leuk
Lymphoma. 2008 Sep;49(9):1693-701.
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare but aggressive nonHodgkin lymphoma subtype with a poor prognosis; most
patients relapse despite initial response to therapy. Response
was traditionally evaluated by computed tomography (CT),
29
but the introduction of [(18)F]Fluorine-Deoxyglucose Positron
Emission Tomography (PET) changed response assessment
in aggressive lymphoma. However, the value of PETevaluation in MCL has not been studied yet. Therefore, PETand CT-findings were investigated in 37 patients with MCL
(239 scans) and categorised following standardised response
criteria for CT-evaluation (IWC-criteria), PET-evaluation
(EORTC-criteria) and combined PET/CT-evaluation (IWC +
PET-criteria). FDG-PET showed a high sensitivity for the
detection of deposits of MCL and a higher FDG-uptake was
shown in patients with the more aggressive blastoid-variant
of MCL versus common MCL. However, routine use of PET
for end-of-treatment response assessment in MCL cannot be
recommended because CT- and PET-based designation
systems had equivalent prognostic value. PET-based end-oftreatment response assessment only provided additional
information over CT-based response assessment in a
subpopulation of patients with highly FDG-avid MCL. PET
allowed early detection of preclinical relapse during posttherapy surveillance, but the therapeutic consequences of such
information are currently unclear.
PMID: 18798104
18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/
computed tomography in AIDS-related Burkitt lymphoma.
Just PA, Fieschi C, Baillet G, et al. AIDS Patient Care
STDS. 2008 Sep;22(9):695-700.
This study aims to describe 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose
(18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed
tomography (PET/CT) findings in patients with AIDS-related
Burkitt lymphoma, at various times of treatment, and to define
its utility for a better patient management. We retrospectively
studied 13 consecutive HIV-positive patients with Burkitt
lymphoma who underwent one or more PET/CT. In 5 of
30
5 patients imaged before treatment, PET/CT confirmed all
involved sites detected at conventional work-up and
demonstrated additional sites in 4 of 5 patients. Lymph node
involvement, which is known to be uncommon in endemic or
sporadic Burkitt lymphoma, was present in 54% of patients.
Additionally, in 3 patients, Burkitt lymphoma was
predominantly located in parotid lymph nodes, which is also
an unusual finding. A negative scan was encountered in 3 of
10 patients imaged during treatment and in 1 of 4 patients
imaged after treatment completion and was always associated
with lasting complete remission. Presence of residual area of
uptake was related to both favorable and unfavorable outcome
whether performed during treatment (5/7 and 2/7, respectively)
or after (1/3 and 2/3, respectively). Areas of increased uptake
could be observed in lung (4 cases) or esophagus (3 cases),
and were clinically related to pneumonia or esophagitis. We
recommend PET/CT for accurate initial staging of patients
with AIDS-related Burkitt lymphoma. PET/CT is also useful
to monitor treatment response, as regression of initial disease
can be early observed. Furthermore, PET/CT appears to have
prognostic value, as a negative scan was always associated
with a favorable outcome.
PMID: 18793085
Imaging proliferation to monitor early response of
lymphoma to cytotoxic treatment. Graf N, Herrmann K,
den Hollander J et al. Mol Imaging Biol. 2008 Nov-Dec;
10(6):349-55. Epub 2008 Aug 14.
PURPOSE: Positron emission tomography with the thymidine
analogue 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F]fluorothymidine (FLT) has been
reported to closely reflect lymphoma proliferation in vivo. In
this preclinical study, we have investigated if FLT can also be
utilized for imaging therapy-induced alterations of the
nucleoside metabolism and if FLT is a surrogate marker for
31
early response to cytotoxic treatment. MATERIALS AND
METHODS: Immunodeficient mice bearing high-grade
lymphoma xenotransplants were treated with the cytotoxic
agent doxorubicin (day 0). In the time course of day +1 to +9,
antiproliferative effects were assessed non-invasively with
FLT-PET and correlated to changes of the proliferation fraction
and induction of apoptosis, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Tumor growth in untreated animals
was significantly higher than in treated animals. In FLT-PET
scans, these observations correlated with a significant decrease
of tumor-to-background ratio in the therapy group already at
day 1. Likewise, median tumor-to-muscle ratio of FLT uptake
already declined at day 1. The proliferation fraction assessed
by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry decreased after
chemotherapy, while activated caspase 3 increased, suggesting
both cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis as underlying
mechanisms of the observed PET-signal alterations.
CONCLUSION: In a lymphoma xenotransplant model, we
show that positron emission tomography using the proliferation
marker FLT is suitable to detect early response to cytotoxic
treatment. A significant decrease of FLT uptake but not tumor
growth was detectable already 24 h after therapy and correlated
with reduced proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Thus,
FLT-PET has a potential for imaging early response to
treatment in malignant lymphoma.
PMID: 18704591
32
Myeloma
Introduction
Multiple myeloma accounts for approximately 10% of
hematologic malignancies. Almost all patients are thought to
evolve from an asymptomatic premalignant stage termed
monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance
(MGUS). Progression of MGUS to myeloma is characterized
by the development of bone lesions. Lytic bone lesions in
myeloma are caused by an imbalance between the activity of
osteoclasts and osteoblasts. The most common presenting
symptoms of myeloma are fatigue and bone pain. Osteolytic
bone lesions and/or compression fractures that can be detected
on routine radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),
or computed tomographic (CT) scans are the hallmark of the
disease and cause significant morbidity.
Current Staging/Imaging:
A complete blood count, urinalysis, and serum creatinine,
calcium, microglobulin, albumin, C-reactive protein, and
lactate dehydrogenase levels are needed for diagnosis,
prognosis, and staging. In addition, patients require tests to
identify and quantitate monoclonal proteins, bone disease, and
bone marrow involvement. Specialized tests are also
33
performed on the bone marrow for risk stratification. Plain
radiographic examination of all bones, including long bones
(skeletal survey), is the preferred method of detecting lytic
bone lesions in myeloma. Conventional x-rays show skeletal
abnormalities in almost 80% of patients with myeloma; often,
these lesions have a characteristic punched-out appearance.
Osteoporosis and/or fractures are also detected by conventional
radiography. Occasionally, osteosclerotic lesions can occur.
CT and MRI scans are more sensitive than conventional
radiography in detecting bone disease. Among asymptomatic
multiple myeloma patients with normal x-rays, up to 50% have
tumor-related abnormalities on MRI of the lower spine. CT
and/or MRI studies are indicated when symptomatic areas
show no abnormality on routine radiographs. Their routine
use in assessing extent of bone disease in addition to skeletal
radiographs is unclear. 99mTc MIBI, 18 F FDG PET scans
are also used to evaluate the disease activity.
Summary of Evidence:
FDG uptake in the marrow has a high specificity of disease
activity. CT provides skeletal details of osteoblatsic,
osteoclastic activity. FDG PET/CT is therefore likely to have
a high accuracy in the assessment of disease status and viability.
There are several case reports and small case series
highlighting the uniqueness of FDG PET/CT in monitoring
disease activity. Fluro Thymidine and Methioine are the other
radiopharmaceuticals assessed as pilot studies with even better
performance. A prospective study of 28 patients showed PET
to be superior to skeletal survey, but MRI performs better in
spinal infiltration detection. When compared side by side with
MIBI, FDG detects more number of lesions. MIBI has a
specific role in discrimating osteonecrosis from viable
myeloma disease, which FDG PET is unable to do. In a
retrospective study of 66 patients Whole-body (18)F-FDG PET
provides important prognostic information, which is clinically
34
useful and complementary to conventional methods of
evaluating plasma cell disorders. (18)F-FDG PET is a unique
tool for evaluation of nonsecretory myeloma. Residual or
recurrent disease after therapy, especially extramedullary
disease, is a poor prognostic factor. FDG-PET has value for
staging and RT planning in plasmacytoma and potentially could
have a role in response-assessment after RT. Slow resolution
of FDG uptake posttreatment does not necessarily imply an
adverse prognosis
Timing of the
PET/CT
Hierarchy of
Diagnostic
Efficacy
Relevance of
Test
Level of
Evidence
Diagnosis
Level1
Potentially
appropriate
Level 4
Staging
Level 2
Appropriate
Level1
Response
evaluation
Level 3
appropriate
Level1
Restaging
Level 2
Possibly
appropriate
Level2
Suspected
recurrence
–
–
–
Level 2
Potentially
Level2
Followup
RT planning
appropriate
Selected Abstracts:
Impact of (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission
Tomography before and after Definitive Radiation
Therapy in Patients with Apparently Solitary
Plasmacytoma. Kim PJ, Hicks RJ, Wirth A et al. Int J
Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008 Nov 25.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of (18)Ffluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDGPET) on management of patients with apparently isolated
35
plasmacytoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-one
patients with apparently solitary plasmacytoma who underwent
FDG-PET for staging or restaging were identified from a
central PET database. They were either candidates for or had
received definitive radiation therapy (RT). RESULTS:
Seventeen patients had initial staging scans for bone (n = 11)
or soft tissue (n = 6) plasmacytomas, and 11 had PET scans
after RT. Only 1 of 14 known untreated sites of plasmacytoma
was not identified on staging PET (lesion sensitivity = 93%).
Three plasmacytomas were excised before PET. Staging PET
influenced management in 6 of 17 patients (35%) by showing
multiple myeloma (n = 1), discouraging RT after complete
resection (n = 1), excluding plasmacytoma at a second site
(n = 1), by increasing RT fields (n = 2), or by suggesting
sarcoidosis (n = 1). Fifteen of 17 patients with initial staging
PET scans received definitive RT. Restaging PET scans after
RT showed complete metabolic response in 8 of 11 cases and
progressive disease in 2. Two patients with either no response
or partial metabolic response had late responses. Staging
sestamibi and PET scans were concordant in five of six
occasions (one sestamibi scan was false negative).
CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET has value for staging and RT
planning in plasmacytoma and potentially could have a role
in response-assessment after RT. Slow resolution of FDG
uptake posttreatment does not necessarily imply an adverse
prognosis.
PMID: 19038505
18F-FDG PET/CT, 99mTc-MIBI, and MRI in evaluation
of patients with multiple myeloma. Fonti R, Salvatore B,
Quarantelli M et al. J Nucl Med. 2008 Feb;49(2):195-200.
Epub 2008 Jan 16.
Istituto di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini-CNR, Napoli, Italy.
[email protected]
36
New imaging techniques have been introduced to assess the
extent and severity of disease in multiple myeloma (MM)
patients. The aim of our study was to compare newer imaging
modalities-such as (18)F-FDG PET/CT, (99m)Tcmethoxyisobutylisonitrile ((99m)Tc-MIBI) scintigraphy, and
MRI-to assess their relative contribution in the evaluation of
MM patients at diagnosis. METHODS: Thirty-three newly
diagnosed patients with MM were prospectively studied.
Diagnosis and staging were made according to standard
criteria. All patients underwent whole-body (18)F-FDG PET/
CT, whole-body (99m)Tc-MIBI, and MRI of the spine and
pelvis within 10 d, and imaging findings were compared.
RESULTS: (18)F-FDG PET/CT was positive in 32 patients
(16 focal uptake, 3 diffuse uptake, 13 focal and diffuse uptake),
(99m)Tc-MIBI was positive in 30 patients (6 focal, 11 diffuse,
13 focal and diffuse uptake), and MRI of the spine and pelvis
was positive in 27 patients (6 focal, 13 diffuse, 8 focal and
diffuse uptake). (18)F-FDG PET/CT showed a total of 196
focal lesions (178 in bones and 18 in soft tissues), of which
121 were in districts other than the spine and pelvis, whereas
(99m)Tc-MIBI visualized 63 focal lesions (60 in bones and 3
in soft tissues), of which 53 were in districts other than the
spine and pelvis. In the spinal and pelvic regions, (18)F-FDG
PET/CT detected 75 focal lesions (35 in spine and 40 in pelvis),
(99m)Tc-MIBI visualized 10 focal lesions (1 in spine and 9 in
pelvis), and MRI detected 51 focal lesions (40 in spine and 11
in pelvis). CONCLUSION: In whole-body analysis, (18)FFDG PET/CT performed better than (99m)Tc-MIBI in the
detection of focal lesions, whereas (99m)Tc-MIBI was superior
in the visualization of diffuse disease. In the spine and pelvis,
MRI was comparable to (18)F-FDG PET/CT and (99m)TcMIBI in the detection of focal and diffuse disease, respectively.
Because myelomatous lesions may often occur out of spinal
and pelvic regions, MRI should be reserved to the evaluation
37
of bone marrow involvement of these districts, whereas (18)FFDG PET/CT can significantly contribute to an accurate
whole-body evaluation of MM patients. Finally, whole-body
(99m)Tc-MIBI, despite its limited capacity in detecting focal
lesions, may be an alternative option when a PET facility is
not available.
PMID: 18199607
11C-choline vs. 18F-FDG PET/CT in assessing bone
involvement in patients with multiple myeloma. Nanni C,
Zamagni E, Cavo M et al. World J Surg Oncol. 2007 Jun
20;5:68.
BACKGROUND: Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a B cell
neoplasm causing lytic or osteopenic bone abnormalities.
Whole body skeletal survey (WBSS), Magnetic resonance
(MR) and 18F-FDG PET/CT are imaging techniques routinely
used for the evaluation of bone involvement in MM patients.
AIM: As MM bone lesions may present low 18F-FDG uptake;
the aim of this study was to assess the possible added value
and limitations of 11C-Choline to that of 18F-FDG PET/CT
in patients affected with MM. METHODS: Ten patients
affected with MM underwent a standard 11C-Choline PET/
CT and an 18F-FDG PET/CT within one week. The results of
the two scans were compared in terms of number, sites and
SUVmax of lesions. RESULTS: Four patients (40%) had a
negative concordant 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT
scans. Two patients (20%) had a positive 11C-Choline and
18F-FDG PET/CT scans that identified the same number and
sites of bone lesions. The remaining four patients (40%) had a
positive 11C-Choline and 18F-FDG PET/CT scan, but the two
exams identified different number of lesions. Choline showed
a mean SUVmax of 5 while FDG showed a mean SUVmax of
3.8 (P = 0.042). Overall, 11C-Choline PET/CT scans detected
37 bone lesions and 18F-FDG PET/CT scans detected 22 bone
38
lesions but the difference was not significant (P = 0.8).
CONCLUSION: According to these preliminary data, 11CCholine PET/CT appears to be more sensitive than 18F-FDG
PET/CT for the detection of bony myelomatous lesions. If
these data are confirmed in larger series of patients, 11CCholine may be considered a more appropriate functional
imaging in association with MRI for MM bone staging.
PMID: 17584499 [PubMed]
A prospective comparison of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose
positron emission tomography-computed tomography,
magnetic resonance imaging and whole-body planar
radiographs in the assessment of bone disease in newly
diagnosed multiple myeloma. Zamagni E, Nanni C,
Patriarca F, et al. Haematologica. 2007 Jan;92(1):50-5.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bone lesions in
multiple myeloma (MM) have been traditionally detected by
whole body X-ray (WBXR) survey although magnetic
resonance imaging (MRI) has become the gold standard for
detecting MM involvement of the spine and pelvis. The aim
of this study was to compare a new technique, positron
emission tomography (PET) with 18F fluorodeoxyglucose
(FDG) integrated with computed tomography (18F-FDG PETCT), with MRI and WBXR for baseline assessment of bone
disease in MM. DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively
compared 18F-FDG PET-CT, MRI of the spine-pelvis and
WBXR in a series of 46 patients with newly diagnosed MM.
In 23 patients who received up front autologous
transplantation, we also compared post-treatment PET-CT
scans with MR images of the spine and pelvis. RESULTS:
Overall, PET-CT was superior to planar radiographs in 46%
of patients, including 19% with negative WBXR. In 30% of
patients, PET-CT scans of the spine and pelvis failed to show
abnormal findings in areas in which MRI revealed an abnormal
39
pattern of bone marrow involvement, more frequently of
diffuse type. In contrast, in 35% of patients PET-CT enabled
the detection of myelomatous lesions in areas which were out
of the field of view of MRI. By combining MRI of the spinepelvis and 18F-FDG PET-CT, the ability to detect sites of
active MM, both medullary and extramedullary, was as high
as 92%. Following transplantation, 15 patients had negative
PET-CT scans (including 13 with a very good partial response
or at least a near complete response), but only 8 had normal
MRI. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: MRI of
the spine and pelvis still remains the gold standard imaging
technique for the detection of bone marrow involvement in
MM. 18F-FDG PET-CT provides additional and valuable
information for the assessment of myeloma bone disease in
areas not covered by MRI.
PMID: 17229635 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
18F-FLT PET in hematologic disorders: a novel technique
to analyze the bone marrow compartment. Agool A, Schot
BW, Jager PL,et al. J Nucl Med. 2006 Oct;47(10):1592-8.
Few diagnostic procedures are available to determine the
degree of bone marrow cellularity and the numbers of cycling
cells in patients with bone marrow disorders. Noninvasive
imaging of the bone marrow compartment may be helpful.
The PET tracer 3'-fluoro-3'-deoxy-L-thymidine (18F-FLT) has
been developed recently. 18F-FLT uptake is related to the rate
of DNA synthesis and increases with higher proliferation rates
in many types of cancer. Background uptake of 18F-FLT in
bone marrow is common. 18F-FLT PET might, therefore,
visualize the high cycling activity of hematopoietic cells in
the bone marrow compartment. Therefore, we investigated the
feasibility of visualization and quantification of the activity
of the bone marrow compartment with 18F-FLT PET to
distinguish different hematologic disorders. METHODS:
40
Clinical and laboratory data of 18 patients with myelodysplasia
(MDS), chronic myeloproliferative disorders, myelofibrosis,
aplastic anemia, or multiple myeloma were correlated with
the results of 18F-FLT PET using visual analysis and the
standardized uptake value (SUV). Findings were compared
with those of healthy control subjects (n = 14). RESULTS:
With SUV and visual analysis, a distinction could be made
between MDS (n = 9), chronic myeloproliferative disorders
(n = 3), and myelofibrosis (n = 3) compared with healthy
control subjects. A significant increase in 18F-FLT uptake was
observed in all of the studied patients with MDS and
myeloproliferative disorders. In contrast, patients with
myelofibrosis and aplastic anemia (n = 1) demonstrated a
decline in bone marrow 18F-FLT uptake compared with
healthy control subjects. Comparable results were observed
in osteolytic lesions of patients with multiple myeloma (n =
2). CONCLUSION: 18F-FLT PET can be used to visualize
the proliferative activity of the bone marrow compartment and
may be helpful to distinguish separate hematologic disorders.
PMID: 17015893
Whole-body (18)F-FDG PET identifies high-risk myeloma.
Durie BG, Waxman AD, D’Agnolo A, et al. J Nucl Med.
2002 Nov;43(11):1457-63. Comment in.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of
whole-body PET with (18)F-FDG in patients with multiple
myeloma and related monoclonal diseases. METHODS:
Between July 1, 1996, and July 2000, 98 (18)F-FDG PET
scans were obtained for 66 patients, with 25 patients having 2
or more scans. The results were compared with routine clinical
and staging information, including CT and MRI scans, as
indicated. Of the 66 patients, 16 had previously untreated active
myeloma, 14 had monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined
significance (MGUS), 10 had disease in remission, and 26
41
had relapsing disease. RESULTS: Negative whole-body (18)FFDG PET findings reliably predicted stable MGUS. Of the
14 MGUS patients with follow-up of 3-43+ mo, myeloma has
developed in only 1 (7%), at 8 mo. Conversely, the 16
previously untreated patients with active myeloma all had focal
or diffusely positive scan findings. Four (25%) of 16 previously
untreated patients with positive (18)F-FDG PET findings had
negative full radiologic surveys. Another 4 (25%) of 16 patients
had focal extramedullary disease. This was confirmed by
biopsy or other imaging techniques.
Extramedullary uptake also occurred in 6 (23%) of 26 patients
with relapse. This extramedullary uptake was a very poor
prognostic factor both before treatment and at relapse. For
example, median survival was 7 mo for patients with disease
relapse. Persistent positive (18)F-FDG PET findings after
induction therapy predicted early relapse. In 13 (81%) of 16
patients with relapsing disease, new sites of disease were
identified. The (18)F-FDG PET results were especially helpful
in identifying focal recurrent disease in patients with
nonsecretory or hyposecretory disease amenable to local
irradiation therapy, which was used in 6 patients.
CONCLUSION: Whole-body (18)F-FDG PET provides
important prognostic information, which is clinically useful
and complementary to conventional methods of evaluating
plasma cell disorders. (18)F-FDG PET is a unique tool for
evaluation of nonsecretory myeloma. Residual or recurrent
disease after therapy, especially extramedullary disease, is a
poor prognostic factor.
PMID: 12411548 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
42
Section — III
Hepatobiliary and
Gastrointestinal Malignaicies
Gastric Carcinoma
Introduction:
95% of gastric cancers are adenocarcinomas. Lymphoma,
leiomyosarcoma, carcinoid, adenoacanthoma, and squamous
cell carcinomas account for the remaining 5%.
Current staging/imaging:
Endoscopy is now the preferred initial diagnostic test, because
it allows direct tumor visualization, cytologic testing, and
histologic biopsy that yield the diagnosis in 90% or more of
patients with exophytic lesions. Ulcerated cancers and linitis
plastica lesions may be harder to diagnose endoscopically,
but multiple biopsies and washings enhance the probability of
accurate diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has a
high degree of accuracy in determining depth of tumor invasion
, but is less accurate in detecting regional nodal metastasis.
Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for cytologic test
allows the assessment of regional lymph nodes and some
distant metastatic sites (e.g., liver), further enhancing the ability
of EUS to determine tumor stage and resectability.Abdominal
CT scan is valuable in determining the abdominal extent of
disease with regard to larger liver metastasis (1 cm or greater),
45
involvement of celiac or periaortic nodes, or extragastric
extension (may help determine which lesions extend to
surgically unresectable structures). Diagnostic laparoscopy
allows visualization of small serosal or liver metastases and
may give added information with regard to the amount of direct
extension of the primary tumor. Distant metastases should be
ruled out with a chest radiograph, serum liver chemistries,
and abdominal CT scan.If a proximal gastric tumor extends
to involve the esophagus; CT scan of the chest is useful in
determining mediastinal node involvement or parenchymal
lung metastases.
Summary of Evidence for PET:
FDG PET is not a reliable screening test for gastric carcinoma.
The uptake and detectability is less in superficial lesions.
Gastric adenocarcinoma express GLUT receptors and hence
are FDG avid. However there is normal physiological uptake
of FDG in the stomach also. The accuracy of FDG PET is
similar to that of CECT in the detectability of primary tumor.
While CECT is more sensitive in detecting nodes, the
specificity of FDG for nodes is higher with PET. The accuracy
of integrated CECT-PET is therefore the highest. Distant
metastases are best detected on FDG PET, while serosal mets
are best detected by CT. However FDG PET accuracy for
serosal lesions remains higher. There is growing evidence in
the detection of recurrent disease and assessing treatment
response with Chemo radiation.
46
Timing of the
PET/CT
Hierarchy of
Diagnostic
Efficacy
Relevance of
Test
Level of
Evidence
Diagnosis
Level 1
Inappropriate
Level2
Staging
Level 2
Possibly
Level1
appropriate
Level2
Level1
level2
Response
evaluation
Level3
Possibly
appropriate
Restaging
–
–
–
Suspected
recurrence
Level3
Possibly
appropriate
Level1
Followup
–
–
–
RT planning
–
–
–
Selected Abstracts:
Evaluation of whole-body cancer screening using 18F-2deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography:
a preliminary report. Terauchi T, Murano T, Daisaki H et
al. Ann Nucl Med. 2008 Jun;22(5):379-85.
OBJECTIVE: (18)F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose positron
emission tomography (FDG-PET) is a promising screening
modality targeting whole body. However, the validity of PET
cancer screening remains to be assessed. Even the screening
accuracy for whole-body screening using FDG-PET has not
been evaluated. In this study, we investigated the screening
accuracy of PET cancer screening. METHODS: A total of
2911 asymptomatic participants (1629 men and 1282 women,
mean age 59.79 years) underwent both FDG-PET and other
thorough examinations for multiple organs (gastrofiberscopy,
total colonofiberscopy or barium enema, low-dose thin section
computed tomography and sputum cytology, abdominal
ultrasonography, an assay of prostate-specific antigen,
mammography, mammary ultrasonography, Pap smear for the
47
uterine cervix, and magnetic resonance imaging for the
endometrium and ovaries) between February 2004 and January
2005, and followed sufficiently. The detection rate, sensitivity,
specificity, and positive predictive value of FDG-PET were
calculated using cancer data obtained from all examinations
along with a 1 year follow-up. RESULTS: From among 2911
participants FDG-PET found 28 cancers, 129 cancers were
PET negative. PET-positive cancers comprised seven
colorectal cancers, four lung cancers, four thyroid cancers,
three breast cancers, two gastric cancers, two prostate cancers,
two small intestinal sarcomas (gastrointestinal stromal tumors),
one malignant lymphoma, one head and neck malignancy
(nasopharyngeal carcinoid tumor), one thymoma, and one
hepatocellular carcinoma. PET-negative cancers included 22
gastric cancers and 20 prostate cancers that were essentially
difficult to detect using FDG-PET. The overall detection rate,
sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were
estimated to be 0.96%, 17.83%, 95.15%, and 11.20%,
respectively. CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET can detect a variety
of cancers at an early stage as part of a whole-body screening
modality. The detection rate of PET cancer screening was
higher than that of other screening modalities, which had
already shown evidence of efficacy. However, the sensitivity
of PET cancer screening was lower than that of other thorough
examinations performed at our institute. FDG-PET has some
limitations, and cancer screening using only FDG-PET is likely
to miss some cancers.
PMID: 18600415 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
48
Evaluation of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron
emission tomography in gastric carcinoma: relation to
histological subtypes, depth of tumor invasion, and glucose
transporter-1 expression. Yamada A, Oguchi K,
Fukushima Met al. Ann Nucl Med. 2006 Nov;20(9):597604.
OBJECTIVE: Variable uptake of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-Dglucose (FDG) has been noticed in positron emission
tomography (PET) studies of gastric carcinoma patients, with
low uptake occurring especially in some particular histological
subtypes and early carcinomas. But this phenomenon has not
been adequately explained. The aim of the present study is to
clarify FDG uptake in gastric carcinomas especially focusing
on histological subtypes, the depth of tumor invasion, and
glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) expression which is
considered to be one of the major factors for higher FDG
uptake in human malignant tumors. METHODS: FDG-PET
was performed on 35 preoperative patients with gastric
carcinoma. Forty macroscopically distinguishable lesions on
a surgical specimen were histologically classified into two
subtypes: Cohesive type (papillary adenocarcinoma, tubular
adenocarcinoma, and solid type poorly differentiated
adenocarcinoma) or Noncohesive type (signet-ring cell
carcinoma and non-solid type poorly differentiated carcinoma).
GLUT-1 expression was immunohistochemically determined.
Histological parameters (GLUT-1 expression, histological
subtypes, the depth of invasion, lymphatic permeation, venous
invasion and tumor size) were evaluated, and factors for FDG
uptake (detectability and the degree) and GLUT-1
overexpression were determined by multiple regression
analysis. RESULTS: Nineteen of 40 gastric carcinomas
showed detectable FDG uptake (48%), multiple regression
analysis revealed that both the depth of invasion and
histological subtypes are independent factors that influence
the detectable FDG uptake in gastric carcinoma (R2 = 0.66).
49
GLUT-1 expression was seen from an early cancer stage and
the cohesive type was an independent factor influencing the
overexpression of GLUT-1 (R2 = 0.66). GLUT-1 expression
was the most influential factor for the degree of FDG uptake
in gastric carcinoma (R2 = 0.68). CONCLUSIONS: This study
provided important information on the clinical application of
FDG-PET in gastric carcinoma that early or non-cohesive
gastric carcinoma may show lower FDG uptake. Therefore,
the usefulness of FDG-PET for the detection of gastric
carcinoma is limited. But there is a possibility that FDG uptake
associated with GLUT-1 expression may serve as a prognostic
factor of gastric carcinoma representing tumor metabolism.
PMID: 17294670
Assessment of lymph node metastases using 18F-FDG PET
in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Kim SK, Kang
KW, Lee JS et al. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2006
Feb;33(2):148-55.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic
accuracy of (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron
emission tomography (PET) with respect to lymph node (LN)
metastasis in patients with advanced gastric cancer, and to
ascertain the factors that affect this accuracy. METHODS:
Seventy-three patients with advanced gastric cancer, verified
in all cases by endoscopic biopsy, were enrolled in this
prospective study. We conducted FDG PET and other routine
preoperative studies, including abdominal computed
tomography (CT). Patients underwent either curative-intent
gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy (n = 67) or exploratory
laparotomy. The Japanese system for the classification of
gastric cancer was used for LN assessment. RESULTS: FDG
PET was able to detect primary lesions in 70 of the 73 cases.
The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV)
and negative predictive value of FDG PET for LN metastasis
50
were 40%, 95%, 91% and 56%, respectively. Signet-ring cell
carcinoma was associated with the lowest sensitivity (15%),
whereas other cell types could be detected with moderate
sensitivity (30-71%) and high specificity (93-100%).
According to multiple logistic regression, the standardised
uptake value for primary tumours was the only independent
variable to be significantly related to sensitivity for LN
metastasis (p = 0.02, odds ratio = 1.14). CT was superior to
PET in terms of sensitivity (p < 0.0001), and PET was superior
to CT in terms of specificity (p < 0.0001) and PPV (p = 0.05).
CONCLUSION: FDG PET exhibits good specificity for LN
staging of gastric cancer, and FDG uptake in the primary
tumour is significantly related to the accuracy of FDG PET.
Despite some clear limitations, FDG PET proved useful in
the LN staging of FDG-avid gastric cancer.
PMID: 16228236 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
The predictive value of 18F-FDG-PET early evaluation in
patients with metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma treated
with chemotherapy plus cetuximab. Di Fabio F, Pinto C,
Rojas Llimpe FL et al. Gastric Cancer. 2007;10(4):221-7.
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate
whether the therapy-induced reduction of the (18)Ffluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDGPET) maximum standardized uptake value in patients with
advanced gastric adenocarcinoma treated with chemotherapy
plus cetuximab could predict the objective response and
outcome early during the treatment. METHODS: The study
was performed as a part of a phase II trial evaluating cetuximab
plus the leucovorin/5-fluorouracil/irinotecan (FOLFIRI)
regimen. The objective response was evaluated according to
the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST)
every 6 weeks. The early metabolic response evaluated by
18F-FDG-PET was assessed according to our own evaluated
51
cutoff value (<35%) after receiver operating characteristic
(ROC) analysis. RESULTS: Twenty of 22 patients had positive
baseline 18F-FDG-PET. The best RECIST response was:
complete response (CR), 3; partial response (PR), 9; stable
disease (SD), 8. Twelve patients (60%) were classified as
metabolic responders and 8 (40%) as nonresponders. At the
median follow-up time of 11 months, median time to disease
progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) for early
metabolic responders versus nonresponders were 11 versus 5
months (P = 0.0016) and 16 versus 6 months (P = 0.1493),
respectively. CONCLUSION: The early metabolic response
evaluated by 18F-FDG-PET predicted the clinical outcome
in this series of patients with advanced gastric cancer treated
with chemotherapy plus cetuximab.
PMID: 18095077
Clinical role of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission
tomography/computed tomography in post-operative
follow up of gastric cancer: initial results. Sun L, Su XH,
Guan YS et al. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Aug
7;14(29):4627-32
AIM: To evaluate the clinical role of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose
positron emission and computed tomography ((18)F-FDG
PET/CT) in detection of gastric cancer recurrence after initial
surgical resection. METHODS: In the period from January
2007 to May 2008, 23 patients who had previous surgical
resection of histopathologically diagnosed gastric cancer
underwent a total of 25 (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans as followup visits in our center. The standard of reference for tumor
recurrence consisted of histopathologic confirmation or clinical
follow-up information for at least 5 mo after PET/CT
examinations. RESULTS: PET/CT was positive in 14 patients
(61%) and negative in 9 (39%). When correlated with final
diagnosis, which was confirmed by histopathologic evidence
52
of tumor recurrence in 8 of the 23 patients (35%) and by clinical
follow-up in 15 (65%), PET/CT was true positive in 12
patients, false positive in 2, true negative in 8 and false negative
in 2. Overall, the accuracy of PET/CT was 82.6%, the negative
predictive value (NPV) was 77.7%, and the positive predictive
value (PPV) was 85.7%. The 2 false positive PET/CT findings
were actually chronic inflammatory tissue lesions. For the two
patients with false negative PET/CT, the final diagnosis was
recurrence of mucinous adenocarcinoma in the anastomosis
in one patient and abdominal wall metastasis in the other.
Importantly, PET/CT revealed true-positive findings in 11
(47.8%) patients who had negative or no definite findings by
CT. PET/CT revealed extra-abdominal metastases in 7 patients
and additional esophageal carcinoma in one patient. Clinical
treatment decisions were changed in 7 (30.4%) patients after
introducing PET/CT into their conventional post-operative
follow-up program. CONCLUSION: Whole body (18)F-FDG
PET/CT was highly effective in discriminating true recurrence
in post-operative patients with gastric cancer and had important
impacts on clinical decisions in a considerable portion of
patients.
PMID: 18698676
[Postoperative follow-up of gastric adenocarcinoma with
neoplastic markers and 18-FDG-PET/TC]. Patriti A,
Graziosi L, Baffa N et al. Ann Ital Chir. 2007 Nov-Dec;
78(6):481-5
INTRODUCTION: The usefulness of tumour markers CEA,
CA19.9 and CA72.4 in association with FDG-PET/TG were
prospectively evaluated in the post-operative follow-up of
gastric cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty
one consecutive patients were enrolled in a follow-up
programme entailing with periodical clinical evaluations,
instrumental examinations and tumour markers assay FDG53
PET/TC was performed only in cases of suspected recurrence.
RESULTS: Sensitivity of CEA, CA19.9 e CA72.4 during the
follow-up period was respectively: 16%, 33.3% e 50%. Overall
sensitivity was 66.6%. Specificity was 100% for CEA, 93.3%
for CA19.9, 100% for CA72.4, with an overall specificity of
96.2%. FDG-PET/TC had a sensitivity of 100%.
CONCLUSIONS: Tumour markers in association with FDGPET/TC allow an early identification of recurrences after
surgery, with the advantage to start chemotherapy or surgical
protocols before the tumour has reached an advanced stage.
PMID: 18510026 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE
54
Colorectal Cancer
Introduction
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer
morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diagnosis of CRC is
generally based on colonoscopy and biopsy. Prognosis of CRC
closely relates to initial stage of the disease at diagnosis and
the ability to achieve surgical clearance. Accurate pre-operative
staging is important for optimal therapeutic planning which
includes surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Early
detection of recurrence can lead to better survival if the sites
of recurrence are localized and amenable to surgical excision.
Accurate imaging plays a very important role and needs to be
performed for routine surveillance and if recurrence is
clinically suspected.
Conventional Imaging
Conventional pre-operative imaging of CRC is performed with
ultrasound, CT scan and MRI. There is no ideal imaging
modality in terms of diagnostic accuracy and staging due to
the potential limitations of these modalities. CT is the most
widely used modality in the diagnosis and staging of CRC
with accuracy ranging between 64% and 81%. CT plays an
55
important role in detection of early recurrence however it is
limited by reliance on size criteria to diagnose malignancy.
Endoluminal ultrasound seems to have the highest accuracy
for tumor infiltration of the bowel wall and the adjacent fatty
tissue.But depth of invasion of the bowel wall and spread to
regional lymphnodes is frequently obtained intraoperatively
and histopathologically.
Summary of evidence for FDG PET
In the primary staging of CRC, small studies have shown
that FDG PET-CT is more accurate in tumor-node-metastases
staging compared with CT scan & FDG PET alone. Another
study of 44 patients which compared the accuracy of MDCT
and FDG PET with respect to primary tumor detectability,
lymph node involvement and distant metastases, FDG PET
was not found to be superior to MDCT in primary staging of
CRC. The low sensitivity of FDG PET for small lesions (less
than 1 cm) and the chance of false positives in inflammatory
bowel lesions could explain the current lack of evidence to
indicate FDG PET as part of routine screening or initial staging
of patients. FDG PET imaging can lead to a management
change in 2-36% patients of CRC undergoing initial staging.
But there is a small body of evidence to support this and in
addition a lack of cost –benefit analysis has not led to an impact
on general clinical practice particularly in nations where
resources are limited. The primary staging of rectal cancers is
one specific indication where FDG PET-CT is likely to make
an impact on management decisions.Though MRI has an
established role in rectal tumor staging by facilitating accurate
assessment of local tumor extension,addition of PET can
provide more accurate assessment of nodal & metastatic
disease. A recent study of 83 patients concluded that FDG
PET impacts management of patients of rectal cancer and
influences staging/therapy in one third of patients and should
be a component of rectal cancer work up.
56
Surgery remains the only option for potential cure in patients
with recurrent CRC. For evaluation of disease recurrence
PET has an established role in the standard of care of patients
with suspected recurrence either due to clinical symptoms or
rising tumor marker levels. A meta-analysis by Huebner et al
found that FDG PET has a sensitivity and specificity of 97%
and 76% in the detection of recurrent CRC which led to
management change in 29% patients. This number is similar
to the 32% management change demonstrated by Gambhir et
al. A prospective blinded comparison by Valk et al between
FDG PET and CT has shown a sensitivity and specificity of
93% and 98% for FDG PET and 96% and 69% for CT. FDG
PET can be particularly useful in detecting subtle peritoneal
and omental disease which can be difficult on CT scan alone.
It is very useful in proper selection of patients who are suitable
for surgery for recurrent disease.
One of the most compelling indication of FDG PET in CRC is
to look for occult extrahepatic disease before planning a
metastatectomy. Two meta analyses have shown a pooled
sensitivity and specificity of 91.5 % and 95.5% versus 61 %
and 91% for CT in this setting.
FDG PET has been used in assessing response at the
completion of radiotherapy, chemoradiation or local ablative
therapy. When performed at an appropriate time interval after
treatment it can provide information on presence of viable
tumor, differentiate disease from fibrosis/scar and also helps
predict survival. There are a few prospective studies in
literature which have looked at the role of FDG PET after
radiation therapy in the prognostic stratification in patients
with locally advanced rectal cancer. They concluded that a
significant survival benefit was observed in patients with low
FDG uptake after pre-operative radiotherapy in locally
advanced tumors of the rectum. A few prospective studies have
57
shown that FDG PET reveals RFA treatment failure as well as
detection of local recurrence earlier than CT scan.
For radiation therapy planning a few small studies indicate
that tumor target volume assessment can be improved by the
addition of FDG PET-CT with 17% of patients requiring
change in treatment fields and 26% patients needing
management change.
Timing of the
PET/CT
Hierarchy of
Diagnostic
Efficacy
Relevance of
Test
Level of
Evidence
Diagnosis
Level 2
Potentially
appropriate
Level II
Staging
Level 5
Probably
appropriate
Level II
Response
evaluation &
Restaging
Level 5
Appropriate
Level I
Suspected
recurrence
Level 5
Appropriate
Level I
Follow up
Level 4
Probably
appropriate
Level I
RT planning
Level 4
Potentially
appropriate
Level II
Selected abstracts
The impact of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission
tomography-computed tomography on the staging and
management of primary rectal cancer. Davey K, Heriot
AG, Mackay J, Drummond E, Hogg A, Ngan S, Milner
AD, Hicks RJ. Dis Colon Rectum. 2008 Jul;51(7):997-1003.
