How will the Affordable Care Act affect the use of health care services?

Document technical information

Format pdf
Size 791.1 kB
First found Mar 3, 2016

Document content analysis

Language
English
Type
not defined
Concepts
no text concepts found

Persons

Richard Frank Jolly
Richard Frank Jolly

wikipedia, lookup

C. Carroll Marsh
C. Carroll Marsh

wikipedia, lookup

D. M. Smith
D. M. Smith

wikipedia, lookup

Organizations

Places

Transcript

The
COMMONWEALTH
FUND
Issue Brief
February 2015
How Will the Affordable Care Act Affect the Use
of Health Care Services?
Sherry Glied and Stephanie Ma
The mission of The Commonwealth
Fund is to promote a high
performance health care system.
The Fund carries out this mandate by
supporting independent research on
health care issues and making grants
to improve health care practice and
policy. Support for this research was
provided by The Commonwealth
Fund. The views presented here
are those of the authors and
not necessarily those of The
Commonwealth Fund or its directors,
officers, or staff.
Abstract In January 2014, the Affordable Care Act extended access to health insurance coverage to an estimated 30 million previously uninsured people. This issue brief provides state-level
estimates of the increased demand for physician and hospital services that is expected to result
from expanded access and assesses the sufficiency of the existing supply of providers to accommodate the anticipated increase in demand. We project that primary care providers will see, on
average, 1.34 additional office visits per week, accounting for a 3.8 percent increase in visits
nationally. Hospital outpatient departments will see, on average, 1.2 to 11.0 additional visits per
week, or an average increase of about 2.6 percent nationally. Increases of the magnitude likely
to be generated by the Affordable Care Act will have modest effects on the demand for health
services, and the existing supply of providers should be sufficient to accommodate this increased
demand.
OVERVIEW
For more information about this brief,
please contact:
Sherry Glied, Ph.D.
Dean
Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of
Public Service
New York University
[email protected]
To learn more about new publications
when they become available, visit the
Fund’s website and register to receive
email alerts.
Commonwealth Fund pub. 1804
Vol. 4
Since January 2014, some 11 million formerly uninsured Americans have gained
health insurance coverage under the Affordable Care Act (ACA).1 In addition to
providing financial protection against high health care costs, the law should improve
access to care, though this will depend partly on the availability of health services. This
issue brief examines the expected new demand for health services in each state as a
result of the ACA’s coverage expansion and draws inferences about the capacity of the
health care workforce to meet the new demand.
Most analysts anticipate that the insurance expansions will not lead, in the
aggregate, to substantial strains on the health care delivery system. The Centers for
Medicare and Medicaid Services’ Office of the Actuary projects an increase of about
2.1 percent in aggregate health spending, with larger increases in prescription drug
spending and smaller increases in inpatient care spending.2 Studies of the impact on
use of certain services, mainly primary care, indicate that the coverage expansions
are likely to lead to between 15 million and 26 million additional primary care visits
annually and these studies project that between 4,300 and 7,200 additional primary
care physicians will be needed to meet these new demands.3,4,5 The health law’s effects
on demand will likely vary substantially by state, as the number of people gaining
health coverage and the supply of physicians both vary by state.
Most earlier analyses assumed that the primary care physician supply is currently fully utilized, so that new demand would require new resources to maintain
2
The Commonwealth Fund
access to care. But newer research demonstrates that the intensity of health service use varies considerably across the
United States. The Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care shows, for example, that only 60 percent of Medicare beneficiaries in
the Bronx, N.Y., saw a primary care physician in the preceding year, compared with about 90 percent of beneficiaries in
Florence, S.C.6 Moreover, provider supply is not correlated with consumers’ access to care, as evidenced by the large and
persistent variations in waiting times for physician appointments among U.S. cities.7
Part of the reason for this disconnect between supply and access is that differences in how health care systems are
organized across localities and regions substantially mediate variations in physician supply. For example, compared with a
solo practitioner, a physician working in a group practice can see 12.2 percent more patients, in part by utilizing nonphysician health professionals on staff or electronic health record–enabled communication.8,9 Patient-centered medical homes
and nurse-managed health centers also can offer expanded access to care, holding physician supply constant.10
Our study, which draws from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and findings from previously published
studies, provides new estimates of the ACA’s likely impact on utilization of health services, including primary care, medical and surgical specialty services, pharmaceuticals, and inpatient and outpatient hospital services. We then compare these
demand estimates with measures of supply and compute the likely rates of new patient visits per provider. Finally, we
assess the relationship between the supply of physicians and access to care. (For more about the study’s design, see the box
on the opposite page and “Appendix. Study Methodology in Detail” on page 7.)
FINDINGS
Impact on Utilization Will Be Nominal
Our analysis indicates that the ACA is expected to result in roughly 20.3 million additional primary care visits nationally,
with people newly insured through the marketplaces accounting for more than a third of these visits, or about 3.8 percent
above base (Table A). Emergency room visits by the newly insured are predicted to increase by 1.1 million, with those
gaining Medicaid coverage accounting for more than two-thirds of these visits (Table C).
Overall, our projected increases in health care utilization are small. Only 17 states are expected to experience
increases in primary care visits that exceed 4 percent, and only seven states are expected to see increases of greater than
5 percent; the U.S. average is expected to be 3.8 percent (Table A). The ACA’s impact on medical and surgical specialty
services is projected to be even more modest, with increases in medical and surgical specialty use projected to range from
less than one-half of 1 percent in Massachusetts to just under 2 percent in New Mexico (Table B). Projected increases in
outpatient service use are similar to those for primary care services. With the exception of six states, the vast majority of
