The 36th Annual International Conference on Critical Thinking and

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Honoring
Bertrand Russell
Scholars
Thomas Paine
Carol Tavris
The 36th Annual
International
Conference on
Critical Thinking
and Educational
Reform
Fostering Robust Critical Thinking
Across the Disciplines – In Every
Classroom, Every Day, Across
the World
July 2016
“…it is essential that we
foster a new conception of
self-identity, both individually
and collectively, and a new
practical sense of the value of
self-disciplined, openminded thought.
As long as we continue to feel threatened
by those who think differently from us, we
will listen seriously only to those who start
from our premises, who validate our prejudices,
and who end up with our conclusions.”
— RICHARD PAUL, 1989
2
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking www.criticalthinking.org
The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking 1
f
Proceedings of
the
36th Annual
International Conference
on
Critical Thinking and
Educational Reform
July 25 - 29, 2016
g
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
2
The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking From Past Conferences
Henry Steele
Commanger
at the 1st Conference
Edward Glaser
at the 4th Conference
David Perkins
at the 7th Conference
Neil Postman
at the 2nd Conference
Carol Tavris
at the 7th Conference
Matthew Lipman
at the 10th Conference
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press George Hanford
at the 10th Conference
www.criticalthinking.org
3
The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Dedication to Thomas Paine
The proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Critical
Thinking are dedicated to Thomas Paine, revolutionary and
staunch defender of the rights of all humans. Though Paine’s
contributions to political and social theory were largely ignored
during his lifetime, and though he was ostracized by his own
government during the French revolution, he continued to fight
for “The rights of man beyond the American Revolution.” We
honor him at this year’s conference as Bertrand Russell Scholar
named posthumously for advancing fairminded critical societies.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
4
The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Table of Contents
Dedication to Thomas Paine..................................................................................................... 3
Introduction to the Conference ............................................................................................ 6
Graphic Illustrations That Illuminate a Rich Conception
of Critical Thinking ........................................................................................................... 8
Conference Overview .................................................................................................................... 13 Conference at a Glance ........................................................................................................... 14
Preconference Schedule ......................................................................................................... 19
Conference Schedule ............................................................................................................... 20
Focal Session Presenters ......................................................................................................... 22
Guest Focal Session Presenters ........................................................................................... 23
About Richard Paul, Our Founder........................................................................................ 24
Bertrand Russell Distinguished Scholars Critical Thinking Series .......... 27
Bertrand Russell Scholars Previously Honored ............................................................ 30
Russell Scholars Honored Posthumously ...................................................................... 31
Thomas Paine as Bertrand Russell Scholar
Named Posthumously ....................................................................................................... 32
Bertrand Russell Distinguished Scholar for the 36th International
Conference: Dr. Carol Tavris............................................................................................. 35
Two Conflicting Theories of Knowledge, Learning, and
Literacy: The Didactic and the Critical… by Richard Paul ............... 37
Conference Sessions and Events
Preconference Sessions Descriptions ............................................................................... 45
Focal Sessions Descriptions ................................................................................................... 48
Bertrand Russell Scholars Program .................................................................................... 58
Roundtable Discussions .......................................................................................................... 60
Concurrent Sessions Program .............................................................................................. 63
Concurrent Sessions and Roundtable Discussions
Presenter Information ........................................................................................................ 79
Evening Social: Celebrating Through Art,
Music, and Conviviality ...................................................................................................... 81
Fostering Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum Must Be
Given Priority in Education .................................................................................... 83
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
5
The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Table of Contents, cont.
History and Outreach of the Foundation for Critical Thinking
Theoretical Development, Scholarship, and Research .............................................. 85
Conferences, Academies, and Workshops ...................................................................... 86
On-Site Professional Development Programs ............................................................... 86
Testing and Assessment Tools in Critical Thinking ..................................................... 86
Publication and Dissemination of Books and Instructional Materials ............... 88
Dynamic Website - Free Resources for Educators at All Levels ............................ 88
Translations of Our Work – Dozens of Languages ...................................................... 88
Institutions Using Our Approach – A Sampling ........................................................... 88
General Conference Information
Important Announcements .......................................................................................................... 97
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions ............................................................................... 99
Foundation for Critical Thinking Books and Guides .........................................................102
Ralph Nader and Linda Elder at the 34th International Conference
The quote on the front cover can be found in Richard Paul’s anthology: Critical Thinking: What Every
Person Needs To Survive in a Rapidly Changing World, Tomales, CA: FCT Press. (2012)
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
6
The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Introduction to the Conference
The Center and Foundation for Critical Thinking have together hosted
critical thinking academies and conferences for thirty-six years. During that
time, we have played a lead role in defining, structuring, assessing, improving,
and advancing the principles and best practices of fairminded critical thought in
education and society. Our annual conference offers a unique venue for
improving our understanding of critical thinking, as well as our ability to foster
it more substantively in the classroom and in all aspects of our work and life.
Throughout our work we emphasize the importance of fostering a
substantive conception of critical thinking. Such a conception not only
highlights the qualities of the educated person, but also implies the proper design
of the educational process. There are essential minimal conditions for educating
minds. These entail modes of instruction that facilitate development of the
standards, abilities, and traits of the educated person. For example, when
history is substantively taught, it is taught as historical thinking; the major goal
is to give students practice in thinking historically (analyzing, evaluating, and
reconstructing historical interpretations and problems). As a result, students
learn not only how to read historical texts with insight and understanding, but
also how to gather important facts and write well-developed historical essays of
their own. Through this mode of instruction, students come to see the
significance of historical thinking, both in their own lives and in the life of
culture and society. History becomes – in such a transformed mind – not
random facts from the past, but a way to reason about the past in order to make
intelligent decisions in the present, as well as reasonable plans for the future.
When students are taught using a substantive concept of education as the
guide to the design of instruction, they can learn to initiate, analyze, and evaluate
their own thinking and the thinking of others (within all the content areas they
study). Doing so, they come to act more reasonably and effectively in every part
of life. They are able to do this because
Conference Theme:
they have acquired intellectual tools and
intellectual standards essential to sound
Fostering Robust Critical
reasoning, as well as to personal and
Thinking Across the
professional judgment. Self-assessment
Disciplines– In Every
becomes an integral part of their lives.
Classroom, Every Day,
They are able to master content in diverse
Across the World
disciplines. They become proficient
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
7
The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking readers, writers, speakers, and listeners. They
become reasonable and fairminded persons
capable of empathizing with views with
which they disagree. They are able to use their
reasoning skills to take command of their own
emotional lives, and to transform their desires
and motivations. They come to embody,
increasingly over time, the virtues of the
fairminded critical thinker.
All of our work and thus all of our
conference sessions are based on this
substantive conception of critical thinking.
We are committed to a concept that interfaces
optimally within and among the disciplines,
that integrates critical with creative thinking,
and that applies directly to the needs of
everyday and professional life.
All conference sessions are designed to
converge on basic critical thinking principles,
and to enrich a core concept of critical
thinking with practical teaching and learning
strategies.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press “We believe in the
power of ideas and
reasoned thought.
We believe that what
is ideal and what is
imperative are
converging. Wellgrounded critical
thinking has been a
human ideal since
Socrates. It is now
fast becoming a
global economic,
educational, and
moral imperative.
Those of vision
recognize this
imperative and its
implications...”
– Richard Paul, letter
to educators, in
Education Vision,
1994
www.criticalthinking.org
8
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking www.criticalthinking.org
9
The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Thinking Within Every Subject and Domain of Human Thought
Anthropological thinking
Mathematical thinking
Sociological thinking
Historical thinking
Archeological thinking
Biological thinking
Botanical thinking
Zoological thinking Chemical thinking
Biochemical thinking
Geological thinking
Political thinking
Geographical thinking
Ecological thinking
Physiological thinking
Astronomical thinking
Financial thinking
Medical thinking
Pharmacological thinking
Psychological thinking
Arithmetic thinking
Algebraic thinking
Geometrical thinking
Musical thinking
Artistic thinking
Biotechnological thinking
Criminological thinking
Epidemiological thinking
Statistical thinking
Technological thinking
Nano-Technological thinking
Global thinking
Philosophical thinking
Metaphysical thinking
___________ thinking
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press Thinking like a doctor
Thinking naturopathically
Thinking allopathically
Thinking like a surgeon
Thinking like a psychologist
Thinking like an economist
Thinking like a librarian
Thinking like a lawyer
Thinking like an educator
Thinking like a teacher
Thinking like a principal
Thinking like a dean
Thinking like a classroom teacher
Thinking like a novelist
Thinking like a dramatist
Thinking like a poet
Thinking like a writer
Thinking like a civil engineer
Thinking like a nurse
Thinking like an accountant
Thinking like an architect
Thinking like a sculptor
Thinking like a painter
Thinking like a dancer
Thinking like a physicist
Thinking like a parasitologist
Thinking like a linguist
Thinking like a computer scientist
Thinking like a judge
Thinking like a defense attorney
Thinking like a prosecutor
Thinking like a police officer
Thinking like a social worker
Thinking like a physical therapist
Thinking like a ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­____________
www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking of Criticality
Forms of
ThreeForms
Three
Criticality
Uncriticality
Sophistic Criticality
Socratic Criticality
The Intellectually
Naive
The Intellectually
Clever
The Intellectually
Just
The mind wrongly
experiences itself
as rational and
reasonable when,
in fact, it is not.
The mind akin to
that of ancient Greek
teachers (sophists)
who claimed they
could persuade
anyone of anything.
The mind disciplined
to recognize the extent
of its ignorance.
Those who openmindedly
seek the truth, even
when it conflicts with
their interests.
Lacking critical
thinking skills, the
mind is easily
manipulated by those
more intellectually
sophisticated.
The arts of
argumentation and
manipulation in the
pursuit of power,
wealth, and privilege.
The art of reasoning
within multiple,
divergent points of
view. Able to judge
these viewpoints fairly.
The state of mind is
that of complacency,
arrogance, and
self-delusion.
The state of mind is
that of orchestrated
persuasion.
The state of mind
is that of fair,
objective analysis
and evaluation
of thought.
Intellectually
Unskilled
Intellectually Skilled
but lacking
Intellectual Virtues
Intellectually Skilled
while embodying
Intellectual Virtues
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
11
The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Strong- Versus Weak-Sense Critical Thinking
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
12
The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Intellectual Discipline
Intellectual Discipline
Requires and Presupposes Intellectual Self-Command
Requires and Presupposes Intellectual Self-Command
Can Be Fostered in Teaching and Learning
Can Be Fostered in Teaching and Learning
INTELLECTUAL
DISCIPLINE
enables the
development of
INTELLECTUAL
SELF-COMMAND
presupposes
The ability to
reason and
understand the
power of thought.
In critical thinking, not only do
you reason, you also…
reason about your reason.
The ability to use
the intellect to
deliberate and
judge effectively.
•
•
•
•
•
•
logicalness
dependability
perseverance
systematicity
skillfulness
reasonability
To teach for intellectual
discipline is to cultivate
intellectual self-command.
This requires a framework, a
vocabulary for talking your
way into the nature and forms
of reason.
A framework for critical
thinking should enable you
to be explicit about your
intellectual activity.
You should design activities and
assignments so that students
use a robust framework of
thought to analyze, assess,
and reconstruct some given
manifestation of thought.
It should also enable you to
reason about your reasoning
in a systematic, Socratic, and
comprehensive way.
Students should come to see
critical thinking as a
higher-order thought requiring
self-command.
This includes developing an
ongoing personal narrative
focused on cultivating
intellectual self-command.
This diagram suggests the importance of the relationship between intellectual
discipline and intellectual self-command. What is more, a number of core
concepts are interwoven here, while others are suggested by implication.
Contrast your sense of the conceptual points made in the graphic with an
unintegrated list of individual concepts: Intellectual discipline, self-command,
ability to reason, understanding the power of thought, ability to use the intellect,
ability to deliberate, ability to judge and to reason about your reason, logicalness
of thought, dependability of thought, perseverance in thought, systematicity
of thought, skillfulness in thought, teaching for intellectual discipline, and
cultivating intellectual self-command.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
13
The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Overview
The conference entails the following five types
of sessions and learning opportunities:
1. Focal Sessions that are designed to foster deep
understanding of core critical thinking concepts and
principles. These sessions are led primarily by Fellows and
Scholars of the Foundation for Critical Thinking.
2. Concurrent Sessions and Roundtable Discussions,
which are led by guest faculty, administrators, and others
attempting to contextualize critical thinking in instruction
and in various domains of life.
3. Bertrand Russell Distinguished Scholars Program,
which highlights the contributions of important scholars to
the conception and realization of fairminded critical societies.
This year’s Russell Scholar is Dr. Carol Tavris.
4. Evening Social – Celebrating the Aesthetic Dimension
of the Liberally-Educated Mind Through Art, Music, and
Conviviality.
5. Film and Video Continuous Loop, highlighting the
thinking of Richard Paul. Video includes classic footage of
Richard Paul exploring the importance of critical thinking to
education. Watch videos in our bookstore before, between,
and after sessions. Tuesday - Thursday.
e
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The
The36th
36thInternational
InternationalConference
Conferenceon
onCritical
CriticalThinking
Thinking Conference at a Glance
Preconference
Monday, July 25
(9:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m.)
Preconference registrants have
chosen one of the following sessions:
DAY ONE Tuesday, July 26
Opening Ceremony
(8:45 a.m. - 10:00 a.m.)
Welcome and Keynote Address
Linda Elder and Gerald Nosich,
Senior Fellows
•Teaching Students to Think Within the Logic of your Discipline– Gerald Nosich
Bennet Valley
• Fostering Critical Thinking in
the K-12 Classroom: Practical Strategies– Carmen Polka
Russian River Valley
• The Life and Work of Richard Paul…How We Lived and Learned Together– Linda Elder
Dry Creek Valley
Ballrooms C & D
Focal Sessions Day One
(10:30 a.m. - 4:00 p.m.)
Conference registrants have
chosen one of the following sessions:
• Critical Thinking as Essential to
the Development of Intellectual Skills in Higher Education–
Gerald Nosich
Cooperage Building Room 2
• Critical Thinking as Essential to
the Acquisition of Knowledge in K-12 Education– Linda Elder
Cooperage Building Room 1
• Advanced Session:
The Important Ideas of Tom
Paine, His Revolutionary World View, and Why He Was
Ultimately Vilified– Brian Barnes
Cooperage Building Room 3
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
15
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference at a Glance
DAY TWO Wednesday, July 27
Bertrand Russell
Distinguished Scholars
Lecture and Conversazione
Cooperage Building Rooms 1 & 2
(9:00 a.m. - 11:45 a.m.)
Russell Scholar:
Dr. Carol Tavris
Afternoon Focal Sessions
Day Two
(2:45 p.m. - 4:15 p.m.)
Conference registrants have chosen
one of the following sessions:
• Why Intellectual Virtues are Essential to a Robust Conception
of Critical Thinking– Gerald Nosich
Cooperage Building Room 2
• Critical Reading as Primary Vehicle for Cultivating the Intellect– Carmen Polka
Cooperage Building Room 3
•Why We Need Concern Ourselves With Human Pathologies in Cultivating the Disciplined Mind– Linda Elder
Cooperage Building Room 1
All Conference delegates are
encouraged to actively participate
in this session.
Roundtable Discussions
1:15 p.m. - 2:30 p.m.
Ballrooms B, C, & D
e
View Richard Paul video
(looping) in our bookstore
before sessions begin each day,
during breaks and lunch,
and after the afternoon sessions.
(Tuesday-Thursday)
(see page 60 for details)
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
16
TheThe
36th
36th
International
International
Conference
Conference
onon
Critical
Critical
Thinking
Thinking
Conference at a Glance
DAY THREE Thursday, July 28
Concurrent Sessions
(see concurrent session program;
choose one per time slot)
Concurrent Sessions I:
8:30 a.m. - 9:30 a.m.
• The Weaving of Critical Thinking Teaching Methods Throughout
a Healthcare Curriculum–
Pauletta Baughman
Cooperage Building Room 3
• Teaching Critical Thinking to
MBAs Online– Eileen Z. Taylor
Russian River
• Turning Critical Thinking Theory
into Practice: The Experience of
Saint Margaret’s Secondary School–
Siong Boon Lee and Nur Filzah
Zainal Abidin
Bennet Valley
• Suggested Strategies to Guide
Students in Meeting the Goal of
Critical Thinking Within the Social
Science Course– Mel Manson
Cooperage Building Room 1
Concurrent Sessions II (Thurs.):
9:40 a.m. - 10:40 a.m.
• Critical Thinking in Syllabus Design–
Mark Berg Cooperage Builing Room 2
• Critical Thinking in Upper-Division,
Discipline-Specific Courses Through
Team-Based Learning and Writing– Tina Zappile
Bennet Valley
• Experimentation on Fostering
Critical Thinking in STEM
Education– Kwok-Bun Yue and Wei Wei
Cooperage Building Room 3
• Improving Student Critical
Thinking Through Direct
Instruction in Rhetorical Analysis–
Lauren McGuire
Dry Creek
• Critical Thinking in the
Collaborative Classroom:
Infusing Core Critical Thinking
Concepts and Skills into Standards
Based Collaborative Learning and
Constructivist Activities–
Jenna Kamp
Russian River
• Proposing a Design for Teaching
Critical Thinking –
Mohammad B. Bagheri and
Shiva Hadadianpour
Cooperage Building Room 1
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
17
17
The
The 36th
36th International
International Conference
Conference on
on Critical
Critical Thinking
Thinking Conference at a Glance
Concurrent Sessions III (Thurs.):
10:55 a.m. - 11:55 a.m.