Epub 2008 May 7.
PURPOSE: 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission
tomography-computed tomography (FDG PET-CT) has a role
58
in recurrent colorectal cancer. This study was designed to
assess the impact of PET-CT on management of primary rectal
cancer. METHODS: Eighty-three patients with rectal cancer
underwent PET-CT scan between 2002 and 2005. Referring
physicians prospectively recorded stage and management plan
after conventional imaging before PET-CT scan, which were
compared to subsequent stage and management after PETCT. RESULTS: Staging PET-CT caused a change in stage from
conventional imaging in 26 patients (31 percent). Twelve
(14 percent) were upstaged (7 change in N stage; 4 change in
M stage; 1 change in N and M stage), and 14 (17 percent)
were downstaged (10 change in N stage; 3 change in M stage;
1 change in N and M stage). PET-CT scan altered management
intent in seven patients (8 percent) (curative to palliative
6 patients; palliative to curative 1 patient). Management was
altered in ten patients (12 percent). There was no difference
in impact with respect to tumor height. CONCLUSIONS: PETCT scan impacts the management of patients with primary
rectal cancer and influences staging/therapy in a third of
patients and should be a component of rectal cancer workup.
Positron emission tomography scanning is not superior to
whole body multidetector helical computed tomography
in the preoperative staging of colorectal cancer. Furukawa
H, Ikuma H, Seki A, Yokoe K, Yuen S, Aramaki T,
Yamagushi S. Gut. 2006 Jul;55(7):1007-11. Epub 2005
Dec 16.
BACKGROUND: The role of positron emission tomography
with the glucose analogue [18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose
(FDG-PET) in the initial staging of disease in patients with
primary colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been adequately
assessed. AIMS: To evaluate the additional value of FDGPET as a staging modality, complementary to routine
multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) in patients
with CRC. METHODS: Forty four patients with CRC
59
underwent preoperative MDCT and FDG-PET. The accuracy
of intraoperative macroscopic staging was also investigated
compared with histopathological diagnosis. All FDG-PET
images were evaluated with respect to detectability of the
primary tumour, lymph node involvement, and distant
metastases. Both MDCT and FDG-PET diagnoses and
treatment plan were compared with surgical and
histopathological results. RESULTS: Thirty seven patients
underwent surgery. Tumour detection rate was 95% (42/44)
for MDCT, 100% (44/44) for FDG-PET, and 100% (37/37)
for intraoperative macroscopic diagnosis. Pathological
diagnosis of T factor was T1 in five, T2 in four, T3 in 24, and
T4 in four cases. Concordance rate with pathological findings
of T factor was 57% (21/37) for MDCT and 62% (23/37) for
macroscopic diagnosis. Lymph node involvement was
pathologically positive in 19 cases. Regarding N factor, overall
accuracy was 62% (23/37) for MDCT, 59% (22/37) for FDGPET, and 70% (26/37) for macroscopic diagnosis. For all 44
patients, FDG-PET findings resulted in treatment changes in
only one (2%) patient. CONCLUSION: FDG-PET is not
superior to routine MDCT in the initial staging of primary
CRC.
PET changes management and improves prognostic
stratification in patients with recurrent colorectal cancer:
results of a multicenter prospective study. Scott AM,
Gunawardana DH, Kelley B, Stuckey JG, Byrne AJ,
Ramshaw JE, Fulham MJ. J Nucl Med. 2008
Sep;49(9):1451-7. Epub 2008 Aug 14.
The aims of our study were to examine the impact of PET in
changing management in patients with proven or suspected
colorectal cancer recurrence and to assess the impact of
management change on disease-free survival. METHODS:
Symptomatic patients with a residual structural lesion
suggestive of recurrent tumor (group A) or patients with
60
pulmonary or hepatic metastases considered to be potentially
resectable (group B) underwent PET scans. Pre-PET
management plans were documented by referring clinicians
unaware of the PET results, and follow-up to 12 mo was
performed to determine actual management and clinical
outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 191 patients (118 men and
73 women; mean age, 66 y) were studied. PET detected
additional sites of disease in 48.4% of patients in group A and
in 43.9% of patients in group B. A change in planned
management was documented in 65.6% of group A and in
49.0% of group B patients. These management plans were
implemented in 96% of patients. Follow-up data in group A
showed progressive disease in 60.5% of patients with
additional lesions detected by PET, compared with
conventional imaging, and in 36.2% of patients with no
additional lesions detected by PET (P=0.04). In group B,
progressive disease was identified in 65.9% of patients with
additional lesions detected by PET and in 39.2% of patients
with no additional lesions detected by PET (P=0.01). PET
also provided valuable prognostic information on patients
stratified into curative- or palliative-intent groups.
CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate the significant impact
of PET on management and outcomes in patients with
suspected recurrent colorectal cancer.
Preoperative radiation response evaluated by
18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography
predicts survival in locally advanced rectal cancer.
Nakagawa K, Yamashita H, Nakamura N, Igaki H, Tago
M, Hosoi Y, Momose T, Ohtomo K, Muto T, Nagawa H.
Dis Colon Rectum. 2008 Jul;51(7):1055-60. Epub 2008
May 1.
The aims of our study were to examine the impact of PET in
changing management in patients with proven or suspected
colorectal cancer recurrence and to assess the impact of
61
management change on disease-free survival. METHODS:
Symptomatic patients with a residual structural lesion
suggestive of recurrent tumor (group A) or patients with
pulmonary or hepatic metastases considered to be potentially
resectable (group B) underwent PET scans. Pre-PET
management plans were documented by referring clinicians
unaware of the PET results, and follow-up to 12 mo was
performed to determine actual management and clinical
outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 191 patients (118 men and
73 women; mean age, 66 y) were studied. PET detected
additional sites of disease in 48.4% of patients in group A and
in 43.9% of patients in group B. A change in planned
management was documented in 65.6% of group A and in
49.0% of group B patients. These management plans were
implemented in 96% of patients. Follow-up data in group A
showed progressive disease in 60.5% of patients with
additional lesions detected by PET, compared with
conventional imaging, and in 36.2% of patients with no
additional lesions detected by PET (P=0.04). In group B,
progressive disease was identified in 65.9% of patients with
additional lesions detected by PET and in 39.2% of patients
with no additional lesions detected by PET (P=0.01). PET
also provided valuable prognostic information on patients
stratified into curative- or palliative-intent groups.
CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate the significant impact
of PET on management and outcomes in patients with
suspected recurrent colorectal cancer.
The role of positron emission tomography in the
management of recurrent colorectal cancer: a review.
Watson AJ, Lolohea S, Robertson GM, Frizelle FA. Dis
Colon Rectum. 2007 Jan;50(1):102-14.
PURPOSE: Surgery remains the only option for potential cure
in patients with recurrent colorectal cancer. Accurate staging
modalities aid in the avoidance of futile surgery, which may
62
result in considerable morbidity in patients with incurable
disease. Current imaging techniques used in disease staging
often are not sensitive enough to identify low-volume
metastatic disease. This study reviews the role of positron
emission tomography in the assessment of patients with
suspected recurrent colorectal cancer. METHODS: A literature
search using the PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase database
was performed, locating English language articles on positron
emission tomography, positron emission tomography, recurrent
colon, and/or rectal cancer. The references of these papers
were searched manually for further references. RESULTS:
Positron emission tomography is more sensitive and more
specific than conventional diagnostic imaging for metastatic
disease and local recurrence respectively. Studies confirm the
superior ability of positron emission tomography scans
compared with conventional diagnostic imaging in
differentiating between scar tissue and invasive tumor. Positron
emission tomography scanning is more sensitive and specific
for the assessment of liver metastases (and probably in patients
with lung metastasis) than conventional diagnostic imaging.
Positron emission tomography is superior to conventional
diagnostic imaging in the investigation of raised
carcinoembryonic antigen in the postoperative patient and
alters management in approximately 37 percent of patients
with recurrent colorectal cancer. The limitations and cost
effectiveness of positron emission tomography are discussed.
CONCLUSIONS: Positron emission tomography scanning is
emerging as the imaging modality of choice for patients being
considered for surgery for locally recurrent colorectal cancer.
Positron emission tomography has the greatest impact by
detecting unresectable disease and thereby averting
inappropriate surgery. Despite the high set-up costs, its use
seems to be cost effective.
63
Diagnostic value of FDG-PET in recurrent colorectal
carcinoma: a meta-analysis. Zhang C, Chen Y, Xue H,
Zheng P, Tong J, Liu J, Sun X, Huang G. Int J Cancer.
2009 Jan 1;124(1):167-73.
Accurate detection of recurrent colorectal carcinoma remains
a diagnostic challenge. The purposes of this study were to
evaluate the diagnostic value of Positron emission tomography
(PET) using fluor-18-deoxyglucose (FDG) in recurrent
colorectal carcinoma with a meta-analysis. All the published
studies in English relating the diagnostic value of FDG-PET
in the detection of recurrent colorectal carcinoma were
collected. Methodological quality of the included studies was
evaluated. Pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds
ratio and SROC (summary receiver operating characteristic
curves) were obtained by the statistical software. Twenty-seven
studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled
sensitivity and specificity for FDG-PET detecting distant
metastasis or whole body involvement in recurrent colorectal
carcinoma were 0.91 (95% CI 0.88-0.92) and 0.83 (95%
CI 0.79-0.87), respectively. The pooled sensitivity and
specificity for FDG-PET detecting hepatic metastasis were
0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.98) and 0.98 (95% CI 0.97-0.99). The
pooled sensitivity and specificity for pelvic metastasis or local
regional recurrence were 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.97) and 0.94
(95% CI 0.92-0.96). FDG-PET is valuable for the assessment
of recurrent colorectal carcinoma.
Role of [18F]FDG-PET/CT after radiofrequency ablation
of liver metastases: preliminary results. Travaini LL,
Trifirò G, Ravasi L, Monfardini L, Della Vigna P, Bonomo
G, Chiappa A, Mallia A, Ferrari M, Orsi F, Paganelli G.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2008 Jul;35(7):1316-22.
Epub 2008 Mar 13.
PURPOSE: Focal metastasis may be treated with
radiofrequency ablation (RFA), a low invasive method yet
64
limited by the lack of direct evidence of radicality of treatment.
We, hereby, aimed at assessing the role of positron emission
tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) with fluoride
radiolabeled deoxy-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) in RFA treatment
success evaluation and early diagnosis of local relapse of liver
metastasis after RFA procedure. METHODS: RFA was
performed in nine patients on 12 liver metastasis, serially
imaged through [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT and multidetector CT
(MDCT) at 1, 3, 6, and 9 months after treatment. Eight lesions
were also scanned with [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT at 1 week after
treatment. Imaging analyses were performed on 47
[(18)F]FDG-PET/CT and 51 MDCT. Imaging reading
outcomes were compared to each other and to biopsy tissue
results when available. RESULTS: In one case, [(18)F]FDGPET/CT revealed radiotracer uptake at RFA site a week after
procedure. Negative concordant outcome was obtained on
eight lesions at 1 month after RFA, on eight cases at 3 months,
on four at 6 months, and on two cases at 9 months. Extra-liver
(peritoneal) disease was detected in one case by both
[(18)F]FDG-PET/CT and MDCT. In seven cases,
[(18)F]FDG-PET/CT revealed the presence of local recurrence
earlier than MDCT. In no cases did MDCT detect local relapse
earlier than [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT. CONCLUSION:
[(18)F]FDG-PET/CT may detect RFA treatment failure as well
as local relapse after RFA earlier than MDCT.
Whole-body MRI at 1.5 T and 3 T compared with FDGPET-CT for the detection of tumour recurrence in patients
with colorectal cancer. Schmidt GP, Baur-Melnyk A, Haug
A, Utzschneider S, Becker CR, Tiling R, Reiser MF,
Hermann KA. Eur Radiol. 2009 Feb 4.
The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy
of whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) at 1.5 T or 3 T compared
with FDG-PET-CT in the follow-up of patients suffering from
colorectal cancer. In a retrospective study, 24 patients with a
65
history of colorectal cancer and suspected tumour recurrence
underwent FDG-PET-CT and WB-MRI with the use of parallel
imaging (PAT) for follow-up. High resolution coronal T1wTSE and STIR sequences at four body levels, HASTE imaging
of the lungs, contrast-enhanced T1w- and T2w-TSE sequences
of the liver, brain, abdomen and pelvis were performed, using
WB-MRI at either 1.5 T (n = 14) or 3 T (n = 10). Presence of
local recurrent tumour, lymph node involvement and distant
metastatic disease was confirmed using radiological followup within at least 5 months as a standard of reference. Seventy
seven malignant foci in 17 of 24 patients (71%) were detected
with both WB-MRI and PET-CT. Both investigations
concordantly revealed two local recurrent tumours. PET-CT
detected significantly more lymph node metastases (sensitivity
93%, n = 27/29) than WB-MRI (sensitivity 63%, n = 18/29).
PET-CT and WB-MRI achieved a similar sensitivity for the
detection of organ metastases with 80% and 78%, respectively
(37/46 and 36/46). WB-MRI detected brain metastases in one
patient. One false-positive local tumour recurrence was
indicated by PET-CT. Overall diagnostic accuracy for PETCT was 91% (sensitivity 86%, specificity 96%) and 83% for
WB-MRI (sensitivity 72%, specificity 93%), respectively.
Examination time for WB-MRI at 1.5 T and 3 T was 52 min
and 43 min, respectively; examination time for PET-CT was
103 min. Initial results suggest that differences in accuracy
for local and distant metastases detection using FDG-PETCT and WB-MRI for integrated screening of tumour
recurrence in colorectal cancer depend on the location of the
malignant focus. Our results show that nodal disease is better
detected using PET-CT, whereas organ disease is depicted
equally well by both investigations.
66
Hepatocellular Carcinoma & PET/CT
Introduction:
HCC is commonly associated with macronodular cirrhosis in
South East Asia and micronodular cirrhosis in Europe and
United States. Viral hepatitis,alcoholic hepatitis, chronic active
hepatitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are associated with
HCC.
Current staging/imaging:
Ultrasound of the liver is an excellent screening tool. A 3 phase
CECT and MRI are the current imaging modalities of choice.
CECT guided biopsy helps clinch the diagnosis. The location,
number of masses, evidence of extra hepatic spread, and
patency of vessels, are the important questions to be answered
by imaging.
Summary of Evidence for PET:
It is seen that FDG PET does not concentrate in all HCCs.
Several case reports mention the advantage of FDG uptake,
identifying the loco regional metastases and portal vein
thrombosis, adding to the specificity of the CECT. In a
prospective study of 18F-FDG, the sensitivities according to
67
tumor size (1-2, 2-5, and >/=5 cm) were 27.2%, 47.8%, and
92.8%, respectively; for (11)C-acetate, these respective values
were 31.8%, 78.2%, and 95.2%. (18)F-FDG was more
sensitive in the detection of poorly differentiated HCC. There
are several case reports that have shown FDG uptake in hepatic
and extra hepatic lesions including tumor thrombus. Animal
studies have shown that FDG does not concentrate in well
differentiated and moderately differentiated HCC more than
that of the normal liver tissue. 11 C Acetate is a better agent
for well differentiated HCC but does not perform better than
FDG in extra hepatic lesions.
A combination of three phase CT scan along with FDG PET
as a single study could provide the highest sensitivity and add
prognostic information.
Timing of the
PET/CT
Hierarchy of
Diagnostic
Efficacy
Relevance of
Test
Level of
Evidence
Diagnosis
Level1
Inappropriate
–
Staging
Level 2
Possibly
appropriate
Level 2 1 study
Level 3 1 study
Level 4 many
Response
evaluation
Level1
Probably
appropriate
–
Restaging
Level 1
Probably a
ppropriate
–
Suspected
recurrence
Level 1
Probably
appropriate
–
Followup
Level1
Inappropriate
–
RT planning
Level 1
inappropriate
–
68
Selected Abstracts:
PET imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma with 2-deoxy-2
[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose, 6-deoxy-6[(18)F]fluoro-Dglucose, [(1-11)C]-acetate and [N-methyl-(11)C]-choline.
Salem N, Kuang Y, Wang F et al. Q J Nucl Med Mol
Imaging. 2008 Nov 28
AIM: This study was designed to investigate the performance
of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for
hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on a hepatitis viral infectioninduced woodchuck model using existing tracers such as
2-deoxy-2[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose (2FDG), 6-deoxy6[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose (6FDG), [(1-11)C]acetate (acetate)
and [N-methyl-(11)C]choline (choline). METHODS: Fourteen
woodchucks with HCC were imaged with different
radiotracers: 13 (10 with HCC and 3 controls) with 2FDG; 4
(3 with HCC and 1 control) with 6FDG; 13 (10 with HCC and
3 controls) with acetate; 4 (2 with HCC and 2 controls) with
choline. The woodchucks were euthanized after imaging
experiments and liver tissues were harvested for histology,
for enzymatic activities including hexokinase (HK), glucose6-phosphatase, acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACAS) and choline
kinase (CK), and for differential gene expressions between
the HCCs and the surrounding hepatic tissues. RESULTS:
2FDG detected 7/13 tumors with a tumor-to-liver uptake ratio
(T/L) of 1.36+/-0.13. Five of these HCCs were moderatelyor poorly-differentiated. The HK/glucose-6-phosphatase ratio
was significantly higher in HCCs compared to the surrounding
liver tissues (P=0.05). None of the HCCs imaged with 6FDG
were detected by PET (T/L=1.01+/-0.11). Acetate detected
16/17 HCCs (T/L=2.02+/-0.7). ACAS activity was
significantly higher in HCCs (P=0.01) and lipids-related genes
were found up-regulated. Choline imaging detected all HCCs
(T/L=1.63+/-0.34). CK activity was significantly higher in
HCCs (P=0.001). CONCLUSION: Well-differentiated and
69
some moderately-differentiated HCCs do not uptake 2FDG
more than the surrounding liver tissues, but display increased
acetate uptake. There is no contrast between HCCs and the
surrounding liver tissues on the 6FDG PET images. Despite
elevated background signal from the liver, choline uptake
seems to be detectable in the HCCs scanned in this study.
PMID: 19039303
A prospective evaluation of 18F-FDG and 11C-acetate
PET/CT for detection of primary and metastatic
hepatocellular carcinoma. Park JW, Kim JH, Kim SK et
al. J Nucl Med. 2008 Dec;49(12):1912-21. Epub 2008 Nov 7
Because (18)F-FDG PET has insufficient sensitivity for the
detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), (11)C-acetate
PET has been proposed as another technique for this use. We
prospectively evaluated the value of PET/CT using these 2
tracers for the detection of primary and metastatic HCC.
METHODS: One hundred twelve patients (99 with HCC, 13
with cholangiocellular carcinoma) underwent biopsy and
(18)F-FDG and (11)C-acetate PET/CT. RESULTS: The
overall sensitivities of (18)F-FDG, (11)C-acetate, and dualtracer PET/CT in the detection of 110 lesions in 90 patients
with primary HCC were 60.9%, 75.4%, and 82.7%,
respectively. Elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein levels, an
advanced tumor stage, portal vein tumor thrombosis, large
tumors, and multiple tumors were significantly associated with
positive (18)F-FDG PET/CT results. Uptake of (11)C-acetate
was associated with large and multiple tumors. For (18)F-FDG,
the sensitivities according to tumor size (1-2, 2-5, and >/=5 cm)
were 27.2%, 47.8%, and 92.8%, respectively; for (11)Cacetate, these respective values were 31.8%, 78.2%, and
95.2%. (18)F-FDG was more sensitive in the detection of
poorly differentiated HCC. Overall survival was lower in
patients with (18)F-FDG PET/CT positive for all indexed
70
lesions than in those with FDG negative or partially positive
through the entire follow-up period. In analysis based on
biopsied lesions, the sensitivity of (18)F-FDG PET/CT was
64.4% for primary HCC and 84.4% for (11)C-acetate PET/
CT. The overall sensitivities of (18)F-FDG, (11)C-acetate, and
dual-tracer PET/CT for 35 metastatic HCCs were 85.7%,
77.0%, and 85.7%, respectively. There was no significant
difference in the sensitivity of tracers according to metastatic
tumor size, location, or differentiation. CONCLUSION: The
addition of (11)C-acetate to (18)F-FDG PET/CT increases the
overall sensitivity for the detection of primary HCC but not
for the detection of extrahepatic metastases. (18)F-FDG, (11)Cacetate, and dual-tracer PET/CT have a low sensitivity for the
detection of small primary HCC, but (18)F-FDG PET/CT has
a relatively high sensitivity for the detection of extrahepatic
metastases of HCC.
PMID: 18997056
Clinical implication of glucose transport and metabolism
evaluated by 18F-FDG PET in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Paudyal B, Paudyal P, Oriuchi N et al. Int J Oncol. 2008
Nov;33(5):1047-54.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has variable 18F-fluoro-2deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) uptake and the relationship
between 18F-FDG uptake with the expression of glucose
transporters (Gluts) and hexokinase II (HK-II) has not been
extensively examined. Present study explored the role of 18FFDG positron emission tomography (PET) as a clinical
significance and the association with Gluts and HK-II in
patients with HCC. Whole body 18F-FDG PET,
immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis of Glut-1 to
Glut-5 and HK-II were performed in 31 patients (24 male and
7 female, range 48-75 years) with HCC. Significant correlation
was found between 18F-FDG uptake and overall expression
71
of Glut-2 (rho=0.55, p=0.002) and HK-II (rho=0.37, p=0.04).
Expression of HK-II was correlated with Glut-2 (rho=0.57,
p=0.0009) but not with other Gluts, which indicated that Glut-2
is a major glucose transporter. The prognosis of patients with
SUV >/=2 and positive Glut-2 were significantly worse than
that with SUV <2 and negative Glut-2 (p=0.005 and p=0.03),
respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that SUV and lymph
node metastasis were independent prognostic factors. The
present study indicated that combined evaluation of 18F-FDG
uptake and expression of Glut-2 might have an important role
for management of patients with HCC.
PMID: 18949368
Detection of hepatocellular carcinoma using 11Ccholine PET: comparison with 18F-FDG PET.
Yamamoto Y, Nishiyama Y, Kameyama R et al. J
Nucl Med. 2008 Aug;49(8):1245-8. Epub 2008 Jul 16
The purpose of this study was to retrospectively investigate
the feasibility of 11C-choline PET, compared with 18F-FDG
PET, for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: A total of 16 HCC lesions in 12 patients were
examined with both 11C-choline PET and 18F-FDG PET.
Tumor lesions were identified as areas of focally increased
uptake, exceeding that of surrounding noncancerous liver
tissue. For semiquantitative analysis, the tumor-to-liver (T/L)
ratio was calculated by dividing the maximal standardized
uptake value (SUV) in HCC lesions by the mean SUV in
noncancerous liver tissue. RESULTS: 11C-choline PET
showed a slightly higher detection rate than did 18F-FDG PET
for detection of HCC (63% vs. 50%, respectively), although
this difference was not statistically significant. 11C-choline
PET had a better detection rate for moderately differentiated
HCC lesions but not for those poorly differentiated (75% vs.
25%, respectively). In contrast, 18F-FDG PET exhibited the
72
opposite behavior, with corresponding detection rates of 42%
and 75%, respectively. The mean 11C-choline SUV and T/L
ratio in moderately differentiated HCC lesions were higher
than those in poorly differentiated HCC lesions. In contrast,
the mean 18F-FDG SUV and T/L ratio in poorly differentiated
HCC were higher than those in moderately differentiated HCC.
These differences, however, were also not statistically
significant. CONCLUSION: 11C-choline PET had a better
detection rate for moderately differentiated HCC lesions but
not for poorly differentiated HCC lesions, whereas 18F-FDG
PET produced the opposite result. 11C-choline is a potential
tracer to complement 18F-FDG in detection of HCC lesions.
PMID: 18632827
73
Cholangiocarcinoma
Introduction
Cholangiocarcinomas form 3% of the GI tumors and could be
intrahepatic or extra hepatic. More than 90% of CC are well
to moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas, that present as
solid masses or infiltrate surrounding tissues, grow
intraductally, or have mixed characteristics. Elevation of serum
tumor markers (Ca 19-9 and CEA) supports diagnosis of CC,
although none of them is diagnostic. Levels of Ca 19-9 seem
to correlate with the stage of the disease, as serum levels of
Ca 19-9 >100 U/mL have shown to have 33% sensitivity to
detect resectable tumors compared with 72% for unresectable
tumors
Conventional Staging:
Ultrasonography (US) is usually the initial test to evaluate
biliary obstruction. Sensitivity and accuracy of US for ECC is
89% and 80% to 95%, respectively.
Use of duplex US with color Doppler technology has 93%
sensitivity and 99% specificity in assessing portal venous or
hepatic artery invasion.
74
Triple-phase CT scan is used to assess local spread, vascular
and lymph node involvement, and presence of distant
metastases. Sensitivity of triple-phase helical CT for detection
of CC ranges between 90% and 100%. Overall accuracy of
CT in determining resectability of CC is in the range of 60%
to 85%.
CT cholangiography has been shown to be superior to
conventional CT and comparable with ERCP for diagnosis of
KCC because the sensitivity and specificity of CT
cholangiography are 94%.
Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography has a overall
sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 95%; 66% accuracy for
detection of lymph node metastases, 78% sensitivity and 91%
specificity for portal vein invasion, 58% sensitivity and 93%
specificity for arterial invasion.
Summary Of Evidence for PET:
Diagnosis – the Ability to differentiate malignant from benign
stricture of the biliary tree:
One prospective trial of 37 patients who underwent dual point
imaging FDG PET study at two time intervals and the delayed
scan when compared to histology yielded Sensitivity: 86%,
specificity -86.5% , accuracy- 86% Delayed imaging with
FDG PET hence can be used to differentiate malignant from
benign stricture. The overall accuracy of FDG PET to detect
malignancy in biliary tree is 89% against 82% of CECT.
Staging: Three prospective and two retrospective studies have
examined this indication.
First Prospective study of 123 patients, potentially operable
cholangiocarcinoma were valuated with FDG PET/CT. The
overall values for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive
value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy
75
of PET-CT in primary tumor detection were 84.0%, 79.3%,
92.9%, 60.5%, and 82.9%, respectively. PET-CT demonstrated
no statistically significant advantage over CT and MRI/MRCP
in the primary tumor evaluation. PET-CT revealed significantly
higher accuracy over CT in the diagnosis of regional lymph
nodes metastases (75.9%vs 60.9%, P= 0.004) and distant
metastases (88.3%vs 78.7%, P= 0.004). Additional use of PETCT for assessing resectability correctly showed different results
from those determined by conventional imaging in 15 (15.9%)
of 94 patients with cholangiocarcinoma. Another study
examined the role of SUV & FDG PET findings’ on
P Glycoprotein expression, involved nodes and survival.
Patients also underwent routine CT and MRI study. The
diagnostic accuracies of FDG-PET, CT, and MRI for detection
of lymph node metastasis were 86%, 68%, and 57%, the
sensitivities were 43%, 43% and 43%, and the specificities
were 100%, 76%, and 64%, respectively. A negative
correlation was found between SUV and P-g p expression.
The disease-free survival rates in the high SUV group were
significantly lower than in the low SUV group, and a high
SUV was an independent predictor of postoperative
recurrence. In a retrospective study FDG PET was found to
alter treatment choice in 20%, both in pre treatment and in
post treatment staging. For detecting recurrence, retrospective
study by P Conti et al showed a sensitivity and specificity of
(PET alone and combined with CT) were 94% and 100% and,
for CT alone, were 82% and 43%, respectively. This suggests
that FDG PET/CT is useful in detecting suspected recurrence.
FDG PET/CT has similar performance in the evaluation of T
and stage is superior to CT/MRI in the evaluation of N and M
stage.
76
Timing of the
PET/CT
Hierarchy of
Diagnostic
Efficacy
Relevance of
Test
Level of
Evidence
Diagnosis
Level2
Probably
appropriate
1 level 1 study
1 level 2 study
Staging
Level 2
appropriate
3 level 1 studies
Response
evaluation
–
–
–
Restaging
Level2
Probably
appropriate
1 level 2 study
Suspected
recurrence
Level2
Probably
appropriate
1 level 2 study
Followup
Level1
NA
NA
RT planning
Level1
NA
NA
2 level 2 studies
Selected Abstracts::
Comparison of early and delayed FDG PET for evaluation
of biliary stricture. Nishiyama Y, Yamamoto Y, Kimura et
al. Nucl Med Commun. 2007 Dec;28(12):914-9.
OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether delayed FDG PET
imaging is more useful for the evaluation of biliary stricture
in differential diagnosis of malignancy from benign disease.
METHODS: Thirty-seven patients who underwent FDG PET
for differential diagnosis of the disease causing biliary stricture
were included. FDG PET imaging was performed at 70+/-12
min (early) post FDG injection and repeated 188+/-27 min
(delayed) after injection only in the abdominal region. Image
analysis was performed with visual interpretation and using a
semi-quantitative method if lesion was visible on the PET
image. The semi-quantitative analysis using the standardized
uptake value (SUV) was determined for both early and delayed
images (SUVearly and SUVdelayed, respectively). The
tumour-to-normal liver (T/L) ratio was also calculated.
77
RESULTS: The final diagnosis was cholangiocarcinoma in
29 and benign disease in eight patients. In cases of
cholangiocarcinoma, visual analysis of FDG PET using the
delayed images, improve the diagnosis with one more patient
correctly identified. For early and delayed FDG PET,
sensitivities were 82.8% and 86.2%, respectively; specificities
were 87.5% for both; and accuracies were 83.8% and 86.5%,
respectively. Both SUV and T/L ratio derived from delayed
images were significantly higher than those derived from early
images for cholangiocarcinoma (P<0.0002 and P<0.0001,
respectively). CONCLUSION: FDG PET could be useful for
differential diagnosis of malignancy from benign disease in
patients with biliary stricture. Especially, the delayed targeted
FDG PET imaging can be recommended in those patients when
early imaging is negative or equivalent, because of increased
lesion uptake and increased lesion to background contrast ratio.
Clinical role of 18F-FDG PET-CT in suspected and
potentially operable cholangiocarcinoma: a prospective
study compared with conventional imaging. Kim JY, Kim
MH, Lee TY, et al. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008 May;
103(5):1145-51.
OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate the
clinical role of integrated positron emission and computed
tomography (PET-CT) in patients with suspected and
potentially operable cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS:
Between October 2005 and May 2007, 123 patients with
suspected cholangiocarcinoma were enrolled in this study after
diagnostic workup, including biliary dynamic computed
tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic
resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRI/MRCP) with
magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. Patients with overt
unresectable cholangiocarcinoma or gallbladder cancer
diagnosed via conventional imaging were excluded.
78
Consecutively, each enrolled patient underwent PET-CT. Data
were prospectively collected and analyzed in comparison with
CT and MRI/MRCP. RESULTS: The overall values for
sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV),
negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of PET-CT in
primary tumor detection were 84.0%, 79.3%, 92.9%, 60.5%,
and 82.9%, respectively. PET-CT demonstrated no statistically
significant advantage over CT and MRI/MRCP in the diagnosis
of primary tumor. According to different morphologic
characteristics of cholangiocarcinoma, PET-CT showed no
significant difference in detecting those of mass-forming,
periductal-infiltrating, and intraductal-growing types. PET-CT
revealed significantly higher accuracy over CT in the diagnosis
of regional lymph nodes metastases (75.9%vs 60.9%,
P= 0.004) and distant metastases (88.3%vs 78.7%, P= 0.004).
Additional use of PET-CT for assessing resectability correctly
showed different results from those determined by
conventional imaging in 15 (15.9%) of 94 patients with
cholangiocarcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: PET-CT improved the
accuracy of preoperative staging in patients with
cholangiocarcinoma planning to undergo curative resection.
Thus, PET-CT had an important clinical impact on the selection
of proper treatment.
Fluorine-18 flourodeoxyglucose positron emission
tomography predicts lymph node metastasis,
P-glycoprotein expression, and recurrence after resection
in mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Seo S,
Hatano E, Higashi T et al. Surgery. 2008 Jun; 143(6):
769-77.
BACKGROUND:
Patients
with
intrahepatic
cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) have a poor prognosis, and lymph
node metastasis is an important prognostic factor. In this study,
we investigated the usefulness of fluorodeoxyglucose positron
79
emission tomography (FDG-PET) as a marker for lymph node
metastasis, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression, and recurrence
in ICC. METHODS: The subjects were 35 patients who
underwent FDG-PET. Detectability of lymph node metastasis
using FDG-PET was compared with that using computed
tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In
patients who underwent resection, expression of P-gp was
examined immunohistochemically, and the relationship
between P-gp expression and the standardized uptake value
(SUV) in FDG-PET was investigated. Survival rates were
analyzed using clinical and pathologic factors. RESULTS: Of
the 35 patients, 5 did not undergo surgery based on FDG-PET
findings (2 with extrahepatic metastasis, and 3 with para-aortic
lymph node metastasis) and 3 underwent laparotomy only
(2 with peritoneal dissemination and 1 with para-aortic lymph
node metastasis). The diagnostic accuracies of FDG-PET, CT,
and MRI for detection of lymph node metastasis were 86%,
68%, and 57%, the sensitivities were 43%, 43% and 43%,
and the specificities were 100%, 76%, and 64%, respectively.
A negative correlation was found between SUV and P-gp
expression (P = .002; r = -0.62). The disease-free survival
rates in the high SUV group (>or=8.5) were significantly lower
than in the low SUV group (<8.5; P = .04), and a high SUV
was an independent predictor of postoperative recurrence in
multivariate analysis (risk ratio, 1.3; P = .03).
CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET is useful for prediction of lymph
node metastasis, P-gp expression and recurrence in ICC.
Preoperative assessment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma by
dual-modality PET/CT. Li J, Kuehl H, Grabellus F,et al. J
Surg Oncol. 2008 Sep 2. EPub
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to
evaluate the accuracy of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in staging hilar
cholangiocarcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From
80
June 2004 to December 2007, patients evaluated for surgical
treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma were entered into a
prospective database. Dual modality (18)F-FDG PET/CT was
performed before surgery. The report was reviewed with
comparison to the operative and pathological results in each
case for tumour-node-metastasis staging. RESULTS:
Seventeen patients (6 women, 11 men) of a median age of 62
years were included in the study. Radical tumour resection
was performed on seven patients. Ten patients underwent
surgical exploration. The sensitivity of PET/CT in detecting
primary tumour was found to be 58.8% (25% in T2 tumour,
70% in T3 tumour, 66.7% in T4 tumour). The sensitivity/
specificity of PET/CT in detecting lymph node metastasis and
distant metastasis were 41.7%/80% and 55.6%/87.5%,
respectively. Positive (18)F-FDG uptake in the bile duct was
found to be associated with surgical non-resectability
(P = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Dual-modality PET/CT imaging
was found to have a high specificity in detection of lymph
node and distant metastasis in hilar cholangiocarcinoma, with
a limited value in correct judgement of surgical resectability
for tumours in stadium UICC I-III. J. Surg. Oncol. (c) 2008
Wiley-Liss, Inc.
18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission
tomography influences management decisions in
patients with biliary cancer. Corvera CU, Blumgart
LH, Akhurst, et al. J Am Coll Surg. 2008 Jan;206(1):
57-65.
BACKGROUND: Although (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose
positron emission tomography (PET) has widespread clinical
use, its role in cancers of the biliary tract is ill-defined. The
aim of this study was to determine if preoperative PET
provided additional staging information in patients with biliary
tract cancer, beyond that obtained through conventional
81
anatomic imaging. The role of PET in detecting disease
recurrence after resection was also examined. STUDY
DESIGN: Between March 2001 and October 2003, 126
patients with biopsy-proved or presumed biliary tract cancer
(intrahepatic or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and
gallbladder carcinoma) underwent PET in addition to standard
imaging evaluation. Histologic confirmation of the diagnosis
was used as the reference standard with which PET results
were compared. Patient followup information and serial
imaging were reviewed for progression of lesions detected by
PET. RESULTS: Of the 126 study patients, 93 (74%)
underwent preoperative staging PET scans, the results of which
changed the stage and treatment in 22 patients (24%): 15 of
62 (24%) with cholangiocarcinoma and 7 of 31 (23%) with
gallbladder carcinoma. When used to assess for cancer
recurrence (n=33), PET identified disease in 86% of patients
but altered treatment in only 9%. So, of the entire study group,
the findings of PET influenced management in 20% of patients
(24% preoperative staging and 9% cancer recurrence). The
sensitivity of PET for identifying the primary tumor was 80%
overall: 78% for cholangiocarcinoma, 86% for gallbladder
carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: Most biliary tract cancers are
(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose avid tumors. In patients with
potentially resectable tumors based on conventional imaging,
PET identified occult metastatic disease and changed
management in nearly one-fourth of all patients. PET also
helped confirm recurrent cancer after resection.
Usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission
tomography in differential diagnosis and staging of
cholangiocarcinomas. Moon CM, Bang S, Chung JBet al.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 May;23(5):759-65. Epub
2007 Oct 10
BACKGROUND AND AIM: (18)F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-dglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG-PET) is
82
promising for diagnosis and treatment of various malignancies.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness
of (18)FDG-PET in differential diagnosis and staging of
cholangiocarcinomas according to the intrahepatic, perihilar
and common bile duct lesions and to compare with
computerized tomography (CT) scan. METHODS: From
January 2000 to September 2003, 54 patients with suspected
cholangiocarcinoma underwent abdominal CT scan and
(18)FDG-PET within a 2-week period. The PET images were
analyzed visually and semiquantitatively. RESULTS: The
overall accuracy of (18)FDG-PET for discriminating malignant
diseases of bile duct from benign conditions was slightly higher
than that of CT scan (88.9% vs 81.5%). The sensitivity of
(18)FDG-PET in perihilar cholangiocarcinoma was lower than
the value of intrahepatic and common bile duct cancers (83.3%
vs 91.3%, 90.9%); moreover, in cases of perihilar cancer, the
sensitivity of (18)FDG-PET was lower than that of CT scans
(83.3% vs 91.7%). (18)FDG-PET detected nine distant
metastatic lesions not found by other imaging studies and
excluded two patients who potentially had resectable condition
in other imaging studies from unnecessary laparotomy.
CONCLUSION: The clinical usefulness of (18)FDG-PET in
differential diagnosis of bile duct cancers is related to the site
of primary disease. Although it is a helpful method for
differential diagnosis especially in cases of intrahepatic and
common bile duct cancers, (18)FDG-PET can not provide
confirmative clues in perihilar cholangiocarcinoma. (18)FDGPET may hold promise in the detection of hidden distant
metastasis and can play an additional role in the evaluation of
resectability. (18)FDG-PET can be complementary to CT scan
in diagnosing and staging of cholangiocarcinoma.
F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography
and positron emission tomography: computed tomography
83
in recurrent and metastatic cholangiocarcinoma. Jadvar
H, Henderson RW, Conti PS. J Comput Assist Tomogr.
2007 Mar-Apr;31(2):223-8
OBJECTIVES: We retrospectively assessed the diagnostic
utility of dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) and
hybrid PET-computed tomography (CT) scans with [F18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in the imaging evaluation of
patients with known or suspected recurrent and metastatic
cholangiocarcinoma. METHODS: The study group included
24 patients (13 males and 11 females; age range, 34-75 years)
with known or suspected recurrent and metastatic
cholangiocarcinoma. We performed 8 dedicated PET scans
(Siemens 953/A, Knoxville, Tenn) in 8 patients and 24 hybrid
PET-CT scans (Siemens Biograph, Knoxville, Tenn) in 16
patients. Four patients underwent both pretreatment and
posttreatment scans. Nonenhanced CT transmission scans were
obtained for attenuation correction after administration of oral
contrast material. PET images were obtained 60 minutes after
the intravenous administration of 15 mCi (555 MBq) FDG.