the country is expected to experience increases in outpatient care utilization of no more than 4 percent (Table C).
The ACA is also expected to bring about very modest increases in prescription drug use. In all but two states
(New Mexico and Oregon) increases in prescription drug use are expected to be below 2.5 percent. Increases in inpatient
service use will likely vary considerably across states, with the West experiencing a 4 percent average increase, compared
with a 3.4 percent increase in the South and a 2 percent increase in the Northeast (Table C).
How Will the Affordable Care Act Affect the Use of Health Care Services?
3
HOW WE DESIGNED THIS STUDY
Our findings on the impact of the ACA expansion on health care use and resource supply are best understood in
light of how we structured our study. We conducted separate analyses for the newly insured who gained coverage
under the ACA’s Medicaid expansion and those who gained coverage in the ACA’s health insurance marketplaces,
as these populations differ demographically and in their use of care. (We assumed that all states participate in
the Medicaid expansion, even though several states have not moved forward with this expansion. Therefore, our
estimates incorporate a larger increase in service utilization than is currently likely.) Our projections are based on
analyses of the experience of previously uninsured people who obtained coverage at some point between 2006
and 2010.
We also account for the likely difference in utilization between people who moved from uninsurance
to insurance in the past and those who gain eligibility under the ACA. Many people who formerly gained access
to Medicaid did so because they were already ill and had been admitted to a hospital that then enrolled them
in coverage; many women gained coverage because of pregnancy. The population gaining coverage under the
Affordable Care Act is likely to be relatively healthier and to use less inpatient care than previously. To account for
this potential bias, we calibrated our estimates against the estimates of Finkelstein et al. from the Oregon Medicaid
experiment.11 It is less clear how the marketplace population differs from those who gained coverage in the past.
Historically, some people who gained access to group insurance may have done so in anticipation of future health
needs, resulting in a less healthy population of newly insured individuals compared with those enrolled under the
ACA because of the mandate to enroll and subsidies provided. At the same time, some of those who will be eligible
under the ACA for nongroup coverage would have been denied such coverage in the prior unregulated market,
making the new nongroup risk pool sicker than in the past.
Additionally, our projections of increased visits are aggregated by type of services and settings: primary
care, including internal medicine, family practice, and pediatric care (Table A); specialty care, including ob/gyn,
psychiatric, medical specialty, and surgical services (Table B); and other services (emergency room, outpatient,
inpatient, and prescription drugs) (Table C).
Projected Additional Visits per Doctor Will Vary Across States
Exhibit 1 illustrates how the ACA will affect the average number of primary care visits per primary care physician (including doctors in community health centers) across the states. The map on the left shows these ratios in 2010 before ACA’s
implementation, while the map on the right, which combines pre-ACA figures with figures for the projected visit increase,
shows the ratios following ACA implementation.
Baseline visit rates vary substantially across regions. States in the Northeast (including Maine, Massachusetts,
New York, and Vermont) have the fewest visits per primary care doctor, with doctors averaging around 1,500 visits annually. Colorado and California, with about 1,800 visits a year, also have relatively low visit-per-doctor ratios. States in
the South and Midwest and in the West and Southwest have higher visit-per-doctor ratios. Utah’s visit-per-doctor ratio
prior to ACA implementation was the highest, at 2,488; this is projected to rise to nearly 2,600, once the law is fully
implemented.
A comparison of states pre- and post-ACA suggests that only a few will see noticeable increases in visits after the
ACA expansions take full effect. The law’s impact on primary care visits is projected to vary substantially by region, with
states in the Northeast expected to experience the smallest rise. Seven states are projected to experience increases in primary care visits per doctor per year that exceed 100, or between 2.1 and 2.7 additional visits per week.
Table D details, by physician and service type, the anticipated number of new visits per provider per week across
types of providers. On average, the expansion forecast is for roughly 70 additional visits annually for a primary care physician, or 1.34 visits a week.
Most specialties will see much smaller weekly increases in use by comparison. Some new utilization is expected
to occur in hospital outpatient departments. The largest increases are expected in the South and West, where these
regions’ outpatient departments are expected to see growth of about 5.7 and 7.3 visits a week per outpatient department,
respectively.
4
The Commonwealth Fund
Exhibit 1. Visits per Primary Care Physician, Pre- and Post-Affordable Care Act
Post-ACA Visits
(estimated)
Pre-ACA Visits
600–1,600
1,600–1,800
1,800–1,980
1,980–2,160
>2,160
Notes: Ratios calculated by dividing the number of visits (pre-ACA and estimated post-ACA from MEPS) by the supply of doctors in each
state (denominator reflects number of total primary care physicians, not full-time equivalents).
Source: Physician supply data from AHRQ, “The Number of Practicing Primary Care Physicians in the United States,” and primary care
visit data calculated from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).
Physician Supply Does Not Predict Primary Care Access
Increases in visits per provider, such as those projected above, may not lead to worse access to care. As Exhibit 1 shows,
rates of primary care visits per physician varied considerably before implementation of the ACA. Across states, however,
high rates of primary care visits per physician did not always reflect low physician supply, since utilization rates depend on
both the supply of doctors and the rate at which people use their services (Exhibit 2). Visits per doctor are lowest in the
Northeast, both because this region has the highest supply of primary care doctors (though many may be part-time) and
because insured residents of these states make the fewest visits to primary care doctors annually.
The high ratios of visits per primary care doctor observed in Midwestern states, such as Indiana, by contrast,
occur both because people in this region use more primary care and because primary care supply is relatively low.
Visits per primary care physician, in turn, do not translate directly into variations in access to care, because of