• Why Explicit Discussion of
Intellectual Standards is Essential
in the Classroom from a Student’s
Perspective– Rachael Collins
Cooperage Building Room 1
Concurrent Sessions IV (Thurs.):
1:20 p.m. - 2:20 p.m.
• Fuel the Flame of Critical
Thinking– Barbara J. Rodriguez and Ana Cowo
Cooperage Building Room 3
• Teaching Scientific Thinking–
Fran Johnson
Russian River
• Cultivating Moral Integrity in the
Sciences Through Cross-Cultural
Engagement– Craig A. Hassel
Russian River
• Critical Thinking Within the
Discipline of Information Literacy–
Cindy M. Campbell
Dry Creek
• Assessing Critical Thinking
Through the Framework of ‘Think
Aloud’– Jeremy R. Dicus
Cooperage Building Room 1
• Integrating Critical Thinking into
a Writing in the Major Program–
Shirley F. Manigault, Pamela
Simmons, Jill Keith, and
Morris Clarke
Cooperage Building Room 3
• Designing Learning Environments for Critical Thinking: A Perspective
from Instructional Design –
Dawit T. Tiruneh
Bennet Valley
• Fostering Dialectical Thinking
Outside the Classroom Walls–
Bonnie Zare, Tracey Owens Patton, Sagan Hunsaker, and Chicory
Bechtel
Bennet Valley
View Richard Paul video
(looping) in our bookstore
before sessions begin each day,
during breaks and lunch,
and after the afternoon sessions.
(Tuesday-Thursday)
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
18
The
The 36th
36th International
International Conference
Conference on
on Critical
Critical Thinking
Thinking Conference at a Glance
DAY THREE Thursday, July 28, cont.
Afternoon Focal Sessions
Day Three
(2:35 p.m. - 4:30 p.m.)
Conference registrants have chosen
one of the following sessions:
• Teaching Students to Formulate
and Reason Through Essential Questions in Teaching and
Learning– Gerald Nosich
Cooperage Building Room 2
• Teaching Students to Study and
Learn Using the Principles of
Critical Thinking– Carmen Polka
Cooperage Building Room 3
•Teaching Students to Internalize
and Think Within the Ideas of the
Deepest Thinkers: Reaching Back
Through History to Classic Works– Linda Elder
Cooperage Building Room 1
DAY FOUR Friday, July 29
Morning Focal Sessions
(9:00 a.m. - 11:00 a.m.)
Conference registrants have chosen
one of the following sessions:
• For Administrators: Placing
Critical Thinking at the Heart of
the Institution’s Mission–
Brian Barnes
Bennett Valley
• Teaching Students to Think
Conceptually, and to Take
Command of the Concepts that
Guide Their Lives–
Linda Elder
Ballroom D
• Socratic Dialogue as Primary Tool
for Cultivating Critical Thinking in
Instruction–
Gerald Nosich
Ballroom B
Closing Session (Friday)
Thursday Evening Social
Where Do We Go from Here?
(11:30 a.m. - 12:15 p.m.)
Celebrating Through Art, Music,
and Conviviality
7:00 p.m. - 10:00 p.m.
Lobo’s
For all delegates.
See evening program on pp. 81-82
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press Ballroom C
Led by the Fellows of the
Foundation for Critical Thinking.
All conference participants are
invited.
www.criticalthinking.org
19
The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Preconference Schedule
Daily Schedule July 25, 2016
Monday - July 25 8:00 a.m. - 9:00 a.m. 9:00 a.m. - 10:30 a.m. 10:30 a.m. - 10:45 a.m. 10:45 a.m. - 11:45 a.m. 11:45 a.m. - 1:15 p.m. 1:15 p.m. - 2:45 p.m. 2:45 p.m. - 3:00 p.m. 3:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. Registration & Check-In
Preconference Focal Sessions begin
Break
Preconference Focal Sessions continue
Lunch
Preconference Focal Sessions continue
Break
Preconference Focal Sessions end
View Richard Paul video (looping) in our bookstore before sessions begin
each day, during breaks and lunch, and after the afternoon sessions.
(Tuesday-Thursday)
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
20
The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Begins
Daily Schedule July 26-27, 2016
Days One and Two
Tuesday - July 26
7:00 a.m. - 8:40 a.m. 8:45 a.m. - 10:00 a.m. 10:00 a.m. - 10:30 a.m. 10:30 a.m. - 11:45 a.m. 11:45 a.m. - 1:15 p.m. 1:15 p.m. - 2:45 p.m. 2:45 p.m. - 3:00 p.m.
3:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. Registration & Check-In
Opening Ceremony
Break
Day One Focal Sessions begin
Lunch
Day One Focal Sessions continue
Break
Day One Focal Sessions continue
Wednesday - July 27
9:00 a.m. - 10:00 a.m. 10:00 a.m. - 10:30 a.m. 10:30 a.m. - 11:45 a.m. 11:45 a.m. - 1:15 p.m. 1:15 p.m. - 2:30 p.m. 2:30 p.m. - 2:45 p.m. 2:45 p.m. - 4:15 p.m. Bertrand Russell Scholars Program begins –
Honoring Dr. Carol Tavris *
Working Break during Russell Scholars Program
Bertrand Russell Scholars Program continues
Lunch
Roundtable Program
Break
Day Two Focal Sessions begin
* See Bertrand Russell Distinguished Scholars Critical Thinking Series
beginning on page 27.
View Richard Paul video (looping) in our bookstore before sessions begin
each day, during breaks and lunch, and after the afternoon sessions.
(Tuesday-Thursday)
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
21
The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Continues
Daily Schedule July 28-39, 2016
Days Three and Four
Thursday - July 28 Concurrent sessions. To choose concurrent sessions, see the concurrent
session program on page 63.
8:30 a.m. - 9:30 a.m.
Concurrent Sessions I
9:40 a.m. - 10:40 a.m.
Concurrent Sessions II
10:40 a.m. - 10:55 a.m.
Break
10:55 a.m. - 11:55 a.m. Concurrent Sessions III
11:55 a.m. - 1:20 p.m. Lunch
1:20 p.m. - 2:20 p.m.
Concurrent Sessions IV
2:20 p.m. - 2:35 p.m.
Break
2:35 p.m. - 4:30 p.m. Day Three Focal Sessions begin
7:00 p.m. - 10:00 p.m. Evening Social for All Delegates
Friday - July 29
9:00 a.m. - 11:00 a.m. 11:00 a.m. - 11:30 a.m. 11:30 a.m. - 12:15 p.m. Day Four Focal Sessions
Break
Closing Session
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Focal Session Presenters
Senior Fellows of the Foundation for Critical Thinking
Dr. Linda Elder is an educational psychologist and a
leading authority on critical thinking. She is President of the Foundation for Critical Thinking and Executive Director of the Center for Critical Thinking. Dr. Elder has taught both psychology and critical
thinking at the college level, and has given presentations to more than 20,000 educators at all levels. She has
coauthored four books and 24 Thinker’s Guides on critical
thinking. Dr. Elder has developed an original stage theory of critical thinking
development. Concerned with understanding and illuminating the relationship
between thinking and affect, and with the barriers to critical thinking, Dr. Elder
has placed these issues at the center of her thinking and her work.
Dr. Gerald Nosich is a prominent authority on critical thinking, and has given more than 250 national and international workshops on the subject. He has worked with the U.S. Department of Education on a project for
the National Assessment of Higher Order Thinking skills, served as the Assistant Director of the Center for Critical Thinking, and has been featured as a Noted Scholar at the University of British Columbia. He is
Professor Emeritus at both SUNY Buffalo State and the University of New
Orleans. He is the author of two books including Learning to Think Things
Through: A Guide to Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum.
Elder and Nosich are first-generation Paulian Scholars; each experienced the
rare opportunity of studying directly with Richard Paul for more than 20 years.
The works of Paul, Elder, and Nosich are translated into many languages worldwide, including Chinese, Japanese, Turkish, Korean, French, German, Arabic,
Spanish, Thai, Greek, and Polish.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Guest Focal Session Presenters
Scholars of the Foundation for Critical Thinking
Dr. Brian Barnes has taught critical thinking courses for
seven years at the university level. He has earned grants from
Hanover College, the James Randi Education Foundation,
and the University of Louisville focused on developing
critical thinking in everyday life. He holds a Masters degree
in Philosophy and a Ph.D. in Culture, Criticism, and
Contemporary Thought from the University of Louisville,
which fosters the Paulian Approach to critical thinking
across the curriculum. Mr. Barnes is a Visiting Scholar of the Foundation for Critical
Thinking.
Carmen Polka has worked diligently to infuse critical
thinking into her classroom instruction, curriculum and
assessment for more than 15 years. Focused on transforming
education through implementation of quality instructional
practices, Ms. Polka instigated and co-authored the writing
of the Colorado Academic State Standards targeting research
and reasoning based on the Paul-Elder framework. As
a leader and critical thinking expert in her district, she
led professional development and coached K-12 teachers to effectively utilize the
Paulian theory. Ms. Polka is a Doctoral candidate in the Educational Leadership and
Policy Studies program at the University of Northern Colorado. In addition, she is a
licensed Elementary teacher, K-12 Special Education teacher and licensed principal.
f
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking About Richard Paul
The Founder of the Center and Foundation for Critical Thinking
In 1968, Richard Paul completed his doctoral dissertation for the Ph.D. in
Philosophy. His dissertation focused on the following seminal questions:
To what extent do traditional philosophical approaches to
the analysis and assessment of reasoning effectively guide
one in determining what makes sense to believe and what to
reject? More specifically, to what extent do these approaches
provide adequate theory for determining when questions
have been adequately answered and when assertions or
claims have been sufficiently validated?
In his critique of traditional philosophical approaches to reasoning, Paul
illuminated the conflicting nature of these approaches, as well as the limitations
and often glaring inconsistencies within and among them. He asserted the
need for replacing the fragmented, inconsistent, and conflicting philosophical
approaches to reasoning with an integrated, systematic, and – if possible –
universal approach.
Paul argued that the primary task of the logician is to develop tools for the
analysis and assessment of reasoning in every discipline and domain of human
thought – tools to be used in reasoning through life’s many complex problems
and issues. He emphasized the importance
of the “logic of language” to human reasoning. He set forth the idea that every subject
and discipline has a fundamental logic that
could and should be explicitly formulated
(and that an adequate theory of reasoning
would provide the foundation for that logic).
Paul’s focus on the importance of
explicating intellectual tools for analyzing
and assessing reasoning in his 1968
dissertation laid the groundwork for what
would become his life’s work. It planted the
seeds for the critical thinking theory Paul
would develop throughout many years of
thinking about the problematics in thinking,
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking 25
and about the concepts that
can be used to intervene in
these problematics, thereby
improving thinking.
Paul developed, throughout
his lifetime, precisely what he
called for in his early critique
of philosophy: an integrated
approach to the analysis and
assessment of reasoning, now
used by perhaps millions of people throughout the world. Almost 50 years after
the completion of his dissertation, after many years of doggedly pursuing the
questions he opened up in it, the name “Richard Paul” and the concept of critical
thinking are virtually synonymous throughout the world.
The importance of Paul’s work lies in its richness and in its universal application
to human decisions and interactions, in its simplicity and in its complexity, in its
delineation of ethical versus unethical critical thought, and in its integration of
insights from many domains of human reasoning. Through a developed lens of
critical thinking, Paul has detailed a multilogical, multidisciplinary approach to
understanding and improving the human mind – and, thus, the human condition.
Richard Paul was a living example of a critical mind at work, systematically
employing intellectual skills human minds rarely learn, even at foundational
levels. His genius lay, among other things, in his willingness to take ideas
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking seriously, to resolutely pursue those ideas through strict adherence to intellectual
standards, to clearly distinguish in his own mind what is known from what is
simply believed, and to sincerely embrace and embody the intellectual virtues of
the cultivated mind – and to do all of these things routinely and consistently even,
and most especially, in his own personal life.
Richard Paul cultivated theory that, were it to be taken seriously in any broadscale way, would greatly reduce suffering and the pervasive injustices that exist
throughout the world, for Paul developed a fairminded conception of criticality
accessible to all humans through their
own natural languages.
Richard Paul died in August of 2015,
but we carry forward his vision for a more
forgiving world, a more compassionate
world, and in his name, a more merciful
world.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking The Bertrand Russell Distinguished Scholars
Critical Thinking Series
This year’s conference marks the
fifth year of our Bertrand Russell
Distinguished Scholars Critical Thinking
Series. This series highlights the work
and thinking of distinguished thinkers
within subjects, fields, disciplines, or
about specific topics or issues. We
honor the thinking, the philosophy, and
the contributions of Bertrand Russell
through this series.
Bertrand Russell was one of the most
influential 20th-century philosophers.
In the following passages, he emphasizes
the importance of open and free inquiry.
He stresses the critical need to create
education systems that foster fairminded pursuit of knowledge, and warns of the
dangers inherent in dogmatic ideologies.
The conviction that it is important to believe this or that, even if a free
inquiry would not support the belief, is one which is common to almost all
religions and which inspires all systems of state education...A habit of basing convictions upon evidence, and of giving to them only that degree of
certainty which the evidence warrants, would, if it became general, cure most of the ills from which the world is suffering. But at present, in most countries, education aims at preventing the growth of such a habit, and men who refuse to profess belief in some system of unfounded dogmas are not considered suitable as teachers of the young…
The world that I should wish to see would be one freed from the virulence of group hostilities and capable of realizing that happiness for all is to be derived rather from cooperation than from strife. I should wish to see a world in which education aimed at mental freedom rather than at
imprisoning the minds of the young in a rigid armor of dogma calculated to protect them through life against the shafts of impartial evidence. The world needs open hearts and open minds, and it is not through rigid
systems, whether old or new, that these can be derived (Russell, 1957,
pp. vi-vii). ©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking In his book, Portraits from Memory, “Reflections on My Eightieth Birthday,”
Russell (1956) comments on the long-term nature of change and the importance
of moving ever closer toward the creation of critical societies:
...beneath all this load of failure I am still conscious of something that I feel to be victory. I may have conceived theoretical truth wrongly, but I was not wrong in thinking that there is such a thing, and that it deserves our
allegiance. I may have thought the road to a world of free and happy human beings shorter than it is proving to be, but I was not wrong in thinking that such a world is possible, and that it is worth while to live with a view to bringing it nearer. I have lived in the pursuit of a vision, both personal and social. Personal: to care for what is noble, for what is beautiful, for what is gentle; to allow moments of insight to give wisdom at more mundane times. Social: to see in imagination the society that is to be created, where
individuals grow freely, and where hate and greed and envy die because there is nothing to nourish them. These things I believe, and the world, for all its horrors, has left me unshaken.
Russell (1919) also illuminates the fact that the vast majority of people today
do not think critically, or indeed ethically, and that those who do will seek a
“new system of society.” He says:
The great majority of men and women, in ordinary times, pass through life without ever contemplating or criticizing, as a whole, either their own
conditions or those of the world at large. They find themselves born into a certain place in society, and they accept what each day brings forth, without any effort of thought beyond what the
immediate present requires…they seek the satisfaction of the needs of the moment, without much forethought, and without considering that by sufficient effort the whole condition of their lives could be changed...It is only a few rare and
exceptional men who have that kind of
love toward mankind at large that makes them unable to endure patiently the
general mass of evil and suffering,
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking regardless of any relation it may
have to their own lives. These
few, driven by sympathetic pain,
will seek, first in thought and
then in action, for some way of
escape, some new system of
society by which life may
become richer, more full of joy
and less full of preventable evils
than it is at present (p. viii). Bertrand Russell’s thoughts
and writings on social issues are
intimately linked with the ideals
of critical thinking and the
concept of fairminded critical
societies.
References:
Russell, B. (1919). Proposed Roads to Freedom. NY: Henry Holt and Co. Russell, B. (1956). Portraits From
Memory and Other Essays. New York: Simon and Schuster. Russell, B. (1957). Why I am Not a Christian. New York: Simon and Schuster.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Bertrand Russell Scholars
Previously Honored
Daniel Ellsberg
at the 35nd Conference
Elizabeth Loftus
at the 33rd Conference
Ralph Nader
at the 34th Conference
William Robinson
at the 32nd Conference
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press Michael Shermer
at the 32nd Conference
www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Bertrand Russell Scholars
Previously Honored Posthumously
Socrates
Named at the 34th Conference
John Stuart Mill*
Named at the 35th Conference
* Drawing by Linda Elder using graphite on acid-free paper, 2015.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Bertrand Russell Scholar Named Posthumously
at the 36th Conference
We are pleased to honor, as this year’s Posthumous Bertrand Russell
Distinguished Scholar, the 18th-century English-American writer, philosopher,
and revolutionary, Thomas Paine. We name Thomas Paine this year’s
posthumous Russell Scholar for his defense of rationality, his advocacy for the
rights of the common people, and his fierce and uncompromising opposition to
slavery.
We honor Paine for questioning the social conventions of his day, most
especially those that denied the common people fundamental human rights –
including the resources and means to feed and shelter themselves, and to have
Drawing by Linda Elder using graphite on acid-free paper, primarily taken from a photo dated 1791.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking other basic needs met. We honor Paine for his
eloquent, foundational arguments detailing
the importance of designing governments that
in fact advance the public interest, and which
hence protect the people from tyrannical
governance. Paine said that governments “may
all be comprehended under three heads. First,
superstition. Secondly, power. Thirdly, the
common interest of society and the common
rights of man. The first was a government of
priestcraft, the second of conquerors, the third of
reason” (p. 139). We may all judge for ourselves
the extent to which any human society has
reached the third level of government.