Prior treatments included surgery alone in 12 patients, surgery
and chemotherapy in 6 patients, and surgery and combined
chemoradiation therapy in 6 patients. Diagnostic validation
was conducted through clinical and radiologic follow-up
(2 months to 8 years). RESULTS: PET and CT were
concordant in 18 patients. PET-CT correctly localized a
hypermetabolic metastatic lesion in the anterior
subdiaphragmatic fat instead of within the liver and was falsely
negative in intrahepatic infiltrating type cholangiocarcinoma.
PET was discordant with CT in 6 patients. PET was negative
in an enlarged right cardiophrenic lymph node on CT, which
remained stable for 1 year. In 1 patient, PET-CT scan showed
hypermetabolic peritoneal disease in the right paracolic gutter
without definite corresponding structural abnormalities, which
was subsequently confirmed on a follow-up PET-CT scan
84
performed 6 months after the initial study, at which time
peritoneal nodular thickening was evident on concurrent CT.
PET-CT documented the progression of locally recurrent and
metastatic disease in another patient based on interval
appearance of several new hypermetabolic lesions and
significant increase in the standardized uptake values of the
known lesions despite little interval change in the size and
morphologic character of lesions on concurrent CT. It was
also helpful in excluding metabolically active disease in
patients with contrast enhancement at either surgical margin
of hepatic resection site or focally within hepatic parenchyma
and in an osseous lesion. Overall, based on the clinically
relevant patient basis for detection of recurrent and metastatic
cholangiocarcinoma, the sensitivity and specificity of PET
(alone and combined with CT) were 94% and 100% and, for
CT alone, were 82% and 43%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:
FDG PET and PET-CT are useful in the imaging evaluation
of patients with cholangiocarcinoma (except for infiltrating
type) for detection of recurrent and metastatic disease and for
assessment of treatment response. In particular, the combined
structural and metabolic information of PET-CT enhances the
diagnostic confidence in lesion characterization.
85
Gall Bladder
Introduction
80% of gall bladder cancers are adenocarcinomas.Less than
5% are squamous cancers and less than 10% are anaplastic.
These tumors often involve hepatic parenchyma, most often
portions of segments IV and V that directly abut the gallbladder
fossa. Lymphatic spread is first to the cystic duct (Calot’s)
node, then to pericholedochal and hilar nodes, and finally to
peripancreatic, duodenal, periportal, celiac, and superior
mesenteric artery nodes. Nodal disease in the porta hepatis
can cause common bile duct obstruction with resultant
jaundice, which is the first clinical symptom in 30% of patients.
Jaundice may also be caused by tumors arising in the
gallbladder infundibulum, which may spread directly to the
cystic duct and common hepatic duct. Although peritoneal
metastases are frequent, distant extraperitoneal metastases
are not.
Current staging/imaging
Contrast enhanced CT, Ultrasound & Endoscopic ultrasound
are used to stage gall bladder cancer. Primary gall bladder
mass, adjacent liver, local and regional nodes are evaluated
86
by these modalities. MRI of the abdomen with Magnetic
resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) has evolved
into a single noninvasive imaging modality that allows
complete assessment of biliary, vascular, hepatic parenchymal,
and nodal involvement, as well as involvement of adjacent
organs; thus, this modality may be helpful in select cases.
Summary of Evidence for PET:
FDG PET has been studied for its efficiency in discriminating
cholecystitis from carcinoma. A sensitivity of up to 90% and
specicificity of 80% has been reported when delayed FDG
uptake had been considered with normal C reactive protein.
Although CECT has been the mainstay for the staging of GB
ca; when FDG PET has been used in addition, the specificity
of the local and regional nodes has risen. Distant metastases
are best picked by FDG PET. In pre operative restaging of
incidental detected adenocarcinomas of gall bladder, FDG PET
added to node staging and distant metastases. An approach of
contrast enhanced CT with FDG PET as single study is likely
to yield the highest accuracy for all T, N & M stages. Evidence
for other indications in GB Ca does not exisist.
Timing of the
PET/CT
Hierarchy of
Diagnostic
Efficacy
Relevance of
Test
Level of
Evidence
Diagnosis
Level 2
Potentially
appropriate
Level2
Staging
Level 2
Appropriate
2 level 1
Response
evaluation
–
–
–
Restaging
–
–
–
Suspected
recurrence
–
–
–
Followup
–
–
–
RT planning
–
–
–
87
Selected Abstracts:
Dual-time-point 18F-FDG PET for the evaluation of
gallbladder carcinoma. Nishiyama Y, Yamamoto Y,
Fukunaga K,et al. J Nucl Med. 2006 Apr;47(4):633-8
Conventional imaging techniques such as ultrasonography, CT,
and MRI are able to detect gallbladder abnormalities but are
not always able to differentiate a malignancy from other disease
processes such as cholecystitis. The purpose of the present
study was to evaluate the efficacy of dual-time-point (18)FFDG PET for differentiating malignant from benign
gallbladder disease. METHODS: The study evaluated 32
patients who were suspected of having gallbladder tumors.
(18)F-FDG PET (whole body) was performed at 62 +/- 8 min
(early) after (18)F-FDG injection and was repeated 146 +/14 min (delayed) after injection only in the abdominal region.
We evaluated the (18)F-FDG uptake both visually and
semiquantitatively. Semiquantitative analysis using the
standardized uptake value (SUV) was performed for both early
and delayed images (SUV(early) and SUV(delayed),
respectively). The retention index (RI) was calculated
according to the equation (SUV(delayed) - SUV(early)) x 100/
SUV(early). The tumor-to-liver ratio was also calculated.
Results: The final diagnosis was gallbladder carcinoma in 23
patients and benign disease in 9 patients. For visual analysis
of gallbladder carcinoma, delayed (18)F-FDG PET images
improved the specificity of diagnosis in 2 patients. When an
SUV(early) of 4.5, SUV(delayed) of 2.9, and RI of -8 were
chosen as arbitrary cutoffs for differentiating between
malignant and benign conditions, sensitivity increased from
82.6% to 95.7% and 100% for delayed imaging and combined
early and delayed imaging (i.e., RI), respectively. With the
same criteria, specificity decreased from 55.6% to 44.4% for
delayed imaging and combined early and delayed imaging,
respectively. The specificity of (18)F-FDG PET improved to
88
80% in the group with a normal level of C-reactive protein
(CRP) and decreased to 0% in the group with an elevated
CRP level. For gallbladder carcinoma, both SUV and tumorto-liver ratios derived from delayed images were significantly
higher than the ratios derived from early images (P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSION: Delayed (18)F-FDG PET is more helpful
than early (18)F-FDG PET for evaluating malignant lesions
because of increased lesion uptake and increased lesion-tobackground contrast. However, the diagnostic performance
of (18)F-FDG PET depends on CRP levels.
PMID: 16595497
Impact of integrated positron emission tomography and
computed tomography on staging and management of
gallbladder cancer and cholangiocarcinoma. Petrowsky H,
Wildbrett P, Husarik DB et al. J Hepatol. 2006 Jul;45(1):
43-50. Epub 2006 Apr 19
BACKGROUND/AIMS: (1) To evaluate the diagnostic value
of integrated positron emission and computed tomography
(PET/CT) in comparison with contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT)
to detect biliary tract tumors and associated distant and regional
lymph node metastases and (2) to evaluate the impact of PET/
CT on therapy management. METHODS: From January 2001
to March 2005, each patient who was treated for a malignancy
of the biliary tract underwent PET/CT examination in addition
to the standard work-up imaging. Data were prospectively
collected and analyzed in comparison with ceCT. RESULTS:
Sixty-one patients with malignancies of the biliary tract were
included into the study. Diagnosis was proven in all patients
either by histology or cytology. PET/CT detected all
gallbladder cancers (n=14). PET/CT and ceCT provided a
comparable accuracy for the primary intra- (n=14) and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (n=33). All distant metastases
(12/12) were detected by PET/CT, but only 3/12 by ceCT
89
(p<0.001). Regional lymph node metastases were detected by
PET/CT and ceCT in only 12% vs. 24%. PET/CT findings
resulted in a change of management in 17% of patients deemed
resectable after standard work-up. CONCLUSIONS: PET/CT
is particularly valuable in detecting unsuspected distant
metastases which are not diagnosed by standard imaging. Thus,
PET/CT staging has an important impact on selection of
adequate therapy.
Does PET-CT scan have a role prior to radical
re-resection for incidental gallbladder cancer?
Shukla PJ, Barreto SG, Arya S et al. HPB (Oxford).
2008;10(6):439-45
Background. Radical re-resection is offered to patients with
non-metastatic, invasive, incidental gallbladder cancer. Data
evaluating (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission
tomography-computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET-CT) in
patients with incidental gallbladder cancer is sparse. Aim. To
evaluate the efficacy of integrated (18)F-FDG PET-CT in
determining occult metastatic or residual local-regional disease
in patients with incidental gallbladder cancer. Methods.
Patients referred with incidental gallbladder cancer for radical
re-resection were evaluated using multidetector computed
tomography (MDCT) and PET-CT. Based on preoperative
imaging, 24 out of 92 patients were found suitable for surgery.
The two imaging modalities were evaluated with respect to
residual and resectable disease. Results. In determining
residual disease, MDCT had a sensitivity and positive
predictive value (PPV) of 42.8%, each, while PET-CT had a
sensitivity and PPV of 28.5 and 20%, respectively. In
determining resectability, MDCT had a sensitivity, PPV, and
accuracy of 100, 87.5, and 87.5%, respectively, as compared
to PET-CT (sensitivity=100%, PPV=91.3%, accuracy=
91.6%). Conclusions. From our study, it appears that in patients
90
with incidental gall bladder cancer without metastatic disease,
PET-CT and MDCT seem to have roles complementing each
other. PET-CT was able to detect occult metastatic or residual
local-regional disease in some of these patients, and seems to
be useful in the preoperative diagnostic algorithm of patients
whose MDCT is normal or indicates locally advanced disease.
PMID: 19088931
91
Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST)
Introduction
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors constitute less than 1% of all
digestive tract tumors. They may be benign or malignant
(30%), and occur in every part of the gastrointestinal tract,
however the stomach is the most common site. They develop
with the same prevalence in men and in women, usually above
the age of 50 years. They originate from the myenteric ganglion
cells, termed the interstitial Cajal cells. The majority, i.e. 95%
of GIST, show expression of the membrane receptor protein
CD117 with a tyrosine kinase activity c-kit.
Surgery is the mainstay for resectable nonmetastatic GISTs,
but virtually all GISTs are associated with a risk of metastasis.
Imatinib 400 mg/day with or without surgery is the
recommended first-line treatment for recurrent or metastatic
GIST. The malignant tumors metastasize most commonly to
the liver and peritoneum. The metastases are rarely found in
the lungs, pleura and bones.
Conventional Imaging
The detection of GIST is based on imaging, endoscopy,
histological and immuno-histochemical examinations.
Contrast-enhanced CT has conventionally been the method
92
of choice for the staging and treatment monitoring of GIST.
Summary of Evidence for PET
The role of Whole-body FDG-PET seems limited for staging
because of the low rate of extra-abdominal tumoral
involvement and lower sensitivity than CT. 18FDG-PET
scanning is effective in restaging GIST and for evaluating
therapeutic response to a variety of treatments including
Imatinib mesylate.
FDG PET is a functional imaging study which reflects the
status of tumor metabolism (glycolysis) at a particular time. A
baseline FDG PET/CT (contrast enhanced) scan should always
be obtained prior to initiating treatment. Conducting a baseline
evaluation allows one to establish a denominator against which
future studies or quantitative measurements (SUV or SUVmax)
can be compared. This denominator is essential for
characterizing the metabolic response when using the European
Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)
criteria, which are based on the magnitude of the change in
SUV relative to baseline.
There is now convincing evidence that serial FDG PET or
PET/CT scan is more sensitive and reliable tool for determining
treatment response to imatinib mesylate in patients of GIST.
Metabolic response as depicted on FDG PET correlates well
with clinical benefit and have shown to precede by weeks or
months significant decrease in tumor size on computed
tomography (CT). The earliest therapeutic response can be
seen on FDG PET as early as 24 hours after initiation of
imatinib therapy.
Traditional anatomic tumor response criteria (WHO/RECIST/
SWOG) are based on uni- or bidimensional changes in tumor
size, and do not take into account changes in tumor metabolism,
tumor density, or decrease in the number of intratumoral
93
vessels. These changes are regarded as indicator of therapeutic
response to imatinib. Conversely, lack of metabolic response
on FDG-PET indicates primary resistance to the drug and may
help identify patients who would benefit from another therapy,
while re-emergence of metabolic activity within tumor sites
following a period of therapeutic response indicates secondary
resistance to the drug. Newly proposed CT criteria using either
no growth in tumor size or a combination of tumor density
and size criteria have shown a close correlation with the
predictive value results of FDG-PET. Thus, the integration of
FDG-PET and CT, as in the combined hybrid PET/CT scanner
will not only optimize the evaluation of patients with GIST
treated with molecularly targeted drugs.
GIST
Timing of the
PET/CT
(FDG)
Hierarchy of
Diagnostic
Efficacy
Relevance of
Test
Level of
Evidence
Diagnosis
Level 3
Probably
Appropriate
Level II
Staging
Level 4
Probably
Appropriate
Level II
Response
evaluation
Level 4
Appropriate
Level III
Restaging
Level 3
Appropriate
Level II
Suspected
recurrence
Level 3
Appropriate
Level II
Follow up
Level 3
Appropriate
Level II
RT planning
Not applicable
Not applicable
Not applicable
94
Abstracts
The lessons of GIST—PET and PET/CT: a new paradigm
for imaging. Van den Abbeele AD. Oncologist. 2008;13
Suppl 2:8-13
Traditional anatomic tumor response criteria are based on unior bidimensional changes in tumor size, and do not take into
account changes in tumor metabolism, tumor density, or
decrease in the number of intratumoral vessels. These changes
are, however, all indicative of response to imatinib therapy in
patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). In these
patients, metabolic responses seen on positron emission
tomography (PET) using fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose
(18FDG) have been shown to be closely related to clinical
benefit. Furthermore, these metabolic changes precede by
weeks or months significant decrease in tumor size on
computed tomography (CT). Conversely, lack of metabolic
response on FDG-PET indicates primary resistance to the drug
and may help identify patients who would benefit from another
therapy, while re-emergence of metabolic activity within tumor
sites following a period of therapeutic response indicates
secondary resistance to the drug. Newly proposed CT criteria
using either no growth in tumor size or a combination of tumor
density and size criteria have shown a close correlation with
the predictive value results of FDG-PET. Thus, the integration
of FDG-PET and CT, as in the combined hybrid PET/CT
scanners now available, will not only optimize the evaluation
of patients with GIST treated with molecularly targeted drugs,
but may ultimately help shorten clinical trials, and accelerate
drug development in this disease and other cancers as well.
Response evaluation of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Choi H. Oncologist. 2008;13 Suppl 2:4-7
Clinical management of patients with gastrointestinal stromal
tumors (GISTs) has dramatically changed with the introduction
of novel therapeutics, such as imatinib mesylate. This has
95
created a need to re-evaluate the existing criteria used to assess
treatment response. The current Response Evaluation Criteria
in Solid Tumors are based on unidimensional tumor size, and
do not take into account changes in responding GISTs such as
a decrease in tumor density and decrease in the number of
intratumoral vessels with computed tomography (CT). Positron
emission tomography (PET) has been found to be highly
sensitive in detecting early response, and to be useful in
predicting long-term response to imatinib in patients with
metastatic GIST; however, widespread use of PET is limited
because of a lack of scanner availability and cost constraints.
Modified CT criteria using a combination of tumor density
and tumor size are promising in early response evaluation,
and have excellent prognostic value. Identifying appropriate
treatment response criteria is essential to optimize treatment
for patients with GIST.
FDG-PET and PET/CT in the clinical management of
gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Basu S, Mohandas KM,
Peshwe H, Asopa R, Vyawahare M. Nucl Med Commun.
2008 Dec; 29(12):1026-39
The management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs)
has been revolutionized in recent years by two major
developments: the introduction of imatinib mesylate as a
targeted therapeutic agent and the dramatic change in the tumor
metabolic activity following successful therapy making in
fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET as the modality of choice for
monitoring therapeutic response. In the present
communication, we have explored the current role of PET/
computed tomography (CT) imaging in GIST on the basis of
a brief overview of the published studies and our experience
on the subject gained in a large tertiary care setting. There is
now convincing evidence that serial PET study is more
sensitive and reliable for determining treatment response to
imatinib mesylate in patients of GIST, when compared with
96
only conventional CT monitoring. This modality also appears
to be of potential value in initial disease evaluation including
prediction of malignant potential in recently diagnosed GIST
and in selection of optimal dose of imatinib for therapy. The
findings of detection of disease recurrence on discontinuing
imatinib and acquired resistance to imatinib provide insight
into the issue of therapeutic endpoint definition. On the basis
of the experience gained in recent times, the future potential
of this powerful modality in this setting is hypothesized.
97
Pancreatic Carcinoma
Introduction
It is mentioned as the fourth most common malignancy in both
men and women. Adenocarcinomas account for 90% of the
Malignancies. Endocrine tumors, cystic tumors, lymphomas
and sarcomas account for the remaining 10%.
Two thirds of pancreatic tumors are located in the head of the
pancreas; clinical features include vague pain, weight loss,
fatigue, and jaundice. One third of pancreatic tumors are in
the body or tail; clinical features include epigastric or back
pain, weight loss, fatigue, and evidence of metastatic disease
Current staging/imaging
Patients suspected of having a pancreatic malignancy generally
are evaluated by thin-slice, contrast-enhanced CT scanning.
This modality is of use in identifying the tumor mass, as well
as in assessing the liver for metastasis. Vascular involvement
of superior mesenteric vein, portal vein, and celiac and superior
mesenteric arteries also can be determined by CT scanning.
Ultrasonography is useful in identifying the primary tumor
mass, particularly in the pancreatic head, but is less sensitive
than CT and provides less information regarding local and
98
regional dissemination. MRI has not proved superior to CT
scanning for assessment of the primary tumor, metastatic
disease, or vascular encasement. Occasional patients with CT
findings suggestive but not diagnostic of vascular encasement
may benefit from preoperative visceral angiography, although
improvements in CT methods, particularly the use of dynamic
contrast infusion and helical (spiral) techniques, have largely
supplanted angiography Patients with jaundice but no mass
on CT scans generally are evaluated with ERCP. This study
may reveal an irregular or tapering biliary stricture
characteristic of an obstructing periampullary tumor.
Sometimes the biliary stricture is seen in conjunction with a
pancreatic duct stricture—the “double duct” signs—which is
highly suggestive of the presence of a malignancy. Irregular
strictures of the pancreatic duct also may be seen in patients
with pancreatic carcinoma. Such endoscopic findings, even
in the absence of a pancreatic mass on CT scanning, justify
proceeding to surgical resection. Endoscopic Ultrasonography
(EUS) can assess tumor size, portal and mesenteric vein
involvement, and regional nodal involvement. EUS also can
allow obtaining tissue samples for histological analysis from
virtually all pancreatic lesions and from suggestive lymph
nodes located close to the stomach and duodenum.
Summary of Evidence for PET
Diagnosis
Pancreatic Carcinoma have been evaluated and found to be
rich in GLUT receptors. Hence FDG PET is expected to do
well in Pancreatic Carcinoma.
In animal model it was seen that amongst the PET
radiopharmaceuticals Fluro Thymidine has the highest uptake
in the pancreatic cancer model. However in a pilot study it
was shown to have poor accuracy in humans.FDG remains
99
the agent of choice. In a prospective study FDG PET/CT
showed a sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 74%, PPV of 83%,
NPV of 84%. The accuracy while similar to that of
endosonography,ERCP with intraductal ultrasonography and
abdominal ultrasound, in depicting small pancreatic lesions,
additional diagnostic information is obtained from whole body
PET imaging. For diagnosing Pancreatic carcinoma, studies
reported the sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for
detecting malignant pancreatic tumors as being 71-100% and
64-90%, respectively. FDG-PET does not replace, but is
complementary to morphologic imaging, and therefore, in
doubtful cases, the method must be combined with other
imaging modalities. FDG-PET is a useful tool for
differentiating autoimmune pancreatitis from suspected
pancreatic cancer, if the accumulation pattern and
extrapancreatic involvement are considered. IgG4
measurement and other current image tests can further confirm
the diagnosis. 18-FDG PET is more accurate than conventional
imaging techniques (CT and MR) in distinguishing benign
from malignant (invasive and noninvasive) Intraductal
Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms. In the evaluation of
malignancy in benign cystic lesions of the pancreas ,role of
FDG PET was evaluated through a retrospective study and
found to be not useful as the sensitivity was only 57% and
specificity was 85%. FDG PET and contrast enhanced MRI
study have been performed ,followed by FDG PET/MRI
fusion. It helped improve the localization of the tumor.
Staging & Restaging:
FDG PET has been used to evaluate chemotherapy response.
Overall detection sensitivity at diagnosis varies between 90%
and 95% and specificity from 82% to 100%, whereas for
staging, sensitivity data vary from 61% to 100% and specificity
data from 67% to 100%. Neuro endocrine tumors of the
pancreas are best evaluated by peptide based PET or SPECT
100
agents. 68Ga DOTA-TOC and 99mTc HYNIC-TOC being the
commonest of them respectively.
Timing of the
PET/CT
Hierarchy of
Diagnostic
Efficacy
Relevance of
Test
Level of
Evidence
Diagnosis
Level 2
Probably
appropriate
1 level1,
2 level2
Staging
Level 2
Probably
appropriate
Level 2
Response
evaluation
Level 2
appropriate
1 level1
Restaging
Level 1
–
–
Suspected
recurrence
Level 1
Probably
appropriate
Level3
Followup
Level 1
–
–
RT planning
Level 1
–
–
Selected Abstracts:
Gene expression patterns and tumor uptake of 18F-FDG,
18F-FLT, and 18F-FEC in PET/MRI of an orthotopic
mouse xenotransplantation model of pancreatic cancer.
von Forstner C, Egberts JH, Ammerpohl O. J Nucl Med.
2008 Aug;49(8):1362-70. Epub 2008 Jul 16.
Our aim was to use PET/MRI to evaluate and compare the
uptake of 18F-FDG, 3-deoxy-3-18F-fluorothymidine (18FFLT), and 18F-fluorethylcholine (18F-FEC) in human
pancreatic tumor cell lines after xenotransplantation into SCID
mice and to correlate tumor uptake with gene expression of
membrane transporters and rate-limiting enzymes for tracer
uptake and tracer retention. METHODS: Four weeks after
orthotopic inoculation of human pancreatic carcinoma cells
(PancTuI, Colo357, and BxPC3) into SCID mice, combined
imaging was performed with a small-animal PET scanner and
101
a 3-T MRI scanner using a dedicated mouse coil. Tumor-toliver uptake ratios (TLRs) of the tracers were compared with
gene expression profiles of the tumor cell lines and both normal
pancreatic tissue and pancreatic tumor tissue based on gene
microarray analysis and quantitative polymerase chain
reaction. RESULTS: 18F-FLT showed the highest tumor
uptake, with a mean TLR of 2.3, allowing correct visualization
of all 12 pancreatic tumors. 18F-FDG detected only 4 of 8
tumors and had low uptake in tumors, with a mean TLR of 1.1
in visible tumors. 18F-FEC did not show any tumor uptake.
Gene array analysis revealed that both hexokinase 1 as the
rate-limiting enzyme for 18F-FDG trapping and pancreasspecific glucose transporter 2 were significantly downregulated
whereas thymidine kinase 1, responsible for 18F-FLT trapping,
was significantly upregulated in the tumor cell lines, compared
with normal pancreatic duct cells and pancreatic tumor tissue.
Relevant genes involved in the uptake of 18F-FEC were
predominantly unaffected or downregulated in the tumor cell
lines. CONCLUSION: In comparison to 18F-FDG and 18FFEC, 18F-FLT was the PET tracer with the highest and most
consistent uptake in various human pancreatic tumor cell lines
in SCID mice. The imaging results could be explained by gene
expression patterns of membrane transporters and enzymes
for tracer uptake and retention as measured by gene array
analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the
respective cell lines. Thus, standard molecular techniques
provided the basis to help explain model-specific tracer uptake
patterns in xenotransplanted human tumor cell lines in mice
as observed by PET.
PMID: 18632830
Diagnostic impact of (18)F-FDG PET-CT evaluating solid
pancreatic lesions versus endosonography, endoscopic
retrograde cholangio-pancreatography with intraductal
102
ultrasonography and abdominal ultrasound. Schick V,
Franzius C, Beyna T et al. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging.
2008 May 15. [Epub ahead of print]
PURPOSE: This prospective single-centre phase II trial
assessed the diagnostic impact of (18)F-FDG PET-CT in the
evaluation of solid pancreatic lesions (slashed circle >/=
10 mm) compared to endosonography (EUS), endoscopic
retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) with
intraductal ultrasound (IDUS), abdominal ultrasound (US) and
histopathological reference. METHODS: Forty-six patients
(32 men/14 women, slashed circle 61.7 years) with suspected
pancreatic neoplasms underwent PET-CT with contrastenhanced biphasic multi-detector CT of the upper abdomen
followed by a diagnostic work-up with EUS, ERCP with IDUS
and US within 3 weeks. PET-CT data sets were analysed by
two expert readers in a consensus reading. Histology from
surgery, biopsy/fine-needle aspiration and/or clinical followup >/=12 months served as standard of reference. RESULTS:
Twenty-seven
pancreatic
malignancies
were
histopathologically proven; 19 patients had benign diseases:
36/46 lesions (78%) were detected in the head of the pancreas,
7/46 and 3/46 in the body and tail region, respectively.
Sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT were 89% and 74%,
respectively; positive predictive value (PPV) and negative
predictive value (NPV) were 83% and 82%, respectively.
Sensitivity (81-89%), specificity (74-88%), PPV (83-90%) and
NPV (77-82%) achieved by EUS, ERCP and US were not
significantly different. PET analysis revealed significantly
higher maximum mean standardised uptake values (SUV(max)
6.5 +/- 4.6) in patients with pancreatic malignancy (benign
lesions: SUV(max) 4.2 +/- 1.5; p < 0.05). PET-CT revealed
cervical lymphonodal metastasis from occult bronchogenic
carcinoma and a tubular colon adenoma with intermediate
dysplasia on polypectomy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:
103
(18)F-FDG PET-CT achieves a comparably high diagnostic
impact evaluating small solid pancreatic lesions versus
conventional reference imaging modalities. Additional clinical
diagnoses are derived from concomitant whole-body PET-CT
imaging.
PMID: 18481063
Diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Miura F, Takada T, Amano
H et al. HPB (Oxford). 2006;8(5):337-42.
The ability to diagnose pancreatic carcinoma has been rapidly
improving with the recent advances in diagnostic techniques
such as contrast-enhanced Doppler ultrasound (US), helical
computed tomography (CT), enhanced magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI), and endoscopic US (EUS). Each technique
has advantages and limitations, making the selection of the
proper diagnostic technique, in terms of purpose and
characteristics, especially important. Abdominal US is the
modality often used first to identify a cause of abdominal pain
or jaundice, while the accuracy of conventional US for
diagnosing pancreatic tumors is only 50-70%. CT is the most
widely used imaging examination for the detection and staging
of pancreatic carcinoma. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is
generally depicted as a hypo attenuating area on contrastenhanced CT. The reported sensitivity of helical CT in
revealing pancreatic carcinoma is high, ranging between 89%
and 97%. Multi-detector-row (MD) CT may offer an
improvement in the early detection and accurate staging of
pancreatic carcinoma. It should be taken into consideration
that some pancreatic adenocarcinomas are depicted as
isoattenuating and that pancreatitis accompanied by pancreatic
adenocarcinoma might occasionally result in the
overestimation of staging. T1-weighted spin-echo images with
fat suppression and dynamic gradient-echo MR images
enhanced with gadolinium have been reported to be superior
104
to helical CT for detecting small lesions. However, chronic
pancreatitis and pancreatic carcinoma are not distinguished
on the basis of degree and time of enhancement on dynamic
gadolinium-enhanced MRI. EUS is superior to spiral CT and
MRI in the detection of small tumors, and can also localize
lymph node metastases or vascular tumor infiltration with high
sensitivity. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy is a safe
and highly accurate method for tissue diagnosis of patients
with suspected pancreatic carcinoma. (18)Ffluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography
(PET) has been suggested as a promising modality for
noninvasive differentiation between benign and malignant
lesions. Previous studies reported the sensitivity and specificity
of FDG-PET for detecting malignant pancreatic tumors as
being 71-100% and 64-90%, respectively. FDG-PET does not
replace, but is complementary to morphologic imaging, and
therefore, in doubtful cases, the method must be combined
with other imaging modalities.
PMID: 18333085
Differentiation of autoimmune pancreatitis from suspected
pancreatic cancer by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose
positron emission tomography. Ozaki Y, Oguchi K,
Hamano H,et al. J Gastroenterol. 2008;43(2):144-51. Epub
2008 Feb 29.
BACKGROUND: Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron
emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been widely used for
the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Because autoimmune
pancreatitis is easily misdiagnosed as pancreatic cancer and
can be tested for by FDG-PET analysis based on the presence
of suspected pancreatic cancer, we attempted to clarify the
differences in FDG-PET findings between the two conditions.
METHODS: We compared FDG-PET findings between 15
patients with autoimmune pancreatitis and 26 patients with
105
pancreatic cancer. The findings were evaluated visually or
semiquantitatively using the maximum standardized uptake
value and the accumulation pattern of FDG. RESULTS: FDG
uptake was found in all 15 patients with autoimmune
pancreatitis, whereas it was found in 19 of 26 patients (73.1%)
with pancreatic cancer. An accumulation pattern characterized
by nodular shapes was significantly more frequent in pancreatic
cancer, whereas a longitudinal shape indicated autoimmune
pancreatitis. Heterogeneous accumulation was found in almost
all cases of autoimmune pancreatitis, whereas homogeneous
accumulation was found in pancreatic cancer. Significantly
more cases of pancreatic cancer showed solitary localization,
whereas multiple localization in the pancreas favored the
presence of autoimmune pancreatitis. FDG uptake by the hilar
lymph node was significantly more frequent in autoimmune
pancreatitis than in pancreatic cancer, and uptake by the
lachrymal gland, salivary gland, biliary duct, retroperitoneal
space, and prostate were seen only in autoimmune pancreatitis.
CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET is a useful tool for differentiating
autoimmune pancreatitis from suspected pancreatic cancer, if
the accumulation pattern and extrapancreatic involvement are
considered. IgG4 measurement and other current image tests
can further confirm the diagnosis.
PMID: 18306988
18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography
enhances computed tomography diagnosis of malignant
intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.
Sperti C, Bissoli S, Pasquali C et al. Ann Surg. 2007
Dec;246(6): 932-7.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of 18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18-FDG
PET) in distinguishing benign from malignant intraductal
papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas and
106
its contribution to surgical decision making. SUMMARY
BACKGROUND DATA: Pancreatic IPMNs are increasingly
recognized, often as incidental findings, especially in people
over age 70 and 80. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic
resonance (MR) are unreliable in discriminating a benign from
a malignant neoplasm. 18-FDG PET as imaging procedure
based on the increased glucose uptake by tumor cells has been
suggested for diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: From January 1998 to December 2005, 64
patients with suspected IPMNs were prospectively investigated
with 18-FDG PET in addition to conventional imaging
techniques [helical-CT in all and MR and magnetic resonance
cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in 60]. 18-FDG PET was
analyzed visually and semiquantitatively using the standard
uptake value (SUV). The validation of the diagnosis was made
by a surgical procedure (n = 44), a percutaneous biopsy (n = 2),
main duct cytology (n = 1), or follow-up (n = 17). Mean and
median follow-up times were 25 and 27.5 months, respectively
(range, 12-90 months). RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients
(42%) were asymptomatic. Forty-two patients underwent
pancreatic resection, 2 palliative surgery, and 20 did not
undergo surgery. An adenoma was diagnosed in 13 patients, a
borderline tumor in 8, a carcinoma in situ in 5, and an invasive
cancer in 21; in 17 patients a tumor sampling was not
performed and therefore the histology remained undetermined.
Positive criteria of increased uptake on 18-FDG PET was
absent in 13 of 13 adenomas and 7 of 8 borderline IPMNs,
but was present in 4 of 5 carcinoma in situ (80%) and in 20 of
21 invasive cancers (95%). Conventional imaging technique
was strongly suggestive of malignancy in 2 of 5 carcinomas in
situ and in 13 of 21 invasive carcinomas (62%). Furthermore,
conventional imaging had findings that would be considered
falsely positive in 1 of 13 adenomas (8%) and in 3 of 8
borderline neoplasms (37.5%). Therefore, positive 18-FDG
107
PET influenced surgical decision making in 10 patients with
malignant IPMN. Furthermore, negative findings on 18-FDG
PET prompted us to use a more limited resection in 15 patients,
and offered a follow-up strategy in 18 patients (3 positive at
CT scan) for the future development of a malignancy.
CONCLUSIONS: 18-FDG PET is more accurate than
conventional imaging techniques (CT and MR) in
distinguishing benign from malignant (invasive and
noninvasive) IPMNs. 18-FDG PET seems to be much better
than conventional imaging techniques in selecting IPMNs
patients, especially when old and asymptomatic, for surgical
treatment or follow-up.
PMID: 18043094
Initial evaluation of 18F-fluorothymidine (FLT) PET/CT
scanning for primary pancreatic cancer. Quon A, Chang
ST, Chin F et al. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2008
Mar;35(3):527-31.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential
of (18)F-fluorothymidine (FLT) PET/CT for imaging
pancreatic adenocarcinoma. METHODS: This was a pilot
study of five patients (four males, one female) with newly
diagnosed and previously untreated pancreatic
adenocarcinoma. Patients underwent FLT PET/CT, (18)Ffluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT, and contrast-enhanced
CT scanning before treatment. The presence of cancer was
confirmed by histopathological analysis at the time of scanning
in all five patients. The degree of FLT and FDG uptake at the
primary tumor site was assessed using visual interpretation
and semi-quantitative SUV analyses. RESULTS: The primary
tumor size ranged from 2.5 x 2.8 cm to 3.5 x 7.0 cm. The SUV
of FLT uptake within the primary tumor ranged from 2.1 to
3.1. Using visual interpretation, the primary cancer could be
detected from background activity in two of five patients (40%)
108
on FLT PET/CT. By comparison, FDG uptake was higher in
each patient with a SUV range of 3.4 to 10.8, and the primary
cancer could be detected from background in all five patients
(100%). CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study of five patients
with primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma, FLT PET/CT
scanning showed poor lesion detectability and relatively low
levels of radiotracer uptake in the primary tumor.
PMID: 17960376
The utility of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose whole body PET
imaging for determining malignancy in cystic lesions of
the pancreas. Mansour JC, Schwartz L, Pandit-Taskar
et al. J Gastrointest Surg. 2006 Dec;10(10):1354-60.
Previous studies have suggested that whole body positronemission tomography (PET) can distinguish between benign
and malignant cysts of the pancreas. Patients were identified
(n = 68) who had undergone whole body PET imaging for a
cystic lesion of the pancreas between Jan. 1997 and May 2005.
Cross-sectional imaging studies were reviewed by a single
blinded radiologist, and positive PET studies were reviewed
by a blinded nuclear medicine physician. Operative resection
was performed in 21 patients (31%), and 47 patients were
managed with radiographic follow-up. F-18
Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lesions were identified in
eight of the 68 patients (12%). Within the resected group of
patients (n=21), four of the seven patients (57%) with either
in situ or invasive malignancy (adenocarcinoma: 3 of 5,
papillary mucinous carcinoma: 1 of 2) had positive PET
imaging (mean SUV, 5.9; range 2.5-8.0), and 2 of the 14
patients (14%) with benign lesions had positive PET imaging
(serous cystadenoma, n=1, SUV=3.3; pseudocyst n=1,
SUV=2.7). All lesions proven to be malignant with increased
FDG uptake had highly suspicious findings on cross-sectional
imaging. Within the group of resected patients, the sensitivity
109
of PET for identifying malignant pathology was 57%, and the
specificity was 85%. The sensitivity and specificity of PET
for malignancy in this study was lower than previously
reported, and PET findings did not identify otherwise occult
malignant cysts. We do not believe whole body FDG-PET to
be essential in the evaluation of cystic lesions of the pancreas.
PMID: 17175454
Impact of FDG-PET/MRI image fusion on the detection
of pancreatic cancer. Ruf J, Lopez Hänninen E, Böhmig
M et al. Pancreatology. 2006;6(6):512-9
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the value of image
fusion with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission
tomography (FDG-PET) and magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI) in patients suspected of having pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: 32 patients (12 women, 20 men; age 24-79 years;
mean 56.6 years) were included. All patients underwent wholebody FDG-PET examinations and contrast-enhanced MRI.
Image fusion used a semiautomatic voxel-based algorithm.
Separate reading, side-by-side analysis and evaluation of fused
PET/MRI images were performed. Results were correlated to
histopathology (n = 30), or clinical follow-up (n = 2).
RESULTS: 15/32 patients had pancreas cancer and 17/32
patients benign disease. The sensitivity and specificity for
cancer detection by FDG-PET were 93 and 41% for visual
and 86 and 58% for semiquantitative analysis whereas MRI
achieved 100 and 76% respectively. Topographical assignment
of PET foci by image fusion was superior to side-by-side
analysis in 11/39 (28%) foci (in 8/32 patients). However, a
true impact on therapeutic strategy was observed only in 1/8
patients as the presence of multiple metastases, irresectable
primaries or medical reasons for inoperability prevented a
curative setting. CONCLUSION: Compared to side-by-side
analysis, PET/MRI image fusion improves the anatomical
110
assignment and interpretation of FDG foci. The therapeutic
benefit for the patient however is limited in patients with
multiple lesions or incurable primaries. Copyright 2006 S.
Karger AG, Basel and IAP.
PMID: 17106215
The clinical usefulness of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron
emission tomography in the differential diagnosis, staging,
and response evaluation after concurrent
chemoradiotherapy for pancreatic cancer. Bang S, Chung
HW, Park SW et al. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006 NovDec;40(10):923-9
GOALS: The aims of this study were to determine the clinical
use of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography
(FDG-PET) in the differential diagnosis of patients with
suspected pancreatic cancer and in the determination of tumor
response after concurrent chemoradiotherapy for pancreatic
cancer. BACKGROUND: Despite advances in diagnostic tools
for pancreatic cancer, it is difficult to differentiate pancreatic
cancer from mass-forming pancreatitis. Even with current
imaging modalities, it is also difficult to assess tumor response
to therapeutic intervention. STUDY: One hundred two patients
with suspected pancreatic cancer were selected for this study.
Dynamic computerized tomography (CT) scan and FDG-PET
were used sequentially to diagnose pancreatic cancer. After
diagnostic confirmation their diagnostic yields were compared.