differences in utilization patterns and in the organization of medical practice. Paradoxically, delays in gaining access to
primary care are systematically greater, not fewer, in areas with more primary care doctors. The delay between seeking care
and getting an appointment is generally shorter in the South than in the Northeast or West, and substantially shorter in
Indiana than in New York (Exhibit 3). These results, drawn from a large dataset in 2003, are consistent with a more recent
study examining waiting times and physician supply in 2012.12
How Will the Affordable Care Act Affect the Use of Health Care Services?
5
Exhibit 2. Regional Variation Pre-Affordable Care Act in the
Ratio of Baseline Visits per Primary Care Physician and the
Per Capita Supply of Primary Care Physicians, 2010
Supply of primary care physicians per
100,000 full-year insured population
145
140
135
Northeast
Midwest
130
South
West
125
120
115
215,000
225,000
235,000
245,000
255,000
Baseline visits per 100,000 full-year insured population
Source: 2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS); AHRQ “Number of Practicing Primary Care Physicians in the United States.”
Primary care physicians per 100,000 population
Exhibit 3. Variation in Mean Appointment Lag Times and the
Supply of Primary Care Physicians per 100,000 Population, 2003
180
New York, N.Y.
150
120
90
Terre Haute, Ind.
60
30
0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
Mean appointment lag times (days)
Notes: Analysis at the county level. Wait-time data are truncated at 21 days.
Source: The 2003 Community Tracking Study’s Household Survey, Physicians Characteristics and Distribution in the United States.
6
The Commonwealth Fund
POLICY IMPLICATIONS
One of the principal reasons for extending health insurance coverage is to increase people’s access to needed health services. Although analysts have expressed concern that greater access to care will strain the service delivery system, our projections suggest that increased use of health services by the newly insured will be relatively modest for most services. The
greatest increases will be in primary care, followed by inpatient and outpatient care.
The U.S. health system is likely to be able to absorb these increases. Use of primary, emergency, inpatient, and
outpatient care varies substantially across the country, and these variations do not appear to be correlated with delays in
access to care. The variation in use patterns supports the idea that anticipated increases in doctor’s visits by the newly
insured can be accommodated through organizational changes and changes in practice patterns.13 Plausible structural
changes, some of which have already occurred, include physician pooling and greater use of nonphysician health professionals, such as nurses and physician assistants, as part of a team-based approach.14 In addition, technological advances are
also likely to play an important role in improving the efficiency of health care delivery. Notably, the use of telemedicine—
the exchange of medical information via electronic communication—has already shown promising results in managing
common chronic illnesses at home and reducing time spent at physician offices to manage these diseases.15
It is critical that the expansion of health insurance coverage leads to improved access to care for those who were
previously uninsured and does not limit access for those who already have coverage. Our results suggest that the current
supply of primary care physicians and physicians in most specialties is sufficient to ensure this result will hold.
How Will the Affordable Care Act Affect the Use of Health Care Services?
7
APPENDIX. STUDY METHODOLOGY IN DETAIL
Overview
We used the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) to estimate current utilization rates of specific health services at
the national and regional level. We allocated this utilization to states within each region.
Next, we used MEPS to project additional use of health services under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) by income
eligibility group. Projected increases in service utilization were calculated by taking the number of projected additional visits and dividing it by the baseline current utilization rates. We then estimated the current supply of specific health service
resources such as physicians and hospital beds by state. We combined these sources to calculate the number of current and
additional visits per provider.
Current Annual Health Service Utilization
The 2010 MEPS data were used to estimate the total number of medically related visits made by the entire population in
2010 by geographic region for the following provider or service categories: internal medicine, family practice, pediatrics,
all primary care, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatric, medical specialties, surgical specialties, emergency room, outpatient services, and prescription drugs. The MEPS data include both visits to clinics and community health centers in their
office-based visit calculation; thus, these types of visits are included in our estimates of increases in office visit demand.
We allocated regional health services to each state according to that state’s population (from the U.S. Census
Bureau) as a proportion of the region’s total population.
Projected Health Service Utilization
To determine utilization patterns of individuals who will gain insurance under the ACA, we combined yearly data from
MEPS for 2006 to 2010. We selected a sample of individuals who were uninsured for the first year they were in the
sample. We divided this sample according to income eligibility for Medicaid or the health care marketplaces. We then
examined the service use of these populations in the second year of the sample, when some of them had gained insurance. For each of these subsamples, we ran negative binomial regression to predict utilization patterns for each category
of service or provider. To predict utilization patterns of the newly insured, we turned to two reports released by the
PricewaterhouseCoopers Health Research Institute, Medicaid Expansion: New Patients, New Challenges16 and Health
Insurance Exchanges: Long on Options, Short on Time,17 which report the predicted demographic makeup of the newly
insured Medicaid and marketplace-eligible populations. Results from the regression were then multiplied by each state’s
projected newly insured Medicaid and marketplace-eligible population size to obtain projected additional visits under the
ACA by state. Projected expansions in insurance coverage by state were taken from the reports Health Reform Across the
States: Increase Insurance Coverage and Federal Spending on the Exchanges and Medicaid 18 and A Profile of Health Insurance
Exchange Enrollees.19 All regression analyses were conducted using STATA (version 12).
Number of Primary Care Physicians
The 2010 supply of primary care, internal medicine, family practice, general practice, and pediatric physicians were