Though Paine played major roles in two revolutions during his lifetime,
he was vilified by George Washington and other American and international
leaders for his role in fighting for true democracy across human societies, after
the American Revolution. Paine was imprisoned during the French revolution,
while Washington and other influential aristocratic American leaders did nothing
to intervene until months into his imprisonment, and until political pressure
surmounted, requiring it of them.
In Bertrand Russell’s essay entitled, “The Fate of Tom Paine,” Russell says of
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Paine, “he had his faults, like other men; but it was for his virtues that he was
hated, and successfully calumniated...(p. 134)...he set an example of courage,
humanity, and single-mindedness. When public issues were involved, he forgot
personal prudence. The world decided, as it usually does in such cases, to punish
him for his lack of self-seeking (p. 147). Paine was consistently opposed to every
form of cruelty, whether practiced by his own party or by his opponents” (p. 143).
It is to the great detriment of the people that we cannot seem to cultivate, in
today’s political climate, real statesmen such as Thomas Paine to serve the people
at the highest levels of government. When and if fairminded critical societies
emerge, wise thinkers such as Paine will be daily celebrated, their ideas will be
taken seriously, and the rights of the people will become a priority.
*All of the references in this section come from Bertrand Russell’s book, entitled, Why I Am Not A
Christian, NY, NY: Simon and Schuster. (1957)
Painting of Thomas Paine by Laurent Dabos, circa 1791.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Bertrand Russell Distinguished Scholar
for the
36th International Conference
This feature of the conference highlights the work and thinking of distinguished
thinkers within subjects, fields, disciplines, or about specific topics or issues. This
year’s scholar is Dr. Carol Tavris. All conference participants are invited to the
Russell Scholars Program. See p. 58 for this year’s Russell Program format.
Dr. Carol Tavris has devoted her professional life – as writer, teacher, and
lecturer – to educating the public about psychological science. Her book with
Elliot Aronson, “Mistakes Were Made (But Not by ME): Why we justify foolish
beliefs, bad decisions, and hurtful acts” (Mariner Books, 2015), applies cognitive
dissonance theory to a wide variety of topics, including
politics, conflicts of interest, memory (everyday and
“recovered”), the criminal justice system, police
interrogation, the daycare sex-abuse epidemic, family
quarrels, international conflicts, and business.
Tavris has spoken to students, psychologists,
mediators, lawyers, judges, physicians, business
executives, and general audiences on, among other
topics, self-justification; science and pseudoscience in
psychology; gender
and sexuality; critical
thinking; and anger. In
the legal arena, she has
given many addresses
and workshops to
attorneys and judges
on the difference
between testimony
based on good
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking psychological science and that based on
pseudoscience and subjective clinical
opinion.
Carol Tavris is a Charter Fellow of the
Association for Psychological Science.
Her honors and awards include the 2014
Media Achievement Award from SPSP;
an honorary doctorate from Simmons
college in 2013; the Distinguished Media
Contribution Award from the American
Association of Applied and Preventive
Psychology (for The Mismeasure of
Woman), the Heritage Publications
Award from Division 35 of the American
Psychological Association (for The Mismeasure of Woman), the “Movers
and Shakers” Award from Southern California Library for Social Studies and
Research, the Distinguished Contribution to Women’s Health Award from
the APA Conference on Women’s Health, and an award from the Center for
Inquiry, Independent Investigations Group, for contributions to skepticism and
science.
We are pleased to honor Carol Tavris, at this year’s conference, for her
important contributions to our understanding of the human mind.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking From the archives, excerpt from…
Two Conflicting Theories of Knowledge, Learning, and
Literacy: The Didactic and the Critical*
By Richard Paul
Most instructional practice in most academic institutions around the
world presupposes a didactic theory of knowledge, learning, and literacy,
ill-suited to the development of critical minds and literate persons. After a
superficial exposure to reading, writing, and arithmetic, schooling is typically
fragmented into more or less technical domains each with a large vocabulary
and an extensive content or propositional base. Students “take in” and
reiterate domain-specific details. Teachers lecture and drill. Students rarely
integrate their daily non-academic experiences. Teachers spend little time
stimulating student questions. Students are rarely encouraged to doubt what
they hear in the classroom or read in their texts. Students’ personal points of
view or philosophies of life are considered largely irrelevant to education. In
most classrooms teachers talk and students listen. Dense and typically speedy
coverage of content is usually followed by content-specific testing. Students
are drilled in applying formulas, skills, and concepts, then tested on nearly
identical items. Instructional practices fail to require students to use what they
learn when appropriate. Practice is stripped of meaning and purpose.
Interdisciplinary synthesis is ordinarily viewed as the personal
responsibility of the student and is not routinely tested. Technical
specialization is considered the natural goal of schooling and is correlated
with getting a job. Few multi-logical issues or problems are discussed or
assigned and even fewer teachers know how to conduct such discussions or
assess student participation in them. Students rarely engage in dialogical or
dialectical reasoning and few teachers can analyze such reasoning. Knowledge
is viewed as verified intra-disciplinary propositions and well-supported intradisciplinary theories. There is little or no discussion of the nature of prejudice
or bias, little or no discussion of metacognition, little or no discussion of what
a disciplined, self-directed mind or self-directed thought require. We expect
students to develop into literate, educated persons from years of content
memorization and ritual performance.
* This excerpt is taken from Critical Thinking: What Every Person Needs To Survive in a Rapidly Changing
World, Tomales, CA: FCT Press. (2012)
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking The above dominant pattern of academic instruction and learning
assumes an uncritical theory of knowledge, learning, and literacy coming
under increasing critique by those concerned with instruction fitted to new
interpretations of the emerging economic and social conditions and changing
conditions for human survival. (Passmore, 1967)1 (Scheffler 1973, 1965) 2
Those whose teaching reflects the didactic theory rarely formulate it explicitly.
Some would deny that they hold it, though their practice implies it. In any
case, it is with the theory implicit in practice that we are concerned.
A Glimpse at the Historical and Social Background of Didactic Instruction and
Uncritical Learning
The didactic theory of knowledge, learning, and literacy, though unsuited
to in-depth learning or critical thinking, has been functional to some
extent for the maintenance of routine life in what have been to date largely
uncritical societies. Schooling has been first and last a social process, reflecting
ascendant social forces and thinking largely subservient to them. Much of
what happens in schools results from social and economic decisions made
predominantly by non-academics. Epistemo-logic is traditionally subordinate
to socio-logic.
We must remember that knowledge, however extensive, is a highly limited
social construction out of an infinitude of possible such constructions.
Although all humans live in a veritable sea of potentially expressible truths,
they express only a few of them, only a few become knowledge. The constraints
that we must live within inevitably limit the social production of knowledge.
We are therefore highly selective and directional in that production. We don’t
randomly express truths. We systematically seek the knowledge which serves
our interests, meets our needs, and solves our problems. The human mind
and social life being what it is, we generate a good deal of pseudo-knowledge
intermixed with the genuine. We also avoid producing and disseminating
knowledge that might undermine our social engagements and vested interests.
Not all learning is ipso facto rational, and irrational practices are often deeply
embedded in day-to-day social life. We do this spontaneously and naturally,
without guile or conscious malice. We are not truth seekers by nature but
functional knowledge seekers. And widely accepted pseudo-knowledge is
often quite functional. Hence, to take an obvious example, in a racist society
it is functional to be racist. Rationally unjustified beliefs often enable us to get
ahead and stay out of trouble. Ordinary social life, whether we like it or not, is
1 Passmore, John. “On Teaching to Be Critical.” The Concept of Education, Routledge & Kegan Paul,
London: 1967. pp. 192-211
2 Scheffler, Israel. Conditions of Knowledge, Scott Foresman, Chicago. 1965.
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking 39
filled with innumerable functional falsehoods.
As long as societies functioned primarily as self-contained systems
independent of each other and the repercussions of economic, social, and
political conflicts were manageable, functional falsehoods and suppressed
knowledge (the avoidance of unpleasant truth) was tolerable. We should
remember that the systematic search for particular dimensions of knowledge
as an organized and specialized endeavor is itself quite recent in human
history. It is at most 2,000 years old while the species is somewhere between
1,000,000 and 3,000,000 years old. Most disciplines have emerged as
significant endeavors only within the last 300 or so years. Wholesale mass
schooling is only about 100 years old. Schools and socialization historically
have armed the mass of people with minimum levels of superficial knowledge,
functional falsehoods, and socially approved biases. Only a few were
encouraged to approach the ideal of critical thought, and even these only
in a limited way. As scientific disciplines emerged it became necessary for
some to understand particular disciplines deeply. What Kant called scientific
ignorance - knowing clearly what we do not yet know - became necessary for
advancing intra-disciplinary progress. But most people were not expected to
contribute to the advances in specialized disciplines, only to use in a limited
way some tools that a technological application of those advances made
possible.
Furthermore, the overwhelming majority of people were each expected
to find a particular niche within the complex structures of social life, not to
engage in social critique, not to detect social contradictions, not to expose
pseudo-knowledge or to articulate suppressed knowledge. That learning was
all of a piece for the typical (uncritical) learner - truth, half-truth, bias, and
falsehood blended together - created no insoluble economic or social problems
for society. Problems aplenty there were, but on the whole people in the same
societies shared the same basic beliefs, true or false, rational or irrational.
Anarchy did not result from the fact that “Truth” meant no more in the last
analysis to ordinary people than ‘We believe it” or “It agrees with our beliefs”
or “It was said by someone with authority and prestige.”
But the relative homogeneity and isolation of societies began to break down
with the advent of science and the emergence of a technological world. More
and more individuals became, are increasingly becoming, aware of differences
in belief, not just of people outside but of people inside their societies as well.
And interdependence has dramatically and increasingly emerged. What were
previously local decisions with nothing more than local consequences are
becoming international matters. Knowledge production and dissemination
can no longer be premised on an intra-societal world and humanity cannot
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking survive indefinitely with masses of people whose ultimate de facto test of
knowledge is personal desire or social conformity.
What, Then, Is Critical Thinking?
It is certainly of the nature of the human mind to think - spontaneously,
continuously, and pervasively - but it is not of the nature of the human
mind to think critically about the standards and principles guiding
its spontaneous thought. It has no built-in drive to question its innate
tendency to believe what it wants to believe, what makes it comfortable,
what is simple rather than complex, and what is commonly believed and
socially rewarded. The human mind is ordinarily at peace with itself as
it internalizes and creates biases, prejudices, falsehoods, half-truths, and
distortions. Compartmentalized contradictions do not, by their very nature,
disturb those who take them in and selectively use them. The human
mind spontaneously experiences itself as in tune with reality, as directly
observing and faithfully recording it. It takes a special intervening process
to produce the kind of self-criticalness that enables the mind to effectively
and constructively question its own creations. The mind spontaneously but
uncritically invests itself with epistemological authority with the same ease
with which it accepts authority figures in the world into which it is socialized.
Learning to think critically is therefore an extraordinary process that
cultivates capacities merely potential in human thought and develops them at
the expense of capacities spontaneously activated from within and reinforced
by normal socialization. It is not normal and inevitable or even common
for a mind to discipline itself within a rational perspective and direct itself
toward rational rather than egocentric beliefs, practices, and values. Yet it is
possible to describe the precise conditions under which critical minds can
be cultivated. The differences between critical and uncritical thought are
increasingly apparent.
Nonetheless, because of the complexity of critical thinking - its
relationship to an unlimited number of behaviors in an unlimited number
of situations, its conceptual interdependence with other concepts such as the
critical person, the critical society, a critical theory of knowledge, learning,
and literacy, and rationality, not to speak of the opposites of these concepts
- one should not put too much weight on any particular definition of
critical thinking. Distinguished theoreticians have formulated many useful
definitions which highlight important features of critical thought. Harvey
Siegel has defined critical thinking as “thinking appropriately moved by
reasons.” This definition highlights the contrast between the mind’s tendency
to be shaped by phenomena other than reasons: desires, fears, social rewards
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking 41
and punishments, etc. It points up the connection between critical thinking
and the classic philosophical ideal of rationality. Yet clearly the ideal of
rationality is itself open to multiple explications. Similar points can be made
about Robert Ennis’ and Matthew Lipman’s definitions.
Robert Ennis defines critical thinking as “rational reflective thinking
concerned with what to do or believe.” This definition usefully calls attention
to the wide role that critical thinking plays in everyday life, for, since all
behavior depends on what we believe, all human action depends upon what
we in some sense decide to do. However, like Siegel’s definition it assumes
that the reader has a clear concept of rationality and of the conditions
under which a decision can be said to be “reflective.” There is also a possible
ambiguity in Ennis’ use of “reflective.” As a person internalizes critical
standards the application of these standards to action becomes more
automatic, less a matter of conscious effort, hence less a matter of overt
“reflection,” assuming that Ennis means to imply by “reflection” a special
consciousness or deliberateness.
Matthew Lipman defines critical thinking as “skillful, responsible,
thinking that is conducive to judgment because it relies on criteria, is selfcorrecting, and is sensitive to context.” This definition is useful insofar as
one clearly understands the difference between responsible and irresponsible
thinking, as well as what the appropriate self-correction of thought, the
appropriate use of criteria, and appropriate sensitivity to context mean.
Of course, it would be easy to find instances of thinking that were selfcorrecting, used criteria, and responded to context in one sense and
nevertheless were uncritical in some other sense. One’s criteria might be
uncritically chosen, for example, or the manner of responding to context
might be critically deficient in numerous ways.
I make these points not to deny the usefulness of these definitions, but
to point out limitations in the process of definition itself when addressing a
complex concept such as critical thinking. Rather than to work solely with
one definition of critical thinking, it is better to retain a host of definitions,
for two reasons: 1) to maintain insight into the various dimensions of critical
thinking that alternative definitions highlight, and 2) to help oneself escape
the limitations of each. In this spirit I will present a number of my definitions
of the cluster of concepts whose relationship to each other is fundamental to
critical thinking. These concepts are: critical thinking, uncritical thinking,
sophistic critical thinking, and fairminded critical thinking. After so doing, I
will analyze one definition at length.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking CRITICAL THINKING
a) the art of thinking about your thinking while you’re thinking so as to
make your thinking more clear, precise, accurate, relevant, consistent, and fair
b) the art of constructive skepticism
c) the art of identifying and removing bias, prejudice, and one-sidedness
of thought
d) the art of self-directed, in-depth, rational learning
e) thinking that rationally certifies what we know and makes clear
wherein we are ignorant
UNCRITICAL THINKING
a) thought captive of one’s ego, desires, social conditioning, prejudices, or
irrational impressions
b) thinking that is egocentric, careless, heedless of assumptions, relevant
evidence, implications, or consistency
c) thinking that habitually ignores epistemological demands in favor of its
egocentric commitments
SOPHISTIC CRITICAL THINKING
a) thinking which meets epistemological demands insofar as they square
with the vested interests of the thinker
b) skilled thinking that is heedless of assumptions, relevance, reasons,
evidence, implications and consistency only insofar as it is in the vested
interest of the thinker to do so
c) skilled thinking that is motivated by vested interest, egocentrism, or
ethnocentrism rather than by truth or objective reasonability
FAIRMINDED CRITICAL THINKING
a) skilled thinking which meets epistemological demands regardless of the
vested interests or ideological commitments of the thinker
b) skilled thinking characterized by empathy into diverse opposing points
of view and devotion to truth as against self-interest
c) skilled thinking that is consistent in the application of intellectual
standards, holding one’s self to the same rigorous standards of evidence
and proof to which one holds one’s antagonists
d) skilled thinking that demonstrates the commitment to entertain all
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking 43
viewpoints sympathetically and to assess them with the same
intellectual standards, without reference to one’s own feelings or vested
interests, or the feelings or vested interests of one’s friends, community
or nation
It is important not only to emphasize the dimension of skills in critical
thinking, but also to explicitly mark out the very real possibility of a onesided use of them. Indeed, the historical tendency for skills of thought to
be systematically used in defense of the vested interests of dominant social
groups and the parallel tendency of all social groups to develop one-sided
thinking in support of their own interests, mandates marking this tendency
explicitly. We should clearly recognize that one-sided critical thinking is
much more common than fairminded critical thought.
Conclusion
The pace of change in the world is accelerating, yet educational institutions
have not kept up. Indeed, schools have historically been the most static of
social institutions, uncritically passing down from generation to generation
out-moded didactic, lecture-and-drill-based, models of instruction.
Predictable results follow. Students, on the whole, do not learn how to work by,
or think for, themselves. They do not learn how to gather, analyze, synthesize,
and assess information. They do not learn how to analyze the diverse logics of
the questions and problems they face and hence how to adjust their thinking
to them. They do not learn how to enter sympathetically into the thinking of
others, nor how to deal rationally with conflicting points of view. They do not
learn to become critical readers, writers, speakers, or listeners. They do not
learn how to use their native languages clearly, precisely, or persuasively. They
do not, therefore, become “literate,” in the proper sense of the word. Neither
do they gain much genuine knowledge since, for the most part, they could not
explain the basis for their beliefs. They would be hard pressed to explain, for
example, which of their beliefs were based on rational assent and which on
simple conformity to what they have heard. They do not see how they might
critically analyze their own experience or identify national or group bias in
their own thought. They are much more apt to learn on the basis of irrational
than rational modes of thought. They lack the traits of mind of a genuinely
educated person: intellectual humility, courage, integrity, perseverance, and
faith in reason.