We also evaluated the treatment response in 15 patients who
underwent chemoradiation therapy with dynamic CT scan and
FDG-PET and compared their results. RESULTS: In 93 out
of 102 patients, pancreatic cancer was confirmed. FDG-PET
showed higher diagnostic accuracy than CT scan (95.1% vs.
76.5%). FDG-PET was also superior to CT in the detection of
liver metastasis. FDG-PET detected treatment response in 5
out of 15 cases after chemoradiation therapy, whereas CT could
111
not detect any treatment response. Comparing responder and
nonresponder, FDG-PET was able to predict significantly
different prognosis (399 vs. 233 d, P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS:
FDG-PET is a very useful tool in diagnosing pancreatic cancer.
FDG-PET may be also used as an adjunct for determining the
treatment modality of pancreatic cancer and evaluating tumor
response to chemoradiation therapy.
PMID: 17063113 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
112
Section — IV
Genitourinary
Malignancies
Renal Cell Carcinoma
Introduction
Renal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the
kidney and accounts for 2% of all cancers. Surgical resection
remains the only curative treatment for renal cell carcinoma.
Knowledge of the tumoral stage at the time of diagnosis is
essential for prognosis and surgical planning. Numerous studies
have shown that the anatomic extent of the tumor at the time
of diagnosis is the single most important factor in determining
prognosis. The 5-year survival rate of 60%–90% among
patients with organ-confined disease falls to 5%–10% among
those with distant metastases
Current Imaging
CT remains the single most effective imaging modality for the
diagnosis and staging of renal cell carcinoma. In the majority
of patients, it is the only imaging test needed prior to surgical
management. The CT scan has been reported to attain accuracy
of 91% in pre-operative staging of renal cell carcinoma.
Summary of Evidence
Results of a meta-analysis of published literature has shown
that 18-F FDG PET can be useful in restaging (Sn 87%) and
115
detection of metastatic disease (Sn 72%). However, the
performance of 18F-FDG PET in the detection of primary
disease is limited. The detection of renal cell carcinoma with
PET imaging is hampered by the fact that most radiotracers
are excreted via the kidneys. The renal elimination of FDG
can in part be overcome by increasing diuresis with hydration
or by administering diuretics.
The largest series so far included 66 patients who underwent
90 FDG-PET scans for suspected or known renal cell
carcinoma. FDG-PET demonstrated a sensitivity of 60%
compared to 91.7% for CT and was less sensitive in detecting
primary tumours, retroperitoneal lymph node metastases, or
distant metastases.
Lee et al evaluated the role of 18-FDG PET /CT for the
surveillance of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC); who
have a high risk of local recurrence or distant metastasis. They
incorporated sixty-three patients of RCC in their study with
variable pathological stages. The FDG PET/CT accurately
classified the presence of a recurrence or metastasis in 56/63
(89%) patients. FDG PET/CT had an 89.5% sensitivity, 83.3%
specificity, 77.3% positive predictive value, 92.6% negative
predictive value, and 85.7% accuracy in detecting recurrence
or metastasis, which was not significantly different from the
results with conventional methods.
The assessment of renal masses and primary staging of renal
cell carcinoma are the domain of helical CT. PET with FDG
may be helpful in the evaluation of “equivocal findings” on
conventional studies, including bone scan, and also in the
differentiation between recurrence and post-treatment changes.
The value of other PET tracers in renal cell carcinoma is under
investigation. Recently, 124 I-cG250 PET has shown
promising results in the detection of clear-cell renal carcinoma.
116
Timing of the
PET/CT
Hierarchy of
Diagnostic
Efficacy
Relevance of
Test
Level of
Evidence
Diagnosis
Level 2
Inappropriate
Level I
Staging
Level 2
Probably
appropriate
Level I
Response
evaluation
Not applicable
Not applicable
Not applicable
Restaging
Level 2
Probably
Appropriate
Level I
Suspected
recurrence
Level 2
Probably
Appropriate
Level I
Follow up
Level 2
Probably
Appropriate
Level I
RT planning
Not applicable
Not applicable
Not applicable
Selected Abstracts:
Meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of 18F-FDG
PET in renal cell carcinoma. Martínez de Llano SR,
Delgado-Bolton RC, Jiménez-Vicioso A, Pérez-Castejón
MJ, Carreras Delgado JL, Ramos E, Rotger A, Jiménez F,
Alonso JC, Bittini A, Domínguez P, Almoguera M, PérezVázquez JM. Rev Esp Med Nucl. 2007 Jan-F
AIM: Renal cell carcinoma is the most frequent solid kidney
tumor. At present, PET is not the imaging test of choice, the
helical CT being the best method to assess these patients. The
aim of the study was to perform a meta-analysis of the literature
to evaluate the performance and accuracy of 18F-FDG PET
in the detection of primary disease, recurrence and metastasis
of renal cell carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A
systematic search was done of the available literature in
primary and secondary databases published until October 2004
indexed in MEDLINE and CANCERLIT. Exclusion/inclusion
criteria were applied. Their quality was evaluated using the
117
Flynn criteria and joint estimators of sensitivity (S), specificity
(Sp), likelihood ratios (LR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and
summary ROC (SROC) curve were obtained. The presence
of the threshold effect was evaluated and the summary ROC
(SROC) curve was calculated. RESULTS: Seven out of 46
studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Three
studies evaluated the use of 18F-FDG PET in the differential
diagnosis of renal masses. Two studies analyzed restaging and
two analyzed the role of 18F-FDG PET in the detection of
metastatic disease. All the selected studies were classified
according to Flynn’s criteria. We found the highest S in
restaging with S 0.87 (95 % CI, 0.75-0.95) and in metastases
detection with S 0.72 (95 % CI, 0.56-0.85) as well as the high
Sp in differential diagnosis of renal masses. CONCLUSIONS:
The results of this meta-analysis suggest that 18F-FDG PET
can be useful in restaging and detection of metastatic disease,
based on its acceptable Sn and Sp. However, the performance
of 18F-FDG PET in the detection of primary disease is limited,
but this may improve with the new PET/CT systems.
Molecular Positron Emission Tomography and PET/CT
Imaging in Urological Malignancies. Tom Powles , Iain
Murray , Cathryn Brock , Tim Oliver , Norbert Avril .
European Urology 51, (2007); 1511–1521.
Objectives: Positron emission tomography (PET) provides
unique insights into molecular pathways of diseases. PET using
[F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has gained increasing
acceptance for the diagnosis, staging, and treatment monitoring
of various tumour types. The aim of this review is to provide
an update on the current status of molecular PET and PET/CT
imaging in urological malignancies. Methods: The current
literature on PET and PET/CT imaging was reviewed and
summarized for prostate cancer, bladder cancer, renal, cell
carcinoma, and germ cell tumours. Results: Depending on the
radiotracer used, PET offers diagnostic information based on
118
glucose, choline or amino acid metabolism and has also been
applied to imaging tumour cell proliferation and tissue hypoxia
in urological malignancies. The diagnostic performance of
FDG-PET is hampered by the renal excretion of FDG and by
the low metabolic activity often seen in tumours such as
prostate cancer. However, new PET tracers including
radiolabelled choline and acetate may offer an alternative
approach. There is consistent evidence that FDG-PET provides
important diagnostic information in detecting metastatic and
recurrent germ cell tumours and it might offer additional
information in the staging and restaging of bladder and renal
cancer. Conclusions: Although PET imaging has been shown
to be a clinically useful tool, its application in urological
malignancies still needs to be fully determined by
largerprospective trials. The introduction of novel PET
radiopharmaceuticals along with the new technology of PET/
CT will likely change the future role of molecular imaging in
urological malignancies.
Significance of F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission
tomography/computed tomography for the postoperative
surveillance of advanced renal cell carcinoma. Park JW,
Jo MK, Lee HM. BJU Int. 2008 Oct 24. [Epub ahead of
print]
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the role of (18)Ffluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography
(PET)/computed tomography (CT) for the surveillance of
patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who have a high
risk of local recurrence or distant metastasis, by comparing
the results with those of conventional imaging methods.
PATIENTS AND METHODS Sixty-three patients with RCC
had conventional imaging studies and FDG PET/CT during
the follow-up after surgical treatment. Their pathological stages
were T2 in 28 patients, T3a in 14, T3b in 19 and T4 in two;
lymph-node or distant metastases were present in 12 patients.
119
Suspicious recurrent or metastatic lesions were confirmed by
histopathology or by clinical follow-up. The sensitivity,
specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value
and accuracy of conventional surveillance methods and FDG
PET/CT were analysed. The difference in the accuracy of FDG
PET/CT by nuclear grade and histological subtype of tumours
was also assessed. RESULTS The FDG PET/CT accurately
classified the presence of a recurrence or metastasis in 56
(89%) patients. FDG PET/CT had an 89.5% sensitivity, 83.3%
specificity, 77.3% positive predictive value, 92.6% negative
predictive value, and 85.7% accuracy in detecting recurrence
or metastasis, which was not significantly different from the
results with conventional methods. Moreover, the accuracy of
the FDG PET/CT by nuclear grade and histological subtypes
was not significantly different. CONCLUSION For the
surveillance of high-risk RCC, FDG PET/CT had results that
were as good as conventional methods and were not influenced
by the nuclear grades of cancer cells. In addition, it was
possible to examine all organ systems in one procedure, and
there was no need for contrast agents, that can damage renal
function. Therefore, FDG PET/CT might replace conventional
methods.
120
Ca Prostate
Introduction
Prostate carcinoma (PCa) is the most common life threatening
cancer in men. Small carcinomas are present in about 30% of
men between 30 and 40 years old and in 64% between 60 and
70 years old.
Current Imaging
For initial T staging of prostate cancer, transrectal
ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging
are the established imaging modalities. Computed tomography
(CT) and MR imaging for N staging has limited value because
of the low sensitivity in the detection of lymph node metastases
Bone Scintigraphy is sensitive tool to detect distant osteoblastic
skeletal metastases.
Summary of Evidence
Studies have shown that FDG is generally not a suitable PET
tracer for diagnosing prostate cancer. Unlike many other tumor
types, prostate cancer often does not display increased glucose
metabolism. The most important factor for the low sensitivity
(65% ) is the low metabolic activity and hence the low FDG
accumulation in prostate cancer metastases.
121
Based on upregulated enzymes of phospholipid metabolism
in prostate carcinoma, 11-C/18-F Choline is preferentially
incorporated into phosphatidylcholine of membrane lipids of
prostate cancer cells. PET allows sensitive detection of the
11-C/18-F Choline signal and PET/CT fusion imaging enables
intraprostatic signal localisation. Most published studies report
a high detection rate of prostate carcinoma with 11-C/18-F
Choline PET/CT. Differentiation of prostate carcinoma from
benign hyperplasia and from focal chronic prostatitis may be
difficult. Acute prostatitis also accumulates 11-C/18-F Choline
with an equal intensity comparable to prostate carcinoma.
11-C Acetate PET/CT have shown promising results in
localization of primary in prostate with staging the disease in
pelvic & abdominal nodes and detecting distant skeletal
metastases.
PSA relapse frequently is the first sign of recurrent or metastatic
disease after radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy. PET
with FDG can identify local recurrence and distant metastases,
and the probability for a positive test increases with PSA.
However, essentially all studies have shown that the sensitivity
for recurrent disease detection is higher with either acetate or
choline as compared with FDG.
Several studies suggest that FDG uptake in metastatic prostate
cancer lesions reflects the biologic activity of the disease.
Accordingly, FDG can be used to monitor the response to
chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. Androgen receptor
imaging agents like fluorodihydrotestosterone (FDHT) are
being explored to predict the biology of treatment response
for progressive tumor in late stage disease in castrated patients.
The short half-life of C-11 labeled PET tracers (20 min) limits
whole-body imaging as well as posing logistical problems. In
contrast, F-18 labeling, with a half-life of 109.7 min,
overcomes most of these limitations.
122
18-F fluoride may provide a more sensitive bone scan and
will probably be most valuable when PSA is greater than 20
ng/mL in patients with high suspicion or documented osseous
metastases. 18F-Fluoride PET/CT has proved accurate in the
diagnosis of skeletal metastases from prostate carcinoma.
Timing of the
PET/CT
Hierarchy of
Diagnostic
Efficacy
Relevance of
Test
Level of
Evidence
Diagnosis
Level 2
Inappropriate
Level II
*Potentially
appropriate
with
Acetate/Choline
Staging
Level 2
Inappropriate
Level II
*Potentially
appropriate
with
Acetate/Choline
Response
evaluation
Level 1
Potentially
Appropriate
Restaging
Level 2
Probably
Appropriate
Level II
Suspected
recurrence
Level 2
Potentially
Appropriate
Level II
Followup
Level 1
Inappropriate
Level 1
with FDHT, FDG
RT planning
Probably
appropriate
Positron emission tomography and positron emission
tomography/computerized tomography of urological
malignancies: an update review. Bouchelouche K, Oehr P.
J Urol. 2008 Jan;179 (1):34-45.
PURPOSE: Appropriate imaging in uro-oncology is a crucial
component at primary diagnosis, followup and recurrence to
123
achieve an accurate assessment of the disease and determine
the most effective treatment. We summarize recent
developments in positron emission tomography and positron
emission tomography/computerized tomography for prostate,
bladder and renal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The recent published literature on positron emission
tomography and positron emission tomography/computerized
tomography in uro-oncology was searched and reviewed.
RESULTS: For prostate cancer 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose is not
highly effective for primary diagnosis but it has a limited role
in staging and recurrence detection. Promising results have
been shown by 11C-choline, 18F-fluorocholine, 11C-acetate
and 18F-fluoride. The role of 11C-methionine, 18F-fluoro-5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and anti-1-amino-3-18Ffluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid remains to be elucidated.
For bladder cancer 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission
tomography is useful for identifying distant metastases but
not for detecting primary tumors due to the urinary excretion
of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. The role of 11C-choline and 11Cmethionine remains to be evaluated further in clinical studies.
For renal cancer 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose is of limited use for
primary diagnosis but it has a role in staging and restaging of
the disease. More clinical data are needed to investigate the
roles of 18F-fluoromisonidazole and 18F-fluorothymidine.
CONCLUSIONS: Several advances in positron emission
tomography and positron emission tomography/computerized
tomography for urological cancer have been made in recent
years. However, larger clinical trials are needed to establish
the role of this imaging method for urological malignancy. In
the near future the new radiotracers and further advancement
in this imaging technique are expected to improve the
performance of positron emission tomography/computerized
tomography in uro-oncology.
124
Recent developments in urologic oncology: positron
emission tomography molecular imaging. Bouchelouche
K, Oehr P. Curr Opin Oncol. 2008 May; 20(3):321-6
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traditional morphologically based
imaging modalities in uro-oncology are now being
complemented by the functional and molecular imaging
technique positron emission tomography (PET). This review
highlights the most important recent developments. RECENT
FINDINGS: Prostate cancer: PET imaging with the new
radiotracers 11C-choline, 18F-fluorocholine, and 11C-acetate
show promising results. The role of anti-1-amino-3-18Ffluorocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid remains to be elucidated
further. 18F-fluoride PET is useful for the detection of bone
metastases. Bladder cancer: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)
PET/CT with delayed images after a diuretic and oral hydration
may improve detection of locally recurrent or residual bladder
tumours. Both 18F-FDG PET and 11C-choline PET may be
useful for staging of bladder cancer. Renal cancer: 18F-FDG
PET has a role in staging and restaging of the disease. Recently,
124I-cG250 PET has shown promising results in the detection
of clear-cell renal carcinoma. Testicular cancer: 18F-FDG PET
is useful in staging and follow-up after treatment. There are
no important recent developments with new
radiopharmaceuticals in testicular cancer. SUMMARY: The
utility of PET molecular imaging in uro-oncology expanded
due to the new metabolic PET tracers with more favourable
properties.
Positron emission tomography for prostate, bladder, and
renal cancer. Schöder H, Larson SM. Semin Nucl Med.
2004 Oct; 34 (4):274-92
Prostate cancer, renal cancer, bladder, and other urothelial
malignancies make up the common tumors of the male
genitourinary tract. For prostate cancer, common clinical
125
scenarios include managing the patient presenting with 1) lowrisk primary cancer; 2) high-risk primary cancer; 3) prostatespecific antigen (PSA) recurrence after apparently successful
primary therapy; 4) progressive metastatic disease in the
noncastrate state; and 5) progressive metastatic disease in the
castrate state. These clinical states dictate the appropriate
choice of diagnostic imaging modalities. The role of positron
emission tomography (PET) is still evolving but is likely to
be most important in determining early spread of disease in
patients with aggressive tumors and for monitoring response
to therapy in more advanced patients. Available PET tracers
for assessment of prostate cancer include FDG, 11C or 18F
choline and acetate, 11C methionine, 18F fluoride, and
fluorodihydrotestosterone. Proper staging of prostate cancer
is particularly important in high-risk primary disease before
embarking on radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy. PET
with 11C choline or acetate, but not with FDG, appears
promising for the assessment of nodal metastases. PSA relapse
frequently is the first sign of recurrent or metastatic disease
after radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy. PET with FDG
can identify local recurrence and distant metastases, and the
probability for a positive test increases with PSA. However,
essentially all studies have shown that the sensitivity for
recurrent disease detection is higher with either acetate or
choline as compared with FDG. Although more data need to
be gathered, it is likely that these two agents will become the
PET tracers of choice for staging prostate cancer once
metastatic disease is strongly suspected or documented.
18F fluoride may provide a more sensitive bone scan and will
probably be most valuable when PSA is greater than
20 ng/mL in patients with high suspicion or documented
osseous metastases. Several studies suggest that FDG uptake
in metastatic prostate cancer lesions reflects the biologic
activity of the disease. Accordingly, FDG can be used to
monitor the response to chemotherapy and hormonal therapy.
126
Androgen receptor imaging agents like fluorodihydrotestosterone are being explored to predict the biology of
treatment response for progressive tumor in late stage disease
in castrated patients. The assessment of renal masses and
primary staging of renal cell carcinoma are the domain of
helical CT. PET with FDG may be helpful in the evaluation of
“equivocal findings” on conventional studies, including bone
scan, and also in the differentiation between recurrence and
posttreatment changes. The value of other PET tracers in renal
cell carcinoma is under investigation. Few studies have
addressed the role of PET in bladder cancer. Because of its
renal excretion, FDG is not a useful tracer for the detection of
primary bladder tumors. The few studies that investigated its
role in the detection of lymph node metastases at the time of
primary staging were largely disappointing. Bladder cancer
imaging with 11C choline, 11C methionine, or 11C- acetate
deserves further study.
127
FDG PET in Testicular Tumors
Introduction
Germ cell tumors of the testis (GCT) are the most common
malignant tumors of males who are between 15 and 45 years
of age. The various risk factors for development of GCT’s are
past history of GCT, cryptorchidism, testicular dysgenesis,
infertility and a positive family history.GCT’s are classified
into seminomas (accounting approx 40%) and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (accounting approx
60%).Nonseminomas are clinically more aggressive and
include choriocarcinomas,yolk sac tumor,embryonal cell
carcinoma and teratomas.Serum tumor markers like alpha feto
protein, beta HCG and LDH are important in the
diagnosis,prognosis and assessing treatment response in
GCT’s.The type of treatment offered depends upon the
accurate histological subtype of the GCT.
Conventional imaging
Testicular tumors are usually diagnosed clinically and
pathologically at surgery. Ultrasonography is used to confirm
the presence of an intratesticular mass if clinical features are
uncertain. USG is also used in patients who present with
128
metastatic adenopathy in whom an occult primary is suspected
in the testis and also to evaluate the contralateral testis to
identify the small number of patients with bilateral synchronous
tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging is not routinely used ,but
can be helpful when the clinical & USG findings cannot
differentiate between an intra and extra testicular mass.
CT scan is the imaging technique of choice for staging
testicular neoplasms.It can readily diagnose large volume
metastatic disease,however small volume disease can be
missed. Studies have shown that upto 25-30 % patients harbour
microscopic metastatic disease which can be missed on CT
scan.
Summary of evidence for FDG PET
Only a few studies are published in literature about the role of
FDG PET in the initial staging of GCT’s.Similarly its precise
role in determining prognosis is also not very clear. The most
common clinical setting where the utility of PET has been
studied is the evaluation of post chemotherapy residual masses
in both seminomatous and non-seminomatous germ cell
tumors.There are prospective trials which state that FDG PET
is a very good predictor of residual viable tumor in post
chemotherapy seminoma masses and helps clinical decision
making.In one study of 54 patients PET reported a sensitivity
of 80% and specificity of 100% for detecting viable tumor.It
has a good negative predictive value in excluding viable
disease in residual masses > 3 cms.In a large German
multicentre trial of 121 patients,the negative predictive value
of PET was (78%) not sufficient to predict absence of disease
in residual masses of NSGCT due to presence of vital tumor
and mature teratoma in many cases.The trial concluded that
PET is unable to give a clear benefit over standard modalities
like CT scan and tumor markers in the prediction of tumor
viability in residual NSGCT masses.
129
To summarise, FDG PET-CT is useful in the assessment of
post chemotherapy residual masses in GCT’s.Though there is
no conclusive evidence in literature stating the value of PET
in initial staging, it can be certainly be certainly considered
as a potential application requiring a few more larger studies
for its validation.
Timing of the
PET/CT
Hierarchy of
Diagnostic
Efficacy
Relevance of
Test
Level of
Evidence
Diagnosis
NA
Inappropriate
NA
Staging
NA
Potentially
appropriate
Level II
Response
evaluation &
Restaging
Level2
Probably
appropriate
Level I
Suspected
recurrence
Level2
Probably
appropriate
Level I
Follow up
NA
NA
NA
RT planning
NA
NA
NA
Selected abstracts
[18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography
in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors after chemotherapy:
the German multicenter positron emission tomography
study group. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Dec 20;26(36):5930-5.
Epub 2008 Nov 17.
Oechsle K, Hartmann M, Brenner W, Venz S, Weissbach L,
Franzius C, Kliesch S, Mueller S, Krege S, Heicappell R,
Bares R, Bokemeyer C, de Wit M; German Multicenter
Positron Emission Tomography Study Group.
PURPOSE: In patients with metastatic nonseminomatous germ
cell cancer (NSGCT), residual masses after chemotherapy
(CTX) can consist of vital carcinoma, mature teratoma, or
130
necrosis. This prospective trial has evaluated the accuracy of
[(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography
(FDG-PET) for the prediction of histology compared with
computed tomography (CT) and serum tumor markers (STM).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 121 patients with
stage IIC or III NSGCT scheduled for secondary resection
after cisplatin-based CTX were included. FDG-PET was
performed after completion of CTX. All results were confirmed
by histopathology and correlated to STM and CT. RESULTS:
Prediction of tumor viability with FDG-PET was correct in
56%, which did not reach the expected clinically relevant level
of 70%, and was not better than the accuracy of CT (55%) or
STM (56%). Sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET were 70%
and 48%. The positive predictive values were not significantly
different (55%, 61%, and 59% for CT, STM, and PET,
respectively). Judging only vital carcinoma as a true malignant
finding, the negative predictive value increased to 83% for
FDG-PET. CONCLUSION: The presence of vital carcinoma
and mature teratoma is common (55%) in residual masses in
patients with NSGCT, and CT and STM cannot reliably predict
absence of disease. In contrast to prior studies, this prospective
trial, which is the only with histologic confirmation in all
patients, demonstrated that FDG-PET is unable to give a clear
additional clinical benefit to the standard diagnostic
procedures, CT and STM, in the prediction of tumor viability
in residual masses.
The role of positron emission tomography in the evaluation
of residual masses after chemotherapy for advanced stage
seminoma.J Urol. 2008 Mar;179(3):936-40; discussion 940.
Epub 2008 Jan 22, Hinz S, Schrader M, Kempkensteffen
C, Bares R, Brenner W, Krege S, Franzius C, Kliesch S,
Heicappel R, Miller K, de Wit M.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the
predictive values of 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose131
positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in primary staging
in patients with newly diagnosed non-seminomatous germ cell
tumour (NSGCT) clinical stage I/II. PATIENTS AND
METHODS: The hypothesis was that FDG-PET would
improve the negative predictive value (NPV) from 70% to
90%, thus requiring a total of 169 patients. All scans underwent
visual analysis by a reference team of nuclear medicine
physicians. Results were validated by histology following
retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. RESULTS: Only 72
of the planned 169 patients were included, due to poor accrual.
The prevalence of nodal involvement was 26%. Correct nodal
staging by FDG-PET was achieved in 83% compared with
correct computed tomography (CT) staging in 71%. CT had a
sensitivity and specificity of 41% and 95%, respectively.
Positive predictive value (PPV) and NPV were 87% and 67%,
respectively. FDG-PET had a sensitivity and specificity of 66%
and 98%, respectively. PPV was 95%. The primary end point
was not reached, with an NPV of 78%. CONCLUSION: FDGPET as a primary staging tool for NSGCT yielded only slightly
better results than CT. Both methods had a high specificity
while false-negative findings were more frequent with CT.
FDG-PET is mostly useful as a diagnostic tool in case of
questionable CT scan.
18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the
prediction of relapse in patients with high-risk, clinical
stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: preliminary
report of MRC Trial TE22—the NCRI Testis Tumour
Clinical Study Group. Huddart RA, O’Doherty MJ,
Padhani A, Rustin GJ, Mead GM, Joffe JK, Vasey P,
Harland SJ, Logue J, Daugaard G, Hain SF, Kirk SJ,
MacKewn JE, Stenning SP; NCRI Testis Tumour Clinical
Study Group.
PURPOSE: There are several management options for patients
with clinical stage I (CS1) nonseminomatous germ cell tumors
132
(NSGCT); this study examined whether an
18fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18FDG
PET) scan could identify patients without occult metastatic
disease for whom surveillance is an attractive option.
METHODS: High-risk (lymphovascular invasion positive)
patients with CS1 NSGCT underwent 18FDG PET scanning
within 8 weeks of orchidectomy or marker normalization. PETpositive patients went off study; PET-negative patients were
observed on a surveillance program. The primary outcome
measure was the 2-year relapse-free rate (RFR) in patients
with a negative PET scan (the negative predictive value).
Assuming an RFR of 90% to exclude an RFR less than 80%
with approximately 90% power, 100 PET-negative patients
were required; 135 scanned patients were anticipated.
RESULTS: Patients were registered between May 2002 and
January 2005, when the trial was stopped by the independent
data monitoring committee due to an unacceptably high relapse
rate in the PET-negative patients. Of 116 registered patients,
111 underwent PET scans, and 88 (79%) were PET-negative
(61% of preorchidectomy marker-negative patients v 88% of
marker-positive patients; P = .002); 87 proceeded to
surveillance, and one requested adjuvant chemotherapy. With
a median follow-up of 12 months, 33 of 87 patients on
surveillance relapsed (1-year RFR, 63%; 90% CI, 54% to
72%). CONCLUSION: Though PET identified some patients
with disease not detected by computed tomography scan, the
relapse rate among PET negative patients remains high. The
results show that 18FDG PET scanning is not sufficiently
sensitive to identify patients at low risk of relapse in this setting.
133
Section — V
Gynecological
Malignancies
PET / PET- CT in Cervical Cancers
Introduction
Carcinoma Cervix is the commonest malignancy and a leading
cause of cancer mortality seen in Indian women. At Tata
Memorial Hospital, Carcinoma Cervix constitutes
approximately 10% of all cancers. More than 2/3rd of the
patients present with advanced stages (FIGO Stage II/III). The
main stay of treatment has traditionally been radical radiation
therapy with 80-90% of patients requiring radiation in their
lifetime and over decades the survival rates have achieved a
plateau of 30 - 55% at 5 years. In patients with advanced stages
(stages IIB to IVA), 15 - 38% have para-aortic lymph nodal
metastases at presentation. Identification of para-aortic nodal
status allows modification of radiation therapy fields to include
this nodal disease, which, because of intestinal morbidity, is
not routinely included in the treatment field by most of the
Radiation Oncologists. Extended field radiation therapy that
includes the para-aortic nodes is associated with a 31 - 50%
5 year-survival, depending on the location and extent of paraaortic nodal metastasis and the likelihood of controlling the
pelvic disease. Therefore, in advanced cervical cancer, it has
been reported that progression-free survival is significantly
related to para-aortic lymph node metastasis. In a collective
137
series of Gynecologic Oncology Group protocols, Para aortic
nodal status was the most significant indication of recurrence.
Also, 15 - 45 % of patients post treatment also fails in para aortic nodal region. Identification of early isolated para-aortic
nodal relapse and salvage treatment to a large extent offers
excellent palliation, improves outcome and better quality of
life.
Current Status in Imaging including PET-CT
Primary Staging: The accuracy of CT and MRI for the staging
of cervical cancer has been reported as being from 63% to
69% for CT and from 77% to 90% for MRI. Many studies
have evaluated the role of FDG–PET in the primary staging
of cervical cancers. With an overall sensitivity of 97%, FDG–
PET also plays an important role in the evaluation of primary
cervical tumors. However, neither PET nor CT is an effective
method for detecting parametrial disease, and either might fail
to detect the primary tumor. However, there are no data
comparing MRI and PET/CT for primary tumour evaluation,
hence MRI remains the best imaging technique for initial
primary tumour staging.
Nodal Staging: Cervix carcinoma usually spreads from the
primary cervical lesion sequentially to pelvic lymph nodes,
para-aortic lymph nodes, and supraclavicular lymph nodes,
then ultimately to extranodal sites of distant metastasis. If
metastasis in the para-aortic lymph nodes is detected, patients
would benefit from extended-field radiotherapy or combined
radiotherapy and chemotherapy protocols. Survival rates for
patients with positive pelvic lymph nodes are reported to be
decreased by about 50% compared with those with negative
pelvic lymph nodes. The survival rate of patients with positive
para-aortic lymph nodes is about 30%. The accuracy of
detecting lymph node metastasis by CT or MRI is dependent
on the size of the lymph node on the cross-sectional image
138
and is based on distortion of normal lymph node architecture
or lymph node enlargement. When lymph nodes measuring
greater than 1 cm were considered abnormal, the reported
sensitivity of MRI was 38-89%, whereas the specificity was
78-99% in surgically staged patients. A number of noninvasive
modalities have been used to evaluate the status of para-aortic
nodal metastasis. CT Scanning has been widely used for
clinical staging, but its sensitivity for nodal metastasis is only
44%. In contrast to CT, FDG-PET can non-invasively assess
metabolic activity in cancers and metastatic lesions. The
differentiation capability for malignant lesions of FDG-PET
is not compromised by using morphologic size criteria. Even
malignant lesions less than 1 cm in diameter that manifest
high FDG uptake can be differentiated from nonmalignant
tissue by using PET. Therefore, FDG-PET can detect
metastatic para-aortic lymph nodes in patients with advanced
cervical cancer whose lymph nodes have not been abnormally
enlarged. Havrilesky et al. found that the pooled sensitivity
and specificity of FDG–PET for detecting pelvic lymph node
metastasis were 79% (95%, CI 65–90%) and 99% (96–99%),
respectively, compared with 72% (53–87%) and 96%
(92–98%), respectively, for MRI.
Many published data have previously reported the clinical
value of 18F FDG PET for imaging the primary tumor, staging
the nodal and visceral involvement, and also detecting a
recurrent disease. Rose et al. used FDG-PET for evaluating
nodal metastasis in locally advanced cervical cancer before
surgical staging, with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of
92% to detect the metastases of para-aortic lymph nodes. They
found that the accuracy of FDG-PET was greater than that of
CT in detecting the para-aortic lymph nodal metastasis. In a
similar series, Wu et al. have reported a sensitivity of 85.7%,
a specificity of 94.4%, and an accuracy of 92% with FDG
PET to detect para-aortic lymph nodal metastasis in patients
with advanced cervical cancer and negative abdominal CT
139
findings. Grigsby et al. demonstrated that FDG-PET detects
more abnormal lymph node regions than does CT, and that
FDG-PET findings are a better predictor of survival than those
of CT in patients with cervical cancer.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has also been reviewed
in evaluating both the primary disease at cervix and also paraaortic nodal staging. MRI has been recognized as an important
imaging modality for the management of cervical cancer
because of its multi-planar capability, distinct tissue contrast
characteristics using various pulse sequences, and excellent
tissue contrast, particularly between tumor and surrounding
normal tissues. However, PET findings were most often
compared to CT results, while MRI is nowadays considered
as the modality of choice for staging the primary tumor. Only
one study by Narayan et al. has compared the respective value
of MRI and PET for staging loco-regionally advanced cervical
cancer. Their study found that the primary tumor was similarly
detected by the two imaging techniques with a sensitivity of
100%. On the other hand, except for small-volume metastases,
PET had a sufficiently high positive predictive value (91%)
in the pelvis and para-aortic region, to obviate lymph node
sampling. More recent studies have shown that the 3D
quantitative imaging-based method of tumor size assessment
using MRI is highly accurate in determining actual tumor size
and extent and may be superior to clinical palpation in
predicting local tumor control. Conversely, MRI accuracy was
insufficient for nodal management. If MRI remains the
modality of choice for evaluating the loco-regional status of
the primary tumor, metabolic imaging i.e FDG PET seems
particularly useful for staging, in one session, extra pelvic nodal
metastases. Thus, PET may have a significant impact on
treatment decision-making.
Identification of para-aortic nodal status allows modification
of radiation therapy fields to include this nodal disease.
140
Stehman et al. previously demonstrated the prognostic
importance of para-aortic nodal status in locally advanced
cervical carcinoma. In advanced cervical cancer, it has been
reported that progression-free survival is significantly related
to para-aortic lymph node metastasis. Recent studies have
shown a survival benefit in patients with positive para-aortic
nodes treated by extended-field irradiation and concurrent
radio-sensitizing chemotherapy.
Response Evaluation
PET is also of great value for optimally confirming a complete
remission and detecting a recurrence non-invasively in posttreatment follow-up. More recently, positron emission
tomography (PET) with the glucose analogue, 18 Ffluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has demonstrated promising results
in evaluating tumor response and predicting survival after
primary treatment with radiation therapy or chemotherapy for
several tumor types, including head-and-neck cancer, breast
cancer, seminoma, colorectal cancer, lymphoma, and lung
cancer. Recently, Grigsby et al have reported the role of FDG
PET in post-therapy surveillance monitoring in a series of 75
patients with cervical cancer. They have concluded that FDGPET is a valuable tool to evaluate the response of both at
primary and its lymph node disease after radiation therapy
and chemotherapy and for the Post-Rx surveillance of patients
to detect asymptomatic recurrence.
Surveillance: FDG–PET has been advocated as a useful tool
for determining the optimal scope of salvage therapy in patients
with recurrent cervical cancer. Approximately 70% of
recurrences of cervical cancer are estimated to be distant or a
combination of local and distant metastases. Several authors
reported the ability of FDG–PET to diagnose cervical cancer
recurrence in the pelvis, abdomen, and extra-abdominal sites,
including inguinal lymph nodes, PALNs, peritoneum, liver,
141
spleen, transposed ovaries, mediastinal lymph nodes, bone,
pleura, and lung. Earlier detection of recurrent disease may
have the potential to improve effectiveness of treatment and
survival, particularly in patients amenable to salvage surgery.
FDG–PET in cervix cancer patients has rapidly expanded.
Investigators have documented its usefulness in initial staging
of cervix cancer patients. Preliminary reports suggest that PET/
CT is effective in the lymph node staging of locally advanced
cervix carcinoma with negative CT findings. It has been
advocated that the maximal value of FDG uptake reflects
tumour aggressiveness and is negatively associated with
survival. In addition, FDG may help to customize radiotherapy
planning, reduce unnecessary surgical interventions and change
therapeutic approaches by modifying radiation fields. The
value of hybridizing PET imaging with CT imaging has been
reported for detection of cervical cancer metastases, which
facilitates decision-making and radiation treatment planning.
Although metabolic examination is less accurate in detecting
microscopic disease and lesions smaller than 1.5 cm, PET/
CT is an effective imaging technique in the evaluation of locally
advanced cervix carcinoma. Grigsby recently recommended
that routine FDG–PET/CT should be performed 3 months posttherapy, every 6 months for 3 years, every year for two
additional years, and then as clinically indicated. However,
further evaluation in prospective clinical trials will be required
to assess the clinical benefit of this strategy.
142
Timing of the
PET/CT
Hierarchy of
Diagnostic
Efficacy
Relevance of
Test
Level of
Evidence
Diagnosis
Level 2
Probably
Appropriate
Level 2
Staging
Level 2
Potentially
Appropriate
Level 2
Response
evaluation
Level 3
Probably
Appropriate
Level 3
Restaging
Level 3
Potentially
Appropriate
Level 3
Suspected
recurrence
Level 3
Potentially
Appropriate
Level 3
Follow-up
Level 3
Potentially
Appropriate
Level 2
RT planning
Level 2
Probably
Appropriate
Level 3
Selected Abstracts
Havrilesky LJ, Kulasingam SL, Matchar DB, Myers ER.
FDG-PET for management of cervical and ovarian cancer.
Gynecol Oncol 2005; 97: 183-91
Abstract :To assess the diagnostic performance of Positron
Emission Tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET)
in comparison to conventional imaging modalities in the
assessment of patients with cervical and ovarian cancer.
Studies published between 1966 and 2003 were identified
using an OVID search of the MEDLINE database. Inclusion
criteria were use of a dedicated scanner, resolution specified,
z12 human subjects, clinical follow-up z6 months or
histopathology as reference standard, and sufficient data
provided to construct a two-by-two table. Two reviewers
independently abstracted data regarding sensitivity and
specificity of PET. 25 studies (15 cervical cancer, 10 ovarian
cancer) met inclusion criteria for full text review. For cervical
143
cancer, pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET for aortic
node metastasis are 0.84 (95% CI 0.68–0.94) and 0.95
(0.89–0.98). Pooled sensitivity and specificity for detection
of pelvic node metastasis are: PET, 0.79 (0.65–0.90) and 0.99
(0.96–0.99); MRI, 0.72 (0.53–0.87) and 0.96 (0.92–0.98).
Pooled sensitivity for CT is 0.47 (0.21–0.73) (pooled
specificity not available). Pooled sensitivity and specificity
of PET for recurrent cervical cancer with clinical suspicion
are 0.96 (0.87–0.99) and 0.81 (0.58–0.94). For ovarian cancer,
pooled sensitivity and specificity to detect recurrence with
clinical suspicion are: PET, 0.90 (0.82–0.95) and 0.86
(0.67–0.96); conventional imaging, 0.68 (0.49–0.83) and 0.58
(0.33–0.80); CA- 125, 0.81 (0.62–0.92) and 0.83 (0.58–0.96).
When conventional imaging and CA-125 are negative, pooled
sensitivity and specificity of PET are 0.54 (0.39–0.69) and
0.73 (0.56–0.87), respectively. When CA -125 is rising and
conventional imaging is negative, the pooled sensitivity and
specificity of PET are 0.96 (0.88–0.99) and 0.80 (0.44–0.97).
Conclusions: There is good evidence that PET is useful for
the pre-treatment detection of retroperitoneal nodal metastasis
in cervical cancer. There is fair evidence that PET is useful
for the detection of recurrent cervical cancer. PET is less useful
for the detection of microscopic residual ovarian cancer but
has fair sensitivity to detect recurrence in the setting of a rising
CA-125 and negative conventional imaging studies. Available
studies are limited by low numbers of patients and wide
confidence intervals.
The prognostic value of PET and PET / CT in cervical
cancer. Perry W. Grigsby. Cancer Imaging 2008 (8),
146-155.