obtained from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) publication, The Number of Practicing
Primary Care Physicians in the United States.20 The supply of active primary care physicians by state were taken from the
Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) publication, 2011 State Physician Workforce Data Book.21 We calculated the number of active primary care physicians in each state as a proportion of the nation’s total supply of active
primary care physicians. State-level estimates of physician supply were computed for each primary care category by taking each state’s calculated proportion and multiplying this by the nation’s total supply of physicians reported by AHRQ.
Our supply estimates for primary care providers include physician assistants and nurse practitioners. The number of
physician assistants and nurse practitioners working in primary care was obtained from AHRQ’s “The Number of Nurse
8
The Commonwealth Fund
Practitioners and Physician Assistants Practicing Primary Care in the United States,”22 and is included to supplement
our primary care visits to clinics and community health centers. Likewise, psychologists were included with physicians in
our supply estimates of mental health. Using AAMC’s 2012 Physician Specialty Data Book,23 the supply of medical and
surgical specialty physicians, as well as the supply of physicians specializing in psychiatry and obstetrics/gynecology, was
obtained at the national level and state level estimates were calculated using similar methods described above. It is important to note that all physician supply estimates indicate the number of all physicians, both full-time and part-time, and do
not report the number of full-time-equivalent physicians.
Last, the existing supply for inpatient, outpatient, and emergency room services were calculated using data from
the 2010 Area Resource File.24 Inpatient values reflect the supply of inpatient beds in each state; emergency room and
outpatient estimates reflect the number of hospitals with emergency departments or outpatient services in each state.
Number of Visits per Physician
We first took the current number of visits for each service category and divided the number of these visits by the current
supply in each state. The same method was repeated using projected additional visits and total visits (current visits + projected additional visits) to obtain state averages of the number of visits per doctor annually.
Wait Times and Physicians per 100,000 People
We compared the average appointment wait times for primary care visits to the ratio of the local supply of primary care
physicians per 100,000 people in 2003 and 2012 at the county, city, and state levels. Select wait-time data were obtained
from three data sources: the 2003 Community Tracking Study (CTS) Household Survey,25 the 2013 Merritt Hawkins
Physician Appointment Wait Times Study,26 and a 2012 simulated patient study conducted by Rhodes et al.27 The
2003 county data from the CTS were supplemented by physician supply data from the Physicians Characteristics and
Distribution in the U.S. and population data from the U.S. Census Bureau. The CTS data capture wait-time data for sick
visits to primary care physicians by adult insured patients. The 2013 mean wait-time data for primary care conducted at
the city level were supplemented with 2011 county physician supply data and population counts from the Area Resource
File. The 2012 median wait-time data for primary care conducted at the state level were supplemented with 2012 supply
figures of primary care physicians from AAMC’s State Physician Workforce Data Book. All physician supply ratios were calculated by taking the supply of physicians at the city or county level and dividing by the population per 100,000 people.
How Will the Affordable Care Act Affect the Use of Health Care Services?
9
Notes
1
R. Garfield and K. Young, Adults Who Remained Uninsured at the End of 2014 (Menlo Park, Calif.: Henry J. Kaiser
Family Foundation, 2015).
2
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, National Health Expenditure Projections 2011–2021 (Washington, D.C.:
CMS).
3
A. R. Levy, B. K. Bruen, and L. Ku, “Health Care Reform and Women’s Insurance Coverage for Breast and Cervical
Cancer Screening,” Preventing Chronic Disease, 2012 9:e159; and A. N. Hofer, J. M. Abraham, and I. Moscovice,
“Expansion of Coverage Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and Primary Care Utilization,” Milbank
Quarterly, March 2011 89(1):69–89.
4
E. S. Huang and K. Finegold, “Seven Million Americans Live in Areas Where Demand for Primary Care May Exceed
Supply by More Than 10 Percent,” Health Affairs, March 2013 32(3):614–21.
5
S. M. Petterson, W. R. Liaw, R. L. Phillips, Jr. et al., “Projecting U.S. Primary Care Physician Workforce Needs: 2010–
2025,” Annals of Family Medicine, Nov./Dec. 2012 10(6):503–9.
6
D. C. Goodman, S. Brownlee, C.-H. Chang et al., Regional and Racial Variation in Primary Care and the Quality of
Care Among Medicare Beneficiaries (Lebanon, N.H.: The Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care, 2010).
7
D. Ly and S. Glied, “Variations in the Service Quality of Medical Practices,” American Journal of Managed Care, Nov.
18, 2013 19(11):e378–e385.
8
L. V. Green, S. Savin, and Y. Lu, “Primary Care Physician Shortages Could Be Eliminated Through Use of Teams,
Nonphysicians, and Electronic Communication,” Health Affairs, Jan. 2013 32(1):11–19.
9
T. S. Bodenheimer and M. D. Smith, “Primary Care: Proposed Solutions to the Physician Shortage Without Training
More Physicians,” Health Affairs, Nov. 2013 32(11):1881–86.
10
D. I. Auerbach, P. G. Chen, M. W. Friedberg et al., “Nurse-Managed Health Centers and Patient-Centered Medical
Homes Could Mitigate Expected Primary Care Physician Shortage,” Health Affairs, Nov. 2013 32(11):1933–41.
11
K. Baicker, S. L. Taubman, H. L. Allen et al., “The Oregon Experiment—Effects of Medicaid on Clinical Outcomes,”
New England Journal of Medicine, 2013 368(18):1713–22.
12
Mean wait-time data at the city level obtained from the 2013 Merritt Hawkins Physician Appointment Wait Times
Study and the 2011 Area Resource File; median wait-time data at the state level obtained from the 2012 AMA
Simulated Patient Study and the 2013 AAMC State Physician Workforce Data.
13
P. G. Chen, A. Mehrotra, and D. I. Auerbach, “Do We Really Need More Physicians? Responses to Predicted Primary
Care Physician Shortages,” Medical Care, Feb. 2014 52(2):95–96.
14
Auerbach, Chen, Friedberg et al., “Nurse-Managed Health Centers,” 2013.
15
Bodenheimer and Smith, “Primary Care: Proposed Solutions,” 2013.
16
PricewaterhouseCoopers Health Research Institute, Medicaid Expansion: New Patients, New Challenges (Washington,
D.C.: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Oct. 2012).
17
PricewaterhouseCoopers Health Research Institute, Health Insurance Exchanges: Long on Options, Short on Time
(Washington, D.C.: PricewaterhouseCoopers, Oct. 2012).
18
