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ICHMET
18th International
Conference
HeavyMetals
Metals
inEnvironment
the Environment
18th International
Conferenceon
on Heavy
in the
12 to 15 September 2016, Ghent, Belgium
2016
TRENDS IN FOREST SOIL HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS AT
SWEDISH ICP IM SITES. RESPONSES TO REDUCTIONS IN
ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION
Staffan Åkerblom
L. Lundin
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment,
Uppsala, Sweden
[email protected]
Keywords: ICP IM; trends; deposition; soil; stream, Hg, Pb, Cd
Introduction
Long-range atmospheric transport of heavy metals has increased the exposure to forest ecosystems but
atmospheric deposition of heavy metals shows decreasing trends over the last decades. Metals in soil and
stream water are to a large degree dependent on long-term and long-range atmospheric transport, and the
main priority has been on mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) within the Convention on LongRange Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) (UNECE 2003). Evaluations of temporal trends of heavy
metals have been included within the ICP IM to support the CLRTAP in subprogrammes for precipitation
chemistry (PC), throughfall (TF), litterfall (LF), runoff water (RW) and soil chemistry (SC) (Lundin et al.
2001). Catchment budgets show an ongoing accumulation of heavy metals and the release (RW) seldom
exceeds input (PC + TF + LF) (Ukonmaanaho et al. 2001, Grigal 2002, Bringmark et al. 2013). In this
study long term trends in heavy metal SC were evaluated across Swedish IM sites between 1994 and
2011.
Methods
Data reported to the ICP IM Programme Centre at the Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE, Helsinki,
Finland) were used for the evaluation of temporal trends. Within soil profiles were 6 samples from soil
plots (50 * 50 m) at different depths (F+H horizons, 0 – 5 cm, and 5 – 20 cm) taken every 5 to 10 years.
At Swedish ICP IM sites (Aneboda, Gårdsjön, Kindla and Gammtratten) soil samples have been collected
with regular intervals over the last decades and for the sites metal concentrations at different soil horizons
were tested for temporal trends in more detail.
Results
Within Swedish IM sites Pb and Cd concentrations in the forest floor (F+H-horizons) decreased but
accumulated in deeper mineral soil layers (Fig. 1). Mercury concentrations in the forest floor on the other
hand increased at all Swedish IM sites.
- 198 th th
Proceedings
the
Environment,
1212
toto
1515
September
2016,
Ghent,
Belgium
Abstract
Bookofofthe
the1818 International
InternationalConference
ConferenceononHeavy
HeavyMetals
Metalsinin
the
Environment,
September
2016,
Ghent,
Belgium
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
1 ––
––219
18th International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment
Figure 1. Soil metal concentrations at the four ICP IM sites in Sweden (Aneboda (solid line), Gammtratten (dotted
line), Gårdsjön (dashed line), Kindla (dotdashed line)).
Conclusion




As a response to changes atmospheric deposition did Pb and Cd concentrations decrease in the
forest floor at Swedish IM sites
Both Cd and Pb have accumulated in deeper mineral soil layers between 1994 and 2011
Despite reductions in Hg emissions to the atmosphere and atmospheric deposition, Hg
concentrations in the forest floor increased at all Swedish IM sites
Large exceedances were found in deposition compared to runoff for all metals indicating an
ongoing accumulation of heavy metals in the catchment despite the efforts to decrease
anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere
References
Bringmark, L., Lundin, L., Augustaitis, A., Beudert, B., Dieffenbach-Fries, H., Dirnböck, T., Grabner, M-T.,
Hutchins, M., Kram, P., Lyulko, I., Ruoho-Airola, T. & Vana, M. 2013. Trace Metal Budgets for Forested
Catchments in Europe – Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu and Zn. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 224: 1502, 14p.
Grigal, D.F. 2002. Inputs and outputs of mercury from terrestrial watersheds: A review. Environmental Reviews 10:
1–39.
Lundin, L., Aastrup, M., Bringmark, L., Brakenhielm, S., Hultberg, H., Johansson, K., et al. 2001. Impacts from
deposition on Swedish forest ecosystems identified by integrated monitoring. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution
130: 1031–1036.
Ukonmaanaho, L., Starr, M., Mannio, J., Ruoho-Airola, T. (2001). Heavy metal budgets for two headwater forested
catchments in background areas of Finland. Environmental Pollution 114: 63–75.
UNECE (2003). Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution on Heavy Metals – The 1998 Aarhus
protocol on heavy metals. United Nations - Economic Commision for Europe, 33 p.
- 199 th th
Proceedings
the
Environment,
1212
toto
1515
September
2016,
Ghent,
Belgium
Abstract
Bookofofthe
the1818 International
InternationalConference
ConferenceononHeavy
HeavyMetals
Metalsinin
the
Environment,
September
2016,
Ghent,
Belgium
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
2 ––
––220
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