Abstract: Cervical cancer ranks among the top three cancer
diagnoses in women worldwide. In the United States, the SEER
Cancer Statistics Review identified cervical cancer as the third
leading cause (following childhood cancers and testicular
144
cancer) of average years of life lost per person dying of cancer
for all races and both genders. Approximately one-third of
cervical cancer patients develop disease recurrence and the
majority of these recurrences occur within the first 2 years
after completion of therapy. Predictors of disease recurrence
include stage and lymph node status at the time of initial
diagnosis. The initial diagnosis and staging of cervical cancer
has traditionally been achieved by history and physical
examination and by use of selected imaging studies. Accurate
staging is important both for selecting appropriate therapy and
for prognosis. Computed tomography (CT) has been the most
widely used imaging method for assessment of nodal
involvement and detection of distant metastatic disease.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has become an
established imaging tool for cervical cancer. The functional
information about regional glucose metabolism provided by
fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET provides for greater
sensitivity and specificity in most cancer imaging applications
by comparison with CT and other anatomic imaging methods.
PET is superior to conventional imaging modalities for
evaluating patients with cervical cancer.
New trends in the evaluation and treatment of cervix
cancer: The role of FDG–PET. Nicolas Magne, Cyrus
Chargari, Lisa Vicenzi et al. Cancer Treatment Reviews
2008 34, 671– 681.
Abstract: Introduction: Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
with F18 Flurodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been evaluated and
found to be a useful diagnostic tool in a certain number of
malignancies, particularly in providing crucial assessment of
metabolic activity of the tumor. We here in review and discuss
the place and role of FDG–PET scan in cervix carcinoma
patients’ management. Materials and methods: Data for this
review were identified by searches of Medline with and without
MeSH database and Cancerlit. Studies were selected only if
145
they were randomised clinical trials or historical reports.
References were also identified from reference lists in relevant
preciously published articles. Recent guidelines and metaanalyses were included. Only published articles were taken
into consideration. Results: Although FDG–PET may be useful
in the primary cervical tumors morphologic and metabolic
evaluation, it seems to have limited place for disease staging
in patients with early-stage disease (less than 4 cm). Hybrid
PET/CT is an effective imaging technique in the lymph node
staging of locally advanced cervix carcinoma with negative
CT findings and may lead to substantial changes in treatment
planning for several patients. FDG–PET provides meaningful
information for the early evaluation of therapeutic response
and long-term follow- up. Conclusion: Several reports have
demonstrated the efficacy of FDG–PET in both pre-treatment
staging and post-treatment evaluation of patients with cervical
carcinoma. Further evaluation in prospective clinical trials will
be required to assess the clinical benefit of this strategy.
The Standardized Uptake Value for F-18
Fluorodeoxyglucose Is a Sensitive Predictive Biomarker
for Cervical Cancer Treatment Response and Survival
Elizabeth A. Kidd, Barry A. Siegel, Farrokh Dehdashti,
Perry W. Grigsby, Cancer 2007;110:1738–44.
Abstract: BACKGROUND. The objective of this study was
to evaluate cervical tumor uptake of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose
(FDG) measured as the maximal standardized uptake value
(SUVmax) by positron emission tomography (PET) and its
association with treatment response and prognosis in patients
with cervical cancer. METHODS: The study population
consisted of 287 patients with stage IA2 through IVB cervical
cancer who underwent pretreatment FDG-PET studies.
SUVmax, tumor volume, and sites of lymph node metastasis
were recorded. Therapy included surgery, chemoradiation, or
palliation. RESULTS: The mean SUVmax was 11.4 (range,
146
1–50.4). The mean tumor volume by stage was 42.1 cm3 for
stage I tumors (using International Federation of Gynecology
and Obstetrics [FIGO] staging criteria), 63.7 cm3 for stage II
tumors, 129.2 cm3 for stage III tumors, and 166.2 cm3 for
stage IV tumors. There was no correlation between tumor
volume and SUVmax (correlation coefficient [R2] 5 0.01).
No significant difference in SUVmax was observed between
squamous histology (n 5 247 patients) and nonsquamous
histology (n 5 40 patients; P 5.089). Higher SUVmax was
associated with an increased risk of lymph node metastasis at
diagnosis (P 5.0009). A Cox proportional-hazards model for
death from cervical cancer was used to evaluate tumor
histology, lymph node metastasis, tumor volume, and
SUVmax. The results indicated that SUVmax was the only
significant independent factor (P 5.0027). Three prognostic
groups were established using SUVmax. The overall survival
rates at 5 years were 95% for an SUVmax _ 5.2, 70 %for an
SUVmax > 5.2 and _13.3, and 44% for an SUVmax > 13.3
(P <.0001). Increasing SUVmax was associated with persistent
abnormal FDG uptake in the cervix on 3-month FDG-PET
studies in 238 patients who received curative chemoradiation
(P 5.04). CONCLUSIONS: The SUVmax of the cervical tumor
at diagnosis was a sensitive biomarker of treatment response
and prognosis for patients with cervical cancer.
Prospective Clinical Trial of Positron Emission
Tomography/ Computed Tomography Image-guided
intensity- modulated radiation therapy for cervical
carcinoma with positive para-aortic lymph nodes.
Jacqueline Esthappan, Summer Chaudhari, Lakshmi
Santanam, et al. Int. J. Radiation Oncology Biol. Phys.,
Vol. 72, No. 4, 1134–1139, 2008.
Abstract: Purpose: To describe a more aggressive treatment
technique allowing dose escalation to positive para-aortic
lymph nodes (PALN) in patients with cervical cancer, by means
147
of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography
(CT)–guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).
Here, we describe methods for simulation and planning of
these treatments and provide objectives for target coverage as
well as normal tissue sparing to guide treatment plan
evaluation. Methods and Materials: Patients underwent
simulation on a PET/CT scanner. Treatment plans were
generated to deliver 60.0 Gy to the PET-positive PALN and
50.0 Gy to the PALN and pelvic lymph node beds. Treatment
plans were optimized to deliver at least 95% of the prescribed
doses to at least 95% of each target volume. Dose–volume
histograms were calculated for normal structures. Results: The
plans of 10 patients were reviewed. Target coverage goals were
satisfied in all plans. Analysis of dose– volume histograms
indicated that treatment plans involved irradiation of
approximately 50% of the bowel volume to at least 25.0 Gy,
with less than 10% receiving at least 50.0 Gy and less than
1% receiving at least 60.0. With regard to kidney sparing,
approximately 50% of the kidney volume received at least
16.0 Gy, less than 5% received at least 50.0 Gy, and less than
1% received at least 60.0 Gy. Conclusions: We have provided
treatment simulation and planning methods as well as
guidelines for the evaluation of target coverage and normal
tissue sparing that should facilitate the more aggressive
treatment of cervical cancer.
148
PET / PET- CT in Endometrial Cancers
Introduction
Among the gynecological malignancies carcinoma uterine
body is one of the common cancers in the west. Most women
present with disease confined to the uterus, and many of these
women have an excellent prognosis and outcome. Over 80%
of primary endometrial cancers are endometrioid
adenocarcinomas. Endometrial tumors spread by direct
extension to the cervix, vagina and, via the fallopian tubes, to
the ovaries and peritoneal cavity. Myometrial invasion is
common and may lead to serosal and parametrial involvement.
Lymphatic spread occurs to the external iliac, internal iliac
and obturator regions of the pelvis and to the para-aortic nodes
from the upper part of the uterus. Haematogenous spread
results in lung metastases. Patterns of recurrences also imply
a tendency to early systemic metastasis.
Surgery is the mainstay of treatment. The performance of full
surgical staging for endometrial cancer has several possible
advantages. First, it allows the treating physician to tailor
adjuvant therapies to the location and volume of identified
metastases. In addition, there is a growing body of data to
suggest that more extensive pelvic and aortic
149
lymphadenectomy is associated with improved outcomes
among women with high-risk early stage and advanced stage
disease.
Current Staging / Imaging: Increasingly, Magnetic
Resonance Imaging (MRI) is used in the preoperative imaging
of women with endometrial cancer to assess the depth of
myometrial invasion. Depth of invasion is closely related to
the risk of lymph node involvement and may be used to aid
decisions for selective lymphadenectomy. MRI is more
sensitive than transvaginal ultrasound and computed
tomography (CT) scanning for the assessment of depth of
invasion and can identify cervical involvement. CT may be
helpful in assessment of the upper abdomen if intra-abdominal
metastases are suspected. Experience of FDG-PET in
endometrial cancer is currently limited and is unlikely to
contribute significantly to preoperative management. However,
initial reports suggest that FDG-PET may be clinically useful
in evaluating potential disease recurrence, with negative results
correlating with a disease-free course. Despite the use of
preoperative imaging as an aid to treatment planning, the
staging of endometrial cancer remains surgico-pathological,
relying both on a surgical assessment of intra-abdominal
disease and in most cases, where disease is confined to the
uterine corpus, on depth of myometrial invasion. There has
been considerable debate concerning the surgical staging of
endometrial cancer. It is generally accepted that, as a minimum,
total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy,
peritoneal cytology and inspection of the upper abdominal
organs and peritoneal surfaces should be performed. Most
endometrial cancer recurrences occur within the first 3 years
after treatment. Follow-up is undertaken with the aim of
detecting recurrence and identifying side-effects of treatment.
Women who experience recurrence after treatment for early
150
endometrial cancer are managed according to the pattern of
recurrence and overall fitness. MRI is useful for evaluating
suspected pelvic recurrence, whereas CT is preferable for
imaging suspected para-aortic recurrence. Chest X-ray will
detect lung metastases, although CT is frequently employed
for simultaneous assessment of both the abdomen and chest.
However, only few retrospective case series has investigated
the role of PET/CT in the post-therapy surveillance of patients
with uterine corpus cancer, and there have been no studies
investigating the sensitivity and specificity of preoperative
PET/ CT in these patients. The principal benefit of PET/CT is
its sensitivity in detecting distant metastases. Due to its high
NPV in predicting LN metastases, PET/CT can also be useful
in selected patients who are poor candidates for surgical
staging. The low PPV of this method may be due to
misinterpreting reactive lymphadenopathy after endometrial
biopsy as malignant change. Larger prospective studies are
needed to clarify the role of PET/CT in preoperative evaluation
of uterine corpus cancer.
Torizuka T et al. compared PET & MRI for detecting
myometrial invasion and found that FDG PET may be feasible
for predicting invasion, especially when uterine atrophy makes
it difficult to detect with MRI in post-menopausal patients
and thereby avoid overestimation of invasion. There are still
few issues regarding this. First is that these imaging need not
change the treatment plan radically and surgery is still required.
Secondly in our setting we need to be aware of the fact that
infections may raise the SUV and this may affect the specificity.
Advanced disease form a heterogeneous group of patients
whose survival ranges from 10 to >65 %. It is imperative to
detect the subsets of the patients that will benefit from adjuvant
radiotherapy. In this respect the imaging studies are evolving
to help to identify accurately these patients. Lok KV et al in
151
their study showed the involvement of lymph node in pre
operative patients. By defining the lymphatic spread via
surgical staging, postoperative radiotherapy can be
recommended to patients with nodal metastases, while it can
be withheld from those patients with negative nodes. Thus the
management changes for these patients.
Horowitz NS et al also showed that FDG-PET is only
moderately sensitive (60%) in predicting lymph node
metastasis pre-operatively in patients with endometrial cancer.
This corresponds with the findings of Park et al. which
compared MRI & PET Scan showing better specificity and
accuracy of PET scan. The other benefit of PET scan is that it
can also pick up distant metastasis in the same study
PET Scan becoming negative also signifies important factor
for prognosis and patient remain disease free, in contrast to
patients with carcinoma ovary where negative PET Scan means
absence of macroscopic disease. This difference in the nature
of the diseases will help to utilized PET Scan as modality for
the follow of patients with carcinoma endometrium.
The early stage presentation of the carcinoma endometrium
patients is reflected in long term overall survival & disease
free status. Most of the recurrences occur within the first 3
years after treatment. The aim of follow up is to detect
recurrences early so that salvage treatment can be offered.
Imaging is usually done for symptomatic patients on follow
up. PET scan as an imaging modality during the follow up,
and for diagnosis of the recurrence is still emerging. Even in
the asymptomatic patients, PET Scan have shown better results
than the other imaging modalities.
Two studies have been published favoring the routine scan as
surveillance strategy. Belhocine have reported that use of PETCT in post therapy follow up is useful, as it help to identify
asymptomatic recurrences in almost 12% patients, thereby
152
helping salvage treatment and also avoiding unnecessary over
treatment in few cases. Similar study was done for uterine
sarcoma showed that PET CT is useful in post-treatment follow
up of the uterine sarcoma. Recently published study by
Kitajima K et al has shown that in cases of suspected recurrence
PET CT was better than PET which is better than the CT alone.
Based on PET/CT findings there was change of management
in 42% patients which is a significant number.
Timing of the
PET/CT
Hierarchy of
Diagnostic
Efficacy
Relevance of
Test
Level of
Evidence
Diagnosis
-
Inappropriate
-
Staging
Level 1 / 2
Potentially
Appropriate
Level 3
Response
evaluation
Level 5
Appropriate
Level 2
Restaging
-
-
-
Suspected
recurrence
Level 3
Probably
Appropriate
Level 2
Follow up
Level 5
Appropriate /
Probably
Appropriate
Level 2
RT planning
-
Inappropriate
-
Suggested Reading
Comparison of the validity of magnetic resonance imaging
and positron emission tomography / computed tomography
in the preoperative evaluation of patients with uterine
corpus cancer. Park JY, Kim EN, Kim DY, Suh DS, Kim
JH, Kim YM, Kim YT, Nam JH. Gynecol Oncol. 2008 Mar;
108 (3): 486-92.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To compare positron emission
153
tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with magnetic
resonance imaging (MRI) in the preoperative detection of
primary lesions and lymph node (LN) and distant metastases
in patients with uterine corpus cancer. METHODS: The patient
cohort consisted of 53 women with uterine corpus cancer who
underwent preoperative workup, including both MRI and PET/
CT scans, and underwent surgical staging, including pelvic
and/or paraaortic LN dissection, between October 2004 and
June 2007 at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Pathologic
data from surgical staging were compared with the preoperative
MRI and PET/CT results. For area specific analysis, LNs were
divided into paraaortic, right pelvic and left pelvic areas.
RESULTS: In detecting primary lesions, MRI and PET/CT
showed no differences in sensitivity (91.5% vs. 89.4%),
specificity (33.3% vs. 50.5%), accuracy (84.9% vs. 84.9%),
positive predictive value (PPV) (91.5% vs. 93.3%) and
negative predictive value (NPV) (33.3% vs. 37.5%). With
MRI, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV for
detecting metastatic LNs on LN area-by-area analysis were
46.2%, 87.9%, 83.9%, 28.6% and 94.0%, respectively; With
PET/CT, those were 69.2%, 90.3%, 88.3%, 42.9%, and 96.6%,
respectively. PET/CT showed higher sensitivity, but it did not
reach statistical significance (p=0.250). There were also no
differences in specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV. In detecting
distant metastasis, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV
and NPV of PET/CT were 100%, 93.8%, 92.5%, 62.5% and
100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In patients with uterine
corpus cancer, PET/CT had moderate sensitivity, specificity
and accuracy in detecting primary lesions and LN metastases,
indicating that this method cannot replace surgical staging.
The primary benefit of PET/CT is its sensitivity in detecting
distant metastases. Because of its high NPV in predicting LN
metastasis, PET/CT may also have advantages in selected
patients who are poor candidates for surgical staging.
154
Prospective evaluation of FDG-PET for detecting pelvic
and para-aortic lymph node metastasis in uterine corpus
cancer. Horowitz NS, Dehdashti F, Herzog TJ, Rader JS,
Powell MA, Gibb RK, Grigsby PW, Siegel BA, Mutch DG.
Gynecol Oncol. 2004 Dec; 95 (3): 546-51.
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To estimate the sensitivity and
specificity of positron emission tomography (PET) with 2[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) for detecting pelvic
and para-aortic lymph node metastasis in patients with uterine
corpus carcinoma before surgical staging. METHODS:
Patients with newly diagnosed FIGO grade 2 or 3
endometrioid, papillary serous, or clear cell adenocarcinoma
or uterine corpus sarcoma scheduled for surgical staging,
including bilateral pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy,
were eligible. PET was performed within 30 days of surgery
and interpreted independently by two nuclear medicine
physicians. The imaging, operative, and pathologic findings
for each patient and each nodal site were compared, and the
sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET in predicting nodal
metastasis were determined. RESULTS: Twenty patients
underwent FDG-PET before surgical staging. One patient
found to have ovarian carcinoma on final pathology was
excluded. Of the 19 primary intrauterine tumors, 16 (84%)
exhibited increased FDG uptake. One patient did not undergo
lymphadenectomy; her chest CT was suspicious for metastatic
disease and FDG-PET showed uptake in multiple nodal and
pulmonary foci. Metastatic disease was confirmed by
percutaneous nodal biopsy. A total of three pathologically
positive nodes were found in 2 of the 18 patients (11%). FDGPET predicted that 3 patients would have positive lymph nodes
(2 true positive and 1 false positive). Analyzed by lymph node
regions, FDG-PET had 60% sensitivity and 98% specificity.
The sensitivity and specificity by individual patient were 67%
and 94%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET is only
moderately sensitive in predicting lymph node metastasis
155
pre-operatively in patients with endometrial cancer. This
imaging modality should not replace lymphadenectomy, but
may be helpful for patients in whom lymphadenectomy cannot
be, or was not, performed.
Laura J. Havrilesky , G. Larry Maxwell, John K. Chan,
Evan R. Myers. Cost effectiveness of a test to detect
metastases for endometrial cancer Gynecologic Oncology
xxx (2008) xxx–xxx
Abstract: Objective. To estimate the potential costeffectiveness of a hypothetical test to screen for lymph node
metastases in women with newly diagnosed, apparent early
stage endometrial cancer. Methods. A decision model was
constructed to inform a choice between the following
strategies: (1) Usual care, in which the probability of
undergoing full surgical staging (29%) is based on literature
review; (2) Noninvasive diagnostic testing for metastasis
(Testing), in which patients with abnormal test results undergo
full surgical staging; (3) 100% referral, in which all patients
are referred for full surgical staging. Survival was modeled
using Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)
database. Base case diagnostic test characteristic estimates
(sensitivity 0.90, speci.city 0.90) were varied for sensitivity
analysis. Cost of the diagnostic test was set at $500 and varied;
costs of treatment for endometrial cancer (surgery, adjuvant
therapies, diagnosis of recurrence, salvage therapies and
palliative care) were incorporated. Results. Usual care was
the least expensive strategy, while Testing was more expensive
and more effective, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio
(ICER) of $18,785 per year of life saved (YLS) compared to
Usual care. 100% referral was the most expensive and most
effective strategy, with an ICER of $35,358 per YLS compared
to Testing. Results are relatively sensitive to variation in test
characteristics and the cost of the diagnostic test but insensitive
156
to cost of treatment and probability of adjuvant therapies.
Testing remains cost-effective compared to Usual care unless
the usual rate of referral to a Gynecologic Oncologist for full
staging exceeds 90%. Conclusions. Given the current low rates
of full surgical staging and/or referral to a Gynecologic
Oncologist, a diagnostic test to detect nodal metastasis for
endometrial cancer has potential to be cost effective when
compared to usual care. Testing is also potentially costeffective compared to 100% referral at very high test
sensitivities and at the lower range of test costs.
157
Epithelial Ovarian Cancers and PET
Imaging
Introduction
Ovarian neoplasms encompass a wide array of benign and
malignant tumors with diverse histologic cell types, clinical
features and hormone secreting tumors. On the basis of distinct
pathologic and clinical features, ovarian cancer can be
separated into three distinct histologic subtypes: epithelial
tumors, germ cell tumors, and sex cord–stromal tumors. The
epithelial tumors account for 60% of all ovarian neoplasm
and for 80% to 90% of ovarian malignancies. The epithelial
tumors arise from the surface epithelium or serosa of the ovary.
In the majority of cases, malignant epithelial ovarian tumors
disseminate throughout the peritoneal cavity after exfoliation
of malignant cells from the surface of the ovary. The typical
circulation of the peritoneal fluid along the undersurface of
the right hemi-diaphragm facilitates the frequently observed
pattern of widespread dissemination of malignant tumor cells
within the peritoneal cavity. In addition, the omentum
frequently attracts these malignant cells and is thus a common
site of metastasis. Tumor spread also occurs via the lymphatics
from the ovary. A primary source of drainage follows the
ovarian blood supply in the infundibulo-pelvic ligament to
158
lymph nodes around the aorta and vena cava to the level of
the renal vessels. There is also lymphatic drainage through
the broad ligament and parametrial channels; consequently,
pelvic sidewall lymphatics, including the external iliac,
obturator, and hypogastric chains, are also frequently involved.
Spread to lymph nodes is common. Approximately 10% of
patients with ovarian cancer that appears to be localized to
the ovaries have metastases to para-aortic lymph nodes, and
retroperitoneal lymph node involvement is found in the
majority of cases of advanced ovarian cancer. Hematogenous
metastases to extra-abdominal sites can occur but are relatively
uncommon. There can also be direct extension of the tumor
from the ovary to involve the adjacent peritoneal surfaces of
the bladder, recto-sigmoid, and pelvic peritoneum.
Most patients are not symptomatic until the disease has
progressed to advanced stages; hence, approximately 75–80%
of women with ovarian cancer have tumor spread beyond the
ovary at the time of diagnosis. Primary therapy of ovarian
cancer usually consists of surgical cytoreduction followed by
paclitaxel and platinum based chemotherapy or vice-versa.
Most women respond to primary therapy, with 75% of patients
achieving a complete clinical response. Despite good initial
response, the majority of ovarian cancer patients will ultimately
develop recurrent disease. Both chemotherapy and
radiotherapy or combinations of both are treatment modalities
of potential benefit. Although significant advances have been
made with the use of chemotherapy, the treatment of ovarian
carcinoma still remains a challenge. The clinical follow-up
includes close surveillance, periodic evaluation of serum
CA-125 levels and the use of imaging modalities.
Current Staging / Imaging and Evidence:
After initial evaluation and establishing disease confined to
abdomino-plevic cavity, staging is essentially by surgery. The
extent of surgery depends on resectablility and is therapeutic
159
for early stage while diagnostic and to some extent therapeutic.
Pre-operative imaging to a large extent maps the disease.
Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MRI)
are anatomic, high-resolution imaging techniques are
commonly used to guide the management of patients with
epithelial ovarian cancers. They have limited role to resolve
small volumes of disease and false positives due to their
inability to distinguish between viable tumor masses and
masses consisting of necrotic or scar tissue. Functional imaging
methods such as positron emission tomography (PET) can
establish the metabolic or functional parameters of tissue and
may aid in these distinctions. The diagnostic test performance
of FDG-PET as an adjunct to conventional imaging (e.g., CT,
MRI) has been attempted for ovarian cancer in
1.
2.
Staging at the time of initial diagnosis
Detecting recurrent disease following treatment (surgery,
radiation, chemotherapy, or combination) or in rising
CA-125 levels and a negative CT?
Staging: Ovarian cancer is generally characterized by a marked
increase in FDG uptake, but its use in the evaluation of primary
ovarian masses is limited due to a relatively high rate of false
positive findings. In advance disease at presentation, PET
imaging has the potential to identify systemic disease and its
distribution. It may also assist in identifying the sanctuary sites
for tumor seedings in the peritoneal cavity like, sub-hepatic
region, para-colic gutters, etc. However, its role in preoperative
staging is yet to be established and needs systematic
prospective studies in future.
Recurrent Disease / Surveillance: Although recurrent ovarian
cancer is almost never curable, early detection of recurrence
theoretically affords a better chance that salvage treatment will
result in prolonged remission and sustained quality of life.
Although CA-125 elevation is often useful in detecting
160
recurrence, it is not helpful in localizing the disease.
Knowledge of the location of recurrence could guide tailored
salvage treatment. Conventional imaging modalities often give
nonspecific results and are suboptimal for the reliable detection
of peritoneal recurrence of ovarian cancer. The identification
of more accurate imaging modalities should improve
management decisions for patients with recurrent ovarian
cancer. Often, the suggestion of ovarian cancer recurrence by
rising CA-125 levels is followed by radiological evaluation
of patients to localize the disease, primarily by contrast
enhanced computed tomography (CT). Although useful in
many cases, CT has limitations in the accurate detection of
intra-abdominal tumor recurrence due to difficulties in reliably
identifying small tumor deposits and in separating bowel
structures from adjacent tumor tissue. The anatomic
localization of ovarian cancer recurrence is important for
subsequent treatment planning and follow-up. Several studies
however, demonstrated the effectiveness of FDG-PET in
detecting recurrent ovarian cancer and have shown that it
provides additional information over contrast enhanced CT.
An important limitation of FDG-PET imaging of the abdomen
is precise localization of tumor recurrence due to the lack of
reliable anatomical landmarks and the limited spatial resolution
of PET. Furthermore, variable physiologic FDG uptake in
bowel and muscle tissue as well as the renal excretion of the
radiotracer can confound image interpretation. Combined
positron emission tomography and computed tomography
(PET/CT) is a new imaging technology which merges the
metabolic information from FDG-PET with the anatomical
information from CT. There is limited information available
so far describing the role of FDG-PET/CT in ovarian cancer
patients.
Many studies have addressed the use of surveillance PET to
detect recurrent or persistent ovarian cancer in the absence of
161
clinical suspicion. The pooled sensitivity of PET is 0.54 (95%
CI 0.39–0.69) and pooled specificity is 0.73 (95% CI
0.56–0.87). In a prospective study, Rose et al. required a
negative abdominal and pelvic CT and normal CA-125 prior
to entry and performed a second look laparotomy with biopsies
on all patients following the PET scan. The authors reported
that PET has a relatively low sensitivity (0.18) and specificity
(0.45) and concluded that PET is not sensitive for detection
of small volume disease. Three studies have addressed the
use of PET to detect recurrent ovarian cancer in the setting of
a rising CA125 and negative or equivocal conventional
imaging studies. The pooled sensitivity of PET is 0.96 (95%
CI 0.88–0.99) and pooled specificity 0.80 (95% CI 0.44–0.97).
Two studies were limited by lack of specified minimum clinical
follow-up to confirm PET results. Six studies addressed the
use of PET to detect recurrent ovarian cancer when clinical
suspicion exists; Pooled PET sensitivity is 0.90 (95% CI 0.82–
0.95) and specificity 0.86 (95% CI 0.67–0.96). All authors
concluded that PET may be useful in the detection of recurrent
ovarian cancer.
In a systematic review and meta-analysis with 34 included
studies, CA 125 had the highest pooled specificity, 0.93 (95%
CI: 0.89–0.95); PET–CT had highest pooled sensitivity,
0.91(95% CI: 0.88–0.94). The AUC of CA 125, PET alone,
PET–CT, CT and MRI were 0.9219, 0.9297, 0.9555, 0.8845
and 0.7955, respectively.
PET does not appear to be useful in the routine surveillance
of patients with a history of ovarian cancer, nor is it likely to
improve the sensitivity of conventional modalities to detect
microscopic intra-peritoneal disease. There is fair evidence
to support the use of PET for the detection of recurrent ovarian
cancer when the CA-125 is elevated and conventional imaging
is negative or equivocal, although whether this results in
improved patient outcomes is unclear. Future studies are
162
needed to address the impact of FDG-PET/CT on clinical
patient management Vs. the cost effectiveness of such an
approach.
Timing of the
PET/CT
Hierarchy of
Diagnostic
Efficacy
Relevance of
Test
Level of
Evidence
Diagnosis
Level 1
Inappropriate
Level 4
Staging
Level 1
Inappropriate
Level 4
Response
evaluation
Level 2
Probably
Appropriate
Level 3
Restaging
Level 2
Probably
Appropriate
Level 4
Suspected
recurrence
Level 3
Potentially
Appropriate
Level 3
Follow-up
Level 2
Probably
Appropriate
Level 3
RT planning
Level 1
Inappropriate
Level 5
Selected Abstract
FDG-PET for management of cervical and ovarian cancer.
Havrilesky LJ, Kulasingam SL, Matchar DB, Myers ER.
Gynecol Oncol 2005; 97: 183-91.
Abstract :To assess the diagnostic performance of Positron
Emission Tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET)
in comparison to conventional imaging modalities in the
assessment of patients with cervical and ovarian cancer.
Studies published between 1966 and 2003 were identified
using an OVID search of the MEDLINE database. Inclusion
criteria were use of a dedicated scanner, resolution specified,
z12 human subjects, clinical follow-up z6 months or
histopathology as reference standard, and sufficient data
provided to construct a two-by-two table. Two reviewers
independently abstracted data regarding sensitivity and
specificity of PET. 25 studies (15 cervical cancer, 10 ovarian
163
cancer) met inclusion criteria for full text review. For cervical
cancer, pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET for aortic
node metastasis are 0.84 (95% CI 0.68–0.94) and 0.95
(0.89–0.98). Pooled sensitivity and specificity for detection
of pelvic node metastasis are: PET, 0.79 (0.65–0.90) and 0.99
(0.96–0.99); MRI, 0.72 (0.53–0.87) and 0.96 (0.92–0.98).
Pooled sensitivity for CT is 0.47 (0.21–0.73) (pooled
specificity not available). Pooled sensitivity and specificity
of PET for recurrent cervical cancer with clinical suspicion
are 0.96 (0.87–0.99) and 0.81 (0.58–0.94). For ovarian cancer,
pooled sensitivity and specificity to detect recurrence with
clinical suspicion are: PET, 0.90 (0.82–0.95) and 0.86
(0.67–0.96); conventional imaging, 0.68 (0.49–0.83) and 0.58
(0.33–0.80); CA- 125, 0.81 (0.62–0.92) and 0.83 (0.58–0.96).
When conventional imaging and CA-125 are negative, pooled
sensitivity and specificity of PET are 0.54 (0.39–0.69) and
0.73 (0.56–0.87), respectively. When CA-125 is rising and
conventional imaging is negative, the pooled sensitivity and
specificity of PET are 0.96 (0.88–0.99) and 0.80 (0.44–0.97).
Conclusions. There is good evidence that PET is useful for
the pre-treatment detection of retroperitoneal nodal metastasis
in cervical cancer. There is fair evidence that PET is useful
for the detection of recurrent cervical cancer. PET is less useful
for the detection of microscopic residual ovarian cancer but
has fair sensitivity to detect recurrence in the setting of a rising
CA-125 and negative conventional imaging studies. Available
studies are limited by low numbers of patients and wide
confidence intervals.
Melissa M. Thrall , Julie A. DeLoia, Holly Gallion, Norbert
Avril. et al.
Clinical use of combined positron emission tomography and
computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in recurrent ovarian
cancer Gynecologic Oncology 105 (2007) 17–22
Abstract: Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate
the use of co-registered PET/CT using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose
164
(FDG) for surveillance and follow-up of ovarian cancer
patients to detect recurrent disease. Material and methods. A
retrospective chart review was performed on 39 ovarian cancer
patients who underwent a total of 59 FDG-PET/CT scans. The
following information was obtained: clinical indication for
FDG-PET/CT, the results of FDG-PET/CT particularly with
regard to the additional diagnostic information, the localization
of disease and subsequent clinical patient management.
Results. Twenty-four FDG-PET/CT were performed in 22
patients with previously negative or indeterminate CT scans
but rising CA-125 levels providing a sensitivity of 90% for
localizing disease. Nine FDG-PET/CT in 8 patients with
clinical symptoms of recurrence but normal CA-125 levels
detected all three patients who had recurrent disease confirmed
within 6 months of follow-up. In addition, 4 FDG-PET/CT
performed as routine follow-up with no clinical evidence of
recurrent disease were true-negative in all cases. Fourteen
FDG-PET/CT in 12 patients with recurrent disease already
identified by conventional CT imaging were useful in guiding
treatment decisions such as radiation therapy, surgery or
chemotherapy by confirming the recurrence and more precisely
localizing the site(s) of disease. Of note, FDG-PET/CT helped
to avoid surgery in four patients who had additional disease
detected in unresectable anatomic areas. A total of 51 FDGPET/CT were performed in the patients described above with
an overall sensitivity and specificity of 94.5% and 100%,
respectively. Eight FDG-PET/CT scans in five patients
performed for assessment of treatment response following
chemotherapy or radiation were useful as the disease was not
clearly visualized by conventional CT imaging at baseline.
Conclusions. In our experience, FDG-PET/CT has the greatest
utility in settings of suspected ovarian cancer recurrence,
particularly in patients with rising CA-125 levels and negative
conventional imaging. FDG-PET/CT was specifically helpful
in optimizing the selection of patients for site-specific
165
treatment, including radiation treatment planning, and aided
in the selection of optimal surgical candidates. The coregistered metabolic–anatomic information from combined
FDG-PET/CT holds promise in replacing the single imaging
procedures.
CA 125, PET alone, PET–CT, CT and MRI in diagnosing
recurrent ovarian carcinoma A systematic review and
meta-analysis. Ping Gua, Ling-Ling Pan, Shu-Qi Wu, Li
Sunb, Gang Huanga. European Journal of Radiology xxx
(2008) xxx–xxx.
Abstract Background and purpose: Ovarian cancer is the
commonest tumor in female patients with a propensity for
recurrence even after primary chemotherapy in early stage.
The accuracy of CA 125, PET alone, PET–CT, CT and MRI
in diagnosing the recurrent ovarian carcinoma has never been
systematically assessed, and present systematic review was
aimed at this issue. Methods: We searched for articles
published from January 1995 to November 2007, inclusion
criteria including: articles were reported in English or
Chinese;CA125, PET whether interpreted with or without the
use ofCT,CT or MRI was used to detect recurrent ovarian
carcinoma; Histopathologic analysis and/or close clinical and
imaging follow-up for at least 6 months. We extracted data to
calculate sensitivity, specificity, SROC curves and AUC and
to test for heterogeneity. Result: In 34 included studies, CA
125 had the highest pooled specificity, 0.93 (95% CI:
0.89–0.95); PET–CT had highest pooled sensitivity, 0.91(95%
CI: 0.88–0.94). The AUC of CA 125, PET alone, PET–CT,
CT and MRI were 0.9219, 0.9297, 0.9555, 0.8845 and 0.7955,
respectively.Results of pairwise comparison between each
modality demonstrated AUC of PET, whether interpreted with
or without the use of CT, was higher than that of CT or MR,
p < 0.05. The pooled sensitivity, pooled specificity and AUC
showed no statistical significance between PET alone and
166
PET–CT. There was heterogeneity among studies and evidence
of publication bias. Conclusion: PET–CT might be a useful
supplement to current surveillance techniques, particularly for
those patients with an increasing CA 125 level and negative
CT or MR imaging. However, regarding to diagnostic
accuracy, interpreted CT images may have limited additional
value on PET in detecting recurrent ovarian cancer.
167
Section — VI
Bone and Soft Tissue
Malignancies
Osteogenic Sarcoma
Introduction
Any primary bone-forming tumor is termed an osteogenic
sarcoma (OGS) and this category technically includes
fibrosarcoma, chondrosarcoma and osteosarcoma. For
purposes of this review, only osteosarcomas are discussed.
They are the third most common type of tumour in adolescents.
They can be divided in multiple ways based on location in
bone, degree of cellular differentiation, histologic composition,
number of foci and underlying bone disease (such as Paget’s
disease). Traditionally, conventional, gnathic, telangiectatic,
small cell, intraosseous low grade, intracortical, surface (high
grade, periosteal, parosteal) and multicentric are terms used
to describe them.
Conventional staging
Traditionally, OGS is diagnosed on the basis of its location
and plain radiographic appearance. Occasionally, it maybe
diagnosed when it presents with early clinical symptoms based
on another imaging test such as MRI or bone scintigraphy
when the lesion is radiographically occult.
MRI is the modality of choice for assessing the extent of
disease and the tumour is usually characterized based on a
171
surgical biopsy and histologic analysis.1 Skip metastases are
rare (3%) but the entire bone segment must be imaged. MRI
has a high NPV of 96% but due to the rarity of such lesions, a
low PPV of only 14%. 2
Bone scintigraphy and FDG PET-CT are felt to be more
sensitive than anatomic imaging modalities in detecting distant
especially osseous and unsuspected metastases while chest CT
is the preferred modality for detecting pulmonary metastases.
Response to therapy, restaging and detection of recurrences is
usually performed using the same imaging tools in the manner
outlined above.
Summary of evidence
Initial Diagnosis
Plain radiographs and MRI form the mainstay of initial
diagnosis of OGS.3 At this time, there is no role for PET-CT
in initial diagnosis of OGS. Consideration could be made in
the case of sarcomatous degeneration of Paget’s disease as
FDG PET has been shown to have variable uptake in Paget’s
disase and there are case reports of altered FDG uptake with
metastases in patients with Paget’s disease. 4, 5
Staging
At this time, the superior anatomic detail provided by MRI
makes it a preferred modality for assessing extent of disease
and there is no literature favouring FDG-PET in this regard
for now.6 FDG PET shows promise in assessing the grade of
tumor based on its metabolic uptake and subsequent prognostic
information. 7-9 There is also role for PET-CT in directing
biopsy of metabolically active lesions especially in large and
heterogeneous lesions with necrotic tissue. 10 In case of
assessing osseous metastases, bone scintigraphy is still felt to
be superior to FDG PET in identifying these for OGS. 11 No
172
information is available regarding the efficacy of F-18 imaging
over conventional bone scintigraphy. Chest CT continues to
remain the investigation of choice while assessing pulmonary
metastases however PET-CT is better than PET alone and when
lung lesions less than 0.5 cm and lymph nodes greater than
1 cm are excluded, PET-CT maybe superior to CT alone. 12
Response Evaluation and Restaging
FDG PET shows promise in initial grading of OGS based on
increased initial uptake. 8 Additionally, there is also promise
regarding the role of FDG PET in assessing response to
neoadjuvant chemotherapy with decease in FDG uptake
correlating with histologic necrosis. 13-15 In a study by Sato et
al, they showed that a higher post therapy SUV correlated
with the expression of metastasis related glycolytic enzyme
while pre therapy values did not, suggesting FDG PET may
provide valuable information for the metastatic potential of
tumours following treatment. 8 FDG PET CT has been shown
to be an accurate tool in detecting local disease and distant
metastases as mentioned above in the staging section however
bone scintigraphy is still felt to be better for osseous metastases
and chest CT more sensitive for pulmonary metastases. The
role of F-18 PET CT has not yet been fully assessed but there
is some interest in the possibility that with tumour necrosis
there is deactivation of the MYC gene which results in
decreasing FDG uptake and increasing F-18 uptake.16
Suspected recurrence
In a small study evaluating recurrence a variety of paediatric
sarcomas, PET CT was found to be most effective in
diagnosing local recurrence. Its role in assessing more distal
metastases needs further investigation and it maybe used in
combination with other conventional imaging tests.17
173
Timing of the
PET/CT
Hierarchy of
Diagnostic
Efficacy
Relevance of
Test
Level of
Evidence
Diagnosis
Level 1
Probably
inappropriate
1 level 1 study
1 level 2 study
1 level 5 study
Staging
Level 2
Probably
appropriate
3 level 1 studies
2 level 2 studies
2 level 3 studies
Response
evaluation
Level 2
Probably
appropriate
3 level 1 studies
Restaging
Level 2
Probably
appropriate
3 level 1 studies
2 level 2 studies
2 level 3 studies
Suspected
recurrence
Level 2
Probably
appropriate
1 level 1 study
Followup
Level 1
NA
NA
RT planning
Level 1
NA
NA
Summary
The role of FDG PET in OGS is still to be defined. There may
be some role for FDG PET in increasing biopsy yield by
directing biopsy to the most metabolically active portion of
the lesion. There is considerable potential in using FDG PET
to prognosticate disease based on its initial SUV and assess
its metastatic potential of OGS following neoadjuvant
chemotherapy and using it as a non invasive tool in the
assessment of response to therapy.
