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‫ ابود‬abadīya infinite duration, endless
time, eternity
‫ا‬
‫ ا‬a particle introducing direct and indirect
questions; ‫ ا ― أم‬a - am in alternative
questions; ‫ سواا ااا― أم‬sawā’un a ― am no
matter whether - or; ‫ أاو‬a-wa particle
indicating or implying doubt: or?
perhaps?(atau/apakah)
‫اَوتشوووووولا وووووو ا وووووول‬
(tašukku) you wouldn't doubt it, would
you? do you perhaps doubt it? or do you
doubt it? ‫ اَال‬alā and ‫ اَمو‬a-mā intensifying
interjections introducing sentences: verily,
truly, indeed, oh yes, etc., ‫( اَالا و ظرووا‬fanẓurū) oh, do look! why, look! ‫اَم و ااظ و‬
(innahū) why, he is ... !
1
‫ آب‬āb2 August = Agustus (month; Syr., Leb.,
Jord., Ir.)
2
‫ اب‬see ‫ابا‬
3
‫ اب‬abba u to long, yearn, ( ‫ إ ووواوه و‬ilā
waṯanihi for one's homeland)
4
‫ ابيب‬look up alphabetically
‫( اب ت‬It. abate) abātī abbot (Chr.)
‫ اب ة‬ibāla, ibbāla bundle, bale
‫ ي اابت‬see ‫ابا‬
‫ ابجد‬abjad alphabet
‫ ابجود‬abjadī alphabetic(al); ‫ ابجودي‬elementary
facts, simple truths │‫اا حوووواااالبجديووة‬the
letters of the alphabet
‫ ابود‬abada ( ‫ ابوا‬ubūd) to stay, linger (‫ ب‬at a
place); ― i u to roam in a state of
wildness, run wild, be shy, shy away, run
away (animal, game) II to make lasting or
permanent, perpetuate, eternize (‫ هـ‬s.th.) V
to be perpetuated, become lasting or
permanentl; to return to a state of wildness
‫ ابود‬abad pl. ‫ آبو‬ābād endless, eternal
duration, eternity; ‫ ابوودا‬abadan always,
forever; ever, (with neg.) never (in the
future), not at all, on no account; (alone,
without negation) never! not at all! By no
means! │ ‫ علووواادبوودىاإ ووواادبوود‬and ‫أبووداا وودهو‬
abada d-dahri forever; ‫ ابودااببودي‬abada labadīn and ‫ إ ووواابوودااببوودي‬ilā abadi l-a.
forever and ever
‫ آبد‬ābid wild, untamed
‫ آبوود‬ābida pl. ‫ اوابوود‬awābid2 unusual
thing, prodigious event │ ‫ اوابوداا ودظي‬a. addunyā the Wonders of the World
‫ مؤبوووود‬mu'abbad eternal, endless,
everlasting │‫( سوووووج امؤبووووود‬sijn) life
imprisonment
1
‫ ابووو‬ibra pl. ‫ ابووو‬ibar needle, pln;
indicator (of an instrument); shot,
injection (med.);sting, prick │ ‫حق و اابووو‬
ḥaqanahu ibratan to give s.o. an injection;
‫ ابوو اا واعوو‬i. ar-rā‘ī geranium (bot.); ‫ابوو ا‬
‫( مغ هيسووية‬magnāṯīsīya) magnetic needle;
‫ شغلااالبو‬šug1 al-i. needlework
‫ مئبو‬mi'bar needlecase; pack needle
2
‫ آب ر‬ābār see ‫بئو‬
‫ ابويشوية‬abrašīya and ‫ ابووشوية‬abrūšīya pl. -āt
diocese, bishoprie (Chr.); parish (Chr.)
‫ ابوميس‬abramīs, ‫ ابواميس‬bream (zool.)
‫ ابويز‬pure gold 1
‫ ابويسم‬ibrīsam, ibrīsim silk
‫ ابويق‬ibrīq pl. ‫ اب ريق‬abārīq2 pitcher, jug
‫ ابويل‬abril April
‫ ابزن‬abzan pl. ‫ اب زن‬abāzin2 washbowl
‫ ابزيم‬ibzīm pl. ‫ اب زم‬abāzim2 buckle, clasp
‫ ابو‬ubḍ pl.
‫ آبو‬ābāḍ and
‫ موبب‬ma’biḍ pl.
2
‫ مووو ب‬ma’ābiḍ hollow of the knee,
popliteal space
‫ ابط‬V to take or carry under one's arm (‫ هـ‬s.th.);
to put one's arm (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬around s.o., around
s.th.), hold in one's arm (‫هـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.th.)
‫ ابط‬ibṯ pl. ‫ آب ه‬ābāṯ m. and f. armpit
‫ ابوق‬abaqa i ( ‫ ابو‬ibāq) to escape, run away (a
slave from his master)
‫ ابق‬abaq a kind of hemp
‫ آبوووق‬ābiq pl.
escaped; a fugitive
‫ ابد‬abadi everlasting, eternal, endless
‫ االبد‬al-abadī eternity
‫ ابووو‬abara i u (abr) to prick, sting II to
pollinate (‫ هـ‬a palm tree)
‫ ابووو‬ubbāq runaway,
1
‫ ابل‬ibil (coll.) camel
2
‫ اب ة‬ibāla, ibbāla bundle, bale
‫ ابليز‬iblīz alluvial deposits (of the Nile)
disdain (‫ هوـ‬s.th.): to deny (‫ علوواهوـ‬s.o. s.th.)
│ ‫( ابوووااالاأنايفعل و‬illā an yaf’alahū) he
insisted on doing it; ‫ ابووا اإالاأن‬God willed
that ... V to refuse, decline
‫ ابليس‬iblīs pl. ‫ اب سة‬abālisa devil, Satan
1
‫ اب و‬II to celebrate, praise, eulogize (‫ ه‬a
deceased person), deliver a funeral oration
(‫ ه‬in praise of s.o.)
‫ ابو‬ibā’, ‫ ابو‬ibā’a rejection; dislike,
distaste, aversion, disdain; pride
‫ اب ة‬ubna passive pederasty
‫ اب و‬abīy disdainful, scornful: proud,
lofty, lofty-minded
‫ ابو ن‬ibbān time: ‫ ابو ن‬ibbāna during, ‫و ا‬
‫ اب ن‬at the time of, during
‫ توووببي‬ta’bīn commemoration (of a
deceased person) │ ‫ حفلووةاتووببي‬ḥaflat at-t.
commemorative celebration (in honor of a
deceased person)
‫ مووووببان‬ma’būn catamite;
mollycoddle, sissy; scoundrel
2
‫ اب‬see
1
‫ آب‬ābin pl.
‫ ابووو‬ubāh reserved,
standoffish; unwilling, reluctant, grudging
‫ ابيوب‬abīb the eleventh month of the Coptic
calendar 2
‫ ابيقار‬abīqūrī Epicurean
weakling,
‫ ابيقار‬abīqūriya Epicureanism
‫ب‬
‫ اتووو‬utrujj and ‫ اتوووظ‬utrunj citron (Citrus
medica; bot.)
‫ اب اس‬abnūs ebony
‫ اب‬abaha and abiha a (abh) to pay attention (‫ل‬,
also ‫ ب‬to), heed (‫ل‬, also ‫ ب‬s.th.), take
notice (‫ل‬, also ‫ ب‬of) │ ‫اموووواالايؤبووو ا ووو‬
(yu'bahu) an insignificant, unimportant
matter V to display proud, haughty
manners; to turn away, keep one's
distance, remain aloof ( ‫ ع و‬from), look
down ( ‫ عو‬upon), think o.s. far above ( ‫عو‬
s.o. or s.th.)
‫ابهووووووة‬
ubbaha
splendor,
ostentation, pageantry; pride
pomp,
‫ اب‬ab pl. ‫ آب‬aba' father (also eccl.): ancestor,
forefather: ‫ ي اابت‬yā abati O my father!
‫ االباان‬al-abawān the parents, father and
mother; ‫ اباظ‬abūnā reverend father, form of
address and title of a priest (Chr). │‫اب اع اجد‬
aban ‘an jaddin handed down from father
to son, as s.th. inherited from forefathers;
‫ ابا اسع‬abū su’n marabou; ‫ ابا اا ام‬abū nnaum poppy; ‫ ابا اا هال‬abū l-haul the
Sphinx; ‫ ابا اا يقر ن‬abū l-yaqẓān rooster,
cock
‫ ابا‬ubūwa fatherhood, paternity
‫ ابا‬abawī paternal, fatherly
‫ اباظيت‬ebonite
‫( اباظيو‬Fr. abonné) abūneh pl. -āt subscription;
subscription card (e.g., for public
conveyances, a concert season, etc.)
‫ ابووو‬abā a ( ‫ اب و‬ibā’,
‫ ابو‬ibā’a) to refuse,
decline; to turn down, reject, scorn,
‫( آتشج‬Turk. ateşçi) ātešgī fireman, stoker
‫ مبتم‬ma’tam pl. ‫ مو تم‬ma’ātim2 obsequies, funeral
ceremony
1
‫ اتو ن‬atān pl. ‫ آتو‬ātun,
donkey, she-ass
2
‫ اتوان‬atūn, attūn pl. ‫ اتو‬utun, ‫ اتو ت‬atātīn2 kiln,
furnace, oven
‫ اتو‬utun, utn female
‫ ات و‬itāwa pl. ‫ ات وى‬atāwā duty, tax, tribute
‫( اتابيس‬Fr.) otobīs autobus, bus
‫( اتام تيك‬Fr.) otomātīkī automatic
‫ اتامبيوول‬boyl lI‫ا ووو‬d ‫( اتامابيووول‬Fr.) otomobīl
automobile
‫ اتوو‬atā i (‫ اتيو ن‬ityān, ‫ اتوو‬aty, ‫ مبتو‬to come (‫ ه‬or
‫ ا و‬to; ‫ علو‬over s.o.), arrive (‫ هـ‬or ‫ ا وو‬at); ‫ب‬
‫ اتووو‬to bring, bring forward, produce,
advance, accomplish or achieve s.th.; ‫اتواها‬
‫ ب‬to bring, give or offer s.o. s.th.; to do,
perform (‫ هوـ‬a deed), carry out, execute (‫هوـ‬
e.g., movements); to commit, perpetrate
(‫ هوـ‬a sin, a. crime); to mention (‫ علوو‬s.th.);
to finish off (‫ علوو‬s.th., also s.o.); to finish,
complete, carry through, dispose, settle,
wind up, conclude, terminate, bring to a
close (‫ علووو‬s.th.); to destroy, annihilate,
eradicate, wipe out (‫ علوووو‬s.th.); to
eliminate, carry away, sweep away (‫علووو‬
s.th.), do away (‫ علووو‬with); to use up,
exhaust (also a subject), present
exhaustively, in great detail (‫ علووو‬s.th.),
elaborate (‫ علووو‬on s.th.) │ ‫ اكم و ايووبت‬as
follows; ‫( اتووووواعلووووواآ وووووه‬ākhirihī) to
complete, finish s.th.; to spend or use up
the last of s.th.; ‫ اتوواعلووااد وواوا يو بس‬to
destroy everything, wreak havoc;‫اتوووا ا‬
‫ ا بيا امو ااباابهو‬s.th. in the right way, knock
on the right door;‫ يوؤتوامو البولا‬yu’ta min
qibali is undermined, weakened, ruined by
III to offer furnish, give, afford (‫ ب‬to s.o.
s.th.), provide, supply (‫ ب‬s.o. with); to be
propitious, be favorable (‫ ه‬for s.o.), favor
(‫ ه‬s.o.); to turn out well (. for s.o.), be in
favor (‫ ه‬of); to suit, befit, become (‫ ه‬s.o.),
be appropriate (‫ ه‬for s.o.); to agree (‫ ه‬with‫ا‬
s.o.; food) │ ‫( اتوو هاكوولاشوو‬kullu šai’in)
everything was in his favor, turned out
well for him, came his way IV to bring (‫هوـ‬
s.o. s.th.); to give (‫ هـ‬s.o. s.th.); to grant (‫هـ‬
‫ ه‬to s.o. s.th.), bestow (‫ هوـ‬upon s.o. s.th.)
│ ‫( آتووواا زك و‬zakāta) to give alms V to
originate, stem, derive, spring, arise, result
( ‫ عو‬from); to end ( ‫ عو‬with), result ( ‫عو‬
in); to get (‫ ا و‬to), arrive (‫ ا و‬at); to be easy
to do, be feasible without difficulty, be
attainable, go well, progress; to go about
s.th. (‫ ) وو‬gently, cautiously X to ask to
come, induce to come (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ مبتو‬ma’tan pl. ‫ مو‬ma’ātin place where
s.th. comes from; place at which one
arrives; access; pl.
‫ م و‬place of origin;
origin, source, provenance; place where
one has been or to which one has come;
place where s.th. starts, where s.th. ends
‫ آ‬ātin coming, next; following │
‫( ادسوبا اابتو‬usbū‘) the coming week, next
week; ‫ ك بت‬as follows
‫ مووواا‬mu’ātin, muwātin favorable,
propitious, opportune, convenient, suitable
‫ اث‬aṯṯa u I a (‫ اث ثوة‬aṯāṯa) to be luxuriant, grow
profusely (hair, plants) II to fix up,
prepare (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.); to furnish (‫ هوووـ‬an
apartment) V to be or become rich,
wealthy, to prosper; to be furnished
‫ اثو ث‬aṯāṯ furniture, furnishings (of an
apartment, of a room)
‫ تبثيث‬ta’ṯīṯ furnishing
‫ اث‬aṯṯ, ‫ اثو ث‬aṯīṯ abundant, luxuriant,
profusely growing (hair, plants)
‫ اثوو‬aṯara u i (aṯr, ‫ اثو ر‬aṯāra) to transmit, pass
along, report, relate (‫ هوـ‬s.th., ‫ عو‬from, or
based on the authority of, s.o.) II to affect,
influence ( ‫ و‬or ‫ علوو‬s.o., s.th.), act ( ‫ و‬or
‫ علووو‬upon), produce an effect, make an
impression, have influence ( ‫ و‬or ‫ علوو‬on);
to induce (phys.) IV to prefer (‫ هوـاعلوو‬s.th.
to), like (‫ هـ‬s.th.) more (‫ علو‬than); to have a
predilection, a liking (‫ هوـ‬for), like (‫ هوـ‬s.th.),
be fond (‫ هوـ‬of); to choose, deem wise or
advisable (‫ ان‬to do s.th.); to adore (‫هوـ‬, ‫ه‬
s.o., s.th.) │‫( آثووواظفس و اب و يو‬nafsahū bi-lkair) to wish o.s. well, hope for the best
for o.s. V to be impressed, be influenced;
to let o.s. be impressed, be impressible; to
be moved, be touched (‫ ب‬or ‫ ل‬by, also ‫;)مو‬
to be excited, be stimulated; to be affected
(‫ ب‬by, said of materials, e.g., iron by acid);
to be induced (phys.); to follow in s.o.’s (‫)ه‬
tracks, follow s.o.’s example, emulate (‫ه‬
s.o.); to pursue, follow up (‫ هوـ‬a question, a
problem); to perceive, feel (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) X to
claim a monopoly; to possess alone, with
the exclusion of others, monopolize (‫ب‬
s.th.); to appropriate (‫ ب‬s.th.), take
exclusive possession (‫ ب‬of); to preoccupy
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.), engross (‫ هوـ‬the attention) │‫اسوأبثوا‬
‫ اب‬the Lord has taken him unto Himself
‫ اثو‬aṯar pl. ‫ آثو ر‬āṯār track, trace, vestige;
sign, mark; touch; impression, effect,
action, influence ( ‫ وووو‬on); tradition
(relating the deeds and utterances of
Mohammed and his Companions); work
(of art, esp. of literature); ancient
monument; ‫ آثووو ر‬antiquities; remnants,
vestiges; (religious) relics │‫‘ علوماابثو ر‬ilm
al-a. archeology; ‫ اراابثووو ر‬museum of
antiquities; ‫( الااثووووا ووو‬aṯara) ineffective,
ineffectnal;
‫( بوووووبثوارجعووووو‬raj‘ī) with
retroactive force (jur.); ‫اصووباااثووواابعووداعووي‬
aṣbaḥa aṯaran ba‘da ‘ainin to be
destroyed, be wiped out, leave nothing but
memory behind; ‫( اع هااثوواابعوداعوي‬a‘adahū)
to destroy s.th. completely ; ‫علوااثوه‬, ‫ااثووه‬
(also fī iṯrihī) on his (its) track, at his
heels, after him; immediately afterwards,
presently, thereupon; ;'11 j. immediately
afterwards, presently
‫ اثوو‬iṯra (prep.) immediately after, right
after
‫ اثوو‬aṯarī archeologic(a1); archeologist
(also ‫ آثو ر‬āṯārī); old, ancient, antique │‫ا‬
‫ عو مااثوو‬archeologist; ‫( غوةااثويوة‬luga) dead
language
‫ اثو‬aṯir egoistic, selfish
‫ اثو‬aṯara selfishness, egoism
‫ اثيو‬aṯīr favored, preferred (‫ ع ود‬by s.o.),
in favor (‫ ع ود‬with s.o.); select, exquisite,
noble; see also alphabetically
‫ اث و ر‬aṯāra remainder, remnant; faint
trace, vestige
‫ اثيول‬atīl and ‫ مؤثول‬mu’attal deep-rooted;
of noble origin, highborn
‫ اثوم‬atima a (itm, atam, ‫ موبثم‬ma’tam) to sin, err,
slip V to eschew sin, shun evil; to restrain
o.s. hold back
‫ اثووم‬itm pl. ‫ آثوو م‬ātām sin, offense,
misdeed, crime
2
‫ موبثو‬ma’ṯara, ma’ṯura pl. ‫ مو ثو‬ma’āṯir
exploit, feat, glorious deed
‫ موووبثم‬ma’tam pl. ‫ مووو ثم‬sin, offense,
misdeed, crime
‫ تووبثيو‬ta’ṯīr action, effect, influence,
impression ( ‫ و‬, ‫ علووو‬on); effectiveness,
efficacy; induction (phys.)
‫ تبثيم‬sin, offense, misdeed, crime
‫ آثوم‬ātim pl. ‫ اثموة‬atama and ‫ اثويم‬atīm pl.
‫ اثمو‬atmā’ sinful, criminal, wicked, evil;
sinner
‫ تووبثيو‬ta’ṯīrī produced by induction,
inductive, inductional, induced (phys.)
‫إيثووووو ر‬
īṯār
preference;
predilection; love, affection
altruism;
‫ توبثو‬ta’aṯṯur being influenced; agitation,
emotion, feeling; excitability, sensitivity;
(pl. -āt) feeling, sensation, perception │‫ا‬
‫ سووويااا أووبثو‬easily impressed, impressible,
sensitive
‫ اثمد‬itmid antimony
‫ اثيو‬atīr ether
‫ اثي‬atīnā Athens
‫ اثيابي‬atyūbiyā Ethiopia
‫ اثيوواب‬atyūbī Ethiopian; (pl.-ūn) an
Ethiopian │‫اا بال ااالثيابية‬Ethiopia
‫ توووووبثو‬ta’aṯṯurī:
‫ا مووووولهباا أوووووبثو‬
(madhab)the impressionistic movement
‫ ا‬ajja u i ( ‫ اجوي‬ajīj) to burn, blaze, flame (fire)
II to light, kindle, start (‫ هـ‬a fire) V = I
‫ تبثوية‬ta’atturīya impressionism
‫ م ااج‬mā’ ujāj bitter, salty water
‫ اسوأئث ر‬isti’tār arrogation of a monopoly;
monopolization;
presumption,
presumptuousness; exclusive power
‫ موبثار‬ma’tūr transmitted, handed down
│‫(الوالاموبثار‬qaul) and ‫( كلموةاموبثار‬kalima)
proverb
‫ مووؤثو‬mu’attir affecting, acting upon;
effective; impressive; moving, touching,
pathetic; (pl. -āt) influencing factor,
influence
2
‫ أثيو‬look up alphabetically
‫ أثفيووة‬utfīya pl. ‫ أث و ا‬atāfin trivet, tripod (in
&ncient times: &ny one of the three
stones supporting a cooking pot near the
fire) │ ‫ اث ثوةاادثو‬that which rounds out a
number, caps s.th., puts the lid on s.th., the
crowning touch
‫ اثوول‬atala i to consolidate, strengthen II to
become rich V to be consolidated, be
strengthened; to become rich
‫ اثول‬atl pl. ‫ اثووال‬utūl (coll.; n. un. pl.
atalat) tamarisk (bot.)
‫ اج‬ajjāj burning, blazing, hot
‫مأووووبج‬
flaming
muta’ajjij
burning,
blazing,
‫ اجبية‬ajabīya horologium (Copt.-Chr.)
2
‫ أجووو‬ajara u (ajr) to reward, recompense,
remunerate (‫ هوـ‬s.o.) II to let for rent, let
out, hire out, rent, lease (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); (with
nafsahū) to hire s.o. out IV to let for rent,
let out, hire out, rent, lease (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
rent, hire, lease, hold under a lease (‫هووـ‬
s.th.), take a lease, (‫ هوـ‬on); to hire, engage,
take on (‫ ه‬s.o.), engage the services (‫ ه‬of
s.o.) X to rent, hire, lease, hold under a
lease (‫هـ‬.th.), take a lease (‫ هـ‬on); to charter
(‫ هوـ‬a vessel); to hire, engage, take on (‫ه‬
s.o.), engage the service (‫ ه‬of s.o.)
‫ اج وو‬ajr pl. ‫ اج وار‬ujūr wages, pay,
honorarium, recompense, emolument,
remuneration; price, rate, fee │ ‫اجواراا سوفو‬
u. as-safar fares
‫ اجوو‬ujra hire, rent, rental; price, rate,
fee; fixed rate, (official) charge; postage │‫ا‬
‫ اجووو اا بويوود‬postage; ‫ اجووو اا قوول‬u. an-naql
‫ آجوول‬ājil delayed, protracted; deferred;
later, future (as opposed to ‫اعو جالااوا│)ع جل‬
‫’آجوال‬ājilan au ājilan, ‫ و اع جلو ااواآجلو‬sooner
or later, now or later on; ‫و اا ع جولاوابجول‬
now and in the future
‫ ابجل وة‬al-ājila the life to come, the
hereafter
‫ مؤجول‬mu’ajjal delayed, late, postponed,
deferred; fixed in time, deadlined
transport charges, freight(age), carriage,
cartage
‫ اجيووو‬ajīr pl. ‫ اجوووا‬ujarā’ hireling;
workman, laborer, day laborer; employee
‫ اجي وو‬ajīra working woman, factory
girl, female laborer; woman employee
‫ توبجيو‬ta’jīr letting, leasing, hiring out,
letting on lease; lease│‫امشووووو اا أوووبجيوا‬
‫( واإلع ر‬i‘āra) Lend-Lease Act
‫ ايجو ر‬ījār pl. -āt rent; letting, leasing,
hiring out, letting on lease│‫ ا إليج و ر‬for
rent, to let
‫ اجو ر‬ijāra pl. -āt rent; letting, leasing,
hiring out, letting on lease
‫ اسأئج ر‬isti’jār rent, lease, tenure
‫ مووبجار‬ma’jūr paid, salaried, on the
payroll, gainfully employed; employee;
mercenary, venal, hired, bribed
‫ مؤجو‬mu’ajjir pl. -ūn landlord, lessor
‫ مسووأبجو‬musta’jir leaseholder, lessee,
tenant; employer 5
2
‫ آجو‬ājurr (n. un. ) baked brick
‫ اجزاج‬see ‫جز‬
‫ اجزا ظة‬see ‫جز‬
‫ اج ص‬ijjāṣ pear
‫ اجول‬ajala a (ajal) to hesitate, tarry, linger II to
delay, postpone, put off, defer, adjourn (‫هـا‬
‫ ا ووو‬s.th. till) V to be postponed, be
deferred, be adjourned (‫ موؤجو‬till, to) X to
request postponement (‫ هوـ‬of s.th.); to seek
to delay (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ اجل‬ajal yes, indeed! certainly! by all means!
‫ دجل‬li-ajli or ‫ م ااجل‬min ajli because of,
on account of, for the sake of; for │‫ادجلا‬
‫أن‬in order that, that, so that; ‫م اأجل اهلا‬
therefore, for that reason, on this account
‫ اجول‬ajal pl. ‫ آجو ل‬ājāl appointed time,
date, deadline; instant of death; respite,
delay│‫ ب دجول‬on credit (com.); ‫لصويواادجول‬
short-term, short-time; short-lived: ‫إ وواأجولا‬
‫( غيووووامسووومو‬gairi musammā) for an
indefinite period, sine die, until further
notice
‫ تبجيوووول‬ta’jīl delay, postponement,
adjournment,
deferment,
respite;
appointment of a time or date
‫ اجمة‬ajama, coll. ‫ اجوم‬ajam pl. -āt, ‫ اجوم‬ujum, ‫آجو م‬
ājām thicket, jungle, forest: reeds,
canebrake
‫ اجميوة‬ajamiya malaria│‫ ابعاضووةاادجميوة‬ba‘ūḍat
al-a. anopheles
‫ آج‬ājin brackish (water)
‫ اج د‬ajanda notebook
‫ اح‬aḥḥa u (aḥḥ) to cough
‫ احود‬II to make into one, unite, unify (‫ هوـ‬s.th.)
VIII ‫ اتحد‬see ‫وحد‬
‫ احود‬aḥad, f. ‫ احودى‬one: somebody, someone,
anybody, anyone (esp. in negative
sentences and questions); ‫ ادحوود‬the One
(God); Sunday│‫ احدهم‬aḥaduhum every one
of them; ‫ يواماادحود‬yaum al-a. Sunday;‫اأحودا‬
‫ ا سعفا‬a. as-sa‘af Palm Sunday;‫اأحداا ع صو ا‬
a. al-‘anṣara Whitsunday; ‫ آحودااد واا‬āḥād
al-ulūf a few thousand (2-9000; as
distinguished from ‫ عشووا ااد واا‬and ‫مئو ا‬
‫)اد اا‬
‫ احد‬aḥadī dominical, Sunday (adj.)
‫ احدية‬aḥadīya unity, oneness
‫ ابحد‬al-āḥād the units (math.)
1
‫ ااح‬aḥina a (aḥan) to bate (‫ علو‬s.o.)
‫ اح وة‬iḥna pl. ‫ احو‬iḥan old feud, deep-rooted
hatred
2
‫ ااحي‬see ‫ااوح‬
‫ اخ‬see ‫اا ا‬
‫ ا ت‬see ‫اا ا‬
‫ ا ول‬aḳaḍa u (aḳḍ) to take ( ‫ هوـ مو‬s.th. from or‫ا‬
out of): to take (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) along: to get,
receive, obtain ( ‫ هوـ مو‬s.th. from); to take
up, seize (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to grab (‫ ب‬s.o., s.th.),
take hold of (‫)ب‬: to perceive, notice (‫ ه‬s.o.,
said of the eye); to gather, understand,
infer, deduce ( ‫ هوـ مو‬s.th. from), read (‫هوـ‬
s.th.) between the lines ( ‫ مو‬of); to grip,
captivate, thrill, spellbind (‫ ب‬s.o.); to take
up, acquire, make one's own (‫ ب‬s.th., e.g.,
a method); to keep, adhere (‫ ب‬to),
observe, take over, adopt, embrace,
follow, copy, imitate (‫ ب‬s.th.); to accept
(‫ ب‬s.th.); to take, lead (‫ ب ا وو‬s.o. to); to
admonish, urge, drive (‫ ه ب‬s.o. to do s.th.);
to enjoin, impose (‫ ه ب‬on s.o. s.th.); to take
away (‫ علوو ه‬from s.o. s.th.), strip, deprive
(‫ علو ه‬s.o. of), cut off, bar (‫ علو ه‬s.o. from);
to reproach, hlame (‫ علوو ه‬s.o. for); to hold
against s.o. (‫ )علوو‬that ... (‫)ان‬, fix the blame
(‫ علووو‬on s.o., ‫ ان‬for the fact that); to
obligate (‫ علو ب‬s.o. to); to learn (‫ علو‬or ‫ع‬
from s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.), acquire knowledge (‫علوو‬
or ‫ ع‬from s.o.), ‫'( أ لاا علوماع و‬ilm) to study
under s.o.; to begin, start ( ‫ و‬or ‫ ب‬with
s.th. or s.th., with foll. imperf.: to do s.th.),
prepare, set out, be about ( ‫ و‬or ‫ ب‬to do
s.th.) │ ‫( اأ ووولاأبهأووو‬uhbatahū) to make
preparations, prepare o.s., get ready; ‫أ ولا‬
‫( مب وولا ووالنا‬ma’ḳad) to adopt the same
course as s.o. else, follow s.o.’s example; ‫ا‬
‫ أ لام امب لا‬to seize s.o., take possession of
s.o. (a sensation, or the like); ‫أ وولامجووواه‬
(majrāhu) to take its course; ‫أ وولامجلس و‬
(majlisahū) to take one's seat, sit down;
‫( أ ولا ولره‬ḥidrahū) to be on one's guard;
‫( أ ولهاب حسو و‬ḥusnā) to be friendly, be nice
to s.o.; ‫( أ ولاب و هوه‬bi-ḳāṯirihī) to show o.s.
complaisant toward s.o., try to please s.o.;
‫( أ ولابلظبو‬bi-danbihi) to punish s.o. for his
offense; ‫( أ وولارأي و‬ra'yahū) to ask s.o.’s
opinion, consult s.o.; ‫( أ لاا وأ اعليو‬uḳida rra'yu) the matter was put to a vote; ‫أ ولا‬
‫( ببسوب ب‬bi-asbābi) to embrace, adopt s.th.,
e.g., ‫( أ ولاببسوب باا ح و ر اادروبيوة‬ḥaḍāra) to
adopt European culture; ‫( أ لاب شد‬šidda) to
deal with s.o. severely, give s.o. a rough
time; ‫ أ ولاعليو اهويقو‬to obstruct s.o.’s way,
hinder s.o. from moving on; ‫ أ لاعلواع تقو‬to
shoulder s.th., take s.th. upon o.s.; ‫أ لاا عود ا‬
‫‘( ل‬udda) to prepare, set out, get ready to
do s.th.; ‫‘( أ ولاعليو اعهودا‬ahdan) to put s.o.
under
an
obligation,
impose
a
commitment on s.o.; ‫أ وولاعلوووايحووي ةاغووو‬
uḳida ‘alā (ḥīni) girratin to be taken by
surprise, be caught unawares; ‫أ وولاب مق بلووة‬
(muqābala) to repay like for like; ‫شو ايب ولا‬
‫ ا قلواب‬s.th. which captivates the heart, a
fascinating, thrilling thing; ‫أ ووولظ اا م وووو‬
(maṯarū) we got caught in the rain; ‫أ ولا‬
‫( ب صووه‬bi-nāṣirihi) to help s.o., stand by
s.o., take care of s.o., look after s.o.; ‫أ ولا‬
‫( ظفسو‬nafasahū) to draw breath; ‫أ ولاعليو ا‬
‫ أظف سو‬to take s.o.’s breath away; ‫أ ولاا وام‬
(naum) sleep overwhelmed him; ‫أ وولابيووده‬
(bi-yadihī) to help s.o., stand by s.o. II to
lay under a spell, enchant, bewitch (‫ ه‬s.o.)
III to censure, blame (‫ب‬, ‫ ه علوو‬s.o. for
s.th.); to punish (‫ب‬, ‫ ه علوو‬s.o. for); to hold
s.th. (‫ )علوو‬against s.o. (‫)ه‬, resent (‫ علوو‬s.th.
‫ه‬, in s.o.)│ ‫ االاتؤا ولظ‬lā tu’āḳidnī pardon
me! forgive me! no offense, I hope! VIII
‫ ات ول‬ittaḳada to take (‫ ه‬s.th.); to take on,
assume (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to take up, occupy (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to pass, adopt (‫ هوـ‬e.g., a resolution);
to take, single out, have in mind (‫هوـ هوـ‬, ‫ه ه‬
s.o. or s.th. as); to make use (‫ هوـ‬of s.th.),
use (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to imitate, affect (‫ هوـ‬e.g.,
s.o.’s manner of speaking); to make ( ‫هوـ مو‬
s.th. out of s.o. or s.th.)│‫( اات لاشكال‬šaklan)
to take on a form or shape; ‫ات وولامالف و‬
(mauqifan) to take an attitude, assume a
position; ‫ ات ووولاا أوودابيوااالزموووة‬to take the
necessary measures; ‫( ات ولالووارا‬qarāran) to
pass or adopt a resolution; ‫ات لاا ماالااا جديود‬
to take up new positions (troops)
‫ أ ول‬aḳd acceptance, reception; seizure;
taking out, taking away, removal, etc.│‫اأ لا‬
‫ا ووأ ا‬a. ar-ra'y voting, vote; ‫( أ ولاور ا‬waradd)
discussion,
debate,
dispute,
argument; ‫( شو االايقبولاأ ولااوالار ا‬yaqbalu)
an indisputable matter; ‫( أ وولاوع و‬wa‘aṯā’) give-and-take; traffic, trade;
dealings,
relations
(esp.
business,
commercial); discussion, debate; fight,
battle
‫ أ ل‬uḳda spell, charm
‫ أ يل‬aḳīd prisoner of war
‫ أ يل‬aḳīda booty, spoils
‫ أ ووو ا‬aḳḳād captivating, fascinating,
thrilling
‫ مب وول‬ma’ḳad pl. ‫ م وولا‬ma’āḳid2 place
from which one takes s.th., source; O wall
socket, outlet (el.); adoption, borrowing,
loan; manner of acting, mode of
procedure, approach; pl. ‫ م ووولا‬source
references, bibliography (in booke);
reprehensible points, faults, flaws, defects,
shortcomings│‫ اا مب وولاادلوووب‬the simplest,
easiest approach; ‫ لويوباا مب ول‬easy to handle
or to use; see wao aḳada (middle of
paragraph)
‫ا مؤا ول‬mu’āḳada objection, exception;
censure, blame│ ! ‫(ا الامؤا وول‬mu’āḳadata)
pardon me! no offense, I hope!
turn, she in turn, ‫ اظو ااب وو‬I also; ‫اناك ظوتا‬
‫( اد ووى‬in kānat) otherwise; ‫مو اآناا وواآ وو‬
from time to time; ‫( مو اسو ةاا وواا ووىا‬sana)
from year to year; ‫( بوي ا أووو اوا ووى‬fatra)
once in a while, from time to time;
‫( آوظوووة―ا ووووى‬awinatan) sometimes -sometimes, at times -- at times
‫ أ وول‬ma’ḳūd taken, seized; taken by
surprise, caught, trapped; surprised; taken
(‫ ب‬with), fascinated (‫ ب‬by); ‫ا موب ا ابو‬in
force, valid
‫ اد وى‬al-uḳrā the hereafter
‫ موووب ا ا‬ma’ḳūdāt receipts, takings,
returns (com.)
‫ ا ووو‬uḳrawī of or relating to the life to
come or the hereafter
‫ ا وو‬II to delay, put off, defer, postpone,
adjourn (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to hinder, impede,
obstruct, hold up (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.), slow
down, retard (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to draw out, delay
( ‫ ع‬s.th. beyond its appointed time); to put
back (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.), shelve (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
set back (‫ هوـ‬a watch, a clock); to suspend,
discharge, dismiss, remove (‫ ه‬s.o. from an
office) V to be late; to be delayed, fall or
lag behind ( ‫)عو‬, tarry, linger, hesitate; to
default ( ‫ ع و‬on), be behindhand, be in
arrears ( ‫ عو‬with), be behind ( ‫ عو‬in); to
hesitate ( ‫ عو‬with); to be suspended (from
service), be discharged, be dismissed│‫ا وما‬
‫ يأووب وابعوودا وولام و اان‬after that, he did not
hesitate long before he …, presently, he ...
‫ آ وو‬āḳir pl. -ūn, -āt, ‫ اوا وو‬awaḳir2 last,
ultimate, utmost, extreme; end, close,
conclusion; foot, bottom (of a paper); ‫ا‬
‫ اب وو‬and ‫ اب وو‬the hereafter│ ‫ا ودارااب وو‬
the abode in the hereafter, the everlasting
abode; ‫اا وواآ ووه‬ilā ākīirihī and so forth, et
cetera; ‫ آ ووواادمووو‬āḳir l-amri eventually,
finally, in the end, after all; ‫ آ وواا ودهو‬āḳir
d-dahri forever; ‫ آ ووواا زم و ن‬a. az-zamān
time at which the Day of Judgment is to
be expected, the end of the world; ‫عو اآ ووه‬
to the last, down to the grass roots,
entirely, completely, e.g., ‫موووواعووو اآ ووووه‬
(dummira) to be completely destroyed, be
wiped off the map; ‫ مو اآ ووه‬from behind,
from the rear; ‫ مو ا و اآ وو‬endless, infinite; ‫و ا‬
‫ آ ووااب وو‬after all, last of all; ‫ اوا وواا شوهو‬a.
aš-šahr the end of the month, the last ten
days of the month; ‫ ا يووااو ويساآ ووا‬last but
not least
‫ اب و‬al-āḳira the hereafter
‫ آ وو‬āḳar 2, f. ‫ ا ووى‬uḳrā, pl. comm. ‫ا وو‬
uḳar 2 (and ‫ آ وووون‬āḳarūn or
‫ا ويووو‬
respectively) another, one more, ‫ اب وو‬the
other│‫( امو اا وى‬marratan) once more; ‫ه ا‬
‫اد ووى‬, ‫ هواااب وو‬he also, she also, he in
‫ ا يووو‬aḳīr last; latest; rearmost; the
second of two; ‫ ا يووا‬eventually, finally, in
the end, after all, at last; recently, the
other day; ‫ اادول―اال يوو‬the former—the
latter│‫اا يوااو يساآ وا‬last but not least
‫ مئ و ر‬mi’ḳār palm which retains its fruit
into the winter
‫تووووووب يو‬
ta’ḳīr
delay,
deferment,
postponement; obstruction, retardation;
putting back, temporary shelving
‫تووب و‬.f ta’aḳḳar delay, lag, retardation;
hesitation, tarrying, lingering; slowness,
tardiness;
backwardness,
underdevelopment (of a country)
‫ موؤ و‬mu’aḳḳar rear part, tail, end; atern
(of a ship); remainder, balance (of a sum,
to be paid later); ‫ موووؤ وا‬mu’aḳḳaran
recently, lately, the other day; at last,
finally, eventually
‫ موؤ و‬mu’aḳḳara rear, rear guard (of an
army); rear positions or lines (mil.); stern
(of a ship)
‫ مأوووب و‬muta’aḳḳir delayed, belated, late;
occurring later ( ‫ عوووو‬than); behind,
behindhand
in
arrears;
backward,
underdeveloped; lagging, staying behind;
defaulter; ‫ ا مأوب وون‬the later, or modern,
authors, writers, or the like (as opposed to
‫ ا مأوب وا ا ;)ا مأقودمان‬arrears, balance of a
‫س‬um remaining due after previous
payment│ ‫( اا بلووووداناا مأووووب و‬buldān) the
underdeveloped countries
‫باه‬
‫ ا‬uḳṯubūṯ octopus
‫ ا وا‬III to fraternize, associate as brothers (‫ه‬
with s.o.) V to act or show o.s. as a
brother or friend VI to fraternize,
associate as brothers
‫ اخ‬aḳ pl. ‫ ا وا‬iḳwa, ‫ ا واان‬iḳwān brother;
fellow man, neighbor; friend; pl. ‫ا واان‬
specif., brethren or members of an order;
‫ اإل ووواان‬religious brotherhood of the
Wahabi sect, militant in character,
established by Ibn Sa‘ūd in 1910│ ‫ايو اأ و‬
my dear friend! ‫ ا ووووااثقووووة‬aḳū tiqa
trustworthy, reliable; ‫ اخاشوووقيق‬brother
through both father and mother, brothergerman
‫ اد ب‬and ‫ عوديمااد ب‬ill-mannered, ill-bred,
impolite, uncivil;
‫‘( اد باا عووو م‬āmmī)
popular literature; ‫ رجو لااد با‬literati, men
of letters; ‫ كليةااب اب‬kullīyat al-ā. (= faculté
des lettres) college of arts; ‫ آ اب‬rules, rules
of conduct, e.g., ‫ آ اباا سووولا‬rules of
decorum, etiquette; ‫ اب اب‬decency, morals
‫اا ب و‬adabī moral, ethic(al); literary│‫ا‬
‫ واجوووباا بووو‬moral obligation; ‫ا بيووو اوم يووو‬
adabiyan wa-māddīyan morally and
physically; ‫( ا فلسووفةااد بيووة‬falsafa) ethics,
moral science
‫ ا وت‬uḳt pl. ‫ ا واا‬aḳawāt sister; (gram.)
cognate; counterpart│ ‫ اا أهو‬the other (of
two), its mate, its counterpart (after a fem.
noun)
‫ ا بي‬adabīyāt lliterature, belles-lettres
‫ ا ب ظووة‬adabḳāna pl. -āt toilet, water
closet
‫ ا‬ḳuwaiy little brother
‫ ا ا‬aḳawi brotherly, fraternal
‫ ا يووب‬adīb pl. ‫ ا ب و‬udabā’ cultured,
refined, educated; well.bred, wellmannered, civil, urbane; a. man of culture
and refined tastes; man of letters, writer,
author
‫ اا اية‬aḳawīya brotherhood (as a
religious association)
‫ ا ووو‬iḳā’, ‫ ا وووا‬uḳūwa brotherhood,
brotherliness, fraternity
‫ ا يبة‬adība authoress, writer
‫ ا ووو و‬iḳāwa fraternization, fraternity,
brotherliness
‫ مب بوة‬ma’duba pl. ‫ مو ب‬ma’ādib banquet,
formal dinner
‫ ت خ‬ta’āḳin fraternization
‫ تب يووووب‬ta’dīb education; discipline;
punishment, chastisement; disciplinary
punishment│‫ مجلووووساا أب يووووب‬majlis at-t.
disciplinary board
‫ ا ار‬aḳūr barn, stable
‫ ا‬adda u i to befall, afflict (‫ ه‬a.o.)
‫ اموواا‬amr idd a terrible, evil, horrible
thing
‫ ا ب‬aduba u (adab) to be well-bred, wellmannered, cultured, urbane, have refined
tastes; ― adaba i (adb) to invite (to a
party or banquet, ‫ ه‬s.o.), entertain (‫ ه‬s.o.)│‫ا‬
‫( ا بامب بوة‬ma'duba) to arrange a banquet,
give a formal dinner II to refine, educate (‫ه‬
s.o.); to discipline, punish, ehastise (‫ ه‬s.o.)
IV to invite as a guest (‫ ه‬s.o.) V to receive
a fine education; to be well-bred, welleducated, cultured, have refined tastes; to
show o.s. polite, courteous, civil, urbane;
to educate o.s., refine one’s tastes (‫ ب‬by,
through); to let o.s. be guided (‫ ب‬by)│‫ا‬
‫( تب بابب ب‬bi-adabihi) to follow s.o.’s moral
example
‫ ا ب‬adab pl. ‫ آ اب‬ādab culture,
refinement; good breeding, good manners,
social
graces,
decorum,
decency,
propriety,
seemliness;
humanity,
humaneness; the humanities; belleslettres│‫ بيوتااد ب‬toilet, water closet; ‫لليولا‬
‫ تووووب يب‬ta'dībī disciplinary; punitive,
retaliatory│‫(ال ووووووووووووووووووووويةاتب يبيوووووووووووووووووووووة‬qaḍīya)
disciplinary action
‫ تووب ب‬ta’addub good breeding, good
manners,
civility,
politeness,
courteousness, tact
‫ آ ب‬ādib host
‫ موؤ ب‬mu’addib pl. -ūn educator; teacher
in a Koranic school (Tun.); ― mu'addab
well-bred, well-mannered, civil, urbane
‫ ا ر‬udra scrotal hernia
‫ ا رظوة‬adirna2 Edirne, Adrianople (city in NW
Turkey)
‫( اال ي تيول‬Fr. adriatique) al-adriyātīk and ‫بحووا‬
‫ اال ي تيل‬baḥr al-a. the Adriatic Sea
1
‫ اا م‬adama i (adm) to take some additional
food (‫ هوـ‬with the bread), enrich (‫ هوـ‬the
bread) with some extra food or condiment
‫ا ام‬
2
idām anything eaten with
shortening, fatty ingredient
bread;
duty),
realization,
effectuation,
accomplishment (of a task); rendition,
reading (e.g., of a musical composition);
fulfillment; payment│ ‫ احسو ااد ا‬ḥusn al-a.
good rendition (of a work of art, of a
musical composition)
‫ ا م‬adam, adama skin
‫ ا يووم‬adīm skin; surface; tanned skin,
leather│ ‫ ا يماادر‬a. al-arḍ the surface of
the earth
‫ تب يووة‬ta’diya rendering (of a service);
pursuit, performance, execution, discharge
(of a duty), realization effectuation;
accomplishment (of a task); fulfillment;
payment
‫ ا ام‬addām tanner
3
‫ آ م‬ādam2 Adam│‫ اب اآ م‬human being
‫ آ مووو‬ādamī human; humane; poor,
inferior, meager; (pl. -ūn, (‫ اوا م‬awadim2)
human being
‫ مووووؤ ى‬mu’addan assignment, task,
function; sense, meaning, signification,
import, underlying idea
‫ آ ميووة‬ādamīya humaneness, humanity;
humanism
‫ ا ا‬adāh pl. ‫ ا وا‬adawāt tool; instrument;
utensil, implement, device, appliance;
apparatus; (gram.) particle│‫ اا ا اا حكوم‬a. alḥukm machinery of government; ‫ا ا ا‬
‫ ا أعويوف‬definite article (gram.); ‫ا ا اا أ فيليوة‬
(tanfīdīya) executive agency; pl. materials,
equipment, gear, ‫( ا وا احوبيوة‬ḥarbīya) war
material; ‫( ا واو ااح ي هيوة‬iḥtiyāṯīya) standby equipment (techn.); ‫ا وا ام ز يوووووة‬
(manzilīya) household utensils, household
effects
‫ ا‬id 1. (introducing a verbal clause) (and)
then; ‫ إ ا ا‬id dāka (also written ‫ )إ ا‬then,
at that time, at the same time, in doing so;
2. (conj.; temp. and caus.) as, when; since,
as, the more so as, because; ‫ ا اان‬id anna
since, as, in view of the fact that; for,
because
1
‫ اا ا‬1. (introducing a nominal clause the
subject of which may he expressed by ‫ب‬
with foll. genit.) and then, and all of a
sudden; (with noun in nominative case or
with ‫ )ب‬there was … and all of a sudden
there was …; 2. (conj.) when; if,
whenever; whether, if (introducing
indirect questions); ‫ ا اامو‬when, whenever;
‫( االاا ا‬illā) unless if not; except when
2
‫ )ا ن( اا ا‬idan then, therefore, in that case,
hence, consequently
‫ اد ون‬al-adōn (Hebr.) the Lord; Mr. ... (Isr.)
‫ ا ى‬II to convey, take, bring, lead, steer,
channel (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ب ه‬s.o., s.th., ‫ ا وو‬to), see that
s.o. or s.th. (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬or ‫ )ب‬gets to (‫ ;)ا وو‬to
bring about, cause, effect, produce (‫ا ووو‬
s.th.); to lead, contribute, be conducive
(‫ ا وووو‬to a result); to amount, come
practically (‫ ا و‬to); to tend (‫ ا و‬to), aim (‫ا وو‬
at); to carry out, execute, discharge (‫هووـ‬
s.th.); to perform (‫ هوـ‬a ritual, etc.); to do
( ‫ واجبوو‬wājibahū one’s duty); to fulfill
(‫ وظيفووة‬a function, ‫ رس و ة‬a mission); to
accomplish (‫ مبمارية‬a task); to take ( ‫ يمي و‬an
oath; ‫ امأح ظ و‬an examination); to render
(‫ دمة‬ḳidmatan a service, ‫ ل‬or ‫ ا و‬to s.o.; ‫هـ‬
e.g., a meaning, a musical composition,
etc.)│‫( ا ى‬salām) to greet, salute V to
lead, be conducive, contribute (‫ ا ووو‬to
results); to be carried out, be performed,
be accomplished; to 10 arrive (‫ إ وو‬at), be
lead (‫ إ وو‬to) X to demand, claim (‫ ه هوـ‬from
s.o. s.th.)
‫ ا ا‬adā’ pl. -āt (as verbal noun of II)
rendering (of a service); pursuit,
performance, execution, discharge (of a
‫ آ ار‬ādār2 March (month; Syr., Leb., Jord., Ir.)
1
‫ ا ن‬adina a to listen (‫ إ وو‬to s.o..); to allow,
permit ( ‫ ل و‬s.o. s.th.); to hear, learn (‫ ب‬of
s.th.), be informed (‫ ب‬about) II to call (‫ب‬
to), esp. to call to prayer ( ‫ ;)ب صوال‬to crow
(rooster) IV to announce, make known (‫ب‬
s.th., ‫ ه اب‬to s.o. s.th.), inform, notify (‫ه‬
s.o.); to call to prayer; to call upon s.o. (‫)ه‬,
urge, admonish, exhort (‫ ه‬s.o..) to do s.th.
(‫ ;)ب‬to herald (‫ ب‬or ‫ هوووـ‬s.th.); to
foreshadow (‫ ب‬s.th.); to be on the verge
(‫ ان‬of doing s.th..)│‫)ب و زوال( اآ ناب سووقاه‬
(zawāl) to show signs of the imminent
downfall (end); ‫( آ ناا ليولاب ظأصو ا‬lailu bintiṣāf) it was close to midnight V to
herald, announce (‫ ب‬s.th.) X to ask
permission ( to do s.th., rarely ‫ ;)ب‬to ask
permission to enter (‫ علو‬s.o.'s house), have
o.s. announced (‫ علوو‬to s.o.); to take leave
( ‫ م‬of s.o.), say good-by ( ‫ م‬to)
‫ ا ن‬idn permission, authorization; ‫بو نا‬
if God choose, God willing; (pl. ‫ ا ون‬udūn,
‫ ا وظو‬udūnāt) (postal) order│‫ اا ناا بويود‬pl.
‫ ا وظو اا بويود‬postal money order; ‫ا ناا باسوأ‬
do.
‫ آرامو‬ārāmī Aramaean; Aramaic
‫ ارب‬ariba a (arab) to be skillful, proficient (‫ب‬
in s.th.); -- araba i to tighten (‫ هـ‬a knot) III
to try to outwit (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ ارب‬arab pl. ‫ آراب‬ārāb wish ( ‫ و‬for),
desire, need ( ‫ و‬of s.th.); purpose. aim,
goal, end
‫ ا ن‬udun, udn pl. ‫ آ ان‬ādan ear; handle
(of a cup)│‫( اا أهووو بااال ناا اسووو و‬wusṯā)
middle-ear infection, otitis media (med.)
‫ ارب‬irb pl. ‫ آراب‬ārāb limb│ ‫مزلو ااربو ااربو‬
(mazzaqahū) to tear s.th. to pieces or to
shreds
‫ ا ان‬adān call to prayer
‫ اربوووووة‬irba
skill,
cleverness, smartness
‫ ا ظية‬udaina little ear; ear lobe
‫ مب ظ وة‬ma’dana, ‫ مئلظ وة‬midana pl. ‫م و ن‬
ma’ādin2 minaret
‫ اربة‬urba pl. ‫ ارب‬urab knot, bow
‫ اري وب‬arīb skillful, resourceful, clever,
intelligent
‫ ايووولان‬idān declaration, proclamation,
announcement (‫ ب‬of s.th..)│‫ااي ولظ اب ظأه و ا‬
‫ ا حوديث‬indicating that the conversation is
(was) ended
‫ مووب ون‬ma’dūun authorized; slave with
limited legal rights (Isl. Law); = ‫موب ونا‬
‫( شوووع‬šar‘ī) official authorized by the
cadi to perform civil marriages (Isl. Law)
‫ مب وظيوة‬ma’dūnīya leave, furlough (mil.
Syr.); license, franchise (Syr.)
‫ موؤ ن‬mu’addin muezzin, announcer of
the hour of prayer
2
‫ ا ن‬idan see ‫ا ا‬
‫ ا ى‬adiya a to suffer damage, be harmed IV to
hs.rm, hurt, wrong (‫ ه‬s.o.); to molest,
annoy, irritate, trouble (‫ ه‬s.o.)│ ‫ الايوؤ‬lā
yu’dī innocuous, harmless, inoffensive V
to suffer damage, be wronged; to feel
offended, be hurt
‫ ا ى‬adan, ‫ ا ا‬adāh, ‫ ا يوة‬adīya damage,
harm;
injury;
trouble,
annoyance,
grievance, wrong, offense, insult
‫ ا ايوة‬idāya damage, harm, harmfulness,
noxiousness
‫ ايووولا‬īdā’ harm, damage, prejudice;
offense,. hurt; grievance, nuisance
‫ موؤ‬mu’din hurtful, harmful, injurious,
detrimental,
prejudicial;
annoying,
irksome, troublesome; painful, hurting,
offensive, insulting
‫ اراتيقو‬arātīqī and ‫ اراتيكو‬pl. ‫ اراتقوة‬arātiqa a
heretic (Chr.)
resourcefulness,
‫ موبرب‬ma’rab pl. ‫ مو رب‬ma’ārib2 wish,
desire; object of desire, purpose, aim,
goal, end
‫ اربيول‬arbīl Erbil (the ancient Arbela, city in N
Iraq)
‫ ارتااز‬artuwaāzī artesian (well)
1
‫ ارث‬II to sow dissension ( ‫ بي‬between, among)
2
‫ ارث‬irt inheritance, heritage; estate (of
inheritance)
‫ ارثا كس و‬urtūduksī orthodox; ‫ االرثا كسووية‬the
Orthodox Church
‫ ا ووومااالرثا كسو‬ar=rūm al-urtūduksī the
Greek Orthodox Church
‫ ار‬arija a (araj, ‫ اري‬arīj) to be fragrant V do.
‫ ار‬araj fragrance, sweet smell
‫ ار‬arij fragrant, sweet-smelling
‫ اري‬arīj fragrance, sweet smell
‫ ارجا‬II ta’arjaḥa to rock, swing
‫ مأبرجا‬muta'arjiḥ fluctuating
‫ االرج أي‬al-arjantīn Argentina
‫ ارجاان‬urjuwān purple
‫ ارجاان‬urjuwānī purple(-colored)
‫ ارجواز‬popular spelling (eg.) of ‫’ لووهاجواز‬aragōz
(q.v.); Punch (in a Punch and Judy show)
‫ ارخ‬II to date (‫ هوـ‬a letter, and the like, ‫ ب‬with a
date); to write the history of s.th. (‫)هـ‬
‫ تو ريخ‬ta'rīḳ dating (of a letter, etc.); ta'rīḳ
pl. ‫ تووااريخ‬tawārīḳ2 date; time; history;
chronicle, annals│ ‫ ات و ريخاا حي و‬t. al-ḥayāh
biography; curriculum vitae; ‫تووو ريخاعووو م‬
(‘āmm) world history; ‫ علم و اا أوو ريخ‬the
historians
‫ ت ري‬tārīḳī historic(al)
‫ موؤرخ‬mu'arriḳ pl. -ūn historiographer,
historian, chronicler, annalist; -- mu’arraḳ
dated
‫ ار بيل‬arḳabīl archipelago
‫( ار و‬άρχων) pl. ‫ ارا ووة‬arāḳina archon, pl.
notables (Chr.-Copt.)
‫ ار ب‬irdabb (now usually pronounced
ardabb)pl. ‫ ارا ب‬arādib2 ardeb, a dry
measure (Eg.; = 1981)
the ground, ground (adj.);
underground, subterranean
‫ ارض اشاك‬arḍī šaukī artichoke
‫ ار‬araḍ (coll.; n. un.
woodworm
‫ ار ظو‬urdunni Jordanian│‫اا مملكوةااالر ظيوةا‬
‫ ا ه شومية‬al-mamlaka al-u. al-hāšimīya the
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (official
designation)
‫ ارضوووووم‬arḍurum2 Erzurum (city in NE
Turkey)
‫( ارهووة‬also ‫ )اورهووة‬urṯa pl. ‫ اره‬uraṯ (‫)اوره‬
battalion (formerly, Eg.; mil.)
‫ ارهقة‬arṯaqa pl. -āt heresy (Chr.)
‫ ت ريا‬see ‫ريا‬
‫ ارغ‬urgun pl. ‫ اراغ‬aragin2 organ (mus. instr.)
‫ ارول‬urgūl, argūl a wind instrument (related to
the clarinet, consisting of two pipes of
unequal length)
‫ ار‬ariqa a to find no sleep II to make
sleepless (‫ ه‬s.o.), prevent s.o. (‫ )ه‬from
sleeping
‫( ار واز‬Fr. ardoise) arduwāz slate
1
2
‫ اارز‬arz (n. un. ) cedar
‫ اارز‬aruzz rice
‫ ارس‬arasa i (ars) to till the land
‫ ار‬araq sleeplessness, insomnia
‫ اريكة‬arika pl. ‫ ارائل‬arā’ik2 couch, sofa; throne
‫ اركيلوة‬argīla pl. ‫ اراكيول‬arāgīl2 (syr.) water pipe,
narghile
‫ اريس‬irrīs and arīs peasant, farmer
‫ ارسأقواه‬aristuqrāṯī aristocratic; ristocrat
‫ ار د‬irlandī Irish
1
‫ ارسأقواهية‬aristuqrāṯīya aristocracy
‫ ارش‬arš indemnity, amercement, fine, penalty;
blood money (for the shedding of blood;
Isl. Law)
‫( ارشووويدو‬Fr. archiduc) archduke, ‫ارشووويدولة‬
archduchess
‫ ار‬arḍ f., pl.
‫ ارا‬arāḍīn, ‫ اراضوان‬arāḍūn
earth; land, country, region, area; terrain,
ground, soil│‫( ااالر اا سوووفلو‬suflā) the
nether world; ‫( االر اا مقدسووة‬muqaddasa)
the Holy Land, Palestine
‫ ارضو‬arḍī terrestrial, of the earth; soil-,
land- (in compounds); situated on or near
‫ اارم‬arama i to bite
‫ ارم‬urram molar teeth│‫احووووو ااالرم‬
(ḥarraqa) to gnash one's teeth (in anger)
‫ ارس ا‬arisṯū Aristotle
‫( ارش اابسقابس‬Gr. ὰρχιεπίσϰοπος) archbishop
) termite;
‫ ارضية‬arḍīya pl. -āt floor; ground (also, e.g., of
a printed fabric, of a painting); ground
floor, first floor (tun.); storage, warehouse
charges
‫ ار بة‬irdabba cesspool
‫ االر ن‬al-urdunn Jordan (river and country)
earthly;
‫ اروموة‬arūma, urūma root, origin; stump
of a tree
‫ مئوم‬mi'ram root (of a tooth)
2
‫اآرام‬ārām (= ‫ )ارام‬pl. of ‫ رئووم‬ri'm) white
antelopes
‫ االرم‬al-arman the Armenians
‫ ارم‬armanī Armenian (adj. and n.)
‫ ارمي ي‬armēniyā Armenia
‫ االرظ وه‬al-arnāwuṯ the Albanians
‫ ارظ وه‬arnāwuṯī Albanian
‫ ارظوووب‬arnab f., pl. ‫ اراظوووب‬arānib2 hare;
rabbit│ ‫( ارظب اه د‬hindī) guinea pig
‫ ارظبة‬arnaba female hare, doe│‫اارظبوةااالظوف‬
a. al-anf tip of the nose; nose, muzzle (of
an animal)
‫ از‬azaqa i (azq) to be narrow V do.
‫ موبز‬ma'ziq pl. ‫ مو ز‬ma’āziq2 narrow
passageway, narrow pass, strait, bottleneck; predicament, fix, dilemma, critical
situation, also ‫( مبز احو‬ḥarij)
‫( ارظيوول‬Turk. örnek) urnīk pl. ‫ اراظيوول‬arānīk2
pattern, model; form, blank
‫ اروب‬urubbā Europe
‫ ازل‬azl pl. ‫آزال‬
āzāl eternity (without
beginning), sempiternity
‫ اروب‬urubbī European (adj. and n.)
1
‫ ارى‬ary honey
2
‫ آرى‬ārī Aryan
‫ از‬azali eternal, sempiternal
‫ از ية‬azalīya sempiternity, eternity
‫ ازم‬V to be or become critical, come to a head
(situation, relations)
‫ آرية‬ārīya Aryanism
‫ اريح‬arīḥā Jericho
‫ ازمة‬azma pl. azamāt emergency; crisis│‫ا‬
‫( ازمةااوزارية‬wizāriya) cabinet crisis
‫ از‬azza u i (‫ ازيوز‬aziz) to simmer; to hum, buzz;
to whiz, hiss; to fizzle; to wheeze
‫ توبزم‬ta'azzum: ‫ توبزماا ح وة‬t. al-hāla critical
development, aggravation of the situation
‫ ازيوووووز‬azīz hum(ming), buzz(ing);
whizzing, whizz, whistle (e.g., of bullets)
1
‫ اازب‬azaba i (azb) to flow, run (water)
2
‫ مئزاب‬mi'zāb pl. ‫ م زيب‬ma'āzīb and ‫ميزاب‬
mīzāb pl. ‫ مي زيووب‬mayāzīb2 drain; gutter,
eaves trough
2
‫ مبزوم‬ma'zūm victim of a crisis
‫ ازميوو‬izmīr2 Izmir (formerly Smyrna, sea-port
in W Turkey)
‫ ازميل‬izmīl pl. ‫ ازاميل‬azāmīl 2 chisel
‫( ازو‬Engl.) azōt azote, nitrogen
‫ ازب‬izb dumpy, pudgy, stocky; small man
‫ ازوت‬azōtī nitrogenous
‫ االزبل‬al-uzbak the Uzbeks
‫ ازر‬azara i (azr) to surround (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) II to
clothe (‫ ه‬s.o. with an ‫ ازار‬izār q.v.); to
cover, wrap up (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
strengthen, brace (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.) III to help
(‫ ه‬s.o.); to support, back up, strengthen (‫ه‬
s.o.) V and VIII to put on an izār (see
below), wrap s.o. in an izār VI to help
each other; to rally, unite, join forces
‫ ازر‬azr strength│‫ اشداازره‬šadda azrahū or ‫شدام ا‬
‫( ازره‬min azrihi) to help, support,
encourage s.o., back s.o. up; šadda azruhū
to be energetic, vigorous, lusty,
courageous
‫ ازار‬izār m. and f., pl. ‫ ازر‬uzur
loincloth; wrap, shawl; wrapper, covering,
cover
‫ مئوزر‬mi’zar pl. ‫ مو زر‬ma’āzīr2 apron;
wrapper, covering, cover
‫مووووؤازر‬
mu’āzara
assistance, backing
support,
aid,
‫ ت زر‬ta’āzur mutual assistance
‫ ازا‬azila a (awaf, ‫ ازوا‬uzūf) to come,
approach, draw near (a time)
‫ ازى‬III to be opposite s.th. (‫)ه‬, face (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫هوـ‬
s.th.)
‫ ازا‬izā’a (prep.) opposite, face to face
with, facing; in front of; in the face of
(e.g., of a situation); as compared with;
‫ بو زا‬bi-izā’i opposite, face to face with,
facing; in front of; ‫‘ علوواازا‬alā izā’i in the
face of (e.g., of a situation)
1
‫ آس‬ās myrtle
2
‫ آس‬pl. -āt ace (playing card)
3
‫ آس‬II to found, establish, set up (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), lay
the foundation (‫ هوـ‬for) V to be founded, be
established, he set up
‫ اس‬foundation, basis; exponent of a
power (math.)
‫ اس‬asās pl. ‫ اسوس‬usus foundation (also,
of a building), fundament, groundwork,
ground, basis; keynote. Tonic (mus.)│‫علووا‬
‫( اسو س‬with foll. genit.) on the basis of, on
the strength of, on account of, according
to; ‫( الااسووو سا ووو امووو اا صوووحة‬asāsa, ṣiḥḥa)
completely unfounded (news, rumor)
‫ اس سووووو‬asāsī fundamental, basic;
elementary; essential; principal, chief,
main│ ‫حجوووووااسووووا‬
foundation stone
‫اس سوووووووي‬
principles
(ḥajar)
asāsīyāt
‫ اسأ ظبا‬istanbūlī of Istanbul
cornerstone,
fundamentals,
‫ ابسوأ ظة‬al-āsitāna, ‫ االسوأ ظة‬al-astāna, al-istāna
Constantinople, Istanbul
‫ اسأبو‬istabraq brocade
‫ تبسوووويس‬ta'sīs founding, foundation,
establishment, setting up, institution;
grounding, laying of the substructure
(arch.); pl. -āt facilities, utilities;
institutions
‫ تبسووويس‬ta'sīsī founding; foundational,
fundamental│ ‫امجلوووووووساتبسيسووووووو‬
(majlis)
constituent assembly
‫ مؤسس‬mu'assis founder
‫ مؤسس وة‬mu’assasa pl. -āt foundation,
establishment; firm (com.); institution;
organization
‫ االسب ن‬al-asbān, al-isbān the Spaniards
‫ اسب ظ‬isbānī Spanish; (pl. -ūn) Spaniard
‫ اسأواتيج‬istrātījī strategic
‫ اسأوا‬usturālī Australian
‫ اسأوا ي‬usturālīyā Australia
‫ اسوأو ي‬istarlīnī sterling│ ‫ اج ي و ااسوأو ي‬pound
sterling;
‫ م قوووةااالسوووأو ي‬minṯaqat al-i.
sterling area
‫ اسأم ر‬see ‫اامو‬
‫( اسأابة‬It. stoppa) tow, oakum; cotton waste
‫( اسوأا يا‬It.-Engl. studio) istūdiyō pl.
istūdiyōhāt studio; atelier
‫ اسأاكها م‬istokholm Stockholm
‫( اسأاظي‬Engl.) istōniyā Estonia
‫ اسأي تيت‬I istiyātīt steatite, soapstone (min.)
‫ اسب ظخ‬isbānaḳ spinach
‫ اسا‬look up alphabetically
‫ اسب ظي‬isbāniyā Spain
‫ اسوبدا‬isbidāj and
ceruse
‫اسوأا ياه‬
‫ اسوبيدا‬isbīdāj white lead,
‫ اسود‬asad pl. ‫ اسود‬usud, usd, ‫ اسوا‬usūd, ‫ آسو‬āsād
lion; Leo (astron.)│‫ ا ا ااالسووود‬leontiasis
(med.)
‫( اسبوتا‬It. spirito) isbirto alcohol
‫ اسبلي ة‬isbalīṯa epaulet
‫ است‬see 1‫ست‬
1
‫ اسأ تيك‬istātīkī static (el.)
‫( اسأ‬Fr. stade) istād stadium
‫ اسوأ‬ustād pl. ‫ اسو تل‬asātida master; teacher;
professor (academic title); form of address
to intellectuals (lawyers, journalists,
officials, writers and poets); ledger
(com.)│‫( ااالسووووأ اادعرووووم‬a‘ẓam) Grand
Master (of a lodge); ‫ االسوأ اادكبوو‬title of the
Rector of Al Azhar University; ‫اسوأ اكوسو‬
(kursī; Eg.) and ‫( اسووأ ابكوس و‬Syr.) full
professor; ‫( اسووأ ابووالاكوس و‬Syr.) associate
professor; ‫( اسأ امأفوغ‬mutafarrig;Eg.) parttime professor (holding an office outside
the university); ‫( اسوووأ امسووو عد‬musā‘id)
assistant professor (Eg.; Syr.); ‫اسووأ ازائووو‬
(Eg.; Syr.) visiting professor; ‫اس تل ا و اا جودل‬
(jadal) they are masters of disputation
‫اسوووووووووأ ية‬
ustādīya
professorship, professorate
‫ اسود‬X to display the courage of a lion (‫علوو‬
against)
mastership;
‫ اسأ ظبال‬istanbūl2 Istanbul, Constantinople
‫ اسوو‬asara i (asr) to bind, fetter, shackle,
chain (‫ ه‬s.o.); to capture, take prisoner (‫ه‬
s.o.); to captivate, fascinate, hold
spellbound (‫ ه‬s.o.), absorb, arrest (‫ هوـ‬the
attention) X to surrender, give s.o. up as
prisoner
‫ اسوو‬asr (leather) strap, thong; capture;
captivity│‫شوود ااالسووو‬
šiddat al-a. vigor,
energy
‫ اسوو‬usra pl. ‫اسووو‬
usar, -āt family;
dynasty; clan, kinsfolk, relatives; -- asirra
see ‫سويو‬
‫ ب سووووه‬bi-asrihī entirely, completely,
altogether, ‫ جو وااب سووهم‬all of them came,
they came one and all
‫ اسو ر‬isār (leather) strap, thong; captivity;
captivation, enthrallment│‫ اولوواا و ااسو ره‬to
be subjected to s.th., fall into the clutches
of s.th.
‫ اسويو‬asīr pl. ‫ اسووا‬usarā2, ‫ اسووى‬asrā,
‫ اسو رى‬asārā prisoner, captive, prisoner of
war
bad! ‫ وي و ا الس وف‬wa-yā lal-asafi (or only
‫ ) السوف‬unfortunately; ‫ مواااالسوف‬and ‫بكولااسوف‬
bi-kulli asafin do.
‫ اسويو‬asīra pl. -āt female prisoner, slave
girl
‫ اسوف‬asifa and ‫ اسويف‬asīf regretful, sorry,
sad, grieved, distressed
‫آسووووووو‬
āsir
winning,
fascinating; captor
captivating,
‫ مبسوووار‬ma’sūr captivated, fascinated,
enthralled (‫ ب‬by)
2
‫ اسو‬asirra see ‫سويو‬
3
‫ مبسار‬look up alphabetically
‫ اسووائيل‬isrā’īl2 Israel│‫ اب واااسووائيل‬banū i. the
Israelites; ‫ و ةااسووائيلية‬daulat i. the State of
Israel
‫ اسووووائيل‬isrā’īlī Israelitish; Israelite;
Israeli (adj, and n.); ‫ اسوائيلي‬Judaica
‫ اسوووا يل‬isrāfīl 2 Israfil, the angel who will
sound the trumpet on the day of
Resurrection
‫ اسوب‬usrub lead (metal)
‫ تبسف‬ta'assuf regret
‫ آسوف‬āsif regretful, sorry, sad│‫اتوكأو اغيووا‬
‫( آسف‬gaira āsifin) I left him without regret,
I was only too glad to leave him
‫ مبسواااعليو‬ma’sūf ‘alaihi mourned (esp.
of a dead person, = the late lamented)
‫ مؤسف‬mu’sif distressing, sad, regrettable
‫ مأبسوف‬muta’assif sad, sorry, regretful;
!‫ مأبسف‬sorry!
‫ اسووف ظ خ‬isfānāk and ‫ اسووف ظخ‬isfānaḳ spinach│‫ا‬
‫( اسوف ظ خارومو‬rūmī) garden orach (Atriplex
hortensis, bot.)
‫ اسفلت‬asfalt asphalt
‫ اسف‬isfanj,isfunj sponge
‫ اسف ج‬isfanjī spongy; porous
‫ اس ظبال‬isṯanbūl2 Istanbul, Constantinople
‫ اسف دان‬isfindān maple (bot.)
‫ اس بل‬isṯabl pl. -āt stable, barn
‫ اسفيدا‬isfīdāj; white lead, ceruse
‫( اس بة‬It. stoppa) usṯubba tow, oakum
‫ اسفي‬isfīn pl. ‫ اس ي‬asāfīn2 wedge
‫ اس والب‬asṯurlāb astrolabe
‫ اسوقوباه‬isqarbūṯī: ‫ااسوقوباه‬
scurvy (med.)
‫ اس قس‬isṯaqīs pl. -āt element
‫ اس و ااظ‬usṯuwāna pl. -āt column (arch.);
cylinder
(math.;
of
an
engine);
phonograph record; -- pl. ‫ اسو هي‬asāṯīn2
high-ranking, prominent personalities;
stars, celebrities, authorities, masters (e.g.,
of art: ‫ اس هي اا ف‬a. al-fann)
‫ اس ااظو‬usṯuwānī cylindric(al)
‫ اسو ار‬usṯūra pl. ‫ اسو هيو‬asāṯīr legend, fable,
tale, myth, saga
‫ اس ار‬usṯūrī fabulous, mythical, legendary
2
‫ اس ال‬usṯūl pl. ‫ اس هيل‬asāṯīl fleet; squadron
‫موو‬
(maraḍ)
‫ اسوقف‬usquf pl. ‫ اس و لفة‬asāqifa, ‫ اسو لف‬asāqif2
bishop│‫ ارئيسااالس لفة‬archbishop
‫ اسقف‬usqufī Episcopal
‫ اسقفية‬usqufīya episcopate, bishopric
‫ اسقمو‬usqumrī, isqumrī mackerel (zool.)
‫ اسوقيل‬isqīl an Oriental variety of sea onion
(Scilla)
‫( اسكأش‬Engl.) isketš sketch
‫ اسكأل دا‬iskotlandā Scotland
‫ اسكأل د‬iskotlandī Scottish, Scotch
□ ‫ اس و و‬usṯā (colloq. for ‫ )اس وأ‬pl. ‫اس و اا‬
usṯawāt master; foreman, overseer; also
form of address to those in lower callings,
e.g., to a cab driver, coachman, etc.
‫ اسوووكلة‬iskila pl. ‫ اسوووو كل‬asākil2
commercial center (in the East)
‫ اسف‬asifa a (asaf) to regret (‫ علو‬or ‫ ل‬s.th.), feel
sorry (‫ علو‬for), be sad (‫ علو‬about) V do
‫ اسووك دروظة‬iskandarūna2 Iskenderon (formerly
Alexandretta, seaport in S Turkey)
‫ اسوف‬asaf grief, sorrow, chagrin, regret│‫اواا‬
!‫ اسوف ه‬wā asafāh! Oh, what a pity! it's too
‫ االسوك درية‬al-iskandarīya Alexandria (city in N
Egypt)
seaport,
‫ اسكملة‬iskamla stool, footstool
‫ اسك دي ي‬iskandināfīya Scandinavia
‫ اسل‬II to sharpen, point, taper (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ اسل‬asal (coll.) rush (bot.)
‫ اسولة‬asaIa pl. -āt thorn, spike, prong;
point (also, e.g., of a pen = nib); tip of the
tongue
‫مااسووووو‬
muwāsāh
(for
mu’āsāh)
consolation; charity; beneficence
‫ أسواار‬iswār, uswār pl. ‫ أسو ور‬asāwir2, ‫أس و ور‬
asāwira bracelet, bangle
‫ أساان‬aswān Aswan (city in S Egypt)
‫ اسا‬asūj Sweden
‫ ا حوووواااالسوولية‬al-ḥurūf al-asalīya the
letters ‫ز‬, ‫ س‬and ‫ص‬
‫ اساج‬asūjī Swedish
‫ اسو‬see ‫اسا‬
‫ اسيل‬asīl smooth│‫( ا ودااسويل‬ḳadd) smooth
cheek
‫ آس وي‬āsiyā Asia│ ‫( آس وي اا صووغوى‬ṣugrā) Asia
Minor
‫ اس ة‬asāla eliptic, oval form
‫ مؤسل‬mu’assal pointed, tapered
‫( اس والمبا‬variant of
Istanbul
‫ )اس وأ ظبا‬islāmbūlī of
‫ اسالظده‬islandā Iceland
‫ اسم‬see 1‫سم‬
‫ اسم ظجاظ‬asmanjūnī sky-blue, azure, cerulean
‫ اسموه‬asmara Asmara (capital of Eritrea)
‫ اسم ت‬asmant, ismant cement
‫ اسم أ‬asmantī cement (adj.)
‫ اسو‬asana i u and asina a to become brackish
(water)
‫ آس‬āsin brackish
(‫ اسا‬and ‫ اسو )اسو‬asā u (asw, ‫ ااسو‬asan) to nurse,
treat (‫ هووـ‬a wound); to make peace ( ‫بووي‬
between, among); -- ‫ اسوو‬asiya (‫اسوو‬, ‫اسو‬
asan) to be sad, grieved, distressed II to
console, comfort (‫ ه‬s.o.); to nurse (‫ ه‬a
patient) III to share (one’s worldly
possessions, ‫ ه‬with s.o.), be charitable (‫ ه‬to
s.o.); to assist, support (‫ ه‬s.o.); to console,
comfort (‫ ه‬s.o.); to treat, cure (‫ هوـ‬s.th.,
medically) V to be consoled, find solace
VI to share the worldly possessions; to
assist one another, give mutual assistance
‫ اسو‬asan grief, sorrow, distress
‫ اسوووا‬uswa, iswa example, model,
pattern│‫ اسوا اب‬uswatan bi following the
model or pattern of; along the lines of; in
the same manner as, just as, like
‫ مبسو‬ma’sāh pl. ‫ مو س‬ma’āsin trogedy,
drama
‫ تبسية‬ta’siya consolation, comfort
‫ آسويا‬āsiyawī Asiatic, Asian (adj. and
n.)
‫ اسياه‬asyūt2 Asyūt (city in central Egypt)
‫ اشوب‬V to be mixed, heterogeneous, motley (a
crowd)
‫ اش و بة‬ušāba pl. ‫ اش و ئب‬ašā’ib2 mixed,
motley crowd
‫ اشببيلية‬išbīliya2 Seville (city in SW Spain)
‫ اشبي‬išbīn pl. ‫ اش بي‬see ‫شب‬
‫ اشوو‬ašara u (ašr) to sow (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); -- i to file,
sharpen with a file (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) II to mark,
indicate, state, enter, record (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
grant a visa; to provide with a visa (‫علوو‬
s.th.)
‫ اشووووو‬ašar
exuberance;
impertinence
liveliness, high spirits,
wildness;
insolence,
‫ اشوو‬ašir lively, sprightly, in high spirits,
exuberant; wild; insolent, impertinent,
arrogant
‫ مئش ر‬minšār pl. ‫ مااشيو‬mawāšīr2 saw
‫ تبشووويو‬ta’šīr issuance of an official
endorsement; official endorsement; visa
‫ تبشويو‬ta’šīra pl. -āt visa│‫اتبشويو امووورا‬t.
murūr or ‫ تبشيو ااجأي ز‬transit visa
‫ مؤشووو‬mu’aššir indicator, needle (of a
measuring instrument)
‫ مؤشوو‬mu’aššar jagged, serrated; marked,
designated (‫ ب‬by, with)
‫ اشفو‬išfā pl. ‫ اش ا‬ašāfin awl, punch
‫ اش ن‬ušnān potash; saltwort (Salsola kali; bot.)
‫ اش ة‬ušna moss
‫ اشار‬ašūr Assyria
‫ اشار‬ašūrī Assyrian (adj. and n.)
‫ اصووا‬uṣūlī in accordance with the
rules, conforming to prevailing principles;
traditional, usual; legist
‫ اصيص‬aṣīṣ pl. ‫ اصص‬uṣūṣ flowerpot
‫ اصد‬II to close, shut (a door, etc.)
‫ اصويل‬pl. ‫ اصوال‬uṣalā’2 of pure, noble
origin; original, authentic, genuine; pure;
proper, actual; firm, solid; sound,
reasonable,
sensible;
of
strong,
unswerving character; steadfast; deeprooted; native, indigenous│‫اادصوولاادصوويل‬
the actual reason; ‫ اص ويلاا وووأ‬of sound,
unerring judgment
‫ اص وو‬iṣr pl. ‫ آص و ر‬āṣār covenant, compact,
contract; load, encumbrance, burden; sin;
pl. ‫ آص ر‬bonds, ties
‫ آصوو‬āṣira pl. ‫ اواصوو‬awāṣir2 bond, tie (fig.
e.g., ‫ اواص وواا وواال‬a. al-walā’i bonds of
friendship); obligation, commitment
‫ اص بل‬iṣṯabl pl. -āt stable, barn
2
‫ اصفه ن‬iṣfahān Isfahan (city in W central Iran)
‫ اصويل‬pl. ‫ آصو ل‬āṣāl, ‫ اصو ئل‬aṣā’il2 time before
sunset, late afternoon
‫ اصول‬aṣula u (‫ اصو ة‬aṣala) to be or become
firmly rooted; to be firmly established; to
be of noble origin II to found (‫ هوـ‬s.th.),
give s.th. (‫ )هوـ‬a firm foundation, establish
the foundation or origin of (‫ )هوـ‬V to be or
become firmly rooted, deep-rooted,
ingrained; to take root, be or become
firmly established; to derive one's origin
( ‫ مو‬from) X to uproot, root out, extirpate,
exterminate, annihilate (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.); to
remove (‫ هوووـ‬an organ by a surgical
operation)│ ‫(ااسأبصوووولاشوووووب أ‬ša’fatahū) to
eradicate s.th., eliminate s.th. radically
‫ اصول‬pl. ‫ اصوال‬root; trunk (of a tree); origin,
source; cause, reason; descent, lineage,
stock (esp., one of a noble character);
foundation, fundament, basis; the origins!
(e.g., of s book); pl. ‫ اصووال‬principles,
fundamentals, rudiments, elements (e.g.,
of a science); rules; basic rules, principles,
axioms; real estate, landed property; assets
(fin.); -- ‫ اصوال‬aṣlan originally, primarily;
(with neg.) by no means, not at all, not in
the least│‫ اادصل‬originally, at first; ‫اصوالا‬
‫ ا فقو‬u. al-fiqh the 4 foundations of Islamic
jurisprudence, i.e., Koran, Sunna, qiyās
(analogy) and ijmā‘ (consensus); ‫اص والا‬
‫ و صوام‬assets and liabilities; ‫اصوالام و عفة‬
(muḍā‘afa) double-entry bookkeeping;
‫( حسووووباادصووووال‬ḥasaba) properly, in
conformity with regulations
‫ اصوول‬original, primary, primal, initial;
genuine,
authentic,
pure;
basic,
fundamental, principel, chief, main│‫اا وثم ا‬
‫( ادصوول‬taman) cost price; ‫ا جه و اادصوولية‬
(jihāt) the cardinal points (of the
compass);
‫‘( عووود ااصووول‬adad) cardinal
number; ‫‘( ع اااصل‬uḍw) regular member
‫ اصووو ة‬aṣāla firmness, steadfastness,
strength of character; nobility of descent,
purity of origin; aṣālatan immediately,
directly, personally│ ‫ ااصو ةاا ووأ‬a. ar-ra’y
clarity and firmness of judgment;
judiciousness;
‫ب الصوووووووووو ةاعوووووووووو اظفسوووووووووو‬
spontaneously, of one's own accord, in
one's own name, personally, privately (as
opposed to ‫اصوو لاوظي بووة ;)ب ي بووةاع و اغيوووه‬
aṣālatan wa-niyābatan directly and
indirectly
‫ تبصيلة‬ta’ṣīla pedigree, genealeogy
‫ تبصل‬ta’aṣṣu1 deep-rootedness
‫اسأئصووووووووو ل‬
isti’ṣāl
extermination,
(radical)
removal by surgery
extirpation,
elimination;
‫ مأبصوول‬muta’aṣṣil deep-rooted, deepseated; chronic (illness)
‫ اهيط‬aṯīṯ the mooning bray of a camel
1
‫ اهوو‬aṯara i u (aṯr) and II to bend, curve (‫هوـ‬
s.th.)
‫ اهو ر‬iṯār pl. -āt, ‫ااهوو‬uṯur frame (also, of
eyeglasses); tire (of a wheel); hoop (of a
barrel, etc.)
‫ اه ر‬iṯāra rim, felly (of a wheel)
‫ اه ر‬iṯārī framelike, hoop-shaped
2
‫ اهوية‬see ‫هوى‬
‫ اهوغلة‬uṯrugulla a variety of pigeon
‫ اهوون‬aṯrūn = ‫ظ وون‬
‫االهالظأيول‬, ‫ االهالظ يول‬al-aṯlantīk, al-aṯlanṯīq the
Atlantic
‫ اهالظ يك‬aṯlanṯīqī and
‫ اهالظ‬aṯlanṯī Atlantic
‫ اهلووس‬aṯlas2 satin; (pl. ‫ اه و س‬aṯālis2 atlas,
volume of geographical maps
‫ اهلس‬aṯlasī Atlantic
‫ اهل وووو‬aṯlanṯī Atlantic│ ‫اا حلووووفااالهل وووو‬the
Atlantic Pact
‫ اهام‬aṯūm sea turtle
‫ اغو‬agā, ‫ آغو‬āgā pl. ‫ اغواا‬agawāt aga, lord,
master, sir; eunuch, harem chamberlain
‫ االغويق‬al-igrīq, ‫ االغ رلة‬al-agāriqa the Greeks
‫ اغويق‬igrīqī Greek, Grecian (adj. and n.)
‫ اغس س‬agustus August (month)
‫ ااا‬V to grumble, mutter in complaint ( ‫م و‬
about)
‫ ااا‬uff dirt (in the ears or under the
nails), earwax, cerumen
‫ا‬
‫اا‬
uff interj. expressing anger or
displeasure
‫ ا ووووف‬afaf
grumble
displeasure;
grumbling,
‫ اال وظ‬al-ifranj the Franks, the Europeans│‫ابال ا‬
‫ اال وظ‬Europe
‫ ا وظج‬ifranjī European
‫ ا وظس و‬ifransī French; ‫ اال وظسووية‬the French
language; ‫ اال وظسيان‬the French
‫ ا ويوز‬ifrīz pl. ‫ ا و ريز‬afārīz2 frieze; edge; curb;
sidewalk│‫ ا ويوووووزاا مح وووووة‬i. al-maḥaṯṯa
platform (of a railroad station); ‫ا ويوزاا حو ئط‬
molding (arch.)
‫ ا ويقو‬afrīqā f. and ‫ ا ويقيو‬ifrīqiyā, now usually
pronounced afrīqiyā f. Africa│‫اا ويقيووو ا‬
‫( ا شم ية‬šamālīya) North Africa
‫ ا ويق و‬ifrīqī, now usually pronounced
afrīqī African; (pl. -ūn, ‫ اا رلوة‬afāriqa) an
African
faraway countries, remote regions;
provinces, interior of the country (as
distinguished from the capital)│ ‫اآ و اادر‬
a. al-arḍ the remotest parts of the earth;
‫ آ اا بال‬a. al-bilād the outlying portions of
the country;
‫ شووولا ااب ووو‬šuddad al-a.
foreigners, travelers
‫ ا ق‬ufqī horizontal
‫ آ و ل‬āfāqī coming from a distant country
or region
‫ ا و‬affāq wandering, roving, roaming;
tramp, vagabond
‫ ا ل‬afaka i (afk) and afika a (ifk, afk, afak, ‫اا وا‬
ufūk) to lie, tell a lie
‫ ا ول‬ifk and ‫ ا يكوة‬afīka pl. ‫ ا ئول‬afā’ik2 lie,
untruth, falsehood
‫ ا‬affak liar, lying
‫ ا ل‬afala u i (‫ ا ال‬ufūl) to go down, set (stars)
‫ ا ال‬ufūl setting (of stars)
‫ آ ل‬āfil transitory, passing
‫ ا الهان‬aflāṯūn2 Plato
‫ ا‬afan stupidity
‫ ا ي‬afīn and ‫ موب ان‬ma’fūn stupid, foolish,
fatuous; fool
‫ ا ود‬afandī pl. -īya gentleman (when referring
to non-Europeans wearing Western clothes
and the tarboosh); (after the name) a title
of respect (eg.); !‫ ا ودم‬afandim! Sir! (eg.)
afandim? (I beg your) pardon? What did
you say? 20
‫( ا اكو تا‬It. avvocato) avokātō advocate, lawyer,
attorney│ ‫ اال اكو تااا عموام‬representative of
the attorney general (= Fr. avocat général)
‫ ا يان‬afyūn opium│‫ روحااال يان‬al-a. laudanum
‫ آ وي‬āfirīn bravo! well done!
‫ الوة‬uqqa pl. -āt oka, a weight, in Eg. = 1.24s
kg, in Syr. = 1.2s2 kg
‫ ا سو أي‬ifsantīn, ifsintīn wormwood, absinthe
(Artemisia absinthium; bot.)
‫ مؤلت‬see ‫ولت‬
‫ ا شي‬ifšīn pl. ‫ ا شي‬afāšīn2 litany (Chr.)
‫ اال غ ن‬al-afgān the Afghans; Afghanistan
‫ ا غ ظسأ ن‬afgānistān Afghanistan
‫ ا غ ظ‬afgānī Afghan (adj. and n.)
‫ ا وق‬ufq, ufuq pl. ‫ آ و‬āfāq horizon; range of
vision, field of vision; pl. distant lands,
‫ الحاان‬uqhūwān pl. ‫ ال حو‬aqāḥī daisy
‫ الوب ي‬aqrabādīn composite medicament│‫اعلوما‬
‫‘ االلوبووووو ي‬ilm al-a. pharmaceutics,
pharmacology
‫ الوب ي‬aqrabādīnī pharmaceutic(al)
‫ اليط‬aqīṯ cottage cheese
‫ الليد‬iqlīd look up alphabetically
‫ اللوم‬aqlama to acclimate, acclimatize, adapt,
adjust II ta'aqlama to acclimatize (o.s.)
2
‫ اللويم‬iqlīm pl. ‫ الو يم‬aqiilim climate; area,
region; province, district; administrative
district (Eg.; = ‫ االل و يم ;)مديويووة‬country,
provinces (as distinguished from the city)
‫ الليم و‬iqlīmī climatic; regional, local;
territorial│‫( ا ميو هاااللليميوة‬miyāh) territorial
waters
‫ الليد‬iqlīd pl. ‫ ال يد‬aqālīd2 key
‫ الليدس‬iqlīdis Euclid
‫ ال وام‬uqnūm pl. ‫ الو ظيم‬aqānīm2 hypostasis, divine
person within the Trinity (Chr.);
constitutive element
‫( الاظة‬Gr. είκών) iqūna icon (Chr.)
‫ الي ظاسية‬uqyanūsiya Oceania
‫ اك ى‬akkādī Akkadian
‫ اك يمية‬akādīmīya academy
‫ اكأابو‬okctober October
‫ اكود‬II to assure (‫ ل هوـ‬s.o. of, ‫ ان‬that); to give
assurance (‫ ل هـ‬s.o. of); to confirm (‫ هوـ‬s.th.
a view) V to be or become convinced,
convince o.s. ( ‫ مو‬s.th.); to reassure o.s.,
make sure ( ‫ مو‬of s.th.); to be sure ( ‫ مو‬of);
to be urgent, imperative, requisite
‫ تبكيووووود‬ta'kīd pl. -āt assurance;
confirmation; emphasis; ‫ ب أبكيوووود‬most
certainly! of course!
‫ تبكد‬ta’akkud assurance, reassurance
‫ أكيوود‬akīd certain, sure; firm (resolve);
definite (desire); urgent, imperative
(need); ‫ أكيدا‬akīdan certainly! surely!
‫ مؤك ود‬mu’akkad certain, definite, sure;
confirmed
‫ مأبكد‬muta'akkid convinced ( ‫ م‬of)
1
‫ ااكو‬akara i (akr) to plow, till, cultivate (‫ هوـ‬the
land)
‫ اك ر‬akkār pl. -ūn, ‫ اكو‬akara plowman
2
‫ ااكو‬ukra pl. ‫ اكو‬ukar ball (for playing)
‫ اكزيم‬ekzēmā eczema (med.)
‫ اشعةااكس‬aši‘‘at iks X-rays
‫ اكسأوا‬extra
‫ اكسجي‬oksižēn oxygen
‫ اكسيو‬iksīr elixir
‫ اكف‬akuff see ‫كف‬
‫ اكل‬akala u (akl, ‫ مبكل‬ma’kal) to eat (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
eat up, consume, swallow, devour, destroy
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to eat, gnaw (‫ هوـ‬at), 21 eat away,
corrode, erode (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.); to spend
unlawfully (‫ هووـ‬s.th.). enrich o.s. feather
one's nest (‫ هووـ‬with)│‫ااكولاعليو اا وودهواوشوووب‬
(dahru, šariba) to be old and worn out, be
timeworn; ‫( اكولاا وبو‬ribā) to take usurious
interest; ‫ يعلومامو اايو اتؤكولاا كأوف‬ya‘lamu min
aina tu’kalu l-katif he knows how to
tackle the matter properly; ‫اكلووو اجلوووده‬
(j‫ه‬lduhū) his skin itched; ‫اكوولا وو اا صووح‬
(ṣaḥn) to eat off a plate; ‫( اكولاحقو‬ḥaqqahū)
to encroach upon s.o.’s right II and IV to
give s.o. (‫ )ه‬s.th. (‫ )هوـ‬to eat, feed (‫ ه هوـ‬s.o.
s.th.) III to eat, dine (‫ ه‬with s.o.) V to be
devoured, be consumed; to be eaten away,
corrode, undergo corrosion; to become
old, worn, timeworn, full of cracks; to be
destroyed by corrosion VI = V
‫ اكل‬akl food; meal, repast; fodder, feed│‫ا‬
‫غو ةااالكل‬gurfat al-a. dining room; (eg.) ‫اكلا‬
‫ ا بحوو‬a. al-baḥr land washed away by the
sea or the Nile (as opposed to ‫)هوحاا بحو‬
‫ اكول‬ukul, ukl food; fruit│ ‫ اآتووااكلو‬to bear
fruit
‫ اكلوة‬akla pl. akalāt meal, repast; -- ukla
bite, morsel
○ ‫ اك ل‬ukāl prurigo, itch eruption (med.)
‫ اكو ل‬akkāl, ‫ اكيول‬akīl, ‫ اكوال‬akūl voracious,
gluttonous; hearty eater, gourmand,
glutton
‫ مبكل‬ma’kal pl. ‫ م كل‬ma’ākil2 food, eats
‫ تبكول‬ta’akkul wear; corrosion; erosion
(geol.)
‫ ت كول‬ta’ākul wear; corrosion; erosion
(geol.)
‫ ائأكل‬i’tikāl erosion (geol.)
‫ آكل‬ākil eater
‫ آكلة‬ākila gangrenous sore
‫ موبكال‬ma’kūl eatable, edible; pl.
foodstuffs, eatables, edibles
‫ موبكاال‬food,
‫ مؤاكل‬mu’ākil table companion
‫ مأبك ول‬muta’akkil and ‫ مأ ك ول‬muta’ākil
corroded; eroded; worn, timeworn; full of
cracks; rusty, rust-eaten
(relative pronoun) he who, that which;
who, which, that│‫ بعووداا لأي و اوا أ وو‬ba‘da llutayyā wa-llatī after lengthy discussions,
after much ado
‫ اكليووس‬iklīrūs clergy (Chr.)
‫ اكليووسية‬iklīrūsīya clericalism
‫ اكليوك‬iklīrikī cleric(al)
‫ اكلي يك‬iklīnīkī clinical
‫( ا وزاس‬Fr. Alsace) alzās2 Alsace (region of NE
France)
‫ ا س‬II to belittle, disparage (‫ علو‬s.o.)
2
‫ اكموة‬akama pl. -āt, ‫ اكو م‬ikām, ‫ اكوم‬ukum, ‫آكو م‬
ākām (coll. ‫ اكووم‬akam) hill; reef; heap,
pile│ ‫ورا ااالكموووووووةامووووووو اورا هووووووو‬
(warā’a)
something's fishy! there is more to it than
meets the eye
‫ ال‬ill pact, covenant; blood relationship,
consanguinity
1
‫ ااال‬a-lā and ‫ ام‬a-mā see│a
2
‫ااال‬alā see 1‫ا ا‬
3
‫ ااال‬allā (= ‫ اناال‬an lā) lest, that ... not, in order
that ... not, so as not to
4
‫ ااال‬illā (=‫ انال‬in lā) unless if not; except, save;
(after negation:) only, but, not until│‫االاان‬
illā anna except that ..., yet, however,
nevertheless (also introducing main
clauses); ‫ االاا ا‬illā idā unless, if not; except
when; ‫ واال‬wa-illā (and if not =) otherwise,
orelae; ‫ االاوهوووا‬illā wa-huwa (with a
preceding negation) unless he ..., except
that he ... ; ‫ ومو اهو ااالاان‬wa-mā hiya illā an
(with following verb in perf.) it was not
long until ... ; presently, forthwith; ‫ومو اهو ا‬
‫احأوو‬...‫ االاانا‬wa-ma hiya illā an ... ḥattā no
sooner had he ... than .... e.g..... ‫م اه ااالاأنا‬
‫( هماحأوا عول‬hamma) he had no sooner made
his plan than he carried it out
‫ االسك‬alaska Alaska
‫ االى‬alay and ‫ آالى‬ālay pl. -āt regiment 22
1
2
‫ اا وب‬alaba u i (alb) to gather, join forces, rally
II to incite (‫ ه علوو‬s.o. against) V to rally,
band together, plot, conspire (‫ علو‬against)
‫ اجب لااال ب‬jibal al-alb the Alps
‫ اال ب ن‬al-albān the Albanians
‫ ا ب ظي‬albāniyā Albania
‫ ا وخ‬abbreviation of ‫ ا وواآ ووه‬ilā āḳirihī and so
on, etc.
‫ ا ولى‬alladī f. ‫ ا أوو‬allatī, pl. m. ‫ ا ولي‬alladīna f.
‫ ا الت وو‬allātī, ‫ ا لووااتو‬allawātī, ‫ ا الئ وو‬allā’ī
‫ ا وف‬alf pl. ‫ ا واا‬ulūf, ‫ آالا‬ālāf thousand;
millennium│‫( ا وااامؤ وف‬mu’allafa) or ‫آالاا‬
‫ مؤ فووة‬thousands and thousands; ‫عشوووا ا‬
‫ اال واا‬ašarāt al-u. tens of thousands; ‫مو ا‬
‫ اال اا‬mi’āt al-u. hundreds of thousands
‫ ا فوووو‬alfī: ‫عيوووداا فوووو‬
celebration, millenary
(‘īd)
millennial
2
‫ ا وف‬alif name of the letter│ ‫ مو اا فو اا وواي ئو‬from
beginning to end, from A to Z; ‫يعووااا فو ا‬
‫( ويو ه‬wa-yā’ahū) he knows it from A to Z;
‫ ا فاب‬ABC
3
‫ اا وف‬alifa a (alf) to be acquainted, familiar,
conversant (‫ هووـ‬with s.th.); to be on
intimate terms (‫ ه‬with s.o.); to be or get
accustomed, used, habituated (‫ هوـ‬to); to
like (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), be fond of (‫ ;)هوـ‬to become
tame II to accustom, habituate (‫ ه هوـ‬s.o. to
s.th.); to tame, domesticate (‫ هوـ‬an animal);
to form (‫ هوووـ‬e,g., a committee, a
government); to unite, join, combine, put
together ( ‫ بوي‬different things); to compile,
compose, write (‫ هووـ‬a book) V to be
composed, be made up, consist ( ‫ مو‬of); to
be united, be combined VI to be attuned to
each other, be in tune, be in harmony; to
harmonize (‫ موا‬with) VIII to be united, be
linked, be connected; to be on familiar,
intimate terms (‫ ب‬with); to form a.
coalition (pol.); to fit, ‫س‬uit (‫ موا‬s.th.), go
well, agree, harmonize (‫ موا‬with); to be
well-ordered, neat, tidy X to seek the
intimacy, court the friendship (‫ ه‬of s.o.)
‫ ا وف‬ilf pl. ‫ االا‬ullāf intimate; close
friend, intimate, confidant; lover
‫ا ووووووف‬
ulfa
familiarity,
intimacy;
friendship, love, affection; union, concord,
harmony, congeniality
‫ ا يوووف‬alīf familiar, intimate; tame,
domesticated (animal); friendly, amicable,
genial; (pl. ‫ االئ وف‬alā’if2) intimate, close
friend, associate, companion
‫ ا ووواا‬alūf familiar, intimate; tame,
domesticated (animal); attached, devoted,
faithful
‫ تب م‬ta’allum sensation of pain, pain, ache
‫ موووؤ م‬mu’allim aching, painful; sad,
grievous, distressing
‫ مب ف‬ma'laf object of familiarity
‫ توووب يف‬ta’līf formation (e.g., of a
government);
union,
junction,
combination ( ‫ بوووي‬of separate things);
literary work; composition, compilation,
writing (of a book, of an article); (pl. ‫تو يف‬
ta’ālīf2, ‫ )تاا يف‬work, book, publication
‫ مأوب م‬muta’allim aching, painful; in pain,
suffering, deeply afflicted; tormented
2
‫ ا م و س‬almās (al sometimes interpreted as
definite article) diamond
‫ اال م ن‬al-almān the Germans
‫ توووو ف‬ta’āluf harmony; familiarity,
intimacy, mutual affection; comradeship,
camaraderie
‫ ا م و ظ‬almānī German; (pl. -ūn, ‫ا م و ن‬
almān) a German
‫ ائوووووأالا‬I’tilāf concord, harmony;
agreement (‫ مووا‬with); union; coalition,
entente (pol.)
‫ ا م ظيووة‬almānīya German character or
characteristics, Germanity
‫ائأال ووووووو‬
I’tilāfī
coalition(in
compounds)│‫ اوزار اائأال ية‬coalition cabinet
‫ ا و‬II to deify (‫ ه‬s.o.), make a god of s.o. (‫ )ه‬V
to become a deity, a godhead; to deify o.s.
‫ ا وف‬ma’lūf familiar, accustomed; usual,
customary; custom, usage 23
‫ا و‬, ‫ االه‬ilāh pl. ‫ آ ه وة‬āliha god, deity,
godhead
‫ ا م ظي‬almāniyā Germany
‫ االهة‬ilaha pl. -āt goddess
‫ مؤ وف‬mu’allif pl. -ūn author, writer; -mu’allaf composed, consisting, made up
( ‫ مو‬of); written, compiled; (pl. -āt) book,
publication; see also 1‫ ا ف‬alf
‫ا هووو‬,
‫ االهووو‬ilāhī divine, of God;
theological;
‫االالهيوووووووو‬
al-ilāhīyāt
theological, spiritual concerns ‫علومااالالهيو‬
‘i1m al-i. theology
‫ مأ ف‬muta’ālif harmonious
allāh Allah, God (as the One and Only)│‫هللا‬
‫ ر‬li-llāh darruka exclamation of
admiration and praise, see ‫ر‬
‫ ا ق‬alaqa i, (alq) to shine, radiate, flash, glitter,
glisten V and VIII do.
‫ ا ق‬alaq brightness, brilliance
‫ ا لهوم‬allāhumma O God!│‫( اا لهومااال‬illā)
unless, were it not that, except that, or at
best (after a negative statement); ‫ا لهوماا ا‬
(idā) at least if or when; if only; ‫ا لهوماظعوم‬
(na‘am) by God, yes! Most certainly!
‫ اال‬allāq bright, shining, brilliant,
radiant; glittering, flashing, sparkling
‫ تب ق‬ta’alluq glow, radiance, effulgence
‫ مأوب ق‬mula’alliq bright, shining, brilliant,
radiant
‫ ا اهية‬ulūhīya divine power, divinity
‫ ا كأووظ‬elektrōnī electronic│ ‫‘( عقلاا كأووظو‬aql)
electronic computer
2
‫ ااالم‬ilā-mā see ‫ا و‬
‫ تب ي‬ta’līh deification, apotheosis
‫ آ‬ālih (pagan) god
‫ ا وم‬alima a (alam) to be in pain, feel pain; to
suffer (y from s.th.) II and IV to cause
pain or suffering (‫ ه‬to s.o.), pain, ache,
hurt (‫ ه‬s.o.) V = I; to complain
‫ ا وووم‬alam pl. ‫ آالم‬ālām pain, ache,
suffering, agony│‫( آالماظفسووو ظية‬nafsānīya)
mental agony; ‫ اسوووبا اابالم‬usbū‘ al-a.
Passion Week (Chr.)
‫ ا ويم‬alīm aching, sore; sad, grievous,
painful, excruciating; hurting
‫ آ هة‬āliha pl. -āt goddess
‫ آ ه‬ālihī divine
‫ مأب‬muta’allih divine, heavenly
‫ ا الها‬etc., see ‫الها‬
1
‫ اال يآ واة‬alā u to neglect or fail to do, not to do
( s.th.), desist, refrain ( from s.th.)│‫االا‬
‫(يووب ااجهووداا و‬jahdan) he will go to any
length, he spares no effort, goes out of his
ḥibr cuttlefish squid; ‫ اماا حسو‬u. al-ḥasan
(magr.) nightingale; ‫ اماا لووال‬u. al-ḳulūl
river mussel (zool.); ‫ اما رمو ن‬u. durmān
Omdurman (city in central Sudan,
opposite Khartoum); ‫ اماا ووواس‬u. ar-ra's
skull,
brain;
cerebral
membrane,
meninges; ‫ امااربوووااواربعوووي‬u. arba‘ waarba‘īn centipede; ‫ اماشوملة‬u. šamla(ta) this
world, the worldly pleasures; ‫ بو ماا عوي‬bi-u.
l-‘ain or ‫ بو ماعي و‬with one’s own eyes; ‫اما‬
‫ ا قوووآن‬and ‫ اماا قوووآن‬the first sura of the
Koran; ‫ اماا قووى‬u. al-qura Mecca; ‫اماا كأو ب‬
also: the original text of the Book from
which Koranic revelation derives; the
uncontested portions of the Koran; ‫اماا واه‬
u. al-waṯan capital, metropolis; ‫امهوو ا‬
‫ ا حواا ث‬the most important events; ‫امهو ا‬
‫ ا حوووا‬matrix (typ.); ‫ امهو اا مسو ئل‬the main
problems; ‫ امه اا مس ئل‬the principal virtues
way for IV to swear│‫ آ ووواعلوواظفسو اان‬he
promised himself that he ...
‫ ايال‬īlā’ oath
1
‫( آ ا‬Fr. hallo) hello!
‫ ا ام يووو‬alūminyā
aluminum 24
and
‫ا ام يوووام‬
aluminyom
l
‫ ا وو‬ilā (prep.) to, toward; up to, as far as; till,
until; ‫( ا وواان‬conj.) until│‫( ا وواآ ووه‬āḳirihī)
and so forth, et cetera; ‫ ا وووا وول‬besides,
moreover, furthermore, in addition to that;
‫ ا وواغود‬till tomorrow! ‫( ا وو ا لقو‬liqā’) goodby! ‫ االم‬ilāma (= ‫ )ا ووامو‬up to where! how
far! ‫ ا ووامأوو‬till when! how long! ‫ا يولاع و‬
(‘annī) get away from me! away with you!
‫( ا وواج ظوبا ول‬jānibi d.) besides, moreover,
in addition to that; ‫ هوولااا ووواان‬moreover,
furthermore; ‫( ا وواغيووا ول‬gair d.) and the
like; ‫ ومو اا يو‬and‫ا‬the like, et cetera; ‫ومو اا يو ا‬
‫( يا ويهمة‬wa-man) and other people like that;
‫( ا يول‬addressing the reader) now here you
have ... ; here is (are) ... ; following is
(are) ..., e.g., ‫ وا وواا قو ر امو‬in the following,
the reader will find what ... ; ‫اسولاباعبواظو ا‬
‫( ا وواا عوبيوة‬uslūb ‘ibrānī) a style of Hebrew
approximating Arabic; ‫الاا ووواهوولااوالاا وووا ا‬
neither this way nor that way, belonging
to neither group; ‫ االموواا يول‬it’s up to you,
the decision is yours
2
3
‫ اموة‬umma pl. ‫ اموم‬umam nation, people;
generation│‫امووووووووةامحموووووووود‬
Mohammed's
community, the Mohammedans; ‫االموووما‬
‫( ا مأحد‬muttaḥida) the United Nations
‫ امو‬ummī maternal, motherly; illiterate
uneducated; (pl. -ūn) an illiterate
‫ اميووة‬ummīya ignorance; illiteracy; see
also under 2‫اماى‬
‫ امم‬umamī international
‫ اماموة‬umūma motherhood; motherliness,
maternity
‫( آال‬pl. of ‫ ا و‬ilan) benefits, blessings
‫ ا يوة‬alya, ilya pl. alayāt fat tail (of a sheep);
buttock
‫ امو م‬amāma (prep.) in front of; in the
presence of│‫( ا ووااالمو م‬amāmi) to the front,
forward, onward, ahead; ‫( ومايكو ااالاان‬illā
an) he had no other alternative but to ... ;
‫( ولوفاام مو‬waqafa) to oppose, resist, stop,
check s.th.
‫ ا ي‬iliyāda Iliad
1
‫ ام‬am or? (introducing the second member of
an alternative question)
2
‫ امة‬ama pl. ‫ امو‬imā’,
slave girl
3
‫ امواا‬amawāt bondmaid,
‫ امووو مو‬amāmī front, fore-, anterior,
forward, foremost│‫( ظق ووووةاام ميووووة‬nuqṯa)
outpost 25
‫ ام‬amma u (amm) to go, betake o.s., repair (‫هوـ‬
to a place), go to see (‫ ه‬s.o.); -- (‫ام مووة‬
imāma) to lead the way, lead by one’s
example (‫ ه‬s.i.); to lead (‫ ه‬s.o.) in prayer; -(‫ امامة‬umūma) to be or become a mother II
to nationalize (‫ هـ‬s.th.) V to go, betake o.s.
repair (‫ هـ‬to a place), go to see (‫ ه‬s.o.) VIII
to follow the example (‫ ب‬of s.o.)
‫ ام‬umm pl.
‫ امهو‬ummahāt mother; source,
origin; basis, foundation; original, original
version (of a book); the gist, essence of
s.th.; pl. ‫ امهو‬matrix (typ.)│‫ ااماا حبوو‬u. al-
‫ امو م‬imām pl. ‫ ائموة‬a’imma imam, prayer
leader; leader; master; plumb line
‫ ام موة‬imāma imamah, function or office
of the prayer leader; imamate; leading
position; precedence
‫ تبميم‬ta’mīm pl. -āt nationalization
1
‫ ام‬a-mā see│a
2
‫ امو‬ammā (with foll . ‫ ا‬fa) as to, as for, as far
as... is concerned; but; yet, however, on
the other hand│‫( امو ابعود‬ba‘du) (a formular
phrase linking introduction and actual
subject of a book or letter, approx.:) now
then …, now to our topic: ...
3
‫ امو‬immā if; ‫اوامو‬--‫ امو ا‬be it -- or, either – or
(also ‫ااو‬--‫)ام ا‬
‫ امبواهار‬imbrāṯūr emperor
‫ امبواهار‬imbrāṯūrī imperialist(ic)
‫امبواهاريوووووووة‬
imbrātūrīya
imperium; imperialism
empire,
‫ امبيو‬ambīr pl. ‫ ام بيو‬amābīr2 ampere (el.)
‫ امبيق‬imbiq = ‫اظبيق‬
‫ اموت‬amt crookedness, curvedness, curvation,
curvature; weakness
‫ امووود‬amad pl. ‫ آمووو‬āmād end, terminus,
extremity; period, stretch or span of time,
time; distance│‫ م ولاامودابعيود‬for a long time
(past); ‫ لصوويوااالم ود‬short-dated; of short
duration, short-lived; short-term
‫ اموو‬amara u (amr) to order, command, bid,
instruct (‫ ه‬s.i. ‫ ب‬to do s.th.), commission,
charge, entrust (‫ ه‬s.o. ‫ ب‬with s.th. or to do
s.th.); -- amara, amura u ( ‫ امو ر‬imāra) to
become an emir II to invest with authority,
make an emir (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ علوو‬over) III to ask
s.o. 's (‫ )ه‬advice, consult (‫ ه‬s.o.) V to come
to power; to set o.s. up as lord and master;
to behave like an emir; to assume an
imperious attitude; to be imperious,
domineering VI to take counsel, deliberate
together, confer, consult with each other;
to plot, conspire (‫ علووو‬against) VIII to
deliberate, take counsel) (‫ ب‬about); to
conspire, plot, hatch a plot (‫ ب‬against
s.o.)│‫ اائأمواب موه‬to carry out s.o.’s orders
‫ ام وو‬amr 1. pl. ‫ اوامووو‬awāmir2 order,
command, instruction (‫ ب‬to do s.th.);
ordinance, decree; power, authority;
(gram.) imperative│‫‘( ااموواعو ل‬ālin) royal
decree (formerly, Eg.); ‫‘( ام وواعل و‬alīy)
decree, edict of the Bey (formerly, Tun.);
‫ امووالو ظاظ‬ordinance having the force of law
(Tun.); ‫( االموواوا هو‬wa-nnahy) pl. ‫االوامووا‬
‫( وا ووااه‬lit.: command and interdiction,
i.e.) sovereign power; full power(s),
supreme authority; ‫( اموووواتاريووود‬delivery)
order (com.); ‫ تحوتااموو‬at your disposal, at
your service. -- 2. pl. ‫ اموار‬umūr matter,
affair,
concern,
business│‫امووووووواوالووووووا‬
(accomplished) fact; ‫ ام ووامعووووا‬common
knowledge; ‫ و ااولااالم وو‬at first, in the
beginning; ‫( المووامو‬amrin) for some reason
or other; ‫ ا يسااالمواكول ل‬isn't it so? ‫امو اواالمووا‬
‫( كوول ل‬ammā wa-l-amru) things being as
they are, there will, no doubt, ...; ‫مهمو ايكو ا‬
‫( مو ااموو‬min amrin) whatever may happen;
however things may be; ‫ هواابوي اامووي‬he has
two possibilities (or alternatives); ‫االموواا ولى‬
which (introducing a relative clause the
antecedent of which is another clause);
‫ ل وواامووه‬qudiya amruhu it's all over with
him; in the latter and similar phrases, ‫امووه‬
is a frequent paraphrase of "he"
‫ امو‬immar simple-minded, stupid
‫ ام وو‬imra power, influence, authority,
command│ ‫ اموت‬under his command
‫ امو ر‬amāra pl. -āt, ‫ امو ئو‬amā’ir2 sign,
token, indication, symptom, mark,
characteristic 26
‫ امو ر‬imāra position or rank of an emir;
princely bearing or manners; principality,
emirate; authority, power│‫ امو ر اا بحوو‬i. albaḥr office or jurisdiction of an admiral,
admiralty; ‫( امو را اسو حلاعمو ن‬i. s. ‘ummān)
Trucial Oman
‫ اميوو‬amīr pl. ‫ امووا‬umarā’ commander;
prince, emir; title of princes of a ruling
house;
tribal
chief│‫(ااميوووووووااالى‬alay)
commander of a regiment (formerly, Eg.;
approx.: colonel; as a naval rank, approx.:
captain); ‫ اميووااالمووا‬approx.: major general
(Tun.); ‫( اميووواا بحوو ر‬Eg. 1939) approx.:
admiral, ‫( كبيوااموا اا بح ر‬Eg. 1939) approx.:
fleet admiral; ‫ اميوواا بحوو‬a. al-baḥr admiral
(when referring to a non-Arab officer of
this rank; Eg. 1939 approx.: vice-admiral);
‫ اميوواا بحوووااالكبوووا‬or ‫ اميووواا بحو رااالعرووم‬fleet
admiral (when referring to a non-Arab
officer of this rank); ‫ اميوواا لواا‬a. al-liwā’
(Ir., since 1933) brigadier; ‫ اميوا واا اا عسوة‬a.
l. al-‘assa commandant of the Bey's
palace guard (formerly, Tun.); ‫اميوواا موؤم ي‬
a. al-mu’minīn Commander of the
Faithful, Caliph
‫ اميو‬amīr pl. -āt princess
‫ اميوووو‬amīrī (and □
‫ميوووو‬
mīrī)
goverment(a1),
state-owned,
state,
public│ ‫( اار ااميوو‬arḍ) government land
(Syr.); ‫ ا م بعةااالميوية‬government press
‫ ام و ر‬ammār constantly urging, always
demanding (‫ ب‬to do s.th.); inciting,
instigating│ ‫( اا و فسااالم و ر اب سووا‬nafs, sū’)
the baser self (of man) that incites to evil
‫ تووووبمار‬ta’mūr soul, mind, spirit;
pericardium
(anat.)│‫ا أهووووووووو باا أوووووووووبمار‬
pericarditis (med.)
‫ م وؤامو‬mu’āmara pl. -āt deliberation,
counsel, conference; plot, conspiracy
‫تووووووووبمو‬
ta’ammur
imperiousness,
domineeringness; imperious deportment,
overbearing manners
‫ تو مو‬ta’āmur joint consultation, counsel,
deliberation, conference; plot, conspiracy
‫ ائأمووو ر‬i’timār deliberation,
conference; plot, conspiracy
counsel,
‫ اسوووأئم ر‬isti’māra (frequently written
‫ )اسأم ر‬form, blank
‫ آموووو‬āmir commander; lord, master;
orderer, purchaser, customer, client│‫اابمووا‬
‫ ا وووو هو‬absolute master, vested with
unlimited authority
‫ مووبمار‬ma’mūr commissioned, charged;
commissioner; civil officer, official, esp.,
one in executive capacity; the head of a
markaz and qism (Eg.)│ ‫مووبماراا بوووا يس‬
commissioner of police; ‫مووووبماراا أفلسووووة‬
(taflīsa) receiver (in bankruptcy; jur.);
‫ موووبمار‬m. al-ḥaraka traffic manager
(railroad); ‫ موووبماراا أصوووفية‬m. al-taṣfīya
receiver (in equity, in bankruptcy; jur.)
‫ مبماريووووة‬ma’mūrīya pl. -āt order,
instruction; errand; task, assignment,
mission; commission; commissioner's
office, administrative branch of a
government agency, e.g., ‫مبماريووةال وو ئية‬
(qaḍā’īya) judicial commission charged
with jurisdiction in outlying communities
(Eg.)
‫مأوووو موون‬
plotters
muta’āmirūn,
conspirators,
‫مؤتمووووووان‬
mu’tamirūn
conspirators,
plotters; members of a congress,
convention, or conference, conferees
‫ موووؤتمو‬mu’tamar pl. -āt conference;
convention, congress│‫ مووؤتمواا صولا‬m. aṣṣulḥ peace conference
‫ اموو‬II ta’amraka to become Americanized,
adopt the American way of life, imitate
the Americans
‫ تبمو‬ta’amruk Americanization
‫ امو س‬amarillis amaryllis (bot.)
‫ امويكو‬amrīkā (formerly, also ‫ )امويقو‬America│‫ا‬
‫( امويك اا ج ابية‬janūbīya) South America 27
‫ امويك و‬amrīkī American; (pl. -ūn) an
American
‫ االمويك ن‬al-amrīkān the Americans
‫ امويكو ظ‬amrīkānī American; (pl. -ūn) an
American
‫ اموس‬amsu (but acc. ‫ امسو‬amsan) the day past,
yesterday; the immediate past, recent
time; -- amsi (adv.) yesterday; recently,
lately, not long ago│‫ ابووو المس‬bi-l-amsi
yesterday; not long ago; ‫ امووسااالول‬a. lawwal two days ago, the day before
yesterday
‫ امسووية‬umsīya pl. -āt, ‫ ام سوووو‬amāsīy
evening
‫ امسأو ام‬amstirdām Amsterdam
‫ امشويو‬amšīr the sixth month of the Coptic
calendar
‫ ام وا‬imma‘ and ‫ امعووة‬imma‘a characterless
person; opportunist, timeserver
‫ امول‬amala u (amal) to hope (‫ هوـ‬or ‫ ب‬for),
entertain hopes (‫ هوـ‬or ‫ ب‬of) II to hope; to
expect ( ‫ هوـ مو‬s.th. of s.o.); to raise hope. (‫ه‬
in s.o.), hold out hope. (‫ ه‬for s.o.), give (‫ه‬
s.o.) reason to hope or expect│‫ااملو ا يووا‬
(ḳairan) to let s.o. hope for the best V to
look attentively (‫هوووـ‬, ‫ ووو‬at), regard,
contemplate (‫هوـ‬, ‫ و‬s.th.); to meditate; to
consider, think over, ponder (‫هوـ‬, ‫ و‬s.th.),
reflect (‫هـ‬, on)
‫ امول‬amal pl. ‫ آمو ل‬āmāl hope, expectation
( ‫ و‬of s.th., also ‫ اامولاكو ب│)ب‬fallacious
hope
‫ مبمل‬ma’mal pl. ‫ م مل‬ma’amil2 hope
‫ تبموول‬ta’ammul pl. -āt consideration;
contemplation; pl. ‫ تبمال‬meditations
‫ آمل‬āmil hopeful
‫ مؤمل‬mu’ammil hopeful
‫ مبمال‬ma’mūl hoped for, expected
‫مأبموووووول‬
muta’ammil
contemplative,
meditative, reflective; pensive, wistful,
musing
āt) s.th. deposited in trust, a deposit, trust,
charge; secretariat│ ‫ ام ظووةاا صوو دو‬a. aṣṣundūq treasury department; ‫ام ظوووةاع موووة‬
(‘āmma) secretariat general; ‫محوزنااالم ظو‬
maḳzan al-a. baggage checkroom
‫ ام و‬amuna u (‫ ام ظووة‬amāna) to be faithful,
reliable, trustworthy; -- amina a (amn, ‫امو ن‬
amān) to be safe, feel safe ( ‫ مو‬or ‫ هوـ‬from)
II to reassure (‫ ه‬s.o.), set s.o.’s (‫ )ه‬mind at
rest; to assure, ensure, safeguard,
guarantee, warrant, bear out, confirm,
corroborate (‫علوو‬, ‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to insure (‫ضودا‬
‫ ا حويق‬against fire); to entrust (‫ ه‬to s.o., ‫علوو‬
s.th.); to say "amen" (‫ علوو‬to s.th.) IV to
believe (‫ ب‬in) VIII to trust (‫ ه‬s.o.), have
confidence, have faith (‫ ه‬in); to entrust
(‫ ه علوو‬s.o. with, to s.o s.th.) X = VIII; to
ask for protection, for a promise of
security, for indemnity (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ مبم‬ma’man place of safety, safe place
‫ تووووبمي ا‬ta’mīn securing, protection;
assurance; safeguarding; reassurance;
ensuring; guaranty, warranty; security,
surety; insurance│ ‫( اتووبمي ااجأم و ع‬ijtimā’ī)
social security; ‫( توبمي اضوداا حويوق‬ḍidda) fire
insurance; ‫( توووبمي اعلوووواا حيووو‬ḥayāh) life
insurance
‫ ايم ن‬iman faith, belief (‫ ب‬in)
‫ ائأم ن‬I’timān trust, confidence; credit
‫ اسأئم ن‬isti’mān trust, confidence
‫ اموووو‬amn safety; peace, security,
protection│‫‘( االمو اا عو م‬āmm) public safety;
‫ رج لااالم‬the police
‫اموو ن‬
amān security, safety; peace;
shelter, protection; clemency, quarter
(mil.);
safeguarding,
assurance
of
protection; indemnity, immunity from
punishment│ ‫( وووو ااموووو نا‬a valedictory
phrase) in God's protection!
‫ ام وي‬amīn pl. ‫ ام و‬umanā’2 reliable,
trustworthy, loyal, faithful, upright,
honest;
safe,
secure;
authorized
representative or agent; trustee; guarantor
(‫ علوووو‬of); chief, head; superintendent,
curator, custodian, guardian, keeper;
chamberlain; master of a guild (Tun.);
(mil.) approx.: quartermaster-sergeant (Eg.
1939)│‫ااالموووووووي ااالول‬
(awwal)
Lord
Chamberlain (formerly, at the Eg. Court);
‫ كبيووووااالم ووو‬approx.: Chief Master of
Ceremonies (ibid.); ‫ اموووي اا م وووزن‬a. almaḳzan warehouse superintendent; stock
clerk; ‫ اموي اسوواا دو وةا‬a. sirr ad-daula and
‫ اموي اا سوو‬a. as-sirr permanent secretary of
state (Sy,.); ‫ اموي اا صو دو‬a. aṣ-ṣundūq and
‫ امووي اا م و ل‬treasurer; cashier; ‫امووي اا ع صوومة‬
mayor (esp. Ir.); ‫‘( اموي اعو ما‬āmm) secretary
general; ‫ اموي اا مكأوب‬a. al-maktab (formerly)
a subaltern rank in the Eg. navy (1939) 28
‫ آمي‬āmīn amen!
‫ ام ظوة‬amāna reliability, trustworthiness;
loyalty, faithfulness, fidelity, fealty;
integrity, honesty; confidence, trust, good
faith; deposition in trust; trusteeship; (pl. -
‫ آم‬āmin peaceful
‫ مبمان‬ma’mūn reliable, trustworthy
‫ مؤم اعلي‬mu’amman ‘alaihi insured
‫ مؤم‬mu’min believing, faithful; believer
‫ موؤتم‬mu’taman entrusted (‫ علووو‬with);
confidant; sequestrator (jur.)
‫ ام يباس‬omnibus omnibus, bus
1
2
‫ اموواى‬amawī of or like a bondmaid or
handmaid
‫ اما‬umawī Ommiad (adj.)
‫ ب ااامية‬banū umayya the Ommiads
‫ اميب‬amībā amoebae
‫ اميوال‬amīrāl admiral
‫اميوك‬, ‫ اميوك‬amērikā, amērika America
‫ اميوا ية‬amīrālīya admiralty
1
‫ ان‬an (conj.) that; -- in 1. (conj.) if; ‫ وان‬wa-in
although, even though, even if; ‫ ان – وان‬be
it -- or (be it); ‫ اال‬illā (= ‫ )اناال‬look up
alphabetically 2. (particle) not, esp. in the
phrase ‫ اناهواااال‬in huwa illā (f. ‫ )اناهو ااال‬it
is nothing but, it is no more than
2
‫ ان‬anna (conj.) that; ‫ بم ااظو‬bi-mā annahū since
he (it), because he (it); ‫‘ علووااظو‬alā annahū
while he (it), whereas he (it); introducing
a main clause: however, yet; ‫ و ولااظو‬that is
to say, namely, to wit; -- innā
(intensifying particle introducing a
nominal clause) verily, truly (in most
cases not translated in English)
‫ اظمو‬innamā but, but then; yet, however; rather,
on the contrary
3
‫ ان‬anna i ( ‫ اظوي‬anīn, ‫ تبظو ن‬ta’nān) to groan,
moan ( ‫ م‬at)
‫ اظوة‬anna pl. -āt moan, groan│ ‫ااظو اوآهو‬
wails and laments
‫ اظوي‬anīn plaintive sound, wail; groan,
moan(ing)
‫ اظ‬ana I
‫ اظثووو‬untā pl. ‫ اظ و ث‬ināt, ‫ اظ و ثو‬anātā
feminine; female; a female (of animals);
‫ االظثي ن‬al-untayān the testicles
‫ اظثواى‬untawī womanly, female, women's
(in compounds); effeminate, womanish
‫ اظاثة‬unūta femininity, womanliness
‫ تبظيوث‬ta’nīt the feminine, feminine form
(gram.)
‫ مؤظث‬mu’annat (gram.) feminine (adj.)
‫ اظ ظ‬anānī egotistic; egoistic(al), selfish
‫ اظثووبا اجي‬antrōbōlōjiyā anthropology
‫ اظ ظية‬anānīya egoism, selfishness
‫ اظج ص‬injās (syr.) pear
‫ االظ ضل‬al-anāḍul Anatolia
‫( اظجلأوا‬It. Inghilterra) ingilterā England
‫ اظ ظ س‬anānas pineapple
‫ االظجليز‬al-ingəlīz the English
‫ اظوب‬II to blame, censure, reprehend, upbraid (‫ه‬
s.o.)
‫ اظجليزى‬ingəlīzī English; Englishman
‫ اظجيل‬injil pl. ‫ اظ جيل‬anajīl2 gospel
‫ تبظيب‬ta’nīb blame, censure, rebuke
‫ اظجيلو‬injīlī evangelical; evangelist
‫اظبووو‬
‫ اظجيلية‬injīlīya evangelical creed
(pronounced ambā) Abba, a high
ecclesiastic title of the Coptic Church,
preceding the names of metropolitans,
bishops, patriarchs, and saints (< Άββα)
2
2
‫ اظب و ر‬anbār pl. ‫ اظ و بو‬anābir , ‫ اظ و بيو‬anābīr
warehouse, storehouse, storeroom 29
‫( اظب ش و‬Turk. onbaşı) onbašī a mil. rank:
corporal (formerly, Eg.);
‫وكيوووولااظب شوووو‬
approx.: private first class (Eg.)
‫اظباب‬, ‫ اظبابة‬see ‫ظب‬
‫ اظبيق‬inbīq alembic
‫ اظت‬an-ta, f. anti thou, you (2nd pers. sing.); pl.
m. ‫ اظوأم‬antum, f. ‫ اظوأ‬antunna you (2nd
pers. pl. and polite form of address); dual
‫ اظأم‬antumā both of you
‫ اظألا‬anta-dā it’s you!
‫ اظأيك ظة‬antīkḳāna museum
‫ اظأيكوة‬antīka pl. -āt (eg.) old, old-fashioned,
outmoded
‫ اظأمان‬antimūn antimony
‫ اظوث‬anuta u (‫ اظاثووة‬unūta) to be or become
feminine,
womanly,
womanish,
effeminate II to make feminine; to
effeminate, make effeminate; to put into
the feminine form (gram.) V to become
feminine (also gram.)
‫ االظد س‬al-andalus Spain
‫ اظدوظيسي‬indūnīsiyā Indonesia
‫ اظووس‬anisa a and anusa u (uns) to be
companionable, sociable, nice, friendly,
genial; ‫ اظوسابو‬to like s.o.’s company, like
to be together with s.o.; to be or get on
intimate terms (‫ ب‬or ‫ ا وو‬with s.o.); to be
used, accustomed, habituated (‫ ا وو‬to); to
perceive, notice, find (‫ هوـ‬a quality, ‫ و‬, ‫مو‬
in s.o.); to sense, feel, make out, recognize
(‫ هـ‬s.th., in, at)│ ‫(ااظسا حديث‬li-ḥadītihī) to
like to listen to s.o. II to put at ease; to
tame III to be friendly, nice (‫ ه‬to s.o.); to
entertain, amuse (‫ ه‬s.o.) IV to keep s.o. (‫)ه‬
company; to entertain, delight, amuse (‫ه‬
s.o.); to perceive, discern, make out (with
the eyes; ‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to sense (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
find, see, notice, observe, e.g., ‫آظسا ي اا كف يوة‬
he saw that be was duly qualified, that he
was a capable man V to become incarnate
(Son of God) X to be sociable,
companionable; to get on familiar terms,
become intimate; to become tame; to be
friendly, nice, kind (‫ ه‬to s.o.); to
accommodate o.s., accustom o.s., settle
down; to be familiar, familiarize o.s.,
acquaint o.s. (‫ ب‬or ‫ ا وو‬with); to inform
o.s., gather information (‫ ب‬ahout); to take
into consideration, take into account,
bring into play (‫ ب‬s.th.), draw upon s.th.
(‫ ;)ب‬to listen (‫ ل‬to s.th.), heed (‫ ب‬an
opinion)
to resume, renew, recommence (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
(jur.) to appeal (‫ هـ‬a sentence)
‫اظووووووس‬
uns
sociability;
intimacy,
familiarity, friendly atmosphere
‫ اظف‬anf pl. ‫ آظو ا‬ānāf, ‫ اظواا‬unūf nose; spur (of a
mountain); pride│ ‫ ارغومااظفو‬ragma anfihi in
defiance of him, to spite him; ‫كسوووااظف و‬
(anfahū) to humiliate s.o., to put s.o.'s
nose out of joint; ‫ ش و ماااالظووف‬stuck-up,
haughty, proud
‫ اظسوو‬unsī: ‫( كعوبااظسوو‬ka‘b) talus, inner
anklebone (anat.)
‫اظوس‬
race
ins (coll.) man, mankind, human
‫ اظفو‬anfī nasal
‫ اظس‬insī human; human being
‫ ظ س‬nās (coll.) and ‫ اظ س‬unās people
‫ ظ سا‬nāsūt mankind, humanity 30
‫ اظ سوو‬anāsīy (pl.) people, human beings,
humans
‫ اظويس‬anīs close, intimate; close friend;
friendly, kind, affable, civil, polite,
courteous
‫ اظس و ن‬insan man, human being│‫ااظس و نا‬
‫ ا عي‬i. al-‘ain pupil (of the eye)
‫ اظس ظة‬insāna woman
‫اظسوووووو ظو‬
insānī
human;
humanitarian, philanthropist
humane;
‫ اظسو ظية‬insānīya humanity, humaneness;
politeness, civility; mankind, the human
race
‫ مؤاظس وة‬mu’ānasa intimacy, familiarity,
friendliness,
geniality,
cordiality;
sociability; conviviality
‫ اي ووو س‬īnās exhilaration; friendliness,
geniality; familiarity, intimacy, cordiality;
sociability
‫ تبظس‬ta’annus incarnation (Chr.)
‫ ائأ س‬I’tinās social life, sociability
‫ آظسوة‬ānisa pl. -āt, ‫ اواظوس‬awānis2 young
lady, miss
‫ مبظاس‬ma’nūs familiar, accustomed
‫ مسأبظس‬musta’nis tame
‫( اظش‬Engl.) inš inch
‫( اظشاجة‬It. acciuga) anšūga (eg.) anchovy
‫ اظ كيوة‬anṯākiya2 Antioch (ancient city in Syria;
now Antakya, in S Turkey)
‫ اظ ا اجو‬onṯōlōjī ontologic(al) (philos.)
‫ اظف‬anifa a (anaf) to disdain, scorn ( ‫ مو‬s.th., ‫ان‬
to do s.th.); to reject haughtily (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) X
‫ اظفوة‬anafa pride; rejection; disdain ( ‫ مو‬of
s.th.)
‫ اظ واا‬anūf proud, haughty, stuck-up,
supercilious, disdainful
‫اسوووووووأئ ا‬
isti’nāf
fresh
start,
recommencement, renewal, resumption,
reopening (also, of a legal case); appeal
(jur.)│ ‫( الوودمااسووأئ‬qaddama) to appeal,
make an appeal (jur.)
‫ اسووأئ و‬isti’nāfī of appeal, appellate;
‫ اسأئ ي‬isti’nāfīyan by appeal
‫ آظووف‬ānif preceding, above│‫اآظووفاا وولكو‬
(dikr) preceding, above, above-mentioned;
‫ آظفووو‬ānifan previously, above, in the
foregoing
‫ مؤت وووف‬mu’tanaf primordial, virginal
state; beginning
‫( اظفووس‬Fr. Anvers) anvers Antwerp (city in N
Belgium)
‫ اظفلاظزا‬influwanzā influenza, grippe
‫ اظوق‬aniqa a to be neat, trim, smart, spruce,
comely, pretty; to be happy (‫ ب‬about), be
delighted (‫ ب‬by) IV to please (‫ ه‬s.o.)│‫يؤظق ا‬
‫( ا شو‬šai’u) he likes the thing V to apply
o.s. eagerly and meticulously (‫ وو‬to); to be
meticulous, fastidious, finical; to be chic,
elegant
‫ اظ لة‬anāqa elegance
‫ اظي وق‬anīq neat, trim, spruce, comely,
pretty; elegant, chic
‫ اظوا‬anūq Egyptian vulture (Neophron
perenopterus)│ ‫ ااعووزاموو ابووي ااالظووا‬a‘azz2
min baiḍi l-a. (lit.: rarer than the eggs of a
vulture, i.e.) approx.: scarcer than hens’
teeth (proverbially for s.th. rare)
‫ تبظق‬ta’annuq elegance 31
‫ مؤظووق‬mu’anniq, ‫ ماظووق‬mūniq pretty,
comely, winsome, nice, pleasing
‫ مأبظق‬muta’anniq chic, elegant
direction); how? wherever; however│‫اواظوا‬
...‫( ااالا‬allā) and why shouldn't he ... ?
‫ اظيسان‬anīsūn, ‫ آظيسان‬aniseed
‫ اظقوه‬anqara Ankara
‫ اظقليس‬anqalīs eel
‫ اظيميو‬anīmiyā anemia│○ ‫ اظيميو ا بيثوة‬pernicious
anemia (med.)
‫ آظل‬ānuk lead (metal)
‫ آه‬āhi! ‫ آه‬āhan! (interj.) oh!
‫ اظكش رى‬inkišārī pl. -īya Janizary
‫ اهوب‬II to prepare, make ready, equip (‫هوـ ل‬, ‫ه‬
s.o., s.th. for) V to be ready, be prepared;
to prepare o.s., get ready; to equip s.o., be
equipped (‫ ل‬for)
‫اظكلأوا‬, ‫( اظكلأو‬It. Inghilterra) ingilterā, ingiltera
England
‫ اظكلاسكسان‬al-anglosaksūn the Anglo-Saxons
‫ اظكلاسكسووواظية‬al-anglosaksūnīya AngloSaxondom
‫ االظكليز‬al-inglīz the Engliah
‫ اظكليزى‬inglīzī English; Englishman
‫ اظكليس‬ankalīs eel
‫ االظ م‬al-anām and ‫( ابظ م‬coll.) mankind, the
human race
‫ اظما‬unmūdaj model, pattern; type, example;
sample, specimen
‫ اظمان‬anamūn anemone (bot.)
1
‫ اظوو‬anā i to mature, become ripe; to draw
near, approach, come (esp. time)│‫ااظووا و اان‬
it is (high) time that he; esp. in negative
statements: ‫ ا وومايووبن‬a-lam ya'ni? isn't it
about time ...? V to act slowly, proceed
unhurriedly, bide one's time, be patient X
to take one's time, hesitate (‫ وو‬in, with); to
wait
‫ اظوو‬anan pl. ‫ آظو‬ānā’ (span of) time,
period│‫(ا واآظ اا ليول‬laili) all night long; ‫آظو ا‬
‫ ا ليولاواهوواااا هو ر‬ānā’a l-laili wa-aṯrāfa nnahār by day and by night
‫ اظ و‬anāh deliberateness; perseverance,
patience│ ‫ اهووووالااالظوووو‬ṯūl al-a. longsuffering, great patience; ‫ هايولااالظو‬longsuffering (adj.)
‫ اظو‬inā’ pl. ‫ آظيوة‬āniya,‫ااوان‬awānin2 vessel,
container, receptacle│ ‫ آظيووةاا ع و م‬a.. aṯṯa‘ām table utensils, dishes; mess kit
‫ تبن‬ta’annin slowness, deliberateness
‫ مأووووبن‬muta’annin
deliberate
2
slow,
unhurried,
‫ ااظوو‬annā (interrog. part.) where ... from? why
is it that ... ? why? Where? (place and
‫ اهبووووة‬uhba pl. ‫ اهووووب‬uhab preparation,
preparedness,
readiness,
alertness;
equipment, outfit, gear│‫ ااهبوةاا حووب‬u. alḥarb military equipment; ‫علوووااهبووةاا وحيوول‬
ready to set out; ‫ علوووااهبووةااالسووأعدا‬fully
prepared; on the alert (mil.); ‫ أ ولااهبأو‬to
make one's preparations, get ready
‫ اه ب‬ihāb skin, hide
‫ تبهوب‬ta’ahhub preparedness, readiness;
(pl. -āt) preparation
‫ مأبهب‬muta’ahhib ready, prepared
‫ اهول‬ahala u (‫ اهوال‬uhūl) to take a wife, get
married; -- ahila a to be on familiar terms
(‫ ب‬with); -- pas. uhila to be inhabited, be
populated (region, place) II to make fit or
suited, to fit, qualify (‫هوـ ل‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th. for);
to make possible (‫ ل هووـ‬for s.o. s.th.),
enable (‫ ل هووـ‬s.o. to do s.th.), make
accessible (‫ ل هوـ‬to s.o. s.th.); to welcome
(‫ ب‬s.o.) V to be or become fit, suited,
qualified (‫ ل‬for s.th.); to 32 take a wife; to
marry, get married X to deserve merit (‫هوـ‬
s.th.), be worthy (‫ هـ‬of)
‫ اهول‬ahl pl. –ūn, ‫ اهو ل‬ahālin relatives,
folks, family; kin, kinfolk; wife; (with
foll. genit.) people, members, followers,
adherents, possessors, etc.; inhabitants;
deserving, worthy (‫ ل‬of s.th.); fit, suited,
qualified (‫ ل‬for); pl. ‫ادهلووان‬, ‫ اده و و‬the
natives, the native population│‫ ااهولاا بيوت‬a.
al-bait members (of the house, i.e.) of the
family; the Prophet's family; ‫ اهولاا ودار‬the
people living in the house;‫ ااهولاا حو وة‬a. alḥirfa people of the trade; ‫ اهولاا حلوف‬a. alḥilf people pledged by oath, members of a
sworn confederacy; ‫ اهولاا بوو‬a. al-ḳibra
people of experience, experts; ‫اهولاا سفسو ة‬
a. al-safsata Sophists; ‫ اهلاا سو ة‬a. as-sunna
the adherents of the Sunna, the Sunnis; ‫اهلا‬
‫ ا موودراوا ووابو‬a. al-madar wa-l-wabar the
resident population and the nomads; ‫اهولا‬
‫ ا اج هوة‬a. al-wajāha people of rank and
high social standing; ‫ اهوالاوسوهالا‬ahlan wasahlan welcome! ‫ اهوووالابووولا‬ahlan bika
welcome to youl ‫ و ا و ا ارظ و ااهوول‬he is a
welcome guest in our house
‫ اهلووو ا‬ahlī domestic, family (adj.);
native, resident; indigenous; home,
national│‫ اب ولااهل و ا‬national bank (Eg.);
‫( حوووبااهليووةا‬ḥarb) civil war; ‫محكمووةااهليووةا‬
(maḥkama) indigenous court (Eg.); ‫ا ق و ا‬
‫( ادهلو ا‬qaḍā’) jurisdiction of indigenous
courts; ‫( اإلظأووو اادهلووو ا‬intāj) domestic
production; ‫( ولفااهل ا‬waqf) family wakf
‫اهليووووووة‬
ahlīya
aptitude,
fitness,
suitableness, competence; qualification │‫ا‬
‫ ادهليووةاا ق ظاظيووة‬the civil rights; ‫ك موولاادهليووة‬
legally competent; ‫ عوووديماادهليوووة‬legally
incompetent, under tutelage
‫ آهول‬ahil and ‫ موبهال‬ma’hūl inhabited,
populated (region, place)
‫ موووووؤهال‬mu’ahhilāt
abilities, aptitudes
qualifications,
‫ مأبهل‬muta’ahhil married
‫ مسووأبهل‬musta’hil worthy, deserving,
meriting; entitled
‫ اهلووويل‬ihlīlaj myrobalan, emblic (fruit of
Phyllanthus emblica L.; bot.); ellipse
(geom.)