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Fortunately, there is a movement in education today striving to address
these problems in a global way, with strategies and materials for the
modification of instruction at all levels of education. It arises from an
emerging new theory of knowledge, learning, and literacy which recognizes
the centrality of independent critical thought to all substantial learning,
which recognizes the importance of higher order multilogical thinking for
childhood as well as adult learning, to foundational learning in monological
as well as multilogical disciplines. This educational reform movement does
not propose an educational miracle cure, for its leading proponents recognize
that many social and historical forces must come together before the ideals
of the critical thinking movement will be achieved. Schools do not exist in a
social vacuum. To the extent that the broader society is uncritical, so, on the
whole, will society’s schools. Nevertheless the social conditions necessary for
fundamental changes in schooling are increasingly apparent. The pressure for
fundamental change is growing. Whether and to what extent these needed
basic changes will be delayed or side-tracked, and so require new periodic
resurgences of this movement, with new, more elaborate articulations of its
ideals, goals, and methods - only time will tell.
“An eye for an eye will only make the whole world blind.” -Gandhi*
*Drawing by Linda Elder using graphite on acid-free paper, 2015.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Sessions
All conference delegates and attendees have registered for their choices from the
following sessions. See your confirmation sheet (in your packet) if you are
unclear on which focal sessions you have selected. Please attend the sessions you
chose, as room assignments have been determined based on enrollment totals
for each session. If any problems arise, visit the registration desk.
Preconference Session Descriptions (Monday)
Monday (9:00 a.m. - 4:00 p.m.)
Teaching Students to Think Within the Logic of your Discipline…
Gerald Nosich
Bennet Valley
One of the main goals of instruction is to help the student internalize the
most basic concepts in the subject and to learn to think through questions in
everyday life using those concepts. Critical thinking in biology is biological
thinking. Critical thinking in anatomy is anatomical thinking. Critical thinking
in literature is thinking the way a knowledgeable, sensitive, reasonable reader
thinks about literature. A discipline is more than a body of information. It is a
distinctive way (or set of ways) of looking at the world and thinking through
a set of questions about it. It is systematic and has a logic of its own. In this
session, participants will think through the logic of a discipline of their choosing.
They will also focus on teaching the logic of their discipline so students
internalize the way of thinking inherent in the subject as a life-long acquisition.
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Preconference Session Descriptions Continued
Fostering Critical Thinking in the K-12 Classroom: Practical Strategies…
Carmen Polka
Russian River Valley
Bringing critical thinking into the K-12 classroom entails understanding the
concepts and principles embedded in critical thinking and then applying
those concepts throughout the curriculum. It means developing powerful
strategies that emerge when we begin to understand critical thinking. In this
session we will focus on strategies for engaging the intellect at the K-12 level.
These strategies are powerful and useful, because each is a way to routinely
engage students in thinking about what they are trying to learn as they are
learning. Many of the strategies offer students methods for questioning, and
for appropriately analyzing and assessing, the ideas they are “receiving” in the
schooling process. Each strategy represents a shift of responsibility for learning
from teacher to student. These strategies suggest ways to help your students
learn to do the (often) hard work of learning.
The Life and Work of Richard Paul…How We Lived and Learned Together…
Linda Elder
Dry Creek Valley
Richard Paul is widely considered a seminal thinker in the field of Critical
Thinking Studies. Though Richard passed away in the fall of 2015, his work
and original theory is explicit in the best conceptions of critical thinking and
the best work in critical thinking. In this session we will consider some of Paul’s
important contributions to critical thinking. We will focus especially on some of
Paul’s significant contributions to the field that often receive less attention than
his primary contributions, going beyond, or deeper into, the areas of analysis
and assessment of thought and the advancement of intellectual virtues.
We will also discuss some of the significant ways in which Richard and I
worked together on a daily basis, as colleagues, to advance our understanding
of critical thinking theory, to develop theory of pedagogy in critical thinking,
to contextualize critical thinking within fields and domains of thought, and
to advance the concept of fairminded critical thinking and fairminded critical
societies through our work at the Foundation for Critical Thinking. We will
explore the study habits Richard and I used, and developed, during our time
together, to increasingly strengthen our intellectual development.
By way of illustration or example, I will detail some of the ways in which
Richard related with me, and the ways in which we related to one another
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking 47
personally, as we employed the tools of critical thinking on a daily basis in
thinking through complex issues in parenting, and through our twenty year
marriage.
We will view and discuss video footage of Paul articulating the theory of
critical thinking and how to foster it throughout instruction. We will read and
discuss excerpts from Paul’s anthology: Critical Thinking: What Everyone Needs
to Survive in a Rapidly Changing World.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Focal Session Descriptions (Tuesday)
Day One: Tuesday (10:30 a.m. - 4:00 p.m.)
Critical Thinking as Essential to the Development of Intellectual Skills in
Higher Education… Gerald Nosich
Cooperage Building Room 2
There is no more important goal in higher education than cultivating
the intellect, but we cannot achieve this goal unless we place intellectual
development at the heart of instruction. To do this, we must approach our
students as thinkers, as persons capable of figuring things out for themselves, as
persons with their own thoughts, emotions, and desires, as persons with minds
of their own. However, thinking is often ignored in colleges and universities
(and indeed in society). Historically critical thinking has been treated in higher
education as another add-on, as something interesting we combine with other
things we do. But when we understand what it takes to cultivate the intellect we
bring the concepts and principles of critical thinking into everything we do in
the classroom. Critical thinking becomes the centerpiece of instruction. This is
true because it is through critical thinking that we make explicit the intellectual
tools students need to live successfully and reasonably, to grapple with the
complex problems they will inevitably face, to think their way through content
of any kind. However, we can’t foster critical thinking if we don’t understand
it ourselves. This session will introduce some of the foundations of critical
thinking. We focus on initial internalization of these foundations, coupled with
application to classroom structures and strategies.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Focal Sessions Continued (Tues.)
Critical Thinking as Essential to the Acquisition of Knowledge in K-12
Education… Linda Elder
Cooperage Building Room 1
Students are increasingly assessed on the acquisition of their knowledge in
K-12 schooling. But what knowledge should students be acquiring? How do we
decide which is most significant, and which can be left behind? Who decides?
Who should decide? How do students acquire knowledge? How do critical
thinking, the acquisition of knowledge, and the educated person interrelated as
powerful concepts? How do the tools of critical thinking lead to the acquisition
of knowledge? How does activated knowledge differ from activated ignorance
and inert information? In this session we will explore these questions as we
introduce the Paulian Conception of Critical Thinking (Paul-Elder Approach).
We will focus on understanding the importance of intellectual virtues in the
mind of the educated person and in the acquisition of knowledge. We will
briefly explore the analysis of thought and the critical role played by intellectual
standards in the acquisition of knowledge at the K-12 level.
Advanced Session: The Important Ideas of Tom Paine, His Revolutionary
World View, and Why He Was Ultimately Vilified… Brian Barnes
Cooperage Building Room 3
At this year’s conference we honor, as posthumous Bertrand Russell Scholar,
the ideas, work, and life of Tom Paine. Paine was a political activist, philosopher
and revolutionary who is considered one of the Founding Father of the United
States. He authored several important and influential treatises during his lifetime
- including Common Sense and Rights of Man. Excerpts from both books will be
explored during this session, from the point of view of critical thinking. We will
also explore why, despite his many important contributions to freedom, Paine
was later vilified by many Americans, including famous politicians, and why his
ideas are essential to the educated person and those who aspire to become critical
persons.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Focal Sessions (Wednesday)
Day Two: Wednesday Afternoon (2:45 p.m. - 4:15 p.m.)
Why Intellectual Virtues are Essential to a Robust Conception of Critical
Thinking… Gerald Nosich
Cooperage Building Room 2
Critical thinking is not just a set of intellectual skills. It is a way of orienting oneself
in the world. It is a way of approaching problems that differs significantly from that
which is typical in human life. People may have critical thinking skills and abilities,
and yet still be unable to enter viewpoints with which they disagree. They may have
critical thinking abilities, and yet still be unable to analyze the beliefs that guide their
behavior. They may have critical thinking abilities, and yet be unable to distinguish
between what they know and what they don’t know, to persevere through difficult
problems and issues, to think fairmindedly, to stand alone against the crowd. This
session introduces the intellectual character traits at the heart of a fairminded
conception of critical thinking - the traits of mind embodied by fairminded critical
persons - intellectual virtues such as fairmindedness, intellectual humility, intellectual
perseverance, intellectual courage, intellectual empathy, intellectual autonomy,
intellectual integrity, and confidence in reason.
Critical Reading as Primary Vehicle for Cultivating the Intellect… Carmen Polka
Cooperage Building Room 3
Educated persons are skilled at, and routinely engage in, close reading. They do
not read blindly, but purposely. They have a goal or objective they are pursuing
as they read. Their purpose, together with the nature of what they are reading,
determines how they read. They read differently in different situations for
different purposes. Of course, reading has a nearly universal purpose: to figure
out what an author has to say on a given subject.
When we read, we translate words into meanings. The author has previously
translated ideas and experiences into words. We must take those same words
and re-translate them into the author’s original meaning using our own ideas
and experiences as aids. Accurately translating words into intended meanings
is an analytic, evaluative, and creative set of acts. Unfortunately, few students
are skilled at this translation. Few are able to accurately mirror the meaning
the author intended. They project their own meanings into a text. They
unintentionally distort or violate the original meaning of the authors they read.
Reading, then, is a form of intellectual work. And intellectual work requires
willingness to persevere through difficulties. But perhaps even more importantly,
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Focal Sessions Continued (Weds.)
intellectual work requires understanding what such work entails. In this session
you will be introduced to five levels of close reading and will work through one
or two of them closely (as “students”). Accordingly, you will experience the
process of critically reading significant texts, so as to better understand how to
bring this process into your classrooms,
and into your students’ thinking, on a
typical day.
Why We Need Concern Ourselves With
Human Pathologies in Cultivating the
Disciplined Mind… Linda Elder
Cooperage Building Room 1
The human mind is at once rational and
irrational, reasonable and unreasonable.
We naturally see the world from a narrow
egocentric perspective. We are also highly
vulnerable to influence from group
traditions, mores, taboos and customs.
We are naturally selfish, self-deceiving,
prejudiced, biased. We naturally distort
reality to fit our vision of it. We naturally
distort information to keep from seeing
what we would rather avoid. We naturally
seek more for ourselves and our group than is rightfully ours. We naturally act
without due regard to the rights and needs of others.
In short, humans are naturally egocentric and sociocentric. At the same
time, we are capable of developing as reasonable persons. But to do so requires
commitment and some fundamental understandings about the pathological side
of the human mind. In this session we will focus on some of these painful truths
about the mind. We will explore egocentric and sociocentric thought as intrinsic
mental phenomena that get in the way of cultivating the disciplined mind, and
hence of the educational process. We will also briefly explore processes for
overcoming these pathologies.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Focal Sessions (Thursday)
Day Three: Thursday Afternoon (2:35 p.m. - 4:30 p.m.)
Teaching Students to Formulate and Reason Through Essential Questions in
Teaching and Learning… Gerald Nosich
Cooperage Building Room 2
It is not possible to be a good thinker and a poor questioner. Questions define
tasks, express problems, and delineate issues. They drive thinking forward.
Answers, on the other hand, often bring to thought to an end. Only when an
answer generates further questions does thought continue as inquiry. A mind
with no questions is a mind that is not intellectually alive. No questions (asked)
equals no understanding (achieved). Superficial
questions equal superficial understanding, unclear
questions equal unclear understanding. If your
mind is not actively generating questions, you are
not engaged in substantive learning.
So the question is raised, “How can we teach
so that students generate essential questions
that lead to deep learning?” In this session we
shall focus on practical strategies for generating
questioning minds — at the same time, of course,
that students learn the content that is at the heart
of the curriculum.
Teaching Students to Study and Learn Using the Principles of Critical
Thinking… Carmen Polka
Cooperage Building Room 3
To study well and learn any subject is to learn how to think with discipline
within that subject. It is to learn to think within its logic, to:
1. raise vital questions and problems within it, formulating them clearly and precisely.
2. gather and assess information, using ideas to interpret that information insightfully.
3. come to well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against relevant criteria and standards.
4. adopt the point of view of the discipline, recognizing and assessing,
as need be, its assumptions, implications, and practical
consequences.
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Focal Sessions Continued (Thurs.)
5. communicate effectively with others using the language of the
discipline and that of educated public discourse.
6. relate what one is learning in the subject to other subjects and to
what is significant in human life.
To become a skilled learner is to become a self-directed, self-disciplined,
self-monitored, and self-corrective thinker who has given assent to rigorous
standards of thought and mindful command of their use. Skilled learning of a
discipline requires that one respect the power of it, as well as its, and one’s own,
historical and human limitations. This session will offer strategies for helping
students begin to take learning seriously.
This session focuses on a number of instructional ideas that are based in
the insight that substantive teaching and learning can occur only when students
take ownership of the most basic principles and concepts of the subject. These
strategies are rooted in a vision of instruction implied by critical thinking
and an analysis of the weaknesses typically found in most traditional didactic
lecture/quiz/test formats of instruction. This session, then, focuses on some
basic instructional strategies that foster the development of student thinking,
and on strategies that require students to think actively within the concepts and
principles of the subject.
Teaching Students to Internalize and Think Within the Ideas of the Deepest
Thinkers: Reaching Back Through History to Classic Works… Linda Elder
Cooperage Building Room 1
One way of deepening our understanding of critical thinking and its role in
history is to routinely and systematically interrelate explicit critical thinking
concepts and principles with transformative ideas developed by deep thinkers
throughout history. Many students have no real understanding of the deepest
ideas that have been thought, nor how to access these ideas. In this session, we
will consider the works of some of the important thinkers throughout history
and how these thoughts interrelate both with one another, and to the conceptual
tools in critical thinking. We will employ critical reading as we explore original
texts, focusing on the conceptual work of thinkers such as Socrates, Epictetus,
Voltaire, John Henry Newman, Jane Austen, Charles Dickens, Eric Fromm, and
Albert Ellis.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Focal Sessions (Friday)
Day Four: Friday Morning (9:00 a.m. - 11:00 a.m.)
For Administrators: Placing Critical Thinking at the Heart of the Institution’s
Mission… Brian Barnes
Bennet Valley
Critical thinking, deeply understood, provides a rich set of concepts that enable
us to think our way through any subject or discipline, as well as through any
problem or issue. With a substantive concept of critical thinking clearly in
mind, we begin to see the pressing need for a staff development program
that fosters critical thinking within and across the curriculum. As we come to
understand a substantive concept of critical thinking, we are able to follow out
its implications in designing a professional development program. By means
of it, we begin to see important implications for every part of the institution
— redesigning policies; providing administrative support for critical thinking;
rethinking the mission; coordinating and providing faculty workshops in
critical thinking; redefining faculty as learners as well as teachers; assessing
students, faculty, and the institution as a whole in terms
of critical thinking abilities and traits. We realize that
robust critical thinking should be the guiding force for
all of our educational efforts. This session focuses on
the importance of placing critical thinking foundations
at the core of teaching and learning at all levels of the
institution, and it presents a professional development
model that can provide the vehicle for deep change
across the institution. We will utilize Dr. Elder’s article
on professional development, published in Times
Higher Education.
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Focal Sessions Continued (Fri.)
Teaching Students to Think Conceptually, and to Take Command of the
Concepts that Guide Their Lives… Linda Elder
Ballroom D
Ideas are to us like the air we breathe. We project them everywhere. Yet we
rarely notice this. We use ideas to create our way of seeing things. What we
experience we experience through ideas, often funneled into the categories of
“good” and “evil.” We assume ourselves to be good. We assume our enemies to
be evil. We select positive terms to cover up the indefensible things we do. We
select negative terms to condemn even the good things our enemies do.
We conceptualize things personally by means of experience unique to
ourselves (often distorting the world to our advantage). We conceptualize things
socially as a result of indoctrination or social conditioning (our allegiances
presented, of course, in positive terms).
If we want students to develop as a critical thinkers, they must come to
recognize the ideas through which they see and experience the world. They
must take explicit command of their concepts. They must become the master of
their own ideas. They must learn how to think with alternative ideas, alternative
“world views.”
Failure to command important distinctions can significantly influence the way
we shape our experience. If, for example, we confuse ethics with arbitrary social
conventions or religion or national law, we have no basis for understanding
the true basis of universality in ethics: awareness of what does harm or good to
humans and other sentient creatures.
When students take command of their concepts, they go beneath the surface
of ideas. They strive for ideas to broaden and empower them as free individuals
and liberally minded persons. In this session we will come to better understand
the role of concepts in human thought, and explore methods for helping
students take command of the concepts that guide their lives. We will focus on
core concepts in your subjects and disciplines which contribute to self command
and intellectual disciplined.
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Focal Sessions Continued (Fri.)
Socratic Dialogue as Primary Tool for Cultivating Critical Thinking in
Instruction…Gerald Nosich
Ballroom B
Socratic questioning is disciplined questioning that can be used to pursue
thought in many directions and for many purposes, including exploring
complex ideas, getting to the truth of things, opening up issues and problems,
uncovering assumptions, analyzing concepts, distinguishing what we know from
what we don’t know, and following out logical implications of thought. The key to distinguish Socratic questioning from questioning per se is that
Socratic questioning is systematic, disciplined, and deep; it usually focuses on
foundational concepts, principles, theories, issues, or problems.