M. Buettgens, J. Holahan, and C. Carroll, Health Reform Across the States: Increase Insurance Coverage and Federal
Spending on the Exchanges and Medicaid (Princeton, N.J., and Washington, D.C.: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
and Urban Institute, March 2011).
19
E. Trish, A. Damico, G. Claxton et al., A Profile of Health Insurance Exchange Enrollees (Menlo Park, Calif.: Henry J.
Kaiser Family Foundation, March 2011).
10
The Commonwealth Fund
20
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, The Number of Practicing Primary Care Physicians in the United States
(Washington, D.C.: AHRQ, 2011).
21
Association of American Medical Colleges, 2011 State Physician Workforce Data Book (Washington, D.C.: AAMC,
Nov. 2011).
22
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, “The Number of Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants Practicing
Primary Care in the United States,” Primary Care Workforce Facts and Stats #2 (Washington, D.C.: AHRQ, 2011).
23
Association of American Medical Colleges, 2012 Physician Specialty Data Book (Washington, D.C.: AAMC, Nov.
2012).
24
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Area Resource File
(Washington, D.C.: HRSA, 2010).
25
http://www.hschange.com/index.cgi?data=02.
26
Merritt Hawkins, Physician Appointment Wait Times and Medicaid and Medicare Acceptance Rates (Irving, Texas: Merritt
Hawkins, 2014).
27
K. V. Rhodes, G. M. Kenney, A. B. Friedman et al., “Primary Care Access for New Patients on the Eve of Health Care
Reform,” JAMA Internal Medicine, June 2014 174(6):861–69.
How Will the Affordable Care Act Affect the Use of Health Care Services?
11
Table A. Projected Number of Additional Primary Care Services Visits by the Newly Insured,
by Insurance Coverage and Type of Doctor/Service
All Primary Care
Newly insured visits
Internal Medicine
%
Newly insured visits
Family Practice
%
Pediatrics
%
%
Medicaid*
Exchange*
Total
Medicaid
Exchange
Medicaid
Exchange
Total
Increase
from base
1,704,794
801,581
2,506,375
2.59
11,378
49,984
61,362
0.43
407,066
547,920
954,986
2.03
5,660
3,288
8,947
0.04
CT
123,878
50,458
174,335
2.79
827
3,146
3,973
0.44
29,579
34,490
64,070
2.11
411
207
618
0.05
ME
37,079
20,101
57,180
2.46
247
1,253
1,501
0.44
8,854
13,740
22,594
2.00
123
82
206
0.04
MA
80,900
60,713
141,613
1.24
540
3,786
4,326
0.26
19,317
41,501
60,818
1.09
269
249
518
0.02
NH
42,135
19,486
61,621
2.67
281
1,215
1,496
0.44
10,061
13,319
23,380
2.09
140
80
220
0.04
Northeast
Total
Total
Increase
from base
Newly insured visits
Increase
from base
State
Increase
from base
Newly insured visits
Medicaid
Exchange
NJ
347,195
122,452
469,647
3.05
2,317
7,636
9,953
0.44
82,902
83,702
166,604
2.23
1,153
502
1,655
0.05
NY
478,657
290,235
768,891
2.27
3,195
18,098
21,293
0.43
114,292
198,390
312,682
1.90
1,589
1,190
2,780
0.04
PA
546,916
211,266
758,182
3.41
3,650
13,174
16,824
0.52
130,591
144,411
275,002
2.55
1,816
867
2,682
0.06
RI
38,764
17,024
55,789
3.03
259
1,062
1,320
0.49
9,256
11,637
20,893
2.34
129
70
199
0.05
VT
9,270
9,845
19,115
1.75
62
614
676
0.42
2,213
6,730
8,943
1.68
31
40
71
0.03
Midwest
4,661,820
2,190,914
6,852,734
5.19
19,899
67,852
87,751
0.73
711,912
743,786
1,455,699
1.97
9,898
4,463
14,361
0.09
IL
868,327
395,232
1,263,558
4.99
3,706
12,240
15,947
0.69
132,603
134,176
266,779
1.88
1,844
805
2,649
0.09
IN
552,092
167,674
719,766
5.62
2,357
5,193
7,549
0.65
84,311
56,923
141,234
1.97
1,172
342
1,514
0.10
IA
135,717
104,074
239,791
3.99
579
3,223
3,802
0.69
20,726
35,332
56,057
1.67
288
212
500
0.07
KS
204,235
102,422
306,656
5.45
872
3,172
4,044
0.79
31,189
34,771
65,960
2.09
434
209
642
0.09
MI
623,245
327,088
950,333
4.87
2,660
10,130
12,790
0.72
95,177
111,042
206,219
1.89
1,323
666
1,990
0.08
MN
209,505
175,934
385,439
3.68
894
5,449
6,343
0.66
31,994
59,727
91,721
1.57
445
358
803
0.06
MO
523,104
218,059
741,163
6.27
2,233
6,753
8,986
0.83
79,884
74,028
153,912
2.33
1,111
444
1,555
0.11
NE
118,588
71,860
190,448
5.28
506
2,225
2,732
0.83
18,110
24,396
42,505
2.11
252
146
398
0.09
ND
39,529
31,387
70,917
5.34
169
972
1,141
0.94
6,037
10,656
16,692
2.25
84
64
148
0.09
OH
943,432
388,624
1,332,056
5.85
4,027
12,036
16,063
0.77
144,073
131,933
276,005
2.17
2,003
792
2,795
0.10
SD
63,247
33,865
97,112
6.04
270
1,049
1,319
0.90
9,659
11,497
21,155
2.35
134
69
203
0.10
WI
380,799
174,695
555,494
4.95
1,625
5,410
7,036
0.69
58,152
59,307
117,459
1.87
809
356
1,164
0.08
4,357,881 2,648,348
South
7,006,229
3.81
43,471
105,302
148,773
0.64
1,555,221
1,154,306
2,709,527
2.68
21,623
6,927
28,549
0.09
AL
161,257
88,461
249,717
3.25
1,609
3,517
5,126
0.53
57,549
38,556
96,105
2.28
800
231
1,031
0.08
AR
124,608
69,482
194,089
4.15
1,243
2,763
4,006
0.67
44,469
30,284
74,754
2.91
618
182
800
0.10
DE
15,224
19,622
34,846
2.42
152
780
932
0.51
5,433
8,552
13,985
1.77
76
51
127
0.05
DC
11,841
15,762
27,603
2.86
118
627
745
0.61
4,226
6,870
11,096
2.09
59
41
100
0.06
FL
761,177
487,659
1,248,836
4.14
7,593
19,390
26,983
0.70
271,646
212,550
484,196
2.92
3,777
1,275
5,052
0.09
GA
405,961
202,655
608,616
3.91
4,050
8,058
12,107
0.61
144,878
88,329
233,207
2.73
2,014
530
2,544
0.09
KY
173,097
98,432
271,530
3.90
1,727
3,914
5,640
0.64
61,774
42,903
104,677
2.74
859
257
1,116
0.09
LA
219,896
101,971
321,867
4.42
2,194
4,054
6,248
0.68
78,475
44,445
122,920
3.08
1,091
267
1,358
0.11
MD
123,480
130,278
253,758
2.74
1,232
5,180
6,412
0.55
44,067
56,783
100,850
1.98
613
341
953
0.06
MS
128,554
65,300
193,854
4.07
1,282
2,596
3,879
0.64
45,878
28,462
74,339
2.84
638
171
809
0.10
NC
333,790
205,872
539,662
3.52
3,330
8,186
11,515
0.59
119,122
89,731
208,853
2.49
1,656
538
2,195
0.08
OK
103,746
83,314
187,059
3.11
1,035
3,313
4,348
0.57
37,024
36,313
73,337
2.22
515
218
733
0.07
SC
182,119
99,397
281,516
3.79
1,817
3,952
5,769
0.61
64,994
43,323
108,317
2.66
904
260
1,164
0.09
0.08
TN
211,438
137,355
348,793
3.42
2,109
5,461
7,571
0.59
75,457
59,867
135,325
2.42
1,049
359
1,408
TX
1,155,298
637,238
1,792,536
4.44
11,524
25,337
36,862
0.72
412,298
277,746
690,043
3.11
5,732
1,667
7,399
0.10
VA
175,353
175,634
350,987
2.73
1,749
6,983
8,733
0.54
62,579
76,552
139,131
1.97
870
459
1,329
0.06
WV
71,043
29,916
100,959
3.39
709
1,189
1,898
0.50
25,354
13,039
38,393
2.35
352
78
431
0.08
West
2,272,203
1,643,705
3,915,908
3.17
21,885
81,717
103,601
0.79
782,943
895,768
1,678,711
2.56
10,885
5,375
16,261
0.08
0.09
AK
24,526
15,694
40,220
3.30
236
780
1,016
0.79
8,451
8,552
17,004
2.63
117
51
169
AZ
136,648
129,407
266,055
2.45
1,316
6,433
7,750
0.67
47,085
70,523
117,608
2.04
655
423
1,078
0.06
CA
1,253,186
883,726
2,136,912
3.34
12,070
43,934
56,004
0.82
431,816
481,603
913,419
2.69
6,004
2,890
8,894
0.09
CO
140,151
124,005
264,156
3.06
1,350
6,165
7,515
0.82
48,293
67,579
115,871
2.53
671
406
1,077
0.08
HI
31,534
16,465
47,999
2.06
304
819
1,122
0.45
10,866
8,973
19,839
1.60
151
54
205
0.06
ID
54,893
43,736
98,629
3.66
529
2,174
2,703
0.95
18,915
23,835
42,749
2.99
263
143
406
0.10
MT
35,622
28,557
64,179
3.78
343
1,420
1,763
0.98
12,274
15,563
27,837
3.09
171
93
264
0.10
NV
84,675
50,940
135,614
2.92
816
2,532
3,348
0.68
29,177
27,761