‫ اهليلج‬ihlīlajī elliptic(al)
‫ او‬au or; (with foll. subj.) unless except that
1
(‫ آب )اوب‬āba u (aub, ‫ اوبوة‬auba, ‫ ايو ب‬iyab) to
return; ‫ آب ب‬to catch, contract, suffer,
incur s.th., be in for s.th., be left with, get
one’s share of
‫ مو اكولااوب‬min kulli aubin from all sides
or directions; ‫( م اكلااوباوصاب‬ṣaubin) do.
‫ اوبة‬auba return
‫ ايو ب‬iyāb return │ ‫ ا ه بو اواي بو‬dahāban
wa-iyaban there and back; back and forth,
up and down
‫ مو ب‬ma’āb place to which one returns;
(used as verbal noun:) return │‫ا هواباومو ب‬
coming and going
2
‫ آب‬look up alphabetically
‫ اوبووا‬and ‫( اوبووا‬It. opera) ōpərā opera; opera
house
‫( اوبويت‬Fr.) ōpərēt operetta
‫( او‬Fr. août) August (month; mağr.)
‫( اوتابيس‬Fr. autobus) otobīs autobus, bus
‫( اوتجواا‬Fr.) otogrāf pl. -āt autograph
‫ اوتالواه‬oṯūqrāṯī autocratic
‫( اوتام تيك‬Fr.) otomātīkī automatic
‫( اوتامابيل‬Fr.) otombīl automobile
‫( اوتيل‬Fr.) ōtēl pl. -āt hotel
‫او‬
auj highest point, acme, pinnacle;
culmination, climax; apogee (astron.);
peak (fig.; of power. of fame) 33
‫ آح‬āḥ albumen, eggwhite
O ‫ آحي‬āḥīn albumin
( ‫ آ )او‬āda u (aud) to bend, flex, curve, crook
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to burden, oppress, weigh down
(‫ هوـ‬s.o.); -- ‫ او‬awida a (awad) to bend; to
be bent V to bend; to bow
‫ او‬auda burden, load
‫ او‬awad: ‫ الو مابو و ه‬to provide for s.o.’s needs,
stand by s.o. in time of need; ‫أل و مااو ه‬
(awadahū) do.; to support s.o., furnish s.o.
with the means of subsistence
‫ اوار‬uwār heat, blaze; thirst
‫ اورب‬urubbā Europe
‫ اورب‬urubbī Europesn
‫ اورشليم‬ūrušalīm2 Jerusalem
‫ )ارهووة =( اورهووة‬urṯa pl. ‫ اره‬uraṯ battalion
(formerly, Eg.; mil.)
‫ اورغا‬uruguwāy Uruguay
‫( اوركسأوا‬It.) arkestrā orchestra
‫( اورظيول‬Turk. örnek) urnīk pl. ‫ اراظيول‬arānīk2
sample, specimen; model, pattern; form,
blank
‫ اوروب‬urubbā, ‫ اوروﭙا‬Europe
‫ اوروب‬urubbī Europesn
‫ اوروجاا‬uruguwāy Uruguay
‫ اوز‬II (eg.) to ridicule (‫ علوو‬s.o.), make fun of
s.o. (‫)علو‬
‫ اوز‬iwazz (col1.; n. un.) goose, geese
‫ آس‬ās myrtle; see also alphabetically
‫ اوسأوا ي‬usturāliyā Australia
‫( اوسأوي‬It.) austriyā Austria
‫ اوسلا‬Oslo
‫ اوس و‬ūsṯā see ‫اس و‬
‫ اوشووية‬ūšīya pl. ‫ اواش‬awāšin prayer, oration
(Copt.-Chr.)
‫ آ وة‬āfa pl. -āt harm, hurt, damage, ruin, bane,
evil; epidemic, plague; plant epidemic
‫ مؤوا‬ma’ūf stricken by an epidemic
‫( او وول‬Engl.) ovirōl overalls
l
( ‫ آ )او‬āqa u to bring s.o. (‫ )علوو‬bad luck,
cause discomfort or hardship (‫ علوو‬to) II to
burden (‫ ه‬s.o.) with s.th. unpleasant,
troublesome or difficult
2
‫ اولة‬see ‫الة‬
3
‫ اويقو‬uwaiqāt (dimin. of
good times
‫اويقي ظس‬, ‫اويقي ظاس‬
‫ )اولو‬short times;
oqiyānus, oqiyānūs ocean
‫ اوليوة‬ūqīya pl. -āt ounce, a weight of varying
magnitude (Eg.: 37.44 g; Aleppo 320 g;
Jerusalem 240 g; Beirut 213.3 g)
‫( اوكو زيان‬Fr. occasion) okazyōn clearing sale,
special sale
‫ اوكواظي‬ukrānīya Ukraine
‫( اوكسجي‬Fr. oxygène) oksižēn oxygen
(‫ آل )اول‬āla u (aul, ‫ مو ل‬ma’āl) to return, revert
(‫ ا ووو‬to); to go back, be attributed, be
attributable (‫ ا ووو‬to), spring, derive (‫ا ووو‬
from); to lead, conduce, tend (‫ ا ووو‬to),
result eventually (‫ ا وو‬in); to come or go
eventually (‫ ا وو‬to s.o.), pass into the hands
of (‫ آلاادموواا وو │ )ا وو‬the long and the short
of it was that ... ; ‫( آلابو اا م و ااا وو‬maṯāfu)
he eventually got to the point where ... II
to interpret, explain (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫آل‬
āl family, relatives, kinsfolk, clan;
companions, partisans, people; mirage,
fatamorgana
‫ آ وووة‬āla pl. -āt instrument, utensil; tool;
apparatus; device, implement, appliance;
machine│‫ اآال اا حووس‬ā. al-ḥiss ‫ا‬sensory‫ا‬
organs; ‫( اآ وةاب ريوة‬buḳārīya) steam engine;
‫ آ وووةاا جوووو‬ā. al-jarr tractor; ‫آ وووةاجه ميوووة‬
(jahannamīya) infernal machine; ‫آ وةاحوبيوةا‬
(ḥarbīya) instrument of war; ‫ آ وةاا أحويول‬34
motor, engine; ‫ آ ووووةاح سووووبة‬calculating
machine; ‫ آ ووةاا حي كووة‬a. al-ḥiyāka power
loom; ‫ آ وةاا ي هوة‬sewing machine; ‫آ وةارا يوا‬
radio; ‫ آ ووةارا عووة‬hoisting machine, crane,
derrick; pump; ‫ آ ووةاا أس و ي‬and ‫آ ووةامس و ة‬
(musaḳḳina)
heater;
‫آ وووووووةاا أصوووووووايو‬
(photographic) camera; ‫ آ وةاا ب عوة‬printing
press; ‫ آ وةاا غسول‬a. al-gasl washing machine;
‫ آ ووةاا أفووويخ‬incubator; ‫ آ ووةااالسووأقب ل‬receiver,
receiving set (radio); ‫( آ وةامق وو‬muqaṯṯira)
distilling apparatus, still; ‫ آ وةاا كأ بوة‬and ‫آ وةا‬
‫ ك تبووة‬typewriter; ‫ آ ووةا عووباا قمو ر‬a. la‘b alqimār slot machine; ‫( آ وةاماسويقية‬mūsīqīya)
musical instrument; ‫ آ ووةاا أ بيو‬alarm; siren
horn (of an automobile); ‫( آ ةاصوم‬ṣammā’)
(fig.) tool, creature, puppet
‫ آ ووووو‬ālī mechanic(al); mechanized;
motorized; instrumental; organic│ ‫محوواثا‬
‫( آ ووو‬miḥrat) motor plow; ‫ا قووواا ااب يوووة‬
(quwāt) motorized troops; ‫حوكووووةاآ يووووة‬
(ḥaraka) a mechanical movement
‫ آ ية‬ālīya mechanics
‫ آالتوو‬ālātī pl. ‫ آالتيوة‬ālātīya (eg.) musician;
singer
‫ اول‬awwal2, f. ‫ او وو‬ūlā, pl. m. -ūn, ‫اوائول‬
awā’il2 first; foremost, most important,
principal, chief, main; first part,
beginning; (with def. article also) earlier,
previous, former; see a1so under ‫ا│و وو‬
‫( االظسو نااالول‬insān) primitive man; ‫هبيوبااول‬
physician-in-chief; ‫االوائوووول‬, ‫ االو ووووان‬the
forebears, forefathers, ancestors; ‫اوائلاا شوهو‬
a. aš-šahr the first ten days of a month,
beginning of a month; ‫ الولاموو‬li-awwali
marratin or ‫ لمو ااالو و‬for the first time; ‫م ا‬
‫او و‬, ‫ مو ااوائلو‬since its beginnings, from the
very beginning; ‫( م و ااو و اا ووواآ وووه‬āḳirihī)
from beginning to end, from A to Z; ‫اولا‬
‫ االموووو‬awwala l-amr at first, in the
beginning; ‫ االولا و الول‬each time the first
available; ‫( اولام و‬awwala) the moment
when, just when; at the very outset of; ‫اكثوا‬
‫( م ااالول‬aḳtara) more than before
‫ اوال‬awwalan first, firstly, in the first
place; at first, in the beginning│‫ااوالابو ول‬
and ‫ اوالا وبوال‬by and by, gradually, one after
the other, one by one; ‫ اوالاوا يووا‬and ‫اوالا‬
‫( وآ ووا‬āḳiran) first and I~st, altogether;
simply and solely, merely
‫ او وو‬awwalī prime, primary, primordial,
original,
initial,
first;
elemental,
fundamental, basic, principal, chief, main;
elementary; primitive, pristine, primeval│‫ا‬
‫( مدرسوةااو يووة‬madrasa) elementary school,
grade school; ‫( موواا ااو يووة‬mawādd) raw
materials; ‫‘( عود ااو وو‬adad) prime number;
‫( تار ااو ية‬fātūra) pro forma invoice
‫ آظلا‬ānadāka that day, at that time, then
‫ اون‬aun calmness, serenity, gentleness
‫ اوان‬awān pl. ‫ آوظوة‬āwina time│ ‫البولااواظو‬
prematurely; ‫ و ااواظ و‬at the right time,
timely, seasonably, ‫ وو اغيوووااواظوو‬at the
wrong time, untimely, unseasonably; ‫بوي ا‬
‫ ابوظوة‬from time to time; ‫بوي اابوظوةاواال ووى‬
(uḳrā) and ‫( آوظوةاوأ ووى‬āwinatan, uḳrā) at
times, sometimes; ‫ آوظوةا–اوأ ووى‬sometimes
– sometimes, at times – at times; ‫و ااالوان‬
(fāta) it is too late; ‫( آنااالوان‬āna) the time
has come, it is time (‫ ل‬for, to do s.th.)
‫ او يوة‬awwalīya pl. -āt fundamental truth,
axiom; primary constituent, essential
component, element; precedence; priority
‫ ايل‬ayyil, iyyal, uyyal pl. ‫ اي ئل‬ayā’il2 stag
‫ اي ة‬iyāla pl. -āt province; regency
2
‫ ايلا ة‬ailūla title deed (jur.)
‫ اوظب شو‬onbašī corporal, see ‫اظب شو‬
‫ م و ل‬ma’āl end; outcome, final issue,
upshot; result, consequence│‫ا و اا حو لاو و ا‬
‫ ا م ل‬at present and in the future
‫ تبويووول‬ta’wīl
explanation
pl.
-āt
(‫ آه )اوه‬āha u and II to moan, sigh V to moan,
sigh; to sigh with admiration (‫ ل‬over),
exclaim “ah!”
‫ اوه‬awwah (interj.) oh!
interpretation,
‫ آه‬āhi, ‫اآهـ‬āhan, ‫ اواه‬awwāhi oh!
‫ اوال‬ulā’i, ‫او ئوول‬, ‫ اوالئوول‬ulā’ika these;
those, pl. of the demonstr. pron. ‫ ا‬and ‫ل‬
‫ آهوة‬āha pl. -āt sigh, moan; pl. ‫ آهو‬sighs
of admiration; rapturous exclamations
‫ او مبووووو‬olimbī Olympic│‫ااال عوووو بااالو مبيووووة‬the
Olympic games
‫ تووووبوه‬ta’awwuh moaning. sighing;
admiring exclamation; plaintive sound,
wail
‫ او مبي‬olimbiyād Olympiad
‫ او وا‬ulū (pl. of ‫ ) و‬owners, possessors, people
(with foll.genit.: of)│‫ااو وواااالمووو‬u. l-amr
rulers, powerful leaders; ‫ او ااا حولاوا عقود‬u. lḥall wa-l-'aqd (lit.: masters of solving and
binding) do.; ‫ او وووااا شوووبن‬u. š-ša’n the
responsible people
1
‫ اوام‬uwām thirst
2
‫ اوم‬ohm (el.) 35
‫ اوم يباس‬omnībūs omnibus, bus
1
‫ آن‬ān time; ‫ ابن‬al-āna now│‫ ا وواآن‬and ‫وواآنا‬
‫ واحود‬at the same time, simultaneously; ‫مو ا‬
‫( آناا وواآ وو‬āḳara) from time to time; ‫مو ابوي ا‬
‫( آناوآ و‬wa-āḳara) and ‫ آظو ابعوداآن‬sometimes,
at times, now and then: once in a while; ‫آظو ا‬
‫ ظو‬gradually, by and by, little by little; -‫آظو ا‬
‫اوآوظووووووة‬(āwinatan)
sometimes
-sometimes, at times -- at times; ‫لبوولاابن‬
qabla l-āna before, previously, formerly;
‫ وآن‬li-l-āna and ‫ حأوواابن‬ḥattā l-āna until
now, hitherto, so far; ‫ بعوداابن‬ba‘da l-āna
from now on, henceforth, in the future; ‫مو ا‬
‫ ابنا ص عدا‬min al-āna fa-ṣā‘idan do.
‫ آظئل‬āna’idin that day, at that time, then
‫ااياان‬look up alphabetically
‫ اوى‬awā i to seek refuge, seek shelter (‫ ا وو‬at a
place); to go (‫ ا وو‬to bed); to betake o.s.,
repair (‫ ا وو‬to a place); to shelter, house,
put up, lodge, accommodate, receive as a
guest (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.) II to shelter, lodge,
put up, accommodate, receive as a guest (‫ه‬
s.o.) IV to seek shelter (‫ ا وو‬at a place), to
retire (‫ ا وو‬to a place); to betake o.s., repair
(‫ ا وو‬to a place); to shelter, house, put up,
lodge, accommodate (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ ايووواا‬īwā’ accommodation, lodging,
housing, sheltering
‫ موبوى‬ma’wan pl. ‫ مو و‬ma’āwin place of
refuge, retreat, shelter; abode; resting
place; dwelling, habitation│‫امووووبوىا يلووووو‬
(lailī) shelter for the night; doss house
‫ ابو اآوى‬ibn āwā pl. ‫ ب و اآوى‬banāt a.
jackal
1
‫ آيوة‬āya, coll. ‫ آ‬āy, pl. -āt sign, token, mark;
miracle; wonder, marvel, prodigy; model,
exemplar, paragon, masterpiece (‫ ووو‬of,
e.g., of organization, etc.); Koranic verse,
‫( آ اا ولكواا حكويم‬āy ad-dikr) the verses of the
Koran; passage (in a book), utterance,
saying, word; ‫( آيو‬with foll. genit.) moat
solemn assurances (of love, of gratitude)
2
‫ اى‬ay that is (to say), i.e.; namely, to wit
3
‫ اى‬ī yes (with foll.
God!)
4
‫ و‬yes indeed! Yes, by
‫ اى‬ayy, f. ‫ ايوة‬ayya (with foll. genit. or suffix)
which? what? what kind of? Whoever,
whosoever; any, every, no matter what ... ;
(with neg.) no; ‫ ايم و‬ayyumā whatever,
whatsoever│‫ايووةاك ظووت‬, ‫ ايو اك و ن‬ayyan kāna,
ayyatan kānat whoever he (or she) is, no
matter who he (or she) is; ‫ ا امو اكو ن‬ayyu
man kāna whoever it may be, whosoever;
‫( علوواا احو ل‬ayyi ḥālin) in any case, at any
36 rate, at all events, by all means; ‫اىاواحود‬
ayyu wāḥidin any one; ‫ انا اشبظ ااىاشوبن‬inna
lahū ša’nan ayya ša’nin it is of the
greatest importance (lit.: it is of
importance, and of what importance!);
‫ اعجووبابووو اايمووو ااعجووو ب‬u‘jiba bihi ayyama
i‘jābin how much he admired him! he
admired him greatly; ‫البووولاعليووو اايمووو االبووو ل‬
aqbala ‘alaihi ayyama iqbālin he showed
the greatest interest in it
‫ ايو ا‬iyyā with nominal suffix to express the
accusative│‫ ايو اان‬take care not to ..., be
careful not to ...; ‫اي ام‬, ‫ اي او‬beware of ...
! ‫( وايو‬dial. wayyāk), ‫( وايو ه‬wayyāh) with
you, with him
‫( ايوي ل‬Engl.) ēriyāl aerial, antenna
‫ ايزيس‬īzīs Isis
‫ ايس‬ayisa a (‫ اي س‬iyās) to despair ( ‫ م‬of s.th.)
‫ اي س‬iyās despair
‫( ايشوب‬Fr. écharp,) sash
(
‫ اي و‬aiḍan also, too, as well, likewise,
equally; again; in addition, besides,
moreover
‫ اي ي‬īṯālīyā Italy
‫ اي و‬īṯālī Italian; (pl. -ūn) an Italian
‫( ايقاظوة‬Gr. είκών) īqūna and ‫ ايقاظيوة‬īqūnīya pl. āt icon (Chr.)
‫ ايل‬aik (coll.; n. un. ) thicket, jungle
1
‫ اايل‬and ‫ اي ة‬see ‫اول‬
2
‫ اايلال‬ailūl2 September (Syr., Leb., Ir., Jord.)
3
‫ اايلا ة‬ailūla title deed (jur.)
(‫ آم )ايوم‬āma i: ‫( آمامو ازوجأو‬zaujatihī) to lose
one's wife, become or be a widower, ‫آموتا‬
‫( مو ازوجهو‬zaujiha) to lose one’s husband,
become or be a widow
‫ ايموة‬aima, ‫ ايوام‬uyūm and ‫ توبيم‬ta’ayyum
widowhood
‫ ايوم‬ayyim pl. ‫ ايو ئم‬ayā’im2, ‫ ايو مو‬ayāmā
widower, widow
‫ اي ر‬see 2‫ايو‬
‫ ايود‬II to back, support (‫ه‬, s.o., ‫ هوـ‬a claim, an
aspiration, etc.); to confirm, corroborate,
endorse (‫ هوـ‬news, a. judgment, etc.) V =
pass. of II
‫ تبييود‬ta’yīd corroboration, confirmation,
endorsement, backing, support
‫( ايدروجي‬Fr. Hydrogène) idrožēn hydrogen
‫ ايام‬aiwam2 see ‫يام‬
‫ ايم‬ayyumā see 4 ‫ ا‬ayy
1
‫ ايو‬air pl. ‫ ايار‬uyūr penis
2
‫ اي ر‬ayyār2 May (Syr., Leb., Ir., Jord.)
( ‫ آن )ايو‬āna i to come, approach, draw near
(time)│‫( اآنااالوان‬awān) the time has
come: ‫ آنا اان‬it’s time for him to ...
‫ آن‬see ‫اون‬
‫ ايو‬aina where? (= at or to what place?)│‫امو ا‬
‫ اي‬min aina where … from? ‫ ا وواايو‬where?
(= to what place?) ‫ ايو اظحو امو‬how far we
still are from … worlds separate us from
... (fig.); ‫ ايووو اهووولاامووو ا ا‬what is this
compared with that! 37
‫( ل بلةاايدروجي ية‬qunbula) hydrogen bomb
1
‫ آ )اي‬āḍa i to return, revert (‫ ا و‬to s.th.); to
become (‫ ا و‬s.th.)
‫ ايوان‬īrān Iran, Persia
‫ االي‬al-ainu the where; space (philos.)
‫ ايواظوو‬īrānī Iranian, Persian; (pl. -ūn) a Persian,
an Iranian
‫ اي م‬ainamā wherever
‫ ايو دا‬irlandā Ireland
‫ اي ن‬ayyāna when? (conj.) when
‫ ايو دى‬irlandī Irish; (pl. -ūn) Irishman
2
‫ااي‬II to ionize (‫ هـ‬s.th.) V to be ionized (el.)
‫ ايان‬iyōn pl. -āt ion
‫ تبيي‬ta’yīn ionization
1
‫ابببب‬ba’ba’a to say “papa” (child)
2
‫ بؤبوؤ‬bu’bu’ root, source, origin; core, heart,
inmost part; pupil of the eye, also ‫بؤبوؤا عوي‬
b. al-‘ain
‫ مأبي‬muta’ayyin ionized
‫ ايو‬īhi, īha, īhin (interj.) well! now then! All
right!
‫ ب بل‬bābil2 Babel, Babylon
‫ ب بلو‬bābilī Babylonian
‫ ايه و‬ayyuhā, with fem. also ‫ ايأه و‬ayyatuhā
(vocative particle) O ... !
‫ ب بو‬bābih the second month of the Coptic
calendar
‫ اياب‬ayyūb2 Job
‫ ب با‬bābūj pl. ‫ بااب‬bawābij2 slipper
‫ االيابيان‬al-ayyūbīyūn the Ayubites
‫ بو بار‬bābūr pl. -āt, ‫ ب واابيو‬bawābīr2 (=‫)وابووار‬
locomotive, engine; steamship, steamer
‫ ايام‬aiwam2 see ‫يام‬
1
‫اايان‬see 2 ‫اي‬
2
‫ اايواان‬īwān pl. -āt recess-like sitting room with
a raised floor, usually opening on the main
room or courtyard through an arcade;
estrade
1
‫ ب‬abbreviation of ‫ ب ب‬chapter
1
‫ ب‬bi (prep.) in, at, on (place and time); with
(indicating
connection,
association,
attendance); with, through, by means of
(designating instrumentality or agency,
also with pass. = by); for (= at the price
of); by (= to the amount of); by
(introducing an oath)│‫ ب ليول‬bi-l-lail at (by)
night, ‫ ب هوووو ر‬bi-n-nahār during the
daytime, by day; ‫ شوم الابشوو‬šamālan bišarqin northeast; ‫ به و اوظعمووت‬fa-bihā wani’mat in that case it’s all right; ‫ ويسابو اان‬it
is not my intention to ... ; ‫ هولاابولا‬hādā bidāka now we are even, we are quits; ‫لبولا‬
‫( مجيئو ابسو عة‬majī’ihī) an hour before his
arrival; ‫“ ب‬with” frequently gives
causative meaning to a verb, e.g., ‫ظهو ا‬
‫( بشو‬lit.: to rise with s.t‫ا‬., i.e.) to boost,
further, promote s.th.; ‫ بلو ابو اا وو‬to cause
s.o. to arrive at, lead s.o. to; for its use as
copula after negations, etc., see grammar;
‫ بوال‬bi-lā without; ‫ بمو اان‬bi-mā anna in view
of the fact that; since, as, inasmuch as,
because; ‫ بم ا ي‬bi-mā fīhi including
‫ ب‬bā’ name of the letter ‫ب‬
‫ ب ثا اجو‬batōlōjī pathologic(al)
‫ ب ثا اجي‬batōlōjiyā pathology
1
‫ ب ر‬bār pl. -āt bar; taproom
2
‫ ببر‬ba’ara a to dig a well
‫ بئوو‬bi'r f., pl. ‫ آبو ر‬ābār, ‫ بئو ر‬bi’ār well,
spring
‫ بووؤر‬bu’ra pl. ‫ بووؤر‬bu’ar center, seat
(fig.); site; pit; abyss
‫( ب راشا‬Fr. parachute) bārāšūt parachute
‫ ب راغااى‬bārāguwāy Paraguay
‫ ب رباظ‬see ‫بوباظو‬
‫( ب ركي‬Fr.) barkēh parquet, parquetry floor
‫ ب رظ م‬see ‫بوظ م‬
‫ ب ر‬bāra pl. -āt para (coin)
‫ ب رو‬bārūd saltpeter; gunpowder
‫ بو رو‬bārūda pl. ‫ بااريود‬bawārīd2 rifle,
carbine
‫ ب ريس‬bārīs2 Paris
‫ ب ريسو‬bārīsī Parisian
‫ بو ز‬bāz pl. ‫ بيوزان‬bīzān and ‫ بوبز‬ba’z pl. ‫بوؤوز‬
bu’ūz, ‫ بئزان‬bi’zān falcon
‫ ب زار‬bāzār pl. –āt bazaar
‫ ب بو وا‬pope; papa,
‫ ب باى‬bābawī, ‫ ب ب وى‬papal
‫ ب باية‬bābawīya papacy
‫ ب تسأ‬bati.ta batiste
‫ ب ظجو ن‬bādijān and ‫ بيولظج ن‬baidinjān (coll.; n.
un. pl. -āt eggplant, aubergine 38
‫ب‬
‫ ب بو‬bābā pl. ‫ بو باا‬bābawāt,
father, daddy
‫ ب باظ‬bābūnaj camomile (bot.)
‫ ب ز ت‬bāzalt basalt
‫ ب زوب د‬bāzūband bracelet
‫ بوؤس‬ba’usa u (‫ بوبس‬ba’s) to be strong, brave,
intrepid; -- ‫ بوئس‬ba’isa a (‫ بوؤس‬bu’s) to be
miserable, wretched VI to feign misery or
distress VIII to be sad, worried, grieved
‫ بووئساا وجوول‬bi’sa r-rajulu what an evil
man!
‫ ب وبس‬ba’s strength, fortitude, courage,
intrepidity (as verbal noun of ‫ بوؤس‬ba’usa);
harm, hurt, injury, impairment, detriment,
wrong│‫اشووووووديداا بووووووبس‬courageous,
brave,
intrepid; ‫( الابوووبس‬ba’sa) there is no
objection to it; unobjectionable; not bad,
rather important, considerable, e.g., ‫كميو ا‬
‫الابوووووبسابهوووووو‬
(kammīyāt)
considerable
quantities; ‫( الابووبس‬ba'sa) never mind! it
doesn't matter! it's all right! ‫ الابووبساان‬it
doesn't matter that ... ; ‫ اىابووبس‬ayyu
ba'sin? what does it matter! what of it! ‫يسا‬
‫( عليو ابوبسامو‬ba’sun) he will be none the
worse for ... ; ‫( الاببساعليل‬ba’sa) it won't do
you any harm! don't worry! don't be afraid
‫ ب وووو ابوووووئس‬banātu bi's calamities,
adversities, misfortunes
‫ بوئس‬bu’s, ‫ ببسو‬ba’sā’, ‫ بوؤس‬bu’ūs and
‫ بؤسوووو‬bu’sā pl. ‫ ابوووؤس‬ab’us misery,
wretchedness, suffering, distress
‫ بئويس‬ba’īs pl. ‫ بؤسو‬bu’asā’2 miserable,
wretched
‫ ب ئس‬bā’is miserable, wretched
‫( ب سأيل‬Fr.) bastē1 pastel
‫ ب سل‬bāsīl bacilli
‫ ب ش‬bāš senior, chief (in compounds)
‫ ب شوج ويش‬bašcāwīš and ‫ ب شوج ويش‬approx.:
master sergeant (formerly, Eg.)
‫ ب شحكيم‬bāšḥakīm physician-in-chief
‫ ب شوويش‬bāšrayyis a naval rank, approx.:
petty officer 3rd class (Eg.)
‫ ب شك تب‬bāškātib chief clerk
‫ ب شمفأو‬bāšmuftī chief mufti (Tun.)
‫ ب شمفأش‬bāamšmufattiš chief inspector
‫ ب شمه دس‬bāšmuhandis chief engineer
‫ ب ش‬bāšā pl. ‫ ب شاا‬bāšawāt ( ‫ )ب ش وا‬pasha
‫ ب شوق‬bāšaq, bāšiq pl. ‫ بااشوق‬bawāšiq2 sparrow
hawk
‫ ا ب شقو‬al-bāšqird the Bashkirs
‫ ب شكيو‬see ‫بشكيو‬
‫( ب ص‬Engl.) bāṣ pl. -āt bus, autobus
‫ ب هان‬bātūn concrete, béton 39
‫ ب غة‬bāgā celluloid; tortoise shell
‫ ا ب كسأ ن‬al-bākistān Pakistan
‫ ب كسأ ظو‬bākistānī Pakistani (adj. and n.)
1
‫ ب ل‬bāl whale (zool.)
2
‫ ب ة‬bala pl. -āt bundle, bale
‫ا‬
‫ بو‬balṯō pl. ‫ بو اا‬balṯowāt,
overcoat; paletot
‫ بالهو‬balātī
‫( ب ا‬It. ballo ball, dance
‫ ب ان‬bālūn) balloon
‫ جزراا ب ي ر‬juzur al-bāliyār the Balearic Islands
‫( ب ي‬Fr.) bālēh ballet
‫ ب ميو‬and ‫ ب ميوة‬bāmiya gumbo, okra (Hibiscus
esculentus L., bot., a popular vegetable in
Egypt)
‫ ب ن‬see ‫بان‬
‫ ش شووةاب ظاراميوة‬šāša bānōrāmīya (= Fr. écran
panoramique) cinemascope screen
‫ بؤوظوة‬ba’ūna the tenth month of the Coptic
calendar
‫ بو ى‬bāy, f. ‫ ب يوة‬bāya pl. -āt formerly, in Tunisia,
a title after the names of the members of
the Bey's family
‫ اراا بووو ى‬dār al-bāy (formerly)
Tunisian government
the
‫ ببو‬babr pl. ‫ ببار‬bubūr tiger
‫ ببغووو‬babgā2 (and babbayā’2) pl.
babgāwāt parrot
‫ببغووو وا‬
‫ بوت‬batta u i (batt) to cut off, sever (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
complete, finish, achieve, accomplish,
carry out (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to fix, settle, determine
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.), decide (‫ هوـ‬s.th., ‫ وو‬on s.th.) II to
adjudge, adjudicate, award (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) VII to
be cut off; to be finished, be done; to be
decided│‫ لودااظبوتااالمووابي و اوبيو هم‬it's all over
between him and them, they are through
with each other
‫ بوت‬batt settlement, decision; ‫ بأو‬battan
definitely, once and for all
‫ بأووة‬batta pl. -āt adjudication, award;
final decision; ‫ ا بأووة‬al-battata and ‫بأوووة‬
battatan definitely, positively, decidedly,
esp. with negations: absolutely not,
definitely not
‫ بأو‬battī definite, definitive
‫ بأية‬battiya, bittīya pl. ‫ بأو تو‬batātīy barrel;
tub
‫ بأ توووو‬batātan decidedly, definitely,
positively, categorically, unquestionably,
absolutely
‫ تبأيت‬tabtīt adjudication, award
‫ بووو‬bātt definite, definitive│ ‫م ووواابووو‬
(man‘) categorical interdiction
1
‫ بأوو‬batara u (batr) to cut off, sever (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
to amputate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to mutilate, render
fragmentarily (‫ هوـ‬a text) VII to be cut off,
be severed, be amputated
‫ بأووووو‬batr cutting
separation; amputation
off,
severance,
‫ ابأووو‬abtar2 curtailed, docked, clipped,
trimmed;
imperfect,
defective,
incomplete; without offspring
‫ بأ ر‬battār cutting, sharp
‫ ب تو‬bātir cutting, sharp
‫مبأووووووار‬
mabtūr
broken,
abrupt,
unconnected; fragmentary, incomplete
2
2
2
‫ بأووا‬bitrā’ , batrā’ Petra (ancient city of
Edomites and Nabataeans; ruins now in
SW Jordan)
‫ بأو‬batrak patriarch
‫ بأوول‬batrūl, bitrōl petroleum
2
‫ ابأ وا‬abta‘ an assonant intensifier of ‫اجمووا‬
ajma‘2 all, altogether, whole, entire
‫ ب تا‬bāti‘ strong; full, whole, entire 40
‫ بأل‬II to cut off (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
1
‫ ابأل‬batala i u (batl) and II to cut off, sever (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to make final, close, settle, make
conclusive, clinch (‫ هووـ‬s.th.) V to retire
from the world and devote one's life to
God ( ‫ ;)ا ووا‬to be pious, chaste and selfdenying; to live in chastity VII to be cut
off, be curtailed, be docked
‫ بأال‬batūl virgin; ‫ ا بأال‬the Virgin Mary
‫ بأا‬batūlī virginal
‫ بأا ية‬batūlīya virginity
‫ مأبأول‬mutabattil an ascetic, a. recluse; a
pious, godly man
2
‫ بأاال‬batūlā birch tree
‫ بوث‬batta (batt) to spread, unroll, unfold (‫هوـ‬
s.th., e.g., a rug); to scatter, disperse (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to disseminate, propagate, spread (‫هـ‬
s.th., e.g., a spirit, an ideology, a
doctrine); to sprinkle (‫ هوـ هوـ‬s.th. on); to let
s.o. (‫ه‬, also ‫ )ل‬in on s.th. (‫هوـ‬, esp. on a
secret); to broadcast, transmit by radio │
‫ بوثاا عيوان‬to peer around; ‫ بوثااد غو م‬to plant,
or lay, mines IV to let (‫ ه‬s.o.) in on a
secret (‫ )هـ‬VII to be spread; to be scattered
‫ بووث‬batta spreading, dissemina.tion,
propagation; grief, sorrow
‫ بثوو‬batara i (batira a) and V to break out with
pimples or pustules (skin)
‫ بثوو‬batr pl. ‫ بثوار‬butūr (n. un. ‫ بثوو‬batra
pl. batarāt) pimples, pustules
‫ بثو‬batir, ‫ بثيو‬batīr pustulate, pimpled
‫ بثوق‬bataqa i u (with ‫ ا هوو‬an-nahra) to open
flood gates so that the river will overflow
its banks VII to break forth, burst out, well
out, pour out, gush out; to emanate,
proceed, spring ( ‫ م‬or ‫ ع‬from)
‫ اظبثو‬outpouring, effusion, outpour, outburst;
emanation
‫ بجوا‬bajiḥa a (bajaḥ) to rejoice (‫ ب‬at) V to
vaunt, flaunt (‫ ب‬s.th.), boast, brag (‫ ب‬of)
‫ تبجا‬tabajjuj bragging, braggery
‫ مأبجا‬mutabajjij braggart
‫ بجود‬bajda, bujda root, source. heart, essence,
basis│‫ بجود اادموو‬the heart of the matter,
the actual state of affairs, the true facts; ‫هاا‬
‫( ابو ابجودته‬ibn bujdatihā) he knows the job
from the ground up, he is the right man for
it
‫ ابجو‬abiar2 obese, corpulent
‫ بجوس‬bajasa u i (bajs) and II to open a passage
(for the water), cause (the water) to flow
V and VII to flow freely, pour forth
copiously, gush out
‫ بجووس‬bajs, ‫ بجوويس‬bajīs flowing freely,
streaming
‫ بجا‬baja‘ (n. un. ) pelican
‫ بجول‬II to honor, revere, venerate, treat with
deference (‫ ه‬s.o.), show respect (‫ هـ‬to s.o.);
to give precedence (‫ هوـ علوو‬or ‫ ه‬to s.o. or
s.th. over) V to be honored, be revered, be
venerated
‫ بجل‬bajal syphilis (ir.)
‫ تبجيوووول‬tabjīl veneration,
deference, respect
reverence;
‫ مبجوووول‬mubajjal
venerable
respected;
revered,
‫ بح ثة‬baḥḥāta eminent scholar
‫ مبحوث‬mabḥāt pl. ‫ مب حوث‬mabāḥit subject,
theme, field of investigation or discussion,
object of research; research, study,
examination; investigation
‫ بجووم‬bajama i (bajm, ‫ بجووام‬bujūm) to be
speechless, dumfounded
‫ مب حثووة‬mubāḥata pl. -āt negotiation,
parley, conference, talk, discussion
‫ بج‬II to clinch (‫ هـ‬a nail)
‫ با‬baḥḥa a (baḥḥ, ‫ بحا‬baḥaḥ, ‫ بحاح‬buḥūḥ, ‫بحو ح‬
baḥāḥ, ‫ بحاحة‬buḥūḥa, ‫ ابح حوة‬baḥāḥa) to be
or become hoarse, be raucous, husky,
harsh (voice) II and IV to make hoarse (‫ه‬
s.o.)
‫ ب حووث‬bāḥit pl. -ūn and ‫ بح و ث‬buḥḥāt
scholar, research worker; examiner,
investigator
‫ بحة‬buḥḥa hoarseness
‫ بحثوو‬baḥtara to disperse, scatter (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
waste, squander, dissipate (‫ هووـ‬s.th.) II
tabaḥtara pass. of I
‫ ابا‬abaḥḥ2 hoarse
‫ بحثو‬baḥtara waste, dissipation
‫ مبحاح‬mabḥūḥ hoarse 41
‫ مبحثو‬mubaḥtir squanderer, wastrel, spendthrift
‫ بحوبا‬II tabaḥbaḥa to be prosperous, live in
easy circumstances; to enjoy o.s. have a
good time
‫ بحباح‬baḥbūḥ gay, merry
‫ بحباحوة‬buḥbūḥa middle; life of ease and
comfort, prosperity, affluence│‫ا و ابحباحووة‬
amidst
‫ امبحبا‬mubaḥbaḥ well-to-do, prosperous;
enjoying an easy, comfortable life
‫ بحوت‬baḥt pure, unmixed, sheer; exclusive, also
‫بحأوو ;بحووتاادمووو‬
baḥan merely, solely,
purely, exclusively, nothing but ...
‫ بحأو‬buḥtur stocky, pudgy, thickset
‫ بحأو‬buḥturī stocky, pudgy, thickset
‫ بحوث‬baḥata a (baḥt) to look, search (‫ هوـ‬or ‫عو‬
for s.th.), seek (‫ هووـ‬or ‫ عو‬s.th.); to do
research; to investigate, examine, study,
explore (‫ هوـ‬or ‫ عو‬s.th., less frequently with
‫ و‬or ‫)علوو‬, look into (‫ هوـ‬or ‫ ;)عو‬to discuss
(‫ هوـ‬a subject, a question) III to discuss (‫ه‬
with s.o., ‫ و‬a question) VI to have a
discussion, discuss together; to confer,
have a talk (‫ ما‬with s.o., about)
‫ بحوث‬baḥt pl. ‫ بحواث‬buḥūt, ‫بحاثو‬, ‫ ابحو ث‬abḥāt
search ( ‫ عوووو‬for), quest ( ‫ عوووو‬of);
examination,
study;
research;
investigation, exploration; discussion;
treatise; (pl. ‫ )ابحو ث‬study, scientific report
( on)
‫ بح ث‬baḥḥāt scholar, research worker
1
‫ بحوو‬baḥira a to be startled, be bewildered
(with fright)
1
‫ بحوو‬II to travel by sea, make a voyage IV do.;
to embark, go on board; to put to sea, set
sail, sail, depart (ship); to go downstream,
be sea-bound (ship on the Nile) V to
penetrate deeply, delve ( ‫ و‬into); to study
thoroughly ( a subject) X = V
‫ بحووو‬baḥr pl. ‫ بحو ر‬biḥār, ‫بحووار‬, buḥūr, ‫ابح و ر‬
abḥār, ‫ ابحوو‬abḥur sea; large river; a noble.,
or great, man (whose magnanimity or
knowledge is comparable to the vastness
of the sea); meter (poet.) │‫ ا و ابحوو‬in the
course of, during, ‫( ابحواسو أي‬sanatain) in
the course of two years, within two years;
‫( ا بحوواادبوي اا مأاسوط‬abyaḍ, mutawassiṯ) the
Mediterranean (sometimes shortened to
‫ بحووواا بل يووق ;)ا بحووواادبووي‬b. al-balṯīq the
Baltic Sea; ‫ بحواا ج واب‬b. al-janūb the South
Seas; ‫ ا بحواادحمو‬the Red Sea (also ‫بحواا قلوزم‬
b. al-qulzum); ‫ بحووواا قووزر‬b. al-ḳazar the
Caspian Sea (also ‫ بحواا وووم ;)ا بحواا كسبي ت‬b.
ar-rūm the Mediterranean; ‫ا بحوووواادسوووا‬
(aswad) the Black Sea; ‫ بحوواا رلمو‬b. aẓẓulumāt the ‫هـ‬tlantic; ‫ بحوا اه‬b. lūṯ and ‫ا بحوا‬
‫( ا ميوت‬mayyit) the Dead Sea; ‫( بحوواا يول‬eg.)
the Nile
‫ ا بحوي‬al-baḥrain the Bahrein Islands
‫ بحواظو‬baḥrānī of the Bahrein Islands;
‫ ا بح رظوة‬al-baḥārina the inhabitants of the
Bahrein Islands
‫ بحوو‬baḥrī sea (adj.), marine; maritime;
nautical; naval; navigational; (in Eg.)
northern, baḥrīya (with foll. genit.) north
42 of; (pl. -ūn, ) sailor, seaman,
mariner│‫بحوووو امووو هو‬
approx.: seaman
apprentice (Eg.); ‫( ا قواا اا بحويوةا‬qūwāt) the
naval forces; ‫( ظب تو ابحويوة‬nabātāt) marine
flora, water plants
‫ ب وار‬baḳūr incense; frankincense│‫اب وارا‬
‫ مويم‬b. maryam cyclamen (bot.)
‫ اب و‬abḳar2 suffering from halitosis
‫ مب وو‬mabḳara pl. ‫ مبو و‬mabāḳir2 (also āt) censer; thurible; fumigator
‫ بحوية‬baḥrīya navy
‫ تب يو‬tabḳīr fumigation
‫ بحو‬baḥra pond, pool
‫ تب و‬tabaḳḳur evaporation, vaporization
‫ بحوو ر‬baḥḥār pl. -ūn, ‫ بحوو ر‬baḥḥāra
seaman, mariner, sailor; pl. ‫ بحو ر‬crew (of a
ship, of an airplane)
2
‫ بحيوو‬buḥaira pl. -āt, ‫ بحو ئو‬baḥā’ir lake;
(tun.)'vegetable garden, truck garden
‫ بو و‬balfira pl. ‫ بواا و‬bawāḳir2 steamer,
steamship
‫ باي و‬buwaiḳira small steamboat
‫ بحوووان‬buḥrān crisis (of an illness);
climax, culmination (also, e.g., of ecstasy)
‫ ب وس‬baḳasa a (baks) to decrease, diminish,
reduce (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to lessen (e.g., ‫ليمأوو‬
qīmatahū the value of s.th.); to disregard,
neglect, fail to heed (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ تبحوو‬tabaḥḥur deep penetration, delving
( into a subject), thorough study ( of)
‫ ب وس‬baḳs too little, too low; very low
(price)
‫ مأبحووو‬mutabaḥḥir thoroughly familiar
( ‫ و‬with); profound, erudite, searching,
penetrating
‫ بوووو س‬baḳis
unimportant
‫ بحلق‬baḥlaqa: ‫‘( بحلقاعي ي‬ainaihi) to stare, gaze
( at)
small,
little,
trifling,
‫ ب شيش‬baḳšīš pl. ‫ ب شيش‬baḳāšīš 2 tip, gratuity
‫ ب ا‬baḳa‘a a (baḳ‘) with ‫ ظفسو‬: to kill o.s. (with
grief, anger, rage)
1
‫ بخابخ‬baḳ baḳ excellent! well done! Bravo!
‫ اب ق‬abḳaq2 f. ‫ ب ق‬baḳqā’2 one-eyed
2
‫ بوخ‬baḳḳa u (baḳḳ) to snore; to spout, spurt,
squirt (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to sprinkle, splatter (‫هوـ ب‬
s.th. with)
‫ ب ول‬baḳila a (baḳal), baḳula u (buḳl) to be
niggardly, be stingy (‫ ب‬with s.th., ‫ عو‬or
‫ علوو‬with regard to s.o.), scrimp ( ‫عو‬, ‫علوو‬
s.o., ‫ ب‬for), stint (‫ ب‬in, ‫ عو‬or ‫ علوو‬s.o.),
withhold ( ‫عو‬, ‫ علوو‬from s.o., ‫ ب‬s.th.) VI to
give reluctantly, grudgingly ( ‫عو‬, ‫ علووو‬to
s.o., y s.th.)
‫ة‬
‫ ب‬baḳḳāḳa nozzle
‫ ب ي ة‬buḳḳēḳa squirt, syringe
‫ مب ة‬mibaḳḳa nozzle
‫ ب وت‬baḳt luck; a kind of lottery│‫الليوولاا ب وت‬
unIucky; ‫ سا اا ب ت‬bad luck
‫ ب يت‬baḳīt lucky, fortunate
‫ مب ا‬mabḳūt lucky, fortunate
‫ ب أو‬II tabaḳtara to strut, prance
‫ ب وو‬II to vaporize, evaporate (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
fumigate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to disinfect (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
perfume with incense, expose to aromatic
smoke (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) V to evaporate (water); to
volatilize, tum into smoke or haze; to
perfume 0.8., or be perfumed, with incense
‫ ب و ر‬buḳār pl. -āt, ‫ اب وو‬abḳira vapor,
fume; steam
‫ ب ر‬buḳārī steam (adj.), steam-driven
‫ ب ل‬buḳl avarice, cupidity, greed 43
‫ ب يول‬baḳīl pl. ‫ ب وال‬avaricious, greedy;
miser, skinflint
‫ مب لووة‬mabḳala cause of avarice, that
which arouses avarice or greed
‫ ب وق‬buḳnuq pl. ‫ ب و ظق‬baḳāniq2 kerchief, veil
(to cover the head)
‫ ب‬badda u (budd) to distribute, spread,
disperse II to divide, distribute, spread,
scatter, disperse (‫• هووـ‬.th.); to remove,
eliminate (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to waste, squander,
fritter away, dissipate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) V pass. of
II; X to be independent, proceed
independently (‫ ب‬in, e.g., in one's opinion,
i.e., to be opinionated, obstinate, headstrong); to possess alone monopolize (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to take possession (‫ هوـ‬of s.o.), seize,
grip, overwhelm, overcome (‫ هوـ‬s.o.; said
of a feeling, of an impulse); to dispose
arbitrarily, highhandedly (‫ ب‬of s.th.); to
rule
despotically,
tyrannically,
autocratically (‫ ب‬over)
wa-bad’an) ‫‘( عووا هاعلوووابدئ و‬audahū ‘alā
bad’ihī) or ‫( عا ااا وابود‬ilā bad’in) he did it
all over again, he began anew
‫ بود‬budd way out, escape│‫اا اا ومايكو ابودامو ا‬
‫( ان‬buddun) if it is inevitable that ... ; ‫الابود‬
(budda) definitely, certainly, inevitably,
without fail; by all means; ‫ الابوودامو‬it is
necessary,
inescapable,
unavoidable,
inevitable, ‫ الابودا و ام و‬he simply must do it,
he can't get around it; ‫ مو اكولابود‬min kulli
buddin in any case, at any rate
‫ بودا‬badā’a beginning, start; first step,
first instance│ ‫ ابوودا ابوود‬badā’ata bad’in
right at the outset, at the very beginning
‫ بوودأ‬bad’a, ‫ بديئووة‬badī’a, ‫ بدايووة‬bidāya
beginning, start│‫ ووو ابدايوووةاادمووووو‬in the
beginning, at first
‫ بدائ‬budā’ī primitive
‫ مبووودأ‬mabda' pl.
‫مبووو‬
mabādi’2
beginning, start, starting point; basis,
foundation; principle; invention; pl.
principles, convictions (of a person);
ideology;
rudiments.
fundamental
concepts, elements│ ‫اكأباا مبو‬kutub al-m.
elementary books 44
‫ اب يد‬abādīd 2 (pl.) scattered
‫ تبديوووود‬tabdīd scattering, dispersal,
dispersion; removal, elimination; waste,
dissipation
‫مبوووووودئ‬
mabda’ī
original,
initial;
fundamental, basic; ‫ مبووودئي‬mabda’īyan
originally; in principle
‫ اسووووأبدا‬istibdād arbitrariness, highhandedness;
despotism;
autocracy;
absolutism
‫ ابأودائ‬ibtidā’ī beginning, start; novitiate
(Chr.)│ ‫ اابأووودا امووو‬ibtidā’an min from,
beginning ... , as of (with foll. date)
‫ اسوأبدا‬istibdādī arbitrary, highhanded,
autocratic, despotic; ‫ اسوأبدا ي‬istibdādīyāt
arbitrary acts
‫ ابأوووودائ‬ibtidā’ī initial; preparatory,
elementary, primary; of first instance
(jur.); original, primitive│‫محكموووةاابأدائيووووة‬
(maḥkama) court of first instance; ‫ا أعلويما‬
‫ االبأودائو‬elementary education; ‫مدرسوةاابأدائيوة‬
(madrasa) lower grades of a high school,
approx.:
junior
high school (as
distinguished from ‫شوووه اابأدائيوووة ;)ث ظايوووة‬
(šahāda) approx.: junior high school
graduation certificate
‫ مبووود‬mubaddid scatterer, disperser;
squanderer, wastrel, spendthrift
‫ مسووأبد‬mustabidd arbitrary, highhanded,
autocratic, tyrannical, despotic; autocrat,
tyrant, despot│ ‫مسوووأبدابوأيووو‬
(bira’yihī)
opinionated, obstinate, headstrong
‫ بودأ‬bada’a a (‫ بودأ‬bad’) to begin, start (‫ ب‬or ‫و‬
with s.th., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.; ‫ ه‬with s.o.; with foll.
imperf.: to do s.th. or doing s.th.
respectively); to set in, begin, start, arise,
spring up, crop up II to put (‫ هوـ‬s.th., ‫علوو‬
before s.th. else), give precedence or
priority (‫ هوـ‬to s.th., ‫ علوو‬over s.th. else) III
to begin, start (‫ ب‬s.th., ‫ ه‬with regard to
s.o.), make the first step, take the initiative
or lead (‫ ب‬in s.th., ‫ ه‬toward s.o.) e.g., ‫بو أها‬
‫( بو كالم‬kalām) to accost s.o., speak first to
s.o. IV to do or produce first (‫ هوـ‬s.th.).
bring out (‫ هوـ‬s.th. new)│‫امو ايبود اومو ايعيود‬mā
yubdi’u wa-mā yu‘īd he can't think of a
blessed thing to say; ‫ يبود اويعيود‬he says or
does everything conceivable VIII to begin,
start (‫ ب‬with s.th.)
‫ بود‬bad’ beginning, start│ ‫ م ولاا بود‬from
the (very) beginning; ‫‘( عل اعوا ااوبود ا‬audan
‫ بو‬bādi’ beginning, starting│‫ابو اادموو‬
badi'a l-amr and ‫ وو ابوو اادمووو‬in the
beginning, at first; ‫ و ابو اا ووأ‬right away,
without thinking twice, unhesitatingly;
‫ بو ا ابود‬badi’a dī bad’in above all, first
of all, in the first place, primarily; ‫ا بو ا‬
‫ كوووه‬al-badi’u dikruhu (the person or
thing) mentioned at the outset, the firstmentioned
‫ مبأوود‬mubtadi’ beginning; beginner;
novice (Chr.)
‫ مبأودأ‬mubtada' beginning, start; (gram.)
subject of 8 nominal clause
1
‫ بوودر‬badara u to come unexpectedly, by
surprise; to escape ( ‫ مو‬s.o.; e.g., words in
excitement) III to come to s.o.’s (‫ )ه‬mind,
occur to s.o. (t) all of a sudden, strike s.o.
(idea, notion); to embark, enter (‫ ا وو‬upon
s.th.) or set out (‫ ا وو‬to do s.th.) without
delay; to rush, hurry (‫ ا ووو‬to s.o., to a
place); to hurry up (", with s.th.), ‫بو راا وو‬
with foll. verbal noun: to do s.th.
promptly, without delay, hasten to do
s.th.; to fall upon s.o (‫ )ه‬with (‫)ب‬, accost,
assail, surprise (‫ ه ب‬s.o. with s.th.; e.g.,
‫ بو رهابكوالماغلوي‬to snap rudely at s.o.); to
react, respond (‫ ا وو‬to s.th.)│ ‫بو راا ووااظجو زا‬
‫( ا اعود‬injāzi l-wa‘d) to set out to fulfill a
promise VI ‫( تبو راا وواا وله‬dihn) to suggest
itself strongly, be obvious; to appear at
first glance as if (‫تب و راا وووا ه وو اأن ;)أن‬
(dihnī) it occurred to me all of a sudden
that ... ; ‫( تبووو راا وووواا فهوووم‬fahm) to be
immediately understood VIII to hurry,
rush, hasten (‫ هـ‬to); to get ahead of s.o. (‫)ه‬,
anticipate, forestall (‫ ه‬s.o.)│‫ابأووودره الووو ئال‬
before she could say a word he exclaimed
...
‫ بدر‬badr, pl. ‫ بدور‬budūr full moon
‫ بودر‬badra pl. badarāt, ‫ بودار‬bidār huge
amount of money (formerly = 10,000
dirhams)│‫ بودرا اادمواال‬enormous sums of
money
‫ بدار‬badārī hurry! quick!
‫ مب ر‬mubādara undertaking, enterprise
‫ بو ر‬bādira pl. ‫ بواا ر‬bawadir2 herald,
harbinger, precursor, forerunner, first
indication, sign; unforeseen act; stirring,
impulse, fit (e.g., of rage); blunder,
mistake; ‫ بواا ر‬stirrings, impulses│‫بو ر ا يوو‬
b. ḳairin a good, or generous, impulse
2
‫ ابيدر‬baidar pl. ‫ بي ر‬bayādir 2 threshing floor
‫ بوودروم‬and ‫( بوودرون‬Turk. bodrum) badrūm,
badrūn pl. -āt basement
‫ بود‬bada‘a a (bad‘) to introduce, originate,
start, do for the first time (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), be the
first to do s.th. (‫ ;)هوـ‬to devise, contrive,
invent (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) II to accuse of heresy (‫ه‬
s.o.) IV = I; to create (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to achieve
unique, excellent results ( ‫ و‬in); to be
amazing, outstanding ( ‫ و‬in s.th.) VIII to
invent, contrive, devise, think up (‫ هوـ‬s.th.)
X to regard as novel, as unprecedented (‫هوـ‬
s.th.)
‫بوووووود‬
bad‘
innovation,
novelty;
creation│‫ بووودع اوعوووا ا‬bad‘an wa-‘audan
repeatedly 45
‫ بود‬bid‘ pl. ‫ ابودا‬abdā‘ innovator; new,
original; unprecedented, novel│ ‫ الابوود‬lā
bid‘a no wonder! ‫ الابود اان‬lā bid‘a an no
wonder that ... ; ‫ بود امو‬s.th. else than;
unlike, different from
‫ بدعووة‬bid‘a pl. ‫ بوود‬bida‘ innovation.
novelty; heretical doctrine, heresy; pl.
creations (of fashion, of art)│ ‫ ااهولاا بود‬ahl
al-b. heretics
‫ بووديا‬badi', ‫ بوود‬bud‘ unprecedented,
marvelous,
wonderful,
amazing,
admirable, singular, unique; creator│‫اعلوما‬
‫‘ ا بووديا‬ilm al-b. the art or science of
metaphors and (in general) of good style
‫ بديعوووة‬badī‘a pl. ‫ بووودائا‬badā’i‘2 an
astonishing, amazing thing, a marvel, a
wonder; original creation
‫ بديع‬badī‘ī rhetorical
‫ ابووود‬abda‘2 more amazing, more
exceptional; of even greater originality
‫ ابودا‬ibdā‘ creation, fashioning, shaping;
a marvelous,
unique achievement;
uniqueness,
singularity,
originality;
creative ability
O ‫ ابداع‬ibdā‘ī romantic (lit.)
O ‫ ابداعية‬ibdā‘īya romanticism (lit.)
‫ مبوووود‬mubdi‘ producing, creating;
creative; creator; exceptional, unique,
outstanding (in an achievement, esp. of an
artist)
‫ مبأد‬mubtadi‘ innovator; creator; heretic
‫ بيد‬look up alphabetically
‫ بوودل‬badala u to replace (‫ هووـ ب‬s.th. by),
exchange (‫ هوـ ب‬s.th. for) II to change, alter
(‫ هوـ هوـ‬s.th. to), convert (‫ هوـ هوـ‬s.th. into); to
substitute (‫ هوـ‬for s.th., ‫ ب‬or ‫ مو‬s.th.),
exchange, give in exchange (‫ هوـ‬s.th., ‫ ب‬or
‫ م‬for); to change (‫ هـ‬s.th.) III to exchange
(‫ ه هـ‬with s.o. s.th.) IV to replace (‫ هـ ب‬s.th.
by), exchange (‫ هوـ ب‬for s.th. s.th. else); to
compensate (‫ ه ب هوـ‬s.o. for s.th. with s.th.
else), give s.o. (‫ا)ه‬s. th. (‫ )هوـ‬in exchange
for (‫ )ب‬V to change; to be exchanged VI
to exchange (‫ هوـ‬s.th., also words, views,
greetings) X to exchange, receive in
exchange, trade, barter (‫ هـ ب‬and ‫ ب هـ‬s.th.
for); to replace (‫ ب هوـ‬and ‫ ب هوـ‬s.th. by),
substitute (‫ هـ ب‬and ‫ ب هـ‬for s.th. s.th. else)
‫ بوودم‬badal pl. ‫ ابوودال‬abdāl substitute,
alternate,
replacement;
equivalent.
compensation, setoff; reimbursement,
recompense, allowance; price. rate;
(gram.) appositional substantive standing
for another substantive│‫ بوودلاا جوايوة‬b. aljirāya allowance for food; ‫ بودلاا سوفوية‬b. assafarīya travel allowance; ‫بووودلااالشوووأوا‬
subscription rate; ‫ بوووودلاا أمثيوووول‬expense
account, expense allowance
‫ بودل‬badala (prep.) inetead of, in place
of, in lieu of
‫ بودالامو‬badalan min in place of, instead
of, in lieu of
‫ بد وة‬badla pl. badalāt, ‫ بودل‬bidal suit (of
clothes); costume│‫بد وووةاا حمووو م‬
b. alḥammām bathing suit; ‫( بد وةارسومية‬rasmīya)
uniform; ‫( بد وووةاتشوووويف تية‬tašrīfātīya) fulldreas uniform
‫ بد يوووة‬badalīya
money
compensation,
smart
‫ بوودال‬badāla (prep.) instead of, ‫بوودالام و‬
(conj.) instead of (being, doing, etc.)
2
‫ بوديل‬badīl pl. ‫ بودال‬budalā’ substitute,
alternate ( ‫ عو‬or ‫ مو‬for); stand-in, double
(theat.); (f. ) serving as a replacement or
substitute│‫( امفوووز ابديلووة‬mafraza) reserve
detachment (mil.)
‫ بدال‬baddāl grocer; money-changer
‫ بدا وة‬baddāla culvert; pipeline; telephone
exchange, central
□ ‫ مب ل‬mabādil2 see ‫بدل‬
‫ تبديل‬tabdīl change, alteration 46
‫ مب ة‬mubādala pl. -āt exchange│‫امب ال ا‬
‫( تج ريوووة‬tijārīya) commercial exchange,
trade relations
‫ ابوووودال‬ibdāl exchange, interchange,
replacement (‫ ب‬by), substitution (‫ ب‬of);
change; phonetic change
‫ تبووودل‬tabaddul change, shift, turn;
transformation; transmutation, conversion
‫ تبو ل‬tabādul (mutual) exchange│‫اتبو لا‬
‫ ا سوالم‬t. as-salam exchange of greetings,
‫ تب لاا ااهو‬thought transference, telepathy
‫ اسووأبدال‬istibdāl exchange, replacement,
substitution
‫ مبووودل‬mubdil:
‫ مبووودلااالسووو ااظ‬m. alusṯuwānāt automatic record changer
‫ مأب ل‬mutabādil mutual, reciprocal
‫ بدن‬baduna u and badana u to be fat, corpulent
‫ بودن‬badan pl. ‫ ابودان‬abdān, ‫ ابوودن‬abdun
body, trunk, torso
‫ بودظ‬badani bodily, corporal, physical,
somatic
‫ بداظة‬badāna corpulence, obesity
‫ بدي‬badīn pl. ‫ بودن‬budun stout, corpulent,
fat, obese
‫ بدوظة‬budūna corpulence, obesity
‫ بو ن‬bādin pl. ‫ بودن‬budn stout, corpulent,
fat, obese
‫ بوده‬badaha a to come, descend suddenly
(‫ها‬upon s.o.), befall unexpectedly (‫ ه‬s.o.);
to surprise (‫ ه‬s.o.) with s.th. (‫ )ب‬III to
appear suddenly, unexpectedly (‫ ه ب‬before
s.o. with s.th.) VIII to extemporize,
improvise, do offhand, on the spur of the
moment (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ بداهووووة‬badāha spontaneity, spontaneous
occurrence, impulse; simple, natural way,
naturalness, matter-of-factness; ‫بداهوووووة‬
badāhatan and ‫ ب بداهوووةا‬all by itself,
spontaneously
‫ بديهوة‬badīha s.th. sudden or unexpected;
improvisation;
impulse,
inspiration,
spontaneous
intuition;
intuitive
understanding or insight, empathy,
instinctive grasp, perceptive faculty│‫علوووا‬
‫ ا بداهيوة‬all by itself, spontaneously; offhand;
‫ ح ضووووواا بديهووووةا‬quick-witted, quick at
repartee; ‫ بديهةاح ضو ا‬presence of mind
‫ بوديه‬badīhī and ‫ بوده‬badahī intuitive,
self-evident, a priori (adj.)
‫ بديهي وة‬badīhīya pl. -āt an axiom, a
fundamental or self-evident truth; truism,
commonplace, platitude
‫ بدائو‬badii'ih' fundamental or selfevident
truths
(‫ بوودا )بوودو‬badā u to appear, show, become
evident, clear, plain or manifest, come to
light; to be obvious; to seem good,
acceptable, proper (‫ ل‬to s.o.) III to shaw,
display, evince, manifest, reveal, declare
openly│ ‫‘( بو ىاب عوداو‬adāwa) to show open
hostility IV to disclose, reveal, manifest,
show, display, evince (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.), to
demonstrate, bring out, bring to light,
make visible (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to express, utter,
voice (‫ هوـ‬s.th.)│ ‫( اابودىارأيو ا و‬ra'yahū) to
express one's opinion about; ‫ابوودىارغبووة‬
(ragbatan) to expreas a wish or desire V =
I, to live in the desert VI to pose as a
Bedouin
‫ بدو‬badw desert; nomads, Bedouins
‫ بودو‬badawī Bedouin, nomadic; rural (as
distinguished from urban); a Bedouin
‫ بدويوة‬badawīya pl. -āt Bedouin woman,
Bedouin girl
‫ بوودا‬badaJl pl.
caprice; ill-humor
‫ بوودوا‬badawāt whim,
‫ بولا‬badā’ and ‫ بوولا‬badā’a obscenity,
ribaldry, foulness (of language); disgust,
loathing, aversion, contempt
‫ بلخ‬badaḳa a to be haughty, proud
‫ بووولخ‬badaḳ luxury, pomp, splendor;
haughtiness, pride
‫ بو خ‬bādiḳ pl. ‫ بواا خ‬bawādiḳ2 high, lofty;
proud, haughty
‫ بولر‬badara u (badr) to sow, disseminate (‫هوـ‬
s.th., seed, also fig. = to spread) II to
waste, squander, dissipate (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ بولر‬badr pl. ‫ بولور‬budūr, ‫ بولار‬bidār seeds,
seed; seedling; pl. ‫ بولور‬pips, pits, stones
(of fruit)
‫ بولر‬badra (n. un.) a seed, a grain; pip,
pit, stone (of fruit); germ; (fig.) germ cell
(of a development, and the like)
‫ بلار‬bidār seedtime
‫ بووداو‬badāwa and bidāwa desert life,
Bedouin life; Bedouinism, nomadism 47
‫ تبوووووليو‬tabdīr
dissipation
‫ بيودا‬baidā’2 desert, steppe, wilderness,
wild
‫ مبووولر‬mubaddir squanderer, wastrel,
spendthrift
‫ ابووودا‬ibdā’ expression, manifestation,
declaration
‫ ب و‬bādin apparent, evident, obvious,
plain, visible; inhabiting the desert; pl. ‫بودا‬
budāh Bedouins
‫ ب يوة‬bādiya desert, semidesert, steppe;
peasantry; (pl. ‫ بوواا‬bawādin) nomads,
Bdouins
‫ بداية‬bidāya = ‫بدا‬
‫ بول‬badda u (badd) to get the better of (‫)ه‬, beat,
surpass (s.o.)
‫ بوول‬badd and bādd slovenly, untidy,
shabby, filthy, squalid
‫ بوولا‬badāda slovenliness, untidiness,
shabbiness, dirtiness, filth
‫ بولأ‬bada’a a to revile, abuse (‫ علوو‬s.o.), rail
(‫ علوو‬at s.o.); -- ‫ بول‬badi’a a, ‫ بول‬badu’a u
to be obscene, bawdy
‫ بوووول‬badī’ disgusting, loathsome,
nauseous, foul, dirty, obscene, bawdy,
ribald
waste,
squandering,
‫ بيل‬look up alphabetically
‫ بولل‬badala i u (badl) to give or spend freely,
generously (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to sacrifice (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
to expend (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to offer, grant (‫هووـ‬
s.th.)│‫( ابللاجهده‬jahdahū) to take pains; ‫بللا‬
‫ مجهوووووا ا‬do.;
‫( بوووووللاكووووولامسووووو عد‬kulla
musā‘adatin) to grant every assistance; ‫بللا‬
‫ ا مس عو‬to make efforts; ‫ بللاا عوةال‬to obey
s.o., defer to s.o.; ‫( بوللاكولاغو ل‬kulla gālin)
and ‫ بوللاا غو واوا وو يصا و اسوبيل‬to spare no
effort, go to any length, give everything,
pay any price for or in order to; ‫بوللامو ا‬
‫( وجه و‬mā’a wajhihī) to sacrifice one's
honor; (‫ ع و ا والن‬or) ‫ بووللاظفس و ا ونا ووالن‬to
sacrifice o.s. for s.o.; ‫( بللاوسع‬wus‘ahū) to
do one’s utmost, do one’s best V to fritter
away one’s fortune, be over-generous; to
prostitute o.s. (woman); to display
common, vulgar manners VIII to wear out
in common service, make trite, vulgar,
commonplace, to hackney (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
abuse (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to express o.s. in a vulgar
manner, use vulgar language; ‫ ابأوللاظفسو‬to
degrade o.s. demean o.s., sacrifice one's
dignity
‫ بوولل‬badl giving, spending; sacrifice,
surrender, abandonment; expenditure;
offering, granting
‫ مبوووور‬mubarrir pl. -āt justification;
excuse│ ‫( الامبورا‬mubarrira) unjustifiable
2
‫ بل ة‬badla suit (of clothes)
‫ مبلل‬mibdal pl. ‫ مبو ل‬mabādil2 slipper; pl.
‫ مبو ل‬casual clothing worn around home│
‫ النا امب‬so-and-so in his private life
‫ بووى‬barrī terrestrial, land (adj.); wild (of
plants and animals)│‫اسووووي ر ابويووووةام ئيووووة‬
(sayyāra, mā’īya) amphibious vehicle
‫ ابأووولال‬ibtidāl triteners, commonness,
commonplaceness; banality; debasement,
degradation
‫بويوة‬ā barrīya pl. ‫ بوووارى‬barāarīy open
country, steppe, desert; see also 1‫ابوأ‬
‫ ب ل‬bādil spender 48
‫ بواظووو‬barrānī outside, outer, exterior,
external; foreign, alien
‫ مأبلل‬mutabaddil vulgar, common
‫ مبأولل‬mubtadal trite, hackneyed, banal,
common, vulgar; everyday, commonplace
(adj.)
2
‫ ابوو‬barra (1st pers. perf. barirtu, barartu) a I
(birr) to be reverent, dutiful, devoted; to
be kind (‫ ه‬or ‫ ب‬to s.o.); to be charitable,
beneficent, do good (‫ ب‬to s.o.); to obey (‫ه‬
s.o., esp. God); to treat with reverence, to
honor (‫ ب‬or ‫ ه‬the parents); to be honest,
truthful; to be true, valid (sworn
statement); to keep (‫ ب‬a promise, an oath)
II to warrant, justify, vindicate; to acquit,
absolve, exonerate, exculpate, clear (‫هوـ‬, ‫ه‬
s.o., s.th.)│ ‫( ابووراوجهو‬wajhahū) to justify
o.s. by IV to carry out, fulfill (‫ هوـ‬s.th., a
promise, an oath) V to justify o.s.; to be
justified
‫ بوو‬birr reverence, piety; righteousness,
probity; godliness, devoutness; kindness;
charitable gift
‫ بوو‬barr and ‫ بو ر‬bārr pl. ‫ ابووار‬abrār and
‫ بوور‬barara reverent, dutiful (‫ ب‬toward),
devoted (‫ ب‬to); pious, godly, upright,
righteous.; kind
‫ مبوو‬mabarra pl. -āt and ‫ مبو ر‬mabar2
good deed, act of charity, benefaction;
philanthropic organization; charitable
institution, home or hospital set up with
private funds
‫ تبويو‬tabrīr justification, vindication
‫ بو ر‬bārr reverent, faithful and devoted;
see also under ‫ بو‬barr above
‫ مبوور‬mabrūr (accepted into the grace of
the Lord, i.e.) blessed (said of a deceased
person)
‫ ابوو‬barr land (as opposed to sea), terra firma,
mainland; open country; ‫ بووا‬barran out,
outside│‫ ابوووااوبحوووا‬barran wa-baḥran by
land and sea
‫ بو‬burr wheat
1
‫ ابووأ‬bara’a a ( ‫ بوو‬bar’) to create (‫ هوـ‬s.th., said
of God)
‫ بو‬bar’ creation
‫ بويوة‬barīya pl. -āt, ‫ بوايو‬barāyā creation
(= that which is created); creature; see
also 2‫ابو‬.
‫~ ا ب رى‬J~I aI-bari' the Creator (God)
2
‫ ابوو‬bari’a a ( ‫ بووا‬barā’a) to be or become
free, be cleared ( ‫ مو‬from, esp. from guilt
blame, etc., ‫ ا و‬toward s.o.); to recover ( ‫م‬
from an illness) II to free, clear, acquit,
absolve, exculpate (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ مووو‬from
suspicion, blame, guilt)│‫ابووووأاسووو حةاا وجووول‬
(sāḥata r-rajul) he acquitted the man IV
to acquit, absolve, discharge, exculpate (‫ه‬
s.o.); to cause to recover, cure, heal (‫ه‬
s.o.)│ ‫( اابوأا مأو‬dimmatahū) to clear s.o. or
o.s. from guilt, exonerate s.o. or o.s. V to
clear o.s. ( ‫ م و‬from suspicion, from a
charge), free o.s. ( ‫ مو‬from responsibility,
etc.), rid o.s. ( ‫ م و‬of); to declare o.s.
innocent, wash one’s hands ( ‫ مو‬of); to be
acquitted X to restore to health, cure, heal
(‫ ه‬s.o.); to free o.s. ( ‫ مو‬from), rid o.s. ( ‫مو‬
of)
‫ بوووو‬bur’ and burū’ convalescence,
recovery
‫ بوو‬barī’ pl. ‫ ابويو‬abriyā’2, ‫ بووا‬burā’,
birā’ free, exempt ( ‫ مو‬from), devoid ( ‫مو‬
of);
guiltless,
innocent;
guileless,
harmless; healthy, sound 49
‫ بووا‬barā’ free, exempt ( ‫ مو‬from)│‫ا مأو ا‬
‫( بوا ام‬dimmatuM) he is innocent of ...
‫ بووووا‬barā’a being free; disavowal,
withdrawal;
innocence,
guiltlessness;
naiveté, guilelessness, artlessness; (pl. -āt)
license, diploma, patent│ ‫ابوووووا اا أوووووا‬
patent on an invention; ‫بوووووا اا أ فيوووول‬
exequatur (a written authorization of a
consular officer, issued by the government
to which he is accredited); ‫ بووا اا ثقوة‬b. attiqa (Tun.) credentials (dipl.); ‫علوووابوووا‬
harmless; without guilt, innocent
‫ بوبيس‬look up alphabetically
‫ تبوئووووة‬tabri’a freeing,
acquittal,
absolution,
exoneration
‫ بوبيس‬barbīs barbel (zool.)
exemption;
discharge,
‫ مب و رأ‬mubāra’a mubarat, divorce by
mutual consent of husband and wife,
either of them waiving all claims by way
of compensation (Isl. Law)
‫ بووبيش‬barbīš (syr.) tube (of a narghile, of an
enema, etc.)
‫ بوووبط‬barbata to splash, paddle, dabble (in
water)
‫( بوبواظو‬It. barbone) barbūnī, also ‫ بوبووان‬red
mullet (Mullus barbatus; zool.)
‫ بوبو‬see ‫بوبة‬
‫ بوتغ ل‬burtugāl Portugal
‫ بوتغ و‬burtugālī Portuguese
‫ بوتق ل‬burtuqāl, ‫ ابوتق ن‬burtuqān orange
‫ بوتقووو و‬burtuqālī, ‫بوتقووو ظو‬
orange, orange-colored
‫ ابووا‬ibrā’ acquittal, absolution, release;
release of a debtor from his liabilities,
remission of debt (Isl. Law)
1
‫ اسوأبوا‬istibrā’: ‫ اسوأبوا اا حمول‬ist. al-ḥamal
the ceremony of selecting and purifying
the Host before Mass (Copt.-Chr.)
‫ ابوو‬V to display, show, play up her charms
(woman); to adorn herself, make herself
pretty (woman)
2
‫ ابوو‬burj pl. ‫ بووو‬burūj, ‫ ابووا‬abrāj tower;
castle; sign of the zodiac│‫ ابوو اا حمو م‬b. alḥamām pigeon house, dovecot; ‫ بوو اا ميو ه‬b.
al-miyāh water tower
2
‫ اب رجووة‬bārija pl. ‫ بوواار‬bawārij warship,
battleship; barge
1
‫ا عوباا بوجو س‬la‘b al-birjās a kind of equestrian
contest, joust, tournament
2
‫ اا بوجيس‬al-birjīs Jupiter (astron.)
‫ بوث‬burtun, pl. ‫ بواث‬barātin claw, talon
‫ بواجااى‬baraguwāy Paraguay
‫ ا بوازيل‬al-bərāzīl Brazil
‫( بواسوويوى‬Fr. brasserie) brāseri beer parlor,
taproom
‫ بواغ‬Prague
‫( بوا ن‬Fr. paravent) baravān folding screen
‫ بواهم‬bərahmā Brahma
‫بوبووة‬
burtuqānī
birba and ‫ بوبو‬birbā pl. ‫ بوابووو‬barābī
ancient Egyptian temple, temple ruins
doting back to ancient Egypt (eg.);
labyrinth, maze
‫ بوبخ‬barbaḳ pl. ‫ بوابخ‬barābiḳ2 water pipe, drain,
culvert, sewer pipe
‫ بوبوو‬barbara to babble noisily (e.g., a large
crowd), jabber, mutter, prattle
‫ ا بوبو‬al-barbar the Berbers
‫ بوبوووى‬barbarī Berber (adj.); barbaric,
uncivilized; -- (pl. ‫ بوابووو‬barābira) a
Berber; a barbarian
‫بوبويووووووة‬
barbarīya
barbar(ian)ism,
barbarity, savagery, cruelty
‫ مأبوبو‬mutabarbir barbaric, uncivilized
‫ بوجول‬barjal pl. ‫ بواجول‬barāhil2 compass, (pair
of) dividers 50
‫ بوجمووة‬burjuma pl. ‫ بووواجم‬barājim2 knuckle,
finger joint
‫ بووح‬bariḥa a (‫ بوواح‬barāḥ) to leave (‫ هوـ‬or ‫ مو‬a‫ا‬
place, ‫ ا و‬for), depart (‫ هـ‬from, ‫ ا وو‬on one’s
way to); with neg.: to continue to be (=
‫ مو ابووحا و │)زال‬he is still in ... ; ‫مو ابووحاغ يو‬
(ganīyan) he is still rich; ‫( بووحاا فو‬ḳafā’)
the matter hall come out, has become
generally known; ‫ غودااوبووح‬to come and go
II to beset, harass, trouble, molest (‫ ب‬s.o.)
III to leave (‫ هوـ‬a place, ‫ ا وو‬for), depart (‫هوـ‬
from, ‫ ا و‬on one's way to)
‫ بوواح‬departure; cessation, stop; a wide,
empty tract of land, vast expanse, vastness;
‫ بواح‬barāḥan openly and plainly, patently
‫ تب ريا‬tabārīh2 agonies, torments (e.g., of
longing, of passion)
war; ‫ غ يمةابو ر‬an easy prey; ‫‘( عويشابو ر‬aiš)
an easy life; ‫( حجووةاب و ر‬ḥujja) a weak
argument; ‫( تب اب ر‬tibg) light, mild tobacco
‫ مب رحة‬mubāraḥa departure
‫ مبوو‬mubarrid cooling, refreshing; pl. -āt
refreshments (beverages, etc.)
‫ بو رح‬bāriḥ (showing the left side. i.e.)
ill-boding, inauspicious, ominous (as
opposed to ‫ ا ب رح ;)س ظا‬al-bāriḥa yesterday
‫ اا ب رحوووة‬al-bāriḥata yesterday│‫اا ليلووووةا‬
‫( ا ب رحوووة‬lailata) last night; ‫اولاا ب رحوووة‬
awwala l-b. the day before yesterday. two
days ago
‫ مبو‬mubarrad cooled, chilled
2
‫ بوا‬barrād fitter (of machinery)
‫ بوا‬birāda fitter's trade or work
‫ بوا‬burāda iron filings
‫ مبووووووح‬mubarriḥ, violent, intense,
excruciating, agonizing (esp., of pains)
‫ مبووحابو‬mubarraḥ bihi stricken. afflicted,
tormented
‫ مبو‬mibrad pl. ‫ مب ر‬mabcirid2 file, rasp
3
‫ ابوو‬bard coldness, chilliness, coolness;
cooling; alleviation; cold, catarrh
‫ بوو‬barad hail,
hailstone
‫ بو اية‬burdāya curtain, drape 51
4
‫ بويودى‬barīdī postal; messenger, courier;
mailman
5
6
‫ ب رو‬look up alphabetically
‫ بو ى‬bardī, burdī papyrus (bot.)
‫ بو يوة‬bardīya pl. -āt papyrus│ ‫علوماا بو يو‬
‘ilm al-b. papyrology
‫ ب وو‬barada (n. un.)
‫ بو ا‬bardāq pl. ‫ بوا يق‬barādīq2 jug, pitcher
‫بووووووو‬
burūd
coldness,
coolness,
chilliness; emotional coldness, frigidity
‫ بوووووو‬burūda coldness, coolness,
chilliness; emotional coldness, frigidity│‫ا‬
‫ بوو اا دم‬b. ad-dam cold-bloodedness
‫ بو يووة‬bardīya ague, feverish chill; see
also below
‫ بو ا‬buradā’ 2 ague, feverish chill
cold-storage
‫ بو‬IV to send by mail, to mail (‫ هـ‬a letter)
‫ بويود‬barīd post, mail│‫( ا بويوداا جواى‬jawwī)
air mail
‫ بوو‬barūd collyrium
‫ بوووووا‬barrāda
refrigerator, icebox
‫ بو‬burd pl. ‫ ابوا‬abrād garment
‫ بو‬burda Mohammed's outer garment
1
‫ ابوو‬barada u to be or become cold; to
cool, cool off (also fig.); to feel cold; to
cool, chill (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to soothe. alleviate (‫هوـ‬
pain); -- baruda to be or become cold II to
make cold (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to refrigerate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
to cool, chill (‫ هوـ‬s.th., also fig.); to soothe,
alleviate (‫ هوـ‬pain) V to refresh o.s., cool
o.s. off; to be soothed, be alleviated VIII to
become cold, cool off
‫ بو‬barada u to file (‫ هـ‬a piece of metal, etc.)
plant;
‫ تبويووود‬tabrīd cooling, chilling; cold
storage,
refrigeration;
alleviation,
mitigation│‫ جهووو اا أبويووود‬jahāz at-t. coldstorage plant, refrigerator; ‫غو وووةاا أبويووود‬
gurfat at-t. cold-storage room
‫ بو ر‬bārid cold; cool, chilly; easy; weak;
stupid,
inane,
silly,
dull;
dunce,
blockhead│ ‫( ا حوووباا بوو ر‬ḥarb) the cold
‫ عباا بو‬la‘b al-b. bridge (game)
‫ بو خ‬bardaḳa to polish, burnish (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
□ ‫بو عة = ابو عة‬
‫بوتق ن = بو ل ن‬
‫ بو لاش‬bardaqūš (=‫ )مو لاش‬marjoram
‫( بو ور‬Fr. bordure) badūra curbstone, curb
‫ بو عوة‬barda‘a pl. ‫ بووا‬barādi‘2 saddle, packsaddle (for donkeys and camels)
‫ بوا عووو‬barādi‘ī maker of donkey saddle,
saddler
‫ بوو ون‬birdaun pl. ‫ بووا ي‬barādīn2 work horse
jade, nag
1
‫ بوز‬baraza u to come out, show, appear, come
into view, emerge; to jut out, protrude,
stand out, be prominent (also fig.); to
surpass, excel (‫ علووو‬s.o.) II to cause to
come out, bring out, expose, show, set off,
accentuate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to excel, surpass (‫وو‬
‫ علوو‬s.o. in), stand out (‫ وو‬for), distinguish
o.s. ( by) III to meet in combat or duel (‫ه‬
s.o.); to compete in a contest (‫ ه‬with s.o.)
IV to cause to come out, bring out,
expose, make manifest (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.); to
publish, bring out (‫ هووـ‬a book, etc.); to
present, show (‫ هوـ‬e.g., an identity card) V
to evacuate the bowels VI to vie, contend
1
‫ بوشت‬birišt: ‫ابوشت‬
‫ بوشوم‬baršama to stare, gaze (‫ ا وو‬at s.th.); to
rivet (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ بوشمة‬baršama riveting
‫ بوشو م‬buršām and ‫( بوشو ن‬n. un. ) pl. -āt
wafer; Host (Chr.)
‫ بوواز‬birāz excrement, feces; competition,
contest, match (in sports); duel
‫ بوش مة‬buršāma rivet
‫ بوش مجو‬buršāmjī riveter
‫ بوي وز‬buraiza (birēza; eg.) ten-piaster
coin
‫ ابوووووز‬abraz more marked,
distinctive; more prominent
‫ بوشمجية‬buršamjīya riveting
1
more
‫ مب و رز‬mubāriz competitor, contender;
combatant, fighter; fencer
2
‫( بويوز‬Fr. prise) brīz pl. -āt (plug) socket, wallplug, outlet (syr.); ‫ بويوز‬barīza pl. ‫بوائوز‬
barā’iz2 do. (eg.)
2
‫ ابويز‬look up alphabetically
2
‫ بوزان‬barazān trumpet
‫ بووزخ‬barzaḳ pl. ‫ بووازخ‬barāziḳ interval, gap,
break, partition, bar, obstruction; isthmus
‫ بوزو‬burzūq sidewalk
1
‫ بوس م‬birsām pleurisy
2
‫ ابويسم‬look up alphabetically
3
‫ بوسوووويم‬birsīm clover, specif., berseem,
Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum
bot.)
1
‫ بوش‬burš pl. ‫ ابواش‬abrāš mat
‫ ابوش‬abraš2 spotted, speckled 52
(Tarentola
‫ بوص‬baraṣ leprosy
‫ ابوووواز‬ibrāz bringing out, displaying,
setting off, accentuation; production;
presentation
‫ مبوووز‬mubarriz surpassing (‫ علووو‬s.o.),
superior (‫ علوو‬to s.o.); winner. victor (in
contest)
‫ بوص‬bariṣa a (baraṣ) to be a leper
‫ بووووص‬burṣ wall gecko
mauritanica, zool.)
‫ مب و رز‬mubāraza competition, contest,
match, esp. in sports; duel; fencing
‫ بو رز‬bāriz protruding, projecting, salient;
raised, embossed, in relief; marked,
distinct,
conspicuous;
prominent
(personality)
‫( بي‬baiḍ) soft-boiled eggs
‫ بوشولاظة‬baršīlōna Barcelona (seaport in NE
Spain)
‫ بوووووز‬burūz prominence, projection,
protrusion
2
‫ بوش‬look up alphabetically
‫ ابوواص‬abraṣ2 leprous; leper│‫سو ماابووص‬
sāmm a. wall gecko
2
‫ بوصة‬burṣa stock exchange
‫ بوو‬baraḍa u (
sprout (plant)
‫ بووو‬burūḍ) to germinate,
‫ بوهوواز‬barṯūz: ‫ بوهووازاا بحويووة‬b. a1-baḥrīya
forecastle, crew quarters (on a merchant
vessel)
‫ بوها‬barṯa‘a (‫ بوهعة‬barṯa‘a) to gallop
‫ بوهول‬barṯala (‫ بوهلوة‬barṯala) to bribe (‫ ه‬s.o.) II
tabarṯala to take bribes, be venal
‫ بوهيل‬birṯīl pl. ‫ بواهيل‬barāṯīl2 bribe
1
‫ بوهم‬barṯama to rave, talk irrationally
‫ بوهووام‬burṯūm, barṯūm trunk of an
elephant
2
‫ بوهمو ن‬barṯamān pl. -āt (syr. eg.) tall earthen
or glass vessel (for preserves, oil. etc.)
‫ بوو‬bara‘a a to surpass excel (‫ ه‬s.o.); (also
baru‘a u) to distinguish o.s., be skilful,
proficient V to contribute. Give, donate (‫ب‬
s.th.); to undertake (voluntarily, ‫ ب‬s.th.).
volunteer (‫ ب‬or), be prepared, willing (‫ب‬
to do s.th.); to be ready, be on hand (‫ب‬
with)
‫بواعوووووة‬
barā‘a
skill,
proficiency;
efficiency, capability, capacity
‫ بووعوة‬burū‘a superior skill, outstanding
proficiency
‫ مبو‬mabraq glitter, flash│‫ووامبوو اا صوبا‬
fī m. iṣ-ṣbḥ with the first rays of the
morning sun
‫ تبووو‬tabarru‘ pl. -āt gift, donation;
contribution
‫ بو ر‬bāriq:
hope
‫ ب و ر‬bāri‘ skilled, skillful, proficient,
capable. efficient; brilliant, outstanding
(work of art)
‫ ب رلوة‬bāriqa pl.
twinkle
‫ بوعم‬bar‘ama to bud, burgeon, sprout
‫ بوعم‬bur‘um pl. ‫ بواعم‬barā‘im2 and ‫بوعوام‬
bur‘ūm pl. ‫ بوواعيم‬bard'im' bud, burgeon;
blossom, flower
‫ بوغوواث‬burgūt pl. ‫ بواغيووث‬barāgīt2 f1ea; pl.
‫( بواغيووث‬syr.) small silver coins│‫ابوغ واثا‬
‫ ا بحو‬b. a1-baḥr shrimp (zool.)
‫ بوغش‬bargaš (coll.; n. un. ) gnat(s), midge(s)
2
‫ اا بولة‬al-barqa Cyrenaica (region of E Libya)
3
‫ اابويق‬look up alphabetically
4
1
‫ بولش‬birqiš finch
‫ بوولش‬barqaša colorful medley, variety,
variegation
‫ مبووولش‬mubarqaš colorful, variegated,
many-colored
‫ بولوا‬barqa‘a to veil, drape (‫هوـ‬, s.o., s.th.) II
tabarqa‘a to put on a veil, veil o.s.
‫ بوو‬baraqa u to shine, glitter, sparkle, flash│‫ا‬
‫( بولوتاا سوم‬samā’u) there was lightning IV
= I; to emit bolts of lightning (cloud); to
flash up, light up; to brighten (face); to
cable, wire, telegraph (‫ ا و‬to)
‫ بوو‬barq pl. ‫ بووو‬burūq lightning; flash
of lightning; telegraph│‫( ابووو ا لووب‬ḳullab)
lightning without a downpour, used fig.
e.g.. of s.o. given to making promises
without ever living up to them 53
‫ بول وو‬barqī telegraphic, telegraph- (in
compounds)
‫ بولية‬barqīya pl. -āt telegram, wire, cable
‫ بوي وق‬barīq pl. ‫ بوائ وق‬barā’iq2 glitter,
shine, gloss, luster│ ‫( وابويوقامعودظ‬ma‘dinī)
lustered, coated with metallic luster
‫ بووووا‬burāq Alborak, name of the
creature on which Mohammed made his
ascension to the seven heavens ( ‫)معوا‬
‫ بووا‬barrāq shining, lustrous, sparkling,
flashing, glittering, twinkling
‫ ااسأبو‬look up alphabetically
‫ بوولش‬barqaša (‫ بوولش‬barqš) to variegate, paint
or daub with many colors (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
embellish (‫ هوـ‬s.th.; ‫ لا و‬one’s speech) II
tabargaša reflex. and pass. of I
‫( بوغ وو‬Turk. ‫ ب وارغو‬burğų) burgī pl. ‫بواغووو‬
barāgī screw
‫ بوو ة‬look up alphabetically
‫ بواار‬bawāriq2 gleam,
‫ مبو‬mubriq: ‫ مبو اك تب‬teletype
‫ بوغ ول‬burgul cooked, parched and crushed
wheat, served together with other food
(eg., syr.)
‫ بو يو‬birfīr pl. ‫ بوا يو‬barāfīr2 purple
‫ بو ر‬b. al-amal glimpse of
‫ بولوا‬burqu‘ pl. ‫ بوالوا‬barāqi‘2 veil (worn
by women; long, leaving the eyes
exposed)
‫ بولا‬barqūq (coll.; n. un. ) plum
1
‫ بو‬baraka u to kneel down II and IV to make
(‫ هوـ‬the camel) kneel down II to invoke a
blessing (‫ علوو‬or ‫ وو‬on s.th., ‫ ل‬on s.th.) III
to bless (‫ و‬or ‫ ه‬s.th., also ‫ ل‬or ‫)علوو‬, invoke
a blessing on; to give one's blessing (‫ هوـ‬to
s.th.), sanction (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) V to be blessed (‫ب‬
by); to enjoy (‫ ب‬s.th.), find pleasure,
delight (‫ ب‬in); to ask s.o.’s (‫ )ب‬blessing VI
to be blessed, be praised; ... ‫ تبو ر‬tabāraka
... God bless …! X to be blessed
‫ بوكوة‬birka pl. ‫ بوو‬birak pond, small lake;
puddle, pool│‫ ابوكووةاا سووب حة‬b. as-sibāḥa
swimming pool
‫ بوكوووووة‬baraka pl. -āt
benediction│‫اللوووووووووةاا بوكوووووووووة‬qillat
misfortune, bad luck
blessing,
al-b.
‫ ابو‬abrak2 more blessed
‫ تبويول‬tabrīk pl. -āt good wish; blessing,
benediction
‫ مب ر‬mubārak blessed, fortunate, lucky
2
‫ مبووووم‬mabrūm:○‫( سووللامبووووم‬silk) wire
rope, cable
‫ ابواريل‬barārīk2 (mor.) barracks
‫ بوك ر‬birkār compass, (pair of) divideers
‫ مبووم‬mubram firm, strong; irrevocable,
definitely
established;
confirmed,
ratified│‫( ل و امبووم‬qaḍā’) inescapable fate;
‫ بصار امبومة‬irrevocably
2
‫ بوك ن‬burkān pl. ‫ بواكي‬barākīn volcano
‫ بوك ظو‬burkānī volcanic
‫ بو م ن‬barlamān parliament
‫ بو م ظو‬barlamānī parliamentary
‫ بوموووة‬burma pl. ‫ بووووم‬buram, ‫ بووووام‬birām
earthenware pot
‫ بو م ظية‬barlamānīya parliamentarianism
‫ بوم‬burmā Burma
‫( بو أو‬It. brillante) brillantī brilliant, diamond
‫ بو ي‬barlīn Berlin
1
‫ بووم‬barima a (baram) to be or become weary,
tired (‫ ب‬of), be fed up, be bored (‫ ب‬with),
find annoying, wearisome (‫ ب‬s.th.) V to
feel annoyed (‫ ب‬by), be displeased (‫ب‬
with); to be fed up (‫ ب‬with), be sick and
tired (‫ب‬of, also ‫ ;)م و‬to be impatient,
discontented, dissatisfied; to grieve, be
pained 54
‫ بووم‬barim weary, tired (‫ ب‬of), disgusted
(‫ ب‬at, with); dissatisfied, discontented
‫ تبووووم‬tabarrum weariness, boredom,
disgust;
discontent,
dissatisfaction;
uneasiness, discomfort, annoyance
‫ مأبووم‬mutabarrim cross, peevish, vexed,
annoyed
2
3
‫ بووم‬barama u (barm) to twist, twine (‫ هوـ‬a
rope); to shape (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) round and long; to
roll up (‫ هوـ‬the sleeves); to settle, establish,
confirm (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) IV to twist, twine (‫ هوـ‬a
rope); to settle, establish, confirm (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
to conclude (‫ هوـ‬a pact); to confirm (‫ هوـ‬a
judicial judgment); to ratify (‫ هوـ‬a treaty, a
bill) VII to be settled, be established, be
confirmed; to be twisted, be twined
‫ بوموووو ئو‬barmā’ī amphibious│‫ب بووووةابوم ئيووووة‬
(dabbāba) amphibious tank (mil.)
○ ‫ بوم ئية‬barmā’īya amphibian
‫( بوم ظ وت‬Engl.) barmanant permanent wave│‫ا‬
‫بوم ظ تاعلواا ب ر‬cold wave (in hair)
‫ بوموق‬barmaq pl. ‫ بواموق‬barāmiq2 baluster; spike
(of a wheel)
‫ بومهو‬baramhāt the seventh month of the
Coptic calendar
‫ بوم كه م‬Birmingham
‫ بوموا‬barmūda the eighth month of the Coptic
calendar
‫ بوميول‬barmīl pl. ‫ بواميول‬barāmīl2 barrel; keg,
cask; tun
‫ بوظية‬barnīya pl. ‫ بواظو‬barānīy clay vessel
‫ بوظو م‬barnāmaj pl. ‫ بووام‬barāmij2 program,
plan, schedule; roster, list, index;
curriculum
‫ بوظجل‬burunjuk gauze, crepe
1
‫ بوامة‬barrāma pl. -āt drilling machine
‫ بواظسوووو‬barānisī pl. -īya maker of
burnooses
‫ بويم‬barīm rope; string, cord, twine
‫ بويموة‬barrīma pl. –āt drill, borer, gimlet,
auger, bit; ○ corkscrew ‫بوم‬
○ ‫ بويمية‬barrīmīya spirochete
‫ ابوووام‬ibrām settlement, establishment;
confirmation; conclusion (of a pact, etc.);
ratification│‫ محكمووةاا و ق اواالبوووام‬maḥkamat
an-naqḍ wa-l-i. Court of Cassation (Eg.)
‫ بووظس‬burnus pl. ‫ بوواظس‬barānis2 (also ‫بوظواس‬
barnūs, burnūs pl. ‫ بوووواظيس‬baranīs2)
burnoose, hooded cloak; casula, chasuble
(of Coptic priests)│‫ ابووووظساا حمووو م‬b. alḥammām bathrobe
2
‫ جب لاا بواظس‬jibāl al-barānis the Pyrenees
‫ بوظس‬brins prince
‫ بوظسيسة‬brinsēsa princess
‫ بوظط‬II tabarnaṯa to wear a hat
‫ بوظ يوووة‬burnaiṯa pl. -āt, ‫ بوووواظيط‬barānīt2
(European) hat (men’s and women’s);
lamp shade
‫ بوهوة‬burha pl. burahāt, ‫ بووه‬burah a while, a
time; short time; instant, moment; ‫بوهووة‬
burllatan a little while│ ‫( ابووهأي‬after two
moments =) in a short time
going; to break out, lot fly, explode (with
words, esp. in anger or excitement)
‫ بوى‬baran dust, earth
‫ بوايووة‬barrāya, ‫ بوايووةااال ووالم‬b. al-aqlām
pencil sharpener
□ ‫ بوهم‬barham (syr.) = ‫ موهم‬marham
‫ بووهم‬barahman pl. ‫ بواهموة‬barāhima Brahman
55
‫ مبوا‬mibrāh pocketknife
‫ مب و را‬mubārāh pl.
‫ مب ري و‬mubārayāt
contest tournament, match (in games and
sports); competition, rivalry
‫ بوهمية‬barahmīya Brahmanism
‫ بوه‬barhana to prove, demonstrate (‫ علو‬or ‫ع‬
s.th.)
‫ بوه‬burhān pl. ‫ بواهي‬barāhīn2 proof
‫ بوه ة‬barhana proving, demonstration
‫ بوو‬bawa waste, scrap
‫ بووتسووأ ظأ‬brotostantī Protestant; (pl. -ūn) a
Protestant
‫ بووتسأ ظأية‬brotostantīya Protestantism
‫( بووتسوأا‬It. protesto) brotostō protest (of a bill
of exchange)
‫ب ر‬: ‫ اعوطاا قواساب ريهو‬a‘ṯi l-qausa bāriyahā
give the bow to him who knows how to
shape it, i.e. always ask an expert
‫ مأبو ر‬mutabārin participant in a contest,
contestant, contender; competitor, rival
2
‫ بوي ظيو‬barīṯāniyā, biriṯāniyā Britain, ‫بوي ظيو ا‬
‫( ا كبوى‬uẓmā) Great Britain
‫بوي وووو ظ‬
Britannic
‫ بارتاكال‬brotokōl protocol
‫ بووتان‬proton
1
‫ باجوام‬brogrām program
‫ بووجو‬burūjī pl. -īya trumpeter, bugler
‫ بووز‬barwaza to frame
‫ بوواز‬barwāz, birwāz pl. ‫ بواويز‬barāwīz2 frame
‫( بووسي‬It. Prussia) burūsiyā Prussia
‫ بووس‬burūsī Prussian
‫ بوو وة‬and ‫( بوووﭬـوة‬It. prova) brōva, brōfa pl.
-āt test. experiment; proof sheet;
rehearsal
2
biriṯānī
British;
‫ بوز‬bazza u (bazz) to take away, steal, wrest,
snatch (‫ ه هوـ‬from s.o. s.th.). rob, strip (‫ه هوـ‬
s.o. of s.th.); to defeat, beat, outstrip, excel
(‫ ه‬s.o.), triumph, be victorious (‫ ه‬over)
VIII to take away, steal, pilfer (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
take away, snatch (‫ هووـ‬money, ‫ م و‬from
s.o.); to rob, fleece (‫ ه‬s.o.)│‫ابأوزاامواالاا و س‬
to lift money out of people’s pockets,
relieve people of their money
‫ بز‬bazza u to bud, burgeon
‫ بوز‬buzz, bizz pl. ‫ بوزاز‬bizāz, ‫ ابوزاز‬abzāz
nipple, mammilla (of the female breast);
teat, female breast 56
‫ بووظوووزى‬bronzi bronze, bronzy│‫اا عصووووا‬
‫‘( ا بووظزى‬aṣr) the Bronze Age
‫ بووى‬barā i (bary) to trim, shape (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), nib
(‫ هوـ‬a pen), sharpen (‫ هوـ‬a pencil); to scratch
off, scrape off (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to exhaust, tire
out, wear out, emaciate, enervate (‫ ه‬s.o.),
sap the strength of (‫ )ه‬III to vie, compete (‫ه‬
with s.o.). try to outstrip (‫ ه‬s.o.) VI to vie,
compete, contend, be rivals; to meet in a
contest, try each other’s strength (esp. in
games and sports) VII to be trimmed, be
nibbed, be sharpened; to defy, oppose (‫ل‬
s.o.); to undertake, take in hand (‫ ل‬s.th.),
set out to do s.th. (‫)ل‬, enter, embark (‫ل‬
upon); to break forth ( ‫ مو‬from); to get
barīṯānī,
‫ ابأووزاز‬ibtizāz theft, robbery; fleecing,
robbing (of s.o.)
‫( بووظز‬Fr.) bronz bronze
1
‫ بوية‬see 1‫ بوأ‬and 2‫بو‬
3
‫ بز‬bazz pl. ‫ بزوز‬buzūz linen; cloth, dry goods
‫ بوووز‬bizza clothing, clothes, attire;
uniform│‫( بز ارسمية‬rasmīya) uniform
‫ بزاز‬bazzāz draper, cloth merchant
‫ بزاز‬bizāza cloth trade
‫ بزباز‬bazbūz pl. ‫ بزابيز‬bazābīz2 nozzle, spout
‫ بزر‬bazara i (bazr) to sow
‫ بوزر‬bizr pl. ‫ بوزور‬buzūr seed(s); pl. ‫ابوزار‬
abzār and ‫ اب زيو‬abāzīr2 spice
‫ بوزر‬bizra (n. un.) seed; kernel, pip, pit,
stone (of fruit); germ
‫ بزار‬bazzār seedsman
‫ بزيو‬buzaira pl. -āt spore (bot.)
‫ بوزغ‬bazaga u to break forth, come out; to
dawn (day); to rise (sun)
‫ بوزوغ‬buzūg appearance, emergence; rise
(of the sun)
‫ بز‬bazaqa u (bazq) to spit
‫ بزالة‬bazzāqa snail; cobra
1
‫مبوو ز‬
mabāziq2
‫ابوزل‬bazala u (bazl) to split (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to pierce
(‫ هـ‬s.th.), make a hole (‫ هوـ‬in); to tap,broach
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.; a cask); to puncture, tap (‫ ه‬s.o.;
med.); to clear, filter (‫ هـ‬a liquid)
‫ بوزل‬bazl puncture, tapping, paracentesis
(med.)
‫ بزال‬buzāl bung (of a cask)
‫ مبووزل‬mibzal pl. ‫ مب و زل‬mabazil
spigot, tap; cock, faucet
2
2
spile,
‫( ابز ة‬It. piselli) bizilla and ‫ بزال‬green peas
‫ ابزيم‬ibzīm pl. ‫ اب زم‬abāzim2 buckle, clasp
‫ بزما‬bizmūt bismuth
‫ بزظ و‬bizanṯī Byzantine
‫ بو ز‬bāzin pl. ‫ بووزا‬buzāh, ‫ بوااز‬bawāzin, ‫بيوزان‬
bīzān falcon
‫ بس‬bass and ‫ بسة‬bassa pl. ‫ بس س‬bassās cat
‫ بسوب‬basa’a a ( ‫ بوس‬bas’) to treat amicably (‫ب‬
s.o.); to be intimate, be on familiar terms
(‫ ب‬with)
‫ بس رابي‬besārābiyā Bessarabia
‫ بسوب س‬basbās, ‫ بسب سوة‬basbāsa (eg.) mace (bot.);
(magr.) fennel
‫ بسباس وة‬basbāsa (eg.) pastry made of
flour, melted butter, sugar and oil
‫( بسأيلية‬Fr.) bastīliya pastilles, lozenges
1
‫( ابسوأان‬Fr. piston) bistōn, ‫( بسوأ‬Engl.) bistan
pl. ‫ بس ت‬basātin2 piston
3
‫( ابسوأان‬It. bastone) bastūnī spades (suit of
playing cards)
‫ بس ة‬basḳa Easter; Passion Week (Chr.)
‫ بسوو‬basara u (‫ بسوار‬busūr) to scowl, frown; -basara u (basr) and VIII to begin too
early (‫ هوـ‬with), take premature action, be
rash (‫ هـ‬in s.th.)
‫ بسوو‬busr (n. un. ) pl. ‫ بسو ر‬bisār unripe
dates
‫ بزا‬buzāq spit, spittle, saliva
‫ مبزلووة‬mibzaqa pl.
spittoon, cuspidor
2
‫ بسأ ن‬bustān pl. ‫ بس تي‬basātīn2 garden
‫ بسووأ ظو‬bustānī gardener; garden (adj.);
horticultural
‫ بسأ ة‬bastana gardening, horticulture
‫ ب سووووار‬bāsūr
hemorrhoids
pl.
‫بااسوووويو‬
bawāsīr2
‫ بسوط‬basaṯ u (basṯ) to spread, spread out (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to level, flatten (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to enlarge,
expand (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to stretch out, extend (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to unfold, unroll (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to grant,
offer, present (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to submit, state, set
forth, expound, explain (‫ هوـ‬s.th., ‫ ل‬or ‫علوو‬
to s.o.); to flog (‫ ه‬s.o.; Nejd); to please
delight (‫ ه‬s.o.)│ ‫( بسوطا راعيو‬dirā‘aihi) to
spread one’s arms; 57 ‫بسووطايووداا مس و عد ال‬
(yada l-musā‘ada) to extend helping hand
to s.o.; ‫ بسوطاا م ئود‬to lay the table; -- basuṯa
u (‫بسوووو هة‬
basāta) to be simple,
openhearted, frank, candid II to spread,
spread out, extend, expand (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
level, flatten (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to simplify, make
simple (‫ هووـ‬s.th.) III to set forth, state,
expound, explain; to be sincere (‫ ه ب‬with
s.th. about or in s.th.), confess frankly (‫ه ب‬
to s.o. s.th.) V to be spread, be unrolled,
be spread out, be extended; to speak at
great length (‫ وو‬about), enlarge (‫ وو‬on),
treat exhaustively, expound in detail (‫ وو‬a
theme); to be friendly, communicative,
sociable, behave unceremoniously, be
completely at ease│‫ اتبسوطا و اا حوديث‬to talk
freely, without formality VII to spread,
extend, expand (intr.); to be glad, be
delighted, be or become happy
‫ بسوووووط‬basṯ, extension, spreading,
unrolling,
unfolding;
presentation,
statement,
explanation,
exposition;
cheering,
delighting,
delectation;
amusement; (Eg.) numerator (of a
fraction)│‫ ابسوطاا يود‬b. al-yad avarice, greed,
cupidity
‫ بسو ة‬basṯa extension, extent, expanse;
size, magnitude; skill, capability, abilities;
excess, abundance; (pl. -āt) statement,
exposition, presentation; -- (pl. ‫ بسو ه‬bisāṯ)
landing (of staircase); estrade, dais,
platform (eg.)
‫ بسو ه‬bisāṯ pl. -āt, ‫ ابسو ة‬absiṯa, ‫ بسوط‬busuṯ
carpet, rug│‫ ابسووو هاا وحموووة‬b. ar-raḥma
winding sheet, shroud; ‫ وضا( مسب ة‬or) ‫هوحا‬
‫( علووابسو هاا بحوث‬mas‘alata, baḥtan) to raise
a question, bring a question on the carpet,
also ‫( علووابسو هاا م لشوة‬b. il-munāqaša) for
discussion; ‫ هوواىاا بسو هابمو ا يو‬to bring the
matter to an end, settle it once and for all
‫ م بسووووق‬munbasiq
towering
‫ ا بسي ة‬al-basīṯa the earth, the world
‫ بسووووو ئط‬basā’iṯ2
elements;
simple
remedies, medicinal plants; basic facts
‫ بس هة‬basāṯa simplicity, plainness
O ‫ ابسواهة‬ubsūṯa pl. ‫ اب سويط‬abāsīṯ2 rim,
felly (of a wheel)
‫ ابسوووط‬absaṯ
extensive
2
simpler;
wider,
more
‫ تبسيط‬tabsīṯ simplification
‫ اظبسووو ه‬inbisāṯ (n. vic. ) extensity,
extensiveness,
extension;
expansion,
expanse; joy. delight, happiness, gaiety,
cheerfulness
‫‘ ع لةاب س ة‬aḍla bāsiṯa extensor (anat.)
‫ مبس واه‬mabsūṯ extended, outstretched;
spread out; extensive, large, sizeable;
detailed, elaborate (book); cheerful, happy,
gay; feeling well, in good health; (tun.)
well-to-do
‫ م بسووط‬munbasiṯ extending, spreading;
gay, happy, cheerful; level surface
‫( بس ومة‬Turk.) basṯurma a kind of jerked,
salted meat (eg.)
‫ ا باسفار‬al-busfūr the Bosporus
‫ بسوق‬basaqa a ( ‫ بسوا‬busūq) to be high, tall,
lofty, towering; to excel, surpass (‫ ه‬or ‫علوو‬
s.o.)
‫ ب سق‬bāiq high, tall, lofty, towering
tall,
lofty,
‫( بسكليت‬Fr. bicyclette) biskilēt, baskilēt bicycle
‫( بسكا‬It. biscotto) baskūt biscuit
‫ بسكايت‬baskawīt biscuit
2
‫ بس ول‬basula u (‫ بس و ة‬basāla) to be brave,
fearless, intrepid V to scowl, glower X to
be reckless, defy death 58
‫ بس ة‬basāla courage, intrepidity
‫ اسأبس ل‬istibsāl death defiance
2
‫ بس ويط‬basīṯ pl.
‫ بس و‬busaṯā’ simple;
plain, uncomplicated; slight, little, modest,
inconsiderable, trivial, trifling; ‫ ا بسويط‬name
of a poetical meter; pl.
‫ بسو‬simple souls),
ingenuous people│ ‫ بسويطاا يودي‬b. al-yadain
(pl. ‫ بسط‬busuṯ) generous, openhanded
high,
‫ بس و ة‬bāsil pl. ‫ بسووال‬busalā’2, ‫بااسوول‬
bawāsil2 brave, fearless, intrepid
‫ مسبسل‬mustabsil death-defying, heroic
2
‫ابسلة‬bisilla peace
‫ بسم‬basam i (basm), V and VIII to smile
‫ بسم‬basma pl. basamāt smile
‫ بس م‬bassām smiling
‫ مبسوم‬mabsim, pl. ‫ مب سوم‬mabāsim2 mouth;
mouthpiece, holder (for cigars, cigarettes,
etc.)
‫ ابأسو م‬ibtisām and (n. vic.) ‫ ابأسو مة‬pl. -āt
smile
‫ بسومل‬basmala to utter the invocation ‫بسوما ا‬
‫“ ا ووحم اا وووحيم‬In the name of God, the
Benificent, the Merciful”
‫ بسوومل‬basmala utterance of the above
invocation; the invocation itself
‫ بسي ة‬busaina kitty
‫ بسيكا اجو‬psikolōjī psychological(aI)
‫ بوش‬bašša a (bašš, ‫ بش شوة‬bašāša) to display a
friendly, cheerful, happy mien; to smile;
to be friendly (‫ ل‬to s.o.). give s.o. (‫ )ل‬a
smile
‫ بشواش‬bašūš, baššāš smiling, friendly,
cheerful
‫ بش شة‬bašāša smile; happy mien
‫ ب ش‬bāšš smiling, happy; friendly, kind
‫ بشوت‬bušt (Nejd, Baḥr., Ir.) a kind of cloak, =
‫‘ عب‬abā’a
‫ بشوأة‬bišta (eg.) woolen cloak worn by
Egyptian peasants
1
‫ بشوو‬bašar i, bašira a to rejoice, be delighted,
be happy (‫ ب‬at s.th.) II to announce (as
good news; ‫ ه ب‬to s.o. s.th.); to bring news
(‫ ه ب‬to s.o. of s.th.); to spread, propagate,
preach (‫ ب‬s.th.; a religion, a doctrine)│‫ا‬
‫(بشووواظفسوو اب‬nafsahū) to indulge in the
happy hope that … IV to rejoice (at good
news) X to rejoice, be delighted, be happy
(‫ ب‬at s.th., esp. at good news), welcome,
(‫ ب‬s.th.); to take as good omen (‫ ب‬s.th.)│‫ا‬
‫( اسأبشووابو ا يووا‬ḳairan) to regard s.th. as
auspicious
‫ بشووووى‬bašarī human; human being;
epidermal,
skin
(adj.)│‫اهبيووووووبابشوووووووى‬
dermatologist
‫ بشوووو‬bašara outer skin, epidermis,
cuticle; skin; complexion
‫ بشوية‬bašarīya, mankind, human race
‫ مبشو‬mibšara pl. ‫ مب شوو‬mabāšir2 scraper,
grater
‫ مب شوو‬mubāšara pursuit, practice; direct,
physical cause (Isl. Law); mubāšaratan
immediately, directly
‫ بشو‬bišr joy
‫ مبشوووار‬mabšūr:
shredded cheese
‫ بشو‬bušr glad tidings
‫ بشوى‬bušrā glad tidings, good news
‫ مب شوو‬mubāšir pl. -ūn direct, immediate;
practitioner, pursuer, operator; director; O
manager (Eg.); court usher (Syr.); (mil.)
approx.: staff sergeant (Eg. 1939)│‫غيوووا‬
‫( مب شو‬iṣābāt) directs
2
‫ بشو ر‬bišāra pl. -āt, ‫ بشو ئو‬bašā’ir good
news,
glad
tidings;
annunciation,
prophecy; gospel; ‫ بشووو ئو‬good omens,
propitious signs│ ‫‘ اعيووداا بشو ر‬īd al-b. the
Annunciation, the Day of Our Lady (Chr.)
2
‫ بشويو‬bašīr pl. ‫ بشووا‬bušarā’ bring.r of
glad tidings, messenger, herald, harbinger,
forerunner, precursor; evangelist (Chr.)
‫ تبشووويو‬tabšīr announcement (of glad
tidings); preaching of the Gospel;
evangelization, missionary activity
‫ بشووش‬bašrūš flamingo
‫ بش وا‬baši‘a a (‫ بش و عة‬bašā‘a) to be ugly,
loathsome II to make ugly, disfigure,
distort (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to disparage, run down (‫هوـ‬
s.th.) X to regard as ugly, find ugly or
repugnant (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ بشووا‬baši‘ ugly; offensive, disgusting,
distasteful, repugnant; unpleasant
‫ تبشيو‬tabšīrī missionary
‫ بشو عة‬bašā‘a ugly; offensive, disgusting,
distasteful, repugnant; unpleasant
‫ تب شويو‬tabāšīr2 foretokens, prognostics,
omens, first signs or indications, heralds
(fig.); beginnings, dawn│‫ اتب شويواا فجوو‬t. alfajr the first shimmer of aurora, the first
glimpse of dawn
‫ مبشوووو‬mubaššir pl. -āt announcer,
messenger (of glad tidings); evangelist
(Chr.); preacher; missionary (Chr.)
‫ مسأبشو‬mustabšir happy, cheerful
2
‫ ابشوو‬bašara u to peel (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to scrape off,
shave off, scratch off (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to grate,
shred (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) III to touch (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), be in
direct contact (‫ هووـ‬with s.th.); to have
sexual intercourse (‫ ه‬with s.o.); to attend,
apply o.s. (‫ ب‬or ‫ ب‬to s.th.), take up, take
in hand, pursue, practice, carry out (‫هوـ‬
s.th., job, a task, etc.) 59
‫ بش وو‬bašar man, human being; men,
mankind
‫( جب وووةامبشوووار‬jubna)
‫ بش عة‬bašā‘a ugliness
‫ ابشا‬abša2 uglier; more repulsive
1
2
‫ ب شق‬look up alphabetically
‫( بشق‬eg.; Turk. baška; invar.) different
‫ بشل‬VIII to lie, prevaricate
‫ بش‬baššāk liar
‫ ابأش‬ibtišāk lie, deceit, trickery
1
‫ بشوكار‬baškūr pl. ‫ بشو كيو‬bašākīr2 poker, fire
iron
2
‫ بشكيو‬balkir pl. ‫ بش كيو‬bašākīr2 towel
‫( بشلة‬It.) bišilla pl. -āt bacillus
‫ بشوم‬bašima a (bašam) to feel nauseated, be
disgusted ( ‫ مو‬by s.th.), be fed up ( ‫ مو‬with)
IV to nauseate, sicken, disgust (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ بشم‬bašam surfeit, satiety, loathing, disgust
‫ بشم ر‬bašmār (tun.) lacework, trimmings
within sight; ‫ووووو ابصوووووواب‬
‫وووووو‬
knowledgeable, in, h. is familiar with
‫ بشو موى‬bašāmirī (tun.) laceworker, lacemaker
‫ بصوى‬baṣarī optic(al), visual, ocular
‫ بشومق‬bašmaq slipper (worn by fuqahā’ and
women)
‫ بصوي‬baṣarīyāt optics
‫ ابصو ر‬basāra perception, discernment;
perspicacity, acuteness of the mind, sharpwittedness
‫ بش ة‬bašna (magr.) sorghum, millet
‫ بشو س‬bašan the ninth month of the Coptic
calendar
‫ بصويو‬baṣīr pl. ‫ بصووا‬buṣarā’2 endowed
with eyesight; acutely aware (‫ ب‬of),
having insight (‫ ب‬into); possessing
knowledge or understanding (‫ ب‬of),
discerning,
discriminating,
versed,
knowledgeable,
proficient
(‫ب‬
in),
acquainted (‫ ب‬with s.th.);
‫ بشو الة‬bašnūqa pl. ‫ بشو ظيق‬bašānīq2 kerchief tied
under the chin (pal.)
‫ بش ي‬bašnīn lotus
‫ بوص‬baṣṣa i (baṣṣ, ‫ بصويص‬ba ṣ) to glow,
sparkle, glitter, shine; -- (eg.) u to look
‫ بصويو‬baṣīra pl. ‫( بصو ئو‬keen) insight,
penetration, discernment, understanding,
(power of) mental perception, mental
vision│ ‫ عو ابص ويو‬deliberately, knowingly;
‫ كو ناعلووابصويو امو‬to have insight into s.th.,
be informed about s.th.; ‫ظ ووولاا بصووويو‬
discerning, clear-sighted, perspicacious,
sharp-witted; ‫ ظفو اا بصويو‬nafād al.-b. sharp
discernment, perspicacity
‫ بصة‬baṣṣ embers
‫ بصويص‬baṣīṣ glow, shine; glimpse, ray
(e.g., of hope); lustrous, shining
‫ بصو ئص‬baṣā’iṣ lustrous, shining; (eg.)
spy, detective
‫ بصوبص‬baṣbaṣa (‫ بصبصوة‬baṣbaṣa) to wag ( ‫بلظبو‬
bi-danabihi its tail); (eg.) to ogle, make
sheep’s eyes, cast amorous glances
‫ ابصو‬abṣar2 more discerning
‫ بص ة‬baṣḳa see ‫بس ة‬
2
‫ بصوو‬baṣura a (baṣar) to look, see; to realize,
understand, comprehend, grasp (‫ ب‬s.th.) II
to make (‫ ه‬s.o.) understand or realize (‫هوـ‬
or ‫ ب‬s.th.), make (‫ ه‬s.o.) aware (‫ هوـ‬or ‫ ب‬of
s.th.); to enlighten 60 (‫ ه هوـ‬or ‫ ه ب‬s.o. on or
as to s.th.); to tell, inform (‫ ه هوـ‬or ‫ ه ب‬s.o.
about) IV to see (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.); to make
out, behold, perceive, discern, notice (‫هوـ‬, ‫ه‬
s.o., s.th.), set eyes on (‫)ه هوـ‬, catch sight of
(‫هوـ‬. ‫ ;)ه‬to recognize (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.); to
reflect (‫ ب‬on). ponder (‫ ب‬s.th.) V to look
(‫ هوـ‬at), regard (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to reflect (‫ وو‬on
s.th.), ponder (‫ ووو‬s.th.) X to have the
faculty of visual perception, be able to
see; to be endowed with reason, be
rational, reasonable, intelligent; to reflect
(‫ و‬on s.th.), ponder (‫ و‬s.th.)
‫ بصوو‬baṣar pl. ‫ ابصو ر‬abṣār vision, eye-sight;
glance, look; insight; sight, discernment,
perception│‫لصوووووويواا بصووووووو‬
shortsighted,
myopic; ‫ موااا بصوو‬lamḥ al-b.glance of the
eye; ‫كلموااا بصوو‬, ‫ و ا موااا بصوو‬, ‫ونا موااا بصوو‬
(dūna), ‫( و االوولا مووااا بصووو‬aqalIa) in the
twinkling of an eye, in a moment, in a
flash. instantly; ‫( علووووامووودىاا بصوووو‬madā)
is
‫ تبصوو‬tabṣira enlightenment; instruction,
information
‫ تبصوو‬tabaṣṣur reflection, consideration;
penetration,
clear-sightedness,
perspicacity
‫ ب صو‬bāṣira pl. ‫ بااصو‬bawāṣir2 eye
2
‫ اا بصو‬al-baṣra Basra (port in S Iraq)
‫ بصق‬baṣaqa u to spit (‫ علو‬on s.o.)
‫ بصوووقة‬baṣqa (n. vic.) expectoration;
(expectorated) spit, spittle, saliva
‫ بص‬buṣaq spit, spittle, saliva
‫ مبصقة‬mibṣaqa spittoon, cuspidor
‫ بصول‬baṣal (coll.; n. un. ) onion(s); bulb(s)│‫ا‬
‫ بصلاا ف ر‬b. al-fa’r sea onion (Scilla verna)
‫ بصلو‬baṣālī bulbous
‫ بصويلة‬buṣaila pl. -āt, ‫ بصويلةاا شوعو‬b. ašša‘r bulb of the hair (anat.)
‫ بصوم‬baṣama u (baṣm) to print, imprint (‫هووـ‬
s.th.); to stamp (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to make, or leave,
an imprint (‫ هـ‬on)
‫بصوومة‬
baṣma pl. baṣamāt imprint,
impression│‫ابصوومةاا ووأم‬b. al-ḳatm stamp
imprint, stamp; ‫ بصمةااالص با‬fingerprint
‫ بصا‬baṣwa embers
‫ ب‬baḍḍ tender-skinned
‫ ب وا‬baḍa‘a a (baḍ‘) to cut, slash or slit open
(‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to cut up, carve up, dissect,
anatomize ( s.th.); to amputate (surg.) II to
cut up, carve up, dissect, anatomize III to
sleep ( ‫ ه و‬with a woman) IV to invest
capital (‫ )هووـ‬profitably in a commercial
enterprise V pass. of n; to trade; to shop,
make purchase X to trade 61
‫ ب ا‬baḍ‘ amputation
to be late ( ‫ عو‬for s.th., in meeting s.o.),
keep s.o. ( ‫ )عو‬waiting V to be slow, tardy
(‫ وو‬in) VI to he slow, leisurely, unhurried;
to go, drive, act or proceed slowly,
leisurely; to he slowgoing, slow-footed,
slow-paced; to slow down X to find slow
(‫هـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.); to have to wait a long time
(‫ ه‬for s.o.), be kept waiting (‫ ه‬by s.o.)
‫ بوووط‬buṯ’ slowness, tardiness│ ‫ابوووبط‬
slowly, leisurely, unhurriedly
‫ ب وئ‬baṯI’ pl. ‫ ب و‬biṯā’ slow, unhurried;
slowgoing, slow-footed, slow-paced;
tardy, late; sluggish, lazy; slow, gradual,
imperceptible│O ‫ اب و اا أوو‬b. at-taraddud
of low frequency (el.)
‫ ب وا‬biḍ‘ (commonly, with genit. pl. of
f. nouns, ‫ ب وعة‬with genit. pl. of m. nouns;
in classical Arabic ‫ ب وا‬with both genders)
some, a few, several
‫ اب ووب‬abṯa’2 slower│‫ااب وووباموو اغوووواباظووواح‬
(gurābi nūḥ) tardier than Noah’s raven,
i.e., slower than a ten years’ itch
(proverbially of s.o. who ia very tardy)
‫ ب وعة‬biḍ‘a pl. ‫ ب و ئا‬baḍā’i‘ piece (of
meat); meat; see also biḍ‘ above
‫ اب و‬ibṯā’ slowing down, retardation,
deceleration, reduction of speed; tarrying,
delay; slowness│ ‫ ا ونااب‬without delay
‫ ب ا‬buḍ‘ vulva
‫ ب و عة‬biḍā‘a pl. ‫ ب و ئا‬baḍā’i2 goods,
merchandise, wares, commodities; that
which s.o. has to offer, which he has to
&how, with which he is endowed (also
attributes, qualities)│‫ ال و راا ب و عة‬freight
train; ‫ ا و امو اع ودهامو اب و عة‬he said what he
had intended to say
‫ مب وووا‬mibḍa‘ pl. ‫مب ضوووا‬
dissecting knife, scalpel
mabāḍi‘2
‫ تبو هؤ‬tabātu’ slowness; slowing down,
retardation
‫ ب رية‬baṯṯārīya pl. -āt battery (el. and mil.)
‫ ب ه‬baṯāṯā, ‫ ب ه‬baṯāṯā sweet potato, yam
‫ ب هس‬baṯāṯis potatoes
‫ ب لة‬see ‫ب ق‬
‫ ب بط‬baṯbaṯa (‫ ب ب ة‬baṯbaṯa) to quack (duck)
‫ اب ووووو‬ibḍā‘ mandate for the
management of affairs (lsl. Law);
partnership in a limited company, capital
investment
‫ ب وا‬baṯaḥa a (baṯḥ) to prostrate, lay low, fell,
throw to the ground, throw down (‫هوـ‬, ‫ه‬
s.o., s.th.) V and VII to he prostrated, be
laid low; to lie prostrate, sprawl, stretch
out; to extend, stretch; to lie
‫ مب ووا‬mubḍi‘ pl. -ūn limited partner
(com.)
‫ اب وا‬abṯaḥ2 flat, level; (pl. ‫ ابو ها‬abāṯiḥ2)
basin-shaped valley, wide bed of a wadi
‫ مسأب ووا‬mustabḍi‘ manager, managing
agent (Isl. Law)
‫ ب ح و‬baṯḥā’ pl. ‫ ب و ح‬biṯāḥ, ‫ب ح و وا‬
baṯḥawāt basin-shaped valley; plain, level
land, flatland, open country; (tun.) public
square
‫ بط‬baṯṯ (n. un. ) duck; ‫ ب وة‬baṯṯa leather flask│‫ا‬
‫ب ةاا س ا‬calf (of the leg)
‫ ب وؤ‬baṯu’a u ( ‫ بوط‬buṯ’, ‫ ب و‬biṯā’, ‫ ب و‬baṯa’a)
to he slow; to he slowgoing, slow-footed,
slow-paced; to tarry, linger, wait, hesitate
II to retard, slow down, delay, hold up (‫ب‬
‫ علووو‬s.o. in s.th.) IV to slow down,
decelerate, retard, delay, hold up (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
to he slow, go or drive slowly, slow down;
‫ ب يحة‬baṯīḥa pl. ‫ ب ئا‬baṯā’iḥ wide bed of
a stream or wadi; a stagnant, shallow and
broad body of water
‫ م وب ا‬munbaṯiḥ prostrate; flat, level;
level land, plain 62
‫ ب ويخ‬biṯṯīḳ, baṯṯīḳ (n. un. ) melon, watermelon; baṯṯīḳ hub (of a wheel; syr.)
‫ة‬
1
to be inactive. be oat of work II to thwart,
foil, frustrate, make ineffective counteract,
neutralize, nullify, invalidate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
abolish, cancel, annul, suppress (‫ هوـ‬s.th.)
IV = II; to talk idly, prattle; to paralyze,
immobilize, hold down, pin down (‫ ه‬the
opponent)
‫ مب‬mabṯaḳa melon patch
‫ اب وو‬baṯira a (baṯar) to be wild, wanton,
reckless; to be proud, vain; to be
discontented (‫ هـ‬with s.th.); to disregard (‫هـ‬
s.th.) IV to make reckless
‫ ب وول‬buṯl nullity; uselessness, futility.
vanity; falsity, falseness, untruth
‫ ب ووووو‬baṯar wantonness, cockiness,
arrogance, hubris, pride, vanity
vivants,
‫ ب ووووة‬biṯāla and baṯāla idleness,
inactivity; free time, time off, holidays,
vacations; unemployment
‫ ا ب ووووا‬al-baṯrā’ Petra (ancient city of
Edomites and Nabataeans; ruins now in
SW Jordan)
‫ ب ووو ل‬baṯṯāl pl. –ūn idle, inactive;
unemployed, out of work
‫ ابووو هو‬abāṯira (pl.)
playboys, epicures
2
bona
‫ ب والن‬buṯlān nullity; uselessness, futility,
vanity; falsity, untruth; invalidity
‫ ب وخ‬baṯraḳ pl. ‫ ب رخ‬baṯāriḳ2 roe (of fish)
‫ ب وس‬buṯrus Peter
‫ ب وشوويل‬baṯrašīl and
(Chr.)
‫ اب وووو ل‬ibṯāl thwarting, frustration,
invalidation; ruin, destruction; abolition,
cancellation
‫ ب وشووي‬baṯrašīn stole
‫ ب هول‬bāṯil nugatory, vain, futile; false,
untrue; absurd, groundless, baseless;
worthless; invalid, null, void; deception,
lie, falsehood; ‫ ب ب هوول‬and ‫ بوو هال‬bāṯila
falsely; futilely, in vain; pl. ‫ اب هيول‬abāṯīl2
vanities, trivialities, trifles, flimflam, idle
talk, prattle
‫ ب ويوق‬biṯrīq pl. ‫ ب رلوة‬baṯāriqa, ‫ ب و ريق‬baṯārīq2
patrician; Romaean general; penguin
(zool.)
‫ ب و‬baṯrak, ‫ ب ويول‬baṯrīk, ‫ ب ويوو‬baṯriyark pl.
‫ ب ركووووة‬baṯārika Patriarch (as. an
ecclesiastic title, Chr.)
‫ ب وكيوة‬baṯrakīya, ‫ ب ويوكيووة‬baṯriyarkīya
patriarchate (Chr.)
‫ ب وش‬baṯaša i u (baṯš) to attack with violence;
to bear down on, fall upon s.o. (‫ ب‬or ‫;) وو‬
to knock out (‫ ه‬s.o.); to hit, strike (‫ ب‬s.th.).
land with a thud (‫ ب‬on)
‫ ب وووش‬baṯš strength, power, force,
violence;
courage,
valor,
bravery;
oppression, tyranny
‫ ب شة‬baṯša impact
‫ ب لووة‬biṯāqa pl. –āt, ‫ ب و ئق‬baṯā’iq2 slip (of
paper), tag; card, calling card; ticket;
label│ ‫اب لةاا زيو ر‬calling card; ‫ب لوةاش صويةا‬
(šaḳṣīya) and ‫ ب لوةاا أعويوف‬identity card;
‫ ب لةاا ماا اا غلائيوة‬b. al-mawādd al-gidā’īya,
‫ ب لوةاا أمواي‬food ration card; ‫ ب لوةاا مع يود‬b.
al-mu‘āyada greeting card
1
‫ اب ول‬baṯala u (buṯl, ‫ ب والن‬buṯlān) to be or
become null, void, invalid, false,
untenable, vain, futile, worthless; to be
abolished, fall into disuse, become
obsolete; to cease, stop, be discontinued;
‫ مب ل‬mubṯil prattler, windbag; liar
‫ مب ل‬mubṯal nugatory, futile, vain
‫ مأب ل‬mutabaṯṯil unemployed
2
‫ اب ول‬baṯula u (‫ ب وة‬baṯāla, ‫ ب ا وة‬buṯūla) to be
brave, be heroic, be a hero
‫ ب ول‬baṯal pl. ‫ اب و ل‬abṯāl brave, heroic; hero;
champion, pioneer; hero, protagonist (of a
narrative, etc.), lead, star 63 (of a play);
champion (athlet.)│‫ اب ولاا عو م‬b. Al-‘alam
world champion
‫ ب ل وة‬baṯala heroine (of a narrative),
female lead, star (of a play); woman
champion (athlet..)
‫ة‬
‫ ب‬baṯāla bravery, valor, heroism
‫ ب ا وة‬buṯūla bravery, valor, heroism;
leading role, starring role (theater, film);
championship
(athlet.)│‫اا ب ا ووووووةاا ع ميووووووة‬
(‘ālamīya) and ‫ ب ا ةاا ع م‬b. al-‘ālam world
championship (athlet.); ‫ وراا ب ا وة‬the part
or role of the hero, leading role
‫سة‬
‫ ب‬baṯālisa Ptolemies
‫ ب م‬buṯm, buṯūm terebinth (bot.)
1
‫ اب‬baṯana u (baṯn, ‫ ب ان‬bulan) to he hidden,
concealed, to hide; -- baṯuna u (‫ب ظ وة‬
baṯāna) to be paunchy II to line (‫ هوـ‬a
garment, ‫ هوـ ب‬s.th. with); to cover the
inside (‫ هوـ ب‬of s.th. with), hang, face, fill
(‫ هووـ ب‬s.th. with) IV to hide, conceal,
harbor (‫ هووـ‬s.th.) V to be lined, have a
lining (garment); to penetrate, delve (‫هووـ‬
into), become absorbed, engrossed (‫ هوـ‬in)
X to penetrate, delve (‫ هوـ‬into), become
absorbed, engrossed (‫ هووـ‬in); to try to
fathom (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to fathom (‫ هـ‬s.th.), get to
the bottom of (‫ ;)هووـ‬to have profound
knowledge (‫ هوـ‬of s.th.), know thoroughly,
know inside out (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ ب و‬baṯn pl. ‫ ب وان‬buṯūn, ‫ اب و‬abṯun
belly, stomach, abdomen; womb; interior,
inside, inner portion; depth│‫ اب اا قودم‬b. alqadam sole of the foot; ‫ ب و اا كوف‬b. al-kaff
palm of the hand;
‫ رلوصاا وب‬and ‫رلووصا‬
‫ ا ب ان‬raqṣ al-b. belly dance; ‫( واب و‬baṯni)
in, within, in the midst of; ‫ وواب وان‬inside,
within, in; ‫( و وود اب و اواحووداا‬waladat) she
gave birth only once; ‫( ب و ا رهوو‬li-ẓahrin)
upside down
‫ ب و‬baṯnī ventral, abdominal
‫ ب‬baṯin paunchy
‫ ب وووووة‬biṯna
indigestion
gluttony;
overeating,
‫ ب و ن‬biṯān pl. ‫ اب وة‬abṯina girth (of a
camel)
‫ ب ظ وة‬biṯāna pl. ‫ ب و ئ‬baṯā’in2 inside,
inner side; lining (of a garment); retinue,
suite, entourage│‫ ا وواب ظوة‬among, amidst;
within
‫ ب وي‬baṯīn pl. ‫ ب و ن‬biṯān and ‫مب و ن‬
mibṯān, paunchy, fat, corpulent, stout;
gluttonous
‫ ب ي‬buṯain ventricle (of the heart; anat.)
‫ ب ظيوة‬baṯṯānīya pl. -āt,
cover; blanket; quilt
‫ ب و هي‬baṯāṯīn2
‫ ب و ه‬bāṯin pl. ‫ ب وااه‬bawāṯin2 inner,
interior, inward, inmost, intrinsic; hidden,
secret; ‫ ا ب ه وة‬coastal plain of E Oman; ‫ب ه و‬
bāṯinan inwardly, secretly│‫ اب و ه اا كووف‬b.
al-kaff palm of the hand; ‫ بو ه اا قودم‬b. alqadam sole of the foot; ‫ ووابو ه ااالمووو‬at
bottom, after all, really; ‫ ب وااه ااالمووو‬the
factors, circumstances or reasons at the
bottom of s.th.; ‫ بوااه ااالر‬b. al-arḍ the
secret depths of the earth
‫ بوووو ه‬bāṯinī internal│ ‫امووووو ابووووو ه‬
(maraḍ) internal disease; ‫( ا وباا بو ه‬ṯibb)
internal medicine
‫ا ب ه يوة‬
thought
divining
revealed
al-bāṯinīya name of a school of
in Islam, characterized by
a hidden, secret meaning in the
texts
‫ مب وان‬mabṯūn affected with a gastric or
intestinal ailment
‫ مب‬mubaṯṯan lined; filled (‫ ب‬with)
2
‫ اب‬II (tun.) to full (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫( ب ه ن‬Span. batán) bāṯān fulling mill
‫ ب هية‬bāṯiya pl. ‫ بااه‬bawāṯin pitcher, jug
‫ ب‬baẓẓa u to spout, gush out, well out
‫ برو‬baẓr pl. ‫ برار‬buẓur clitoris (anat.) 64
‫ بعبا‬bu‘bu‘ pl. ‫ بع با‬ba‘ābi‘2 bugaboo, bogey
‫ بعوث‬ba‘ata a (ba‘t) to send, send out, dispatah
(‫ ب ا وو‬or ‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o. or s.th. to); to forward
(‫ ب ا و‬or ‫ هوـ‬s.th. to); to delegate (‫ ب‬or ‫ا وو ه‬
s.o. to); to emit (‫ ب‬or ‫ هوـ‬s. th.); to evoke,
arouse, call forth, awaken (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to stir
up, provoke, bring on (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to revive,
resuscitate (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to resurrect (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫م ا‬
‫ ا موا‬from death); to incite, induce (‫ علوو‬to
s.th.), instigate, (‫ علوو‬s.th.); to cause (‫علوو‬
s.th.; e.g., astonishment)│‫بعثاا ي اهز اا واا‬
(hazzat al-ḳauf) to scare the wits out of
s.o.; ‫( بعووثاروحاا حي و ا و‬rūḥa l-ḥayāh) to
breathe life into s.th. or s.o., revive s.th.
VII to be Bent out, be emitted, be
dispatched, be delegated; to be triggered,
be caused, be provoked; to be resurrected
( ‫ مو اا موا‬from death); to originate ( ‫ مو‬in),
come ( ‫ مو‬from), be caused ( ‫ مو‬by); to
emanate (fragrance); to arise, spring,
proceed, develop ( ‫ مو‬from), grow out of
( ‫ ;)مو‬to set out to do s.th. (with foll.
imperf.) VIII to send, dispatch (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ بعووووث‬ba‘t sending out, emission,
dispatching, delegation, etc.; resurrection;
pl.
‫بعوووووووواث‬
bu‘ūt
delegations,
deputations│‫ حوزباا بعوث‬ḥizb al-b. approx.:
Renaissance Party, a political party with
strong socialist tendencies; ‫ ياماا بعوث‬Day of
Resurrection (from the dead)
‫ بعثوووة‬ba‘ta pl. ba‘atāt delegation,
deputation, mission; expedition; student
exchange; group of exchange students;
revival, rebirth, renaissance, rise│‫ابعثوووةا‬
‫‘( عسوكوية‬askarīya) military mission; ‫بعثووةا‬
‫ بلام سوووية‬diplomatic mission; ‫بعثوووةااثويوووة‬
(atarīya) archaeological expedition; ‫رئويسا‬
‫ ا بعثة‬ra’īs al-b. chief of mission (dipl.)
‫ ب عاث‬bā‘ūt Easter (Chr.)
‫ مبعووووث‬mab‘at sending, forwarding,
dispatch; emission; awakening, arousal; -(pl. ‫ مب عث‬mabā‘it2) cause; factor
‫ ب عوث‬bā‘it pl. ‫ بااعوث‬bawā‘it2 incentive,
inducement, motive, spur, reason, cause,
occasion
‫ مبعوواث‬mab‘ūt dispatched, delegated;
envoy, delegate; representative, deputy (in
the Ottoman Empire)
‫ م بعث‬munba‘at source, point of origin
‫ بعثوو‬ba‘tara ( ‫ بعثوو‬ba‘tara) to scatter, strew
around, fling about (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to disarrange,
throw into disorder (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to squander,
waste, dissipate (‫ هـ‬s.th.) II tabatara pass.