Teachers, students, and indeed anyone interested in probing thinking at a
deep level should construct Socratic questions and engage in Socratic dialogue.
When we use Socratic questioning in teaching, our purpose may be to probe
student thinking, to determine students’ depth of understanding, to model
Socratic questioning for them, or to help them analyze a concept or line of
reasoning. In the final analysis, we want students to learn the discipline of
Socratic questioning so that they come to use it in reasoning through complex
issues, in understanding and assessing the thinking of others, and in followingout the implications of what they, and others, think.
The art of Socratic questioning is intimately connected with critical thinking
because the art of questioning is important to excellence of thought. Both critical
thinking and Socratic questioning share a common end. Critical thinking
provides the conceptual tools for understanding how the mind functions in
its pursuit of meaning and truth; Socratic questioning employs those tools in
framing questions essential to the pursuit of meaning and truth.
This session will introduce the methodology of Socratic dialogue and its
relationship with the language and tools of critical thinking. The session will
be interactive as participants briefly practice Socratic questioning using the
foundations of critical thinking.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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Ralph Nader at the 34th International Conference
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Bertrand Russell Distinguished Scholars Program
Cooperage Building Rooms 1 & 2
Lecture by Russell Scholar Dr. Carol Tavris
Wednesday, July 27 9:00 a.m. - 10:00 a.m.
Process: Working Break
10:00 a.m. - 10:30 a.m.
Conversazione with Dr. Carol Tavris
10:30 a.m. - 11:45 a.m.
Book Signing to Follow
This important dimension of the conference
highlights the work and thinking of distinguished
scholars throughout history who have contributed
significantly to the conception and advancement
of fairminded critical societies. Russell Scholars may
come from any subject, field, or discipline, or from
any domain of human thought. This year’s scholar
is Dr. Carol Tavris. All conference participants are
invited to participate in the Russell program.
Following the initial
lecture, and to draw
out the critical thinking
implicit in the thinking
of the Russell Scholar,
the following design for
the Working Break and
Conversazione is used.
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking The Bertrand Russell Scholars Program Continued
Working Break – Participants will break while working together in small
groups to reason within some of the dimensions of Tavris’s worldview.
Guidelines for this process will be given before the break. One part of the
process will be to formulate one or more questions that might be posed to Dr.
Tavris after the working break. Form groups of two to three and work wherever
you can quickly sit and begin. Make notes of your discussion.
Conversazione – To draw out the critical thinking implicit in the thinking
of the Russell Scholar, the following unique design for the conversation will
be used: Senior Fellows of the Foundation for Critical Thinking, Dr. Linda
Elder and Dr. Gerald Nosich, will lead a Socratic dialogue with Dr. Tavris
(approximately 30 minutes). This will be followed by 15 minutes of questions to
Dr. Tavris by conference delegates and attendees. There will then be another 15
minutes of Socratic dialogue between the Fellows and Dr. Tavris.
The program will be followed by a book signing. A limited number of Tavris’s
books will be sold at the conference.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Roundtable Discussions
Wednesday, July 27, 2016
1:15 p.m. – 2:30 p.m.
Ballrooms B, C, & D
The Roundtable Discussions offer an opportunity for us to engage in lively
informal dialogue about important topics in education and society. Each
roundtable will begin with a brief (10-15 minute) introduction by the presenter.
Join any discussion as you wish.
Using Stakeholder Theory to Enhance Critical Thinking in Case Analysis
Annette Nemetz
Associate Professor
Chair, Business and Economics Undergraduate Program
George Fox University
Stakeholder theory contrasts with shareholder primacy theory in providing a
model for managers and organizations to evaluate multiple forces and pressures
for strategic decision-making. This model is particularly useful when evaluating
international issues arising for multinational enterprises. Incorporating the
stakeholder theory model into student exercises promotes critical thinking
by asking students to carefully evaluate the relevant critical stakeholders and
their respective positions in regard to the particular issue(s) raised in the case.
Stakeholder positions are often competing and conflict-ridden, though some
may also be collaborative in nature. Evaluating a strategic decision in light of
all relevant stakeholder positions requires students to think critically during the
analysis.
Using the ‘Claim, Evidence, Reasoning’ Framework Supported by ICT to
Develop Scientific Critical Thinking in Elementary Students
Choon Boh Teo
Educational Technology Officer
Ministry of Education Singapore
The Claim, Evidence, Reasoning (CER) framework can be used to develop
critical thinking skills in science, and in particular, scientific reasoning and
explanation skills. In a Singaporean primary school, the CER framework was
put into practice for a unit of science lessons on the topic of plant systems.
To capture the thinking of students and make it visible for feedback from
the teacher and peers, ICT was seamlessly integrated in the scientific inquiry
process. Students demonstrated abilities to explore scientific questions
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Roundtable Discussions Continued
underlying real-world issues derived
further demonstrated abilities to apply
scientific reasoning. They worked
collaboratively online to write their
own claims, and to identify and gather
evidence to support their claims. They
employed a variety of methods and
resources, and created digital artifacts
to support their conclusions as well as
communicate and persuade others of
their findings. Based on the evaluation
of students’ artifacts, there were positive
indications that students were able to
construct scientific explanations.
from problem scenarios, and
Elizabeth Loftus at the 34th International
Conference
Exploring Critical Thinking in Online Discussion
Petrea Redmond
Senior Lecturer
University of Southern Queensland, Australia
Discussion forums can be established and facilitated to provoke a variety of
thinking and action from learners, ranging from social interactions to high levels
of reflection and metacognition to achieve deep learning. They enable learners
to make their thinking visible, similar to the ‘thinking aloud’ approach used by
educators in the past. With the increased use of online discussions in different
educational contexts, it is an opportune time to investigate the ways that
different disciplines use and promote critical thinking within dynamic onlinelearning environments. Instructors should distinguish between critical and
creative thinking and low-level thinking in surface comments and experiences
shared online. This discussion will explore how different disciplines use online
discussions as learning and thinking tools, and will suggest some implications
for practice. In addition, participants will be encouraged to present their own
experiences and observations of critical thinking within online discussions
across disciplines.
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Roundtable Discussions Continued
Strategies to Help Parents Foster Critical Thinking Skills at Home
Lemi-Ola Erinkitola
Founder
The Critical Thinking Child, LLC
The moment when young learners begin to ask “Why?” presents a unique
opportunity for parents. While the question may seem tedious at times, it
represents a child’s natural desire to understand their world. Parents simply
need the tools to turn these questions into strategic learning opportunities. In
this session, participants will explore and evaluate strategies designed to instill
critical thinking skills at home through high-level, thoughtful questions. We
will assess techniques that cultivate deeper thinking, help to better children’s
understanding, and foster a lifelong desire to investigate and learn.
Social Issues Session
Rachael Collins
Scholar and Executive Assistant to the President
Foundation for Critical Thinking
To what extent is it possible to realize and advance fairminded critical thinking,
given today’s political climate? In the US and abroad, significant political forces
impede the cultivation of substantive critical thinking, both in our schools
and in society more generally. Yet there are people across the world who are
arguing for, and even fighting for, critical thinking in education, in our social
institutions, in the world of business, and in daily life. In this Roundtable
session, conference delegates will discuss and debate the political forces that
they perceive as either impeding critical thinking, or which serve to advance
fairminded critical thinking. Those attending this session will be divided into
groups of four to five for discussion. Near the end of the session, each group
will briefly report their “answers.” At the beginning of the session, guidelines for
critical discussion will be given to those participating by the session leader, Ms.
Rachael Collins, a scholar of the Foundation for Critical Thinking.
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Concurrent Sessions Program
Thursday, July 28, 2016
The concurrent sessions are presented by attendees who are attempting to foster
critical thinking in teaching and learning. Choose one concurrent session to
attend for each time slot.
Schedule Overview:
8:30 a.m. – 9:30 a.m.
9:40 a.m. – 10:40 a.m.
10:40 a.m. – 10:55 a.m.
10:55 a.m. – 11:55 a.m. 11:55 a.m. – 1:20 p.m. 1:20 p.m. – 2:20 p.m.
2:20 p.m. – 2:35 p.m.
Concurrent Sessions I
Concurrent Sessions II
Break
Concurrent Sessions III
Lunch
Concurrent Sessions IV
Break
Concurrent Sessions I
(8:30 a.m. – 9:30 a.m., Thursday)
The Weaving of Critical Thinking Teaching Methods Throughout a
Healthcare Curriculum
Pauletta Baughman
Associate Clinical Professor
University of Louisville, School of Dentistry
Cooperage Building Room 3
As a Co-Course Director for a first- and fourth-year dental class, it has been my
responsibility to explicitly incorporate critical thinking skills. A few examples
from the first year include a reality-based/reality-simulated learning exercise and
rubric-assessed written assignment to critically evaluate dental products using
the Paul-Elder framework. Also, to deepen and document learning, written
reflections and meta-reflection of clinical rotations are submitted utilizing the
Elements and Standards. In addition, students are assessed by a rubric on the
quality of their questions in Discussion Boards, again explicitly incorporating
the Elements and Standards. As a high-stakes assessment of critical thinking
in the fourth year, a Capstone project incorporates independently creating
solutions and alternatives to complex, multi-layered problems. Critical thinking
is not simply taught, it is interwoven throughout the curriculum in a culture of
inquiry.
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Concurrent Sessions Continued
Teaching Critical Thinking to MBAs Online
Eileen Z. Taylor
Associate Professor of Accounting
North Carolina State University
Russian River
In this session, I will share my approach to teaching MBAs critical thinking
skills in an online setting. I will discuss the progressive assignments I use to help
students analyze, evaluate, and justify their beliefs. I will also address syllabus
and grading issues, and the unique challenges in teaching this course online.
Participants will leave with time-tested assignments that they can apply this fall.
Turning Critical Thinking Theory into Practice: The Experience of Saint
Margaret’s Secondary School
Siong Boon Lee
Acting Subject Head, Cirriculum Innovation &
Research
Saint Margaret’s Secondary School, Singapore
Nur Filzah Zainal Abidin
Teacher
Saint Margaret’s Secondary School, Singapore
Bennet Valley
This session presents the experience of St Margaret’s Secondary School in
applying the Paulian model of critical thinking to curriculum design across a
range of subjects. These subjects include the humanities, English Language,
Chinese Language, mathematics, science, and project work. The school adopts
a dual approach in the use and application of the Paul-Elder model of critical
thinking. Besides being explicitly taught in different subject areas, the Elements
of Thought are also used in an implicit manner to help teachers design lessons
that reveal the inter-relationships between these Elements. At St Margaret’s, the
Elements of Reasoning wheel is not just a pedagogical instrument; it is part of
our curriculum design framework.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Concurrent Sessions Continued
Suggested Strategies to Guide Students in Meeting the Goal of Critical Thinking
Within the Social Science Course
Mel Manson
Professor of Sociology and Psychology
Endicott College
Cooperage Building Room 1
Students learn best in an environment where classroom instructional
pedagogy guides them to better ways of thinking and reasoning. As faculty,
we are responsible for designing courses that motivate and engage students
in thinking and questioning within the logic of our disciplines. Creation of
knowledge within the social sciences is based on questions formed by the
scientific-research method model. By using the Elements of Reasoning and the
Intellectual Standards, an instructor is able to prepare meaningful class content
and assignments that allow students to develop and use these thinking abilities
so that close reading, substantive writing, and a questioning mind become
routine behaviors – both in and out of the classroom. Practical examples of such
teaching strategies and assignments will be introduced in this session, in such a
way as to allow Concurrent Session participants to discuss how to incorporate
some of these, or other, ideas in new class assignments and strategies that will
help guide students in the ways of critical thinking.
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Concurrent Sessions Continued
Concurrent Sessions II
(9:40 a.m. – 10:40 a.m., Thursday)
Critical Thinking in Syllabus Design
Mark Berg
Associate Professor of Psychology
Stockton College
Cooperage Building Room 2
The Stockton Critical Thinking Institute has been running for three consecutive
years with great success. Each year the institute works with twelve Stockton
University faculty members from various disciplines to integrate explicit critical
thinking pedagogy into their classrooms. One of the most important aspects of
this integration is development of a syllabus that clearly reflects the fundamental
and powerful concepts for the course. Such a syllabus sets the foundation for
focusing on concepts, rather than content, throughout a semester. This session
will demonstrate how example syllabi from various disciplines such as Psychology
and Sculpture were built, and will explain how they were implemented with
students. This session will give practical instruction for building your own
syllabus.
Critical Thinking in Upper-Division, Discipline-Specific Courses Through
Team-Based Learning and Writing
Tina Zappile
Assistant Professor of Political Science
Stockton College
Bennet Valley
This session is a workshop in applying the Foundation for Critical Thinking’s
emphasis on disciplinary logic, fairminded critical thinking, Socratic
questioning, and Intellectual Standards in a writing-intensive Team-Based
Learning undergraduate course. Using course materials, I will share strategies
on how this course design can achieve goals of improving fairminded critical
thinking, effectively evaluating arguments, and developing original arguments,
among others. Specifically, I will provide the structure of a critical thinkingbased TBL course design with examples of team worksheets, writing prompts
and samples of student work, and reading questions and quizzes. Formal student
evaluation scores and informal feedback indicate that this approach is successful.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Concurrent Sessions Continued
Experimentation on Fostering Critical Thinking in STEM Education
Kwok-Bun Yue
Professor of Computer Science
University of Houston-Clear Lake
Wei Wei
Professor of Computer Science
University of Houston-Clear Lake
Cooperage Building Room 3
For accreditation purposes, the
University of Houston-Clear Lake
adopted a Quality Enhancement
Plan (QEP) entitled “Applied Critical
Thinking (ACT) for Lifelong Learning
and Adaptability” in 2012. To foster
critical thinking (CT) in individual
courses, the QEP established a formal
process for endorsing ACT syllabi.
This process is based on incorporating selected critical thinking elements into
the student learning outcomes (SLOs), identifying CT-enhancing activities,
and setting up CT assessment plans according to a common evaluation
guideline. The School of Science and Engineering currently has eighteen
approved ACT courses encompassing ten majors. Based on our experience
and experimentation on ACT courses in computer science and computer
information systems, we elaborate how the CT framework of the Foundation of
Critical Thinking (FCT) was used to pillar our incorporation of ACT.
Concrete examples will show how the FCT’s Elements of Thought,
Intellectual Standards, and theories and techniques (such as ‘Fundamental and
Powerful Concept’ and ‘State, Elaborate, Exemplify – Illustrate’) were imbibed
into SLOs, lectures, classroom activities, assignments, and assessments in our
courses. Results of accompanying surveys will be shared with a discussion of
lessons learnt from our experimentation. It will include a special focus on the
concept map, a visual and versatile knowledge-representation tool that we used
in many ACT activities.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Concurrent Sessions Continued
Improving Student Critical Thinking Through Direct Instruction in
Rhetorical Analysis
Lauren McGuire
Professor of English
Victor Valley Community College
Dry Creek
It is vitally important for educators to challenge students to consider new
perspectives on topics they may feel they already understand, and to provide
practice for analyzing the sorts of arguments they will be assigned in their
various courses. Implementing Paul and Elder’s Elements of Thought,
Intellectual Standards, and Socratic questioning through direct instruction
in rhetorical analysis could encourage students to detect and evaluate the
assumptions, egocentrism, and sociocentrism within the rhetoric they
are exposed to in literature, the media, and their own writing. Consistent
application of Paul and Elder’s Intellectual Standards provides students with
the tools necessary for acquiring intellectual humility as they approach the
complexities of life with clarity, accuracy, and precision; explore multiple
perspectives of difficult problems; and learn to sympathetically acknowledge the
viewpoints of others with breadth and clarity.
This session will focus primarily on designing instruction which integrates
direct instruction in rhetorical analysis. Emphasis will be placed on
incorporating Paul and Elder’s Intellectual Standards and the Elements of
Thought. Participants will work in small groups and will be offered instructional
methodologies which encourage the evaluation of expository and argumentative
discourse, and
which develop
students’ critical
thinking, reading,
and writing skills.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Concurrent Sessions Continued
Critical Thinking in the Collaborative Classroom: Infusing Core Critical
Thinking Concepts and Skills into Standards-Based Collaborative Learning
and Constructivist Activities
Jenna Kamp
Teacher
English Department Chair
University Prep Value High School
Russian River
In this engaged
lecture presentation,
I will demonstrate
to middle and high
school teachers
some strategies and
tools designed to
develop students’
learning of essential
21st century skills—the “4 Cs” of Collaboration, Communication, Critical
Thinking, and Creative Thinking—that will help students achieve success into,
throughout, and beyond university academics. Session participants will learn the
fundamentals of effective classroom collaboration and its management, and will
learn how the Common Core Listening and Speaking standards develop and
support such collaboration. More importantly, however, session participants
will learn how to infuse the fundamentals of critical thinking as developed by
the Foundation for Critical Thinking into collaborative activities that foster
academic discussion and thoughtfulness. The combination of critical thinking
language and practices married to a successful collaborative structure can
provide students with active applications of both, encouraging deeper learning
and critical classroom discussions. I will incorporate evidence of student
collaborative teams working on standards-based curricular activities that
develop and demonstrate effective critical thinking concepts, terms, and skills;
and, through a PowerPoint presentation, handouts, and some activities, I will
provide participants with the documents, procedures, and practice necessary for
immediate application into the classroom.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Concurrent Sessions Continued
Proposing a Design for Teaching Critical Thinking
Mohammad B. Bagheri
University Lecturer
Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Iran
Shiva Hadadianpour
Gynecologist
Shahid Beheshti University, Iran
Cooperage Building Room 1
The curriculum question of how critical thinking should be taught has always
been a major issue in critical thinking circles. Lack of consensus among scholars
on how it should be incorporated into a total curriculum has made this issue
a debatable topic. In the first part of this session, four possible approaches
to teaching critical thinking across curriculum - namely General, Infusion,
Immersion, and Mixed Model - will be briefly discussed, and the efforts made
by different critical thinking scholars in material development will be reviewed.