Selected References
Radiologic staging of primary bone sarcoma: MR imaging,
scintigraphy, angiography, and CT correlated with
pathologic examination. Bloem JL, Taminiau AH,
174
Eulderink F, Hermans J, Pauwels EK. Radiology. Dec
1988;169(3):805-810.
The relative value of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging,
computed tomography (CT), technetium-99m bone
scintigraphy, and angiography in local tumor staging was
prospectively evaluated in 56 patients with primary bone
sarcoma. The results of imaging were correlated with findings
at surgery and at dissection of the resected specimens. MR
imaging was significantly superior to CT and scintigraphy in
defining intraosseous tumor length and was as accurate as CT
in demonstrating cortical bone and joint involvement. It was
definitely superior to CT in demonstrating involvement of
muscle compartments. MR imaging was also the best modality
in exhibiting the relationship between tumor and major
neurovascular bundles; however, these differences were not
significant. It is concluded that MR imaging is the modality
of choice for local staging of primary bone sarcoma.
CT and MR imaging in the local staging of primary
malignant musculoskeletal neoplasms: Report of the
Radiology Diagnostic Oncology Group. Panicek DM,
Gatsonis C, Rosenthal DI, et al. Radiology. Jan
1997;202(1):237-246.
PURPOSE: To assess the relative accuracies of computed
tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in
the local staging of primary malignant bone and soft-tissue
tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: At four institutions,
367 eligible patients (aged 6-89 years) with malignant bone
or soft-tissue neoplasms in selected anatomic sites were
enrolled. Patients underwent both CT and MR imaging within
4 weeks before surgery. In each patient, CT scans were
interpreted independently by two radiologists and MR images
by two other radiologists at the enrolling institution. The CT
and MR images were then interpreted together by two of those
175
radiologists and subsequently reread at the other institutions.
Imaging and histopathologic findings were compared and were
supplemented when needed with surgical findings. Receiver
operating characteristic curve analysis and descriptive
statistical analysis were performed. RESULTS: Cases were
analyzable in 316 patients: 183 had primary bone tumors; 133
had primary soft-tissue tumors. There was no statistically
significant difference between CT and MR imaging in
determining tumor involvement of muscle, bone, joints, or
neurovascular structures. The combined interpretation of CT
and MR images did not statistically significantly improve
accuracy. Interreader variability was similar for both
modalities. CONCLUSION: CT and MR imaging are equally
accurate in the local staging of malignant bone and soft-tissue
neoplasms in the specific anatomic sites studied.
Review of non-positron emission tomography functional
imaging of primary musculoskeletal tumours: beyond the
humble bone scan. Ho YY. Australas Radiol. Dec
2005;49(6):445-459.
Bone and soft tissue tumours are rare neoplasms. There are
five major roles of imaging in the management of primary
musculoskeletal tumours, that is, to differentiate between
benignity and malignancy, to evaluate for local tumour
extension, to screen for metastases, to judge the effect of
chemotherapy, and to monitor for recurrence. To accomplish
this, multiple modalities are required because no single
examination is able to complete all these tasks. These
modalities include plain radiography, CT, MRI, conventional
nuclear medicine as well as positron emission tomography
(PET) imaging. Elsewhere, PET imaging has been discussed
at length, because it is likely to be superior in the assessment
of bone and soft tissue tumours over conventional nuclear
medicine procedures. However, conventional nuclear medicine
may be of value when PET is unavailable. In this review, an
176
overview of anatomical imaging will be given and the role of
non-PET functional imaging will be discussed in detail. A
variety of illustrative cases will be presented.
Positron emission tomography and Paget disease: hot is
not necessarily malignant. Spieth ME, Kasner DL, Manor
WF. Clin Nucl Med. Sep 2003;28(9):773-774.
The authors imaged a lung cancer patient with an enlarging
solitary pulmonary nodule and incidentally found intense
activity in the right proximal humerus consistent with known
Paget disease confirmed via plain film and computed
tomography (CT) without change in the CT appearance or
symptoms during the next 7 months. The alkaline phosphatase
and alanine amino transferase (ALT) levels were in the normal
ranges. Their findings of high uptake with normal alkaline
phosphatase and ALT are contradictory to previous reports.
The authors present a case of Paget disease that appeared “hot”
on positron emission tomography initially thought to be a
malignant transformation that typically demonstrated high
uptake.
Fluorine-18-FDG PET in Paget’s disease of bone. Cook
GJ, Maisey MN, Fogelman I. J Nucl Med. Sep
1997;38(9):1495-1497.
Paget’s disease of bone is common in the elderly and is
associated with increased osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity
at affected sites in the skeleton. It is not known whether this
high metabolic activity is associated with increased glycolysis
and, hence, uptake of [18F]FDG. The appearances of Paget’s
disease with [18F]FDG PET have not been described and it is
not known whether Paget’s may cause false-positive studies
in those undergoing oncological staging or whether [18F]FDG
PET can reliably differentiate benign pagetic change from
osteosarcoma that may complicate Paget’s disease. We
reviewed [18F]FDG PET scans in patients with uncomplicated
177
Paget’s disease and documented its appearances. METHODS:
Eighteen patients with established Paget’s disease and typical
radiological features had 99mTc-MDP bone scans and
[18F]FDG PET scans performed. Serum alkaline phosphatase
(ALP) was also measured. RESULTS: All patients showed
high uptake of MDP in affected bones. Of the 18 patients only
six showed any uptake of [18F]FDG. This occurred in some
but not all bones shown to be involved on MDP bone scans.
Three patients demonstrated low-grade uptake and three
showed marked accumulation of [18F]FDG. The [18F]FDGpositive group had higher serum ALP levels than the
[18F]FDG-negative patients (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION:
Paget’s disease of bone is not associated with abnormal
[18F]FDG uptake in the majority of patients and, therefore,
there is potential for discriminating between benign Paget’s
disease and associated Paget’s sarcoma. However, low-grade
uptake may be seen in patients with more active disease as
measured by ALP. Rarely, marked uptake of [18F]FDG may
be seen and Paget’s disease should be included as a possible
cause of false-positive scans in elderly patients who are being
assessed for metastatic disease.
Imaging of malignant tumours of the long bones in
children: monitoring response to neoadjuvant
chemotherapy and preoperative assessment. Brisse H,
Ollivier L, Edeline V, et al. Pediatr Radiol. Aug
2004;34(8):595-605.
This review focuses on imaging of osteosarcoma and Ewing’s
sarcoma of the long bones in children during preoperative
neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Morphological criteria on plain
films and conventional static MRI are insufficiently correlated
with histological response. We review the contribution of
dynamic MRI, diffusion-weighted MR and nuclear medicine
(18FDG-PET) to monitor tumoural necrosis. MRI is currently
the best method to evaluate local extension prior to tumour
178
resection, especially to assess the feasibility of conservative
surgery. Quantitative models in dynamic MRI and 18FDGPET are currently being developed in order to find new early
prognostic criteria, but for the time being, treatment protocols
are still based on the gold standard of histological response.
Quantitative [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission
tomography in pretreatment and grading of sarcoma. Eary
JF, Conrad EU, Bruckner JD, et al. Clin Cancer Res. May
1998;4(5):1215-1220.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship
between sarcoma tumor grade and the quantitative tumor
metabolism value for [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)
determined by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging.
Seventy patients with bone or soft-tissue sarcomas underwent
PET scanning with quantitative determination of tumor FDG
metabolic rate (MRFDG) before treatment. MRFDG
(micromol/g/min) for each tumor was compared with National
Cancer Institute tumor grade, S-phase percentage, and
percentage of aneuploidy of the tumor population. The
pretreatment quantitative determination of tumor MRFDG by
PET correlates strongly with tumor grade but not with the other
selected histopathological tumor correlates. In addition,
overlap of MRFDG PET values with tumor grade suggests
that PET, an objective tumor measurement, may provide an
alternative means of assessing tumor biological potential or
may have the potential to overcome some of the limitations of
traditional pathological evaluation. FDG PET can uniquely
provide a metabolic profile of a diverse group of sarcomas
noninvasively and provide clinically relevant tumor biological
information.
Prognostic significance of (18)F-FDG and (99m)
Tc-methylene diphosphonate uptake in primary
osteo-sarcoma. Franzius C, Bielack S, Flege S, Sciuk J,
179
Jurgens H, Schober O. J Nucl Med. Aug 2002;43(8):
1012-1017.
The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the
prognostic significance of both initial glucose metabolism as
measured by (18)F-FDG PET and osteoblastic activity as
measured by (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone
scintigraphy in osteosarcoma. METHODS: In 29 patients
(18 male, 11 female; age range, 5-41 y) with primary
osteosarcoma, (18)F-FDG uptake and (99m)Tc-MDP uptake
were measured semiquantitatively (average and maximum
tumor-to-nontumor ratios [T/NT(av) and T/NT(max),
respectively]) using PET and bone scintigraphy at the time of
diagnosis. After chemotherapy, the patients underwent surgery
for their primary tumor, and the response was determined
histologically. Cumulative overall survival and event-free
survival were determined by clinical and imaging follow-up
of 7-72 mo (median, 28 mo). RESULTS: Clinical and imaging
follow-up revealed that the disease relapsed or failed to achieve
complete remission in 9 patients and that 6 patients died of
the disease. Both overall and event-free survival were
significantly better in patients with a low (18)F-FDG T/
NT(max) (less than the median) than in patients with a high
(18)F-FDG T/NT(max) (at least the median). The negative
relationship of (18)F-FDG T/NT(av), (99m)Tc-MDP T/
NT(max), and (99m)Tc-MDP T/NT(av) with overall and
event-free survival did not reach a level of significance. (18)FFDG uptake values correlated moderately and positively with
(99m)Tc-MDP uptake values, but a level of significance was
reached only between (18)F-FDG T/NT(max) and (99m)TcMDP T/NT(av). CONCLUSION: The initial glucose
metabolism of primary osteosarcoma as measured by (18)FFDG PET using T/NT(max) provides prognostic information.
High (18)F-FDG uptake correlates with poor outcome. Thus,
(18)F-FDG uptake may be complementary to other well-known
factors in judging the prognosis in osteosarcoma.
180
Grading of tumors and tumorlike lesions of bone:
evaluation by FDG PET. Schulte M, Brecht-Krauss D,
Heymer B, et al. J Nucl Med. Oct 2000;41(10):1695-1701.
Clinical diagnosis of skeletal tumors can be difficult, because
such lesions compose a large, heterogeneous group of entities
with different biologic behaviors. The aim of this prospective
study was to assess the value of PET in grading tumors and
tumorlike lesions of bone. METHODS: Two hundred two
patients with suspected primary bone tumors were investigated
using FDG PET. Uptake of FDG was evaluated
semiquantitatively by determining the tumor-to-background
ratio (T/B). All patients underwent biopsy, resulting in the
histologic detection of 70 high-grade sarcomas, 21 low-grade
sarcomas, 40 benign tumors, 47 tumorlike lesions, 6 osseous
lymphomas, 6 plasmacytomas, and 12 metastases of an
unknown primary tumor. RESULTS: All lesions, with the
exception of 3 benign tumors, were detected by increased FDG
uptake. Although sarcomas showed significantly higher T/Bs
than did latent or active benign lesions (P < 0.001), aggressive
benign lesions could not be distinguished from sarcomas.
Using a T/B cutoff level for malignancy of 3.0, the sensitivity
of FDG PET was 93.0%, the specificity was 66.7%, and the
accuracy was 81.7%. CONCLUSION: FDG PET provides a
promising tool for estimating the biologic activity of skeletal
lesions, implicating consequences for the choice of surgical
strategy.
Positron emission tomography-CT imaging in guiding
musculoskeletal biopsy. O’Sullivan PJ, Rohren EM,
Madewell JE. Radiol Clin North Am. May 2008;46(3):475486, v.
Positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography
(CT) is a useful device in identifying musculoskeletal lesions
that require biopsy. It can be used to localize the primary lesion,
identify a site to biopsy, and evaluate metastatic lesions that
181
require follow-up biopsies. Not all malignant tumors have
hypermetabolic activity, and there are many benign lesions
and physiologic processes that do have increased F-18
fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. Knowledge of these issues is
important when reviewing PET-CT and directing subsequent
musculoskeletal biopsies.
FDG-PET for detection of osseous metastases from
malignant primary bone tumours: comparison with bone
scintigraphy. Franzius C, Sciuk J, Daldrup-Link HE,
Jurgens H, Schober O. Eur J Nucl Med. Sep
2000;27(9):1305-1311.
The purpose of this study was to compare positron emission
tomography using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDGPET) and technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP)
bone scintigraphy in the detection of osseous metastases from
malignant primary osseous tumours. In 70 patients with
histologically proven malignant primary bone tumours
(32 osteosarcomas, 38 Ewing’s sarcomas), 118 FDG-PET
examinations were evaluated. FDG-PET scans were analysed
with regard to osseous metastases in comparison with bone
scintigraphy. The reference methods for both imaging
modalities were histopathological analysis, morphological
imaging [additional conventional radiography, computed
tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] and/
or clinical follow-up over 6-64 months (median 20 months).
In 21 examinations (18%) reference methods revealed 54
osseous metastases (49 from Ewing’s sarcomas, five from
osteosarcomas). FDG-PET had a sensitivity of 0.90, a
specificity of 0.96 and an accuracy of 0.95 on an examinationbased analysis. Comparable values for bone scintigraphy were
0.71, 0.92 and 0.88. On a lesion-based analysis the sensitivity
of FDG-PET and bone scintigraphy was 0.80 and 0.72,
respectively. Analysing only Ewing’s sarcoma patients, the
sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of FDG-PET and bone
scan were 1.00, 0.96 and 0.97 and 0.68, 0.87 and 0.82,
182
respectively (examination-based analysis). None of the five
osseous metastases from osteosarcoma were detected by FDGPET, but all of them were true-positive using bone scintigraphy.
In conclusion, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of FDGPET in the detection of osseous metastases from Ewing’s
sarcomas are superior to those of bone scintigraphy. However,
in the detection of osseous metastases from osteosarcoma,
FDG-PET seems to be less sensitive than bone scintigraphy.
Diagnostic value of PET/CT for the staging and restaging
of pediatric tumors. Kleis M, Daldrup-Link H, Matthay
K, et al. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. Jan 2009;36(1):
23-36.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this retrospective study was
to compare the diagnostic value of 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxyD: -glucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET)/
CT versus (18)F-FDG PET and CT alone for staging and
restaging of pediatric solid tumors. METHODS: Forty-three
children and adolescents (19 females and 24 males; mean age,
15.2 years; age range, 6-20 years) with osteosarcoma (n = 1),
squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1), synovial sarcoma (n = 2),
germ cell tumor (n = 2), neuroblastoma (n = 2), desmoid tumor
(n = 2), melanoma (n = 3), rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 5),
Hodgkin’s lymphoma (n = 7), non-Hodgkin-lymphoma (n = 9),
and Ewing’s sarcoma (n = 9) who had undergone (18)F-FDG
PET/CT imaging for primary staging or follow-up of
metastases were included in this study. The presence, location,
and size of primary tumors was determined separately for PET/
CT, PET, and CT by two experienced reviewers. The diagnosis
of the primary tumor was confirmed by histopathology. The
presence or absence of metastases was confirmed by
histopathology (n = 62) or clinical and imaging follow-up
(n = 238). RESULTS: The sensitivities for the detection of
solid primary tumors using integrated (18)F-FDG PET/CT
(95%), (18)F-FDG PET alone (73%), and CT alone (93%)
183
were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Seventeen patients
showed a total of 153 distant metastases. Integrated PET/CT
had a significantly higher sensitivity for the detection of these
metastases (91%) than PET alone (37%; p < 0.05), but not
CT alone (83%; p > 0.05). When lesions with a diameter of
less than 0.5 cm were excluded, PET/CT (89%) showed a
significantly higher specificity compared to PET (45%;
p < 0.05) and CT (55%; p < 0.05). In a sub-analysis of
pulmonary metastases, the values for sensitivity and specificity
were 90%, 14%, 82% and 63%, 78%, 65%, respectively, for
integrated PET/CT, stand-alone PET, and stand-alone CT. For
the detection of regional lymph node metastases, (18)F-FDG
PET/CT, (18)F-FDG PET alone, and CT alone were
diagnostically correct in 83%, 61%, and 42%. A sub-analysis
focusing on the ability of PET/CT, PET, and CT to detect
osseous metastases showed no statistically significant
difference between the three imaging modalities (p > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Our study showed a significantly increased
sensitivity of PET/CT over that of PET for the detection of
distant metastases but not over that of CT alone. However,
the specificity of PET/CT for the characterization of pulmonary
metastases with a diameter > 0.5 cm and lymph node
metastases with a diameter of <1 cm was significantly increased
over that of CT alone.
Evaluation of chemotherapy response in pediatric bone
sarcomas by [F-18]-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose positron
emission tomography. Hawkins DS, Rajendran JG, Conrad
EU, 3rd, Bruckner JD, Eary JF. Cancer. Jun 15
2002;94(12):3277-3284.
BACKGROUND: Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is
a significant prognostic factor for osteosarcoma (OS) and the
Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT). Conventional
radiographic imaging does not discriminate between
responding and nonresponding osseous tumors. [F-18]fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography
184
(PET) is a noninvasive imaging modality that accurately
predicts histopathologic response in patients with various
malignancies. To describe the FDG PET imaging
characteristics and to determine the correlation between FDG
PET imaging and chemotherapy response in children with bone
sarcomas, we reviewed our single institution experience.
METHODS: Thirty-three pediatric patients with OS or ESFT
with osseous primary sites were evaluated by FDG PET. All
patients received standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy. FDG
PET standard uptake values before (SUV1) and after (SUV2)
chemotherapy were analyzed and correlated with
chemotherapy response assessed by histopathology in
surgically excised tumors. Twenty-six patients had SUV1,
SUV2, and surgical excision. RESULTS: Although the mean
SUV1 in children with OS or ESFT were similar (8.2. vs. 5.3,
P = 0.13), mean SUV2 for OS patients was greater than the
values for ESFT patients (3.3 vs. 1.5, P = 0.01). All ESFT
patients and 28% of OS patients had a favorable histologic
response to chemotherapy (>or= 90% necrosis). Combining
ESFT and OS patients, both SUV2 and the ratio of SUV2 to
SUV1 (SUV2:SUV1) were correlated with histologic response
(P = 0.01 for both comparisons). CONCLUSION: FDG PET
evaluation of pediatric bone sarcomas demonstrated significant
alteration in response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. SUV2
and SUV2:SUV1 correlated with histopathologic assessment
of response and potentially could be used as a noninvasive
surrogate to predict response in patients.
Evaluation of neoadjuvant therapy response of osteogenic
sarcoma using FDG PET. Schulte M, Brecht-Krauss D,
Werner M, et al. J Nucl Med. Oct 1999;40(10):1637-1643.
According to the current treatment protocol of the Cooperative
Osteosarcoma Study (COSS), monitoring preoperative
chemotherapy response and estimating grade of tumor
regression in patients with osteosarcoma is mandatory before
185
surgical removal of the tumor, particularly if a limb salvage
procedure is intended. In addition, response to neoadjuvant
chemotherapy is considered as an important prognostic
indicator. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the
usefulness of 2-(18F) fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET
in the noninvasive evaluation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy
response in osteosarcoma. METHODS: In 27 patients with
osteosarcoma, we determined tumor-to-background ratios
(TBRs) of FDG uptake with PET, before and after neoadjuvant
chemotherapy according to COSS 86c or COSS 96 protocols,
respectively. We compared changes in glucose metabolism of
osteosarcomas with the histologic grade of regression in the
resected specimen, according to Salzer-Kuntschik,
discriminating responders (grades I-III; n = 17) and
nonresponders (grades IV-VI; n = 10). RESULTS: The
decrease of FDG uptake in osteosarcomas expressed as a ratio
of posttherapeutic and pretherapeutic TBRs showed a close
correlation to the amount of tumor necrosis induced by
polychemotherapy (P < 0.001; Spearman). With a TBR ratio
cutoff level of 0.6, all responders and 8 of 10 nonresponders
could be identified by PET. In addition, lung metastases of
osteosarcoma were detected with FDG PET in 4 patients.
CONCLUSION: FDG PET provides a promising tool for
noninvasive evaluation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy response
in osteosarcoma. This could imply consequences for the choice
of surgical strategy, because a limb salvage procedure cannot
be recommended in patients nonresponsive to preoperative
chemotherapy unless wide surgical margins can safely be
achieved.
Response of Osteosarcoma to Chemotherapy. Evaluation
with F-18 FDG-PET Scans. Nair N, Ali A, Green AA, et al.
Clin Positron Imaging. Mar 2000;3(2):79-83.
Objective: Positron emission tomography (PET) using
fluorine-18-fluoro-2-D-deoxyglucose (FDG) is increasingly
186
being used to evaluate and manage oncology patients. Several
reports have documented its utility in diagnosis, staging,
response to treatment, and tumor viability assessment. There
is, however, a paucity of literature on PET scanning in patients
with osteosarcoma. We report results of serial F-18 FDG-PET
scans in 16 untreated patients with osteosarcoma who
underwent chemotherapy prior to surgical resection of the
primary tumor site.Procedure: Changes in tumor fluoro-2-Ddeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake were correlated with percent
tumor necrosis on histopathology. PET studies were analyzed
by visual assessment of tumor uptake of FDG by 3 independent
observers, calculating a tumor to normal background activity
ratio (TBR) by drawing regions of interest (ROIs) around the
tumor and background activity in the contralateral normal limb,
and percent change in TBR values between baseline and
presurgical study.Results: All patients had positive baseline
scans. Baseline TBRs ranged between 2.5-8.7 and visual
assessment of intensity of FDG uptake was 2-3 on a scale of
0-3. At histopathologic examination, 8 patients were classified
as good responses with more than 90% tumor necrosis and 8
patients as poor responses with less than 90% necrosis. Tumor
necrosis was accurately predicted on PET scan in 15/16
patients by visual assessment, 14/15 patients by final TBR
value on presurgery scans, and 7/15 patients using percent
change of TBR on serial scans.Conclusions: The results of
this small series suggest that FDG-PET scanning is fairly
accurate in evaluating the response of osteosarcoma to
chemotherapy. Visual assessment and TBR are more accurate
in predicting tumor necrosis than percent change in TBR on
serial scans.
(18)F and (18)FDG PET imaging of osteosarcoma to noninvasively monitor in situ changes in cellular proliferation
and bone differentiation upon MYC inactivation. Arvanitis
187
C, Bendapudi PK, Tseng JR, Gambhir SS, Felsher DW.
Cancer Biol Ther. Dec 7 2008;7(12).
Osteosarcoma is one of the most common pediatric cancers.
Accurate imaging of osteosarcoma is important for proper
clinical staging of the disease and monitoring of the tumor’s
response to therapy. The MYC oncogene has been commonly
implicated in the pathogenesis of human osteosarcoma.
Previously, we have described a conditional transgenic mouse
model of MYC-induced osteosarcoma. These tumors are
highly invasive and are frequently associated with pulmonary
metastases. In our model, upon MYC inactivation
osteosarcomas lose their neoplastic properties, undergo
proliferative arrest, and differentiate into mature bone. We
reasoned that we could use our model system to develop noninvasive imaging modalities to interrogate the consequences
of MYC inactivation on tumor cell biology in situ. We
performed positron emission tomography (PET) combining
the use of both (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)FDG) and
(18)F-flouride ((18)F) to detect metabolic activity and bone
mineralization/remodeling. We found that upon MYC
inactivation, tumors exhibited a slight reduction in uptake of
(18)FDG and a significant increase in the uptake of (18)F along
with associated histological changes. Thus, these cells have
apparently lost their neoplastic properties based upon both
examination of their histology and biologic activity. However,
these tumors continue to accumulate (18)FDG at levels
significantly elevated compared to normal bone. Therefore,
PET can be used to distinguish normal bone cells from tumors
that have undergone differentiation upon oncogene
inactivation. In addition, we found that (18)F is a highly
sensitive tracer for detection of pulmonary metastasis.
Collectively, we conclude that combined modality PET/CT
imaging incorporating both (18)FDG and (18)F is a highly
sensitive means to non-invasively measure osteosarcoma
growth and the therapeutic response, as well as to detect tumor
cells that have undergone differentiation upon oncogene
inactivation.
188
Positron emission tomography/computed tomography with
18fluoro-deoxyglucose in the detection of local recurrence
and distant metastases of pediatric sarcoma. Arush MW,
Israel O, Postovsky S, et al. Pediatr Blood Cancer. Dec
2007;49(7):901-905.
BACKGROUND: Combined positron emission tomography
with (18)fluoro-deoxyglucose and computed tomography
(FDG-PET/CT) has been used in the diagnosis and staging of
various malignancies, but their use in the management of
pediatric sarcomas is less well defined. The potential role of
FDG-PET/CT in the diagnosis of local recurrence and distant
metastases of pediatric sarcomas was investigated.
PROCEDURE: Nineteen children (aged 2-21) with sarcoma
(9 Ewing sarcoma, 3 osteogenic sarcoma, 7
rhabdomyosarcoma) were evaluated between January 2000
and December 2005 by FDG-PET/CT for suspected local
relapse or distant metastases. The results of 21 FDG-PET
studies, 16 CT scans, 9 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
studies, and 7 bone scans (BSs) were compared with surgical
pathology or clinical follow-up for at least 3 months.
RESULTS: FDG-PET detected local relapse in all seven
patients and distant metastases in 10/13 (77%). FDG-PET/
CT and CT/MRI/BS results were discordant in eight patients.
FDG-PET/CT was the only modality that detected distant
metastases in two patients. PET/CT was true negative and
excluded disease in three patients with abnormal CT/BSs and
was false negative in three patients with distant metastases.
CONCLUSION: FDG-PET/CT may be useful and
complementary to other imaging modalities for the detection
of recurrent pediatric sarcomas, especially at the primary site.
Its potential advantages and limitations compared with
conventional imaging modalities need to be further
investigated in larger homogenous patient groups.
189
Ewing’s Sarcoma and Primitive
Neuroectodermal Tumours (PNET)
Introduction
At present, histologically Ewings sarcoma is felt to be a type
of extremely malignant primitive neuroecodermal tumour
(PNET). Collectively, Ewing’s sarcoma and PNET are known
as the Ewing’s family of tumours. Genetically, 90% are
associated with t(11, 22) translocations. They typically affect
patients between 10 and 20 years of age with a 3:2 male
predominance while affecting Caucasians much more than
Asians or Blacks. Clinically, they present with constitutional
symptoms mimicking infection (fever, local heat, anaemia
leukocytosis etc). The tumour occurs most commonly in the
meta-diaphyses of the long bones (femur 25% and humerus
8%). When flat bones are involved, the pelvis (20%) and ribs
(11%) are most commonly involved. Upto 10% can be multiple
at presentation and 30% present with metastases initially (lung
85%, bones 69%, pleura 46% and CNS 12%). Five-year
survival for patients with metastases at presentation is 55-70%.
Treatment is usually with surgery, chemo and radiation therapy.
190
Conventional staging
Ewing’s sarcoma is usually diagnosed based on its radiographic
appearance. MRI and CT are used to assess the extent of
osseous and adjacent soft tissue involvement. Biopsy is the
method of choice for grading the tumour. Bone scintigraphy
demonstrates increased uptake and is preferred to detect
additional osseous metastases. Chest CT and brain MRI are
used to assess pulmonary and CNS lesions. MRI has an
inconsistent appearance when assessing response to therapy
and radiographs are relatively insensitive. Recurrence is
currently diagnosed based on differences in the anatomic
appearance on radiographs, CT or MRI.
Summary of Evidence
Initial Diagnosis
The characteristic plain radiographic (onion skin periosteal
reaction and classic location) and MRI appearance followed
by biopsy are the modalities of choice in initial diagnosis.
Local extent of disease is also best seen on MRI with some
role for CT in assessing osseous involvement.1 The role of
FDG PET in initial diagnosis is non-specific given the variety
of conditions, both benign and malignant that can also show
considerably increased uptake.
Staging
Extent of the primary tumour is best assessed using MRI due
to the excellent anatomic detail it provides. 1 Large necrotic
lesions can be troublesome to biopsy as negative results are
not rare. FDG PET imaging has been found to be useful in
guiding biopsy to the metabolically active portion of the mass.
2 FDG PET has shown promise in grading tumours based on
the degree of uptake, with more aggressive lesions
demonstrating greater uptake.3 In the evaluation of adjacent
local osseous lesions (multicentric Ewing’s sarcoma) and
191
distant osseous metastases, FDG PET has been shown to be
superior to bone scintigraphy and MRI. 4-6 Chest CT is still
the preferred method to identify pulmonary metastases but
when lung lesions less than 0.5 cm and mediastinal nodes
greater than 1 cm are excluded PET CT tends to be more
specific. 6-8 PET CT in addition to the other conventional
methods adds significant information that has a relevant impact
on therapy planning. 9 PET-CT is found to be superior to PET
alone in terms of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of
detecting lesions. 10
Response Evaluation
Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a significant
prognostic factor in these tumors and recent work suggests
that a decrease in post therapy standardized uptake value
(SUV) by greater than 30% correlates well with good response
histologically, while bone scintigraphy is less representative.11
Post therapy SUV and the ratio of pre and post therapy SUV
correlate well with histologic response and could be used as a
non invasive surrogate to predict response. 12
Suspected Recurrence
In a small study evaluating recurrence a variety of paediatric
sarcomas, PET CT was found to be most effective in
diagnosing local recurrence. Its role in assessing more distal
metastases needs further investigation and it maybe used in
combination with other conventional imaging tests.13
Summary
The role of FDG PET in Ewing’s sarcoma and PNET is not
yet fully defined. There is a role for it in identifying the most
metabolically active portion of the tumour in order to increase
the yield from biopsy. Some data suggests it is superior to
bone scintigraphy and even MRI in detecting additional
osseous lesions but corroborative imaging is still needed for
192
most accurate staging especially for pulmonary lesions. The
most encouraging area for PET CT in this group seems to be
in non invasively assessing treatment response.
Selected references
Imaging of malignant tumours of the long bones in
children: monitoring response to neoadjuvant
chemotherapy and preoperative assessment. Brisse H,
Ollivier L, Edeline V, et al. Pediatr Radiol. Aug
2004;34(8):595-605.
This review focuses on imaging of osteosarcoma and Ewing’s
sarcoma of the long bones in children during preoperative
neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Morphological criteria on plain
films and conventional static MRI are insufficiently correlated
with histological response. We review the contribution of
dynamic MRI, diffusion-weighted MR and nuclear medicine
(18FDG-PET) to monitor tumoural necrosis. MRI is currently
the best method to evaluate local extension prior to tumour
resection, especially to assess the feasibility of conservative
surgery. Quantitative models in dynamic MRI and 18FDGPET are currently being developed in order to find new early
prognostic criteria, but for the time being, treatment protocols
are still based on the gold standard of histological response.
Positron emission tomography-CT imaging in guiding
musculoskeletal biopsy. O’Sullivan PJ, Rohren EM,
Madewell JE. Radiol Clin North Am. May 2008;46(3):475486, v.
Positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography
(CT) is a useful device in identifying musculoskeletal lesions
that require biopsy. It can be used to localize the primary lesion,
identify a site to biopsy, and evaluate metastatic lesions that
require follow-up biopsies. Not all malignant tumors have
hypermetabolic activity, and there are many benign lesions
193
and physiologic processes that do have increased F-18
fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. Knowledge of these issues is
important when reviewing PET-CT and directing subsequent
musculoskeletal biopsies.
Grading of tumors and tumorlike lesions of bone:
evaluation by FDG PET. Schulte M, Brecht-Krauss D,
Heymer B, et al. J Nucl Med. Oct 2000;41(10):1695-1701.
Clinical diagnosis of skeletal tumors can be difficult, because
such lesions compose a large, heterogeneous group of entities
with different biologic behaviors. The aim of this prospective
study was to assess the value of PET in grading tumors and
tumorlike lesions of bone. METHODS: Two hundred two
patients with suspected primary bone tumors were investigated
using FDG PET. Uptake of FDG was evaluated
semiquantitatively by determining the tumor-to-background
ratio (T/B). All patients underwent biopsy, resulting in the
histologic detection of 70 high-grade sarcomas, 21 low-grade
sarcomas, 40 benign tumors, 47 tumorlike lesions, 6 osseous
lymphomas, 6 plasmacytomas, and 12 metastases of an
unknown primary tumor. RESULTS: All lesions, with the
exception of 3 benign tumors, were detected by increased FDG
uptake. Although sarcomas showed significantly higher T/Bs
than did latent or active benign lesions (P < 0.001), aggressive
benign lesions could not be distinguished from sarcomas.
Using a T/B cutoff level for malignancy of 3.0, the sensitivity
of FDG PET was 93.0%, the specificity was 66.7%, and the
accuracy was 81.7%. CONCLUSION: FDG PET provides a
promising tool for estimating the biologic activity of skeletal
lesions, implicating consequences for the choice of surgical
strategy.
FDG-PET for detection of osseous metastases from
malignant primary bone tumours: comparison with bone
scintigraphy. Franzius C, Sciuk J, Daldrup-Link HE,
194
Jurgens H, Schober O. Eur J Nucl Med. Sep
2000;27(9):1305-1311.
The purpose of this study was to compare positron emission
tomography using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDGPET) and technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP)
bone scintigraphy in the detection of osseous metastases from
malignant primary osseous tumours. In 70 patients with
histologically proven malignant primary bone tumours
(32 osteosarcomas, 38 Ewing’s sarcomas), 118 FDG-PET
examinations were evaluated. FDG-PET scans were analysed
with regard to osseous metastases in comparison with bone
scintigraphy. The reference methods for both imaging
modalities were histopathological analysis, morphological
imaging [additional conventional radiography, computed
tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] and/
or clinical follow-up over 6-64 months (median 20 months).
In 21 examinations (18%) reference methods revealed 54
osseous metastases (49 from Ewing’s sarcomas, five from
osteosarcomas). FDG-PET had a sensitivity of 0.90, a
specificity of 0.96 and an accuracy of 0.95 on an examinationbased analysis. Comparable values for bone scintigraphy were
0.71, 0.92 and 0.88. On a lesion-based analysis the sensitivity
of FDG-PET and bone scintigraphy was 0.80 and 0.72,
respectively. Analysing only Ewing’s sarcoma patients, the
sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of FDG-PET and bone
scan were 1.00, 0.96 and 0.97 and 0.68, 0.87 and 0.82,
respectively (examination-based analysis). None of the five
osseous metastases from osteosarcoma were detected by FDGPET, but all of them were true-positive using bone scintigraphy.
In conclusion, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of FDGPET in the detection of osseous metastases from Ewing’s
sarcomas are superior to those of bone scintigraphy. However,
in the detection of osseous metastases from osteosarcoma,
FDG-PET seems to be less sensitive than bone scintigraphy.
195
Whole-body MR imaging for detection of bone metastases
in children and young adults: comparison with skeletal
scintigraphy and FDG PET. Daldrup-Link HE, Franzius
C, Link TM, et al. AJR Am J Roentgenol. Jul
2001;177(1):229-236.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the
diagnostic accuracy of whole-body MR imaging, skeletal
scintigraphy, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron
emission tomography (PET) for the detection of bone
metastases in children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirtynine children and young adults who were 2—19 years old and
who had Ewing’s sarcoma, osteosarcoma, lymphoma,
rhabdomyosarcoma, melanoma, and Langerhans’ cell
histiocytosis underwent whole-body spin-echo MR imaging,
skeletal scintigraphy, and FDG PET for the initial staging of
bone marrow metastases. The number and location of bone
and bone marrow lesions diagnosed with each imaging
modality were correlated with biopsy and clinical follow-up
as the standard of reference. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients
exhibited 51 bone metastases. Sensitivities for the detection
of bone metastases were 90% for FDG PET, 82% for wholebody MR imaging, and 71% for skeletal scintigraphy; these
data were significantly different (p < 0.05). False-negative
lesions were different for the three imaging modalities, mainly
depending on lesion location. Most false-positive lesions were
diagnosed using FDG PET. CONCLUSION: Whole-body MR
imaging has a higher sensitivity than skeletal scintigraphy for
the detection of bone marrow metastases but a lower sensitivity
than FDG PET.
Impact of FDG PET for staging of Ewing sarcomas and
primitive neuroectodermal tumours. Gyorke T, Zajic T,
Lange A, et al. Nucl Med Commun. Jan 2006;27(1):17-24.
AIM: High-grade Ewing sarcomas and Primitive
neuroectodermal tumours (PNET) make up the tumours of
196
the Ewing family. Our purpose was to evaluate the value of
[18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG
PET) in patients with Ewing tumours. PATIENTS AND
METHODS: Twenty-four patients who had PET because of a
suspected Ewing tumour during a 5-year period were included
in this retrospective study. The images of 33 whole-body FDG
PET investigations performed in primary or secondary
diagnostics were analysed visually and semi-quantitatively by
using standardized uptake values (SUVs). In 14 cases, PET
was compared to bone scintigraphy regarding bone lesions.
The final diagnosis was based on histology, imaging and
follow-up. RESULTS: Histologically, the primary lesions were
10 Ewing sarcoma, 13 PNET and one osteomyelitis. The
sensitivity and specificity of an examination-based analysis
(presence of Ewing tumour and/or its metastases) were 96 and
78%, respectively. Altogether, 163 focal lesions were
evaluated. Sensitivity and specificity regarding individual
lesions were 73 and 78%. This lower sensitivity is mainly due
to small lesions. In true-positive cases, the mean SUV was
4.54+/-2.79, and the SUVs in two false-positive cases were
4.66 and 1.60. True-positive and false-positive cases could
not be differentiated definitively based on SUVs because of
overlap and low values in true-positive lesions. In four cases,
PET depicted 70 while bone scintigraphy depicted only eight
bone metastases. CONCLUSION: An FDG PET investigation
is a valuable method in the case of Ewing tumours. PET is
superior to bone scintigraphy in the detection of bone
metastases of Ewing tumours. For the depiction of small
lesions, mainly represented by pulmonary metastases, PET is
less sensitive than helical computed tomography.
Determination of the role of whole-body FDG PET in
diagnostic algorithm needs further investigation.