‫ مبعثو‬muba‘tar scattered, widespread
‫ بع‬ba‘aja a (ba‘j) to slit open (‫ هوـ‬the belly); to
groove, dent, notch (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) VII to have
indentations or notches; to be bruised,
dented, bumpy; to get battered
‫ م بع‬munba‘ij notched, indented
‫ بعود‬ba‘uda u (bu'd) to be distant, far away, far
off; to keep away, keep one’s distance ( ‫عو‬
from); to go far beyond ( ‫)عو‬, exceed by
far ( ‫ عو‬s.th.); to be remote, improbable,
unlikely│ ‫ بعودابو اعو‬he kept him away from;
‫ الايبعووداان‬it is not unlikely that ... II to
remove (‫ ه‬s.o.); to banish, exile, expatriate
(‫ ه‬s.o.) III to cause a separation ( ‫بووي‬
between)│ ‫ ب عدابي ا الناوبوي اا شو‬to prevent
s.o. from attaining s.th.; ‫ب عوودابووي ااجف ظوو‬
(ajfānihī) to stare wide-eyed IV to remove
(‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to take away (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
eliminate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), do away with (‫ ;)هوـ‬to
send away, dismiss (‫ ه‬s.o.); to expatriate,
banish, exile (‫ ه‬s.o.); to exclude, make
unlikely, improbable, impossible (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
to go or move far away; to go very far (‫وو‬
in or with s.th.) VI to be separated, lie
apart, lie at some distance from one
another; to separate, part company,
become estranged; to move away, go
away, withdraw, depart ( ‫ عو‬from); to keep
away, keep one’s distance ( ‫ عو‬from); to
quit, leave, avoid ( ‫ عو‬s.th.); to follow in
regular 65
intervals VIII to move or go away; to keep
away, withdraw ( ‫ عو‬from); to quit, leave,
avoid ( ‫ عووو‬s.th.); to leave out of
consideration, disregard ( ‫ عو‬s.th.) X to
single out, set aside (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to think
remote, farfetched (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to regard as
unlikely (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to disqualify (‫ ه‬s.o.)
distance, long-range; extensive, farreaching; ‫ بعيوداا روو‬b. an-naẓar farsighted;
farseeing; ‫ بعي وداا م و ل‬b. al-manāl hardly
attainable, hard to get at; ‫ هبابعيدا‬to go far
away, go to distant land.; ‫ ت لوااا ووابعيود‬to
look off into the distance
‫ بعيود‬bu'aida (prep.) shortly after, soon
after
‫ بعود‬bu‘d remoteness, farness; (pl. ‫ابعو‬
ab‘ād) distance; dimension; interval
(mus.)│‫ اعلوابعد‬and ‫ علواا بعد‬in the distance,
far off; ‫ علووابعودامئوةامأوو‬at a distance of 100
meters; ‫ عو ابعود‬and ‫ امو ابعود‬from a distance,
from afar; ‫ واثالثووةاابعو‬three-dimensional;
‫ ليو سااالبعو‬qiyās al-a. linear measure; ‫بعودا‬
‫ ا همووووة‬b. al-himma high aspirations,
loftiness of purpose; ‫ بعوداا شوقة‬b. aš-šiqqa
wide interval, wide gap; ‫ بعوداا صويت‬b. aṣ-ṣīt
renown, fame, celebrity; ‫ بعوداا صوا‬b. aṣṣaut do.; ‫ بعوووداا روووو‬b. an-naẓar far
sightedness, foresight; ‫ بعودا‬bu‘dan li away
with ... !
‫ ابعوود‬ab‘ad2 pl. ‫ اب عوود‬abā‘d2 farther,
remoter, more distant; more extensive;
less likely, more improbable; pl. ‫اب عوود‬
abā‘d2 very distant relative│‫ا شووو ااالبعوود‬
(šarq) the Far East; ‫ االبعود‬the absent one
(used as a polite periphrasis for s.o. who is
being criticized or blamed for s.th.; also
when referring to the 1st and 2nd persons)
‫ ابع ية‬ab‘adīya pl. -āt country estate
‫ تبعيد‬tab‘īd banishment
‫ بع‬bi‘ād distance
‫ مب عود‬mubā‘ada sowing of dissension,
estrangement, alienation
‫ بعود‬ba‘du then, thereupon; afterwards,
later, after that, in the following; still,
yet│‫ ا يم ابعد‬afterwards, later; ‫ ام ابعد‬see 1 ‫;ام‬
‫ هواابعوداصوغيو‬he is only a small boy, be is
still young; ‫( مايوب ابعود‬ya’ti) he hasn’t come
yet
‫ ابعو‬ib‘ād removal, separation, isolation;
elimination; expatriation, banishment,
deportation
‫ تب عووود‬tabā‘ud
estrangement
‫ بعود‬ba‘da (prep.) after; in addition to,
beside; aside from│...‫( ابعووداكاظ و ا‬kaunihī)
aside from the fact that he is ... ; ‫بعودا ول‬
afterwards, after that, later (on); besides,
moreover; ‫ بعودا ا‬besides, moreover; ‫بعوداان‬
ba‘da an (conj.) after; ‫( ا‬id), ‫ بعدامو‬and ‫مو ا‬
‫( بعودامو‬ba‘di) do.; ‫( سوف امو ابعودهاسوف‬safahun)
the height of stupidity
‫ بعدئوووول‬ba‘da’idin then, thereafter,
thereupon, after that, afterwards
‫ بعيود‬ba‘īd pl. ‫ بعودا‬bu‘adā’, ‫ بعود‬bu‘ud,
‫ بعودان‬ba‘dān, ‫ بعو‬bi‘ād distant, far away,
fur (or from); remote, outlying, out-of-theway; far-reaching, extensive; farfetched,
improbable, unlikely; unusual, strange,
odd, queer; incompatible, inconsistent ( ‫عو‬
with)│‫ امو ابعيود‬from afar, from a distance;
‫‘( م ولاعهودابعيود‬ahd) along time ago; ‫بعيودااالثوو‬
b. al-atar of far-reaching consequence; ‫بعيدا‬
‫ ا أو ريخ‬remote in time, going way back in
history, ancient; ‫ بعيوداا شوبر‬b. aš-ša’w highminded, bold; ‫ بعي وداا شووقة‬b. aš-šiqqa far
apart; ‫ بعيووووداا غووووار‬b. al-gaur deep;
unfathomable; ‫ بعيوداا مودى‬b. al-madā long-
interdistance;
mutual
‫ مبعد‬mub‘ad deported; deportee
‫ مأب عووود‬mutabā‘id separate│‫ا ووو ا أووووا ا‬
‫( مأب عود‬fatarāt) in wide intervals; ‫و ا أووا ا‬
‫( مأب عووود امووو اا وووزم‬zaman) at infrequent
intervals, from time to time
‫ مسووأبعد‬mustab‘ad improbable, unlikely
66
1
‫ ابعو‬ba‘r, ba‘ar, droppings, dung (of animals)
2
‫ ابعيوو‬ba‘īr pl. ‫ ابعوو‬ab‘ira, ‫ بعووان‬bu‘ran, ‫ابو عو‬
abā‘ir2, ‫ بع ري‬ba‘ārīn2 camel
‫ بعووز‬ba‘zaqa (‫ بعزلووة‬ba‘zaqa) to scatter,
dissipate, squander, waste (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ مبعوز‬muba'ziq squanderer, spendthrift,
wastrel
‫ بع‬II to divide into parts or portions (‫ هوـ‬s.th.)
V to be divided, be divisible
‫ بعو ا‬ba‘ḍ part, portion; one; some, a
few; a little of, some of│ ‫ ابعو اا علمو‬b. al‘ulamā’ one (or Borne) of the scholars;
‫( ر ع و ابع وهما ووا ابع و‬rafa‘na) we have
exalted some of them above the others;‫ا‬
‫ا وبع —ا ووبع ااب وووا‬some—some, a few
others; ‫ بع همابع‬one another, each other,
mutually, reciprocally; ‫ بع و ا ووابعو‬one in
the other, within one another; ‫بعو اا شو‬
ba‘ḍa š-šai’ to some extent, somewhat, a
little, rather; ‫( م ثلوةابعو اا مم ثلوة‬ba‘ḍa l-m.)
he resembled him somewhat, to some
extent; ‫( م لالووناوبعو الوون‬qarn) for the last
hundred years and more
‫ بعا‬ba‘ūḍ (n. un. ) gnats, mosquitoes
‫ تبعوووووي‬tab‘īḍ
portioning
division,
partition.
‫ بعول‬ba‘l the god Baal; land or plants thriving
on natural water supply; -- (pl. ‫ بعوال‬bu‘ū,
‫ بعا ة‬bu‘ūla) lord; husband
‫ بعلة‬ba'w wife
‫ بعلو‬ba‘l, unirrigated (land. plants)
‫ بعلبوول‬ba‘lbakk2 Baalbek (ancient Heliopolis,
village in E Lebanon)
‫ بغووت‬bagata a (bagt, ‫ بغأووة‬bagta) to come
unexpectedly, descend unawares (‫ ه‬upon
s.o.) III do.; to surprise (. s.o.) VII to be
taken by surprise; to be taken aback, be
aghast, he nonplused
‫ بغأووة‬bagta surprising event, surprise;
bagtatan, ‫ علووابغأوة‬bagtatin all of a sudden,
suddenly, surprisingly
‫ مب غأوووووة‬mubāgata sudden arrival,
surprising incident or event, surprise;
sudden attack, raid
‫ بغ ث‬bugāt pl. ‫ بغث ن‬bigtan small birds
‫باغ‬
‫ بغود‬II tabagdada to swagger, throw one's
weight around, be fresh (properly, to
behave like one from Baghdad)
‫ بغدا‬bagdād2 Baghdad
‫ بغودا ى‬bagdādī pl. -ūn,
native of Baghdad
1
‫ بغو‬bagādida a
‫ ابغش‬bagaša a: ‫( بغشتاا سوم‬samā’u) there was
a light shower
‫ بغشة‬bagša light rain shower
2
‫ بغشة‬bugša = ‫بقشة‬
‫ بغ شوة‬bagāša stuffed pastry made of flour,
eggs and butter
‫ بغ‬bagiḍa a, baguḍa u (bugḍ, ‫ بغ ضوة‬bagāḍa)
to be hated, hateful, odious II to make (‫ه‬
s.o.) hateful (‫ ا ووو‬to s.o.) III to loathe,
detest, hate (‫ ه‬s.o.) IV to loathe, detest,
hate (‫ ه‬s.o.) VI to hate each other
‫ بغوو‬bugḍ, ‫ بغ ووة‬bigḍa and
bagḍā’2 hatred, hate
‫بغ وو‬
‫ بغوي‬bagīḍ, hateful, odious (‫ ا وو‬to s.o.),
loathsome, abominable
‫ تب غ‬tabāguḍ mutual hatred
‫ مبغا‬mabgūḍ detested, hateful, odious
‫ بعكاكة‬bu‘kūka club, society
‫ بغ‬see
3
‫ موبغ‬mubgiḍ pl. -ūn hater; -- mubgaḍ
detested, hateful, odious
‫ بغول‬bagl pl. ‫ بغو ل‬bigāl, ‫ ابغو ل‬abgal mule; ‫بغلوة‬
bagla pl. bagalāt female mule│ ‫ابغو لاا ق وو‬
b. al-qanṯara the piers of the bridge
‫ بغو ل‬baggāl pl. -ūn mule driver, muleteer
67
‫ بغوو‬bagā i ( ‫ بغو‬bugā’) to seek, desire, covet,
seek to attain (‫ هـ‬s.th.), wish for s.th. (‫ ;)هـ‬- (bagy) to wrong, treat unjustly (‫ علوو‬s.o.)
, to oppress (‫ علوو‬s.o.), commit outrage
(‫ علوو‬upon); to whore, fornicate VII ‫ ي بغوو‬it
is desirable, necessary; it is proper,
appropriate, seemly, it ought to be, should
be; with ‫ و‬: it behooves him, with ‫عليو‬: he
must, he should, he ought to VIII to seek,
desire (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), aspire (‫ هوـ‬to s.th.), strive
(‫ هـ‬for)
‫ بغوووووو‬bagy infringement,
injustice, wrong
‫ بغوووو‬bagīy pl.
prostitute
outrage,
‫ بغ يووو‬bagāyā whore,
‫ بغيوة‬bugya object of desire, wish, desire,
bugyata (prep.) with the aim of, for the
purpose of
‫ بغ‬bigā’ prostitution
‫ بغو‬bugā’ wish(ing), desire, endeavor,
effort
‫ مبغو‬mabgan pl. ‫ مب غ‬mabāgin brothel
‫ مبو غ‬mabāgin coveted things, desiderata,
wishes, desires
‫ ابأغووو‬ibtigā’ desire, wish; ibtigā’a
(prep.) for the purpose of
‫ بووو غ‬bāgin pl. ‫ بغووو‬bugāh desiring,
coveting, striving; committing outrages,
oppressive, unjust; oppressor, tyrant
‫ مبأغوو‬mubtagan aspired goal, aspiration,
desire, endeavor, effort
‫ بفأة‬bafta calico, Indian cotton cloth
‫ بفأيل‬biftēk beefsteak
1
2
‫ ابوق‬baqq (n. un. ) bedbug, chinch│‫شوجو اا بوق‬
elm (bol.)
‫ ابق‬baqqa u (baqq) to give off in abundance
‫ بقووو‬baqqāq garrulous,
chatterbox, prattler
loquacious,
‫ بقبوق‬baqbaqa (‫ بقبقوة‬baqbaqa) to gurgle, bubble,
splutter, purl (water); to chatter, prattle
‫ بقبووو‬baqbāq garrulous, loquacious,
chatterbox, prattler
‫ بقبالة‬baqbūqa blister (of the skin)
‫ بقجة‬buqja pl. ‫ بق‬buqaj bundle, pack, package
‫ بقدوظس‬baqdūnis, baqdūnas parsley
‫ بقوو‬baqara u to split open, rip open, cut open
(‫ هـ‬s.th.) IV do.
‫ بقوو‬baqar (coll.) bovines, cattle; n. un.
‫ بقو‬baqara pl. -āt cow
‫ بقوووى‬baqarī bovine, cattle-, cow- (in
compounds)
‫ بق ر‬baqqār pl. cowhand, cowboy
‫ بقس‬baqs box, boxwood (bot.)
‫ بقسم‬buqsumāt rusk, zwieback; biscuit
‫ بقشة‬buqša Yemenite copper coin
‫ بقشوويش‬baqšīš pl. ‫ بق شويش‬baqāšīš2 present of
money; tip, gratuity, baksheesh
‫ بقوا‬II to spot, stain, smudge; (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) V to
become stained, get smudged; to be
spotted, stained
‫ بقعوة‬buq‘a pl. ‫ بقوا‬buqa‘, ‫ بقو‬biqā‘ spot,
blot, smudge, stain; place, spot, site, plot.
patch, lot
‫ ابقا‬abqa‘2 spotted, speckled
‫ ب لعوة‬bāqi‘a pl. ‫ باالوا‬bawāqi‘ sly dog,
shrewd fellow
‫ بقل‬baqala u (baql) to sprout (plant)
‫ بقول‬baql (coll.; n. un. ) pl. ‫ بقوال‬buqūl, ‫ابقو ل‬
abqāl herbs, potherbs, greens, herbaceous
plants, specif., legumes│‫ اا فصوويلةاا بقليووة‬the
Leguminosae; ‫ ا بقلووةاا ب و ر‬hyacinth bean
(Dolichos lablab L.), ‫( ا بقلوةاا حمقو‬ḥamqā’)
purslane (bot.), ‫( ا بقلوووةاا لهبيوووة‬dahabīya)
garden orach (bot.), ‫بقلووووةاا وووو هيفا‬
celandine (bot.), ‫ بقلوووةاا ملووول‬b. al-malik
common fumitory (bot.) 68
‫ بقووو ل‬baqqāl pl. -ūn ‫ بق وووة‬baqqāla
greengrocer; grocer
‫ بق ة‬biqāla the grocery business
‫ بقوالو‬baqlāwa, ‫ بقوالوا‬a kind of Turkish delight,
pastry made of puff paste with honey and
almonds or pistachios
‫ بق م‬baqqām brazilwood
‫ بق و‬baqiya a ( ‫ بق و‬baqā’) to remain, stay,
continue to be (‫ علو‬in a state or condition);
to keep up, maintain (‫ علووو‬a state or
condition); to be left behind, be left over;
to last, continue, go on; (with foll. imperf.
or part.) to continue to do s.th., keep doing
s.th.; to become│‫( ومايبوقاهفوال‬yabqa ṯiflan)
he is no longer a child II to leave, leave
over, leave behind (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) IV to make (‫ه‬
s.o.) stay; to retain, leave unchanged,
leave as it is, preserve, maintain, keep up
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to leave, leave over, leave behind
(‫ هوـ‬s.th. ‫ ه‬s.o.); to leave untouched, save,
spare (‫ علوو‬s.o., s.th., e.g., s.o.’s life) V to
remain, stay, continue to be (‫ علوو‬in a state
or condition); to be left, be left over X to
make stay, ask to stay, hold back, detain (‫ه‬
s.o.); to spare, save, protect (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫هووـ‬
s.th.); to preserve (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to retain, keep
(‫ هـ‬s.th.); to store, put away (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ بقيووة‬baqīya pl. ‫ بق يو‬baqāyā remainder,
rest; remnant, residue│‫ ابقيووةاا وودول‬b. adduwal the remaining countries, the rest of
the countries; ‫( ا بقيوةاا ب ليوة‬bāqiya) the last
remnant
‫ بقو‬baqā’ remaining, staying, lingering,
abiding;
continuation,
continuance,
duration; survival, continuation of
existence after life; immortality, eternal
life; existence; permanence│ ‫ اراا بق و‬the
hereafter
‫ ابقوو‬abqā more lasting. more durable.
more permanent; better preserving;
conducive
protecting
to
longer
wear.
better
‫ ابقوووو‬ibqā’ continuation, retention;
maintenance, conservation, preservation│‫ا‬
‫ ابق اا ح ةاعلوام اك ظتاعليو‬maintenance of the
status quo
‫ بكوو‬bikr pl. ‫ ابكو ر‬abkār first-born, eldest;
firstling: unprecedented, novel, new;
virgin; virginal
‫ بكوى‬bikrī first-born, first
‫ بكوية‬bikrīya primogeniture
‫ اسووأبق‬istibqā’ continuation, retention;
maintenance, conservation, preservation
‫ بكوو‬bakra and bakara pl. ‫ بكوو‬bakar, -āt
reel; pulley (mech.); spool, coil; winch,
windlass│ ‫ ا يطابكو‬ḳaiṯ b. thread
‫ بووو‬bāqin staying; remaining; left;
remainder (arith.); lasting, continuing,
permanent, unending; surviving; living
on; everlasting, eternal (God)│‫اا ب ليووو ا‬
‫ ا ص ح‬the good works
‫ بكووو‬bakra: ‫‘ علوووابكووو اابوويهم‬alā bakrati
abīhim,‫ ع و ابكووو اابوويهم ا‬and ‫ ع و ابكوووتهم‬all
without exception, all of them, all
together; ‫ وجتاا جم هيواعو ابكوتهو‬the crowd
went forth as one man
‫ مأبوووق‬mutabaqqin
remainder, rest
‫ بكوو‬bukra pl. ‫ بكوو‬bukar early morning;
‫ بكوووو‬bukratan early in the morning;
tomorrow; on the following day, next day
residue,
remnant,
‫ بول‬bē (Eg. pronunciation) pl. ‫ بكواا‬bakawāt,
‫ بهواا‬bahawāt bey (title of courtesy; cf.
‫)بيل‬
‫ بكاية‬bekawīya rank of a bey
‫ بكو‬bakī’ pl. ‫ بكو‬bikā’ having or giving little,
sparing (e.g., of words)
‫ بك سي‬bikāsīn bécassine, snipe (zool.)
‫( بك اريووووو‬Fr. baccalauréat) bakālōriyā
baccalaureate, bachelor’s degree
‫ بكووو ارياس‬bakālōriyūs bachelor (academic
degree)
‫( بكب شوو‬Turk. binbaşı) bimbāšī, bikbāšī major
(mil; formerly, Eg.)
‫ بكت‬to censure, blame (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ تبكيوووت‬tabkīt blame, reproach│‫اتبكيوووتا‬
‫ ا ميو‬remorse
‫ بكأيوى‬baktērī bacterial, caused by bacteria
‫ بكأيوي‬baktēriyā bacteria
‫ بكوو‬bakara u to set out early in the morning,
get up early; to come early (‫ ا وو‬to), be
early (‫ ا وو‬at) II do.; ‫ بكووا وو‬and ‫ بكوواب‬with
foll. verbal noun: to do s.th. early,
prematurely, ahead of its time III to be
ahead of s.o. (‫)ه‬, anticipate, forestall (‫ه‬
s.o.) IV = I; VIII to be the first to take (‫هوـ‬
s.th.), be the first to embark (‫ هوـ‬69 on
s.th.); to deflower ( ‫ هو‬a girl): to invent (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to create, originate, start (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ بكوو‬bakr pl. ‫ ابكوو‬abkur, ‫ بكووان‬bukrān
young camel
‫ بكيووووو‬bakīr coming
premature; precocious
early;
early,
‫ بكار‬bakūr and ‫ بو كار‬bākūr coming early;
early, premature; precocious
‫ بكوووار‬bukūr earliness, prematureness,
premature arrival│ ‫‘( ابكووارىا ووواا عووا‬aud)
my early return
‫ بك ر‬bakāara virginity
‫ بكو ر‬bakkāra pulley (mech.)│‫ابكو ر اموكبوة‬
(murakkaba) set of pulleys, block and
tackle
‫ بكوووار‬bukūra and ‫ بكاريوووة‬bukūrīya
primogeniture
‫ بووو كار‬bakūra pl. ‫ بوووااكيو‬bawākīr2
firstlings; first results, first fruits;
beginning, rise, dawn; (with foll. genit.)
initial, early, first; pl. ‫ بوااكيو‬first signs or
indications; initial symptoms; heralds,
harbingers (fig.)│ ‫ ابو كار اا فااكو‬early fruit;
‫ ك ناب كار ااعم‬the first thing he did was...
‫ ابكو‬abkar2 rising earlier
‫ مبكو‬mibkār precocious
‫ ابأكو ر‬ibtikār pl. -āt novelty, innovation;
creation; invention; origination, first
production;
initiative;
creativity,
originality; pl. ‫ ابأكو را‬specif., creations of
fashion, fashion designs
‫ بو كو‬bākir early; premature; ‫ بو كوا‬bākiran
in the morning; early (adv.)│‫ووواا صووب حا‬
‫( ا بو كو‬ṣabāḥ) early in the morning; ‫ا وواا بو كو‬
till tomorrow
1
‫ بول‬bal (also with foll. ‫ و‬wa-) nay, --rather... ;
(and) even; but, however, yet
‫ بو كو‬bākira pl. ‫ بوااكو‬bawākir2 firstlings,
first produce, early fruits, early
vegetables; pl. first indications or
symptoms, heralds, harbingers
2
‫ بل‬balla u (ball) to moisten, wet, make wet (‫هـ‬
s.th., ‫ ه‬s.o.);--balla i to recover ( ‫مو اموو‬
from an illness) II to moisten, wet, make
wet (‫ هـ‬s.th., ‫ ه‬s.o.) IV to recover ( ‫م اموو‬
from an illness) V and VIII to be
moistened, be wetted; to become wet
‫ مبكوو‬mubakkir doing early; early;│‫امبكووا‬
mubakkiran early in the morning, early
‫ بل‬ball moistening, wetting; moisture
‫ مبأكووووو‬mubtakir creator; creative;
inventor; -- mubtakar newly created,
novel, new, original; (pl. -āt) creation,
specif., fashion creation, invention│‫ثووابا‬
‫( مبأكوو‬taub) original design, model. dress
creation
‫ بووووول‬bill
recuperation
‫ بول‬balal moisture, humidity; moistness,
dampness, wetness
‫بقسم‬
‫ بكل‬II to buckle, buckle up, button up (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
to fold, cross (‫ هـ‬the arms)
‫ بليل‬balīl a moist, cool wind
‫ بليلة‬balīla (eg.) dish made of stewed
maize and sugar
‫ بكلة‬bukla pl. ‫ بكل‬bukal, -āt buckle
‫( بكاله‬It. baccalá) bakalāh codfish
‫ بكلاريووواس‬bakalōriyūs
degree)
bachelor
‫ ابوووالل‬iblāl recovery, convalescence,
recuperation
(academic
‫ بوووول‬taballul
humidity
‫ بكوم‬bakima a to be dumb: -- bakuma u to be
silent, hold one’s tongue IV to silence (‫ه‬
s.o.) V to become silent; to become dumb
‫ بكم‬bakam dumbness
‫ ابكوم‬abkam2, f. ‫ بكمو‬bakmā’, pl. ‫ بكوم‬bukm
dumb 70
3
‫ بال‬see 2‫ب‬
‫بالتي‬, ‫ ﭙالتي‬blātī., plātīn platinum
‫( بال‬Fr. plage) blāž beach
‫ بالجوا‬balagrā pellagra
‫ بالر‬balāraj stork
‫( بالسأيل‬Fr. p1astique) blāstīk plastik
‫ باله‬see ‫بلط‬
‫ حو ئطاا مبكووو‬ḥā’iṯ al-mabkā the Wailing
Wall (in Jerusalem)
‫بالن‬, ‫ بالظة‬see ‫بل‬
‫ بو‬bākin pl. ‫ بكو‬bukāh weeping, crying;
weeper, wailer, mourner
‫ مبوول‬mubkin, mubakkin, causing tears,
tearful; sad, lamentable, deplorable
‫ بكي‬bikīn Peking
dampness,
‫ بلوو‬billī (from Fr. bille): ‫( كوسو ابلوو‬kursī) ball
bearing
‫ بكو‬bakkā’ given to weeping frequently,
tearful, lachrymose
‫ ب كيووة‬bākiya pl. ‫ بوواا‬bawākin wailingwoman, hired mourner; (eg.) arch, arcade
moistness,
‫ مبلوال‬mablūl, ‫ مبلول‬muballal, ‫ مبأول‬mubtall
moist, damp, wet
‫ بكاا‬and ‫ بكاية‬see ‫بل‬
‫ بكوو‬bakā i ( ‫ بكو‬bukā’, ‫ بكوو‬bukan) to cry, weep
(‫ علوو‬over); to bemoan, lament, bewail (‫ه‬
s.o.), mourn (‫ ه‬for) II and IV to make (‫ه‬
s.o.) cry X to move (‫ ه‬s.o.) to tears, make
(‫ ه‬s.o.) cry
convalescence,
‫ بلوة‬billa moisture, humidity│‫امو ازا اا وي ا‬
‫ بلووة‬mā zālda ṯ-ṯīna billatan what made
things even worse ...
‫ بكو‬bakraj pl. ‫ بك ر‬bakārij2 kettle, coffee pot
‫بكسم‬, ‫بكسم ه‬, see
recovery,
‫( بال‬Engl. plug) spark plug (ir.)
‫ بلبط‬balbaṯa to gurgle
1
‫ بلب ول‬balbala to disquiet, make uneasy or
restive, stir up, rouse, disturb, trouble,
confuse (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.) II tabalbala to feel
uneasy, be anxious; to be or become
confused, get all mixed up
‫ بلبلوة‬balbala pl. ‫ بالبوول‬balābil2 anxiety,
uneasiness, concern; confusion, muddle,
jumble, chaos
‫ مأبلد‬mutaballid besotted, dull, stupid
‫ بلب ل‬balbāl anxiety, uneasiness, concern
‫ ابليز‬look up alphabetically
‫ بالبل‬balabil2 anxieties, apprehensions
‫ ابليس‬pl. ‫ اب سة‬look up alphabetically
‫ تبلبوول‬tabalbul muddle, confusion│‫بلبوولا‬
‫ اال سو ة‬t. al-alsina confusion of tongues (at
the tower of Babel)
2
‫ تبلود‬taballud idiocy, dullness, obtuseness,
apathy
‫ بلبل‬bulbul pl. ‫ بالبل‬balabil2 nightingale
‫ بلو‬balaja u ( ‫ بلوا‬bulūj) to shine; to dawn
(morning, aurora); -- balija a (balaj) to be
happy, be glad (‫ ب‬about), be delighted (‫ب‬
at) IV to shine (sun) V and VII = balaja
‫ بلسو ن‬ba1asān balsam, balm; balsam tree; black
older (bot.)
‫ بلسم‬balsam pl. ‫ بالسم‬balāsim2 balsam, balm
‫ بلسم‬balsamī balsamic, balmy
‫ بلشوف‬balšafa to Bolshevize II tabalšafa to be
Bolshevized
‫ بلشفة‬balšafa Bolshevization
2
‫ ابلو‬ablaj gay, serene, bright, clear, fair,
nice, beautiful
‫ بلشووووفو‬bulšifī pl. ‫ بالشووووفة‬balāšifa
Bolshevist(ic); Bolshevik, Bolshevist
‫ اظبال اا فجو‬inbilāj al-fajr daybreak
‫ بلجيك‬beljīka Belgium
‫ بلجيكو‬beljīkī Belgian (adj. and n.)
‫ بلشفية‬bulšifīya Bolshevism
‫ بلشان‬balašūn heron (zool.)
1
‫ بلا‬balaḥ (coll.; n. un. ) dates (bot.)
‫ بلود‬baluda u ( ‫ بوال‬balada) to be stupid, idiotic,
dull-witted II to acclimatize, habituate (‫هوـ‬
s.th., to a country or region) V pass. of II;
to become .tupid, be.otted, lapse into a
state of idiocy; to show o.s. from the
stupid side VI to feign stupidity
‫ بلوص‬balṣ extortion, blackmail; forcible
imposition of taxes
2
‫ بوووالص‬ballāṣ pl.
earthenware jar
1
‫ بلط‬II to pave (‫ هـ‬s.th., with flagstones or tiles)
‫ بلود‬balad m. and f., pl. ‫ بوال‬bilād country;
town, city; place, community, village; ‫بوال‬
country; ‫ بلودان‬buldān countries│‫ابوال اا حوبش‬
b. al-ḥabaš Ethiopia; ‫ بوال اا صوي‬b. aṣ-ṣīn
China; ‫ بال اا ه د‬b. al-hind India
‫ بالهوووة‬balāṯa floor
slabstone; paving stone
‫ بال‬balāda stupidity, silliness
(eg.)
tile;
flagstone,
‫ تبليط‬tablīṯ paving, tile-laying
‫ مبلط‬muballaṯ paved, tiled
2
‫ بلاه‬ballūṯ oak; acorn
3
‫ بل ة‬balta pl. -āt, ‫ بلط‬bulaṯ ax
‫ بلديووووة‬baladīya pl. -āt township,
community, rural community; ward,
district (of a city); municipality, municipal
council, local authority
‫ بليود‬balīd and ‫ ابلود‬ablad2 stupid, doltish,
dull-witted, idiotic
balālīṣ2
‫بال ووويص‬
‫ بواله‬balāṯ pavement, tiled floor; floor
tiles; palace; pl. ‫ ابل وووة‬abliṯa floor
tiles│‫( ا وبالهاا ملكوو‬malakī) the royal court;
‫ حدا اا باله‬ḥidād al-b. court mourning
‫ بلود‬balda town, city; place, community,
village; rural community; township
‫ بلودى‬baladī native, indigenous, home (as
opposed to foreign, alien); (fellow)
citizen, compatriot, countryman; a native;
communal, municipal│‫( امجلوسابلودى‬majlis)
city council, local council
‫ بلوص‬balaṣa u (balš) and II to extort wring
forcibly ( ‫ ه مو‬from s.o. s.th.); to blackmail
(‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ بل جوو‬balṯajī pl. -īya engineer, sapper,
pioneer (mil.); gangster; procurer,
panderer, pimp; sponger, hanger-on,
parasite
4
‫ بل ة‬balaṯa balata gum
5
‫( بل وا‬Fr. paletot) balṯō pl. –āt, ‫ بالهوو‬balāṯī
paletot, overcoat
6
‫ بل وو‬bulṯī bolti (Tilapia nilotica), a food fish
of the Nile
‫ بل يق‬al-.balṯīq the Baltic countries│‫ابحوواا بل يوق‬
baḥr al-b. the Baltic Sea
‫ بلاظوة‬bālūẓa hand pres.; (eg.) a kind of cream
made of cornstarch, lemon juice and
honey, or the like
‫ بلوا‬bala‘a and bali‘a a (bal‘) to swallow,
swallow up (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to gulp down (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to put up (‫ هوـ‬with s.th.), swallow,
stomach, brook (‫ هـ‬s.th.)│ ‫( ابلوااريقو‬rīqahū)
lit.: to swallow one’s saliva, i.e., to catch
one’s breath, take a little rest, have a
break; to restrain o.s., hold back (said of
one in a rage) II and IV to make (‫ ه‬s.o.)
swallow (‫ هووـ‬s.th.)│ ‫( ابلع و اريق و‬rīqahū) to
grant s.o. a short rest VIII = I
‫ بلعة‬bal‘a large bite, big gulp
‫ بالعوة‬ballā‘a, ‫ بلاعوة‬ballū‘a pl. –āt, ‫بال يوا‬
ba1ālī‘2 sink, drain
‫ ب اع وة‬bālū‘a pl. –āt, ‫ باا ي وا‬bawālī‘2
sewer, sink, drain
‫ بلعوم‬bul‘um pl. ‫ بالعوم‬balā‘im2 and ‫ بلعوام‬bul‘ūm
pl. ‫ بالعويم‬balā‘īm2 pharynx (anat.); ‫ابلعوام‬
gullet, esophagus (anat.)
1
‫ بلو‬balaga u (‫ بلواغ‬bulūg) to reach (‫ ه‬s.o. ‫هوـ‬
s.th.), get (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬to), arrive (‫ هوـ‬at); to come,
amount (‫ هوـ‬to), be worth (‫ هوـ‬so and so
much); to come to s.o.’s (‫ )ه‬ears; to attain
puberty (boy); to ripen, mature (fruit, or
the like); to come of age; to exhaust, wear
out ( ‫ م‬s.o.); to act ( ‫ مو‬upon s.o.), have its
effect ( ‫ مو‬on), affect ( ‫ مو‬s.o.); to go far
(‫ و‬, ‫ م‬in s.th.), attain a high degree (‫ و‬, ‫م‬
of s.th.)│‫ابلو ابو اا وو‬to make s.o. or s.th. get
to or arrive at, lead or take s.o. or s.th. to,
get s.o. or s.th. to the point where, ‫بلو ابو ا‬
‫( ا أووظااان‬tarannuḥ) he began to reel so
violently that ... ; ‫( بل ااالموامبل اا جود‬mablaga
l-jidd) the matter became serious; ‫بلو اا سويلا‬
‫ ا زبوو‬b. s-sailu z-zubā the matter reached a
climax, things came to a head; ‫بلو امبل و ا‬
‫( ا وج و ل‬mablaga r-rijāl) to be sexually
mature, attain manhood, come of age; ‫بلو ا‬
‫( اشوودها‬ašuddahū) to attain full maturity,
come of age; to reach its climax; ‫بلو ا ووا‬
‫( ا ش و امبلغ و‬mablagan) to attain a high
degree of s.th.; ‫حووي ابلغووتابوولكوي ت اهوولااا مبلو‬
(ḥīna, dikrayātī, mablaga) when I had
come to this point in my reminiscences; ‫بل ا‬
‫( م و اكولامبلو‬kulla mablagin) to work havoc
on s.o.; ‫( بلو ام أهو ه‬muntahāhū) to reach its
climax, come to a head II to make (‫ ه‬s.o.)
reach or attain (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to take bring (‫ا وو‬
‫ هوـ‬s.th. to s.o.) see that s.th. (‫ )هوـ‬gets (‫ا وو‬
to); to convey, transmit, impart,
communicate, report (‫ ه هوـ‬to s.o. s.th.); to
inform, notify (‫ ه هوـ‬s.o. of s.th.), tell, let
know (‫ ه هـ‬s.o. about); to report ( ‫ ع‬about),
give an account of ( ‫ ;)عو‬to inform ( ‫عو‬
against s.o.), report, denounce ( ‫ عو‬s.o.)│‫ا‬
‫ بل و ارس و ة‬to fulfill a mission, ‫بلغ و اسووالمو‬
ballighu salāmī give him my best regards!
III to exaggerate (‫ وو‬in s.th.); to overdo.
do too long (‫ وو‬s.th.); to go to greatest
lengths, do one’s utmost (‫ ووو‬in) IV to
make (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.) reach or attain (‫ا وو‬
s.th.); to make (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) amount (‫ ا وو‬to),
raise (‫ هوـ‬an amount, a salary, ‫ ا وو‬to); to
inform, notify (‫ ب‬or ‫ عو‬s.o. of s.th.), tell,
let know (‫ ب‬or ‫ ه ع و‬s.o. about); to
announce, state, disclose (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
inform ( ‫ عو‬against s.o.), report, denounce
( ‫ ع‬s.o.)│‫ ابل اا با يساب‬to report s.th. to the
police V to content o.s., be content (‫ب‬
with); to eke out an existence; to still
one’s hunger (‫ ب‬with), eat (‫ ب‬s.th.): to b.
delivered, be transmitted
‫ سمع االابالغ‬sam‘an lā balāgan! may it be
heard but not fulfilled, i.e. God forbid!
(used at the mention of s.th. unpleasant)
‫ بلغووة‬bulga and ‫ بووالغ‬balāg sufficiency,
competency, adequacy (see also 2‫ابلغوووة‬
below)
‫ بوووالغ‬balāg pl. -āt communication,
information,
message,
report;
announcement,
proclamation;
communiqué; statement; notification (of
the police)│‫ بالغاا يو‬ultimatum
‫ بلي و‬balīg pl. ‫ بلغ و‬bulagā’ eloquent;
intense, lasting, deep, profound (e.g., an
impression); serious, grave (e.g., an
injury)
‫ بلواغ‬bulūg reaching, attainment, arrival
(at); maturity, legal majority
‫ بالغووة‬balāga eloquence; art, of good
style, art of composition; literature│‫اعلوما‬
‫‘ ا بالغة‬ilm al-b. rhetoric
‫ ابلووو‬ablag2 intenser, deeper, more
lasting; more serious, graver
‫ مبلو‬mablag pl. ‫ مبو‬mabālig2 amount,
sum of money; extent, scope, range; (see
also examples under ‫ بل‬I)│‫( امبل ااسومو‬ismī)
nominal par; ‫( ا مب و اا ما ع وة‬mūda‘a) the
deposits (at a bank); ‫يأبوي امبلو الوا وامو اا جودا‬
(li-yatabayyana, qaulī, jidd) in order to
find, out to what extent my words were
meant seriously
3
‫ بلم‬IV to be silent, hold one's tongue
‫ بووالن‬ballān bathhouse attendant; name of a
plant growing near stagnant waters
‫ بالظوة‬ballāna female bathhouse attendant;
lady's maid
‫ بل سوية‬balansiya2 Valencia (region and city in E
Spain)
‫ تبليوووو‬tablīg pl. -āt conveyance,
transmission, delivery (‫ ا ووووو‬to s.o.);
information
( ‫عوووووو‬
about);
report,
notification ( ‫ عووو‬of); communication,
announcement,
notice│ ‫اكأوووووووو باا أبليوووووووو‬
credentials
‫ بلي‬pl. ‫ بال ي‬look up alphabetically
‫ بلو‬baliha a to be stupid, simple-minded VI to
feign foolishness, pretend to be stupid X
to deem (‫ هـ‬s.o.) stupid or simple-minded
‫ بل و‬balah and ‫ باله وة‬balāha stupidity,
foolishness, simple-mindedness; idiocy,
imbecility│ ‫بالهووووووووةامبكووووووووو‬
(mubakkira)
dementia praecox
‫ مب غة‬mubalaga pl. -āt exaggeration
‫ ابالغ‬iblāg conveyance, transmission
‫ بوووو‬bālig extensive, far-reaching;
considerable; serious (wound), deep,
profound, violent, vehement (feelings),
strong, intense; mature; of age, legally
major
‫ بل‬balha let alone, not to speak of, not to
mention
‫ مبلوووو‬muballig bearer (of news),
messenger; informer, denouncer; detective
‫ بله رسوي‬bilkarsiyā bilharziasis, schistosomiasis
(med.)
‫ بلغووة‬bulga, balga pl. -āt, bulag slipper of
yellow leather
‫ بله يوة‬bulahniya abundance, wealth, variety (of
earthly possessions)
‫ بلغ ري‬bulgāriyā Bulgaria
1
‫ بلهاان‬see ‫بهلاان‬
2
□ ‫ بلهوان‬bulhōn pl.
2
‫ بلغ رى‬bugārī Bulgarian (adj. and n.)
‫ بلغم‬balgam phlegm; (pl. ‫ بالغم‬balagim2)
expectoration, sputum
‫ بلغموووو‬balgamī phlegmatic; phlegmy,
mucous
‫ بلف‬balafa i (balf) to bluff II do.
‫ بلف‬balf, ‫ بلفة‬balfa bluff
‫ ابلق‬ablaq2 piebald
‫ بلقويس‬bilqīs2 Muslim name of the Queen of
Sheba
‫ ا بلق ن‬al-balqān the Balkans
‫ بلق ظو‬balqānī Balkan
‫ بلقوا‬balqa‘ and ‫ بلقعوة‬balqa‘a pl. ‫ باللوا‬balāqi‘2
wasteland
‫ بلل‬see ‫بلا‬
‫ بلكان‬balkōn balcony
1
‫ بلم‬balam anchovy
2
‫ بلم‬balam pl. ‫ ابالم‬ablām sailing barge (ir.)
‫ ابلو‬ablah2 stupid, doltish, dull-witted;
idiotic
‫ بالهوي‬balāhīn2 (= ‫ابوااا هوال‬
eg.) sphinx
(‫ بلا‬and ‫ بوال )بلو‬balā u (balw, ‫ بوال‬balā’) to test,
try, put to the test (‫ هـ‬s.o., • s.tb.); to know
from long experience (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to afltict
(‫ هوـ‬s.o.); -- ‫ بلوو‬baliya a (‫ بلوو‬bilan, ‫بوال‬
balā’) to be or become old, worn, shabby
(clothes); to dwindle away, vanish; to
deteriorate, decline, become decrepit; to
disintegrate (a corpse), decay, rot, spoil III
to care, be concerned (‫ ب‬or ‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬about), be
mindful (‫ ب‬or ‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬of s.o., of s.th.); to pay
attention (‫ ب‬or ‫ هـ‬to), mind, heed, take into
consideration, take into account (‫ ب‬or ‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to take notice (‫ ب‬of)│‫ مو اابو و‬mā
ubālī, ‫ الاابو و‬I don’t care! I don’t mind! it's
all right with me! ‫( الايبو و‬as a relat. clause)
unconcerned, heedless, careless, reckless
IV to try, test, put to the test (‫ هوـ‬s.o.); to
make experienced, harden, inure (‫ ه‬s.o.;
said of trials, experiences); to work havoc
(‫ هـ‬on s.th.); to wear out (‫ هـ‬s.th.) │‫ابلوابال ا‬
‫( حس‬balā’an ḥasanan) to stand the test; to
prove o.s. brave (in war) VIII to try,
tempt, put to the test (‫ هوـ‬s.o.); to afflict (‫ب‬
‫ ه‬s.o. with), visit (‫ ه ب‬on s.o. s.th.); pass.
ubtuliya to become or be afflicted (‫ ب‬with,
by), suffer (‫ ب‬from)
‫ بلوارى‬ballūrī, billaurī crystalline; crystal
(adj.)
‫ بلوو‬bilan decline, deterioration; decay,
putrefaction,
decomposition;
worn
condition; wear; shabbiness
candied
‫ بلاريوة‬ballūrīya, billaurīya pl. -āt lense
(opt.)
‫ مبلووار‬mubalwar:
fruits 75
‫( بلاز‬Fr. blouse) bəlūz, bəlūza pl. –āt blouse
‫( بلوا‬Turk. bölük) bulūk pl. -āt company (mil.;
Eg.)│ ‫ابلوووا ااموووي‬b. amīn (mil.) approx.:
quartermaster sergeant (formerly, Eg.)
‫ بلو‬balīy worn, old, shabby, threadbare;
decrepit,
dilapidated,
decaying,
decomposed, rotten
‫بليووة‬
balīya pl. ‫باليوو‬
balāyā trial,
tribulation, visitation, affliction, distress,
misfortune, calamity
‫ بووال‬balā’ trial. tribulation, visitation,
affliction, distress, misfortune; scourge,
plague; creditable performance, bravery,
gallantry, heroic action│ ‫( بوال احسو‬ḥasan)
favor, blessing, grace (of God); good
performance
‫ بلواى‬balwā trial; tribulation, visitation,
affliction, distress, misfortune, calamity;
necessity, need│‫‘( عموتاا بلواى‬ammat) it has
become a general necessity
‫ااكووو امبلووار‬
‫ بلان‬ballūn balloon
1
‫ ابلو‬balā yes, yes indeed, certainly, surely
2
‫ ابلو‬baliya etc., see ‫بلا‬
‫( بلي تشا‬It. paglaccio) palyatšō clown, buffoon
‫( ابلي ر و‬It. bigliardo) bilyardō billiards
‫ بليسي‬bilīsēh plissé, pleating
1
‫ ابلوي‬ballīn pl. ‫ بال وي‬balālīn2 pallium, liturgical
vestment of a bishop worn over the
chasuble (Chr.); monk's robe (Copt.·Chr.)
2
‫ ابليوان‬balyūn pl. ‫ باليوي‬balayīn (U.S.) billion,
(G.B.) milliard; (U.S.) trillion, (G.B.)
billion
‫ مبوو ال‬mubālāh consideration, regard,
heed,
attention│ ‫االامبووووووووو ال‬lā-mubālāh
indifference, unconcern, carelessness
‫ بم‬bamm lowest string of a musical instrument
‫ ابوأال‬ibtilā’ trial, tribulation, affliction,
visitation
‫ بمب ى‬bombāy Bombay
‫ بو ل‬bālin old, worn, worn out; shabby,
threadbare, ragged, tattered; decrepit,
dilapidated; decayed, rotten; obsolete,
antiquated
‫ مبو ل‬mubālin observant, heedful, mindful
(‫ ب‬of)│‫اغيوامب لاب‬heedless of
‫ مبألوووو‬mubtalan (less correctly ‫مبأووول‬
mubtalin) afflicted (‫ ب‬with, by), suffering
(‫ ب‬from)
‫ بلوووار‬II tabalwara to crystalize; to be
crystalized; to be covered with crystals
‫ بلوار‬ballūr, billaur pl. -āt crystal; crystal
glass, flint glass, glass│O ‫بلوواراصووو وى‬
(ṣaḳrī) rock crystal, transparent quartz
‫ بلووار‬billaura (n. un.) pl. -āt crystal;
crystal glass, flint glass, glass; tube
(radio); crystal, quartz plate (of a
detector; radio); (syr., pronounced
ballōra) negative (phot.)
‫ بمب غ‬bumbāg, ‫ بمب غة‬bumbāga bow tie
‫ ب مية‬look up alphabetically
1
‫ ابو‬V ‫ تب وو‬to adopt as son (‫ ه‬s.o.); to adopt.
embrace (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ ابو‬ibn pl. ‫ اب و‬abnā’, ‫ ب وان‬banūn son;
descendant. scion; offspring, son (of a
nation or people)│‫ اابو اآ م‬pl. ‫( ب وااآ م‬son of
Adam) man, human being; ‫ ابو اآوى‬ibn āwā
jackal; ‫ ابوووو اا بلوووود‬ibn a1-balad local
inhabitant, native; ‫ اب و اا بلود‬natives, native
population; ‫ ابو اا حووب‬ibn al-ḥarb warrior;
soldier; warlike, bellicose; ‫ابوووو اا سووووبيل‬
wayfarer, wanderer; ‫ ابو ا مسوي اسو ة‬50 years
old; ‫ ابووو اسووو عأ‬ibn sā‘atihī temporal,
transient, passing; ‫ ابو اصولب‬ibn ṣulbihī his
own son; ‫ ابو اعووس‬ibn ‘irs weasel; ‫ب واامو ا‬
‫ ا سوم‬banū mā’ as-samā’ the Arsbs; ‫ب واا‬
‫ سايف‬Beni Suef (city in Egypt, S of Cairo)
‫ اب وة‬ibna and ‫ ب ووت‬bint pl.
‫ ب و‬banāt
daughter; ‫ ب ووت‬girl│‫ ااب وةاا عووم‬i. al-‘amm
(female) cousin; periphrastically for wife:
‫ اب وةاعمول‬your wife; ‫ ب وتاا فول‬b. a1-fikr pl.
‫ ب و ااال كو ر‬thought, idea; ‫ا ب و ااالر‬b. a1arḍ insects and worms; ‫ ب و ابوئس‬b. bi’s
calamities, afflictions; ‫ ب و اا ودهو‬b. ad-dahr
do.; ‫ ب تاا شوف‬b. aš-šafa word; ‫ ب و اا صودر‬b.
aṣ-ṣadr worries, fears, anxieties; ‫ب و اور ان‬
b. wardāna earth worms, rainworms
‫ ب دلو‬bunduqī Venetian sequin
‫ ب دليوة‬bunduqīya pl.
‫ ب و‬banādiq2 rifle,
gun│‫ اب دليةارش‬b. rašš shotgun
‫ ا ب دلية‬al.bunduqīya Venice
‫ ب ودل ظو‬bunduqani pl. -ūn, ‫ ب لوة‬banādiqa
a Venitian
‫ ب‬bunaiya my little son
‫ ب دو‬bundūq pl. ‫ ب يق‬banādīq2 bastard
‫ ب ا‬bunuwwa sonship, filiation
‫ ب وودور‬banadōra (syr.; from It. pomodoro)
tomatoes
‫ ب اى‬banawi filial
‫ توب‬tabannin adoption (also fig., e.g. of
ideas, principles, etc.)
2
‫ اب‬bunn coffee beans, coffee
‫ احمواب دورى‬aḥmar2 banadōrī tomato-red
‫( ب دول‬Fr. pendule) bandūl pendulum
‫( ب وووديو‬Span. bandera) bandēra pl. ‫ب ووو ر‬
banadir2 pennon, flag, banner
‫ ب و‬bunnī coffee-colored, brown
‫ ب و ن‬banān finger tips│‫( ايشو راعليو ابب و ن‬yušāru
lit.: he is pointed at with fingers, i.e., he is
famous man; ‫ اظووو ااهوووا اب ظووول‬anā tau‘a
banānika I am at your disposal, I am at
your service
‫ ب ار‬bannūr (= ‫ بلار‬ballūr) glass
‫ ب زهيو‬banzahīr bezoar, bezoar stone
‫ ب زي‬banzīn, benzīn gasoline, benzine
‫( ب س‬Engl.) pence
‫ ب و ور‬banādōra (syr.; from It. pomodoro)
tomato(es)
‫ ب و رس‬banāris2 Banaras or Benares (the Holy
City of the Hindus, in N India)
‫ ب ب شو‬see ‫بكب شو‬
‫ ب ت‬see
1
‫ ب سلي‬benisilīn penicillin
‫( ب سي‬Fr. pensée) banēh pansy (bot.)
‫ ب سوووويان‬bansiyōn pl.
boarding school
-āt
boardinghouse;
‫ ب صو‬binṣir f., pl. ‫ ب صو‬banāsir2 ring finger
‫اب‬
‫ ب أوا‬bintū napoleon, louis d'or (gold coin of 20
francs)
‫ ب‬II to dope, narcoticize (with banj;‫ اه‬s.o.); to
anesthetize (. s.o.)
‫ ب و‬banj henbane (Hyoscyamus niger;
bot); an anesthetic, a narcotic
‫ ا ب ج و ب‬al-banjāb the Punjab (region, NW
Indian subcontinent)
‫ ب ط‬bunṯ pl. ‫ ب اه‬bunūṯ point (stock market)
‫ ب لوان‬banṯalūn (from It. pantaloni) pl. –āt
trousers, pants
‫ ب غ و زى‬bangāzī Bengasi (city in NE Libya,
capital‫ا‬of Cyrenaica)
‫ ا ب غو ل‬al-bangāl Bengal (region, NE Indian
subcontinent)
‫ ب فس‬banafsaj (coll.; n. un. ) violet (bot.)
‫ ب فسجو‬banafsajī violetlike, violetish;
‫ ب جو‬banjar red beet (eg.)
‫ ب ووود‬band pl. ‫ ب وووا‬bunūd article, clause,
paragraph (of a. la.w, contract, etc.);
banner; large body of troops
violet (adj.)│‫ ا وووا اا ب فسوووجو‬or ‫ورا اا ب فسوووجو‬
ultraviolet
‫ ب ووودر‬bandar pl. ‫ ب ووو ر‬banādir2 seaport;
commercial center; district capital (Eg.);
‫ ب و ر‬see also under ‫ ب وديو‬below│‫اب ودراعبو س‬
‘abbās Bandar Abbas (seaport in S Iran)
‫ ب قوة‬binaqa and ‫ ب يقوة‬banīqa gore, gusset (of a
shirt or garment)
‫ ب دور‬look up alphabetically
2
‫ ب ود‬bunduq (coll.; n. un. ) pl.
‫ ب و‬banādiq
hazelnut(s), filberts; hazel, hazel tree; ‫ب دلوة‬
hazelnut, filbert; bullet
‫ ب فش‬banfaš, banafš amethyst (min.)
1
‫ اب ل‬bunk root, core, heart, best part│‫اب لاا عموو‬
b. al-‘umr the prime of life, the best years
2
‫ ب ل‬bank pl. ‫ ب ا‬bunūk bank, banking house│‫ا‬
‫ ب ولاا أسوليف‬credit bank; ‫ ب ولاا أوا يو‬deposit
bank; ‫ ب ولاا ودم‬b. ad-dam blood bank; ‫ا ب ولا‬
‫( ا دو و‬daulī) the World Bank
3
‫ مب ل‬mubannak stranded
4
‫ مح ولامب ول‬muḥannak mubannak shrewd, sly,
astute
‫ تب‬tabannin see 1 ‫اب‬
‫ ب ن‬bānin pl.
‫ ب‬bunāh builder
‫ مب ووو‬mabnīy built, set up. erected;
founded, based, resting (‫ علووو‬on); fixed,
established;
indeclinable;
ending
indeclinably (‫ علو‬in; gram.)
‫( ب ك ا‬Engl.) banknōt banknote
‫ ب ا‬and ‫ ب اى‬see 1 ‫ب‬
‫( ب واار‬Fr. baignoire) banwār baignoire, theater
box of the lowest tier
2
1
‫( ب يا‬It. bagno) banyō batb, bathtub
‫ ب و‬bana i ( ‫ ب‬binā’, ‫ ب يو ن‬bunyān) and VIII to
build, erect, construct, set up (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
build, establish, rest (‫ هوـ علوو‬s.th. on); to
consummate the marriage ( ‫ بهو‬and ‫عليه و‬
with a woman); pass. buniya, ubtuniya to
be based, be built, rest (‫ علوو‬on)│‫ب وواكلموةا‬
‫( علوووو‬kalimalan) to give a word an
indeclinable ending in (a certain vowel or
a vowelless consonant; gram.) V see 1 ‫اب‬
‫ ب وووو‬binā’ building, construction,
erection, setting up; structure (also, e.g.,
of an organism), setup, make-up; (pl. ‫اب يوة‬
abniya) building, structure, edifice│‫اعو ا‬
‫ ا ب و‬i‘ādat al-b. reconstruction; ‫ا ب و اا حوو‬
(ḥurr) Freemaaonry; ‫ ب و اعلوو‬binā’an ‘alā
according to, in accordance with, on the
basis of, by virtue of, on the strength of;
‫ ب اعلواهلا‬accordingly, thus
‫ ب ووو ئو‬binā’ī constructional, building
(used
attributively);
architectural;
structural
‫ ب يوة‬binya, bunya pl. ‫ ب وو‬binan, bunan
structure, setup, make-up; binya build,
frame,
physique,
physical
constitution│‫ ضوووووعيفاا ب يوووووة‬of delicate
constitution; ‫ صووحيااا ب يووة‬and ‫ سووليماا ب يووة‬of
sound constitution, healthy; ‫ لا اا ب يوة‬qawīy
al-b. husky, sturdy
‫ ب وو‬bannā’ pl. -ūn builder; mason;
constructive│‫( اب احو‬ḥurr) Freemason
‫ ب يوة‬bināya pl. -āt building, structure,
edifice
‫ ب يووو ن‬bunyān building, construction,
erection, setting up; building, structure,
edifice; physique, stature
‫ مب وو‬mabnan pl. ‫ مبو ن‬mabānin building,
construction,
erection,
setting
up;
building,
structure.
edifice;
form;
foundation, fundament, basis │‫اا ووووأىا‬
‫( وا مب و‬ra’y) content and form
‫( اﭙظو‬Engl.) penny
‫ بهوت‬bahita a, bahuta u and pass. buhita (baht)
to be astonished, amazed, bewildered,
startled,
perplexed,
flabbergasted,
speechless; -- bahita to be or become pale,
fade (color); -- bahata a to astonish,
amaze,
bewilder,
startle,
stagger,
flabbergast (‫ ه‬s.o.); (‫ بهأووو ن‬buhtān) to
slander, defame (‫ ه‬s.o.) III to come or
descend unexpectedly (‫ ه‬upon s.o.); to
startle, stagger, flabbergast (‫ ه‬s.o.) IV to
surprise, astonish, amaze (‫ هـ‬s.o.) VII = I
‫ بهوت‬buht and ‫ بهأو ن‬buhtān slander, false
accusation; lie, untruth
‫ بهأووووة‬bahta perplexity,
bewilderment, stupefaction
amazement,
‫ ب هووت‬bāhit pale, pallid, faded (color);
perplexed, aghast
‫ مبه وا‬mabhūt perplexed, astonished,
amazed, startled, flabbergasted, aghast
‫ بهو‬bahija a to be glad, he bappy (‫ ب‬about),
he delighted (‫ ب‬at); -- bahuja u to be
beautiful, look wonderful IV to gladden,
delight, make happy (‫ ب‬s.o.) VIII to be
glad, be happy (‫ ب‬about), be delighted (‫ب‬
at)
‫ بهجوووة‬bahja splendor, magnificence,
beauty, resplendence; joy, delight│‫بهج وةا‬
‫ االظر ر‬delight of the eyes, welcome sight
‫ بهووو‬bahij, ‫ بهوووي‬bahīj magnificent,
splendid, beautiful; happy, joyous;
delightful
‫ مبهجوة‬mabhaja a moment of happiness
and joy
‫ مبو ه‬mabāhij joys, delights; pleasures,
amusements, diversions; splendid things;
splendor, pomp, magnificence
‫ ابأه‬ibtihāj joy, rejoicing, delight (‫ ب‬at)
‫ موووووبه‬mubhij
delightful
pleasant,
charming,
‫ مبأه‬mubtahij happy, glad, delighted
‫ بهوودل‬bahdala to insult (‫ ه‬s.o.); to treat
contemptuously, meanly (‫ ه‬s.o.); to expose
(‫ ه‬s.o.) to ridicule, make a laughingstock (‫ه‬
of s.o.) II tabahdala pass. of I
‫ بهد وووة‬bahdala insult, affront, abuse,
outrage; meanness; triteness, insipidity
‫ مبهودل‬mubahdal maltreated, oppressed,
miserable
‫ بهوو‬bahara a (bahr) and IV to glitter, shine; to
dazzle, overwhelm (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.o.’s eyes)│‫ا‬
‫شو ايبهوووااالبصو ر‬a dazzling, overwhelming
thing; -- pass. buhira to be out of breath,
to pant VII to be dazzled, blinded; to be
smitten with blindness; to. be out of breath
VIII to flaunt, parade, show off, present in
a dazzling light (‫ ب‬s.th.)
‫ بهو‬bahr deception, dazzlement (‫ ب‬by)
‫ بهووو‬buhr difficult respiration, labored
breathing
‫ بهوجوووة‬bahraja empty show, hollow
pomp
‫ بهوج ن‬bahrajan tinsel, frippery
‫ مبهوو‬mubahraj showy, tawdry, gaudy,
ornate, ostentatious; trashy, rubbishy,
cheap, inartistic
‫ بهويز‬bahrīz (eg.) a soup
‫ بهو‬bahaza a (bahz) to oppress weigh down (‫ه‬
s.o.; a load, work), weigh heavily (‫ هوـ‬on
s.o.) IV do.
‫ ب و ه‬bāhiẓ heavy, oppressive, trying;
excessive,
exorbitant,
enormous;
expensive, costly
‫ بهوق‬bahaq a kind of lichen (bot.); herpetic
eruption, tetter; vitiligo alba, a mild form
of leprosy (med.)
‫ بهول‬bahala a (bahl) to curse (‫ ه‬s.o.) V and VI
to curse one another VIII to supplicate,
pray humbly (to God)
‫ ابهل‬abhal savin (Juniperus sabina; bot.)
‫ ابأه ل‬ibtihāl supplication, prayer
‫ بهوووو‬bahra (n. vic.) being dazzled,
dazzlement
‫ ب ه ول‬bāhil pl. ‫ بهوول‬buhl, buhhal free,
independent
‫ بهووو‬buhra middle, center│...‫ا وووابهووو ا‬
amidst
‫ بهلوال‬buhlūl, bahlūl pl. ‫ به يول‬bahālīl2 buffoon,
jester, clown, fool
‫ابهوووو‬
abhar2 more brilliant, more
magnificent
‫ بهلواان‬bahlawān pl. -āt, -īya acrobat, tumbler,
equilibrist, ropedancer, tightrope walker
‫ ابهو‬abhar2 aorta (anat.)
‫ به ر‬bahār pl. -āt spice
‫ ابأهو ر‬ibtihār dazzling display, show (‫ب‬
of s.th.)
‫ ب هو‬bāhir dazzling, brilliant, splendid
‫ مبهوار‬mabhūr breathless, out of breath,
panting
‫ بهوو‬bahraja ( ‫ بهوو‬bahraja) to adorn, deck
out, dress up showily; to give a deceptive
brightness (‫ هـ‬to); to glamorize (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
reject as false (‫ ه‬a witness); to fake,
counterfeit (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) II tabahraja to adorn
o.s., spruce o.s. up, dress up; to be fake
‫ بهوو‬bahraj false, spurious, fake, sham,
worthless, bad; counterfeit money; tinsel,
frippery, cheap finery; trash, cheap stuff
‫ بهلوووااظو‬bahlawānī acrobatic│‫حوكوووو ا‬
‫( بهلااظيوة‬ḥarakāt) acrobatics; antics, capers
of a tumbler; ‫( هيووانابهلوااظو‬ṯayarān) aerial
acrobatics, stunt flying
‫ بهوم‬IV to make obscure, dubious, unintelligible
(‫ هوووـ‬s.th.) V and X to be obscure,
ambiguous, unintelligible (‫ علو‬to s.o.)
‫ بهمة‬bahma lamb, sheep
‫ بهيم‬bahīm pl. ‫ بهم‬buhum jet-black
‫ بهيم وة‬bahīma pl. ‫ به و ئم‬bahā’im beast,
animal, quadruped; pl. livestock, cattle,
(large) domestic animals
‫ بهيمو‬bahīmī animal, bestial, brutish
‫ بهيميووة‬bahīmīya brutishness, bestiality,
brutality
‫ ابهوووو م‬ibhām
ambiguity
obscurity;
vagueness,
‫ ابهو م‬ibhām pl. ‫ ابو هيم‬abāhīm2 thumb; big
toe
‫ ب هم‬bāhim big toe
‫ م وبهم‬mubham obscure, dark, cryptic,
doubtful, vague, ambiguous│‫اعووود اموووبهم‬
(‘adad) abstract number (math.); O ‫ا عصبا‬
‫‘( ا موبهم‬aṣab) the vagus (anat.); ‫االسوماا موبهم‬
(ism) the demonstrative pronoun (gram.)
1
(‫ بهو )بهوا‬bahā u, bahuwa u and ‫ بهوو‬bahiya a
( ‫ بهو‬bahā’) to be beautiful III to vie,
compete (‫ ه ب‬with s.o. in s.th.); to pride
o.s. (‫ ب‬on)‫ و‬be proud (‫ ب‬of), boast (‫ ب‬of,
‫ ه ب‬to s.o. of s.th.) VI to compete with one
another; to be proud (‫ ب‬of), pride o.s. (‫ب‬
on)
‫ بهوا‬bahw pl. ‫ اابهو‬abhā’ hall; parlor,
drawing room, reception hall
‫ بهووووو‬bahīy beautiful, magnificent,
splendid; brilliant, radiant, shining
‫ بهوووو‬bahā’ beauty,
splendor; brilliancy
magnificence,
‫ بهو ئو‬bahā’ī Bahai (adj.); (pl. -ūn) an
adherent of the Bahai sect, a Bahai
‫ ابهو‬abhā more splendid, more brilliant
‫ مب هو‬mubāhāh and ‫ تبو ه‬tabāhin pride,
vainglory, boastfulness
2
‫ بهاا‬see ‫بل‬
( ‫ بو )بوا‬bā’a u to come again, return; to
come back (‫ ب‬with s.th.), bring back,
yield, bring in (‫ ب‬s.th.)│‫ بو اب يبوة‬or ‫ب فشول‬
(ḳaiba, fašal) to fail II to provide
accommodations (‫ ل‬and ‫ ه‬for s.o., ‫ هوـ‬at a
place), put up (‫ ل‬or ‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬at)│ ‫بواأامك ظو‬
(makānan) to take a place, settle down,
live or stay at a place IV to provide
accommodations (‫ ه‬for s.o., ‫ هوـ‬at a place);
to settle down, reside, live (‫ ب‬at a place) V
to settle down (‫ هووـ‬at a place), occupy
(‫ موكووزا‬markazan a place), hold ( ‫مق موو‬
maqāman a position)│ ‫( تبواأامك ظو‬makānan)
to gain ground, become generally
accepted; ‫‘( تبواأاا عووشا‬arš) to ascend the
throne; ‫( تباأاا حكما‬ḥukm) to come to power,
take over power
‫ بيئووة‬bī’a pl. -āt (usually pronounced
bai’a) pl. -āt residence, domicile, seat;
situation; surroundings, environment,
milieu; home, habitat
‫ مبو‬mabā’a place to which s.th. comes;
abode, dwelling, habitation
‫ تبووا‬tabawwu’: ‫ تبووا اا عوووش‬t. al-‘arš
accession to the throne
‫ بواب‬II to divide into chapters or sections (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to arrange in groups, arrange
systematically, class, classify (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ ب و ب‬bāb pl. ‫ ابووااب‬abwāb, ‫ بيب و ن‬bībān
door;; gate; opening, gateway; entrance;
chapter, section, column, rubric; group,
class, category; field, domain (fig.)│‫ا بو با‬
‫ ا عو و‬the Sublime Porte; ‫ بو باا م ودب‬b. almandab Bab el Mandeb (strait between
SW Arabia and Africa; geogr.); ‫علووااالبوااب‬
near, imminent; ‫ وأااب بو اجديودا‬to open up a
new way, a new possibility; ‫ وأاابو ب‬futiḥa
bāb ... was (were) begun, ... got under
way; ‫( لفلاب باا شو‬qafala) to put an end to
s.th., terminate, close s.th.; ‫( م اب باا ف ول‬b.
il-faḍl) as a favor; ‫(امو ابو بااو وو‬aulā) with
all the more reason, the more so; ‫وواهولاا‬
‫ ا بو ب‬about this matter, about this; ‫مو ابو با‬
‫( ا وووور اان‬b. iḍ-ḍarūra) it is necessary
that ... ; ‫( هولاا ويسامو ابو باا صود ة‬b. iṣ-ṣudfa)
that’s no coincidence; ‫ ك نام اب ب‬or ‫ولا و ا‬
‫( بو ب‬with foll. genit.) to belong to, fall
under; ‫ ويودا و اب بو‬unique of its kind; ‫هلواا‬
‫ علووابو با‬to pursue one's livelihood, earn
one’s bread 80
‫ ب بووة‬bāba pl. -āt kind, sort, class,
category
‫ بووووااب‬bawwāb
gatekeeper
pl.
-ūn
doorman,
‫ باابة‬biwāba office of gatekeeper
‫ باابوووة‬bawwāba pl. -āt (large) gate,
portal│ ‫ باابةاا ق و‬b. al-qanṯara lock gate
‫ تبايووب‬tabwīb division into chapters,
sectioning,
classification,
systematic
arrangement, grouping
‫ مبوواب‬mubawwab arranged in groups,
classed, classified
‫ بابلي‬boblīn poplin
‫( بابي ة‬Fr. bobine) bobīna spool, reel
‫ بايت‬see‫بيت ا‬
‫بات س‬, ‫( بات س‬It. potasa) būtāsā, būtās potash
‫ باتقووة‬būtaqa (usually pronounced bautaqa)
crucible, melting pot│‫وووو اباتقووووةاا زموووو ن‬
(zamān) in the melting pot of time
‫ بوووااخ‬buwāḳ evaporation, exhalation,
vapor, steam
‫ تبووايخ‬tabwīḳ: ‫ تبووايخاا كأووة‬an-nukta the
spoiling of the point of a story
‫( باجية‬Fr. bougie) bužīh pl. -āt spark plug (eg.)
(‫ بو ح )بواح‬bāḥa u (bauḥ) to become known, be
revealed, be divulged, leak out (secret); to
reveal, disclose, divulge (‫ هوـ‬or ‫ ب‬s.th., a
secret; ‫ ا وو‬and ‫ ل‬to s.o.) IV to disclose,
reveal (‫ هوـ‬or ‫ ب‬s.th., ‫ ل‬to s.o.); to release,
abandon, make public property, declare
ownerless (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to permit, allow, leave
(s.th., ‫ ل‬to s.o.); to justify, warrant (‫هووـ‬
s.th.) X to reveal (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to regard as
public property, as ownerless, as fair
game; to deem permissible, lawful (‫هووـ‬
s.th.); to hurt ( ‫ حومأ و‬ḥurmatahū s.o.’s
honor); to take possession (‫ هوووـ‬of),
appropriate, take as booty (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
seize, confiscate (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.)│ ‫اسوووأب حا مووو‬
(damahū) to proscribe, outlaw s.o.
‫ بواح‬bauḥ divulgence, disclosure (of a
secret); confession
‫ بواح‬būḥ wide, open space; courtyard;
hall
□ ‫ بو يخ‬bāyiḳ spoiled, bad; vapid, insipid,
stale (also, e.g., of a joke)
‫ با رست‬būḳārest Bucharest
‫( با ر‬Fr. poudre) būdra powder
‫ با لووة‬būdaqa pl.
melting pot
‫ با ا‬būdā Buddha
‫ با ى‬būdī Buddhistic; Buddhist
‫ با ية‬būdīya Buddhism
(‫ بو ر )بار‬bāra u (baur, ‫ بواار‬bawār) to perish; to
lie fallow, be uncultivated (land); to be
futile, unsuccessful, unprofitable, lead to
nothing (work); to be unsalable, be dead
stock (merchandise)│ ‫( بو ر اا ب و‬bint) the
girl could not get a husband II to let lie
fallow (‫ هووـ‬land); to make unprofitable,
useless (‫ هـ‬s.th.) IV to destroy
‫ بووار‬būr uncultivated, fallow│‫اار ابووار‬
(arḍ), pl. ‫( ارا ابوار‬arāḍin) fallow land,
wasteland
‫ ب حوة‬bāḥa pl. -āt wide, open space; open
place, square, plaza; courtyard; hall
‫ اب حوة‬ibāḥa divulgence, disclosure (of a
secret);
permission,
authorization;
licentiousness
‫ ابووو حو‬ibāḥī licentious, unrestrained,
uninhibited; anarchist; freethinker
‫ اب حيووة‬ibāḥīya freethinking, libertinism;
anarchism
‫ اسووأب حة‬istibāḥa appropriation, capture,
seizure; spoliation, confiscation
‫ مبووووو ح‬mubāḥ permitted, allowed,
permissible; legal, lawful, licit, legitimate;
open to everyone, permitted for all, free;
ownerless (1.1. Law); indifferent (said of
actions for which neither reward nor
punishment is to be expected, but which
are permissible, pl.
‫ مب حووو‬indifferent,
permissible actions, Isl. Law)
(‫ بو خ )بوواخ‬bāḳa u to abate, subside, let up,
decrease; to die, go out (fire); to fade,
bleach; to spoil, rot (e.g., meat) II to spoil
(‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ بوواا‬bawādiq2 crucible,
‫ باار‬bawār perdition, ruin│‫ ا اراا باار‬hell
‫ ب ئو‬bā’ir uncultivated, fallow (land)
‫ باراظو‬baurānī (eg.) a vegetable stew
‫ بواراسوعيد‬būr sa‘īd Port Said (seaport in NE
Egypt)
‫ باراسوا ان‬būr sūdān Port Sudan (seaport in NE
Sudan)
‫ بارتاريكا‬burturīkū Puerto Rico
‫ بارتغ ل‬burtugāl Portugal
‫ بارصة‬būrṣa pl. -āt stock exhange
‫ بووارا ووؤا‬Port Fuad (seaport in NE Egypt,
opposite Port Said)
‫ بار‬bauraq borax
‫ بارم‬burma Burma
1
‫( ابارى‬Turk. boru) būrī trumpet, bugle
‫ باروجو‬biūjī pl. -īya trumpeter, bugler
2
‫ ابوارى‬būrī (pl. ‫ بواارى‬bawārī) striped mullet
(Mugil cephalus; zool.)
3
1
‫( اباري‬Fr.) būrēh purée
‫( با ي‬Fr. buffet) būfēh buffet; bar; sideboard
‫ اباز‬II to pout, sulk, look glum, sullen
‫ با‬II to blow the trumpet
‫ باز‬būz pl. ‫ ابااز‬abwāz muzzle, snout
‫ بوا‬būq pl. -āt, ‫ ابوواا‬abwāq trumpet,
bugle; fanfare; horn (of an automobile, of
a gramophone); acoustic signaling device;
megaphone; mouthpiece, spokesman;
duplicity, treachery, betrayal│ ‫ابووا اا صووا‬
b. aṣ-ṣaut or ‫ بوووا اا وا يوووا‬loudspeaker
(radio); O ‫( بووا ارحمووو‬raḥimi) oviduct,
Fallopian tube (anat.)
‫ تبايز‬tabwīza sullen mien
‫ مباز‬mubawwaz sullen, glum
2
3
‫ اباز‬būz, ‫ باز‬bum ice cream
‫اباز‬būza a beerlike beverage
4
‫اب ز‬bāz pl. ‫ ابااز‬abwāz, ‫ بيزان‬bīzān falcon
1
‫ باس‬būs bus
2
‫ ب س )باسة‬bāsa u (baus) to kiss (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ باا‬bawwāq trumpeter, bugler
‫ ب ل وة‬bāqa bundle; bunch of flowers,
nosegay, bouquet
‫ باسة‬bausa, būsa kiss
‫ ب ئقة‬bā’iqa pl. ‫ باائوق‬bawā’iq2 misfortune,
calamity
‫( باسأا‬It. busto) bustū corset
‫باس ة‬, ‫( باسأة‬It. posta) busṯa, busta post, mail
‫ ا باسفار‬al-busfūr the Bosporus
‫ بالو ل‬būqāl, ‫ بال وة‬būqala pl. ‫ بااليول‬bawāqīl2
vessel without handles, mug
‫ باكسوووفار‬boksəford patrol wagon, paddy
wagon, Black Maria
‫ ب و شايبوواشة‬bāša u (bauš) to be boisterous,
shout, roar (crowd) II do.
‫ باش‬bauš pl. ‫ اوب ش‬aubāš (for ‫ )ابااش‬mob.
rabble
1
‫( باكسك ا‬Engl.) bokəkāf box calf
1
‫ باص‬būṣ (coll.; n. un. ) reed
‫ باصة‬būṣa pl. -āt inch
2
‫ بال‬baul pl. ‫ اباال‬abwāl urine│‫اا بالا‬
‫ ا سكوى‬maraḍ al-b. as-sukarī diabetes
‫ باص‬būṣ pl. ‫ ابااص‬abwāṣ, linen or silk fabric
‫( باصلة‬It. bussola) bōṣla compass
‫ باظة‬būẓa a beerlike beverage
2
‫ بوا‬bū‘ metatarsal bone (anat.)│‫الايعووااا كوا ا‬
‫ مو اا بوا‬h‫ ث‬wouldn’t know his knee from
his elbow (proverbially, of a stupid
person)
‫ ب و‬bā‘ pl. ‫ ابوواا‬abwā‘ the span of the
outspread arms, fathom; in Eg. today = 4
ḍirā‘ mi‘mārīya = 3 m│ ‫ اهايولاا بو‬mighty,
powerful; capable, able; knowledgeable;
generous, liberal;
‫ لصوويواا بووو‬powerless,
helpless, impotent, weak, incapable;
niggardly, stingy; ‫ لصوويواا ب و‬impotence,
weakness; incapability ( ‫ عو‬of); ‫ب بو اوا ولرا‬
with might and main
1
‫ باغ‬II to surprise
1
‫ ب غة‬bāga celluloid; tortoise shell
‫ باغ‬būgāda and ‫ باغ ضة‬būgāḍa potash, lye
‫ باغوو ز‬būgāz pl. ‫ بووااغيز‬bawāgīiz2 strait(s);
harbor│‫اباغ زاا در ظيل‬the Dardanelles
‫امو‬
‫ بوا و‬baulī uric, urinary, urinous│‫اا مسو لا‬
‫ ا با يوة‬the urinary passages; ‫االمووا اا با يوة‬
diseases of the kidney and urinary
bladder; ‫(تسوووممابوووا وا‬tasammum) uremia
(med.)
‫ باهة‬būṯa crucible, melting pot
1
(‫ بو ل )بوال‬bāl u (baul) and V to make water,
urinate IV to be diuretic X to cause to
urinate
‫ بيلووووة‬bīla: O ‫( بيلووووةاآح ظيووووة‬āḥīnīya)
albuminuria; O ‫( بيلوووةا مايوووة‬damawīya)
hematuria (med.)
‫ باا ة‬bawwāla public lavatory
‫ مبا وة‬mabwala pl. ‫ مبو ول‬mabāwil2 urinal;
a diuretic; -- mibwala chamber pot; toilet,
water closet
‫ اسوأباال‬istibwāl: O ‫ اسوأباال‬ist. ad-dam
uremia (med.)
2
‫ ابو ل‬bāl state, condition; heart, mind; notice,
regard,
attention│‫وابوووووو ل‬
significant,
notable, considerable, important, serious,
grave; ‫ وواغاا بو ل‬farāg al-b. leisure; ‫مشوغالا‬
‫ ا بو ل‬anxious, uneasy, concerned, worried.;
‫ هايولاا بو ل‬long-suffering, patient; ...‫مو اب و ا‬
(with verb) why is it that he (it) ... ? why
... ? ‫ مو اب ول‬how about you? what do you
think? ‫ والاب و‬ḳalā bāluhū his mind is at
rest, he has no worries; ‫وووابب ووو‬
it
occurred to him, it came to his mind; ‫اع وا‬
‫( يا قوىاجعلةاب و اا ووايلة‬a‘ṯā, alqā, ja‘ala) to
turn one’s mind to, give one’s attention to,
pay attention to, take into account, be
mindful of, bear in mind, heed s.th.; ‫ومايلوقا‬
‫ قوا وابو ال‬lam yulqi li-qaulī bālan he didn't
pay any attention to what I said; ‫الايقولاع و ا‬
‫( ب ال‬yaqillu) no less significant than this
3
‫ بال‬būl postage stamp
4
‫ ب ل‬bāl whale (zool.)
5
‫ ب ة‬look up alphabetically
□ ‫ باال‬būlād (= ‫ ) اال‬steel
‫ ب ها‬bāh coitus; sexual potency; sexuality
‫( باهيمي‬Engl.) bōhīmiyā Bohemia
‫ باهيم‬bōhēmī Bohemian (adj. and n.)
‫باهيميووووووة‬
bōhēmīya
Bohemian life
‫ بؤوظة‬ba’ūna the tenth month of the Coptic
year
‫( باية‬Turk. boya) bōya paint; shoe polish
‫بووايجو‬, ‫( بايوو جو‬eg.) boyagī house painter,
painter; shoeshine, bootblack
‫ بية‬bayya = ‫ ب ية‬look up alphabetically
‫ بيئة‬see ‫با‬
‫ بي‬biyāda infantry (Eg.)
‫ با صة‬see ‫با يسة‬
‫ باال‬būlāq2 a district of Cairo
‫ با د‬bōlanda Poland
‫ با دى‬bōlandī Polish; (pl. -ūn) Pole
‫ بي ى‬biyādī infantryman, foot soldier
‫بيو ن‬, ‫بي ظوة‬, ‫ا بيو ظا‬biyān, biyāna, biyānō pl.
biyānāt piano
‫ با اظ‬būlūnī Polish; Pole
1
‫( با يس‬Fr. police) būlīs police│‫ بوا يسااب اب‬vice
squad; ‫( ا بوووا يساا ج ووو ئوووو‬jinā’ī) criminal
police; ‫( ا بوووا يساا حوبوووو‬ḥarbī) military
police; ‫( ا بوا يساا سووى‬sirrī) secret police;
‫ با يساا موور‬traffic police
‫ روايووةابا يسووية‬riwāya būlīsīya detective
story
2
‫ با يسوة‬and ‫( با يصوة‬Fr. police) būlīsā, būlīṣa pl.
‫ بواا ص‬bawāliṣ2, ‫ بواا س‬bawālis2 certificate
of insurance, policy│ ‫ با يسووةاا شووح‬b. aššaḥn bill of lading
‫ با يفي‬būlīfiyā Bolivia
‫ با يفو‬būlīfī Bolivian
O ‫ ا اا با ي‬dā’ al-baulīnā uremia
‫ بام‬būm (coll.; n. un. ) pl. ‫ اباام‬abwām owl
1
‫ بان‬baun, būn interval, distance; difference
2
‫ بو ن‬coll.; n. un. ) ben tree (Moringa; bot.;
horse-radish tree (Moringa oleifera; bot.);
Egyptian willow (Salix aegyptiaca L.;
bot.)
‫ باظس يوسا‬Buenos Aires
‫( باظو‬Engl.) bōnī pl. ‫ بااظو‬bawānī pony
‫بي ظو‬
1
‫ بيوب‬bīb pipe, tube; feed pipe, spout (of a
reservoir or tank)
2
‫ بيبة‬bība (Western) smoking pipe
‫ با ا‬bōlō polo
‫( با اظي‬It. Polonia) būlūniya Poland
Bohemianism,
(‫ بو )بيوت‬bāta i (‫ مبيوت‬mabīt) to pass or spend
the night; to stay overnight; to become; to
be (‫ وو‬in a situation); with foll. imperf.: to
get into a situation. Get to the point
where; to continue to do s.th., go on or
keep doing s.th., stick to s.th. II to brood
(by night; ‫ هـ‬about s.th.); to contrive, hatch
(‫ هوـ‬an evil plan, ‫ ل‬against s.o.), plot (‫ل‬
against s.o.); to put up for the night (‫ه‬
s.o.)│‫( بيوتا وواا صوف‬ṣaff; eg.) to flunk, fail
promotion (pupil) IV to put up for the
night (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ بيوت‬bait pl. ‫ بيوا‬buyūt, ‫ بياتو‬buyūtāt
house, building; tent (of nomads); room;
apartment, flat; (garden) bed; family; case,
box, covering, sheath; pl.
‫ بيات و‬large,
respectable houses; respectable families;
(pl. ‫ ابيو‬abyāt) verse│ ‫ ابيوتااالبوو‬b. al-ibra
(navigator’s) compass; ‫ اهولاا بيوت‬ahl al-b.
family, specif., the family of the Prophet;
‫ اهولاا بياتو‬people from good, respectable
families; ‫( بياتو اتج ريوة‬tijārīya) commercial
houses; ‫( ا بيتاا حووام‬ḥaram) the Kaaba; ‫بيوتا‬
‫ ا وال‬b. al-ḳalā’ and ‫ بيوتااال ب‬b. al-adab
toilet, water closet; ‫ بيوتاا ودا‬origin or seat
of the disease; ‫( بيووتاريفووو‬rīfī) country
house; ‫ بيووتاا قصوويد‬and ‫( بيووتاا قصوويد‬the
essential, principal verse of the kasidah,
i.e.) the quintessence; the gist, the
essential, the hit of s.th.; s.th. that stands
out from the rest, the right thing; ‫بيوتا حوم‬
baitalaḥm2 Bethlehem; ‫ ا بيتاا ملول‬the ruling
house; ‫ بيوووتاا مووو ل‬treasure house; fisc,
treasury, exchequer (Isl. Law); (Tun.)
administration of vacant Muslim states
‫ بيأوو‬baitī domestic, private, home, of the
house,
house(in
compounds);
domesticated (animals); home made
2
‫ بيووو‬bairaq pl.
standard
‫ بيا‬bayyūt stale, old
‫( جبو لاا بيوظيو‬Fr. Pyrénées) jibāl al-bīrinēh the
Pyrenees
1
‫ بيوو‬bērū Peru
2
‫( بيوو‬Fr. bureau) bīrō pl. -āt office, bureau
‫ بيوولواهو‬bīruqrāṯī bureaucratic
‫ بيزظ ي‬bīzanṯiyā Byzantium
‫ ب ئوت‬bā’it stale, old; (eg.) not promoted,
‫( واا صف‬ṣaff) in school
‫ بيسان‬bīsōn bison
(‫ بو )بيوود‬bāda i to perish, die, pass away,
become extinct IV to destroy, exterminate,
extirpate (‫هـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.)
‫ بيووداان‬baida anna although, whereas;
(esp., introducing a sentence:) yet,
however, but, ... though
‫ بيودا‬baidā’2 pl. ‫ بيود‬bīd,
desert, steppe, wilderness
‫ بيوداوا‬baidawāt
‫ اب و‬ibāda annihilation, extermination,
eradication, extirpation
‫ ب ئود‬bā’id passing, transitory, temporal;
past, bygone
‫ مبيود‬mubīd destructive, annihilative; (pl.
-āt) means of extermination│‫امبيودا احشووية‬
(ḥašarīya) insecticides
‫ ابي‬look up alphabetically
‫ بيدر‬baidar pl. ‫ بي ر‬bayādir2 threshing floor
‫ بيود‬baidaq (and ‫ )بيول‬pl.
(in chess)
‫ بيو‬bayādiq2 pawn
‫ بيلظج ن‬see ‫ ب ظج ن‬alphabetically
1
‫ بيووتوو‬bairūtī pl. ‫ باارتوة‬bawārita, ‫بي رتوة‬
bayārita a native or inhabitant of Beirut
‫ مبيووت‬mabīt overnight stop, overnight
stay; shelter for the night
‫ بيج م‬bījāmā and ‫ بيج مة‬bījāma pajama
2
‫ بيوو‬bairūt2 Beirut (capital of Lebanon)
‫ بيوولواهية‬bīrūqrāṯīya bureaucracy; red tape
‫ مبيت‬mubayyit plotter, schemer, intrigant
1
‫ بو يو‬bayāriq2 flag, banner,
‫ بيولودار‬bairaqdār color-bearer, standardbearer
‫ بايوت‬buwait pl. -āt small house; small
tent
‫ بي و‬bayyāt pl. -ūn and ‫ بي ت وة‬bayyāta
boarder (student); (pl. -ūn) pupil of a
boarding school (tun.)
‫بيووا‬, ‫( بيوو‬It. birra) bīrā, bīra beer│‫مصو ااا بيووا‬
maṣna‘ al-b. brewery
□ ‫ بيو ر‬bayyāra pl. -āt (pal.) irrigation wheel;
plantation
‫ بيزظ‬bīzanṯī Byzantine
(
‫)بوي‬
‫ بو‬bāḍa i to lay eggs (also ‫ ;)هوـ‬to stay,
settle down, be or become resident (‫ ب‬at a
place)│‫( اب اب مك ناو وخ‬wa-farraḳa) to be
born and grow up in a place; to establish
itself and spread (plague) II to make
white, paint white, whitewash, whiten (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to bleach, blanch (‫ هوـ‬s.th., textiles,
laundry, rice, etc.); to tin, tinplate (‫هووـ‬
s.th.); to make a fair copy (‫ هوـ‬of s.th.)│‫ا‬
‫(بوي اا اجو‬wajhahū) to make s.o. appear
blameless, in a favorable light, to
whitewash, exculpate, vindicate, justify
s.o., play s.o. up, make much of s.o.; to
honor s.o., show honor to s.o.; ‫بي ا اوجه‬
may God make him happy! ‫الايبووي ام و ا‬
‫ صوووحيفأ‬this doesn't show him in a
favorable light V pass. of II; IX to be or
become white
‫ بي‬baiḍ pl.
‫ بيا‬buyūḍ eggs
‫ بي وة‬baiḍa (n. un.) pl. -āt egg; testicle; helmet;
main part, substance, essence│‫ابي وةاا وديل‬
b. ad-dīik (the egg of a rooster i.e.) an
impossible or extraordinary thing; ‫بي وةاا بلود‬
b. al-balad a man held in high esteem in
his community; ‫( ووابي وةاا هو ر‬b. in-nahār)
in broad daylight; ‫ا بي وةاا صويف‬b. aṣ-ṣaif
the hottest part of the summer; ‫بي وةااالسوالم‬
the territory or pale of Islam; ‫ا د اع ابي ةا‬
‫ا ودي‬, 85 ‫( عو ابي وةاا واه‬b. id-dīn, b. il-
‫ بو ئ‬bā’iḍ pl.
laying
waṯan) defense of the faith, of the country;
‫ بي ةاا ودر‬b. al-ḳidr a woman seluded from
the outside world, a chaste, respectable
woman
‫ مبووي‬mubayyiḍ pl. -ūn whitewasher;
bleacher; tinner; copyist, transcriber (of
fair copy)
‫ بي وو‬baiḍī, ‫ بي واى‬baiḍawī and ‫بي و وى‬
baiḍāwī egg-shaped, oviform, oval, ovate
‫ بيي وة‬buyaiḍa and ‫ باي وة‬buwaiḍa pl. -āt
small egg, ovule; ovum
‫بيوووووو‬
bayāḍ
white,
whiteness:
whitewash; -- (pl. -āt) barren, desolate,
uncultivated land, wasteland: gap, blank
space (in a manuscript); blank; leucoma
(med.); linen, pl.
‫ بي ضوو‬linen goods,
linens; (syr.) milk, butter, and eggs│‫ابيو ا‬
‫ ا بيت‬b. al-bait white of egg, albumen: ‫بي ا‬
‫ ا عوي‬b. al-‘ain the white of the eye: ‫بيو ا‬
‫ ا هو ر‬b. an-nahār daylight, (acc.) by day,
during the daytime; ‫بي و ايام و اوسوواا ا يل و‬
bayāḍa yaumihi wa-sawāda lailihi by day
and by night: ‫ بيو اا اجو‬b. al-wajh tine
character, good reputation;
‫سوووملابيووو‬
samak b. a Nile fish (eg.);
‫ علووابيو‬blank,
free from writing, printing or marks,
uninscribed; (‫ ارتودى‬or)
‫( وبساا بيو‬labisa,
irtada) to dress in white
‫ بيوا‬bayūḍ pl.
laying
‫ بوي‬buyūḍ, bīḍ (egg-)
‫ ابي‬abyaḍ2, f.
‫ بي‬baiḍā’2, pl. ‫ بي‬bīḍ
white; bright; clean, shiny, polished;
blameless, noble, sincere (character);
empty, blank (sheet of paper); pl. ‫ا بي و ن‬
al-bīḍān the white race;
‫ االبوي‬white of
egg, albumen│ ‫( اار ابي و‬arḍ) barren,
uncultivated land, wasteland; ‫ثووار ابي و‬
(ṯaura) peaceful, bloodless revolution;
‫( ا يطااالبوي‬ḳaiṯ) first light of dawn; ‫ا ولهبا‬
‫( االبي‬dahab) platinum; ‫ ب سالحااالبوي‬with
cold steel; ‫( صووحيفأ ابي و‬ṣaḥīfatuhū) his
reputation is good: he has noble de.ds to
his credit, he has a noble character; ‫صوحفا‬
‫( بي و‬ṣuḥuf) noble, glorious deeds: ‫اكلوبوةا‬
‫( بي و‬ukdūba) white lie, fih: ‫يلووةابي و‬
(laila) a sleepless night, a night spent
awake: ‫( ا ما ااالبي‬maut) natural death; ‫يدا‬
‫( بي‬yad) beneficent hand, benefaction
‫ مبي‬mabīḍ, mibyaḍ ovary (anat.)
‫ تبيي ة‬tabyīḍa fair copy
O
‫ ابي‬ibyiḍāḍ leukemia (med.)
‫ بواائ‬bawā’iḍ2 (egg-)
‫ مبي ة‬mubayyaḍa fair copy
‫ بي وو‬baiṯara to practice veterinary science; to
shoe (‫ هـ‬a horse)
‫ بي وووو ر‬baiṯar pl.
veterinarian; farrier
‫بيوووو هو‬
bayātira
‫ بي وووى‬baiṯarī veterinary│‫ا ووباا بي وووى‬
(ṯibb) veterinary medicine; ‫هبيوووبابي ووووى‬
veterinarian
‫ بي و‬baiṯara veterinary science; farriery
1
(‫ ب )بيا‬bā‘a i (bai‘,‫ مبيا‬mabī‘) to sell (‫ هـ‬s.th.,
‫ ه‬or ‫ ل‬to s.o., ‫ ب‬for a price) III to make a
contract (‫ ه‬with s.o.); to pay homage (‫ ه‬to
s.o.); to acknowledge as sovereign or
leader (‫ ه‬s.o.), pledge allegiance (‫ ه‬to) IV
to offer for sale (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) VI to agree on
the terms of a sale, conclude a bargain VII
to be sold, be for sale VIII to buy,
purchase ( ‫ هـ م‬s.th. from s.o. and ‫ ه هـ‬from
s.o. s.th.)│ ‫( االاابأووو ام ووو اوالاابيعووو‬abtā‘u,
abī‘uhū) I don't trust him
‫ بيوا‬bai‘ pl. ‫ بيوا‬buyū‘,‫ بياعو ا‬buyū‘āt
sale│‫ لبيوا‬for sale; ‫ بياعو ( جبويوة‬or) ‫بيوا‬
(jabrīya) forced sales, compulsory sale by
auction: ‫( بيوااب جملوة‬jumla) wholesale sale;
‫( بيوااب يو ر‬ḳiyār) optional sale (Isl. Law);
‫( بيوااب وواراغوب‬li-āḳir rāgibīn) sale to the
highest bidder; ‫ بيوااا عي وة‬b. al-‘īna credit
operation (Isl. Law)
‫ بيعوووة‬bai‘a agreement, arrangement;
business deal, commercial transaction,
bargain; sale; purchase; homage│‫علوواا بيعوة‬
into the bargain
‫ بيو‬bayyā‘ salesman, merchant, dealer,
commission agent, middleman
‫ مبيوا‬mabī‘ sale, pl. -āt sales (esp. on the
stock market)
‫ مب يع وة‬mubāya‘a pl. -āt conclusion of
contract; homage; pledge of allegiance;
transaction
‫ ابأي‬ibtiyā‘ purchase
‫ بو ئا‬bā’i‘2 pl. ‫ ب عوة‬bā‘a seller, vendor;
dealer, merchant; salesman
‫ ب ئعة‬bā’i‘a saleswoman
‫ مبيا‬mabī‘ and
‫ مب‬mubā‘ sold
‫ مبأ‬mubtā‘ buyer, purchaser
2
‫ ابيعوة‬bai‘a pl. -āt, ‫ بيووا‬biya‘ (Chr.) church;
synagogue
‫ بيول‬bē (eg.), bēg, bēk pl. ‫ بيكواا‬bēgawāt (syr.)
bey (title of courtesy); cf. ‫بل‬
‫ بيكاية‬bīkawīya rank of bey
‫ بيك ر‬bīkār compass, (pair of) dividers
‫ بيكب شو‬see ‫بكب شو‬
‫( بيك‬Fr.) bīkeh plqué (fabric)
1
‫( بيول‬Fr. bille) bīl ball│‫ كوسووابيول‬kursī b. ball
bearing
2
‫ بيلة‬bīla see ‫بال‬
‫ بيلس ن‬bailasān black elder (bot.)
‫ بيله رسوي‬bilharsiyā bilharziasis, schistosomiasis
(med.)
‫( بيلي‬Fr. bille) bīlya pl. -āt little ball, marble
‫ بيم رسأ ن‬bīmāristān hospltal; lunatic asylum
1
‫ بو ن يبوي ة‬bāna i (‫ بيو ن‬bayān) to be or become
plain, evident, come out, come to light; to
be clear (‫ ل‬to s.o.); ( ‫ بووي‬bain, ‫بي اظووة‬
bainūna) to part, be separated ( ‫ مو‬from) II
to make clear, plain, visible, evident (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to announce (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to state (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to show, demonstrate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
explain, expound, elucidate (‫ هووـ‬s.th.),
throw light (‫ هوـ‬on) III to part, go away (‫ه‬
from), leave (‫ ه‬s.o.); to differ, be different
(‫هووـ‬, ‫ ه‬from), be unlike s.th. (‫ ;)هووـ‬to
contradict (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), be contrary (‫ هوـ‬to); to
conflict, be at variance, be inconsistent (‫هوـ‬
with s.th.) IV to explain, expound,
elucidate (‫ هوـ ل‬s.th. to s.o.); to separate,
sift, distinguish ( ‫ هوـ مو‬s.th. from); to be
clear, plain, evident V to be or become
clear, intelligible (‫ ل‬to s.o.); to turn out,
prove in the end, appear, become evident;
to follow ( ‫ مو‬from), be explained ( ‫ مو‬by);
to be clearly distinguished ( ‫ مو‬from); to
seek to ascertain (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), try to get at the
mct8 (‫ هوـ‬of); to eye or examine critically,
scrutinize (‫هـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.); to look, peer (‫هوـ‬
at); to see through s.th. (‫)هوـ‬, see clearly,
perceive, notice, discover, find out (‫هووـ‬
s.th.); to distinguish ( ‫ هوـ مو‬s.th. from) VI
to differ, be different, be opposed, be
contrary; to vary greatly, differ widely; to
vary, differ, fluctuate ( ‫ بووي‬between two
amounts or limits) X to be or become
clear, plain, evident; to Bee, know,
perceive, notice (‫ هـ‬s.th.); pass. ustubīna to
follow clearly, be clearly seen ( ‫ م‬from)
‫ بووي‬bain separation, division; interval;
difference│ ‫ا اا بووووي‬
enmity, disunion,
discord; ‫ واا بي‬meantime, meanwhile
‫ بووي‬baina (prep.) or ‫ يم و ابووي‬fī-ma b.
between; among, amidst│–‫ بوي ا–اوا‬either -or, partly -- partly, e.g., ‫كو ناا قوامابوي اصو متا‬
‫( ومأكلم‬ṣāmitin wa-mutakallimin) the crowd
was divided among those who were silent
and those who talked; ‫( بوي ايديو‬yadaihi) in
front of him, before him, in his presence;
with him. on him, in his possession, e.g., ‫الا‬
‫( سووالحابووي ايدي و‬silāḥa) he hasn’t got a
weapon on him, he is unarmed; ‫يمو ابوي ا ول‬
meanwhile, in the meantime; ‫يمو ابي وواوبوي ا‬
‫ ظفسوو‬in my heart, at heart, inwardly; ‫بوي ا‬
‫ راعيو‬in his arms; ‫ مو ابيو هم‬min bainihim
from among them, from their midst; ‫بوي ابوي‬
something between, a cross, a mixture, a
combination; neither good nor bad,
medium, tolerable; ‫ شو ابوي ابوي‬something
between, a cross, a mixture, a
combination; ‫( بي اولتاوآ و‬waqt, āḳar), ‫بوي ا‬
‫( أوو اوأ ووى‬fatra, uḳrā) at times, from time
to time
‫ م ابي‬mā-baina look up alphabetically
‫ بي و‬bainā, ‫ بي مو‬bainamā (conj.) while;
whereas
‫ بوي‬bayyin clear, plain, evident, obvious,
patent; (pl. ‫ اب ي‬abyinā’2) eloquent
‫ بيو ن‬bayān pl. -āt clearness, plainness,
patency,
obviousness;
statement,
declaration, announcement; manifestation;
explanation,
elucidation,
illustration;
information, news; (official) report.
(official) statement; enumeration, index,
list; eloquence; ‫ ا بيو ن‬the Koran; see also
alphabetically│‫بيووووووو ناا حقيقوووووووة‬
correction
(journ.); ‫( غ وووو اعوووو اا بيوووو ن‬ganīy) selfexplanatory, self-evident; ‫‘ علوماا بيو ن‬ilm alb. rhetoric; ‫‘ ع وفاا بيو ن‬aṯf al-b. explicative
apposition (gram.)
‫ بيووو ظو‬bayānī explanatory, illustrative;
rhetorical
‫ بي وووة‬bayyina pl. -āt clear proof,
indisputable evidence; evidence (Isl.
Law);
a
document
serving
&8
evidence│‫بي ووووووووووووةاظو يووووووووووووة‬
(ẓarfīya)
circumstantial evidence; ‫ علوووابي ووة‬as has
been proved; ‫ كو ناعلوووابي ووةام و‬to be fully
aware of; to he well-informed, wellposted, up-to-date about
‫ تابيوكا‬tābiyōkā tapioca
‫ ابوي‬abyan2 clearer, more distinct, more
obvious
1
‫ تبي و ن‬tibyān exposition, demonstration,
explanation, illustration
2
‫ تبيوي‬tabyīn and ‫ اب ظوة‬ibāna exposition,
demonstration, explanation, illustration
‫ تبووو ي‬tabayun difference, unlikeness,
dissimilarity, disparity
‫ تبوووو ي و‬tabāyunī
conflicting
different,
differing,
‫ ب ئ ة‬bā’ina bride’s dowry
‫ مبياظة‬mabyūna distance
‫ مبوي‬mubīn clear, plain, evident, obvious,
patent│ ‫ ا كأ باا مبي‬the Koran
2
‫ تأتأ‬ta’ta’a to stammer (with fright)
‫ ت‬see ‫تا‬
‫ تؤ‬see ‫وأ‬
‫ توبر‬IV ‫( اتأأ البرأ‬baṣara) to stare (‫ ه‬or ‫ الأ‬at
s.o.)
‫ ت ر‬see ‫تار‬
‫ ت ز‬tāza (= ‫ )ه ز‬fresh, tender, new
‫ تأا‬taka fem. of the demonstrative pronoun ‫ذا‬
dāka (dual nom. ‫ ت ظول‬tānika, genit., acc.
‫ تين‬tainika)
‫تاأم‬, ‫ تا م‬tau’am, f. , pl. ‫ تاائم‬tawā’im2 twin
‫ ا أ ميز‬at-tāmīz the Thames
‫ بو ئ‬bā’in clear, plain, evident, obvious,
patent; final, irrevocable (divorce; Isl.
Law); of great length│‫ بو ئ اا وال‬b. aṯ-ṯūl
towering, of unusual height (person)
‫ مأبووو ي‬mutabāyin dissimilar,
differential, differing, varying
‫ ر ووااا مي و ه‬t. raf‘ al-miyāh Archimedean
screw; ‫ تابوت الساقية‬t. as-āqiya scoop wheel,
Persian wheel
unlike,
‫بي ن‬, ‫ بي ظة‬look up alphabetically
‫ بي ب شو‬see ‫بكب شو‬
‫ بي أا‬see ‫ب أا‬
‫ ت ى‬tay (tun., alg.) tea│‫ ت ىااحمو‬black tea
‫ تو يار‬tāyōr and ‫ تو ييو‬tāyēr (Fr. tailleur) pl. -āt
ladies’ tailored suit, tailleur
‫ توب‬tabba i (tabb, ‫ تبوب‬tabab, ‫ تبو ب‬tabāb) to
perish, be destroyed X to stabilize, be
stabilized, be or become stable; to be
settled, established, well-ordered, regular,
normal; to progress well│‫اسووأأبا و ااالمووو‬
everything went well with him
‫ تبو ا و‬tabban lahū may evil befall him!
may he perish!
‫ اسوووأأب ب‬istitbāb normalcy, regularity,
orderliness, order; stability; favorable
course or development
‫ ا أبت‬at-tibt Tibet
‫ بي‬bēh = ‫بل‬
1
‫( بياري‬Engl.) biyūrē purée
2
‫( بياري‬Fr. pyorrhée) biyōrēh pyorrhea (med.)
‫ت‬
1
abbreviation of ‫ تلفان‬telephone
2
ta (particle introducing oaths) by, ‫ تو هلل‬tallāhi by God!
‫ ت‬tā’ name of the letter‫ا‬
‫ تو با‬tābūt pl. ‫ تاابيوت‬tawābīt2 box, case, chest,
coffer; casket, coffin, sarcophagus│‫تو با ا‬
‫ ا عهود‬t. al-‘ahd ark of the covenant; ‫تو با ا‬
‫ تبوو‬tabara i (tabr) to destroy, annihilate (‫هوـ‬
s.th.)
‫ تبووو‬tibr raw metal; gold dust, gold
nuggets; ore
‫ تب ر‬tabār ruin, destruction
‫ تبوية‬tibrīya dandruff
‫ تبويوز‬tabrīz2 Tabriz (city in NW Iran, capital of
Azerbaijan province)
‫ تبووا‬tabi‘a a (taba‘,‫ تب عوةا‬tabā‘a) to follow,
succeed (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.), come after s.o. or
s.th. (‫هـ‬, ‫ ;)ه‬to trail, track (‫هـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th) go
after s.o. or s.th. (‫هـ‬, ‫ ;)ه‬to walk behind s.o.
(‫ ;)ه‬to pursue (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to keep, adhere,
stick (‫ هووـ‬to s.th.), observe (‫ هووـ‬s.th; to
follow, take (‫ هوـ‬a road), enter upon ‫ يهوـ‬a
road or course); to comply (‫ هوـ‬with s.th.);
to belong, pertain (‫ هوووـ‬to); to be
subordinate, be attached (‫ ه‬to s.o.), be
under s.o.’s (‫ )ه‬authority or command, be
under s.o. (‫( تبااا دروس│)ه‬durūsa) to attend
classes regularly III to follow (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ها‬s.o.
s.th.; also = to keep one's mind or eyes on,
e.g., on a development); to agree, concur
(‫ ه‬with s.o., ‫ علوو‬in s.th.), be in agreement
or conformity (‫هوـ‬, ‫ علوو‬with); to pursue,
chase, follow up (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
continue (‫ هوـ‬s.th.; ‫ سويوه‬sairahū on one’s
way), go on (‫ هوـ‬with or in) IV to cause to
succeed or follow (in time, rank, etc.); to
place (‫ ه‬s.o.) under s.o.’s ‫ يهةا‬authority or
command, subordinate (‫ هاها‬to s.o. s.o., ‫هوـ‬
‫ هوـ‬to s.th. s.th.) V to follow (‫ هوـ‬s.th., esp.
fig.: a topic, a development, the news,
etc., = to watch, study); to pursue, trail,
track (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.); to trace (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
be subordinate (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ها‬to), be attached (‫ ه‬to
s.o.) VI to follow in succession, be
successive or consecutive, come or
happen successively; to form an
uninterrupted sequence VIII to follow,
succeed (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.), come after (‫هوـ‬, ‫;)ه‬
to make (‫ هـ‬s.th.) be succeeded or followed
(‫ ب‬by s.th. else); to prosecute (‫ ه‬s.o.), take
legal action (‫ ه‬against); to follow, obey,
heed, observe, bear in mind (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
pursue (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to examine, investigate,
study (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); pass. uttubi‘a to have or
find followers, adherents (‫ علووو‬for s.th.,
e.g., for an idea)│‫( اتبوااسي سوة‬siyāsatan) to
pursue a policy; ‫( اتبوواايمي و‬yamīnahū) to
keep (to the) right X to make (‫ ه‬s.o.)
follow, ask (‫ ه‬s.o.) to follow; to seduce (‫ه‬
s.o.); to have as its consequence,
engender, entail (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to subordinate to
o.s., make subservient to o.s. (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ تبووا‬taba‘ succession; subordinateness,
dependency:
following.
Followers;
subordinate, subservient (‫ ل‬to s.th.): ‫بو أبا‬
successively, consecutively; ‫ تبعو ال‬taba‘an
li according to, in accordance with,
pursuant to, in observance of; due to, in
consequence of, as the result of; (pl. ‫اتبو‬
atbā‘) follower, companion, adherent,
partisan; subject, national,
citizen;
appertaining,
appurtenant,
pertinent,
incident
‫ تبعو‬taba‘ī: ‫‘( عقابةاتبعيوة‬uqūba) incidental
punishment (jur.)
‫ تبعووووة‬tabi‘a pl. -āt consequence;
responsibility, irresponsibleness│‫ا قوواا أبعووةا‬
‫( علو‬alqā) to make s.o. or s.th. responsible
‫ تبيا‬tabī‘ pl. ‫ تبو‬tibā‘ following attached,
attending, adjunct; -- (pl. ‫ تب و ئا‬tabā’i‘2)
follower, adherent, partisan; aide, help,
assistant, attendant, servant
‫ تبعيوووة‬taba‘īya pl. -āt subordination,
subjection; subordinateness, dependency;
citizenship,
nationality;
‫ب أبعيوووووووووة‬
subsequently, afterwards; consequently,
hence, therefore, accordingly
‫ تب عو‬tibā‘an in succession, successively,
consecutively, one after the other, one by
one
‫ مأ بعوووة‬mutāba‘a following, pursuing,
pursuit, prosecution; continuation
‫ اتبوو‬itbā‘ (gram.) intensification by
repeating a word with its initial consonant
changed, such as katīr batīr
‫ تأبوا‬tatabu‘ following (esp. fig., of an
argument, of a development, see V
above); pursuit; prosecution; succession,
course│‫ ا أأبوااا أو ري و‬the course of history;
‫‘( تأبعووووو اعد يوووووة‬adlīya) legal action,
prosecution
‫ تأ و با‬tatābu‘ sucession; relay (athlet.);
‫ ب أأوووو با‬consecutively, successively, in
succession; serially, in serialized form
‫ اتبو‬ittibā‘ following; pursuit (e.g., of a
policy); adherence (to), compliance
(with), observance (of); ‫ اتب عو ال‬ittibā‘an li
according to, in accordance or conformity
with, pursuant to, in observance of
O ‫ اتب عو‬ittibā‘ī classical
O ‫ اتب عية‬ittibā‘īya classicism
‫ ت و با‬tābi‘ pl. ‫ تبع وة‬taba‘a, ‫ تب و‬tubbā‘
following,
succeeding,
subsequent;
subsidiary, dependent; minor, secondary;
subordinate (‫ ل‬to s.o.), under s.o. (‫;)ل‬
belonging (‫ ل‬to); subject to s.o.’s (‫)ل‬
authority or competence; adherent (‫ ل‬to)
following (‫ ل‬s.o. or s.th.); -- (pl. ‫اتب و‬
atbā‘) adherent, follower, partisan;
subject, citizen, national; subordinate,
servant; factotum; (pl. ‫ )تاابووا‬appositive
(gram.);
appendix,
addendum,
supplement; O function (math.)│‫اا ووودولا‬
‫( ا أ بعة‬duwal) the satellite countries
‫ ت بع وة‬tābi‘a pl. ‫ تاابووا‬tawābi‘2 female
attendant, woman servant; a female
demon who
accompanies women;
appurtenance, dependency; consequence,
effect, result; responsibility; pl. ‫تاابوووا‬
dependencies, dependent territories; O
satellites (pol.), = ‫( ا ودولاا أاابوا‬duwal) the
satellite countries
‫ ت بعية‬tābi‘īya nationality, citizenship
‫ مأب وا‬matbū‘ followed, succeeded (‫ب‬
by); one to whom service or obedience is
rendered, a leader, a principal (as
distinguished from ‫ ت با‬subordinate) 90
‫ مأأ با‬mutatābi‘ successive, consecutive
‫ مأبووا‬muttaba‘ observed, adhered to,
complied with (e.g. regulation, custom);
followed, traveled (road, course)
‫ تب‬tibg pl. ‫ تباغ‬tubūg tobaooo
‫ تبول‬tabala i to consume, waste, make sick (‫ه‬
s.o.; said of love) II, III and ‫ تابل‬taubala to
spice, season (‫ هـ‬s.th)
‫ ت بووول‬tābal, tābil pl. ‫ تاابووول‬tawābil2
coriander (bot.); spice, condiment,
seasoning
1
‫ ا أأو‬at-tatar and ‫ ا أأ ر‬at-tatar the Tatars
‫ تأوى‬tatarī Tatarian; Tatar
‫ تأوووى‬tatra (from ‫ )وتووو‬one after the other,
successively, in succession
‫ تأل‬titik trigger
‫ تأ‬tutun tobacco
‫ تأ اس‬tetanūs tetanus (med.)
‫ تجوو‬tajara u and VIII to trade, do business; to
deal (‫ و‬or ‫ ب‬in s.th.) III do. (‫ ه‬with s.o.)
‫ تج و ر‬tijāra commerce; traffic, trade;
merchandise
‫ تجووو رى‬tijārī commercial, mercantile,
trade,
trading,
business,
(used
attributively); commercialized│‫بيووتاتج و رى‬
(bait) commercial house, business house;
‫( ا حوكوةاا أج ريوة‬ḥaraka) trade, traffic; ‫شووكةا‬
‫( تج ريوة‬širka) trading company; ‫اتفو اتجو رى‬
(ittifāq) trade agreement
‫ مأجوو‬matjar pl. ‫ مأو جو‬matājir2 bussiness,
transaction, dealing; merchandise; store,
shop
‫ مأجوى‬matjar commercial, trade, trading,
business (used attributively)
‫ اتج ر‬ittijār trade, business (‫ ب‬in s.th)
‫ تبا وة‬tabbūla (syr., leb.) a kind of salad
made of bulgur, parsley, mint, onion,
lemon juice, spices, and oil
‫ تو جو‬tājir pl. ‫ تجو ر‬tujjār, tijār merchant,
trader, businessman, dealer, tradesman│‫ا‬
‫ت جواا جملة‬t. al-jumla wholesale dealer; ‫تو جوا‬
‫ ا أجزئوة‬t. at-tajzi’a and ‫ تو جواا ق و عو‬t. alqiṯā‘ī retailer
‫ مأبوال‬matbūl (Iove-)sick, weak, ravaged,
consumed
‫ ب وووو عةاتوووو جو‬biḍā‘a
marketable merchandise
‫ مأبوووول‬mutabbal spiced, seasoned,
flavored; (syr., leb.) stuffed with a mixture
of rice, chopped meat and various spices,
e.g., ‫ بلظج نامأبل‬stuffed eggplant
‫( تبلاه‬Fr. tableau) tablōh pl. -āt a painting
‫ تب‬tibn straw
‫ تب و‬tibnī straw-colored, flaxen
‫ تب ن‬tabbān straw vendor
‫رباا أ ب وة‬
Way
darb at-tabbāna the Milky
‫ مأووب‬matban pl.
stack
‫ اتبياك‬tabiyōkā tapioca
‫ مأ و ب‬matābin2 straw-
tājira
salable,
‫ تجو ه‬tujāha (prep.) in front of, opposite, face to
face with, facing
‫ا تحووت‬taḥta (prep.) under; below, beneath,
underneath│ ‫( تحوت‬tajriba) on probation;
in an experimental state; ‫ تحووتاا أح وويو‬in
preparation; ‫( تحووتاا حفو‬ḥifẓ) in custody,
under guard; ‫( تحوتاا سودا‬sadād), ‫تحوتاا أسوديد‬
due, outstanding, unsettled, unpaid (com.);
‫ تحووووتاا سووووالح‬under arms; ‫تحووووتاسوووومعهم‬
(sam‘ihim) in their hearing, for them to
hear; ‫( تحووتاا أسوواية‬taswiya) outstanding,
unpaid,
unsettled (com.); ‫تحوووتااشوووواا‬
(išrāfi)
under
the
patronage
or
superintendence
of;
‫تحوووووووتاا شوووووووعار‬
subconscious; ‫( تحوتاتصووو‬taṣarrufihī) at
his disposal; ‫( تحوتاا بوا‬ṯab‘) in press; ‫تحوتا‬
‫‘( ع اان‬unwāni) under the title of; ‫تحوتااعي و‬
(a‘yuninā) before our eyes; ‫ تحوتاا أمووي‬in
training; ‫( تحوتاا يود‬yad) in hand, at hand,
available, handy; ‫ تحوتايودها‬in his power; ‫مو ا‬
‫ تحوت‬min taḥt from under, from beneath;
under
‫ تحوووتا‬taḥtu (adv.) below, beneath,
underneath
‫ تحأوووو ظوا‬taḥtānī lower, undercompounds)│‫ امالبساتحأ ظية‬underwear
(in
‫ تحفوة‬tuḥfa pl. ‫ تحوف‬tuḥaf gift, present;
gem (fig.), curiosity, rarity, article of
virtu, objet d'art; work of art│‫تحفووةا يووة‬
(fannīya) unique work of art
matāḥif2
aš-šam‘
‫ات وت‬pl. tuḳūt bed, couch; bench; seat; sofa;
chest, case, box, coffer, cabinet;
wardrobe;
platform,
dais;
band,
orchestra│‫ات وووتاا ملووول‬t. al-mulk throne;
royal residence, capital; ‫ ت وتاا مملكوة‬t. almamlaka capital (of a country)
‫ت ووووووتاروان‬,
‫ت أووووووووان‬
taḳtaruwān,
taḳtarawān mule-borne litter
2
‫ ات أة‬taḳta board; desk; blackboard
‫ ات وم‬taḳima a to suffer from indigestion, feel
sick from overeating IV to surfeit, satiate
(‫ ه‬s.o.)‫ا‬to give (‫ ه‬s.o.) indigestion, make
sick (‫ ه‬s.o.); to overstuff, cloy (‫ ه‬the
stomach) VIII = I
‫ ت موووة‬tuḳama, tuḳma
indigestion, dyspeptic
‫مأ ووووووام‬
matḳūm
indigestion, dyspeptic
2
pl. ‫ت وووم‬,
suffering
-āt
from
‫ات وم‬taḳama i to fix the limits of (‫)هوـ‬, delimit,
limit, confine, bound (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) III to border
(‫ هـ‬on), be adjacent (‫ هـ‬to s.th.)
‫ ت ووم‬taḳm pl. ‫ ت ووام‬tuḳūm boundary,
border, borderline, limit
‫ مأ م‬mutāḳm neighboring, adjacent
‫ توا ام‬trāḳōmā trachoma (med.)
‫( تواس‬Fr. terrasse) terās terrace
‫ تووب‬tariba a to be or become dusty, covered
with dust II and IV to cover with dust or
earth (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.) III to be s.o.’s (‫)ه‬
mate or comrade, be of the same age (‫ ه‬as
s.o.) V to be dusty, be covered with dust
‫ تووب‬tirb pl. ‫ اتوواب‬atrāb person of the
same
age,
contemporary,
mate,
companion, comrade
‫ توبوة‬turba pl. ‫ تووب‬turab dust; earth, dirt;
ground (also fig.); soil; grave, tomb;
graveyard, cemetery, burial ground
‫ توبو‬turabī pl. -īya (eg.) gravedigger
‫ توواب‬turāb pl. ‫ اتوبوة‬atriba, ‫ توبو ن‬tirbān
dust, earth, dirt; ground, soil
‫ توابو‬turābī dusty; dustlike, powdery;
earthlike, earthy; dust-colored, gray
O ‫ توابة‬turāba cement
‫ ت أخ‬taḳtaḳa to rot, decay
1
‫( توابيز‬eg.; tarābēza) pl. -āt table
‫ توب‬tarib dusty, dust-covered
‫ تخ‬taḳḳa u to become sour, ferment (dough)
1
‫ تدموى‬tadmurī, usually pronounced tudmurī
anyone│‫االاتدموى‬nobody, not a living soul
‫توام‬, ‫ توامااى‬trām, tramwāy tramway
‫ تحف‬IV to present (‫ ه ب‬or ‫ ه هـ‬s.o. with s.th)
‫ مأحوووف‬matḥaf pl. ‫مأوووو حف‬
museum│‫امأحووووووفاا شووووووما‬
m.
waxworks
‫ تدمو‬tadmur2, usually pronounced tudmur2
Palmyra (ancient city of Syria, now a
small village)
‫ تويبة‬tarība pl. ‫ توائب‬tarā’ib2 chest,
thorax
‫ مأوبوووووة‬matraba poverty, misery,
destitution; (pl. ‫ مأ رب‬matārib2) dirt quarry
‫ مأوب‬mutrib dusty, dust-covered
‫ توبس‬tarbasa (= ‫ ) ربس‬to bolt (‫ هـ‬a door)
‫ توبو س‬tirbās pl. ‫ توووابيس‬tarābis2, ‫توووابس‬
tarābis2 bolt, l&tch (of a door or window)
‫ توب أي‬tarbantīn turpentine
‫( توبيز‬eg.) tarabēza table
‫ توبي‬trbīn pl. -āt turbine
‫ تواث‬see ‫وتوث‬
‫ توتو‬tirtir gold and silver spangles (eg.)
‫ تووجم‬tarjama to translate (‫ هوـ‬s.th. ‫ عو‬from one
language ‫ ا وو‬to another); to interpret (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to treat (‫ هووـ‬of s.th.) by way of
explanation, expound (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to write a
biography (‫ ل‬of s.o., also ‫)ه‬
opulent means, surround with luxury (‫ه‬
s.o.) V = I
‫ توووووجم‬tarjama pl. ‫ تووووواجم‬tarājim2
translation; interpretation; biography (also
‫;)توجموووووةاا حيووووو‬
introduction,
preface,
foreword (of a book)│‫اا أوجموووةاا سوووبعي ية‬
(sab‘īnīya) the Septuagint
‫ تووووا‬taraf and ‫ تو وووة‬turfa luxury,
opulence, affluence; effemination
‫ توجم و ن‬turjumān pl. ‫ تواجم وة‬tarājima,
‫ تواجيم‬tarājim2 transla.tor, interpreter
,-:;" mutarjim translator, interpreter;
biographer
‫ مأوجم‬mutarjam translated│‫مأوجماعلوواا فلوم‬
(film) synchronized (film)
‫ تووح‬tariḥa a (taraḥ) and V to grieve, be sad II
and IV to grieve, distress (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ توا‬tarif opulent, sumptuous, luxurious
‫ مأووا‬mutraf living in ease and luxury;
sumptuous,
luxurious;
luxuriously
adorned, ornate, overdecorated (‫ ب‬with)
‫ تو س‬tirfās (magr.) truffle (bot.)
‫ تو ل‬tarfala to strut
‫ تولووا‬tarquwa pl.
clavicle (anat.)
1
‫ تووح‬taraḥ pl. ‫ اتوواح‬atrāḥ grief, distress,
sadness
‫ توزى‬tarzī pl. ‫ توزية‬tarzīya (eg.) tailor
‫ توزية‬tarziya tailoring
1
‫ تواس‬look up alphabetically
2
‫ توس‬II to provide with a shield or armor
‫ توووس‬turs pl. ‫ اتوووس‬atrās, ‫ تووووس‬turūs
shield; disk of the sun; -- tirs pl. turūs
cogwheel, gear│‫ اصو دو اا أوووس‬ṣundūq alt. gearbox, transmission; ‫ سوملاا أووس‬samak
at-turs turbot (zool.)
‫ مأووس‬matras, mitras pl. ‫ مأو رس‬matāris2 and
‫ مأواس‬mitrās, pl. ‫ مأو ريس‬matārīs2 bolt, door
latch; rampart, bulwark, barricade; esp. pl.
‫ مأ ريس‬barricades
‫ توووا‬tarāqin collarbone,
‫ توو‬taraka u (tark) to let be, leave, relinquish,
renounce, give up, forswear (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
desist, refrain, abstain (‫ هوـ‬from s.th.); to
leave, quit (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬a place); to leave out,
omit, drop, neglect, pass over, skip (‫هووـ‬
s.th.); to leave (‫ ل‬or ‫ هـ ا و‬s.th. to); to leave
behind, leave, bequeath, make over (‫هووـ‬
s.th., ‫ ل‬to s.o.; as a legacy)│ 93 ‫ توك ايفعل‬to
let s.o. do s.th.; ‫ توو امك ظو اا وو‬to leave one
place for (another); ‫( توكووو ا ووو ا مأووو‬fī
dimmatihī) to leave s.th. in s.o.’s care,
leave s.th. to s.o.; ‫ توكو اعلوواح و‬to leave
s.th. or s.o. unchanged, leave s.th. or s.o.
alone; ‫( توك اوشوبظ‬wa-ša’nahū) to leave s.o.
alone, leave s.o. to his own devices III to
leave (‫ ه‬s.o.); to leave alone (‫ ه‬s.o.); to
leave off hostilities (‫ ه‬against s.o.)
‫توووووووو‬
tark
omission,
relinquishment, abandonment;
leaving behind
neglect;
leaving,
‫ توسووو ظة‬tarsāna, ‫ توسوووح ظة‬tarsḳāna arsenal;
shipyard, dockyard
‫ توكوة‬tarika pl. -āt (also tirka) heritage,
legacy, bequest
‫( توسكل‬Fr. tricycle) tricycle
‫ تويكوة‬tarīka pl. ‫ توائول‬tarā’ik2 old maid,
spinster
‫( توسي ة‬It. terrazzino) tarasīna balcony
‫ مأ ر‬mutāraka truce
‫ توو‬tari‘a a to be or become full (vessel) IV to
fill (‫ هـ‬s.th., esp. a vessel)
‫ توع وة‬tur‘a pl. ‫ تووو‬tura‘, -āt canal;
artificial waterway│ ‫ توعوةاااليووا‬t. al-īrād
feeder, irrigation canal; ‫توعوووةاا أصوووويف‬
drainage canal (Eg.); ‫ ا أوعووةاا شووويفة‬the
Residence of the Sultan of Morocco
‫توغل‬, ‫ توغلة‬turgul, turgulla turtledove
‫ تووا‬tarija a to live in opulence, in luxury IV
to effeminate (‫ ه‬s.o.); to provide with
‫ مأوو‬matrūk pl. -āt heritage, legacy
2
‫ تووو‬II to Turkify, Turkicize (‫ ه‬s.o.) X to
become a Turk, become Turkified, adopt
Turkish manners and customs
‫ ا أووو‬at-turk and
Turks
‫ االتوووا‬al-atrāk the
‫ توك وو‬turkī Turkish; Turk; ‫ ا أوكيووة‬atturkīya theTurkish language
‫ توكي‬turkiya Turkey
‫ تأويل‬tatrīk Turkification
‫ توكسأ ن‬turkistān2 Turkstan
‫ ا أوكم ن‬at-turkumān the Turkmen
‫ توومبيط‬turumbēt (syr.) pl. -āt (Western) drum;
‫ تومبي وة‬turumbīṯa (eg.) pl. -āt do.; specif.,
bass drum
‫ تومب جوو‬turumbaṯgi (eg.) drummer; bandsman
(mil.)
‫ تومس‬turmus, ‫ توماس‬turmūs lupine (bot.)
‫ تومامأو‬termūmitr thermometer
‫ توظ‬turunj see ‫اتو‬, ‫اتوظ‬
‫ توه‬tariha a to concern o.s. with trifles
‫ توهووة‬turraha pl. -āt sham, mockery,
farce; lie, humbug, hoax
‫( تووا ه‬Fr. Troade) tirwāda Troy
‫( توووووووب‬Engl. troop) squad, platoon;
squadron│‫( تووووباسووواارى‬sawārī) cavalry
squadron (Eg.)
‫ تومب جو = تومبيأجو‬see under ‫ تومبيط‬above
‫ توي‬tiryāq theriaca; antidote
‫( تويكا‬Fr.) tricot
‫ تسعة‬tis‘a (f. ‫ تسا‬tis‘) nine
‫ تسعةاعشو‬tis‘ata ‘ašara, f. ‫ تسوااعشوو‬tis‘a
‘ašrata nineteen
‫ تسوا‬tus‘ pl.
ninth part
‫ اتسو‬atsā‘ one ninth, the
‫ تسعان‬tis‘ūn ninety
‫ ا أ سا‬at-tāsi‘ the ninth
2
‫ تشووي ااالول‬tišrīn al-wwal October, ‫تشووي اا ثو ظو‬
t. at-tānī November (Syr., Ir., Leb., Jord.)
‫ تشيكاسلا كي‬tšekoslovākiyā Czechoslovakia
‫ تشيلو‬tšīlī Chile
‫ ت اان‬tiṯwān 2 Tetuēn (city in N Morocco)
‫ تا‬abbreviation of ‫تع و‬, see ‫علا‬
‫ تعوب‬ta‘iba a (ta‘ab) to work hard, toil, slave,
drudge, wear o.s. out; to be or become
tired, weary ( ‫ مو‬of s.th.) IV to trouble,
inconvenience (‫ ه‬s.o.); to irk, bother,
weary, tire, fatigue (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ تعوووب‬ta‘ab pl. ‫ اتعووو ب‬at‘āb trouble,
exertion, labor, toil, drudgery; burden,
nuisance,
inconvenience,
discomfort,
difficulty, hardship; tiredness, weariness,
fatigue; pl. ‫ اتع ب‬fees, honorarium
‫ تعوب‬ta‘ib and ‫ تعبو ن‬ta‘bān tired, weary,
exhausted 94
‫ مأ عوب‬matā‘ib2 troubles, pains, efforts;
discomforts, inconveniences, difficulties,
troubles; complaints,
ailments,
ills
(attending disease); hardships, strains
‫ مأعوب‬mut‘ib troublesome, inconvenient,
toilsome, laborious; burdensome, irksome,
annoying; wearisome, tiresome, tiring;
tedious, dull, boring
‫ مأعبا‬mut‘ab tired, weary
‫اتعأواا‬ta‘ta‘a to stammer; to shake (‫ ه‬s.o.); ‫اتعأوا‬
itta‘ta‘a to move, stir
‫ تعوز‬ta‘izz2 Taizz (city in S Yemen, seat of
government)
‫اتع وسا‬ta‘asa a, ta‘isa a to fall, perish; to
become wretched, miserable; ta‘asa and
IV to make unhappy or miserable, ruin
(s.o.)
‫ تعوس‬ta‘s and ‫ تع سوة‬ta‘āsa wretchedness,
misery
‫ تعوس‬ta‘is and ‫ تعويس‬ta‘īs pl. ‫ تعسو‬tu‘asā’
wretched, miserable, unfortunate, unhappy
‫ مأعووواس‬mat‘ūs pl. ‫ مأووو عيس‬matā‘is
wretched, miserable, unfortunate, unhappy
‫ تف‬taffa to spit II to say "phew"
‫ توف‬tuff dirt under the fingernails; ‫تفو ا ول‬
tuffan laka phew! fie on you!
O ‫ تف ة‬taffāfa spittoon, cuspidor
‫ تفأ‬tafettā, ‫ تفأ ه‬taffeta
‫ تف ح‬tuffaḥ (call.; n. un. ) apple(s)
‫ تفكة‬tufka pl. ‫ تفل‬tufak (ir.) gun, rifle
‫ تفل‬tafala u i (tafl) to spit
‫ تفل‬tufl and ‫ تف ل‬tufāl spit, spittle, saliva
‫ ت ل‬tāfil ill-smelling, malodorous
‫ مأفلة‬mitfala spittoon, cuspidor
‫ تفو‬tafiha a (tafah, ‫ تف هوة‬tafāha, ‫ تفواه‬tufūh) to be
little, paltry, insignificant; to be flat,
tasteless, vapid, insipid
‫ تفووو‬tafah and ‫ تفووو‬tufūh paltriness,
triviality, insignificance
‫ تف هووووة‬tafāha paltrineBB, triviality,
insignificance‫ا‬flatness,
vapidity,
insipidity, tastelessness; inanity, stupidity,
silliness
‫ تف و‬tafih and ‫ ت و‬tāfih little, paltry,
trivial, trifling, insignificant; worthless;
commonplace, common, mediocre; flat,
tasteless, vapid, insipid; trite, banal
‫ ت هوة‬tāfiha pl. ‫ تاا و‬tawāfih2 worthless
thing; triviality, trifle
2
‫ اتكأل‬taktaka to bubble, simmer (boiling mass)
3
‫ اتكأل‬taktaka to tick (clock)
‫ تكأكووة‬taktaka ticking, ticktock (of a
clock), ticking noise
4
‫اتكيووة‬takīya pl. ‫ تك ي و‬takāyā monastery (of a
Muslim order); hospice; home, asylum
(for the invalided or needy)
1
‫ اتول‬tall pl. ‫ توالل‬tilāl, ‫ اتوالل‬atlāl, ‫ تلوال‬tulūl hill,
elevation│‫اتولاابيوب‬t. abīb Tel Aviv (city in
W Israel)
2
‫ اتل‬tull tulle
‫ تق وى‬see ‫لاى‬
‫ تقلية‬see ‫للو‬
‫ تق‬IV to perfect, bring to perfection (‫ هوـ‬s.th; to
master, know well (‫ هوووـ‬s.th., e.g., a
language), be proficient, skillful, wellversed (‫ هـ‬in s.th.)
‫ تق‬tiqn skillful, adroit
‫ تالتل‬talātil2 hardships, troubles, adversities
‫ تليود‬talīd, ‫ ت ود‬tālid, ‫ توال‬tilād inherited, timehonored, old (possession, property)
‫ تلسكاب‬tiliskūb telescope
‫ تق ظة‬taqāna firmness, solidity; perfection
‫ اتق‬atqan2 more perfect, more thorough
‫ اتقووو ن‬itqān perfection; thoroughness,
exactitude, precision; thorough skill,
proficiency; mastery, command (e.g., of a
special field, of a language)│‫ا وواغ يوةااالتقو ن‬
to greatest perfection; of excellent
workmanship
‫امأق ا‬mutqan perfect; exact, precise
‫ تقو‬taqā i to fear (esp. God) VIII see ‫ولو‬
2
‫ اتقوو‬taqīy pl. ‫ اتقيو‬atqiyā’ God-fearing,
godly, devout, pious
‫ اتقو‬atqā more pious
‫ تقووو‬tuqan and ‫ تق واى‬taqwā godliness,
devoutness, piety
1
‫ اتكأيل‬taktīk tactics
‫اتووول‬takka u to trample down, trample
underfoot, crush (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to intoxicate (‫ه‬
s.o.; wine)
‫ تلوا‬IV to stretch one's neck; to crane (‫ هوـ‬the
neck)
‫ تلع وة‬tal‘a pl. ‫ تووال‬tilā‘ hill, hillside,
mountainside; (torrential) stream
‫ تليوا‬talī‘ long, outstretched, extended;
high, tall
‫ تلغووواا‬tiligrāf, taligrāf pl. -āt telegraph;
telegram, wire, cable│‫ ارسوولاتلغوا و اا ووو‬to
send a wire to
‫ تلغوا و‬tiligrāfī, taligrāfī telegraphic
‫ تل وف‬talafa a (talaf) to be annihilated, be
destroyed; to be or become damaged or
spoiled, be ruined, break, get broken, go
to pieces II to ruin (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to wear out,
“finish” (‫ ه‬s.o.) IV to destroy, annihilate
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to ruin, damage, spoil, break (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to waste (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ تلووف‬talaf ruin, destruction; ruination,
damage, injury, harm.; loss; waste
2
‫اتول‬tikka pl. ‫ تكول‬tikak waistband (in the upper
seam of the trousers) 95
‫ تلفو ن‬talfān spoiled; useless, worthless,
good-for-nothing
3
‫ اتل‬takka to tick (clock)
‫ مأل وف‬matlaf, ‫ مألف وة‬matlafa pl. ‫مأوو ف‬
matālif2 desert
‫ تكوة‬tikka pl. -āt ticking, ticktock (of a
clock), ticking noise
3
‫ اتكية‬look up alphabetically
‫ تكا‬tukūt pl. of Engl. ticket
1
‫ اتكأووول‬taktaka to trample down, trample
underfoot (‫ هـ‬s.th)
‫ موأالا‬mitlāl wastrel; ruinous, harmful,
injurious
‫ اتووووالا‬itlāf pl. -āt annihilation,
destruction; damage, injury, harm
‫ تووو ف‬tālif ruined, damaged, broken;
spoiled, bad
‫ مألواا‬matlūf and ‫ مألووف‬mutlaf ruined,
damaged, broken; spoiled, bad
‫ مألووووف‬mutlif annihilator, destroyer;
injurer; damaging, ruinous, harmful,
injurious, noxious
‫ تلفز‬talfaza to televise, transmit by television
‫ تلفز‬talfaza television
‫ ا اعوووةاتلف زيوووة‬iḍāfa talfāẓīya television
broadcast, telecast
O ‫ تلف ز‬tilfāz television set
‫( تلفزيان‬Fr. télévision) tilivisyōn television
‫ تلف‬talfana to telephone
‫ تلفان‬tilifūn and ‫ تليفان‬talīfūn pl. –āt telephone
‫ تلق‬see ‫قو‬
‫ يتالايتلاة‬talā u (‫ تلا‬tulūw) to follow, succeed; to
ensue; -- ( ‫ توالو‬tilāwa) to read, read out
loud (‫ هوـ‬s.th., ‫ علوو‬to s.o..); to recite (‫هوـ‬
s.th.) VI to follow one another, be
successive
‫ تلا‬tilwa (prep.) after, upon│‫ارسلاكأ ب اتلواا‬
‫ كأ ب‬to send letter after letter
‫ تووالو‬tilāwa reading; public reading;
recital, recitation
‫ تووووو ل‬tālin following, succeeding,
subsequent, next; ‫ ب أو و‬bi-t-tālī then, later,
subsequently;
consequently,
hence,
therefore, accordingly
‫ مأأ ل‬mutatālin successive, consecutive
‫ تلو‬tallī (tun.) tulle
‫ تليب ثو‬tilībātī telepathy; telepathic
‫ تليس‬tallīs, tillis pl. ‫ تال يس‬talālīs2 sack
‫ تلل‬tilka fem. of the demonstrative pronoun ‫ل‬
‫( تليفزيان‬Fr. télévision) tilīvisyōn television
‫ تلم‬talam pl. ‫ اتالم‬atlām (plow) furrow
‫ تليفان‬pl. –āt talīfūn telephone
‫ تلمول‬talmada to take on as, or have for, a pupil
or apprentice (‫ ه‬s.o.); to be or become a
pupil or apprentice (‫ ل‬of s.o., 96 also ‫)علوو‬,
receive one’s schooling or training (‫علووو‬
from) II tatalmada to be or become a
pupil or apprentice (‫ ل‬or ‫ اعلووايودها‬of s.o.),
work as an apprentice (‫ ل‬or ‫ علووايوده‬under
s.o.)
‫ تلمول‬talmada school days, college years;
apprenticeship; (time of) probation
‫ تلم‬tilmād learning, erudition
‫ تلمي ول‬tilmīd pl. ‫ تالمي ول‬talāmīd2, ‫تالموول‬
talamida pupil, student, apprentice;
probationer; trainee; disciple│‫اتلمي ولابحوووى‬
(baḥrī) approx.: chief warrant W-3 (naval
rank; Eg.); ‫( تلمي ولاسووفوى‬safarī) approx.:
chief warrant W-4 (naval rank; Eg.)
‫ اتلميل‬tilmīda pl. –āt girl student
‫ تلمس ن‬tilimsān2 Tlemcen (city in NW Algeria‫ة‬
‫ تلما‬talmūd Talmud
‫ تلو‬taliha a (talah) to be astonished, amazed,
perplexed, at a loss
‫ ت و‬tālih and ‫ مألو‬mutallah at a loss,
bewildered, perplexed│‫ ت و اا عقول‬t. al-‘aql
absent-minded, distracted
‫ تليفواظو‬talifūnī telephonic, telephone- in
compounds)
‫ ت وم‬tamma i to be or beoome complete,
completed, finished, done; to be
performed, be accomplished (‫ ل‬by s.o..);
to come to an end, be or become
terminated; to come about, be brought
about, be effected, be achieved, come to
pass, come off, happen, take place, be or
become a fact; to be on hand, be there,
present itself; to persist (‫ علووو‬in); to
continue (‫ علوو‬s.th. or to do s.th.) II and IV
to complete, finish, wind up, conclude,
terminate (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to make complete,
supplement, round out, fill up (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
carry out, execute, perform, accomplish,
achieve (‫ هووـ‬s.th.) X to be complete,
completed, finished
‫ تم و م‬tamām completeness, wholeness,
entirety, perfection; full, whole, entire,
complete, perfect; separate, independent;
‫ تم موووو‬tamāman completely, entirely,
wholly, perfectly, fully, quite; precisely,
exactly│‫(ابدراتم م‬badr) and ‫( لمواتمو م‬qamar)
full moon; ‫ وواتمو ماا سو عةاا س سوة‬at 6 o'clock
sharp; ‫( بأمو مامع وواا كلموة‬ma‘nā l-kalima) in
the full sense of the word; ‫ ب أمو م‬entirely,
completely
‫ تميمة‬tamīma pl. ‫ تم ئم‬tamā’im2 amulet
‫ اتم‬atamm2 more complete, more perfect
‫تأموووووووووووة‬
tatimma
completion;
supplementation; supplement
‫ تأمووويم‬tatmīm completion; perfection;
consummation, execution, fulfillment,
realization, effectuation, accomplishment
‫ اتمووو م‬itmām completion; perfection;
termination, conclusion; consummation,
execution,
fulfillment,
realization,
effectuation, accomplishment 97
‫ اسأأم م‬istitmām termination, conclusion
‫( ت بول‬Turk. tembel) tambal pl. ‫ ت بلوة‬tanābila
lazy
‫( ت جسأي‬Fr. tungstène) tongəstēn tungsten
‫( ت د‬It. tenda) tanda awning, roofing, sun roof
‫ ت وار‬tannūr pl. ‫ ت و ظيو‬tanānīr2 a kind of baking
oven, a pit, usually clay-lined, for baking
bread
‫ ت ار‬tannūra (syr., leb.) (lady's) skirt
‫ ت س‬tennis
1
‫ ت كجو‬tanakjī tinsmith, whitesmith
‫ تووو م‬tāmm complete, perfect, entire,
consummate; of full value, sterling,
genuine
‫ تمب و‬tumbāk Persian tobacco (esp. for the
narghile)
‫ تموأما‬tamtama to stammer, mumble, mutter; to
recite under one's breath (‫ ب‬s.th)
‫ تمووو‬tamr (coll.; n. un. , pl. tamarat, ‫تم وار‬
tumūr) dates, esp. dried ones│‫اتمووواه وودى‬
(hindī) tamarind (bot.)