Then, a new design for material development and teaching of critical thinking
at the university level will be proposed. Having about two decades of teaching
experience in the field of foreign language instruction has encouraged Dr.
Bagheri to propose a mixed model of critical thinking instruction in which he
draws heavily on Second Language Instruction principles. The participants will
be provided with a handout containing 40 critical thinking strategies, drawing
heavily from the Paul-Elder model, which can be used in the classroom.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Concurrent Sessions Continued
Concurrent Sessions III
(10:55 a.m. – 11:55 a.m., Thursday)
Why Explicit Discussion of Intellectual Standards is Essential in the Classroom
from a Student’s Perspective
Rachael Collins
Scholar and Executive Assistant to the President
Foundation for Critical Thinking
Cooperage Building Room 1
My purpose in this session is to explore, from a student
perspective, the extent to which different faculty use
different standards when grading student papers, and
how inadequately expressing the standards they adhere
to is a hindrance to students’ growth as well as to the
teaching and learning
process.
I will engage participants
in a grading activity to
exemplify this problem.
I will then share some of
my experiences in English
writing classes, and share
some examples of both
student and faculty edits
which clearly demonstrate
the extent to which students
and faculty tend to adhere
to Intellectual Standards
when assessing written
work.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Concurrent Sessions Continued
Teaching Scientific Thinking
Fran Johnson
Phillips Exeter Academy
Science Instructor
Russian River
What is Scientific Thinking, and why do we all need it? Many a student
graduates from high school with the hazy notion that Scientific Thinking
has something to do with hypotheses. It is not just about hypotheses, for all
hypotheses (inferences) are not equally valid. We all need to be able to evaluate
inferences; for example, the idea that human activity will cause a rise in sea level,
or that certain city policies will have a predicted effect on crime. Ideas are likely
to be true not based on what political party we belong to (sociocentric thinking)
or whether we want to believe them (wishful thinking), but whether they are
supported by evidence. This is the heart of Scientific Thinking: evaluating
inferences based on evidence. In this session I will discuss activities I use in
regular high school science classes, built on the Paul-Elder critical thinking
model, that focus on evaluating hypotheses. These include alterations to labs
that invite, nay, challenge students to compare competing hypotheses.
Critical Thinking Within the Discipline of Information Literacy
Cindy M. Campbell
Faculty Librarian
Florida SouthWestern State College
Dry Creek
Information literacy requires students to recognize when they need information,
where to find information, and how to evaluate that information. Information
literacy skills will enable students to do credible and reliable research.
Critical thinking is the art of analyzing and evaluating thinking to improve
it. Information literacy will help a student to evaluate the information they find,
and to use it to improve their understanding of the topic. Applying the Elements
of Thought and Intellectual Standards to the concepts of information literacy
will teach students the value of both sets of Paulian concepts and how they work
together. Students will learn how to combine critical thinking and information
literacy skills to enhance their understanding and value of these two vital skill sets
within their research activities.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Concurrent Sessions Continued
Integrating Critical Thinking into a Writing in the Major Program
Shirley F. Manigault
Professor of English
Winston-Salem State University
Pamela Simmons
Associate Professor of English
Winston-Salem State University
Jill Keith
Professor of Biology
Winston-Salem State University
Morris Clarke
Professor of Biology
Winston-Salem State University
Cooperage Building Room 3
Winston-Salem State University has implemented a
program in Writing in the Major (WIM) as part its
Quality Enhancement Project (QEP) for SACSCOC
accreditation. The WIM Program is based in
writing research and theory which acknowledges
the relationship between deep thinking and deep
writing (Lavelle and Guarino 2003). This session will focus on faculty efforts to
integrate critical thinking formally into the program via WIM courses. Some
faculty members have a history of integrating critical thinking into their courses;
others are relatively new at it, having been inspired by the recent workshop on
thinking and writing in the majors led by Dr. Gerald Nosich, Senior Fellow
at the Foundation for Critical Thinking. Faculty from programs in English
and Biology will present strategies employed in their courses and share results
(impact on student learning outcomes) with session attendees.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Concurrent Sessions Continued
Fostering Dialectical Thinking Outside the Classroom Walls
Bonnie Zare
Professor of Gender and Women’s Studies
University of Wyoming
Tracey Owens Patton
Director of African American & Diaspora Studies
Professor of Communication & Journalism
University of Wyoming
Sagan Hunsaker
Coordinator of Alternative Breaks and Volunteer Programs
University of Wyoming
Chicory Bechtel
Graduate Student in Educational Administration
Adult and Postsecondary Education
University of Wyoming
Bennet Valley
While textbooks and lectures have their
place in the University and always will,
students often achieve exponential
growth through experience-based
learning guided by a mentor outside the
classroom walls. Our first two speakers,
Bonnie Zare and Tracey Owens Patton,
will evaluate how their overseas courses
(in Hyderabad, India and in London,
England respectively) promote a number of critical skills, including awareness
and acceptance of the limits of one’s knowledge and the benefit of making the
familiar strange. Our third speaker, Sagan Hunsaker, will describe how students
in alternative break programs explore pressing social issues and foster civic
engagement through co-curricular experiences. Chicory Bechtel will conclude
with a discussion of how co-curricular diversity programming can challenge
sociocentric thinking. All presentations will emphasize the value of dialectical
thinking to avoid contributing to a hegemonic and conformist model of the
world; we will also discuss the importance of kinaesthetic learning and of
learning to recognize classist, racist, and Orientalist beliefs.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Concurrent Sessions Continued
Concurrent Sessions IV
(1:20 p.m. – 2:20 p.m., Thursday)
Fuel the Flame of Critical Thinking
Barbara J. Rodriguez
District Director, QEP
Broward College
Ana Cowo
Professor of English
Broward College
Cooperage Building Room 3
Through examples and hands-on activities, this session discusses Broward
College’s conceptual framework to enhance students’ critical thinking skills
using the Paul-Elder model of critical thinking. The framework includes
professional development, teaching and learning strategies, and outcomes-based
assessment.
For the last three years, Broward College has focused on critical thinking
as an essential skill for students to cultivate. As a result, faculty from various
disciplines focus on the Elements of Thought and Intellectual Standards, which
has resulted in data that indicates the improvement of students’ critical thinking
skills. By attending this session, participants will gain strategies that will help
them ‘fuel the flame’ of critical thinking in the classroom.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Concurrent Sessions Continued
Cultivating Moral Integrity in the Sciences Through Cross-Cultural
Engagement
Craig A. Hassel
Associate Professor and Extension Specialist, Food and Nutrition
University of Minnesota
Russian River
This session will demonstrate how Paulian
concepts of moral integrity, StrongSense critical thinking, and Intellectual
(epistemological) Virtues can be developed
through the practice of cross-cultural
engagement (CCE). CCE is the craft of
bringing together and critically engaging
communities that hold culturally different
understandings of food and health. Its
practice creates the ‘intellectual space’ to
acknowledge and empathically consider
culturally different perspectives, practices,
knowledge, and understandings.
A long-standing case involving
Jerry Mander at the 34th International
University of Minnesota agricultural
Conference
research, Anishinaabe Tribal communities,
and their contrasting views of how wild rice (manoomin) should be harvested,
respected, and otherwise treated will highlight this session. The case illustrates
a collision of worldviews and highlights distinctions in ‘Weak-Sense’ and
‘Strong-Sense’ critical thinking as delineated by Richard Paul. Participants in
this session will have the opportunity to review the perspective(s) of a tribal
community leader and/or a university agricultural scientist. Participants will
empathically and dialectically reason within colliding perspectives by exercising
the developmental skill of cognitive frameshifting, a practice of temporarily
stepping outside of habitual thought patterns and into unfamiliar frameworks
of background assumptions. We will de-brief the case with explicit attention to
Paulian Intellectual Virtues and concepts of moral integrity.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Concurrent Sessions Continued
Assessing Critical Thinking Through the Framework of ‘Think Aloud’
Jeremy R. Dicus
Assistant Professor
Slippery Rock University
Cooperage Building Room 1
The assessment of critical thinking
is often difficult to quantify, but
institutions are tasked with providing
evidence of critical thinking outcomes.
‘Think Aloud’ is a strategy that has been
widely used to model thinking and/or
assess one’s ability to think through a
task. While this strategy has often been
focused on the end result or answer,
Think Aloud can provide educators
a tool for intentionally examining
the thought process. In this session,
participants will be
introduced to the Think
Aloud process and how
it might be used to assess
someone’s ability to think
critically as identified in
the Paul-Elder Approach.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conference Concurrent Sessions Continued
Designing Learning Environments for Critical Thinking: A Perspective from
Instructional Design
Dawit T. Tiruneh
Research Assistant, Centre for Instructional Psychology & Technology
University of Leuven, Belgium
Bennet Valley
The issue of embedding critical thinking (CT) skills within specific subjectmatter domains has aroused considerable controversy over the past three
decades. Some argue that well-designed subject-matter instruction by itself
is sufficient to promote the development of relevant CT skills, and can equip
students to competently perform CT tasks across domains (Immersion
approach). Others contend that explicit emphasis on general principles of CT
within specific subject-matter instruction is essential for effective acquisition of
transferrable CT skills across domains (Infusion approach). These debates have
been conducted mostly without reference to instructional design research.
By all appearances, the systematic design of learning environments that
apply empirically valid instructional principles to foster CT skills within specific
subject-matter instruction has not been sufficiently explored. In this session –
which I designed with University of Leuven colleagues Jan Elen and Mieke de
Cock – we will report our practices of designing, implementing, and evaluating
subject-matter instruction – more exactly, in the domain of physics – based
on Immersion-and-Infusion CT instructional approaches. We will particularly
share the main findings of two empirical studies conducted in ecologically valid
instructional settings, and will
reflect on how systematic design
of learning environments may
stimulate the acquisition of domainspecific and domain-general CT
skills.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Concurrent Sessions and Roundtable Discussions
Presenter Information
Nur Filzah Zainal Abidin
Teacher
Saint Margaret’s Secondary School,
Singapore
Mohammad B. Bagheri
University Lecturer
Islamic Azad University, Science
and Research Branch, Iran
Pauletta Baughman
Associate Clinical Professor
University of Louisville, School of Dentistry
Chicory Bechtel
Graduate Student in Educational Administration
Adult and Postsecondary Education
University of Wyoming
Mark Berg
Associate Professor of Psychology
Stockton College
Cindy M. Campbell
Faculty Librarian
Florida SouthWestern State College
Morris Clarke
Professor of Biology
Winston-Salem State University
Jeremy R. Dicus Assistant Professor
Slippery Rock University
Lemi-Ola Erinkitola
Founder
The Critical Thinking Child, LLC
Shiva Hadadianpour
Gynecologist
Shahid Beheshti University, Iran
Craig A. Hassel
Associate Professor and Extension Specialist, Food and Nutrition
University of Minnesota
Sagan Hunsaker
Coordinator of Alternative Breaks and Volunteer Programs
University of Wyoming
Fran Johnson
Phillips Exeter Academy
Science Instructor
Jenna Kamp
Teacher
English Department Chair
University Prep Value High School
Rachael Collins
Scholar and Executive Assistant to
the President
Foundation for Critical Thinking
Ana Cowo
Professor of English
Broward College
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Concurrent Sessions and Roundtable Discussions
Presenter Information, continued
Jill Keith
Professor of Biology
Winston-Salem State University
Barbara J. Rodriguez
District Director, QEP
Broward College
Siong Boon Lee
Acting Subject Head, Curriculum Innovation & Research
Saint Margaret’s Secondary School, Singapore
Pamela Simmons
Associate Professor of English
Winston-Salem State University
Shirley F. Manigault
Professor of English
Winston-Salem State University
Mel Manson
Professor of Sociology and Psychology
Endicott College
Lauren McGuire
Professor of English
Victor Valley Community College
Annette Nemetz
Associate Professor
Chair, Business and Economics Undergraduate Program
George Fox University
Tracey Owens Patton
Director of African American & Diaspora Studies
Professor of Communication & Journalism
University of Wyoming
Petrea Redmond
Senior Lecturer
University of Southern Queensland, Australia
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press Eileen Z. Taylor Associate Professor of Accounting
North Carolina State University
Choon Boh Teo
Educational Technology Officer
Ministry of Education, Singapore
Dawit T. Tiruneh
Research Assistant, Centre for
Instructional Psychology &
Technology
University of Leuven, Belgium
Wei Wei Assistant Professor of Computer
Information Systems
University of Houston-Clear Lake
Kwok-Bun Yue Professor of Computer Science
University of Houston-Clear Lake
Tina Zappile
Assistant Professor of Political
Science
Stockton College
Bonnie Zare
Professor of Gender and Women’s
Studies
University of Wyoming
www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Evening Social
Join us for an evening of music, conviviality and dancing
Thursday, July 28, 2016
7:00 p.m. – 10:00 p.m.
Lobo’s
If we respected only what is inevitable and has a right to be,
music and poetry would resound along the streets.
– Henry David Thoreau… Walden, 1854
People often have the misconception that critical thinking is dull and boring.
Nothing could be more untrue. Those who think critically in the highest sense
are not only creative, but also spontaneous and unique. They share a zest for life
and seek self-realization or self-actualization through living both an ethical life,
and one that connects with high culture or aesthetics. Being free in thought, they
are able to command their minds so as to enjoy some part of life every day, even
under difficult or distressing conditions. They often seek self-refinement through
aesthetic experiences and astutely interweave the world of ideas with that of art –
of music, dance, literature, and so on.
Let us enjoy together, on our last evening, in a unique evening social in
which we share, discuss, and appreciate aesthetic experiences and experience the
conviviality of the critical thinking community.
Schedule:
7:00 – 7:45 p.m. – Art Exhibit and Refreshments
View the Linda Elder Art Gallery. Dr.
Elder will exhibit some of her artwork,
including a series of drawings of her
late husband, Dr. Richard Paul.
Dr. Elder will be available to discuss
the relationship between artistic
thinking, criticality, and art as a vehicle
for emotional healing and well-being. She will share some
of her recent experiences with art as a positive – and even
potentially fruitful – way of dealing with deep emotional
turmoil and distress. Dr. Elder will also discuss the critical
dimension of the artistic process, as she has experienced it.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Evening Social, cont.
7:45 – 8:30 p.m. – Beginner’s Lesson in partner dancing, with a Tango emphasis – by Stephen Rose (for everyone new to partner dancing)
8:30 – 10:00 p.m. –Dancing to Argentine Tango and contemporary music.
The drawings on this and the previous page were rendered by Linda Elder using graphite on acid-free
paper. The drawing on page 81 was taken from a photograph dated 1957. The drawing on page 82 was
taken from a photograph dated 1997.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Fostering Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum
Must Be Given Priority in Education
During the past 36 years, those of us at the Center and Foundation for Critical
Thinking have articulated central concepts of critical thinking (in as simplified a
form as we believe possible) within an integrated theoretical framework. We have
distinguished the difference between thinking critically in a weak sense (selfish critical
thought) and thinking critically in a strong sense (fairminded critical thought). We
have articulated the issues that emerge when we focus critical thinking skills on the
subject of teaching critical thinking in every subject and at every grade level. All of our
work has been based on these premises:
• that the fundamental need of students is to be taught how, not what, to think
• that all knowledge of “content” is generated, analyzed, organized, applied, and synthesized by thinking
• that gaining knowledge is unintelligible without such thinking
• that an educated, literate person is fundamentally a seeker and questioner rather than a “true believer”
• that classroom activities are question-, issue-, or problem-centered rather than memory-centered; that knowledge and truth can rarely be
transmitted by verbal statements alone
• that students need to be taught how to listen critically – an active and skilled process
• that critical reading and writing cannot be effectively taught without
critical dialogue
• that those who teach must actively model the intellectual behavior they want
• that teachers must routinely require students to explain what they have
learned
• that students who have no questions typically are not learning
• that students must read, write, and talk their way to knowledge
• that knowledge and truth is heavily systematic and holistic, not atomistic and piecemeal
• that people gain only the knowledge they seek and value
• that without motivation, learning is superficial and transitory
• that all genuine education transforms the values of the learner
• that students must reason their way dialogically and dialectically out of ignorance and prejudice
• that students learn best if they have to teach others what they are learning
• that self-directed recognition of ignorance is necessary to learning
• that when possible, teachers should allow students to express their own ideas
• that the personal experience of the students is essential to all learning
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking In our work with teachers and administrators, we have tried to help them see
that it is important to be clear about the goal of critical thinking on three levels:
1. the ideal level (what is our vision of ideal success?) 2. the realistic level (what stands in the way of achieving that vision?), and
3. the pragmatic or practical level (what strategies have we devised for moving from where we are to a closer approximation of our goal?)
Many people are not clear as to what they are trying to achieve (in integrating
critical thinking across the disciplines). Most people are not clear as to what
stands in the way of achieving this goal. An even larger number are confused
as to what strategies, if pursued, would enable them to maximize their success.