56,937
2.31
406
167
572
0.08
NM
107,449
45,537
152,986
4.33
1,035
2,264
3,299
0.88
37,024
24,816
61,841
3.30
515
149
664
0.12
OR
175,773
87,987
263,760
4.01
1,693
4,374
6,067
0.87
60,567
47,950
108,517
3.11
842
288
1,130
0.11
UT
82,923
64,318
147,241
3.10
799
3,198
3,996
0.79
28,573
35,051
63,624
2.53
397
210
608
0.08
WA
129,640
138,412
268,052
2.32
1,249
6,881
8,130
0.66
44,671
75,430
120,101
1.96
621
453
1,074
0.06
WY
15,183
14,922
30,105
3.11
146
742
888
0.86
5,232
8,132
13,364
2.60
73
49
122
0.08
Total
12,996,697
7,284,548
20,281,245
3.78
96,633
304,854
401,487
0.64
3,457,142
3,341,781
6,798,923
2.37
48,066
20,053
68,118
0.08
Notes: The Medicaid and Exchange columns show the projected number of additional visits by the population expected to gain insurance coverage under the Affordable Care Act. The Total column calculates the number of
projected visits as a percentage of the baseline number of visits made by the entire population in 2010.
* Regression analyses carried out at the regional level, not national.
Source: 2006–2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS); PricewaterhouseCoopers, “Medicaid Expansion: New Patients, New Challenges” and “Health Insurance Exchanges: Long on Options, Short on Time.”
12
The Commonwealth Fund
Table B. Projected Number of Additional Specialty Services Visits by the Newly Insured,
by Insurance Coverage and Type of Doctor/Service
Obstetrics and Gynecology
Newly insured visits
Psychiatry
%
Medical Specialties
Newly insured visits
Increase
from base
Medicaid
Surgical Specialties
%
Medicaid
Exchange
Exchange
Total
117,649
208,374
1.58
16,405
7,147
23,552
0.12
129,459
212,988
342,447
0.86
118,309
160,800
279,109
0.79
6,592
7,406
13,998
1.64
1,192
450
1,642
0.13
9,407
13,407
22,814
0.88
8,597
10,122
18,719
0.82
ME
1,973
2,950
4,924
1.55
357
179
536
0.11
2,816
5,341
8,157
0.85
2,573
4,032
6,606
0.78
MA
4,305
8,911
13,216
0.85
779
541
1,320
0.06
6,143
16,132
22,276
0.47
5,614
12,179
17,794
0.43
NH
2,242
2,860
5,102
1.63
405
174
579
0.12
3,200
5,178
8,377
0.88
2,924
3,909
6,833
0.82
0.87
CT
Medicaid
%
Increase
from base
Exchange
Total
Total
Increase
from base
Newly insured visits
90,725
Northeast
Total
Increase
from base
Newly insured visits
Medicaid
State
Exchange
%
NJ
18,477
17,973
36,449
1.74
3,341
1,092
4,433
0.14
26,365
32,537
58,902
0.93
24,095
24,564
48,659
NY
25,473
42,598
68,071
1.47
4,606
2,588
7,194
0.10
36,348
77,118
113,467
0.81
33,218
58,222
91,440
0.74
PA
29,106
31,008
60,113
1.99
5,263
1,884
7,147
0.16
41,532
56,136
97,667
1.07
37,955
42,381
80,335
1.00
RI
2,063
2,499
4,562
1.82
373
152
525
0.14
2,944
4,524
7,467
0.98
2,690
3,415
6,105
0.91
493
1,445
1,938
1.30
89
88
177
0.08
704
2,616
3,320
0.74
643
1,975
2,618
0.66
VT
Midwest
158,668
159,706
318,373
2.28
28,691
9,702
38,393
0.22
226,409
289,125
515,534
1.39
206,909
218,281
425,190
1.21
IL
29,554
28,810
58,364
2.18
5,344
1,750
7,094
0.21
42,172
52,157
94,329
1.33
38,540
39,377
77,917
1.16
IN
18,791
12,223
31,013
2.29
3,398
743
4,140
0.24
26,813
22,127
48,941
1.37
24,504
16,705
41,209
1.21
IA
4,619
7,586
12,206
1.92
835
461
1,296
0.16
6,591
13,734
20,325
1.21
6,024
10,369
16,393
1.02
1.29
KS
6,951
7,466
14,417
2.42
1,257
454
1,711
0.23
9,919
13,516
23,435
1.49
9,065
10,204
19,269
MI
21,212
23,843
45,055
2.18
3,836
1,448
5,284
0.20
30,269
43,164
73,433
1.35
27,662
32,588
60,250
1.16
MN
7,131
12,825
19,955
1.80
1,289
779
2,068
0.15
10,175
23,217
33,392
1.14
9,299
17,528
26,827
0.96
MO
17,804
15,895
33,699
2.69
3,219
966
4,185
0.27
25,405
28,776
54,182
1.64
23,217
21,725
44,943
1.43
NE
4,036
5,238
9,274
2.43
730
318
1,048
0.22
5,759
9,483
15,243
1.51
5,263
7,159
12,423
1.29
ND
1,345
2,288
3,633
2.58
243
139
382
0.22
1,920
4,142
6,062
1.63
1,754
3,127
4,882
1.38
OH
32,110
28,329
60,439
2.51
5,806
1,721
7,527
0.25
45,819
51,285
97,104
1.52
41,873
38,719
80,592
1.33
SD
2,153
2,469
4,621
2.72
389
150
539
0.25
3,072
4,469
7,541
1.68
2,807
3,374
6,181
1.45
WI
South
12,961
12,734
25,695
2.16
2,344
774
3,117
0.21
18,494
23,054
41,548
1.32
16,901
17,405
34,306
1.15
346,620
247,853
594,473
2.60
62,678
15,057
77,734
0.41
494,607
448,703
943,309
1.26
452,007
338,758
790,764
1.43
AL
12,826
8,279
21,105
2.21
2,319
503
2,822
0.36
18,302
14,988
33,290
1.07
16,726
11,315
28,041
1.21
AR
9,911
6,503
16,414
2.82
1,792
395
2,187
0.45
14,143
11,772
25,915
1.36
12,924
8,888
21,812
1.55
DE
1,211
1,836
3,047
1.70
219
112
331
0.22
1,728
3,325
5,052
0.86
1,579
2,510
4,089
0.94
DC
942
1,475
2,417
2.01
170
90
260
0.26
1,344
2,671
4,014
1.02
1,228
2,016
3,244
1.12
FL
60,543
45,639
106,182
2.83
10,948
2,773
13,720
0.44
86,391
82,623
169,014
1.38
78,951
62,378
141,328
1.56
GA
32,290
18,966
51,256
2.65
5,839
1,152
6,991
0.44
46,075
34,335
80,411
1.27
42,107
25,922
68,029
1.45
KY
13,768
9,212
22,980
2.65
2,490
560
3,049
0.42
19,646
16,677
36,323
1.28
17,954
12,591
30,545
1.46
LA
17,490
9,543
27,033
2.99
3,163
580
3,742
0.50
24,958
17,277
42,234
1.43
22,808
13,043
35,851
1.64
9,821
12,192
22,014
1.91
1,776
741
2,517
0.26
14,015
22,073
36,087
0.96
12,808
16,664
29,472
1.06
MD
MS
10,225
6,111
16,336
2.76
1,849
371
2,220
0.45
14,591
11,064
25,654
1.33
13,334
8,353
21,687
1.51
NC
26,549
19,267
45,816
2.41
4,801
1,170
5,971
0.38
37,884
34,880
72,765
1.17
34,621
26,334
60,955
1.32
1.18
OK
8,252
7,797
16,049
2.14
1,492
474
1,966
0.32
11,775
14,116
25,890
1.06
10,761
10,657
21,418
SC
14,485
9,302
23,788
2.58
2,619
565
3,184
0.42
20,670
16,841
37,511
1.24
18,890
12,714
31,604
1.41
TN
16,818
12,855
29,672
2.34
3,041
781
3,822
0.36
23,998
23,272
47,269
1.14
21,931
17,569
39,500
1.29
TX
91,891
59,638
151,528
3.02
16,616
3,623
20,239
0.49
131,123
107,965
239,088
1.46
119,829
81,511
201,340
1.66
VA
13,947
16,437
30,385
1.90
2,522
999
3,521
0.27
19,902
29,757
49,659
0.95
18,188
22,466
40,654
1.05
WV
5,651
2,800
8,450
2.28
1,022
170
1,192
0.39
8,063
5,069
13,132
1.09
7,369
3,827
11,195
1.25
West
174,499
192,339
366,838
2.79
31,554
11,684
43,238
0.25
248,999
348,204
597,203
1.53
227,553
262,884
490,437
1.45
1.48
AK
1,884
1,836
3,720
2.87
341
112
452
0.27
2,688
3,325
6,012
1.56
2,456
2,510
4,966
AZ
10,494
15,143
25,637
2.22
1,898
920
2,818
0.19
14,975
27,414
42,388
1.23
13,685
20,697
34,381
1.15
CA
96,241
103,410
199,651
2.93
17,403
6,282
23,685
0.27
137,330
187,209
324,539
1.61
125,502
141,338
266,840
1.52
CO
10,763
14,510
25,274
2.75
1,946
882
2,828
0.24
15,358
26,269
41,628
1.53
14,036
19,833
33,868
1.43
HI
2,422
1,927
4,348
1.75
438
117
555
0.17
3,456
3,488
6,944
0.94
3,158
2,633
5,791
0.90
ID
4,216
5,118
9,333
3.26
762
311
1,073
0.29
6,015
9,265
15,280
1.80
5,497
6,995
12,492
1.69
MT
2,736
3,342
6,077
3.36
495
203
698
0.30
3,904
6,050
9,953
1.85
3,567
4,567
8,135
1.74
NV
6,503
5,961
12,464
2.53
1,176
362
1,538
0.24
9,279
10,791
20,070
1.37
8,480
8,147
16,627
1.31
NM
8,252
5,329
13,580
3.61
1,492
324
1,816
0.37
11,775
9,647
21,421
1.92
10,761
7,283
18,044
1.86
OR
13,499
10,296
23,795
3.40
2,441
625
3,066
0.34
19,262
18,639
37,901
1.82
17,603
14,072
31,675
1.75
UT
6,368
7,526
13,894
2.75
1,152
457
1,609
0.25
9,087
13,625
22,712
1.52
8,304
10,287
18,591
1.43
WA
9,956
16,196