‫ ات ل‬tanak tin plate
‫ ت كوة‬tanaka pl. -āt tin container, can, pot,
jerry can
2
‫ ات ظل‬tānika see
‫ ت‬alphabetically
‫ ت يس‬tennis
‫ ت ي‬tannīn tannin, tannic acid
‫ تهأ‬tahtaha to stammer, stutter
1
‫اتهموة‬tuhma pl. ‫ تهوم‬tuham accusation, charge;
suspicion; insinuation
‫( تموجوو‬eg. tamargī), ‫تموارجو‬, ‫ تواموجو‬pl. -ya
male nurse, hospital attendant; ‫ تموجيوة‬pl. āt female nurse
2
‫ ته موة‬tihāma2 Tihama, coastal plain along the
southwestern and southern shores of the
Arabian Peninsula
‫ تماز‬look up alphabetically
‫ تواا‬tawwan right away, at once, immediately;
just (now), this very minute│‫ا لأوا‬li-t-tawwi
at once, right away, also with pers. suffix.:
‫ أواى‬li-tawwī, ‫ أاهو‬li-tawwihā (I have, she
has) just ... ; at once, presently,
immediately
2
‫ تمس ح‬timsāḥ pl. ‫ تم سيا‬tamāsīḥ crocodile
‫ تمغة‬tamga stamp; stamp mark│‫ ور اتمغوة‬waraq
t. stamped paper
‫ تم‬tumman rice
‫ تماز‬tammūz2 July (Syr., Ir., Leb., Jord.)
‫( تاا يت‬Fr. toilette) tuwālēt toilette
1
‫ ات‬tunn tuna (zool.)
‫ تاأم‬see ‫تبم‬
‫ اتيو‬tinnīn pl. ‫ ت و ظي‬tanānīn2 sea monster;
Draco (astro.); waterspout (meteor.), see
also alphabetically
‫ تو ب يتوابة‬tāba u (‫ تواب‬taub, ‫ تابوة‬tauba, ‫مأو ب‬
matāb) to repent, be penitent, do penance,
with ‫عو‬: to turn from (sin), be converted
from, renounce, forswear s.th.; (said of
God) to restore to His grace, forgive (‫علوو‬
s.o.)│ ‫ تووو باا ووووا‬to turn to God in
repentance II to induce to repentance or
penitence, make repent (‫ ه‬s.o.) X to call on
s.o. (‫ )ه‬to repent
2
‫ ت ظئ‬tāni’ pl.
‫ ت‬tunnā’ resident
‫ ت ب و‬tunbāk (pronounced tumbāk) and ‫ت بوول‬
tumbak Persian tobacco (esp. for the
narghile)
‫ ت بو ل‬tinbāl pl. ‫ ت بيول‬tanābīl2 short, of small
Stature
‫( ت بوو‬Fr. timbre) tambar pl. ‫ ت و بو‬tanābir2 stamp
(magr.)
‫امأ بوا‬mutambar stamped (magr.)
‫ تابووووة‬tauba repentance,
contrition; penance 98
penitence,
‫ توااب‬tawwāb doing penance; repentant,
penitent, contrite; forgiving, merciful
(God)
‫ ت ئب‬tā’ib repentant, penitent, contrite
‫ تابل‬see ‫تبل‬
‫( تاظ‬Turk. tunç) tunj bronze
‫اتاظس‬tūnus2 Tunis
‫ تاباغوا ي‬tobogrāfiyā topography
1
2
‫ تان‬tūn and ‫ تاظة‬tūna (zool.)
‫ تاظسوو‬tūnisīy pl. ‫ تااظسوة‬tawānisa Tunisian
(adj. and n.)
‫ اتوا‬tūt mulberry tree; mulberry│‫توا اارضوو‬
(ardī) and ‫( توا اا وظجووا‬ifranjī) strawberry;
‫( تا اشاكو‬šaukī) and ‫ تا اا عليوق‬t. al-‘ullaiq
raspberry
‫ تاظيوة‬tūniya pl. ‫ توااظو‬alb of priests and deacons
(Chr.)
‫ اتا‬tūt the first month of the Coptic calendar
(‫ ت ه )تاه‬tāha u and II = ( ‫ ت ه )تي‬tāha i and II
‫ تاتي‬tūtiyā, ‫ تاتي‬tūtiyā’, ‫ تاتية‬zinc
‫ تاهة‬tūha daughter
‫ توا‬II to crown (‫ ه‬s.o.; also fig. ‫ هوـ ب‬s.th. with)
V to be crowned
‫ تو‬pl. ‫ تيج و ن‬tījān crown; miter (of a
bishop)│ ‫ تو اا عموا‬t. al-‘amūd capital of a
column or pilaster); ‫ ت و اا كووو‬t. al-kura
calotte
‫ تاي‬tuwaij little crown, coronet
‫ تأاي‬tatwīj crowning, coronation
‫ تاجوا‬tōgo and ‫ تاجا ود‬tōgōland (Eg. spelling)
Togo (region in W Africa)
(‫ ت ح )تاح‬see ‫تيا‬
‫ تو ر‬tāratan once; sometimes, at times│‫تو ر ا–ا‬
‫ت ر‬, ‫( ت ر ا–اهوارا‬ṯauran), ‫( تو ر ا–اا ووى‬uḳrā)
sometimes – sometimes, at times – at
other times
‫ تارا‬taurāh Torah, Pentateuch; Old Testament
‫تارﭙيود‬, ‫ تاربيود‬turpīd, turbīd torpedo (sub-marine
missile)
‫ تاربي‬turbīn pl. -āt turbine
‫ تارتة‬torta pl. -āt pie, tart
( ‫ تو )توا‬tāqa u (tauq, ‫ تالو ن‬tawaqān) to long.,
yearn, wish (‫ ا وو‬for), hanker (‫ ا وو‬after),
desire, crave, covet (‫ ا وو‬s.th.), strive (‫ا وو‬
for), aspire (‫ ا و‬to)
‫ توووا‬tauq, ‫ تالووو ن‬tawaqān
yearning, craving, desire
longing,
‫ توواا‬tawwāq longing, yearning, eager
(‫ ا و‬for), craving (‫ ا و‬s.th)
‫ تو ئق‬tā’iq longing, yearning, eager (‫ا وو‬
for), craving (‫ ا و‬s.th)
‫( تي توو‬It. teatro) tiyātrō theater
□ ‫ تيأل‬taital pl. ‫ تي تل‬see ‫ثيأل‬
‫ تيأ اس‬tītānūs tetanus (med.)
(‫ تو ح )تويا‬tāḥa i to be destined, be foreordained
(by fate, by God; ‫ ل‬to s.o.); to be granted,
be given (‫ ل‬to s.o.) IV to destine,
foreordain (‫ ل هوـ‬to s.o. s.th.); to grant,
afford, offer (‫ ل هوـ‬s.o. s.th.); pass. utīḥa to
be destined, be foreordained, be granted,
be given (‫ ل‬to s.o.)│‫( اتوياا و اا أا يوق‬utīḥa)‫ا‬
he met with success, he was successful;
‫( اتووياا و اا فوصووة‬furṣa) he was given the
opportunity, he had the chance .
‫ تيو ر‬tayyār pl. -āt flow, stream, course, current,
flood; fall (of a stream); movement,
tendency, trend; draft (of air); (el.)
current│O ‫( تيو رامب شوو‬mubāšir) and ‫تيو را‬
‫ مسوأمو‬mustamirr) direct current; O ‫تيو را‬
‫( مأ وو وب‬mutanāwib) and O ‫تيوو رامأغيوووو‬
(mutagayyir) alternating current; O ‫تيو را‬
‫ مألبوولبا‬mutadabdib) oscillating current
(el.); O ‫( يو راظو ب‬nābiḍ) pulaoting current;
99 O ‫( ي و راسووويااا أووو‬sarī‘ at-taraddud)
high-frequency current; O ‫اا أووو‬
‫تي و رب‬
(baṯī’ at-taraddud) low-frequency current;
O ‫‘( تيو راعو واا جهود‬ālī l-jahd) heigh-tension
current; O ‫( تيو راواهوئاا جهود‬wāṯI’ al-jahd)
low-tension current; O ‫( تي را اتوو‬dātī) selfinduced current
O ‫ مأ ر‬matār (Byr.) dynamo, generator
‫( تيز‬Turk. teyze) tēza maternal aunt
‫( تاكووةاام ميووة‬tōka amāmīya; eg.) belt buckle
(mil.)
‫ تيس‬tais pl. ‫ اتي س‬atyās, ‫ تياس‬tuyūs billy goat
‫ تال‬tūl tulle
‫ ا حمووواا أيفا يووة‬al-hummā t-tīfūdīya
fever
‫ تاموجو‬see ‫تموجو‬
‫ اتيس‬atyās2 foolish, crazy
typhoid
‫ تيفاس‬tīfūs typhus
‫ تيول‬tīka fem. of the demonstrative pronoun ‫ا‬
dāka
1
‫ تيل‬II (from Turk. tel) to cable, wire, telegraph
(syr.)
2
‫ تيل‬tīl hemp; linen
3
‫ تيلة‬tīla fiber, staple
1
(‫ تو م )تويم‬tāma I (taim) to become enslaved,
enthralled by love; to enslave, make
blindly subservient (‫ ه‬s.o.; through love) II
to enslave, enthrall (love; ‫ ه‬s.o.); to make
blindly subservient, drive out of his mind,
infatuate (‫ ه‬s.o.; love)
‫ مأويم‬mutayyam enslaved, enthralled (by
love), infatuated
2
‫ اتيم‬taimā’ Taima (oasis in NW Arabia)
‫ تيم رجو‬see ‫اتموجو‬
‫ توي‬tīn (coll.; n. un. ) fig │ ‫( توي اشواك‬šaukī)
fruit of the Indian fig (Opuntia ficusindica
Haw.)
‫ تي ل‬tainika see
‫ ت‬alphabetically
( ‫ تو ه )تيو‬tāha i to get lost, wander about, 1ose
one's way, go astray; to stray, wander
(thoughts); to escape ( ‫ مو‬s.o.), slip ( ‫مو‬
s.o.’s memory); to perish, be destroyed, be
lost; to be perplexed, startled, astonished;
to be haughty; to swagger, boast, brag (‫علو‬
to s.o.)│‫ تأيو اعلووواوجهو اابأسو مة‬asmile flits
over his face II to mislead, lead astray (‫ه‬
s.o.); to distract, divert (‫ ه‬s.o.); to confuse,
confound, bewilder (‫ ه‬s.o.) IV = II
‫ تيو‬tīh desert, trackless wilderness; maze,
labyrinth; haughtiness, pride
‫ تي و ه‬tayyāh straying, stray, wandering;
haughty
‫ تيهو ن‬taihān2 straying, stray, wandering;
perplexed, at a loss, bewildered; proud,
hughty
‫ تيه و‬taihā’2 and matāha a trackless,
desolate region; ‫ مأ هة‬maze, labyrinth
‫ ت ئوو‬tā’ih straying, stray, wandering,
roving, errant; lost in thought, distracted,
absent-minded; lost, forlorn; infinite;
haughty
‫( تيا يب‬Engl.) tulip
‫ث‬
‫ ث‬abbreviation of ‫ ث ظية‬second (time unit)
‫ ث‬tā’ name of the letter ‫ث‬
‫ ثئب‬ta’iba a (‫ ثبب‬ta’b) and VI to yawn
‫ ثؤب و‬tu’abā’ yawning, yawn; fatigue,
weariness
‫ ثوبر‬ta’ara a (ta’r) to avenge the blood of (‫ ه‬or
‫)ب‬, take blood revenge (‫ ه‬for 100 s.o.
killed), take vengeance, avenge o.s. (‫ه ب‬
on s.o. for, also ‫ مو‬or ‫ ل‬for) IV and VIII
‫ اثووبر‬itta’ara to get one’s revenge, be
avenged
‫ ثبر‬ta’r pl. -āt ‫ أث ر‬at’ār, ‫ آث ر‬ātār revenge,
vengeance, blood revenge; retaliation,
reprisal│‫ أ ووولاثوووبره‬or ‫ أ ووولاب ثوووبر‬to take
revenge, avenge o.s.; ‫ مبو را اا ثووبر‬mubārāt
at-t. return match (sports)
‫ ث ئو‬tā’ir avenger
‫ ثؤ وال‬tu’lūl and ‫ ثؤ ا وة‬tu’lūla pl. ‫ ث يول‬ta’ālīl2
wart
‫ ثبى‬ta’ā scars
‫ ثبوت‬tabata u ( ‫ ثبو‬tabāt, ‫ ثبوا‬tubūt) to stand
firm, be fixed, stationary, immovable,
unshakable, firm, strong, stable; to hold
out, hold one's ground (‫ ل‬against s.o. or
s.th.), be firm, remain firm (‫ ل‬toward s.o.
or s.th.), withstand, resist, defy (‫ ل‬s.o. or
s.th.); to be established, be proven (fact);
to remain, stay (‫ ب‬at a place); to maintain
(‫ علووو‬s.th.), keep, stick, adhere (‫ علووو‬to
s.th.), abide or stand by s.th. (‫ ;علوو‬e.g., by
an agreement); to insist (‫ علوو‬on)│‫اثبوتا ووا‬
‫( وجهو‬fī wajhihī) to hold one’s own against
s.o., assert o.s. against s.o. II to fasten,
make fast, fix (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to consolidate,
strengthen (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to stabilize (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
to confirm, corroborate, substantiate (‫هووـ‬
s.th.); to appoint permanently (. s.o.; to an
office); to prove, establish (‫ هووـ‬s.th.),
demonstrate, show (‫ ب و ن‬that); to prove
guilty, convict (‫ علوووو‬a defendant); to
confirm (Chr.)│ ‫(اثبوتابصووهابو‬baṣarahu) to
fix one’s eyes on, gaze at; ‫ثبووتالدميوو‬
(qadamaihi) to gain a foothold IV to
establish, determine (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to assert as
valid or authentic, affirm (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
confirm, corroborate, substantiate (‫هوووـ‬
s.th.); to prove (‫ هوـ علوو‬s.th. to s.o.; ‫ ل‬to
s.o., ‫ ان‬that); to demonstrate, show (‫هووـ‬
s.th.); to furnish competent evidence (‫هوـ‬
for); to bear witness, attest (‫ هووـ‬to); to
acknowledge (‫ هوـ‬s.th., e.g., a qualification,
a quality, ‫ ل‬in s.o.), concede (‫ هوـ ل‬s.th. to
s.o.); to prove guilty, convict (‫ علووو‬a
defendant); to enter, record, register, list
(‫ هـ و‬s.th. in a book, in a rooter, etc.)│‫ااثبأ ا‬
‫( ووواا ووار‬waraq) to put s.th. down in
writing, get s.th. on paper; ‫اثبووتاا ش و ص‬
(šaḳṣa) to determine s.o.’s identity,
identify s.o.; ‫( اثبوتاش صويأ‬šaḳṣīyatahū) to
identify o.s., prove one’s identity V to
ascertain, verify (‫ وو‬s.th., ‫ هول‬if), make sure
(‫ و‬of s.th., ‫ هول‬if); to consider carefully (‫وو‬
s.th.), proceed with caution (‫ وو‬in) X to
show o.s. stead-fast, persevering; to seek
to verify (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), try to make sure (‫ هوـ‬of),
seek confirmation of or reassurance with
regard to (‫ ;)هـ‬to ascertain, verify (‫ هوـ‬s.th.),
make sure (‫ هووـ‬of s.th.); to find right,
proven or true, see confirmed (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
regard as authentic (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ ثبووووت‬tabt firm, fixed,
steadfast, unflinching; brave
established;
‫ ثبت‬tabat reliable, trustworthy, credible
‫ ثبت‬tabat pl.
‫ اثب‬atbāt list, index, roster
‫ ثبووووو‬tabāt firmness; steadiness,
constancy,
permanence,
stability;
certainty,
sureness;
perseverance,
persistence,
endurance;
continuance,
maintenance, retention (‫ علوووو‬of s.th.),
adherence (‫ علو‬to)
verification│ ‫ اشوو هدااثبووو‬witness for the
prosecution; ‫‘ عب ااالثبو‬ib’ al-i. burden of
proof (jur.)
‫ اثب و تو‬itbātī affirmative, confirmatory,
corroborative, positive
‫ تثبوت‬tatabbut ascertainment; verification,
examination, check; careful, cautious
procedure, circumspection; interment (of
the remains of a saint; Chr.)
‫ ث بوووت‬tābit firm, fixed, established;
stationary, immovable; steady, invariable,
constant, stable; permanent, lasting,
durable, enduring; confirmed, proven; a
constant│‫ اث بوتاا جوبش‬t. al-ja’š undismayed,
fearless, staunch, steadfast; ‫ ث بوتاا عوزم‬t. al‘azm firmly resolved, determined; ‫امووال ا‬
‫ ث بأة‬and ‫ أمواالاث بأوة‬immovable property, real
estate, realty; O ‫ ث بووتااالتج و ه‬t. al-ittijāh
unidirectional, rectified (el.)
‫ ث بأة‬tābita pl. ‫ ثاابت‬tawābit2 fixed star
‫ مثبووا‬matbūt established, confirmed;
certain, sure, positive, assured; proven
‫ ثبوو‬tabara u to destroy, ruin (‫ ه‬s.o.); (‫ثبوار‬
tubūr) to perish III to apply o.s. with zeal
and perseverance (‫ علوو‬to s.th.), persevere,
persist (‫ علو‬in)
‫ ثبوار‬tubūr ruin, destruction│‫ظو ىاب ايوولا‬
‫ عو ( وا ثبار‬or) nādā (da‘ā) bi-l-wail wa-t-t.
to wail, burst into loud laments
‫مثووووووووو بو‬
mutābara
persistence,
perseverance,
endurance;
diligence,
assiduity
‫ ثبوووا‬tubūt constancy, immutability,
steadiness;
permanence,
durability;
certainty, sureness│‫اثب وا اا شووهو‬t. aš-šahr
the official determination of the beginning
of a lunar month
‫ ثوبط‬tabaṯa u and II to hold back, keep, prevent
( ‫ ه عو‬s.o. from doing s.th.); to hinder,
handicap, impede, slow down, set back
(‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.); to bring about the failure
(‫ هـ‬of s.th.), frustrate (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ اثبوت‬atbat more reliable, firmer, steadier,
etc.
‫ ثب وة‬tubna pl. ‫ ثوب‬tuban lap, fold of a garment
(used as a receptacle)
‫ تثبيوت‬tatbīt consolidation, strengthening;
stabilization; confirmation; corroboration,
substantiation│‫ اسوووواا أثبيوووت‬sirr at-t. the
Sacrament of Confirmation (Chr.)
‫ اثبووو‬itbāt establishment; assertion;
confirmation; affirmation, attestation;
demonstration; proof, evidence; 101
registration, entering, listing, recording;
documentation,
authentication,
‫ ثب ن‬tibān = ‫ ثب ة‬tubna
‫ ثيأل‬look up alphabetically
‫ ث‬tajja u to flow coplously
‫ ثج‬tajjāj coplously flowing, streaming
‫ ث‬taḳuna u to be or become thick, thicken; to
be firm, solid, compact IV to wear out,
exhaust, weaken (‫ ه‬s.o.)│ ‫اث وووو اضوووووب‬
(ḍarban) to wallop s.o., give s.o. a sound
thrashing; ‫‘( اث ا واا عودو‬aduw) to massacre
the enemy; ‫ اث و ابو جواح‬to weaken s.o. by
inflicting wounds
‫اثوي ا‬turayyā Pleiades; (also ‫ )ثوية‬pl. ‫ثوي ا‬
turayyāt chandelier
‫ ث و‬tiḳan, ‫ ث ظ وة‬taḳāna, ‫ ث اظ وة‬tuḳūna
thickness,
density;
consistency;
compactness
‫ ثعب ن‬tu‘bān pl. ‫ ثع بي‬ta‘ābīn snake│ ‫ اثعب ناا مو‬t.
al-mā’ eel
‫ ث ي‬taḳīn pl.
‫ ث‬tuḳanā’2 thick; dense
‫ ثودى‬tady and tadyan m. and f., pl. ‫ اثودا‬atdā’
female breast; udder
‫ ثو‬tarr abounding in water│ ‫( ثوو امو اا ودما‬dam‘)
tear-wet, tear-blurred (eye)
‫ ثووب‬taraba i (tarb) and II to blame, censure (‫ه‬
and ‫ علو‬s.o.)
‫ تثويب‬tatrīb blame, censure, reproof
‫ ثوثو‬tartara ( ‫ ثوثو‬tartara) to chatter, prattle
‫ ثوثو ر‬tartār prattler, chatterbox; ‫ثوثو ر‬
tartāra do. (fem.)
‫ ثوثو‬tartara chatter, prattle
‫ ثو‬tarada u to crumble and sop (‫ هـ‬bread)
‫ ثويود‬jarid a dish of sopped bread, meat‫ا‬
and broth
‫ مثو‬mitrad bowl
‫ ثووم‬tarama i (tarm) to knock s.o.’o (‫ )ه‬tooth
out; -- tarima a (taram) to have a gap
between two teeth
(‫ ثووو‬and ‫ ثووى )ثووى‬tariya a to become wealthy
IV to become or be rich, wealthy (‫ ب‬or ‫مو‬
through s.th.); to make rich, enrich (‫ ه‬s.o.)
102
‫ مثو‬mutr wealthy, rich
‫ثعبووووو ظو‬
tu‘bānī
serpentine; eely
snaky,
snakelike,
‫ مثعب‬mat‘ab pl. ‫ مث عب‬matā‘ib2 drain
‫ ثع ة‬tu‘āla fox
‫ ثعل وب‬ta‘lab pl. ‫ ثع ووب‬ta‘ālib2 fox│‫ا ا اا ثعلووب‬
alopecia (med.), loss of hair
‫ ثعلبو‬ta‘labī foxy, foxlike
‫ ثعلبة‬ta‘laba vixen; O tetter (med)
‫ ثغوو‬tagir pl. ‫ ثغوار‬tugūr front tooth; mouth;
port, harbor, inlet, bay; seaport
‫ ثغوو‬tagra pl. ‫ ثغوو‬tugar breach, crevasse,
crack, rift, crevice; opening, gap; cavity,
hollow; narrow mountain trail
‫ ثغم‬tagam white, whiteness
‫ ث غم‬tāgim white (adj.)
‫ ثغ ايثغاة‬tagā u ( ‫ ثغ‬tugā’) to bleat (sheep)
‫ ثغ‬tugā’ bleating, bleat
‫ ث و غ‬tāgin bleating│‫اموو ا و اث غيووةاوالاراغيووة‬
(tagiya) he has absolutely nothing, he is
deprived of all resources, prop.: he has
neither a bleating (sheep) nor a braying
(camel)
‫ ثفو‬tafar pl. ‫ اثف ر‬atfār crupper (of the saddle)
‫ ثووى‬taran moist earth; ground, soil│‫ايو ا‬
‫ ا ثووووىامووو اا ثويووو‬aina t-t. min t-turayyā
(proverbially of things of disproportionate
value) what has the ground to do with the
Pleiades? ‫( هيووبا اثووواه‬ṯayyaba) approx.:
may God rest him in peace!
‫ ثفل‬tufl dregs, lees, sediment; residues
‫ ثوووى‬tarīy pl. ‫ اثوي و‬atriyā’2 wealthy,
rich│‫ ثووىاا حووب‬t. al-ilarb war profiteer,
nouveau riche
‫ اثفية‬look up alphabetically
‫اثو‬tarīyāt plantations
‫ ثووو‬tarwa and ‫ ثووو‬tarā’ fortune, wealth,
riches│ ‫ اهوولاا ثوووو‬ahl at-t. the rich, the
wealthy; ‫( ثووووو الاميوووة‬qaumīya) national
wealth; ‫( ثوووو ام ئيووة‬mā’īya) abundance of
water, abundant supply of water (of a
region)
‫ ثفو‬III to associate (‫ ه‬with s.o.), frequent s.o.’s
(‫ )هـ‬company; to pursue, practice (‫ ه‬s.th.)
‫ ثف وة‬taftna pl. -āt,
callosity
‫ ثف و‬tifan callus,
‫ ثقة‬see ‫وثق‬
‫ ثقوب‬taqaba u (taqb) to bore, or drill, a hole (‫هوـ‬
in s.th.), pierce, puncture, perforate (‫هووـ‬
s.th.) II do. II and IV to light, kindle (‫هوـ‬
s.th.) V and VII to be pierced, be
punctured, be perforated
‫ ثق وب‬taqb piercing, boring, puncture,
perforation; (also tuqb pl. ‫ ثقواب‬tuqūb, ‫اثقو ب‬
atqāb) hole, puncture, borehole, drill hole
‫ا ثقبة‬tuqba pl. ‫ ثقب‬tuqab hole
‫ ثقو ب‬and ‫‘ عوا اا ثقو ب‬ūd al-tiqāb matchstick; matches
‫ا ثقواب‬tuqūb keenness, acuteness (of the
mind)
‫ مثقوبا‬mitqab pl. ‫ مث لوب‬matāqib2 borer,
drill, gimlet, auger, brace and bit, wimble,
perforator; drilling machine
‫ اثق ب‬itqāb kindling, lighting
‫ ث ل وب‬dqib penetrating, plercing, sharp
(mind, eyes)│‫ اث لووووباا رووووو‬t. an-naẓar
perspicacity; sharp-eyed; ‫ ث لباا فكوو‬t. al-fikr
sagacity, acumen, mental acuteness;
shrewd, sagacious, sharp-witted
‫ ث لب‬tāqibāt borers (zool.) 103
‫ ثقوف‬taqifa a (taqf) to find, meet (‫ ه‬s.o.); -taqifa a and taqufa u to be skillful, smart,
clever II to make straight, straighten (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to correct, set right, straighten out
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to train, form, teach, educate (‫هوـ‬
s.o.); to arrest (‫ هوـ‬s.o.); to seize, confiscate
(‫ ه‬s.th.) III to fence (‫ ه‬with s.o.) V to be
trained, be educated
‫ ثق وووووة‬taqāfa culture, refinement;
education; (pl. -āt) culture, civilization
strength, ask too much (‫ علوو‬of s.o.); to
trouble, inconvenience, bother (‫ علوو‬s.o. ‫ب‬
with s.th.), pester, molest (‫ علوو‬s.o.)│‫اثقولا‬
‫ك هلو‬and ‫( اثقولاك هلو‬kāhilahū) to burden s.o.
or s.th; ‫ اثقل اك هلاا ميزان‬to burden the budget
IV to burden (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.); to oppress,
distress (‫ ه‬s.o.). weigh heavily (‫ ه‬on); to be
hard to bear (‫ ه‬for s.o.)│ ‫ااثقووولاك هلووو‬
(kāhilahū)‫ا‬see II; VI to become or be
heavy; to be troublesome, burdensome
(‫ علو‬to s.o.), trouble. oppress (‫ علوو‬s.o.); to
be sluggish. doltish. slow; to be in a bad
mood, be sullen, grumpy; to find
burdensome and turn away ( ‫ عوو‬from
s.th.); not to bother ( ‫ عو‬about); to be too
dull, too sluggish ( ‫ عو‬for s.th., to do s.th.)
X to find heavy, hard. burdensome,
troublesome (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), find annoying (‫هوـ‬, ‫ه‬
s.o.. s.th.)│ ‫( اسوأثقلاظلو‬ẓillahū) to find s.o.
unbearable, dislike s.o.
‫ ثقول‬tiql pl. ‫ اثقو ل‬atqāl weight; burden
load; gravity; heaviness│‫ ار واااالثقو ل‬raf‘ ala. weight lifting (athlet.); ‫ا ثقووولاا ووواعوا‬
(nau‘ī) specific gravity
‫ ثقوووول‬tiqal
dullness
heaviness;
sluggishness,
‫ ثقل‬taqal pl. ‫ اثق ل‬atqāl load, baggage
‫ ا ثقالن‬at-taqalān the humans and the jinn
‫ ثقووو و‬taqāfī educational; intellectual;
cultural│‫( املحووووقاثقوووو و‬mulḥaq) cultural
attaché
‫ ثقوووول‬taqla
discomfort
‫ ثقيووف‬tatqīf cultivation of the mind;
training, education; instruction
‫ ثقووول‬taqala heaviness;
doltishness; dullness
‫ مث لفوة‬mutāqafa fencing, art or sport of
fencing, swordplay, swordsmanship
‫ ثقي ول‬taqīl pl. ‫ ثقووال‬tuqalā’2, ‫ ثق و ل‬tiqāl
heavy; weighty, momentous, grave,
serious,
important;
burdensome,
troublesome, cumbersome, oppressive;
unpleasant,
disagreeable,
distasteful
(person)│‫ اثقيولاا ودم‬t. ad-dam insufferable,
unpleasant, disagreeable (person); ‫ثقيووولا‬
‫ ا ووووح‬t. ar-rūḥ doltish, dull (person); a
bore; ‫ ثقيووولاا رووول‬t. aẓ-ẓill disagreeable,
insufferable (person); ‫ ثقيوولاا فهوم‬t. al-fahm
slow of understanding, slow-witted; ‫ثقيولا‬
‫ ا سوما‬t. as-sam‘ hard of hearing; ‫صو عةاثقيلوة‬
(ṣinā‘a) heavy industry; ‫ م و اثقي ول‬heavy
water (phys.)
‫ تثقوووف‬tataqquf culturedness, culture,
refinement, education
‫ مثقووووف‬mutaqqaf
cultured
educated;
trained;
‫ ثقل‬taqula u (tiql, ‫ ثق وة‬taqāla) to be heavy; with
‫ ب‬to load or burden s.th., make s.th.
heavy; to be hard to bear (‫ علوو‬for s.o.),
weigh heavily (‫ علوو‬on), be burdensome,
cumbersome, oppressive (‫ علوو‬to s.o.); to
be heavy-handed. sluggish, doltish, dullwitted; to be too dull, too sluggish ( ‫ عو‬for
s.th. to do s.th.), not to bother (or about) II
to make heavy, weight (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
burden, encumber (‫ علوو‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬with s.th.),
overburden (‫ علوو‬s.o.), overtax s.o.’s (‫)علوو‬
trouble,
inconvenience,
sluggishness,
‫ اثقل‬atqal2 heavier; more oppressive
‫ مثقو ل‬mitqāl pl. ‫ مث ليول‬matāqīl2 weight
(also s.th. placed as an equipoise on the
scales of a balance); miskal, a weight (in
Egypt = 24 ‫ = لواه‬4.68 g)│ ‫ امثق لا ر‬m. 104
darra the weight of a dust speck, i.e., a
tiny amount; a little bit; ‫ مثقو لامو‬a little of,
a little bit of
‫ تثقيوووول‬tatqīl
molestation
weighting,
burdening;
‫ ثالثوو‬talātī tertiary; Tertiary (geol.)│‫مو ا‬
‫ لبلاا ثالثو‬pre-Tertiary
‫ ثالثوةاعشووو‬talātata ‘ašara, f. ‫ثووالثاعشووو‬
talāta ‘ašrata thirteen
‫ ا ث وث‬at-tālit the third; ‫ ث ثو‬tālitan thirdly;
‫ ث ثة‬1/60 of a second
‫ ثالثان‬talātūn thirty
‫ تث لل‬tatāqul sluggishness, dullness
‫ مثق ول‬mutaqqal and mutqal burdened,
encumbered; overloaded; weighted (‫ب‬
with s.th.); oppressed (‫ ب‬by); heavy
‫ مأث ل ول‬mutatāqil sluggish, dull; sullen,
grumpy
‫ ثكول‬takila a (takal) to lose a child (‫)ه‬, also: to
be bereaved of a loved one (‫ )ه‬by death IV
‫ اثكولاادماو وده‬atkala l-umma waladuhā to
bereave a mother of her son
‫ ثكول‬takal state of one who has lost a
friend or relative; mourning over the loss
of a loved one
‫ ثكالن‬taklān (2) bereaved of a child
‫ ثكلو‬taklā bereaved of a child (mother)
‫ ا ثلثو‬at-talatā’ and
Tuesday
‫ يواماا ثلثو‬yaum at-t.
‫ ثوالث‬tulāt2 and ‫ مثلوث‬mutallat three at a
time
‫ ثالثوو‬tulātī tripartite, consisting of three,
(gram.) triliteral, consisting of three
radicals; tri-; trio (mus. )│ ‫ ثالثوواا زوايو‬t. zzawāyā triangular;
‫ثالثووواا ارلوو‬
t. lwaraqāt trifoliate
‫ ثو اث‬tālūt Trinity (CM.); trinity, triad;
triplet│ ‫ زهووو اا ث و اث‬zahrat at-t. pansy
(bot.)
‫ تثليوث‬tatlīt doctrine of the Trinity; Trinity
(Chr.)
‫ تثليثو‬tatlītī trigonometric(al)
2
‫ ث كلوة‬tākila pl. ‫ ثااكول‬tawākil bereaved of
a child (mother)
‫ ثلوة‬tulla pl. ‫ ثلول‬tulal troop, band, party, group
(of people); military detachment
‫ مثلووث‬mutallat tripled, triple, threefold;
having three diacritical dots (letter);
triangular; (pl. -āt) triangle (geom.)│‫اا وايوةا‬
‫( ا مثلثوةااد واان‬rāya), ‫‘( ا علوماا مثلوث‬alam) and
‫ ا مثلوث‬the tricolor; ‫( ا مثلوثاا حو‬ḥadd) acuteangled triangle; ‫ مثلوثاا زوايو‬m. az-zawāyā
triangular; ‫( ا مثلوثاا مأسو وىاا سو لي‬mutasāwā
s-sāqain) isosceles triangle; ‫ا مثلوثاا مأسو وىا‬
‫ ادضووال‬equilateral triangle; ‫ا مثلووثاا ق و ئم‬
right-angled triangle
‫ ثلوب‬talaba i (talb) to criticize, run down (‫ه‬
s.o.); to slander, defame (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ ا مثلث و‬al-mutallatāt and
ḥisāb al-m. trigonometry
‫ ثك ة‬tuknā pl. ‫ ثك‬tukan, -āt barracks (mil.)
‫ ثول‬talla u (‫ ثلول‬talal) to tear down, destroy,
overthrow, subvert (‫ هووـ‬s.th., esp. ‫عوش و‬
‘aršan to topple a throne) VII to be
subverted, overthrown (throne)
‫ ثلب‬talb slander, defamation
‫حس و باا مثلث و‬
‫ ثلوث‬II to triple, make threefold (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to do
three times (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ ثلو‬talaja u: ‫( ثلجوتاا سوم‬samā’u) it snowed,
was snowing; -- talija a to be delighted,
105 be gladdened (soul, heart; ‫ ب‬by) II to
cool with ice (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to freeze, turn into
ice (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) IV ‫ اثلجوتاا سوم‬it snowed, was
snowing; to cool, moisten (‫ هوـ‬s.th.)│‫اثلو ا‬
‫( صودره‬ṣadrahū) to delight, please, gratify
s.o. V to become icy, turn into ice,
congeal; to freeze
‫ ثلوث‬tult pl. ‫ اثوالث‬atlāt one third; tulut a
sprawling, decorative calligraphic style
‫ ثلو‬talj pl. ‫ ثلوا‬tulūj snow; ice; artificial
ice│ ‫ ظد ةاا ثل‬nadfat at-t. snowflake
‫ ثالثة‬talāta (f. ‫ ثالث‬talāt) three; ‫ ثلث‬talātan
three times, thrice
‫ ثلجوو‬taljī snowy, snow- (in compounds);
icy, glacial, ice- (in compounds)
‫ مثلبووووة‬matlaba pl.
shortcoming, defect,
disgrace
‫ ث ووووب‬tālib
slanderer
2
‫ مث ووووب‬matālib
blemish, stain,
slanderous,
defamatory;
‫ ثلي‬talīj icy
‫ ثال‬tallāj pl. -ūn ice vendor
‫ ثالجووة‬tallāja pl. -āt iceberg, ice floe;
refrigerator, icebox
‫ ثموو‬tamara u to bear fruit IV do. X to profit,
benefit (‫ هووـ‬from); to exploit, utilize (‫هووـ‬
s.th.); to invest profitably (‫ هـ‬money)
‫ ثمووو‬tamar pl. ‫ ثم و ر‬timār, ‫ اثم و ر‬atmār
fruits, fruit (coll.); result, effect, fruit,
fruitage; yield, profit, benefit, gain
‫ مثلجوة‬matlaja pl. ‫ مثو‬matālij2 icebox,
refrigerator; cold-storage plant
‫ ثموو‬tamara (n. un. of tamar) pl. -āt
fruit; result, effect; yield, profit, benefit,
gain
‫ مثلووا‬matlūj snow-covered; iced, icy;
‫ مثلاج‬frozen food; iced beverages
‫ مثل‬mutallaj iced; icy, ice-cold
‫ ثلوم‬talama i (talm) to blunt, make jagged (‫هوـ‬
s.th.), break the edge of (‫ ;)هوـ‬to make a
breach, gap or opening (‫ هوـ‬in a wall); to
defile, sully (‫ هووـ‬reputation, honor); -talima a to be or become jagged, dull,
blunt II to blunt (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) V to become
blunt VII to be defiled, be discredited
(reputation)
‫ اسوأثم ر‬istitmār exploitation (also pol.econ.), utilization, profitable use
‫ مثمووووو‬mutmir fruitful,
profitable, lucrative
‫ مسوأثمو‬mustatmir pl. -ūn exploiter (pol.econ.); beneficiary
‫ ثمول‬tamila a (tamal) to become drunk IV to
make drunk, intoxicate (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ ثلووم‬talm nick, notch; breach, opening,
gap; crock, fissure, rift│‫ ثلوماا صويت‬t. aṣ-ṣīt
defamation
‫ ثمل‬tamal intoxication, drunkenness
‫ ثملة‬tamala drunken fit, drunkenness
‫ ثمل‬tamil intoxicated, drunk(en)
‫ ثلموة‬tulma pl. ‫ ثلوم‬tulam = talm│ ‫سوداثلموة‬
sadda talmatan to fill a gap; ‫ثلمووةاالاتسوود‬
(tusaddu) a gap that cannot be closed, an
irreparable loss
‫ ث م‬talim dull, blunt
‫ ثم وة‬tumāla residue, remnant, dregs (of a
liquid), heeltap (of wine); .cum, foam,
froth 106
1
‫ مثلوام‬matlūm defiled, sullied (reputation,
honor)
‫ موثلم‬mutatallim blunted, blunt; cracking
(voice)
‫ ثمي‬tamīn costly, precious, valuable
‫ ثوم‬tamma there ‫ ثوم‬min tamma hence, therefore,
for that reason
‫ اثم و‬atman2 costlier, more precious,
more valuable
‫ ثوم‬tumma then, thereupon; furthermore,
moreover; and again, and once more
(emphatically in repetition)│‫كوووالاثوووماكوووال‬
(kallā) no and a hundred times no! ‫مو اثوم‬
min tamma then, thereupon
‫ تثمووووي‬tatmīn estimated,
assessment, valuation, rating
appraisal,
‫ مثمان‬matmūn object of value
‫مووووووووووثم‬
mutammin
appraiser│ ‫ بيوامثم‬assessor
‫ ثمة‬tammata (‫ )ثمت‬there; there is│‫ويساثموة‬
there isn't
‫ اثمد‬look up alphabetically
‫اثمو‬II to appraise, asses, estimate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.),
determine the price or value (‫ هـ‬of s.th.); to
price (‫ هووـ‬s.th.)│‫ االاثموول‬lā yutammanu
invaluable, inestimable, priceless
‫ ثمو‬pl. ‫ اثمو‬atmān, ‫ اثم وة‬atmina price,
cost; value│‫( ا وثم اادصولو‬aṣlī) cost price;
‫( ا ثم اادس سو‬asāsī) par, nominal value
‫ م وثلماا صويت‬muntalim aṣ-ṣīt of ill repute,
of dubious reputation
‫ ثم م‬tumām a grass│‫( علواهووااا ثمو م‬ṯarafi
t-t.) within easy reach, handy; ‫جعلو اعلوووا‬
‫هووووووااا ثمووووو م‬
he
made it
readily
understandable, he presented it plsusibly
for all
productive,
‫ موووووثم‬mutamman
valuable, precious
estimator,
prized,
valued,
‫ مثم‬mutmin costly, precious, valuable
‫ مثم‬mutman object of value
2
‫ ثم ظية‬tamāniya (f. ‫ ثم ن‬tamānin) eight
‫ ثم ظيةاعشو‬tamāniyata ‘ašara, f. ‫ثم ظ اعشو‬
tamāniya ‘ašrata eighteen
‫ ثم‬pl. ‫ اثم ن‬atmān one-eighth
‫ ثم وة‬tumna pl. -āt a dry measure (Eg. =
1/3 ‫ = لدح‬.258 l; Pal. = ca. 2.25 l)
‫ ثم ظان‬tamānūn eighty
‫ ا ث م‬at-tāmin the eighth
‫ مثم‬mutamman eightfold; octagonal
‫ ث ة‬tunna pl.
‫ ث‬tunan fetlock
‫ ث ودو‬tunduwa pl.
male)
‫ ث و‬tanādin breast (of the
‫ ث وو‬tanā i (tany) to double, double up, fold,
fold up, fold under (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to bond, flex
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to turn away, dissuade, keep,
prevent, divert ( ‫ ه عو‬s.o. from)│‫اث وواع و نا‬
‫‘( وسو‬ināna farasihī) he galloped off II to
double, make double (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to do twice,
repeat (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to pleat, plait (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
form the dual (‫ هوـ‬of a word); to provide
with two diacritical dots (‫ هوـ‬a letter) IV to
commend, praise, laud, extol (‫ علووو‬s.th.,
s.o.), speak appreciatively (‫ علوو‬of)│‫ااث ووا‬
‫‘( علي اعو هواا ث و‬āṯira tanā’) to speak in the
most laudatory terms of s.o. V to double,
become double; to be doubled; to be
repeated; to bond, fold; to be bent, be
folded. be folded up or under; to walk
with a swinging gait VII to bend, bend up,
down or over, lean, incline, bow; to fold,
be foldable, be folded back; to turn away
( ‫ عو‬from), give up, renounce ( ‫ عو‬s.th.); to
turn, face (‫ل‬I toward); to apply o.s., turn
(‫ ا وو‬to s.th.); (with foll. imperf.) to set out,
prepare (to do s.th.) X to except, exclude
( ‫ ه مو‬or ‫ هوـ‬s.th. or s.o. from), make an
exception (‫ هـ‬of s.th.)
‫ ث وو‬tany bonding; folding; turning away,
dissuasion, keeping, prevention
‫ ث وو‬tiny pl. ‫ اث و‬atnā’ fold, pleat, plait,
crease (in cloth); bond, twist│‫اث يو ابعوداث وو‬
tinyan ba‘da tinyin from time to time
‫ اث و‬atnā’ (prep.) during; in the course
of│ ‫ ووااث و‬fī atnā’i do.; ‫ ووااث و ا ول‬, ‫وواتلولا‬
‫االث و‬, ‫ اث و ا ول‬in the meantime, during all
this time, meanwhile
‫ ث يوة‬tanya pl. tanyāt fold, pleat, plait,
crease (in cloth)
‫ ث يوة‬tanya pl. ‫ ث يو‬tanāyā middle incisor;
narrow pass; mountain trail│ ‫ ا وواث يو‬in,
inside, among, between, frequently only a
fuller,
rhetorically
more
elegant
expression for "in". e.g., ‫ وواث يو اظفسو‬in his
heart, inwardly, ‫ وواث يو اا كأو ب‬in the book;
‫ بوي اث يو‬in, inside, among, between; ‫هوال ا‬
‫ ا ث يووو‬ṯallā‘ at-t. one with high-flung
aspirations 107
‫ ث و‬tanā’ commendation, praise, eulogy;
appreciation
‫ ث‬tunā’2 and ‫ مث و‬matnā two at a time
‫ ث اى‬tanawī dualist
‫ ث اية‬tanawīya dualism
‫ ث ئو‬tanā’ī laudatory, eulogistic
‫ ث ووو ئو‬tunā’ī twofold, double, dual,
binary, bi-; biradical (gram.); duet, duo
(mus.)│ ‫( محوو اث و ئواا مشواار‬muḥarrik t. lmišwār) two-cycle engine
O ‫ ث ئيووة‬tunā’īya dualism; duet, duo
(mus.)
‫ اث ن‬itnāni, f. ‫ اث أ ن‬itnatāni two
‫ اث و اعشوو‬itnā ‘ašara, f. ‫ اث أو اعشوو‬itnatā
‘ašrata twelve
‫ يووامااالث ووي‬yaum al-itnaini and
Monday
‫االث ووي‬
‫ ا ثو ظو‬at-tānī the second; the next; ‫ث ظيو‬
tāniyan and ‫ ث ظيوة‬tāniyatan secondly; for
the second time, once more, again│‫اثو ظوا‬
‫ اث وي‬t. itnain the second of a pair, pendant,
companion piece, match
‫ ث ظيوة‬tāniya pl. ‫ ثواان‬tawānin second (time
unit)
‫ ث ظاى‬tānawī secondary; minor│‫اماراث ظايوة‬
matters of secondary importance, minor
matters; ‫ مدرسووةاث ظايوووة‬secondary school;
‫ تساي اث ظا‬subletting
‫ تث يوة‬tatniya repetition; plaiting, pleating;
doubling, gemination; (gram.) dual;
second sequel (e.g., of a collection of
short stories); commendation, praise,
eulogy│ ‫ اتث يةااالشأوا‬Deuteronomy
‫ اظث و‬intinā’ bending, flection; flexibility,
foldability│ ‫ ال بلا الاظث‬foldable, folding
‫ اظث و‬intinā’a pl. -āt (n. vic.) bend,
flexure, curve
‫ اسووأث‬istitnā’ exception, exclusion│‫ا‬
‫ ب سوأث‬with the exception of, except; ‫بودونا‬
‫ اسأث‬without exception
‫ اسوووأث ئو‬istitnā’ī exoeptional; ‫اسوووأث ئي‬
istitnā’īyan as an exception│‫ااحواالااسوأث ئية‬
emergencies;
‫جلسووووووةااسووووووأث ئية‬
(jalsa)
emergency session
‫ مث ووو‬matnīy folded; plaited, pleated;
doubled
‫ مث ووو‬mutannan ouble, twofold; in the
dual (gram.)
‫ مسأث و‬mustatnan excepted, excluded ( ‫مو‬
from)
‫ ثا‬see ‫ثاى‬
1
‫ ثو بايثوابة‬tāba u to return, come back (also,
e.g., a state or condition, ‫ ا وو‬or ‫ ل‬to s.o.);
with ‫ب‬: to return s.th. (‫ ا و‬to s.o.)│‫اث باا وا‬
‫ ظفسو‬to regain consciousness, come to; ‫ثو با‬
‫( ا يو ارشوده‬rušduhū) to recover one’s senses
II to reward (‫ ه‬s.o.; said of God) IV to
repay, requite (‫ هوـ هوـ‬s.th. with); to reward
(‫ ه علو‬s.o. for) X to seek reward
‫ ثوواب‬taub pl. ‫ ثي و ب‬tiyāb, ‫ اثووااب‬atwāb
garment, dress; cloth, material; (fig.) garb,
outward appearance, guise, cloak, mask;
pl. ‫ ثيو ب‬clothes, clothing, apparel│ ‫ثيو با‬
‫ ا سووهو‬t. as-suhra formal dress, evening
clothes; ‫ وواثوابابسويط‬in plain, homely form;
‫ هووووو هواا ثيووووو ب‬of flawless character,
irreproachable
‫ ثوار‬taur pl. ‫ ثيووان‬tīrān bull, steer; ox;
Taurus (astron.)│‫ اشوواربةا يوولاا ثووار‬šōrabat
dail at-t. oxtail soup
‫ ثووووار‬taura excitement, agitation;
outbreak, outburst, fit (of fury, of despair,
etc.); eruption (of a volcano); (pl. -āt)
upheaval, uprising, insurrection, riot,
rebellion, revolt, revolution│‫ثووووار ااهليووووة‬
(ahlīya) internal strife, civil war
‫ ثارى‬taurī revolutionary (adj. and n.)
‫ ثوواروى‬taurawī revolutionary (adj. and
n.)
‫ ثوااب‬tawāb requital, recompense, reward
(for good deeds); (Isl. Law) merit, credit
(arising from a pious deed)
‫ ثووواران‬tawarān agitation, excitation,
flare-up, emption, outbreak, outburst, dust
whirl
‫ مثابوووة‬matūba requital, recompense,
reward (bestowed by God for good deeds)
‫ مثو ر‬matār incentive, stimulus, motive,
spur, occasion, cause│‫ امث و راا جوودل‬m. aljadal and ‫ مثو راا وزا‬object of controversy,
point of contention
‫ مثو ب‬matāb and ‫ مث بوة‬matāba place to
which one returns; meeting place;
rendezvous; resort, refuge
‫ مث بوة‬matāba (with foll. genit.) place or
time at which s.th. appears or recurs; 108
manner, mode, fashion; see also preceding
entry│‫( ابمث ب وة‬with foll. genit.) like, as;
tantamount to, equivalent to, having the
same function as
2
difficulty, ‫ وواوجهو‬fī wajhihī before s.o.);
to be triggered, be unleashed, break out; to
revolt, rebel, rise (‫ علوو‬against); to rage,
storm│‫( اث و راث و ئوه‬tā’irohū) to fly into a
rage, become furious, flare up IV to
agitate, excite (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to stimulate
(‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.); to irritate (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
arouse, stir up, kindle, excite (‫ هوـ‬s.th., e.g.,
feelings), cause, provoke, awaken (‫هوووـ‬
s.th.); to raise, pose, bring up (‫مسووب ة‬
mas’alatan a question, a problem)│‫ااثو را‬
‫( ث ئوتو‬tā’iratahū) to infuriate s.o., excite
s.o. X to excite, stir up, kindle (‫ هوـ‬s.th.,
esp. passions); to rouse (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
arouse, awaken (‫ هوـ‬s.th., esp. feelings); to
elicit, evoke (‫ هوـ‬wails, outcries, ‫ مو‬from
s.o.); to incite, set (‫ ه علوو‬s.o. against)│‫ا‬
‫( اسوأث راغ ووب‬gaḍabahū) to infuriate s.o.,
make s.o. angry
‫ ثئب( تث ب = اتث وب‬VI) to yawn
‫ ث و رايثووارة‬tāra u to stir, be stirred up, be
aroused, be excited; to swirl up, rise
(dust); to arise (question, problem; a
‫ اثووو ر‬itāra excitation, stirring up,
kindling;
agitation,
incitement;
provocation,
(a)rousing,
awakening;
irritation, stimulation
‫ ثووو ئو‬tā’ir excited, agitated, raving,
furious, mad; rebellious; fury, rage (in the
idiomatic phrase ‫ ثو راثو ئو‬see above); (pl.
‫ثووووووواار‬
tuwwār)
insurgent,
rebel,
revolutionary
‫ ث و ئو‬tā’ira pl. ‫ ث واائو‬tawā’ir2 tumult;
excitement, agitation; fury, rage
‫ مثيووووو‬mutīr exciting; provocative;
stimulative, irritative; excitant, irritant,
stimulant; instigator; germ, agent; pl.
‫ مثيوا‬stimulants
‫ ثاريام‬tōriyūm thorium (chem.)
‫ ثوال‬VII to swarm, crowd, throng ( ‫ علوو‬around
s.o.); to come over s.o. (‫)علو‬
‫ ثوال‬law and ‫ ثوالاا حول‬t. an-nḥl swarm of
bees
possessed, undismayed; ‫ بجووبشارابووط‬with
unswerving courage, unflinchingly
‫ج كأ‬, ‫ ج كأة‬and ‫ ج كيأ‬žakēta jacket, coat
‫ ج ان‬galōn gallon
‫( ج يوى‬Eg. spelling) galērī gallery (theat.)
‫ ج م‬jām pl. –āt cup; drinking vessel; bowl
‫ ج مكية‬jāmakīya pl. -āt, ‫ جاامل‬jawāmik2 pay
‫ ج ماس‬jāmūs pl. ‫ جااميس‬jawāmīs2 buffalo
‫ ثام‬tūm (coll.; n. un. ) garlic
‫ ثاى‬tawā i ( ‫ ثاا‬tawā’, ‫ ثاى‬tuwīy, ‫ مثواى‬matwan)
to stay, live (‫ ب‬at a place); to settle down
(‫ ب‬at a place); pass. tuwiya to be buried
IV to stay, live; to lodge, put up as a guest
(‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ ثاى‬tawīy guestroom
‫ ثوا‬tūwa pl. ‫ ثواى‬tuwan signpost, roadsign
‫ مثوواى‬matwan pl. ‫ مثو و‬matāwin abode,
habitation, dwelling; place of rest
‫ ثيوب‬tayyib pl. -āt a deflowered but unmarried
woman, widow, divorcée
‫ ثيأول‬taital pl. ‫ ثي تول‬tayātil2 a variety of wild goat
(Capra jaela) 109
‫ج‬
‫ ج ماسة‬jāmūsa buffalo cow
‫( جووو ظو‬pronounced žānəreg, from Turk.
caneriği; coll.; n. un. žānərgēye) a variety
of small green plum with several stones
(syr.)
‫ جو ه‬jāh rank, standing, dignity, honor, glory,
fame
‫ ج وه‬jāwa Java
‫ جو وى‬jāwī Javanese; benzoin; (pl. -ūn) a
Javanese
‫ ج و ار‬jāwadār rye
‫ ج ويش‬čāwīš sergeant = ‫ش وش‬, ‫ش ويش‬
1
‫ جوب‬jubb pl. ‫ اجبو ب‬ajbāb, ‫ جبو ب‬jibāb well,
cistern; pit
2
‫ جبوة‬jubba pl. ‫ جبوب‬jubab, ‫جبو ب‬, jibāb, ‫جب ئوب‬
jabā’ib2 jubbah, a long outer garment,
open in front, with wide sleeves
‫ جوبا‬jabḥ pl. ‫ اجوبا‬ajbuḥ, ‫ جبو ح‬jibāḥ, ‫ اجبو ح‬ajbāḥ
beehive
‫ ج ثليق‬jātalīq = ‫جثليق‬
2
‫ جؤجوؤ‬ju’ju’ pl. ‫ جو جئ‬ja’āji breast; prow, bow
(of a ship)
‫ جوبر‬ja’ara a (ja’r, ‫ جوؤار‬ju’ār) to low, moo; to
supplicate, pray fervently (‫ ا و‬to God)
‫ جوبر‬ja’r, and ‫ جوؤار‬ju’ār, lowing, mooing
(of cattle)
1
‫ ج ز‬giiz pl. -āt (Eg. spelling) gas
2
‫ ج ز‬jāz jazz
‫( ج زون‬Fr. gazon, Eg. spelling) gāzōn lawn
‫ جووبش‬ja’aša a (ja’š) to be agitated, be
convulsed (with pain or fright)
‫ جووبش‬ja’š emotional agitation; heart,
soul│ ‫ اربوطاجبشو‬rabaṯa ja’šahū to remain
calm, composed, self-possesed; ‫رابوطاا جوبش‬
or ‫ ث بوتاا جوبش‬calm, composed, cool, self-
‫ جب ظووة‬jabḳāna, jabaḳāna powder magazine;
ammunition; artillery depot
‫ جبووو‬jabara u (jabr, ‫ جب وار‬jubūr) to set (‫هووـ‬
broken bones); to restore, bring back to
normal (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to help back on his feet,
help up (‫ ه‬s.o.; e.g., on. fallen into
poverty); to force, compel (‫ ه علوو‬s.o. to do
s.th.)│‫( اجبووا و هوه‬ḳāoṯirahū) to console,
comfort, gratify, oblige s.o.; to treat (s.o.)
in a conciliatory or kindly manner II to set
(‫ هـ‬broken bones) III to treat with kindness
with friendliness (‫ ه‬s.o.), be nice (‫ ه‬to s.o.)
IV to force, compel (‫ ه علوو‬s.o. to do s.th.);
to hold sway (‫ علوو‬over) V to show o.s.
proud, haughty; to act strong, throw one’s
weight around; to show o.s. strong or
powerful, demonstrate one’s strength or
power; to be set (broken bones)│‫اتجبووا ا‬
‫( ب ب ول‬bi-bnika) God has demonstrated His
power on your son, i.e., He has taken him
unto Himself VII to be mended. repaired,
restored
‫ جبووو‬jabr setting (of broken bones); force,
compulsion; coercion, duress; power, 110
might; (predestined, inescapable) decree
of fate; ‫ جبووا‬jab,an forcibly, by force│‫اعلوما‬
‫‘ ا جبو‬ilm al-j. algebra; ‫ يواماجبوواا بحوو‬yaum j.
al-baḥr a local holiday of Cairo (the day
on which, in former times, the water of the
Nile was channeled into the nowabandoned ḳalīg, or City Canal, thus
mar‫ ووو‬ng the beginning of the irrigation
season)
‫ جب سووة‬jabbāsa gypsum quarry; plaster
kiln
2
‫ جبس‬jabas (coll.; n. un. ; syr.) watermelon(s)
1
‫ اجبول‬jabala u i (jabl) to mold, form, shape,
fashion (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to knead (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
create (‫ ه علوو‬s.o. with a natural disposition
or propensity for); pass. ‫( جبلاعلوو‬jubila) to
be born for, be naturally diaposed to, bave
a propensity for
‫ جبلوووة‬jibla, jibilla pl.
disposition, nature, temper
2
-āt
natural
‫ جبوووووى‬jabrī algebraic; compulsory,
forced; -- jabarī an adherent of the
doctrine of predestination and the
inescapability of fate; fatalist
‫ اجبول‬jabal pl. ‫ جبول‬jibāl, ‫ اجبو ل‬ajbāl mountain;
mountains, mountain range│‫ اجبو لااال ووب‬j.
al-alb the Alpes; ‫ جبو لااالوراس‬the Aurès
Mountains (in E Algeria); ‫ جبولاجليود‬iceberg;
‫ جبوولاسووي‬j. sīnā Mount Sinai; ‫جبوولاه و ر‬
Gibraltar; ‫ جبلاظ ر‬volcano
‫ جبويووة‬jabarīya an Islamic school of
thought teaching the inescapability of fate;
fatalism
‫ جبلوو‬jabalī mountainous, hilly; mountain
(adj.); montane; (pl. -ūn) highlander,
mountaineer
‫ جبو ر‬jabbār, pl. -ūn, ‫ جبو بو‬jabābir2, ‫جبو بو‬
jabābira
giant;
colossus;
tyrant,
oppressor; almighty, omnipotent (God);
gigantic, giant, colossal, huge; Orion
(astron.)│ ‫ اجبو راا وا‬j. al-ḳuṯ.wa striding
powerfully, ta‫ و‬ng buge strides
‫ جووووبالوى‬gabalāwī
mountaineer
‫ جب ر‬jibāra (art of) bonesetting
‫ جبيوو‬jabīra and ‫ جبو ر‬jībāra pl. ‫جبو ئو‬
jabā’ir2 splint (surg.)
‫ جبووووو‬jabarūt omnipotence; power,
might; tyranny
2
‫ جبوي‬jibriyā’ pride, haughtiness
O ‫ تجبيو‬tajbīr, ‫ تجبيواا عر م‬orthopedics
‫ اجب ر‬ijbār compulsion, coercion
‫اجبوووووو رى‬
ijbārī
forced,
forcible,
compulsory, obligatory│‫ا أج يووووودااالجبووووو رى‬
compulsory
recruitment;
military
conscription
‫ ج بو‬jābir and ‫ مجبو‬mujabbir, bonesetter
‫ مجبوار‬majbūr and ‫ مجبوو‬mujbar forced,
compelled
2
2
‫ جبوئيل‬jabra’īl ‫ اجبويل‬jibrīl Gabriel
2
‫ جبس‬jibs gypsum; plaster of Paris
‫اجووبس‬II to plaster, coat, patch, or fix with
plaster (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to put in a cast, set in
plaster (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
(eg.)
highlander,
‫ جبالية‬gabalāya pl. -āt (eg.) grotto, cave
‫ جووب‬jabuna u (jubn, ‫ جب ظووة‬jabāna) to be a
coward, be fearful; to be too much of a
coward ( ‫ عو‬to do s.th.), shrink ( ‫ عو‬from
s.th.) II to cause to curdle (‫ هوـ‬milk); to
make into cheese (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to curdle; to
accuse of cowardice, call a coward (‫ ه‬s.o.)
V to curdle (milk), turn into cheese
‫ جب‬jubn and ‫ جب ظة‬jabāna cowardice
‫ جب‬jubn and ‫ جب ة‬jubna cheese
‫ جبو ن‬jabān pl.
cowardly
‫ جب و‬jubanā’2 coward;
‫ جب ن‬jabbān cheese merchant
‫ جبي‬jabīn pl. ‫ جب‬jubun, ‫ اجب ة‬ajbina, ‫اجوب‬
ajbun forehead, brow; façade, front; face
‫ مو اجبي وو‬min jabīnī I alone; ‫علوواجبوي اا سوم‬
in the sky 111
‫ جبي و‬jabīnī frontal
‫ اجب‬ajban2 more cowardly
‫ جب ظة‬jabbāna pl. -āt cemetery
‫ تجبوي‬tajbīn cheese making, processing
into cheese
1
‫ جب‬jabaha a to moot, face, confront (‫ ه‬s.o.) III
to face, confront, oppose, defy (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫هوـ‬
s.th.), show a hold front (‫ ه‬to); to face (‫ هـ‬a
problem, a difficulty)
‫ جبهوة‬jabha pl. ‫ جبو ه‬jibāh, ‫ جبهو‬jabahāt
forehead, brow; front, face, façade;
frontline, battle front
‫ مج بهوة‬mujābaha facing, confrontation,
opposition
2
‫ جب ا ظة‬see ‫جب ظة‬
‫ جبوو‬jabā i (‫ جب يوة‬jibāya) to collect, raise, levy
(‫ هوـ‬taxes, duties) II to prostrate o.s. (in
prayer) VIII to pick, choose, elect (‫ هـ‬s.th.,
‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ جب يوة‬jibāya raising, levying (of taxes);
(pl. oat) tax, duty, impost
‫ جب ئ‬jibā’ī tax- (in compounds); fiscal
‫ ج و ثم‬jātim pl. ‫ جووثم‬juttam squatting,
crouching; perching; prostrate, prone
(‫ جثو )جثوا‬jatā u (jutuw) to kneel, root on the
knees; to bend the knee, genullect; to fall
on one’s knees
‫ جثا‬jutūw kneeling pooition
‫ جثوا‬jutwa rock pile, mound; sepulchral
mound, tumulus
‫ مجثو‬majtan hassock
‫ جووو ث‬jātin kneeling; ‫ ا جووو ثو‬Hercules
(astron.)
‫ جحود‬jaḥda a (jaiḥd, ‫ جحوا‬juḥūd) to negate (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to disclaim, disavow, disown, deny
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to refuse, reject, repudiate (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to renounce, forswear, adjure (‫ هوـ‬a
belief); to deny (‫ ه هوـ‬s.o. his right)│‫اجحودا‬
‫( جميل‬jamīlahū) to he ungrateful to s.o.
‫ مجبووو‬majban pl. ‫ مج و ب‬majābin tax,
impost
‫ جحود‬jaḥd denial; repudiation, disavowal,
rejection, disclaimer; unbelief (rel.)
‫ جو ب‬jābin pl. ‫ جبو‬jubāh tax collector,
revenue officer, collector; (bus, etc.)
conductor (ir.)
‫ جح وا‬juḥūd denial; evasion, dodging,
shirking (of a moral obligation);
ingratitude;
repudiation,
disavowal,
rejection, disclaimer; unbelief (rel.)
‫ ج بية‬jābiya pl. ‫ جااب‬jawābin pool, basin
‫ جأ و‬jatā (abbreviation of ‫ )جيووباا أم و م‬cosine
(math.)
‫ ج حد‬jāḥid denier; infidel, unbeliever
‫ جحو‬VII to hide in ito hole or den (animal)
‫ جث‬jatta (jatt) and VIII to tear out, uproot (‫ هـ‬a
tree, also fig.)
‫ جحوو‬juḥr pl. ‫ اجحو ر‬ajḥār, ‫ جحووار‬juḥūr
hole, den, lair, burrow (of animals) 112
‫ جثوة‬jutta pl. ‫ جثوث‬jutat, ‫ اجثو ث‬ajtāt body;
corpse, cadaver; carcass
‫ جحوش‬jaḥš pl. ‫ جحو ش‬jiḥāš, ‫ جحشو ن‬jiḥšān, ‫اجحو ش‬
ajḥāš young donkey; (pl. ‫ جح واش‬juḥūš)
trestle, horse
‫ مجأث‬muitat uprooted (also fig.)
‫جحشة‬
‫ جثل‬jatl thick, dense (esp. hair)
a young female donkey
‫ جثليوق‬jitlīq pl. ‫ جث قوة‬jatāliqa catholicos, primate
of the Armenian Church
‫ جحو‬jaḥaẓa a (‫ جحواظ‬juḥūẓ) to bulge, protrude
(eyeball)
‫ جوثم‬jatama u i (jatm, ‫ جثوام‬jutūm) to alight, sit,
perch (bird); to crouch, cower; to fall or
lie prone, lie face down; to beset, oppress
(‫ علو‬s.th.)
‫ جحواظاا عوي‬juḥūz al-‘ain exophthalmic goiter,
abnormal protrusion of the eyeball
‫ جثموة‬jatma (n. vic.) motionless sitting or
lying
‫ جثو م‬jutām and ‫ جو ثام‬jātūm nightmare,
incubus
‫ جثم ن‬jutmān pl. -āt hody, mortal frame
‫جثمووووو ظو‬
corporeal
jutmānī
hodily,
physical,
‫ جحوف‬jaḥafa a (jaḥf) to peel off, scrape off (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to sweep away (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to have a
bias (‫ موا‬for), side (‫ موا‬with s.o.) IV to
harm, hurt, injure, prejudice (‫ ب‬s.o., s.th.);
to ruin. destroy (‫ ب‬s.o., s.th.); to wrong (‫ب‬
s.o.)
‫ اجحووو ا‬ijḥāf injustice, wrong; bias,
prejudice
‫ مجحووف‬mujḥif unjust, unfair; biased,
prejudiced
‫ جحف ول‬jaḥfala pl. ‫ جح ول‬jaḥāfil2 multitude,
legion, host, large army; army corps
(Syr.); eminent man
‫ جحيم‬jaḥīm f. (also m.) fire, hellfire, hell
‫ جحيمو‬jaḥīmī hellish, infernal
‫ جخ‬jaḳḳa (eg.) to lord it, give o.s. airs; to boast,
brag; (syr.) to dress up (slightly ironical)
‫ ج خ‬jaḳḳāḳ boaster, braggart
1
‫ جد‬jadd pl. ‫ جدو‬judūd, ‫ اج‬ajdād grand-father;
ancestor, forefather│‫( اا جووودااالعلوووو‬a‘lā)
ancestor
‫ جد‬jadda pl. -āt grandmother
2
‫ جوود‬jadda i to be new; to be a recent
development, have happened lately, have
recently become a fact; to be added, crop
up or enter as a new factor (circumstances,
costs); to appear for the first time (also,
e.g., on the stage); to be or become
serious, grave; to be weighty, significant,
important; to take ‫ وو‬s.th.) seriously; to
strive earnestly ‫ وو‬for), go out of one’s
way (‫ وو‬to do s.th.), make every effort (‫وو‬
in); to be serious, be in earnest (‫ وو‬about),
mean business; to hurry (‫ وو‬one’s step) II
to renew (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to make anew, remake
(‫ هـ‬s.th.); to modernize (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to restore,
renovate, remodel, refit, recondition,
refurbish (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to be an innovator, a
reformer; to feature s.th. new or novel,
produce s.th. new; to rejuvenate,
regenerate, revive, freshen up (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
renew,‫ا‬extend (‫ هـ‬a permit); to begin anew,
repeat (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), make a new start (‫ هوـ‬in
s.th.); to try again ( ‫ حرو‬ḥaẓẓahū one’s
luck) IV to strive, endeavor, take pains; to
apply o.s. earnestly and assiduously (‫ووو‬
to), be bent, be intent (‫ ووو‬on s.th.); to
hurry (‫ وو‬one's step); to renew, make new
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.) V to become new, be renewed; to
revive X to be new, be added or enter as a
new factor, come newly into existence; to
make new, renew (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ جود‬iadd pl. ‫ جودو‬judūd good luck, good
fortune
‫ جوووود‬jidd seriousness, earnestness;
diligence, assiduity, eagerness; ‫ جودا‬jiddan
very, much│‫ ابجوود‬and ‫ موو اجوود‬earnestly,
seriously; ‫ جودابو ه‬jiddu bāhiẓin very high
(price); ‫ جووداعروويم‬j. ‘aẓīmin very great;
‫( ي ألفوواناجوودااال ووأالا‬jidda l-iḳtilāf) they
differ widely; ‫( ولوفاعلوواسو اا جودال‬sāqi l-j.)
to apply o.s. with diligence to, take pains
in, make every effort to
‫ جودى‬jiddī serious; earnest; ‫ جودي‬jiddīyan
in earnest, earnestly, seriously
‫ جديووة‬jiddīya earnestness; seriousness,
gravity (of a situation)
‫ جوود‬jidda newness, recency, novelty;
modernness, modernity; O rebirth,
renaissance
‫ جود‬judda2 Jidda (eeaport in W Saudi
Arabia, on Red Sea) 113
‫ جديوود‬jadīd pl. ‫ جوود‬judud, judad new,
recent;
renewed;
modem;
novel,
unprecedented│‫ ا جديودان‬al-jadīdān day and
night; ‫ مو اجديود‬anew, again; (eg.) ‫جديودا و‬
gadīd lang brand-new.
‫ اجوود‬ajadd2 more serious, more intent;
newer, more recent
‫ تجديوود‬tajdīd renewal (also. e.g., of a
permit); creation of s.th. new origination;
new presentation, new production (theat.);
innovation;
reorganization,
reform;
modernization; renovation, restoration,
remodeling.
refitting.
reconditioning,
refurbishing; rejuvenation, regeneration;
pl. -āt innovations; new achievements
‫ تجوود‬tajaddud renewal, regeneration,
revival
‫ جو‬jādd in earnest, earnest; serious (as
opposed to comic, funny)
‫ جو‬jādda pl. –āt, jawādd2 main street;
street
‫ مجدو‬majdūd fortunate. lucky
‫ مجووود‬mujaddid
reformer
renewer;
innovator;
‫ مجووود‬mujaddad renewed, extended;
remodeled, reconditioned, renovated,
restored; rejuvenated, regenerated, new,
recent, young
‫ مجوووود‬mujidd
assiduous
painstaking,
diligent,
‫ مسأجد‬mustajidd new, recent; incipient
‫ جودب‬jaduba u ‫ جدوبوة‬judūba) to be or become
dry, arid (soil) IV to suffer from drought,
poverty or dearth; to be barren, sterile; to
come to nothing, go up in smoke, fall flat,
fizzle out; (syr.) to explode in the barrel
(shell; mil.)
‫ جودب‬jadb drought, barrenness, sterility;
sterile, barren
‫ جووديب‬jadīb and ‫ اجوودب‬ajdab2, f.
jadbā’2 barren, sterile
‫ اجوود‬ajda‘ mutilated (by having the
nose, or the like cut off) 114
2
□ ‫ جود‬gada‘ (= ‫ جول‬jada‘) pl. ‫ جودع ن‬gid‘ān
(eg.) young man, young fellow; heman
1
‫ اجودا‬II to curse, blaspheme (‫ علوو‬s.o., esp.
God)
‫جوودب‬
‫ تجديف‬tajdīf imprecation, blasphemy
2
‫ مجوودب‬mujdib barren, sterile; desolate,
arid; unproductive, unprofitable
‫ جدث‬jadat pl. ‫ اجداث‬ajdāt grave, tomb
‫ مجداا‬mijdāf pl. ‫ مج ا‬majādif2 oar
1
‫ جدجد‬judjud pl. ‫ جداجد‬jadājid2 cricket (zool.)
1
‫ اجدر‬jadura u ( ‫ جدار‬jadāra) to be fit, suitable,
proper. appropriate (‫ ب‬for s.o., for s.th.);
to befit, behoove (‫ ب‬s.o., s.th.); to be
worthy (‫ ب‬of), deserve (‫ ب‬s.th.)│‫ايجدرا كوه‬
(dikruhū) and ‫ يجووودراب ووولكو‬it is worth
mentioning
‫ جوديو‬jadīr pl. -ūn ‫ جودرا‬judarā’2 worthy,
deserving (‫ ب‬of s.th.); becoming, befitting
(‫ ب‬s.th.); proper, suited, suitable fit (‫ب‬
for), appropriate (‫ ب‬to)│‫( اجوديواب ولكو‬dikr)
worth mentioning
‫ اجود و‬jadalī controversial; disputatious;
a disputant
‫ جوووودال‬jaddāl and ‫ مجوووودال‬mijdāl
disputatious, argumentative; mijdāl see
also below
‫ اجودر‬ajdar worthier; more appropriate;
better suited, more suitable
‫ جديلوة‬jadīla pl. ‫ جودائل‬jadā’il2 braid, plait;
tress
‫ جوووودار‬jadāra worthiness; fitness,
suitability,
aptitude,
qualification;
appropriateness
‫ مجدال‬mijdāl pl. ‫ مجو ل‬majādil2 flagstone,
ashlar; see also above under jaddāl
‫ جودار‬jidār pl. ‫ جودر‬judur, ‫ جودران‬judrān
wall
‫ جودال‬jidāl and ‫ مج وة‬mujādala pl. –āt
quarrel, argument; dispute, discussion,
debate│‫االايقبووووووووووولاا جووووووووووودال‬
(yaqbalu)
incontestable, indisputable; ‫ الاجوووودال‬lā
jidāla and ‫ بوالاجودال‬bi-lā j. incontestably,
indisputably
‫ جدارى‬jidārī mural, wall (adj.)
‫ اجدر‬judira (pass.) and II to have smallpox
‫ جدرى‬judarī, jadarī smallpox
‫ مجووودور‬majdūr and ‫ مجووودر‬mujaddar
infected with smallpox; pock-marked
‫ مجوودول‬majdūl tightly twisted; braided,
plaited; interwoven, intertwined (tress of
hair); slender and trim, shapely (e.g., leg)
‫ مجودر‬mujaddara dish made of rice or
(in Syr.) of bulgur with lentils, onions and
oil (eg., syr.)
‫ جود‬jada‘a a (jad‘) to cut off, amputate (‫هوـ‬
s.th., esp. some part of the body)
‫ بجود ااالظووف‬bi-jad‘i l-anf (prop., at the
cost of having the nose cut off) at any
price, regardless of the sacrifice involved
‫ اجودل‬jadala u i (jadl) to twist tight, tighten,
stretch (‫ هوـ‬a rope); to braid, plait (‫ هوـ‬s.th.,
the hair, etc.) II to braid, plait, (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) III
to quarrel, wrangle, bicker (‫ ه‬with s.o.); to
argue, debate (‫ ه‬with s.o.); to dispute,
contest (‫ وو‬s.th.) VI to quarrel, have an
argument; to carry on a dispute
‫ جوودل‬jadal quarrel, argument; debate,
dispute, discussion, controversy│‫ا وووو ا‬
‫ جودال‬faraḍa jadalan to assume for the sake
of argument, propose as a basis for
discussion
‫ جدر‬jadr wall
2
‫ اجدا‬jadafa i and II to row (o a boat)
‫ مج و ل‬mujādil disputant, opponent in
dispute
2
‫ اجودول‬jadwal pl. ‫ جوداول‬jadāwil2 creek, brook,
little stream; column; list, roster; index;
chart, table, schedule│‫( جودولا راسوو‬dirāsī)
curriculum; ‫ جودولاا بارصوة‬stock list, ‫ا و ر ا‬
‫( جوودولاا بارصووة‬ḳārija) not quoted (stock
exchange); ‫ جوودولااالعمو ل‬agenda; working
plan
‫ جوداايجودوة‬jadā u to give a present (‫ علوو‬to s.o.)
IV to give as a present (‫ علوو ب‬s.o. s.th.),
present (‫ علوو ب‬s.o. with); to be of use, be
useful, profitable│ ‫( اجودىاظفعو‬naf‘an) to be
useful; ‫ هلااالايجوديل‬that won’t help you, that
will be of no use (to you); ‫مو ايجودىاع ولاهولا‬
do.; ‫( الايجودىا أويال‬fatīlan) = ‫ الايغ وواا أويال‬see
‫ أيول‬X to beg for alms; to implore, beg (‫ه هوـ‬
s.o. for s.th.), plead (‫ هـ‬for s.th.)
‫ جدا‬jadā’ advantage, gain (.r for s.o.)
‫ جوودوى‬jadwā gift, present; advantage,
benefit, gain│‫( ابالاجودوى‬bi-lā) and ‫علوواغيووا‬
‫( جودوى‬gairi) of no avail, useless, futile, in
vain
‫ اجووووودى‬ajdā
advantageous
more
useful,
more
‫ جودى‬jady pl. ‫ جودا‬jidā’, ‫ جودي ن‬jidyān kid, young
billy goat; Capricorn (astron.); ‫ ا جودى‬the
North Star
‫ جل‬jadda u (jadd) to cut off, clip (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ جولا‬jadāda pl. -āt slip of paper; pl.
‫ جووولا ا‬small pieces, shreds, scraps,
clippings
‫ جولب‬jadaba i (jadb) to pull, draw (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
attract (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to pull out, draw out,
whip out (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), draw (‫ هوـ‬a weapon, or
the like); to appeal, prove attractive (‫ ه‬to
s.o.), attract, captivate, charm, allure (‫ه‬
s.o.), win (‫ ه‬s.o.) over ( ‫ ا ي‬to one’s side) III
to contend (‫ ه‬with s.o.) at pulling, tugging,
etc. (‫ هـ‬s.th.)│‫ ج بو اا حبول‬115 (ḥabla) to vie
with s.o.; (to be able) to compete with s.o.,
measure up to s.o., be a match for s.o.;
‫ ج ب اا كالم‬or ‫ ج ب احديث‬or ‫ج بو ااهوواااا حوديث‬
(aṯrāfa l-ḥ.) he engaged him in
conversation, involved him in a
discussion; ‫( ج بو ااهووواااا ح و ر‬aṯrāfa lḥaḍāra) to vie with s.o. in culture VI to
pull back and forth (‫ ه‬s.o.); to contend (‫ه‬,
‫ هـ‬for); to attract each other│‫اتج بااااهووااا‬
‫( ا حووديث‬aṯrāfa l-ḥ.) they were deep in
conversstion, they were talking together
VII to be attracted; to be drawn, gravitate
(JI toward, to) VIII to attract (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫هوـ‬
s.th., ‫ ا يو‬to o.s.; also magn.); to allure,
entice (‫ ه‬s.o.); to win (‫ ه‬s.o.) over ( ‫ ا يو‬to
one's side); to draw, inhale (‫ هوـ‬puffs from
a cigarette, etc.)
‫ جولب‬jadb attraction; gravitation; appeal,
lure, enticement, captivation│ ‫ اا وولاجوولب‬to
wrest away, take away by force; ‫ا جوولبا‬
‫( ا ج سو‬jinsī) sex appeal
‫ جولاب‬jaddāb attractive; magnetic (fig.);
suction, suctorial; winning, fetching,
engaging; charming, enticing, captivating,
gripping
‫ اجووولب‬ajdab2 more attractive, more
captivating
‫ اظجووولاب‬injidāb attraction, inclination,
pronenesa, tendency
‫ اجألاب‬ijtidāb attraction; enticement, lure
‫ ج و ب‬jādib attractive; magnetic (fig.);
winning, fetubing, engaging; charming,
enticing, captivating, gripping
‫ ج بيووة‬jādibīya gravitation; attraction;
attractiveness;
charm,
fascination;
magnetism (fig.); lure, enticement│O
‫ ج بيةاا ثقل‬j. ataql gravitational force; ‫ج بيوةا‬
‫( مغ يسوية‬magnaṯisūya) magnetism; ‫ج بيوةا‬
‫ ا ج س‬j. al-jins sex appeal
‫ مجووولوب‬majdūb attracted; possessed,
maniacal, insane; (pl. ‫ مجوو ب‬majādib2)
maniac, lunatic, madman, idiot│‫مسأشووفوا‬
‫ ا مج يب‬mustašfā l-m. mental hospital
‫ مأج و ب‬mutajādib mutually attractive;
belonging together, inseparable
‫ م جووولب‬munjadib attracted; inclined,
tending (‫ ا و‬to)
‫ جولر‬jadara u (jadr) to uproot, tear out by the
roots (‫ هـ‬s.th.) II do.; to extract the root (‫هـ‬
of a number; math.); to take root
‫ جولر‬jidr, jadr pl. ‫ جولور‬judūr root (also
math.); stem, base, lower end; (pl. ‫اجولار‬
ajdār) stub (of a receipt book, or the
like)│ ‫( جوولراتوبيعووو‬tarbī‘ī) square root
(math.)
‫ جلرى‬jidrī, radical, roct (adj.)
‫ تجووليو‬tajdīr evolution, root extraction
(math.)
‫ جول‬jada‘ pl. ‫ جول‬jud‘ān young man, young
fellow (cf. □ ‫ جود‬gada‘); new, incipient│
‫( ع و اا حوووباجلع وة‬ḥarbu, jada‘atan) the
war broke out again, started all over again;
‫( اع و ااالمووواجوولع‬l-amra) he reopened the
whole affair, he reverted to the earlier
status
‫ جول‬jid‘ pl. ‫ اجولا‬ajdā‘, ‫ جولو‬judū‘ stem,
trunk.; stump, tree stump; torso
‫ جلعو‬jid‘ī truncal
‫ جلا‬II to row (‫ هـ‬a boat)
‫ مجلاا‬mijdāf pl. ‫ مج ا‬majādif2 oar
‫ جوولل‬jadala a (jadal) to be happy, gay,
exuberant, rejoice IV to make happy,
gladden, cheer (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ جولل‬jidl pl. ‫ اجولال‬ajdāl, ‫ جولول‬judūl stump
(of a tree)
‫ جوليل‬jadīl wooden post on which camels
rub themselves
‫ جولل‬jada1 gaiety, hilarity, exuberance,
happiness 116
‫ جولل‬jadil pl. ‫ جولالن‬judlān gay, hilarious,
cheerful, in high spirits, exuberant, happy
‫ جولالن‬jadlān2 gay, hilarious, cheerful, in
high spirits, exuberaut, happy
‫ جولم‬ijdama i (jadm) to out off, chop off (‫هوـ‬
s.th., esp. a part of the body); to remove,
ta.ke out, excise (‫ هوـ‬e.g., the tonsils, the
appendix; surg.); pass. judima to be
afllicted with leprosy
‫ جلم‬jidm pl. ‫ جلوم‬judūm, ‫ اجلام‬ajdām root
‫ جلام‬judām leprosy
‫ جلامة‬judāma stubble
‫ اجولام‬ajdām2 pl. ‫ جولامو‬jadmā mutilated
(from having an arm, a hand, etc., cut off);
leprous; leper
‫ مجلوم‬majdūm leprous; leper
‫ جلمار‬judmur stump
‫ جولو‬jadwa, jidwa, judwa pl. ‫ جولى‬jidan, judan,
‫ جلا‬jidā’ firebrand; burning log
‫ جوو‬jarra u (jarr) to draw, pull (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
drag, tug, haul (‫ هـ‬s.th.): to tow (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
trail (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to drag along (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.);
to draw (‫ هـ علو‬s.th. on s.o.), bring (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
down (‫ علوو‬upon s.o.); to lead (‫ ا وو‬to),
bring on, cause (‫ ا وو‬s.th.); to entail (‫ هوـ‬e.g.,
some evil, ‫ علووو‬for s.o.); (gram.) to
pronounce the final consonant with i, put
(a word) into tho genitive│ ‫جوووواجويوووو‬
(jarīratan) to commit an outrage, a crime
(‫ علوو‬against s.o.); ‫( جوواليوا ا‬quyūdan) to be
in shackles, go shackled; ‫جوواا و راا ووالوصو‬
(qurṣihī) to secure advantages for o.s.,
feather one’s nest; ‫الايجوووووا سوووو ظ ابكلمووووة‬
(lisānahū bi-kalima) he won’t let a word
escape his lips IV to ruminate VII passive
of I; to be driven; to be swept along, drift,
float│ ‫( ااظجوواا وواا وارا‬warā’i) to withdraw,
fall back, give way VIII to ruminate│‫ااجأووا‬
‫( آالم‬ālāmahū) to mull over one’s grief
‫ جوووو‬jarr pull(ing), drawing, draft.;
traction, drag(ging), tugging, towage,
hauling; bringing on, causing; genitive│‫ا‬
‫ حوووااا جووو‬ḥarf al-j. (gram.) preposition;
‫ وهلماجوا‬wa-halumma jarran and so forth
‫ جو‬jarra pl. ‫ جوار‬jirār (earthenware) jar
‫ جوو‬jarra, jurra trail, track; rut (left by a
wagon)│‫ ابجووو اللووم‬bi-j. qalam with one
stroke of the pen
‫ جو‬jirra cud (of a ruminant)
‫ مو اجووى‬min jarrā because of│ ‫امو اجووا‬
because of you, on your account, for your
sake
‫ م اجوا‬min jarā’i because of, due to│‫م ا‬
‫ جوا اأن‬because
‫ جوووار‬jarrār huge, tremendous (army);
potter; (pl. -āt) tractor; tugboat, steam tug,
towing launch
‫ جو رور‬jārūr pl. ‫ ج وااريو‬jawārīr2 (syr.)
drawer (of a desk, etc.)
‫ ج رور‬jārūra (leb.) rake (tool)
‫ جويووو‬jarīr pl. ‫ جوائووو‬jarā’ir2 guilt;
offense, outrage, crime│ ‫ اموو اجويووو‬min
jarīrati because of, on account of
‫ جووووار‬jarrāra pl. -āt a variety of
scorpion; tractor
‫ مجو‬mijarr trace, tug (of a harness)
‫ مجو‬majarra galaxy
‫ اظجواريوة‬injirārīya (eg.) towage charges
for watercraft
‫ مجووور‬majrūr drawn, dragged, towed,
etc.; word governed by a preposition,
word in the genitive form; (pl. ‫مج و ريو‬
magārir2) drain, sewer (eg.); ‫مجووو ريو‬
sewers, sewage system (eg.)
‫ مجأو‬mujtarr ruminant (adj. and n.)
‫ جوو‬jaru’a u ( ‫ جووأ‬jur’a, ‫ جووا‬jarā’a) to dare,
venture, risk, hazard (‫ علوو‬s.th.), take the
risk (‫ علوو‬of, ‫ ان‬of doing s.th.), have the
117 courage (‫ علوو‬for s.th.) II to encourage
(‫ ه علو‬s.o. to s.th.) V to dare, venture, risk.
hazard (‫ علوو‬s.th.) VIII to be venturesome,
be daring; to become bold, make bold (‫علوو‬
with s.o.); to venture (‫ علوو‬s.th. or upon
s.th.), have the audacity (‫ علو‬to do s.th.)
‫ تجويبووووو‬tajrībī trial, test (adj.);
experimental; based on experience,
empirical│‫‘( علوماا و فساا أجويبوو‬ilm an-nafs)
experimental psychology
O ‫ تجويبية‬tajrībīya empiricism (philos.)
‫ مجووووب‬mujarrib experimental; tester;
examiner; tempter
‫ مجووب‬mujarrab tried, tested; proven or
establisbed by experience, time-tested,
time-tried;
experienced,
practiced,
seasoned; man of experience
2
‫ جوووو‬jarī’ pl. ‫ اجويووو‬ajriyā’ bold,
courageous (‫ب‬, ‫ علووو‬in s.th.); forward,
immodest, insolent; daring, reckless, foolbardy
‫ جوووأ‬jur’a and ‫ جوووا‬jarā’a courage,
boldness, daring; forwardness, insolence
‫ مجأو‬mujtari’ bold, forward
‫( جوا‬Fr.) garāž pl. -āt garage (eg.)
‫ جواظيأو‬granītī granitic (eg.)
‫ جوبووز‬jurbuz pl. ‫ جوابووز‬jarābiza impostor,
confidence man, swindler
‫ جوب دية‬jarabandīya (and ‫ )جواب دية‬knapsack,
rucksack
‫ جووب‬jariba a (jarab) to be mangy; (eg.) to
fade (color) II to test (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to try, try
out, essay (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to sample (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
rehearse, practice (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to attempt (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to put to the test, try, tempt (‫هووـ‬
s.o.)│‫ اجووباظفسو ا وو‬to try one’s hand at;
‫( جوبااالي م‬ayyāma) to gather experience
‫ جوب‬jarab mange; itch, scabies
‫ جوب‬jarib mangy; scabby
‫ اجووب‬ajrab2, f. ‫ جوبو‬jarbā’2, pl. ‫جووب‬
jurb and ‫ جوب ن‬jarbān2 mangy; scabby
‫ جوواب‬jirāb pl. ‫ اجوبوة‬ajriba, ‫اجووب‬jurub
sack, bag, traveling bag; knapsack;
scrotum; covering, case; sheath, scabbard
(for the sword)
‫ جواب‬jurāb pl. -āt stocking, sock
‫ جويب‬jarīb a patch of arable land
‫ تجوبوة‬tajriba pl. ‫ تجو رب‬tajārib2 trial, test;
tryout; attempt; practice, rehearsal;
scientific test, experiment; probation; trial,
tribulation;
temptation;
experience,
practice; proof sheet, galley proof, also
‫( تجوبةام بعية‬maṯba‘īya)
test(ing);
‫ جوبل‬jarbada = ‫جوبز‬
‫ جوبا‬jarbū‘ (= ‫ )يوبا‬pl. ‫ جوابيا‬jarābī‘2 jerboa
(zool.)
‫ جواظيت‬granīt granite (eg.)
‫ تجويوووب‬tajrīb trial,
tribulation; temptation
‫ اجارب‬look up alphabeticaUy
‫ جوبووز‬jarbaza (also ‫ )جوب ول‬deception,
swindle
‫ جوام‬grām gram (eg.)
2
2
trial,
‫ جوثام‬jurtūm, ‫ جوثاموة‬jurtūma pl. ‫ جوواثيم‬jarātīm2
root; origin; germ; microbe, bacillus,
bacterium│‫اتحووووووتاا جوثووووووام‬
taḥt
al-j.
inframicrobe
‫ جوا‬look up alphabetically
‫ جوجوو‬jarjara ( ‫ جوجوو‬jarjara) to gargle; to jerk
or pull back and forth; to trail, drag (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to tow away (‫ هوـ‬s.th.)│‫اجوجووا و ه‬
(ḳuṯāhū) to drag one’s feet, shuffle along
II tajarjara pass. and refl. of I
‫ جوجو‬jarara gargling; rombling noise;
rumble, clatter (of a wagon)
‫ جوجو‬jirjir (large, thick) beans
‫ جوجيو‬jirjīr watercress (eg., syr.) 118
‫ جووح‬jaraḥa a (jarḥ to wound (‫ ه‬s.o.); to injure,
hurt (‫ ه‬s.o.; also fig., the feelings) II to
invalidate (‫ هووووـ‬teatimony), challenge,
declare unreliahle (‫ ه‬a witness), take
formal exception (‫ه‬, ‫ هوـ‬to) VIII to commit
(‫ هووـ‬an outrage, a crime)│ ‫ااجأوووحاا سووي‬
(sayyi’āt) to do evil things
‫ جووح‬jurḥ pl. ‫ جوواح‬jirāḥ, ‫ جوووح‬jurūḥ,
‫ جووحووو‬jurūḥāt, ‫ اجوووواح‬ajrāḥ wound,
injury, lesion
‫ اجوا‬ajrād2, f. ‫ جوو ا‬jardā’2, pl. ‫ جوو‬jurd
desolate, bleak, without vegetation;
hairless, bald; threadbare shabby, worn
(garment); open, unprotected (border)
‫ جوواح‬jarrāḥ pl. -ūn surgeon│‫جوواحااالسو ن‬
dental surgeon
‫ جواحة‬jirāḥa surgery
‫ جواحووووو‬jirāḥī surgical│‫اعمليووووةاجواحيووووة‬
(‘amalīya) surgical operation
‫ جوا‬jarād (coll.; n. un. ) locust(s)│‫اجوا ا‬
‫( ا وحو ل‬raḥḥāl) migratory locust(s); ‫جووا ا‬
‫ ا بحوو‬j. al-baḥr langouste, sea cray-fish;
‫ بجوا ه‬bi-jarādihā in its entirety
‫ جووويا‬jarīḥ pl. ‫ جوح وو‬jarḥā wounded,
injured, hurt
‫ تجووووويا‬tajrīḥ
disparagement
surgery;
‫ جوي ود‬jarīd palm branches stripped of
their leaves; jeered, a blunt javelin used in
equestrian games
defamation,
‫ جو رح‬jarīḥ injuring; wounding, stinging,
painful, hurting; rapacious (beast),
predatory
‫ جويود‬jarīda pl. ‫ جوائود‬jarā’id2 (n. un. of
‫ )جويود‬palm-leaf stalk; list, register, roster,
index; newspaper│‫( جويوود اياميووة‬yaumīya)
daily newspaper; ‫ جوائوداا مسو‬j. al-masā’
the evening papers; ‫ ا جويد اا هقة‬and ‫ا جويود ا‬
‫ ا سي م ئية‬tho newsreel
‫ ج رحووووة‬jāriḥa pl. ‫ جوووواارح‬jawāriḥ2
predatory animal or bird│‫ اجاارحاا يوو‬j. aṯṯair predatory birds
‫ جواارح‬jawāriḥ2 limbes, extremities (of
the hody)│ ‫ ابكوولاجاارح و‬with might and
main, with all his strength
‫ اجوو ى‬ajrūdī (syr.) beardless, hairless
‫ مجو‬mijrad pl. ‫ مج ر‬majārid2 scraper
‫ مجوووووح‬majrūḥ pl. ‫ مجووو ريا‬majārīḥ2
wounded, injured, hurt
‫ جوو‬jarada u (jard) to peel, pare (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
remove the shell, peel, rind or husk (‫ هوـ‬of
s.th.); to denude, diveet, strip, bare (‫هووـ‬
s.th.); (com.) to take stock; to make an
inventory (‫ ا ب و ئا‬of goods on hand) II to
peel, pare (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to remove the shell,
peel, rind or husk (‫ هوـ‬of s.th.); to denude,
divest, strip, dispossess, deprive ( ‫ هوـ مو‬or ‫ه‬
s.o. or s.th. of); to withhold ( ‫ ه مو‬from s.o.
s.th.); to draw, unsheathe (‫ ا سووويف‬the
sword); to unleash (‫ هوـ علووو‬s.th. against
s.o.); to send, dispatch (‫ هووـ‬a military
detachment, troops, ‫ ضوود‬or ‫ علووو‬against
s.o.); to free ( ‫ هوـ مو‬or ‫ ه‬s.o. or s.th. from);
to isolate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to abstract (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
divest ( ‫ مو‬ss.o. of his citizenship, of a
rank, of a vested right, etc.)│‫اجو هام اا سالح‬
to disarm s.o.; ‫ جو اظفس ام‬to free o.s. from,
rid o.s. of, give up s.th. V pass. of II; to
strip o.s., rid o.s., get rid ( ‫ م‬or ‫ ع‬of), free
o.s. ( ‫ مو‬or ‫ عو‬from); to be free ( ‫ مو‬or ‫عو‬
from, ‫ ل‬for a task); to devote o.s.
exclusively (‫ ل‬to s.th.); to give up,
renounce ( ‫ مو‬or ‫ عو‬s.th.); to isolate o.s. ;
to be absolute
‫ جوو‬jard bare, threadbare, shabby, worn;
(com.) inventory; stocktaking
‫ جويود‬jarīd without vegetation, barren,
bleak, stark (landscape)
‫تجويووووووود‬
tajrīd
peeling.
paring;
disrobement,
stripping;
denudation;
deprivation; divestment; disarmament;
dispatching (of troops); freeing; isolation;
abstraction│‫ تجويووودامووو اا سوووالح‬disarmament
119
‫ تجويد‬tajrīda pl. -āt ‫ تج ريد‬tajārīd2
military detachment, expeditionary force
‫ تجوو‬tajarrud freedom ( ‫ مو‬or ‫ عو‬from);
isolatedness, isolation; independence,
impartiality; absoluteness; abstractness,
abstraction
‫ مجووو‬mujarrad denuded, bare, naked;
freed, free ( ‫ مو‬or ‫ عو‬from); pure, mere,
nothing more than; sole; very, absolute;
abstract; selfless, disinterested; 1st stem of
tbe verb (gram.)│with foll. noun in
genitive = mere, sheer, nothing but:) ‫مجوو ا‬
‫ هوا‬mujarradu lahwin mere play, just fun;
‫ ب عي اا مجو‬with the naked eye; ‫ بمجو امو‬bimujarradi mā as soon as, at the very
moment when
‫ جو ل‬jardal pl. ‫ جوا ل‬jaradil2 bucket, pail
‫ جو‬jurad pl. ‫ جو ان‬jirdān, jurdān large rat
‫ جوو ون‬jirdaun pl. ‫ جووا ي‬jarādīn2 large
rat
1
‫ جوووس‬jarasa i (jars) to ring, toll, knell,
(re)sound II to make experienced, inure by
severe trials, sorely try (‫ ه‬s.o.; time,
events); to
compromise,
disgrace,
discredit, expose, bring into dierepute (‫ب‬
s.o.)
‫ جوس‬jars, jirs sound, tone
‫ جوس‬jaras pl. ‫ اجواس‬ajrās bell
‫ جوسوة‬jursa defamation, public exposure;
scandal, disgrac
2
‫ اجوسو ية‬jirsāya, ‫ جوسوية‬jirsīya pl. -āt jersey,
woolen sweater; ‫ جوسو‬jersey cloth
‫ جوش‬jaraša u (jarš) to crush (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to grate,
bruise, grind (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ جوش‬jarš a grating, scraping noise
‫ جوا وة‬jarrāfa pl. -āt, ‫ جواري وف‬jarārīf
rake; harrow
2
‫ مجووا‬majraf pl. ‫ مجو را‬majārif2 torrent,
.trong current
‫ مجو وووة‬mijrafa shovel, scoop; (syr.)
mattock; trowel
‫ مجوواا‬mijrāf pl. ‫ مجو را‬majārīf2 shovel,
scoop
‫ جو را‬jārif torrential (stream, mountain
creek); stormy, violent
(emotions,
passions) 120
‫ ا جوكس‬al-jarkas the Circassians
‫ جووويش‬jarīš crushed, bruised, coarsely
ground; crushed grain; grits
‫ جوكسوووو‬jarkasī pl. ‫ جواكسوووة‬jarākisa
circassian (adj. and n.)
‫ ج روشوة‬jārūša pl. ‫ جواارش‬jawarīš2 quern,
hand mill (for grinding grain)
‫ جووم‬jarama i (jarm) to sone (‫ ا حوم‬al-laḥma the
meat); -- to commit an offense, a crime, an
outrage (‫ علو‬or ‫ ا و‬against s.o.), sin (‫ علو‬or
‫ ا وو‬against s.o.), injure, harm, wrong (‫علوو‬
or ‫ ا وو‬s.o.) II to incriminate, charge with a
crime (‫ ه‬s.o.; syr.) IV to commit a crime,
to sin (‫ علوو‬or ‫ ا وو‬against s.o.), do wrong
(‫ علو‬or ‫ ا و‬to s.o.), harm, wrong (‫ علو‬or ‫ا وو‬
s.o.) VIII = IV
‫ جوو‬jaraḍa a (jaraḍ): ‫( جوو ابويقو‬bi-rīqihī)
he choked on his saliva, could not
swallow his saliva (because of excitement,
alarm, or grief), he was very upset, in a
atate of great agitation, deeply moved; -jaraḍa u (jarḍ) to choke, sulfocate (‫ ه‬s.o.)
IV ‫( اجوضو ابويقو‬cf. I) to alarm s.o., fill s.o.
with apprehension
‫ جوي‬jarīḍ: ‫ اح لاا جووي ا وناا قووي‬ḥāla
l.j. dūna l-qarīḍ (proverb; lit.: choking
prevented poetry, i.e.) in the face of death
one does not think of rhyming (among
other interpretations)
‫ جوو‬jara‘a a (jar‘) and jari‘a a (jara‘) to
swallow, gulp, devour (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to pour
down, toss down (‫ هوـ‬a drink) II to make (‫ه‬
s.o.) swallow (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to gulp down V to
drink (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) VIII to swallow, gulp down
(‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ جوعوة‬jur‘a, jar‘a pl. ‫ جوو‬jura‘, -āt gulp,
mouthful, draught; potion, dose (med.)
‫ جوا‬jarafa u (jarf) and VIII to sweep away (‫هـ‬
s.th.); to wash away (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to shovel
away (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to remove (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to tear
away, carry off (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to carry along (‫هوـ‬
or ‫ ه‬s.o. or s.th.) VII to be swept away, be
carried away
‫ جووا‬jurf, juruf pl. ‫ جوووا‬jurūf, ‫اجوواا‬
ajrāf undercut bank or shore; clilf, steep
slope, precipice; bluff (along a river or
coast)│ ‫( اجوااجليد‬jalīdī) avalanche
‫ جوم‬garm pl. ‫ جوووم‬gurūm (eg.) long, flatbottomed sarge, lighter (naut.)
‫ جوم‬jirm pl. ‫ اجوام‬ajrām, ‫ جووم‬jurum body;
mass, sulk, volume (of a body)│‫ااالجوواما‬
‫( ا فلكية‬falakīya) the celestial bodies
‫ جووم‬iunn pl. ‫ اجووام‬ajrām, ‫ جووووم‬jurūm
offense, crime, sin
‫ الاجوووم‬lā jarama surely, certainly, of
course
‫ جووووويم‬jarīm hulking,
voluminous, of great size
bulky,
huge,
‫ جويموة‬jarīma pl. ‫ جووائم‬jarā’im2 crime;
offense; sin│(‫اعرمووووو‬or) ‫جويمووووةاكبوووووىا‬
(kubrā, uẓma) capital offense; ‫لو ظاناا جووائم‬
penal code
‫اجوووووووام‬
ijrām
delinquency
crime;
culpability,
‫ اجوامو‬ijrāmī criminal
‫ حمامجووم‬laḥm majrūm fillet (meat)
‫ س ةامجومة‬sana mujarrama an entire year
‫ مجووووم‬mujrim criminal; (pl. -ūn) a
criminal;
evildoer,
culprit,
delinquent│‫ مجوم اع ئد‬recidivous criminal
‫ جوامووز‬jarāmiz2 and ‫ جواميووز‬jarāmīz2
limbs, legs│‫( اضوماجواميوزه‬ḍamma) he beat
it, he made off
‫ ا جوم و ن‬al-jarmān the Germanic tribes, the
Teutons
‫ جوم ظو‬jarmānī Germanic, Teutonic
1
‫ اجوون‬jurn pl. ‫ اجووان‬ajrān (stone) basin; mortar;
(eg.) threshing floor, barn│‫ اجووناا معما يوة‬j.
al-ma‘mūdīya baptismal font
2
‫ اجوووان‬jirān the front part of a camel’s
neck│ ‫ ضووبابجواظو‬to become established,
take root; ‫( ا قواعليو اجواظو‬alqā, jirānahū) to
apply o.s. to s.th. and adjust to it,
accustom o.s. to s.th.
‫ جوظ ل‬jurnāl (eg. also gurnāl) pl. ‫ جواظيل‬žarānīl2
(eg., garānīl2) journal, newspaper,
periodical
‫ جواظيت‬granīt granite
‫ جواظيأو‬grānītī granitic
‫ جووو‬jarw (jirw, jurw) pl. ‫ اجوو‬ajrin, ‫ جووا‬jirā’,
‫ اجووا‬ajrā’, ‫ اجويوة‬ajriya puppy, whelp, cub
(of a dog or beast of prey)
‫ جووسة‬grōsa gross (= 12 dozen)
‫ جووى‬jarā i (jary) to flow, stream (water); to
run; to hurry, rush; to slow (wind); to take
place, come to pass, happen, occur; to be
under way, be in progress, be going on
(work); to befall (‫ ل‬s.o.), happen (‫ ل‬to); to
be in circulation, circulate, be current; to
wend one’s way (‫ ا وو‬to), head (‫ علوو‬for); to
proceed (‫ علووو‬in accordance with); to
follow (‫ موا‬s.th.), yield, give way (‫ موا‬to,
e.g., to a desire); to entail (‫ ب‬s.th.); (with
‫ )ورا‬to run or be after s.th., seek to get
s.th.│‫اجووىا و احوديثاموا‬he had a talk with;
‫( جوووىامجووواه‬majrāhū) to take the same
course as, be analogous to, follow the
same way as, proceed or act in the same
manner as; ‫( جووىام و اا شو امجووىاا ودم‬minhu
š-šai’u majrā d-dam) it had become
second nature to him; ‫جوووىاعلوووااال سووو‬
(alsun) to circulate, make the rounds
(rumor); 121 ‫ جوووىاعلووواكوولا سو ن‬to be on
everyone’s lip; ‫( جووىاعلوواللمو‬qalamihī) to
come to s.o.’s pen (e.g, a poem); ‫جووىاعلووا‬
‫( وة‬ḳiṯṯa) to follow a plan; ‫مو ايجووىاعليو ا‬
‫‘( ا عمول‬amalu) the way things are handled,
what is customary practice; ‫ جووىابو اا عمول‬to
be in force, be valid, be commonly
observed (law, custom); ‫ جوو اا عو اب‬to be
customary, be common practice, be a
common phenomenon, have gained
vogue; ‫ جوووووىاب عوووو اعلووووو‬to do s.th.
customarily, se in the habit of doing s.th.;
‫ جوو ابول لاعو تهم‬that was their habit II to
cause to run│ ‫( جووىاريقو‬rīqahū) to make
s.o.’s mouth water III to concur, agree, be
in agreement (‫ ه‬with s.o., ‫ وو‬in s.th.); to
keep pace, keep up (‫ ه‬with s.o.; also
intellectually); to be able to follow (‫ ه‬s.o.);
to go (along) (‫ هـ‬with); to adapt o.s. adjust,
conform (‫ هوـ‬to), be guided (‫ هوـ‬by) IV to
cause to flow, make flow (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
cause to run, set running (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.);
to make (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) take place or happen,
bring about (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to carry out, execute,
enforce, put into effect, apply (‫ هوـ‬s.th.,
e.g., rules, regulations); to carry out,
perform (‫ هوـ‬an action); to Set going, set in
motion (‫ هووـ‬a project), launch (‫ هووـ‬an
undertaking); to channel (‫ علوو‬or ‫ هوـ ل‬s.th.
to), bestow, settle (‫ علوو‬or ‫ هوـ ل‬s.th. upon
s.o.); to impose, inflict (‫ هووـ علووو‬s.th., a
penalty, on s.o.)│‫( ااجووىاتجوبوة‬tajribatan)
to carry out an experiment; ‫ اجووىاتحقيقو‬to
conduct an investigation; ‫اجووووىا ووو ااع ظوووة‬
(i‘ānatan) to grant s.o. a subsidy; ‫اجوواها‬
‫( مجووى‬majrā, with foll. genitive) to treat
s.th. in the same manner as, put s.th. on
equal footing with
‫ جووى‬jary course│‫ جويو اعلوو‬jaryan ‘alā in
accordance with, according to
‫ جوووا‬min jarāka and min jarā’ika
because of you, on your account, for your
sake
‫ جوا‬jarrā’ runner, racer
‫ جوايوة‬jirāya pl. -āt daily (food) rations;
pay, salary│‫‘ عوويشاجوايووة‬ēš girāya (eg.)
coarse bread
‫ جويووو ن‬jarayāan flow, flux; course;
stream
‫ مجوووووى‬majra.. pl. ‫ مجوووو ر‬majārin
watercourse, stream, rivulet, gully; torrent
or flood of water; pipeline; canal, channel;
drain, sewer, pl. sewers, sewage system;
power line (el.); current (el.); current (of a
stream); guide rail (tech.); course (of
events), progress, passage│‫ مجوىاا بال‬m. lbaul urethra (anat.); ‫ مج و رىاا أ و فس‬m. ttanaffus respiratory tract (anat.); ‫مجوووىا‬
‫ ا هواا‬m. l-hawā’ air stream, current of air,
draft; ‫ ا ولامجوواه‬to take its course; See also
‫ جوى‬I and IV
cases (jur.); ‫( ج و ااجزئيووة‬junaḥ) summary
delicts (jur.); ‫ محوووو كماجزئيوووة‬courts of
summary justice; ‫( ظي بوووةاجزئيوووة‬niyāba)
parquet of a summary court; ‫ح ثووةاجزئيووة‬
minor incident; ‫( تسوايةاجزئيوة‬taswiya) part
payment;
‫( ا جزئي و اوا كلي و‬kullīyāt) the
particular and general aspects, the minor
and the major issues
‫ م جويو‬mājarayāt, mājariyāt (pl. of ‫مو ا‬
‫( )جوى‬course of) events, happenings
‫ جز‬juzai’ pl. -āt molecule
‫ مجو را‬mujārāh keeping up (with foll.
genitive: with); conformity (with foll.
genitive: with)│ ‫ مجو را ال‬mujārātan li in
conformity with, in accordance with,
according to
‫ اجزائو‬ajzā’ī pl. -ūn pharmacist, druggist
‫اجزاجوووو‬
druggist
‫ ج ريوة‬jāriya pl. –āt, ‫ جواار‬jawārin girl;
slave girl; maid, servant; ship, vessel
‫ جوز‬jazza u (jazz) to cut off, clip (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
shear, shear off (‫ هوـ‬s.th.; esp. the wool of
sheep)
pl.
-īya
pharmacist,
‫ اجزائية‬ajzā’īya and ‫ اجزا ظة‬ajzāḳāna pl. āt pharmacy, drugstore
‫ اجووا‬ijrā’ pl. -āt performance (of an
action); execution; enforcement; pl.
measures, steps, proceedings│ ‫اات ولااجووا ا‬
(ittaḳada) to take measures; ‫اجووا ا ال ظاظيوة‬
(qānūnīya) legal step, proceedings at law
‫ جو ر‬jārin flowing, streaming, running;
circulating; current, present│‫اا شووهواا ج و رى‬
(šahr) the current month
ajzājī
‫ تجزئوووووة‬tajzi’a division; partition;
separation; dissociation; breakdown (into
classes, categories, etc.); fragmentation│‫ا‬
‫ ل بولا لأجزئوة‬divisisle; ‫ ل بليوةاا أجزئوة‬divisibility;
‫ ت جو اا أجزئة‬retailer, retail merchant
‫ جز ان‬juzdān, jidān pl. -āt wallet; change purse
‫ جووزر‬jazara u (jazr) to slaughter; to kill,
butcher (‫ هوـ‬an animal); -- i u (jazr) to sink,
fall, drop, ebb (water)
‫ جوزر‬jazr slaughter; butchering; ebb (of
the sea)
‫ جزر‬jazra blood sacrifice
‫ جوز‬jizza pl. ‫ جوزز‬jizaz, ‫ جزائوز‬jazā’iz2
shorn wool, fleece, slip
‫ جزور‬jazūr pl. ‫ جزر‬juzur slaughter camel
‫ جوزاز‬juzāza pl. -āt slip of paper; label,
tag
‫ جزار‬jazzār pl. , -ūn butcher
‫ جزيوو‬jazīra pl. ‫ جزائوو‬jazā’ir2, ‫ جوزر‬juzur
island│ ‫ شب اجزيوو‬šibhu j. peninsula; ‫ا جزيوو‬
Al Jazira, (Northwest) Mesopotemia;
‫ ا جزائوو‬Algeria; Algiers; ‫ جزيوو اا عووب‬j. al‘arab Arabia, the Arabian Peninsula;
‫( ا جزائوواا ودا‬ḳālidāt) the Canary Islands;
‫ووا‬
‫( ا جزيوو اا‬ḳaḍrā’) Algeciras (seaport
in SW Spain)
‫ جزاز‬jazzāz pl. –ūn shearer, woolshearer
‫ مجز‬mijazz woolshears 122
‫ جوزأ‬jaza’a a and VIII to be content, content
o.s. (‫ ب‬with) II to divide, part, separate,
break up, cut up, partition (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) V to
divide, break up, be or become divided; to
be separated, be detached, be partitioned
off; to be divisible, separable ( ‫ ع‬from)
‫ جزرى‬jazarī insular; (pl. -ūn) islander
‫ جوز‬juz’ pl. ‫ اجووزا‬ajzā’ part, portion;
constituent, component; fraction; division;
section; the 30th part of the Koran (= 2
ḥizb)
‫ جزائووى‬jazā’rī pl. -ūn Algerian (adj. and
n.); islander
‫ جزئووووو‬juz’ī partial; minor, trivial,
insignificant, unimportant; (jur.) minor,
petty; ‫ جزئيو‬juz’īyan partly; ‫ جزئيو‬juz’īyāt
details, particulars; trivialities; subordinate
partly; divisions, sections (e.g., of a court
of justice)│‫( امووواا اجزئيووة‬mawādd) petty
‫ مجوووزر‬majzara pl. ‫ مجووو زر‬majāzir2
butchery; massacre, carnage
‫ مجووووزر‬majzar pl. ‫ مجوووو زر‬majāzir2
slaughterhouse, abattoir; butchery
2
‫اجزر‬jazar (coll.; n. un. ) carrot(s)
‫ جز‬jazi‘a a (jaza‘, ‫ جز‬juzū‘) to be or become
anxious, worried, concerned; to be sad,
unhappy ( ‫ مو‬about); to feel regret (‫ علوو‬for
s.o.), pity (‫ علوو‬s.o.); to mourn (j. for s.o.)
V to break apart, break, snap
2
‫اجزالن‬juzlān = ‫جز ان‬
1
‫ اجوزم‬jawma i (jazm) to cut off, cut short, clip
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to judge; to decide. Settle (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to be positive (‫ ب‬about), be
absolutely certain (‫ ب‬of s.th.); to assert
authoritatively (‫ ب‬s.th.); to make up one's
mind, decide, resolve (‫ علوو‬to do s.th.); to
impose, make incumbent (‫ هوـ علوو‬s.th. on
s.o.); (gram.) to pronounce the final
consonant (of a word) without a vowel; to
put (‫ هوـ‬a verb) into the apocopate form or
the imperative
‫ جز‬jaz‘ onyx
‫ جز‬juz’ axle; shaft (techn.)
‫جوووووز‬
jaza‘
anxiety,
uneasiness,
apprehension, concern; anguish, fear;
sadness
‫ جووز‬jazi‘ restless, impatient; anxious,
worried, uneasy, apprehensive
‫ جوزم‬jazm cutting off, clipping; decision;
resolution, resolve; apodictic judgment;
(gram.) apocopate form│‫اعالمووووةاا جووووزم‬
‘alāmat al-j. = jazma
‫ جوووز‬jazū‘ and ‫ جووو ز‬jāzi‘ restless;
impatient; anxious, worried, uneasy,
apprehensive
‫ مجووووز‬mujazza‘ marbled,
variegated, dappled 123
‫ جزمووووة‬jazma diacritical mark (o)
indicating vowellessness of a final
consonant
veined;
‫ جووووزا‬III to act at random, blindly,
Indiscriminately, take a chance; to
speculate (fin.); to speak vaguely, in
general terms; to risk, stake (‫ ب‬s.th.)│‫ا‬
‫ جو زااب فسو‬to risk one’s life; ‫ جو زاابو ا وو‬to
plunge s.o. into (some adventure)
‫ جوزاا‬juzāf purchase of a certain amount
of things (Isl. Law); ‫ جزا و‬juzāfan at
random, haphazardly
‫ مجوزوم‬majzūm cut off. cut short, clipped;
decided. settled; (gram.) vowelless (final
consonant); in the apocopate form
‫ مج ز وة‬mujāzafa rashness, recklessness,
foolhardiness; risk, hazard; adventure,
venture
‫ م جزم‬munjazim (gram.) in the apocopate
form
‫ مجو زا‬mujāzif rash, reckless, foolhardy;
adventurous; venturesome
2
‫ اجوزل‬jazūla u to be considerable, abundant,
plentiful IV ‫‘( اجوزلا و اا ع و‬aṯā’) to give
generously, openhandedly, liberally to s.o.
VIII to write shorthand
‫ جوزل‬jazl and ‫ جزيول‬jazīl pl. ‫ جوزال‬jizāl
abundant, plentiful, ample, much; pure,
lucid, eloquent (style)│ ‫ اجوووزلاا ووووأ‬of
sound, unerring judgment; ‫شوكوهاشوكوااجوزيال‬
šakarahū šukran jazīlan he thanked him
profusely; ‫ شكوااجزيال‬many thanks!
‫ جزل‬jizla piece, slice
‫ جزا وووة‬jazāla profusion,
(rhet.) purity (of style)
‫ مجأزل‬mujtazil stenographer
1
‫ جوووو زم‬jāzim decisive; peremptory,
definite,
definitive,
final;
firmly
convinced, absolutely certain (‫ ب‬of s.th.);
(pl. ‫ جووواازم‬jawāzim2) governing the
apocopate form (gram.)
‫ اجازل‬look up alphabetically
abundance;
2
‫ اجزموة‬jazma pl. –āt, ‫ جوزم‬jizam (pair of) shoes
(pair of) boots│‫( اجزموةابوبو ه‬bi-ribāṯ) laced
soots; ‫( جزموةا م عوة‬lammā‘a) patent-leather
shoes
‫ جزمجوووو‬gazmagī (eg.) and ‫جزمووو تو‬
gizamātī (eg.), jazmātī (syr.) pl. -īya
shoemaker
‫ جوزى‬jazā i ( ‫ جوزا‬iazii') to requite, recompense
(‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ ب‬or ‫ علوو‬for), repay (‫ ه‬to s.o., ‫ ب‬or
‫ علوو‬s.th.); to reward (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ ب‬or ‫ علوو‬for);
to punish (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ ب‬or ‫ علوو‬for); to satisfy (‫ه‬
s.o.), give satisfaction (‫ ه‬to s.o.); to
compensate, make up (‫ هوـ ب‬for s.th. with
or by); to compensate, offset ( ‫ عو‬s.th.)│‫ا‬
‫( جوزا ا ا يووا‬ḳairan) may God bless you
for it!; ‫( جوزاهاجوزا اسو م ر‬jazā’a sinimmāra)
he returned to him good for evil III to
repay, requite (‫ هـ ب‬s.th. with, ‫ ه ب‬s.o. for),
recompense (‫ ه ب‬s.o. for); to reward (‫علوو‬
or ‫ ه ب‬s.o. for); to punish (‫ علوو‬or ‫ ه ب‬s.o.
for)│‫( اجزاهما يووا‬ḳairan) he invoked God’s
reward upon them IV to suffice (‫ ه‬s.o.), do
for s.o. (‫ ;)ه‬to take the place, serve instead
( ‫ ع‬of), replace ( ‫ ع‬s.th.)
‫ جوووووزا‬jazā’ requital, repayment;
recompense, return; compensation, setoff;
124 amends, reparation; punishment,
penalty│ ‫( اجزا اظقد‬naqdī) fine
‫ جزائو‬jazā’ī penal
‫ جزيوة‬jizya pl. ‫ جوزى‬jizan, ‫ جوزا‬jizā’ tax;
tribute; head tax on free non-Muslims
under Muslim rule
‫ تجزية‬tajziya reward
‫ مجووو زا‬mujāzāh requital, repayment;
punishment
‫ جوس‬jassa u (jass, ‫ مجسوة‬majassa) to touch, feel,
handle (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to palpate, examine by
touch (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to test, sound, probe (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to try to gain information (‫ هوـ‬about),
try to find out (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to spy out (‫هوـ‬
s.th.)│ ‫( اجوساظب و‬nabḍahū) to feel s.o.’s
pulse, (fig.) ‫ جوساظوب اا شو‬to probe, sound
out, try to find out s.th. V to try to gain
information (‫ هوـ‬about), try to find out (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to reconnoiter, scout, explore (‫هووـ‬
s.th.); to be a spy, engage in espionage; to
spy, pry, snoop (‫ علوو‬on s.o.)│‫اتجسوسا و ا‬
‫( ا بو را‬aḳbāran) to gather information for
s.o., spy for s.o. VIII to touch, feel, handle
(‫ هـ‬s.th.); to spy out (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ جوس‬jass: ‫ هووىاا جوس‬ṯarīy al-j. delicate to
the touch, having a tender surface, fresh
‫ ج ساس‬jāsūs pl. ‫ جااسيس‬jawāsīs2 spy
‫ ج ساسة‬jāsūsa woman spy
‫ ج ساس وو‬jāsūsī of espionage, spy- (in
compounds)
‫ ج ساسية‬jāsūsīya spying, espionage
‫ جاسسة‬jausasa spying, espionage
‫ مجوس‬majass spot which one touches or
feels; sense of touch│‫ ا شو اا مجوس‬ḳašin alm. coarse to the touch, having a rough
surface
‫ مجس‬mijass probe (med.)
‫ تجسس‬tajassus spying, espionage
‫ ج سئ‬jāsi’ hard, rough, rugged
‫ جسود‬II to make corporeal, invest with a body,
embody, incarnate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), give concrete
form (‫ هوـ‬to s.th.); to render or represent in
corporeal form (‫ هووـ‬s.th.) V to become
corporeal,
assume
concrete
form,
materialize; to become incarnate (Chr.); to
become three-dimensional
‫ جسد‬jasad pl. ‫ اجس‬ajsād body│‫اعيوداا جسود‬
‘īd al-j. and ‫ ميساا جسود‬Corpus Christi Day
(Chr.)
‫ جسدى‬jasadī bodily, fleshly, carnal
‫ جسداظو‬jusdānī bodily
‫ تجسد‬taia.snul materialization; incar·
nation (OM.)
‫ مجسد‬mujassad embodied, corporified
‫ مأجسوود‬mutajassid corporeal; incarnate
(Chr)
‫ جسوو‬jasara u to span, cross, traverse (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
( ‫ جسو ر‬jasāra, ‫ جسوار‬jusūr) to venture, risk
(‫ علوو‬s.th.), have the courage (‫ علوو‬to do
s.th.) II to build a dam or dike; to
embolden, encourage (‫ هوـ‬s.o., ‫ علوو‬to do
s.th.) VI to dare, venture, risk (‫ علوو‬s.th.),
have the audacity (‫ علوو‬to do s.th.); to be
sold, forward, insolent, impudent (‫علووو‬
with s.o.) VIII to span, cross, traverse (‫هوـ‬
s.th.)
‫ جسووو‬jisr pl. ‫ اجسووو‬ajsur, ‫ جس وار‬jusūr
bridge; dam, dike, embankment, levee; -(pl. ‫ جس وار‬jusūra) beam, girder; axle,
axletree│ ‫( اجسووامأحوو‬muḥarrik) movable
bridge; ‫( جسوووامعلووق‬mu‘allaq) suspension
bridge; ‫ جسوواعو ئم‬pontoon bridge, floating
bridge
‫ جسوووار‬jasār sold, daring; forward,
insolent, impudent
‫ جسووو ر‬jasāra boldness, recklessness,
intrepidity; forwardness, insolence
‫ تج سووو‬tajāsur boldness, recklessness,
intrepidity; forwardness, insolence
‫ مأج سوو‬mutajāsir bold, daring; forward,
insolent, impudent 125
‫ جس‬see ‫ا‬
‫اجص‬
‫ جسوم‬jasuma u (‫ جسو مة‬jasāma) to be great. Big,
large. bulky. huge. immense II to make
corporeal. invest with a body (‫ هووـ‬s.th.),
give (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) shape or form; to materialize
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to cause to stand out. bring out
(‫ هـ‬s.th.); to enlarge, magnify (‫ هوـ‬s.th.; e.g.,
microscope); to make big, bulky, huge (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to play up, exaggerate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) V to
become corporeal, become embodied; to
materialize; to assume a form, take shape,
become tangible or concrete; to be
materialized; to become big, large, huge,
increase in volume, grow in size
‫ جسوم‬pl. ‫ اجسو م‬ajsām, ‫ جسوام‬jusūm body
(also O of an automobile); substance,
matter; mass; form, shape
‫ جسومو‬iiaa1 bodily, physical; substantial,
material
‫ اجسويم‬jasīm pl. ‫ جسو م‬great, big, large;
voluminous, bulky, huge; vast, immense;
stout,
corpulent;
weighty,
most
significant, momentous, prodigious
‫ جس ويم‬jusaim pl. -āt particle (phys.);
corpuscle (biol.)
‫ اجسووم‬ajsam2 more voluminous, larger;
stouter, more corpulent
‫ جسووم‬jasāma size, volume; stoutness,
corpulence
‫ جسم ن‬jusmān body, mass
‫ جسووووم ظو‬jusmānī bodily,
Corporal│‫ا أب يووووووووباا جسووووووووم ظو‬
punishment
physical.
corporal
‫ تجسووووويم‬tajsīm embodiment; relief;
enlargement, magnification, magnifying
power
‫ جسوم‬mujassam bodily, corporeal; (math.)
body;
three-dimensional;
tangible,
material, concrete; raised, relieflike,
standing out in relief (e.g., ‫وي ووةامجسوومة‬
relief map); relief; enlarged. Magnified│‫ا‬
‫لوووووومامجسووووووم‬
(film)
three-dimensional
(stereoscopic) film, 3-D motion picture
‫ جسم ظية‬jasmānīya2 Gethseman
‫ جس ايجساة‬jasā u to become hard, solid
‫ جوش‬jašša u (jašš) to grind, crush, bruise, grate
(‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ جوش‬jušša hoarseness, huskiness, raucity
(of the voice)
‫ جشيش‬jašīš ground, grated, crushed
‫ اجووش‬ajašš2, f. ‫ جشوو‬jaššā’2 hoarse,
husky, raucous (voice)
‫ جشب‬II and V to belch, burp
‫ جش و‬jušā’ and ‫ جش وب‬jaš’a belch(ing),
burp(ing)
‫ جش ر‬jušār livestock
‫ جشوا‬jaši‘a a (jaša‘) and V to be covetous,
greedy
‫ جشووا‬jaša‘ greed, avidity, inordinate
desire
‫ جشا‬jaši‘ greedy, covetous
‫ جشوم‬jašāma a (jašm, ‫ جشو مة‬jašāma) to take
upon o.s. (‫ هوـ‬some hardship) II to make (‫ه‬
s.o.) suffer or undergo (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to impose
(‫ ه هوـ‬on s.o. s.th. difficult), burden (‫ ه هوـ‬s.o.
with s.th.) V to take upon o.s., suffer,
undergo (‫ هـ‬s.th., e.g., hardships)
‫( جشو و‬eg., cf. ‫ ششو و‬šišnī) sample, specimen;
sampling
‫ جص‬II to plaster, whitewash (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ جص‬jiṣṣ gypsum; plaster of Paris
‫ جصو‬II tajaṣṯana to lounge, stretch lazily,
loll
‫ جعة‬ji‘a beer
‫ جعب‬II to corrugate (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ جعبة‬ja‘ba pl. ‫ جع ب‬ji‘āb quiver; tube, pipe; gun
barrel; o cartridge pouch (Syr.)│‫اجعبوةاا بو ر‬
j. aḳbār town gossip (person) 126
‫ جعجوا‬ja‘ja‘a (‫ جعجوا‬ja‘ja‘a) to clamor, roar,
shout; to clatter, clap; to bluster, explode
in anger
‫ جعجعوة‬ja‘ja‘a hubbub, rumpus, clamor,
roar; creak, clapping noise (of a mill
wheel); bluster
‫ جعجووو‬ja‘jā‘ clamorous, boisterous,
noisy; bawler, loud-mouthed person
‫ جعد‬ja‘uda a ( ‫ جعوا‬ju‘ūda, ‫ جعو‬ja‘āda) and V
to become curly, frizzed, kinky, curl
(hair); to be wavy; to be creased; to be
wrinkled II to curl, frizz (‫ هوـ‬s.th.; the hair);
to wave (‫ هوـ‬s.th.; the hair); to crease, pleat,
plait (‫ هـ‬cloth); to wrinkle (‫ هـ‬the skin)
‫ جعود‬ja‘d (or ‫ جعوداا يود‬j. al-yad, ‫ جعوداا كوف‬j.
al-kaff) stingy, niggardly, tightfisted
‫ جعد‬ja‘da curl, lock, ringlet
‫ جعدى‬ja‘dī and ‫ اجعد‬aj‘ad2 curly
‫ جعيودى‬gə‘īdī (eg.) bum, loafer, good-fornothing
‫ تج عي ود‬tajā‘īd2 wrinkles, lines (of the
face)
‫ تجعدا‬taja‘‘udāt wrinkles
‫ مجعوود‬muja‘‘ad curled, frizzed; wavy;
furrowed, creased; wrinkled
‫ مأجعود‬mutaja‘‘id curled, frizzed; wavy;
furrowed, creased; wrinkled
‫ جعدظة‬ja‘dana idle talk, gossip (leb.)
‫ جعو‬ja‘ara a (ja‘r) to drop its manure (animal)
‫ ابوااجعووان‬abū ji‘rān2 scarabaeus; dung
beetle
‫ جعفو‬ja‘far little river, creek
‫ جعول‬ja‘ala a (ja‘l) to make (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to put,
place, lay (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to create (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
effect, bring about (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to make (‫هوـ هوـ‬
s.th. a rule, a principle, or the like, ‫ ه ه‬s.o.,
e.g., leader, king, etc.), appoint (‫ ه ه‬s.o. to
an office, rank, or the like); to fix, set (‫هـ هـ‬
a sum, a price, at); to think, deem, believe
(‫ ه ب‬or ‫ ه ه‬s.o. to be …, ‫ هوـ هـ‬s.th. to be ...),
take (‫ ه با‬or ‫ ه ه‬s.o. for, ‫ هوـ هوـ‬s.th. for); to
represent (‫ هوـ‬s.th., ‫ وواصوار‬as, or in the
form of, s.th. else); to appoint, settle (‫هوـ ل‬
s.th. for s.o., in s.o.’s favor); to give,
grant, concede (‫ هوـ ل‬s.th., an advantage, to
s.o.), put s.o. (‫ )ل‬in the way of s.th. (‫ ;)هـ‬to
attribute (‫ ل هوـ‬to s.o. s.th.), maintain that
s.th. (‫ )هوـ‬belong. to s.o. (‫ ;)ل‬to entrust (‫ا وو‬
‫ هوـ‬s.th. to s.o.); to put, get (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.,
into a specific state or condition); (with
foll. imperf.) to begin to, set out to│‫جعلو ا‬
‫ يفعول‬to induce s.o. to do; to make s.o. do
s.th. (in a narrative); ‫( جعلوو ابم ز ووة‬bimanzilati) to place s.o. on equal footing
with; ‫( جعلووو ا وووامأ ووو ولايوووده‬fī mutanāwali
yadihī) to bring or put s.th. within s.o.’s
reach III to seek to bribe, try to win (‫ه ب‬
s.o. with s.th.)
‫ جعول‬ju‘l pl. ‫ اجعو ل‬aj‘āl pay, wages; piece
wages; reward, prize
‫ جعلو‬ju‘līi: ‫( اتف اجعلوا‬ittifāq) piece-work
contract
‫ جعول‬ju‘al pl. ‫ جعوالن‬ji‘lān dung beetle;
scarabaeus
‫ جع ة‬ji‘āla, ja‘āla, ju‘āla pl. ‫ جع ئل‬ja‘āil2
pay, wages; allowance; reward, prize:
bribe
‫ جغوا يوووو‬jugrāfiyā and ‫ جغوا يووووة‬jugrāfīya
geography│‫جغوا يوووووووةاهبيعيوووووووة‬
(ṯabī‘īya)
physical geography
‫ جغوا‬jugrāfī geographical; geographer
‫ جوف‬jaffa (1st pers. perf. jafaftu) i (‫ جفو ا‬jafāf,
‫ جفواا‬jufūf) to dry, become dry; to dry out
II to dry, make dry (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ جفو ا‬jafāf dryness; desiccation; drying
up; dullness
‫اتجفو ا‬tajfāf pl. ‫ تجو يف‬tajāfīf2 protective
armor
‫ تجفيوووووف‬tajfīf drying;
dehydration; drainage 127
desiccation;
‫ جو ا‬jāff dry│‫( اللوماحبوواجو ا‬qalam ḥibr)
ball-point pen
‫ مجفووووف‬mujaffaf dried, desiccated,
dehydrated; ‫ مجفف‬dehydrated foods
‫ جفووو‬jufā’ useless, vain, futile│ ‫ا هوووباجفووو‬
dahaba jufā’an to be in vain, be of no
avail, pass uselessly
‫ جفت‬jift, ‫ ﭽ ت‬čift (pronounced šift; eg.) pincers,
tweezers; metal clamp│‫ اجفوووتاشووووي ن‬j.
šaryān arterial clamps
‫( ﭽ أشو‬pronounced šiftišī; eg.) filigree
‫ جفألول‬jiftlik farm, country estate; government
land (Pal.)
‫ جفوووو‬jafr, ‫‘ علوووماا جفوووو‬ilm al-j. divination,
fortunetelling
‫ جفو‬jufra pl. ‫ جفو‬jufar pit, hole
‫ جفول‬jafala i u (jafl, ‫ جفوال‬jufūl) and IV to start,
jump with fright; to shy (horse) II to start,
rouse (‫ هـ‬s.th., .s.o.); to scare away (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ جفول‬jafl and ‫ جفوال‬jufūl fright, alarm;
shying
‫( ﭽ لل‬pronounced šiflik; eg.) = ‫جفألل‬
‫ جف‬pl. ‫ جفان‬jufūn, ‫ اجف ن‬ajfān eyelid
‫ جف وة‬jafna pl. ‫ جفو ن‬jifān,
bowl; grapsvine
‫ جف و‬jafanāt
(‫ جفو )جفوا‬jafā u (jafw, ‫ جفو‬jafā’) to be rough,
coarse; to treat (‫ ه‬s.o.) roughly, harshly; to
turn away (. from), shun, avoid, flee (‫ه‬
s.o.) III to treat (‫ ه‬s.o.) roughly, rudely,
‫ جل وة‬julla, jilla droppings, dung (of
animals); julla pl. ‫ جلول‬julal (cannon) ban;
bomb 128
harshly; to be cruel (‫ ه‬to s.o.); to be cross
(‫ ه‬with s.o.); to elude, flee (‫ ه‬s.o.;
slumber); to offend (‫ هوـ‬against good taste,
one’s sense of honor, or the like) VI to
withdraw ( ‫ عو‬from), shun, avoid (‫ ه‬s.o.);
to loathe ( ‫ عو‬s.o., s.th.), have an aversion
( ‫ عو‬to); to display rude manners, act the
ruffian
‫ جلوة‬julla attire, clothing│‫اا جلوةاا جبووتيوةا‬
‫يا كه اتيوووووةة‬
(ḥabrawīya, kahnūtīya)
Episcopal (sacerdotal) vestments (Chr.)
‫ جليل‬jalīl pl. ‫ اجال‬ajillā’2, ‫ اجلة‬ajilla, ‫جالئل‬
jalā’il2 great, important, significant,
weighty, momentous; lofty, exalted,
sublime; revered, honorable, venerable;
glorious, splendid
‫ جفا‬jafw roughness, harshness
‫ جفوووا‬jafwa roughness; estrangement,
alienation;
disagreement,
dissension,
quarrel
‫جووووووالل‬
jalāl
loftiness,
augustness; splendor, glory
‫ جفووووو‬jafā’ roughness; harshness;
sternness; antipathy, aversion, distaste,
loathing; estrangement, alienation
‫ اجفوو‬ajfā refraining even more (‫ ل‬from),
more averse (‫ ل‬to s.th.)
‫ جال وووووة‬jalāla loftiness, sublimity,
augustness; majeoty│‫اصو حبايصو حبةةاا جال وة‬
His (Her) Majesty, ‫ جال وةاا ملول‬j. al-malik
His Majesty, the King
‫ جو ا‬jāfin pl. ‫ جفو‬jufāh harsh, rough,
coarse; brutish, uncouth, rude
‫ اجول‬ajall2 greater; more sublime; more
splendid
‫ ج كأة‬look up alphabetically
‫ مجلوة‬majalla pl. -āt periodical; review,
magazine│ ‫( مجلوةااسوباعية‬usbū‘īya) weekly
magazine; ‫( مجلووةاشووهوية‬šahrīya) monthly
publication;
‫مجلووووووةا صووووووةاب‬
(ḳāṣṣa)
professional journal for a. ; ‫مجلووةااالحك و م‬
lawbook, code; ‫ مجلةاا قااظي‬do.
‫ جكو‬III (syr.) to tease (‫ ه‬s.o.)
1
sublimity,
‫ جوول‬jalla i (‫ ج والل‬jalāl) to be great, lofty,
exalted, illustrious, sublime; to be too
great ( ‫ عو‬for), be beyond s.th. ( ‫)عو‬, be far
above s.th. ( ‫‘(اجلاع اا حصو│)ع‬an il-ḥaṣr)
to be innumerable II to honor, dignify,
exalt (‫ ه‬s.o.); to cover (‫ هوـ‬s.th., esp. the
ground, as snow, plants, etc.); to envelop,
wrap, drape, clothe; to border, edge (‫هوـ‬
s.th., ‫ ب‬with) IV to honor, dignify, revere,
venerate, esteem highly, exalt (‫ ه‬s.o.); to
deem too high, too exalted ( ‫ عو‬for s.th.),
consider far beyond s.th. ( ‫ )عو‬VI to deem
o.s. far above s.th. ( ‫ )عو‬X to be great,
exalted, sublime
‫ جل‬great, outstanding; bulky
‫ جوول‬jull major portion, bulk, majority,
main part│ ‫ جل‬julluhū most of it; ‫ جولااالموة‬j.
al-umma the majority of the people; ‫جولامو ا‬
‫ يو‬its main contents; ‫( وجولامو ايقو لااظو‬jullu)
that much, at least, can be said that ...
‫ جلووووول‬jalal important,
momentous, weighty
significant,
‫ جلوو‬jullā pl. ‫ جلول‬julal matter of great
importance, momentous undertaking,
great feat, exploit
‫ تجلوووة‬tajilla and ‫ اجوووالل‬ijlāl honor,
distinction; esteem, deference, respect;
reverence
2
‫ اجل‬jull rose
‫ جالب‬julāb, jullāb rose water; julep
‫( جالتي‬Fr. gélatine) želātīn jelly
‫( جالسية‬Fr. glacé) glasēh (eg.) kid leather
1
‫ جلوب‬jalaba i u (jalb) to attract (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
fetch, get, bring (‫ هوـ‬s.th., ‫ ل‬to s.o.); to
import (‫ هوـ‬goods); to bring about (‫ هوـ‬a
state, condition); to bring (‫ هوـ‬harm, shame,
etc., ‫ علو‬upon s.o.); to gain, win, obtain (‫هـ‬
s.th.); to earn (‫ هـ‬s.th.); (‫ جلاب‬julūb) to scar
over, heal (wound) II to shout, clamor; to
be noisy, boisterous IV to earn, gain,
acquire (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); = II; VII pass. of I VIII
to procure, bring, fetch, get (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
draw (‫ هوـ‬on s.th.); to import (‫ هوـ‬goods) X
to import (‫ هوـ‬goods); to fetch, summon,
call in (‫ ه‬s.o.); to attract, draw (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o.,
s.th.); to seek to attract or win (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o.,
s.th.); to get, procure (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫جلووووووب‬
jalb
bringing,
fetching;
procurement; acquisition; importation,
import; causation, bringing on, bringing
about
‫ جلب‬jalab imported; foreign
‫ جلب‬jalab and ‫ جلبة‬jalaba clamor; uproar,
tumult, turmoil
‫ جلبة‬julba scar
‫ جليوب‬jalīb imported, foreign; (pl. ‫جلبووو‬
jalbā, ‫ جلب‬julabā’2) foreign slave
‫ جوووالب‬jallāb attractive, captivating;
importer, trader; see also alphabetically│‫ا‬
‫ جالباا عبيد‬slave trader
‫ جالبيووة‬gallābīya (eg.) pl. -at, ‫جال ي وب‬
galālīb2 galabia, a loose, shirtlike
garment, the common dreao of the male
population in Egypt
‫ جلب ب‬below under ‫جلبب‬
‫ جلوووب‬ajlab2
captivating
more attractive,
more
‫ مجلبوووة‬majlaba pl. ‫ مج وووب‬majālib2
causative factor, motive, reason, cause,
occasion
2
3
‫ اجلجلة‬juljula, ‫ جبلاا جلجلة‬jabal al-j. Golgotha
3
‫اجلجالن‬juljulān, jiljilān sesame
‫ جلا‬jaliḥa a (jalaḥ) to be or become bald
‫ اجلوا‬ajlaḥ2, f. ‫ جلحو‬jalḥā’2, pl. ‫ جلوا‬julḥ
bald-headed, bald
‫ جلوخ‬jalaḳa a and II to sharpen (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
whet, hone (‫ هوـ‬a knife), strop (‫ هوـ‬a razor);
to stretch, extend, roll out (‫ هـ‬metal)
‫ جلخ‬jalḳ grindstone, whetetone, hone
‫ جلود‬jalada i (jald) to whip, flog, lash (‫ ه‬s.o.); -jalida a to be frozen, freeze; -- jaluda u to
be tough, hardy, undismayed, steadfast,
patient II to bind (‫ هوـ‬a book); (to cause) to
freeze (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) III to fight (‫ ه‬s.o.) IV to
freeze; to be frozen, be covered with ice V
to take heart; to show o.s. tough, hardy,
robust; to resign o.s. to patience; to bear,
suffer VI to engage in a sword fight
‫ جل ود‬jald flogging; -- (pl. ‫ اجووال‬ajlād)
staunch, steadfast; strong, sturdy
‫ جلود‬jild pl. ‫ جلوا‬julūd, ‫ اجوال‬ajlād skin,
hide; leather│‫( اجلوووووداسووووو أي ن‬suḳtiyān)
morocco; ‫( جلدا م‬lammā‘) patent leather
‫اسووووووووأجالب‬
istijlāb
procurement,
acquisition; importation, import; supply;
attraction│ ‫ ااسووأجالباا س و ئحي‬promotion of
tourist traffic
‫ جلود‬jilda skin, hide; piece of leather;
race│ ‫ اابووووو اجلووووودت‬ibn jildatinā our
countryman, our fellow tribesman, pl. ‫ب واا‬
‫ جلدت‬banū j.