197
Diagnostic value of PET/CT for the staging and restaging
of pediatric tumors. Kleis M, Daldrup-Link H, Matthay
K, et al. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. Jan 2009;36(1):
23-36.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this retrospective study was
to compare the diagnostic value of 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxyD: -glucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET)/
CT versus (18)F-FDG PET and CT alone for staging and
restaging of pediatric solid tumors. METHODS: Forty-three
children and adolescents (19 females and 24 males; mean age,
15.2 years; age range, 6-20 years) with osteosarcoma (n = 1),
squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1), synovial sarcoma (n = 2),
germ cell tumor (n = 2), neuroblastoma (n = 2), desmoid tumor
(n = 2), melanoma (n = 3), rhabdomyosarcoma (n = 5),
Hodgkin’s lymphoma (n = 7), non-Hodgkin-lymphoma (n = 9),
and Ewing’s sarcoma (n = 9) who had undergone (18)F-FDG
PET/CT imaging for primary staging or follow-up of
metastases were included in this study. The presence, location,
and size of primary tumors was determined separately for PET/
CT, PET, and CT by two experienced reviewers. The diagnosis
of the primary tumor was confirmed by histopathology. The
presence or absence of metastases was confirmed by
histopathology (n = 62) or clinical and imaging follow-up
(n = 238). RESULTS: The sensitivities for the detection of
solid primary tumors using integrated (18)F-FDG PET/CT
(95%), (18)F-FDG PET alone (73%), and CT alone (93%)
were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Seventeen patients
showed a total of 153 distant metastases. Integrated PET/CT
had a significantly higher sensitivity for the detection of these
metastases (91%) than PET alone (37%; p < 0.05), but not
CT alone (83%; p > 0.05). When lesions with a diameter of
less than 0.5 cm were excluded, PET/CT (89%) showed a
significantly higher specificity compared to PET (45%; p <
0.05) and CT (55%; p < 0.05). In a sub-analysis of pulmonary
metastases, the values for sensitivity and specificity were 90%,
198
14%, 82% and 63%, 78%, 65%, respectively, for integrated
PET/CT, stand-alone PET, and stand-alone CT. For the
detection of regional lymph node metastases, (18)F-FDG PET/
CT, (18)F-FDG PET alone, and CT alone were diagnostically
correct in 83%, 61%, and 42%. A sub-analysis focusing on
the ability of PET/CT, PET, and CT to detect osseous
metastases showed no statistically significant difference
between the three imaging modalities (p > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Our study showed a significantly increased
sensitivity of PET/CT over that of PET for the detection of
distant metastases but not over that of CT alone. However,
the specificity of PET/CT for the characterization of pulmonary
metastases with a diameter > 0.5 cm and lymph node
metastases with a diameter of <1 cm was significantly increased
over that of CT alone.
FDG-PET for detection of pulmonary metastases from
malignant primary bone tumors: comparison with spiral
CT. Franzius C, Daldrup-Link HE, Sciuk J, et al. Ann
Oncol. Apr 2001;12(4):479-486.
BACKGROUND: The purpose was the comparison of positron
emission tomography using F-18-fluorodeoxy-glucose (FDGPET) and spiral thoracic CT to detect pulmonary metastases
from malignant primary osseous tumors. PATIENTS AND
METHODS: In 71 patients with histologically confirmed
malignant primary bone tumors (32 osteosarcomas, 39 Ewing’s
sarcomas) 111 FDG-PET examinations were evaluated with
regard to pulmonary/pleural metastases in comparison with
spiral thoracic CT. Reference methods were the clinical followups for 6-64 months (median 20 months) or a histopathologic
analysis. RESULTS: In 16 patients (23%) reference methods
revealed a pulmonary/pleural metastatic disease. FDG-PET
had a sensitivity of 0.50, a specificity of 0.98, and an accuracy
of 0.87 on a patient based analysis. Comparable values for
spiral CT were 0.75, 1.00, and 0.94. It was shown that no
199
patient who had a true positive FDG-PET had a false negative
CT scan, nor was a pulmonary metastases detected earlier by
FDG-PET than by spiral CT. CONCLUSIONS: There seems
to be a superiority of spiral CT in the detection of pulmonary
metastases from malignant primary bone tumors as compared
with FDG-PET. Therefore, at present a negative FDG-PET
cannot be recommended to exclude lung metastases. However,
as specificity of FDG-PET is high, a positive FDG-PET result
can be used to confirm abnormalities seen on thoracic CT scans
as metastatic.
Positron emission tomography for staging of pediatric
sarcoma patients: results of a prospective multicenter trial.
Volker T, Denecke T, Steffen I, et al. J Clin Oncol. Dec 1
2007;25(34):5435-5441.
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the
impact of positron emission tomography (PET) using fluorine18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) for initial staging and therapy
planning in pediatric sarcoma patients. PATIENTS AND
METHODS: In this prospective multicenter study, 46 pediatric
patients (females, n = 22; males, n = 24; age range, 1 to 18
years) with histologically proven sarcoma (Ewing sarcoma
family tumors, n = 23; osteosarcoma, n = 11;
rhabdomyosarcoma, n = 12) were examined with conventional
imaging modalities (CIMs), including ultrasound, computed
tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and bone
scintigraphy according to the standardized algorithms of the
international therapy optimization trials, and whole-body FDGPET. A lesion- and patient-based analysis of PET alone and
CIMs alone and a side-by-side (SBS) analysis of FDG-PET
and CIMs were performed. The standard of reference consisted
of all imaging material, follow-up data (mean follow-up time,
24 +/- 12 months), and histopathology and was determined
by an interdisciplinary tumor board. RESULTS: FDG-PET
and CIMs were equally effective in the detection of primary
200
tumors (accuracy, 100%). PET was superior to CIMs
concerning the correct detection of lymph node involvement
(sensitivity, 95% v 25%, respectively) and bone manifestations
(sensitivity, 90% v 57%, respectively), whereas CT was more
reliable than FDG-PET in depicting lung metastases
(sensitivity, 100% v 25%, respectively). The patient-based
analysis revealed the best results for SBS, with 91% correct
therapy decisions. This was significantly superior to CIMs
(59%; P < .001). CONCLUSION: In staging pediatric sarcoma,
subsidiary FDG-PET scanning depicts important additional
information and has a relevant impact on therapy planning
when analyzed side-by-side with CIMs.
Significant benefit of multimodal imaging: PET/CT
compared with PET alone in staging and follow-up of
patients with Ewing tumors. Gerth HU, Juergens KU,
Dirksen U, Gerss J, Schober O, Franzius C. J Nucl Med.
Dec 2007;48(12):1932-1939.
Hybrid PET/CT was compared with PET alone in the staging
and restaging of patients with Ewing tumor to assess the benefit
of the combined imaging technique. METHODS: A total of
163 (18)F-FDG PET/CT studies performed in 53 patients (age:
range, 4-38 y; median, 16.5 y) with histopathologically
confirmed Ewing tumor were evaluated retrospectively. All
PET/CT studies included low-dose CT for attenuation
correction; in 91 examinations, additional diagnostic chest CT
was performed. PET and CT data were assessed independently
by 2 nuclear medicine physicians and 2 radiologists,
respectively. Finally, both datasets were fused by use of
software and analyzed by all 4 reviewers (consensus reading).
Each lesion was scored with a 5-point scale. Biopsy, imaging,
or clinical follow-up served as a standard of reference.
Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were
performed to evaluate PET and PET/CT performance
characteristics. To measure the abilities to detect and correctly
201
localize tumor foci, localization ROC (L-ROC) curves were
generated for PET. RESULTS: A total of 609 lesions were
detected by PET alone. The hybrid PET/CT technique resulted
in a change of score in 160 of these lesions (26%): higher
scores in 23 lesions (4%) and lower scores in 137 lesions
(23%). In 49 lesions detected by PET (8%), the localization
had to be changed after image fusion. Additionally, 124 (21%)
more lesions were found by PET/CT than by PET alone,
resulting in a total of 733 lesions. As determined by lesionbased analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of PET
were 71%, 95%, and 88%, respectively; the corresponding
values for the hybrid PET/CT technique were 87%, 97%, and
94% (P < 0.0001). The areas under the curve in the ROC
analysis were 0.82 for PET and 0.92 for PET/CT (P < 0.0001),
and that in the L-ROC analysis was 0.66 for PET.
CONCLUSION: PET/CT is significantly more accurate than
PET alone for the detection and localization of lesions and
improves staging for patients with Ewing tumor. The hybrid
technique is superior to PET alone in terms of sensitivity,
specificity, and accuracy, mainly because of the detection of
new lesions.
Evaluation of chemotherapy response in primary bone
tumors with F-18 FDG positron emission tomography
compared with histologically assessed tumor necrosis.
Franzius C, Sciuk J, Brinkschmidt C, Jurgens H, Schober
O. Clin Nucl Med. Nov 2000;25(11):874-881.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the
potential of positron emission tomography using F-18-fluoro2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG PET) to assess the chemotherapy
response of primary osseous tumors compared with the degree
of necrosis determined histologically. PATIENTS AND
METHODS: Seventeen patients with primary bone tumors
(11 osteosarcomas, 6 Ewing’s sarcomas) were examined using
FDG PET and planar bone scintigraphy before neoadjuvant
202
chemotherapy and before surgery. Tumor response was
classified histologically according to Salzer-Kuntschik (grades
I-II: good response; grades IV-VI: poor response). In both
imaging methods, quantification was performed using tumor
to nontumor ratios (T:NT). RESULTS: Histologically, 15
patients were classified as having good responses (grade I, n
= 1; grade II, n = 6; grade III, n = 8) and two as having poor
responses (grades IV and V). FDG PET showed more than a
30% decrease in T:NT ratios in all patients who had good
responses. However, three of these patients had increasing bone
scintigraphy T:NT ratios, and another five had decreasing ratios
of less than 30%. The patients with poor responses had
increasing T:NT ratios and decreasing ratios of less than 30%,
respectively, using both imaging methods. CONCLUSIONS:
FDG PET seems to be a promising tool for evaluating the
response of primary osseous tumors to chemotherapy. In this
preliminary study, FDG PET was superior to planar bone
scintigraphy.
Evaluation of chemotherapy response in pediatric bone
sarcomas by [F-18]-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose positron
emission tomography. Hawkins DS, Rajendran JG, Conrad
EU, 3rd, Bruckner JD, Eary JF. Cancer. Jun 15
2002;94(12):3277-3284.
BACKGROUND: Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is
a significant prognostic factor for osteosarcoma (OS) and the
Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT). Conventional
radiographic imaging does not discriminate between
responding and nonresponding osseous tumors. [F-18]fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography
(PET) is a noninvasive imaging modality that accurately
predicts histopathologic response in patients with various
malignancies. To describe the FDG PET imaging
characteristics and to determine the correlation between FDG
PET imaging and chemotherapy response in children with bone
203
sarcomas, we reviewed our single institution experience.
METHODS: Thirty-three pediatric patients with OS or ESFT
with osseous primary sites were evaluated by FDG PET. All
patients received standard neoadjuvant chemotherapy. FDG
PET standard uptake values before (SUV1) and after (SUV2)
chemotherapy were analyzed and correlated with
chemotherapy response assessed by histopathology in
surgically excised tumors. Twenty-six patients had SUV1,
SUV2, and surgical excision. RESULTS: Although the mean
SUV1 in children with OS or ESFT were similar (8.2. vs. 5.3,
P = 0.13), mean SUV2 for OS patients was greater than the
values for ESFT patients (3.3 vs. 1.5, P = 0.01). All ESFT
patients and 28% of OS patients had a favorable histologic
response to chemotherapy (>or= 90% necrosis). Combining
ESFT and OS patients, both SUV2 and the ratio of SUV2 to
SUV1 (SUV2:SUV1) were correlated with histologic response
(P = 0.01 for both comparisons). CONCLUSION: FDG PET
evaluation of pediatric bone sarcomas demonstrated significant
alteration in response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. SUV2
and SUV2:SUV1 correlated with histopathologic assessment
of response and potentially could be used as a noninvasive
surrogate to predict response in patients.
Positron emission tomography/computed tomography with
18fluoro-deoxyglucose in the detection of local recurrence
and distant metastases of pediatric sarcoma. Arush MW,
Israel O, Postovsky S, et al. Pediatr Blood Cancer. Dec
2007;49(7):901-905.
BACKGROUND: Combined positron emission tomography
with (18)fluoro-deoxyglucose and computed tomography
(FDG-PET/CT) has been used in the diagnosis and staging of
various malignancies, but their use in the management of
pediatric sarcomas is less well defined. The potential role of
FDG-PET/CT in the diagnosis of local recurrence and distant
metastases of pediatric sarcomas was investigated.
204
PROCEDURE: Nineteen children (aged 2-21) with sarcoma
(9 Ewing sarcoma, 3 osteogenic sarcoma, 7
rhabdomyosarcoma) were evaluated between January 2000
and December 2005 by FDG-PET/CT for suspected local
relapse or distant metastases. The results of 21 FDG-PET
studies, 16 CT scans, 9 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
studies, and 7 bone scans (BSs) were compared with surgical
pathology or clinical follow-up for at least 3 months.
RESULTS: FDG-PET detected local relapse in all seven
patients and distant metastases in 10/13 (77%). FDG-PET/
CT and CT/MRI/BS results were discordant in eight patients.
FDG-PET/CT was the only modality that detected distant
metastases in two patients. PET/CT was true negative and
excluded disease in three patients with abnormal CT/BSs and
was false negative in three patients with distant metastases.
CONCLUSION: FDG-PET/CT may be useful and
complementary to other imaging modalities for the detection
of recurrent pediatric sarcomas, especially at the primary site.
Its potential advantages and limitations compared with
conventional imaging modalities need to be further
investigated in larger homogenous patient groups.
205
Soft Tissue Sarcomas
Introduction
Soft tissue sarcomas are a varied group of tumours with
considerable challenges in diagnosis, therapy and follow up.
Fibrous histiocytomas are most common (28%) followed by
liposaqrcoma (15%), leiomyosarcoma (12%), synovial cell
sarcoma (10%), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours
(6%) and rhabdomyosarcomas (5%). It should be kept in mind
that individual sarcomas have specific considerations, which
cannot be comprehensively covered in this review.
Conventional staging
Due to their rapid yet innocuous growth in locations that allow
them to reach large proportions before detection, these tumours
are usually detected clinically. Anatomic imaging, most
importantly MRI is used to assess the extent of the lesion and
involvement of adjacent structures. CT is usually used to detect
additional metastatic disease. Response to therapy is usually
based on the morphological changes on CT and MRI. Local
recurrence is usually assessed by MRI and CT, while distant
metastases are usually detected on CT. Staging is based on a
combination of histologic grade and extent of primary disease
and presence of metastases.
206
Summary of Evidence
Initial diagnosis, staging and restaging
There is no role for FDG PET in the initial diagnosis of soft
tissue sarcomas although it is able to identify the large lesions.
Some data suggests that on the basis of increased uptake in
the lesion, one could increase the degree of suspicion for a
malignant lesion but differentiation between benign and lowgrade lesions is not possible. 1,2 More importantly, although
FDG PET cannot serve as a substitute for histologic diagnosis,
the initial semiquantitative uptake in the lesion has been shown
to correlate with tumor grade and be predictive of recurrence
free, overall 5 year and disease free survival rates. 3, 4 There is
potential utility for FDG PET in directing biopsy to the most
metabolically active and potentially malignant portion of the
mass.5 There is no literature available at this time on the use
of FDG PET in staging or restaging soft tissue sarcomas.
Response Assessment
There are several studies citing the utility of FDG PET in
assessing the response to therapy in soft tissue sarcomas. In a
study of 46 patients with high grade soft tissue sarcomas by
Schuetze et al in 2005, patients with baseline SUVmax >/= 6
and < 40% decrease in SUVmax following neoadjuvant
chemotherapy had an estimated disease recurrence rate of 90%
at 4 years. Patients with >40% decrease in SUV had
significantly better prognoses. 6 There are few reports on the
change in management of soft tissue sarcomas based on PET
CT findings and numbers vary between 3 and 50%. 7, 8
Summary
At this time, FDG PET’s major roles in soft tissue sarcomas
pertain to identifying the most metabolically active portion of
the tumor to increase yield from biopsy and in assessing
207
treatment response and prognosis. No significant role is seen
in staging or restaging.
Timing of the
PET/CT
Hierarchy of
Diagnostic
Efficacy
Relevance of
Test
Level of
Evidence
Diagnosis
Level 1
Probably
appropriate
1 level 3 study
Staging
Level 2
Probably
inappropriate
–
Response
evaluation
Level 2
Probably
appropriate
1 level 1 study
2 level 2 studies
Restaging
Level 2
Probably
inappropriate
–
Suspected
recurrence
Level 2
Probably
inappropriate
–
Followup
Level 1
NA
NA
RT planning
Level 1
NA
NA
Selected References
Positron emission tomography of soft tissue sarcomas.
Israel-Mardirosian N, Adler LP. Curr Opin Oncol. Jul
2003;15(4):327-330.
The purpose of this review is to underscore the value of
positron emission tomography (PET) in the management of
patients with soft tissue sarcomas. Although the most essential
step in the diagnostic evaluation of soft tissue sarcomas is
tumor biopsy, functional imaging techniques is growing and
becoming more popular than before. PET scan traces
molecular and cellular activities of normal and tumor cells
through the use of radiotracers that engage in cell metabolism.
The most important and widely used tracer is
fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG). PET scan usefulness is not
limited to its ability to differentiate benign from malignant
lesions. The scan can detect intralesional morphologic
208
variation which is especially true in soft tissue sarcomas, it
can predict tumor grade, and it is of value in staging, restaging
and prognosis. As for the time, PET is not meant to replace
tissue biopsy but rather complement the biopsy to better
understand the biological behavior of soft tissue sarcomas.
The value of FDG-PET in the detection, grading and
response to therapy of soft tissue and bone sarcomas; a
systematic review and meta-analysis. Bastiaannet E, Groen
H, Jager PL, et al. Cancer Treat Rev. Feb 2004;30(1):
83-101.
BACKGROUND: Sarcomas represent a significant diagnostic
and therapeutic challenge that requires techniques to provide
better assessment of the disease than provided by traditional
means. FDG-PET depicts the increased metabolism in
abnormal tissues, enabling visualisation and quantification in
vivo. The objective of this review was to assess the diagnostic
value of FDG-PET in the detection, grading and therapy
response of soft tissue and bone sarcomas. METHODS: A
systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical studies on
FDG-PET and sarcomas was conducted. Databases of
PubMed, Embase and Cochrane were searched for studies.
Besides that, the references of identified studies were reviewed.
Three reviewers independently assessed the methodological
quality. Statistical pooling was possible for studies concerning
detection and grading of studies with mixed sarcomas (soft
tissue and bone) and studies with soft tissue sarcomas only.
RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria.
There was disagreement between the reviewers in 21.5% of
the questions from the criteria list. The methodological quality
of most of the included studies was poor. Pooled sensitivity,
specificity and accuracy of PET for the detection of sarcomas
were 0.91, 0.85 and 0.88, respectively. The difference between
the mean Standard Uptake Value (SUV) in malignant and
benign tumours for the studies concerning mixed and soft tissue
209
sarcomas was statistically significant, as well as the difference
in FDG uptake between low and high grade mixed sarcomas.
CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis in this study was limited
by the fact that only a few studies had mutual comparable
outcome parameters. Moreover, the methodological quality
of the studies was generally poor. Nevertheless, our results
indicate that FDG-PET can discriminate between sarcomas
and benign tumours and low and high grade sarcomas based
on the mean SUV. The diagnostic implications of these results
have to be investigated, especially the discrimination between
benign tumours and low grade sarcomas. Based on this metaanalysis, there is no indication to use FDG-PET in the standard
treatment of sarcomas. In the future PET imaging in bone and
soft tissue sarcomas should be directed to the clinical
implication for the detection and grading of sarcomas and the
treatment evaluation of locally advanced sarcomas.
Prognostic significance of preoperative [18-F]
fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography
(PET) imaging in patients with resectable soft tissue
sarcomas. Schwarzbach MH, Hinz U, DimitrakopoulouStrauss A, et al. Ann Surg. Feb 2005;241(2):286-294.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the
prognostic significance of preoperative positron emission
tomography (PET) using 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)
by calculating the mean standardized uptake values (SUV) in
patients with resectable soft tissue sarcomas (STS).
SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: FDG-PET might
be used as an adjunctive tool (in addition to biopsy and
radiologic tomography) in the preoperative prognostic
assessment of resectable STS. METHODS: A total of 74 adult
patients with STS underwent preoperative FDG-PET imaging
with calculation of the SUV. Clinicopathologic data and the
SUV were analyzed for an association with the clinical
outcome. The first and the third quartiles of the SUV
210
distribution function were used as cutoff values (1.59 and 3.6).
Survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method.
Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using
log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazards regression
model. RESULTS: In 55 cases, STS were completely resected
(follow up 40 months): 5-year recurrence-free survival rates
in patients with SUV <1.59, 1.59 to <3.6, and > or =3.6 were
66%, 24%, and 11%, respectively (P = 0.0034). SUV was a
predictor for overall survival (5-year rates: 84% [SUV <1.59],
45% [SUV 1.59 to <3.6], and 38% [SUV > or =3.6]; P = 0.057)
and local tumor control (5-year rates: 93% [SUV <1.59], 43%
[SUV 1.59 to <3.6], and 15% [SUV > or =3.6]; P = 0.0017).
By multivariate analysis, SUV was found to be predictive for
recurrence-free survival. The prognostic differences with
respect to the SUV were associated with tumor grade (P =
0.002). CONCLUSION: The semiquantitative FDG uptake,
as measured by the mean SUV on preoperative PET images
in patients with resectable STS, is a useful prognostic
parameter. SUV with cutoff values at the first and the third
quartiles of the SUV distribution predicted overall survival,
recurrence-free survival, and local tumor control. Therefore,
FDG-PET can be used to improve the preoperative prognostic
assessment in patients with resectable STS.
Quantitative [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission
tomography in pretreatment and grading of sarcoma. Eary
JF, Conrad EU, Bruckner JD, et al. Clin Cancer Res. May
1998;4(5):1215-1220.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship
between sarcoma tumor grade and the quantitative tumor
metabolism value for [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)
determined by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging.
Seventy patients with bone or soft-tissue sarcomas underwent
PET scanning with quantitative determination of tumor FDG
metabolic rate (MRFDG) before treatment. MRFDG
211
(micromol/g/min) for each tumor was compared with National
Cancer Institute tumor grade, S-phase percentage, and
percentage of aneuploidy of the tumor population. The
pretreatment quantitative determination of tumor MRFDG by
PET correlates strongly with tumor grade but not with the other
selected histopathological tumor correlates. In addition,
overlap of MRFDG PET values with tumor grade suggests
that PET, an objective tumor measurement, may provide an
alternative means of assessing tumor biological potential or
may have the potential to overcome some of the limitations of
traditional pathological evaluation. FDG PET can uniquely
provide a metabolic profile of a diverse group of sarcomas
noninvasively and provide clinically relevant tumor biological
information.
Can FDG PET be used to successfully direct preoperative
biopsy of soft tissue tumours? Hain SF, O’Doherty MJ,
Bingham J, Chinyama C, Smith MA.Nucl Med Commun.
Nov 2003;24(11):1139-1143.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been the most useful
tool in the anatomical definition of soft tissue sarcoma,
although there remains the problem of defining the lesions as
benign or malignant. The management of such lesions requires
biopsy prior to surgical resection. If the most malignant area
could be defined more accurately, then this area could be
targeted for biopsy. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission
tomography (FDG PET) has been found to be useful in
identifying malignancy and variations in grade in soft tissue
masses. The aim of this study was to assess the use of FDG
PET scanning with or without co-registered MRI to indicate
the most appropriate biopsy site. Twenty consecutive patients
presented with soft tissue masses with clinical signs of
malignancy. All patients underwent MRI and FDG PET
scanning and the two images were co-registered. A biopsy site
that was the most likely to be malignant was defined on the
212
PET scan. All patients underwent an initial biopsy and then
complete surgical resection of the mass. The histological results
from the mass were compared with those from the biopsy
specimen obtained from the site suggested by the PET scan.
In malignant masses the biopsy site suggested by the FDG
PET scan was found to be representative of the most malignant
site on the whole mass histology. Benign lesions had low or
no FDG uptake. In no case did the co-registered image add
significantly to the appropriate biopsy site. FDG PET can be
used to appropriately direct biopsy in soft tissue sarcoma and
potentially may lead to computed tomography/MRI directed
outpatient biopsy prior to definitive treatment.
Use of positron emission tomography in localized extremity
soft tissue sarcoma treated with neoadjuvant
chemotherapy. Schuetze SM, Rubin BP, Vernon C, et al.
Cancer. Jan 15 2005;103(2):339-348.
BACKGROUND: Patients with high-grade soft tissue
sarcomas are at high risk of developing local disease recurrence
and metastatic disease. [F-18]-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose (FDG)
positron emission tomography (PET) scans are hypothesized
to detect histopathologic response to therapy and to predict
risk of tumor progression in patients with various malignancies.
Serial FDG-PET scans were taken to determine the correlation
between FDG uptake and patient outcomes in patients
receiving multimodality treatment of extremity sarcomas.
METHODS: Forty-six patients with high-grade localized
sarcomas were studied. The maximum standardized uptake
values (SUVmax) of tumors were measured before receipt of
neoadjuvant chemotherapy and again before surgery. Resected
specimens were examined for residual viable tumor. Patients
were followed up at least annually for evidence of local and
distant recurrence of disease and survival. RESULTS: Patients
with a baseline tumor SUVmax >/= 6 and < 40% decrease in
FDG uptake were at high risk of systemic disease recurrence
213
estimated to be 90% at 4 years from the time of initial
diagnosis. Patients whose tumors had a >/= 40% decline in
the SUVmax in response to chemotherapy were at a
significantly lower risk of recurrent disease and death after
complete resection and adjuvant radiotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS: The FDG-PET scan was found to be a useful
method with which to predict the outcomes of patients with
high-grade extremity soft tissue sarcomas treated with
chemotherapy. The pretreatment tumor SUVmax and change
in SUVmax after neoadjuvant chemotherapy independently
identified patients at high risk of tumor recurrence. The FDGPET scan showed promise as a tool to identify the patients
with sarcoma who are most likely to benefit from
chemotherapy.
The impact of PET scanning on management of paediatric
oncology patients. Wegner EA, Barrington SF, Kingston
JE, et al. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. Jan 2005;32(1):
23-30.
PURPOSE: Limited information is available on the use of
positron emission tomography (PET) in paediatric oncology.
The aim of this study was to review the impact of PET on the
management of paediatric patients scanned over a 10-year
period. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-five consecutive
oncology patients aged 11 months to 17 years were included.
Two hundred and thirty-seven scans were performed.
Diagnoses included lymphoma (60 patients), central nervous
system (CNS) tumour (59), sarcoma (19), plexiform
neurofibroma with suspected malignant change (13) and other
tumours (14). A questionnaire was sent to the referring clinician
to determine whether the PET scan had altered management
and whether overall the PET scan was thought to be helpful.
RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-nine (80%) questionnaires
for 126 patients were returned (63 relating to lymphoma, 62
to CNS tumours, 30 to sarcoma, 16 to plexiform neurofibroma
214
and 18 to other tumours). PET changed disease management
in 46 (24%) cases and was helpful in 141 (75%) cases. PET
findings were verified by histology, clinical follow-up or other
investigations in 141 cases (75%). The returned questionnaires
indicated that PET had led to a management change in 20
(32%) lymphoma cases, nine (15%) CNS tumours, four (13%)
sarcomas, nine (56%) plexiform neurofibromas and four (22%)
cases of other tumours. PET was thought to be helpful in 47
(75%) lymphoma cases, 48 (77%) CNS tumours, 24 (80%)
sarcomas, 11 (69%) neurofibromas and 11 (61%) cases of other
tumours. PET findings were verified in 44 (70%) lymphoma
cases, 53 (85%) CNS tumours, 21 (70%) sarcomas, 12 (75%)
neurofibromas and 11 (61%) other tumour cases.
CONCLUSION: PET imaging of children with cancer is
accurate and practical. PET alters management and is deemed
helpful (with or without management change) in a significant
number of patients, and the results are comparable with the
figures published for the adult oncology population.
Role of repeated F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose imaging in
management of patients with bone and soft tissue sarcoma.
el-Zeftawy H, Heiba SI, Jana S, et al. Cancer Biother
Radiopharm. Feb 2001;16(1):37-46.
AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the impact of repeated F-18
FDG studies on the management of patients with bone and
soft tissue (B&S) sarcomas. MATERIAL AND METHODS:
Twenty patients with B&S tissue tumors (11 M and 9 F age
17-72 years) had 52 F-18 FDG Dual Head Coincidence
Imaging (DHCI) studies. 7 patients were followed for 6 months
to 2 years clinically after removal of the primary tumor.
Thirteen patients were evaluated for suspected recurrences.
Patient’s preparation, F-18 FDG injection and imaging
procedure were done according to department protocol.
Attenuation corrected images were interpreted visually by 3
trained physicians. Tumor to background ratios were calculated
215
for all lesions. RESULTS: In 13 patients having both studies,
baseline FDG and CT/MRI were concordant in 8 patients,
FDG detected more lesions in 3 patients but it did not detect 4
metastatic pulmonary nodules in 2 patients. Follow up studies
showed stable disease in 10 patients while 6 patients who
showed worsening disease needed to change their
chemotherapy. Surgery was avoided in 2 patients and 2 patients
showed improved response. CONCLUSION: Repeated F-18
FDG DHCI examinations proved to have an impact on the
clinical management of patients with malignant bone and soft
tissue sarcoma. It helps to differentiate postoperative changes
from local recurrence.
216
Melanoma
Introduction
Melanoma is a common skin tumour, seen most commonly in
fair skinned individuals with excessive exposure to sunlight.
It is presently the 9th most common cancer in the United States
with a rising incidence, accounting for 3.5% of cancers and
1.4% of cancer deaths. Four clinical histopathologic subtypes
of cutaneous melanoma are described: superficial spreading,
lentigo maligna, acral lentiginous and nodular melanoma.
Conventional staging
Systems by Clarke (where extent is based on anatomic
landmarks in skin) and Breslow (where extent is based on
measured thickness of extension) have been used to assess
the local extent of disease and presently, the Breslow depth is
preferred as it provides greater prognostic information. Staging
of the disease is based on the TNM classification based on
local extent of disease (I and II), local node involvement (III)
and distant metastases (IV). The most current staging system
used is the one proposed by the American Joint Committee on
Cancer (AJCC) from 2002 which incorporate aspects of all
the above mentioned staging systems.
Lesions are initially suspected on physical examination and
confirmed by biopsy. Depending on the histologic results,
217
higher risk patients undergo wider excision and sentinel node
biopsy and subsequent staging with chest radiographs and
serum LDH which if positive are poor prognostic indicators.
CT is felt to be optional due to its low yield. S-100 is a serum
marker that is used to detect melanoma with some success.
Summary of Evidence
Initial Diagnosis, Staging and Restaging
At this time, there is a limited role for PET in the initial
diagnosis or staging of stage I or II cutaneous melanoma and
skin and sentinel node biopsy are still the favoured choice. In
a prospective nonrandomized control study of 144 patients in
early stage melanoma PET revealed a low sensitivity of 21%
for regional node involvement and 11% sensitivity for
predicting the first site of recurrence. Furthermore, none of
the distant sites suspected by PET were found to have tumour
by biopsy or conventional imaging.1 In a more recent study,
PET demonstrated a sensitivity of 14.3% and positive
predictive value (PPV) of 50% for localizing subclinical nodal
metastases. Specificity, net present value and accuracy were
94.7, 75 and 73% respectively. 2 A meta-analysis of 28 studies
revealed that FDG PET has an adjunctive role, especially in
stage III and IV cutaneous melanoma for detecting deep soft
tissue, nodal and visceral metastases and PET CT was felt to
be more precise than PET alone. 3 Another recent meta-analysis
suggests level IV evidence supports the use of FDG PET (PETCT with dedicated CT interpretation preferably) in AJCC stage
III and IV disease.4 The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy
of PET-CT in detecting metastases in high risk patients were
85, 96, 91% while for PET-CT with dedicated CT interpretation
were 98, 94 and 96% respectively. 5 PET CT has been found
to change management in approximately 30% of patients with
melanoma. 6 In terms of prognosis, patients with high
218
standardized uptake values (SUV) in metastatic nodes have
shorter disease free survival than those with lower SUVs but
this difference does not appear to translate into overall survival.
7
Briefly, PET maybe more sensitive than CT in detecting skin,
bowel, skeletal and nodal metastases but CT is better for
pulmonary lesions while MRI is the mainstay for brain
metastases. The sensitivity of PET is limited for small lesions
while clinical correlation and corroborative anatomical
imaging increase the specificity of FDG PET abnormalities.
Response Assessment
S-100B is a tumour marker that has been found to be useful in
some cases of melanoma in detecting recurrence and assessing
treatment response. In these patients, recent data suggests that
FDG PET-CT can be used to assess treatment response as the
change in tumor maximum standardized uptake value
(SUVmax) correlates well with change in serum S-100B
values.8
Suspected Recurrence
Monitoring high-risk melanoma patients is a challenging and
FDG PET CT has shown promise in a small study by detecting
metastases with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 97,
100 and 98% respectively in patients with truly elevated
S-100B. 9 Early work also suggests that FDG PET-CT is
accurate in detecting clinically occult disease recurrence and
patients who are PET negative go on to have disease free states
for 12-48 months subsequently. 10
Impact on Patient Management
Various studies have shown that FDG PET has had an impact
on patient management by changing treatment plan between
11 and 49% of the time. 11-14
219
Timing of the
PET/CT
Hierarchy of
Diagnostic
Efficacy
Relevance of
Test
Level of
Evidence
Diagnosis
Level 1
Probably
inappropriate
–
Staging
Level 2
Level 4
Probably
appropriate
2 level 1 studies
3 level 2 studies
2 level 3 studies
Response
evaluation
Level 2
Probably
appropriate
1 level 2 study
Restaging
Level 2
Probably
appropriate
2 level 1 studies
3 level 2 studies
2 level 3 studies
Suspected
recurrence
Level 2
Probably
appropriate
2 level 2 studies
Followup
Level 1
NA
NA
RT planning
Level 1
NA
NA
Summary
FDG PET is a sensitive and specific technique for patients
with melanoma but has limitations with small (less than 1 cm),
pulmonary (chest CT) and brain (MRI) metastases. It is felt to
be superior to CT alone in detecting abdominal, nodal,
subcutaneous and skins sites. It is useful in assessing extent of
disease in patients with surgically resectable disease by
conventional methods as it may render them unresectable in a
considerable population.
Selected References
Inefficacy of F-18 fluorodeoxy-D-glucose-positron
emission tomography scans for initial evaluation in earlystage cutaneous melanoma. Wagner JD, Schauwecker D,
Davidson D, et al.Cancer. Aug 1 2005;104(3):570-579.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to
determine the sensitivity and specificity of initial F-18
220
fluorodeoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDGPET) scanning for detection of occult lymph node and distant
metastases in patients with early-stage cutaneous melanoma.
METHODS: The authors conducted a prospective
nonrandomized clinical trial. Inclusion criteria were patients
with cutaneous melanoma tumors > 1.0 mm Breslow thickness,
local disease recurrence, or solitary intransit metastases without
regional lymph or distant metastases by standard clinical
evaluation. All patients underwent whole-body FDG-PET
scanning before surgical therapy. Abnormal PET findings were
studied by targeted conventional imaging and/or biopsy. FDGPET scans were interpreted in a blinded fashion. Regional
lymph node basins were staged by sentinel lymph node biopsy
(SLNB). PET scan findings in regional lymph nodes were
compared with histology of SLNB specimens. Abnormal
distant PET scan findings were studied with repeat
conventional scan imaging at 3-6 months and were correlated
with the first site(s) of clinical disease recurrence. Blinded
PET scan findings were correlated with all information to
determine sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: There were
144 assessable patients with a mean tumor depth of 2.8 mm.
The median follow-up for these patients was 41.4 months.
Blinded interpretations of FDG-PET scan images showed that
31 patients (21%) had signs of metastatic disease, 13 patients
had probable regional lymph node metastases, and 18 patients
had 23 sites of possible distant metastases. SLNB and/or
follow-up demonstrated regional lymph node metastases in
43 of 184 lymph node basins in 40 patients (27.8%). Compared
with all clinical information, FDG-PET scan sensitivity for
detection of regional lymph node metastases was 0.21 (95%
confidence [CI], 0.10-0.36) and specificity was 0.97 (95%
CI, 0.93-0.99). No distant sites were confirmed to be true
positive by targeted conventional imaging/biopsy at the time
of presentation. Thirty-four patients (23.6%) presented with
54 foci of metastatic disease at initial disease recurrence.
221
FDG-PET scan sensitivity for prediction of the first site(s) of
clinical disease recurrence was 0.11 (95% CI, 0.04-0.23).
Excluding patients with brain metastases, FDG-PET scan
sensitivity for detection of occult Stage IV disease in patients
was 0.04 (95% CI, 0.001-0.20) and specificity was 0.86 (95%
CI, 0.79-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET scanning did not
impact the care of patients with early-stage melanoma already
staged by standard techniques. Routine FDG-PET scanning
was not recommended for the initial staging evaluation in this
population.
Preoperative 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging and sentinel node
biopsy in the detection of regional lymph node metastases
in malignant melanoma. Singh B, Ezziddin S, Palmedo H,
et al. Melanoma Res. Oct 2008;18(5):346-352.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of
preoperative 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission
tomography/computed tomography scanning, preoperative
lymphoscintigraphy (LS), and sentinel lymph node biopsy in
patients with malignant melanoma. Fifty-two patients (36 men:
16 women; mean age 55.0+/-13.0 years; median age 61 years;
range 17-76 years) with malignant melanoma were selected.
According to the latest version of the American Joint
Committee on Cancer staging system, the disease in the study
patients was initially classified as either stage I or II. The other
primary tumor characteristics were mean Breslow
depth=2.87 mm and median=2 mm; range 1-12.0 mm and
Clarks levels III-V. None of the study patients had clinical or
radiological evidence of regional lymph node metastatic
disease. At least one sentinel node was identified in all patients.
Preoperative LS detected a total of 111 sentinel lymph nodes
(average 2.13 sentinel lymph node per patient) and
demonstrated a single nodal draining basin in 38 (73%) patients
and multiple (2-3 draining basins) in the remaining 14 (27%)
patients. Fourteen out of the 52 patients (27%) had at least
222
one involved sentinel node. Positron emission tomography was
true positive in two patients with a sentinel node greater than
1 cm and false positive in two other patients. In this study, the
detection of sentinel lymph node by LS and gamma probe had
a sensitivity of 100%. In contrast, 18F-FDG-PET imaging
demonstrated very low sensitivity (14.3%; 95% CI, 2.5 to 44%)
and positive predictive value (50%; 95% CI, 9 to 90%) for
localizing the subclinical nodal metastases. The specificity,
net present value, and diagnostic accuracy were 94.7, 75, and
73%, respectively. Preoperative fluorodeoxyglucose-positron
emission tomography/computed tomography imaging is not
able to substitute LS/sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients
at stage I or II.
Role of PET in the initial staging of cutaneous malignant
melanoma: systematic review. Krug B, Crott R, Lonneux
M, Baurain JF, Pirson AS, Vander Borght T. Radiology.
Dec 2008;249(3):836-844.
PURPOSE: To calculate summary estimates of the diagnostic
performance of fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)
positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging in the initial
staging of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), following
the new American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging
classification on per-patient and per-lesion bases.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web
of Science, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
databases, and reference lists of reviews and included papers
were searched, without any language restrictions, for relevant
articles published before March 2007. Two reviewers
independently assessed study eligibility and methodologic
quality by using the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy
studies checklist. A pooled random effect was estimated and a
fixed coefficient regression model was used to explore the
existing heterogeneity. RESULTS: Twenty-eight studies
involving 2905 patients met the inclusion criteria. The pooled
223
estimates of FDG PET for the detection of metastasis in the
initial staging of CMM were sensitivity, 83% (95% confidence
interval [CI]: 81%, 84%); specificity, 85% (95% CI: 83%,
87%); positive likelihood ratio (LR), 4.56 (95% CI: 3.12,
6.64); negative LR, 0.27 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.40); and diagnostic
odds ratio, 19.8 (95% CI: 10.8, 36.4). Results from eight
studies suggested that FDG PET was associated with 33%
disease management changes (range, 15%-64%).