26,152
2.13
1,800
984
2,784
0.17
14,207
29,321
43,528
1.19
12,983
22,137
35,120
1.11
WY
1,166
1,746
2,912
2.83
211
106
317
0.24
1,664
3,161
4,825
1.58
1,521
2,386
3,907
1.47
Total
770,511
717,547
1,488,058
2.36
139,328
43,590
182,918
0.25
1,099,474
1,299,019
2,398,493
1.26
1,004,778
980,723
1,985,501
1.24
Notes: The Medicaid and Exchange columns show the projected number of additional visits by the population expected to gain insurance coverage under the Affordable Care Act. The Total column calculates the number of
projected visits as a percentage of the baseline number of visits made by the entire population in 2010. Medical specialties = allergy and immunology, anesthesiology, cardiology, dermatology, endocrinology, diabetes and
metabolism, gastroenterology, hematology and oncology, nephrology, neurology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, pulmonary, radiology, and rheumatology. Surgical specialties = general surgery, ophthalmology, orthopedics,
otolaryngology, plastic surgery, thoracic surgery, and urology.
Source: 2006–2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS); PricewaterhouseCoopers, “Medicaid Expansion: New Patients, New Challenges” and “Health Insurance Exchanges: Long on Options, Short on Time.”
How Will the Affordable Care Act Affect the Use of Health Care Services?
13
Table C. Projected Number of Additional Visits for Other Health Services by the Newly Insured,
by Insurance Coverage and Type of Doctor/Service
Emergency Room
Newly insured visits
State
Northeast
CT
Outpatient Visits
%
Inpatient Stays
%
Newly insured visits
Prescription Drug Use
%
%
Medicaid
Exchange
Exchange
Total
Medicaid
Exchange
Medicaid
Exchange
89,147
61,340
150,487
1.50
262,008
151,799
413,807
1.43
76,390
72,452
148,842
2.00
4,043,659
2,949,871
6,993,530
1.21
6,478
3,861
10,339
1.59
19,039
9,555
28,594
1.53
5,551
4,561
10,112
2.10
293,830
185,688
479,518
1.28
Medicaid
Total
Increase
from base
Newly insured drug use/refills
Increase
from base
Total
Increase
from base
Newly insured visits
Total
Increase
from base
ME
1,939
1,538
3,477
1.44
5,699
3,807
9,505
1.37
1,661
1,817
3,478
1.94
87,949
73,973
161,922
1.16
MA
4,230
4,646
8,876
0.75
12,433
11,498
23,931
0.70
3,625
5,488
9,113
1.03
191,889
223,429
415,318
0.60
NH
2,203
1,491
3,694
1.54
6,476
3,690
10,166
1.47
1,888
1,761
3,649
2.06
99,942
71,709
171,651
1.24
NJ
18,155
9,371
27,526
1.72
53,360
23,189
76,549
1.66
15,557
11,068
26,626
2.25
823,523
450,633
1,274,156
1.38
NY
25,030
22,210
47,240
1.34
73,564
54,963
128,527
1.27
21,448
26,233
47,682
1.83
1,135,343 1,068,083
2,203,426
1.08
PA
28,599
16,167
44,766
1.94
84,055
40,008
124,064
1.86
24,507
19,096
43,602
2.55
1,297,249
777,474
2,074,723
1.56
RI
2,027
1,303
3,330
1.74
5,958
3,224
9,182
1.66
1,737
1,539
3,276
2.31
91,947
62,651
154,598
1.40
21,987
36,232
58,219
0.89
7,071,907 4,004,367
11,076,273
1.37
306,460
1,143,976
1.46
VT
485
753
1,238
1.09
1,425
1,864
3,289
1.00
415
890
1,305
1.55
155,908
83,268
239,175
1.93
458,223
206,063
664,286
1.86
133,597
98,352
231,950
2.91
IL
18,464
6,373
24,837
2.07
54,267
15,770
70,037
2.02
15,822
7,527
23,349
3.02
837,515
IN
29,040
15,021
44,061
1.86
85,350
37,173
122,523
1.78
24,884
17,742
42,627
2.79
1,317,238
722,371
2,039,609
1.32
IA
4,539
3,955
8,494
1.51
13,340
9,788
23,128
1.42
3,889
4,672
8,561
2.36
205,881
190,217
396,098
1.08
1.44
Midwest
KS
6,830
3,893
10,723
2.03
20,075
9,633
29,708
1.95
5,853
4,598
10,451
3.07
309,821
187,198
497,018
MI
20,844
12,431
33,275
1.82
61,261
30,764
92,024
1.74
17,861
14,683
32,544
2.76
945,453
597,824
1,543,277
1.29
MN
7,007
6,687
13,693
1.40
20,593
16,547
37,140
1.31
6,004
7,898
13,902
2.20
317,816
321,557
639,373
1.00
MO
17,494
8,288
25,782
2.33
51,417
20,509
71,927
2.24
14,991
9,789
24,780
3.47
793,541
398,550
1,192,090
1.65
NE
3,966
2,731
6,697
1.99
11,656
6,759
18,415
1.88
3,398
3,226
6,624
3.04
179,896
131,340
311,236
1.41
ND
1,322
1,193
2,515
2.02
3,885
2,952
6,838
1.90
1,133
1,409
2,542
3.17
59,965
57,367
117,332
1.45
OH
31,552
14,770
46,322
2.17
92,733
36,551
129,284
2.09
27,037
17,446
44,482
3.24
1,431,172
710,294
2,141,465
1.54
SD
2,115
1,287
3,402
2.26
6,217
3,185
9,402
2.16
1,813
1,520
3,333
3.44
95,944
61,896
157,840
1.61
WI
12,735
6,639
19,375
1.84
37,430
16,431
53,860
1.77
10,913
7,842
18,755
2.77
577,666
319,293
896,958
1.31
340,592
129,226
469,817
2.44
1,001,020
319,795
1,320,815
3.52
291,852
152,636
444,488
3.38
15,449,058
6,214,505
21,663,563
1.71
South
AL
12,603
4,316
16,919
2.11
37,041
10,682
47,723
3.05
10,800
5,098
15,898
2.90
571,669
207,578
779,247
1.47
AR
9,739
3,390
13,129
2.68
28,623
8,390
37,013
3.88
8,345
4,005
12,350
3.69
441,744
163,043
604,787
1.87
DE
1,190
957
2,147
1.42
3,497
2,369
5,866
2.00
1,020
1,131
2,150
2.09
53,969
46,045
100,013
1.01
DC
925
769
1,695
1.68
2,720
1,903
4,623
2.35
793
908
1,701
2.46
41,976
36,987
78,962
1.19
59,490
23,795
83,285
2.64
174,845
58,886
233,731
3.80
50,977
28,106
79,083
3.66
2,698,438
1,144,320
3,842,758
1.85
1.79
FL
GA
31,728
9,889
41,617
2.56
93,251
24,471
117,722
3.71
27,188
11,680
38,868
3.50
1,439,167
475,542
1,914,709
KY
13,528
4,803
18,331
2.51
39,761
11,886
51,647
3.64
11,593
5,673
17,266
3.47
613,645
230,978
844,622
1.76
LA
17,186
4,976
22,162
2.91
50,511
12,313
62,824
4.23
14,727
5,877
20,604
3.96
779,549
239,281
1,018,829
2.03
MD
9,651
6,357
16,008
1.65
28,364
15,731
44,095
2.33
8,270
7,509
15,778
2.38
437,747
305,706
743,452
1.16
MS
10,047
3,186
13,234
2.65
29,529
7,885
37,415
3.85
8,609
3,764
12,373
3.63
455,736
153,230
608,966
1.85
NC
26,087
10,045
36,133
2.26
76,673
24,860
101,532
3.25
22,354
11,865
34,220
3.13
1,183,315
483,090
1,666,405
1.58
OK
8,108
4,065
12,174
1.93
23,831
10,060
33,891
2.76
6,948
4,802
11,750
2.73
367,787
195,501
563,288
1.36
SC
14,234
4,850
19,084
2.46
41,833
12,003
53,836
3.56
12,197
5,729
17,925
3.38
645,626
233,242
878,868
1.72
TN
16,525
6,702
23,227
2.18
48,568
16,586
65,154
3.14
14,160
7,916
22,077
3.03
749,566
322,312
1,071,878
1.53
TX
90,293
31,094
121,387
2.87
265,376
76,948
342,324
4.16
77,372
36,727
114,098
3.95
4,095,629
1,495,316
5,590,945
2.01
VA
13,705
8,570
22,275
1.66
40,279
21,208
61,487
2.35
11,744
10,123
21,866
2.38
621,640
412,137
1,033,777
1.17
WV
5,552
1,460
7,012
2.25
16,319
3,612
19,931
3.29
4,758
1,724
6,482
3.05
251,854
70,199
322,053
1.57
West
171,464
100,282
271,746
2.79
503,942
248,169
752,111
3.65
146,927
118,449
265,376
4.08
7,777,498
4,822,601 12,600,099
2.10
AK
1,851
957
2,808
2.92
5,440
2,369
7,809
3.84
1,586
1,131
2,717
4.23
83,951
46,045
129,996
2.19
AZ
10,312
7,895
18,207
2.13
30,306
19,538
49,845
2.75
8,836
9,325
18,161
3.17
467,729
379,679
847,408
1.60
CA
94,567
53,916
148,483
2.94
277,939
133,426
411,365
3.85
81,034
63,683
144,718
4.30
4,289,517
2,592,837
6,882,354
2.21
CO
10,576
7,565
18,142
2.67
31,084
18,722
49,806
3.46
9,063
8,936
17,999
3.96
479,722
363,827
843,550
2.01
HI
2,380
1,005
3,384
1.84
6,994
2,486
9,480
2.43
2,039
1,187
3,226
2.62
107,938
48,309
156,247
1.38
ID
4,142
2,668
6,811
3.21
12,174
6,603
18,778
4.18
3,550
3,152
6,701
4.73
187,891
128,321
316,212
2.42
2.49
MT
2,688
1,742