‫ ج ووب‬jālib causative factor, motive,
reason, cause, occasion
‫ جلووودىا‬jildī dermal, cutaneous, skin
(adj.)│‫ ااموا اجلدية‬skin diseases
‫ اجالب‬julāb, jullāb rose water; julep
‫ اجلب‬jalabā jalap (bot.)
‫ جلبوب‬II tajalbaba to clothe o.s. (‫ ب‬with), be
clothed, be clad (‫ ب‬in a garment, also fig.)
‫ جلبو ب‬jilbāb pl. ‫ جالبيوب‬jalābīb2 garment,
dress, gown; woman's dress
‫ جلبوو ن‬julubbān chickling vetch, grass pea
(Lathyrus sativua)
1
2
‫ اجلجول‬jaljala to reverberate; to resound, ring
out; to rattle; to shake (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ جلجول‬juljul pl. ‫ جالجول‬jalājil2 (little) bell,
sleigh bell; cowbell; jingle
‫ جلجلوة‬jaljala sound of a bell; loud, shrill
sound
‫ مجلجول‬mujaljil shrill, piercing; ringing,
resounding, reverberant
‫ جليود‬julaida pl. -āt membrane, pellicle;
O film (phot.)
‫ جلود‬jalad enduranos; suffering; patience;
firmament
‫ جلد‬jalda lash, stroke with a whip
‫ جليوود‬jalīd pl. ‫ جلوودا‬juladā’2 staunch,
steadfast; strong, sturdy
‫ جليود‬jalīd ice│‫ اجبولاجليود‬jabal j. iceberg;
‫( ل عةام اا جليد‬qiṯ‘a) ice floe
‫ جليودى‬jalīdī icy, ice-covered, glacial, ice
(adj.); snow-covered│‫‘( اا عصوواا جليودى‬aṣr)
the Ice Age
‫ جلا‬jalūd long-suffering, patient
‫ جووال‬jallād pl. -ūn leather merchant;
executioner, hangman
‫ جوال‬jalāda and ‫ جلوا‬julūda endurance,
patience
‫ مجلد‬mijlada whip, lash, scourge
‫ تجليد‬tajlīd freezing; bookbinding
‫ جال‬jilād fight, battle (against)
‫ تجلد‬tajallud endurance, patience
‫ مجلوود‬mujallid: ‫ مجلووداا كأووب‬m. al-kutub
bookbinder
‫ مجلود‬mujallad frozen, icy, ice-covered;
bound (book); (pl. -āt) volume (book)
‫ مج د‬mujālid pl. -ūn gladiator
‫ مأجلد‬mutajallid patient
‫ جلمز‬jillauz (coll.; n. un. ) hazelnut; hazel
‫ جلوس‬jalasa i (‫ جلواس‬julūs) to sit down (‫ ا وو‬with
s.o., at a tabl., etc., ‫ علوو‬on a chair); to sit
(‫ ا وو‬with s.o., at a table, ‫ علوو‬on a chair)│‫ا‬
‫( جلوساا وواا وسو م‬rassām) to sit for a painter
III to sit (‫ ه‬with s.o., next to s.o., in s.o.’s
company); to keep s.o. (‫ )ه‬company IV to
ask to sit down, make sit down, eeat (‫ه‬
s.o.)
‫ جلسووة‬jalsa pl. -āt seat (in an auditorium);
session (of parliament, of a committee,
130 of a court, etc.); party, gathering,
meeting│‫‘ عقوووداجلسوووة‬aqada jasatan to
convene a session; ‫‘( جلسووةاع مووة‬āmma)
plenary session
‫ جلسة‬jilsa manner of sitting
‫ جلويس‬pl. ‫ جلسو‬julasā’2 participant in a
social gathering; table companion: one
with whom one sits together; ‫ جليسو‬the
man who was at the party with him
‫ا جليسووة‬jalīsa lady companion; fem. of
‫جليس‬
‫ جلوووواس‬julūs sitting: sitting down;
accession to the throne; pl. of ‫ ج س‬sitting
‫ مجلووس‬majlis pl. ‫ مج و س‬majālis2 seat;
session room, conference room; party,
gathering, meeting; social gathering:
session, sitting; council meeting; council;
concilium; collegium, college: board,
committee, commission; administrative
board; court, tribunal│ ‫ وووامجلسو‬in s.o.’s
presence, in s.o.’s company; ‫مجلوساا أب يووب‬
and ‫ مجلوساتوب يبو‬disciplinary board; ‫مجلوسا‬
‫ تبسيس وو‬constituent assembly; ‫مجلووساآ و لو‬
regional court (tribunal régional; Tun.);
‫ مجلووساادمووة‬m. al-umma parliament (Ir.);
‫ مجلوساادمو‬m. al-amn the Security Council;
‫ مجلوساا بلديوة‬m. al-baladīya and ‫مجلوسابلودى‬
(baladī) local council, municipal council;
‫ مجلوساا حووب‬m. al-ḥarb war council; ‫مجلوسا‬
‫( حسوبو‬ḥasbī) probate court (for Muslim;
Eg.); ‫( مجلووسام ووألط‬muḳtaliṯ) mixed court
(eg.);
‫ مجلووساا وود‬defense council; ‫مجلووسا‬
‫ اال ار‬m. al-idāra administrative board,
committee of management, directorate;
board of directors (of a corporation or
bank); ‫ مجلووووساا مديويووووة‬m. al-mudīrīya
provincial council, provincial parliament
(Eg.); ‫ مجلووساا دو ووة‬m. ad-daula Supreme
Administrative Court (Eg.); ‫مجلووساروحووو‬
(rūḥī) religious court, clerical court (of the
Coptic Church); ‫ مجلوساشوارىاا دو وة‬m. šūrā
d-daula council of state; ‫مجلوووساا شوووياخ‬
council of elders: Senate (Eg.); ‫مجلوساعود و‬
(‘adlī) court, tribunal (Syr.); (‫ عسوكوى‬or)
‫‘( مجلووساعو ووو‬urfī, ‘askarī) court-martial;
‫ مجلساعصبةاادمم‬m. ‘uṣbat al-umam Council
of the League of Nations; ‫ مجلوساا عموام‬the
House of Commons; ‫ مجلوساادعيو ن‬m. ala‘yān senate (Ir., Jord.); ‫ مجلوساااللأووا‬draft
board, recruiting commission (mil.); ‫مجلوسا‬
‫( لوووى‬qarawī) local council; ‫مجلوساالأصو ى‬
(iqtiṣādī) economic council: ‫مجلووسالووامو‬
(qaumī) national assembly; ‫مجلوساليو اا ثوار‬
m.
qiyādat
at-taura
Supreme
Revolutionary Tribunal (Eg.): ‫ا مجلوساا كبيوو‬
and ‫( ا مجلسااالكبوو‬akbar) the Grand Council
(= le Grand Conseil; Tun.); ‫مجلوساا لوار ي‬
the House of Lords: ‫ مجلوساا وااب‬m. annuwwāb lower house, chamber of
deputies; ‫( مجلووساظي و بو‬niyābī) parliament;
‫ مجلوساا جهوة‬m. al-jiha approx.: provincial
council (= conseil de région; Tun.); ‫مجلوسا‬
‫ ا وازرا‬m. al-wuzarā’ cabinet, council of
ministers
‫ مج سة‬mujālasa social intercourse
‫ جو س‬jālis pl. ‫ جلواس‬julūs, ‫ جوالس‬jullās
sitting; pl. ‫ جووالس‬participants in a social
gathering
‫ جلوط‬jalaṯa i (jalṯ) to chafe, gall, abrade (‫ هوـ‬the
skin); to shave (‫ ا وأس‬ar-ra’sa the head
‫ اجل وووة‬julṯa lump, clot│‫اجل وووةا مايوووة‬
(damawīya) blood clot, thrombus
‫ جلف‬jilf pl. ‫ اجالا‬ajlāf boorish, rude, uncivil
‫ جلفط‬jalfaṯa (‫ جلف ة‬jalfaṯa) to calk (‫ هـ‬a ship)
‫ جلف‬galfana (eg.) to galvanize
clarify, clear up (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), throw light (‫ا هوـ‬
on); to uncover, unearth, bring to light,
find out, discover, detect (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ جلف ة‬galfana galvanization
‫ مجلف‬mugalfan galvanized
‫ ابو اجوال‬ibn jalā a famous, well-known
man, a celebrity
‫ جاللووةا‬jalāqa: ‫( جاللووةالوويووةا‬qarawīya) yokel,
bumpkin
‫ جلوو‬jalīy clear, plain, evident, patent,
manifest, obvious, conspicuous; ‫جليوووو‬
jalīyan obviously, evidently
‫ جلم‬jalama i (jalm) to clip, shear off (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ جلم‬jalam pl. ‫ اجالم‬ajlām shears
‫ جليووة‬jalīya pl. ‫ جاليو‬jalāyā sure thing,
plain fact│‫ جليوةاادموو‬jalīyat al-amr the true
state of the affair
‫ ابااجلمبا‬abū galambū (eg.) a variety of crab
‫ جلمد‬II tajalmada to be petrified
‫ جلمود‬jalmad pl. ‫ جالمود‬jalāmid2 and ‫جلموا‬
julmūd pl. ‫ جالميد‬jalāmīd2 rook, bolder
‫ اجلوو‬ajlā clearer, more obvious, more
distinct
‫ جل ر‬jullanār pomegranate blossom
(‫ا جلوا‬and ‫ جوال )جلوو‬jalā u to clean, polish
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to clear (‫ هوـ‬the view); to make
clear, make plain, clarity, clear up (‫هووـ‬
s.th.), throw light on (‫)هوـ‬, to reveal, unveil,
disclose (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.), to dislodge, oust,
remove ( ‫ هوـ عو‬or ‫ ه‬s.o. or s.th. from), to
shine, be brilliant, distinguish o.s. (‫ وو‬in
s.th.); to be or become clear, evident,
manifest; to pull out, move out ( ‫ عو‬of a
place), go away, depart ( ‫ عو‬from‫ا‬a place),
leave, quit, evacuate ( ‫ عو‬a place); -- ‫جلوو‬
jalā i to polish, burnish (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) II to
reveal, disclose, bring to light ( ‫ عو‬or ‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to show, represent (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.),
IV to remove, dislodge, oust, drive away
(‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.); to evacuate (‫ ه‬s.o. from);
to move away, go away ( ‫ عو‬from a place),
leave ( ‫ عو‬a place) V to become clear,
evident, manifest; to reveal itself, be
revealed, to appear, show, come to light,
come out, manifest itself, to be
manifested, be expressed, find expression
VII to be clean or cleaned, be polished, be
burnished, to be removed, be dislodged,
be ousted; to move away ( ‫ ع و‬from a
place), vacate, evacuate ( ‫ عو‬a place), to be
dispelled, vanish, go away, pass (crisis,
difficulty, etc.), to disappear, to reveal
itself, be revealed, be disclosed; to be
unveiled (bride), to become manifest,
manifest itself; to become clear or plain;
to clear up and reveal ( ‫ عو‬s.th.), to lead,
come ( ‫ عو‬to), end ( ‫ عو‬in), to result ( ‫عو‬
in)│‫ مو اي جلووواع و اادمووو‬the outcome of the
matter, what will come of it VIII to reveal,
disclose (‫ هـا‬s.th.), to regard (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), look
at (‫ )هوـ‬X to seek to clarify (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), to
‫ جلواى‬jalwā unveiling (of the bride)│‫يلوةا‬
‫ ا جلا‬lailat al-j. wedding night
‫ جوووال‬jalā’ clarification,
clarity, clearness, plainness,
departure, (e)migration (
evacuation ( ‫ ع و‬of an area;
clearly, plainly
‫ جليووووو ن‬jalayān
apocalypse (Chr.)
elucidation;
distinctness;
‫ عوووو‬from),
mil.); ‫بجووال‬
vision,
revelation,
‫ مجوو ل‬majālin (pl. of ‫ مجلوووو‬majlan)
manifestations
‫ تجليوة‬tajliya: ‫( تجليووةااالهيوة‬ilāhīya) divine
revelation; theophany (Chr.)
‫ تجوول‬tajallin revelation, manifestation;
Transfiguration (of Christ)│‫‘ عيووداا أجلووو‬īd
at-t. Transfiguration Day (Chr.)
‫ اجأال‬ijtilā’ contemplation
‫ اسأجال‬istijlā’ clarification, elucidation
‫ ج يوة‬jāliya pl. -āt, ‫ جواال‬jawālin colony
(of foreigners); colony of emigrants
‫ ا مجلو‬al-mujallī the winner (in a race)
‫ا مأجوووول‬mutajallin
manifest, patent
obvious,
evident,
‫ جلان‬galōn pl. -āt gallon (eg.)
‫ مجلان‬mugalwan galvanized (eg.)
‫ جلو‬jullā see 1‫جل‬
‫ جلياتي‬gilyotīn guillotine (eg.)
1
‫ ام‬abbreviation of ‫ ج ي امصوى‬Egyptian pound
2
‫ جوم‬jamma i u (jamm) to gather; to collect
one’s thoughts, concentrate; to rest II and
V to grow luxuriantly (plants) X to gather;
to collect one’s thoughts, concentrate; to
rest, relax, seek recreation ( ‫ا مو‬from); to
be covered with luxuriant vegetation
(ground)
‫ جووم‬jamm abundant, plentiful; much, a
great deal of; many, numerous; manifold,
multiple; crowd, group of people│‫جوماادثوو‬
j. al-atar effective, efficacious; ‫احبو احبو اجمو‬
(aḥabbahū ḥubban) to be more than fond
of; ‫ اائوداجموة‬numerous advantages, ample
benefits; ‫ جماغفيو‬large crowd, throng
‫ جمو م‬jamām rest, relaxation, recreation,
gathering of new strength
‫ مجم‬majamm place where s.th. gathers or
flows together│ ‫مجووووماهوووولااا وووووأ اومسووووأجمع‬
(mustajma‘uhū) what this opinion
amounts to
‫ تجموويم‬tagmīm (eg.) bobbed hairdo (of
women)
‫اسوووووووأجم تم‬
istijmām
collectedness;
concentration; attentiveness, attentive
reverence; rest, relaxation, recreation
‫جمب ز‬, ‫ ج ب زى‬see ‫ج ب ز‬, ‫ج ب زى‬
‫( جمبوووى‬from It. gambero) gambarī, ‫جموووى‬
gammarī (eg.) shrimp (zool.)
2
‫ جمجوم‬jamjama (‫ جمجمووة‬jamjama), ‫جمجووماا كووالم‬
(kalāma) and II tajamjama to articulate
indistinctly, stammer; to express o.s.
poorly, speak incoherently; to mumble
2
‫ جمجمووة‬jumjuma pl. ‫ جم و جم‬jamājim2 skull,
cranium
‫ جمجمو‬jumjumī cranial
‫ جموا‬jamaḥa a (jamḥ, ‫ جمو ح‬jimāḥ, ‫ جمواح‬jumūḥ
to holt (horse); to he refractory, unruly,
recalcitrant; to be defiant; to be
capricious, whimsical; to run out on her
husband, run away from home (wife)
‫ جمووو ح‬jimāḥ
willfulness
recalcitrance,
2
‫ اجمود‬jamada u, jamuda u (jamd, ‫ جموا‬jumūd)
to freeze; to congeal, harden, stiffen, be or
become hard or solid, solidify; to
coagulate, clot (blood); to be rigid,
inflexible (in one’s thinking); to stagnate;
to be apathetic, indolent, dull, indifferent│‫ا‬
‫ جمود اظفسو اعلوو‬to be indifferent toward, put
up with, acquiesce in; ‫( جمد ايوده‬yaduhū) to
be niggardly, tightfisted II to freeze, frost,
congeal (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to solidify, coagulate,
harden, stiffen (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to curdle (‫ هـ‬s.th.);
to freeze (‫ هوـ‬assets V to freeze, become
frozen, turn into ice, freeze up. become
icebound; to freeze to death; to congeal; to
solidify; to harden, set (e.g., cement); to
coagulate, clot (blood) VII to freeze up,
become icebound; to freeze, become
frozen, turn to ice
‫ جمووووود‬jamd freezing; congelation,
solidification,
coagulation│‫رجووووووةاا جموووووود‬
darajat al-j. freezing point
‫ جمد‬jamad ice
‫ جم و‬jamād pl. -āt a solid; inorganic
body; mineral; inanimate body, inanimate
being; O neuter (gram.)
‫ جموا‬jumūd frozen state; solid, compact
state, compactness, solidity; rigor, rigidity,
stiffness; inorganic state; hardening,
induration;
hardness,
inflexibility;
deadlock, standstill; inertia, inaction,
inactivity; lethargy, apathy, passivity,
indifference
‫ جما‬jumūda solidity, hardness
‫ تجميوود‬tajmīd solidification, hardening;
consolidation; reinforcement
(of a
foundation)│‫ تجميوووودااالموووواال‬t. al-amwāl
freezing of assets
‫تجمووووود‬
tajammud
freezing;
frost;
congelation; solidification; coagulation
defiance;
‫ اظجمو‬injimād freezing up or over, icing
up; ice formation
‫ جمووواح‬jumūḥ recalcitrance, defiance;
willfulness
‫ ج مووود‬jāmid hard, solid; stiff; rigid;
motionless; inanimate, inorganic; (gram.)
defective; dry. dull (book, and the like);
impervious to progress to innovation,
ossified, ultraconservative; pl. ‫جااموووود‬
jawāmid2 inanimate things, inorganic
matter, minerals
‫ جمواح‬jamūḥ headstrong, defiant, unruly,
ungovernable
‫ جو ما‬jāmiḥ headstrong, defiant, unruly;
indomitable, untamable
‫ مأجموود‬mutajammid frozen, icy; stiff,
congealed; coagulated
‫ م جمود‬munjamid frozen, icy, ice (adj.);
arctic│‫( ا محوويطاا م جموود‬muḥīṯ) the Arctic
Ocean
2
‫اجم و ى‬jumādā name of the fifth and sixth
months of the Muslim year (‫ جمو ىااالو وو‬j.
al-ūlā Jumada I and ‫ جم ىااب وو‬j. al-āḳira
Jumada II)
‫ جمو‬II to roast (‫ هـ‬meat) VIII to bum incense
‫ جموا‬jamr embers, live coal│‫اك ناعلوااحووا‬
‫( مو اجموو‬aḥarra) to be on tenter-hooks; to
be in greatest suspense, be dying with
curiosity
‫ جموو‬jamra (n. un. of ‫ )جموو‬live coal;
firebrand, smoldering embers; rankling
resentment; (pl. -āt) carbuncle (med.)│O
‫ ا جمو اا بيثة‬anthrax
‫ جم و ر‬jummār palm pith, palm core
(edible tuber growing at the upper end of
the palm trunk)
‫ مجموووو‬mijmara pl. ‫ مجووو مو‬majāmir2
brazier; censer
2
‫ جموى‬see ‫جمبوى‬
‫( جمو‬eg.) gumruk pl. ‫ جمو‬gamārik2 customs;
customhouse│ ‫ رسووووماا جمووووو‬rasm al-g.
customs duty, tariff
‫ جموك وو‬gumrukī customs, tariff (used
attributively)│‫ااتحووووو اجموكووووووو‬
(ittih ād)
customs union
‫ مجمو‬mugamrak duty paid
‫ جميوز‬jummaiz (coll.; n. un. ) sycamore (Ficus
sycomorus; bot.)
‫ ج ماس‬look up alphabetically
‫ جموش‬jamaša i u (jamš) to unhair (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) II to
make love, caress, pet
‫ جموا‬jama‘a a (jam‘) to gather (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
collect (‫ هوـ‬e.g., money); to unite, combine,
bring together (parts into a whole); to put
together. join (‫ هوـ‬things); to set, compose
(‫ هوـ‬type; typ.); to compile (‫ هوـ‬a book); to
summarize. sum up (‫ هووـ‬s.th.) to rally,
round up (‫ هوم‬people); to pile up, amass
accumulate (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to assemble (‫هووم‬
several persons); to convoke, convene,
call (‫ هوـ‬a meeting); to add (‫ هوـ‬numbers),
add up (‫ هوـ‬a column); (gram.) to make
plural, pluralize (‫ هوـ‬a word); to unite, link,
bring together ( ‫ بوووي‬several things or
persons); to combine (‫ بووي ا–او‬e.g., both
strength and courage); to contain, hold,
comprise (‫ هووووـ‬s.th.)│ ‫جموووواااهووووواااا شوووو‬
(aṯrāfa) to summarize, sum up s.th.; to
give a survey of s.th.; ‫جمااا بواعوةامو ااهوا هو ا‬
(barā‘ata) to be very efficient, do an
excellent job, do superlatively good work;
‫( جموااشوملاا ق يوا‬šamla l-q.) to round up the
herd; ‫( يجمااا كأ بابي اصفح ته‬ṣafaḥātihā) the
book contains, lists …; ‫يجمواابيوتاعلووابيوا‬
(yujma‘u) the plural of bait is buyūt II to
pile up, amass, accumulate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
rally, round up (‫ هووـ‬s.th., ‫ هووم‬s.o.); to
assemble (‫ هوـ‬the parts of a 134 machine)
III to have sexual intercourse ( ‫ هو‬with a
woman) IV to agree (‫ علوو‬on s.th., to do
s.th.); to be agreed (‫ علوو‬on); to decide
unanimously (‫ علوو‬on), resolve (‫ علوو‬to do
s.th.)│‫( اجمعااااموهم‬amrahum) they came to
terms, they made a joint decision V to
gather; to assemble, congregate; to rally,
band together, flock together (people); to
pile up; to accumulate; to gather into a
mass, agglomerate; to cluster; to coagulate
VIII to be close together; to come
together, meet, join; to unite, combine (‫ب‬
with); to assemble, meet, convene (an
organization, a committee, etc.); to be or
get together, have a ‫ا‬meeting, interview or
conference, hold talks (‫ب‬, ‫ موا‬with s.o.),
meet (‫ب‬, ‫ موا‬s.o.; to concur (‫ علوو‬in), agree,
be agreed (‫ علووو‬on s.th.) X to gather,
collect (‫ هوـ‬s.th.; also ‫ لووااه‬quwāhu one’s
strength, ‫ ا كو ره‬afkārahū one’s thoughts);
to summarize, sum up (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
possess, combine (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ جموووووا‬jam’ gathering; collection;
combination;
connection,
coupling,
joining; accumulation; (arith.) addition;
union, merger, aggregation, integration
( ‫ بوي‬of) holding together ( ‫ بوي‬of divergent,
separate things); (pl.
‫ جمووووا‬jumū‘)
gathering, crowd, throng; gang, troop;
(gram.) plural│‫ اجمااا شومل‬j. aš-šaml union,
integration; ‫ جموووااا أكسووويو‬the broken (=
internal) plural, ‫ ا جموااا سو م‬the regular (=
external) plural; ‫ اسوووماا جموووا‬ism al-j.
collective noun (gram.); ‫ جموااا يود‬j. al-yad
fist
‫ جما‬jum‘, ‫ جمااا كف‬j. al-kaff, ‫ جمااا يد‬j. alyad fist, clenched hand│ ‫ ابجموواايدي و‬with
clenched fists
‫ جمعوة‬jum‘a pl. ‫ جمووا‬juma‘, -āt week;
Friday│‫ ايواماا جمعوة‬yaum al-j. Friday; ‫جمعوةا‬
‫ ابالم‬Passion Week; ‫ ا جمعوةاا عريموة‬and ‫يواما‬
‫ا ا جمعةاا حزي ة‬Good Friday (Chr.)
‫ جمعيوةا‬jam‘iya pl. -āt club, association,
society; corporation, organization; 135
assembly│‫ جمعيوةاادموم‬j. al-umam League of
Nations; ‫( جمعيووةا يويووة‬ḳairīya) charitable
organization; ‫ جمعيوووةااالسوووع ا‬j. al-is‘āf
approx.: civil ambulance service; ‫جمعيووة‬
(tašrī‘īya) legislative assembly; ‫جمعيوووةا‬
‫‘ عماميوة‬umūmīya) and ‫‘( جمعيوةاع موة‬āmma)
general assembly; general meeting;
plenum, plenary session; ‫جمعيوووةاتع وظيوووة‬
(ta‘āwunīya) cooperative
‫ جمي وا‬jamī‘ (with foll. genitive) total;
whole, entire; all; entirety; e.g., ‫جميوااا و س‬
all men, all mankind; ‫ ا جمي وا‬all people,
everybody; the public at large; ‫جميعووو‬
jamī‘an in a body, altogether, one and all,
all of them; entirely, wholly, totally
2
2
‫ جموا‬ajma‘ pl. -ūn, f. ‫ جمعو‬jam‘ā’ , pl.
‫ جما‬juma‘2 entire, whole, all`│‫ا ع م ااالسالموا‬
‫( اجما‬ajma‘a) the entire Islamic world; ‫ا دارا‬
‫( جمعو‬jam‘ā’a) the whole house; ‫ ب جمعو‬biajma‘ihī in its entirety, to its full extent,
completely, altogether; ‫ جو واابو جمعهم‬all of
them came
‫ جموو‬jummā‘ aggregate; total, total
amount
O ‫جمووو اكهوبووو ئو‬
storage battery
jammā‘
kahrabā‘ī;
‫ جم عوة‬jamā‘a pl. -āt group (of people);
band, gang, party, troop; community;
squad (military unit; Eg. 1939)│‫اجم عو ا‬
‫ وا ووا ا‬jamā‘ātin wa-afrādan in groups and
individually
‫ جمو عو‬jamā‘ī collective (as opposed to
‫ و ى‬fardī individual)
‫ مجموا‬majma‘ pl. ‫ مجو ما‬majāmi‘2 place
where two or more things meet, place or
point of union, junction; meeting,
congregation, convention, assembly; (also
‫ مجموااعلموو‬m. ‘ilmī) academy (scientific);
college (e.g., of ecclesiastical dignitaries);
synod│‫( مجمواابلودى‬baladī) provincial synod
(Chr.); ‫( مجمواااكليوكوو‬iklīrīkī) clerical synod
(of the Coptic Church); ‫ ا ولابمجو مااا قلواب‬to
win or captivate the hearts; 135 ‫بمج مااعي يو‬
bi-m. ‘ainaihi (to look at s.o.) with
complete concentration, intently
‫ مجمعووووا‬majma‘ī
academician
academy member,
‫ اتجمو‬tajmī‘ assembly, assemblage (of
the parts of machinery)
‫ جمووو‬jimā‘ sexual intercourse; s.th.
comprising or involving another thing or a
number of things│‫اا مواجم ااالثوم‬al-ḳamr j.
al-itm wine involves sin, wine
‫ اجمو‬ijmā‘ agreement, unanimity (also
‫ ;)اجمو اا ووأ‬unanimous resolution (‫ علوو‬to
do s.th.); (Isl. Law) consensus (of the
authorities in a legal question; one of the
four uṣūl of Islamic Law)│ ‫اب الجمووو‬
unanimously ‫ا‬
‫ اجموووو عو‬ijmā‘ī based
agreement,
unanimous;
universal
on
general
collective,
‫ تجموا‬tajammu‘ pl. -āt coming together,
meeting; gathering; troop concentration;
crowd, throng, mob; agglomeration; O
agglutination (chem.-med.)
‫ اجأمو‬ijtimā‘ pl. -āt meeting (‫ ب‬with
s.o.; of a corporate body; of parliament);
get-together,
gathering,
assembly;
reunion; rally; convention; conjunction,
constellation (astron.); confluence (of
rivers); life in a social group, community
life,
social life;
‫االجأمووووو‬
human
society│ ‫ اجأموووو اا ووووو‬ijtimā‘ aṯ-ṯuruq
crossroads, intersection, junction; ‫علوووما‬
‫‘ االجأمو‬ilm al-ijt. sociology; ‫علمو ااالجأمو‬
sociologists
‫ اجأمو عو‬ijtimā‘ī community, group (used
attributively);
social;
socialist(ic);
sociological│‫وزار اا شووووووووووووووووؤونااالجأم عيووووووووووووووووة‬
ministry for social affairs; ‫ا ح ووةااالجأم عيووة‬
personal status; ‫( ا دمووةااالجأم عيووة‬ḳidma)
social service, social work; ‫ا مس وا ااالجأم عيوة‬
(musāwāh) social equality; ‫ا هيئووةااالجأم عيووة‬
(hai’a) human society
‫ اجأم عية‬ijtimā‘īya socialism
‫ ج و ما‬jāmi‘ comprehensive, extensive,
broad, general, universal; collector;
compiler (of a book); compositor,
typesetter; (pl. ‫ جااموا‬jawāmi‘2) mosque│‫ا‬
‫( مسوجداجو ما‬masjid) great, central mosque
where the public prayer is performed on
Fridays
‫ ج معووةا‬jāmi‘a pl. -āt league, union,
association;
community;
federation;
religious
community,
communion;
commonness, community of interests or
purpose; university│O ‫ ج معوةاا كهوبو‬j. alkahrabā’ storage battery, accumulator;
‫ ج معوةااالموم‬j. al-umam League of Nations;
‫( ا ج مع وةااالسووالمية‬islāmīya) Pan-Islamism;
‫‘( ا ج معووةاا عوبيووة‬arabīya) and ‫ج معووةاا وودولا‬
‫( ا عوبية‬duwal) the Arab League; ‫ج معوةاشوعبية‬
(ša‘bīya) university extension, adult
education courses, evening courses
‫ا جووو معو‬jāmi‘ī academic, collegiate,
university (adj.); university graduate
‫ مجموووا‬majmū‘ collected, gathered;
totality, whole; total, sum (arith.)│‫اا حوواا‬
‫ ا مجماعة‬matter (typ.); ‫ مجما ااراضواا ق وو‬m.
arāḍī l-quṯr the total area of the country;
‫ مجما اها‬m. ṯūlihī its total length; ‫ا مجما ا‬
‫‘( ا عصب‬aṣabī) the nervous system
‫ا مجماعة‬majmū‘a pl. -āt, ‫ مجو ميا‬majāmī‘2
collection (e.g., of works of art, of stamps,
etc., also of stories); compilation, list;
group {also, e.g., of trees, of islands, etc.);
series (e.g., of articles in a newspaper; O
battery (el.); alliance, league, bloc (e.g., of
states);
collective,
collectivistic
organization; aggregate; complex, block
(of
buildings);
system;
bulletin,
periodical│‫( اا مجماعوةاا شمسووية‬šamāīya) the
solar system; ‫( مجماعوووةاصووو عية‬ṣinā‘īya)
syndicate
‫ مجمووا‬mujammi‘ collector (techn.); O
storage battery, accumulator
‫ مجموااعليو‬mujma‘ ‘alaihi (that which is)
agreed upon, unanimous
‫ مجأموا‬mujtama‘ pl. -āt gathering place,
place of assembly; meeting place,
rendezvous; assembly, gathering, meeting;
society; human society; community,
commune, collective
‫ ج مكية = جمكية‬look up alphabetically
1
‫ اجمول‬jamala u (jaml) to sum up, summarize
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); -- jamula u (‫ جمو ل‬jamāl) to be
beautiful; to be handsome, pretty, comely,
graceful; to be proper, suitable,
appropriate (‫ ب‬for s.o.), befit (‫ ب‬s.o.) II to
make beautiful, beautify, embellish, adorn
(‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.) III to be polite, courteous,
amiable (. to 8.0.) IV to sum, total, add (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to treat as a whole, mention
collectively (‫ هووووـ‬s.th.); to sum up,
summarize (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to act well, decently,
be nice V to make o.s. pretty, adorn o.s.
VI to be courteous, be friendly to one
another
‫ جملوة‬jumla pl. ‫ جمول‬jumal totality, sum,
whole; group, troop, body; crowd;
wholesale; (gram.) sentence, clause; ‫جملوة‬
jumlatan completely, wholly, on the
whole, altogether, in general, at all│‫اجملوةا‬
‫ واحود‬jumlatan wāḥidatan all at once, at
one swoop;
‫ جملووةاا ك ئ وو‬everything in
existence; ‫ ك نامو اجملوةااصوح ب‬he was one of
his companions, he belonged to his
companions; ‫( ل و لا ووواجملووةام و ال و ا‬jumlati)
among other things, he said ... ; ‫وجملوةاا قوالا‬
‫ ان‬wa-jumlatu l-qauli anna or ‫ا وجملةااالمواان‬
in short ... , to sum up …, briefly stated ...
; ‫ علووواا جملووة‬in short, in a word; ‫ب جملووة‬
wholly, on the whole, altogether, in
general, at all; by wholesale (com.); ‫جملوةا‬
‫ االجوووو اا مسوووأحقة‬j. al-ujra al-mustaḥiqqa
gross wage; ‫تووو جواا جملوووة‬
wholesaler,
wholesale dealer; 41.J:1 ~ sr,. al·j. wholesale price; ‫( جملووةااسوومية‬ismīya) nominal
clause; ‫( جملةا علية‬fi‘līya) verbal clause; ‫جملةا‬
‫( ا ب ريوة‬iḳbārīya) or ‫( جملوةا بويوة‬ḳabarīya)
declarative sentence (or clause); ‫جملوةااظشو ئية‬
(inšā’īya) exclamatory sentence; ‫جملوةاح يوة‬
(ḥālīya) circumstantial clause; ‫ااجملوووةا‬
‫(شوووه‬šarṯīya) conditional clause; ‫جملووةا‬
‫( معأوضة‬mu‘tariḍa) parenthetical clause
‫ حسو باا جمول‬ḥisāb al-jummal (or jumal)
use of the letters of the alphabet according
to their numerical value
‫ جمو ل‬jamāl beauty│O ‫‘ علوماا جمو ل‬ilm al-j.
aesthetics
‫ جمي ول‬jamīl beautiful, graceful, lovely,
comely, pretty, handsome; friendly act,
favor, service, good turn; courtesy│‫اعأوااا‬
‫ب جميل‬, ‫ معو ةاا جميول‬ma‘rifat al-j. and ‫عو و نا‬
‫‘( ب جميووووول‬irfān)
gratitude; ‫اظكووووووانا‬
‫ا جمي ول‬nukrān al-j. ingratitude; ‫ظ و كواا جمي ول‬
ungrateful; ‫( حف ا اجميال‬ḥafiẓa) to keep s.o.
in fond remembrance, remember s.o. with
gratitude
‫ اجمل‬ajmal2 more beautiful
‫تجميوووووووووول‬
tajmīl
embellishment; cosmetics
beautification,
‫ مج ملوة‬mujāmala pl. -āt (act of) courtesy;
civility, amiability; flattery; ‫مج ملوووووة‬
mujāmalatan amicably, in a friendly way│‫ا‬
‫ زيو ر امج ملوة‬ziyārat m. courtesy call; ‫لااعودا‬
‫ ا مج مال‬etiquette
‫ اجم و ل‬ijmāl summation, summing up;
summarization; ‫ اجمووو ال‬ijmālan on the
whole, in general, generally speaking, as a
general principle│‫ ااجم و الا وول لاالووال‬to sum
up, I (would) say ... ; ‫ وووااجم و‬in its
entirety, as a whole; ‫ ب الجمو ل‬and ‫علووااالجمو ل‬
in general, on the whole, altogether; ‫باجو ا‬
‫ االجم ل‬bi-wajhi l-i. = ‫اجم ال‬
‫ اجمو و‬ijmālī comprehensive, summary,
general, over-all, total, collective│‫تقويوووا‬
‫ اجموووو و‬over-all report; ‫غوامووووةااجم يووووة‬
(garāma) collective penalty; ‫ظرووو ااجم يووة‬
(naẓra) general view
‫ مجموووول‬mujmil
wholesale dealer
2
pl.
-ūn
wholesaler,
‫ا تجمهووو‬tajamhur gathering (of people;
crowd
‫ جو‬janna u (jann, ‫ ج وان‬junūn) to cover, hide,
conceal, veil (‫هوـ‬, ‫ علوو‬s.th.); to descend,
fall, be or become dark (night); pass.
junna: to be or become possessed, insane,
mad, crazy│ ‫( اجو اج اظو‬junūnuhū) to get
madly excited, become frantic II to craze,
make crazy, drive insane, madden, enrage,
infuriate (‫ ه‬s.o.) IV to cover, veil, hide,
conceal (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); = II; V to go mad,
become crazy X to be covered, veiled,
concealed; to regard (‫ ه‬s.o.) as crazy, think
(‫ ه‬s.o.) mad
‫( جو‬coll.) jinn, demons (invisible beings,
either harmful or helpful, that interfere
with the lives of mortals)
‫ ج و‬jinnī demonic; jinni, demon
‫ ج ية‬jinnīya female demon
‫ ج ووة‬janna pl. -at, ‫ ج و ن‬jinān garden;
paradise│‫ اج و اا عوويم‬paradise; ‫س و ك اا ج و ن‬
inhabitant of paradise, deceased person,
one of blessed memory
‫ مجموووول‬mujmal summary, resume,
synopsis, compendium; general concept;
sum, total│‫ ب مجمل‬by wholesale
‫ ج ي وةا‬junaina pl. -āt, ‫ ج و ئ‬janā’in2 little
garden; garden
‫ اجموول‬jamal pl. ‫ جمووو ل‬jimāl, ‫ اجموو ل‬ajmāl
camel│ ‫ جمل اا يها‬j. a1-yahūd chameleon
‫ ج وة‬jinna possession, obsession; mania,
madness, insanity
‫ جم ل‬jammāl pl. -ūn camel driver
‫ جم ن‬jumān (coll.; n. un. ) pearls
‫ جمهوو‬jamhara to gather, collect (‫ه‬, ‫ هوـ‬s.th.,
s.o.);‫ا‬to assemble (‫ ه‬s.o.) II tajamhara to
gather, flock together (crowd)
‫ جمهو‬jamhara multitude, crowd, throng;
the great mass, the populace
‫ جمهوووار‬jumhūr pl. ‫ جمووو هيو‬jamāhīr2
multitude; crowd, throng; general public,
public; ‫ ا جم هيو‬the masses, the people
‫ جمهوى‬iumhllri republican (adj. and n‫ة‬.
‫جمهاريوووووووة‬
jumhūriya
pl.
-āt
republic│ ‫‘( ا جمهاريووةاا عوبيووةاا مأحوود‬arabīya,
muttaḥida) the United Arab Republic;
‫( ا جمهاريوووةااالتح يوووةااال م ظيوووة‬ittiḥādīya) the
Federal Republic of Germany; ‫ا جمهاريووةا‬
‫( ا ديمالواهيوووووةااال م ظيوووووة‬dīmūqrāṯīya) the
German Democratic Republic
‫ ج ئ و‬janā’inī gardener
‫ ج ووةا‬junna pl.
shelter, shield
‫ ج و‬junan protection,
‫ ج ن‬janān pl. ‫ اج ن‬ajnān heart, soul
‫ ج ن‬jannān gardener
‫ ج وي‬janīn pl. ‫ اج وةا‬ajinna, ‫ اج وانا‬ajnūn
embryo, fetus; germ (in a seed, etc.)
‫ ج ووووان‬junūn possession, obsession;
mania, madness, insanity, dementia;
foolishness, folly; frenzy, rage, fury;
ecstasy, rapture│‫ ا ج ووانا ووان‬al-j. funūn
madness has many varieties, manifests
itself in many ways
‫ ج واظ‬junūnī crazy, insane, mad; frantic,
frenzied
‫ مج‬mijann pl. ‫ مج ن‬majānn2 shield
‫ مج ة‬majanna madness, insanity
‫ ج ن‬jānn jinn, demons
‫ مج وووان‬majnūn pl. ‫ مجووو ظي‬majānīn2
possessed,
obsessed; insane,
mad;
madman, maniac, lunatic; crazy, cracked;
crackpot; foolish; fool
‫ ج وب‬janaba u to avert, ward off (‫ ه هوـ‬from s.o.
s.th.) II to keep away, avert, ward off (‫ا ه هـ‬
from s.o. s.th.), keep s.o. (‫ )ه‬out of the way
of (‫)هوـ‬, spare (‫ ه هوـ‬s.o. s.th.) III to be or
walk by s.o.’s (‫ )ه‬side; to run alongside of
(‫)هوـ‬, run parallel to (‫)هوـ‬, skirt, flank (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to avoid (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) V to avoid (‫هوـ‬
s.th., ‫ ه‬s.o.); to keep away (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬from),
steer clear, get out of the way (‫هوـ‬, ‫ا ه‬of) VI
and VIII = V; VIII to be at the side of (‫)هوـ‬,
run side by side with (‫)هوـ‬, run alongside of
(‫)هـ‬, skirt, flank (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ ج وب‬janb pl. ‫ ج واب‬junūb, ‫ اج و ب‬ajnāb
side; janba (prep.) beside, next to, near,
at│‫( ج ب اا واج وب‬also ‫ )ج بو ا ج وب‬side by side;
‫( بي اج بي‬janbaihi) inside (it), within; ‫مو ابوي ا‬
‫( ج بيو‬baina janbaihi) what it contains,
comprises, its contents; ‫ علووواج ووب‬aside,
apart; ‫ ا اا ج ب‬pleurisy
‫ ج بووة‬janba pl. janabāt side; region,
area│ ‫ ا وواج ب تو‬in it, within, wide; ‫ضوم ابوي ا‬
‫( ج ب تووو‬ḍammahū) to comprise, hold,
contain s.th.; ‫ ج بو اا غو ووة‬j. al-gurfa the
whole room; ‫ بوي اج بو اا غو وة‬in (the middle
of) the room; ‫ زا واا ج بو‬crammed, chockfull, brimful, filled to overflowing or
bursting
‫ ج بو‬janbī lateral, side (adj.)
‫ ج ووب‬junub in a state of major ritual
impurity; not belonging to the tribe, not a
kinsman│‫اا جوووو راا ج ووووب‬the neighbor not
belonging to the family
‫ ج و ب‬jināb (title of respect) approx.:
Right Honorable; ‫ ج و بكم‬Your Honor; you
(polite form)
‫ ج بوة‬janāba major ritual impurity (Isl.
Law)
‫ ج ب‬junāb (= ‫ ) ا اا ج ب‬pleurisy
‫ ج ووواب‬janūb south;
southward, to the south
‫ج ابووو‬
janūban
‫ ج اب‬janūbī southern│ ‫ اج ابواا ويقي‬South
Africa
‫ ج وب‬jānib pl. ‫ جااظوب‬jawānib2 side; lateral
portion; sidepiece; flank; wing; face
(geom.); part, portion, partial amount;
partial view, section ( ‫ مو‬of a scene, picture
or panorama); quantity, amount; a certain
number ( ‫ مو‬of), a few, some│ ‫ امو اج ظبو‬on
his part; ‫ مو اج ظوبا–امو اج ظوباآ وو‬on the one
hand -- on the other hand; ‫ ا وواج ظبو‬to him,
to his address; at his (its) side, next to him
(it); ‫ بج ظبو‬beside him (it), next to him (it);
‫ ا وواج ظوب‬and ‫ بج ظوب‬side by side with; in
addition to; apart from, aside from; ‫وضوع ا‬
‫ ج ظبو‬to put s.th. aside; ‫ و عو اج ظبو‬to leave
s.th. aside, omit s.th.; ‫ وووواج ظوووب‬in
comparison with, as compared with, as
against; regarding, with regard to; ‫مو ابوي ا‬
‫ جااظبهم‬their hearts; ‫ ج ظب اا فم‬jānibā l-fam the
comers of the mouth;
‫ ج ظوووباموووو‬a
considerable, or certain, degree of; a
considerable amount of, a good deal of;
‫ ج ظباكبيووامو‬a great deal of, a large portion
of; ‫ علوواج ظوباكبيووامو‬he is very …; ‫كو ناعلووا‬
‫( ج ظووباعروويمام و اا كوووم‬karam) to be very
generous; ‫علوووووواج ظوووووباعرووووويمامووووو ااالهميوووووة‬
(ahammīya) of great importance; ‫علوااعروما‬
‫‘ ج ظبام اا وار‬alā a‘ẓami jānibin min alkuṯūra of utmost importance, of greatest
significance; ‫ وواكولاج ظوب‬everywhere, on all
sides; ‫( فو ا و اج ظبو‬ḳafaḍa, jānibahū) to
show o.s. condescending, affable or
gracious to s.o.; to meet s.o. on fair terms;
‫ امو اج ظبو‬amina jānibahū to be safe from
s.o.; ‫( ومااعووهاج ظوبااهأمو م‬u‘irhu) I paid not
the least attention to him; ‫و اايرهوبىاهو بةا‬
‫( ج ظبو‬jānibahū) to fear s.o., be afraid of
s.o.; ‫ مللاا ج ظب‬milk al-j. crown lands; ‫ج ظوبا‬
‫ ا ميوو‬j. al-mīrī (eg.) fisc, treasury; ‫ووي ا‬
‫ ا ج ظوب‬layyin al-j. gentle; docile, tractable,
compliant; ‫ ووي اا ج ظووب‬līn al-j. gentleness;
‫ رحووباا جااظووب‬raḥb al-j. roomy; spacious,
unconfined; ‫ رليووقاا ج ظووب‬friendly, amiable,
gentle; ‫ موهواباا ج ظوب‬feared, dreaded; ‫عزيوزا‬
‫ ا ج ظوب‬powerful, mighty, strong; ‫عوز اا ج ظوب‬
‘izzat al-j. power; ‫ مهيوباا ج ظوب‬mahīb al-j.
dreaded, respected; ‫ واجااظوباا ودار‬about the
house, all over the house; often ‫= وواجااظبو‬
‫ي‬
‫ جووو ظبو‬jānibī lateral,
compounds)
side, by-
(in
‫ اج بو‬ajnabī foreign, alien; (pl. -ūn, ‫اج ظوب‬
ajānib2 foreigner, alien│‫ ا ووبال اادج بيووة‬the
foreign countries, the outside world; ‫ولوةا‬
‫ االج ظب‬firqat al-ajānib the Foreign Legion
‫ ج بيووة‬gannābīya pl. –āt (eg.) curb;
embankment, levee; side channel, lateral
‫ ج ظا‬jāniḥ side, flank, wing
(following a road or railroad tracks);
bypass (of a lock or sluice)
‫ ج ظحوة‬jāniḥa pl. ‫ جوااظا‬jawāniḥ2 rib; pl.
also bosom, heart, soul│ ‫ بوي اجوااظح‬in my
bosom, at heart; ‫( هفوو اجااظحهو‬ṭafarat) she
became happily excited, she trembled with
joy
‫ تج ب‬tajannub avoidance
‫ اجأ ب‬ijtināb avoidance
‫ا مج بووة‬mujanniba flank, wing (of an
army
‫ ج بو‬see ‫اجمبو‬
‫ ج ب و ز‬junbāz, ‫ جمب و ز‬calisthenics; gymnastics;
athletics
‫ ج ب و ز‬junbāzī ( ‫ )جمب و ز‬calisthenic(al),
gymnastic│‫ااال عووووو باا جمب زيوووووة‬
gymnastic
exercises, physical exercises
‫ مج اا‬mujannaḥ winged
‫ ج ود‬II to draft, conscript, enlist, recruit (‫ ه‬s.o.;
mil.); to mobilize (‫ هوـ‬an army, ‫ علوو‬against)
V to be drafted, be conscripted, be
enlisted (for military service)
‫ ج ود‬jund m. and f., pl. ‫ ج وا‬junūd, ‫اج و‬
ajnād soldiers; army│‫ ج ووداا ووالص‬j. alḳalāṣ Salvation Army
‫ ج و اا‬janaḥa a (‫ ج واح‬junūḥ) to incline, be
inclined, tend (‫ ل‬or ‫ ا وو‬to); to lean (‫ ل‬or ‫ا وو‬
to or toward); to turn, go over (‫ ا و‬to), join
(‫ ا ووو‬s.th.), associate o.s. (‫ ا ووو‬with); to
strand (‫ علوو‬or ‫ ا وو‬on a coast; ship); to
diverge, deviate, depart ( ‫ عو‬from); to turn
away ( ‫ عو‬from), break ( ‫ عو‬with) II to
provide (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) with wings, lend wings
(‫ هوـ‬to s.th.) IV to incline, be inclined, tend
(‫ ل‬or ‫ ا و‬to); to lean (‫ ل‬or ‫ ا و‬to or toward);
to turn (‫ ل‬or ‫ ا و‬to s.th.); to strand (ship)
‫ ج ووودى‬jundī pl. ‫ ج وووا‬junūd soldier,
private│‫( اج ووودىااول‬awwal) private first
class (Ir., Syr.); ‫( ج وودىامسووأجد‬mustajidd)
recruits (Ir., Syr.); ‫ ا ج ووود اا مجهوووال‬the
Unknown Soldier
‫ ج ديوة‬jundīya military affairs, the army,
the military; military service
‫ تج يووود‬tajnīd draft, enlistment (mil.)
recruitment; mobilization│ ‫ا أج يووودااالجبووو ر‬
(ijbārī) military conscription
‫ ج ا‬jinḥ side
‫ جو ا‬junḥ, jinḥ darkness gloom│‫وواجو اا‬
‫( ا ليول‬j. il-lail) in the dark of night, under
cover of night; ‫( بوي اج حو اا كووى‬junḥay ilkarā) lit.: between the two halves of
slumber, i.e., at night when everyone’s
asleep
‫ ج حوةا‬junḥa pl. ‫ جو ا‬junaḥ misdemeanor
(jur., less than a felony, ‫ج يوة‬, and more
than an infraction, ‫)م فة‬
‫ ج و ح‬janāḥ pl. ‫ اج حوة‬ajniḥa, ‫ اجو ا‬ajnuḥ
wing (of a bird. of an airplane, of a
building, of an army); side; flank│‫ااظو ا ووا‬
‫ا ج حو‬I am under his protection; ‫علوواج و حا‬
‫ االثيوو‬over the ether, by radio; ‫علوواج و حا‬
‫( ا سوعة‬j. is-sur‘a) with winged haste
‫ تج د‬tajannud military service
‫ مج د‬mujannad recruit
‫ ج دارى‬gindārī standard-bearer, comet (Eg.)
‫ ج دب‬jundub pl. ‫ ج ب‬janādib2 grasshopper
1
‫ اج در‬gandara (eg.) to mangle (‫ هـ‬laundry)
‫ ج وودر‬gandara mangling (of laundry);
press; O rotary press (typ.)
2
‫ اج دارى‬look up alphabetically
‫ ج درمة‬žandarma gendarmery
‫ ج درمو‬žandarmī gendarme
‫ ج د لو‬ganduflī (eg.) oysters 140
1
‫ ج و ح‬junāḥ misdemeanor (jur.); sin│‫االا‬
‫( ج و حاعليو‬junāḥa) it won’t be held against
him if he ... ; it won't do any harm if he …
‫ ج ودل‬jandala to throw to the ground, bring
down, fell (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ ج ودل‬jandal pl. ‫ ج و ل‬janādil2 stone; pl.
‫ ج ل‬cataract, waterfall (eg.)
‫ اج ا‬ajnaḥ2 more inclined (‫ ا و‬to
2
‫ ج اح‬janūḥ inclined (‫ ا و‬s.th.)
‫ ج ووال‬jenərāl, ginrāl (eg.) general (military
rank)
‫ ج وواح‬junūḥ inclination, leaning, bent,
tendency (‫ ا و‬to)
‫ ج دول‬gundūl (eg.) pl. ‫ ج يل‬ganādīl2 gondola
‫ ج وز‬II to say the burial prayers, conduct the
funeral service (‫ ه‬for the deceased; Chr.)
‫ ج و ز‬jināza, janāza pl. -āt ‫ ج و ئز‬janā’iz2
bier; funeral procession
‫ تجو س‬tajannus acquisition of citizenship,
naturalization
‫ ج و ز‬junnāz pl. ‫ ج و ظيز‬janānīz2 requiem,
funeral
rites,
obsequies;
funeral
procession
‫اتجووووووووووووووو ظس‬tajānūs
homogeneity,
homogeneousness; likeness, similarity,
resemblance
‫ ج زبيل‬janzabīl (= ‫ )زظجبيل‬ginger
1
‫ مجوو ظس‬mujānis similar, like, related;
homogeneous
‫ ج زيووو‬janzara (= ‫ )زظجووو‬to be or become
covered with verdigris
‫ مأج س‬mutajannis naturalized
‫ ج زار‬jinzār (=‫ )زظج ر‬verdigris
2
‫ ج زيوو‬jinzīr (= ‫ )زظجيوو‬pl. ‫ ج و زيو‬janāzīr2 chain;
track (of a caterpillar, of a tank, etc.); a
linear measure (= 5 qaṣaba = 17.75 m;
also = 20 m; Eg.)│‫ هو ر اج زيوو‬ṭārat j. track
sprocket, sprocket wheel
‫ مج زر‬mujanzar track-laying (vehicle)
‫ جو س‬II to make alike, make similar (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
assimilate, naturalize (‫ ه‬s.o.); to class,
classify, sort, categorize (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) III to be
akin, be related, similar (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬to), be of the
same kind or nature (‫ ه‬as s.o., ‫ هوـ‬as s.th.),
be like s.o. or s.th. (‫هوـ‬, ‫ )ه‬resemble (‫ ه‬s.o.,
‫ هوـ‬s.th.) V to have o.s. naturalized, acquire
the citizenship (‫ ;)ب‬to be naturalized VI to
be akin, related, of the same kind or
nature, homogeneous
‫ ج و س‬jins pl. ‫ اج و س‬ajnās kind, sort,
variety, species, class, genus; category;
sex (male, female); gender (gram.); race;
nation│‫ااسوماا جو س‬ism al-j. (gram.) generic
noun, collective noun of nonpersonal
things (which form a n. un. in ); ‫ا جو سا‬
‫( ا بشوو‬bašarī) the human race; ‫اب و اج سو‬
abnā’ jinsinā our fellow tribesmen; ‫هوواا‬
‫ مصوو اا جو س‬he is Egyptian by nationality;
‫ ا جو ساا ل يوف‬the fair sex; ‫ ا جو ساا شو‬the
strong sex
‫ا ج س‬jinsī generic; sexual; racial
‫ا الج س‬lā-jinsī asexual, sexless
‫ا ج سووووية‬jinsīya
citizenship
pl.
-āt
nationality,
‫ تج ويس‬tajnīs naturalization; paronomasia
(rhet.)
‫ ج ووو س‬jinās (rhet.) assonance, pun,
paronomasia
‫ مج ظسووة‬mujānasa relatedness, kinship,
affinity; similarity, likeness, resemblance
‫ مأجو ظس‬mutajānis akin, related, of the
same kind or nature, homogeneous
‫( ج ي ظ‬Lat. Gentiana) gentian (eg.)
1
‫اج وف‬VI to deviate ( ‫ عو‬from); to incline, be
inclined (‫ ا و‬or ‫ ل‬to s.th.)
2
‫ اج يف‬look up alphabetically
‫ ج ف ص‬junfāṣ, ‫ ج فيص‬junfaiṣ sackcloth, sacking
‫ ج ل‬junk pl. ‫ ج ا‬junūk harp
‫ ج اا‬janowā Genoa (seaport in NW Italy)
‫ ج وو‬janā i (jany) to pick, gather, harvest, reap
(‫ هوـ‬s.th., also the fruits of one’s work); to
pocket, rake in, collect (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to derive
(‫ هوـ‬profit, ‫ مو‬from); to secure, realize (‫هوـ‬
profits, an advantage); to incur (‫ هوـ‬evil,
harm, punishment); to cause, 141 provoke,
bring about (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); -- (‫ ج يوة‬jināya) to
commit a crime, an outrage (‫ علوو‬on); to
offend, sin (‫ علووو‬against); to commit,
perpetrate (‫ج يوة‬, ‫ ظبو‬danban a crime, an
offense; ‫علووو‬, less frequently ‫ا ووو‬, on or
against); to inflict (‫ هوـ‬some evil, ‫ علوو‬on
s.o.); to harm (‫ علووو‬s.o., s.th.) V to
incriminate, accuse, charge with a crime
(‫ علوو‬s.o.), lay the blame (‫ علووو‬on s.o.),
blame (‫ علوو‬s.o.); to act meanly VIII to
gather, harvest (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ ج وو‬jany harvest; reaping (fig.); -- janan
(coll.) fruits
‫ ج ي وة‬jināya pl. -āt perpetration of a
crime; felony (jur.; in the strictly legal
sense, more than a misdemeanor, ‫ج حووة‬,
and an infraction, ‫)م فوة‬, capital offense │
‫ محكموووةاا ج يووو‬maḥkamat al-j. criminal
court
‫ ج و ئ‬jinā’ī criminal│ law ‫محكموةاج ئيوة‬
(maḥkama) criminal court; ‫ا ق و ظاناا ج و ئ‬
criminal law, penal law
‫ مج و‬majnan pl. ‫ مجو ن‬majānin that which
is picked or harvested, a crop; source of
profit or advantage
‫ تج و‬tajannin incrimination, accusation
(‫ علوو‬of s.o.); mean way of acting, low,
underhand dealings
‫ جو ن‬jānin pl. ‫ ج و‬junāh perpetrator (of a
delict); delinquent, criminal
‫ مج وواعليو‬majnīy ‘alaih, harmed, injured;
aggrieved party; victim of a crime
‫( ج يف‬Fr. Geneve) žənēf Geneva
‫( ج يو‬Engl. guinea) ginēh, also gunaih pl. –āt
pound (eg.)│‫ ج ي و ااظجليووز اياسووأو ي ة‬pound
sterling, English pound;
‫ج يوووو امصووووو‬
Egyptian pound (abbreviation: ‫) ام‬
‫ جهة‬see ‫اوج‬
‫ جهبول‬jahbad pl. ‫ جه بول‬jahābida man endowed
with a critical mind; great scholar; bright,
brilliant, intelligent
‫ جهود‬jahada a (jahd) to endeavor, strive, labor,
take pains, put o.s. out; to over-work,
overtax, fatigue, exhaust (‫ ه‬s.o.) III to
endeavor, strive; to fight ( ‫ وواسوبيلاا شو‬for
s.th.); t.o wage holy war against the
infidels IV to strain, exert (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to tire,
wear out, fatigue (‫ ه‬s.o.), give trouble (‫ا ه‬
to)│‫( اجهوداظفسو ا وو‬nafsahū) to go to great
lengths, go out of one’s way ( ‫ و‬for or in
s.th.); ‫( اجهودا كووها وو‬fikrahū) to concentrate
on, put one's mind to, apply o.s. t.o VIII to
put o.s. out (‫ وو‬for s.th.), work hard; (Isl.
Law) to formulate an independent
judgment in a legal or theological question
(based on the application of the 4 uṣūl; as
opposed to taqlid, q.v.)
much as possible; ‫ جهوداه لأو‬j. ṭāqatihī as
much as he can, to the limit of his
abilities; ‫ جهداامك ظو‬juhda imkānihī do.; ‫جهودا‬
‫ مو‬juhda mā as much as. to the limits of
what ... ; ‫ جهد‬juhdī as far as I can
‫ جهيد‬jahīd see ‫ جهد‬jahd
‫ جهو‬jihād fight, battle; jihad, holy war
(against the infidels, as a religious duty)
‫ جه‬jihādī fighting, military
‫ امج هد‬mujāhada fight, battle
‫ اجهوووو‬ijhād exertion;
overstrain(ing) 142
overexertion,
‫ اجأهو‬ijtihād effort, exertion, endeavor,
pains, trouble; application, industry,
diligence;
(Isl.
Law)
independent
judgment in a legal or theological
queetion, based on the interpretation and
application of the 4 uṣūl, as opposed to
taqlīd, q.v.; individual judgment
‫ مجهوا‬majhūd pl. -āt endeavor, effort,
exertion, pains, trouble, work; O voltage,
tension (el.)│ ‫ بووللامجها اتو‬to make every
effort, go to greatest lengths
‫ مج هود‬mujāhid pl. -ūn fighter, freedom
fighter; warrior; sergeant (Eg. 1939)
‫ مجهود‬mujhid strenuous, exacting, trying,
grueling;
-mujhad
overworked,
exhausted
‫ مجأهود‬mujtahid diligent, industrious; (pl.
-ūn) mujtahid, a legist formulating
independcnt decisions in legal or
theological matters, based on the
interpretation and application of the four
uṣūl, as oppoeed to muqallid, q.v.
‫ جهود‬jahd pl. ‫ جهوا‬juḥūd strain; exertion;
endeavor, attempt, effort; trouble, pains
(‫ وو‬on behalf or for the sake of s.th.); O
voltage, tension (el.)│‫ جهووداجهووده‬jahada
jahdahū, also ‫ عمولايحو ولةاجهوده‬to do (try)
one’s utmost, do (try) all in one’s power,
make every conceivable effort; ‫بجهووداجهيود‬
bi-jahdin jahīdin with great difficulty, by
dint of atrenuous efforts; ‫ بعوداجهوداجهيود‬after
a lot of trouble O ‫‘( جهووداعو ل‬ālin) high
tension (el.)
‫ جهو‬jahara a (jahr, ‫ جه ر‬jihār) to be brought to
light, come out, show, appear; -- to
declare publicly, announce (‫ هوـ‬or ‫ ب‬s.th.);
to avow in public, proclaim (‫ ب‬s.th.); to
raise (‫ا هووـ‬the voice); -- jahura u ( ‫جهو ر‬
jahāra) to be loud, be clearly audible
(voice) III to declare or say openly, voice,
utter, express frankly (‫ ب‬s.th.)
‫ جهود‬juhd strain, exertion; juhda (used
prepositionally) to the limit of ... │‫جهوودا‬
‫ ا لوة‬juhda ṭ-ṭāqa as far as possible, as
‫ جهوو‬jahratan openly, overtly, frankly,
publicly
‫ جهووو‬jahr and ‫ جه و ر‬jihār publicness,
publicity, notoriety; ‫ جهووا‬jahran and ‫جهو را‬
jihāran publicly, in public
‫ جهوووو‬jahrī notorious,
public
well-known,
‫ جهيو‬jahīr loud (voice, shout)
‫ اجهو‬ajhar2 day-blind
‫ اجهوووو‬ajhar2 (elative) louder, more
audible
‫ جمهو‬jahwarī loud (voice)
‫ مجهو‬mijhar loud-voiced
‫ مجهووووو‬mijhar
microsoope
pl.
‫مجوووو هو‬
majāhir2
‫ مجهوى‬mijharī microscopic(al)
‫مجهوووووو ر‬
mijhār
loudspeaker
loud-voiced;
O
‫ مجو هو‬mujāhara franknees, candor (of
one’s words)
‫ جهووز‬jahaza a to finish off (‫ علووو‬a
wounded man), deliver the coup de grace
to (‫ )علو‬II to make ready, prepare (‫ هـ‬s.th.);
to arrange (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to provide, supply (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to equip, fit out, furnish, supply,
provide (‫ ه ب‬or ‫ هوـ‬s.th. or s.o. with) IV to
finish off (‫ علوو‬a wounded man), deliver
the coup de grace to (‫ ;)علوو‬to finish, ruin
‫ يعلوو‬s.o.) V to he equipped, furnished,
supplied, provided; to equip o.s.; to
prepare o.s., get ready; to be ready, be
prepared
‫ جهو ز‬jahāz (alas pronounced jihāz) pl. āt, ‫ اجهووز‬ajhiza equipment, appliances,
outfit, gear, rig; trousseau; contrivance,
gadget; implement, appliance, utensil;
installation, apparatus (techn.); system,
apparatus (anat.) │ ‫( جهو زاالسولك‬lā-silkī)
wirelees set, radio; ‫ جهووو زارا يووواا‬radio
(receiving set); O ‫( جه زامسوأقبلا‬mustaqbil),
O ‫جه و زااالسووأقب ل‬, O ‫ جه و زااال أق و ه‬receiver,
receiving set (radio); ‫(جهو زامولياا‬muḍī‘), O
‫ جهو زااالرسو لا‬j. al-irsāl transmitter (radio);
‫ جه زاتليفزياظ ا‬television set; ‫ جه زاا حفوو‬j. alḥafr drilling rig; oil derrick; ‫جه و زا ور‬
(daurī) circulatory system (anat.); ‫جه و زا‬
‫ أسجيلااالهأوزازا ااالرضوية‬or ‫جهو زاليو ساا هوزا ا‬
‫( االرضوية‬hazzāt, arḍīya)seismograph; ‫جهو زا‬
‫سووووووو‬
(sirrī)
secret
organization,
underground organization;
‫جهووو زااالسوووأم‬
sound locator; ‫‘( ا جه و زاا عصووب‬aṣabī) the
nervous system; ‫ جه و زاا ه ووم‬j. al-haḍm
digestive apparatus
‫ تجهيوووز‬tajhīz equipment, furnishment;
preparation; pl. ‫ تجهيووزا‬equipment, gear
144
‫ تجهيوز‬tajhīzī preparatory; (of a school)
preparing for college
‫ جو هز‬jāhiz ready, prepared; readymade;
equipped │ ‫ ملباسو ( ج هز‬or) ‫( ا بسوة‬albisa)
ready-made clothes
‫ مجهوووز‬mujahhaz equipped, provided,
furnished, supplied (‫ ب‬with); armed (‫ب‬
with guns; of a ship, tank, etc.)
‫ جهوش‬IV to sob, break into sobs│ ‫اجهوشاب بكو‬
(bukā’) to be on the verge of tears,
struggle with tears; to break into tears
‫ا جهشوة‬jahša (n. vic.) pl. -āt sob; outburst
of tears
‫ اجه ش‬ijhāš outburst of tears
‫ جهو‬IV to bear young ones, litter; to have a
miscarriage (woman)│
‫اجه وووووتاظفسوووووه‬
(nafsahā) she induced an abortion
‫ جه‬jihḍ miscarried fetus
‫ جهي‬jahīḍ miscarried fetus
‫ اجهووو‬ijhāḍ miscarriage,
induced abortion
abortion;
‫ جهول‬jahila a (jahl, ‫ جه وة‬jahāla) to be ignorant;
not to know (‫ ب‬or ‫ هـ‬s.th., how to do s.th.);
to be irrational, foolish; to behave
foolishly (‫ علوو‬toward) VI to ignore (‫هووـ‬
s.th.); to refuse to have anything to do (‫هوـ‬
with), shut one’s eyes (‫ هوـ‬to), disregard (‫هوـ‬
a fact); to affect ignorance, pretend to
know nothing X to consider ignorant or
stupid (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ جهوول‬jahl and ‫ جه وة‬jahāla ignorance;
folly, foolishness, stupidity│ ‫ عو اجهول‬out
of ignorance
‫ جهال‬jahūl ignorant; foolish, stupid
‫ مجهووول‬majhal pl. ‫مج هووول‬
majāhil2
unknown region, unexplored territory │
‫ مج هلاا ويقي‬unknown Africa
‫ تجهيل‬tajhīl stultification
‫ تج هل‬tajāhul ignoring, disregard(ing)
‫ ج هول‬jāhil pl. ‫ جهلوة‬jahala, ‫ جهول‬juhhal,
‫ جهو ل‬juhhāl, ‫ جهوال‬juhalā’ not knowing (‫ب‬
s.th., how to do s.th.); ignorant,
uneducated, illiterate; foolish; fool
‫ جو هلو‬jāhilī pagan, of or pertaining to
pre-Islamic times
‫ ج هليوة‬jāhilīya state of ignorance; preIslamic paganism, pre-Islamic times
‫ مجهوووال‬majhūl unknown; anonymous
(also ‫ مجهووالااالسووم‬m. al-ism); pl. ‫مج هيوول‬
majāhīl2 unknown things│‫اصوويغةاا مجهووال‬
ṣīgat al-m. passive (gram.)
‫ مجها يووووة‬majhūlīya
unknown nature
being
unknown,
‫ جهوم‬jahuma u (‫ جه موة‬jahāma, ‫ جهاموة‬juhūma) to
frown, glower V to frown, scowl, glower;
to regard with displeasure (‫هـ‬, ‫ ه‬or ‫ ل‬s.o. or
s.th.), frown (‫ هوـ‬or ‫ ل‬on); to eye gloomily,
coolly, grimiy (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬or ‫ ل‬s.o., s.th.); to
become sullen, gloomy (face)
‫ جهوم‬jahm sullen, glum, morose, gloomy
(face)
‫ جه م‬jahām clouds
‫ جه موة‬jahāma and ‫ جهاموة‬juhūma grim
look, sullen expression; gloominoss;
brooding silence
‫ جه م‬jahannam2 (f.) hell
‫ جه م‬jahannamī hellish, infernal
‫ جووا‬jaww pl. ‫ اجوواا‬ajwā’, ‫ جوواا‬jiwā’ (pl.
frequently with singnlar meaning) air;
atmosphere (also fig.); sky; weather;
sphere, milieu, environment; ‫ جواا‬jawwan
by air; by telegraph, telegraphically│‫بويودا‬
‫ ا جوا‬air mail; ‫ هبقو اا جوا‬ṭabaqāt al-j. air
layers; ‫( وووواجووواامم وووو‬mumṭir) in rainy
weather
‫ جووواى‬jawwī air, aerial, aero- (in
compounds);
airy,
atmospheric(al);
weather
(used
attributively),
meteorologic(al)│ ‫ا ووووووغطاا جووووووا‬
(ḍagṯ)
atmospheric pressure; ‫( هبقو اجايوة‬ṭabaqāt)
air layers; ‫( اسو الاجوا‬usṭūl) air fleet; ‫غو ر ا‬
‫ جايوة‬air raid; ‫( ا قواا اا جايوة‬quwāt) air force;
‫ ا مالحووةاا جايووة‬aviation; ‫( مي و اجايووة‬mīnā’)
airport;
‫ارصووووو اجايوووووة‬
meteorological
observations; ‫( حجواجا‬ḥajar) meteorite
‫( جواا‬colloq.) jawwā (pronounced gūwa
in Eg.) in it, within; inside
‫ جووااظو‬jawwānī, juwwānī inner, inside,
interior
‫ جاا ة‬guwāfa (eg.) guava (fruit); guavshrub
‫( جاال‬eg.) guwāl pl. -āt sack
‫( جااظأ‬It. guanti; eg.) gloves
1
‫( جاب‬Fr. jupe) skirt
2
‫ جو ب يجوابة‬jāba u (jaub) to travel, wander (‫هوـ‬
through), traverse, roam, tour, explore (‫هوـ‬
s.th., e.g., foreign lands); to pierce,
penetrate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), cut through (‫ ;)هوـ‬to
wander, cruise (‫ هوـ‬about a place) III to
answer (‫ ه‬s.‫خ‬., ‫ علوو‬s.th.), reply, respond (‫ه‬
to s.o., ‫ علوو‬to s.th.); to comply (‫هوـا‬with),
accede (‫ هوـ‬to) IV to answer (‫ ه‬or ‫ ا وو‬s.o.,
‫ عو‬or ‫ علوو‬a question), reply, respond (‫ ه‬or
‫ ا وو‬to s.o., ‫ علوو‬to s.th.); to comply (‫ هوـ‬with
a request), accede, defer (‫ هوـ‬to); to hear (‫ه‬
s.o.), accede to the request or wishes of
(‫ ;)ه‬to fulfill, grant (‫ هوـ‬a wish); to consent,
assent, agree (‫ ا ووو‬to); to concur (‫ا ووو‬
in)│ ‫ اجو باا وواهلبو‬ṯalabihi) to comply with
s.o.’s request VI to reply to one another;
to echo (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ب‬from); to ring out (voices);
to
be
(mutually)
corresponding,
harmonize; to be favorahle, propitious (‫موا‬
to s.o.; situation) VIl to scatter, break up,
pass over (clauds); to be dispelled,
disappear, vanish (worries); to fade
(darkness) X ‫ اسوأج ب‬to hear, answer (‫ هوـ‬a
prayer), grant (‫ هوـ‬a request); to comply
with the request of (‫)ل‬, accede or defer to
the wiohes of (‫ ;)ل‬to react (‫ ل‬to); to
respond (‫ ل‬to, ‫ ب‬with), listen, pay
attention (‫ ل‬to), show interest (‫ ل‬in); to
meet, answer (‫ ل ب‬s.o. with), reply (‫ ل ب‬to
s.o. with or hy doing s.th.); to resound,
reverberate, re-echo; to resonate (‫ ل‬or ‫ا وو‬
to s.th.), be in resonance with (phys.); -‫ اسوأجاب‬istajwaba to interrogate, examine,
question (‫ ه‬s.o.); to hear (‫ ه‬the defendant or
witn...); to interpellate (‫ ه‬s.o.; in
parliament)
‫ جواب‬jaub travening, touring, exploration
(of
foreign
countries);
piercing,
penetration
‫ جابوة‬jauba pl. -āt, ‫ جواب‬juwab opening,
gap; hole, pit
‫ جووااب‬jawāb pl. ‫ اجاب وة‬ajwiba answer,
reply; octave (to a given tone; mus.); (eg.;
pronounced gawāb pl. -āt) letter,
message│‫ جوووااباا شووووه‬j. aš-šarṭ, main
clause (conclusion) of a conditional
sentence, apodosis
‫جوووووواابو‬
jawābī
attributively)
answering
(used
‫ جوووااب‬jawwāb traverser (of foreign
countries), traveler, explorer
‫ اج بوووة‬ijāba answer(ing), reply(ing),
response,
respondence;
compliance;
fulfillment, granting (of a request);
accession, consent, assent│‫اج بووووةا لووووبكم‬
ijābatan li-ṭalabikum, in compliance with
your request; in answer to your request
‫ تجو وب‬tajāwub agreement, conformity;
harmony
‫ اسوأج بة‬istijāba hearing, answering (of a
prayer); granting, fulfillment (of a
request); resonance; consonance (phys.)│‫ا‬
‫ اسوأج بةال‬istijābatan li in compliance with,
in answer to, in deference to
‫ اسووأجااب‬istijwāb pl. -āt interrogation,
questioning;
hearing;
interview;
interpellation (in parliament)
‫ مأج وب‬mutajāwib harmonious
‫ مسووأجيب‬mustajīb hearing, answering,
granting;
reverberant,
resonant,
resonating;
responsive,
susceptible,
impressible 145
‫( جا‬Engl.) jūt jute
‫ جو حايجواحة‬jāḥa u and IV to annihilate, destroy,
ruin; to flood, inundate (‫ هوـ‬the land) VIII
do.; to carry away, sweep away (‫ ه‬s.o.,
s.th.; storm); to put down, subdue, quell
(‫ هـ‬s.th., e.g., a riot)
‫ اج حوووة‬destruction, annihilation; crop
damage; crop failure, bad harvest
‫ اجأي و ح‬ijtiyāḥ destruction, annihilation;
subdual, suppression
‫ اجوووو ئا‬jā’iḥ
disastrous
crushing,
devastating;
2
‫ ج ئحوة‬jā’iḥa pl. ‫ جواائا‬jawā’iḥ calamity,
disaster, ruin; epldemic; crop damage
‫ جاخ‬jūḳ pl. ‫ اجااخ‬ajwāḳ broadcloth
‫ جو ايجوا ة‬jāda u ( ‫ جوا‬jūda) to be or become
good, become better, improve; -- (jūd) to
grant generously (‫ ب‬s.th.), be so generous
as to do s.th. (‫ ب‬with verbal noun); to be
liberal, openhanded (‫ ب‬with s.th., ‫علووو‬
toward s.o.), bestow liberally (‫ا ب‬s.th., ‫علوو‬
upon s.o.), grant, give lavishly (‫ ب‬of s.th.,
‫ علوو‬to s.o.), shower (‫ علوو ب‬s.o. with); to
donate (‫ ب‬a sum of money, etc.) │ ‫جو اب فسو‬
to sacrifice o.s.; to give up the ghost; ‫ج ا‬
‫‘( عي ووو هاب ووودماا‬aināhu bi-d-dam‘) tears
welled from his eyes; ‫( جو اا سوم ا‬heavens
granted rain) it rained II to do well (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to make better, improve, better,
ameliorate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to recite (the Koran;
cf. ‫ )تجايود‬IV to do well, do excellently (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to master (‫ هووـ‬s.th.), be skilled,
proficient (‫ هوـ‬in), be an expert (‫ هوـ‬at), be
conversant (‫ا هووـ‬with an art or field of
knowledge); to accomplish or say good,
excellent thing; to achieve excellent
results; to be excellent, outstanding,
distinguish o.s. (e.g., as a poet) │‫اجو ا غوةا‬
(lugatan) to master language; ‫اجو اا عوزاا‬
‫‘( علوواا بيو ظاا‬azfa) to play the piano well X
to think (‫ هووـ‬s.th.) good or excellent,
approve of (‫ ;)هووـ‬to consider (‫ هووـ‬s.th.)
suitable for or appropriate to (‫)ل‬
‫ جوووا‬jūd openhandedness,
generosity
liberality,
‫ جا‬jaud heavy rains
‫ ج‬see under 2‫جد‬
‫ جا‬jūda goodness, excellence
‫ جيود‬jayyid pl. ‫ جيو‬jiyād good, perfect,
faultless; outstanding, excellent, first-rate;
good (as an examination grade); ‫جيوودا‬
jayyidan well, excellently; thoroughly │‫ا‬
‫( جي وداجوودا‬jidda) very good (also as an
examination grade)
‫ اجا‬ajwad2 better ,
‫ جواا‬jawād pl. ‫ اجواا‬ajwād, ‫ اجو و‬ajāwid2,
‫ اج ويود‬ajawīd2, ‫ جوا‬jūd openhanded, liberal,
generous, magnanimous; jawād pl. ‫جي و‬
jiyād, ‫ اجي‬ajyād, ‫ اج ويود‬ajāwīd2 race horse,
racer; charger │ ‫ااب ااالجاا‬noble man
‫ تجايود‬tajwīd art of reciting the Koran,
Koran reading (in accordance with
established rule, of pronunciation and
intonation)
‫ مجيد‬mujīd adept, efficient, proficient
‫ جا ار‬jaudār see ‫( ج و ار ا‬alphabetically)
‫ جو رايجوارة‬jāra u (jaur) to deviate, stray ( ‫عو‬
from); to commit an outrage (‫ علو‬on), bear
down (‫ علوووو‬upon), wrong, persecute,
oppress, tyrannize (‫ علوو‬s.o.); to encroach,
make inroads (‫ علوو‬on another’s territory)
III to be the neighbor of s.o. (‫)ه‬, live next
door to (‫ ;)ه‬to be adjacent, be next (‫ هوـ‬to
s.th.), adjoin (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to be in the
immediate vicinity of (‫)هوـ ه‬, be close to (‫ه‬,
‫ا;)هـ‬to border (‫ هوـ‬on) IV to grant asylum or
a sanctuary (‫ ه‬to s.o.); to protect (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫مو‬
from), take (‫ ه‬s.o.) under one’s wing; to
stand by s.o. (‫)ه‬, aid (‫ ه‬s.o.) VI to be
neighbors; to be adjacent; to have a
common border X to seek protection, seek
refuge (‫ ب‬with s.o., ‫ مو‬from s.th.), appeal
for aid (‫ ه‬to s.o., ‫ م‬against s.th.) 146
‫ جوار‬jaur injustice; oppression, tyranny;
outrage
‫ جو ر‬jār pl. ‫ جيووان‬jīrān neighbor; refugee;
protégé, charge
‫ ج ر‬jāra pl. -āt neighboress
‫ جيو‬jīra neighborhood
‫ جار‬jūra pl. ‫ جار‬juwar pit, hole
‫ جارى‬see alphabetically
‫ جووواار‬jiwār neighborhood, proximity;
‫ بجوواار‬in the neighborhood of, in the
vicinity of, near, close to
‫مجوووووو ور‬
proximity
mujāwara
neighborhood,
‫ ج و ئو‬jā’ir pl. ‫ جووار‬jawara, ‫ ج و ر‬jāra
unjust. unfair; tyrannical, despotic; tyrant,
oppressor, despot
‫ مجوو ور‬mujāwir neighboring, adjacent;
near, close by; (pl. -ūn) student (esp. of Al
Azhar University; living in the vicinity of
the Mosque)
‫ ئمجيو‬mujīr protector
‫ مأجوو ور‬mutajāwir having a common
border; adjoining, adjacent, contiguous
‫ جارب‬jaurab pl. ‫ جاارب‬jawārib2 stocking; sock
‫ جارجيووو‬jorjiyā Georgia (republic of the
U.S.S.R.)
1
‫ جووار‬jūrī damask rose (Rosa damascena,
bot.); crimson
2
‫( جار‬Engl.) jūrī jury
1
‫ جو ز يجوازة‬jāza u (‫ جوااز‬jawāz, ‫ مجو ز‬majāz) to
pass, come, travel (‫ هوـ‬through); to pass (‫هوـ‬
an examination, a test); to be allowed,
permitted, permissible; to be possible,
conceivable; to work, succeed ( ‫ عليو‬with
s.o.; deceit, artifice) │‫( ج ز اعلي اا حيلوة‬ḥīla)
the trick worked with him, he fell for the
trick II to permit, allow (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
approve (‫ هوووـ‬of), sanction, warrant,
authorize (‫ هـ‬s.th.) III to pass (‫ هـ‬s.th. or by
s.th.), go or walk past s.th. (‫ ;)هوـ‬to go
beyond s.th. (‫)هوـ‬, overstep, cross, leave
behind (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), also, e.g., ‫جو وزاا ثالثوي امو ا‬
‫‘( ا عموو‬umr) he is past thirty; to exceed,
surpass (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to pass over s.th. ( ‫)عو‬,
disregard ( ‫ عو‬s.th.), pay no attention ( ‫عو‬
to); to let ( ‫ عو‬s.th.) go unpunished; to give
up, forgo, relinquish ( ‫ ع و‬s.th.) IV to
traverse, cross (‫ هوـ‬s.th., ‫ ا وو‬on the way to);
to permit, allow (‫ ل هووـ‬to s.o. s.th.); to
authorize (‫ ل هـ‬s.o. to do s.th., also ‫ ;)ه هوـ‬to
license (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to approve, confirm,
endorse (‫ هووـ‬a decision, a judgment); to
approve (‫ هـ‬of s.th.), sanction (‫ هـ‬s.th.) V to
tolerate, suffer, bear VI to pass (‫ هوـ‬s.th. or
by s.th.), go or walk past s.th. (‫ ;)هوـ‬to go
beyond s.th. (‫)هوـ‬, overstep, cross, leave
behind (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to exceed, surpass (‫هووـ‬
s.th., also ‫ ;)علوو‬to go too far, overstep all
bounds, encroach, make inroads; to pass
over s.th. ( ‫)عو‬, disregard ( ‫ عو‬s.th.) pay no
attention ( ‫ ع و‬to); to give up, forgo,
re1inquish (A s.th.); to refrain from) VIII
to pass, run, go (‫ هوـ‬through), cut across
(‫ ;)هووـ‬to cross (‫ هووـ‬a border, a street, a
mountain range); to traverse (‫ هوـ‬a country
or sea); to cover (‫ هـ‬a distance); to pass (‫هوـ‬
through the mind; said of ideas, thoughts);
to go (‫ هوـ‬through hard times or a crisis); to
surmount, overcome (‫ هووـ‬a crisis) X to
deem permissible (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.); to ask
permission
‫ جواز‬jauz pl. ‫ اجوااز‬ajwāz heart, center (of
a desert, of a large area, etc.) │‫ا وووا‬
‫اجوااز‬amid, in the middle of, in; ‫ووااجواازا‬
‫( ا ف‬faḍā’) in space
‫ جوااز‬jawāz permissibility, admissibility;
lawfulness, legality; permission, (official)
permit, license, authorization; possibility,
conceivability;
passing
(of
an
examination) │‫ اجواازاا سوفو‬j. as-safar (pl. āt) (traveling) passport 147
‫ مجو ز‬majāz crossing; passage; corridor
(pol.-georgr.);
metaphor,
figurative
expression (rhet.) │‫ مجو زا‬majāzanl, ‫علوووا‬
‫ سبيلاا مج ز‬figuratively, metaphorically
‫ مج زى‬majāzī figurative, metaphorical
‫ اجووووو ز‬ijāza pl. -āt permission,
authorization; approval; license; = Fr.
licence ‫ا‬as an academic degree; permit;
vacation, leave (of absence) │‫ااجو ز اا حصوو‬
i. al-ḥaṣr grant of patent, issue of letters
patent; patent; ‫( اجووو ز ال صووولية‬qunṣulīya)
exequatur of a consul (dipl.); ‫اجو ز اموضوية‬
(maraḍīya) sick leave; ‫االجوو زا اا مدرسوووية‬
(madrasīya) school vacation; ‫غ ئوباب الجو ز‬
on leave, on vacation
‫ جاسوق‬jausaq pl. ‫ جااسوق‬jawāsiq2 palace; manor,
villa
‫ مجوو وز‬mujāwaza and ‫ تجوو وز‬tajāwuz
crossing;
exceeding;
overdraft,
overdrawing (of an account); disregard
( ‫ ع‬for); relinquishment ( ‫ ع‬of s.th.)
‫ جاعو ن‬jau‘ān2, f. ‫ جواعو‬jau‘ā’, pl.
jiyā‘ hungry, starved, famished
‫ اجأيوووو ز‬ijtiyāz traversing, crossing;
passage; transit; covering (of a distance);
passing (of an examination); surmounting
(of difficulties)
‫ ج و ئا‬jā’i‘ pl. ‫ جي و‬jiyā‘, ‫ جووا‬juwwa‘
hungry, starved, famished
‫ جووو ئز‬jā’iz permitted, lawful, legal;
conceivable, thinkable
‫ جاي وة‬gawīṭa pl. ‫ جواائط‬gawā’iṭ2 (eg.) dowel,
peg
‫ جو ايجوا ة‬jā‘a u to be hungry; to starve II to
cause (‫ ه‬s.o.) to starve, starve out, famish
(‫ ه‬s.o.) IV do.
‫ جوا‬jū‘ hunger, starvation │ ‫ مو اجاعو‬to
starve to death
‫ مج عة‬majā‘a pl. -āt famine
‫ تجايا‬tajwī‘ starving out
‫ اج عة‬ijā‘a starving out
‫ جاا‬II to make hollow, hollow out (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ جواا‬jauf pl. ‫ اجوااا‬ajwāf hollow, cavity;
depression; interior, inside, center, heart;
belly, abdomen; north (magr.) │‫و اجوواا‬
inside, in the interior of, in the middle of;
‫( اجاااا ليل‬j. il-lail) or ‫( جاااا ليل‬jaufa) in
the middle of the night
‫ جوو ئز‬jā’iza pl. ‫ جوواائز‬jawā’iz2 prize,
reward, premium │‫( جو ئز ا راسوية‬dirāsīya)
stipend, scholarship
‫ مجو ز‬mujāz licensed; licentiate (as an
academic title, = Fr. licencié; e.g., ‫مجو زا ووا‬
‫ ا علام‬licencié ès sciences)
2
‫ جوووا‬jaufī inner, interior, inside;
subterranean, underground, subsurface (of
geological strata); northern (magr.) │‫اميو ها‬
‫جا ية‬ground water 148
□‫ زو = اجازا‬II to give in marriage
□‫ اجاز‬jauz pl. ‫ اجااز‬ajwāz = ‫ زو‬couple
□‫( امجوواز‬syr.; pronounced məžwez, 
‫ مووزو‬muzwaj) wind instrument with a
double pipe, corresponding to the
Egyptian zummāra)
3
4
1
‫ اجواا‬ajwaf2, f. ‫ جا و‬jaufā’, pl. ‫ جواا‬jūf
hollow; empty; vain, futile, inane,
pointless, senseless
‫ تجايوف‬tajwīf pl. ‫ تجو واا‬tajāwīf2, hollow,
cavity
‫ ا جازا‬al-jauzā’ Gemini (astron.)
‫ اجواز‬jauz (coll.; n. un. pl. -āt) walnut │‫جوازا‬
‫ ا يوب‬j. aṭ-ṭīb nutmeg; ‫ جوازاا قو‬j. al-qai’
nux vomioa; ‫ جوازاا ه ود‬j. al-hind, ‫جوازاه ود‬
(hindī) coconut; ‫ جوازاا قوز‬j. alqazz cocoon,
chrysalis of the silkworm
‫ مجاا‬mujawwaf hollowed out, hollow
‫ جوا‬jauq pl. ‫ اجواا‬ajwāq and ‫ جالوة‬jauqa
pl. -āt troop, group; theatrical troupe,
operatic company; choir (mus.); orchestra,
band (also ‫ اموديواا جوا │ )جالوةاماسويقية‬mudīr
al-j. conductor, bandleader, choir leader;
‫ جالةاا شوا‬j. aš-šaraf Legion of Honor
‫ جاز‬gōza (eg.) narghile
‫ جواز‬jauzī nut (used attributively and in
compounds); nut-brown, hazel
5
‫ ج ز‬look up alphabetically
‫ جازل‬jauzal pl. ‫ جاازل‬jawāzil2 young pigeon
(‫ جو س )جواس‬jāsa u to peer around, pry around,
look around (‫ ووالل‬kilāla in); to search,
investigate, explore (‫ هووـ‬s.th.) VIII to
search, investigate, explore (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫جيو‬
1
‫ ج لايجالة‬jāla u (jaul, ‫ جا وة‬jaula, ‫ تجواال‬tajwāl,
‫ جوواالن‬jawalān) to roam, rove, wander
about; to move freely, be at home ( ‫ و‬in a
field of learning), occupy o.s. ( ‫ و‬with); to
be circulated, go the rounds; to pass ( , ‫ب‬
through the mind)│ ‫ جو لابوأسو‬to preoccupy
s.o., engross s.o.’s attention; ‫مو ايجووالا و ا‬
‫ هوهايب و هوهة‬what he is preoccupied with,
what is on his mind; ‫ج و لاا وودماا و اعي ي و‬
(dam‘, ‘ainaihi) his eyes swam in tears;
‫( ج وتايودها و‬yaduhū) he laid his hands on,
he committed defalcations of IV to
circulate, pass around (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) │ ‫اجو لاا ووأ‬
(ra’ya) to weigh s.th. thoroughly, ponder
s.th.; ‫( اجو لاا روو‬naẓara) to let one’s eyes
wander about; to look around V to roam,
rove, wander about, move around; to
patrol, go the rounds; to cruise; to tour,
travel from place to place, travel about
‫ جا وة‬jaula pl. -āt circuit, round; patrol;
excursion, outing; tour; (round) trip;
voyage, run (of a steamer); (round-trip)
flight (of an airplane); round (in sports)
‫ جوووواال‬jawwāl wandering, migrant,
itinerant, roving; cruising; traveling;
ambulant; traveler, tourist; see also
alphabetically │‫اراماجواال‬rāmin jawwāl pl.
‫ رمو اجاا ووة‬rumāh jawwāla rifleman (mil.;
Syr.)
‫ مأجووال‬mutajawwil wandering, migrant,
roaming, roving, itinerant; ambulant;
traveling; traveler │‫ وكيوولامأجووال‬traveling
salesman; ‫( بيووو امأجوووال‬bayyā‘) peddler,
hawker; ‫( لسووويسامأجوووال‬qissīs) itinerant
preacher
2
‫ جا ف‬golf golf (eg.)
‫ ج م‬look up alphabetically
‫ جان‬jūn pl ‫ اجاان‬ajwān gulf, inlet, bay
‫جاظلوة‬, ‫جواظال‬, ‫( جاظيلوة‬It. gonnella)gonella pl. -āt
(woman’s) skirt (eg.) 149
‫ ج ه‬look up alphabetically
‫ جاهو‬II tajauhara to become substance
‫ جواهو‬jauhar pl. ‫ جوااهو‬jawāhir2 intrinsic,
essential nature,
essence;
content,
substance (as opposed to form; philos.);
matter, substance; atom; jewel, gem; pl.
jewelry │‫( ا زيوفاوا جواهو‬zaif) the spurious
and the genuine
‫ جاا وة‬jawwāla one given to roaming or
traveling;
wanderer,
wayfarer;
O
motorcycle; cruiser
‫ جاهو‬jauhara jewel, gem
‫ جووواهو‬jauharī substantial; intrinsic,
essential, inherent; fundamental, main,
chief, principal; material; jeweler
‫ تجووواال‬tajwāl migration, wandering,
roving, traveling; nomadic life, nomadism
‫جووواالنا‬jawalān migration, wandering,
roving, traveling; nomadic life, nomadism
│‫ اجووواالناا يووود‬j. al-yad embezzlement,
defalcation
‫ مجو ل‬majāl pl. -āt room, space (‫ ل‬for
s.th.); field, domain, sphere; scope, extent;
reach; range; elbowroom, free scope; play,
clearance; field (magn.)│‫مو اتووو امجو الا لشوول‬
(šakk) to admit of no doubt; ‫الامجو لا ل عو ا‬
‫( يو‬majālan, ṭa‘n) (it is) incontestable; ‫و ا‬
‫ هلااا مج ل‬in this connection; ‫و اا مجو لاام مو ا‬
‫( سويح‬amāmahū) to give s.o. a free hand,
wide scope of action; ‫( مجو لاحيوا‬ḥayawī)
lebensraum; ‫ مجو لاا عمول‬m. al-‘amal field of
activity;
‫مجوووووو لامغ يسوووووو‬
(magnaṭīsī)
magnetic field; ‫ شود اا مجو ل‬šiddat al-m. field
intensity (magn.)
‫ تجوووووال‬tajawwul roaming, roving,
wandering, migration; going out, moving
about; patrol, round; (round) trip, tour;
traveling │‫ ام ااا أجال‬man‘ at-t. curfew
‫ بووو ئااجووو ول‬bā’i‘ jāwil pl. ‫ب عوووةاجووو ئلان‬
peddler, hawker
‫ جاال‬look up alphabetically
‫ جاهوج‬jauharjī jeweler
‫ مجووواهوا‬mugauharāt (eg.) jewelry,
trinkets; jewels, gems
1
‫ جوواى‬jawiya a (jawan) to be passionately
stirred by love or grief
‫ جاى‬jawan ardent love, passion
2
‫ ج وى‬look up alphabetically
‫ ج و ار = جايدار‬look up alphabetically
‫ة‬
‫ ج ايج‬jā’a ‫ يج‬yajī’u ( ‫ مج‬majī’) to come
(‫ه‬, ‫ هـ‬to); to get (‫ هـ‬to), reach (‫ هـ‬a place); to
arrive; to bring (‫ ب‬s.th.; ‫ ه ب‬to s.o. s.th.);
to bring forth, produce (‫ ب‬s.th.); to set
forth (‫ ب‬s.th.); to do, perform; to commit,
perpetrate (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.); to occur, be
mentioned, be said (‫ ووو‬in an article,
document or book); (with foll. Imperf.) to
be about or set out to do s.th. │‫ج ا واجويد ا‬
‫ ادهوووواماان‬the newspaper “Al Ahram”
reports that ... ; ‫ جو امو ابو ريساان‬a report
from Paris says that ... ; ‫جو اظأ ئجو ام بقوةال‬
(muṭābiqatan) its results coincided with...‫ا‬
‫ جيئووة‬jī’a, jai’a coming, arrival │‫جيئووةا‬
‫( و ه ب‬dahāb) coming and going, ‫هباجيئوةا‬
‫ و ه ب‬to pace the floor, walk up and down
‫ مج‬majī’ coming, arrival, advent
‫ جيشووو ن‬jayašān excitement, agitation;
raging
‫ جو اايجيوفة‬jāfa i, II and V to be putrid, stink
(decaying cadaver)
‫ ا ج ئي‬al-jā’iyāt the things to come
1
‫ جيوب‬jaib pl. ‫ جيواب‬juyūb breast, bosom, heart;
sine (math.); hole, hollow, cavity,
excavation; pocket; purse │‫اا جيووووبا‬
‫(ا و ص‬ḳaṣṣ) the privy purse; ‫تم و ماا جيووب‬
tamām al-j., ‫ جيباا أم م‬cosine (math.); ‫سو عةا‬
‫ ا جيوب‬pocket watch; ‫ مصوووااا جيوب‬pocket
money; ‫( ا جيووابااالظفيووة‬anfīya) the nasal
sinuses (anat.); ‫ جيوووواباا مق وموووة‬j. almuqāwama pockets of resistance (mil.)
‫ جيب‬jaibī pocket (adj.)
2
‫ جيب‬jīp, ‫ جيب‬jīb and ‫ سي ر اجيب‬sayyārat j. jeep
‫( ﭽيت‬ir.) čīt a colorful cotton fabric, chintz
1
‫ جيد‬jīd pl. ‫ اجي‬ajyād, ‫ جيا‬juyūd neck
2
‫ جيد‬jayyid see ‫جا‬
3
‫جي‬, ‫ اجي‬see ‫اجاا‬jawād
1
‫ جيو‬jairi surely, truly, verily
2
‫ جيو‬jīr lime
‫ جيفة‬jīfa pl. ‫ جيف‬jiyaf, ‫ اجيو ا‬ajyāf corpse,
cadaver
‫ ﭽيكو‬čīkī Czech
‫ جيوول‬jīl pl. ‫ اجيو ل‬ajyāl people, nation, tribe;
generation; century; epoch, era
‫( جيالت‬It. gelati) jēlātī ice cream
‫ جيم‬jīm name of the letter
‫( جي‬Fr. gaine) corselet, sheath corset (eg.)
‫ جياغوا ي و‬jiyogrāfiyā geography │‫اا جياغوا ي و ا‬
‫( ا بشوية‬bašarīya) anthropogeography
‫ا جيا يزي‬jiyofīziyā geophysics
‫ جيا يزيو ئ‬jiyofīziyā’ī geophysical │‫اا سو ةا‬
‫( ا جيا يزي ئية‬sana) the geophysical year
‫ جيا يزيق‬jiyofīzīqī geophysical
‫ جيا اجي‬jiyolōjiyā geology
‫ جيا اج‬jiyolōjī geologic(al)
‫ح‬
‫ جيو‬jīrī calcareous, lime (adj.)
‫ جي ر‬jayyār unslaked lime
‫ ح‬ḥā’ name of the letter ‫ح‬
‫ جي ر‬jayyāra limekiln
3
‫ جيو‬II to endorse (fin.)
‫( جيوو‬It. giro) endorsement (fin.)
4
‫جيو‬, ‫ جيوان‬see ‫جار‬
‫ جيوز‬gīza Giza (city in N Egypt); a brand of
Egyptian cotton
‫ جو شايجويشة‬jāša i (‫ جيشو ن‬jayašān) to be excited,
be agitated; to rage, storm; to boil, simmer
II to levy troops, mobilize an army X to
raise, mobilize (‫ هووـ‬an army, also, e.g.,
‫ اظص را‬anṣāran followers)
‫ جويش‬jaiš pl. ‫ جيواش‬army, troops, armed
forces │‫ اجوويشااالحووأالل‬occupation forces;
‫ جوويشااحأي و ه‬army reserve; ‫ا جوويشاموووابط‬
(murābiṭ) territorial army; ‫ جويش االظقو‬j. alinqād Salvation Army; ‫ جيشاا مسو‬al-masā’
dusk, evening twilight 150
‫ جيووو ش‬jayyāš agitated, impassioned;
excited, boiling up; ebullient; pleasurably
excited, happily stimulated
‫ ح م‬ḥāḳām rabbi│‫ ا ح مااالكبو‬the chief rabbi
‫ حؤول‬see ‫حال‬
‫ ح مو‬ḥāmī Hamitic
‫ ح ن‬and ‫ ح ظة‬see ‫حي‬
‫( ح ظبوة‬pronounced ḥamba) pl. ‫ حااظوب‬ḥawānib2
(formerly Tun.) hamba, palace gendarme
of the Bey of Tunis
‫ ح ظا‬see ‫ح ا‬
1
‫ حوب‬ḥabba i (ḥubb) to love, like II to evoke
(‫ ا و‬in s.o.) love or a liking (‫ه‬, ‫ هـ‬for s.th. or
s.o.), make (‫ ا وو‬s.o.) love or like (‫ه‬, ‫ هوـ‬s.th.
or s.o.); to endear (‫ هـ ا و‬s.th. to s.o.), make
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.) dear, lovable, attractive (‫ ا وو‬for
s.o.), make (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) palatable, acceptable
(‫ ا وو‬to s.o.); to urge (‫ هوـ ا وو‬s.th. on s.o.),
suggest (‫ ا و‬s.th. to s.o.) IV (‫ حب‬ḥubb, ‫محبة‬
maḥabba) to love, like (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.); to
wish, want, or like, to do s.th. (‫احوباان│)ان‬
uḥibbu an I should like to ... ; ‫ احوبا و اان‬to
like about s.o. that he ... ; ‫الايحوباا يووا و‬
(ḳaira) he doesn’t want him to be happy,
he grudges him everything V to show
love, reveal one’s affections (‫ ا وو‬to s.o.);
to endear o. s. (‫ ا وو‬to s.o.), make o.s.
popular, ingratiate o.s. (‫ ا وو‬with s.o.); to
court, woo (‫ ا وو‬a woman) VI to love one
another X to like (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to deem (‫هوـ‬
s.th.) desirable, recommendable; to prefer
(‫ هـ علو‬s.th. to s.th. else)
‫ محبابوووة‬maḥbūba sweetheart, darling,
beloved woman
‫ حووب‬ḥubb love; affection, attachment
│ ‫ حووباا وولا‬ḥ. ad-dāt self-love, amourpropre;
‫حوووووووبااالسوووووووأ ال‬
curiosity,
inquisitiveness; ‫ حوووباا ووواه‬ḥ. al-waṭan
patriotism; ‫( حبو ال‬ḥubban) out of love or
affection for, out of friendship for; ‫حبو ا و‬
in the desire to …
dear friend; ‫ محبوااابثو ر‬friends of archeology;
‫( محبا لات‬li-datihī) egoist
‫ حبو‬ḥubbī friendly, amicable, loving; ‫حبيو‬
ḥubbīyan in an amicable manner,
amicably; by fair means (jur.)
‫ حوب‬ḥibb pl. ‫ احبو ب‬aḥbāb darling, dear,
dearest (one)
‫ حب ب‬ḥabāb aim, goal, end 151
2
‫ حبيب‬ḥabīb pl. ‫ احب‬aḥibbā’ , ‫ احبوة‬aḥibba,
‫ احبو ب‬beloved, sweetheart, lover; darling;
dear one, friend; dear (‫ ا وو‬to s.o.); popular;
‫ االحب ب‬the beloved ones, the dear ones
‫ حبيبووووة‬labība pl. ‫ حب ئووووب‬ḥabā’ib2
sweet·heart, darling, beloved woman
‫ احووب‬aḥabb2 dearer, more desirable,
preferable (‫ ا و‬to s.o.)
‫ حبوولا‬ḥabbadā (with foll. Nominative)
how nice, how lovely is ... ! how good,
excellent, perfect is …! │ ‫ حبولاا وا‬how nice
it would be if …; ‫ حبولااا حو لا واا عول‬h. l-ḥālu
lau fa‘ala it would be nice, or he would do
well, if he did it; ‫( يو احبولااا حو ل‬ḥālu) that’s
just wonderful!
‫محبوووووة‬
maḥabba
love;
affection,
attachment │ ‫ محبوووةاا ووواه‬m. al-waṭan
patriotism
‫ تحبب‬taḥabbub courtship, wooing
‫ تح بووب‬taḥābub mutual love, concord,
harmony
‫ محبواب‬maḥbūb beloved; dear; lovable,
desirable; popular; favorite; beloved one,
lover; (pl. ‫ مح بيووب‬maḥābīb2) gold piece,
sequin (in Ottoman times; eg.)
‫ محبووب‬muḥabbab agreeable, pleasant,
desirable, lovable, dear (‫ ا وو‬to s.o.); nice,
likable
‫ محووب‬muḥibb pl. -ūn loving; lover;
fancier, amateur, fan; friend │‫محووباا و س‬
philanthropic(al), affable; ‫ محب اا عزيز‬our
‫ مأح و ب‬mutaḥābb loving one another,
concordant
‫ مسوووأحب‬mustaḥabb (re)commendable,
desirable (said of acts whose neglect is not
punished by God, but whose performance
is rewarded; Isl. Law); well-liked, popular
2
‫ حوب‬II to produce seed, go to seed (plant); to
bear seed (grain); to granulate, become
granulated; to granulate (‫ هووـ‬s.th.) IV to
produce seed
‫ حوب‬ḥabb (coll.; n. un. ) grains; seed; -- ‫ا‬
pl. ‫ حبووواب‬ḥubūb grain, cereals, corn;
seed(s); grains, kernels; granules; pellets;
pills, pastilles; berries; acne, pustules,
pimples│‫ حوووووباا عزيوووووز‬chufa (Cyperus
esculentus L.; bot.); ‫ حوباا فقود‬ḥ. al-faqad
chaste tree (Vitex agous castus L.; bot.); ‫ا‬
croton seeds (seeds of Croton tiglium;
bot.); (magr.) cherries; ‫حوباا هو لا‬ḥ. al-hāl
and (‫ حوباا هو ن )حبهو ن‬ḥ. al-hān cardamom
(Amomum cardamomum L.; bot.); ‫حووبا‬
‫ ا غم م‬ḥ. al-gamām hail, hail-stones
‫ حبوة‬ḥabba (n. un.; see also ‫ حوب‬ḥabb) pl.
-āt grain, granule; seed; kernel; pill,
pastille; berry; pustule, pimple; triviality,
trille; a square measure (Eg.; = 58.345
m2); pl. ‫ حبو‬beads (of the rosary)│‫حبوةا‬
‫ شووعيو‬ḥ. ša‘īr a linear measure (Eg.; =
0.205 cm); ‫( حبوةاحلوا‬ḥulwa) aniseed; ‫حبوةا‬
‫( سووا ا‬saudā’) black caraway (Nigella
sativa L.; bot.); ‫ حبو اا ومو ل‬grains of sand;
‫ حبوةاا عوي‬ḥ. al-‘ain eyeball; pupil (of the
eye); ‫ حبووةاا قلووب‬ḥ. al-qalb dearest one,
beloved, darling
‫ حبب‬ḥabab blister
‫ حبيبوة‬ḥubaiba pl. -āt little grain, small
kernel; small pimple or pustule
‫ حبيب‬ḥubaibī granular, granulated│ ‫ا ومدا‬
‫( ا حبيب‬ramad) trachoma (med.)
‫ حبحب‬ḥabḥab (coll.) watermelon (hij.)
‫ حب حب‬ḥubāḥib firefly, glowworm
‫ حبوول‬II to approve, think wall (‫ هووـ‬of s.th.),
commend (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to applaud, acclaim,
cheer (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ حبلا‬see 1‫حب‬
‫ تحييووول‬taḥyīd approval; acclamation,
acclaim, applause, cheering 152
‫ حبوو‬ḥabara u (ḥabr) to gladden, make happy,
delight (‫ ه‬s.o.); -- ḥabira a (‫ حبوار‬ḥubūr) to
be glad, happy II to embellish, refine,
make workmanlike (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to compose
(‫ هوووـ‬s.th.) in elegant style; to write,
compose (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ حبوو‬ḥibr ink│‫ اماا حبوو‬umm al-ḥibr squid,
cuttlefish; ‫( حبوواعلوواور‬waraq) mere ink
on paper, of no effect (e.g., an agreement,
a treaty)
‫ حبوو‬ḥabr, ḥibr pl. ‫ احبو ر‬aḥbār a nonMuslim religious authority, 1earned man,
scribe; hishop; rabbi│‫ ا حبووااالعروم‬the Pope;
‫ سفوااالحب ر‬sifr al-a. Leviticus (Old Test.)
‫ حبوووو‬ḥabrī pontifical │ ‫لوووداساحبوووو‬
(quddās) pontifical mass (Chr.)
‫ حبويووة‬ḥabrīya office or dignity of a
bishop, bishopric, pontificate
‫ حبوو‬ḥabara, ḥibara pl. -āt silken shawl
or wrap (worn in public by ladies)
‫ حبو ر‬ḥabār, ḥibār pl. -āt mark, trace
(esp. of blows), welt, wale
‫احبار‬ḥubūr joy
‫ حب و ر‬ḥubārā pl.
bustard (zool.)
‫ حب ري و‬ḥubārayāt
‫ يحبار‬yaḥbūr bustard chick (zool.)
‫ محبوووو‬miḥbara, maḥbara pl. ‫محووو بو‬
maḥābir2 inkwell
‫ حووبس‬ḥabasa i (ḥabs) to obstruct, shut off,
confine (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.), block, bar, hold
back, check (‫ هوـ‬s.th. ‫ عو‬from; also tears,
laughter, etc.); to withhold (‫ ع هـ‬from s.o.
s.th.); to hold in custody, detain (‫ ه‬s.o.) to
apprehend, arrest, jail, imprison (‫ ه‬s.o.); to
keep, keep back, put aside, put away (‫علوو‬
‫ هوـ‬s.th. for); to tie up, invent inalienably (‫هوـ‬
capital) │‫ حووبساظفسوو اعلووو‬to devote o.s.
entirely to ... ; ‫( حوبسايودهاعو‬yadahū) to take
(s.th.) out from under s.o.’s power; ‫حوبسا‬
‫( علي ااظف سو‬anfāsahū) to make s.o. catch his
breath, take s.o.’s breath away; ‫حوبسامواا‬
‫ ا شوووغل‬ḥubisa ma‘a š-šugl he was
committed to prison under hard labor II to
tie up inalienably (‫ هوـ‬funds, ‫ علوو‬for, esp.
for a pious purpose), make a religious
bequest (‫هوـ‬, for the benefit of ‫ )علوو‬VII to
be held back, be held up, stop, be
interrupted, intermit; to restrain o.s., hold
back VIII to block, obstruct, bar, confine
(‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.); to detain, hold in custody
(‫هووـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.); to hold back, retain,
suppress (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.); to be detained,
held up; to be impeded, held back; to
falter, break, fail (voice), stop (breath)
‫ حوبس‬ḥabs (act of) holding or keeping
back, obstruction, check, repression;
blocking off, barring, confinement;
damming up, staving off; safekeeping,
custody, retention; imprisonment, arrest,
detention, jailing; (pl. ‫ حبواس‬ḥubūs) prison,
jail │ ‫( حوووبسااحأيووو ه‬iḥtiyāṭī) detention
(pending investigation);
‫حوووووبسااظفووووووا‬
(infirādī) solitary confinement; ‫حووبساشووديد‬
penal servitude
‫ حبس‬ḥibs pl. ‫ احب س‬dam, weir, barrage
‫ حوبس‬ḥubs, ḥubūs pl. ‫ احبو س‬aḥbās (Tun.,
Alg. Mor. = waqf) inalienable property the
yield of which is devoted to pious
purposes, religious bequest, (Fr. jur.)
“habous”│‫‘( حوبساعو م‬āmm) public habous,
‫( حوبسا و ص‬ḳaṣṣ) private habous; ‫كو ناحبسو ا‬
‫ )كووو ناولفوو اعلووو = ( علووو‬to be entirely
dependent on …
‫ حبسوة‬ḥubsa speech defect, impediment
of speech
‫ حبوووويس‬ḥabīs blocked-off, shut-off,
barred, confined, locked-up; secluded;
bated (breath); choking (voice); (pl. ‫حبسو‬
ḥubasā’2) hermit
‫ محوووبس‬maḥbas, maḥbis pl. ‫محووو بس‬
maḥābis2 place where s.th. is confined or
locked up; jail, prison; (prison) cell 153
‫ محوبس‬miḥbas device for shutting off or
blocking off
‫ محبسة‬maḥbasa hermitage
‫ اظحبو س‬inḥibās seclusion, confinement;
stoppage, interruption; cessation
‫ احأبوووو س‬iḥtibās retention, restraint;
inhibition,
impediment,
obstruction,
stoppage │‫ احأبووو ساا بوووال‬iḥtibās al-baul
suppression of urine, ischuria
1
‫ حبول‬ḥabl pl. ‫ حبو ل‬ḥibāl, ‫ احبول‬aḥbul, ‫حبوال‬
ḥubūl, ‫ احب و ل‬aḥbāl rope, cable, hawser;
cord, string, thread; (pl. ‫ حبو ل‬ḥibāl) beam,
ray (e.g., of the sun, of light), jet (e.g., of
water); vein; sinew, tendon │‫حبوولاا اريوود‬
jugular vein; ‫( ا حبولاا سوو‬surrī) umbilical
cord; ‫( ا حبولاا شواك‬šaukī) spine; ‫حبو لاصواتية‬
(ṣautīya) vocal cords; ‫ حبوولاا مسوو كي‬ivy
(bot.); ‫ حبو لاا مو‬jets of water; ‫ا قوواياهلوقةا‬
‫ ا حبلاعلواا غ رب‬alqā (aṭlaqa) l-ḥabla ‘alā lgārib to let things go, slacken the reins,
give a free hand, impose no restraint;
‫ ارت ووو اا حبووول‬slackening of the reins,
yielding; relenting; ‫ اض و وباحبل و‬iḍṭraba
ḥabluhū to get into a state of disorder, of
disorganization, of disintegration, get out
of control; ‫( تعباعلواا حبلوي‬la‘iba, ḥablain)
to play a double game, work both side, of
the street
‫ محبووواس‬maḥbūs shut-off (from the
outside world), isolated, secluded,
confined, locked-up; imprisoned, captive;
tied-up (funds); (pl. ‫ محووو بس‬maḥābis2)
prisoner, prison inmate, convict
‫ محوبس‬muḥabbis donor of a habous (see
‫ حبس‬ḥubs)
‫اا محوووووبساعليووووو‬
al-muḥabbas
‘alaihi
beneficiary of a habous (see ‫ حبس‬ḥubs)
‫ م حبس‬munhabis secluded, shut-off
‫ ا حوبش‬al-ḥabaš Abyssinia, Ethiopia; (pl. ‫االحبو ش‬
al-aḥbāš) the Abyssinians, Ethiopians
‫ ا حبشووووة‬al-ḥabaša
Abyssinia, Ethiopia
(and
‫ ا حبشوووو‬ḥabašī pl.
Abyssinian, Ethiopian
‫)بووووال اا حووووبش‬
‫احبوووو ش‬
aḥbāš
‫ احبا وة‬uḥbūla pl. ‫ اح بيول‬aḥābīl2 snare, net;
rope with a noose; pl. ‫ اح بيول‬tricks, wiles,
artifices, stratagems (in order to get s.th.)
‫ حوبط‬ḥabaṭa i (‫( حبواه‬ḥubūṭ) and ḥabiṭa a to
come to nothing, fail, miscarry, go wrong;
to be futile, be of no avail, be lost IV to
frustrate, thwart, foil, defeat (‫ هـ‬s.th., ‫هـ علو‬
in s.th. s.o.; negotiations, efforts, an
attempt, etc.)
‫ حب ة‬ḥibāla pl. ‫ حب ئل‬ḥabā’il2 snare, net
‫ ح بوول‬ḥābil: ‫( ا ووألطاا ح بوولاب بوول‬iḳtalaṭa)
everything became confused, got into a
state of utter confusion; ‫ ح بوولاوظ و بلهم‬all
together, all in a medley 154
‫ حبط‬ḥabaṭ scar of a wound, wale, welt
‫ حباه‬ḥubūṭ futility, failure
‫ احب ه‬aḥbāṭ frustration, thwarting, foiling
‫ حبووق‬ḥabaq basil (bot.); (eg.) a variety of
speedwell (Veronica anagallis aquatica L.)
‫ حبول‬ḥabaka i u (ḥabk) to weave well and tight
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to braid, plait (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to twist,
twine, tighten (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to knit (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
devise, contrive (‫ هوـ‬a plan, a plot) II to
twist, twine, tighten (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) to fasten (‫هوـ‬
s.th.)
‫ حبكوووة‬ḥabka fabric, tissue; texture,
structure
‫ حبول‬ḥubuk: p. ‫ حبولاا جوام‬ḥ. an-nujūm the
orbits of the celestial bodies
‫ حب كة‬ḥibāka weavers trade, weaving
‫ محبوا‬maḥbūk tightly woven; tight, taut;
sturdy, strong, robust, husky
‫ محأبل‬muḥtabik interwoven, intersecting
‫ حبل‬VIII to ensnare, catch in a snare (‫ هـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o.,
s.th.)
2
‫ حبوول‬ḥlabila a (ḥabal) to be or become
pregnant, conceive and IV to make
pregnant ( ‫اه‬a woman)
‫ حبل‬ḥabal conception; pregnancy
‫ حبلوو‬ḥublā pl. ‫ حبو و‬ḥabālā and ‫حبالظووة‬
ḥablāna pregnant
‫ حب‬ḥabana dropsy
‫ حب وباا ه و ن( حبه و ن‬ḥabb al-hān) cardamom
(Amomum cardamomum L.; bot.)
‫ حبو ايحبواة‬ḥabā u (ḥabw) to crawl, creep: to
present (‫ ه هـ‬s.o. with s.th.), give, award (‫هـ‬
‫ ه‬to s.o. s.th.) III to be obliging (‫ ه‬to s.o.),
show one’s good will (‫ ه‬toward s.o.); to
favor (‫ ه‬s.o.); to side (‫ ه‬with s.o.), be
partial (‫ ه‬to s.o.); to show respect,
deference (‫ ه‬to s.o.) VIII to sit with one’s
legs drawn up and wrapped in one's
garment
‫ حبا‬ḥibwa, ḥubwa, ḥabwa gift, present
‫ حب‬ḥibā’ gift, present
‫مح بووووووووو‬
muḥābāh
complaisance,
courtesy;
favoritism, partiality
‫الاحأميوووووة‬
(philos.)
obligingness
favor(ing),
‫ محوووأم‬muḥattam imposed, enjoined,
obligatory;
determined,
definitive,
determinate,
unalterable,
inevitable;
destined, predeotined, ordained (fate)
‫ حأة‬ḥitta pl. ḥitat (eg.) piece, bit, morsel
‫ حأ‬ḥutāt scraps; morsels, crumbs
‫ مأحووأم‬mutaḥattim absolutely necessary;
imperative (duty)
‫ حأو‬see ‫احت‬
1
‫ تح‬taḥāt corrosion
‫ حأد‬ḥatida a (ḥatad) to be of pure origin
‫ محأد‬maḥtid descent, origin, lineage
‫ حأو‬ḥutra small piece, bit, trifle
‫ حأو ر‬ḥitār pl. ‫ حأوو‬ḥutur border, edge,
fringe, surroundings, vicinity
‫ حأف‬ḥatf pl. ‫ حأواا‬ḥutūf death │‫يبحوثاعو اييسوعوا‬
‫ ا وووةاحأفوو ابرلفوو‬yabḥatu ‘an (yas‘ā ilā)
ḥatfihī bi-ẓilfihī he brings about his own
destruction, digs his own grave; ‫مو احأوفا‬
‫ اظفو‬māta ḥatfa anfihī he died a natural
death
‫ حأم‬ḥatama i (ḥatm) to decree, make necessary,
prescribe (‫ هوـ علوو‬s.th. for s.o.), make (‫هوـ‬
s.th.) a duty, a necessity (‫ علوو‬for s.o.); ‫ا‬to
impose, enjoin (‫ هوـ علوو‬s.th. upon s.o.); ‫ا‬to
decide, determine definitely (‫ ب‬s.th.) II to
decree, make necessary, prescribe (‫هوـ علوو‬
s.th. for s.o.), make (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) a duty, a
necessity (‫ علوو‬for s.o.) V to be necessary;
to be s.o.’s (‫ )علوو‬duty, be incumbent (‫علوو‬
upon s.o.)
‫ حووأم‬ḥatm pl. ‫ حأووام‬ḥutūm imposition,
injunction; final decision, resolution,
determination; ‫ حأمووو‬ḥatman decidedly,
definitely, neceaoarily, inevitably
‫ حأمووو‬ḥatmī decided, definite, final,
conclusive,
definitive,
unalterable,
irrevocable, inevitable
‫ حأميوة‬ḥatmīya decidedness, definiteness,
definitiveness,
determinateness,
unalterableness; necessity
indeterminism
‫ محأووووام‬maḥtūm imposed, enjoined,
obligatory;
determined,
definitive,
determinate,
unalterable,
ineviroble;
destined, predestined, ordained (fate)
‫ حوت‬ḥatta u (ḥatt) to rub off, scrape off, scratch
off (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ حأوو‬ḥattā (prep.) until, till, up to, as far
as; (conj.; with perf.) until, so that; (with
subj.) until, that, so that, in order that; -(particle) even, eventually even; and even;
‫ حأووا وا‬even if; (with preceding negation)
not even, and be it only…
lā-ḥatmīya
‫ حث‬ḥatta u (ḥatt) to urge, incite, prompt,
goad, spur on, egg on, prod, provoke, 155
impel (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ علو‬to do s.th.) │‫حثا ه‬
(ḳuṭāhū) to quicken one’s pace, hurry (‫ا و‬
to a place); ‫( حثاا ويق‬ṭarīqa) to hurry,
hasten; ‫( حثالدمي‬qadamaihi) to quicken
one’s pace, break into a run VIII and X = I
‫ حثيث‬ḥatīt quick, rapid, quick
‫ ح ثة‬ḥātta hormone
2
‫ حث‬ḥittī Hittite (n. and adj.)
‫ حث وة‬ḥutāla dregs, lees, sediment; scum (fig.);
offal, discard, scraps │‫ احث ووةاا حويووو‬silk
combings
‫ حث ايحثاة‬ḥatā u (ḥatw) to strew, scatter, spread,
disperse (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ حو‬ḥajja u to overcome, defeat (‫ ه‬s.o., with
arguments, with evidence), confute (‫ ه‬s.o.); ‫ا‬to
convince (‫ ه‬s.o.); -- (ḥajj) to make the
pilgrimage (to Mecca), perform the hadj III to
dispute, debate, argue, reason (‫ ه‬with s.o.) VI
to argue against each other, carry on a dispute,
to debate; to take counsel VIII to advance (‫ب‬
s.th.) as an argument, plea, excuse, or pretext;
to allege in support or vindication, plead (‫ب‬
s.th.); to vindicate, justify (‫ ل‬s.th.); to protect,
remonstrate (‫ علوووو‬against), object, raise
objections (‫ علو‬to)
‫ حو‬ḥajj and ‫ حجوة‬ḥijja pl. -āt, ‫ حجو‬ḥijaj
pilgrimage; hadj, the official Muslim
pilgrimage to Mecca │‫ واا حجوة‬dū l-ḥijja
Zu’lhijjah, the last month of the Islamic
calendar
‫ حج وة‬ḥujja pl. ‫ حج و‬ḥūjaj argument;
pretense, pretext, plea; proof, evidence;
document, writ, deed, record; authority
│‫ا بحجوةاان‬under the pretense that …, on
the plea … on the pretext of …
bar; diaphragm (also ‫ ;ا حجو باا حو جز‬anat.);
amulet
‫ حجو‬ḥajāj pl. ‫ احجوة‬aḥijja circumorbital
ring (anat.)
‫ حج بة‬ḥijāba office of gatekeeper
‫ احأجو ب‬iḥtijāb concealment, hiddenness,
seclusion; veiledness, veiling, purdah
‫ مح‬maḥajj destination (of a journey)
‫ محجووووة‬maḥajja pl.
‫ محوووو‬maḥājj2
destination of a pilgrimage, object of
pilgrimage, shrine; destination (of s
journey); goal; road; way; procedure,
method │‫ امحجوةاا صووااب‬m. aṣ-ṣawāb the
Right Way, the Straight Path; ‫محجوةاا حديود‬
railroad
‫ حج‬ḥijāj argument, dispute, debate
‫ تحجو‬taḥajjuj argumentation, pleading,
offering of a pretext, pretense, excuse
‫ احأجووو‬iḥtijāj pl. -āt argumentation;
pretext, excuse, plea, pretense; protest,
remonstrance (‫ علوووو‬against), objection,
exception (‫ علو‬to)
‫ ح و‬ḥājj pl. ‫ حج و‬ḥujjāj, ‫ حج وي‬ḥajīj
pilgrim; hadji, Mecca pilgrim, honorific
title of one who has performed the
pilgrimage to Mecca
‫ حجوب‬ḥajaba u (ḥajb) to veil, cover, screen,
shelter, seclude (‫ هوـ علوو‬s.th. from); to hide,
obscure ( ‫ هوـ عو‬s.th. from s.th. else, e.g.,
from sight); to eclipse, outshine,
overshadow
(‫ه‬
s.o.);
to
make
imperceptible, invisible ( ‫ هوـ عو‬s.th. to); to
conceal ( ‫ هوـ عو‬s.th. from s.o.); to make or
form a separation ( ‫اوبوي‬--‫ بوي ا‬between –
and) II to veil, hide, conceal; to hide from
sight, keep in seclusion ( ‫ هو‬a woman); to
disguise, mask (‫ هووـ ب‬s.th. with) V to
conceal o.s. hide ( ‫ ع و‬from), flee from
sight, veil o.s. VII to veil o.s., conceal o.s.;
to be covered up, become hidden be
obscured VIII to vanish, become invisible,
disappear from sight; to veil conceal ( ‫عو‬
hide; to become hidden, be concealed ( ‫عو‬
from); to withdraw; to elude perception; to
ease or interrupt publication (newspaper,
periodical)
‫ حجوووب‬ḥajb seclusion; screening off;
keeping away, keeping off
‫ حجو ب‬ḥijāb pl. ‫ حجوب‬ḥujub, ‫ احجبوة‬aḥjiba
cover, wrap, drape; curtain; woman’s veil;
screen, partition, folding screen; barrier,
‫ ح جووووب‬ḥājib concealing, screening,
protecting; (pl. ‫ حجو ب‬ḥujjāb, ‫ حجبوة‬ḥajaba)
doorman,
gatekeeper;
chamberlain;
orderly (Syr., mil.); (pl. ‫ حااجوب‬ḥawājib2)
eyebrow │ ‫ ح جوباا هواا‬ḥ. al-hawā’ airtight,
hermetic
‫ محجاب‬maḥjūb concealed, hidden, veiled
1
‫ حجوو‬ḥajara u (ḥajr, ḥijr, ḥujr, ‫ حجووان‬ḥijrān,
ḥujrān) to deny access (‫ علوو‬to s.o.);‫ا‬to
stop, detain, hinder (‫ علووو‬or ‫ ه‬s.o.); to
forbid, interdict (‫ هووـ علووو‬s.th. to s.o.),
prohibit (‫ علوو‬s.o.) from doing s.th. (‫ ;)هوـ‬to
place (‫ علوووو‬s.o.) under guardianship,
declare (‫ علو‬s.o.) legally incompetent
‫ حجوووووو‬ḥajr restriction, curb(ing),
check(ing),
obstruction,
impeding,
limitation, curtailing (‫ علوو‬of s.th.); barring,
closing, debarment, preclusion; detention;
blocking,
confinement,
containment,
suppression (as a protective measure);
interdiction, prohibition, ban; revocation,
or limitation, of s.o.’s (‫ )علوووو‬legal
competence │ ‫( حجوصح‬ṣiḥḥī) quarantine
‫( حجووووو‬ḥijr forbidden, interdicted,
prohibited; lap; (pl. ‫ احج و ر‬aḥjār, ‫حج وار‬
ḥujūr, ‫ حجار‬ḥujūra) mare
‫ حجوو‬ḥujra pl. ḥujarāt, ‫ حجوو‬ḥujar room;
cell; (railroad) compartment; chamber
│‫ حجوو ااالظأرو ر‬waiting room; ‫ حجوو اا وام‬ḥ.
an-naum
bedroom;
‫ا حجووووووو اا فالحيووووووة‬
(fallāḥīya) chamber of agriculture
‫ حجوو‬maḥjar pl. ‫ محو جو‬maḥājir2 military
hospital, infirmary; prison, jail, dungeon
│ ‫( محجوواصوح‬ṣiḥḥī) quarantine, quarantine
station
‫ حجوو‬maḥjir, miḥjar, maḥjar pl. ‫محو جو‬
maḥājir2 (=‫ محجووواا عووي ا‬m. al-‘ain) eye
socket; see also below
‫ تحجيووو‬taḥjīr interdiction, prohibition,
ban; see also below
‫ محجوار‬maḥjūr pl. ‫ محو جو‬maḥājir2 (and
‫ )محجاراعليو‬one placed under guardianship;
minor; ward, charge
2
‫ حجوو‬II to petrify, turn into stone (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
make hard as stone (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) V to turn to
stone, petrify, become petrified
detention,
seizure,
confiscation,
sequestration (‫ علوو‬of s.th.); reservation (of
seats) │‫ حجزاا حويوة‬ḥ al-ḥurrīya deprivation
of liberty, unlawful detention duress
(jur.); ‫( ا قووواا حجوواعلوو‬alqā) to confiscate
s.th.
‫ حجوو‬ḥajar pl. ‫ احجو ر‬aḥjār, ‫ حجو ر‬ḥijāra,
‫ حجو ر‬ḥijār stone; weight (placed as an
equipoise on the scale of a balance)
│ ‫( ا حجووووااالس سووو‬asāsī) the foundation
stone, cornerstone,
‫وضوووااا حجووووااالس سووو‬
(waḍ‘) laying of the cornerstone; ‫حجواا وباله‬
ḥ. al-balāṭ flagstone, paving stone; ‫حجووا‬
‫ جه و م‬ḥ. jahannam lunar caustic, silver
nitrate; ‫ حجوواا جيوو‬ḥ. al-jīr limestone; ‫ا حجووا‬
‫ ا سوم ل‬or ‫( حجوواا سوم ل‬summāqī) porphyry;
‫( ا حجووااالسوا‬aswad) the Black Stone (of
the Kaaba); ‫ حجووواا ش و ظة‬hematite (min.);
‫ حجواا عثوو‬ḥ. al-‘atra stumbling block; ‫حجووا‬
‫ ا فالسوفة‬philosopher’s stone; O ‫ حجوواا قموو‬ḥ.
al-qamar selenite; ‫ حجوواكوويم‬and ‫حجوواثموي ا‬
precious stone, gem; ‫( هبوااعلوواا حجوو‬tab‘)
lithograph; ‫ هب عةاا حجو‬Lithography
‫ حجوو‬ḥajarī stony, stone (adj.) │‫ا عصووا‬
‫‘( ا حجو‬aṣr) the Stone Age; ‫ا عصوواا حجوو ا‬
‫ ا حوديث‬the Neolithic period; ‫ا عصوواا حجوو ا‬
‫ ا قديم‬the Paleolithic period
‫ حجيو‬ḥajīr stony, petrified
‫ حج ر‬ḥajjār stone mason, stone cutter
2
‫ محجوو‬maḥjir pl. ‫ محو جو‬maḥājir (stone)
quarry
‫تحجيوووووو‬
quarrying
taḥjīr
petrification;
stone
‫ تحجو‬taḥajjur petrification
‫ مأحجو‬mutaḥajjir petrified
‫ مسأحجو‬mustaḥjir petrified 157
‫ حجودز‬ḥajaza u i (ḥajz) to hold back, restrain,
hinder, prevent ( ‫ هوـ عو‬s.th. from); to keep
away ( ‫ هوـ عو‬s.th. from); to block (off),
close, bar; to isolate, insulate, confine,
seclude; to make inaccessible; to set apart;
to separate ( ‫ بووي‬two things); to arrest,
detain; to seize, sequester, impound (‫علوو‬
or ‫ هوـ‬s.th., e.g., s.o.’s property, salary); to
confiscate, safeguard (‫ا هوـ‬s.th.); to reserve
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to make a reservation (‫ هوـ‬for a.
theater seat, a steamer cabin, a ticket, etc.)
VIII to retain for o.s., reserve to o.s. (‫هوـ‬
s.th.)
‫ حجوز‬ḥajz curbing, prevention, restraint;
seclusion,
confinement,
containment,
isolation, insulation, separation; arrest,
‫ ا حج و ز‬al-ḥijāz Hejaz, region in W
Arabia, on the Red Sea coast
‫ حجو ز‬ḥijāzī of or pertaining to Hejaz;
pl. -ūn) an inhabitant of Hejaz
‫ حو جز‬ḥājiz and ‫ حو جز‬pl. ‫ حوااجز‬ḥawājiz2
obstacle,
hindrance,
impediment,
obstruction; partition, screen, dividing
wall j block, blockade, road block; fence,
gate, railing, balustrade; hurdle; bar,
barrier;
barricade
│‫اا حجوووووو باا حوووووو جز‬
diaphragm (anat.); O
‫حووووو جزااالمووووواا‬
breakwater;
‫ا حوووووااجزاا قموليووووووةايا جموكيووووووةة‬
(qumruqīya, gumrukīya) customs barriers;
O ‫ ح جز اا صااعق‬lightning rod
‫ ماظووفاحووو جز‬muwaẓẓaf ḥājiz approx.:
bailiff
1
‫امح جفة‬muḥājafa singlestick fencing
2
‫ااحج ا‬iḥjāf = ‫اجح ا‬
‫ حجول‬ḥajala u i (ḥajl, ‫ حجوالن‬ḥajalān) to hop,
leap; to skip, gambol
‫ حجول‬ḥajl, ḥijl pl. ‫ حجوال‬ḥujūl, ‫ احجو ل‬aḥjāl
anklet
‫ حجوول‬ḥajal (coll.; n. un. ) pl. ‫حجووالن‬
ḥajlān, ‫ حجل وو‬ḥijlā partridge; mountain
partridge, mountain quail
‫ حجوولا‬ḥajala pl. ‫ حج و ل‬ḥijāl curtained
canopy, or alcove, for the bride │‫اربو ها‬
‫ ا حج ل‬rabbāṭ al-ḥ. the ladies
‫ عبةاا حجلة‬la‘bat al-ḥajala hopscotch
‫ محجووووول‬muḥajjal wearing anklets
(woman); white-footed (horse); bright,
brilliant, radiant; unique, singular, esp. in
the phrase ‫( أغوامحجل‬agarr2)
‫ حجم‬ḥajama u (ḥajm) to cup (‫ ه‬s.o.; med.) IV to
recoil, shrink, flinch ( ‫ عو‬from); to desist,
abstain, refrain ( ‫ ع و‬from), forbear ( ‫ع و‬
s.th.); to withdraw, retreat
‫ حجوم‬ḥajm pl. ‫ حجوام‬ḥujūm, ‫ احجو م‬aḥjām
bulk, size, volume; caliber (of a cannon)
│‫ كبيواا حجم‬bulky, sizable, massive
‫ حج م‬ḥajjām cupper
‫ حج موةا‬ḥijāma cupping, scarification, art
of cupping
‫ محجوم‬miḥjam, m‫ محجوم‬miḥjama pl. ‫محو جم‬
maḥājim2 cupping glass
‫ احجووو م‬iḥjām desistance,
restraint, aloofness, reserve
abstention;
‫ حجو‬ḥajana i (ḥajn) to bend, curve, crook (‫ا هوـ‬
s.th.) VIII to snatch up, grab (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) take
hold (‫ هـ‬of s.th.)
‫ احج‬aḥjan2 curved, crooked, bent
‫ا محجو‬miḥjan pl. ‫ محو ج‬maḥājin2 staff or
stick with a crooked end, crosier; hook
‫ حجو ابو ا يوواايحجواة‬ḥajā bihī ḳairan to think well
of s.o., have a good opinion of s.o. III to
propose a riddle (‫ ه‬to s.o.); to speak in
riddles, be enigmatic
‫حجو ا‬, ‫ حجوو‬ḥijan pl. ‫ احجو‬aḥjā’ intellect,
brains,
understanding,
discernment,
acumen, sagacity, wit, intelligence 158
‫ حجو‬ḥajiy appropriate, suitable, proper
(‫ با‬for)
‫ احجوووو‬aḥjā more appropriate, more
suitable, more proper; more correct, better
‫ احجيوة‬uḥjīya pl. ‫ احو جو‬aḥājīy,
riddle, puzzle, enigma
‫ احو‬aḥājin
‫ ح م‬ḥaḳām = ‫( ح م‬look up alphabetically)
‫ حود‬ḥadda u (ḥadd) to sharpen, hone (‫ هووـ‬a
knife); to delimit, delineate, demarcate,
mark off, stake off (‫ هوـ‬land, ‫ مو‬from); to
set bounds (‫ هووـ‬to s.th.), limit, restrict,
confine (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to impede, hinder, curb,
check ( ‫ مو‬or ‫ هوـ‬s.th.); -- i ( ‫ حود‬ḥidda) to
become furious, angry (‫ علوو‬at): -- i u ( ‫حودا‬
ḥidād) to wear mourning, mourn (‫ علوو‬the
deceased) II to sharpen, hone (‫ هوـ‬a knife);
to forge (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.; syr.); to delimit,
demarcate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to set bounds (‫ هوـ‬to
s.th.), circumscribe, mark off, delineate
sharply; to limit, restrict, confine ( ‫ مو‬or ‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to determine, appoint, assign,
schedule, lay down, set down, establish (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to fix). e.g., prices); to define (‫هوـ‬
s.th.) │‫( حود ابصووه‬baṣarahū) to dart sharp
glances; to scrutinize ( ‫ وو‬s.th.), look
sharply ( at s.th.) III to oppose (‫هـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o.,
s.th.) act contrary (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬to s.o., to s.th.),
contravene, counteract, violate (‫ هـ‬s.th.) IV
to sharpen, make sharp (‫ هـ‬s.th.) │‫ااحداا روا‬
‫(ا ووا‬naẓar) to look sharply at, stare at; ‫احودا‬
‫( بصووه‬baṣarahū) to dart sharp glances; to
scrutinize ( ‫ و‬s.th.), look sharply ( ‫ و‬at
s.th.); ‫( احوودام و ابصوووه‬baṣarihī) to glance
sharply; -- to put on garments of mourning
V to be delimited, be delineated, be
bounded, be circumscribed; to be
determined, be established, be set down,
be scheduled, be fixed; to by defined, be
definable VIII to be or become angry; to
become infuriated, be furious (‫ علوو‬at), be
exasperated (‫ علوو‬with); to be agitated, be
upset, be in a state of commotion
‫ حد‬ḥadd pl. ‫ حدو‬ḥudūd (cutting) edge ‫ي‬of
a knife, of a sword); edge, border, brink,
brim, verge; border (of a country),
boundary, borderline; limit (fig.), the
utmost, extremity, termination, end,
terminal point, terminus; a (certain)
measure, extent, or degree (attained);
(math.) member (of an equation), term (of
a fraction, of a proportion); divine
ordinance,
divine
statute;
legal
punishment (Isl. Law) │‫ حود‬li-ḥaddi or ‫ا ووا‬
‫ حود‬until, till, up to, to the extent of, ‫ا وواحودا‬
‫ابن‬, ‫ حوداابن‬li-ḥ. l-āna up to now, so far;
‫( ا وواحودامو‬ḥaddin) to a certain degree, to a
certain extent; ‫ا وواحوداكبيوو‬, ‫ ا وواحودابعيود‬to a
considerable
extent
or
degree,
considerably, extensively; ‫( ا ووواأ احوود‬ayyi
ḥaddin) how far, to what degree or extent;
‫( الاحوووودا وووو‬ḥadda) boundless, infinite,
unbounded, unlimited; ‫ بالاحد‬bi-lā ḥaddin,
‫ ا وووواغيوووواحووود‬ilā gairi ḥaddin boundless,
unlimited, without limits; ‫‘ علوواحوداسواا‬alā
ḥaddin sawā’, ‫‘ علووواحووداس واى‬alā ḥaddin
siwan in the same manner; equally,
likewise; ‫( علووواحوود‬ḥaddi) according to,
commensurate with; ‫ و احوودا ات و‬fī ḥaddi
dātihī and ‫ بحودا اتو‬in itself, as such; ‫ا حودا‬
‫( االعلوووو‬a‘lā), ‫( ا حوووداااللصوووو‬aqṣā) the
maximum; ‫( ا حودااال ظوو‬adnā) the minimum;
( ‫‘ حووداعمووو‬umrī) age limit; ‫ واحوودي‬dū
ḥaddain two-edged; ‫( ووو احووودو‬ḥudūdi)
within, within the framework of; ‫بلو االصووا‬
‫( حودو ه‬aqṣā ḥudūdihI) to attain its highest
degree; ‫ حودو ا‬the bounds or restrictions
that God has placed on man's freedom of
action
‫ حود‬ḥidda sharpness, keenness; pitch (of
a tone); distinctiveness, markedness;
vehemence, violence, impetuosity; fury,
rage, wrath, ire, anger;
irascibility, passionateness
excitability,
delimited, determinate, fixed, definite,
definitive │‫ محووودو اا مع وووو‬m. al-ma‘nā
unambiguous; ‫ محودو اا وم نا‬m. aḍ-ḍamān
of limited liability; ‫شوووكةامحوودو ايا مسووئا يةة‬
(širka) limited company, corporation
‫ حودا‬ḥidād (act of) mourning (‫ علوو‬over)
│ ‫ اثوواباا حووودا‬taub al-h.
garmente of
mourning; ‫ حوودا اا ووباله‬ḥ. al-balāt court
mourning
‫ محووود‬muḥaddad sharpened, sharp;
determined, fixed, appointed, destined (‫ل‬
for) strictly delimited, clearly defined
‫ حد‬ḥida see ‫وحد‬
‫ حد‬ḥadad forbidden 159
‫ حديود‬ḥadīd iron; pl. ‫ حدائود‬ḥadā’id2 iron
parts (of a structure); forgings, hardware,
ironware │‫ احديودا و م‬crode iron, pig iron,
iron ore; O ‫( حديودام و و‬mutāwi‘) wrought
iron; ‫( حديوداغفول‬gufl) unprocessed iron, pig
iron; ‫ ظهوواا حديود‬ẓahr al-ḥ. ‫ حديوداا رهوو‬cast
iron; ‫ سوكةاا حديود‬sikkat al-ḥ. railroad; ‫ضووبا‬
‫ احديدابويد‬see ‫ضوب‬
‫ حديد‬ḥadīd pl. ‫ حودا‬ḥidād, ‫ احودا‬aḥiddā’2,
‫ احد‬aḥidda sharp (knife, eye, tongue, etc.),
keen (mind)
‫ احووود‬aḥadd2 sharper, keener; more
vehement, more violent
‫ حديود‬ḥadīda pl. ‫ حدائود‬ḥadā’id2 piece of
iron; object or tool made of iron │‫احديودا‬
‫ ا حووث‬ḥ. al-ḥart plowshare; ‫( علوواا حديود‬eg.)
in financial straits, pinched for money
‫ حديوود‬ḥadīdī iron (adj.) │‫اسووكةاحديديووة‬
(sikka) railroad
‫ ا حديود‬al-ḥudaida Hodeida (seaport in
W Yemen)
‫ حدا‬ḥaddād ironsmith, blacksmith
‫ حدا‬ḥidāda smithcraft, art smithing
‫ تحديوووود‬taḥdīd pl. -āt limitation,
delimitation; delineation, demarcation;
restriction,
curb,
confinement;
determination, fixation, appointment;
definition │‫ علووواا أحديود‬and ‫علووواوجو اا أحديوود‬
(wajh) to be exact …, strictly speaking …
‫ حو‬ḥādd sharp (also, fig., of a glance),
keen
(mind);
high-pitched
(tone);
vehement, fiery, impetuous; fierce; vivid;
acute (illness) │ ‫ حو اا موزا‬ḥ. al-mizāj, ‫حو ا‬
‫ ا بوا‬ḥ. aṭ-ṭab‘ hot-blooded, hot-headed,
hot-tempered, irascible; ‫( زاويوةاحو‬zāwiya)
acute angle; ‫ تحتاا حد‬subacute
‫ محودو‬maḥdūd bounded, bordered (‫ب‬
by); circumscribed, confined; limited (=
small, e.g., number, knowledge, etc.);
‫محأووووود‬
muḥtadd
exasperated
angry,
furious,
‫ حودأ‬ḥid’a, pl. ‫ حودأ‬ḥida’, ‫ حودا‬ḥidā’, ‫ حودآن‬ḥid’ān
kite (zool.)