Finally, an even larger number of people are resistant, irrespective of which
analysis one favors, to doing the intellectual work – the sheer intellectual
drudgery – essential to success.
If critical thinking is to play a leading role in the reform of education, the
problem of bringing critical thinking across the disciplines must become
transparent and intuitive to faculty and students. If critical thinking is to become
transparent and intuitive to faculty and students across the disciplines, teaching
and learning must be re-thought within an integrated theoretical framework.
The result of such “rethinking” must demonstrate what it would look like for
faculty and students to work together toward the cultivation of intellectual skills,
abilities, and traits. It must show them what it would be like to apply critical
thinking concepts and principles in practical ways to everyday teaching and
learning. Faculty must be able to picture the reality in their minds’ eyes. And
they must believe in the reality they are picturing. Then they must work together
toward that reality in the spirit of fairminded criticality.
This may be put another way. If students are to gain insight into how the
basic concepts of critical thinking apply in the disciplines they study, they need
to be taught by faculty who themselves grasp that application. This presupposes
faculty going through a process of learning in which they come to increasingly
grasp this insight for themselves. But such a transformation of teacher-learning,
such transfer across the disciplines, requires deep-seated motivation and
intellectual perseverance. How can we win the hearts and minds of educators
so they become committed to living an examined life? Is it only through this
commitment that they will develop the requisite skills and dispositions to
effectively foster critical thinking across the disciplines and across the curriculum?
These are the questions we faced 50 years ago when Glaser conducted the first
“official” study on critical thinking, and these are the questions we still face
today.
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking History and Outreach of the Foundation for
Critical Thinking
The Center for Critical Thinking was established in 1981 to advance the idea
of fairminded critical societies in education and every dimension of life; the
Foundation for Critical Thinking was established in 1991.
From the beginning, our work has emphasized the need for three things:
1) a substantive conception of critical thinking based in ordinary language,
accessible to all, 2) an approach that fosters and encourages critical thinking (in
a strong sense) across all disciplines, subjects, domains of human thought and
life, and 3) barriers and challenges to critical thinking and ways of dealing with
them. Our work can be broadly categorized into these areas:
1. theoretical development, scholarship and research
2. outreach through conferences, academies and workshops
3. outreach through onsite training for schools, colleges and universities
4. development of testing and assessment tools in critical thinking
5. development, publication and dissemination of books, instructional materials, videos and thinker’s guides on critical thinking
6. outreach through a dynamic website which offers many complementary resources for educators at all levels, including a large online library
7. outreach through multi-language translations of our work
Theoretical Development, Scholarship, and Research
Theoretical development in critical thinking has been a primary focus of our
work at the Foundation for Critical Thinking. All of this theory has been pursued
in an attempt (ultimately) to answer the question: What is critical thinking
(viewed globally), and how can it be contextualized to help people live more
rationally, productively, fairmindedly? The theory in our approach is detailed in
our many publications. We also conduct and support ongoing research in critical
thinking (see our website for examples). We believe that a rich conception of
critical thinking is one that is alive and in constant development; hence the need
for continual development of the theory of critical thinking. Further, we believe
that any field of study can potentially contribute to such a conception. Therefore,
we invite scholars to contribute to this robust conception. We invite scholarly
critique. All of our work should stand the test of scholarly assessment. It should
grow and develop as a result thereof.
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Conferences, Academies and Workshops
The First Conference on Critical Thinking, sponsored by the Center for Critical
Thinking, marked the year of our birth (1981). Since that time, we have
continued to host this conference every year. In addition, we sponsor and
coordinate critical thinking academies (national and international), as well
as regional workshops. More than 60,000 educators and administrators have
attended these events, many from countries beyond the U.S. For instance, in the
past four years alone, educators from the following countries have attended our
events: Singapore, China, Canada, England, Australia, Germany, Hong Kong,
Israel, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Denmark, Korea,
Nepal, South Africa, Thailand, American Samoa, Czech Republic, Kazakhstan,
Kuwait, Japan, Venezuela, Taiwan, Turkey, United Kingdom, Netherlands,
Jamaica, Kuwait, Oman, Russian Federation, Spain, Sweden, and United Arab
Emirates. At any given conference, more than 100 departments are represented
from every major field of study, and from every grade level from elementary
through graduate school, making our conference the most diverse conference on
critical thinking in the world. We have provided national and international
scholarships to our conferences and events for hundreds of educators.
On-Site Professional Development Programs
We develop and conduct onsite professional development programs for
educators at all levels, both in the U.S. and abroad. In the past three decades, we
have presented professional development workshops to more than 70,000
educators. All of our professional development programs are designed and
developed with participating institutions in mind, as there is no formulaic way
to develop substantive professional development in critical thinking. The actual
context must always be taken into account.
Testing and Assessment Tools in Critical Thinking
The Foundation for Critical Thinking offers assessment instruments that share
in the same general goal: to enable educators to gather evidence relevant to
determining the extent to which instruction is fostering critically thinking (in the
process of learning content). To this end, the fellows of the Foundation
recommend:
• that academic institutions and departments establish an oversight
committee for critical thinking, and
• that this oversight committee utilize a combination of assessment
instruments to generate incentives for faculty (by providing faculty with
evidence of the actual state of instruction in critical thinking at the Institution).
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The following instruments are available through the Foundation for Critical
Thinking to generate evidence relevant to critical thinking teaching and
learning:
1. Course Evaluation Form: provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, students perceive faculty as fostering critical thinking in
instruction (course by course). 2. Critical Thinking: Concepts and Understandings: provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, students understand the fundamental
concepts embedded in critical thinking (and hence tests student readiness to think critically). Online test.
3. Critical Thinking Reading and Writing Test: Provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, students can read closely and write
substantively (and hence, tests student ability to read and write critically). Short Answer. 4. International Critical Thinking Test: provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, students are able to analyze and assess excerpts from text
books or professional writing. Short answer.
5. Commission Study Protocol for Interviewing Faculty Regarding Critical Thinking: provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, critical thinking is being taught at a college or university (can be adapted for high school). Based on the California Commission Study. Short Answer.
6. Foundation for Critical Thinking Protocol for Interviewing Faculty Regarding Critical Thinking: provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, critical thinking is being taught at a college or university (can be adapted for High School). Short Answer
7. Foundation for Critical Thinking Protocol for Interviewing Students Regarding Critical Thinking: provides evidence of whether, and to what extent, students are learning to think critical thinking at a college or
university (can be adapted for high school). Short Answer. To view a sample student interview, please register to become a member of the
critical thinking community.
8. Criteria for critical thinking assignments. Can be used by faculty in designing classroom assignments or by administrators in assessing the extent to which faculty are fostering critical thinking.
9. Rubrics for assessing student reasoning abilities. A useful tool in assessing the extent to which students are reasoning well through course content. ©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Publication and Dissemination of Instructional Materials
The Foundation for Critical Thinking develops and publishes instructional
materials for faculty and curriculum materials for students that foster critical
thinking across the curriculum. We also send complementary copies of our
thinker’s guides to educators to introduce them to critical thinking. In the past
decade, we have sent (free of charge) more than a million thinker’s guides to
educators in the U.S. and abroad. (See our website bookstore for available
resources.)
Dynamic Website – Free Resources For Educators at All Levels
For more than a decade, the Foundation for Critical Thinking has been building
an increasingly dynamic website, offering more and more resources to educators,
including the following:
1. More than one hundred articles under eight headings; all accessible freely; all aimed at making clearer the idea of critical thinking, its history, and its possible uses in classrooms of various subjects and grade levels;
2. research studies conducted by the FCT on the application of our work;
3. free translations of all our work for which we own the rights. Included languages: Spanish, German, Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, French, Greek, Persian, Polish, Thai, and Turkish. Spanish is the leading group with 12 works translated;
4. over 100 interviews, editorials, news articles, and other visual and aural media; again, all aimed at explaining and applying critical thinking in various directions and in numerous contexts;
5. scores of hours of critical thinking videos freely accessible;
6. an online college credit course for teachers that focuses on integrating critical thinking across the curriculum.
Our website is visited by more than a million people each year from more than
200 countries.
Translations of Our Work – Dozens of Languages
The works of the Fellows of the Foundation for Critical Thinking have been
translated into many languages. Many of these translations are available free of
charge on our website. Additional translations are being added to our online
library each year.
Institutions Using Our Approach – A Sampling
The following institutions are making considerable efforts to foster critical
thinking using our approach to critical thinking. This conception is based on the
research of the Center and Foundation for Critical Thinking during the last 30
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years and utilizes the work of Dr. Richard Paul, Dr. Linda Elder and Dr. Gerald
Nosich. If your institution is not listed, but you think it should be added to this
list, please let us know. Email [email protected]
The University of Louisville Ideas to Action:
Using Critical Thinking to Foster Student Learning and Community
Engagement
In 2007, the University of Louisville launched its quality enhancement plan
(QEP) titled, Ideas to Acton: Using Critical Thinking to Foster Student Learning
Community Engagement. This ten-year initiative is centered upon the
development and assessment of students’ critical thinking skills and the
promotion of community engagement across the undergraduate curriculum. The Ideas to Action (i2a) program is part of UofL’s commitment to ongoing improvement as part of the regional reaccreditation process. The Paul-Elder
critical thinking model provides the framework for the teaching and learning
innovations faculty and staff are creating as part of i2a at UofL. These
innovations include the development of new or revised learning tools,
assignments, assessments, programs and teaching and learning strategies. The
i2a staff and campus partners are promoting critical thinking infusion and
“Paul-Elder integration” by facilitating new learning communities, developing
workshops and small group sessions, offering individual consultations, creating
resource materials and fostering cross-disciplinary conversations about critical
thinking. To learn more about the i2a critical thinking work at University of
Louisville, go to: http://louisville.edu/ideastoaction
For more information, contact:
Edna Ross, Ph.D.
Ideas to Action Specialist for Critical Thinking
Ideas to Action Delphi Center for Teaching and Learning
University of Louisville (502) 852-5138
[email protected]
University of Houston - Clear Lake:
Quality Enhancement Plan: Applied Critical Thinking (ACT) for Lifelong
Learning and Adaptability
As the University of Houston-Clear Lake (UHCL) continues to prepare its
students for the twenty-first century, it recognizes the necessity of equipping
them with the relevant knowledge, skills, and dispositions to succeed in a rapidly
changing environment where the ability to reason and adapt to new information
is vital. To this end, UHCL has developed a Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP)
topic of Applied Critical Thinking for Lifelong Learning and Adaptability. The
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking need for students to develop Applied Critical Thinking (ACT) skills has been
identified through the internal analysis of student data, intensive discussion
among UHCL constituents (i.e., faculty, staff, students), and several national
reports conducted by external professional communities and organizations. By
addressing this need, UHCL aspires to enrich the quality of its students’ overall
educational experiences.
The heart of UHCL’s QEP for Applied Critical Thinking for Lifelong
Learning and Adaptability is a curriculum revision project that will incorporate
key critical thinking skills, concepts, and activities into courses, based on best
practices. Such skills and practices will form the framework for redesigning
the curriculum, helping the university to develop a common definition of
Applied Critical Thinking, and for classroom activities that foster these skills in
undergraduate students.
The goals of UHCL’s QEP are:
• To increase the Applied Critical Thinking skills of students.
• To provide faculty the support and resources they need to develop the Applied Critical Thinking skills of students.
Thus, the key student learning outcomes of the QEP are:
• Students will use curiosity to identify a particular problem or area of interest within a discipline.
• Students will make connections to their particular issues or problems
based upon evidence acquired by research methodologies and writing
styles within the discipline.
• Students will demonstrate creativity through a divergent mental
approach exploring original alternative views and solutions.
• Students will communicate outcomes through writing and/or
presentations.
In order to ensure a successful implementation of the QEP, faculty will
be afforded multiple opportunities to participate in professional development
workshops and conferences, both on- and off-campus, that center on strategies
for teaching and assessing ACT skills. Through these activities, the university
hopes to instill critical thinking in all of its students, so that the knowledge
they gain during their academic careers at UHCL can translate directly into
real-world career experiences. In doing so, the university will enhance the
educational quality of its graduates and, in fulfillment of its mission, provide a
benefit to the larger community through the contributions of these graduates.
Contact: Kevin Barlow, Executive Director
Office of Institutional Effectiveness
[email protected]
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Oakwood University:
Critical Thinking Development Through Writing
Oakwood University’s Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP) was initiated in the Fall
of 2012. Critical Thinking Development through writing was the topic selected
by University stakeholder groups. The critical thinking curriculum is based
on the work of Drs. Paul and Elder of The Foundation for Critical Thinking
(FCT). The initial planning included consultation with FCT Fellow Gerald
Nosich and follow-up workshops that included several Foundation consultants.
The QEP initiative focuses on the development and assessment of students’
critical thinking skills, as demonstrated in writing. To accomplish the goal,
critical thinking competencies are embedded in four general education courses.
The Paul-Elder approach provided the framework for revised syllabi, rubric
assessments and teaching/learning strategies. In addition to course materials,
display of critical thinking posters in departments across the University
provided an added instructional value. Extensive on-going preparation of
course instructors essential to the success of the initiative was implemented.
Also, other faculty/ staff responded enthusiastically to open invitations to take
advantage of the critical thinking professional development opportunities that
included: FCT on-site workshops, an on-line course focused on critical thinking
concepts – instructional applications and faculty representatives’ attendance at
several of the National and International Conferences hosted by the Foundation
for Critical Thinking. Additionally, on going faculty-facilitated seminars that
utilize FCT resources are conducted throughout the academic year. These
professional development experiences stimulate cross-disciplinary conversations
and promote the campus-wide initiative. The seminars ensure that instruction
and learning objectives are deeply understood, systematically implemented,
and appropriately assessed throughout the academic year. Continued progress
in embedding critical thinking in the University curriculum and the common
language reflected among faculty and students will contribute to sustaining this
initiative.
For more Information about the program, please contact:
Jeannette R. Dulan, Ph.D., QEP Director, [email protected]
Oakwood University, 256 726 7000, www.Oakwood.edu
Eastern Kentucky University:
Developing Informed, Critical and Creative Thinkers Who Communicate
Effectively
Eastern Kentucky University is in its third full year of the implementation of its
student learning Quality Enhancement Plan to “develop informed, critical and
creative thinkers who communicate effectively” as a part of its accreditation.
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking In that effort, EKU has embraced the work of The Foundation for Critical
Thinking, promoting the work of Richard Paul, Linda Elder, and Gerald Nosich.
“Coaches” (faculty & staff trainers) continue to work with individuals,
departments, and colleges to develop specific teaching and assessment strategies
to help improve student critical/creative thinking. Professional Learning
Communities are being used to promote professional development to both
faculty and professional staff to improve student critical/creative thinking and
communication skills, in and out of the classroom. Workshops, consultations,
resource libraries, and brown bag sessions help promote this initiative. The
Foundation’s booklets, posters, and bookmarks are widely distributed and
displayed across campus. The new EKU five-year Strategic Plan is centered on
student critical/creative thinking and communication and requires that each
academic department develop student-learning outcomes to address these
specific goals. You can find more information at this link:
http://www.qep.eku.edu/
For information about the program, contact Kate Williams
Director / Quality Enhancement Programs
University Programs / Academic Affairs
Eastern Kentucky University
[email protected]
Surry Community College:
Becoming a Learning College Built on Critical Thinking
In the summer of 2003, Surry Community College in Dobson, North Carolina,
began an initiative to improve and expand student learning with a focus on
critical thinking. Our first decision was to adopt a shared model of critical
thinking.
A common model allows students to make connections between subjects
and skill sets. If multiple models (different language, different definitions and
frameworks) are used across campus, it is difficult for students to see those
connections. In order for an institution to impact students’ thinking abilities
college-wide, faculty must construct courses and design instruction around a
common conceptualization of critical thinking, one that is precise and
comprehensive, not vague, incomplete or narrowly defined.
After researching many conceptualizations of critical thinking, we chose
the model originated by Richard Paul and developed by Paul, Linda Elder and
Gerald Nosich. We believe that no other concept of critical thinking is as
substantive or as accessible. At Surry Community College, we want to focus
on education that moves people away from the past and facilitates new ways of
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learning that will prepare our students for the 21st century marketplace. We
realize that critical thinking plays a vital role in facilitating that kind of authentic,
active learning. As a college focused on improving learning, we want to raise
our academic standards to intellectually challenge our students on a daily basis
through classroom activities and assessments that go beyond traditional lecture
and rote memorization. Learning at Surry Community College should not only
be rigorous but also transferable. Since our goal is for students to be successful
critical thinkers for life, they must be able to transfer these skills to other
venues – to future coursework, to their careers, and to their personal lives. To
help achieve these goals, Surry Community College faculty continuously work to
understand critical thinking and to rethink their teaching strategies, assessment
methods, and even the nature of their discipline as a mode of thinking.
Using the approach developed by the Foundation for Critical Thinking, we
recognize that all thinking consists of parts, or can be divided into elements:
purpose, point of view, assumptions, implications and consequences, data and
information, inferences and interpretations, concepts, question at issue. Paul and
Elder explain in Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and
Your Life, “Whenever you are reasoning you are trying to accomplish some
purpose, within a point of view, using concepts or ideas. You are focused on
some issue or question, issue or problem, using information to come to
conclusions, based on assumptions, all of which has implications.” Critical
thinkers analyze their thinking, and that of others, by identifying these elements
of reasoning. All thinking can be measured against intellectual standards such
as clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, logic, significance, and
fairness. Paul and Elder note, “These are not the only intellectual standards a
person might use. They are simply among those that are the most
fundamental-… Thinking critically requires command of [these] fundamental
intellectual standards.” Critical thinkers assess their thinking – and that of
others – by applying these standards of reasoning. Paul and Elder also note, “As
we are learning the basic intellectual skills that critical thinking entails, we can
begin to use those skills in a selfish or a fairminded way.” All thinkers should
cultivate positive intellectual traits such as intellectual humility, intellectual
perseverance, intellectual integrity, intellectual courage, confidence in reason,
intellectual empathy, etc.