CONCLUSION: There is good preliminary evidence that FDG
PET is useful for the initial staging of patients with CMM,
especially as adjunctive role in AJCC stages III and IV, to
help detect deep soft-tissue, lymph node, and visceral
metastases. FDG PET-computed tomographic imaging seemed
to be more precise than PET alone, as suggested by four eligible
studies. Further evaluation by using a well-designed
prospective study, with clinical outcome-focused measures and
cost effectiveness analysis, is needed to clarify the appropriate
role of FDG PET in CMM staging. SUPPLEMENTAL
MATERIAL: http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/
249/3/836/DC1.
Imaging in cutaneous melanoma. Ho Shon IA, Chung DK,
Saw RP, Thompson JF. Nucl Med Commun. Oct
2008;29(10):847-876.
Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is a common malignancy and
imaging, particularly lymphoscintigraphy (LS), positronemission tomography with 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDGPET), ultrasound, radiography computed tomography (CT)
and magnetic resonance imaging have important roles in
staging and restaging, surgical guidance, surveillance and
assessment of recurrent disease. This review aims to summarize
the available data regarding these and other imaging modalities
in CM and provide the basis for subsequent formulation of
guidelines regarding the use of imaging in CM. PubMed and
Medline searches were performed and reference lists from
224
publications were also searched. The published data were
reviewed and tabulated. There is level I evidence supporting
the use of LS and sentinel lymph node biopsy in nodal staging
for CM. There is level III evidence demonstrating the
superiority of ultrasound to palpation in the assessment of
lymph nodes in CM. There is level IV evidence supporting
FDG-PET in American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III/
IV and recurrent CM and that FDG-PET/CT may be superior
to FDG-PET. Level IV evidence also supports the use of CT
in the same group of patients and the role of CT appears to be
complementary to FDG-PET. Various imaging modalities,
especially LS/sentinel lymph node biopsy and FDG-PET/CT,
add incremental information in the management of CM and
the various modalities have complementary roles depending
on the clinical situation.
High-risk melanoma: accuracy of FDG PET/CT with
added CT morphologic information for detection of
metastases. Strobel K, Dummer R, Husarik DB, Perez Lago
M, Hany TF, Steinert HC. Radiology. Aug
2007;244(2):566-574.
PURPOSE: To prospectively determine the accuracy of
positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography
(CT) with added CT morphologic information for depiction
of metastases in patients with high-risk melanoma and negative
findings for metastases at PET, by using histologic findings
or additional imaging and/or follow-up findings as reference
standard. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional
review board approval was obtained. Informed consent was
obtained from patients. One hundred twenty-four consecutive
high-risk melanoma patients (65 female, 59 male; mean age,
54.4 years; range, 15-82 years) were included. Fluorine 18
fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT was performed. First,
PET/CT scans were evaluated for presence of metastases with
increased FDG uptake; CT anatomic location was determined.
225
Lesions were considered metastases if there was focal uptake
higher than that of background tissue. Second, coregistered
CT images of combined PET/CT scans were evaluated for
presence of lesions without FDG uptake. Findings were
compared with reference standard findings to determine the
accuracy of each evaluation. McNemar test was used to assess
statistical differences in accuracy. RESULTS: In 53 of 124
patients, metastases were found. In 46 of 53 patients with
metastases, lesions had increased FDG uptake. In seven
patients with metastatic disease, metastases did not have
increased FDG uptake (maximum standard uptake value
[SUV], <1.5; n = 5) or had faint FDG uptake (maximum SUV,
2.5 and 2.9; n = 2)-findings that were inconclusive with PET
alone. These lesions were interpreted as metastases only with
coregistered CT images. Lesions missed with PET were located
in the lungs, iliac lymph nodes, subcutis, and psoas muscle.
Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, respectively, of PET/CT
for depiction of metastases were 85%, 96%, and 91%, and
those of PET/CT with dedicated CT interpretation were 98%,
94%, and 96% (P = .016). CONCLUSION: Dedicated analysis
of coregistered CT images significantly improves the accuracy
of integrated PET/CT for depiction of metastases in patients
with high-risk melanoma.
Interpretation, accuracy and management implications of
FDG PET/CT in cutaneous malignant melanoma. Falk MS,
Truitt AK, Coakley FV, Kashani-Sabet M, Hawkins RA,
Franc B. Nucl Med Commun. Apr 2007;28(4):273-280.
PURPOSE: To investigate the accuracy of different
interpretative approaches and to evaluate the management
implications of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission
tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) in
cutaneous malignant melanoma. METHODS: We
retrospectively identified 60 consecutive patients who
underwent 76 PET/CT scans for cutaneous malignant
melanoma. PET/CT reports were classified as positive,
226
negative, or equivocal for regional and distant disease. Scan
indication (staging, restaging, surveillance, or therapeutic
monitoring), tumour stage, presence or absence of regional or
distant disease, and post-scan management changes were
determined by review of all available medical records.
Maximum standardized uptake values (SUV(max)) of all
findings were noted. Diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT was
compared using either a high or low threshold interpretation
(i.e. subtle, but indeterminate findings coded negative or
positive, respectively). The frequency of management changes
was compared between patient subgroups (stratified by tumour
stage or indication). RESULTS: Using a high threshold
interpretative approach, the overall accuracy of PET/CT for
disease was 72.4% (55/76), which was significantly (P<0.05)
greater than the accuracy of 53.9% (41/76) seen when using a
low threshold approach. Per scan accuracy by staging site was
92.1% (70/76) for regional and 76.3% (58/76) for distant
disease. PET/CT changed management in 21 of 76 studies
(27.6%). When stratified by stage and indication, management
changes occurred in all patient subgroups, except for stage
I patients (0 of 5). CONCLUSION: When interpreted with a
high threshold approach, PET/CT demonstrates high accuracy
for the diagnosis of both regional and distant disease in
cutaneous malignant melanoma and frequently changes
management in patients with stage II-IV disease referred for a
variety of indications.
Level of fluorodeoxyglucose uptake predicts risk for
recurrence in melanoma patients presenting with lymph
node metastases. Bastiaannet E, Hoekstra OS, Oyen WJ,
Jager PL, Wobbes T, Hoekstra HJ. Ann Surg Oncol. Jul
2006;13(7):919-926.
BACKGROUND: The incidence of malignant melanoma has
increased. Identification of additional prognostic factors may
allow the development of individualized strategies. This
227
multivariate analysis was undertaken to evaluate the potential
role of the standard uptake value (SUV) in predicting diseasefree and overall survival in melanoma patients with lymph
node metastases. METHODS: All melanoma patients with
palpable lymph node metastases who where referred for a
fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan were
eligible. The SUV in the lymph node metastasis was calculated.
Data were analyzed (Kaplan-Meier), and differences in
cumulative survival and the disease-free rate were assessed
(log-rank test). Univariate and multivariate analyses (Cox
proportional hazard model) were performed to determine
independent prognostic factors. RESULTS: There was no
statistical difference in survival for the 38 patients with a high
or low SUVmean (P = .11). However, a significant difference
was found in disease-free survival (P = .03). Ulceration of the
primary melanoma (P = .023) was an independent predictor
of survival. For the disease-free survival, multivariate Cox
regression showed adjuvant radiation (P = .001), localization
of the primary melanoma (P = .017), and a high SUVmean
(P = .009) as independent prognostic factors.
CONCLUSIONS: Disease-free survival of melanoma patients
was prolonged in those with a low SUVmean value (P = .03)
in their lymph node metastasis, as compared with those with a
high SUVmean. However, this difference was not found for
overall survival. In multivariate analysis, high SUVmean was
an independent prognostic factor (P = .009) for disease-free
survival. Prospective research should determine whether
patients with a high FDG uptake in melanoma lymph node
metastases could benefit from adjuvant radiation treatment or
chemotherapy.
S-100B and FDG-PET/CT in therapy response assessment
of melanoma patients. Strobel K, Skalsky J, Steinert HC,
et al. Dermatology. 2007;215(3):192-201.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the value of the tumor marker
S-100B protein and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission
228
tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in patients
treated for melanoma metastases. METHODS: In 41 patients
with proven melanoma metastases, S-100B measurements and
FDG-PET/CT were performed before and after therapy. The
change of S-100B levels (DeltaS-100B) was assessed. In all
patients, therapy response was assessed with PET/CT using
visual criteria and change of maximal standard uptake value
(DeltaSUV(max.)) or total lesion glycolysis (DeltaTLG).
RESULTS: In 15 of 41 patients (37%), S-100B values were
not suitable because they were normal before and after therapy.
In 26 patients, S-100B was suitable for therapy response
assessment. PET/CT was suitable for response assessment in
all patients. Correlations between DeltaS-100B and DeltaTLG
(r = 0.850, p < 0.001) and between DeltaS-100B and
DeltaSUV(max.) (r = 0.818, p < 0.001) were both excellent.
A complete agreement between S-100B and PET/CT response
assessment was achieved in 22 of 26 patients. In 4 patients,
therapy response differed between the S-100B and PET/CT
findings, but subsequent S-100B measurements realigned the
S-100B results with the later PET/CT findings.
CONCLUSION: In a third of our patients with metastases,
the S-100B tumor marker was not suitable for therapy
assessment. In these patients, imaging techniques remain
necessary, and FDG-PET/CT can be used for response
assessment.
Tumour assessment in advanced melanoma: value of FDGPET/CT in patients with elevated serum S-100B. Strobel
K, Skalsky J, Kalff V, et al. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging.
Sep 2007;34(9):1366-1375.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the usefulness of PET/CT in
melanoma patients with an elevated serum S-100B tumour
marker level. METHODS: Out of 165 consecutive high-risk
melanoma patients referred for PET/CT imaging, 47 had
elevated (>0.2 microg/l) S-100B serum levels and a
229
contemporaneous 18F-FDG PET/CT scan. PET/CT scans were
evaluated for the presence of metastases. To produce a
composite reference standard, we used cytological,
histological, MRI and PET/CT follow-up findings as well as
clinical and S-100B follow-up. RESULTS: Among the 47
patients with increased S-100B levels, PET/CT correctly
identified metastases in 38 (30 distant metastases and eight
lymph node metastases). In one patient with cervical lymph
node metastases, PET/CT was negative. Eight patients had no
metastases and PET/CT correctly excluded metastases in all
of them. Overall sensitivity for metastases was 97% (38/39),
specificity 100% (8/8) and accuracy 98% (46/47). S-100B
was significantly higher in patients with distant metastases
(mean 1.93 microg/l, range 0.3-14.3 microg/l) than in patients
with lymph node metastases (mean 0.49 microg/l, range
0.3-1.6 microg/l, p=0.003) or patients without metastases
(mean 0.625 microg/l, range 0.3-2.6 microg/l, p=0.007).
However, 6 of 14 patients with a tumour marker level of 0.3
microg/l had no metastases. CONCLUSION: In melanoma
patients with elevated S-100B tumour marker levels, FDGPET/CT accurately identifies lymph node or distant metastases
and reliably excludes metastases. Because of the significant
number of false positive S-100B tumour marker determinations
(17%), we recommend repetition of tumour marker
measurements if elevated S-100B levels occur before extensive
imaging is used.
Whole body positron emission tomography in follow-up
of high risk melanoma. Koskivuo IO, Seppanen MP,
Suominen EA, Minn HR. Acta Oncol. 2007;46(5):685-690.
The aim of this study was to determine the clinical impact of
whole body positron emission tomography (FDG PET) to
detect clinically silent metastases in the follow-up of patients
with high risk melanoma. FDG PET was performed to 30
asymptomatic melanoma patients (AJCC stage IIB-IIIC)
230
7-24 months after the primary surgery and sentinel node biopsy.
FDG PET was able to detect six of seven recurrences,
constituting 20% of all study patients. One patient presented
with a negative FDG PET finding at the very first scanning,
but was positive later in a repeated scan after manifestation of
palpable mass in the axilla. The positive PET finding had an
impact on treatment decisions in every case: three patients
underwent surgical resection and four patients received
chemotherapy or interferon. The mean follow-up time was 27
months (range, 12-48 months) and during that time the other
23 patients with true negative FDG PET were disease-free.
One of the seven recurrences was in remission after surgical
metastasectomy. In conclusion, whole body FDG PET is a
valuable follow-up tool in high risk melanoma to diagnose
recurrences and to select the patients, who are suitable for
surgical metastasectomy.
The value of positron emission tomography scanning in
the detection of subclinical metastatic melanoma. Acland
KM, O’Doherty MJ, Russell-Jones R. J. Am Acad
Dermatol. Apr 2000;42(4):606-611.
We have undertaken a retrospective analysis of all positron
emission tomography (PET) scans carried out at St Thomas’
Hospital, London, since 1994 to establish the sensitivity and
specificity of this radiologic technique in cutaneous malignant
melanoma. In particular, we have identified those patients with
primary cutaneous malignant melanoma in whom PET
scanning revealed in-transit or regional spread to nodes and
those patients with known regional spread in whom PET
scanning revealed distant metastases. We defined our falsenegative results as a negative scan result with positive histology
or subsequent clinical progression of disease. False-positive
results were defined as a suspect scan with negative histology
or no subsequent progression of disease. PET scanning had
an overall sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 87%; however,
231
subset analysis (M. D. Anderson staging system) showed a
sensitivity of 50% for stage I disease (34 patients and 35 scans)
and 33% for stage II disease (9 patients and 9 scans) with
specificities of 87% and 100%, respectively. For stage III
disease (16 patients and 17 scans), PET showed a sensitivity
of 93% and specificity of 50%. Overall, 35% of patients with
true-positive scans had their disease restaged. We can conclude
therefore that PET is valuable as a staging procedure in patients
with known regional spread but is suboptimal in the prediction
of outcome in stage I or stage II disease.
The role of fluorine-18 deoxyglucose positron emission
tomography in the management of patients with metastatic
melanoma: impact on surgical decision making. Gulec SA,
Faries MB, Lee CC, et al. Clin Nucl Med. Dec
2003;28(12):961-965.
Malignant melanoma can metastasize to almost any organ site.
Optimal management requires sensitive radiographic
evaluation of the entire body. The optimal management of
patients with metastatic melanoma requires accurate
assessment of extent of disease (EOD). The objective of this
study was to evaluate the accuracy of fluorine-18 deoxyglucose
(FDG) whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) in
determination of EOD in patients with metastatic melanoma
and its impact on surgical and medical management decisions.
Forty-nine patients (30 men, 19 women; aged 25-83 years)
with known or suspected metastatic melanoma underwent EOD
evaluation using computerized tomography (CT) of the chest,
abdomen, and pelvis, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
of the brain. After formulation of an initial treatment plan, the
patients underwent FDG-PET imaging. The EOD determined
by PET was compared with physical examination and
conventional radiography findings. Fifty-one lesions were
pathologically evaluated. The impact of PET on patient
management was assessed based on the alterations made in
232
the initial treatment plan after reevaluation of the patients using
the information obtained by PET. The PET scan identified
more metastatic sites in 27 of 49 (55%) of the patients who
had undergone a complete set of imaging studies, including
CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis, and MRI of the
brain. In 6 of those 27 patients, PET detected disease outside
the fields of CT and MRI. Fifty-one lesions were resected
surgically. Of these, 44 were pathologically confirmed to be
melanoma. All lesions larger than 1 cm (29 of 29) were positive
on PET, whereas only 2 of 15 (13%) lesions smaller than 1 cm
were detected by PET. The results of PET led treatment
changes in 24 patients (49%). Eighteen of these changes (75%)
were surgical. In 12 cases (67%), the planned operative
procedure was cancelled, and in 6 cases (33%), an additional
operation(s) was performed. In 6 of 24 (25%) patients,
biochemotherapy, radiation therapy, or an experimental
immunotherapy protocol was prompted by identification of
new foci of disease. Compared with conventional imaging,
FDG-PET provides more accurate assessment of EOD in
patients with metastatic melanoma. Significant surgical and
medical treatment alterations were made based on PET results.
Positron emission tomography scanning in malignant
melanoma. Tyler DS, Onaitis M, Kherani A, et al. Cancer.
Sep 1 2000;89(5):1019-1025.
BACKGROUND: Several recent studies have demonstrated
the low yield of anatomically based computed tomography
scans in evaluating Stage III (American Joint Committee on
Cancer) patients with malignant melanoma. The purpose of
this study was to investigate the efficacy and clinical utility of
functionally based positron emission tomography (PET) scans
in the same patient population. METHODS: A prospective
evaluation of 106 whole body PET scans obtained after
injection of 2-fluorine-18, 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG)
was performed in 95 patients with clinically evident Stage III
233
lymph node and/or in-transit melanoma. Areas of abnormality
on FDG PET scanning were identified visually as foci of
increased metabolic activity compared with background, and
all positive foci were assessed pathologically. RESULTS: In
this patient population, there were 234 areas that were
evaluated pathologically of which 165 were confirmed
histologically to be melanoma. PET scanning identified 144
of the 165 areas of melanoma for a sensitivity of 87.3%. The
21 areas of melanoma that were missed included 10
microscopic foci, 9 foci less than 1 cm, and 2 foci greater than
1 cm. There were 39 areas of increased PET activity that were
not associated with malignancy for a 78.6% predictive value
of a positive test. Of the 39 false-positive areas (false-positive
rate of 56.5%), 13 could be attributed to recent surgery, 3 to
arthritis, 3 to infection, 2 to superficial phlebitis, 1 to a benign
skin nevus, and 1 to a colonic polyp. Pathologic evaluation of
the remaining false-positive areas failed to reveal a definitive
etiology for their increased activity on PET scan. With the
application of pertinent clinical information, the predictive
value of a positive PET scan could be improved to 90. 6%.
The specificity of PET scanning in this study was only 43.5%
because very few prophylactic lymph node dissections were
performed. Thirty-six of the total 183 abnormal areas (19.7%)
on PET scanning proved to be unsuspected areas of metastatic
disease. These findings led to a change in the planned clinical
management in patients after 16 of the 106 PET scans (15.1%).
CONCLUSIONS: FDG PET scanning can be helpful in
managing patients with Stage III melanoma in whom further
surgery is contemplated. Although false-positive areas are not
uncommon, PET scans did change the management of patients
15% of the time. PET’s inability to identify microscopic
disease suggests that it is of limited use in evaluating patients
with Stage I-II disease.
234
Cost-effectiveness of PET imaging in clinical oncology.
Valk PE, Pounds TR, Tesar RD, Hopkins DM, Haseman
MK.Nucl Med Biol. Aug 1996;23(6):737-743.
To be cost-effective, PET must be diagnostically accurate and
effective in improving management without increasing
treatment cost. To evaluate diagnostic accuracy, we performed
prospective evaluations of whole-body PET imaging in staging
of non-small-cell lung cancer (99 patients), detection of
recurrent colorectal cancer (57 patients), diagnosis of
metastatic melanoma (36 patients), and staging of advanced
head and neck cancer (29 patients). In each case, PET was
more accurate than anatomic imaging for determination of the
presence and extent of tumor and demonstration of
nonresectable disease. PET was also more accurate than
conventional imaging in staging Hodgkin’s disease (30
patients). We evaluated the management impact of PET
retrospectively, by reviewing the treatment records of 72
patients with solitary pulmonary nodules or non-small-cell lung
cancer, 68 patients with known or suspected recurrent
colorectal cancer, 45 patients with known or suspected
metastatic melanoma, and 29 patients with advanced head and
neck tumors. PET improved patient management by avoiding
surgery for nonresectable tumor and for CT abnormalities that
proved to be benign by PET imaging. For determining cost
impact, the costs of surgical procedures were determined from
Medicare reimbursement rates, and the cost of a PET study
was taken to be $1800. The savings from contraindicated
surgical procedures exceeded the cost of PET imaging by ratios
of 2:1 to 4:1, depending on the indication. PET was decisively
more accurate and cost-effective than anatomic imaging by
CT, combining improved patient care with reduced cost of
management.
235
Section — VII
Head and Neck
Malignancies
FDG PET-CT in Head-Neck Cancer
Introduction
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) include
cancers involving the nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx,
larynx & the oral cavity.Squamous cell carcinomas of the
sinonasal region can also be included in HNSCC.Nearly half
of the patients have advanced local disease or lymphnode
metastases at the time of diagnosis.Treatment involves a
multidisciplinary approach involving head-neck
surgery,radiation & medical oncology,prosthodontics and
speech therapy. Diagnostic imaging plays an important role in
staging, restaging, monitoring treatment response and is
essential in not only planning adequate treatment but also in
reducing treatment related toxicity and functional impairment.
Conventional Imaging
CECT and MRI are the imaging modalities of choice for
evaluation of HNSCC.Both have comparable accuracies in
evaluating local tumor extent and loco-regional
lymphadenopathy.MRI however can be more useful in
assessing perineural tumor extension whereas CT scan has
been found to be more effective in tumors of the oral cavity.
239
Ultrasonography is routinely used to assess cervical
lymphadenopathy and when coupled with a guided FNAC has
a good accuracy.
Summary of evidence for PET-CT
As regards initial staging in untreated head-neck cancer ,there
are a limited number of prospective studies which examine
the impact of PET on management decisions and patient
outcomes. Numerous reports have shown that PET is at least
as sensitive as MRI & CT in detecting the head-neck primary
tumor. But since a non-contrast PET-CT lacks the anatomical
detail which an MRI or CT provide, it has a limited role in
defining the initial T stage of the disease. For evaluating
metastatic disease in regional cervical lymphnodes at initial
staging FDG PET is comparable to conventional modalities.
In a recent review PET had a sensitivity in the range of
87-90% and specificity of 80-93 % for cervical nodal
metastasis at initial staging.Owing to its full body coverage,
PET can detect nodal metastases in unexpected locations
(mediastinum and axilla) and can unmask unsuspected distant
metastatic sites. Several studies have shown that PET may
detect occult metastatic disease at initial staging in 10% cases
of locally advanced disease.A recent prospective study in
patients with clinically N0 neck has shown that FDG PET is
of limited value due to its inability to detect disease in nodes
< 5 mm. In the evaluation of patients with unknown primary
tumor presenting with neck node metastases the data has been
variable so far, with results at par if not better than with
anatomical imaging modalities. The detection rate for primary
tumor was 27% according a meta analyis of studies that
addressed patients with negative initial physical examination
and MRI .A recent multicentre study shows that PET changes
management and improves prognostic stratification in head
and neck cancer patients. PET resulted in management change
240
in about 34% patients and an inferior disease free survival
was demonstrated in patients with higher FDG uptake values.
In the context of monitoring treatment response number of
studies have shown that PET can detect residual tumor after
chemoradiation more accurately than conventional
imaging.The negative predictive value of PET to exclude
residual disease according to 2 large studies is > 97% when it
is performed about 8-12 weeks after completion of treatment.In
patients with residual lymphadenopathy a normal PET scan
excludes disease with high certainty, but confirmation of this
will be required with larger prospective trials.No residual
lymphadenopathy with a normal PET scan,neck dissection can
be deferred.
For surveillance and detection of recurrence, several studies
have shown that FDG PET has a high sensitivity for detecting
recurrence at the primary site and regional lymphnodes.In such
a setting when a potentially curable salvage option is
planned,PET helps in unmasking foci of distant metastases
which would change the treatment offered from radical to a
palliative one.
For radiation therapy planning several publications have
shown that target volumes can be altered in as much as 20%
cases when FDG PET-CT is used over CT alone.Hence PETCT is used as an adjunct to CT and MRI for target
definition.Long term outcome data identifying patterns of
treatment failure related to PET-CT based target volumes are
needed to define a standardized approach,before it can be
included in routine clinical practice.
241
Timing of the
PET/CT
Hierarchy of
Diagnostic
Efficacy
Relevance of
Test
Level of
Evidence
Diagnosis
Level 2
Potentially
appropriate
Level II
Staging
Level 4
Probably
appropriate
Level II
Response
evaluation &
Restaging
Level 5
Appropriate
Level I
Suspected
recurrence
Level 5
Appropriate
Level I
Follow up
Level 4
Probably
appropriate
Level I
RT planning
Level 4
Potentially
appropriate
Level II
Selected Abstracts
18F-FDG PET/CT for Detecting Nodal Metastases in
Patients with Oral Cancer Staged N0 by Clinical
Examination and CT/MRI. Heiko Scho¨der1, Diane L.
Carlson2, Dennis H. Kraus3, Hilda E. Stambuk1, Mithat
Go¨nen4, Yusuf E. Erdi5,Henry W.D. Yeung1, Andrew G.
Huvos2, Jatin P. Shah3, Steven M. Larson1, and Richard
J. Wong3. J Nucl Med 2006; 47:755–762
18F-FDG PET has a high accuracy in staging head and neck
cancer, but its role in patients with clinically and
radiographically negative necks (N0) is less clear. In particular,
the value of combined PET/CT has not been determined in
this group of patients. Methods:In a prospective study, 31
patients with oral cancer and no evidence of lymphnode
metastases by clinical examination or CT/MRI underwent
18F-FDG PET/CT before elective neck dissection. PET/CT
findings were recorded by neck side (left or right) and lymph
242
node level. PET/CT findings were compared with
histopathology of dissected nodes, which was the standard of
reference. Results: Elective neck dissections (26 unilateral,
5 bilateral; a total of 36 neck sides), involving 142 nodal levels,
were performed. Only 13 of 765 dissected lymph nodes
harbored metastases. Histopathology revealed nodal
metastases in 9 of 36 neck sides and 9 of 142 nodal levels.PET
was TP in 6 nodal levels (6neck sides), false-negative in3 levels
(3 neck sides), true-negative in 127 levels (23 neck sides),
and false-positive in 6 levels (4 neck sides). The 3 falsenegative findings occurred in metastases smaller than 3 mm
or because of inability to distinguish between primary tumor
and adjacent metastasis.
TP and false-positive nodes exhibited similar standardized
uptakes (4.8 6 1.1 vs. 4.2 6 1.0; P 5 not significant). Sensitivity
and specificity were 67% and 85% on the basis of neck sides
and 67% and 95% on the basis of number of nodal levels,
respectively. If a decision regarding the need for neck
dissection had been based solely on PET/CT, 3 false-negative
necks would have been undertreated, and 4 false-positive necks
would have been overtreated.
Conclusion: 18F-FDGPET/CT can identify lymph
nodemetastases in a segment of patients with oral cancer and
N0 neck. A negative test can exclude metastatic deposits with
high specificity. Despite reasonably high overall accuracy,
however, the clinical application of PET/CT in the N0 neck
may be limited by the combination of limited sensitivity for
small metastatic deposits and a relatively high number of falsepositive findings. The surgical management of the N0 neck
should therefore not be based on PET/CT findings alone.
243
Clinical Utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT in Assessing the Neck
After Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Locoregional
Advanced Head and Neck Cancer. Seng Chuan Ong1*,
Heiko Sch¨oder1*, Nancy Y. Lee2, Snehal G. Patel3, Diane
Carlson4, Matthew Fury5, David G. Pfister5,Jatin P.
Shah3, Steven M. Larson1, and Dennis H. Kraus3. J Nucl
Med 2008; 49:532–540
For patients with locoregional advanced head and neck
squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), concurrent
chemoradiotherapy is a widely accepted treatment, but the need
for subsequent neck dissection remains controversial. We
investigated the clinical utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT in this
setting.
Methods: In this Institutional Review Board (IRB)–approved
and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
(HIPPA)–compliant retrospective study, we reviewed the
records of patients with HNSCC who were treated by
concurrent chemoradiation therapy between March 2002 and
December 2004. Patients with lymph node metastases who
underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT 8 wk after the end of therapy
were included. 18F-FDG PET/CT findings were validated by
biopsy, histopathology of neck dissection specimens (n 5 18),
or clinical and imaging follow-up (median, 37 mo). Results:
Sixty-five patients with a total of 84 heminecks could be
evaluated. 18F-FDG PET/CT (visual analysis) detected
residual nodal disease with a sensitivity of 71%, a specificity
of 89%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 38%, a negative
predictive value (NPV) of 97%, and an accuracy of 88%.
Twenty-nine heminecks contained residual enlarged lymph
nodes (diameter, $1.0 cm), but viable tumor was found in only
5 of them. 18FFDG PET/CT was true-positive in 4 and falsepositive in 6 heminecks, but the NPV was high at 94%. Fiftyfive heminecks contained no residual enlarged nodes, and PET/
CT was truenegative in 50 of these, yielding a specificity of
244
96% and an NPV of 98%. Lack of residual lymphadenopathy
on CT had an NPV of 96%. Finally, normal 18F-FDG PET/
CT excluded residual disease at the primary site with a
specificity of 95%, an NPV of 97%, and an accuracy of 92%.
Conclusion: In patients with HNSCC, normal 18F-FDG PET/
CT after chemoradiotherapy has a high NPV and specificity
for excluding residual locoregional disease. In patients without
residual lymphadenopathy, neck dissection may be withheld
safely. In patients with residual lymphadenopathy, a lack of
abnormal 18F-FDG uptake in these nodes also excludes viable
tumor with high certainty, but confirmation of these data in a
prospective study may be necessary before negative 18F-FDG
PET/CT may become the only, or at least most-decisive,
criterion in the management of the neck after
chemoradiotherapy.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of the role of
positron emission tomography in the follow up of head
and neck squamous cell carcinoma following radiotherapy
or chemoradiotherapy. Isles MG, McConkey C, Mehanna
HM. Clin Otolaryngol. 2008 Jun;33(3):210-22.
OBJECTIVES: This review examines the effectiveness of
positron emission tomography (PET) in the detection of
recurrent or persistent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
after radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. DESIGN: A
systematic review and meta-analysis of trials of PET for
detecting residual/recurrent head and neck squamous cell
carcinoma treated by radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy.
Trials were quality assessed using the Quality Assessment of
Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool for assessing diagnostic
accuracy studies. Quantitative data were extracted and a
bivariate random effects model used to calculate pooled
sensitivity and specificity. SETTING: Tertiary referral head
and neck centre. PARTICIPANTS: Prospective and
retrospective studies, excluding reviews, which included
245
patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma who
had fluorodeoxyglucose PET in the post-treatment phase
following primary treatment by radiotherapy or
chemoradiotherapy. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES:
Quality assessment, sensitivity, specificity, false positive rates,
false negative rates, positive and negative predictive values.
RESULTS: Twenty-seven of 1871 identified studies were
eligible for inclusion. The pooled sensitivity and specificity
of PET for detecting residual or recurrent head and neck
squamous cell carcinoma were 94% [95% confidence interval
(CI), 87-97%] and 82% (95% CI, 76-86%) respectively.
Positive and negative predictive values were 75% (95% CI,
68-82%), and 95% (95% CI, 92-97%) respectively. Sensitivity
was greater for scans performed 10 weeks or more after
treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Positron emission tomography
is highly accurate in this role. However it is less sensitive early
after treatment and has poor anatomical detail. PET may reduce
the requirement for check endoscopies and planned neck
dissections. A protocol for its use in post-treatment surveillance
is proposed.
Clinical Significance of Postradiotherapy [(18)F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography
Imaging in Management of Head-and-Neck Cancer-A
Long-Term Outcome Report. Yao M, Smith RB, Hoffman
HT, Funk GF, Lu M, Menda Y, Graham MM, Buatti JM.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2008 Oct 16.
PURPOSE: To determine the accuracy and prognostic
significance of post-treatment [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose
positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in head-and-neck
squamous cell carcinoma after radiotherapy (RT). METHODS
AND MATERIALS: This was a retrospective study of 188
patients with head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma who
246
had undergone FDG-PET within 12 months after completing
RT. All living patients had >/=1 year of follow-up after FDGPET. All patients had undergone intensity-modulated RT, 128
with definitive and 60 with postoperative intensity-modulated
RT. RESULTS: For all patients, the median follow-up after
RT completion was 32.6 months and after FDG-PET was 29.2
months. For the neck, 171 patients had negative FDG-PET
findings. Of these results, two were falsely negative. Seventeen
patients had positive FDG-PET findings, of which 12 were
true-positive findings. The sensitivity, specificity, positive
predictive value, and negative predictive value for FDG-PET
in the assessment of the treatment response in the neck was
86%, 97%, 71%, and 99%, respectively. For the primary site,
151 patients had negative FDG-PET findings, of which two
were falsely negative. Thirty-seven patients had positive FDGPET findings, of which 12 were true-positive findings. The
sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative
predictive value for FDG-PET in the assessment of the
treatment response in the primary site was 86%, 86%, 32.4%,
and 98.7%, respectively. Patients with positive post-RT PET
findings had significantly worse 3-year overall survival and
disease-free survival. CONCLUSION: The results of our study
have shown that the findings of post-RT FDG-PET have a
high negative predictive value and are a significant prognostic
factor. It can provide guidance for the management of headand-neck cancer after definitive treatment.
Preoperative [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron emission
tomography standardized uptake value of neck lymph
nodes predicts neck cancer control and survival rates in
patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and
pathologically positive lymph nodes. Liao CT, Chang JT,
Wang HM, Ng SH, Hsueh C, Lee LY, Lin CH, Chen IH,
247
Huang SF, Cheng AJ, Yen TC. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol
Phys. 2008 Dec 18.
PURPOSE: Survival in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma
(OSCC) depends heavily on locoregional control. In this
prospective study, we sought to investigate whether
preoperative maximum standardized uptake value of the neck
lymph nodes (SUVnodal-max) may predict prognosis in OSCC
patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 120
OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes were
investigated. All subjects underwent a [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scan
within 2 weeks before radical surgery and neck dissection.
All patients were followed up for at least 24 months after
surgery or until death. Postoperative adjuvant therapy was
performed in the presence of pathologic risk factors. Optimal
cutoff values of SUVnodal-max were chosen based on 5-year
disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival (DSS),
and overall survival (OS). Independent prognosticators were
identified by Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: The median
follow-up for surviving patients was 41 months. The optimal
cutoff value for SUVnodal-max was 5.7. Multivariate analyses
identified the following independent predictors of poor
outcome: SUVnodal-max >/=5.7 for the 5-year neck cancer
control rate, distant metastatic rate, DFS, DSS, and
extracapsular spread (ECS) for the 5-year DSS and OS. Among
ECS patients, the presence of a SUVnodal-max >/=5.7
identified patients with the worst prognosis. CONCLUSION:
A SUVnodal-max of 5.7, either alone or in combination with
ECS, is an independent prognosticator for 5-year neck cancer
control.
(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission
tomography (PET) has been reported to identify primary
tumors in patients with cervical metastases from cancer
248
of unknown primary (CUP). Eur J Surg Oncol. 2007
Jun;33(5):633-8.
Utility of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission
tomography in the preoperative staging of squamous cell
carcinoma of the oropharynx.Kim MR, Roh JL, Kim JS, Lee
JH, Cho KJ, Choi SH, Nam SY, Kim SY.. However, few reports
have assessed the use of combined FDG-PET/computed
tomography (CT) in this setting. We therefore examined the
utility of combined FDG-PET/CT in the detection of primary
tumors and unrecognized metastases in these patients. Patients
with previously untreated CUPs underwent head and neck CT
and whole-body FDG-PET/CT before panendoscopy and
guided biopsy. The diagnostic accuracy of CT and FDG-PET/
CT in detecting primary tumors and cervical metastases was
compared with that of histopathology. The ability of FDGPET/CT to detect distant metastases was also tested. Of the
44 eligible patients, 16 had occult primary tumors in the head
and neck. FDG-PET/CT was significantly more sensitive than
CT for detecting primary tumors (87.5% vs. 43.7%, P=.016),
but their specificity did not differ (82.1% vs. 89.3%, P=.500).
Thirty-four of 44 patients underwent neck dissection; 67 of
182 dissected cervical levels had metastatic nodal diseases.
On a level-by-level basis, FDG-PET/CT was significantly more
sensitive than CT (94.0% vs. 71.6%, P<.001), but the two
methods were equally specific (94.8% vs. 96.5%). FDG-PET/
CT correctly detected distant metastases in 6 of 6 patients.
Combined FDG-PET/CT is a useful screening method for
primary tumor detection, accurate nodal staging, and distant
metastases in patients with CUPs.
Combined (18)F-FDG-PET/CT Imaging in Radiotherapy
Target Delineation for Head-and-Neck Cancer. Guido A,
Fuccio L, Rombi B, Castellucci P, Cecconi A, Bunkheila F,
249
Fuccio C, Spezi E, Angelini AL, Barbieri E. Int J Radiat
Oncol Biol Phys. 2008 Sep 30.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of the use of (18)Ffluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography
(PET)/computed tomography (CT) in radiotherapy target
delineation for head-and-neck cancer compared with CT alone.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 38 consecutive
patients with head-and-neck cancer were included in this study.
The primary tumor sites were as follow: 20 oropharyngeal
tumors, 4 laryngeal tumors, 2 hypopharyngeal tumors, 2
paranasal sinuses tumors, 9 nasopharyngeal tumors, and 1
parotid gland tumor. The FDG-PET and CT scans were
performed with a dedicated PET/CT scanner in one session
and then fused. Subsequently, patients underwent treatment
planning CT with intravenous contrast enhancement. The
radiation oncologist defined all gross tumor volumes (GTVs)
using both the PET/CT and CT scans. RESULTS: In 35 (92%)
of 38 cases, the CT-based GTVs were larger than the PET/
CT-based GTVs. The average total GTV from the CT and
PET/CT scans was 34.54 cm(3) (range, 3.56-109) and
29.38 cm(3) (range, 2.87-95.02), respectively (p < 0.05).
Separate analyses of the difference between the CT- and PET/
CT-based GTVs of the primary tumor compared with the GTVs
of nodal disease were not statistically significant. The
comparison between the PET/CT-based and CT-based boost
planning target volumes did not show a statistically significant
difference. All patients were alive at the end of the follow-up
period (range, 3-38 months). CONCLUSION: GTVs, but not
planning target volumes, were significantly changed by the
implementation of combined PET/CT. Large multicenter
studies are needed to ascertain whether combined PET/CT in
target delineation can influence the main clinical outcomes.
250
Section — VIII
Breast
Breast Cancer
IntroductIon
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers seen in
women. It presents as a painless lump in most of the case,
however with availability of screening methods, there has been
a rise in the detection of very small non palpable lesions.
Breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and sentinel lymph node
biopsy (SLNB) have successfully replaced the more aggressive
radical mastectomy (RM) and axillary lymph node dissection
(ALND). Multi modality approach is practiced world wide.
Neo - adjuvant chemotherapy has been considered to improve
the survival in patients with locally advanced breast carcinoma.
Adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery has been a long practiced
approach. Radiotherapy, local RT to the chest wall and axilla
after completion of chemotherapy is routine procedure. If
clinical imaging has shown internal mammary nodal
involvement then this region is also included. Supraclavicular
region is included in cases which has revealed superior group
of axillary nodal metastases.
Conventional Imaging /Staging
Mammography for suspicious malignant lesions (Irregular
speculated mass, Clustered calcifications, Calcifications,
253
Smaller than 0.5 mm in diameter, Architectural distortion and
Focal asymmetric density). CT scan of the brain, chest,
abdomen, and pelvis and Isotope bone scan is performed if
any of the following conditions are present - Advanced local
disease, Lymph node metastases, Distant metastases, Bony
symptoms.
Evidence of PET or PET/CT in breast
carcinoma.
Diagnosis: There are no large studies which evaluate the role
in diagnosing breast carcinoma.
A prospective comparative study evaluating 45 patients with
55 lesions suggests a MRI scan to have a higher sensitivity of
98% as compared to the FDG PET scan with a 80 % sensitivity
when a dual point study is done and 62% when a single point
study is done. This study reveals that there is an increase in
the tracer uptake ove

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