‫ حدأ‬ḥada’a pl. ‫ حودا‬ḥidā’ double-bladed
axe
‫ حودب‬ḥadiba a (ḥadab) to be convex, domeshaped, cambered, bent outward; to be
hunchbacked; to be nice, kind, friendly
(‫ علوو‬or ‫ ب‬to s.o.). be solicitous (‫ علوو‬or ‫ب‬
about s.o.), care (‫ علوو‬or ‫ ب‬for s.o.) ‫ا‬take
care (‫ علوو‬or ‫ ب‬of s.o.) II to make convex,
emboss, camber, vault, curve, crook, bend
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.) V and XII ‫ احودو ب‬iḥaudaba to be
crooked, vaulted, cambered, embossed,
convex
‫ حوودب‬ḥadab affection, fondness, love;
kindliness; solicitude, care; (pl. ‫حوووداب‬
ḥidāb, ‫ احووداب‬aḥdāb) elevation of the
ground │‫(ام اكلاحودباوصوابا‬wa-ṣaubin) or
‫ كوولاصوواباوحوودب‬from all sides, from all
directions, from everywhere; ‫و اكولاصوابا‬
‫ وحودب‬everywhere, in every quarter, on all
sides
‫ حودب‬ḥadib curved, cambered, vaulted,
convex; hunchbacked; kindly, friendly
‫ حودب‬ḥadaba hunchback, hump; camber,
vaulting, curvature
‫ احودب‬aḥdab2, f. ‫ حودب‬ḥadbā’, pl. ‫حودب‬
ḥudb hunchbacked, humped; -- (elative)
kindlier, friendlier
‫ محودب‬muḥaddab embossed; cambered,
convex 160
‫ حودث‬ḥadata u (‫ حودوث‬ḥudūt) to happen, occur,
take place, come to pass; -- (ḥaduta u
(‫ حداثوة‬ḥadāta) to be new, recent; to be
young II to tell, relate, report (‫ ه‬to s.o., ‫ب‬
or ‫ هـ‬s.th., , ‫ ع‬about); to speak, talk (‫ ه‬to
s.o., ‫ ع و‬or ‫ وو‬about, of) │ ‫حدثوو اللبوو‬
(ḥaddatahū qalbuhū and
‫حدثأوووو اظفسوووو‬
ḥaddatathu nafsuhū his heart, his
innermost feeling told him (‫ ب‬s.th.); ‫حودثا‬
‫( ظفس اب‬nafsahū) to talk o.s. into (s.th.), try
to believe s.th. or see s.th. (as factual); to
resolve, make up one’s mind to do s.th.;
‫ حودثاظفسو اان‬he said to himself, told himself
that … III to speak, talk ( ‫ عو‬or ‫ ه و‬to s.o.
about s.th.); to discuss ( ‫ ع‬or ‫ ه‬with s.o‫ا‬.
s.th.), converse ( ‫ ع و‬or ‫ ه و‬with s.o.
about); to negotiate, confer (‫ ه‬with s.o.) to
address, accost (‫ ه‬s.o.); to call up (‫ ه‬s.o‫ا‬,.by
telephone) IV to bring forth, produce,
create, originate (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.); to found,
establish (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to bring about, cause,
occasion, provoke, effect (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to drop
excrement │ ‫( ااحودثاحودث‬ḥadatan) to bring
about s.th.; to cause or do s.th., esp., s.th.
evil, do mischief V to speak, talk (‫ ا وو‬to
s.o., ‫ع‬, ‫ ب‬or j about or of s.th.), converse,
chat (‫ ا و‬or ‫ ما‬with s.o., ‫ ع‬to, ‫ ب‬or j about
s.th.) VI to talk with one another,
converse, have a conversation X to renew
(‫ هـ‬s.th.) to buy new (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to introduce,
start, invent, originate, create (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
find or deem (‫ ه‬s.o.) to be young
‫ وا وة‬ḥ. ḳurāfa fabulous story, silly talk;
‫( حووديثالدس و‬qudsī) Muslim tradition in
which God Himself speaks, as opposed to
‫( حوديثاظبوا‬nabawī) an ordinary Prophetic
tradition; ‫ حوديثاا و فس‬ḥ. an-nafs s.th. one
talks o.s. into; premonition
‫ حوودث‬ḥadat pl. ‫ احووداث‬aḥdāt a new,
unprecedented
thing,
a
novelty,
innovation; event, incident, occurrence,
happening; phenomenon; evil symptom;
misdeed; misfortune; ritual impurity (Isl.
Law); excrement, feces; (pl. ‫احوداث‬, ‫حودث ن‬
ḥudtān) young man, youth; ‫ احداث‬juveniles
‫ مح ثوووة‬muḥādata pl. -āt discourse,
conversation, discussion, talk, parley
2
‫ حديث‬ḥadīt pl. ‫ حداث‬ḥidāt, ‫ حودث‬ḥudatā’
new, novel, recent, late; modern; ‫حووديث‬
ḥadītan recently, lately │ ‫ حوديثاا ب و‬ḥ. albinā’ new-built, recently built; ‫ احديثاا سو‬ḥ.
as-sinn young; ‫ حووديثاا عهوود‬ḥ. al-‘ahd of
recent date, recent, new, young; ‫حديثاا عهودا‬
‫ب‬, ‫( حوديثاعهوداب‬ḥ. ‘ahdin) having adopted
or acquired (s.th.) recently; not long
accustomed to (s.th.), inexperienced at
(s.th.), new at (s.th.), newly, e.g., ‫حديثاا عهدا‬
‫( بو اال‬bi-l-wilāda) newborn, ‫حووديثاا غهوودا‬
‫( بو زوا‬bi-z-zawāj) newly wed; ‫كو ناحوديثا‬
‫ ا عهوداببوربو‬he had not known Europe until
recently
‫ حووديث‬ḥadīt pl. ‫ اح يووث‬aḥādīt2, ‫حوودث ن‬
ḥadtān speech; chat, chitchat, small talk;
conversation, talk, discussion; interview;
prattle, gossip; report, account, tale,
narrative; Prophetic tradition, Hadith,
narrative relating deeds and utterances of
the Prophet and his Companions │‫احوديثا‬
‫ حودوث‬ḥudūt setting in (of a state or
condition), occurrence, incidence (of a
phenomenon);
occurrence,
incident,
happening
‫ حداثوة‬ḥadāta newness, recency, novelty;
youth, youthfulness
‫ احداث‬aḥdāt2 newer, more recent
‫ حودث ناا ودهو‬ḥidtān (or ḥadatān) ad-dahr
misfortune, adversities, reverses
‫ احدوثوة‬uḥdūta pl. ‫ اح يوث‬aḥādīt2 speech;
discussion, talk, conversation; chatter;
fabling, fibbing; topic, subject of a
conversation; gossip, rumor (about a
person) │‫ حس ااالحدوثة‬ḥusn al-u. praise (of
s.o.) ‫سوووا ااالحدوثوووة‬
sū’ al-u. slander,
defamation
‫ احوووداث‬iḥdāt production, creatuion,
invention,
origination;
causation,
effectuation 161
‫ا احوووداثي‬iḥdātīyāt (pl.) co-ordinates
(math.) │‫‘( ااحووووداثي اعما يووووة‬amūdīya)
ordinates; ‫( احوداثي اأ قيوة‬ufuqīya) abscissas
(math.)
‫ اسوووأحداث‬istiḥdāt invention, creation,
production, origination
‫ حو ث‬ḥādīt occurring, happening, taking
place; new, recent; fresh; -- (pl. ‫ح واا ث‬
ḥawādit2, also -āt) occurrence, incident,
event, happening; episode; case (jur.)
accident, mishap │‫ احو ثاتزويوو‬a case of
forgery; ‫ مكو ناا ح و ث‬makān al-ḥ. site of
action, scene of the crime, locus delicti
‫ ح ثوووة‬ḥādita pl. ‫ حووواا ث‬ḥawādit2
occurrence, event, happening; plot (of a
play) ; incident, episode; accident, mishap
│‫اح ثةاا موور‬ḥ. al-murūr traffic accident
‫ا محودث‬muḥaddit pl. -ūn speaker, talker;
spokesman;
conversation
partner,
interlocutor; relator, narrator; a transmitter
of Prophetic traditions, traditionary,
‫ م حوودر‬munḥadir descending; lowered,
dipped; slanting, sloping, declivitous
(terrain); declining, waning, being on the
downgrade, in a state of decadence or
decline; run-down, seedy, down-at-theheels, down-and-out
representative of the science or study of
Hadith (see above); O phonograph,
gramophone
‫ مأحدث‬mutaḥaddit spokesman, speaker
‫ مسأحدث‬mustaḥdat new, novel, recent, -(pl. –āt) novelty, innovation; recent
invention, modern product; neologism
‫ حد‬ḥadaja i and II to stare, look sharply (‫هوـ‬, ‫ه‬
at s.o., at s.th., often with ‫ ببصوووه‬bibaṣarihī or ‫ ب روه‬bi-naẓarihī)
‫ حود‬ḥidj pl. ‫ حودو‬ḥudūj,
load, burden, encumbrance
‫ احودا‬aḥdāj
‫ ابااحدي‬abū ḥadīj stork
‫ حداجوة‬ḥidāja pl.
saddle
‫ حوودائ‬ḥadā’ij2 camel
‫ حودر‬ḥadara, ḥadura u (ḥadr, ‫ حودار‬ḥadāra) to
be thick; -- ḥadara u i (ḥadr, ‫ حودر‬ḥudūr)
to bring down, lower (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) to cause (‫هوـ‬
s.th.) to descend; to drop (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to shed
(‫ هوـ‬tears); ‫( حودراحودرا‬ḥadran) to rattle off,
express quickly (an utterance, a thought);
-- (ḥadr) to come down, step down,
descend; to glide down, swoop II to drop
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.) to lower, inclines, dip (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) V
to descend gradually; to glide down; to
come down, descend; to flow down
(tears); to derive, stem, originate ( ‫ م‬from)
VII to come or go down, descend; to glide
down, sink down; to be in decline, be on
the downgrade, to decline, wane; to flow
down (tears); to slope down, slant down,
be inclined (terrain); to come (‫ ا ووو‬to a
place), arrive (‫ ا و‬at)
‫ م حدر‬munḥadar pl. -āt depression; slope,
talus, incline, descent, declivity; fall (of a
river)
‫ حدس‬ḥadata i u (ḥadt) to surmise, guess,
conjecture (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ حدس‬ḥadt surmise, guess, conjecture; O
intuition 162
□‫ حووداا‬ḥaddāf (‫)ح ولاا‬,
shuttle (weaving)
□ ‫هووو ر احدا وووة‬
flywheel
1
‫ اظحوووودار‬inḥidār slant, dip, pitch,
inclination, decent, slope; declivity; fall
(of a river); decline, waning; ruin, decay,
decadence
‫ ح ر‬ḥādir thick
‫ مأحودر‬mutaḥaddir descending, slanting,
sloping downward
(syr.)
‫ احود‬ḥadaqa i (ḥadq) to surround, encircle,
encompass (‫ ب‬s.o., s.th.); (with ‫ بعي و‬bi‘ainihī) to look, glance (‫ ه‬at s.o.) II to
look, glance, gaze, stare (‫ ا وو‬or ‫ و‬at, also
‫(احوود اا روووا و │ )ب‬naẓara) to fix one’s
glance on … IV to surround, encircle,
encompass, enclose (‫ ب‬s.o., s.th.); to look,
glance ( , ‫ ا و‬or ‫ ب‬at) │ ‫ااحد اا رواا رووا و‬
(naẓara) to fix one’s glance on …
‫ حديقة‬ḥadīqa pl. ‫ حدائق‬ḥadā’iq2 garden │‫ا‬
‫ حديقوةاا حيااظو‬ḥ. al-ḥayawānāt zoological
garden, zoo
‫احوووووووووودا‬
iḥdāq
encompassment (‫ ب‬of)
‫ووووامحووود‬
danger
downgrade,
‫ تحوودرا‬taḥaddur descent, slant, slope,
inclination, incline, declivity
ṭāra ḥaddāfa
‫ حدلوة‬ḥadaqa pl. -āt, ‫ حود‬ḥadaq, ‫حودا‬
ḥidāq, ‫ احودا‬aḥdāq pupil (of the eye); pl.
‫ احدا‬glances
‫ حودر‬ḥadr rapid recitation of the Koran
(a terminus technicus of tajwīd)
‫ حووووودور‬ḥadūr slope,
declivity, declivitous terrain
‫( حووداااا م و كا‬syr.)
2
encirclement,
ḳaṭar muḥdiq imminent
□ ‫ حود‬II (= ‫ )حود‬to make acid, sour, tart, or
sharp (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
□
‫ حو‬ḥādiq (=
sharp (taste)
‫ )حو‬sour, tart, acid,
‫ حودل‬ḥadala i to flatten, level, even, roll (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); (ḥadl, ‫ حودول‬ḥudūl) to treat unjustly
(‫ علو‬s.o.)
‫ محد وة‬miḥdala pl. ‫ محمودل‬maḥādil2 roller,
steamroller
‫ حودم‬VIII to burn, glow, blaze; to burn up, be
consumed by fire; to flare up, break out
(fight); to be furious, burn with wrath (‫علوو‬
at, over), also ‫( احأدماغير‬gaiẓan)
‫ احأدام‬iḥtidām paroxysm
‫ محمووودم‬muḥtadim furious, infuriated,
enraged
‫ حد‬ḥida see ‫وحد‬
1
2
□ ‫ حدو‬ḥidwa horseshoe
(‫ حودو‬and ‫ حودا )حودى‬ḥadā u (ḥadw, ‫ حودا‬ḥudā’,
ḥidā’ to urge forward by singing (‫هووـ‬
camels); to urge, spur on, egg on, prompt,
instigate, induce, move (‫ ب‬or ‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ ا وو‬to
s.th., to do s.th.); ‫ حدااب‬to instigate s.th.; to
sway, rock, roll (rider, camel); to swing
along, rock along (in riding) │‫حداابهماا حديثا‬
‫ ا و‬their conversation led them to …; ‫غو ا‬
‫( تحوودىاا ي و اا وك ئووب‬garaḍun tuḥdā) a goal
much sought after or worth striving for V
to compete, vie (‫ ه‬with s.o.); to challenge,
provoke (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.); to defy, oppose,
resist, withstand (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.), stand up
(‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬against s.o., against s.th.) to incite,
stimulate, arouse, animate, sharpen (‫هووـ‬
s.th.; ‫ كو ه‬dakā’ahū s.o.’s intellect); to
intend (‫ هوـ‬s.th., to do s.th.), be bent (‫ هوـ‬on
doing s.th.)
‫ حوووودا‬ḥudā’ animating
chanting of the caravan leader
singsong,
‫ حدا‬ḥaddā’ camel driver, cameleer
‫ احودو‬uḥduwa, ‫ احديوة‬uḥdīya song of the
camel drivers
‫ تحوود‬taḥaddin pl.
challenge, provocation
‫ تحوودي‬taḥaddiyāt
‫ حو‬ḥādin pl. ‫ حودا‬ḥudāh caravan leader
(who urges the camels forward by
singing); camel driver, cameleer; leader
‫ مأحد‬mutaḥaddin challenger, provoker
1
2
3
‫ حود‬ḥadiya a to remain, stay (‫ ب‬at a place),
stick (‫ ب‬to a place)
‫ ح ىاعشو‬see ‫احد‬
□ ‫ حداية‬ḥidāya, ḥiddāya = ‫ حدأ‬ḥid’a
‫ حولر‬ḥadira a (ḥidr, ḥadar) to be cautious,
wary, to beware ( ‫ مو‬or ‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬of s.o., of
s.th.), be on one’s guard ( ‫ م و‬or ‫هووـ‬, ‫ه‬
against) II to warn, caution ( ‫ ه مو‬s.o. of or
about), put (‫ ه‬s.o.) on his guard ( ‫م و‬
against) III to watch out, be 163 careful;
to be on one’s guard (‫ ه‬against), be wary (‫ه‬
of s.o.) V to beware, be wary ( ‫ مو‬of) VIII
=I
‫ حووووولر‬ḥidr and ḥadar caution,
watchfulness,
alertness,
wariness,
circumspection; precaution │‫ا وووولاحوووولره‬
(ḥadarahū) to be on one’s guard; ‫علوواجولر‬
‘alā ḥadarin cautiously, warily; on one’s
guard ( ‫ م‬against)
‫ حلر‬ḥadir cautious, wary
‫ حلار‬ḥadārī beware (‫ ان‬of doing …, ‫م‬
of s.th.)! watch out ( ‫ م‬for)! be careful ( ‫مو‬
of)!
‫ تحوليو‬taḥdīr warning, cautioning ( ‫ مو‬of,
against)
‫امح و ر‬muḥādara caution, precaution,
precautionary measure
‫ محولور‬maḥdūr that of which one should
beware, against which one should guard;
object of caution; -- (pl. -āt) danger, peril;
trouble, difficulty, misfortune
‫ حولا‬ḥadafa i (ḥadf) to shorten, clip, curtail (‫هوـ‬
or ‫ م‬s.th.); to take s.th. away, cut s.th. off,
clip s.th. off ( ‫ مو‬from s.th.), reduce ( ‫مو‬
s.th.), strike or cross s.th. ( ‫ مو‬off s.th.); to
cancel, strike out, delete, drop, leave out,
omit, suppress (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); (gram.) to elide,
apocopate, drop by aphaeresis; to deduct,
subtract (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to throw (‫ ه ب‬at s.o.
s.th.), pelt (‫ ه ب‬s.o. with s.th.); to cast
away, throw away, discard (‫ ب‬s.th.) II to
clip, trim (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to give (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) shape,
to trim, clip, or cut (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) into proper
shape
‫ حولا‬ḥadf shortening, curtailing, cutting
off,
trimming,
etc.;
canceling,
cancellation, striking off, crossing off,
deletion; omission, dropping, suppression;
(gram.) elision, ellipsis, apocopation
‫ حولا يو‬ḥadāfīr2: ‫ ا ولهابحولا يوه‬he took all of it, he
took it lock, stock and barrel
‫ حل‬ḥadiqa a, ḥadaqa i (ḥidq, ‫ حلالوة‬ḥadāqa) to
be skilled, skillful, well-versed, proficient
(‫ هوـ‬or ‫ و‬in s.th.), master (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); -ḥadaqa u ( ‫ حولو‬ḥudūq) to turn sour (milk)
V to feign skillfulness, proficiency,
cleverness or smartness
‫ حووول‬ḥidq and ‫ حلالوووة‬ḥadāqa skill,
dexterity,
proficiency;
smartness,
cleverness,
intelligence;
sagacity, acumen
perspicacity,
‫ ح و‬ḥādiq pl. ‫ حوولا‬ḥuddāq skillful,
skilled, proficient; well-versed, clever,
smart; intelligent; sour
‫ حول ق‬II taḥadlaqa to pretend to be clever or
skilful, feign skiIl or knowledge; to be
pedantic
‫ حل قة‬ḥadlaqa skillfulness, dexterity
‫ حلاايحولوة‬ḥadā u: ‫( حولااحولوه‬ḥadwahū) to imitate
s.o., take after s.o., follow s.o.’s example
III to be opposite s.th. (‫ )هـ‬face, parallel (‫هـ‬
s.th.), run parallel (‫ هوـ‬to) VI to be opposite
each other, be parallel VIII to imitate,
copy (‫ ب‬or ‫ علو‬s.o. s.th., also ‫ هـ‬s.th.), take
or follow (‫ ب‬or ‫ علوو‬s.o., s.th., also ‫ هوـ‬s.th.)
as an example or model; to be shod; to
wear (‫ هـ‬s.th.) as footgear
‫ حلو‬ḥadwa (prep.) opposite, face to face
with │‫ حلو اا علاب عول‬ḥadwaka n-na‘la bin-na‘li in a completely identical manner,
to a T, like two peas in a pod
‫ حولا‬ḥidā’ pl. ‫ احليوة‬aḥdiya shoe; sandal
│‫ ص ظ اادحلية‬shoemaker
‫ حولا‬ḥidā’a (prep.) and ‫ بحولا‬bi-ḥidā’i
opposite, face to face with
‫ حلا‬ḥaddā’ shoemaker, cobbler
‫‘ علوو ) و ( محو ا‬alā (fī) muḥādāti along,
alongside of, parallel to
‫ احألا‬iḥtidā’ imitation, copying
‫ مح‬muḥādin opposite, facing
‫ حو‬ḥarra u i (ḥarr, ‫ حوار‬ḥarāra) to be hot II to
liberate (‫ ه‬s.o.); to free, set free, 164
release (‫ ه‬s.o.); to emancipate (‫ ه‬s.o.); to
consecrate (‫ ه‬s.o.) to the service of God; to
clarify, clear up, make clear (‫ ه‬s.th.); to
formulate precisely, phrase accurately,
define exactly, pinpoint (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to revise
(‫ هوـ‬a book); to edit, redact (‫ هوـ‬a book, a
periodical); to write, pen, indite, compose,
compile (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) V to become free; to be
freed, be liberated ( ‫ مووو‬from); to be
emancipated VIII to be kindled, be heated,
flare up
‫ حو‬ḥarr heat, warmth
‫ حوو‬ḥurr pl. m. ‫ احووار‬aḥrār, pl. f. ‫حوائوو‬
ḥarā’ir2 noble, free-bom; genuine (jewels,
etc.), pure, unadulterated; free; living in
freedom; freeman; independent; free
unrestrained; liberal (pol.; ‫ االحووووار‬the
Liberals); frank, candid, open (‫ علوو‬toward
s.o.); free, available, uninvested (money)
│‫( االحأيووو هاا حوووو‬ihtiyaṭī) free reserves,
unencumbered reserves; ‫ م و احوووام و‬min
ḥurr mālihī with his own cash, with funds
at his disposal
‫ حوو‬ḥarra pl. -āt stony area; volcanic
country, lava field
‫ حويوة‬ḥurrīya pl. -āt freedom, liberty;
independence, unrestraint, license (e.g.,
poetic) │ ‫ احويوةاا عبو‬ḥ. al-‘ibāda freedom
of worship; ‫ حويوةاا فكوو‬ḥ. al-fikr freedom of
thought; ‫ حويوةاا كوالم‬ḥ. al-kalām freedom of
speech; ‫( حويوةاا شوو‬or‫ )اا صوح ة‬ḥ. an-našr
(aṣ-ṣiḥafa) liberty of the press
‫ حويو‬ḥarīr silk; pl. ‫ حوائوو‬ḥarā’ir2 (‫)حوايوو‬
silken wares, silks │ ‫( حويووواص و و‬ṣaḳrī)
asbestos; ‫ حويواص ع‬rayon
‫ حويو‬ḥarīrī silken, silky, of silk
‫ حوائووووو‬ḥarā’irī silken, silkcompounds), of silk; silk weaver
(in
‫ حوار‬ḥarrār ssailk weaver
‫ حووار‬ḥarāra heat; warmth; fever heat,
fever; temperature; ardor, fervor (of
emotion), passion; eagerness, enthusiasm,
zeal; vehemence, violence, intensity;
burning (of the skin)
‫ حويو‬ḥuraira pl. -āt calorie
‫ حووار‬ḥarārī thermal, thermic, thermo-,
heat (used attributively); caloric │‫وحوود ا‬
‫( حوارية‬waḥda) calorie
O ‫ حوارية‬ḥarārīya pl. -āt calorie
‫ حووور‬ḥarūr f., pl. ‫ حوائوو‬ḥarā’ir2 hotwind
‫ حووان‬ḥarrān2, f. ‫ حووى‬ḥarrā, pl. ‫حوووار‬
ḥirār, ‫ حوووارى‬ḥarārā thirsty; passionate,
fervent, hot (fig.) │‫( ز ووو احوووى‬zafra) a
fervent sigh; ‫ ما احوى‬hot tears
‫ احوو‬aḥarr2 hotter, warmer │‫علووااحووامو ا‬
‫( ا جمووو‬jamr) on pins and needles, on
tenterhooks, in greatest suspense or
excitement
O ‫ محوو‬miḥarr heating system, heating
installation
‫ تحويوووووو‬taḥrīr liberation; release;
emancipation;
record(ing),
writing;
editing, redaction; editorship (of a
newspaper, a periodical); (pl. -āt, ‫تحو ريو‬
taḥārīr2) piece of writing, record, brief,
document │ ‫ رئوويساا أحويووو‬editor-in-chief;
‫ ا ار اا أحويو‬board of editors, editorial staff
‫ محووواب‬miḥrāb pl. ‫ مح و رب‬maḥārib2 a
recess in a mosque indicating the direction
of prayer, prayer niche, mihrab
‫تحويوووووووووو‬
taḥrīrī
liberational;
emancipational; liberal; recorded in
writing, written, in writing
‫ مح و رب‬muḥārib warring, belligerent;
warrior, combatant, fighter; corporal (Eg.
1939)
‫ حو ر‬ḥār hot; warm; ardent, glowing,
fervent, passionate
‫ ا مأحو ربان‬al-mutaḥāribūn the belligerents, the
warring parties
‫ محووووور‬maḥrūr hot-tempered,
headed, fiery, passionate, furious
hot-
‫ حوباشووة‬ḥarbūša pl. ‫( حوووابش‬ḥarābiš2 (tun.)
pastille, pill
‫ محوووور‬muḥarrir pl. -ūn liberator,
emancipator; writer, clerk; editor (of a
newspaper, of a periodical)
‫ حووث‬ḥarata i u (ḥart) to plow (‫ هوـ‬the soil); to
cultivate, till (‫ هـ‬the ground)
‫ محوور‬muḥarrar consecrated to God; let
down in writing, recorded in writing,
written; booked; pl.
‫ محوووورا‬booking,
entries
‫ مأحوووور‬mutaḥarrir emancipated; an
advocate of emancipation 165
‫ حووب‬ḥariba a (ḥarab) to be furious, enraged,
angry III to fight, combat (‫ ه‬s.o.) battle,
wage war (‫ ه‬against s.o.) VI to fight (one
another), be engaged in war VIII = VI
‫( حووب‬ḥarb f., pl. ‫ حوووب‬ḥurūb war, warfare;
fight, combat, battle; enemy, enemies (‫علوو‬
or ‫ ل‬of s.o.) │‫( احووبااهليوة‬ahlīya) civil war;
‫( حووباصوح ية‬ṣiḥāfīya) press feud; ‫ا حوووبا‬
‫( ا صووليبية‬ṣalībīya) the Crusades; ‫ا حوووبا‬
‫‘( ا عرمووو‬uẓmā), ‫‘( ا حوووباا ع ميووة‬ālamīya),
‫‘( ا حووباا ع موة‬āmma) World War I; ‫كشوفتا‬
‫ ا حووباعو اسو له‬kašafat il-ḥarbu ‘an sāqihā
and ‫ ل مووتاا حوووباعلووواسو‬qāmat il-ḥ. ‘alā
sāqin war flared up, fierce fighting broke
out
‫حوبووووو‬
ḥarbī
warlike,
bellicose,
belligerent, martial, war (adj.), military;
(pl. -ūn) warrior, soldier, military man │‫ا‬
‫( ا با يساا حوب‬būlīs) military police
‫ حوبوة‬ḥarba pl. ‫ حوواب‬ḥirāb lance, spear;
spearhead; bayonet, sidearm
‫ حوبوووو‬ḥirbā’
chameleon (zool.)
pl.
‫حوابووووو‬
ḥarābīy
‫ وااحوبو ه‬wā ḥarabāh! (exclamation of
lament) alas! goodness no! oh my!
‫ مح ربوووة‬muḥāraba struggle, combat,
fight, battle; warfare
‫ احأواب‬iḥtirāb mutual struggle
‫ حووووث‬ḥart plowing, tilling, tillage,
cultivation of the soil; arable land, tilth;
plantation, culture
‫ حوثة‬ḥarta (n. un.) arable land, tilth
‫ حواثووة‬ḥirāta cultivation of the soil,
farming, agriculture
‫ حواث‬ḥarrāt plowman
‫ محواثا‬miḥrāt pl. ‫ مح رث‬maḥārit2 plow
‫ حو رث‬ḥārit pl. ‫ حوواث‬ḥurrāt plowman
│‫ ابااا ح رث‬abū l-ḥārit lion
‫ حوو‬ḥarija a (ḥaraj) to be close, tight narrow;
to be straitened, be confined, get into a
strait, be cornered, be hard pressed; to be
oppressed, be anguished (heart); to be
forbidden (‫ علوو‬to s.o.) ‫ا‬to narrow, tighten,
straiten (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to complicate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.),
make (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) difficult; to forbid (‫هوـ علوو‬
s.th. to s.o.); to persist (J in s.th.) IV to
narrow, straiten, confine, cramp. hamper,
impede, restrict (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to complicate,
make difficult, aggravate, jeopardize (‫هووـ‬
situation, s.o.’s position); to embarrass (‫ه‬
s.o.); to coerce, constrain, press (‫ ه ا وو‬s.o.
to); to forbid (‫ هوـ علوو‬s.th. to s.o.) V to
refrain from sin or evildoing; to abstain,
refrain ( ‫ مو‬from), avoid ( ‫ مو‬s.th.); to be
cornered, be forced to the wall; to become
or be oppressed, anguished, distressed; to
become critical, become complicated or
difficult, be aggravated (situation), be
jeopardized (s.o.’s position) │‫تحوو اصودرها‬
‫( مو ايبة‬ṣadruhū) to feel depressed by, feel
annoyed at; ‫ تحوو ابو اا و س‬this made things
difficult for people
‫( حووووو‬ḥaraj closeness, tightness,
narrowness;
confinement,
straitness.
constriction, crampedness; restriction,
impediment; oppression, distress, anguish;
difficulty; critical situation; prohibition,
interdiction;
s.th.
forbidden,
s.th.
interdicted, sin │ ‫( الاحوو‬ḥaraja) there is
no 166 objection; ‫ الاحووو اعليوول‬nothing
stands in your way, you are at liberty
‫ حوو‬ḥaraj (coll.; n. un. ) pl. -āt, ‫حوو‬
ḥirāj, ‫ احوووا‬aḥrāj thicket; dense forest;
woodland, timberland
‫ حووووو‬ḥarij narrow, close, tight,
confined, straitened; oppressed, hard
pressed, harassed; critical (situation,
position)
‫ احوو‬aḥrāj2 narrower, closer, tighter,
more straitened; more critical
‫ حوا‬ḥarāg (eg.) auction
‫ حواجوووة‬ḥarāja seriousness, gravity,
difficulty, complicatedness (of a situation)
‫ تحوي‬taḥrīj forestation, afforestation
‫ حوووووو‬taḥarruj restraint, reserve,
aloofness; timidity, diffidence, faintheartedness; critical complication, gravity,
difficulty (of a situation)
‫ حوو‬muḥarrijāt: ‫ محوجو اااليمو ن‬m. alaimān binding, committing, or solemn,
oaths
‫محوووووووووو‬
embarrassing
muḥrij
disconcerting,
‫ مأحوو‬mutaḥarrij: ‫ مأحوو اا صودر‬m. aṣṣadr
annoyed,
vexed,
anguished,
oppressed
‫ حوووو‬ḥarida a (ḥarad) to be annoyed,
disgruntled, angry, furious (‫ علو‬at, with)
‫ حو ر‬ḥārid, ‫ حوو‬ḥarid and ‫ حوو ان‬ḥardān
annoyed, disgruntled, angry, furious
‫ حو ون‬ḥardaun pl. ‫ حوا ي‬ḥarādīn2 lizard
‫ حووز‬ḥaraza u (ḥarz) to keep, guard, protect,
preserve (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), take care (‫ هوـ‬of); -ḥaruza u ( ‫ حوواز‬ḥarāza) to be strong be
strongly fortified, be impregnable IV to
keep, preserve, guard (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to obtain,
attain, achieve, win (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) │‫ااحووزاظصوواا‬
‫( ياظأصو راة‬naṣran) to win a victory; ‫احووزا‬
‫( لصوووباا سوووبق‬qaṣaba s-sabq) to come
through with flying colors, carry the day,
score a great success V to be wary ( ‫ مو‬of),
be on one’s guard ( ‫ مو‬against) VIII to be
wary ( ‫ مو‬of), guard, be on one’s guard ( ‫مو‬
against), be careful, take heed, take
precautions
‫ حوووز‬pl. ‫ احووواز‬aḥrāz fortified place;
refuge, sanctuary, retreat; custody; (pl.
‫احواز‬, ‫ )حووز‬amulet
‫ حويوز‬ḥarīz strongly fortified, guarded;
inaccessible, impregnable
‫ احووواز‬iḥrāz acquisition, acquirement,
obtainment, attainment, achievement,
winning, gaining
‫ احأوواز‬iḥtirāz pl. -āt caution, wariness,
prudence, circumspection; reservation,
reserve │‫ بكلااالحأواز‬with all reservation
O ‫ ح رز‬ḥāriza fuse (el.)
‫ محووز‬muḥriz obtainer, acquirer, winner,
gainer; possessor, holder (‫ علو‬of s.th.)
‫ حووس‬ḥarasa u (ḥars, ‫ حواسوة‬ḥirāsa) to guard,
watch, control (‫ه‬, ‫ هوـ‬s.th., s.o.); to oversee,
supervise, superintend (‫ه‬, ‫ هوـ‬s.th., s.o.); to
secure, protect, safeguard, preserve, keep
(‫ه‬, ‫ هـ‬s.th., s.o.); to watch (‫ علوو‬over) V and
VIII to beware, be wary ( ‫ مو‬of), guard, be
on one’s guard ( ‫ م‬against)
‫ حووووس‬ḥaras watch; guard, escort;
bodyguard │‫( ا حووساا سوي ر‬sayyār) militia,
"garde mobile" (syr.) │‫ حووساا شووا‬ḥ. aššaraf honor guard; ‫( ا حووساا ملكو‬malakī)
the royal guard (formerly Ir., Eg.); ‫ا حووسا‬
‫( ا ملواك‬mulūkī) (formerly) bodyguard of
the Bey (Tun.); ‫( ا حووساا واه‬waṭanī) the
National Guard
‫ حواسووووة‬ḥirāsa guarding, watching,
control; watch, guard, guard duty;
supervision,
superintendence;
guardianship, tutelage, custody, care,
protection;
safe
conduct,
escort;
administration; administration of an estate
(jur.); sequester │‫ حواسةاا سااحل‬coast guard
167
‫ احأووووواس‬iḥtirās caution, wariness,
prudence;
(pl.
-āt)
precaution,
precautionary measure │ ‫ احأواسووو امووو‬for
protection from or against
‫ ح و رس‬ḥāris pl. ‫ حوسووة‬ḥarasa, ‫حووواس‬
ḥurrās vigilant, watchful; watchman;
sentry,
sentinel,
guard;
overseer,
supervisor, superintendent; administrator;
guardian, custodian, keeper, protector,
tutelary (in compounds) │‫ حو رساا أوكووة‬ḥ.
at-tirka administrator of aD estate; ‫حو رسا‬
‫ ا ااتم‬keeper of the seal; ‫ حو رساا موموو‬ḥ. almarmā goal keeper; ‫( حو رسال و ئ‬qaḍā’ī)
sequestrator, receiver (in bankruptcy, in
equity); ‫( موووال احووو رس‬mal’ak) guardian
angel (Chr.); ‫ ح و رساا ليوول‬ḥ. al-lail night
watchman
‫ حوو‬II to goad, prod, spur on, egg on, incite,
rouse, provoke (‫ ه علوو‬s.o. to s.th. or to do
s.th.); to instigate, abet, stir up, agitate
(‫ ه علو‬s.o. to or against); O to induce (el.)
‫ محوووس‬maḥrūs guarded, safeguarded,
secured; protected (by God; esp. used ss
an epithet after the names of cities);
‫ ا محوسان‬the children, the family
‫ تحوي ووو‬taḥrīḍī inciting, instigative,
agitative, inflammatory; provocative
‫ محأوس‬muḥtaris cautious, wary, careful
‫ حووش‬ḥaraša i (ḥarš) to scratch (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.)
II to instigate, prod, incite, provoke,
incense (‫ ه‬s.o.); to set ( ‫ بوي‬people against
each other), sow discord, dissension ( ‫بوي‬
among) V to pick a quarrel, start a brawl
(‫ ب‬with s.o.) provoke (‫ ب‬s.o.)
‫ حووش‬ḥirš, ḥurš pl. ‫ احوواش‬aḥrāš, ‫حوووش‬
ḥurūš forest, wood(s)
‫ حوووش‬ḥariš and ‫ احوووش‬aḥraš, rough,
coarse, scabrous
‫ حووش‬ḥaraš, ‫ حوشوة‬ḥurša, ‫ حواشوة‬ḥarāša
roughness, coarseness, scabrousness
‫ تحوووويش‬taḥrīš instigation, prodding,
incitement,
provocation,
agitation,
incensement
‫تحوووووووووش‬
taḥarruš
importunity,
obtrusion,
uncalled-for interference
provocation,
meddling,
‫ حوشف‬ḥaršaf pl. ‫ حواشف‬ḥarāšif2 scales (of fish)
‫ حووص‬ḥaraṣa i and ḥariṣa a (ḥirṣ) to desire,
want, covet (‫ علوو‬s.th.); to be intent, be
bent (‫ علوو‬on); to strive (‫ علوو‬for), aspire
(‫ علو‬to)
‫ حوووص‬ḥirṣ greed, avidity, cupidity,
covetousness; desire; aspiration, endeavor,
wish (‫ علوو‬for); avarice │‫ حوصو اعلوو‬in the
desire for …, in the endeavor to …; ‫حوصو ا‬
‫ علوااالرواح‬danger! (on warning signs)
‫ حووويص‬ḥarīṣ pl. ‫ حووواص‬ḥirāṣ, ‫حوص و‬
ḥuraṣā’2 covetous, greedy, avid, eager
(‫ علو‬for); bent (‫ علو‬on), desirous (‫ علو‬of)
‫ احوص‬aḥraṣ more covetous, greedier
‫ تحووي‬taḥrīḍ incitement, provocation;
instigation, abetment, agitation (‫ علووو‬to);
inflammatory propaganda (‫ علوووو‬against
s.o.); O induction (el.) │ ‫ اتحووي ا اتو‬selfinduction (el.)
‫ ح ر‬ḥāriḍ bad, wicked, evil
‫ محوو‬muḥarriḍ pl. -ūn inciter, baiter;
instigator, abettor; demagogue, rabble
rouser; agitator, provocator; O inductor
(el.)
‫ مأحو‬mutaḥarriḍ O induced (el.)
‫ حوووا‬II to slant, incline, make oblique (‫هووـ‬
s.th.); to bend off, up, down or back, turn
up, down or back, deflect (‫هووـ‬s.th.); to
distort,
corrupt,
twist,
pervert,
misconstrue, falsify (‫ هووـ‬s.th.) │‫حو و اع و ا‬
‫‘( ماضوع‬an mauḍi‘ihī) to distort the sense
of 168 s.th., rob s.th. of its true meaning V
to turn off, branch off, take a turning; to
deviate, depart, digress ( ‫ ع و‬from); to
avoid ( ‫ عو‬s.th.); to be or become bent off,
distorted, corrupted, perverted VII to tum
off, branch off, ta.ke a turning; to deviate,
depart, digress, turn away ( ‫ عو‬from); to
slope down, slant, be inclined (terrain); to
turn (‫ ا ووو‬to, toward); to be twisted, be
distorted; to be oblique, slanting; to be
cocked, rakish (headgear); with ‫ ب‬to make
s.th. appear oblique, slanted, or distorted;
to be corrupted, perverted │ ‫ ااظحوااب اع‬to
dissuade s.o. from; ‫( اظحوواامزاجو‬mizājuhū)
to be indisposed, be ill VIII to do (‫ هوـ‬s.th.)
professionally, practice (‫ هووـ‬s.th.) as a
profession; to strive for success
‫ حووا‬ḥarf pl. ‫ حووا‬ḥiraf (cutting) edge
(of a knife, of a sword); sharp edge;
border, edge, rim, brink, verge; -- (pl.
‫ حووا‬ḥurūf, ‫ احوا‬aḥruf) letter; consonant;
particle (gram.); type (typ.) │‫علووواحوووا‬
irresolute, wavering, on the fence; ‫ا ف ظو ا‬
‫ بحوو ه و‬alfāẓuhū bi-ḥurūfihā his words
literally; ‫ ب و حوا‬or ‫ بو حوااا ااحوود‬literally,
verbatim, to the letter; ‫ حو و ابحووا‬ḥarfan
bi-ḥarfin literally, word for word; ‫ولوواا‬
‫( ب و الحوااااالو ووو‬waqqa‘a, ūlā) to initial
(e.g., ‫ مع هد‬mu‘āhadatan a treaty); ‫ا حوواا‬
‫( االبجديووة‬abjadīya) the alphabetic letters,
the alphabet; ‫ حووواامجماعوة‬matter (typ.);
‫( ا حووووااا شمسووية‬šamsīya) the sun letters
(i.e., sibilants, dentals, r, l, n to which the l
of the article assimilates), ‫ا حووووااا قمويووة‬
(qamarīya) the moon letters (to which the
l of the article does not assimilate); ‫حوواا‬
‫ ا جوو‬ḥ al-jarr preposition (gram.) ‫حووواا‬
‫ ا فو‬ḥ al-ḳafḍ do.; ‫ حووااا أعويوف‬article
(gram.); ‫ حووااا ع وف‬ḥ al-‘aṭf coordinating
conjunction
(gram.);
‫حووووووواااالسووووووأفه م‬
interrogative particle (gram.); ‫ حووااا قسوم‬ḥ.
al-qasam particle introducing oaths
(gram.)
‫ حو‬ḥarfī literal
‫ حووا‬ḥurf common garden pepper cress
(Lepidium sativum L.; bot.)
‫ حو وة‬ḥirfa pl. ‫ حوووا‬ḥiraf profession,
occupation, vocation, business, craft, trade
‫ حويوف‬ḥarīf pl. ‫ حو و‬ḥurafā’2 customer,
patron, client (tun.)
‫ حويف‬ḥirrīf pungent, acrid (taste);
spicy food, delicacies
‫حويفو‬
‫ حوا ة‬ḥarāfa pungency, acridity (taste)
‫ تحويوف‬taḥrīf pl. -āt alteration, change;
distortion; perversion, corruption, esp.
phonetic corruption of a word
‫ اظحووووواا‬inḥirāf pl. -āt deviation,
digression;
obliqueness,
obliquity,
inclination, slant; declination (astrom.);
ailment, indisposition, also ‫اظحواااا مزا‬
‫ احأوواا‬iḥtirāf professional pursuit (of a
trade, etc.)
‫ محوا‬muḥarraf corrupted (word)
‫ م حوووووا‬munḥarif oblique; slanted,
slanting, sloping, inclined; distorted,
perverted, corrupted, twisted; deviating,
divergent; trapezium (geom.)
‫ محأوواا‬muḥtarif one gainfully employed
(‫ ب‬in), person doing s.th. (‫)ب‬
professionally; professional,
a
pro
(sports); professional (adj.), e.g., ‫صوح ا‬
‫( محأووووا‬ṣiḥāfī) professional journalist;
climber, careerist
‫ محأوا‬muḥtaraf pl. -āt studio, atelier
‫ حوو‬ḥaraqa i (ḥarq) to burn (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to burn,
hurt, sting, smart │ ‫( حوو اللبو‬qalbahū), pl.
‫( حوو اللوابهم‬qulūbahum) to vex, exasperate
s.o.; -- u (ḥarq) to rub together (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) II
to burn (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); ‫( حوو ااسو ظ‬asnānahū) to
gnash one’s teeth V to burn (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
destroy by fire (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to singe, scorch,
parch (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to scald (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to kindle,
ignite, set on fire (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) │‫ااحوو ا حموةا يلو ا‬
‫( و‬faḥmata lailihī) to spend the night
doing 169 (s.th.), burn the midnight oil
over… V to burn, be aflame, burn up, take
fire, he consumed hy fire, he burned; to be
consumed (by an emotion), pine away (‫هوـ‬
with), he pained (‫ هوـ‬by), eat one’s heart
out │ ‫( تحوو اشوال‬šauqan) to be overcome
with longing or nostalgia VIII to burn, be
aflame, burn up, take fire, be consumed by
fire, he burned
‫ حوووووو‬ḥarq burning, incineration,
combustion; kindling, igniting, setting
afire; arson, incendiarism; pl. ‫ حووو‬ḥurūq
burn (med.)
‫ حو‬ḥaraq fire, conflagration
‫ حولوة‬ḥurqa, ḥarqa burning, incineration,
combustion; stinging, smarting, burning
(as a physical sensation); torture, torment,
agony, pain, ordeal
‫ حوا‬ḥurāq, ḥurraq tinder
‫ حوا‬ḥarrāq hurning, aflame, afire; hot
‫ حويوق‬ḥarīq and ‫ حويقوة‬pl. ‫ حوائوق‬ḥarā’iq2
fire; conflagration
O‫ احوالةا‬ḥarrāqa torpedo
‫ حولوووو ن‬ḥaraqān burning, stinging,
smarting (as a painful sensation; e.g., of
the feet)
O ‫ محووو‬maḥraq pl.
focus (phys.)
‫ مح و ر‬maḥāriq2
‫ تح و ريق‬taḥārīq2 (Eg.) season of the
Nile’s lowest water level, hottest season
of the year
‫ احوا‬burning, incineration, combustion
‫ تحوووو‬taḥarruq buming, combustion;
burning desire
‫ احأووا‬iḥtirāq burning, combustion; fire,
conflagration │O ‫ غو وةااالحأووا‬gurfat al-i.
combustion chamber (techn.); ‫ل بولااالحأووا‬
qābil al-i. combustible
‫ ح ر‬ḥāriq arsonist, incendiary
‫ محووووووو‬maḥrūq burned, charred,
scorched, parched; reddish, hronzecolored; pl. ‫ محوولو‬maḥrūqāt fuel │‫ا و را‬
‫(محوو‬faḳḳār) fired clay
‫ محوووو‬muḥriq: ‫( ل بلوووةامحولوووة‬qunbula)
incendiary bomb
‫ محولة‬maḥraqa burnt sacrifice
‫ حولد‬ḥarqada pl. ‫ حوالد‬ḥarāqid2 Adam’s apple
‫ حولفوة‬ḥarqafa pl. ‫ حوالووف‬ḥarāqif2 protruding
part of the hipbone
‫ حوو‬II to move, set in motion, drive, propel,
operate (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to march, move (‫ه‬
troops); to stir (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to start, get
started, get underway (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to agitate,
excite, stimulate (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.); to incite,
instigate, goad, prod, provoke, actuate,
urge (‫ ه علوو‬s.o. to do s.th.); to awaken,
arouse, foment, stir up (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to vowel,
vowelize (gram., ‫ هوـ‬a consonant) │‫حوو ا‬
‫( مشو عوه‬mašā‘irahū) to grip, excite, thrill
s.o.; ‫ حوو اا عااهوف‬to affect the feelings, be
touching, moving, pathetic; ‫الايحووو اس و ك‬
(sākinan) he doesn’t budge, he doesn’t
hend his little finger, he remains
immobile, apathetic; ‫( حوو اسو ك‬sākinahū)
to rouse s.o., put s.o. in a state of
excitement, commotion or agitation V to
move, be in motion, stir, hudge; to start
moving, get moving; to start out, get
underway (traveler); to depart, leave
(train); to put out, to sail (fleet); to he set
in motion, be driven, be operated; to be
agitated, be excited, be stimulated; to be
awakened, be roused, be fomented, be
provoked, be caused
‫ حووو‬ḥarik lively, active, brisk, agile,
nimble
movement,
exercise;
procedure,
enterprise;
O ‫ حوك‬ḥarakī kinetic (phys.)
‫ حوا‬ḥarāk movement, motion
O ‫ محو‬muḥraq crematory
‫ حوكوة‬ḥaraka pl. -āt
commotion; physical
impulse; proceeding,
action, undertaking,
170 operation; continuation, progress;
traffic (rail, ohipplng, otreet); movement
(as a social phenomenon); vowel (gram.)
│ ‫( و احوك ت و اوسووك ت‬sakanātihī) in all his
doings; in every situation; ‫حوكووةاا موووور‬
(through) traffic; ‫ حوكووةاا مواكووب‬shipplng
traffic; ‫ حوكووةاا ب و ئا‬exchange of goods;
‫ حوكوةاادمواال‬turnover (com.); ‫ا حوكوةاا سواية‬
(niswīya) feminist movement; ‫فيوفاا حوكوة‬
nimble, lithe, light, quick, agile, adroit;
‫ ثقيولاا حوكوة‬slow in motion, heavy-handed,
clumsy, sluggish, lumbering, inert,
indolent
motion;
stirring,
policy;
military
‫ محووو‬maḥrak path, trajectory (of a
projectile)
‫ محوا‬miḥrāk poker, fire iron
‫ تحويك‬taḥrīkī dynamic
‫ تحوووو‬taḥarruk pl. -āt movement,
motion; forward motion; start; departure;
sailing (of a fleet)
‫ ح ر‬ḥārik withers
‫ محوو‬muḥarrik mover, stirrer; rouser,
inciter, fomenter, awakener, agent;
instigator; -- (pl. -M) motive, springs,
incentive, spur, motivating circumstance,
causative factor; motor, engine (tech.)
‫ مأحووو‬mutaḥarrik moving, movable,
mobile; pronounced with following
vowel, voweled, vowelized (consonant;
gram.) │‫( صوووارامأحوكوووة‬ṣuwar) movies,
motion pictures
‫ حوكوث‬ḥarkata (and ‫ حووكش‬ḥarkaša) to stir up,
agitate, excite, thrill
‫ حوووم‬ḥaruma u, ḥarima a to be forbidden,
prohibited,
interdicted,
unlawful,
unpermitted (‫ علووو‬to s.o.); -- ḥarama i
(ḥirm, ‫ حومو ن‬ḥirmān) to deprive, bereave,
dispossess, divest (‫ ه هوـ‬or ‫ ه مو‬s.o. of s.th.)
take away, withdraw, withhold (‫ ه هوـ‬or ‫هوـ‬
‫ م‬or ‫ ه‬form s.o. s.th.), deny, refuse (‫ ه هوـ‬or
‫ مو هوـ‬or ‫ ه مو‬to s.o. s.th.); to exclude,
debar, preclude, cut off (‫ ه هوـ‬or ‫ ه مو‬s.o.
from s.th.); to excommunicate (‫ ه‬s.o.) II to
declare (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.) sacred, sacrosanct,
inviolable, or taboo, to taboo (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
declare (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) unlawful, not permissible,
forbid, interdict, proscribe (‫ هوـ‬s.th., j. to
s.o.); to render (‫ ه‬s.o.) immune or proof
( ‫ مو‬against), immunize ( ‫ ه مو‬s.o. against)
│ ‫ حومو اعلوواظفسو‬to deny o.s. s.th., abstain,
refrain from s.th. IV to excommunicate (‫ه‬
s.o.; Chr.); to enter into the state of ritual
consecration (esp., of a Mecca pilgrim;
see ‫ احوووام‬iḥrām) V to be forbidden,
interdicted, prohibited; to be holy, sacred,
sacrosanct, inviolable VIII to honor,
revere, venerate, esteem, respect (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o.,
s.th.) │ ‫ احأووماظفسو‬to be self-respecting X to
deem (‫ هووـ‬s.th.) sacrosanct, sacred, holy,
inviolable; to deem (‫ا هوـ‬s.th.) unlawful or
unpermissible
‫ حوم‬ḥirm excommunication (Chr.)
‫ حووم‬ḥaram p1. ‫ احووام‬aḥrām forbidden,
prohibited, interdicted; taboo; holy,
sacred, sacrosanct; s.th. sacred, sacred
object; sacred possession; wife; sanctum,
sanctuary, sacred precinct; ‫ ا حومو ن‬the two
Holy Places, Mecca and Medina │‫ث ووثا‬
‫ ا حوومي‬tālit al-ḥaramain the third Holy
Place, i.e., Jerusalem
‫ حوموة‬ḥurma pl. -āt, ḥurumāt, ḥuramāt
holiness,
sacredness,
sanctity,
sacrosanctity, inviolability; reverence,
veneration, esteem, deference, respect;
that which is holy, sacred, sacrosanct,
inviolable, or taboo; -- (pl. ‫ حووم‬ḥuram)
woman, lady; wife
‫ حووام‬ḥarām pl. ‫ حووم‬ḥurum forbidden,
interdicted, prohibited, unlawful; s.th.
forbidden, offense, sin; inviolable, taboo;
sacred, sacrosanct; cursed, accursed │‫ابو ا‬
‫ حووام‬ibn ḥ. illegitimate son, bastard; 171
‫ االراضووو اا حووووام‬no man’s land; neutral
territory; ‫( ا بيتاا حوام‬bait) the Kaaba; ‫ا شوهوا‬
‫( ا حووام‬šahr) the Holy Month Muharram;
‫( ا مسوجداا حووام‬masjid) the Holy Mosque in
Mecca; ‫ حووواماعليوول‬you mustn’t do (say)
that! ‫ ب حوام‬illicitly, illegally, unlawfully
‫ حووووم‬ḥurūm pl. -āt excommunication
(Chr.)
‫ حوام و‬ḥarāmī pl. -īya thief, robber,
bandit
‫حومووووووووو ن‬
ḥirmān
deprivation,
bereavement, dispossession (of s.o., ‫ مو‬of
s.th.) debarment, exclusion, preclusion ( ‫مو‬
from);
excommunication
(CHr.);
privation │‫ حومو نااالرث‬ḥ. al-irt exclusion
from inheritance, disinheritance (Isl. Law)
‫ محووم‬maḥram pl. ‫ محو رم‬maḥārim2 s.th.
forbidden. inviolable, taboo, sacrosanct,
holy, or sacred; unmarriageable, being in a
degree of consanguinity precluding
marriage (Isl. Law)
‫ محومووة‬maḥrama pl. ‫ مح و رم‬maḥārim2
handkerchief
‫ تحوويم‬taḥrīm forbiddance, interdiction,
prohibition, ban
‫ احووام‬iḥrām state of ritual consecration
of the Mecca pilgrim (during which the
pilgrim, wearing two seamless woolen or
linen sheets, usually white, neither combs
nor shaves, and observes sexual
continence); garments of the Mecca
pilgrim
‫ احأووام‬iḥtirām pl. -āt deference, respect,
regard, esteem, reverence; honoring (e.g.,
of a privilege); pl. honors, respects,
tributes
‫ محوووووم‬maḥrūm deprived, bereaved,
bereft ( ‫ مووو‬of); excluded, precluded,
debarred ( ‫ مو‬from); suffering privation (as
opposed to
‫ ;)مووووزو‬excommunicated
(Chr.)
‫ محووم‬muḥarram forbidden, interdicted;
Muharram, name of the first Islamic
month; ‫ محووماا حووام‬m. al-ḥarām honorific
name of this month
‫ حوووام‬ḥirām pl. -āt, ‫ احومووة‬aḥrima a
woolen blanket (worn as a garment around
head and body)
‫ محووم‬muḥrim Mecca pilgrim who has
entered the state of ritual consecration (see
‫ احوام‬iḥrām)
‫ حووويم‬ḥarīm pl. ‫ حوووم‬ḥurum a sacred,
inviolable place, sanctum, sanctuary,
sacred, precinct; harem; female members
of the family, women; wife
‫ محأووووم‬muḥtaram honored, revered,
venerated, esteemed, respected; (in the
salutation of letters:) my dear …;
venerable, reverend; notable, remarkable,
considerable
‫ حويمو‬ḥarīmī women’s (in compounds),
for women
‫ حومول‬ḥarmal African rue (Peganum harmala
L.; bot.)
‫ حومول‬ḥarmala pl. ‫ حوامول‬ḥarāmil2 loose
wrap worn over the shoulders (garment of
the dervishes)
‫ حوون‬ḥarana, ḥaruna u (‫ حوون‬ḥiran, ḥuran) to
be obstinate, stubborn, headstrong
‫ حووون‬ḥarūn pl. ‫ حوون‬ḥurun obstinate,
stubborn, refractory, reluctant, resistant
‫ ح رون‬ḥārūn brazior
‫ حوووو‬ḥarwa burning; wrath, rage; acridity,
pungency (of taste); pungent, disagreeable
odor
‫ حوى‬V to seek, pursue (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), strive (‫ هوـ‬for),
asplre (‫ هوـ‬to); to examine, investigate (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to inquire ( ‫ عو‬or ‫ هوـ‬into), make
inquiries ( ‫ عو‬or ‫ هوـ‬about); to be intent (‫هوـ‬
on s.th.), take cars (‫ هـ‬of s.th.), attend (‫ هـ‬to
s.th., also ‫) و‬, look (‫ هوـ‬after s.th., also ‫;) و‬
to see to it (‫ ان‬that) 172
‫ ب حوى‬bi-l-ḥarā hardly, barely
‫ حووى‬ḥarīy pl. ‫ احويو‬aḥriyā’ adequate,
appropriate, suitable (‫ ب‬for), worthy (‫ ب‬of
s.th.)
│‫احووووووىاب ووووولكو‬
(dikr)
worth
mentioning, considerable; ‫حوووو اب أصوووديق‬
credible, believable; ‫ اواب و حو‬or to be
exact, or rather
‫ احوى‬aḥrā more adequate, more proper,
more appropriate │‫ ااوابو الحوى‬or to tell the
truth, or more explicitly, or put more
exactly, or rather
‫ تحوووو‬taḥarrin pl.
‫ تحويووو‬taḥarriyāt
inquiry; investigation │ ‫ اشووهةاا أحوو‬šurṭat
at-t. or ‫ مصولحةاا أحوو‬maṣlaḥat al-t. secret
police
‫ حوز‬ḥazza u (ḥazz) to notch, nick, incise, indent
( ‫ و‬s.th.), make an incision, cut ( ‫ و‬into
s.th.) II and VIII = I
‫ حوز‬ḥazz pl. ‫ حوزوز‬ḥuzūz incision, notch,
nick; the right time, the nick of time
‫ حوز‬ḥazza incision, notch, nick; tim; the
right time, the nick of time; predicament,
plight
‫ حزاز‬ḥazāz head scurf, ringworm; tetter,
eruption (med.)
‫ حزاز‬ḥazāza rancor, hatred, hate
‫ محوز‬maḥazz notch, nick │‫ اصو باا محوز‬to
find the right solution, hit the nail on the
head, hit the mark, strike home
‫ حوزب‬ḥazaba u (ḥazb) to befall (‫ ه‬s.o.), happen,
occur (‫ ه‬to s.o.) │‫ احوزبااالموو‬the matter
became serious II to rally (‫ ه‬s.o.); to form
or found a party 111 to side, take sides (‫ه‬
with), be an adherent (‫ ه‬of s.o.) V to take
sides; to form a party, make common
cause, join forces
‫ حوزب‬ḥizb pl. ‫ احوزاب‬aḥzāb group, troop,
band, gang; party (pol.); the 60th part of
the Koran │ ‫ اهواامو ااحزابو‬he belongs to his
clique. he is of the ...me breed
‫ حزب‬ḥizbī party (adj.), factional
‫حزبيوووووة‬
ḥizbīya
party
activities;
partisanship, partiality; factionalism
‫ حيزبان‬ḥaizabūn old hag
‫تحووووووووزب‬
factionalism
taḥazzub
factiousness;
‫ حو زب‬ḥāzib: ‫ حزبو احو زب‬ḥazabahū ḥāzib
he met with a mishap
‫مأحوووزب‬
partisan
mutaḥazzib
partial,
biased;
‫ حووزر‬ḥazara i u (ḥazr, ‫ محووزر‬maḥzara) to
estimate, assess, appraise (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
make a rough estimate (‫ هوـ‬of s.th.), guess
(‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ حووووزر‬ḥazr estimation, assessment,
appraisal; conjecture, guess, surmise
‫ حزور‬ḥazūra riddle, puzzle
‫ محوزر‬maḥzara estimation, assessment,
appraisal; conjecture, guess, surmise
‫ حزيوان‬ḥazīrān June (Syr., Leb., Ir., Jord.)
‫ حزل ظ‬ḥuzuqqānī choleric
‫ حزولة‬ḥazūqa, ‫ ح زولة‬ḥāzūqa hiccups
‫ حوزم‬ḥazama i (ḥazm) to tie up, bundle, wrap
up, pack, do up in a package or bundle (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to girth (‫ هوـ‬an animal); to make fast,
fasten, tie (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) │‫( احوزماامووه‬amrahū) to
take matters firmly in hand; -- ḥazuma u
(ḥazm, ‫ حزامة‬ḥazāma, ‫ حزومة‬ḥuzūma) to be
resolute, firm, stouthearted, intrepid II to
gird (‫ ه‬s.o.) V and VIII to be girded; to
gird o.s. put on a belt
‫احوووووووزم‬ḥazm
packing,
packaging,
wrapping; determination, resoluteness,
firmness,
energy;
judiciousness,
discretion, prudence
‫ حزموووة‬ḥuzma pl. ‫ حوووزم‬ḥuzam s.th.
wrapped up or tied up, bundle, fagot,
fascine; beam of rays, radiation beam
(phys.); bunch (of herb., etc.); sheaf;
package, parcel
‫ حوزام‬ḥzām pl. -āt, ‫ احزموة‬aḥzima, ‫حوزم‬
ḥuzum belt, girth; girdle; cummerbund,
173 waistband (worn over the caftan to
fasten it); sword belt │ ‫ حوزامااالمو‬ḥ. al-amn
wety belt
‫ احوووزم‬aḥzam2 more resolute: more
judicious
‫ حو زم‬ḥāzim pl. ‫ حزموة‬ḥazama and ‫حوزيم‬
ḥazīm pl.
‫ حزمووو‬ḥuzamā’
resolute,
energetic; judicious, discreet, prudent
‫ حوزن‬ḥazana u to make sad, sadden, grieve (‫ه‬
s.o.); -- ḥazina a (ḥuzn, ḥazan) to be sad,
grieved (‫ ل‬or ‫ علوو‬at or because of): to
grieve. mourn (‫ علووو‬over) II and IV to
make sad, sadden, grieve (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ حوزن‬ḥuzn pl. ‫ احوزان‬aḥzān sadness, grief,
sorrow, affliction
‫ حزن‬ḥazn pl. ‫ حزون‬ḥuzūn rough, rugged,
hard ground
‫ حزن‬ḥazin sad, mournful, grieved
‫ حووزي‬ḥazīn pl. ‫احزظ و‬ḥuzanā’2, ‫حزاظ وو‬
ḥazānā sad; mourning (for a deceased
person); sorrowing, mournful, grieved
│‫( ا جمعةاا حزي ة‬jum‘a) Good Friday (Chr.)
‫ حزظو ن‬ḥaznān2 very sad, very grieved,
worried; in mourning
□ ‫ حزاي و‬ḥazāyinī ( ‫ حزائ و‬ḥazā’inī) sad,
mournful, melancholic; mourning (in
compounds), mortuary, funereal │‫لم و شا‬
‫( حزاي ووو‬qumāš) cloth for mourning
garments
‫ تحوزن‬taḥazzun sadness; behavior of a
mourner
‫ محوزون‬maḥzūn grieved, grief-stricken,
pained, sad, saddened
‫ محوزن‬muḥzin grievous, saddening; sad;
melancholic; tragic:
‫ محزظووو‬muḥzināt
grievous things │‫( الصووةاتمثيليووةامحزظوة‬qiṣṣa
tamtīlīya) and ‫( روايوةامحزظوة‬riwāya) tragedy
(theat.)
‫ حوس‬ḥassa (1st pers. perf. ḥasastu) u (ḥass) to
curry, currycomb (‫ هوـ‬an animal); to feel,
sense (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); -- ḥassa (1st pers. perf.
ḥasistu) a to feel srry, feel sympathy or
compassion (‫ ل‬for), sympathize (‫ ل‬with),
II to grope, feel IV to perceive, sense,
experience (‫ هوـ‬or ‫ ب‬s.th.); to feel (‫ هوـ‬or ‫ب‬
s.th.); to notice (‫ هـ‬or ‫ ب‬s.th.); to hear (‫ هوـ‬a
sound, a noise, etc.); to take notice (‫ ه‬of
s.o.) V to grope, probe (‫ هـ‬for s.th.), finger,
handle, touch (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), run the hand (‫هوـ‬
over s.th.); to grope about, feel around: to
seek information, make inquiries ( ‫مووو‬
about); to sense, experience, perceive (‫هوـ‬,
‫ ب‬s.th.); to feel (‫ ب‬s.th.); to be affected, be
deeply touched (‫ ب‬by s.th.)
‫ حوس‬ḥass sensation, perception, feeling,
sentiment
‫ حوس‬ḥiss sensory perception, sensation;
feeling, sentiment; sense; voice; sound;
noise
‫حسووووو‬
ḥissī
sensory;
sensuous;
perceptible; palpable │O ‫ا مووولهباا حسووو‬
(madhab) sensationalism, sensualism
‫ حسي‬ḥissīyāt sensations
‫ حسيس‬ḥasīs faint noise
‫ حسو س‬ḥassās sensitive; sensible; readily
affected, susceptible; sensual (pleasure)
‫ حس سة‬ḥassāsa sensory organ
‫ حس سو‬ḥassāsī allergic │‫احس سوية‬
allergic diseases, allergies (med.)
‫اامووا‬
‫ حس سووووية‬ḥassāsīya sensitivity (also
techn.); sensibility; faculty of sensory
perception; susceptibility; sensuality │‫ا‬
‫ مو اا حس سية‬maraḍ al-ḥ. allergy (med.)
‫ محسة‬miḥassa currycomb
‫ احسو س‬iḥsās pl. -āt, ‫ اح سويس‬aḥāsīs2 feel,
feeling: sensation, sense (‫ ب‬of s.th.)
perception (‫ ب‬of s.th.); sensitivity; pl.
‫ احس سو‬feelings, sentiments │O ‫احس و سا‬
‫ بو ار‬sensitivity to light; O ‫شووديدااالحس و س‬
174 highly sensitive;
‫احسوووو سامشووووأو‬
(muštarak) feeling of harmony, concord,
unanimity; ‫ للوووووةااالحسووووو س‬qillat al-i.
insensitivity, dullness, obtuseness
O ‫ ا ئفووةااالحس سووية‬aṭ-ṭā’ifa al-iḥsāsīya
the impressionists
‫ ح سوة‬ḥāssa pl. ‫ حوااس‬ḥawāss2 senastion;
sense │‫ اا حااساا مس‬the five senses
‫محسوووووواس‬
maḥsūs
felt;
sensed;
perceptible, noticeable, palpable, tangible;
appreciable, considerable (e.g., loss);
‫ ا محسواس‬that which ill perceptible through
the
senses;
appearance,
evidence;
‫ ا محساسو‬things perceptible through the
senses
‫ حسووب‬ḥasaba u (ḥasb, ‫ حس و ب‬ḥisāb, ‫حسووب ن‬
ḥisbān, ḥusbān) to compute, reckon,
calculate; to count; to charge, debit (‫هوـ علوو‬
s.th. to s.o., to s.o.’s account); to credit (‫ل‬
‫ هوـ‬s.th. to s.o., to s.o.’s account) │‫احسوبا‬
‫( حسو ب‬ḥisābahū) to take s.th. or s.o. into
account or into consideration, reckon with
s.th. or s.o., count on s.th. or s.o.; ‫حسو ب ال‬
‫( حسب‬ḥisāban) do.; to attach importance to
s.o. or s.th.; ‫( حسباا فاحس بال‬alfa) to hove
a thousand apprehensions about …; -ḥasiba a i (‫ حسوب ن‬ḥisbān, ‫ محسوب‬maḥsaba,
maḥsiba) to regard (‫ ه ه‬s.o. as), consider,
deem (‫ ه ه‬s.o. to be …); to think, believe,
suppose, assume; to consider, regard ( ‫ه مو‬
s.o. as belonging to), count ( ‫ ه م و‬s.o.
among); to see (‫ و هوـ‬in s.o. s.th.); -ḥasuba u (ḥasab, ‫ حسو بة‬ḥasāba) to be of
noble origin, be highborn; to be highly
esteemed, be valued III to settle an
account, get even (with s.o.); to call (‫ه‬
s.o.) to account, ask (‫ ه‬s.o.) for an
accounting; to hold (‫ ه‬s.o.) responsible,
make (‫ ه‬s.o.) answerable │ ‫اح سوباعلوواظفسو‬
to be careful, be on one’s guard V to be
careful, be on one’s guard; to take
precautions; to seek to know, try to find
out (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) VI to settle a mutual account
VIII to debit or credit; to take into
account, take into consideration (‫ ب‬or ‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to reckon (‫ ب‬or ‫ هووـ‬with); (to
anticipate a reward in the hereafter by
adding a pious deed to one’s account with
God -- such as resigning in God’s will at
the death of a relative; hence:) ‫احأسوباو ودا‬
waladan) to give a son, be bereaved of a
son; ‫ احأسوباع ودا اا شو‬to sacrifice s.th. in
anticipation of God’s reward in the
hereafter; to charge (‫ هوـ علوو‬s.th. for); to
think, believe, suppose; to take (‫ ه ه‬s.o. for
or to be …); to be content, content o.s.(‫ب‬
with); to disapprove (‫ هوـ علوو‬s.th. in s.o.),
take exception (‫ هووـ علوو‬to s.th. in s.o.),
reject (‫ هوـ علو‬s.th. in s.o.); to call (‫ علوو‬s.o.)
to account, ask (‫ علو‬s.o.) for an accounting
‫ حسوووب‬ḥasb reckoning, computing,
calculation; thinking, opinion, view;
sufficiency │‫ حسووبلايبحسووبلةا رهووم‬ḥasbuka
(bi-ḥasbika) dirhamun one dirham is
enough for you; ‫ حسوبلاان‬it suffices to say
that …; you know enough when you hear
that …; you need only ... ; ‫بحسوبلامق عو اان‬
(muqni‘an) it will be enough to convince
you if …; ‫( وحسبلابهلااكل اشوا‬bi-hādā kullihī
šarran) but enough of all these negative
aspect! ‫ حسوب‬fa-ḥasb and that’s all, and no
more, only (interchangeable with ‫) قط‬
‫ حسب‬ḥasbī ‫( مجلساحسب‬majlis) pl. ‫مج سا‬
‫ا حسووبية‬guardianship court, probate court
(Eg.)
‫ حسوب‬ḥasab pl. ‫ احسو ب‬aḥsāb measure,
extent, degree, quantity, amount; value;
esteem, high regard enjoyed by s.o.; noble
descent; ḥasaba (prep.), ‫ بحسوب‬bi-ḥasabi
and ‫‘ علوواحسوب‬alā ḥasabi according to, in
accordance with, commensurate with,
depending on
‫ حسووبم‬ḥasbamā (conj.) according to
what ... , as, depending on how … │‫حسوبم ا‬
‫( اتفق‬ttafaqa) as chance will have it
‫ حسبةا‬arithmetical problem, sum 175
‫ حسوووويب‬ḥasīb pl.
‫ حسووووب‬ḥusabā’2
respected, esteemed; noble, of noble birth,
highborn
‫ حسووب ن‬ḥusbān calculation, reckoning,
accounnting; computation │‫كو نا و اا حسووب ن‬
to be taken into account, be taken into
consideration; to be expected, be
anticipated; ‫ كوووو نا وووو اا حسووووب ناان‬it was
expected that ... ; ‫ حسب ظ اان‬I expect that …
‫ حسووو ب‬ḥisāb arithmetic, reckoning,
calculus;
computation;
calculation,
estimation,
appraisal;
accounting,
settlement;
consideration,
consideratedness; caution; -- (pl. -āt) bill,
invoice; statement of costs (bank)
account; pl. ‫ حسو ب‬bookkeeping │‫حسو با‬
‫ ا جمول‬ḥ. al-jummal (al-jumal) use of the
alphabetic letters according to their
numerical value; ‫‘ علوووماا حسوو ب‬ilm al-ḥ.
arithmetic; ‫ حسووو باا أف ضووول‬ḥ. al-tafāḍul
differential calculus; ‫ حس و باا أك موول‬ḥ. attakāmul integral calculus; ‫ كو نا و احسو ب‬he
reckoned with it, he expected it, he was
prepared for it; ‫ عمولاحسو ب ا و‬to take s.o. or
s.th. into consideration; to reckon with s.o.
or s.th.; ‫( ا حسو باا أو م‬ḳitāmī) and ‫حسو با‬
‫( ظهو ئ‬nihā’ī) final statement of account,
final accounting; ‫( ع هاا واا حسو ب‬da‘āhū) he
called him to account; ‫ يواماا حسو ب‬yaum alḥ. the Day of Reckoning, Judgment Day;
‫ الو ماحسو ب ال‬to render account to s.o.; ‫بوالا‬
‫ حس ب‬without limit or bounds, to excess, to
an unlimited extent; ‫ مو اغيوواحسو ب‬blindly,
without forethought, at random; ‫حس با والن‬
to s.o.’s credit, to s.o.’s advantage; ‫علووا‬
‫ حسو با والن‬to s.o.’s debit, at s.o.’s expense,
to s.o.’s disadvantage; ‫قووو اسوووا اا حسووو ب‬
laqiya sū’a 1-ḥ. he got a raw deal, he was
in for it; ‫( حسو باجو ر‬jārin) current account;
‫ حس و ب اص و دو اا أووا يو‬ḥ. ṣundūq at-taufīr
savings-bank accounts; ‫حسووووو بامالووووواا‬
blocked account; ‫ حسو ب ا وبيوة‬double-entry
bookkeeping; ‫( ا حسووو باا شووول‬šarqī) the
Julian calendar; ‫( ا حسو باا غوبو‬garbī) the
Gregorian calendar
‫ حسو ب‬ḥisābī arithmetical, mathematical,
computational
‫ مح سووبة‬muḥāsaba pl. -āt accounting;
clearing (com.); bookkeeping; request for
accounting; examination of conscience
(theol.) │‫ لسماا مح سبة‬qism al-m. accounting
department, comptroller’s office; clearing
house
‫ احأسو ب‬iḥtisāb computation; calculation,
consideration,
reflection;
debiting;
crediting;
valuation;
contentedness,
satisfaction
‫ ح سوووووب‬ḥāsib counter, reckoner,
arithmetician, calculator, computer
‫ محساب‬maḥsūb pl. -ūn, ‫ مح سوب‬maḥāsib2
protégé,
pet,
favorite;
obedient,
subservient (‫ علو‬to s.o.)
‫ محسوابية‬maḥsūbīya esteem enjoyed by
s.o., position of distinction; patronage,
favored position, favoritism
‫ مح سووب‬muḥāsib, ‫ مح سووبج‬muḥāsibgī
(eg.) accountant, bookkeeper; comptroller,
auditor
‫ محأسوب‬muḥtasab that for which one can
expect reward in the hereafter (e.g.,
suffering, loss, etc.)
‫ حسود‬ḥasada u (ḥasad) to envy, grudge (‫ ه‬s.o.,
‫ علو‬or ‫ هـ‬s.th.), be envious (‫ ه‬of s.o., ‫ علوو‬or
‫ هـ‬because of s.th.) VI to envy each other
‫ حسد‬ḥasad envy
‫ حسا‬pl. ‫ حسد‬ḥusud envious
‫ تح سد‬taḥāsud mutual envy
‫ ح سوود‬pl. ‫ حس و‬ḥussād, ‫ حسوود‬ḥasada
envious; envier, grudger
‫ محسوا‬maḥsūd envied; smitten by the
evil eye
‫ حسوو‬ḥasara u i (ḥasr) to pull away or off,
remove ( ‫ هوـ عو‬s.th., a cover, a veil, from);
to uncover, lay bare, unveil ( ‫ عو‬s.th.); -(ḥusūr) to become dim (sight); -- ḥasira a
((ḥasar, ‫ حسوو‬ḥasra) to regret (‫ علوو‬s.th.),
be grieved, be pained (‫ علوو‬by 176 s.th.); to
sigh (‫ علوو‬over s.th.); -- ḥasara i, ḥasira a
(ḥasar) to become tired, fatigued II to
fatigue, tire, weaken, sap (‫ ه‬s.o.); to
grieve, sadden (‫ ه‬s.o.), cause pain or grief
(‫ ه‬to s.o.); to remove (‫ هـ‬a cover, ‫ ع‬from),
lay bare, unveil ( ‫ عوو‬s.th.) V to be
distressed, be pained, be grieved (‫ علوو‬by);
to sigh (‫ علو‬over) VII to be pulled away or
off, be removed ( ‫ ع‬from); to be rolled up.
be turned back (sleeve, ‫ عو‬from the arm);
to disappear suddenly ( ‫ ع‬from)
‫ حسوو‬ḥasar fatigue, debility, weakness
│‫ حسووواا بصووو‬ḥ. al-baṣar nearsightedness,
myopia
‫ حسوووو‬ḥasir grieved, sad; fatigued,
languid, weary, tired
‫ حسووو‬ḥasra pl. ḥasarāt grief, sorrow,
pain, distress, affliction; sigh │ ‫ يو ا لحسوو‬yā
la-l-ḥasrati alas! Unfortunately! ‫يو احسوووت‬
yā ḥasratī and ‫ وااحسووت ه‬wā ḥasratāh what
a pity! too bad!
‫ حسيو‬ḥasīr pl. ‫ حسوى‬ḥasrā tired, weary,
fatigued, exhausted; dim, dull (eye),
nearsighted │‫حسووويواا بصووو‬
ḥ. al-baṣar
nearsighted, myopic
‫ حسار‬ḥasūr nearsightedness, myopia
‫ حسوووان‬ḥasrān regretful, sorry, sad,
distressed, grieved
‫ تحسو‬taḥassur sighing; regret
‫ ح سوو‬ḥāsir pl. ‫ حااسوو‬ḥawāsir2 bared,
denuded │‫ اح سووووواا بصووووو‬ḥ. al-baṣar
nearsighted, myopic; ‫ ح سوواا ووأس‬ḥ. ar-ra’s
bareheaded, hatless
‫ حسوول‬ḥasak (coll.; n. un. ) thorns, spines;
spikes, pricks; fish bones; awns, beard
(bot.); name of several prickly herbs, esp.
of the genus Tribulus
‫ حسك‬ḥasakī thorny, prickly, spiny
‫ حسوم‬ḥasama i (ḥasm) to cut, sever, cut off (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to finish, complete, terminate (‫هووـ‬
s.th.); to decide (‫ هـ‬a question); to settle (‫هـ‬
an argument); to deduct, discount (‫ هوـ‬an
amount from a sum of money) VII to be
severed, be cut off; to be finished, be
completed, be terminated; to be settled
(argument)
‫ حسووووم‬ḥasm finishing, completion,
termination; decision; settling, settlement
(of an argument);
discontinuance,
shutdown, closing down; deduction,
discounting (of an amount)
‫ حس م‬ḥusām sword, sword edge
‫ حسوام‬ḥasūm fatal, trying, grueling (pl.;
days, nights, also years)
‫ ح سوم‬ḥāsim decisive; final, peremptory,
conclusive, definite, definitive
‫ حسووو‬ḥasana u (ḥusn) to be handsome,
beautiful, lovely, nice, fine, good; to be
expedient, advisable, suitable, proper,
fitting; to be in a proper state, be in a
desirable condition │‫ اناحس و ا ووديل‬in ḥ.
ladaika if you like it, if it seems all right
to you; ‫ يحسو ابولاان‬it is to your advantage
that you ... ; you ought to …; ‫حس ااسأعدا هال‬
he was all willing to … II to beautify,
embellish (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to adorn, decorate (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to improve, put into better form,
ameliorate, better (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to make a
better presentation (‫ هوـ‬of s.th.); to present
in a favorable light, depict as nice or
desirable (‫ هوـ ل‬s.th. to s.o.;‫ا‬to sugar-coat,
make more palatable (‫ هوـ‬s.th. unpleasant,
s.th. disadvantageous) III to treat (‫ ه‬s.o.)
with kindliness IV to do right, act well; to
do (‫ هوـ‬s.th), well, expertly, nicely; to know
(‫ هـ‬how to do s.th.), be able (‫ هـ‬to do s.th.);
to master (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), have command (‫ هوـ‬of
s.th.), be proficient (‫ هوـ‬in s.th.; a language,
an art, a handicraft, etc.), be conversant (‫هـ‬
with s.th.); to do good, be charitable; to do
favors, do good (‫ ا و‬or ‫ ب‬to s.o.), do (‫ ب‬or
‫ ب‬s.o.) a good turn, be nice, friendly (‫ا وو‬
or ‫ ب‬to s.o.); to give 177 alms, give charity
(‫ ا ووو‬to s.o.) │ ‫ مو ااحسو‬mā aḥsanahū how
good he is! how handsome he is! ‫احس و ت‬
aḥsanta well done! bravo! ‫احسووو ااال م ظيوووة‬
(almānīya) to master the German language,
know German well; ‫ احسو اا أسوديد‬to aim well
or accurately; ‫( احسو امشوارت‬mašūratahū) to
give good advice; ‫( احسو اا رو اب‬ẓanna) to
have a good opinion of ... , judge s.th.
favorably; ‫( احس و امع ملأ و‬mu‘āmalatahū) to
treat s.o. well V to become nicer, more
handsome, more beautiful; to improve,
ameliorate, get better X to deem (‫ هوـ‬s.th.)
nice, etc., or good; to regard (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) as
right, advisable or appropriate; to approve
(‫ هوـ‬of s.th.), sanction, condone (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
come to like, to appreciate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), find
pleasure (‫ هووـ‬in s.th.); also = IV: ‫اسأحس و ا‬
‫( االظجليزيوة‬ingilīzīya) to know English well;
pass. ustuḥsina to be good, commendable,
advisable
‫ حسوووو‬ḥusn beauty, handsomeness,
prettiness,
loveliness;
excellence,
superiority,
perfection
│ ‫حسووووووو اا حووووووو‬
fortunately; ‫ حسو اا سولا‬good manners, good
behavior; good conduct; ‫( حسو اا سويواوا سولا‬ḥ.
as-sair) an irreproachable life; ‫حسو اا أصووا‬
ḥ.
al-taṣarruf
discretion,
individual
judgment; ‫ حسو اا رو‬good opinion, favorable
judgment; ‫ حس اا أعبيوو‬euphemism; ‫حسو اا قصودا‬
‫ يا يوةة‬ḥ. al-qaṣd (an-nīya) good intention,
good will, good faith; ‫ حسو اياسووف‬ḥ. yūsuf
beauty spot, patch; ‫ سووتاا حس و‬a kind of
bindweed (Convolvulus cairicus L.; bot.);
deadly nightshade, belladonna
‫ حس و‬ḥasan pl. ‫ حسوو ن‬ḥisān beautiful,
handsome, lovely; pretty, nice; good,
agreeable; excellent, superior, exquisite;
‫ حسو‬ḥasanan well, splendidly, excellently,
beautifully; ‫ ا حس ن‬the ladies; -- high sandhill
‫ ا حسو يان‬al-ḥasanīyūn the Hasanides, the
descendants of ḥasan, son of ‘Alī and
Fāṭima
‫ احس و‬aḥsan2 pl. ‫ اح س و‬aḥāsin2 better;
nicer, lovelier, more beautiful; more
excellent,
more
splendid,
more
admirable│‫ هواااحسو احو الامو هم‬he is better off
than they are; ‫( بو أ اهو ااحسو‬bi-llatī) in a
friendly manner, amicably, with kindness
‫ حوش‬ḥašša u (ḥašš) to mow, cut (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) II to
smoke hashish
‫ حسوو‬ḥasnā’2 pl. ‫ حسوو ن‬ḥisān (of a
woman) beautiful, a beauty, a belle
‫ حشوويش‬ḥašīš (coll.) pl. ‫احشوو ئش‬hāšā’iš2
herbs, grasses; weeds; hay; hemp (Cannabis
sativa L.; bot.), hashish, Cannabis; stillborn
child │‫ احشيشاا دي ر‬ḥ. ad-dīnār hops
‫ ا حسو و‬al-ḥusnā pl. -āt (f. of ‫ االحسو‬alaḥsan) the best outcome, the happy ending;
fair means, amicable manner │‫ب حسووو و‬
amicably, by fair means, in a friendly
manner; ‫( االسوووم اا حسووو و‬asmā’) the 99
attributes of God
‫ حسوووو ة‬ḥasana pl. -āt good
benefaction; charity, alms; pl.
advantages, merits
‫ حسوان‬ḥassūn pl.
finch
deed,
‫حسوووو‬
‫ حس سوي‬ḥasāsīn2 gold-
‫ محس و ة‬maḥsana s.th. nice, s.th. good;
advantage; pl. ‫ مح سوو‬maḥāsin2 beauties,
charms, attractions, merits, advantages,
good qualities
‫تحسووووووووووي‬
taḥsīn
beautification,
embellishment; improvement, amelioration,
betterment; processing, refining, finishing;
(pl. ‫ تح سووي‬taḥāsīn) ornament, decoration
│O ‫ تحسي اا سل‬t. an-nasl eugenics
‫ مح سووو ة‬muḥāsana friendly treatment,
kindliness amicability
‫ احسووووو ن‬iḥsān beneficence. charity,
almsgiving, performance of good deeds
‫تحسووووووووو‬
taḥassun
improvement,
amelioration │ ‫ وو اا أحسووو‬on the way to
recovery
‫ حشيشة‬ḥašīša (n. un.) herb
‫ حشو ش‬ḥaššāš pl. -ūn smoker or chewer of
hashish. hashish addict
‫ حشو ش‬ḥuššāš, ‫ حش شوة‬ḥušāša last breath,
last spark of life
‫ حشيشوو‬ḥašīšī (eg.) sap-green, resedacolored
‫ محووش‬miḥašš, ‫ محش وة‬miḥašša pl. ‫مح و ش‬
maḥāšš2 sickle, scythe; fire iron, poker
‫ محشووة‬miḥašša pl. -āt (eg.) tool for
weeding, weeder
‫ محشش‬maḥšaš, ‫ محششا ظة‬m. ḳāna hashish
den
‫ محششة‬pl. ‫ مح شش‬maḳāšiš2 hashish den
‫ حشود‬ḥašada i u (ḥašd) to gather, concentrate,
mass (‫ ه‬esp. troops), call up, mobilize (‫ ه‬an
army); to pile up, store up, accumulate (‫هوـ‬
s.th., ‫ ا وو‬at a place) II to amass, accumulate
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.), mass, concentrate (‫ ه‬esp. troops) V
and VIII to rally, come together, assemble,
gather, crowd together, throng together; to
be concentrated, be massed (troops); to fall
into line (troops)
‫ اسأحسوووو ن‬istiḥsān approval, consent;
acclaim; discretion; application of discretion
in a legal decision (Isl. Law)
‫ حشود‬ḥašd pl. ‫ حشوا‬ḥušūd assembling, rallying;
gathering, assembly, crowd, throng;
concentration, massing (esp. of troops);
mobilization. calling up (of an army)
‫ محس و‬muḥassin embellisher, beautifier,
improver; pl. ‫ محس‬muḥassināt cosmetics
‫ حشوود‬taḥaššud pl. -āt concentration (of
troops)
‫ محس‬muḥsin beneficent, charitable
‫مسأحسووووووووو‬
mustaḥsan
approved,
commendable; pleasant, agreeable 178
(‫ حسو )حسوا‬ḥasā u (ḥasw), V and VIII to drink, sip
(‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ حسا‬ḥasw and ‫ حس‬ḥasā’ soup, broth
‫ حسا‬ḥaswa pl. ḥasawāt a sip
‫ حسوا‬ḥuswa pl. ḥusuwāt, ḥusawāt, ‫احسوية‬
aḥasiya a sip, small quantity of liquid; soup,
broth; bouillon
‫ احأشو‬iḥtišād pl. -āt gathering, crowd;
concentration (of troops)
‫ حشوووويد‬numerous (of an assembly),
crowded (of a public demonstration)
O ‫ ح شد‬ḥāšida battery (el.)
‫ حشوو‬ḥašara i u (ḥašr) to gather, assemble, rally
(‫ ه‬people); to cram, crowd, pack, jam
(together); to squeeze. press, force, stuff,
tuck ( ‫ بي‬or ‫ هـ‬s.th. into)
‫ يووواماا حشوووو‬yaum al-ḥašr the day of
congregation (of the dead), the Day of
resurrection
‫ حشووو‬ḥašara pl. -āt insect; pl. vermin,
insect pests │ ‫‘ اعلووووماا حشوووووا‬ilm al-ḥ.
entomology
‫ حشوو‬ḥašarī insectile, insectival, insect(in compounds); entomologic(al)
‫ حشوو‬ḥašraja and II taḥašraja to rattle in the
throat
‫ حشوجة‬ḥašraja rattling, rattle in the throat
‫ حشف‬V to be dressed shabbily, dress slovenly
‫ حشف‬ḥašaf dates of inferior quality
‫ حشفة‬ḥašafa glans (penis; anat.)
‫ حشول‬ḥašaka i (ḥašk) to cram, jam, squeeze, stuff
( ‫ هـ‬s.th. into)
‫ حشوم‬ḥašama i (ḥašm) to shame, put to shame (‫ه‬
s.o.) 11 and IV do. V and VIII to be
ashamed to face s.o. ( ‫ م و‬or ‫ ;)ع و‬to be
reticent, modest, shy, bashful, diffident
‫ حشوم‬ḥašam servants, retinue, entourage,
suite
‫ حشومة‬ḥišma shame, bashfulness, timidity,
diffidence; modesty; decency, decorum 179
‫ حشويم‬ḥašīm pl. ‫ حشوم‬ḥušamā’2 modest,
timid, bashful, shy, diffident
‫ مح شم‬maḥāšim2 pubes, genitals
‫ تحشوم‬taḥaššum and ‫ احأشو م‬iḥtišām shame,
shyness, modesty, reticent, decency,
decorum
‫ محأشووم‬muḥtašim shy, bashful; modest,
reticent, decent, decorous
‫ حشو ايحشواة‬ḥaša u (ḥašw) to stuff, fill, dress (‫هوـ ب‬
s.th. with; esp. fowl, etc.); to fill in (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
to load (‫ هوـ‬a firearm; ‫ هوـ هوـ‬s.th. with, e.g., a
camera); to fill (‫ هوـ‬a tooth); to insert (‫ هوـ‬s.th.)
11 to interpalate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to insert (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
to provide (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) with a margin; to hem
(‫ هووـ‬a dress); to supply (‫ هووـ‬a book) with
marginal notes or glosses III to except,
exclude ( ‫ ه مو‬s.o. from) V to keep away,
stand aloof, abstain ( ‫ ه مو‬from), avoid, shun
( ‫ مو‬s.th.), beware ( ‫ مو‬of), be on one’s guard
( ‫ مو‬against) VI to keep away, abstain ( ‫ عو‬or
‫ مو‬from), beware (‫ هوـ‬or ‫ عو‬or ‫ مو‬of), avoid,
shun (‫ هـ‬or ‫ ع‬or ‫ م‬s.th.)
‫ حشوا‬ḥašw that with which s.th. is stuffed
or filled; dressing, stuffing (of fowl, .to.);
filling (of tooth); insertion; (gram.)
parenthesis; interpolation
‫ حشوووا‬ḥašwa pl. -āt filling, stuffing
(cushion, cookery, etc.); load (of a
cartridge), charge (of a min.); panel, inlay,
inserted piece (in paneling, in a door)
‫ حشووو‬ḥašan pl. ‫ احشووو‬aḥšā’ bowels,
intestines; interior, inside │ ‫ و ااحشو‬in the
interior of, within, in
‫ حشو‬ḥašan = ‫ حش‬ḥašan
‫ حشوية‬ḥašīya pl. –āt, ‫ حشو ي‬ḥašāyā cushion,
pillow; mattress
‫ ح شو‬ḥāšā (with genit., acc. or ‫ )ل‬except,
save │‫ح شوواهلل‬, ‫ ح شو اهلل‬God forbid! ‫ح شو ا ولاان‬
far be it from you that you ...; ‫حو شاهلل‬, ‫حو شا ول‬
(ḥāša) = ‫ح ش اهلل‬, ‫ ح ش ا ل‬180
‫ تحشية‬taḥšya insertion; interpolation
‫ تح ش‬taḥāšin avoidance
‫ ح شووية‬ḥāšiya pl. ‫ ح وااش‬ḥawāšin border;
seam, hem; edge; margin (of a book);
marginal
gives;
marginal
notes;
commentary on certain words and passages
of a book, supercommentary; footnote;
postscript; retinue,
entourage,
suite,
servants; dependents; pl. ‫ حوووااش‬critical
apparatus │‫ ارليقاا ح شية‬and ‫ رليقاا حااش‬nice,
polite, courteous, gracious, amiable, kindly,
friendly; ‫ رلوةاا حهشوية‬riqqat al-ḥāš. niceness,
amiability, graciousness
‫ محشووا‬maḥšūw filled, dressed; stuffed;
loaded (firearm); pl.
‫ محشووواا‬maḥšūwāt
filled, or stuffed, dishes
‫ محشو‬maḥšīy filled, stuffed (esp. food);
s.th. filled or stuffed
‫ حوص‬ḥaṣṣa u to fall as a share (‫ ه‬to s.o.) III to
share (‫ هوـ ه‬s.th. with s.o.) IV to allot s.o. (‫)ه‬
his share
‫ حص‬ḥuṣṣ saffron
‫ حصوة‬ḥiṣṣa pl. ‫ حصوص‬ḥiṣaṣ share, portion,
allotment; share (fin.); contingent, quota;
span of time; lesson, class period │‫احصوةا و ا‬
‫ا وووبا‬ḥ. fī r-rabḥ dividend (fin.); O ‫حص وةا‬
‫ ا أبسويس‬founders’ share; O ‫ ظرو ماا حصوص‬quota
system, apportionment; ‫ و احص وةاوجيووز‬in a
short time
‫تحصووووووويص‬
apportionment
taḥṣīṣ
quota
system,
‫ مح صوة‬muḥāṣṣa allotment; sharing (with
s.o.), partaking, participation
‫ حص ب ن‬see ‫حصو‬
‫ حصوب‬ḥaṣaba i u to cover or strew with pebbles
or gravel (‫ هووـ‬ground); to macadamize (‫هووـ‬
ground), metal (‫ هوـ‬a road); -- ḥaṣiba a and
pass. ḥuṣiba to have the measle II to cover
or strew with pebbles or gravel (‫ هوـ‬ground);
to macadamize (‫ هوـ‬ground), metal (‫ هوـ‬a road)
180
‫ حصووب‬ḥaṣab road metal, crushed rock,
ballast
‫ حصب‬ḥaṣbā’2 (coll.) pebbles; gravel
‫ حصب‬ḥaṣba measles (med.)
‫ ح صبة‬ḥāṣiba storm, hurricane
‫ حصوحص‬ḥaṣḥaṣa to be or become clear, plain,
manifest; to come to light (truth)
‫ حصود‬ḥaṣada i u (ḥaṣd, ‫ حصو‬ḥaṣad, ḥiṣad) to
harvest, reap (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to mow (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) IV,
VIII and X to be ripe
‫ حصوود‬ḥaṣd and ‫ حص و‬ḥiṣād harvesting,
reaping, harvest; ‫ حص‬harvest time
‫ حصوويد‬ḥaṣid, ‫ حصوويد‬ḥaṣīda pl. ‫حصوو ئد‬
ḥaṣā’id2 crop, harvest yield │‫ال و ئماوحص ويد‬
everything without exception
‫ حص‬ḥaṣṣād reaper; harvester
‫ محصد‬miḥṣad pl. ‫ مح صد‬maḥāṣid2 sickle
O ‫ حصو‬ḥaṣṣāda and O ‫ محصود‬miḥṣada
mowing machine, mower │ O ‫حصو ا راسوة‬
(darrāsa) combine
‫ ح صد‬ḥāṣid reaper
O ‫ ح صد‬ḥāṣid mowing machine, mower
‫ محصا‬maḥṣūd harvested, reaped, mown
‫ محصد‬muḥṣid and mustaḥṣid ripe
‫ حصوو‬ḥaṣara i u (ḥaṣr) to surround, encircle,
encompass, ring (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to enclose (‫هووـ‬
s.th.); to parenthesize (‫ هوووـ‬a word); to
blockade (‫هوووـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.); to besiege,
beleaguer (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.); to detain, deter,
restrain, contain, hold back (‫ ه‬s.o.); to limit,
restrict ( ‫ هوـ و‬or ‫ ب‬s.th. to); to condense,
reduce in scope (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to narrow down,
confine ( ‫ هوـ و‬s.th. to, also a suspicion to
s.o.); to bring together, compile, arrange ( ‫و‬
‫ هوـ‬s.th. under a rubric); to enter ( ‫ هوـ و‬s.th. in
a list); to put together, set up, list, enumerate
(‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to comprise, contain, include,
involve (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); -- ḥaṣira a (ḥaṣar) to be in
a fix, be in a dilemma III to encircle,
surround (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.); to shut off, seclude
(‫هووـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.); to block (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
beleaguer, besiege (‫هووـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.); to
blockade (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.); to detain, deter,
restrain (‫ ه‬s.o.) VII to be straitened,
confined, narrowed in; to be or become
restricted, limited (‫ ب‬or ‫ و‬to); to limit o.s.
(‫ ب‬or ‫ و‬to); to be condensed ( ‫ و‬to), be
concentrated ( ‫ و‬in); to be or become united
(e.g., ‫ تحووتاحكم و‬under s.o.’s rule); to be
reducible ( ‫ و‬to), be expressible ( ‫ و‬in terms
of), consist ( in)
‫ حصوو‬ḥaṣr encirclement, encompassment,
enclosure,
corralling;
parenthesizing;
blocking, blockading, beleaguering, siege;
detention, determent; restraint, retention,
containment, check; limitation, restriction,
confinement ~ narrowing; gathering,
collecting (of s.th. scattered), compilation;
enumeration, listing, counting, computing;
centralization,
concentration;
(tobacco)
monopoly │‫ اب حصووو‬strictly speaking; ‫علوووا‬
‫ سوبيلاا حصوحصوو‬exhaustively; ‫ حصوواا أمواي‬ḥ.
al-tamwīn rationing; ‫‘ عالموةاا حصوو‬alāmat alḥ. parentheses, brackets (typ.); ‫الايود لاتحوتا‬
‫( ا حصوووو‬yadḳulu) or ‫( الاحصووووا ووو‬ḥaṣra)
boundless,
infinite,
immeasurable,
innumerable; ‫ يفووا اا حصووو‬yafūqu al-ḥaṣra
do.; O ‫ اجو ز اا حصوو‬ijāzat al-ḥ. patent on an
invention; ‫ ا ار احصوواا أبو اوا أ بو‬idārat ḥ. attibg wa-t-tumbāk Government Tobacco
Monopoly (Syr.)
‫ حصوووووو‬ḥuṣr
constipation
retention
(of
urine);
‫ حصوو‬ḥaṣar dyslogia, inability to express
o.s. effectively
‫ حصيو‬ḥaṣīr pl. ‫ حصو‬ḥuṣur mat
‫ حصيو‬ḥaṣīra pl. ‫ حص ئو‬ḥaṣā’ir2 mat
‫ حصوو ر‬ḥiṣār block, blockage, barrier;
blockade; siege 181
‫ مح صووووو‬muḥāṣara
barrier; blockade; siege
block,
blockage,
‫ اظحصو ر‬inḥiṣār restrictedness, limitation,
confinement; (tobacco) monopoly
‫ محصوووار‬maḥṣūr blocked, blockaded;
beleaguered, besieged; limited, restricted,
confined ( to); narrow
‫ حصووم‬ḥiṣrim (coll.; n. un. ) unripe and sour
grapes (syr.)
‫ حصوف‬ḥaṣufa u (‫ حصووف‬ḥaṣāfa) to have sound
judgment, be judicious, discriminating
‫ حصووووف‬ḥaṣif endowed with
judgment, judicious, discriminating
sound
‫ حصوووويف‬ḥaṣīf endowed with
judgment, judicious, discriminating
sound
‫حصوووووو ة‬
ḥaṣāfa
judiciousness
sound
judgment,
‫ حصول‬ḥaṣala u (‫ حصوال‬ḥuṣūl) to set in; to be
there, be existent, extant; to arise, come
about; to result, come out; to happen, occur,
transpire, come to pass, take place; to
happen, occur (‫ ل‬to s.o.), come (‫ ل‬upon
s.o.), befall, overtake (‫ ل‬s.o.); to originate,
emanate, derive, stem ( ‫ مو‬from), be caused,
be produced ( ‫ مو‬by); to attain, obtain, get,
receive, achieve (‫ علوو‬s.th.), win (‫ علوو‬s.o. or
s.th.); to come into possession (‫ علوو‬of s.th.);
to seek (‫ علووو‬a permit), apply (‫ علووو‬for a
permit); to collect, recover (‫ علوو‬a debt), call
in (‫ علوو‬funds); to receive. take in (‫ علوو‬s.th.)
II to cause s.th. (‫ )هوـ‬to happen or set in; to
attain. obtain (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to acquire (‫ هوـ‬s.th.,
also knowledge); to infer, deduce (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
to collect (‫ هوـ‬a fee, fare, etc.), levy (‫ هوـ‬taxes,
fees, etc.), call in (‫ هوـ‬money); to summarize,
sum up (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) V to result ( ‫ مو‬from), come
out (sum); to be obtained, be attained; to be
raised, be levied, be required. be demanded;
to be taken in, come in (fees, taxes, funds);
to be collected (taxes); to procure for o.s.,
get (‫ علوو‬s.th.); to attain, receive, obtain (‫علوو‬
s.th.); to acquire (‫ علوو‬s.th.); to collect (‫علوو‬
fees) X to procure for o.s., get (‫ علوو‬s.th.); to
attain. Receive, obtain (‫ علوو‬s.th.); to acquire
(‫ علو‬s.th.)
‫ حصوووال‬ḥuṣūl setting in, occurrence,
incidence. happening (of an event or
process); obtainment. attainment (‫ علووو‬of
s.th.); achievement (‫ علوو‬of s.th.); acquisition
(‫ علو‬of s.th.)
‫ حص ويلة‬ḥaṣīla pl. ‫ حصوو ئل‬ḥaṣā’il2 rest,
remainder; amount collected, proceeds,
returns; revenue, receipts, yield, income,
takings
‫حاصووول‬, ‫ حاصووولة‬and ‫ حايصووولة‬look up
alphabetically
‫ حص ة‬ḥaṣāla collection box, alms box
‫ محصوول‬maḥṣal result, outcome, upshot,
issue
‫ تحصوووويل‬taḥṣīl pl. -āt attainment,
obtainment, gain; acquisition (also of
knowledge); learning, studying, scientific
studies; collection, raising, levy(ing), calling
in (of funds, taxes); income, revenue,
receipts,
returns,
proceeds;
résumé,
summary, gist (of a speech or opinion); ‫مو ا‬
‫ تحصويلاا ح صولاانايقو ل‬in summary, it may be
said ...
‫ تحصيلج‬taḥṣīlgī (eg.) = ‫ محصل‬muḥaṣṣil
‫ ح صول‬ḥāṣil pl. ‫ حااصول‬ḥawāsil2 setting
in, occurring, taking place, happening;
result, outcome, sum, total, product (also
math.); revenues, receipts, proceeds, gain;
income, returns; crop, harvest; warehouse,
storehouse, granary, depot, magazine; main
content, purport, gist, essence, substance (of
a speech); ‫ ا ح صوول‬briefly, in short; pl.
‫ ح صوووووال‬product(s), yield. produce.
production (econ.)
‫ محصوال‬maḥsūl pl. -āt, ‫ مح صول‬maḥāṣīl2
result, outcome, issue; yield, gain; product,
produce; crop, harvest; production 182
‫ محصول‬muḥaṣṣil collector; tax collector;
cashier; (bus, streetcar) conductor
‫ مأحصووول‬mutaḥaṣṣil yield, revenue,
proceeds, receipts, returns ( ‫ م‬from)
‫ حصووو‬ḥaṣuna u (‫ حصووو ظة‬ḥaṣāna) to be
inaccessible, be well fortified; to be chaste
(woman) II to make inaccessible (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
to strengthen (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to fortify, entrench
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to immunize, make proof (‫ضود‬
ḍidda against) IV to make inaccessible (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to fortify, entrench (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to be
chaste, pure (woman); to remain chaste,
be of unblemished reputation (woman) V
to strengthen one’s position, protect o.s.;
to be fortified; to be secure, be protected
‫ حص‬ḥiṣn pl. ‫ حصوان‬ḥuṣūn fortress, fort,
castle, citadel, stronghold; fortification,
entrenchment; protection │‫احصووو اهووو ئو‬
Flying Fortress
‫ حص و ن‬ḥiṣān pl. ‫ حص و‬ḥuṣun, ‫احص و ة‬
aḥsina horse; stallion │‫ احصو ناا بحوو‬ḥ. albaḥr hippopotamus; ‫( حصو ناب و ر‬buḳārī)
iron horse; ‫ لووا احصو‬qūwat ḥ., or ‫حصو ن‬
alone, horse power
‫ حصووووي‬ḥaṣīn inaccessible, strong,
fortified, firm, secure(d), protected;
immune, proof, invulnerable (‫ ضوود‬ḍidda
against) │ ‫( اا حصو اا حصوي‬ḥiṣn) stronghold
(fig.; e.g., of radicalism)
‫ ابااا حصي‬abū l-ḥuṣain fox
‫ حصوو ظة‬ḥaṣāna strength, ruggedness,
forbiddingness,
impregnability,
inaccessibility; shelteredness, chastity (of
a woman); invulnerability, inviolability;
immunity (of deputies, diplomats; against
illness)
‫ ح وي‬ḥaḍīḍ, pl.
‫ ح و‬ḥuḍuḍ, ‫اح وة‬
aḥiḍḍa foot of a mountain; lowland;
perigee (astron.); depth; state of decay │‫ا‬
‫ ظوزلاا وواا ح وي‬to sink low (fig.); ‫كو اا ووا‬
‫( ا ح وووووي‬dakkahū) to ruin s.th.
completely, run s.th. into the ground
‫ تحصوووي‬taḥṣīn pl. -āt fortification,
entrenchment; strengthening, cementing,
solidification; immunization
‫ ح وو‬ḥaḍara u (‫ ح وار‬ḥuḍūr) to be present (‫هوـ‬
at), be in the presence (‫ ه‬of s.o.); to 183
attend (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to be present (‫ هوـ‬in s.o.’s
mind), be readily recalled (‫ ه‬by s.o.); to
take part, participate ( ‫ مجلسو‬majlisan in a
meeting); to come, get (‫ ا وو‬or ‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬to s.o.,
to a place), arrive (‫ ا وو‬or ‫ هوـ‬at a place); to
visit (‫ هوـ‬a place), attend (‫ هوـ‬a public event),
go (‫ هوـ‬to a performance, etc.); to appear
(‫ امو م‬before a judge, etc., ‫ ا وو‬in, at), show
up (‫ ا وو‬in, at); to betake o.s., go (‫مو ا وو‬
from ... to); ( ‫ ح و ر‬ḥaḍāra) to be settled,
sedentary (in a civilized region, as
opposed to nomadic existence)
‫احصووووووووو ن‬
unblemished
Law)
iḥṣān
reputation,
blamelessness,
integrity (Isl.
‫ تحصو‬taḥaṣṣun securing, safeguarding,
protection, protectedness
‫ محصو‬muḥaṣṣan fortified; entrenched;
immune, proof (‫ ضد‬ḍidda against)
‫ محصوو ة‬muḥṣina, muḥṣana sheltered,
well-protected, chaste; of unblemished
reputation (woman; Isl. Law)
‫ حصوو‬IV to oount, enumerate (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
calculate, compute (‫ هوـ‬s.th. ‫ مو‬from); to
debit, charge (‫ هوووـ علوووو‬s.th. to s.o.’s
account), hold (‫ هـ‬s.th. ‫ علو‬against s.o.) │‫الا‬
‫( يحصو‬yuḥṣā) innumerable
‫ حصو‬ḥaṣan (coll.) pebbles, little stones
‫ حصو‬ḥaṣāh, ‫ حص وا‬ḥaṣwa pl.
‫حص وي‬
ḥaṣayāt little stone; pebble; calculus,
stone (med.) │‫( احصو ابا يوة‬baulīya) cystic
calculus; ‫حصووووو اصوووووفواوية‬
(ṣafrāwīya)
gallstone, biliary calculus
‫ حصووا بو ن‬ḥaṣā lubān, ‫ حصو ب ن‬rosemary
(bot.)
‫ حصا‬ḥaṣawī stony, pebbly, gravelly
‫ احص و‬iḥṣā’ pl. -āt count, counting;
enumeration; calculation, computation;
statistics │‫ ااحصووو اا سوووك ن‬i. as-sukkān
census
‫ احصوو ئ‬iḥṣā’ī statistic(al); (pl. -ūn)
statistician
‫ احص ئية‬iḥṣā’īya pl. -āt statistics
‫ حو‬ḥaḍḍa u (ḥaḍḍ) and II to spur on, incite (‫ه‬
s.o., ‫ علوو‬to), goad, prod (‫ ه‬s.o.• ‫ علوو‬to do
s.th.)
‫ حووو‬ḥaḍḍ incitement, inducement,
prodding, prompting, instigation
II to ready, make ready, prepare (‫ هوـ‬s.th., also,
e.g., as medicine = to compound), make,
produce, manufacture (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to study,
prepare (‫ هوـ‬a lesson); to fetch, get, bring (‫ه‬
s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.), procure, supply (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
settle (‫ ه‬s.o), make s.o. (‫ )ه‬sedentary; to
civilize (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.) III to give a lecture,
present s.th. in a lecture (‫ ه‬to s.o.); to
lecture, give a course of lectures IV to
fetch, get, bring (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.), procure,
supply (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to take (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th., ‫ا وو‬
to a place) │ ‫ اح ووهامعو‬to have s.th. with
one, bring s.th. along V to prepare o.s.,
ready o.s., get ready (‫ ل‬for); to be ready,
prepared; to become settled, be sedentary
in a civilized region; to be civilized, be in
a state of civilization; to become
urbanized, become a town dweller VIII to
come (‫ ه‬to s.o.), be in the presence (‫ ه‬of
s.o.); to live in a civilized region; pass.
ustuḥḍira to die X to have s.th. (‫)هووـ‬
brought, to call, send (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬for s.o., for
s.th.), have s.o. (‫ )ه‬come; to summon (‫ه‬
s.o.); to fetch, procure, supply, get, bring
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to conjure, call up, evoke (‫ هوـ‬a
spirit); to visualize, envision, call to mind
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to carry with o.s., bring along (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to prepare (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬e.g., a medicinal
preparation)
‫ ح ووو‬ḥaḍar a civilized region with
towns and villages and a settled
population (as opposed to desert, steppe);
settled population, town dwellers (as
opposed to nomads)
‫ ح ووووو‬ḥaḍarī settled, sedentary,
resident, not nomadic, non-Bedouin, like
urbanites; civilized; urban; town dweller
‫ ح وو‬ḥaḍra presence │ ‫ و اح وو‬in the
presence of ...; ‫‘( ا ح وو اا ع يوة‬āliya) His
Highness (formerly, title of the Bey of
Tunis); ‫ ح وووتكم‬a respectful form of
address, esp. in letters; ‫ ح و اا ودكأار‬cf. Fr.
Monsieur le docteur
‫ح ووووووار‬
ḥuḍūr
presence;
visit,
participation, attendance; (as one pl. of
‫ )ح ضووو‬those present │‫ بح وواره‬in his
presence; ‫ ح ووووواراا حفلوووووة‬ḥ. al-ḥafla
attendance of the celebration‫ ح اراا وله ا‬ḥ.
ad-dihn presence of mind; ‫ورلووةاح ووار‬
waraqat ḥ. summons (jur.)
‫ ح وار‬ḥuḍūrī: ‫( احكو ماح وارية‬aḥkām)
judgments delivered in the presence of the
litigant parties after oral proceedings
(jur.); ‫ ح وواري‬ḥuḍūrīyan contradictorily
(jur.)
‫ ح ووو ر‬ḥaḍāra civilization; culture;
settledness, sedentariness
2
‫ ح يو‬ḥaḍīra pl. ‫ ح و ئو‬ḥaḍā’ir a small
group of 6 to 12 people (specif., the
smallest unit of boy scouts = patrol);
section, squad (mil.; Syr.)
‫ مح ووو‬maḥḍar presence; attendance,
coming, appearance (of s.o.); assembly,
meeting, gathering, convention; (pl. ‫مح ضوو‬
maḥāḍir2) minutes, official report,
process-verbal, record of the factual
findings │ ‫ مح وواا جوو‬m. al-jard inventory
list; ‫ بمح ووام و‬bi-maḥḍarin minhu in s.o.’s
presence
‫ تح ووويو‬taḥḍīr preparing, readying,
making ready; (pl. -āt) preparation (‫ ل‬for;
also e.g., for an examination); making,
preparation, cooking (of food, etc.),
production, manufacture
‫ تح ويو‬taḥdīrī preparatory, preparative
│ ‫ا موودارساا أح وويويةا لمعلمووي‬
(mu‘allimīn)
184 preparatory institutes for teachers,
teachers’ colleges (Eg.)
‫ مح ضو‬muḥāḍara pl. -āt lecture
‫اح وو ر‬
iḥḍār procurement, supply,
fetching, bringing
‫ تح و‬taḥaḍḍur civilized way of life
‫ر‬
‫ احأ‬iḥtiḍār demise, death
‫ اسأح و ر‬istiḥḍār making, production,
manufacture; preparation; summoning
│‫اسأح وووووو رااالرواح‬
istiḥḍār
al-arwāḥ
evocation of spirits, spiritism
‫ ح ضوو‬ḥāḍir pl. ‫ ح وو‬ḥuḍḍar, ‫ح وار‬
ḥuḍūr present; attending; ‫ ا ح ضوووو‬the
present (time); prepared (‫ ل‬for); ready; (pl.
‫ ح و ر‬ḥuḍḍār, ‫ ح ووو‬ḥaḍara) settled,
sedentary, resident, village or town
dweller, not nomadic │‫ ا و اا ح ضوو‬or ‫و ا‬
‫ ا الوتاا ح ضوو‬at present, now; ‫ ح ضوواا فكوو‬ḥ.
al-fikr quick-witted, quick at repartee; ‫ظقودا‬
‫( ح ضو‬naqd) cash, ready money
‫ ح ضوووو‬ḥāḍira pl. ‫ حااضوووو‬ḥawāḍir2
capital city, metropolis; city (as a center of
civilization)
‫ مح وار‬maḥḍūr possessed, haunted or
inhabited by a jinni; demoniac
‫ مح وووو‬muḥaḍḍir maker, producer,
manufacturer; dissector (med.)
‫ مح ضو‬muḥāḍir lecturer, speaker
‫ مح و‬muḥḍir court usher
‫ مأح و‬mutaḥaḍḍir civilized
‫ محأ وو‬muḥtaḍar dying, in the throes of
death, on the brink of death; a dying
person; haunted or inhatbited by a jinni;
demoniac
‫ مسأح وو‬mustaḥḍar pl. -āt preparation
(chem., pharm.) │ ‫( امسأح ووا وائو‬dawā’ī)
medicinal preparation
‫ ح وما‬ḥaḍramaut2 Hadhramaut
‫ ح وووم‬ḥaḍramī pl. ‫ ح و رم‬ḥaḍārim2
man from Hadhramaut; Hadhramautian
(adj.)
‫ ح و‬ḥaḍana u (ḥaḍn, ‫ ح و ظة‬ḥiḍāna) to clasp
in one’s arms, embrace, hug (‫ ه‬s.o.);
to nurse, bring up, raise (‫ ه‬a child); (ḥaḍn,
‫ ح و ن‬ḥidān, ‫ ح و ظة‬ḥiḍāna, ‫ ح وان‬ḥuḍūn)
to hatch, brood, incubate (‫ هوـ‬an egg; of a
bird) VI to embrace one another, cling to
one another, nestle against each other VII
to clasp in one’s arms, embrace, hug (‫هوـ‬, ‫ه‬
s.o., s.th.); to harbor in one,s bosom (‫هوـ‬
feeling); to hatch, concoct, contrive (‫هووـ‬
s.th.); to bring up, raise (‫ هـ‬a child)
‫ ح و‬ḥaḍn pl. ‫ اح و ن‬aḥḍān breast,
bosom (between the outstretched arms);
armful, that which can be carried in one's
arms │ ‫( البلو اب ح و‬qabilahū) he received
him with open arms; ‫ بوي ااح و ن‬and ‫و ا‬
‫ اح و ن‬amid, among; with, in the presence
of (s.o.); ‫( و ااح و ناا صوحوا‬saḥrā’) in the
heart (or folds) of the desert; ‫ا ولت ابوي ا‬
‫ اح ظه‬she took me in her arms
‫ ح و ظة‬ḥiḍāna, ḥaḍāna raising, bringing
up, nursing (of a child); hatching (of an
egg), incubation │‫ا اراا ح ووو ظة‬children’s
home, day nursery, crèche
‫ ح وي‬in embraced, bugged, resting in
s.o.’s arms
‫ مح و‬maḥḍan pl. ‫ مح ض و‬maḥādin2
children’s home, day nursery, crèche
‫ احأ ووو ن‬iḥtiḍān embrace, hug(ging),
accolade
‫ ح ضوو ة‬ḥāḍina pl.
nurse-maid, dry nurse
‫ حااضوو‬ḥawāḍin2
‫ محأ و‬muḥtaḍin embracing, hugging;
tender, affectionate
‫ حوط‬ḥaṭṭa u (ḥaṭṭ) to put, place, put down, set
down (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to take down (‫ هوـ‬a load,
burden); to lower, decrease, diminish,
reduce (‫ هوـ‬or ‫ مو‬s.th.); to depreciate (‫مو ا‬
‫ لودره‬min qadrihī or ‫ مو اليمأو‬min qudratihī
the value of s.th.) │‫( حوطاا وحو ل‬riḥāla) to
halt, make a stop, dismount, encamp
(while traveling on horseback, 185
camelback. etc.); -- u (ḥaṭṭ, ‫ ح واه‬ḥuṭūṭ) to
sink, descend, go down; to alight (bird); to
land (airplane); to drop (price) II to put
down, set down, take off, unload (‫ هوـ‬a
load) VII to sink, descend, go down; to
decrease, diminish; to decline, decay,
wane VIII to put down, set down, take
down (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ حط‬ḥaṭṭ (act of) putting or setting down;
depreciation,
belittling,
derogation,
disparagement ( ‫ م و‬of s.th.); reduction,
diminution, decrease ( ‫ م‬of s.th.)
‫ ح وة‬ḥiṭṭa alleviation, relief, mitigation;
abasement,
debasement,
demotion,
degradation (in rank, dignity, prestige);
humiliation, insult, indignity
‫ احط‬aḥaṭṭ lower
‫ ح ي ة‬ḥaṭīṭa price reduction
‫ محوط‬maḥaṭṭ place at which s.th. is put
down or deposited; stopping place, stop;
pause fermata, hold, concluding strain,
cadence (mus.) │‫ محوطاابمو ل‬object of hope,
that on which one's hopes are pinned; ‫كو نا‬
‫ محووطاادظر و ر‬to attract the glances, draw
attention to o.s.; ‫ محووطاا كوالم‬m. al-kalām
sense, or meaning, of one’s words
‫ مح وة‬maḥaṭṭa pl. -āt stopping place,
stop (also of public conveyances); station,
post; railroad station; broadcasting station,
radio station │‫ امح وةاتحايولاا أيو ر‬m. taḥwīl
at-tayyār transformer station; ‫مح وةااال اعوةا‬
‫ يا السوووولكيةة‬m. al-idā‘a (al-lāsi1kīya)
broadcasting station, radio station;
transmitter (station); ‫( مح وةارئيسوية‬ra’īsīya)
(railroad) main station; O ‫ مح وةااالشو را‬m.
al-išārāt signal post; O ‫ مح وةااالرسو ل‬m. alirsāl transmitter (station; radio); ‫مح ووةا‬
‫( الرصوووو اا جايووووة‬li-l-arṣād al-jawwīya)
meteorological station, weather station;
‫ مح وةاا صووا‬m. aṣ-ṣarf (Eg.) pump station
(for drainage); power plant; O ‫مح ووةا‬
‫ االسوأقب ل‬receiving station (radio); O ‫مح وةا‬
‫( السولكيةالصويو اادمواا‬lā-silkīya qaṣīrat alamwāj) short-wave transmitter station;
‫ مح ةاتا يداا كهوبو‬m. taulīd al-kahrabā’ and
‫ مح ةاكهوب ئية‬power plant
‫ اظح ووو ه‬inḥiṭāṭ decline, fall, decay,
decadence; inferiority │‫احسووو سااالظح ووو ه‬
iḥsās al-inḥ. sense of inferiority
‫ اظح ه‬inḥiṭāṭ postclassical writer
‫ مو حط‬munḥaṭṭ low, base, low-level, lowgrade; fallen, degraded (woman); mean,
vile, vulgar; inferior
‫ ح وب‬ḥaṭaba i to gather firewood │‫اح وبا و ا‬
‫(حبلو‬fī ḥablihī) to support s.o., stand by
s.o., back s.o. up VIII to gather firewood
‫ ح ب‬ḥaṭab pl. ‫ اح ب‬aḥṭāb firewood
‫ ح و ب‬ḥaṭṭāb wood gatherer; woodcutter, lumberjack; vendor of firewood
‫ تح يووب‬taḥṭīb singlestick fencing (a
popular game, esp. in rural areas; eg.)
‫ ح هب‬taḥṭīb wood gatherer; woodcutter,
lumberjack; vendor of firewood │‫اكح هوبا‬
‫ يوول‬ka-ḥāṭibi lailin lit.: like one who
gathers wood at night, i.e., blindly, at
random, heedlessly (said of s.o. who does
not realize, or think about, what he is
doing)
‫ ح وم‬ḥaṭama i (ḥaṭm) to break, shatter, smash,
wreck, demolish (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) II = I; V to
break. go to pieces; to be broken, b.
smashed, be shattered; to crash (e.g.,
airplane, structure, etc.); to be wrecked
(ship) VII = V
‫ ح موة‬ḥiṭma pl. ‫ ح وم‬ḥiṭam particle, small
piece, shred, bit, morsel; s.th. broken
‫ ح و م‬ḥuṭām debris, rubble; fragments,
shards, broken pieces; wreckage, wreck
(of a ship) │ ‫ ح ووو ماا وودظي‬ad-dunyā the
ephemeral things of this world, the
vanities of the world
‫ ح يم‬ḥaṭīm smashed, shattered, wrecked
186
‫ تح وويم‬taḥṭīm smashing,
shattering,
wrecking,
breaking,
demolition,
destruction, disruption │O ‫سوفي ةاتح ويماا جليود‬
icebreaker
‫تح ووووووووووم‬
taḥaṭṭum
crumbling,
disintegration; crash (of an airplane);
collapse, breakdown
‫ ح هموة‬ḥāṭima: O ‫ ح هموةاا جليود‬icebreaker
(naut.)
‫ مح ووم‬muḥaṭṭim crashing, thundering,
roaring (of an explosion. etc.) – muḥaṭṭam
broken (language)
‫ مح موة‬muḥaṭṭima: ‫( مح موةاثلجيوة‬taljīya)
icebreaker (naut.)
‫ ح‬ḥaẓẓa a (ḥaẓẓ) to be lucky, Fortunate IV=I
‫ حو‬ḥaẓẓ pl. ‫ حرواظ‬ḥuẓūẓ part, portion,
share, allotment; lot, fate, destiny; good
luck, good fortune; affluence, wealth,
fortune; prosperity; pleasure │ ‫ا واح و ام و‬
endowed with; ‫ حسو اا حو‬li-ḥusni l-ḥ. and
‫ مو احسو اا حو‬fortunately, luckily; ‫سوا اا حو‬
sū’ al-ḥ. bad luck, misfortune; ‫سو اا حو‬
sayyi’ al-ḥ. unlucky, unfortunate; ‫سووا ا‬
‫ ا حو‬unfortunately; ‫ مو احسو احرو‬luckily for
me, fortunately; ‫ كو نامو احسو احرو اان‬he was
lucky in that he ...; ‫ ويسااحسو ام هو احرو‬he is
no better off than she is
‫ حري‬ḥaẓīẓ lucky, fortunate
‫ محر واظ‬lucky, fortunate; content(ed),
happy, glad
‫ حروو‬ḥaẓara u (ḥaẓr) to fence in, hedge in (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to forbid (‫ علووو هووـ‬to s.o. s.th.),
prohibit (‫ علو هـ‬s.o. from doing s.th.)
‫ حروووو‬ḥaẓr forbiddance, interdiction,
prohibition, ban; embargo
‫ حرووو ر‬ḥiẓār, ḥaẓār wall, partition,
screen; fence, palisade, railing
‫ حريوووو‬ḥaẓīra pl. ‫ حروووو ئو‬ḥaẓā’ir2
enclosure, railing, fence, palisade, hedge;
compound, yard, pound, pinfold; corral,
pen, paddock, coop; hangar, shed; field,
domain, realm (fig.) │ ‫( و احريوو‬with foll.
genit.) inside of, within; ‫جلب و اا ووواحريوت و‬
(jadabahū) to bring s.o. under one’s
influence; ‫ حرو ئواا و ئوا‬aircraft hangars;
‫ حريو اا قدس‬ḥ. al-quds Paradise
‫ محروار‬maḥẓūr interdicted, prohibited,
forbidden (‫ علووو‬to s.o.); embargoed; pl.
‫ محرارا‬forbidden things, restrictions
(‫ حروا‬and ‫ حرو )حرو‬ḥaẓiya a ( ‫حروا‬
ḥuẓwa, ḥiẓwa) to enjoy the favor or good
graces of s.o. (‫)ع ود‬, be in s.o.’s (‫ )ع ود‬favor
or good graces; to acquire, obtain, attain,
gain, win (‫ ب‬s.th.)
‫ حرووا‬ḥuẓwa, ḥiẓwa favored position,
role of favorite; precedence; favor, grace;
good will, benevolence; prestige, credit,
standing, respect, esteem │‫اظو لاحرووا اع وودا‬
‫ ي دىة‬to find favor with s.o.
‫ حريوة‬ḥaẓīya pl. ‫ حر يو‬ḥaẓāyā paramour,
mistress, concubine
‫ محريوووة‬maḥẓīya pl.
mistress, concubine
-āt
paramour.
‫ حف‬ḥaffa u (ḥaff) to surround (‫هـ ب‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.
with, also ‫ ب‬and ‫ حوال‬s.o., s.th.), enclose,
encompass, border (‫ب‬, ‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to depilate
(‫ هوـ‬a part of the body), unhair (‫ هوـ‬the skin);
to trim, clip (‫ هوـ‬the beard); to chafe, rub
off, abrade (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) │ ‫اتحوفابو اا عوي‬he is the
object of admiring glances, he is the
center of attention, all eyes are upon him;
-- i (‫ حفيوف‬ḥafīf) to rustle II and VIII to
surround, (‫حال‬, ‫ب‬, ‫هـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.), enclose,
encompass, border (‫حال‬,‫ب‬, ‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ حف ا‬ḥifāf side
‫ حفيف‬ḥafīf rustle, rustling
‫ محف وة‬miḥaffa (also maḥaffa) pl. -āt
litter, stretcher; roller stretcher; sedan
‫ حو ا‬ḥaff: ‫( بوزاحو ا‬ḳubz) plain bread
(without anything to go with it; eg.)187
‫ ح ووة‬ḥāffa pl. -āt enclosure, edge,
margin; brim of a vessel; border, brink,
verge; fringe, hem │‫’اعلوواح وةاا وواب‬alā ḥ.
al-ḳarāb on the brink of ruin
‫ حفيد‬ḥafīd pl. ‫ احفو‬aḥfād, ‫ حفود‬ḥafada grandson;
descendant, offspring, scion
‫ حفيد‬ḥafīda granddaughter
‫ حفوو‬ḥafara i (ḥafr) to dig (‫ هوـ‬s.th.): to drill (for
oil): to excavate (archeol.): to carve (‫هوـ‬
s.th.): to engrave, etch (‫ هوـ‬metal) │‫احفووا‬
to dig trenches; ‫( حفوواحفوو‬ḥufratan) to
prepare a pitfall, prepare an ambush VII
pass. of I; VIII to dig
‫ حفوو‬ḥafr digging, earthwork, excavation
(also archeol.); unearthing; drilling (for
oil): carving, inscribing (e.g., of letters);
engraving, etching; graphic arts (etching,
wood engraving); scurvy (syr.) │‫اجه و زا‬
‫ا حفو ا‬jahāz al-ḥ. oil rig; oil derrick
‫ حفوو‬ḥufra pl. ‫ حفوو‬ḥufar pit; hollow,
cavity, excavation; hole
‫ حفويووة‬ḥafrīya digging, excavation; O
gravure; pl. ‫ حفوي‬excavations (archeol.)
‫ حف و ر‬ḥaffār digger; engraver; driller;
stone mason │‫ احف ر اا قبار‬gravedigger
‫ حفي وو‬ḥafīr dug, dug out, excavated,
unearthed
‫ حفيووو‬ḥafīra pl. ‫ حف و ئو‬ḥafā’ir2 s.th.
excavated or unearthed; pl. excavations
(archeol.)
‫ احفووار‬uḥfūr pl. ‫ احوو يو‬aḥāfīr2 s.th.
excavated;
fossil;
pl.
excavations
(archeol.)
‫ محفو‬miḥfar pl. ‫ مح و‬maḥāfir2 spade
‫ حو و‬ḥāfir pl. ‫ حواا و‬ḥawāfir2 hoof │‫ولواا‬
‫ ا ح و واعلووواا ح و و‬to coincide, happen to
correspond exactly; ‫ علوواا حو و‬on the spot,
right away, at once
‫ ح و‬ḥāfirī ungular, ungulate
‫ حووووو و‬ḥāfira original condition,
beginning │ ‫ ع ووداا حو و‬on the spot, right
away, at once; ‫ رجااا واح وتو‬to revert to its
original state or origin
‫ محفوار‬maḥfūr dug; inscribed, engraved;
carved
‫ حفوز‬ḥafaza i (ḥafz) to pierce, stab (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ب‬
with the spear); to incite, instigate, urge,
prompt, induce (‫ علوو‬or ‫ ه ا وو‬s.o. to s.th.) V
to prepare o.s. get ready, be ready, be
about to do s.th. (‫ ل‬or ‫)ا وو‬. set out to do
s.th. (‫ ل‬or ‫ ;)ا وو‬to get ready to jump, make
a running start; to listen, pay attention
VIII to be about to do s.th., be ready (‫ل‬
for)
‫ تحفووز‬taḥaffuz preparedness, readiness;
vim, dash, verve, sweep, élan
‫ حو ز‬ḥāfiz pl. ‫ حواا ز‬ḥawāfiz2 spur, drive
(‫ علووو‬to do s.th.), incentive (‫ علووو‬to),
initiative
‫ مسأحفز‬mutaḥfiz ready, prepared (‫ ل‬for)
‫ حفو‬ḥafiẓa a (ḥifẓ) to preserve (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
protect, guard, defend (‫ ه‬s.o.): to observe,
bear in mind (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), comply (‫ هوـ‬with
s.th.), be mindful, be heedful (‫ هوـ‬of s.th.);
to keep up, maintain, sustain, retain,
uphold (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.); to hold, have in
safekeeping (‫ هووـ‬s.th.), take care (‫ هووـ‬of
s.th.); to keep, put away, save, store (‫هوـ‬
s.th); to conserve, preserve (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
retain in one’s memory, remember, know
by heart (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to memorize, learn by
heart, commit to memory (‫ هوـ‬s.th., esp. the
Koran); to reserve (‫ فس هـ‬for o.s. s.th.): to
stay, discontinue, suspend (‫ ا أحقيوووق‬a
judicial investigation; jur.) │ ‫ حفرو ا‬may
God protect him! ‫ حفو اب بويود‬to hold in care
of general delivery (‫ هـ‬s.th.); ‫يحف ا اا باسو ة‬
(yuḥfaẓu) in care of general delivery,
poste restante; ‫( حفو اا ا و ال‬wafā’a) to be
loyal to s.o., keep faith with s.o. II to have
s.o. (‫ )ه‬memorize (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) III to preserve,
keep up, maintain, uphold, sustain (‫علووو‬
s.th.); 188 to supervise, control (‫ علوو‬s.th.),
watch (‫ علوو‬over s.th.); to watch out (‫علوو‬
for), take care, be heedful, be mindful (‫علوو‬
of), look (‫ علوو‬after), attend, pay attention
(‫ علوو‬to); to keep, follow, observe, bear in
mind (‫ علووو‬s.th.), comply (‫ علووو‬with),
conform (‫ علووو‬to) ; to protect, guard,
defend (‫ هوـ‬and ‫علوو‬, also ‫ عو‬s.th.) IV to
vex, annoy, gall, irritate, hurt, offend (‫ه‬
s.o.) V to keep up, maintain, preserve (‫ب‬
s.th.); to observe, keep in mind (‫ ب‬s.th.),
be mindful, be heedful, take care (‫ ب‬of
s.th.), be concerned (‫ ب‬with); to be
cautious, be wary, be on one’s guard; to
be reserved, aloof; to have reservations
VIII to maintain, uphold (‫ ب‬or ‫ هوـ‬s.th.,
e.g., ‫ بحقال و‬one’s rights); to keep up,
maintain, retain (‫ ب‬or ‫ هووـ‬s.th., e.g., a
posture, a characteristic); to take care, take
over custody (‫ ب‬of s.o.), protect, guard (‫ب‬
s.o.); to defend (against encroachment),
hold, maintain (‫ ب‬a possession); to
preserve, sustain, continue, keep up (‫ب‬
s.th.); to hold, possess (‫ ب‬s.th.); to put
away, hold, have in safekeeping (‫ ب‬s.th.),
take care (‫ ب‬of s.th.); to keep, retain (‫ب‬
s.th.); ‫ احوووأف ا فسووو‬to keep for o.s.,
appropriate, reserve for o.s. (‫ ب‬or ‫ هوـ‬s.th.),
take complete possession (‫ هوـ‬of) X to ask
s.o. (‫ )ه‬to guard or protect (‫ هـ‬or ‫ علوو‬s.th.);
to entrust (‫ علوو‬or ‫ ه هوـ‬to s.o. s.th.), commit
s.th. (‫ علو‬or ‫ )هـ‬to the charge of s.o. (‫)ه‬
‫ حفووو‬ḥifẓ preservation; maintenance,
sustentation, conservation, upholding;
protection, defense, guarding; custody,
safekeeping. keeping, storage; retention;
observance,
compliance
(with);
memorizing, memorization; memory;
(jur.) discontinuance, stay, suspension (of
legal action, of a judicial investigation) │‫ا‬
‫حفووووووو اابثووووووو ر‬preservation
of
ancient
monuments (Eg.); ‫ حفو اا صوحة‬ḥ. aṣ-ṣiḥḥa
hygiene, sanitation; ‫ رج لاا حف‬police
‫حفروووووة‬
ḥifẓa
resentment, rancor
anger,
indignation,
‫ حف و ظ‬ḥifāẓ pl. -āt dressing, ligature,
bandage │ ‫ احفو ظاا حوي‬ḥ. al-ḥaiḍ sanitary
napkin
‫ حفوي‬ḥafīẓ attentive, heedful, mindful;
preserving, keeping, guarding (‫ علو‬s.th.)
‫ حفيروة‬ḥafīẓa pl.
resentment, rancor
‫ حفو ئ‬ḥafā’iẓ2 grudge,
‫ محفروة‬maḥfaẓa, miḥfaẓa pl. -āt,
‫محو‬
2
maḥāfiẓ folder, bag, satchel, briefcase
dispatch case, portfolio; wallet, pocket,
book
‫ محفرة‬miḥfaẓa capsule
‫ تحفوووووي‬taḥfīẓ memorization
inculcation (esp. of the Koran)
drill,
‫ حفو ظ‬ḥifāẓ defense, protection, guarding
(esp. of cherished, sacred things);
preservation, maintenance (‫ علوووووو‬of
interests); keeping, upholding (of loyalty),
adherence (to a commitment)
‫مح روووووووووة‬
muḥāfaẓa
guarding;
safeguarding; preservation; protection,
defense;
conservation,
sustaining,
upholding; retention, maintenance (‫ علوو‬of
s.th.) conservativism (pol.), conservative
attitude; following, observance (‫ علووو‬of
s.th.), compliance (‫ علوووو‬with s.th.),
adherence (‫ علوو‬to); guarding ( ‫ مو‬against
misfortune),
saving
( ‫مووووووو‬
from
misadventure); garrison (mil.); (pl. -āt)
governorate (one of five administrative
divisions of Egypt, in addition to a
mudīrīyāt); office of the muḥāfiẓ (head of
a governorate); province, anyone of the
larger administrative districts (Syr.) │‫ا‬
‫ ا مح روةاعلووواا و فس‬self-preservation; ‫موولهبا‬
‫ ا مح رووووة‬madhab al-m. conservative
movement, conserativism, Toryism
‫ تحفوووو‬taḥaffuẓ caution, wariness,
restraint, reticence, reserve, aloofness; -189 (pl. -āt) precaution, precautionary
measure; reservation, limiting condition,
conditional stipulation, proviso │ ‫موااا وأحف‬
with full reservation
‫تحفرووووووو‬
taḥaffuẓī
precautionary,
preventive │‫( اجووووووا ا اتحفريوووووة‬ijrā’āt)
precautionary measures; ‫( صولااتحفرو‬ṣulḥ)
settlement before action, preventive
settlement (jur.)
‫ احأف و ظ‬iḥtifāẓ guarding, safeguarding;
preservation; retention,
maintenance,
continuation,
conservation,
defense,
protection,
vindication,
sustaining,
upholding; keeping, holding, safekeeping,
custody (‫ ب‬of s.th.)