To assist our faculty and staff in the work of critical thinking, we developed
a website that explains the Surry Community College critical thinking initiative;
both the thinking that shaped and continues to shape it, and the many ways in
which faculty and staff have contextualized the model. You are invited to visit
the site at: http://www.surry.edu/About/CriticalThinking.aspx
You may also contact Connie Wolfe at [email protected]
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Angelina College:
Critical Thinking Skills: A Key for Successful Student Learning Outcomes in All
Disciplines
Angelina College has identified three critical thinking learning outcomes
consequent to the implementation of critical thinking skills in the curriculum:
1. Angelina College administration, faculty, and staff will have a common understanding of the tools and concepts of critical thinking 2. All divisions will execute tools for teaching critical thinking across the curricula
3. Graduates of Angelina College will have the ability to adapt and apply critical thinking skills and strategies in their academic, professional and
personal lives.
To evaluate the implementation process and to assess student learning
outcomes as they relate to critical thinking, six assessment tools will be utilized:
the Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE), International
Critical Thinking Basic Concepts and Understandings Test, Faculty Learning
Community (FLC) Student Learning Survey, Student Perception of Critical
Thinking in Instruction, Critical Thinking Rubrics, and the Student Learning
Outcomes Assessment (SLOA). Angelina College’s plan included a Three Phase Implementation Cycle: Phase I – (fall semester) – Professional Development Component
In the spring, representatives (division facilitators) from each division will
begin consulting with the QEP Coordinator. In addition, these facilitators will
attend the annual assessment conference that is held at Texas A&M University.
Beginning in the fall, the facilitators will attend a planning retreat to initiate
the FLC process and schedule critical thinking training sessions.
The facilitators will be participating in several critical thinking training
sessions. These training sessions involve compiling information and discussing
content based on the Paul/Elder model of critical thinking. The curriculum
followed is based on information from the text Critical Thinking: Tools for
Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life, 2nd Edition (2006) by Richard
Paul and Linda Elder. Phase II – (spring semester) – Course Development Component
The facilitators will use the spring semester to plan for critical thinking
implementation. Each facilitator will select a course to implement formal
strategies for teaching and measuring critical thinking based on the Paul/Elder
model. Course portfolios will be utilized for planning. These portfolios will
serve as lesson plans for the course. Each will include information specific to the
course, such as the syllabus, course materials, sample assignments, and how the
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking 95
teaching method and course materials will enhance learning outcomes. Critical
thinking instruction and assessment will be delineated in these portfolios. Upon
completion of these course portfolios, the facilitator will have designed a critical
thinking enhanced curriculum (CTEC) course.
Phase III – (fall semester) – Implementation and Assessment Component
At the beginning of the semester, students enrolled in CTEC courses
will be administered the International Critical Thinking Basic Concepts and
Understanding Test as a pre-test. One week prior to final exams, the International Critical Thinking Basic
Concepts and Understanding Test will be re-administered to assess the
attainment of critical thinking skills. In addition, the assessment of teaching
strategies and learning outcomes will be measured by utilizing the FLC Student
Learning Survey for Faculty and the Student Perceptions of Critical Thinking in
Instruction.
The pre and post-test scores from the International Critical Thinking Basic
Concepts and Understanding Test will be compared to baseline scores on the
California Critical Thinking Skills Test that was collected in April 2007.
The QEP Advisory Committee and the facilitators will review all collected
data and determine the effectiveness of instruction. The group will then use the
compiled data to recommend additional strategies and any changes for
continuous improvement for the teaching and learning of critical thinking skills.
Angelina College plans to continue their implementation process beyond
2010. You can read more about Angelina College’s QEP Plan and Implementation
of critical thinking in their curriculum on their website:
http://www.angelina.edu/QEP/institutional_effectiveness.html
For more information about the program, please contact:
Monica Y. Peters, Ph.D.
Coordinator of Institutional Effectiveness and QEP Angelina College
Lufkin, TX
(936) 633-5250
[email protected]
Beacon College:
Enhancing Critical Thinking for Students with Learning Disabilities
The goal of the Beacon College Quality Enhancement Plan is to improve
student learning through the development of critical thinking skills by using the
standards and elements of the Paul/Elder Model. The initial phase of the QEP is
directed to implementing a comprehensive faculty professional development
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking program. Professional development activities will focus on educating faculty in
the use of the elements and standards of the Paul/Elder Model. The mission of Beacon College is to provide educational opportunities for
college-able students with learning disabilities and to assist them in achieving
their academic potential. Engaging students in critical thinking and fostering
concept development is vital in addressing the characteristics that many students
with learning disabilities bring to the classroom environment.
The student learning outcomes for the Beacon College QEP are to: 1. Improve student disposition toward critical thinking
2. Employ the elements of critical thinking to academic disciplines
3. Employ the standards of critical thinking to academic disciplines
4. Develop an understanding of the fundamental and powerful concepts of an academic discipline
Several benefits of implementation of the Beacon College QEP have already
been realized. The College has strengthened as a community with a common
goal and a shared language for improving the quality of the educational
experiences of our students. Not only has the faculty embraced changes in which
the Institution approaches instruction, but the participation of all units and
departments has helped the College emerge as a learning community. Beacon
College has also established an Institute of Critical Thinking, acting as a critical
thinking resource center not only for the campus community, but also as a
professional development resource for other institutions.
It is anticipated that implementation of the QEP will result in increased
student disposition for using critical thinking skills in every aspect of their lives.
Outcomes of the QEP will not only increase the quality of education provided
our students, but will also contribute to research in the field of learning
disabilities. Opportunity exists for the College to conduct a longitudinal
study investigating five-year outcomes, as measured by the California Critical
Thinking Disposition Instrument (CCTDI), between students with learning
disabilities and their non-learning disabled peers using the databank of colleges
and universities that have completed the outcomes of their QEPs measuring
disposition toward critical thinking.
For more information about the development or implementation of
the plan, please contact: Dr. Johnny Good, Vice President of Institutional
Effectiveness and Accreditation Liaison. [email protected]
Please see this link for additional information: http://www.beaconcollege.edu/qualityenhancementplan.asp
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking General Conference Information
Important Announcements
1. Please turn all cell phone ringers off during all sessions.
2. Please review all of the information included in this program and in
your packet. You will find an area map, information about local
restaurants, information about the sessions and room assignments, and general information about the Foundation for Critical Thinking.
3. Please bring all of your Thinker’s Guides to every conference session. This enables the presenter (and you) to use any or all of them
throughout the conference.
4. Place your name or initials on each of your Thinker’s Guides, in case you get separated from your guides.
5. We also suggest that you place your name on your bag – you may use the markers we have in the reception area.
6. Please wear your nametag at all times when you are in the conference
sessions, so that we know you are a paid registrant, and for group activities.
7. Please attend only the sessions you have registered for. All conference
sessions are designed for deep learning. Activities within each session
build upon one another. If you think the session you are registered for
will not meet your needs, speak with one of the presenters to see if room
is available for a change.
8. Please feel free to ask for assistance or information during breaks and
lunch at the information desk.
9. Coffee and tea will be provided during the breaks, and water will be
provided all day in the Sonoma Valley room on the second floor of the
Student Center. If you would like anything in addition to this, including
snacks, feel free to bring those as you wish.
10. We will have several of our materials and publications available for sale at the reception area. Our bookstore is open during breaks and lunch,
and at the end of each day’s sessions. Our bookstore will close at 1:00 p.m. on Friday.
11. DO NOT CHANGE SLEEPING ROOMS! Your room key is specifically for the room you have been assigned as well as the entrance to the suite.
If you have any issues with your assigned lodging, please see Rachael Collins.
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking 11. Meal information (please read): The cafeteria is called “The Kitchens”
and is “all you care to eat.” It is located on the first floor of the Student
Center. Since the campus has multiple events at the same time, each event
is assigned a line time for its attendees meals. Our line times are as
follows: 7:00-7:30 a.m. for breakfast, 11:45 a.m.-12:00 p.m. for lunch and 6:00 p.m.-6:30 p.m. for dinner. Please arrive during these assigned times to ensure there is enough space and that the food is fresh. These are line times, meaning you need to enter the dining hall during the assigned
times. Once in, you can take as long as needed to eat. If you arrive outside
of the line time, admission is at the discretion of the attendant on duty.
The Kitchens is set up like a food court with several stations offering
different items to suit a variety of dietary needs and preferences.
Vegetarian and vegan options are easy to provide, and we source as many
items from local farms and businesses as possible.
12. Shampoo and conditioner will not be provided. Please plan to bring these items with you. There are toiletries available to purchase at the
campus bookstore, and there is a 7-Eleven within walking distance. (Soap is provided.)
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Answers to Frequently Asked Questions:
Can I purchase the PowerPoint presentations?
We have a PowerPoint CD available for purchase during the conference. It
includes many, if not most, of the visual images used in focal sessions, as well as
many more images. This CD is available for $20 and contains the following files:
• Introduction to Critical Thinking
• Three Types of Questions
• Fostering the Disciplined Mind
• Elementary Instruction
• Elements of Reasoning
• Intellectual Virtues
• Key Concepts
• Questioning Mind
• Quotes and Statistics
• Role of Administration
• Relationship between Content and Thinking
• Self-Handicapping Behaviors
• Socratic Questioning
• Standards Primary
• Theory of Mind
Please ask at the Bookstore for information.
Why are the sessions being videotaped?
Many of the workshop sessions are videotaped for the following reasons: (1) to
permanently document the sessions for the Foundation for Critical Thinking
archives, (2) to provide video footage from the sessions for our website, and (3)
to provide DVD video clips for educational purposes.
Can I get a list of all conference participants?
We design conference sessions so that participants frequently work with others
in pairs and small groups. This enables those interested in establishing personal
contacts at the conference to exchange contact information. In addition, feel free
to put a message on the bulletin board that invites those sharing an interest in
_______ (whatever category you please) to take down your email address and
leave their own for you. The message board will be located near our information
and sales area, in the Sonoma Valley room.
How do the concurrent sessions work?
All concurrent sessions will be held on Thursday. Please read the Concurrent
Session Program in this program, in advance, to decide which sessions seem
most relevant to your work and life. You will not need to pre-register for
concurrent sessions.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking What is the closing session?
This is a time for all registrants to come together, process what they have learned
at the conference, and think about next steps for moving forward. This session
will be led by the Fellows of the Foundation for Critical Thinking.
Does the Foundation for Critical Thinking offer on-site professional
development programs in critical thinking?
Yes. There is a general professional development proposal included in your
registration packet. That information is also available on our website at this link:
http://www.criticalthinking.org/professionalDev/index.cfm
To discuss our professional development programs, email
[email protected]
How can I establish an official affiliation with the Foundation for Critical
Thinking?
We have a new certification program that is available. There is information
provided in your registration packet. If you have questions you can visit the
information desk in the Sonoma Valley room or email [email protected]
How can I gain access to a library of articles on critical thinking?
There is a library of articles on our website, which includes numerous articles
you can download – www.criticalthinking.org/pages/index-of-articles/1021/
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking How can I get information on assessment regarding critical thinking?
Information is available on our website regarding tests and assessment.
www.criticalthinking.org/pages/critical-thinking-testing-and-assessment/594.
Also, you received two Thinker’s Guides on assessment during registration –
Critical Thinking Competency Standards, and The International Critical Thinking
Reading and Writing Test.
Where can I get the chimes the presenters use?
The chimes can be purchased through the following website: www.seagifts.com
This Persian rug was commissioned by Mohammad B. Bagheri in honor
of our founder Richard Paul as a memorial gift to the Foundation for
Critical Thinking.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking Foundation for Critical Thinking Books and Guides
The following publications have been written by Foundation for Critical
Thinking Fellows and are available in our conference bookstore, or at
www.criticalthinking.org/store:
• Critical Thinking: What Every Person Needs to Survive in a Rapidly Changing World
• Critical Thinking: Tools For Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life, Third Edition
• Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Professional and Personal Life, Second Edition
• Critical Thinking: Learn the Tools the Best Thinkers use
• Learning to Think Things Through: A Guide to Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum
• 30 Days to Better Thinking and Better Living With Critical Thinking
• Critical Thinking Handbook: K-3rd Grades
• Critical Thinking Handbook: 4th-6th Grades
• Critical Thinking Handbook: 7th-9th Grades
• Critical Thinking Handbook: High School
• The Aspiring Thinker’s Guide to Critical Thinking
• The Thinker’s Guide: A Glossary of Critical Thinking Terms and Concepts
• The Thinker’s Guide to Analytic Thinking
• The Thinker’s Guide to Intellectual Standards
• The Miniature Guide to the Human Mind
• The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking for Children
• The Miniature Guide to the Art of Asking Essential Questions
• The Teacher’s Manual for the Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking for Children
• The Thinker’s Guide to Clinical Reasoning
• The Thinker’s Guide to Engineering Reasoning
• The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking Concepts and Tools
• A Critical Thinker’s Guide to Educational Fads
• The Thinker’s Guide for Students on How to Study and Learn a Discipline
• The Thinker’s Guide to How to Write a Paragraph
• The Thinker’s Guide to How to Read a Paragraph
• The Thinker’s Guide to Fallacies: The Art of Mental Trickery and Manipulation
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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• The Thinker’s Guide for Conscientious Citizens on How to Detect Media Bias and Propaganda
• The Thinker’s Guide to the Art of Socratic Questioning
• The Miniature Guide to Understanding the Foundations of Ethical Reasoning
• The International Critical Thinking Reading & Writing Test
• A Miniature Guide to For Those Who Teach on How to Improve Student Learning
• A Miniature Guide for Students and Faculty to Scientific Thinking
• A Guide for Educators to Critical Thinking Competency Standards
• The Thinker’s Guide to the Nature and Functions of Critical and Creative Thinking
• The Student Guide to Historical Thinking
• The Instructor’s Guide to Critical Thinking
• Historical Thinking: Bringing Critical Thinking Into the Heart of Historical Study
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking What previous attendees say about the conference…
n
Among the most stimulating days n Great suggestions on how to focus
I’ve ever spent intellectually.
on students’ strengths, not weaknesses, and how to apply the
n Thanks for all the sharing. It’s been
a catalyst for self reflection, and the tools to empower them as critical
integration of all the ideas I’ve ever thinkers.
heard but never really thought
seriously about. n
“instructional” creativity. It also showed how to help students develop their understanding of, and appreciation for, asking questions.
n
It provides a depth of
understanding that isn’t possible from reading.
n Taking time to evaluate the intellectual traits as they apply to n The conference is invigorating, both
ourselves and developing a deeper intellectually and emotionally, and it understanding of those traits.
provides a wealth of practical strategies/methods.
n This conference stimulated Every reading teacher/reading program director needs this booklet [How to Read a Paragraph]. Why have we been making the teaching of reading such a ridiculously difficult n Recognizing/affirming the importance of significant ideas, endeavor? Shameful!
which generate significant “live” n The most valuable thing was questions.
rebuilding a relationship with critical thinking methodology – n Your “stepping-out” on the proverbial “limb” in designing this which has reignited the flame!
conference was worthwhile. The n I have gained many good ideas from info was clearly presented, usable, my colleagues. The conference has concrete, and even FUN!
raised as many questions as it has given answers.
n This session challenged my n My teaching is being transformed to assumption about the actual
reading abilities of my students. I inspire students’ development of feel equipped to take my teaching critical thinking skills through
of reading up several notches. practice and effective facilitation.
Thank you! n No one can possibly participate n Excellent identification of
without changing (or learning) intellectual traits and introspection some aspect of how to improve their to identify barriers. own thinking.
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press www.criticalthinking.org
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The 36th International Conference on Critical Thinking The Foundation for Critical Thinking seeks
to promote essential change in education and
society through the cultivation of fairminded
critical thinking – thinking committed to
intellectual empathy, intellectual humility,
intellectual perseverance, intellectual integrity,
and intellectual responsibility. A rich
intellectual environment is possible only with
critical thinking at the foundation of
education. Why? Because only when students
learn to think through the content they
are learning in a deep and substantive way can
they apply what they are learning in their lives.
Moreover, in a world of accelerating change,
intensifying complexity, and increasing
interdependence, critical thinking is now
a requirement for economic and social survival.
Contact us online at criticalthinking.org
to learn about our publications, videos,
workshops, conferences, and
professional development programs.
Contact the Fellows:
Contact us:
Linda Elder
[email protected]
Gerald Nosich [email protected]
Phone707-878-9100
Editor: Linda Elder
Graphic Design: Kathy Abney
Concurrent Sessions Program: Rachael Collins and
Jon Kalagorgevich
Proofreading/Editing: Jon Kalagorgevich
Printing Oversight: Rachael Collins
©2016 Foundation for Critical Thinking Press Fax707-878-9111
Toll free
800-833-3645
[email protected]
Web site www.criticalthinking.org
Mail
Foundation for Critical Thinking
P.O. Box 196
Tomales, CA 94971
www.criticalthinking.org
The unexamined life
is not worth living… Socrates
The Center and Foundation For Critical Thinking

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