4,430
3.31
7,900
4,312
12,212
4.31
2,303
2,058
4,361
4.88
121,929
83,786
205,715
NV
6,390
3,108
9,497
2.60
18,780
7,691
26,471
3.42
5,475
3,671
9,146
3.75
289,832
149,456
439,288
1.95
NM
8,108
2,778
10,886
3.91
23,831
6,875
30,706
5.20
6,948
3,281
10,229
5.50
367,787
133,605
501,392
2.92
OR
13,264
5,368
18,632
3.59
38,984
13,284
52,268
4.76
11,366
6,341
17,706
5.11
601,652
258,151
859,803
2.69
UT
6,257
3,924
10,181
2.72
18,391
9,711
28,102
3.55
5,362
4,635
9,997
4.00
283,836
188,707
472,543
2.05
WA
9,783
8,444
18,227
2.00
28,752
20,898
49,650
2.58
8,383
9,974
18,357
3.02
443,743
406,098
849,841
1.51
WY
1,146
910
2,056
2.70
3,367
2,253
5,620
3.48
982
1,075
2,057
4.04
51,970
43,780
95,750
2.03
Total
757,110
374,115
1,131,225
2.20
2,225,194
925,826
3,151,019
2.56
648,767
441,890
1,090,656
3.11
34,342,122 17,991,344
52,333,466
1.61
Notes: The Medicaid and Exchange columns show the projected number of additional visits by the population expected to gain insurance coverage under the Affordable Care Act. The Total column calculates the number of
projected visits as a percentage of the baseline number of visits made by the entire population in 2010.
Source: 2006–2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS); PricewaterhouseCoopers, “Medicaid Expansion: New Patients, New Challenges” and “Health Insurance Exchanges: Long on Options, Short on Time.”
14
The Commonwealth Fund
Table D. Average Additional Weekly Visits per Doctor by the Newly Insured
State
Northeast
All
primary care
Internal
medicine
Family
practice
Pediatrics
Ob/Gyn
Psychiatry
Medical
Surgical
Emergency
room
Outpatient
Inpatient
0.76
0.08
0.95
0.02
0.49
0.02
0.18
0.28
5.88
4.23
0.02
Connecticut
0.86
0.08
1.04
0.02
0.49
0.02
0.18
0.28
7.95
5.24
0.03
Maine
0.64
0.07
0.83
0.02
0.53
0.02
0.20
0.31
1.91
1.44
0.02
Massachusetts
0.30
0.04
0.42
0.01
0.23
0.01
0.09
0.13
3.22
2.28
0.01
New Hampshire
0.79
0.08
0.98
0.02
0.54
0.02
0.20
0.31
2.96
2.17
0.03
New Jersey
0.99
0.09
1.15
0.02
0.57
0.02
0.21
0.33
9.13
6.66
0.02
New York
0.65
0.07
0.86
0.02
0.43
0.01
0.17
0.25
6.40
4.37
0.02
Pennsylvania
1.10
0.10
1.31
0.03
0.67
0.02
0.25
0.39
6.47
4.92
0.02
Rhode Island
0.86
0.08
1.06
0.02
0.57
0.02
0.22
0.33
6.40
4.20
0.03
Vermont
0.46
0.07
0.70
0.01
0.44
0.01
0.17
0.26
1.98
1.44
0.02
2.06
0.11
1.43
0.03
0.81
0.03
0.30
0.47
3.92
3.25
0.02
Illinois
1.89
0.10
1.30
0.03
0.78
0.03
0.29
0.45
5.50
4.28
0.02
Indiana
2.65
0.11
1.69
0.04
0.85
0.03
0.31
0.49
5.37
4.26
0.03
0.02
Midwest
Iowa
1.75
0.11
1.33
0.02
0.86
0.03
0.33
0.50
1.37
1.16
Kansas
2.37
0.13
1.66
0.03
1.01
0.04
0.38
0.58
1.68
1.71
0.02
Michigan
1.82
0.10
1.29
0.02
0.73
0.03
0.27
0.42
5.20
3.85
0.03
Minnesota
1.29
0.09
1.01
0.02
0.60
0.02
0.23
0.35
2.80
2.38
0.02
Missouri
2.71
0.13
1.84
0.04
0.94
0.03
0.35
0.54
4.39
3.57
0.03
Nebraska
2.29
0.13
1.67
0.03
1.00
0.03
0.38
0.58
2.86
2.64
0.02
2.11
0.14
1.62
0.03
0.94
0.03
0.36
0.55
2.10
1.96
0.01
Ohio
2.33
0.11
1.57
0.03
0.85
0.03
0.31
0.49
6.85
5.25
0.03
South Dakota
2.49
0.14
1.77
0.03
1.04
0.04
0.39
0.60
1.56
1.67
0.01
Wisconsin
1.89
0.10
1.31
0.03
0.73
0.03
0.27
0.42
3.13
2.48
0.03
0.03
North Dakota
South
1.38
0.12
1.75
0.04
0.89
0.03
0.33
0.51
6.01
5.67
Alabama
1.35
0.11
1.69
0.04
0.88
0.03
0.32
0.50
3.62
3.61
0.02
Arkansas
1.61
0.14
2.02
0.04
1.26
0.05
0.46
0.72
3.77
3.77
0.03
Delaware
0.75
0.08
0.99
0.02
0.51
0.02
0.20
0.30
6.88
4.90
0.02
Dist. of Columbia
0.33
0.04
0.44
0.01
0.23
0.01
0.09
0.13
5.43
4.04
0.01
1.43
0.13
1.81
0.04
0.84
0.03
0.31
0.48
12.92
10.70
0.03
0.03
Florida
Georgia
1.53
0.12
1.91
0.04
1.01
0.04
0.37
0.58
7.48
6.70
Kentucky
1.48
0.13
1.86
0.04
0.96
0.04
0.35
0.55
4.35
3.93
0.02
Louisiana
1.68
0.13
2.09
0.05
1.00
0.04
0.36
0.58
6.00
5.81
0.03
Maryland
0.69
0.07
0.90
0.02
0.49
0.02
0.18
0.28
7.00
5.08
0.02
Mississippi
1.90
0.16
2.38
0.05
1.19
0.05
0.43
0.69
2.96
4.55
0.02
North Carolina
1.26
0.11
1.60
0.03
0.85
0.03
0.31
0.49
7.09
5.61
0.03
Oklahoma
1.22
0.12
1.57
0.03
0.87
0.03
0.32
0.50
2.52
2.61
0.02
South Carolina
1.46
0.12
1.83
0.04
0.92
0.04
0.33
0.53
6.55
5.78
0.03
Tennessee
1.18
0.10
1.49
0.03
0.78
0.03
0.29
0.45
5.88
5.62
0.02
Texas
1.87
0.16
2.35
0.05
1.17
0.05
0.43
0.67
6.24
6.44
0.04
0.02
Virginia
0.89
0.09
1.15
0.02
0.61
0.02
0.23
0.35
5.79
4.48
West Virginia
1.05
0.08
1.30
0.03
0.85
0.04
0.30
0.49
2.64
2.43
0.02
1.12
0.12
1.57
0.03
0.84
0.03
0.32
0.49
8.26
7.26
0.04
Alaska
1.03
0.11
1.42
0.03
0.90
0.03
0.33
0.52
6.00
5.36
0.03
Arizona
0.95
0.11
1.37
0.03
0.69
0.02
0.26
0.40
7.61
6.70
0.03
1.16
0.12
1.63
0.03
0.88
0.03
0.33
0.51
13.04
11.00
0.04
0.04
West
California
Colorado
1.04
0.12
1.48
0.03
0.75
0.03
0.29
0.44
5.63
5.07
Hawaii
0.58
0.06
0.78
0.02
0.47
0.02
0.17
0.27
5.01
5.36
0.02
Idaho
1.73
0.19
2.45
0.05
1.18
0.04
0.44
0.68
4.68
4.10
0.04
Montana
1.42
0.16
2.01
0.04
0.99
0.03
0.37
0.57
2.08
2.04
0.02
Nevada
1.32
0.13
1.81
0.04
0.91
0.03
0.34
0.52
10.15
8.93
0.03
New Mexico
1.50
0.13
1.99
0.04
1.33
0.05
0.48
0.77
7.75
6.79
0.05
Oregon
1.22
0.11
1.64
0.03
0.94
0.04
0.34
0.54
6.07
5.21
0.05
Utah
1.48
0.16
2.09
0.04
0.97
0.03
0.36
0.56
7.53
6.67
0.04
Washington
0.03
0.75
0.09
1.09
0.02
0.62
0.02
0.24
0.36
5.65
4.63
Wyoming
1.31
0.16
1.90
0.03
1.09
0.03
0.41
0.63
1.72
2.04
0.02
U.S. average
1.34
0.11
1.46
0.03
0.77
0.03
0.29
0.45
5.72
4.93
0.03
Source: 2006–2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS); PricewaterhouseCoopers, “Medicaid Expansion: New Patients, New Challenges” and “Health Insurance Exchanges: Long on Options,
Short on Time.”
How Will the Affordable Care Act Affect the Use of Health Care Services?
15
About the Authors
Sherry Glied, Ph.D., is dean of the Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service at New York University. From
1989–2013, she was professor of Health Policy and Management at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public
Health. Dr. Glied served as assistant secretary for Planning and Evaluation at the U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services from July 2010 through August 2012. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National
Academy of Sciences and of the National Academy of Social Insurance, and is a research associate of the National
Bureau of Economic Research. Dr. Glied’s principal areas of research are in health policy reform and mental health
care policy. She is the author of Chronic Condition (Harvard University Press, 1998), coauthor (with Richard Frank) of
Better But Not Well: Mental Health Policy in the U.S. Since 1950 (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006), and coeditor
(with Peter C. Smith) of The Oxford Handbook of Health Economics (Oxford University Press, 2011).
Stephanie Ma is a junior research scientist at New York University’s Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public
Service. She conducts research in the areas of health policy and health care reform. She is currently pursuing a master
of public administration degree in Health Policy and Management at Wagner.
Editorial support was provided by Hannah Fein and Chris Hollander.
The
COMMONWEALTH
FUND
www.commonwealthfund.org
×

Report this document