‫ حو‬ḥāfiẓ keeper, guarder, guardian,
custodian, caretaker; (pl. ‫ حفو ظاا قووآن‬ḥuffāẓ,
‫ حفروة‬ḥafaẓa) one who knows the Koran by
heart (formerly an honorific epithet)
‫ ح رووة‬ḥāfiẓa memory; -- (pl.
‫حوواا‬
ḥawāfiẓ) wallet, pocketbook, money order
(Eg.)
‫ محفواظ‬maḥfūẓ kept, held in safekeeping,
deposited,
guarded,
preserved;
memorized, committed to memory, etc.;
conserved, preserved (food); reserved;
ensured, secured, safeguarded; -- pl.
‫ محفاظوووو‬canned goods, concerves;
archives; memorized material, what s.o.
knows by heart │‫ ا اراا محفاظو اا مصووية‬the
Egyptian Public Record Office; ‫م وبكاال ا‬
‫ محفاظ وة‬concerves, canned goods; ‫جميوواا‬
‫ ا حقا امحفاظة‬all rights reserved
‫ محو‬muḥāfiẓ supervisory, controlling;
observing (‫ علووو‬s.th.), complying (‫علووو‬
with), etc.; conservative (pol.), ‫ا محو ران‬
the Conservatives, the Tories; keeper,
guarder, guardian, custodian, caretaker,
supervisor,
superintendent;
mayor;
governor (Eg.: title of the chief officer of
a governorate; Syr.: chief officer of a
province); director general, president (=
Brit. governor)
(dīnīya) religious ceremony, Divine
Service; ‫ حفلوةاسو هو‬and ‫ حفلوةاسومو‬ḥ. samar
evening party, soirée; ‫ حفلوةاسوي م ئية‬motionpicture show; ‫ حفلةاا ش‬tea party; ‫حفلةاا عوسا‬
ḥ. al-‘urs wedding;‫( حفلووةااالسووأقب لا‬public)
reception; ‫ حفلة اماسيقيةا‬concert
‫ حفيل‬ḥafīl eager, assiduous, diligent
‫ محفوول‬maḥfil pl. ‫ مح وول‬maḥāfil2 assembly,
congregation, meeting, gathering; party;
190 body, collective whole; circle, quarter
│ ‫ محفلام ساظ‬Masonic lodge; ‫ا مح لاا وسوميةا‬
‫( يا سي سوويةة‬rasmīya, siyāsīya) the official
(political) circles or quarters
‫ احأفوووو ل‬iḥtifāl pl. -āt celebration,
ceremony, festival, festivities
‫ ح ول‬ḥāfil pl. ‫ حفول‬ḥuffal, ‫ حاا ول‬ḥawāfil2
full (‫ ب‬of), filled, replete (‫ ب‬with);
abundant,
copious,
lavish;
much
frequented, well attended (by visitors,
participants,
etc.),
numerous
(of
attendance); solemn, ceremonial, festive
‫ موأحف‬mutaḥaffiẓ vigilant, alert, wary,
cautious; reticent, reserved, aloof; staid,
sedate
‫ مسأحف‬mustaḥfaẓ pl. -āt reserve (mil.)
‫ حفوول‬ḥafala i (ḥafl) to gather, assemble,
congregate; to flow copiously; to be
replete, teem, superabound (‫ ب‬with); to
pay attention, attend, give one’s mind (‫ب‬
or ‫ ل‬to s.th.), concern o.s. (‫ ب‬with), make
much (‫ ب‬of), set great store (‫ ب‬by) │‫االا‬
‫(حفوووولابوووو‬lā ḥafla) indifferent, of no
consequence II to adorn, decorate,
ornament (‫ ه ب‬s.th. with) VIII to gather,
rally, throng together; to celebrate (‫ ب‬s.th.,
s.o.); to concern o.s. (‫ ب‬or ‫ ل‬with), attend,
pay attention. give one’s mind (‫ ب‬or ‫ ل‬to
s.th.); to honor, welcome, receive kindly
(‫ ب‬s.o.)
‫ ح لوة‬hāfila pl. -āt, ‫ حاا ول‬ḥawāfil
autobus
O
‫ محأفول‬muḥtafil: ‫ ا محأفلوان‬the participants
in a festive event, the celebrators
‫ محأفووووول‬muḥtafal assembly place,
gathering place; party; ‫ محأفلاب‬celebrated
‫ حفو‬ḥafana u to scoop up with both hands (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to give a little (‫ ل‬to s.o.)
‫ حف ة‬ḥafna pl. ḥafanāt handful
1
‫حفوووووول‬
ḥafl
gathering,
meeting,
assembling;
assembly,
congregation,
throng, crowd; performance, show, public
event; celebrations; feast, festival
‫ حفلوة‬ḥafla pl. -āt assembly, gathering,
meeting, congregation; party; (social or
public) event; show, performance (theater,
cinema); concert; festivity, ceremony,
festival, festive event, celebration │‫احفلوةا‬
‫ا أووووببي‬commemoration. Commemorative,
ceremony for a deceased person; ‫ا حفل وةا‬
‫( ادو وو‬ūlā) premiere; ‫ حفلوةاح لوة‬numerous
assembly; ‫( حفلوووةا يويوووة‬ḳairīya) charity
performance, charity event; ‫ حفلوةاا ود ا‬addfn funeral ceremony, obsequies; ‫حفلوةا ي يوة‬
2
(‫ حفوا‬and ‫ حفو )حفوو‬ḥafiya a ( ‫ حفو و‬ḥafāwa) to
receive kindly and hospitably, to
welcome, receive with honors, honor (‫ب‬
s.o.) V to behave with affection, be
affectionate (‫ ب‬toward) VIII do.; to
celebrate (‫ ب‬an occasion, a festival)
‫ حفو‬ḥafīy welcoming, receiving kindly,
greeting (‫ ب‬s.o., s.th.)
‫ حفوووو و‬ḥafāwa friendly reception,
welcoming, welcome, salutation (‫ ب‬of
s.o.)
‫ احأفوووو‬iḥtifā’ reception, welcome,
salutation (‫ ب‬of s.o.); celebration, festivity
2
‫احفو‬ḥafiya a ( ‫ حفو‬ḥafā’) to go barefoot; to
have sore feet
‫ ح ا‬ḥāfin pl. ‫ حف‬ḥufāh barefoot(ed)
‫ حوق‬ḥaqqa i u to be true, turn out to be true, be
confirmed; to be right, correct; (also pass.
ḥuqqa) to be necessary, obligatory,
requisite, imperative (‫ علووو‬for s.o.), be
incumbent (‫ علوو‬upon s.o.); to be adequate,
suitable, fitting, appropriate (‫ علوو‬for s.o.);
to be due (‫ ل‬s.o.); ‫ يحقا و‬he is entitled to it,
he has a right to it; ‫ حوقاعليو‬he deserved it
(punishment); -- u to ascertain (‫ هوـ‬s.th.),
make sure, be sure (‫ هووـ‬of s.th.); to
recognize. identify (‫ ه‬s.o.) II to make s.th.
(‫ )هوـ‬come true; to realize (‫ هوـ‬s.th., e.g., a
hope), carry out (‫ هـ‬e.g., a wish), carry into
effect,
fulfill,
put
into
action,
consummate, effect, actualize (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
implement (‫ هووـ‬e.g., an agreement); to
produce, bring on, yield (‫ هوـ‬results); to
determine, ascertain, find out, pinpoint,
identify (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to prove s.th. (‫ )هوـ‬to be
true, verify, establish, substantiate (‫هوووـ‬
s.th.); to confirm, assert, aver, avouch,
affirm (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to be exact, painstaking,
meticulous, careful (‫ هوـ‬in doing s.th.), e.g.,
‫( حق وقاا رووو‬naẓara) to look closely; to
study, examine, investigate, explore (‫هووـ‬
s.th.), look, inquire (‫ هـ‬into s.th.); to verify,
check (‫ هوـ‬or ‫ و‬s.th.); to investigate ( ‫و‬
s.th., police); to make an official inquiry
(‫ هوـ‬into s.th.), institute an investigation (‫هوـ‬
of or into; court; jur.); to interrogate (‫موا‬
s.o.), conduct a hearing (‫ ما‬of s.o.; jur.) III
to contend for a right (‫ ه‬with s.o.), contest
or litigate a right (‫ ه‬against s.o.) IV to tell
the truth; to be right ( ‫ و‬in s.th.); to
enforce (‫ هوـ‬s.th., e.g., a legal claim) V to
prove true. turn out to be true, be
confirmed, prove to be correct; to
materialize, become a fact; to be realized,
be effected, come into effect; to be
examined, be explored; to ascertain (‫هووـ‬
s.th., also ‫)مو‬, make sure, reassure o.s.,
gain proof, convince o.s., be convinced,
be sure, be certain (‫ هوـ‬of s.th.); to check,
verify (‫ هوـ‬or ‫مو‬. s.th.); to be serious (‫ب‬
about s.th.) X to be entitled, have a claim
(‫ هـ‬to s.th.); to claim (‫ هـ‬s.th.), lay claim (‫هوـ‬
to); to deserve, merit (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), be worthy
(‫ هووووـ‬of); to require, demand, 191
necessitate, make requisite (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to fall
due. become payable (sum of money),
mature. become due (note); to be due (‫ل‬
s.o.) │‫( يسوووووأحقاا ووووولكو‬dikra) worth
mentioning, noteworthy; ‫الايسوأحقاعليو اا وسوم‬
(rasmu) not subject to a fee. free of charge
‫ حوق‬ḥaqq truth; correctness, rightness;
rightful possession. property; one’s due;
duty; proper manner; true, authentic, real;
right, fair and reasonable; correct, sound,
valid; ‫ ا حوق‬an attribute of God; (pl. ‫حقوا‬
ḥuqūq) right, title, claim, legal claim ( ‫و‬
to);
‫ ا حقوووا‬law, jurisprudence, legal
science; ‫ حقو‬ḥaqqan really, in reality, in
effect, actually, in fact, indeed, truly, in
truth; justly, rightly, by rights │ ‫ احقو ا ول‬is
that (really) so? really? ‫ بحوق‬justly, rightly,
by rights; ‫ بو حق‬truly, in reality, actually;
properly, appropriately, in a suitable
manner; ‫ بحوق‬bi-haqqi and ‫ و احوق‬as to ...,
as for ..., with respect to, concerning,
regarding; ‫ هااعلواحق‬he is in the right; ‫ا حقا‬
‫ مع‬you are right; ‫ ا حوقاعليول‬you are wrong;
‫ هااحقاعليل‬it is your duty; ‫ هولااحقو اعلويكم‬you
owe this to me; ‫‘( عو ظ ا حقه اعلي‬irfānan) in
recognition of what he owed her; ‫ م احقو‬he
is entitled to it, it is his due; ‫كو نامو احقو اان‬
he should have ..., he ought to have …; ‫و ا‬
‫ ا حووقا و‬he is entitled to ...; ‫وا حووقايق و ل‬
(yuqāl) one may say, it must be admitted,
it’s only fair to say, say what you will ...,
... though (as a parenthetical phrase); ‫عواا‬
‫( حووقاا معو ووة‬ḥaqqa l-ma‘rifa) to know
exactly, know for certain, know very well,
also ‫( علوماحوقاا علوم‬ḥaqqa l-‘ilm); ‫هوماحوقاا فهوم‬
fahima ḥaqqa l-fahm to understand
precisely, comprehend thoroughly, be
fully aware; ‫( ا سوووع اا حقووة‬sa‘āda) true
happiness; ‫ كليووةاا حقووا‬kullīyat al-ḥ. law
school, faculty of law
‫ حوق‬ḥuqq hollow, cavity; socket of a
joint (anat.); also = ‫ حقة‬ḥuqqa
‫ حقوة‬ḥuqqa pl. ‫ حقوق‬ḥuqaq, ‫ حقو‬ḥiqāq,
‫ احقو‬aḥqāq small box, case, pot or jar;
receptacle, container; -- (pl. -āt, ‫حقووق‬
ḥuqaq) a weight (Syr., Pal.) = ‫ الة‬uqqa; ‫حقةا‬
‫ = اسأ ظبا ية‬1.280 kg (Ir.)
‫ احوق‬aḥaqq2 worthier, more deserving
(‫ ب‬of s.th.); more entitled (‫ ب‬to s.th.)
‫ حقيوق‬ḥaqīq pl. ‫ احقو‬aḥiqqā’2 worthy,
deserving (‫ ب‬of s.th.), fit, competent,
qualified; entitled (‫ ب‬to)
‫ حقيقوة‬ḥaqīqa pl. ‫ حقو ئق‬ḥaqā’iq2 truth,
reality (also philos.); fact; the true state of
affairs, the facts; true nature, essence; real
meaning, true sense; ḥaqīqatan really, in
reality, in effect, actually, in fact, indeed,
truly, in truth │ ‫ ارأيأو اعلوواحقيقأو‬I saw its
true nature, as it really is; ‫ و احقيقوةاادموو‬in
reality, really, actually; ‫ ويسا و احقيقوة‬it does
not really exist, it is not real
‫ حقيقو‬ḥaqīqī real, true; actual; proper,
intrinsic, essential; genuine; authentic;
positive
‫ حقوال‬ḥuqūqī juristic(al); (pl. -ūn) jurist,
jurisprudent, lawyer
‫ احقية‬aḥaqqīya legal claim, title, right
‫ حق و ظ‬ḥaqqānī correct, right, proper,
sound, valid, legitimate, legal
‫ حق ظيوة‬ḥaqqānīya justice, law │‫اوزار ا‬
‫ ا حق ظية‬Ministry of Justice (formerly Eg.)
‫ تحقيووق‬taḥqīq realization, actualization,
effectuation, implementation; fulfillment
(of a claim, of a wish, etc.); achievement,
accomplishment,
execution;
ascertainment,
determination,
identification, verification; substantiation;
assertion,
affirmation,
confirmation;
pinpointing,
precise
determination;
exactness, accurateness, precision; (= ‫تحقيقا‬
‫ ا وق‬t. an-nuṭq) precise pronunciation; -(pl. -āt) verification, check, checkup,
investigation; official or judicial inquiry,
192 inquest │‫ ا أحقيوقاان‬it is a matter of fact
that ..., it is certain that ...; ‫علووواا أحقي وق‬
properly speaking, strictly speaking,
actually; exactly, precisely; positively,
definitely; ‫ ع ووداا أحقي وق‬properly speaking,
strictly speaking, actually; ‫ تحقيوقاا ش صوية‬t.
aš-šaḳšīya identification (of a person),
proof of identity; ‫شوووه اتحقيوووقاا ش صوووية‬
šahādat t. aš-šaḳšīya identity card; ‫للماتحقيقا‬
‫ ا ش صوووية‬qalam t. aš-š. bureau of
identification; ‫ تحقيوووقاا لاتيوووة‬t. ad-dātīya
identification; ‫ ل ضوووو اا أحقيووووق‬examining
magistrate; ‫ تحقيوووقاادربووو ح‬realization of
profits (stock market)
‫ احق‬iḥqāq: ‫ احق لو ا لحوق‬iḥqāqan li-l-ḥaqq
(so) that truth may prevail
‫ تحقوق‬taḥaqquq ascertainment, making
sure; conviction, certainty, certitude;
verification, check, checkup
‫ اسووأحق‬istiḥqāq pl. -āt worthiness,
deservingness, merit; one’s due or desert;
maturity, payability, falling due (of a sum
of money); reclaiming or calling in of s.th.
due, demand of a right; vindication (1.1.
Law), replevin, detinue│ ‫عووووو ااسوووووأحق‬
deservedly, justly, by rights; ‫بوودونااسووأحق‬
undeservedly;
‫ توووو ريخااالسووووأحق‬date of
maturity (e.g., of a bond); ‫االسوأحق اا لب و ظ‬
(lubnānī) name of a Lebanese order
‫ محقوا‬maḥqūq worthy, deserving (‫ب‬, ‫ل‬
of), fit, competent, qualifying (‫ب‬, ‫ ل‬for);
wrong, at fault, on the wrong track
‫ محقوق‬muḥaqqiq investigator; inquirer;
examining magistrate
‫ محقوق‬muḥaqqaq sure, certain, beyond
doubt,
unquestionable,
indubitable;
assured, established, accepted, recognized
│‫امو اا محقوقاان‬it is certain that ..., it is a fact
that …
‫ محووق‬muḥiqq telling the truth, in the
right, being right
‫ محقوووق‬mutaḥaqqiq convinced, sure,
certain, positive
‫ مسووأحق‬mustaḥiqq entitled; claiming;
beneficiary (of a wakf); deserving, worthy
│‫ مسأحقاا د ا‬m. ad-daf‘ due, payable (sum)
‫ حقب‬VITI to put into one's bag, to bag (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ حقوب‬ḥuqb pl. ‫ احقو ب‬aḥqāb, ‫ حقو ب‬ḥiqāb
long stretch of time, long period
‫ حقبوة‬ḥiqba pl. ‫ حقووب‬ḥiqab long time,
stretch of time; period, age │‫احقبةامو اا زمو ن‬
ḥiqbatan min az-zamān for quite a time,
for some time
‫ حقوب‬ḥaqab pl. ‫ احقو ب‬aḥqāb a kind of
ornamental belt
‫ حقو ب‬ḥiqāb pl. ‫ حقوب‬ḥuqub a kind of
ornamental belt
‫ حقيبوة‬ḥaqība pl. ‫ حق ئوب‬ḥaqā’ib2 valise,
suitcase, traveling bag; leather bag │‫احقيبوةا‬
‫ بلام سوووية‬diplomatic pouch; ‫حقيبوووةاا قوووا‬
portemonnaie, change purse; ‫ حقيبةاا يود‬ḥ. alyad ladies’ purse, handbag
‫ حقود‬ḥaqida a, ḥaqada i (ḥaqd, ḥiqd) to harbor
feelings of hatred (‫ علوو‬against) IV to incite
to hatred or resentment, embitter,
envenom (‫ ه‬s.o.) V = I; VI to hate one
another
‫ حقود‬ḥiqd pl. ‫ احقو‬aḥqād, ‫ حقوا‬ḥuqūd
hatred, malice, spite, resentment, rancor
field; oil area; ‫ حق والاا أجو رب‬experimental
fields; ‫( حقلاكهوب ئ‬kahrabā’ī) electric field
‫ حقيود‬ḥaqida pl. ‫ حق ئود‬ḥaqā’id2 hatred,
malice, spite, resentment, rancor
‫ حقل‬ḥaqlī field- (in compounds)
‫ مح للوة‬muḥāqala sale of grain while still
in growth, dealing in grain futures (Isl.
Law)
‫ حق وا‬ḥaqūd full of hatred, spiteful,
resentful,
malicious,
malevolent,
rancorous
‫ حقو‬ḥaqana u (ḥaqn) to hold back, withhold,
keep back, detain, retain (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
suppress, repress, restrain (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
keep to o.s. (‫ ا سوو‬as-sirra the secret); to
spare ( ‫ مو‬damahū s.o.’s blood or life); to
give (‫ ه‬s.o.) an injection (med.) VIII to
become congested (esp. blood); to suffer
from strangury; to take an enema, a
clyster; to be injected │ ‫احووووأق اوجهوووو‬
(wajhahū) his face was flushed, his face
turned red
‫ ح لووود‬ḥāqid full of hatred, spiteful,
resentful,
malicious,
malevolent,
rancorous; pl. ‫ حقوود‬ḥaqada malevolent
people
‫ حقوو‬ḥaqara i (ḥaqr) to despise, scorn,
disdain (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to look down (‫هوـ‬, ‫ه‬
on), have a low opinion (‫هووـ‬, ‫ ه‬of); -ḥaqura u 193 to below, base,
contemptible, despicable; to be despised,
degraded, humiliated II to disparage,
decry, depreciate (‫ ه‬s.o.), detract, derogate
(‫ ه‬from s.o.); to degrade, debase, humble,
humiliate; to regard with contempt,
despise, scorn, disdain (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.) VIII
to despise, scorn, disdain (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.),
look down (‫هووـ‬, ‫ ه‬on) X to regard as
contemptible or despicable, disdain,
despise (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.), look down (‫هوـ‬, ‫ه‬
on)
‫ حقوووو‬ḥaqn retention, withholding;
sparing; injecting. injection (med.) │‫احق و ا‬
‫ وودم ئهم‬ḥaqnan li-dimā’ihim in order to
spare their blood; ‫حقوووو ا ووو احبووولاا اريوووود‬
intravenous injection (med.)
‫ حق وة‬ḥuqna pl. ‫ حق و‬ḥuqan injection
(med.); hypodermic; clyster; enema
‫ محق وووة‬miḥqana pl.
syringe (med.)
‫ حقيوو‬ḥaqīr pl. ‫ حقووا‬ḥuqarā’2 low, base,
mean, vulgar, vile; little, small, paltry,
inconsiderable, poor, wretched, miserable;
despised; despicable, contemptible
2
‫ احقووووو‬aḥqar
contemptible
lower,
baser,
‫ احأق ن‬iḥtiqān congestion │ ‫ احأق ناا ودم‬iḥt.
ad-dam vascular congestion
‫ مح وأق‬muḥtaqan reddened by blood
congestion, flushed, red (face)
more
‫ حقوووو ر‬ḥaqāra lowness, vulgarity,
baseness, vileness, meanness; smallness,
paltriness,
insignificance,
poorness,
wretchedness,
miserableness;
despicability,
contemptibleness;
ignominy, infamy
‫ محووو ل‬maḥāqin2
‫ حقوا‬ḥaqw pl. ‫ حقو‬ḥiqā’, ‫ احقو‬aḥqā’ loin, groin
│ ‫ شد احقايو‬šaddada ḥaqwaihi to gird one’s
loins
1
‫ احأق ر‬iḥtiqār contempt, disdain, scorn │‫ا‬
‫(ظرواا ي ابعوي ااالحأقو ر‬bi-‘aini l-iḥt.) to regard
s.o. with contempt, look down one’s nose
at s.o.
‫ حول‬ḥakka u (ḥakk) to rub, chafe; to scrape; to
scratch; to rub off, scrape off, scratch off,
abrade (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) │‫( احولا و اصودره‬ṣadrihī) it
impressed him, affected him, touched s.th.
inside him IV to itch V to rub o.s., scrape,
chafe (‫ ب‬against); to pick a quarrel (‫ب‬
with s.o.) VI to rub or scrape against each
other VIII to rub o.s. scrape, chafe (‫ب‬
against); to be in contact, in touch (‫ب‬
with) │‫( ااحألا اصودره‬ṣadrihī) it impressed
him, affected him, touched s.th. inside him
‫ محأقوو‬muḥtaqar despised; contemptible,
despicable
‫ حوول‬ḥakk rubbing, chafing; friction;
scratching
‫ تحقأوو‬taḥqīr contempt, disdain, scorn;
degradation, humiliation, abasement
‫ حق ول‬ḥaql pl. ‫ حق وال‬ḥuqūl field (also fig. =
domain); column │‫احقوالاا بأوووول‬oil fields;
‫ حقولاا زيوت‬ḥ. az-zait, ‫ حقولاا و فط‬ḥ. an-nafṭ oil
‫ حل‬ḥakka itching; scabies, itch (med.)
‫ حك‬ḥakkāk lapidary 194
‫ محول‬miḥakk touchstone; test │‫ثبوتاعلووا‬
‫ محلاا رو‬tabata ‘alā m. in-naẓar to stand a
critical test
‫ محكة‬miḥakka currycomb
‫ تح‬taḥākk (reciprocal) friction
‫ احأكووو‬iḥtikāk pl. -āt (reciprocal)
friction; close touch or contact; friction
(fig., = dissension, controversy) │‫مو اغيووا‬
‫ احأك‬min gair ḥt. frictionless
‫ محكل‬muḥakkak chafed, worn away
2
‫ حكة‬ḥukka (tun., = ḥuqqa) pl. ‫ حكول‬ḥukak small
box, case, pot or jar
‫ حكو‬VIII to buy up, hoard and withhold, corner
(‫ هووـ‬a commodity); to monopolize (‫ هووـ‬a
commercial article); to have exclusive
possession (‫ هوـ‬of s.th.), hold a monopoly
(‫ هـ‬over s.th.)
‫ حكوو‬ḥikr, ḥukr and ‫ اجوو اا حكوو‬ujrat al-ḥ.
ground rent, quitrent
‫ حكو‬ḥakar, ḥukar hoarded
‫ حكوووو‬ḥukra hoarding (of goods);
monopoly
‫ ح كار‬ḥākūra small vegetable garden
‫ احأكو ر‬iḥtikār pl. -āt cornering, buying
up; monopoly; preferential position;
supremacy, hegemony │ ‫ااحأكو راتجو ر اا وب‬albunn coffee-trade monopoly; ‫احأكو راا سووكو‬
iḥ. as-sukkar sugar monopoly
‫ احأكوو ر‬iḥtikārī rapacious, grasping,
greedy
‫ حك وم‬ḥakama u (ḥukm) to pass judgment,
express an opinion (‫علو‬, ‫ و‬on s.th.), judge
(‫ علوو‬s.th., ‫ ب‬by, from); to decide, give a
decision, pass a verdict, pass sentence (‫علوو‬
on); to sentence (‫ علوو‬s.o., ‫ ب‬to a penalty;
said of the judge), impose, inflict (‫ ب‬a
penalty) on s.o. (‫ ;)علووو‬to pronounce a
verdict or judgment, deliver judgment,
rule (‫ ل‬in s.o.’s favor); to adjudicate,
adjudge, award (‫ ل ب‬to s.o. s.th.); to take
(‫ ب‬s.th.) as a standard or norm; to have
judicial power, have jurisdiction, have
authority (‫ علوو‬and ‫ ه‬over), govern, rule,
dominate, control (‫ علوو‬or ‫ ه‬s.o.); to order,
command (‫ ب‬s.th.); to bridle, check, curb
(‫ه‬, ‫ هوـ‬s.th., s.o.) │‫( احكوماعليو اب العودام‬ḥukima,
i‘dām) he was sentenced to death; ‫حكووما‬
‫( بإ اظأو‬bi-idānatihī) to convict s.o., find
s.o. guilty (jur.); ‫( حكوماببوا تو‬bi-barā’atihi)
to acquit s.o. (jur.) II to appoint (‫ ه‬s.o.) as
ruler; to choose (‫ ه‬s.o.) as arbitrator, make
(‫ ه‬s.o.) the judge ( ‫ و‬over or in s.th., ‫بوي‬
between) III to prosecute (‫ ه‬s.o.); to
arraign, bring to trial, hale into court (‫ه‬
s.o.); to interrogate, hear (‫ ه‬s.o.) IV to
make (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) firm, strong, sturdy, solid;
to fortify (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.); to strengthen,
consolidate (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to do well, do
expertly, master (‫ هوووـ‬field, work), be
proficient (‫ هـ‬in) │‫( ااحكمااموه‬amrahu) to do
s.th. thoroughly, carefully, properly; ‫احكوما‬
‫( لفوولاا بو ب‬qafla l-bāb) to lock the door
firmly; ‫( احكووما غووة‬lugatan) to master a
language V to have one's own way ( ‫ و‬in),
proceed ( ‫ و‬with) at random, at will,
handle ( ‫ ووو‬s.th.) arbitrarily; to pass
arbitrary judgment ( ‫ و‬on); to make o.s.
the judge (‫ علو‬of), pass judgment (‫ علوو‬on);
to decide (‫ ب‬on); to rule, reign, hold sway
( ‫ و‬over); to dominate, control ( ‫ و‬s.th.),
be in control, be in command ( ‫ و‬of) VI to
bring one another before the judge (‫ا ووا‬
‫ ;)ا ح و كم‬to appeal (‫ ا ووو‬to) for a legal
decision; to be interrogated, be heard (in
court) VIII to have one’s own way ( ‫ و‬in),
proceed ( ‫ و‬with, in s.th.) at will, at
random, handle ( ‫ و‬s.th.) arbitrarily, judge
arbitrarily; to rule, reign, hold sway (‫علوو‬,
‫ و‬over); to be in control, be in possession
(‫ علوو‬of); to appeal (‫ ا ووو‬to) for a legal
decision, seek a decision (‫ ا وو‬from), have
s.o. (‫ )ا وو‬decide X to be strong, sturdy,
solid, firm; to become stronger, be
strengthened, be 195 consolidated; to take
root, be or become deep-rooted, deepseated, ingrained, inveterate, marked,
pronounced (feeling, trait)
‫ حكووم‬ḥukm pl. ‫ احكو م‬aḥkām judgment,
valuation, opinion; decision, (legal)
judgment,
verdict,
sentence;
condemnation, conviction; administration
of justice; jurisdiction, legal consequence
of the facts of a case (Isl. Law);
regulation,
rule,
provision,
order,
ordinance, decree; judiciousness, wisdom,
judgeship, command, authority, control,
dominion, power; government, regime; pl.
‫ احكو م‬statutes, by-laws, regulations, rules,
provisions,
stipulations,
principles,
precepts; ‫ حكم و‬ḥukman virtually; legally
│‫ بحكووم‬bi-ḥukmi by virtue of, on the
strength of, pursuant to, by force of; ‫احكم‬
as good as, all but, e.g., ‫( هاا و احكوم‬fī ḥukm
l-‘adam) it is as good as nothing, it is
practically nonexistent; ‫اصوباا و احكوماا مقووور‬
aṣbaḥa fī ḥukmi l-muqarrar it is all but
decided, ‫ ك نا احكماا شو‬also: to be subject
to s.th.; ‫ ظوزلاعلوواحكمو‬to give in, yield to
s.o., ‫ حكوماا بووا‬ḥ. al-barā’a acquittal, ‫حكوما‬
‫( ح وار‬ḥuḍūrī) judgment delivered in the
presence of the litigant parties, after oral
proceedings (jur.), ‫( ا حكووماب العوودام‬i‘dām)
death sentence;
‫( حكووووماغيوووو ب‬giyābī)
judgment by default (jur.); ‫( ا حكماا ولات‬dātī)
self-determination, autonomy (pol.); ‫ا حكوما‬
‫( ا جمهوار‬jumhūrī) the republican form of
government, the republican regime; ‫ا حكوما‬
‫( ا م لووووق‬muṭlaq) the absolute, i.e.,
authoritarian, regime, ‫( ا حكوماا هو ئ‬niyābī)
the
parliamentary
regime,
parliamentarianism; ‫ ج ووةاا حكووم‬lajna al-ḥ.
board of examiners, review board; ‫االحكو ما‬
‫‘( ا عو يووة‬urfīya) martial law; ‫احك و مااظأق يووة‬
(intiqālīya) provisional regulations (jur.);
‫( احكوو ما أ ميوووة‬ḳitāmīya) final regulations
(jur.); ‫( احكووووو ما صوووووة‬ḳāṣṣa) special
regulations; ‫( كولاسو احكمو‬sinn) every age
has its own set of rules, must be judged by
its own standards, ‫( ل وووور ااحك و م‬li-ḍḍarūra) necessity has its (own) rules,
(approx.: necessity knows no law)
‫ حكم‬ḥukmī legal
‫( حكمووودار‬eg.; pronounced ḥikimdār)
commandant; chief of police
‫( حكمداريوة‬eg.; pronounced ḥikimdārīya)
commandant’s office
‫ حكوم‬ḥakam pl. ‫ حكو م‬ḥukkām arbitrator,
arbiter; umpire, referee
‫ حكم وة‬ḥikma pl. ‫ حكووم‬ḥikam wisdom;
sagacity; philosophy, maxim, rationale,
underlying reason │‫( ا حكموووة‬with foll.
genit.) on account of, because of
‫ حكموووو‬ḥikmī gnomic, aphoristic,
expressing maxims │ ‫( اا شووعواا حكم و‬ši'r)
gnomic poetry
‫ حكموة‬ḥakama pl. -āt bit (of a horse’s
bridle)
‫ حكويم‬ḥakīm pl. ‫ حكمو‬ḥukamā’2 wise,
judicious; wise man, sage; philosopher;
physician, doctor
‫ حكيمب ش و‬ḥakīmbāšī senior physician,
chief surgeon
‫ حكامة‬ḥukūma pl. -āt government
‫ حكوووووام‬ḥukūmī of government,
governmental; official, state-owned, statecontrolled of the state, state- (in
compounds)
‫ احكم‬aḥkam2 wiser
‫ محكم وة‬maḥkama pl. ‫ مح و كم‬maḥākim2
court, tribunal │‫ امحكم وةااالسووأئ ا‬m. alisti’nāf court of appeal, appellate court;
‫( محكموةااهليوة‬ahlīya) indigenous court (Eg.;
jurisdiction limited to Egyptian nationals),
‫( محكمووةاابأدائيووة‬ibtidā’īya) court of first
instance, ‫( محكمووةاابأدائيووةاكليووة‬kullīya) civil
court with jurisdiction in cases of major
importance, at the same time appellate
instance of ‫( محو كماجزئيوة‬Eg.); 196 ‫محكموةا‬
‫( جزئيوة‬juz’īya) in Eg., lowest court of both
‫( محو كمااهليوة‬approx.: district courts) and of
‫ محوووو كماشوووووعية‬canonical courts (with
jurisdiction in marital and family matters);
summary court; ‫ محكموةاا ج يو‬m. al-jinīyāt
criminal court; ‫محوووو كماادحوووواالاا ش صووووية‬
(šaḳṣīya) courts dealing with vital
statistics; ‫( محكمووةام أل وة‬muḳtaliṭa) mixed
court (with jurisdiction over residents of
foreign nationality); ‫( محكموةاشووعية‬šar’īya)
canonical court (administering justice on
the basis of the Sharia), court dealing with
family matters of Muslims; ‫محكمووةاموكزيووة‬
(markazīya) county court, dealing with
minor offenses, esp. misdemeanors (Eg.);
‫ محكمووةاا ق و ااال ار‬m. al-qaḍā’ al-idārī
administrative court; ‫ محكموةاا و ق اواالبووام‬m.
an-naqḍ wa-l-ibrām Court of Cassation,
the highest court of appeal in Egypt; ‫ا‬
‫ محكموةاا أمييوز‬Court of Cassation (Syr., Leb.
= ‫ محكموةاا و ق اواالبووام‬in Eg.); ‫سو حةاا محو كم‬
tribunals
‫ تحكوووويم‬taḥkīm appointment of an
arbitrator; arbitration; arbitral decision,
award; pl.
‫ تحكيم و‬fortifications │‫اتحكوويما‬
‫ ا حو ل‬starting from the present state of a
court’s findings (Isl. Law); ‫هيئووةاا أحكوويم‬
hai’at at-t. board of arbitration; jury,
committee of judges, committee of
umpires (in sports), committee of referees
(in mil. maneuvers); ‫( ج ةاتحكيمية‬lajna) do.
‫ مح كموة‬muḥākama judicial proceeding;
trial, hearing (in court); legal prosecution
‫ احكوووو م‬iḥkām perfection; accuracy,
exactness, exactitude, precision; exact
performance, precise execution │‫ا‬
‫ب الحك م‬accurately, exactly, precisely; ‫بو ا و ا‬
‫ االحك م‬of highest perfection
resemble (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), be attuned, adjusted,
adapted (‫ هوـ‬to), be in harmony (‫ هوـ‬with)
197 ‫ حك يوووة‬ḥikāya pl. -āt story, tale,
narrative,
accountj
(gram.)
literal
quotation (of the words of others)
‫ تحكووم‬taḥakkum arbitrariness, arbitrary
powers or action; despotism; domination,
dominion, rule, sway, power; control ( ‫و‬
of, over)
‫ مح كوو‬muḥākāh imitation; similarity,
resemblance; harmony
‫ حووووو‬ḥākin narrator, storyteller;
phonograph; O loudspeaker, radio
‫ تحكم‬taḥakkumī arbitrary; despotic
‫اسووووووأحك م‬
istiḥkām
intensification,
increase, strengthening; consolidation,
stabilization; fortification; pl.
‫اسوووأحك م‬
fortifications
‫ حو كم‬ḥākim ruling, governing; decisive;
--(pl. -ūn, ‫ حكو م‬ḥukkām) ruIer, sovereign;
governor;
judge
│‫(احوووووو كم‬bi-amrihī)
autocratic; autocrat, dictator; ‫حووو كماعووو م‬
(‘āmm) governor general; ‫ حو كماا مبو را‬almubārāh umpire, referee (athlet.); ‫ح و كما‬
‫ ا صولا‬ḥ. aṣ-ṣulḥ (Syr.) justice of the peace;
‫ ح و كماا حيووة‬ḥ. an-nāḥiya (Tun.) district
magistrate
‫ ح كميوة‬ḥākimīya domination, dominion,
rule, sovereignty; judgeship, judicature,
jurisdiction (ir.)
‫ محكواماعليو‬maḥkūm ‘alaih sentenced (‫ب‬
to) │‫(امحكووواماعلووويهماب العووودام‬i‘dām) those
sentenced to death; ‫( محكواماعليو اب فشول‬fašal)
doomed to fail
‫ محكووم‬muḥakkam pl. -ūn arbitrator,
arbiter; umpire, referee ( in, over)
‫ محكوم‬muḥkam strengthened, reinforced;
firm, solid, sturdy; tight, taut; perfect,
masterly, masterful; well-aimed (blow,
hit); accurate, precise, exact │‫امحكوماا أودبيو‬
well-planned, well-contrived
‫ مسوأحكم‬mustaḥkam reinforced, fortified;
strengthened,
consolidated,
strong;
inveterate, deep-seated, deep-rooted,
ingrained (custom, trait, etc.); pl. ‫مسوأحكم‬
defenses, fortifications
‫حكمدار‬, ‫ حكمدارية‬see ‫حكم‬
‫ حكوو‬ḥakā i (‫ حك يوة‬ḥikāya) to tell, relate
(‫ هـ‬s.th.), report, give an account (‫ هـ‬of); to
speak, talk (syr., leb.); to imitate, copy (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to resemble (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.) III to
imitate, copy (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), assimilate o.s. (‫هوـ‬
to); to be similar (‫ هوـ‬to), be like s.th. (‫)هوـ‬,
‫ محك‬maḥkīy imitated, imitation (adj.)
‫ حكيمب ش‬see ‫حكم‬
1
‫ حول‬ḥalla u (ḥall) to untie (‫ هوـ‬a knot),
unbind, unfasten, unravel, undo (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
to solve (‫ هووـ‬a problem, a puzzle); to
decipher, decode (‫ هوـ‬s.th.): to dissolve in
water (‫ هوـ‬s.th.; chem.); to resolve (‫ هوـ‬s.th.
into its components), analyze (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
melt (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to decompose, disintegrate
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to disband, break up, dissolve (‫هوـ‬
an organization or party, parliament); to
open, unpack (‫ هوـ‬a package, and the like);
to loosen, relax (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to release, set
free, let go (‫ هووـ‬s.th., ‫ ه‬s.o.); to clear,
exonerate, exculpate ( ‫ ه م و‬s.o. from),
absolve (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ مو‬from his sins; Ch,.);
pass. ḥulla to be free; to be relaxed; -- i u
(‫ حلوال‬ḥulūl) to dismount, alight, stop, halt;
to settle down, stay (‫ ب‬at a place, also ‫و‬
and ‫ علو ;هـ‬with s.o., at s.o.’s house), come
(for a visit, ‫ علو‬to); to take up residence (‫هـ‬
in a place or country); to descend, come
down; to descend (‫ علوو‬upon s.o.; wrath);
to overcome, overwhelm (‫ علوو‬s.o.; sleep);
to befall (‫ ب‬and ‫ علووو‬s.o.; punishment,
suffering), occur, happen (‫ ب‬to s.o.); to
become incarnate ( ‫ و‬in s.o.; God); to set
in, arrive, begin (time, season); -- i to pass
into solution, dissolve: to fade (color); -- i
(ḥill) to be allowed,
permitted,
permissible, lawful; to be due, payable
(debt) │‫( حلا و ام صوب‬manṣib) to take over
or hold an office; ‫( حولامحلو‬maḥallahū) to
be in the right place; ‫حولامحولا والن‬, ‫حولامحولا‬
‫( ا شو‬maḥalla) to take the place of s.o. or
s.th., replace, supersede s.o. or s.th.,
substitute for s.o. or s.th.; ‫حلوتا و اللبو امحوال‬
(qalbihī) she held a place in his heart; ‫حولا‬
‫( محلاا أقديوا دي‬maḥalla t-taqdīri ladaihi) to
enjoy s.o.’s. high esteem; ‫حلام اظفواساا قووا ا‬
‫( محوول‬min nufūsi l-qurrā’i maḥalla listiḥsān) to appeal to the readers, meet
with the readers' approval II to dissolve,
resolve (into its component parts), break
up, decompose, analyze (‫ هوـ‬s.th.): to make
a chemical analysis (‫ هووـ‬of s.th.): to be
dissolvent, act as a solvent (‫ هوـ‬on; med.):
to discharge, absolve, clear, exonerate,
exculpate (‫ ه‬s.o.); (‫ تحلوة‬taḥilla) to expiate
an oath: to make permissible or lawful,
legitimate, sanction, justify, warrant (‫ه وـ‬
s.th.); to declare permissible or lawful,
allow, permit (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) IV to discharge,
release, absolve, disengage ( ‫ ه موو‬s.o.
from); to declare (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) lawful, legally
permissible, permit, allow (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
cause to set in or occur, bring about,
produce, cause to take root, establish,
stabilize (‫ هـ‬s.th.): to cause (‫ هـ‬s.th.) to take
or occupy the place (‫ هوـ‬of), shift, move,
translocate (‫ هوـ هوـ‬s.th., e.g., a tribe, to a
place); to settle ( ‫ هوـ بوي‬s.th. among) │‫احلو ا‬
‫( محول‬maḥallahū) to cause s.o. or s.th. to
take the place of s.o. or s.th. else, replace
s.o. or s.th. by, substitute s.o. or s.th. for,
take s.o. or s.th. as substitute for; ‫أحلاا ش ا‬
‫( محووولاا ع يوووة‬maḥalla l-‘ināya) to pay
attention to s.th., make s.th. one’s concern
V to dissolve, melt, disintegrate; to
disengage o.s., disassociate o.s., extricate
o.s., free o.s. ( ‫ مو‬from) VII to be untied
(knot); to be solved, be unraveled
(problem); to be dissolved, be broken up,
be disbanded (also, of an organization, a
party, etc.); to dissolve, melt; to become
.lock, limp, weak, loose, relaxed; to
disintegrate; to melt away VIII to settle
down (‫ هوـ‬at a place); to occupy (mil., ‫ هوـ‬a
territory); to assume, take over, occupy,
hold, have (‫ هووـ‬a place, 198 a rank, an
office) │‫( احأووولاا مكووو ناادول‬al-makāna lawwala) to occupy the foremost place;
‫( احأولاأعم و‬a‘mālahū) to take over s.o.’s
functions X to regard (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.) as
permissible or lawful, think that one may
do s.th. (‫ ;)هـ‬to regard as fair game, as easy
prey, seize unlawfully, misappropriate,
usurp (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ حووول‬ḥall pl. ‫ حلوووال‬ḥulūl untying,
unfastening, undoing (of a knot); solution
(of a problem, of a puzzle, etc.);
unriddling,
unraveling,
explanation;
solution
(chem.);
dissolution,
disbandment, breaking up (of all
organization, etc.), abolition, cancellation,
annulment; release, freeing, liberation;
decontrol, release, unblocking (e.g., of a
blocked sum); discharge. clearing,
exoneration,
exculpation;
absolution
(Chr.) │‫ ل بولا لحول‬soluble, solvable; O ‫ا حولا‬
‫( ا يف‬ṭaifī) spectral analysis; ‫اهولاا حولاوا عقود‬
ahl al-ḥ. wa-l-‘aqd or ‫( اهلاا حولاوا ووبط‬rabṭ)
influential people, those in power; ‫و احلو ا‬
‫( وتوح و‬tarḥālihī) in all his doings, in
everything he did
‫ حل‬ḥill: ( ‫( ك نا احولامو )ع‬ḥillin) he was
free to …, he was at liberty to ...; he had
free disposal of ...; ‫ اظتا احلامو‬you’re free
to ..., you may readily ...
‫ حلووة‬ḥalla pl. ‫ حلوول‬ḥilal low copper
vessel; cooking pot (eg.)
‫ حلوة‬ḥilla way station, stopping place,
stop, stopover; encampment; absolution
(Chr.); dispensation (Chr.)
‫ حلوة‬ḥulla pl. ‫ حلول‬ḥulal clothing, dress,
garb; vestments (ecclesiastic; Chr.);
(complete) suit of clothes; (Western) suit
│‫( حلوةارسومية‬rasmīya) uniform; ‫ حلوةاا سوهو‬ḥ.
as-suhra formal dress
‫ حوووالل‬ḥalāl that which is allowed,
permitted or permissible; allowed,
permitted,
permissible,
allowable,
admissible, lawful, legal, licit, legitimate;
lawful possession │‫ ابووو احوووالل‬ibn ḥ.
legitimate son; respectable man, decent
fellow
‫ حلال‬ḥulūl stopping, putting up, staying;
descending,
coming
on,
befalling,
overtaking; incarnation; setting in, advent,
arrival (of a time, of a deadline),
beginning, dawn; substitution (for s.o.)
‫ حليل‬ḥalīl pl. ‫ احال‬aḥillā’2 husband
‫ حليلة‬ḥalīla pl. ‫ حالئل‬ḥalā’il2 iI' wife
‫ احليول‬iḥlīl outer opening of the urethra;
urethra (anat.)
‫ محول‬maḥall pl. -āt, ‫ محو ل‬maḥāll2 place,
location, spot, site, locale, locality, center;
(place of) residence; business; business
house, firm, commercial house; store,
shop; object, cause (e.g., of dispute,
admiration, etc.); gear (automobile) │‫حولا‬
‫ محلو‬and ‫ احلو امحلو‬see ‫ حول‬I and IV; ‫محلو‬
(maḥallahū) in his (its) place; ‫ و امحلو‬in
his (its) place, in his (its) stead, instead of
him; ‫ كو نا و امحلو‬to be in the right place; to
be appropriate, expedient, advisable; to be
justified, warranted; ‫ و اغيووامحلو‬improper,
misplaced, unsuitable, ill-suited; out of
place;
inappropriate,
inexpedient,
inopportune; ‫ صو اامحلو‬ṣādafa maḥallahū
to be convenient, be most opportune; ‫الا‬
‫( محلا‬maḥalla) there is no room for ... ; it
is out of place, quite déplacé; ‫ محولاا عمول‬m.
al-‘amal place of employment; ‫محولااالل موة‬
m. al-iqāma (place of) residence, address;
‫( محوووولاظجوووو ر‬tijārī) business house,
commercial
house;
‫ا محووووووال اا عماميووووووة‬
(‘umūmīya, tijārīya) public utilities and
commercial houses; ‫ اس وماا محوول‬ism al-m.
firm; ‫ محوولارهاظ و‬m. ruhūnāt pawnshop;
‫ محوال اا سوي حة‬m. as-siyāḥfa travel agencies;
‫ محوولاموهبووو‬m. muraṭṭibāt refreshment
parlor; ‫ محولاا لهوا‬m. al-lahw and ‫محولاا مالهو‬
m. al-malāhī (pl. ‫ )محو ل‬amusement center;
‫محوووولاظووووزا ا‬m. nizā‘ object 199 of
controversy, controversial matter; ‫الاارىا‬
‫ محوالا عجوب‬lā arā m. li-‘ajabin I don’t see
any reason for amazement, there is
nothing to be astonished about; ‫ محول‬m.
naẓar s.th. deserving attention, a striking,
remarkable thing
‫ محلو‬maḥallī local; native, indigenous;
parochial; pl. ‫ محليو‬local news, local page
(of a newspaper)
‫ محل‬maḥill due date; date of delivery
‫ محلوووة‬maḥalla pl. -āt way station,
stopping
place,
stop,
stopover,
encampment; camp; section, part, quarter
(of a city) │‫( ا محلوةاا كبووى‬kubrā) Mahalla el
Kubra (city in N Egypt)
‫ تحليووول‬taḥlīl dissolution, resolution,
breaking up, decomposition, specification,
detailing, analyzation; (pl. ‫ تح يول‬taḥālīl2)
analysis (chem.); absolution (Chr.)
│‫ ب أحليوول‬in detail; ‫ معموولاتحليوول‬ma‘mal t.
laboratory for chemical analyses; ‫تحليوولا‬
‫( كهوبوو ئ‬kahrabā’ī) electrolysis; ‫ا أحليووولا‬
‫( ا فس ايا فس ظ ة‬nafsī) psychoanalysis
‫ تحليل‬taḥlīlī analytic(al)
putrefaction;
slackening,
exhaustion,
prostration, weakness, impotence
‫ احوأالل‬iḥtilāl occupation (mil.) │‫جيواشا‬
‫ االحأالل‬occupation forces
‫ احأال و‬iḥtilālī occupying, occupation
(used attributively); advocate of foreign
occupation
‫ محلووووال‬maḥlūl solved; dissolved,
resolved, broken up; loose; untied,
unfastened, unfettered, free, at large;
weakened, prostrate, exhausted, languid;
solution (liquid; chem.) │‫ محلالاا شوعو‬m. ašša‘ar with loose, disheveled hair
‫ محلل‬muḥallil analyzer
‫ م حوووول‬munḥall solved; dissolved,
resolved, broken up; disbanded; languid,
prostrate, weak; permitted, allowed
‫ جيواشامحألوة‬juyūš muḥtalla occupation
forces
2
‫ حيلا ة‬see ‫حال‬
2
‫ حلوب‬ḥālaba i u (ḥalb) to milk (‫ هوـ‬an animal)
│‫ حلوباا ودهوااشو وه‬ḥalaba d-dahra ašṭurahū
he has seen good and bad days V to run,
drip, trickle, ooze, seep, leak; to water.
drool (mouth, with appetite) │‫تأحلووبا و ا‬
‫( اد ووااه‬afwāh) making the mouth water,
appetizing; ‫( تحلوباا لعو با و ا مو‬al-lu‘ābu fī
famī) my mouth was watering VIII to milk
(‫ هوـ‬an animal) X do.; to squeeze juice (‫هوـ‬
from)
‫ حلب‬ḥalb milking
‫ حلب‬ḥalab milk
‫ حلبوة‬ḥalba pl. ḥalabāt race track; arena;
dance floor; race horses │‫ حلبوةاا وولص‬ḥ. arraqṣ dance floor; ‫ اظو ا ويسامو اتلولاا حلبوة‬he is
not made for that, he doesn’t belong there,
it is not in his line; ‫ و رساحلبوةاب‬a master of,
excelling or outstanding in
‫ حلبووووة‬ḥulba fenugreek (Trigonella
foenum-graecum; bot.); tonic, prepared of
yellowish grains, for women in childbed
(eg., syr.)
‫ تحلووول‬taḥallul dissolution, breakup;
separation, disengagement, disassociation
‫ حليووب‬ḥalīb milk │‫ ووب احليووب‬laban ḥ.
cow’s milk (eg.)
‫ اظحوووالل‬inḥilāl dissolution, breakup,
decomposition; disintegration; decay,
‫ حلووواب‬ḥalūb lactiferous │‫بقوووو احلووواب‬
(baqara) milk cow; ‫( ا م شويةاا حلواب‬māšiya)
dairy cattle
‫ حالب‬ḥallāb milker
‫ حالبوووة‬ḥallāba milkmaid, dairymaid;
dairywoman; milk cow 200
‫ محلوب‬maḥlab mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb;
bot.)
‫ ح ب‬ḥālib ureter
‫ مسأحلب‬mustaḥlab emulsion│‫مسوأحلباا لواز‬
m. al-lauz almond milk
2
‫ حلب‬ḥalab2 Aleppo
‫ حلأيوت‬ḥiltīt, ḥaltīt asafetida (Ferula assafoetida;
bot.)
‫ حلو‬ḥalaja i u (ḥalj,
cotton)
‫ حلووي‬ḥalīj) to gin (‫هووـ‬
‫ حلووي‬ḥalīj ginning (of cotton); ginned
(cotton)
‫ حالجووة‬ḥilāja cotton ginner’s work or
trade
‫ حال‬ḥallāj cotton ginner
‫ محلو‬maḥlaj pl.
ginnery
‫مح و‬
‫ محو‬maḥālij2 cotton
‫ حلحول‬ḥalḥala to remove, drive away, shove
away II taḥalḥala to stir from one’s place;
to move, stir, budge
‫ حلزون‬ḥalazūn snail; spiral
‫ حلوف‬ḥilf sworn alliance, confederacy,
league; federation; (pl. ‫ احوالا‬aḥlāf) ally│‫ا‬
‫‘( حلووفاعسوووكوى‬aakarī) military alliancc;
‫( ا حلف ااالهل و‬aṯlanṯī) the Atlantic Pact
‫ حليفة‬ḥalīfa pl. -āt f. of ‫حليف‬
‫ حلواا‬ḥallūf pl. ‫ حال يوف‬ḥalālīf2 (magr.,
eg.) wild boar; pig, swine
‫ حلفو‬ḥulafā’ and ‫ حلفوة‬ḥalfa (bot.) alfa,
esparto
‫ تحليف‬taḥlīf swearing in │‫ج ةاا أحليف‬
lajnat at-t. the jury (in court)
‫ مح فة‬muḥālafa alliance
‫ تح ف‬taḥāluf state of alliance; alliance,
treaty of alliance
‫ محلف‬muḥallaf sworn, bound by oath;
(pl. -ūn) juror (in court)
‫ مأح ف‬mutaḥālif interallied, allied
‫ حلزوظة‬ḥalazūna (n. un.) snail; spiral
‫ حلزوظووو‬ḥalazūnī spiral, helical, volute,
winding
‫ حلوس‬ḥalisa a to remain, stay permanently (‫ ب‬at
a place), stick (‫ ب‬to a place)
‫ حلووس‬ḥi1s pl. ‫ احووالس‬aḥlās (with foll.
genit.) one addicted or given to s.th., one
adhering to s.th.│‫ احووالساا لهووا‬a. al-lahw
people given to pleasure and amusement,
bons vivants, playboys
‫ حلوس‬ḥils pl. ‫ احووالس‬aḥlās, ‫ حلوواس‬ḥulūs
saddle blanket
‫ احلووس‬aḥlas2, f.
chestnut (horse)
‫ حلف‬ḥalf, ḥilf swearing, oath│ ‫احلفاا يموي‬
taking the oath
‫ حليوف‬ḥaīf pl. ‫ حلفو‬ḥulafā’2 confederate;
ally; allied │ ‫ ا حلف‬the Allies (pol.)
‫ حل‬ḥalj ginning (of cotton)
‫ محل و‬miḥlaj, ‫ محلجووة‬miḥlaja pl.
maḥālij2 cotton gin
in (‫ ه‬s.o.); to adjure, entreat earnestly (‫ه‬
s.o.) III to enter into a confederation, into
an alliance (‫ ه‬with s.o.), become an ally (‫ه‬
of s.o.) VI to commit one another by oath
(‫ علوو‬to do s.th.), join in alliance; to ally,
makc an alliance (‫ موا‬with) X to make (‫ه‬
s.o.) swear, exact an oath (‫ ه‬from s.o.); to
adjure, entreat earllestly (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ حلسوو‬ḥulasā’2 bay,
‫ حلف‬ḥalafa i (ḥalf, ḥilf) to swear (‫ ب هلل‬by God)│
‫( حلوفايمي و‬yamīnan) to take an oath II to
make (‫ ه‬s.o.) swear; to put to oath, swear
‫ حلوق‬ḥalaqa i (ḥalq) to shave (‫ هوـ‬the head, the
face); to shave off (‫ هووـ‬the beard) II to
circle in the air, hover; to fly, soar (bird;
airplane; ‫ علوو‬and ‫ ) وا‬over or above s.th.);
to round, make round, circular or ringshaped (‫ هوـ‬Sotho); to 201 ring, surround,
encircle (‫ علوو‬s.o., s.th.); to clothe V to
form a circle, sit in a circle; to gather in a
circle (‫ علو‬around s.o.)
‫ حلوق‬ḥalq shaving, shave; (pl. ‫ حلوا‬ḥulūq,
‫ احال‬aḥlāq) throat, gullet, pharynx
‫ حلقو‬ḥalqī guttural, pharyngeal
‫ حلق‬ḥalaq rings, earrings
‫ حلقوة‬ḥalqa, ḥalaqa pl. ‫ احلوق‬ḥalaq, ‫حلقو‬
ḥalaqāt ring (also earring, etc.); link (of a
chain); circle (also of people); group of
students studying under a professor,
hence: lecture, course (e.g., at Al Azhar
University); part of a sequence or series;
ringlet; disk; decade; market│ ‫ احلقوةاا جو‬ḥ.
an-najāh life buoy, life preserver; Jl-‫احلقوةا‬
‫ االتصو ل‬ḥ. al-ittiṣāl and ‫ حلقوةاا اصول‬ḥ. alwaṣl connecting link ( ‫ بوي‬between; fig.);
‫ ا حلقووووةاا مفقووووا‬the missing link, the
intermediate form; ‫وواا حلقوةاا س سوةامو اعمووه‬
(‘umrihī) in the sixth decade of his life, in
his fifties; ‫ حلقةااالسم‬fish market; ‫حلقوةاا ق و‬
ḥ. al-quṯn cotton market
‫حلقوووو‬
circular
ḥalaqī
annular,
ring-shaped,
‫ حوال‬ḥallāq pl. -ūn barber │ ‫حوال اصوح‬
(ṣiḥḥī), ‫ حووال اا صووحة‬ḥ. aṣ-ṣiḥḥa barbersurgeon
‫ حليق‬ḥalīq shaved, shaven, shorn
‫ حاللوة‬ḥallāqa shaving, shave; barber’s
trade │‫ اصو باناا حاللوة‬ṣābūn al-ḥ. shaving
soap; ‫ صو اناا حاللوة‬barbershop; ‫ل عوةاا حاللوة‬
qā‘at al-ḥ. do.; O ‫ م كي ةاحاللة‬and O ‫آ ةاحاللوة‬
safety razor
‫ محلوق‬miḥlaq pl. ‫ محو ق‬maḥāliq2 straight
razor
‫ تحليوق‬taḥlīq flying, flight (of all aircraft;
‫ علوو‬and ‫ وا‬over a country); take-off (of
an airplane)
‫ م اح ق‬min ḥāliq from above
‫ حلقوام‬ḥulqūm pl. ‫ حاللوم‬ḥalāqim2 throat, gullet
│‫ راحوةاا حلقوام‬rāḥat al-ḥ. a kind of sweet
made of cornstarch, sugar, mastic and
pistachios (eg.)
‫ حلول‬ḥalika a (ḥalak) to be pitch-black, deepblack XII ‫ احلا ل‬iḥlaulaka do.
‫ حلل‬ḥalak intense blackness
‫ حلكة‬ḥulka intense blackness
‫ حلوووول‬ḥalik pitch-black,
gloomy, murky
deep-black;
‫ حلاكوووة‬ḥulūka gloominess, darkness;
blackness
‫ ح ووول‬ḥālik pitch-black,
gloomy, murky
deep-black;
‫ حلوم‬ḥalama u to dream (‫ ب‬or ‫ عو‬of; ‫ وواان‬of
being, becoming, doing, etc., in the
future); to muse, reflect, meditate (‫ ب‬on
s.th.); to attain puberty; -- ḥaluma u to be
gentle, mild-tempered VIII to
puberty
attain
‫ حلووم‬ḥulm, pl. ‫ احووالم‬aḥlām, dream; pl.
irreality, utopia
‫ حلمو‬ḥulmī dream- (in compounds), of
or pertaining to dreams
‫ حلم‬ḥulum sexual maturity, puberty │‫ابلو ا‬
‫ا حلم‬to attain puberty
‫ حلوم‬ḥilm, pl. ‫ حلوام‬ḥulūm, ‫ احووالم‬aḥlām
gentleness,
clemency,
mildness;
forbearance, indulgence; patience; insight,
discernment, understanding, intelligence,
reason │‫اصوووغ رااالحوووالم‬
simpleminded
people, simple souls
‫ حلووم‬ḥalam (coll.; n. un. ) tick; mite;
nipple, teat, mammilla (of the female
breast)
‫ حلمووو‬ḥalamī
nipple-shaped
parasitic; mammillary,
‫ حليم‬ḥalīm, pl. ‫ حلمو‬ḥulamā’ 2 mild, mildtempered, gentle; patient 202
‫احل وام‬ḥālūm, ‫ ح و ام‬ḥālūm a kind of
Egyptian cheese
‫ ح م‬ḥālim pl. -ūn dreamer
‫ محووووألم‬muḥtalim sexually
pubescent, marriageable
mature,
(‫ حلوا‬and ‫ )حلوو‬ḥaluwa u, ḥaliya a, ‫ حوال‬ḥalā u
( ‫ حوالو‬ḥalāwa, ‫ حلواان‬ḥulwān) to be sweet;
to be pleasant, agreeable (‫ ل‬to s.o.) │‫حال ا ا‬
‫ ا ش و‬he enjoyed the thing; ‫ حووالا و اان‬it
pleased him that ..., he was delighted that
...; ‫( حسوووبم ايحلووواا ووو‬ḥasabamā) at his
discretion, as he pleases; -- ‫ حلوو‬ḥalā i to
adorn, grace; -- ‫ حلوو‬ḥaliya a to be adorned
(‫ ب‬with) II to sweeten (II s.th., e.g., a
beverage with sugar); to adorn, bedeck,
embellish, attire, furnish, provide (‫هووـ‬, ‫ه‬
s.o., s.th., ‫ ب‬with) V to adorn o.s., be
adorned, decked out, embellished, graced,
endowed, furnished, provided (‫ ب‬with) X
to find sweet or pleasant, like (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), be
delighted (‫ هـ‬by)
‫ حال‬ḥalan sweetness, pleasantness
‫ حلووووا‬ḥulw sweet; pleasant, nice,
charming, delightful, pretty │‫ حلوااا حوديث‬a
gifted raconteur, amusing, entertaining;
‫( ا غد اا حلا‬gudda) pancreas (anat.)
‫ حلو‬ḥaly pl. ‫ حلو‬ḥulīy piece of jewelry,
trinket
‫ حمة‬ḥamma hot spring
‫ حموووة‬ḥumma blackness, swarthiness,
dark coloration; fever
‫ حليوووة‬ḥilya pl. ‫ حلوووو‬ḥilan, ḥulan
decoration,
embellishment,
finery;
ornament
‫ حموم‬ḥumam (n. un. ) charcoal; anything
charred or carbonized; ashes, cinder; lava
‫ حلواى‬ḥalwa pl. ‫ حووالوى‬ḥalāwa candy,
confection, confectionery, sweetmeats
‫ حم وو‬ḥumma f., pl.
‫ حمي و‬ḥummayāt
fever, fever heat │‫ ا حموواا أيفا يوة‬and ‫ا حمووا‬
‫( ا أيفيوة‬tīfīya) typhoid fever, typhus fever;
‫ حمواا ود‬ḥ. d-diqq hectic fever; ‫ حموواا وبوا‬ḥ.
r-rib‘ quartan fever; ‫ ا حموواا واجعوة‬relapsing
fever; ‫ ا حموووواا صوووفوا‬or ‫ا حموووواا صوووفواوية‬
(ṣafrā’, ṣafrāwīya) yellow fever; ‫حموواا غوب‬
ḥ. l-gibb tertian fever; ‫ا حموووواا فحميوووة‬
(faḥmīya)
anthrax;
‫ا حموووووووواا قومزيوووووووة‬
(qirmizīya) scarlet fever; ‫ حمواا قوش‬ḥ. l-qašš
hayfever; ‫( ا حموواا قالعيوة‬qulā‘īya) foot-andmouth disease; ‫ا حموووووواا م يوووووةاا شووووواكية‬
(mukkīya,
šaukīya)
cerebrospinal
meningitis; ‫( ا حمووواا مأماجووة‬mutamawwija)
undulant fever, Malta fever, brucellosis;
‫( ا حمووواا ف سووية‬nifāsīya) puerperal fever,
childbed fever; O ‫( ا حموواا مشوية‬namašīya)
spotted fever
‫ حلاا‬fi.alwa'2 candy, confection, con·
fectionery, sweetmeats
‫ حلاي و‬ḥalwayāt (and eg. ḥalawīyāt)
sweets (in general); sweet pastry; candies,
confectionery, sweetmeats
‫ حووووالو‬ḥalāwa sweetness; candies,
confectionery,
sweetmeats;
grace,
gracefulness,
charm,
refinement,
wittiness, wit; present of money; ransom
│‫( احوالو احمصوية‬ḥummuṣīya) a sweet made
of roasted chick-peas; ‫حووووالو اهحي يووووة‬
(ṭahīnīya) a sweet made of sesame-seed
meal; ‫( حوالو ا ازيوة‬lauzīya) a sweet made of
almonds
‫ حلووواان‬ḥulwān
gratuity, tip
present
of
money,
‫ حمو‬ḥummī feverish, febrile, fever- (in
compounds)
‫ حلوووااظ‬ḥalwānī and ‫ حلووواائ‬ḥalwā’ī
confectioner, candy dealer; pastry cook,
fancy baker
‫ حمو م‬ḥamām (coll.; n. un. ) pl. -āt, ‫حمو ئم‬
ḥamā’im2 dove, pigeon │‫ حم ماا زاجول‬carrier
pigeon; ‫ سووو اا حمووو م‬bugloss, oxtongue
(Anchusa officinalis; bot.)
‫ مو ااحيلوو‬mā uḥailā oh, how sweet is ...,
‫ م ااحياله‬oh, how sweet he is!
‫ حم م‬ḥimām (fate of) death
‫ تحليوة‬taḥliya decoration, embellishment,
ornamentation
‫ حمو م‬ḥammām pl. -āt bath; swimming
pool; spa, watering place │‫ حمو ماشوومس‬ḥ.
šams sunbath; ‫( حم مووو ابحويوووة‬baḥrīya)
seaside resorts
‫ محلوو‬muḥallan sweetened; decorated,
embellished, adorned, ornamented (‫ب‬
with)
1
‫ حمويم‬ḥamīm pl. ‫ احمو‬aḥimmā’2 close
friend; close, intimate; -- hot water
‫ احووم‬ḥam pl. ‫ احمو‬aḥmā’ father-in-law; pl.
relatives of the wife by marriage, in-laws
of the wife
‫ احوم‬aḥamm2, f.
ḥumm black
‫ حمو‬ḥamāh pl. ‫ حمواا‬ḥamawāt motherin-law; see also 1‫ احمو‬and 2‫حمو‬
2
‫ حم‬ḥuma see 2‫احما‬
3
‫ حوم‬ḥamma u (ḥamm) to heat, make hot (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); pass. ḥumma to be feverish, have a
fever │‫( حما ا ول‬ḥumma) that was decreed
to him, that is his lot, his destiny II to
heat, make hot (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to bathe, wash (‫هوـ‬
or ‫ ه‬s.o. or s.th.) IV to heat, make hot (‫هوـ‬
s.th.) X to bathe, take a bath
‫ حمو‬ḥammā’2, pl. ‫حوم‬
‫ محوم‬miḥamm hot-water kettle, caldron,
boiler
‫ اسأحم م‬istiḥmām bathing, bath
‫ محموووام‬maḥmūm feverish, having a
fever; frantic, hectic
1
‫ حمب‬ḥama’a a to clean out, dredge (‫ هـ‬a well)
‫ حمب‬ḥama’, ‫ حمب‬ḥam’a mud, mire, sludge
2
‫ حموئ‬ḥami’a to be or become angry, furious,
mad (‫ علو‬at s.o.)
‫ حمحوم‬ḥamḥama (‫ حمحموة‬ḥamḥama) to neigh,
whinny (horse)
‫ حمحموة‬ḥamḥama neigh(ing), whinnying,
whinnies
‫ حمحووووم‬ḥimḥim oxtongue,
(Anchusa officinalis; bot.)
bugloss
‫ حموود‬ḥamida a (ḥamd) to praise, commend,
laud, extol (‫ ه علوو‬s.o. for, ‫ هوـ‬s.th.) II to
praise highly (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ حموووود‬ḥamd commendation, praise,
laudation │‫ ا حموداهلل‬al-ḥamdu lillāh thank
God! praise be to God! praised be the
Lord!
‫ حميووود‬ḥamīd praiseworthy, laudable,
commendable; benign, harmless (disease)
‫ حمووا‬ḥamūd praiseworthy, laudable,
commendable, praised
‫ احمووود‬aḥmad2 more laudable, more
commendable
‫ ا شووويعةاادحمديووة‬aš-šarī‘a al-aḥmadīya
Mohammedan Law
‫ محموود‬maḥmada pl. ‫ مح موود‬maḥāmid2
commendable act; pl. ‫ مح مووود‬praises,
encomiums
‫ حمو ر‬ḥimār pl. ‫ حميوو‬ḥamīr, ‫ حموو‬ḥumur,
‫ احموو‬aḥmira donkey, ass │‫ حمو راا واحش‬ḥ.
al-waḥš and ‫( حمو راوحشو‬waḥšī) wild ass,
onager; ‫ سووماا حم و ر‬samm al-ḥ. oleander
(Nerium oleander; bot.)
‫ حمو ر‬ḥimāra pl. ‫ حمو ئو‬ḥamā’ir2 she-ass,
female donkey
‫ حموووار‬ḥumūr red, red color(ation),
redness
‫ حميو‬ḥumaira redstart (zool.)
‫ حم ر‬ḥammār pl. donkey driver
‫ احموو‬aḥmar2, f. ‫ حمووا‬ḥamrā’2, pl. ‫حموو‬
ḥumr red, red-colored, ruddy; rosy, pink
│‫تحتاادحمو‬, ‫ وناادحموو‬infrared; ‫ا بحوواادحموو‬
the Red Sea; ‫ ا صوليباادحموو‬the Red Cross;
‫( ا مووا اادحمووو‬maut) violent death; ‫ا هوواىا‬
‫( ادحموو‬hawā) sexual intercourse; ‫ادحمووان‬
(“the two red ones”, i.e.) wine and meat;
‫“( االسوا اواالحموو‬the black and the red”, i.e.)
all mankind; ‫ احمواا شف ه‬lipstick
‫ حمووووا‬ḥamrā’2 smut, rust (disease
affecting cereals); ‫ ا حموووا‬Alhambra, the
Citadel of Granada
‫ يحموار‬yaḥmūr red; deer, roe, roebuck;
wild ass; hemoglobin (physiol.)
‫ محموا‬maḥmūd praised; commendable,
laudable, praiseworthy
‫ احموووار‬iḥmirār reddening, blush(ing),
redness, red coloration; erythema (med.)
‫محموووووووووود‬
muḥammad
commendable, laudable
‫ محموو‬muḥammar roasted │ ‫ب و هسامحموو‬
(baṭāṭis) fried potatoes
praised;
‫ محموووود‬muḥammadī pertaining
attributable to Mohammed
or
‫ حموز‬ḥamaza i (ḥamz) to bite, or burn, the
tongue (taste)
‫ حمدل‬ḥamdala to pronounce the formula ‫ا حمداهلل‬
"Praise be to God!”
‫ حموس‬ḥamisa a to work with zeal, be zealous,
eager, ardent, be or become enthusiastic,
get all worked up, get excited, be filled
with fanatic enthusiasm V = I; to be
overzealous or over-enthusiastic ( ‫ و‬in
s.th.); to advocate fervently (‫ ل‬s.th.),
throw o.s. wholeheartedly behind s.th. (‫)ل‬
‫ حمد وة‬ḥamdala the formula ‫( ا حموداهلل‬see
above)
‫ حموو‬II to redden, color or dye red (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
roast (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to fry (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to brown (‫هـ‬
flour in preparing a roux) IX to turn red,
take on a reddish color, redden, blush 204
‫ حمو‬ḥumar asphalt
‫ حمووو‬ḥumarī asphaltic, asphalt, tar,
tarry
‫ حموو‬ḥumra redness, red color(ation),
red; rouge (cosm.); brick dust, brick
rubble; erysipelas, St. Anthony's fire
(med.)
‫ حمووووس‬ḥamis and ‫ احمووووس‬aḥmas2
unflinching, staunch, steadfast, ardent,
eager, zealous, stout, hearty; fiery,
enthusiastic, full of enthusiasm
‫ حمووو س‬ḥamās, and ‫ حم سوووة‬ḥamāsa
enthusiasm, fire, ardor, fervor, zeal,
fanaticism
‫ حم سووو‬ḥamāsī enthusiastic, ardent,
fiery, zealous, fanatic; stirring, rousing,
thrilling, electrifying
‫ تحمووووس‬taḥammus unflinching
enthusiasm (‫ ل‬for), fanaticism
zeal,
‫موووووأحمس‬
mutaḥammis
enthusiastic,
ardent, fiery, zealous, fanatic; an ardent
follower, a fanatic adherent, a fanatic
‫ حموش‬ḥamaša u to excite, irritate, infuriate,
enrage (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ حمشة‬ḥamša catgut (med.)
1
‫ حمص‬II to roast; to fry, broil (A s.th.)
‫ حموووص‬ḥimmiṣ, ḥimmmaṣ; (colloq.)
ḥummuṣ (coll.; n. un. ) chick-pea
2
‫ حموص‬Mm,' Homs (the ancient Emesa, city in
oentral Syria)
‫ حمو‬ḥamuḍa u (‫ حماضوة‬ḥumūḍa) to be or
become sour II to make sour, sour,
acidify, acidulate (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to develop (‫ هوـ‬a
photographic plate, a film; phot.); to cause
(‫ هـ‬s.th.) to oxidize
‫ حمو‬ḥamaḍa pl.
‫ احمو‬aḥmāḍ acid
(chem.) │ ‫( حم ابا‬baulī) uric acid
‫ شجواحم‬šajar ḥamḍī citrus trees
‫ حم ية‬ḥamḍīya pl. -āt citrus fruit 205
‫ حماضة‬hummūḍa sourness, acidity
│‫ ما داا حماضة‬muwallid al-ḥ. oxygen
(chem.)
‫ حمو‬ḥammāḍ,
‫ حموي‬ḥummaiḍ sorrel
(bot.)
‫ تحمووي‬taḥmīḍ souring, acidification;
development (phot.)
‫ احمو‬iḥmāḍ jocular language, joking
remark
‫ حو م‬sour, acid; acidulous; (pl. ‫حواام‬
ḥawāmiḍ) acid (chem.) │‫ حو م اا فحوم‬ḥ. alfaḥm carbonic acid: ‫( حو م اكبويأو‬kibrītī)
sulphuric acid
‫ حموق‬ḥamiqa a and ḥamuqa u (ḥumq, ‫حم لووة‬
ḥamāqa) to be stupid, silly, foolish,
fatuous; to become angry or furious II and
IV to regard (‫ ه‬s.o.) as a fool, consider (‫ه‬
s.o.) dumb, stupid, idiotic n pretend to be
stupid VII to become angry or furious X
to consider (‫ ه‬s.o.) dumb, stupid, idiotic
‫حموووووق‬
ḥumq
foolishness, folly
stupidity,
silliness,
‫ حم لووووة‬ḥamāqa stupidity, silliness,
foolishness, folly; anger, wrath
‫حمووو‬
ḥumāq, ḥamāq smallpox, variola (med.)
‫ حموق‬aḥmaq2, f. ‫ حمقو‬ḥamqā’2, pl. ‫حموق‬
ḥum(u)q, ‫ حمقووو‬ḥamqā, ‫ حموو لو‬ḥamāqā
dumb, stupid, silly, foolish, fatuous; fool,
simpleton, imbecile
‫ حموووق‬ḥamqān dumb, stupid, silly,
foolish; angry, furious
‫ حمل‬ḥamala i (ḥaml) to carry, bear (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
lift, pick up (‫ هوـ‬s.th. in order to carry it),
load up and take along (‫ هـ‬s.th.): to hold (‫هـ‬
s.th., in one’s hand); to carry on or with
one. take or bring along (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
transport, carry, convey (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to bring,
take (‫ ا وو‬or ‫ هوـ ل‬s.th. to s.o.); to take upon
o.s. ( ‫ ع‬instead of or for s.o., ‫ هوـ‬a burden),
carry, assume (‫ هوـ‬the burden, ‫ عو‬of s.o.
else), relieve (‫ عو هوـ‬s.o. from s.th.), take
(‫ هوـ‬a burden, a grievance, etc.) from s.o.
( ‫ ;)ع و‬to extend, show, evince, cherish,
ha.rbor (‫ هوـ‬a feeling, ‫ ل‬toward s.o.); to
become or be pregnant ( ‫ مو‬by s.o.): to
bear fruit (tree); to induce, cause, prompt,
get (‫ ه علوو‬s.o. to do s.th.), make s.o. (‫ )ه‬do
s.th. (‫ ;)علوو‬to convert, bring around, win
over ( ‫ ه علوووارأي و‬s.o. to one’s opinion),
convince ( ‫ ه علووارأيو‬s.o. of one’s opinion);
to attack (‫ علووو‬s.o.), also ‫حموولاحملووةاعلووو‬
(ḥamlatan) to launch or make an attack
on; to know by beart (‫ هوـ‬a book); to relate,
refer (‫ هوـ علوو‬s.th. to). bring (‫ هوـ‬s. th.) to
bear (‫ علوو‬upon s.th.), link, correlate, bring
into relation (‫ هوـ‬s.th., ‫ علوو‬with); to trace,
trace back (‫ هووـ علوو‬s.th. to); to ascribe,
attribute, impute (‫ هوـ علوو‬s.th. to s.o.); to
make (‫ هـ‬a word) agree grammatically (‫علوو‬
with another) │ ‫احموووولا وووو اظفسوووو‬to feel
annoyed, be in a melancholy mood, feel
blue; ‫ حموولاعلووواظفسو‬to pull o.s. together,
brace o.s.; ‫( حمل اعلوامحمول‬maḥmali) to take
s.th. to mean …, interpret or construe s.th.
in the sense of …, as if it were ...; ‫حمل اعلووا‬
‫ غيوامحمول‬to misinterpret, misconstrue s.th.;
‫( حمل امحملاا جد‬maḥmala l-jidd) to take s.th.
seriously, take s.th. at face value II to have
or make (‫ ه‬s.o.) carry or bear (‫ هوـ‬s.th.),
load, burden, charge, task (‫هـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o. or s.th.
‫ هوـ‬with), impose (‫ ه هوـ‬on s.o. s.th.) V to
hear, assume, take upon o.s. (‫ هوـ‬s.th., e.g.,
‫ ا فق‬an-nafaqāt the expenses, ‫ ا مسؤو ية‬almas’ūlīya the responsibility); to bear up
(‫ هووـ‬under), bear, stand, sustain, endure,
tolerate, stomach (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to undergo,
suffer (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to be able to stand (‫ ه‬s.o.)
or put up (‫ ه‬with s.o.); to set out, get on
one’s way; to depart VI to maltreat, treat
unjustly (‫ علووو‬s.o.), be prejudiced, be
biased, take sides (‫ علوو‬against s.o.); to
struggle to 206 one’s feet, rise with great
effort │ ‫( اتح مولاعلوواظفسو‬nafsihi) to brace
o.s.; to pull o.s. together, take heart, pluck
up courage VIII to carry, bring (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
carry away, take away, haul off, lug off (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to suffer, undergo, bear, stand,
endure, sustain (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to allow, permit,
suffer, tolerate, brook, stomach (‫ هوـ‬s.th.),
acquiesce (‫ هوـ‬in), put up, bear (‫ هوـ‬with
s.th.); to hold (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), have capacity (‫هوـ‬
for); to imply that s.th. (‫ )هوـ‬is possible,
permissible, or conceivable; ‫يحأمووووول‬
yaḥtamilu and (pass.) yuḥtamalu (it is)
bearable, tolerable; (it is) conceivable,
possible, probable, likely
‫حموووووول‬
ḥaml
carrying,
bearing;
inducement, prompting, encouragement
(of s.o., ‫ علوووو‬to); delivery; transport,
transportation,
conveyance;
portage,
carrying charges; -- (pl. ‫ احمو ل‬aḥmāl, ‫حمو ل‬
ḥimāl) foetus; pregnancy │‫‘ عدماا حمول‬adam
al-ḥ. sterility (of a woman)
‫ حمول‬ḥiml, ḥaml pl. ‫ احمو ل‬aḥmāl cargo,
load, burden │ ‫ حملاحو‬ḥaml ḥayy pay load,
commercial load, live load; ‫حمووولاميوووت‬
mayyit) dead load; dead weight (arch.);
‫( حمووووولامووووواازن‬muwāzin) counterpoise,
counterweight
‫ حموول‬ḥamal pl. ‫ حمووالن‬ḥumlān, ‫احم و ل‬
aḥmāl lamb; (unconsecrated) Host
(Chr.Copt.); Aries, Ram (astron.)
‫ حملوة‬ḥamla pl. ḥamalāt attack (‫ علوو‬on);
offensive; campaign; military expedition;
expeditionary force │‫( حملوةاتب يبيوة‬ta’dībīya)
punitive
expedition;
m ‫حملوووووةاصووووووح ي‬
(ṣiḥāfīya) press campaign; ‫حمل وةااسأكش و ية‬
(istikšāfīya) reconnaissance raid (mil.);
‫ حملوةاميك ظيكيوة‬motorized detachment (mil.);
‫( حملةااظأ بية‬intikābīya) election campaign
‫ حمل و‬ḥamalī pl. -īya ambulant water
vendor
‫ حميوووول‬ḥamīl
warrantor
foundling;
guarantor,
‫ حميلووةاعلووو‬ḥamīla ‘alā a burden to,
completely dependent upon
‫ حموووال‬ḥamūl long-suffering; gentle,
mild-tempered
‫ حم ل‬ḥamnāl pl. -ūn, porter, carrier
‫ حم وة‬ḥimāla work and trade of a porter
or carrier
‫ حم وة‬ḥammāla (carrier) beam, girder,
support, base, post, pier, pillar; suspenders
│‫( حم ة اا صدر‬ṣadr) brassiere
‫ حما وة‬ḥumūla pl. -āt load capacity, load
limit, capacity; tonnage (of a vessel);
portage, freightage, transport charges; (pl.
‫ حم ئل‬ḥamā’il2) family (Ir.)
‫ محمول‬maḥmal see ‫ حمول‬ḥamala; also ‫أ ولا‬
‫( شويئ اعلووامحمولاا جود‬m. il-jidd) to take s.th.
seriously
‫ محمل‬maḥmil (colloq. maḥmal) pl. ‫مح مول‬
maḥāmil2 camel-borne litter; mahmal, a
richly decorated litter sent by Islamic
rulers to Mecca as an emblem of their
independence, at the time of the hadj
‫ تحميول‬taḥmīl burdening; encumbrance;
imposition; loading, shipping, shipment
‫ تحميلوووة‬taḥmīla pl. ‫ تح مووول‬taḥāmil2
suppository (med.)
‫ تحمول‬taḥammul taking over, assumption
(of
burdens);
bearing,
standing,
sufferance,
endurance;
durability;
strength,hardiness, sturdiness, solidity (of
a material)
‫ تح مول‬taḥāmul prejudice, bias, partiality;
intolerance
‫ احأموووو ل‬iḥtimāl bearing, standing,
suffering,
sufferance,
toleration;
probability, likelihood, potentiality │‫صوعبا‬
‫( االحأم ل‬ṣa‘b) hard to bear, oppressive
‫ ح موول‬ḥāmil pl. ‫ حملووة‬ḥamala porter,
carrier; bearer (of a note, of a check, etc.;
of an order or decoration); holder (of an
identification paper, of a diploma, of a
207 certificate); holding device, holder,
clamp, fastener, hold, support (tech.);
fighter (‫ علوو‬against), (pl. ‫ حاامول‬ḥawāmil2)
pregnant │‫ ح مولاا بويود‬courier, ‫ حملوةاادسوهم‬ḥ.
al-ashum shareholders; ‫ حملوووةاادلوووالم‬the
publicists, the writers; ‫ ح ملاكالما‬ḥ. kalām
allāh one who knows the Koran by heart;
‫( تيوو راح موول‬tayyār) carrier current (el.),
‫( ماج اح ملة‬maujāt) carrier waves (el.)
‫ حميوووو‬ḥumayyā heat; excitement,
agitation; enthusiasm; fire, passion,
impetuosity, vehemence; fury, rage; wine
‫ حم و‬ḥamāwa heat
‫ محموو‬maḥman fire chamber, furnace (of
a stove, oven, etc.)
‫ ح ملوة‬ḥāmila pl. -āt device for carrying,
carrier │‫اح ملوةا وي وة‬map case; ‫ح ملوةاهو ئوا‬
ḥ. ṭā’irāt aircraft carrier
‫ محموال‬maḥmūl carried, borne, bearable,
tolerable; load weight, service weight,
cargo; tonnage (of a vessel); predicate,
attribute (logic), ‫ محموالاعليو‬subject (logic)
│‫( مشو امحما ووة‬mušāh) motorized infantry
(mil.); ‫ ج ووا امحما واناجوواا‬airborne troops
(mil.)
‫ محمول‬muḥammal loaded, laden, heavily
charged, burdened (‫ ب‬with), encumbered
(‫ ب‬by)
‫ محأموول‬muḥtamal bearable, tolerable;
probable, likely
‫ حملوق‬ḥamlaqa (‫ حملقوة‬ḥamlaqa) to stare, gaze
( or ‫ ب‬at)
‫ حمالي‬ḥimalāyā Himalaya
1
‫ حما‬ḥamū (construct state of ‫ حوم‬ḥam) and ‫حمو‬
ḥamāh see 1‫احم‬
2
‫ حمواة‬and ‫ حمو )حموو‬ḥamiya a to be or become
hot; to glow (metal); to flare up; to fly into a
rage, become furious (‫ علوووو‬at) │‫احمووووا‬
‫ا واهيس‬fierce fighting broke out II to make hot,
heat (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), to heat to glowing (‫ هوـ‬metal); to
fire up (‫ هوـ‬a stove); to kindle, inflame, stir up,
excite (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to bathe (= 3‫ احوم‬II) IV to make
hot, heat (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ حم وا‬ḥamw heat │‫ حم وااا ي ول‬ḥ. an-nīl
prickly heat, heat rash, lichen tropicus
(eg.)
‫ حما‬ḥumūw heat
‫ حموة‬ḥuma pl. -āt, ‫ حموو‬ḥuman sting,
stinger (of insects); prick, spine (of plants)
‫ حم‬ḥamīy hot, glowing; heated, exited
‫ حمو‬ḥummā see 3‫احم‬
‫ حميوووة‬ḥamīya zeal, ardor, fervor;
enthusiasm, ardent zeal, fanaticism;
violence, vehemence; passion, rage, fury;
heat of excitement; temper, temperament
│‫(اا حميةاا قامية‬qaumīya) chauvinism
‫ حو م‬ḥāmin hot; heated, violent, fierce
(e.g., a battle); glowing, passionate, fiery;
burning
1
‫ احموو‬ḥamā i (ḥamy, ‫ حم يوة‬ḥimāya) to defend,
guard (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th., ‫ مو‬against), protect,
shelter, shield ( ‫هوـ مو‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th. from); to
deny ( ‫ ا مووي‬the patient) harmful food (‫;هوـ‬
= to put him on diet); to forbid (‫ ه ان‬s.o. to
do s.th.) III to defend ( ‫ م‬s.o. or s.th., also,
of a lawyer in court); to shield, protect,
support ( ‫ ع‬s.o. or s.th.), take up the cause
of ( ‫)ع‬, stand up for ( ‫ )عو‬VI to keep away
(‫ هوـ‬from), shun, avoid (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) VIII to
protect o.s. (‫ه‬, ‫ هوـ‬from s.th., from s.o.),
defend o.s., cover o.s. (‫ ب‬with s.th.), seek
protection, seek shelter or refuge (‫ ب‬with
s.o., also ‫ م ;ع د‬from)
‫ حمووووو‬ḥiman
sanctuary
protection;
defense;
‫ حميوة‬ḥimya that which is defended; diet
208
‫ حم يووووة‬ḥimāya pl. -āt
patronage,
sponsorship,
protectorate (pol.)
protection,
auspices;
‫ مح م و‬muḥāmāh defense (jur.); legal
profession, practicing of law │ ‫اهيوب اا مح مو‬
ḥai’at al-m. the bar
‫ احأم و‬iḥtimā’ seeking cover, seeking
protection; cover, shelter, protection
‫ حو م‬ḥāmin pl. ‫ حمو‬ḥumāh protector,
defender, guardian; patron │‫اا دو ووةاا ح ميووة‬
(daula)
protecting power
(of a
protectorate)
‫ ح ميووووة‬ḥāmiya pl. -āt
protectress; garrison (mil.)
patroness,
‫ محمو‬maḥmīy protected (‫ ب‬by); being
under a protectorate, having the status of a
protectorate │‫( م قووووةامحميووووة‬minṭaqa)
protectorate (country)
‫ محمي وة‬maḥmīya pl. -āt protectorate
(country; pol.)
‫ مح و م‬muḥāmin pl. ‫ مح و ميان‬muḥāmūn
defense counsel, counselor-at-law, lawyer,
barrister, attorney (at law), advocate
‫ مح مية‬muḥāmiya woman lawyer
‫ ح ظبة‬look up alphabetically
‫ محووووأم‬muḥtamin one who seeks
protection; protégé; being under a
protectorate, having the status of a
protectorate
2
‫احم‬, ‫ حم ه‬ḥamāh Hama (city in W Syria)
‫ ح ووة‬ḥanna sympathy; commiseration,
compassion, pity; favorable aspect,
advantage
‫ ح و ن‬ḥanān sympathy, love, affection,
tenderness; commiseration, compassion,
pity; ‫ ح ظيوول‬ḥanānaika have pity! have
mercy!
compassion,
‫ ح بلو‬ḥanbalī Hanbalitic, of or pertaining to the
madhab of Aḥmad ibn ḥanbal; puritanical,
strict in religious matters; (pl. ‫ح بلوووة‬
ḥanābila) Hanbalite
‫ح ظا‬, ‫ ح ظات‬see ‫ح ا‬
‫ حو‬ḥanna i ( ‫ ح وي‬ḥanīn) to long, yearn, hanker
(‫ ا وو‬for), crave (‫ ا وو‬s.th.); -- (‫ ح وة‬ḥanna,
‫ ح و ن‬ḥanān) to feel tenderness, affection,
sympathy (‫ علووو‬for s.o.); to sympathize,
commiserate (‫ علوو‬with), feel compassion
(‫ علوو‬for); to pity (‫ علوو‬s.o.), have mercy
(‫ علووو‬on) II to move, touch, fill with
tenderness, soften, fill with compassion
( ‫ للب و‬qalbahū s.o.’s heart); to blossom,
flower, be in bloom (tree) V to feel
sympathy, feel pity, feel compassion (‫علوو‬
for s.o.), commiserate (‫ علوو‬with s.o.); to
be tender, affectionate
‫ ح ظوووووة‬ḥanāna
commiseration
(redbreast); ‫( تمووواا ح و‬colloq. tamr elḥinna) henna plant (Lawsonia inermis;
bot.)
pity,
‫ ح وث‬ḥanita a (ḥint) with ‫ و ايمي و‬or ‫بيمي و‬: to
break one’s oath V to practice piety,
perform works of devotion; to seek
religious purification; to scorn sin, not
yield to sin
‫ ح ث‬ḥint pl. ‫ اح ث‬aḥnāt perjury; sin 209
‫ ح جو‬ḥanjara pl. ‫ ح جو‬ḥanājir2 larynx, throat
‫ ح جوار‬ḥunjūr pl. ‫ ح و جيو‬ḥanājīr 2 larynx,
throat
‫ ح جوول‬ḥanjala to prance (horse); to caper,
gambol II taḥanjala to dance, caper,
gambol, frisk
‫ ح دس‬ḥindis pl. ‫ ح س‬ḥanādis2 dark night
‫ ح ودلا‬ḥandaqūq (bot.) melilot, (yellow) sweet
clover (Melilotus)
‫ ح ش‬ḥanaš pl. ‫ اح ش‬aḥnāš snake
‫ حو ط‬II to embalm (‫ ه‬a corpse); to stuff (‫ هوـ‬a
carcass)
‫ ح ة‬ḥinṭa wheat
‫ح وووووي‬
ḥanīn
longing,
yearning,
hankering, nostalgia, craving, desire
‫اح هة‬ḥināṭa embalming
‫ ح وان‬ḥanūn affectionate, loving, softhearted, tenderhearted, compassionate,
merciful; tender, soft, gentle, kind,
moving, touching (voice)
‫ مح ط‬muḥannaṭ mummified
‫ ح وووو ن‬ḥannān affectionate, loving,
tender; compassionate, sympathetic
‫ تح ووو ن‬tiḥnān attachment,
loyalty
devotion,
‫ تحوو‬taḥannun tenderness, affection,
sympathy
‫ ح ب‬II to dye red (‫ هـ‬s.th., with henna)
‫ ح و‬ḥinnā’ henna (a reddish-orange
cosmetic gained from leaves and stalks of
the henna plant) │ ‫ ابوااا ح و‬abū l-ḥ. robin
‫ تح ط‬taḥannuṭ mummification
‫‘ عوبوةاا ح وار‬arabat al-ḥanṭūr, victoria, light
carriage. designed for two passengers
‫ ح رووول‬ḥanẓal (coll.; n. un. ) colocynth
(Citrullue colocynthis; bot.)
‫ ح ف‬ḥanafa i to turn or bend sideways
‫ ح ي وف‬ḥanīf pl. ‫ ح فوو‬ḥunafā’2 true
believer, orthodox; one who scorns the
false creeds surrounding him and
professes the true religion; true (religion)
│‫( ا ودي اا ح يوف‬din) the True (i.e., Islamic)
Religion, also ‫( ا ح يفةاا سمح‬samḥā’)
‫ ح ف و‬ḥanafī pagan, heathen, idolater
(Chr.); Hanafitic (see ‫( ;)ح يفووة‬pl. -ūn)
Hanafi
‫ ح فيووة‬ḥanafīya paganism, heathendom
(Chr.); Hanafitic madhab (an orthodox
school of theology founded by Abu
Hanifah); -- (pl. -āt) faucet, tap; hydrant
‫ ا ح يفيوووة‬al-ḥanīfīya
Islamic) Religion
the True (i.e.,
‫ اح وف‬aḥnaf2 afflicted with a distortion
of the foot
‫ ح وق‬ḥaniqa a (ḥanaq) to be furious, mad,
angry; to be annoyed, exasperated,
peeved, irritated (‫ علوو‬or ‫ مو‬at, by), be
resentful (‫ علوو‬or ‫ مو‬of) IV to infuriate,
enrage, embitter, exasperate, irritate (‫ه‬
s.o.)
‫ ح وق‬ḥanaq fury, rage, ire, wrath, anger,
exasperation, resentment, rancor
‫ ح ووووق‬ḥaniq furious, mad, angry;
resentful, bitter, embittered, annoyed,
exasperated, peeved
‫ حووو ظق‬ḥāniq furious, mad, angry;
resentful, bitter, embittered, annoyed,
exasperated, peeved │ ‫حوووو ظقاعلووووواا حيوووو‬
(ḥayāh) weary of life, dispirited, dejected;
‫( ح ظقاعلواا س‬nisā’) misogynist
‫مح وووووق‬
muḥannaq
infuriated,
enraged;
embittered, bitter, angry, exasperated,
resentful
‫ ح ل‬ḥanaka i u, II and IV to sophisticate, make
experienced or worldly-wise through
severe trials (said of fate, time, age)
‫ ح ل‬ḥanak pl.
‫ اح‬aḥnāk palate
‫ ح ك‬ḥanakī palatal
‫ ح ول‬ḥunk, ḥink and ‫ ح كوة‬ḥunka worldly
experience, worldly wisdom gained
through experience, sophistication
‫ مح وول‬muḥannak experienced, worldly wise,
sophisticated │‫( مح وووولامب وووول‬mubannak)
shrewd, smart, sharp
(‫ ح وا‬and ‫ ح و )ح وو‬ḥanā u and ‫ ح وو‬ḥanā i to
bend, curve, twist, turn; to lean, incline
(‫ علوو‬or ‫ ا وو‬toward s.o.); to feel for s.o.
(‫)علوووو‬, sympathize (‫ علووووو‬with s.o.),
commiserate, pity (‫ علووووو‬s.o.), feel
compassion, feel pity (‫ علووو‬for s.o.); to
bend, bow, flex, curve, crook (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) IV
to bend, bow, tilt, incline (‫ هوـ‬s.th.; e.g.,
‫ رأسو‬ra’sahū one’s head); to sympathize
(‫ علوو‬210 with s.o.), feel compassion, feel
pity (‫ علوو‬for s.o.), commiserate, pity (‫علوو‬
s.o.) VII to bend, curve, twist, turn; to be
winding, be tortuous, wind, meander (e.g.,
a road); to turn, deviate, digress ( ‫ع و‬
from); to bow (‫ ل‬to s.o.); to lean, incline
(‫ علوو‬or ‫ ; وا‬over s.th., ‫ ا وو‬toward s.o.,
toward s.th.); to devote o.s. eagerly (‫ علو‬to
s.th.); to contain, harbor (‫ علوو‬s.th.) │‫انا‬
‫( ضوولاع االات ح و اعلووواضووغ‬ḍulū‘ī, ḍign) I
harbor no grudge, I feel no resentment
‫ ح وا‬ḥanw bending, deflection, flexing,
flexure, curving, curvature, twisting,
turning
‫ ح ا‬ḥinw pl. ‫ اح‬aḥnā’ bend, bow, turn,
twist, curved line, curve, contour; pl. ribs
│ ‫ بي ااح ئه‬in her bosom
‫ ح وووا‬ḥunuw sympathy, compassion,
tenderness, affection
‫ ح و‬ḥanīy bending, deflection, flexing,
flexure, curving, ourvature, twisting,
turning
‫ ح ية‬ḥanya bend, turn, curve
‫ ح يوة‬ḥanīya pl. ‫ ح يو‬ḥanāyā arc; camber,
curvature │‫ و اح يو اصودره‬in his bosom; ‫و ا‬
‫ ح ي اظفس‬in his heart, deep inside him
‫ ح يووووة‬ḥināya curving,
twisting, turning, bending
curvature,
‫ ح ظا‬see below
‫ مح وووو‬maḥnan pl. ‫ محووو ن‬maḥānin
curvature, bend, flexure, bow, turn, curve
‫ اظح ووووو‬inḥinā’ bend, deflection,
curvature; curve; arc; inclination, tilt;
how, curtsy
‫ اظح‬inḥinā’a (n. vic.) bow, curtsy
‫ ا حوااظ‬al-ḥawānī the longest ribs; (fig.)
breast, bosom │‫ بموول احووااظيهم‬bi-mil’i ḥ.
(they shouted) at the top of their lungs,
with all their might
‫ مح ووو‬maḥnīy bowed, inclined (head);
bent, curved, crooked
‫ مو ح ا‬munḥanin bent, curved, crooked,
twisted; inclined, bowed
‫ م ح و‬munḥanan pl. ‫ م ح يو‬munḥanayāt
bend, flexure, deflection, curvature; turn,
twist, break, angle; curve (of a road, end
math.); slope
‫ حو ظا‬ḥānūt pl. ‫ حااظيوت‬ḥawānīt2 store, shop;
wineshop, tavern
‫ حوو ظات‬ḥānūtī pl. -īya (eg.) corpse
washer;
undertaker,
mortician,
gravedigger
‫ حاا‬ḥawwā’2 Eve
‫ حواب‬V to abstain from sin; to lead ‫ ش‬pious
life; to refrain, abstain ( ‫ م‬from s.th.)
‫ حابوووة‬ḥauba sin, offense, misdeed,
outrage
essentials; ‫ محوولاا ح جووة‬maḥall al-ḥ. the
essential passage, the gist, the substance,
the crux, the interesting part (of an
exposition); ‫ سووداح جأ و‬sadda ḥājatahū to
meet s.o.’s needs, provide for s.o.’s needs;
‫ ل وواح جأو‬qaḍā ḥājatahū to fulfill s.o.’s
wish; ‫ ل واا ح جة‬to relieve nature
‫ ح جيو‬ḥājīyyāt everyday commodities,
utensils, utilities, necessaries, necessities
‫ احوا‬in greater need (‫ ا وو‬of s.th.); more
necessary
‫ احأيو‬iḥtiyāj want, need, requirement,
(pre)requisite, necessity; pl. -āt needs,
necessities, necessaries
‫ حاب‬ḥaubā’ soul
‫ محو وي‬maḥāwīj2 (pl. of ‫ محوا‬muḥwij)
needy, poor, destitute people
‫ حوا‬pl. ‫ حيأو ن‬ḥītān, ‫ احواا‬aḥwāt fish; whale;
Pisces, Fishes (astron.) │‫ حووا اسووليم ن‬ḥ.
sulaimān salmon
‫ محأو‬muḥtāj in need, in want (‫ ا وو‬of
s.th.), requiring (‫ ا وو‬s.th.); poor, destitute,
indigent
2
‫ حوا‬IV aḥwaja to have need, stand in need, be
in went (‫ ا وو‬of s.th.), need, require, went
(‫ ا وو‬s.th.); to put (‫ ه‬s.o.) in need of (‫)ا وو‬,
make necessary (‫ ه ا و‬for s.o. s.th.), require
(‫ ه ا و‬of s.o. s.th.), compel, oblige (‫ ه ا و‬s.o.
to); to impoverish, reduce to poverty (‫ه‬
s.o.) │‫( امو ااحاجو اا وو‬aḥwajahū) how much
he .tends in need of ...! how urgently he
needs ...! VIII to have need, stand in need,
be in went (‫ ا وو‬of; also ‫)ل‬, need, want,
require (‫ ا و‬s.th. s.o.)
‫ حوا‬ḥauj need, want, lack, deficiency,
destitution
‫ ح جوة‬ḥāja pl. -āt need (‫ ا وو‬or ‫ ب‬of);
necessity,
requirement,
prerequisite;
natural, bodily need; pressing need,
neediness, poverty, indigence, destitution;
object of need or desire; desire, wish,
request; necessary article, requisite;
matter, concern, business, job, work;
thing, object; -- pl. ‫ حواائ‬ḥawā’ij2 needs
211 necessities, necessaries; everyday
objects, effects, belongings, possessions,
stuff; clothes, clothing │‫كو نا و اح جوةاا ووايلة‬
to stand in need, be in want of (s.th.),
need, require (s.th.); ‫( الاح جةاا ووايلة‬ḥājata)
… is not necessary, not required, there is
no need of ...; ‫ الاح جوةا و ابو‬I don’t need it;
‫ ع وداا ح جوة‬if (or when) necessary, if need
be, in case of need; ‫( و اغيووواح جووة‬gairi
ḥājatin) unnecessarily; ‫ مووو ابووو اا ح جوووة‬the
‫ حاجلة‬ḥaujala pl. ‫ حااجل‬ḥawājil2 phial (chem.)
‫ حو ايحوا ة‬ḥāda u (ḥaud) to turn aside, turn
away ( ‫ عو‬from), turn ( ‫ عو‬off) II to turn
off, take a turning
‫( حا‬ḥauda) turn, turning
‫ ح ايحوا ة‬ḥāda u (ḥaud) to urge on, spur on (‫هوـ‬
animals) IV do. X ‫ اسووأحا‬istaḥwada to
overwhelm, overcome, overpower (‫علووو‬
s.o.; esp. emotions), get the better of (‫)علو‬,
gain mastery (‫ علوو‬over); to seize (‫ علوو‬on),
take possession (‫ علو‬of), usurp (‫ علو‬s.th.)
‫ حا‬ḥūdī coachman, cabman, driver
‫ حا ية‬ḥūdīya coachman’s work or trade
‫ حو رايحوارة‬ḥāra u to return (‫ ا وو‬to); to recede,
decrease, diminish, be reduced (‫ ا وو‬to) II
to change, alter, amend, transform,
reorganize, remodel, modify (‫ هووـ‬or ‫م و‬
s.th.); to roll out (‫ هووـ‬dough); to make
white, whiten (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to bleach (‫ هوـ‬a
fabric) III to talk, convene, have a
conversation (‫ ه‬with s.o.); to discuss,
debate, argue IV (with ‫ جاابو‬jawāban) to
answer, reply (with negations only) V to
be
altered,
changed,
amended,
transformed, reorganized, remodeled,
modified VI to carry on & discussion
‫ حووووار‬ḥawar white poplar (also
pronounced ḥaur); bark-tanned sheepskin,
basil; marked contrast between the white
of the cornea and the black of the iris
‫ حو ر‬hāra pl. -āt quarter, part, section
(of & city); (Tun.) ghetto; lane, alley, side
street (with occasional pl. ‫ حواار‬ḥawārī
│‫ حو ر اا سود‬ḥ. as-sadd blind alley, dead-end
street
‫ احواار‬aḥwār2, f. ‫ حوارا‬ḥaurā’2, pl. ‫حوار‬
ḥūr having eyes with a marked contrast of
white and black, (also, said of the eye:)
intensely white and deep-black
‫ حووواار‬ḥawāra (ḥawarāt) cretaceous
rook; chalk
‫ حواار‬ḥawārī pl. -ūn disciple, apostle
(of Jesus Christ); disciple, follower
‫ حاارى‬ḥawārā cretaceous rock; chalk
‫ حاريووة‬ḥūrīya pl. -āt, ‫ حووار‬ḥūr houri,
virgin of paradise; nymph; (pl. -āt) young
locust │ ‫ حاريةاا م‬water nymph, nixie
‫ حوووواران‬ḥaurān2 the Hauran, a
mountainous plateau in SW Syria and N
Jordan 212
‫ محوار‬miḥwar pl. ‫ محو ور‬maḥāwir2 rolling
pin; pivot, core, heart, center; axis; axle,
axletree
‫ محو ر‬maḥār (coll.; n. un. ) oysters;
shellfish, mussels; mother-of-pearl, nacre
‫ محو ر ا‬maḥāra (n. un.) oyster; oyster
shell, mussel; trowel
‫ تحووووايو‬taḥwīr alteration, change,
transformation, reorganization, reshuffle,
remodeling, modification
‫ حواار‬ḥiwār talk, conversation, dialogue;
argument, dispute; text (of a play); script,
scenario (of a motion picture)
‫ مح و ور‬muḥāwara talk, conversation,
dialogue; argument, dispute
‫ تح ور‬taḥāwur discussion
(‫ حاز‬and ‫ ح ز )حيز‬ḥāza u (ḥauz, ‫ حي ز‬ḥiyāza) to
possess, own, have (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to gain, win,
get, receive, obtain, achieve, attain (‫هووـ‬
s.th., e.g., success, victory, etc.); to gain
pos....ion. gain control (‫ هوـ‬of s.th.), seize,
monopolize (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); -- ḥāza i (‫ حيوز‬ḥaiz)
to drive on, urge on (‫ هووـ‬camels) V
taḥawwaza and taḥayyaza to writhe, twist,
coil; -- taḥayyaza to stay away, keep
away, seclude o.s., isolate o.s. ( ‫ عو‬from);
to be disposed, incline, tend, lean (‫ا ووو‬
toward); to join (‫ ا وو‬s.o. or s.th.); to side
(‫ل‬, ‫ ا وو‬with), take sides (‫ل‬, ‫ ا وو‬in favor of)
VII to isolate o.s., seclude o.s. separate,
segregate,· disengage o.s., dissociate o.s.,
stay away, keep away, retire, withdraw
( ‫ عو‬or ‫ مو‬from); to join (‫ ا وو‬S.o. or s.th.);
to unite (‫ ا وو‬with); to side (‫ ا وو‬or ‫ ل‬with),
take sides (‫ ا وو‬or J in favor of) VIII to
possess, own, have (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to take
possession (‫ هوـ‬of s.th.); to keep, prevent,
hinder ( ‫ ه ع‬s.o. from)
‫ حواز‬ḥauz possession, holding, tenure;
obtainment,
attainment,
acquisition;
taking possession, occupation, occupancy;
(jur.) tenancy; -- (pl. ‫ احوووااز‬aḥwāz)
enclosed area, enclosure; precinct(s),
boundary, city limits
‫ حاز‬ḥauzī possessor, tenurial
‫ حواز‬ḥauza possession, holding, tenure;
property; area, territory │‫ و احوازه‬or ‫و ا‬
‫ حاز ايده‬fī ḥ. yadihī in his possession; ‫ا د ا‬
‫ ع و احوواز امصووو‬the defense of Egyptian
territory
‫ حيوز‬ḥayyiz, ḥaiz pl. ‫ احيو ز‬aḥyāz scope, ‫ا‬
range, reach, extent, compass, confines,
field, domain, realm; sphere │‫الايوود لا و ا‬
‫( حيووزاا معقووال‬yadkul) it is not within the
bounds of reason; ‫( بوووزاا ووواحيووزاا معقووال‬to
advance to the realm of fact, i.e.) to
become a reality; ‫ و احيوزااالمكو ن‬fī ḥ. ilimkān within the realm of possibility,
quite possible
‫ حيوووو ز‬ḥiyāza possession, holding,
tenure; taking possession, occupation,
occupancy; acquisition of title, acquisition
of the right of possession; obtainment,
attainment, acquisition
‫ تحيز‬taḥayyuz partiality; prejudice, bias
‫ اظحيوووو ز‬inḥiyāz isolation, seclusion,
retirement; partiality; prejudice, bias
‫ ح ئز‬ḥā’iz possessor, holder, tenant
‫ مأحيووز‬mutaḥayyiz partial, prejudiced,
biased
‫ م حوووو ز‬munḥāz secluded, retired,
withdrawn, removed ( ‫ عووو‬from); an
outsider, a stranger ( ‫ ع‬to)
‫ حواس‬VIII (eg.) to be in a quandary, waver,
hesitate
1
‫ حو شايحواشة‬ḥāša u (ḥauš) to round up, drive
into a trap (‫ هووـ‬game); to stop, check,
prevent, hinder (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), stand in the way
(‫ هوـ‬of); to hold back, stem, stave off (‫هوـ‬
s.th.) II to gather, collect, amass,
accumulate, pile up, hoard (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
save, put by (‫ هوـ‬money); to find (‫ هوـ‬s.th.)
213
‫ حاش‬ḥauš p1. ‫ احوااش‬aḥwāš, ‫ حيشو ن‬ḥīšān
enclosure, enclosed area; courtyard
‫ حاش‬ḥawaš mob, rabble, riffraff
‫ حاشو‬ḥūšī wild; unusual, odd, queer,
strange
‫ اسوبا اا حو ش‬usbū‘ al-ḥāš Passion Week
(Chr.)
2
‫ح ش‬, ‫ ح شو‬see ‫حشا‬, ‫ ح شاهلل‬ḥāša lillāh = ‫ح شواهلل‬
‫ حواص‬ḥawaṣ squinting of the eye (caused by
constant exposure to glaring light)
‫ احوواص‬aḥwaṣ2 f. ‫ حاص و‬ḥauṣā’2, pl.
‫ حاص‬ḥūṣ having narrow, squinting eyes
‫ حي صة‬ḥiyāṣa girth
‫ حاصول‬ḥauṣa, ‫ حاصولة‬ḥauṣala craw (of a bird);
bladder;
pelican
│‫اا حاصوووووولةاا مواريووووووة‬
(marārīya) gall bladder, bile (anat.)
‫ حايصول‬ḥuwaisil blister, bleb, vesicle;
water blister
‫ حايصولة‬ḥuwaisila pl. -āt blister, bleb,
vesicle
‫ حوا‬ḥauḍ pl.
‫ احواا‬aḥwāḍ,
‫ حيو‬ḥiyāḍ
basin; water basin; trough, tank, cistern,
reservoir, container; basin of a river or
sea; pool; (in the Egyptian irrigation
system) a patch of land surrounded by
dikes, flooded by high water of the Nile;
pond; pelvis (anat.); (garden) bed; dock;
pl.
‫( حيو‬ḥiyāḍ) ground, area, domain (to
be protected), sanctum │‫( احوا اجو ا‬jāff)
dry dock; ‫ حووا احم و م‬ḥammām bathtub;
‫‘( حوا اعواام‬awwām) floating dock; ‫ا اعو ا‬
‫ حي ضو‬to assume the defense of s.o., make
o.s. the champion of s.o.; to defend o.s.;
‫( باحو احيو اا وودي‬dabba) to defend the
faith; ‫ احووواا اا فوووماوا حديووود‬coal and iron
deposits
O ‫ حاي ة‬ḥuwaiḍa renal pelvis (anat.)
‫ ح و هايحوواهة‬ḥāṭa u (ḥauṭ, ‫ حي ووة‬ḥaiṭa, ‫حي هووة‬
ḥiyāṭa) to guard, protect (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.),
watch (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬over s.o., over s.th.), have the
custody (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬of); to attend (‫ هوـ‬to), take
care (‫ هووـ‬of), look after s.th. (‫ ;)هووـ‬to
surround, encircle, enclose, encompass (‫ب‬
s.o., s.th.) II to build a wall (‫ هوـ‬around
s.th.), wall in (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to encircle,
surround (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), close in from all sides
(‫ هوـ‬on s.th.) III to try to outwit, dupe, or
outsmart (‫ ه‬s.o.); to mislead, lead astray,
seduce (‫ ه‬s.o.) IV to surround (‫ ب‬s.o., s.th.,
also ‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th., y with); to encompass,
enclose, embrace, comprise, contain (‫ب‬
s.th., also ‫ ;)هووـ‬to ring, encircle (‫ ب‬s.o.,
s.th., also ‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th., ‫ ب‬with s.th.),
close in from all sides (‫ ب‬on); to know
thoroughly,
comprehend,
grasp
completely, understand fully (‫ ب‬s.th.), be
familiar, be thoroughly acquainted (‫ب‬
with) │ ‫’( احو هابو اعلمو‬ilman) to know s.th.
thoroughly,
have
comprehensive
knowledge of s.th.; to take cognizance,
take note of s.th.; ‫ اج هو اعلمو اب‬he informed
him of ..., he let him know about ... ; he
brought ... to his notice V to guard, protect
(.., 6 s.o., s.th.); to take precautions (‫هوـ‬
with regard to), attend (‫ هووـ‬to); to be
careful, be cautious, be on one’s guard
VIII to be careful, be cautious, watch out,
be on one’s guard; to take precautions,
make provision (‫ ل‬for, so as to ensure ... );
to surround (‫ ب‬s.o., s.th.); to guard,
protect, preserve (‫ ب علوو‬s.th. from), take
care (‫ ب‬of), attend (‫ ب‬to), look after (‫)ب‬,
see to it (‫ ببن‬that)
‫ حي ووووة‬ḥīṯa, ḥaṭa, ‫ حاهووووة‬ḥauṭa
cautiousness, caution, provident care,
prudence,
circumspection
│‫اأ ووووووولا‬
‫(حي أو‬ḥīṭatahu) to be on one’s guard, take
precautions; ‫ بوووووالاحي وووووة‬thoughtlessly,
unthinkingly, inadvertently
‫ حي هووووة‬ḥiyāṭa guarding,
protection, care 214
custody,
‫ تحايط‬taḥwīṭ encirclement
‫اح هووووووووووة‬
iḥāṭa
encirclement,
encompassment; comprehension, grasp,
understanding, knowledge, cognizance (‫ب‬
of s.th.), acquaintance, familiarity (‫ب‬
with); information, communication
‫ تحوووواه‬taḥawwuṭ provision, care,
attention, precaution, prudence; pl. -āt
precautionary measures, precautions
‫ حو ايحوا ة‬ḥāqa u (ḥauq) to surround, enclose,
infold, embrace (‫ ب‬s.o.. s.th.) II = I (‫علوو‬
s.o., s.th.)
‫ احأيووو ه‬iḥtiyāṭ caution, cautiousness,
prudence, circumspection, carefulness;
provision, care, attention, precaution,
prevention;
pl.
-āt
precautionary
measures, precautions │‫ علوواسوبيلاا مثو ل‬as a
precaution, out of precaution, to be on the
safe side
1
‫احأيووووووو ه‬
ihṭiyāṭī
precautionary;
prophylactic; preventive; replacement;
spare- (in compounds); reserve- (in
compounds); stand-by; reserve funds,
capital reserves (fin.); reserve (mil.) │‫حبسا‬
‫احأيووووو ه‬
(ḥabs)
detention pending
investigation; ‫ توودابيوااحأي هي وة‬precautionary
measures, precautions ‫( لواا ااحأي هيوة‬quwāt)
reserves (mil.); ‫ مو لااحأيو ه‬capital reserve,
reserve fund; ‫( احأيو هواا زيوتاا و م‬crude-)oil
reserves
‫ حو ئط‬pl. ‫ حي و ن‬ḥīṭān, ‫ حيو ه‬ḥiyāṭ, ‫حواائط‬
ḥawā’iṭ2 wall │‫ ح و ئطاا مبكووو‬ḥ. al-mabkā
Wailing Wall (in Jerusalem); ‫ضوووبةاب و ا‬
‫ عووو اا ح و ئط‬or) ‫ ا قووو‬alqā (ḍaraba) bihī
‘urḍa l-ḥā’iṭ to make little of s.th., scorn,
disdain, despise s.th.; to reject s.th.,
discard s.th., throw s.th. overboard; to
ruin, thwart, foil s.th.
‫ حايط‬ḥāwiṭ (eg.) clever, smart, shrewd
‫ محووويط‬muḥīṭ surrounding (‫ ب‬s.th.);
comprehensive; familiar, acquainted (‫ب‬
with); -- (pl. -āt) circumference,
periphery; extent, range, scope, compass,
reach, domain, area; milieu, environment,
surroundings;
ocean;
pl.
‫محي وووووو‬
surroundings, environment │‫اا محووووويطا‬
‫(االهل و‬aṭlanṭī) the Atlantic Ocean; ‫ا محويطا‬
‫( ا ه‬ḥādi’) the Pacific Ocean
‫ مح ه‬muluiJ surrounded (‫ ب‬by)
‫ مأح واه‬mutaḥawwiṭ cautious, prudent,
provident, circumspect, careful, watchful
‫ حواا‬ḥauf edge, rim, brim, brink; border, hem,
fringe
‫ ح وة‬ḥāfa pl. -āt, ‫ حوااا‬ḥawāfin border,
rim, brim, brink, verge; edge; fringe, hem
│ ‫ بي احاا ي‬within it, in it, therein
‫ احالول‬ḥauqala (‫ حاللوة‬ḥauqala) to pronounce
the formula: ‫( الاحوالاوالالوا ااالابو هلل‬see ‫حوال‬
ḥaul)
2
‫احاللوة‬ḥauqala pl. ‫ حاالول‬ḥawāqil2 phial
(chem.), Florence flask
‫ حو ايحووا ة‬ḥāka u (ḥauk, ‫ حي و‬ḥiyāk, ‫حي كووة‬
ḥiyāka) to weave (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to interweave
(‫ هـ‬s.th.); to knit (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to braid, plait (‫هـ‬
s.th.); to contrive, devise, hatch, concoct
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.; e.g., ruses, intrigues, pretexts),
think up, fabricate, create (‫ هوـ‬s.th. in one’s
imagination)
‫ حي كوووووة‬ḥiyāka
braiding, plaiting
weaving;
knitting;
‫ ح ئوول‬ḥā’ik pl. ‫ ح كووة‬ḥāka weaver; -(mor.) an outer garment made of a long
piece of white woolen material, covering
body and head
(‫ حوال‬and ‫ حو ل )حيول‬ḥāla u to change, undergo a
change, be transformed; to shift, turn,
pass, grow (‫ ا وو‬into s.th., also ‫)هوـ‬, become
(‫ ا و‬s.th.); to deviate, depart ( ‫ ع‬from, e.g.,
a commitment), dodge, evade, fail to meet
( ‫ عو‬s.th.); to elapse, pass go by (time); -(‫ حيلا وة‬ḥailūla) to prevent (‫ ون‬s.th.); to
intervene, interfere, interpose, come ( ‫بووي‬
between) │‫‘( حو لاعو اعهود‬ahd) to withdraw
from a contract; ‫ حو لابوي ا والناوبوي اادموو‬215
to make s.th. inaccessible to s.o.,
impossible for s.o.; to bar or obstruct
s.o.’s way to s.th.; to prevent s.o. from
s.th., deny s.o. s.th.; ‫ح لابي اظفسو اوبوي ااإلشوف‬
(išfāq) to resist compassion, deny o.s. any
sympathy II ḥawwala to change (‫ هوـ ا وو‬or
‫ هوووـ هووـ‬s.th. to s.th. else), transform,
transmute, convert, turn, make (‫ هوـ ا و‬or ‫هوـ‬
‫ هوـ‬s.th. into s.th. else); to transplant (s.th.);
to transfer (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to convert (‫ هوـ‬s.th.,
mathematically); to switch commutate (‫هوـ‬
current; el.); to convert, transform (‫هووـ‬
current; el.); to shunt (‫ هوـ‬a railroad car); to
switch (‫ هوـ‬a railroad track); to remit, send,
transmit (‫ هوـ‬s.th., e.g., money by mail, ‫ا وو‬
to s.o.); to pass on, hand on (‫ هوـ ا وو‬s.th. to
s.o.); to forward (‫ هـ ا و‬s.th. to s.o. or to an
address); to endorse (‫ هوـ‬a bill of exchange,
a promissory note); to direct, turn (‫ هوـ‬s.th.,
also ‫ ظرووو‬naẓratan a glance, ‫ ا ووو‬to or
toward); to divert, distract, keep ( ‫ هـ ع‬or ‫ه‬
s.o. or s.th. from); to turn away, avert
( ‫ بصووهاعو‬baṣarahū one's eyes from); to
turn off, switch off, disconnect (‫ هوـ‬current;
el.) │‫( حوالاا د وة‬daffa) to turn the helm,
change the course III (ḥāwala to try,
attempt, endeavor (‫ هوـ‬s.th., ‫ ان‬to do s.th.),
make an attempt, make an effort (‫ ان‬to do
s.th.); to seek to gain (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) by artful
means; to deceive by pretenses, make
excuses, hedge, dodge IV to change ‫هوـ هوـ‬
or ‫ هوـ ا وو‬s.th. to), transform, transmute,
turn, make (‫ هوـ هوـ‬or ‫ هوـ ا وو‬s.th. into); to
convert, translate (‫ هوـ هـ‬or ‫ هوـ ا وو‬s.th. into);
to transfer (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to remit, send (‫ هوـ‬s.th.
‫ ا و‬or ‫ علو‬to s.o.); to assign (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.,
‫ ا وو‬or ‫ علوو‬to s.o.); to turn over, hand over,
pass on (‫ هوـ علوو‬or ‫ ه‬s.o. or s.th. to); to
forward (‫ هوـ علوو‬s.th. to); to refer (‫ ه ا وو‬s.o.
to); to cede, transfer (‫ هـ‬a debt, ‫ علوو‬to s.o.;
jur.) │‫( احيولاعلووايا ووةاا معو ش‬uḥīla, ma‘āš)
and ‫( احيووولاا وووواا أق عووود‬taqā‘ud) he was
pensioned off; ‫ احيلوتاا كمبي وةاا وواا بووتسوأا‬the
bill was protested (fin.) V taḥawwala to
change, undergo a change; to be changed
(‫ ا وو‬to), be transformed, be transmuted, be
converted (‫ ا ووو‬into), become (‫ ا ووو‬s.th.),
turn, grow (‫ ا و‬into), transform (‫اا وو‬-- ‫ مو‬or
‫ عو‬from -- into), change, develop, evolve
(‫اا وو‬--‫ مو ا‬from to); to withdraw, go away,
leave; to move (‫ ا وو‬to a residence); to turn
away ( ‫ مو‬from), turn one’s back ( ‫ عو‬on);
to deviate ( ‫ عو‬from); to depart, digress,
stray (‫ عووو اا ويوووق‬from the way); to
renounce, forgo, relinquish, disclaim
(s.th.); to proceed slyly or cunningly
│‫ تحوالاكولاحيلوة‬to employ every conceivable
trick; -- taḥayyala to employ artful means;
to ponder ways and means (‫ ل‬to an end, in
order to attain s.th.) VI taḥāwala to try,
endeavor, take pains (‫ علووو‬to do s.th.),
strive (‫ علوو‬for); -- taḥāyala and VIII to
employ artful means, resort to tricks, use
stratagems (‫ علوو‬against s.o.); to deceive,
beguile, dupe, cheat, outwit, outsmart (‫علوو‬
s.o.); to be out (‫ علوو‬for s.th.) or achieve
(‫ علوو‬s.th.) by artful means, by tricks VIII
to work or strive (on one’s own
resources), make efforts (on one’s own)
IX ‫ احوال‬aḥwala to be cross-eyed, to squint
X to change (‫ ا ووو‬to, into), turn, be
transformed, be converted (‫ ا وو‬into); to be
transubstantiated (bread and wine, ‫ ا وو‬into
the body and blood of Christ; Chr.); to
proceed, pass on, shift, switch (‫ ا وو‬to s.th.
new or s.th. different); to be impossible
(‫ علوو‬for s.o.); to be inconceivable, absurd,
preposterous
‫ ح و ل‬ḥāl m. and f., pl. ‫ احوواال‬aḥwāl
condition, state; situation; position, status;
circumstance; case; present, actuality (as
opposed to future); circumstantial
expression or phrase (gram.); pl.:
conditions, circumstances; matters, affairs,
concerns; cases; ḥāla (prep.) during;
immediately upon, right after; just at; in
case of …, in the event of …; ‫ حو ال‬216
ḥālan presently, immediately, at once,
right away, without delay; now, actually,
at present │‫ اا ح ل‬and ‫ لح ل‬on the spot, at
once, immediately; ‫( علوواكولاحو ل‬kulli ḥālin)
and ‫( علوواأ احو ل‬ayyi ḥ.) in any case, at any
rate, anyhow; ‫( يبقووواعلووواح وو‬yabqā) it
remains unchanged, just as it is; ‫و احو لامو ا‬
‫ ادحواال‬in some case or other, anyway, if
occasion should arise, possibly; (with
neg.) by no means, under no
circumstances, not at all, in no way; ‫علووا‬
‫حو ل‬, ‫بحو ل‬, ‫ بوب احو ل‬bi-ayyi ḥ. with neg.: by
no means, not at all, in no way; ‫كول لاا حو لا‬
‫ و‬the same goes for ..., it is the same with
…; it is also the case with ...; ‫كم اهااا ح لا و‬
as is the case with; ‫ كيوفاح ول‬how are you?
‫ ش و ابح و‬a thing in itself, a separate,
independent thing; ‫( ادحواالاا جايوة‬jawwīya)
atmospheric conditions; ‫محوووو كماادحوووواالا‬
‫( ا ش صوية‬šakṣīya) courts dealing with vital
statistics; ‫ ظر و م( ادحوواالاا ش صووية‬or) ‫ل و ظان‬
personal statute; ‫ صو حباا حو ل‬noun referent
of a circumstantial phrase (gram.); ‫عوو ا‬
‫‘ حو ل‬arḍ ḥ. application, memorial, petition;
‫ س ناا ح ل‬, ‫ س ناح‬see ‫س ن‬
‫ ح م‬ḥālama (conj.) as soon as
‫ ح وووة‬ḥala pl. -āt condition, state;
situation; (possible, actual) case; ḥālata
(prep.) during │‫ ح وةاان‬ḥālata an (conj.)
whereas;
‫وا ح وووووةاهوووووله‬
under
these
circumstances, such being the case, things
being as they are; ‫( و اح وة‬ḥālati) in (the)
case of ..., in the event of …, e.g., ‫و اح وةا‬
‫( غي بو‬giyābihī) in case of his absence, ‫و ا‬
‫( ح وةاا ا و‬wafāh) in case of death; ‫و اهولها‬
‫ ا ح وة‬in this (that) case; ‫ ح وةاان‬li-ḥālati an
in case that …, in the event that …; ‫اح ةا‬
‫ م اا ا‬if; ‫ كمو اهو اا ح وةا و‬if as is the case with
…; ‫( ح وةااجأم عيوة‬ijtimā‘īya) marital status;
‫ا ح وووووةاا جايووووووة‬
(jawwīya)
atmospheric
conditions; ‫ ح وةاا وو‬ḥ. al-kaṭar stand-by,
alert, state of alarm; ‫ ا ح وةاا واه وة‬the status
quo; ‫ ح وةاا وواار‬ḥ. aṭ-ṭawāri’ state of
emergency; ‫وووو اح ووووةاا ألووووبس‬
(talabbus)
flagrante delicto (jur.); ‫ا ح ووووةاا مدظيووووة‬
(madanīya) civil status, legal status; ‫سوا ا‬
‫ ا ح ة‬sū’ al-ḥ. predicament, plight
‫ حووو‬ḥālī present, current, actual,
existing; momentary, instantaneous; ‫ح ي و‬
ḥālīyan at present, actually │‫صووار اح يووة‬
(ṣūra) snapshot (phot.)
‫ ح يووووة‬ḥālīya
timeliness
actuality,
topicality,
‫ حوال‬ḥaul pl. ‫ احواال‬aḥwāl year; might,
power │‫ الاحوالاوالالوا ااالابو هلل‬lā ḥaula wa-lā
quwata illā bi-llāh there is no power and
no strength save in God; ‫الاحوالا و اوالاحيلوة‬
(wa-lā ḥīlata) he is completely powerless,
he can do nothing, he is at the end of his
resources
‫ حوال‬ḥiwal change of place, change │‫الا‬
‫( يبأغاناع احواال‬yabtagūna) they don’t want
it otherwise, they ask for it
‫ حوال‬ḥaula (prep.) around, about; circa,
about, some, approximately, roughly (with
following number); about (esp. in news
headings, approx. = re, concerning) │‫امو ا‬
‫( حا و‬ḥaulihī) (= ‫ )حا و‬around him (or it),
about him (or it); ‫( مو احا يهمو‬ḥaulaihimā)
around the two of them, about them; from
their vicinity, from their surroundings
(dual)
‫ حوا‬ḥaulī periodic, temporary, interim;
one year old (animal), yearling; young
animal; lamb, wether
O ‫ حا يو‬ḥaulīyāt yearbook, annals (=
Fr. annales, as a scientific publication)
‫ حيل‬ḥail strength, force, power, vigor │‫ا‬
‫(علو احيل‬standing) upright, erect; ‫الالا ا اوالا‬
‫( حيوول‬qūwata) completely helpless and
paralyzed
‫ حيلوة‬ḥīla pl. ‫ حيول‬ḥiyal, ‫ اح ييول‬aḥāyīl2 artifice,
ruse, stratagem, maneuver, subterfuge,
wile, trick; device, shift; a 217 means to
accomplish an end; expedient, makeshift,
dodge, way-out; legal stratagem (for the
purpose of in fraudem legis agere) │‫مو ا‬
‫ ا حيلة‬what’s to be done! ‫( الاحيلةا ا‬ḥīlata)
I have no possibility to …, I am in no
position to …; ‫( مو ابيود احيلوة‬bi-yadī) I can
do nothing, I can get nowhere; ‫مايجداحيلوةااال‬
lam yajid ḥīlatan illā he couldn’t do
anything except …, he had no other
choice than …; ‫( اعيأو اا حيلوة‬a‘yathu) he was
at a loss, he was at the end of his wits
‫ حيلو‬ḥiyalī cunning, crafty, wily, sly,
tricky, foxy
‫ احيل‬aḥyal2 craftier, wilier
‫ حال‬ḥawal squinting, strabismus
‫ احوال‬aḥwal2, f. ḥaula’2 ḥaulā2, pl. ‫حوال‬
ḥūl squinting, squint-eyed, wall-eyed,
walleyed
‫ حوووؤول‬ḥu’ūl change, transformation,
transmutation; prevention (‫ ون‬of s.th.)
‫ حاال‬ḥiwāl obstacle; partition, screen
‫ حيو ل‬ḥiyāla (prep.) in view of ..., with
regard to …, in the lace of, opposite, in
front of, before
‫ حاا وة‬ḥawāla pl. -āt assignment, cession
(jur.); bill of exchange, (promissory) note,
check, draft │‫حاا ةاا بويود‬, ‫ حاا وةابويديوة‬money
order; ‫ حاا ةاا سفو‬ḥ. safar traveler’s check
‫ حوواا و‬ḥawālā (prep.) around, about;
circa, approximately, roughly, about,
some (with following number)
‫ حيلا ووة‬ḥailūla separation, interruption,
disruption; prevention (‫ ون‬of s.th.)
‫ الامح ل‬lā maḥalla = ‫( الامح ة‬see below)
‫ مح وة‬muḥāla roller, wheel (of a draw
well)
‫ الامح ووةام و‬lā maḥālata minhu it is
inevitable; there is no doubt about it; (also
‫ الامح ووة‬alone) most certainly, positively,
absolutely, by all means
‫تحايوووووووول‬
taḥwīl
transformation,
transmutation, conversion (‫ ا وو‬into s.th.);
change,
alteration,
modification;
transplantation; transposition, reversal,
inversion,
translocation,
dislocation,
displacement;
transfer,
assignment;
conversion (e.g., of currency); conversion,
transformation (of electric current); O
transfer (fin.; also ‫ تحايولاا ودي‬t. ad-dain);
remittance (of money), transmittal,
sending, forwarding; bill of exchange,
promissory note, draft (com.); check;
endorsement (com.); c.o.d., cash on
delivery │‫ل بليةاا عملةا لأحايلاا واا عمال ااالج بيوة‬
(qābilīyal
al-’mla,
ajnabīiya)
convertibility of currency
frequently changing; feeble, languid, wan,
pallid
‫ تحايلوة‬taḥwīla pl. ‫ تح ويول‬taḥāwīl2 branch,
offshoot; siding, sidetrack (railroad); side
canal (irrigation; Eg.); switch (railroad)
‫ محوالاعليو‬muḥawwal ‘alaihi c.o.d., cash
on delivery; ‫ محالاب‬collected on delivery
‫ مح و وة‬muḥāwala pl. -āt attempt, try;
effort, endeavor;. recourse to expedients,
shifts, or dodges, dodging, hedging │‫ا‬
‫(مح و وةاعلوواحي تو‬ḥayātihī) attempt on s.o.’s
life, murderous assault
‫ اح ووووة‬iḥāla transfer, conveyance,
assignment;
remittance;
forwarding,
referring (‫ ا ووو‬or ‫ علووو‬to a competent
authority); transmission, transmittal; O
transfer (fin.); cession, assignment (Isl.
Law); absurdity │‫ اب الح ووووةاعلووووو‬with
reference to; ‫ ل ضو ااالح وة‬magistrate sitting
at defendant’s arraignment, trial judge;
‫( اح وةاا ووايعلووةاا معو ش‬ma‘āš) and ‫اح وةاا ووا‬
‫( ا أق عد‬taqā‘ud) pensioning off
‫ تحوال‬taḥawwul change, transformation,
transmutation; abrupt change, sudden turn,
reversal; shift, transition; departure,
deviation,
digression
( ‫عووووو‬
from);
renunciation ( ‫ ع‬of) │‫ ظق ةاا أحوال‬nuqṭat att. turning point
‫ محوووال‬muḥawwil pl. -āt converter,
transformer (el.); endorser
‫ محا ة‬muḥawwila switch (railroad)
‫ محي ول‬muḥīl transferor, assignor (Isl.
Law)
‫ محو ل‬muḥāl inconceivable, unthinkable,
impossible,
absurd,
preposterous,
unattainable
‫مأحووووووال‬
mutaḥawwil
changeable,
variable, changing │‫(اادعيو اا مأحا ووة‬a‘yād)
the movable feasts (Chr.)
‫ محأو ل‬muḥtāl artful, cunning, deceitful,
treacherous,
perfidious,
fraudulent;
swindler, cheat, impostor, fraud; crook,
scoundrel; assignee (Isl. Law) │ ‫امحأو لاعليو‬
debtor of a ceded claim, transferee (Isl.
Law)
‫ مسوووأحيل‬mustaḥīl impossible, absurd,
preposterous; ‫ مسوأحيال‬impossible things,
impossibilities, absurdities
‫ تح يول‬taḥāyul and ‫ احأيو ل‬iḥtiyāl use of
tricks, trickery; cunning, craft, subtlety,
artfulness; malice, treachery, perfidy;
deception, fraud
(‫ حو م )حوام‬ḥāma u (ḥaum, ‫ حوام‬ḥawamān) to
circle, hover. glide (in the air; of a bird,
also of an aircraft); to hover, swarm, buzz
(‫ حوال‬and ‫ علوو‬around) │‫اح موتاا شوبهةاضووده‬
(šubha, ḍiddahū) suspicion concentrated
on him, he was suspected II to circle in the
air; to hover in circles, to circle; to go
around, revolve (thoughts and images, in
one’s head or mind); to browse ( ‫ و‬in a
book)
‫ تحووو يل‬taḥāyulī and
‫ احأيووو‬iḥtiyālī
fraudulent, e.g.,
‫( ا ووووالسااحأيوووو‬iflās)
fraudulent bankruptcy
‫ حاموة‬ḥauma pl. -āt turmoil of battle,
thick of the fray; main part, bulk, main
body; (tun.) quarter, section (of a city)
‫ تحيل‬taḥayyul use of tricks, trickery 218
‫ اسوأح ة‬istiḥāla change, transformation,
transmutation, turn, shift, transition;
transubstantiation (Chr.); impossibility,
inconceivability,
absurdity,
preposterousness
‫ ح ئوول‬ḥā’il pl. ‫ حاائوول‬ḥawā’il obstacle,
obstruction, impediment (‫ ون‬on the way
to s.th., ‫او‬--‫ بوي ا‬see ‫ حو ل‬ḥāla I); barrier;
partition, screen, folding screen; -- (pl.
‫ حووووال‬ḥuwwal) changeable, variable,
‫ ح ن‬and‫اح ظةا‬see ‫حي‬
‫ ح ظا‬see ‫اح ا‬
‫ حواى‬ḥawā i to gather, collect, unite (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
to encompass, embrace, contain, hold,
enclose, comprise, include (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
possess, own, have (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to clasp (‫هوـ‬
s.th., the hand) V to curl (up), coil (up)
VIII to encompass, embrace, contain,
hold, enclose, comprise, include (‫ هوـ‬or ‫علوو‬
s.th.); to possess, own, have (‫ هوـ‬or ‫علوو‬
s.th.)
‫ حايووة‬ḥawīya convolution, coil, curl,
roll; pl. ‫ حااي و‬ḥawāyā intestine, bowels,
entrails
‫ حاايوة‬ḥiwāya pl. -āt (eg.) wase round
pad to support a burden on the head or on
the back
‫ حووو و‬ḥāwin pl. ‫ حووواا‬ḥuwāh snake
charmer; juggler, conjurer, magician
‫ محأاي و‬muḥtawayāt content(s) (of a
book. of a receptacle) │‫ محأايو اا فواس‬the
innermost thoughts. the secrets of the
heart
(‫حو‬, ‫ حيو )حيوا‬ḥayiya, ‫ حو‬ḥayya ‫ يحيو‬yaḥyā ( ‫حيو‬
ḥayāh) to live; ‫ حو‬ḥayya to live to see,
experience, witness (‫ هووـ‬s.th.), live (‫هووـ‬
through a time) ‫ يحو اا ملول‬li-yaḥyā 219 lmalik long live the king! ‫ حيو‬ḥayiya ‫يحيو‬
yaḥyā ( ‫ حيو‬ḥayā’) to be ashamed ( ‫ مو‬of;
because of) II ‫ حيو‬ḥayyā to keep (‫ ه‬s.o.)
alive, grant (‫ ه‬s.o.) a long life; to say to
s.o. (‫)ه‬: ‫ حيو ا‬may God preserve your
life!; to greet, salute (‫ ه‬s.o.) IV ‫ احيو‬aḥyā to
lend life (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬to s.o., to s.th.), enliven,
animate, vitalize, endow with life, call
into being (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), give birth (‫ هوـ‬to); to
revive, reanimate, revivify (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), give
new life (‫ هوـ‬to); to put on, produce, stage,
arrange (‫ هـ‬e.g., a theatrical performance, a
celebration, and the like); to celebrate (‫هوـ‬
s.th., also a festival) │‫( احيو اا ولكوى‬dikrā) to
commemorate (a deceased person),
observe the anniversary (of s.o.’s death);
‫( احيو اا ليول‬lail) to burn the midnight oil, ‫احيو ا‬
‫( ا ليولاصوال‬ṣalātan) to spend the night in
prayer; ‫( احيو اا سوهو‬sahrata) to perform in
the evening (of an artist); ‫احيووو احفلوووة‬
(ḥaflatan) to give a performance; to
perform at a celebration (artist); ‫لودااحيوتا‬
‫ ا فولوةاثوالثا يو ل‬qad aḥyat il-firqatu talāta
layālin the theatrical troupe gave three
evening performances X ‫ اسوأحي‬istaḥyā to
spare s.o.’s (‫ )ه‬life, let live, keep alive (‫ه‬
s.o.); ‫ اسووأحي‬istaḥyā, ‫ اسووأحو‬istaḥā to be
ashamed (‫ ه‬to face s.o.; ‫ م‬of s.th., because
of s.th.); to become or feel embarrassed
( ‫ مو‬in front of s.o.), be embarrassed ( ‫مو‬
by); to be bashful, shy, diffident
‫ ح و‬ḥayy pl. ‫ احي و‬aḥyā’ living, live,
alive; lively, lusty, animated, active,
energetic,
unbroken,
undaunted,
undismayed; living being, organism; tribe,
tribal community; block of apartment
houses; section, quarter (of a city) │‫علوما‬
‫‘ ادحيو‬ilm al-aḥyā’ biology; ‫‘ حو اا عو م‬ilm
al-‘ālam houseleek tree (Sempervivum
arboreum L.; bot.)
‫ حو‬ḥayya: ‫ حو اعلوواا صوال‬ḥayya ‘alā ṣṣalāh come to prayer!
‫ حية‬ḥayya pl. -āt snake, serpent, viper
O ‫ احيو ئ‬aḥyā’ī biologic(al); (pl. -ūn)
biologist │‫( كيميووو ااحي ئيوووة‬kīmiyā’) biochemistry
‫ حيووو‬ḥayīy bashful, shy, diffident,
modest
‫حيووووو‬
ḥayā’
shame,
diffidence,
bashfulness, timidity; shyness │ ‫لليوولاا حي و‬
shameless impudent; ‫ للوةاا حيو‬qillat al-ḥ.
shamelessness, impudence
‫ حيو‬ḥayāh pl. ‫ حيواا‬ḥayawāt life; lifeblood; liveliness animation │‫ حيو اا ويوف‬ḥ.
ar-rīf country life, rural life; ‫ا حي و اا ع مووة‬
(‘āmma) public life; ‫ ا حيو اا ع ئليوة‬family life;
‫ ميأواىاا حيو‬mustawā l-ḥ. living standard; O
‫‘ علماا حي‬ilm al-ḥ. biology
‫ حيوا‬ḥayawī lively, full of life, vital,
vigorous; vital, essential to life
‫ حياية‬ḥayawīya vitality, vigor, vim
‫ حياي و‬ḥayawīyāt:
‫موواا ام وو ا لحيايوو‬
(mawādd muḍādda) antibiotics
‫ حي واان‬ḥayawān pl. -āt animal, beast;
(coll.) animals, living creatures │‫حيااظو ا‬
‫( ثديوووة‬tadyīya) mammals; ‫حيااظووو امجأوووو‬
(mujtarra) ruminants; ‫( حيوااناهفيلو‬ṭufailī)
parasite; ‫‘ علماا حياان‬ilm al-ḥ. zoology
‫ حيوووووااظ‬ḥayawānī
zoologic(al)
animal
(adj.);
‫ حيااظيوة‬ḥayawānīya bestiality; animality,
animal nature
‫ حواي‬ḥuwayyin pl. -āt minute animal,
animalcule
‫ احيوو‬aḥyā livelier; more vigorous, more
vital
‫ تحيوة‬taḥīya pl. –āt, ‫ تح يو‬taḥāyā greeting,
salutation; salute; cheer (= wish that God
may give s.o. long life) │‫تحيوووةا ووولكواه‬
taḥīyatan li-dikrāhu in order to keep his
memory alive, in remembrance of him;
‫‘( ا أحيةاا عسكوية‬askarīya) military salute
‫ احيووو‬iḥyā’ animation, enlivening; revival,
revitalization, revivification; arranging,
staging. conducting, putting on, 220
holding (of a celebration) │‫ احيو اا ولكوى‬i.
ad-dikrā commemoration (of a deceased
person); ‫ احيو ا ولكوى‬I (iḥyā’an) (with foll.
gen.) in commemoration of …, in
memoriam ...; ‫ احيوو اا موواا‬i. al-mawāt
cultivation of virgin land
‫ اسووووأحي‬istiḥyā’ shame;
bashfulness, timidity; shyness
diffidence,
‫ محي‬mūḥayyan face, countenance
‫ ا سووووتاا مسوووووأحية‬as-sitt al-mustahīya
sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica; bot.)
1
‫ حيوث‬ḥaitu (conj.) where (place and direction);
wherever; since, as, due to the fact that;
whereas; inasmuch as │‫( حي وثاان‬anna)
since, as, because, due to the fact that ... ;
in that ... ; ‫ حيوثاكو ن‬wherever it be; in any
case, at any rate; ‫ ا وواحيوث‬ilā ḥaitu where
(direction); to where …, to the place
where ...; ‫ مو احيوث‬min ḥaitu from where,
whence, wherefrom; where (place);
whereas; (with foll. nominative) as to, as
for, concerning, regarding, with respect to,
in view of, because of; ‫ مو احيوثاا ثق وة‬min ḥ.
taqāfatu with regard to education, as far as
education is concerned; ‫م و احيووثايوودر اوالا‬
‫( يوودر‬yadrī wa-lā yadrī) whether he
knows it or not, knowingly or without his
knowledge; ‫( م و احيووثاال‬with foll. perf.)
without (being, doing, etc.); ‫م و احيووثاهووا‬
such, in itself, ‫‘( ا عو مامو احيوثاهوا‬ālam) the
world in itself, the world as such; ‫مو احيوثا‬
‫( ان‬anna) inasmuch as; in view of the fact
that; since, as, due to the fact that; ‫ بحيث‬biḥaitu inasmuch as; in such a manner that
..., so as to ...; so that ...; such as ...; (he
found himself) at a point or degree where,
e.g., ‫( ك نام اا بوا ابحيوثاالاتووى‬barā’a, tarā)
= she was so naive that she couldn't see ...;
‫ بحيوثاال‬insofar as ... not, provided that …
not; ‫( بحيوثاان‬anna) in such a manner that
..., so as to ..., so that ...
‫ حيثم و‬ḥatumā wherever, wheresoever
(place); wherever, no matter where ...
(direction) │‫( حيثمو ااتفوق‬ittafaqa) anywhere,
wherever it was (or he), haphazardly, at
random
‫ حيثيوة‬ḥaitīya pl. -āt standpoint; view,
point, point of view, approach; aspect,
respect, regard, consideration; high social
standing, social distinction, dignity; pl.
also: considerations, legal reasons on
which the judgment is based, opinion
(jur.) │‫( وواا حيثيةايا بو رز ة‬dawū) or ‫اصوح با‬
‫ا حيثيووة‬,
‫ اصووح باا حيثيوو‬people of (high)
social standing, prominent people, people
of
distinction;
‫موووووو اا حيثيووووووةاا حيااظيووووووة‬
(ḥayawānīya) from a zoological viewpoint
2
‫ ا حيثيان‬al-hātīyūn the Hittites
(‫ ح و )حيوود‬ḥāda i (ḥaid, ‫ حيووا‬ḥuyūd, ‫حيوودان‬
ḥayadān, ‫ محيود‬maḥīd) to deviate, swerve,
depart, desist (If from); to leave, quit, give
up, abandon, relinquish ( ‫ ع‬s.th.); ‫ح اب اعو‬
to dissuade or get s.o. away from ... ; to
incline, tend (‫ا وو‬, ‫ ظحوا‬to, toward), sbade,
blend (‫ا وو‬, ‫ ظحوا‬into) II to keep aside, put
aside (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) III to stay away, keep apart
(‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬from s.o., from s.th.); to avoid, shun
(‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.) VII to depart, deviate,
digress, swerve ( ‫ ع‬from)
‫ حيوود‬ḥaid, ‫ حيوودان‬ḥayadān deviation,
digression, departure, swerving, turning
aside, turning away
‫ حيوووود‬ḥaida deviation, digression,
swerving, departure (from a course);
neutrality; impartiality │ ‫ علووواحيوود‬aside,
apart, to one side
‫ محيود‬maḥīd avoidance ( ‫ عو‬of s.th.) │‫الا‬
‫( محيد‬maḥīda) it is unavoidable
‫ ح يود‬ḥiyād neutrality (pol.) │ ‫علوواا حيو‬
neutral; ‫( حيووو اعووو اا وووط‬kaṭṭ) derailment
(railroad) 221
‫ حي‬ḥiyādī neutral (pol.)
‫ مح يد‬muḥāyada neutrality (pol.)
‫ ح ئد‬ḥā’id neutral (pol.)
‫ مح يود‬muḥāyid neutral (pol.); ‫ا مح يوودون‬
the neutrals (pol.)
‫ مأح يد‬mutaḥāyid neutral (pol.)
‫ حيدراب‬ḥaidarābād2 Hydarabad
‫ حو رايحيووة‬ḥāra (1st pers. perf. ‫ )حوو‬a ( ‫حيوو‬
ḥaira, ‫ حيوان‬ḥayarān) to become confused;
to become or be helpless, be at a loss,
know nothing ( ‫ و‬of, about); to waver,
hesitate, be unable to choose ( ‫اوبوي‬--‫بوي ا‬
between - and) │‫( حو را و اامووه‬amrihi) to be
confused. baffled, bewildered, dismayed
to be at a loss, be at one’s wit’s end II to
confuse, baffle, bewilder, nonplus,
embarrass (‫ ه‬s.o.) V to become confused;
to be or become dismayed, startled,
baffled, perplexed ( ‫ و‬by), be at a loss ( ‫و‬
to); to waver (uncertainly) ( ‫ بوي‬between)
│‫( تحيوووا و ااموووه‬amrihi) to be confused,
baffled, bewildered, disconcerted, be at a
loss, be at one’s wit’s end VIII = V
‫ محوويص‬maḥīṣ flight, escape; place of
refuge, retreat, sanctuary │‫ مو اع و امحويص‬it
is unavoidable; ‫ وومايك و ا هوومام و امحوويص‬they
couldn’t but ..., they had no other
alternative but to ...
(
‫ حيووو‬ḥair fenced-in garden, enclosure
│‫ حيوووواا حيووواان‬ḥ. al-ḥayawān zoological
garden, zoo
‫ حيووووو‬ḥaira confusion, perplexity,
bewilderment,
embarrassment,
helplessness ‫ و احيوو‬embarrassed, at a loss,
helpless
‫ حي‬ḥaiḍ (n. un. ‫ )حي ة‬and
menstruation, monthly period
‫ حووو ئو‬ḥā’ir disconcerted, perplexed,
startled. dismayed; embarrassed, helpless,
at a lost, at one’s wit’s end; baffled,
bewildered, confused, uncertain ( ‫وووو‬
about); straying, astray │‫حووو ئوا ووو اامووووه‬
(amrihī) confused, baffled, bewildered,
embarrassed, at a loss, helpless
‫ محيوو‬muḥayyar embarrassed, at a loss,
helpless
‫ محيو‬muḥayyir and ‫ محأ ر‬muḥtār = ‫ح ئو‬
‫ حيز‬see ‫احازا‬
‫حي ة‬, ‫حي هة‬, ‫حي ن‬, ‫ احي ه‬see ‫احاه‬
1
‫ حو اايحيوفة‬ḥāfa i (ḥaif) to deal unjustly (‫علوو‬
with s.o.), wrong, injure, harm (‫ علوو‬s.o.);
to restrict, limit, curtail, impair (‫ علوو‬s.th.),
encroach (‫ علووو‬upon) V to 222 impair,
injure, prejudice, violate (‫ هوـ‬or ‫ مو‬s.th.),
encroach, infringe (‫ هـ‬or ‫ م‬upon)
‫ حيوووف‬ḥaif wrong, injustice; harm,
damage, prejudice │ ‫احيوفاعليو‬what a pity!
too bad! ‫( الاحيوفابو‬ḥaifa) it is not out of
place, it is quite appropriate
2
‫ احيف‬ḥaifā’ Haifa (seaport in NW Israel)
‫ حو ايحيوقة‬ḥāqa i to surround, beset from all
sides (‫ ب‬s.o.); to fall, descend, come (‫ب‬
upon s.o., punishment), befall, overtake,
grip, seize, overcome (‫ ب‬s.o.), happen,
occur (‫ ب‬to); to penetrate, pierce ( ‫ و‬the
body; of a sword); to affect, influence ( ‫و‬
s.o., s.th.) IV to surround, beset from all
sides (‫ ب‬s.o.); to bring down (‫ ب هوـ‬upon
s.o. s.th.), cause s.th. (‫ )هوـ‬to descend (‫ب هوـ‬
upon s.o.)
‫ حيوووق‬ḥaiq consequence, effect (of a
misdeed redounding upon the evildoer)
‫ حيل‬II to weave
‫ حيزبان‬see ‫احزبا‬
‫ حي كة‬see ‫حا‬
‫ حو صايحويصة‬ḥāṣa i (ḥaiṣ, ‫ حيصوة‬ḥaiṣa, ‫محويص‬
maḥīṣ) to flee, escape ( ‫ عو‬s.th. or from
s.th.), run away ( ‫ عو‬from), turn one’s back
( ‫ ع‬on) VII do.
‫ حيل‬ḥaik = ‫ ح ئل‬see ‫حا‬
‫ حيص‬ḥaiṣ, ‫ حيصة‬ḥaiṣa flight, escape
‫ ولواا و احويصابويص‬waqa‘a fī ḥaiṣa baiṣa
to get into a bad fix, meet with difficulties
‫ حي صة‬see ‫حاص‬
‫ حي‬ḥiyāḍ
‫ ح ئ‬ḥā’iḍ (f.) and ‫ ح ئ ة‬menstruating
‫ حيووان‬ḥairān2, f. ‫ حيووى‬ḥairā, pl. ‫حيو رى‬
ḥayārā, ḥuyārā confused, perplexed,
startled, dismayed, disconcerted, baffled,
Nonplused, bewildered, appalled, taken
aback, stunned; embarrassed, at a loss, at
one’s wit’s end; uncertain, helpless,
sheepish
(smile,
etc.),
confused,
incoherent (words, and the like)
‫ تحيووو‬taḥayyur confusion, perplexity,
bewilderment, dismay; embarrassment,
helplessness
‫ ح ضووت )حووي‬ḥāḍat i (ḥaiḍ,
‫ محووي‬maḥīḍ,
‫ محو‬maḥāḍ) and V to menstruate, have a
monthly period
1
‫ احيول‬V, ‫حيلوة‬, ‫احيول‬, ‫حيو ل‬, ‫حيلا وة‬, etc., see ‫;حوال‬
‫ احيل‬see ‫حلا‬
2
‫اح يل‬ḥāyil2 Hail (town and oasis in N Nejd)
‫ ح نايحي ة‬ḥāna i to draw near, approach, come,
arrive (time); to happen accidentally │‫حو نا‬
‫ ا الوت‬the (right) time has come; now is the
time; ‫ حو نا و اا الوت‬the time has come for
him to …; ‫( امو اح و نا هووماانايفهموواا‬amā, an
yafhamū) haven’t they understood yet ...?;
‫( ح ظتام اا أف تة‬minnī iltifāta) I happened to
turn around (‫ ا وو‬to), it just happened that
my eyes fell on (‫ )ا وو‬II to set a time (‫ ه‬for
s.o.) IV to destroy, wipe out (‫ ه‬s.o.) V to
watch, wait (‫ هوووـ‬fur a time or an
opportunity) │‫( تحي اا فوصوة‬furṣata) to wait
for an opportunity, bide one's time X
‫ اسأحي‬istaḥyana to wait for the right time
‫ ح ن‬ḥān bar; cabaret
‫ ح ظوة‬ḥāna pl. -āt bar, wineshop, wine
tavern; pub, tavern, taproom
ḳā’ name of the letter ‫خ‬
‫ و تان‬ḳātūn pl. ‫ وااتي‬ḳawātīn2 lady, socially
prominent woman│‫ زهوو اا و تان‬zahrat alḳ. little blue flower of the steppe (syr.)
‫م‬
ḳāḳām (=‫ )ح م‬rabbi
‫رصي‬
‫ حي ئول‬ḥīna’idin at that time, then, that
day
‫ حي ولا‬ḥīnadāka at that time, then, that
day
ḳāriṣīnī (eg.) zinc
‫ و زو‬ḳāzūq pl. ‫ اازيوق‬ḳawāzīq2 post, stake,
pole; dirty trick│ ‫ اهوولاا و زو‬that’s tough
luck!
‫لو ن‬
‫ حي‬ḥain death, destruction
‫ حوي‬ḥīn pl. ‫ احيو ن‬aḥyān, ‫ احو يي‬aḥāyīn2
time; propitious time, good time,
opportunity; ḥīna (prep.) at the time of ...,
at, upon; (conj.) at the time when, when;
as soon as; ‫ حي و‬ḥīnan for some time; once,
one day; ‫ احي ظو‬aḥyānan occasionally, from
time to time, sometimes │ ‫احي ووو‬--‫حي ووو ا‬
sometimes -- sometimes, at times -- at
times; ‫ و ااالحو يي‬at times, sometimes, once
in a while; ‫ و ابعو اادحيو نايادحو يي ة‬fī ba‘ḍi
l-a. and ‫ بعو اادحيو ن‬ba‘ḍa l-a. sometimes,
occasionally, now and then, once in a
while, from time to time, at times; ‫و ااغلوبا‬
‫ ادحيو ن‬fī aglabi l-a. mostly, most of the
time, in most cases; ‫ ا وواحوي‬for some time;
meanwhile, for the time being; ‫و احي و‬
then, at the time, in his (its) time; in due
time, at the appointed time; ‫ ااا حوي‬dā lḥīna just now, right now; ‫ مو ا ولاا حوي‬from
that time on, from then on; ‫ا ووا ولاا حوي‬
until that time, till then; ‫( و احوي‬with foll.
verb) whereas; ‫ و احووي اان‬and ‫علووواح وي اان‬
(ḥīni) at the same time when ..., while;
whereas, also without ‫ان‬, e.g., ‫علوواحوي اهوما‬
‫‘ يزعموان‬alā ḥīni hum yaz‘umūna whereas
they, on the other hand, claim; ‫مو احوي اا ووا‬
‫حي‬, ‫بي احي اوحي‬, ‫حي ابعداحي‬, ‫( م احي اب و‬liākara) and ‫( بوي احوي اوب وو‬wa-ākara) from
time to time, now and then, once in a
while
ḳāriṣīn and ‫رصي و‬
‫كو‬
ḳāqān pl. ‫ واالي‬ḳawāqīn2 overlord, ruler,
sovereign, monarch, emperor
ḳākī earth-colored, khaki
‫ ؤول‬, ‫ ؤو ة‬see ‫ال‬
‫وووو م‬
ḳām raw, unworked, unprocessed;
untanned; linen; calico; (pl. -āt) raw
material; inexperienced, green, untrained,
unskilled, artless, uncouth, boorish; pl.
‫ مو‬raw materials│‫ جلوا ا و م‬raw leather;
‫ يواها و م‬raw fibers; ‫( زيوتا و م‬zait) crude
oil; ‫( سوكوا و م‬sukkar) raw sugar; ‫ا مواا اا و م‬
(mawādd) the raw materials
‫ و ن‬ḳān pl. -āt hostel, caravansary; inn, pub,
tavern│‫( ا و ناا ليلوو‬ḳalīlī) district of Cairo
(center of art trade and market activity);
‫ و نايوواظس‬Khan Yunis (town in Gaza
sector)
‫ظوووة‬
pl. -at column (e.g., of a
newspaper); square (e.g., on a chessboard)
‫ وب‬ḳabba u (ḳabb, ‫ بوب‬ḳabab, ‫ بيوب‬ḳabīb) to
amble (animal); to trot (horse); to jog,
saunter (person), to sink (‫ وو‬in sand); -- u
(ḳabb) to surge, heave, be rough (sea) V
and VIII to amble (animal); to trot (horse)
‫ بب‬ḳabab amble; trot
‫ وب‬ḳabb, ḳibb heaving, surging (of the
sea,‫ا‬rough sea
‫ ب‬ḳabb impostor. swindler
‫ ب‬ḳaba’a a and II to bide, conceal (‫ هـ‬s.th) V
to hide, conceal o.s.; to be hidden, be
concealed VIII to hide, conceal o.s.; to
disappear; to be hidden, be concealed
‫ ب ا‬ḳib’ that which is hidden, a hidden thing
‫ حي م‬ḥīnamā (conj.) while; when, as
‫حياان‬, ‫ حيا‬and ‫ حيايةا‬see ‫ ح‬223
‫خ‬
‫بيئووة‬
ḳabī’a pl. ‫ ب ي و‬ḳabāyā that which is
hidden; a hidden, secret thing; a cache│
‫ ب يو ااالر‬ḳ. l-arḍ that which is hidden in
the earth; natural resources
‫ م بوب‬maḳba’ pl. ‫ م و بئ‬maḳābi’2 hiding place;
hide-out, refuge, haunt, retreat; cellar,
shelter, air-raid shelter
‫بو‬
ḳibā’ pl. ‫ ا بئوة‬aḳbi’a, ‫ ا بيوة‬aḳbiya tent;
husk, hull (of grain)
‫ بئة‬ḳābi’a, ‫ بية‬ḳāiya pl. ‫ واابئ‬ḳawābī’2, ‫وااب‬
ḳawābin large vessel, cask, jar
‫ م بووو‬muḳabba’āt hidden, secret things;
secrets
‫ م أبئ‬muḳtabi’ hidden, concealed
‫ بت‬IV to be humble (‫ ا و‬before God‫ي‬
‫ بوث‬ḳabuta u (ḳubt, ‫ ) ب ثوة‬to be bad; to be
wicked,
evil,
malicious,
vicious,
malignant VI to behave viciously, display
malice; to feel awkward, feel embarrassed
‫ ا بووووث‬ḳubt badness, wickedness;
malignancy (e.g., of a disease); malice,
malevolence, viciousness
‫ بث‬ḳabat refuse, scum, dross, slag
‫ بيوث‬ḳabīt pl. ‫ بوث‬ḳubut, ‫ بثو‬ḳubatā’2,
‫ ا بو ث‬aḳbāt, ‫ بثوة‬ḳabata bad, evil, wicked;
malicious, vicious, spiteful; noxious,
injurious, harmful; malignant (disease);
offensive,
repulsive,
nauseating,
disgusting (odor)
‫ ا بث‬aḳbat worse; more wicked
‫ب ثووووة‬
ḳabāta badness
malice,
malevolence,
malignancy
wickedness;
viciousness,
‫ بوو‬ḳabara u (ḳubr, ‫ بوو‬ḳibra) to try, test (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to experience (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to have
tried, have experienced, know by
experience (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to get to know
thoroughly, know well (‫ هوـ‬s.th., ‫ ه‬s.o.);
ḳabura u to know thoroughly (‫ ب‬or ‫هووـ‬
s.th.), be fully acquainted (‫ ب‬or ‫ هوـ‬with
s.th.) II to notify, advise, apprise, inform,
tell (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ ب‬of or about) III to write (‫ ه‬to
s.o.). address (‫ ه‬s.o.), turn, appeal (‫ ه‬to
s.o.), contact (‫ ه‬s.o.) in writing; to
negotiate, treat, parley (‫ ه‬with s.o.) IV to
notify, inform, apprise, advise (‫ ه ب‬s.o.
of), let know, tell (‫ ه ب‬s.o. about); to
communicate, report, relate (‫ ه ب‬to s.o.
s.th.), tell (‫ ه ب‬s.o. s.th.) V to inquire (‫ ه‬of
s.o.), ask (‫ ه‬s.o.) VI to inform one another,
notify one another; keep one another
informed; to correspond, write each other;
to negotiate, treat, parley (‫ موا‬with s.o., ‫و‬
about) VIII to explore (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), search (‫هوـ‬
into), seek information (‫ هوـ‬about); to test,
examine (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to try, put to the
test (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to have tried, have
experienced, know by experience (‫هوووـ‬
s.th.); to know well (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) X to inquire
( ‫ ه ع‬of s.o. about), ask ( ‫ ه ع‬s.o. about)
‫ بوووو‬ḳabar pl. ‫ ا بووو ر‬aḳbār news;
information,
intelligence:
report,
communication, message; notification;
rumor; story; matter, affair; (gram.)
predicate of a nominal clause; pl. annals
│‫ سوب اعو اأ بو ره‬to inquire of s.o. about s.o.
else; ‫ ك و نا و ا بووواك و ن‬or ‫وولا وو ا بووواكوو ن‬
(ḳabari kana) to belong to the past, be
passé, be no longer existent
‫ بوووو‬ḳibra, ‫بوووو‬
knowledge
ḳubr experience;
‫ بيوو‬kabīr experienced, expert (‫ ب‬in);
familiar, conversant, well-acquainted (‫ب‬
with), cognizant (‫ ب‬of); ‫ ا بيوو‬the Knowing
(one of the attributes of God); (pl. ‫بووا‬
kubarā’2) expert, specialist │‫ا بيوووووا‬
‫ا وائب‬tax expert, tax adviser
‫ و بار‬kābūr pl. ‫ واابيو‬kawābīr2 peg; pin;
wedge
‫م بووووووو‬
makbar
sense,
intrinsic
significance; (pl: ‫م ووووو بو‬
makābir2)
laboratory
‫ م بو ر‬mikbār pl. ‫ م و بيو‬makābīr2 test
tube (chem.)
‫ م بو‬mukābara pl. -āt correspondence,
(esp. written) information (in classified
ads: ‫ ا م و بو اب‬please write to ..., please
contact
...),
notice,
notification,
communication │‫ ام و بو اتلفاظيووة‬telephone
call, telephone conversation; ‫م و بو ا رجيوة‬
(kārijīya) long-distance call; ‫م و بو اسوووية‬
(sirriya) secret communiqué; ‫للوااا م و بوا‬
qalam al-m. intelligence bureau; ‫ا م و بو ا‬
‫( ح وواري‬ḥuḍūrīyan) apply in person (in
classified ads)
‫ ا ب و ر‬ikbār notification, information,
communication, note, message; report;
indirect discourse, oratio obliqua (gram.)
‫ ا ب و ر‬ikbārī news-, information- (in
compounds)
‫ت وووووووووو بو‬
takābur
correspondence
negotiation;
‫ ا أبو ر‬iktibār pl. -āt exploration, study;
examination; test; test item (of an
examination); trial, testing; (scientific)
investigation,
research,
experiment;
experience,
empirical
knowledge;
practical experience │‫ا أبوووو را اتحويويووووة‬
(taḥrīrīya) written examination items;
‫ ا أبو را اتو‬225 (dātī) personal experience;
‫ علواسوبيلااال أبو ر‬experimentally; ‫تحوتااال أبو ر‬
on probation, on trial; ‫حقوووالااال أبووو ر‬
experimental fields
‫ا أبوووووووو ر‬
iktibārī
experiential; empirical
experimental;
ground (‫ ه‬s.o.); to bump, hit (‫ هوـ‬against),
collide (‫ هوـ‬with), stumble (‫ هوـ‬over); to be
lost, wander about, stray; to grope about,
fumble about; to struggle, resist; to clatter
over the ground, gallop (horse) VIII to
bump (against); to struggle, resist; to
grope about, fumble about; to be lost,
wander around, stray; to stir, bustle
‫ ب وة‬kabta blow, stroke; rap, knock;
noise, din, uproar
‫ ب و ه‬kubāṭ insanity, madness, mental
disorder
‫بول‬
‫ ا أب رية‬ihtibārīya empiricism
‫ اسوأ أب ر‬istikbàr pl. -āt inquiry │‫ا ائوو ا‬
‫االسأ أب را‬information bureau
‫ م بو‬mukbir pl. -ūn reporter; detective
‫ م أبو‬muktabar pl. -āt laboratory
‫ بز‬kabaza i (kabz) to bake (‫ هـ‬bread) VIII do.
‫ بز‬kubz pl. ‫ ا ب ز‬akbāz bread
‫ بز‬kubza loaf of bread
‫ بووول‬kabl, kabal confusion; mental
disorder, insanity
‫ ب ز‬kubza pl. -ūn, ‫ ب ز‬baker
‫ بووو ز‬kubbaz, ‫بيوووز‬
kubbazā mallow (bot.)
kubbaiz, ‫بووو زى‬
‫بوووول‬
kabil mad, crazy,
feebleminded, dim-witted
‫ ب ز‬kibāza baker’s trade, art of baking
‫ ا أب ل‬iktibāl mental disorder
‫ وبص‬kabaṣa i (kabṣ) to mix, mingle, intermix
(‫ هووـ ب‬s.th. with) II to mix, mingle,
intermix (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to muddle, jumble,
confuse (‫ هـ‬s.th.), make a mess (‫ هـ‬of)
‫بوووو ص‬
kabbāṣ one who causes
confusion, who messes things up; an
irresponsible, light-minded person
‫ وبط‬kabaṭa i (kabṭ) to beat, strike (‫ هوـ‬s.th.,
against s.th.); to knock, rap (‫ هوـ‬on, ‫ ا بو ب‬on
the door); to stamp ( ‫ االر‬the ground; of
animals) │ ‫( اي وبطا وبطاعشواا‬kabṭa ‘ašwā’)
he acts haphazardly, he proceeds rashly or
at random V to beat, strike, hit (‫ ه‬s.o.); to
bring down, fell, knock out, throw to the
insane;
‫ ا بول‬akbal 2 mad, crazy, insane; feebleminded, dim-witted
‫ م بوز‬makbaz, ‫ م بوز‬pl. ‫ م و بز‬makābiz2
bakery
‫ بووويص‬kabīl, ‫ بيصوووة‬medley, mess,
mishmash, hodgepodge; ‫ بصوة‬a jellylike
sweet
kabala u (kabl) to confound, confuse,
mess up, complicate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to hinder,
impede, handicap, stop, hold back (‫ ه‬s.o.);
to befuddle (‫ ه‬s.o.), confuse s.o.’s (‫ )ه‬mind,
rob (‫ ه‬s.o.) of his senses make (‫ ه‬s.o.)
crazy; -- kabila a (kabal, ‫ ب ل‬kabal) to get
confused; to be or become mentally
disturbed, crazy, insane II to confound,
confuse (‫ هووـ‬s.th., ‫ ه‬s.o.); to complicate,
entangle, mess up, muddle, throw into
disorder (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to rob of his senses,
drive insane (‫ ه‬s.o.) VIII to become
muddled, disordered (mind)
‫ م بوووال‬makbūl mad, crazy, idiotic,
imbecilic, mentally deranged, insane;
muddlehead, dolt, fool
‫ م بووووول‬makbal confused. baffled,
perplexed, dismayed; muddled, confused,
mixed up
(‫ بو ) بوا‬kabā u (kabw, kubūw) to go out, die
(fire)
‫ ب ي‬and ‫ ب‬pl. ‫ ا بية‬see ‫بب‬
‫بية‬
pl. ‫ ااب‬see ‫ بب‬226
‫ بي ر‬kibyārī caviar
‫أووو‬
katara i (katr) to betray (‫ ه‬s.o.), act
perfidiously, disloyally (‫ ه‬toward s.o.); to
deceive, cheat, dupe (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫أووووو‬
katr disloyalty, breach of
confidence, perfidy, treachery, betrayal,
deception
‫ ا أأ و م‬iktitām end, close, conclusion,
termination
‫ تموة‬kātima pl. ‫ وااتم‬kawātim2, ‫وااتيم‬
kawātīm2
end,
close,
conclusion,
termination; epilogue (of a book); ‫وااتيم‬
final stage
‫ أوو ر‬kattār traitor, disloyal person,
cheat, swindler
‫ووو تو‬
kātir
disloyal
treacherous,
perfidious,
‫ أول‬katala i u (katl, ‫ وأال‬katalan) to dupe, gull,
cheat, double-cross, deceive (‫ ه‬s.o.) III to
deceive, cheat, dupe (‫ ه‬s.o.); to behave
hypocritically VIII = I
‫ م وأم‬mukattam ringed, adorned with a
ring or rings (hand)
‫ م أوأم‬muktatam end, close, conclusion,
termination
1
‫ا وأ‬katana i (katn) to circumcise (‫ ه‬a boy)
VIII pass
‫ أول‬katl and ‫ م تول‬mukātala deception,
trickery,
double-dealing,
duplicity,
duping, gulling
‫ أ‬katn circumcision
‫ وأ‬katan pl. ‫ ا أو ن‬aktān son-in-law‫ا‬
bridegroom
‫ م توول‬mukātil deceitful, crafty, wily,
foxy
‫ وأم‬katama i (katm, ‫ أو م‬kitām) to seal, provide
with a seal or signet (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to stamp,
impress with a stamp (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to seal off,
close, make impervious or inaccessible (‫هوـ‬
s.th.; also ‫ علوو‬the hearts, said of God); to
put one’s seal (‫ هوـ‬on), conclude, terminate
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to wind up, finish, complete (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to close, heal, cicatrize (wound) V
to put on or wear a ring (‫ات وأماب ولهب│ )ب‬
(dahab) to wear a golden ring VIII to
conclude, finish, terminate, wind up (‫هووـ‬
s.th.)
‫ أم‬katm sealing; -- (pl. ‫ ا أو م‬aktām, ‫أوام‬
kutūm) seal, signet, seal imprint; stamp,
stamp imprint; also = ‫( أموة‬see below) │‫ا‬
‫ وووأماا بويووود‬postmark, (postal) cancellation
stamp; ‫ شمااا أم‬šam‘ al-k. sealing wax
‫ أموة‬katma pl. katamāt recital of the
entire Koran, esp. on festive occasions
‫ و تم‬kātam, kātam pl. ‫ وااتم‬kawātim2
seal ring, signet ring; ring, finger ring;
seal, signet; stamp │ ‫ و تماا ووزوا‬k. zawāj
wedding ring; ‫ و تماا بيوي‬k. an-nabīyīn the
Seal (i.e., the last) of the Prophets =
Mohammed
‫ تو م‬kātām pl. ‫ وااتيم‬kawātīm2 seal ring,
signet ring; ring
‫ أ و م‬kitām sealing wax; end, close,
conclusion, termination │‫ و اا أو م‬at the
end, at last, finally, eventually
‫ أ و م‬kitāmī final, concluding │‫كلمووةا‬
‫( أ مية‬kalima) concluding speech
‫ أ ن‬kitān, ‫ أ ظة‬kitāna circumcision
2
‫ ا تان‬look up alphabetically
‫ثوو‬
katara u and katira a to become solid,
become thick, solidify, thicken; to be or
become viscous, syrupy; to clot, coagulate
(liquid); to curdle (milk) II and IV to
thicken, inspissate, condense, coagulate (‫هوـ‬
liquid); to curdle (‫ هـ‬milk) V = I
O ‫ ثو‬katra thrombosis (med.)
‫ ثو ر‬kutar dregs (of a liquid); scum of
the earth, riffraff, mob
‫ثوو ر‬
kutāra dregs (of a liquid);
sediment, lees 227
‫ ت ثوو‬takattur coagulation │O ‫( ت ثوواا موخ‬mukk)
cerebral thrombosis
‫و ثو‬
kātir thickened, inspissated, condensed;
viscous, ropy, sirupy; curdled, coagulated,
clotted; yoghurt, curd
‫ م ثوووووو‬mukattar thickened, inspissated,
condensed; viscous, ropy, sirupy; curdled,
coagulated, clotted
‫ جل‬kajila a (kajal) to become embarrassed; to
be ashamed ( ‫ مو‬of s.th. or to face s.o.), be
abashed ( by s.th.), feel embarrassed ( ‫مو‬
about s.th. or in front of s.o.) II and IV to
shame (‫ ه‬s.o.); to embarrass, abash, put to
shame (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ جول‬kajal shame ( ‫ مو‬at); bashfulness
diffidence, timidity, shyness; abashment;
disgrace, shame, ignominy │‫( يو ا ل جول‬la-lkajal) O disgrace! the shame of it!
‫جوووول‬
kajil abashed, embarrassed;
bashful, diffident, shy, timid; overgrown
with luxuriant, profuse vegetation; long
and flowing (garment)
‫ وودر‬kadir numb (limb); benumbed,
torpid, dazed
‫ جوال‬kajūl abashed, ashamed, shamefaced; shy, bashful, diffident, timid
‫ و ر‬kādir limp, languid; benumbed,
torpid, dazed; hidden in his den, lurking
(lion)
‫جووووالن‬
kajalān abashed, ashamed,
shamefaced; shy, bashful, diffident, timid;
bewildered with shame, embarrassed
‫ م جال‬makjūl ashamed, shamefaced
‫ م جول‬mukjil arousing shame, shameful;
shocking,
disgraceful,
ignominious
│‫اا م جلة‬
‫( اع‬a‘ḍā’) the pudenda
‫ د‬kadda u to furrow, plow (a the ground) V to
be furrowed; to become wrinkled (akin)
‫ د‬kadd pl. ‫ دو‬kudūd cheek; lateral
portion, side │‫ صعوا ده‬ṣa‘‘ra kaddahū to
put on a contemptuous mien
‫ د‬kadd and ‫ د‬kudda pl. ‫ د‬kudad
furrow, ridge, groove, rut
‫ ا دو‬ukdūd pl. ‫ ا يد‬akādīd2 furrow,
ridge, groove, rut; trench, excavation
‫ د‬mikadda pl. ‫ م‬makadd2 cushion,
pillow; seat cushion
‫ دي‬kadīj premature child
‫ دا‬kidāj abortion, miscarriage
‫وودر‬
‫ووووووووودر‬
takdīr
narcotization
anesthetization,
‫ و ر‬kādira chrysalis (of a caterpillar;
zool.)
‫ م ودر‬mukaddir anesthetic, painkilling,
tranquilizing; (pl. -āt) an anesthetic; a
narcotic, drug, dope
‫ م ووووودر‬mukaddar numb,
torpid,
insensible; (eg.) tipsy, fuddled, drunk
‫ م ودر‬mukaddira girl kept in seclusion
from the outside world 228
‫ ودش‬kadaša i (kadš) to scratch (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
maul, lacerate, tear to pieces (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
violate (‫ هووـ‬the rules of decency, s.o.’s
honor, and the like); to disturb (‫ هـ‬the
peace); to ruin, sully, run down ( ‫سووومعأ‬
sum‘atahū s.o.’s reputation) II to scratch
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.) j to maul, lacerate, tear to pieces
(‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to violate (‫ هووـ‬the rules of
decency, s.o.’s honor, etc.); to ruin, sully,
run down ( ‫ سوووومعأ‬sum‘atahū s.o.’s
reputation)
‫ ودش‬kadš pl. ‫ ودوش‬kudūš, ‫ ا وداش‬akdāš
scratch, scratch mark; graze, abrasion
kadira a (kadar) to be numb, prickle,
tingle (leg, arm); to be or become limp,
benumbed, paralyzed; -- kadara u to
confine to women’s quarters, keep in
seclusion ( ‫ هو‬a girl) II to numb, benumb,
stupefy (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬a s.th.); to anesthetize,
narcotize, put to sleep (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هووـ‬s.th.;
med.); to confine to women’s quarters,
keep in seclusion (la a girl) IV to make
torpid, stupefy, benumb, deprive of
sensation, narcotize (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هـ‬s.th.) V to be
numbed. be stunned, be stupefied, be
deprived of sensation; to come to rest,
calm down
‫ ود‬kada‘a a to cheat (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ عو‬out of s.th.);
to deceive, mislead, dupe, gull (‫ ه‬s.o.);
pass. kudi‘a to be mistaken, be wrong ( ‫عو‬
about); to fail to see clearly ( ‫ ع و‬with
regard to), get the wrong impression ( ‫عو‬
of s.th.) III to cheat, dupe, deceive, take in
(‫ ه‬s.o.); to try to deceive or double-cross (‫ه‬
s.o.) VII to let o.s. be deceived, be
deceived, deluded, misled (‫ ب‬by); to be
mistaken, be wrong
‫ ودر‬kidr pl. ‫ ودور‬kudūr, ‫ ا ودار‬akdār,
‫ ا و يو‬akādīr2 curtain, drape; women’s
quarters of a tent; boudoir, private room
(of a lady)
‫ دعوة‬kuda‘a impostor, swindler, cheat,
sharper
‫ ودر‬kadar and ‫ ودر‬kudra numbness,
insensibility (esp. of a limb gone to sleep);
daze. torpor, stupor
‫ ود‬kud‘a pl. ‫ ود‬kuda‘, -āt deception,
cheating, swindle
‫ سوواىا وود‬sawwā akda‘ahū to crush
s.o.’s pride, humble s.o.
‫ ديعة‬kadī‘a pl. ‫ دائا‬kadā’i‘2 deception,
deceit, betrayal, treachery, perfidy,
trickery, imposture
‫وووودا‬
kaddā‘ impostor, swindler,
sharper, cheat, crook; deceptive, delusive
‫ يد‬kaida‘ fata morgana, mirage
‫ ا ووو يا‬akādi‘2 swindles, underhand
dealings, crooked practices; phantoms,
phantasms, delusions
‫ م ود‬mika‘, mukda‘, makda‘ pl.
‫م و‬
2
makādi small room, chamber, cabinet;
bedchamber
‫ ودا‬kidā‘ deception, deceit, swindle,
imposture, betrayal, treachery, perfidy,
trickery, duplicity
‫وووداع‬
kidā‘ī deceitful, fraudulent;
deceptive, delusive, fallacious
‫ م ووو‬mukādi‘ swindler, impostor,
cheat, sharper, crook
‫وودل‬
kadala a to stiffen, become rigid; to
become numb, torpid, limp
‫ ودم‬kadama i u (‫ ودم‬kidma) to serve, be at
service, do service; to have a job; to work;
to wait (‫ ه‬on s.o.); to serve (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
to render a service (‫ ه‬to s.o., ‫ هوـ‬to s.th.),
stand up (‫ ه‬for s.o.) │ ‫ ا ودماادر‬to till or
cultivate the soil; ‫دموووو ا وووودم اكثيووووو‬
(kidamātin katīratan) he rendered him
many services; ‫( دماركو با والن‬rikāba) to be
at s.o.’s beck and call; ‫وودمامص و اا ووالن‬
(maṣāliḥa) to serve s.o.’s interests; ‫وودما‬
‫( ا قوداس‬quddāsa) to celebrate Mass (Chr.)
II to employ, hire (‫ ه‬s.o.), engage the
services (‫ ه‬of s.o.); to give work (‫ ه‬to s.o.),
provide work (‫ ه‬for) X to employ, hire,
take on (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ ل‬for s.th.), engage the
services (‫ ه ل‬of s.o. for s.th.); to put in
operation, operate (‫ هـ‬e.g., a public utility);
to employ, use (‫ هوـ‬s.th., ‫ ل‬for), make use,
avail o.s. (‫ هـ‬of s.th., ‫ ل‬for a purpose)
‫ دم‬kadam servants, attendants
‫ ا دموة‬kidma pl. ‫ ودم‬kidam, -āt a service
(rendered); attendance, service; operation;
office, employment, occupation, job; work
│ ‫ا و ا دموةاشو‬in the service of s.th.; ‫و ا‬
‫ دمأكم‬at your service; ‫( دما لحقيقة‬kidmatan)
in the interest of truth, for the sake of
truth; ‫'( دموووةاعسوووكوية‬askarīya) military
service;
‫ا دموووووووةااالجب ريووووووة‬
(ijbārīya)
conscription, compulsory service; ‫ا دم وةا‬
‫( ا سووية‬sirrīya) secret service (pol.); ‫دموةا‬
‫ ا قووداس‬k. al-quddās celebration of Mass
(Chr.) 229
‫ ودام‬kaddām pl. manservant, servant,
attendant;
woman servant,
female
domestic servant, maid
‫وووودام‬
kadāma attendance, service;
employment, occupation, office, job
‫ ودام‬kaddāma pl. -āt woman servant,
female domestic servant, maid
‫ ت وديم‬takdīm work, occupation or duty
of an employment agent (‫ م ودم‬mukaddim
see below) │‫ امكأباا أ وديم‬maktab at-t. labor
office, employment bureau
‫ اسأ دام‬istikdām (putting into) operation;
use, utilization; employment, hiring (of an
employee); service, occupation, position,
job
‫ وو م‬kādim pl. ‫ وودام‬kuddām, ‫دمووة‬
kudama
domestic
servant,
help;
manservant; woman servant; employee;
attendant; waiter; deacon (Chr.)
‫م وة‬
kādima woman servant; female
domestic servant, maid; woman attendant
‫مية‬
kādimīya status of a servant
‫ م ودوم‬makdūm pl. -ūn, ‫ م و يم‬makādīm2
master, employer
‫ م دوموة‬makdūma mistress, lady (of the
house), woman employer
‫ م دوميوة‬makdūmīya status of the master
or employer
‫ م وودم‬mukaddim pl. -ūn employment
agent
‫ مسوأ دم‬mustakdim pl. -ūn employer; -mustakdam (colloq. mustakdim) pl. -ūn
employee, official
‫ ودن‬III to befriend (‫ ه‬s.o.), make friends (‫ ه‬with
s.o.); to associate socially (‫ ه‬with)
‫ وودن‬kidn pl. ‫ ا وودان‬akdān (intimate)
friend, companion, confidant
‫وووووودي‬
kadīn
(intimate)
companion, confidant
‫ ديا‬kidīw, ‫ ديا‬kudaiwī khedive
‫ ديا‬kidīwī khedivial
friend,
‫ لأ‬X to submit, subject o.s.
‫ مسووأ ل‬mustakdi’ submissive, servile,
subservient, obedient
‫ ولروا‬kūdrūf pl. ‫ولاريف‬
top
‫ واسو ن‬kurāsān2 Khurasan (province in NE
Iran)
1
2
kadārīf (spinning)
‫ لرو‬kudrūfī turbinate, toplike
‫ لا‬kadafa i (kadf) to hurl away (‫هـ‬, ‫ ب‬s.th.)
‫ م ل ة‬mikdafa sling, slingshot, catapult
‫ولل‬
kadala u (kadl, ‫ ولالن‬kidlān) to leave,
abandon, forsake, desert, leave in the
lurch (‫ ه‬or ‫ عو‬s.o.); to stay behind; to
disappoint; pass. kudila to fail, suffer a
setback, meet with disappointment III to
leave, abandon, forsake, desert, leave in
the lurch (‫ ه‬s.o.) VI to let up, flag, grow
slack, languish, wane, decrease, fade,
grow feeble VII to be left in the lurch; to
be helpless; to be defeated; to meet with
disappointment
‫ وب‬karb destruction, devastation
‫ وب‬kurb hole; eye of a needle; anus
‫ ووووب‬karib destroyed, demolished,
wrecked, devastated, waste; dilapidated,
tumble-down, ramshackle; broken, ruined,
out of order
‫ وبة‬kirba pl. ‫ وب‬kirab (site of)
ruins; ruin, disintegrating structure
‫ لل‬kidlān disappointment
‫وبووووووة‬
karba,
lawlessness
‫ ت أوووولل‬ta!:d4u.l fatigue, languor,
weakness,
feebleness;
relaxation,
lessening of tension; disagreement,
dissent, disunion
‫ ووواب‬karàb ruin, ruination; state of
destruction or dilapidation; desolation; (pl.
‫ ا وبة‬akriba) (site of) ruins
‫ وابووة‬karāba pl. -āt, ‫ وائ وب‬karā’ib2
disintegrating structure, ruin, ruins
‫ لو‬X to submit, subject o.s.
‫وبوووو ن‬
karbān, kirbān destroyed,
wrecked, demolished, devastated, waste;
ruined, broken, out of order
subservience,
‫ مسووأ ل‬mustakdin submissive, servile,
subservient, obedient
‫وو‬
‫ ت ويوووب‬takrīb pl. -āt
destruction,
wrecking,
sabotage
karra i (‫ ويوو‬karīr) to murmur, bubble,
gurgle, purl (of running water); to ripple,
trickle; to snore; -- (karr, ‫ وور‬230 kurūr)
to fall, fall down, drop; to sink to the
ground, prostrate o.s. │ ‫ا وواعلوواادر‬fall
to the ground; ‫( ووابوي ايديو‬baina yadaihi)
he prostrated himself before him; ‫وواتحوتا‬
‫( لدمي‬taḥta qadmnaihi) he fell at hill feet
‫ ويو‬karīr purl, murmur, ripple (of water)
‫ووو‬
kari’a a ( ‫ووو‬
bowels, defecate
‫ووو‬
feces
kur’ and
kar’) to evacuate the
‫وووا‬
karā’ excrement,
irreligion,
‫ وبة‬kariba (site of) ruins
mutakādil languid, weak, exhausted,
spent, effete
‫اسووووووووأ لا‬
istikdā’
submissiveness, servility
kurba
‫ وبوة‬kurba pl. ‫ ووب‬kurab hole; eye of a
needle; anus
‫اظ ووووووووولال‬
inkidāl
forsakenness,
desertedness, abandonment; defeat
‫ووولل‬
‫ وووب‬karaba i (karb) to destroy, wreck,
demolish, shatter, devastate, lay waste (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); -- kariba a (‫ وواب‬karāb) to be or
become destroyed, ruined, waste, go to
ruin, fall apart, disintegrate II to devastate,
lay waste, destroy, wreck, demolish, ruin,
lay in ruins (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) IV = II; V to be or
become destroyed, ruined, waste, go to
ruin, Call apart, disintegrate
devastation,
demolition;
‫‘ عملات ويب‬amal takrībī act of sabotage
‫رب‬
kārib annihilator, destroyer
‫ م وووب‬mukarrib pl. -ūn annihilator,
destroyer; saboteur
‫ م وب‬mukrib annihilator, destroyer
2
‫ وووب‬karrūb (coll.; n. un. ) carob, locust;
carob bean, locust pod, St.-John’s-bread
‫ ووبوة‬karrūba pl. -āt kharouba, a dry measure
(Eg.; = 1/16 ‫ = لدح‬.291 l)
‫ وبش‬karbaša to scratch; to scrawl, scribble
‫ وبواش‬karbuš pl. ‫ ووابيش‬karābīš (syr.)
tent
O
‫ م وبش‬mukarbašāt graffiti
‫ووووبط‬
karbaṭa to throw into
disarrange, confuse (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
disorder,
‫ وبوق‬karbaqa to perforate, riddle (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
spoil, mar (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ وبق‬karbaq hellebore (bot.)
‫ وو‬karata u (kart) to pierce, bore, perforate
(‫ هـ‬s.th.), make a hole (‫ هـ‬in)
‫ وو‬kurt, kart pl. ‫ ا ووا‬akrāt, ‫ووو‬
kurūt hole; bore, drill hole; ring, eye,
eyelet
‫ حويوووت‬kirrīt experienced, practiced,
skilled; guide
‫ وتيت‬kartīt rhinoceros
‫ و‬karaja u ( ‫ وو‬kurūj) to go out, walk out;
to come out ( ‫ مو‬of), emerge ( ‫ مو‬from); to
drive or ride out, go out (in a vehicle); to
flow out, exude, effuse; to go away,
depart, leave, retire; to protrude, 231
project, stick out; to leave ( ‫ مو‬s.th.); to
dismount, alight, disembark ( ‫ مو‬from), get
out, step out ( ‫ مو‬of); to emanate, issue,
arise, originate, result ( ‫ مو‬from); to draw
away, segregate, separate, secede, dissent
( ‫ عو‬from), disagree ( ‫ عو‬with); to deviate,
depart ( ‫ عو‬from an arrangement, from a
principle); to be an exception ( ‫ عو‬to); to
be outside a given subject ( ‫)عو‬, go beyond
a topic ( ‫)عو‬, exceed ( ‫ عو‬a topic); to be
alien ( ‫ ع‬to), be extraneous ( ‫ عو‬from), not
to belong ( ‫ عو‬to), be not included ( ‫ عو‬in),
have nothing to do with ( ‫ الاي وو اعو ;)عو‬it
is limited to ..., it is nothing but ... ; to go
forth (into battle); to attack (‫ علو‬s.o., s.th.),
rise, fight (‫ علوو‬against); to rebel, revolt
(‫ علوو‬against); to violate, break, infringe
(‫ علوو‬a rule, a regulation); ‫ وو اعليو اب‬to
come up to s.o. with …, confront s.o. with
... ; to get out, bring out, take out (‫ ب‬s.o.);
to turn out, oust, dislodge (‫ ب‬s.o.); to lead
away, dissuade ( ‫ ب عو‬s.o. from); to find
out, discover (‫ ب‬s.th.) │‫( و اعو اا وط‬kaṭṭ)
to be derailed, run off the track (train) II to
move out, take out, dislodge (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫هووـ‬
s.th.); to turn out, oust, expel, evict, drive
out (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to remove, eliminate (‫ه‬
s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to exclude, except (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
to train (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ و‬in a skill, and the like);
to educate, bring up (‫ ه‬s.o.); to distill (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to pull out, extract (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
gather, deduce, infer (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to explain,
interpret, expound, elucidate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) IV
to move out, take out, get out, bring out,
dislodge (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to unload (‫هووـ‬
s.th.), disembark, detrain, etc. (‫ ه‬s.o., e.g.,
troops); to turn out, oust (‫ ه‬s.o.); to emit,
send out (‫ هوـ‬s.th., e.g., electric waves); to
stick out (‫ هوـ‬e.g., the tongue); to fish out
(‫ هوـ‬s.th. from the pocket); to bring out into
the open, make public (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to remove,
extract (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to eliminate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
expel, evict, exile, expatriate (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫مو‬
from a country); to dismiss, fire, remove (‫ه‬
s.o., ‫ مو‬from an office); ‫ا وجو ام و اثووت و‬
(tarwatihī) to rob s.o. of his property,
dispossess, expropriate s.o.; to give off,
sound, emit (‫ هوـ‬s.th., e.g., a tone; said of a
musical instrument); to set forth, state,
express, utter, voice (‫ هووـ‬an opinion); to
break ( ‫ ريحو‬rīḥan wind); to educate, bring
up (‫ ه‬s.o.); to train (‫ ه‬s.o.); to stage,
produce (‫ هوـ‬a play; theat.); to bring out,
make, shoot (‫ روايوة‬riwāyatan a film, said
of a director); to except, exclude (‫ هوـ‬s.th.,
‫ عو‬from); to pull out, extract (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
select (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) V to be educated; to be
trained ( ‫ و‬in a school, college, also ‫و ;مو‬
in a field); to graduate ( ‫ و‬from a school,
from a college, also ‫ )موو‬VI to part
company,
separate;
to
disengage,
disassociate, withdraw from one another;
to cede, assign, transfer, make over (‫عو ل‬
s.th. to s.o.) X to get out, move out,
remove (‫ هوـ‬s.th., ‫ مو‬from); to take out,
draw (‫ هـ‬s.th., ‫ م‬from); to pull out, extract
(‫ هووـ‬s.th., ‫ م و‬from); to mine, extract,
recover (‫ هووـ‬mineral resources); to win,
gain, make (‫ هوـ‬a product, ‫ مو‬from); to
copy, excerpt (A s.th., ‫ مو‬from a book or
document); to derive, draw, deduce, figure
out, compute ( ‫ هـ م‬s.th. from); to elicit (‫هوـ‬
s.th., e.g., astonishment, ‫ مو‬from s.o.); to
find out, discover (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫وووووو‬
karj
expenditure,
outlay,
expense(s), costs; land tax; s.th.
appropriate or suitable, that which is s.o.’s
due, which s.o. deserves, which s.o. needs;
(eg.) ration (food); (pl. ‫ ووجو‬kurūjāat)
trimming; edge, edging, piping; pl. lace;
trimmings │‫ هوولاا واج ول‬that’s what you
need, what you deserve; ‫ وو اا مشو قة‬k. almašnaqa one who deserves to be hanged
pictures, theater); ...‫ مو اا ووا ا‬directed by ‫ا‬
(motion picture)
‫ ووو‬kurj pl. ‫وجوة‬
portmanteau 232
kiraja saddlebag,
‫ ت وووو‬takarruj graduation (from a
school or college)
‫ وجوة‬karja pl. karajāt exit, departure;
protrusion, protuberance,
projection,
salient part; (eg.) funeral
‫ ت و ر‬takāruj separation, disassociation,
disengagement, (mutual) withdrawal
‫ووا‬
Law)
‫ اسوأ وا‬istikrāj taking out, moving out,
pulling out, removal; withdrawing;
extraction,
derivation,
gaining
(of
industrial products, etc.), mining, recovery
(of mineral resources); preparation of an
extract; excerpting, copying; deduction,
inference; solution (of a problem)
karāj tax; kharaj, land tax (Isl.
‫ واجو‬karājī of or pertaining to land
tax; of or pertaining to the taxed and
cultivable area
‫ وو‬kurāj (coll.; n. un. , pl. -āt) skin
eruption; tumor, abscess
‫ و ر‬kārij outer, outside, outward,
exterior; external, foreign j outside,
exterior (n.); foreign country or countries;
quotient (arith.); karija (prep.) outside,
out of ‫ رجو‬kārijan outside │ ‫رجو اع و‬
outside of, apart from; ‫ و اا و ر‬abroad, in
foreign countries; outside;
‫ا وووواا ووو ر‬
abroad, to foreign countries; to the
outside, outward, out
‫ ووو‬kurūj exit; egression, emergence;
departure; exodus; emigration; raid,
foray, sortie (‫ علوووو‬against), attack,
assault (‫ علووو‬on) │‫( ا وووو اع و اا ووط‬kaṭṭ)
derailment (of a train)
‫ وي‬kirrīj pl. -ūn graduate (of a school,
college, or university) │‫مووؤتمواا وووويجي ا‬
‫ ا عووب‬mu’tamar al-k. al-‘arab Congress of
Arab
Graduates
(a
supra-national
organization of university graduates
advocating a unified Arab world)
‫ ا رج وة‬El Khārga (town in central
Egypt, in Khārga oasis)
‫ووووو رج‬
kārijī outer,
out(in
compounds), outside, outward, exterior,
external; foreign; nonresident │‫عيو ا رجيوة‬
(‘iyāda) policlinic; ‫ وزار ا رجيوة‬ministry of
foreign (external) affairs, foreign ministry;
‫( تلميولا و رج‬tilmīd) a student not living at a
boarding school, a day student
‫ م وو‬makraj pl. ‫ م و ر‬makārij2 (place
of) exit; way out (of a difficult situation),
outlet, escape, loophole, shift, dodge,
excuse; articulation (of a sound); O
cathode (el.) │‫ علمام ر اا حووا‬phonetics
‫ ت ووووي‬takrīj education, training (in
schools, colleges); raising, upbringing,
rearing
(of
children);
extraction;
derivation,
deduction;
interpretation,
exegesis
‫ واار‬kawārij2 the Khawarij, Kharijites
(the oldest religious sect of Islam);
dissenters, dissidents, backsliders, rebels
‫ ا وووا‬ikrāj taking out, moving out,
removal;
unloading,
disembarkment,
detrainment; emission; moving, carting
away,
hauling
off;
evacuation;
publication, publicizing, bringing before
the
public;
extraction,
removal;
elimination; dismissal, removal (from an
office); ousting, expulsion, eviction,
expatriation, banishment (from a country);
excretion (biol.); finding out, discovery,
figuring
out;
training,
formation,
education; direction, production, staging
(motion pictures, theater) │ ‫تووا وااال وووا‬
(tawallā) to have the, direction (motion
‫ م وو‬mukraj excerpt, extract (from a
book); ‫ م وج‬excretions (biol.) 233
‫ م وو‬mukrij pl. -ūn (screen or stage)
director
‫ مأ و‬mutakarrij pl. -ūn graduate (
‫ م‬of a school or college)
or
‫ مسوووأ و‬mustakraj pl. -āt extract;
excerpt ( ‫ م‬from), partial copy ( ‫ م‬of)
‫ و و‬karkara to snore
1
‫ وو‬karida a to be a virgin, be untouched,
innocent, chaste
‫ وي ود‬karida pl. ‫ وائوود‬karā’id2, ‫ووو‬
kurud virgin; unbored pearl
2
‫ وو‬kurda scrap metal, scrap iron; pl.
kardawāt notions, smallwares;
goods, smalls, miscellaneous
articles; (eg. also) novelties, fancy
for ladies
‫و جوووو‬
kurdajī
smallwares
dealer
in
‫وو وا‬
small
small
goods
miscellaneous
‫ و‬kurdaq, kurduq small shot, buckshot
‫وو ل‬
kardal (coll.; n. un. ) mustard seeds;
mustard
‫ وز‬karaza I u to pierce, bore (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ م ووز‬mikraz pl. ‫ م و رز‬makāriz2 awl;
punch
‫ م واز‬mikrāz awl; punch
‫ ا ووس‬karisa a (karas) to be dumb mute; to
become silent, keep silent, hold one’s
tongue IV to silence, reduce to silence,
gag (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ ا ووس‬akras2, f. ‫ وسو‬karsā’2 pl. ‫ووس‬
kurs, ‫ وس ن‬kursān dumb, mute
2
‫ وس ن‬karsān dumb, mute
‫ ا وس و ن‬karasān, ‫ وس و ظة‬karasāna concrete
(béton) │O ‫( وسووو ظةامسووولحة‬musallaḥa)
armored (or reinforced) concrete
‫ وشوواا‬kuršūf (coll.; n. un. ) pl. ‫واشوويف‬
karāšīf artichoke
‫ ووص‬karaṣa u (karṣ) to guess estimate (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to conjecture, surmise (‫ هووـ‬s.th.),
form conjectures (‫ هووـ‬about); to tell an
untruth, a falsehood, to lie V to fabricate
lies (‫ علووو‬against s.o.); to raise false
accusations (‫ علو‬against s.o.)
‫ وووص‬kirṣ, kurṣ, pl. ‫وص و ن‬
kurṣān earring
kirṣān,
‫ وواص‬karrāṣ pl. -ūn Ii&!', slanderer,
calumniator
‫ووه‬
‫ ووواه‬karrāṭ pl. -ūn turner, lather;
braggart, bluffer, storyteller
‫ واهة‬karrāta skirt (syr.)
‫ وي ة‬karīṭa pl. ‫ وائط‬karā’iṭ, ‫ وه‬kuruṭ
map, chart
‫ م وهووة‬mikraṭa, makraṭa pl. ‫م ووو ره‬
makāriṭ2 lathe
‫رهة‬
kāriṭa pl. -āt map, chart
‫ م ووه‬makrūṭ cone (math.); conic 234
‫ وس‬karas dumbness, muteness
2
‫ وه‬karṭ pulling-off (of leaves); ‫ونا ولا‬
‫ وهاا قأ‬see ‫ ون‬turning, turnery
‫ واهوة‬kirāṭa turner’s trade, turnery, art
of turning
‫ وز‬karaz (coll.; n. un. ) pearls
1
lathe; to join, enter ( ‫ و‬, ‫ و اسولل‬fī silk an
organization, a community), affiliate ( ‫ و‬,
‫ووووو اسووووولل‬
with an organization, a
community); to penetrate ( ‫ و‬s.th. or into);
to plunge headlong ( ‫ و‬into), embark
rashly ( ‫ و‬upon); to labor, slave, toil
│ ‫( اظ وها اا بك‬bukā’) to break into tears
karaṭa u i (karṭ) to pull off, strip (‫هووـ‬
leaves from a tree); to turn, lathe, shape
with a lathe (‫ هوووـ‬wood, metal); to
exaggerate, boast, brag, lie; -- u (eg.) to
cut into small pieces; to mince, chop, dice
(‫ هوـ‬meat, carrots, etc.) II (eg.) to cut into
small pieces, mince, chop (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) VII to
be turned. be lathed. be shaped with a
‫ م ووه‬makrūṭī conic
‫ وهواش‬karṭūš, ‫ وهاشوة‬karṭūša pl. ‫وواهيش‬
karāṭīš 2 cartridge; lead (of a pencil);
cartouche (arch.); daybook
‫ وه ل‬karṭāl oats
‫ وهوام‬karṭūm pl. ‫ وواهيم‬karāṭīm2 proboscis,
trunk (of the elephant); hose
‫ ا وهوام‬al-karṭūm Khartoum (capital of
the Sudanese Republic)
‫ واهي‬karāṭīn2 a kind of earthworm
‫ واهي‬karāṭīnī wormlike, vermiform
‫ وهيط‬karṭīṭ rhinoceros
‫ وو‬karu‘a u (kur‘, ‫ واعوة‬kurā‘a) and kari‘a a
(kara‘) to droop, be or become slack,
limp, flabby; to be or become languid,
soft, spineless, yielding VII do. VIII to
invent, devise, contrive (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to create.
originate (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ وو‬kari‘ and ‫ ويوا‬karī‘ soft, languid,
yielding, spineless, devoid of energy,
nerveless
‫ وووو‬kirwa‘ castor-oil plant, palma
Christi (Ricinus communis; bot.)
‫ ا أوا‬iktirā‘ pl. -āt invention
‫ م أو‬muktari‘ pl. -ūn inventor
‫ م أو‬muktara‘ pl. -at invention
‫ ووا‬karifa a (karaf) to dote, be senile and
feeble-minded; to drivel, talk foolishly
‫ ووا‬karaf feeble-mindedness, dotage,
senility; childishness (of an old man)
‫ وووا‬karif and ‫ و و ن‬karfān feebleminded, doting; childish; dotard
‫ ويف‬karīf autumn, fall
‫ ويف‬karīfī autumnal
‫ وووا‬karūf pl. ‫ وواا‬kirāf, ‫ ا و وة‬akrifa,
‫ و و ن‬kirfān young sheep, lamb, yearling;
wether
‫ وا وة‬kurāfa pl. -āt superstition; fable,
fairy tale
‫ وو‬karq tearing, rending, laceration; piercing,
boring,
perforation;
penetration;
disruption;
breakthrough;
traversion,
crossing, transit; violation, breach; (pl.
‫ وو‬kurūq) hole, aperture, opening │‫و ا‬
‫ ادم ام اا عو م‬k. al-amn al-‘āmm violation of
public security; ‫ وو اا عو‬offense against
common usage, violation of mores; ‫اتسواا‬
‫( ا و اعلواا والوا‬ittasa‘a) the rent is beyond
repair 235
‫ وو‬kurq and ‫ ولوة‬kurqa awkwardness,
clumsiness; stupidity │ ‫( ا وو ا و اا ووأ‬ra’y)
stupidity; folly, madness; ‫مو اا وو ا و اا ووأ ا‬
...‫ انا‬it would be very unwise to ...
‫ ولوة‬kirqa pl. ‫ وو‬kiraq tatter, shred;
rag; scrap (of paper); polishing cloth;
eraser (cloth)
fictitious,
‫ ا وو‬akraq2 f. ‫ ولو‬karqā’2, pl. ‫وو‬
kurq clumsy, awkward; stupid; irregular;
illegal, illicit, unlawful
‫ م و وة‬makrafa prattle, drivel, twaddle,
bosh
‫ م ولوة‬makraqa trickery, sleight of hand,
legerdemain, hocus-pocus, swindle
‫وا وووو‬
legendary
kurāfī
fabulous,
‫ ت ويووف‬takrīf folly, delusion; foolish
talk, drivel, twaddle, bosh, buncombe
‫ م ووا‬mukarrif childish, foolish; (pl. ūn)
prattler,
chatterbox,
windbag;
charlatan
‫ و ش‬kartaša to shuffle, mix (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ و اشوة‬karfūša pl. ‫ ووا يش‬karāfīš2 card
of low value, discard (in card playing)
‫ وو‬karaqa I u (karq) to tear, rend, tear apart
(‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to make a hole (‫ هووـ‬in); to
perforate, pierce, bore (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.); to
penetrate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), break, pass (‫ هوـ‬through
s.th.); to traverse, cross, transit (‫ هوـ‬s.th., a
country); to violate, impair, infringe (‫هووـ‬
s.th.), encroach (‫ هوـ‬upon); to break (‫ هوـ‬a
vow, and the like), commit a breach of
(‫ ;)هوـ‬to exceed the ordinary, be unusual,
extraordinary, unprecedented, unheard-of
│ ‫ وو اا عو‬to go beyond what is ordinary
or customary IV to lurk, lie in wait V and
VII to be torn, be rent, be pierced, be
broken VIII to pierce (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to cut,
break, pass' (‫ هـ‬through s.th.), penetrate (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to traverse, cross, transit (‫ هوـ‬s.th.),
travel through s.th. (‫ ;)هوـ‬to exceed (‫ هوـ‬e.g.,
a limit), go beyond s.th. (‫ا أوو امسو مع │ )هوـ‬
(masāmi‘ahū) to shrill in s.o.’s ears
‫ م ر‬makāriq2 a kind of pastry (tun.)
‫ ا أووووا‬iktirāq penetration; piercing,
disruption; traversion, crossing, transit
‫ و ر‬kāriq and ( ‫ لع و‬or) ‫و ر اا ع و‬
exceeding the customary, unusual,
extraordinary, unprecedented, unheard-of;
pl.
‫ووووواار‬
kawāriq2
preternatural
phenomena.
miracles;
that
which
transcends the conceivable or the rational
│‫ ا ر اا بيعة‬supernatural;
‫واار اا مصو‬
k. al-muṣādafāt miraculous coincidences
‫ م أو‬muktaraq passage, passageway
‫ ووم‬karama i (karm) and II to pierce (‫ هوـ‬s.th.),
make a hole or holes (‫ هوـ‬in); to perforate
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.) VII to be pierced, be riddled, be
torn; to be deranged, unsettled,
disorganized; to come to an end, run out,
peter out, get lost VIII to destroy,
annihilate (‫ ه‬s.o.); to carry off, carry away
(‫ ه‬s.o., of death); to break (‫ ا صوفاا‬the
ranks), pass through s.th. (‫)هـ‬
‫ ووم‬karm pl. ‫ وووم‬kurūm gap, blank
(e.g., in a manuscript, or the like)
‫ وم‬kurm hole │ ‫ ا ومااالبوو‬k. al-ibra eye
of the needle
‫ واموة‬karāma drill, bit, auger, gimlet;
punch, perforator
‫ زا ة‬kizāfa potter’s trade, pottery
‫ ز‬kazaqa i to pierce, stab, transfix (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o.,
s.th.); to drive, ram ‫ هوـا و اادر‬s.th. into
the ground); to tear, rend, rip apart (‫هوـ‬
s.th.) II to tear, rend, rip apart (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) V
and VII pass of I and II
2
‫ ووم‬akram having a perforated nasal
septum
‫ ت وويم‬takrīm piercing, boring, drilling;
perforation; punching; lace-making, lacework
‫ ت ويمووووة‬takrīma
openwork, filigree
lace,
‫ ز‬kazq rip, rent, tear, hole (in a garment)
‫ و زو‬kāzūq pl. ‫ وااز‬kawāziq2 post, stake,
pole; dirty trick │ ‫ هولاا و زو‬that’s tough
luck!
lace-work,
‫ اظ وووام‬inkirām state of unsettlement,
disturbance, disorganization, derangement
│‫( اظ وواما و اا أواازن‬tawāzun) disturbance of
equilibrium
‫ م ووووم‬makrūm defective, incomplete
(e.g., a manuscript)
‫ م وووم‬mukarram perforated; done in
openwork, in filigree
2
‫ از‬look up alphabetically
‫ زل‬kazala i (kazl) to cut off, sever (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to
hinder, prevent, hold back, restrain, keep
(‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ عو‬from) VIII to cut off, cut short,
end abruptly (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to shorten, abridge,
abbreviate (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to stand alone (‫ ب‬with
an opinion)
‫ ا أوزال‬iktizāl abridgment, abbreviation;
shorthand, stenography
‫ وم شة‬kurmāša pl. -āt (ir.) harrow
‫ وظواب‬kurnūb carob, locust; carob bean, locust
pod, St.-John’s-bread
‫وظووق‬
‫وووو‬
kirniq pl. ‫واظووق‬
leveret
karāniq2 young hare,
kirwa‘ castor-oil plant, palma Christi
(Ricinus communis; bot.)
1
‫ ا وز‬kazza u to pierce, transfix (‫ ه‬s.o.); to stab
(‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ ب‬with) VIII to pierce, transfix (‫ه‬
s.o., ‫ ب‬with)
2
‫ز‬
1
‫ وزر‬kazara uto look askance (‫ ه‬at s.o.), give
s.o. (‫ )ه‬a sidelong glance
2
‫ بحواا زر‬baḥr al-kazar the Caspian Sea
pl. ‫ زوز‬kuzūz silk fabric
‫ يوزران‬kaizurān pl. ‫ يو زر‬kayāzir2 cane, reed;
rattan; bamboo
‫ يزراظة‬kaizurāna cane, stick
‫ ز‬kaza‘a a (kaz‘) to cut, sever (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ زعبل‬kuza‘bal idle talk, bosh
‫ زعبول‬kuza‘bala pl. -āt idle talk, bosh; joke,
jest, hoax; fib, yarn; cock and bull story
236
‫ووزا‬
kazaf pottery, earthenware; porcelain,
china; ceramics
‫ ز ووو‬kazafī (made of) porcelain;
porcelaneous, porcelain, china (adj.)
‫ زاا‬kazzāf dealer in chinaware; potter
‫ م أزل‬muktazil stenographer
‫ووزم‬
kazama i (kazm) to string, thread (‫هووـ‬
pearls) │ ‫( ا وزمااظفو‬anfahū) to pierce the
nasal septum (of a camel) and insert the
nose ring for the bridle; to make s.o.
subservient to one’s will
‫ ووزام‬kizām, ‫زامووة‬
kazā’im2 nose ring
kizāma pl. ‫ووزائم‬
‫ زامو‬kuzāmā lavender (bot.)
‫ وزن‬kazana u (kazn) to store, stock, lay up,
hoard, amass, accumulate; to keep secret,
keep (‫ هوـ‬a secret) II and VIII to store,
stock, lay up, warehouse (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to store
up, accumulate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to dam (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
to put in safekeeping, keep (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ووووزن‬
kazn storing; accumulation,
hoarding, amassing; storage, warehousing
‫ زظوة‬kazna treasure house; safe, coffer,
vault; wardrobe, locker; cupboard
‫ زاظ وة‬kizāna pl. -āt, ‫ ووزائ‬kazā’in2
treasure house; vault, coffer, safe;
treasury, treasury department (of an
official agency), any office for the deposit
and disbursement of funds; locker,
wardrobe, closet; cupboard; library │‫زاظوةا‬
‫ ا دو وة‬k. ad-daula and ‫‘( زاظوةاع موة‬āmma)
public treasury, exchequer; ‫ زاظوةاا وثل‬k. attalj icebox, refrigerator; ‫ زاظوةاا كأوب‬k. al-
kutub bookcase; library; ‫زاظووةا صاصووية‬
(kuṣūṣīya) private library; ‫زاظوووةاا مالبوووس‬
wardrobe, closet, locker
‫ زي وة‬kazīna pl. ‫ وزائ‬kazā’in2 treasure
house; public treasury, exchequer;
treasury, treasury department (of an
official agency), any office for the deposit
and disbursement of funds; cashier’s
office; vault, coffer, safe; cashbox, till (of
a merchant) │‫( اا زي ووووةاا صووووة‬kāṣṣa)
(formerly) the Royal Privy Purse (Ir.);
‫ زي ووةاا دو ووة‬k. ad-daula public treasury,
exchequer; ‫ زي ووةاراصوود‬, ‫زي ووةاظقووا اراصوود‬
cash register
‫ ووزان‬kuzzān pl. -āt, ‫ ووزازي‬kazāzīn2
dam; reservoir; basin, sump, pool; storage
tank (also for oil); - (pl. -ūn)
storehouseman, warehouseman
‫ م وووزن‬makzan pl. ‫ م ووو زن‬makāzin2
storeroom, storehouse; depository; stockroom, storage room; depot, magazine,
warehouse; store, shop, department store;
‫ ا م وووزن‬al-makzan the Makhzan, the
Moroccan
government
(formerly:
govemmental finance department; Mor.) │‫ا‬
‫ م ووزناا ويووة‬m. adwiya drugstore; ‫م ووزنا‬
‫ االصودار‬m. al-iṣdār shipping room (com.);
‫ م وووزناا عفوووش‬m. al-‘afš trunk (of an
automobile) 237
‫ م زظو‬makzanī being under government
control or administration. belonging to the
government (Mor.) │‫( اموال ام زظيوة‬amlāk)
government land (Mor.)
‫ م وووو زظ‬makāzinī
gendarme (Mor.)
pl.
-īya
native
‫ م زن‬makāzin2, ‫ م زناا ويق‬m. aṭ-ṭarīq
the nearest, shortest way, a short cut
‫ م زظجووووو‬makzanjī
warehouseman
storehouseman,
‫ زظدار‬kazandār, kaznadār treasurer
‫ت وووووزي‬
takzīn
storage,
storing,
warehousing; storing up, accumulation;
damming
‫ و زن‬kāzin pl. ‫ زظوة‬kazana, ‫ وزان‬kuzzān
treasurer
‫ م وووزون‬makzūn stored, stored up,
deposited, warehoused; (pl. -āt) stock,
supply, stock in trade
‫ وز‬kaziya a (kizy, kazan) to be or become
base, vile, despicable, contemptible; (‫زايوة‬
kazāya) to be ashamed ( ‫ مو‬of); -- kazā i to
disgrace, dishonor, discredit, put to shame
(‫ ه‬s.o.); to shame, abash, embarrass (‫ ه‬s.o.)
IV to humiliate, degrade, dishonor (‫ ه‬s.o.);
to shame, put to shame (‫ ه‬s.o.) X to be
ashamed
‫ وووزى‬kizy, kazan shame, disgrace,
ignominy │!‫ يو ا ل وزى‬yā la-l-kazā what a
shame!
‫ زيو ن‬kazayān2 f. ‫ زيو‬kazyā, pl. ‫زايو‬
kazāya ashamed, shamefaced, abashed;
shameful,
disgraceful,
scandalous,
infamous, base, mean, vile
‫ م وووزا‬makzāh pl. ‫ م ووو ز‬makāzin a
shameful thing, a disgrace; reason for
shame; pl. shameful things, disgraceful
acts, infamies
‫ م ووز‬makzīy ashamed, shamefaced,
abashed; embarrassed, confused; ‫ا م ووز‬
the Devil
‫ م وووز‬mukzin disgraceful,
scandalous, infamous
shameful,
‫ م زيوة‬mukziya pl. -at disgraceful act,
infamy
‫ وس‬kassa (1st pers. perf. kasistu) a (‫ سوة‬kissa,
‫ س سوة‬kasāsa) to be mean, base, vile; to
become
less,
decrease,
diminish,
depreciate, fall in value; -- kassa u to
lessen, reduce, diminish (‫ هووـ‬s.th.) II to
lessen, reduce, diminish (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ س‬kass lettuce (Lactuca sativa; bot.)
‫ س‬kassa (n. un.) head of lettuce
‫ وس‬kissa and ‫ س سوة‬kasāsa meanness,
baseness, vileness
‫ سوويس‬kasīs pl. ‫ ا س و‬akissā’2 mean,
base, low, vile, despicable, contemptible,
miserable
‫ سيسوة‬kasīsa pl. ‫سو ئس‬
trick, infamy
kasā’is mean
‫ سوب‬kasa’a a (kas’) to chase away (‫ ه‬s.o.); -‫ سوئ‬kasi’a a to be driven away, make off
│‫ سووئت‬kasi’ta beat it! scram! ‫ا سووباا يوول‬
iksa’ ilaika do.
‫ ا سوووب‬aksa’2 baser,
despicable; weaker
meaner,
more
‫ سوئ‬kāsi’ spurned, rejected, outcast;
low,
base,
vulgar,
despicable,
contemptible;
disgraceful,
shameful,
scandalous,
infamous;
futile,
vain
(attempt); weak, feeble, languid
‫ سأكة‬kastaka indisposition
‫ م سووأل‬mukastak indisposed, unwell,
sickly
‫ ش‬kašša i u (kašš) to enter (
‫ ش ش‬kišāš vermin, insects
‫ شوب‬II to lignify, become woody or woodlike;
to line, face or cue with wood, to panel,
wainscot (‫ هوـ‬8.tb.) V to lignify, become
woody or woodlike; to become bard, still,
firm, rigid; to stiffen, freeze (e.g., with
panic)
‫ سوو‬kasara a (kusr, ‫ سو ر‬kasār, ‫ سو ر‬kasāra,
‫ سوووان‬kusrān) to incur a loss, suffer
damage; to lose, forfeit (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to go
astray, lose one’s way, get lost; to perish
II to cause loss or damage (‫ هوـ‬to s.o.); to
do harm (‫ ه‬to s.o.); to destroy, 238 ruin (‫هوـ‬
s.o.); to corrupt, deprave (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ شووب‬kašab pl. ‫ شووب‬akšāb wood,
lumber, timber │ ‫ شوباادظبيو‬k. al-anbiyā’
guaiacum wood, lignum vitae
‫ شوبة‬kašaba pl. –āt, ‫ ا شو ب‬akšāb piece
of wood; a timber; pale, post; plank, board
│‫ شوباا ميوت‬al-mayyit coffin; ‫شوبةاا مسووح‬
al-masraḥ stage (of a theater), ‫علووا شوبةا‬
‫ ا مسوح‬on the “boards”
IV to cause a loss (‫ ه‬to s.o.); to shorten, cut,
reduce (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) X to grudge (‫ علوو‬or ‫و‬
s.o., s.th.), envy s.o. (‫ علووو‬or ‫ ) و‬the
possession of (‫)هـ‬
‫ شوب‬kašabī wooden, woody, ligneous,
made of wood; timber-, lumber- (in
compounds)
‫ سو‬kur loss, damage
‫ ش ب‬kaššāb pl. lumber merchant
‫ سووان‬kusrān loss, damage, forfeiture;
decline,
deterioration;
depravity,
profligacy
‫ ت شيب‬takšīb paneling, wainscoting
‫ ت شويبة‬takšība pl. -āt, ‫ ت شويب‬takāšīib2
barrack, wooden shed
‫ سو ر‬kasāra pl. ‫ سو ئو‬kasā’ir2 loss,
damage; pl. losses, casualties ( ‫ و‬in; mil.)
│ ‫ اي ا س ر‬what a pity! too bad!
‫ ت شوب‬takaššub stiffness, rigor, rigidity;
stiffening
‫ مأ شوب‬mutakaššib frozen, rigid; stiff,
bard, firm
‫ سووان‬kusrān (eg.) loser; affected by
damage or loss
‫ سووو‬kāsir lost, hopeless; involving
substantial losses; loser; depraved,
corrupted; profligate, disreputable person,
scoundrel
‫ م سووووو‬mukassir causing damage,
harmful, noxious, injurious, detrimental
‫ سوف‬kašafa i (kasf, ‫ سواا‬kusūf) to sink, sink
down, give way, cave in, disappear, go
down; to be eclipsed (moon); -- i (kasf) to
cause to sink, cause to give way │‫ا سفا ا‬
‫ بو اادر‬k. llāh bihī l-arḍa God made him
sink into the ground, God made the
ground swallow him up VII to sink, sink
down, go down
‫ سوف‬kasf baseness, ignominy, disgrace,
shame; inferiority │ ‫ اسو ما سوف‬sāma kasfan
to humiliate, abase, degrade (.s.o.)
‫ سواا‬kusūf occultation (astron.); lunar
eclipse
s.th.)
‫ شت‬kušt pl. ‫ شا‬kušūt javelin
1
‫ شو ش‬kaškāš (coll.; n. un. ) pl. ‫ش و يش‬
kašākīš2 poppy
‫ ش ش‬kaškša to clank, clatter, rattle; to rustle
‫ ش ش وة‬kaškaša pl. -āt noise; clank,
clatter, rattle; rustle, rustling; crash
‫ )ش شي ة =( ش شية‬rattle (toy)
‫ شو ر‬kušāra leftover (of a meal); offal, refuse;
a discard, a worthless thing
‫ شوا‬kaša‘a a ( ‫ شوا‬kušū‘) to be submissive,
be humble; to humble o.s.; to fade (voice)
│‫( ا شااببصوه‬baṣarihī) to lower one’s eyes
II to humble, reduce to submission (‫ ه‬s.o.)
V to display humility; to be humble; to be
moved, be touched
‫شووووووووا‬
kušū‘
submission, humility
submissiveness,
‫ شوا‬kaši‘ pl. ‫ شوعة‬kaša‘a submissive,
humble 239
‫ شو ا‬kušāf various fruits, stewed and waked
in syrup or rose water, compote
‫ شك ر‬kuškār coarsely ground grain, grits
‫ شكويشة‬kaškarīša scab, slough, scurf
‫ شم‬II to intoxicate, make drunk (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ شم‬kašm nose; mouth; vent, outlet
‫ يشوام‬kaišūm pl. ‫ ي شوم‬kayāšim2 nose;
gills; also pl. ‫ ي شيم‬nose
‫شو‬
kašuna u (‫ ) شواظة‬to be rough, coarse,
crude; to be raw, uncut, unpolished II to
roughen, coarsen, make crude (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) III
to be rude, uncivil, boorish (‫ ه‬to s.o.) V to
display rough, rude, or coarse, manners; to
be rough, uneven; to lead as rough life XII
‫ ا شاش و‬ikšaušana to be rough, coarse,
crude; to lead a rough life
‫ شو‬kašin pl. ‫ شو ن‬kišān rough, crude;
coarse (as opposed to ‫ ظو عم‬nā‘im); rude,
unpolished, uncouth; tough, harsh (life);
hoarse, raucous (voice) │‫ شو اا لموس‬k. allams coarse to the touch, rough, uneven,
wrinkled; ‫ ش و اا لووق‬k. al-kulq uncouth,
boorish; ‫ شووو اا قشوووو‬k. al-qišra thickshelled; ‫( ا ج ساا ش‬jins) the strong sex
‫ ا شو‬akšan2, f. ‫ شو‬kašnā’2, pl. ‫شو‬
kušn rough, tough, harsh, rude, uncouth
‫ ا شو‬al-kašnā’ the vulgar, uneducated
people
‫ ش واظة‬kušūna roughness, coarseness;
crudeness; rudeness
‫ شو‬kašiya a (kašy, ‫ شوية‬kašya) to fear, dread
(‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th., ‫ علوو‬for s.o. or s.th.), be
afraid (‫ ه‬of) II to frighten, scare, terrify,
alarm (‫ ه‬s.o.) V = I; VIII to be
embarrassed; to be ashamed
‫ شوية‬kašya fear, anxiety, apprehension
│ ‫ شيةام‬kašyatan min for fear of
‫ ا شوو‬akšā more timorous, more fearful;
more to be feared. more frightening
‫ شوي ن‬kašyān2. f. ‫ شوي‬kaāyā, pl. ‫شو ي‬
timorous, timid, anxious, apprehensive
‫ و ش‬kāšin timorous, timid, anxious,
apprehensive
‫ وص‬kašša u to distinguish, favor (especially,
before others), single out (‫ ه‬s.o.), bestow
special honors (‫ ه‬upon s.o., in preference
to others); to endow (‫ ب‬s.o. with), confer,
bestow (‫ ب‬upon s.o. s.th.); to apportion,
allot, assign, accord, give, dedicate,
devote (‫ ه ب‬to s.o. s.th., in preference to
others); with ‫ فسو‬to take possession (‫هوـ‬
of), demand (‫ هووـ‬s.th.; also ‫ووصاب و اظفس و‬
nafsahū); to be specifically associated (‫ه‬
with s.o.), be characteristic (‫ ه‬of s.o.), be
peculiar (‫ ه‬to); to apply in particular (‫هوـ‬
to), be especially valid (‫ هوـ‬for); to concern,
regard (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هووـ‬s.th.), have special
relevance (‫ هوـ‬to), bear (‫ هوـ‬on) │ ‫صو ابع يأو‬
(bi-‘ināyatihī) to devote one’s attention to
s.o., favor s.o. with one’s attention; ‫صو ا‬
‫( ب ولكو‬bi-d-dikr) to make special mention
of s.o. or s.th.; ‫( وا ووصام و هم‬akuṣṣu) I
mention, among them, especially (with
foll. acc.);
‫ هوولااالاي صوو‬this does not
concern me, this is none of my business II
to specify, particularize, itemize (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
to specialize (‫ هـ‬s.th.), narrow, restrict (‫هـ ل‬
s.th. to); to designate, destine, set aside,
earmark, single out (‫ هوـ ل‬or ‫ ه‬s.o. or s.th.
for a purpose); to devote in particular,
dedicate, assign (‫ هوـ ل‬s.th. to); to allocate,
allot, apportion (‫ هوووـ ل‬s.th. to); to
appropriate (‫ هوـ ل‬funds for); to reserve,
held, withhold (‫ هوـ ل‬s.th. for); to tie down
(‫ ه ب‬s.o. to a special field) V to specialize
(‫ ل‬in, also ‫ ب‬or ‫ و‬in a scientific field); to
devote all one’s attention (‫ ل‬to s.th.); to
apply o.s. (‫ ل‬to), go in for s.th. (‫ ;)ل‬to be
peculiar (‫ ب‬to); to be chosen, destined,
earmarked (‫ ل‬for) VIII to distinguish,
favor (‫ ه ب‬s.o. with), confer distinction (‫ب‬
‫ ه‬upon s.o. by); to devote, give, accord,
afford (‫ ه ب‬to s.o. s.th., in preference to
others); to dedicate (‫ ه ب‬to s.o. s.th., e.g.,
one’s services); (with ‫ ) فسووو‬to take
exclusive possession (‫ هوووـ‬of), claim,
demand (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), lay special claim (‫ هوـ‬to;
also ‫ ا ووووأصابووو اظفسوووو‬nafsahu); to be
distinguished, be marked (‫ ب‬by); to
possess alone, in distinction from all
others, have above others (‫ ب‬s.th.), have
the advantage over others (‫ ب‬that); to be
peculiar (‫ ب‬to); to concern, regard (‫ب‬
s.th.), bear (‫ ب‬on); to be pertinent, have
relevance (‫ ب‬to), have to do (‫ ب‬with); to
be duly qualified, be competent, have
jurisdiction (‫ ب‬in; e.g., an authority); to
have as a special function or task (‫ ب‬s.th.)
‫ ص‬lettuce (bot.)
‫ ووص‬kuṣṣ pl. ‫ ص و ص‬kiṣāṣ, ‫ا ص و ص‬
akṣāṣ, ‫ صواص‬kuṣūṣ, hut, shack, shanty,
hovel
‫ صة‬kaṣṣa jet of water
‫صوووو ص‬
kaṣāṣ
crevice, crack, gap
interstice,
interval,
‫ ص صوة‬kaṣāṣa crevice, crack, interval,
gap
‫ صيصووة‬kaṣīṣa pl. ‫ صوو ئص‬kaṣā’iṣ2
special characteristic or quality, specialty,
particularity, peculiarity
‫ صيصو‬kiṣṣīṣan particularly, especially,
specifically
‫ صووواص‬kuṣūṣ specialness; ‫صاصووو‬
kuṣūṣan
especially,
in
particular,
specifically │‫ب صواص‬, ‫ و ا صواص‬and ‫مو ا‬
‫صوووواص‬
(with foll. genit.) as to,
concerning, regarding, with respect to, as
regards; ‫ بهلااا صاص‬and ‫ م اهولااا صواص‬in
this connection, in this matter, in this
respect, about this, concerning this; ‫علووا‬
‫ ا صواص‬and ‫( علوواوجو اا صواص‬wajhi l-k.)
especially, particularly, in particular,
specifically
‫صاصوووو‬
personal
kuṣūṣī;
special;
private,
‫ص صووووة‬
kaṣāṣa poverty,
privation, destitution, want
penury,
‫ ا وووص‬akaṣṣ2 more special, more
specific │‫ علووااد وص‬especially; ‫و ااد وص‬
do.
‫ا صوووو‬
confidante
akiṣṣā’
2
intimate
friends,
‫ ا ص ئ‬ikṣā’ī see 2‫صو‬
‫ت صووووووويص‬
takṣīṣ
specialization;
specification,
particularization,
itemization; designation, destination (for a
purpose);
allotment,
apportionment,
allocation;
reservation;
(pl.
-āt)
appropriation, financial allocation; credit
│‫ علووووات صوووويص‬and ‫علوووواوجوووو اا أ صوووويص‬
specifically
‫ ت صوص‬takaṣṣuṣ specialization (esp., in
a scientific field)
‫ ا أص و ص‬iktiṣāṣ pl. -āt jurisdiction,
competence; special province or domain,
bailiwick
(fig.);
pl.
prerogatives,
privileges,
monopolies;
concessions
(Intern. Law); ‫ واي ا ةااال أصوو صاي‬duly
qualified,
authorized,
responsible,
competent; ‫ ائووووو ااال أصوووو ص‬scope of
competence,
sphere
of
authority,
jurisdiction, province, domain, field
‫ ا أص ص‬iktiṣāṣī pl. -ūn specialist
‫ و ص‬kaṣṣ special, particular; specific,
peculiar; relative, relevant, pertinent (‫ب‬
to), concerning (‫ ب‬s.th.); earmarked,
Designated, destined, set aside (‫ ب‬for);
especially valid or true (‫ ب‬for), especially
applicable (‫ ب‬to), characteristic (‫ ب‬of);
distinguished; private; exclusive, not
public │‫ جويود ا صوةاب‬professional journal
for ...; ‫‘( ا و صاوا عو م‬āmm) the special and
the general; high and low, all people;
‫ ا بيباا ص‬physician in ordinary 241
‫ صوة‬kāṣṣa pl. ‫ وااص‬kawāṣ2 exclusive
property; private possession; specialty,
particularity, peculiarity, characteristic,
property, attribute; essence, intrinsic
nature; leading personalities, people of
distinction, ‫ ا ص وة‬the upper class, the
educated; kāṣṣatan and ‫ ب صوة‬bi-kāṣṣatin
especially, in particular │‫ و ا صوةااظفسوهم‬fī
k. anfusihim at the bottom of their hearts,
deep inside
‫ صوية‬kāṣṣīya pl. -āt, ‫ صو ئص‬kaṣā’iṣ2
specialty, particularity, characteristic,
peculiarity, property, special attribute,
feature, trait, qualification; prerogative,
privilege; jurisdiction, competence
‫ ايصوة‬kuwaṣṣa (dimin. of ‫ ) صوة‬one’s
own business, private affair │‫يوود لا وو ا‬
‫ ايص وةاامووو‬he meddles in my private
affairs
‫ م صاص‬makṣūṣ special
‫ م ص وص‬mukaṣṣaṣ chosen, set aside,
earmarked, designated, destined (‫ ل‬for);
allotted, apportioned, allocated; -- pl.
‫م صصووووووو‬
(financial)
allocations;
appropriations, credits; (daily) allowance;
(food) rations │‫( ام صصو ااضو ية‬iḍāfīya)
extra allowances; ‫ م صص و اا ملوول‬m. almalik civil list
‫ م ووأص‬muktaṣṣ pertaining, pertinent,
relevant, relative (‫ ب‬to); duly qualified,
authorized,
responsible,
competent;
special;
pl.
‫م أصوووووو‬
muktaṣṣāt
competences
│‫اا مق موووووووو اا م أصووووووووة‬the
competent authorities; ‫ا وووودوائواا م أصووووة‬
competent (or authoritative) quarters
‫ صوب‬kaṣaba i and kaṣiba a (kiṣb) to be fertile
(soil) II to make fertile (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
fructify, fertilize (‫ هـ‬s.th.) IV = I
‫ صوب‬kaṣib fertility; abundance, plenty;
superabundance, profusion
‫ صووب‬kaṣib and ‫ص ويب‬
productive, fat
kaṣīb fertile,
‫ ص ولة‬kaṣla pl. ‫ ص و ل‬kiṣāl quality,
property, characteristic, peculiarity, trait;
(natural) disposition
‫صوم‬
to bring legal action (‫ ه‬against s.o.), sue (‫ه‬
s.o.), litigate (‫ ه‬with); VI to quarrel, argue,
have a fight; to go to law, carry on a
lawsuit, litigate (‫ موا‬with s.o.) VII to be
deducted, be subtracted VIII to quarrel,
argue, have a fight
‫صووم‬
kaṣm pl. ‫ صووام‬kuṣūm, ‫ا ص و م‬
akṣām adversary, antagonist, opponent;
opposing party (in a lawsuit)
‫ صابة‬kuṣūba fertility
‫ ت صيب‬takṣīb fructification, fertilization
‫ صووم‬deduction; subtraction; rebate;
discount; pl. ‫ صام‬kuṣūm
‫ ا ص ب‬ikṣāb fertility
‫ م صب‬mukaṣṣibāt fertilizers
liabilities (fin.) │‫ سوعواا صوام‬si‘r al-k.
discount rate, bank rate; ‫ صوماا كمبيو ال‬k.
al-kambiyālāt bill discount
‫ م صب‬mukṣib fertile, productive, fat
‫ صو‬kaṣira a (kaṣar) to become cold; to suffer
from the cold III to clasp (‫ ه‬s.o.) around
the waist, put one’s arm around s.o.’s (‫)ه‬
waist VIII to shorten, condense, abridge,
epitomize (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to summarize (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ صيم‬kaṣīm pl. ‫ صم‬kuṣamā’2, ‫ا صوم ن‬
kuṣmān adversary, antagonist, opponent
‫ صوووامة‬kuṣūma quarrel, argument,
dispute, controversy, feud; lawsuit
‫ صوو‬kaṣr pl. ‫ صوار‬kuṣūr hip, haunch,
waist
‫ صو م‬kiṣām quarrel, argument, dispute,
controversy, feud; lawsuit
‫ م صووو‬mikṣara pl. ‫ م صووو‬makāṣir2
stick, baton, wand; mace, scepter
‫ م صووم‬mukāṣim adversary, opponent,
opposing party (in a lawsuit); antagonist;
litigant
‫ ا أصو ر‬iktiṣār shortening, condensation,
abridgment, summarization, epitomizing
(of a statement); brevity │‫ ب ال أصو ر‬and
‫ ب أص ر‬briefly, in short, in a few words
1
‫ صو‬kaṣā ( ‫ ص‬kiṣā’) to castrate, emasculate
(‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ صو‬kasīy pl. ‫ صي ن‬kiṣyān, ‫ صوية‬kiṣya
a castrate, eunuch
‫ م أصوو‬muktaṣar shortened, condensed,
abridged; brief, short; concise, terse,
succinct; (pl. -āt) short excerpt, brief
exposition, synopsis, outline, summary,
abstract, epitome, compendium
‫ صوو‬kāṣira pl. ‫ ااصوو‬kawāṣir2 hip,
haunch, waist │ ‫( اشواكةا و ا صووت‬šauka) a
thorn in his side
‫ صوف‬kaṣafa i (kaṣf) to mend, repair, sew (‫ هوـ‬a
shoe)
‫ ص وفة‬kaṣfa pl. ‫ص و ا‬
(made of palm leaves)
‫صولة‬
kaṣama i to defeat (‫ ه‬an opponent) in
argument; to deduct, subtract (‫ هوـ‬s.th., ‫مو‬
from): to discount (‫ هوـ‬a bill, a note III to
argue, quarrel, dispute (‫ ه‬with s.o. 242
kiṣāf basket
kuṣla pl. ‫ صوول‬kuṣal, -āt tuft; bunch,
cluster; lock, wisp (of hair)
‫ صية‬kuṣya pl. ‫ صو‬kuṣan testicle
‫ م صو‬makṣīy castrated, emasculated
‫( وسام صو‬faras) gelding
2
‫ ا صو ئ‬ikṣā’ī pl. -ūn specialist; expert (of a
specialized field)
‫و‬
kaḍḍa (kaḍḍ) to jolt, jog (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
shake (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to frighten, scare (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ ب ا‬laban kaḍḍ buttermilk
‫وة‬
kaḍḍa concussion, shock, jolt;
fright, terror, fear
‫وب‬
kaḍaba i (kaḍb) to dye, color,
tinge (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); -- kaḍaba i and kaḍiba a
(‫واب‬
kuḍūb) to be or become green
(plant) II to color, tinge (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to dye
(‫ هوـ‬s.th) XII ‫ ا اضوب‬ikḍauḍaba to be or
become green (plant)
O‫ب‬
kaḍb chlorophyll (biol.)
‫يوا‬
O ‫ار‬
‫وا‬
‫ووم‬
kuḍūb green, greenness, green
‫يب‬
‫و‬
ḳaḍkaḍa (
‫و‬
ḳaḍkaḍa) to set in
motion, upset, rock, shake (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫و‬
kaḍkaḍa concussion, shock,
‫وا‬
‫ود‬
kaḍada i (kaḍd) to cut off, break off (‫هوـ‬
thorns) │ ‫( ا وداشواكأ‬šaukatahū) to tame
s.o., hold s.o. in check, curb s.o.’s power
‫وو‬
kaḍira a (kaḍar) to be green II to make
green, dye or color green (‫ هـ‬s.th.) │‫ا ووا‬
‫( ادر‬arḍ) to sow the land, till the earth
IX to be or become green XII ‫ا اضوو‬
ikḍauḍara = IX
‫ر‬
kaḍāra greens, herbs, potherbs
‫ر‬
kaḍḍār greengrocer
‫وووووا‬
‫ ا‬al-kaḍrā’ “the
(epithet of Tunis); the sky 243
‫ول‬
Verdant”
‫وواوا‬
kaḍrāwāt vegetables; greens,
herbs, potherbs
subjugation,
subdual;
kaḍila a to be or become moist II and IV
to moisten, wet (‫ هـ‬s.th.) IX = I
‫ول‬
kaḍil moist, wet; juicy, succulent;
refreshing, gay, lighthearted
‫وم‬
‫ ا وو‬akḍar f. ‫ووا‬
kaḍrā’ pl. ‫وو‬
kuḍr green │‫( اتوواعلووااال وواوا يو بس‬atā) to
destroy everything, wreak havoc
kuḍu‘ submissive,
‫ ضووا‬kāḍi‘ pl. ‫ووا‬
kuḍa‘, ‫ووع ن‬
kuḍ‘ān, kiḍ‘ān submissive, humble;
obedient, pliant, tractable; subject, liable,
prone (‫ ل‬to s.th.)
kuḍarī greengrocer
kadīr green
kaḍū‘ pl. ‫وا‬
‫ ا ووو‬ikḍā‘
subjection
‫وو‬
kuḍra green, greenness, green
color; - (pl. ‫ووو‬
kuḍar) vegetation,
verdure, greenery, greens; meadow; ‫وو‬
vegetables
‫يو‬
kaḍa‘a a ( ‫وا‬
kuḍū‘) to bow, defer,
submit, yield, surrender (‫ ل‬to s.o., to s.th.),
humble o.s. (‫ ل‬before), obey, follow (‫ل‬
s.o. or s.th.); to be subject (‫ ل‬and ‫ ا وو‬to a
law, to a power, etc.), be under s.o.’s (‫ ل‬or
‫ )ا وووو‬control II and IV to humble,
subjugate, subdue, make tractable (‫ ه‬s.o.);
to submit, subject, expose (‫ ه ل‬or ‫ هـ‬s.th. or
s.o. to s.th.)
‫وا‬
humble
‫وو‬
‫ ا‬al-kaḍir, al-kiḍir a well-known
legendary figure
‫ور‬
kaḍār green, greenness, green
color; greens, herbs, potherbs
kiḍrim pl. ‫و رم‬
kaḍārim2 abundant,
copious; well-watered, abounding in
water; openhanded, generous, liberal,
munificent
‫وا‬
kuḍū‘ submission, obedience,
humility, subjection
‫وو‬
kaḍir green, verdant; verdure,
greenery; young green crop (of grain)
‫و‬
‫ م‬mukaḍḍarāt vegetables
‫ م ووم‬mukaḍram designation of such
contemporaries of Mohammed, esp. of
poets, whose life span bridges the time of
paganism and that of Islam; an old man
who has lived through several generations
or historical epochs
kaḍīb dyed
jolt
‫ ي‬yakḍūr chlorophyll (biol.)
‫ م وو‬makḍara meadow, lawn, turf,
sod, greens, verdant land
‫ب‬
kiḍāb dye, dyestuff │O ‫باا ودم‬
k. ad-dam hemoglobin (biol.)
‫واب‬
color
‫ ا‬al-kuḍairā’ Paradise
kaḍama i (kaḍm) to munch (‫ هوـ‬s.th., with
a full mouth), bite (‫ هـ‬into s.th.)
‫وم‬
kiḍamm vast (said of the sea); sea,
ocean
‫ وط‬kaṭṭa u (kaṭṭ) to draw or trace a line (‫علوو‬
on); to draw, trace, sketch, design (‫هووـ‬
s.th.); to write, pen (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to carve,
engrave, inscribe (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to outline,
mark, trace out, prescribe (‫ ل هوـ‬for s.o.
s.th.) │‫( ا وطا و ايسو واة‬kaṭṭan, satran) to
draw a line; ‫و اا شوويب‬
(šaibu) his hair
turned gray II to draw lines; to rule (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to furrow, ridge (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to mark
with lines or stripes, stripe, streak (‫هووـ‬
s.th.); to pencil (‫ هوـ‬the eyebrows); to mark,
designate, earmark, indicate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
demarcate, delimit, delineate, stake out,
survey (‫ هوـ‬land, real estate); to layout, map
out (‫ هووـ‬roads) VIII to trace out, mark,
outline, prescribe (‫ هووـ‬a way); to mark,
demarcate, delimit, stake out, delineate (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to map out, plan, project (‫ هـ‬e.g., the
construction of a city); to make, design,
devise (‫ هوـ‬a plan); to plan (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), make
plans (‫ هـ‬for)
‫ ووط‬kaṭṭ pl. ‫وواه‬
kuṭūṭ line; stroke;
stripe, streak; (railroad) line, line of
communication; telephone line; frontline
(mil.); furrow, ridge; handwriting; writing,
script; calligraphy, penmanship │O ‫ووطا‬
‫( ارضو‬arḍī) ground wire (radio); O ‫ا وطا‬
‫( االسوفي‬isfīnī) cuneiform writing; ‫ا واها‬
‫( ادم ظيوة‬amāmīya) the foremost lines, battle
lines (mil.); ‫( وطابو رز‬bāriz) relievo script;
‫وووطاتلفووواظ‬
telephone line; ‫ووواهاجايوووة‬
(jawwīya) airlines; ‫( وطاحديود‬ḥadīdī) and
‫ ووطاسووكةاا حديوود‬k. sikkat al-ḥadīd railroad
line, railroad track; ‫ وطاا وزوال‬k. az-zawāl
meridian (astron.; = ‫ وطاظصوفاا هو ر‬k. niṣf
an-nahār); O
‫( ا وووطاا مسوووم ر‬mismārī)
cuneiform writing; ‫ وطااالسوأاا‬k. al-istiwā’
equator; ‫ طاا ال‬k. aṭ-ṭūl or ‫( طاها‬ṭūlī)
circle of longitude, meridian (geogr.); ‫وطا‬
‫ ا عووو‬k. al-‘arḍ or ‫‘( ووطاعوض و‬arḍī)
parallel (of latitude) (geogr.); ‫وطاتقسويماا ميو ه‬
k. taqsīm al-miyāh divide, watershed; ‫وطا‬
‫ ا قووا اا كهوب ئيووة‬k. al-qūwa al-kahrabā’īya
power lines; ‫ وطاا هو جو‬meridian (grogr.);
‫ ووو اعو اا ووط‬to derail, run off the rails
(train);
‫علووووووا وووووطامسوووووأقيم‬
(mustaqīm)
straightaway, in a straight line; outright,
out and out; ‫( علوواهوالاا وط‬ṭūl al-k.) all
along the line
‫ وط‬kuṭṭ section, district, quarter (of a
city)
kaṭṭī handwritten; linear; spear
‫ووة‬
kuṭṭa matter, affair; condition,
state; office, function, position
‫وة‬
kiṭṭa, kuṭṭa pl. ‫وط‬
kiṭaṭ, kuṭaṭ a
place of land acquired for the purpose of
building a house; a place of real estate,
lot; district; map or plan of a place of real
estate, layout; plan, project, design,
intention; line of action, course, policy,
rule, precept, guiding principle │‫وطاا عمول‬
k. al-‘amal operation plan, work plan; ‫هبقو ا‬
‫ووووةاموسووووامة‬
(ṭibqan) according to
schedule, as scheduled or planned
‫ووووو ه‬
kaṭṭāṭ pl. -ūn penman,
calligrapher; -- tracing lines, leaving
straight trace │‫( شولا و ه‬fašak) or ‫لليفوةا‬
‫هة‬
tracer bullet, tracer (mil.)
‫ ت ويط‬takṭīṭ ruling, drawing of, or
marking
with,
lines;
lineation;
designation,
marking,
earmarking;
surveying, survey (of land); planning;
projecting, mapping out, laying out (of
cities, of roads); plan, design
‫( رسوومات ي و‬rasm) rough draft, first
sketch, design
‫اه‬
‫ م‬makṭūṭ handwritten; manuscript
‫اه‬
‫ م‬makṭūṭa pl. -āt manuscript
‫ م وط‬mukaṭṭaṭ striped, streaked, ruled;
furrowed; designated, marked, earmarked;
planned, guided, controlled; (pl. -āt)
sketch, design, plan, layout; map (of a
city)
‫وئ‬
kaṭI’a a (‫وب‬
kaṭa’) to be mistaken; to
commit an error, make a mistake; to sin II
to charge with an offense, incriminate,
declare guilty (‫ ه‬s.o.); to accuse (‫ ه‬s.o.) of
an error or mistake; to fine (‫ ه‬s.o.; tun.) IV
to be mistaken, to err, commit an error, be
at fault ( ‫ و‬in); to be wrong ( ‫ و‬about, in);
to make a mistake ( ‫ و‬in, with); to miss (‫ه‬
s.o., e.g., a shot; ‫ هـ‬the target); to escape (‫ه‬
s.o. or s.o.’s notice; a fact) │‫اأ وووبا‬
‫( ب و‬fa’luhū) (his omen was wrong, i.e.) his
expectations do not come true, are not
fultilled; that’s where he is wrong, that’s
where he made a mistake!
‫أ ووبهاا ش و‬
(šai’u) (lit.: the thing escaped him, missed
him, i.e.) he lacked it; ‫ أ ووبهاا أا يووق‬he
failed, was unsuccessful; ‫أ ووبا و ااسووأ أ ج ت‬
he drew the wrong conclusions; ‫أ وبابوي ا‬
‫ ا شوويئي‬he confused the two things, he
mistook one thing for the other
‫ ط‬kiṭ’ slip, lapse, fault, offense, sin
‫ ب‬kaṭa’ and ‫ و‬kaṭā’ error; mistake,
incorrectness; offense, fault; kaṭa’an
erroneously, by mistake │...‫امو اا وباانا‬it
is (would be) wrong to …; ‫اصووالحاا ووب‬
iṣlāḥ al-k. corrigenda, errata, list of
corrections; ‫ لأولاا وب‬qatl al-k. accidental
homicide (jur.)
‫يئوووة‬
kaṭī’a pl. -āt, ‫يووو‬
kaṭāyā
mistake, blunder; slip, lapse; fault,
offense; crime, sin; fine (tun.)
‫ و هئ‬kāṭi’ wrong, incorrect, erroneous;
mistaken, at fault; (pl. ‫ و‬kuṭāh, actually,
pl. of colloq. kāṭī), f. ‫ هئة‬kāṭi’a pl. ‫وااهئ‬
kawāṭ’2 sinner
‫ م وئ‬mukṭi’ mistaken, at fault, wrong;
incorrect, wrong, erroneous
‫وب‬
kaṭaba u (‫بوة‬
kuṭba, ‫بوة‬
kaṭāba) to
deliver a public address, make a speech; to
preach, deliver a sermon (‫ و اا و س‬and ‫ا و س‬
an-nāsa to the people); -- (kaṭb, 245 ‫بوة‬
kiṭba) to propose ( ‫ هو‬to a girl; said of the
man), ask for a girl’s hand ( ‫ )هو‬in marriage
(‫ ل‬on behalf of s.o.; said of the
matchmaker); to give in marriage, betroth,
affiance, engage (‫ علوووو‬or ‫ ب أووو ال‬one’s
daughter to s.o.) │ ‫ووباو هو‬
(wuddahā)
and ‫( وباما تهو‬mawaddatahā) he courted
her love III to address (‫ ه‬s.o.), speak, talk,
direct one's words (‫ ه‬to s.o.), turn (‫ ه‬to s.o.,
orally or in writing) │‫ هب و اب و أليفان‬to
telephone s.o., call s.o. up; ‫( هبو اب كو ا‬bil-kāf) to address s.o. on an intimate firstname basis VI to talk to one another; to
converse, confer, have a talk, carry on a
conversation; to write each other,
correspond, carry on a correspondence
VIII to seek a girl’s ( ‫ )هو‬hand in marriage,
ask for a girl’s hand
‫ وب‬kaṭb pl. ‫ وب‬kuṭb matter, affair,
concern, business; situation, conditions,
circumstances; misadventure, mishap │‫امو ا‬
‫ بووول‬what do you want? what’s the
trouble? what’s the matter with you? ‫مو ا‬
‫ ب ا و‬what concern of his is ...? what has
he to do with ...? ‫ مو ا وبا ول‬what’s it all
about?
‫بووووة‬
kiṭba
engagement
courtehip;
betrothal,
‫بووة‬
kuṭba pl. ‫ووب‬
kuṭab public
address; speech; lecture, discourse;
oration; sermon, specif., Muslim Friday
sermon, khutbah │‫ا بوووةااال أأووو ح‬opening
address
‫ و ب‬kiṭāb pl. -āt, ‫ ا بوة‬akṭiba public
address, speech; oration; letter, note,
message │‫ ا ووووو باتوحيوووووب‬welcoming
address; ‫باا عووش‬
k. al-‘arš speech from
the throne; ‫وووو بامسوووأعجل‬
(musta‘jil)
express letter, special-delivery letter; ‫با‬
‫ تقدمووة‬taqdima letter of introduction; O
‫ب و ا ا اا قيمووةاا مقووور‬
(dāt al-qīma almuqarrara) (= lettres avec valeur
declarée) registered, insured letters (eg.);
‫ صوووولاا وووو ب‬faṣl al-k. (in letters:)
conclusion of the formal greetings by the
words ‫ ام و ابعوود‬amma ba‘du; conclusion,
termination, end; decision; unmistakable
judgment; ‫ بي ووو اوبي ووولا صووولاا ووو ب‬we’re
through with one another once and for all
‫ووو ب‬
kiṭābī oratorical, rhetorical,
speech-, lecturing (in compounds)
‫يوب‬
kaṭīb pl. ‫بو‬
kuṭabā’ (public)
speaker; orator; lecturer; preacher, khatib;
suitor (for the hand of a girl); fiancé
‫يبة‬
kaṭība fiancée
‫ب وة‬
kaṭāba preaching, sermonizing,
oratory
‫بوة‬
kiṭāba rhetoric, oratory; speech,
lecture, discourse
‫ابوووة‬
kūṭūba courtship; betrothal,
engagement
‫ م هبوة‬mukāṭaba pl. -āt address; public
address,
speech;
proclamation;
conversation, talk; conference, parley
│‫ م هبوووةاتليفاظيوووة‬telephone conversation,
telephone call
‫ ت أ وووب‬takāṭub conversation; talk,
discussion; (inter)communication (also,
e.g., telephonic, by radio, etc.) │‫غةاا أ ب‬
lugat it-takāṭub colloquial language
‫ هب‬kāṭib pl. ‫ب‬
suitor; matchmaker
kuṭabā’2, ‫و‬
‫ هبوة‬kāṭiba pl. ‫و ب‬
matchmaker
‫ابة‬
kuṭṭāb
kuṭṭāb woman
‫ م‬makṭūba fiancée
‫ م هوب‬mukāṭab addressed, spoken to;
(gram.) second person
‫باه‬
‫وو‬
‫ ا‬look up alphabetically
‫وووان‬
kaṭarān swinging, oscillation,
vibration
kaṭara i (‫ ووان‬kaṭarān) to swing, wave,
brandish (‫ ب‬s.th.); to shake, tremble,
vibrate; to walk with a (proud) swinging
gait; to strut, parade haughtily; -- i u (‫ار‬
kuṭūr) to occur (‫ ل‬to s.o.), come 246 to
s.o.’s (‫ )ل‬mind │ ‫( ا وواعلوواب و‬bālihī) the
matter came to his mind, occurred to him,
he recalled the matter (also ‫ و اب و‬and ‫بب و‬
or. ‫ وا ا هو ;)علواب‬he had an idea; ‫اموا‬
‫( وووماي وووواببووو ل‬lam yakṭur bi-bālin) an
unexpected matter, s.th. one wouldn’t
dram of; -- kaṭura u ( ‫ وار‬kuṭūra) to be
weighty; to be important, significant; to be
grave, serious, momentous, dangerous,
perilous, risky, hazardous III to risk,
hazard, stake (‫ ب‬s.th. ‫ ب فسو‬one’s life); to
incur the danger, run the risk (‫ ب‬of), risk
(‫ ب‬s.th.); to bet, wager (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ علوو‬a stake)
IV to notify, inform (‫ ه‬s.o.), let (‫ ه‬s.o.)
know (‫ ب‬about s.th.); to warn, caution (‫ه‬
s.o.) V to walk with a lofty, proud gait; to
stride, strut (with a swinging gait); to
pendulate, oscillate, vibrate VI to make a
bet (‫ علو‬against stake)
‫ ا ووو‬akṭar2 more dangerous, riskier;
weightier, of greater consequence; more
serious, graver
‫و‬
‫ م هو‬makāṭir2 dangers, perils
‫ م و هو‬mukāṭara pl. -āt venture, risk,
hazard
‫ ا و ر‬ikṭār notification, information;
warning
‫ و هو‬kāṭir pl. ‫ وااهو‬kawāṭir2 ideas,
thought, notion; mind; desire, inclination,
liking │ ‫( دجولا و هو‬li-ajl) for your sake;
‫ م و اكوولا و هو‬min'n kulli kāṭirin with all
one’s heart, most gladly; ‫‘ عو اهيبوةا و هو‬an
ṭībati kāṭirin gladly, with pleasure; of
one’s own free will, voluntarily; ‫علوووا‬
‫ و هو‬as you like; ‫ ا وولاب و هوه‬to afford
satisfaction to s.o., to comfort, reassure
s.o.; ‫ ا لاعلوا و هوامو‬to feel offended by, to
take offense at; ‫ صووود ا ووو هوه‬ṣadda‘a
kāṭirahū to trouble, bother s.o.; ‫هموو ا‬
‫( ا وااهو‬ṭammana) to calm the excitement;
‫( موواب و هوهاان‬marra) the thought crossed
his mind that ...; ‫( اكوامو ا و هو‬ikrāman)
for your sake, to please you; ‫سووعةاا و هو‬
sur‘at al-k. presence of mind; ‫سوويااا و هو‬
quick-witted
‫وووووووووووو‬
kaṭar
weightiness,
momentousness;
importance,
consequence, significance; seriousness,
gravity; -- (pl. -āt, ‫ ا و ر‬akṭār) danger,
peril, menace (‫ علووووو‬to); riskiness,
dangerousness; risk; hazard; (pl. ‫وو ر‬
kiṭār) stake, bet, wager │‫ جليلاا وو‬of very
great importance, momentous; ‫وا وووو‬
dangerous,
perilous;
‫معووووووو ا ل ووووووو‬
(mu‘arraḍ) endangered, jeopardized; ‫اشو ر ا‬
‫ ا و‬išārat al-k. alarm signal
‫ م و هو‬mukāṭir one who risks s.th., who
takes a chance; daring, bold, venturesome
‫ م وو‬mukṭir dangerous, perilous, risky,
hazardous
‫ووو‬
kaṭir dangerous, perilous, risky,
hazardous; serious, grave, weighty,
important, significant
‫ووا‬
‫ وو‬kaṭara pl. kaṭarāt pompous walk,
strut; swinging gait; idea, thought, notion
‫وف‬
‫ر‬
kaṭṭār pendulum (phys.)
‫يوووو‬
kaṭīr pl. ‫وووو‬
kuṭr weighty,
momentous; important, significant; grave,
serious │‫ يو اا شبن‬of great importance
‫ووووووووار‬
importance,
consequence,
seriousness
kuṭūra
weight(iness),
moment(ousness);
significance;
gravity,
‫ م‬look up alphabetically
kaṭrafa (eg.) to be delirious,. to rave, to
talk irrationally
‫وة‬
kaṭrafa delirium, raving
kaṭifa a, kaṭafa i (kaṭf) to snatch, wrench
or wrest away, seize, grab (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
make off (‫ هوـ‬with s.th.); to abduct, kidnap
(‫ ه‬s.o.); to dazzle (‫ ا بصوو‬247 al-baṣara the
eyes) V to carry away, sweep away (. s.o.)
VI to snatch or seize (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) from one
another VII to be snatched away, be
wrested away; to be carried away, be
swept away VIII to grab, seize, take
forcibly (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to snatch, wrest, wrench
( ‫ هوـ مو‬s.th. from s.o.); to abduct, kidnap (‫ه‬
s.o.); to run away, elope ( ‫ ه و‬with a
woman); to make off (‫ هوـ‬with s.th.); to
dazzle (‫ ا بصو‬al-baṣara the eyes)
‫ووف‬
kaṭf grabbing, forcible seizure,
rape; abduction, kidnapping; ‫فو‬
kaṭfan
rapidly, quickly
‫فووة‬
kaṭfa pl. kaṭafāt (n. vic.) a
snatching away, a grab; sudden stirring,
flash │ ‫( و ا فوةاا بوو‬barq) instantly, in a
trice, like a streak of lightning; ‫فوةامو ا‬
‫ ف اا شعار‬an impulse, a sudden emotion
‫ا‬
kaṭṭāf rapacious; robber
‫وا‬
kuṭṭāf pl. ‫و هيف‬
kaṭāṭīf2 (iron)
hook; fishhook; (coll.; n. un. ) swift, a
variety of swallow
‫يف‬
kaṭīf pl. ‫هيف‬
kaṭāṭīf2 iron hook
‫ ا أ و ا‬iktiṯāf grabbing, forcible seizure,
rape; abduction, kidnapping
2
‫ هف‬kāṭif pl. ‫ ااهف‬kawāṭif ravenous;
rapacious; rapid, prompt; quick, sudden;
lightninglike; fleeting; short, brief │‫ئو با‬
‫ هفوة‬ravenous wolves; ‫( صوار ا هفوة‬ṣūra)
snapshot; ‫( حوبا هفة‬ḥarb) Blitzkrieg
‫ول‬
kaṭila a (kaṭal) to talk nonsense IV do. V
to strut, walk with a pompous gait; to
walk with a proud, swinging gait
‫ل‬
kaṭal idle talk, prattle
‫ ل‬kaṭil garrulous, chattering, given to
silly talk; stupid, foolish
‫وم‬
kaṭm nose, snout, muzzle (of an animal);
front part (nose and mouth); foremost or
first part; important matter │‫اهوولام مووة‬
(aṭalla) approx.: to manifest its force, set
in (e.g., of a disaster)
‫مو‬
kiṭmī, kaṭmī (coll.; n. un. ) marsh
mallow (Althaea officinalis; bot.)
‫وم‬
kiṭām pl. kuṭum noseband, halter (of a
camel)
‫واة‬
‫ و اي‬kaṭā u (kaṭw) to step, pace, walk; to
proceed, advance, progress │‫و ا واا ا‬
‫( واسوعة‬kaṭawātin) to take large strides, also
fig. = to make extraordinary progress II
and V to overstep, transgress (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), to
cross (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), go or walk through s.th.
(‫ ;)هوـ‬to ford (‫ هوـ‬a river); to leave its banks,
overflow (river); to cross, traverse (‫ا بحو ر‬
the seas); to omit, disregard, ignore, pass
by (‫ ه‬so.); to go beyond s.th. (‫ ;)هـ‬to extend
(‫ ا وو‬to); to exceed, transcend (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
excel, surpass, outstrip, outdo (‫ ه‬s.o.); to
proceed, pass (‫ هوـ‬through s.th., ‫ ا وو‬to),
leave s.th. (‫ )هوـ‬behind and turn to s.th. else
(‫ ;)ا وو‬to disregard (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o., s.th.) in order
to turn one’s attention to (‫ت واب اا وا│ )ا و‬
‫( االمو م‬ilā l-amāmi) to promote, advance
s.th. VII to step, pace, walk; to proceed,
advance, progress
‫وا‬
kaṭwa pl. kaṭawāt and kuṭwa pl.
kuṭwāt, kuṭuwāt, ‫وو‬
kuṭan step, pace,
stride │‫( سو را و ا و ه‬kuṭāhū) to walk, or
follow, in s.o.’s footsteps; ‫تقودما وا ا وا‬
taqaddama kutwatan fa-kutwatan to
proceed or advance step by step; ‫ات لا وا ا‬
‫( ح سومة‬ittakada) to take a decisive step;
‫اتو ناولفوز‬
kaṭwatan wa qafza hop, skip
and jump (athlet.)
‫يووة‬
kaṭīya (= ‫ ) يئوووة‬slip, lapse,
transgression, fault, offense, sin
kuṭāh pl. of ‫هئ‬
kāṭi’ sinner
‫ وف‬kaffa i to be light (of weight); to be slight,
insignificant; to become lighter, decrease
in weight, lose weight; to decrease in
intensity, grow lighter (color); to be
nimble, agile, quick; to hasten, hurry, rush
(‫ ا وو‬to) II to make lighter (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), reduce
the weight of (‫ ;)هوـ‬to ease, lighten, relieve,
soften (‫ ع و هووـ‬for s.o. s.th. difficult or
oppressive, also ‫ مو ;علوو هـ‬s.th., e.g., s.o.’s
situation); to lessen, decrease, reduce,
diminish (‫ هووـ‬or ‫ م و‬s.th.); to mitigate,
alleviate, moderate, temper (‫ ه‬or ‫ مو‬s.th.);
to thin, dilute (‫ هوـ‬e.g., a liquid); (gram.) to
pronounce (‫ هوـ‬a consonant) without tašdīd
│‫ فوفاع ول‬kaffif ‘anka! cheer up! be of
good cheer! ‫ فووفاموو اسوووعأل‬kaffif min
su‘atika! slow down! ‫ فووفاابالماع و‬to
soothe s.o.’s pains V to dress lightly; to
disburden, relieve o.s. (of a burden); to rid
o.s., free o.s. ( ‫ مو‬of s.th.); to hurry away
( ‫ مو‬from), leave ( ‫ مو‬s.th.) in a hurry X to
deem (‫ هووـ‬s.th.) light; to value lightly,
disdain, scorn, despise (‫ ب‬s.o. or s.th.),
look down (‫ ب‬upon), think nothing (‫ ب‬of),
make light (‫ ب‬of), set little store (‫ ب‬by);
not to take seriously (‫ ب‬s.th.), attach no
importance (‫ ب‬to); to carry away,
transport (‫ ه‬s.o., e.g., joy)
‫ ف‬kuff pl. ‫ فو ا‬kifāf, ‫ ا فو ا‬akfāf shoe,
slipper; -- (pl. ‫ ا فو ا‬akfāf) camel hoof;
foot (of the ostrich); sole (of the foot) │‫ا‬
‫ رجوااب فو اح وي‬raja‘a bi-kaffai ḥunain to
return with empty hands, without having
achieved one’s mission; to accomplish
nothing, fail, be unsuccessful
‫` فوووووة‬kiffa lightless (of weight);
slightness,
insignificance,
triviality;
sprightliness,
buoyancy;
agility,
nimbleness;
inconstancy,
fickleness,
flightiness, levity, frivolity │‫ ا فوةاا حوكوة‬k.
al-ḥaraka, ‫فووووةا وووو اا حوكووووة‬
nimbleness,
agility, quickness; ‫ فوووةاا ووودم‬k. ad-dam
amiability, charm; ‫ وفاا وووح‬k. ar-rūḥ do.;
‫ فوةاا يوود‬k. al-yad manual skill, dexterity,
deftness
‫ ا وووف‬akaff2 lighter; lesser, slighter;
weaker │ ‫ اا وفاا ووري‬a. ad-ḍararain the
lesser of two evils
‫ فوو ا‬kafāf, ‫ حجوووواا فوو ا‬ḥajar al-k.
pumice, pumice stone
‫ ف ن‬kuffān pumice, pumice stone
‫ فيوف‬kafīf pl. ‫ فو ا‬kifāf, ‫ ا فو ا‬akfāf,
‫ ا فو‬akiffā’2 light (of weight); slight, little,
trivial, insignificant; thin, scanty, sparse;
nimble, agile, sprightly, lively; -- ‫ا فيووف‬
name of a poetic meter │‫ فيوفاا حوكوة‬k. alḥaraka easily movable, very mobile;
nimble, agile; ‫ وفاا ودم‬k. ad-dam amiable,
charming; ‫ فيووفاا ووووح‬k. ar-rūḥ likable,
charming, winning, amiable; gay, in high
spirits, cheerful; ‫ فيوووفاا رووول‬k. az-zill
likable, nice (person); ‫ فيوفاا ع رضوي‬k. al‘āriḍīn having a thin beard; ‫ فيوفاا عقول‬k.
al-‘aql feeble-minded, dimwitted; ‫فيوفاا يود‬
k. al-yad nimble-fingered, deft; ‫شو ا فيوف‬
weak tea
‫ ت فيوووووف‬takfīf lightening, easing;
lessening,
decrease,
diminution;
reduction; allaying, mitigation, alleviation,
palliation,
moderation;
commutation
(jur.); relief; thinning. dilution (e.g., of a
liquid)
│‫ظوووووووااا أ فيوووووف‬
extenuating
circumstances (jur.)
‫ اسوووووأ ف ا‬istikfāf disdain,
contempt; levity, frivolity
scorn,
‫ ظوواام ففة‬ẓurūf mukaffafa extenuating
circumstances (jur.)
‫ م فف‬mukaffaf thin, diluted
‫ فت‬kafata u ( ‫ فا‬kufūt) to become inaudible,
die down, die away (sound, voice); to
become silent, become still III ‫وتابكالمو ىا‬
‫( بصووات‬bi-kalāmihī, bi-ṣautihī) to lower
one’s voice IV to silence, reduce to
silence (‫ ه‬s.o.) VIII = I
‫ فا‬kufūt fading (radio)
‫ فووت‬kāfit dying away, dying down,
becoming silent; inaudible; faint, dying,
fading, trailing off (sound, voice); soft,
subdued (light, color)
‫ م أفت‬muktafit soft, low, subdued 249
‫ فوو‬kafara u (kafr, ‫ فو ر‬kifāra) to watch (‫هوـ‬, ‫ه‬
s.o., s.th. or over s.o., over s.th.), guard,
protect (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.); -- kafira a (kafar,
‫ فو ر‬kafāra) to be timid, shy, bashful II =
I kafara V = I kafira
‫ فو‬kafr watching, watch, guard(ing)
‫ فووو‬kafar guard detachment, guard;
escort │‫ ا فواا سااحل‬coast guard (Eg.)
‫فووووووو‬
kafar
timidity,
bashfulness, diffidence
shyness,
‫ فوو‬kafir bashful, diffident, timid, shy,
embarrassed, coy
‫ فيوو‬kafīr pl. ‫ فووا‬kufarā’2 watchman;
protector, guardian; guard, sentry, sentinel
‫ فوو ر‬kafāra watch(ing), guard(ing),
protection; guard duty
‫ م فوووو‬makfar pl. ‫ م ووو و‬maḳāfir 2
guardhouse, guardroom; guard, control
post │‫ ام فووواا شوووهة‬m. aš-šurṭa police
station
‫ و و‬kāfira: ‫ و و اا سوااحل‬k. as-sawāḥil
coastguard cruiser (Eg.)
‫ م فوار‬makfūr under escort, escorted;
covered, sheltered, protected
‫ فوس‬kafasa u (kafs) to ridicule, scorn (‫ ه‬s.o.),
laugh, mock (‫ ه‬at); to destroy, demolish,
tear down (‫ ه‬a house)
‫ فش‬kafaš day blindness, hemeralopia
‫ ا فوش‬akfaš2, f. ‫ فشو‬kafšā’2, pl. ‫ فوش‬kufš day
blind,
hemeralopic;
weak-sighted,
afflicted with defective vision
‫ ف ش‬kuffāš pl. ‫ ف ش‬kafāfiš2 bat (zool.)
‫ ف‬ka
i (kafḍ) to make lower (‫ هـ‬s.th.);
to lower, decrease, reduce, lessen,
diminish (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to lower, drop (‫هوـ‬, ‫مو‬
s.th., also, e.g., the voice); (gram.) to
pronounce the final consonant of a word
with i; to put (‫ هوـ‬a word) in the genitive
│ ‫( فو اج حو‬janāḥahū)to unbend toward
s.o., show o.s. open-minded, responsive,
accessible to; -- kafuḍa u to be carefree,
easy, comfortable (life); to sink, dip, drop,
settle, subside; to become low, drop to an
undertone (voice) II to lower, decrease,
reduce (‫ هوـ‬s.th., price) │‫ فو اعليول‬kaffiḍ
‘alaika! take it easy! ‫فوو اعليوولاجبشووول‬
(ja’šaka) cool off! calm down! relax! IV
‫( ا فو اصوات‬ṣautahū) he lowered his voice
V and VII to sink, dip, drop, settle,
subside; to be lowered, be reduced (price);
to decrease, grow less; to be diminished
‫فووووو‬
kafḍ lowering, lessening,
decrease, diminution, reduction; subduing,
lowering, muffling (of the voice);
curtailment, limitation, restriction; ease
(of life); (gram.) pronunciation of the final
consonant with i │‫ فو اا قيموة‬k. al-qīma
devaluation (of a currency); ‫ فو اا عويش‬k.
al-‘aiš carefree, easy life; ‫هواا و ا فو امو ا‬
‫ ا عويش‬he lives in ease and comfort; ‫فو ا‬
‫ ا صوا‬k. aṣ-ṣaut lowering of the voice;
‫ حوااا ف‬ḥarf al-k. preposition (gram.)
‫ ف‬kafiḍ low, soft, subdued (voice)
‫ ت في‬takfīḍ lowering, cutback, reduction (esp.
of
prices);
diminution,
decrease,
lessening,
curtailment,
restriction,
limitation
‫ اظ فو‬inkifāḍ sinking, dropping, subsidence;
lowering, reduction; lessen ing, decrease.
diminution, decrement; dropping of the
water level, low water │ ‫اظ فووو اجوووا‬
(jawwī) low-pressure area (meteor.)
‫ م فووو‬mukaffaḍ lowered, reduced, low,
moderate (price, rate); lower
‫ موو ف‬munkafiḍ low (altitude, frequency,
price, etc.); soft, low, subdued, muffled
(voice) │‫ ادراضو اا م ف وة‬the Netherlands;
-- munkafaḍ pl. -āt low ground;
depression (geogr.) 250
‫فوق‬
kafaāqa i u (kafq, ‫ فقو ن‬kafaqān, ‫فوا‬
kufūq) to vibrate; to tremble, shake; to
beat, throb, palpitate (heart); to flutter,
wave, stream (flag); to flap the wings,
flutter (bird); to waver, flicker; -- (kafq) to
flash (lightning); to beat, whip (‫ ه‬s.th.;
eggs, cream, etc.); to make the sound of
footsteps (shoe); - ( ‫ فوا‬kufūq) to drop
one’s head drowsily, nod off, doze off
(‫ فوقا فقوة‬k. kafqatan); -- i ( ‫ فوا‬kufūq) to
set, go down (celestial body) II to
roughcast, plaster, stucco (‫ هوـ‬a wall) IV to
flap the wings, flutter (bird); to set, go
down (celestial body); to be unsuccessful,
go wrong, fail, miscarry, come to nothing,
be abortive; to fail, be unsuccessful ( ‫ و‬in
s.th.)
‫فووووق‬
kafq throb(bing) palpitation;
beating, beat; footfall, footstep, tread (of a
boot, of the foot)
‫ فقوة‬kafqa pl. kafaqāt (n. vic.) beat,
throb; tap, rap, knock; ticking noise, tick
‫ فقو ن‬kafaqān palpitation of the heart,
heartbeat;
throb(bing),
beat(ing);
f1uttering, flutter
‫ فو‬kaffāq palpitant, throbbing (heart);
fluttering, waving, streaming (flag)
O ‫ م فقة‬mikfaga whisk, eggbeater
‫ ا ف‬ikfāq failure, fizzle, flop, fiasco
‫ و ق‬kāfiq palpitant, throbbing (heart);
fluttering, waving, streaming (flag); ‫ا فقو ن‬
al-kafaqān East and West; ‫ ا اا ووق‬alkawāfiq the cardinal points, the four
quarters of the world
‫ و ق‬kāfiqī mortar, plaster, rough-cast;
stucco
‫ ف ن‬see ‫ف‬
‫ فوو‬kafiya a to be hidden, be concealed; to be
unknown (a fact; ‫ علو‬to s.o.); to disappear,
hide │‫ الاي فوواان‬it is well known that ...; as
everybody knows ..., it is obvious that ... ;
‫ الاي فوواعليول‬you know very well ..., you are
well aware (of it); -- kafā i to hide,
conceal (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to keep secret (‫ هوـ‬s.th.)
IV to hide, conceal (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to afford (‫هوـ‬
s.o.) a place to hide, shelter, hide (‫ هوـ‬s.o.);
to keep secret (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to disguise,
conceal (‫ هووـ‬s.th., ‫ علووو‬or ‫ عو‬from s.o.)
│ ‫ ا فوواا صوا‬to lower the voice, speak in
an undertone V to hide, keep o.s. out of
view; to disguise o.s. VIII to hide, keep
o.s. out of view; to disappear, vanish; to
be hidden, be unknown; to be lacking, be
missing, be absent │‫ ا أفوواعو اادظرو ر‬to be
hidden or disappear from sight X to hide,
keep o.s. out of view; to be hidden, be
concealed; to be hidden from s.o.’s ( ‫)عو‬
view, become invisible ( ‫ عووو‬to s.o.),
disappear from sight
‫ ف و‬kafīy hidden, concealed; secret,
unknown; unseen, invisible; mysterious
│‫ فو ااالسوم‬k. al-ism anonymous; O ‫اظواارا‬
‫( فية‬anwār) indirect lighting
‫فيووووة‬
kufyatan, kifyatan secretly,
clandestinely, covertly; ‫ فيوةاع و‬without his
knowledge
‫ فيوة‬kafīya pl. ‫ ف يو‬kafāyā a secret, a
secret affair
‫ ف‬kafa’ secrecy, hiddenness │ ‫و اا فو‬
secretly, clandestinely, covertly; ‫الا فو ا و ا‬
‫( ان‬kafā’a) it is quite evident, it is quite
obvious that ...
‫ا فوووووو‬
ikfā’
hiding,
secretion;
concealment; lowering of the voice
‫ ت ف‬takaffin disguise
‫ ا أف‬iktifā’ disappearance
‫ و ا‬kāfin hidden, concealed; secret,
unknown; unseen, invisible
‫ ية‬kāfiya pl. ‫ وااا‬kawāfin a secret; -pl. ‫ ا وواا و‬al-kawāfī the coverts, the
secondaries (of a bird’s wing)
‫ م ف‬makfīy hidden, concealed 251
‫ مأ ف‬mutakaffin disguised, in disguise
‫ م أوووف‬muktafin hidden. Concealed,
clandestine, covert, secret; disappearing,
vanishing
‫ م أفو‬muktafan hiding place, hide-out
‫لن‬
look up alphabetically
‫ ول‬kalla u (kall) to pierce, transfix (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) II
to turn sour; to make sour, to sour, acidify
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to pickle, marinate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
salt. cure with salt or in brine (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
pick (‫ هوـ‬the teeth); to run the fingers (‫ه‬
through s.th.), part, comb (‫ هوـ‬the hair, the
beard, also with the fingers) III to treat (‫ه‬
s.o.) as a friend IV to offend (‫ ب‬against),
infringe, transgress (‫ ب‬s.th.); to violate,
break (‫ ب‬s.th., e.g., a rule, a custom); to
fail to fulfill, fail to meet (‫ ب‬an
agreement); to forsake, desert, abandon (‫ب‬
s.o., s.th.); to disturb, upset, harm,
prejudice (‫ ب‬s.th.) V to be, lie or come
between s.th. (‫ ;هوـ‬also in time), intervene
(‫ هوـ‬between); to be located or situated, be
Interposed, be placed (‫ هووـ‬between); to
Permeate, pervade, interpenetrate (‫ هـ‬s.th.),
mix, mingle, blend (‫ هوـ‬with) VIII to be or
become defective; to be in disorder, be
faulty, deficient, imperfect; to become
disordered; to be upset, be unbalanced; to
be disturbed (order, system) │‫ا ألوتاا شوووه‬
the conditions are not fulfilled; ‫ا أولاتاازظو‬
(tawāzunuhū) to lose one’s balance,
become unbalanced; ‫‘( ا أولاعقلو‬aqluhū) to
be mentally deranged
‫ ل‬kall vinegar
‫ وول‬kill, kull pl. ‫ ا ووالل‬aklāl friend,
bosom friend
‫ لول‬kalal pl. ‫ والل‬kilāl gap, interval,
interstice; cleft, crack, rupture, fissure; a
defective, unbalanced state, imbalance;
defectiveness, imperfection; fault, flaw,
defeat, shortcoming; disturbance, upset,
disorder; damage, injury, harm (that s.th.
suffers or suffered); ‫ ووالل‬kilāla during;
between; through │‫ و ا لول‬fī kalali and ‫و ا‬
‫ ووالل‬fī kilāli during; in the course of,
within, in a given period of; ‫و ا واللا ول‬
meanwhile, in the meantime; ‫ مو ا والل‬min
kilāli across, through, right through the
middle of; out of, from within; (to judge,
reason, draw conclusions, etc.) by, on the
basis of, on the strength of, (to recognize)
from
‫ لوة‬kalla need, want, luck; -- (pl. ‫والل‬
(kilāl) property, attribute, peculiarity;
characteristic; natural disposition
‫ لة‬kulla pl. ‫ لل‬kulal friendship
‫ ووالل‬kilāl pl. ‫ ا لووة‬akilla boring or
drilling implement; peg, pin; spit, skewer;
(also ‫ ال وة‬pl. -āt) toothpick; see also ‫لول‬
kalal
‫ ليول‬kalīl pl. ‫ ا وال‬akillā’2, ‫ والن‬kullān
friend, bosom friend; lovers; ‫ ا ليول‬Hebron
(town in Jordanian Palestine) │ ‫ليوولا‬
epithet of Abraham
‫ ليلوة‬kalīla pl. -āt girl friend, woman
friend; sweetheart, paramour
‫ لبوواص‬kalbūṣ pl. ‫ البوويص‬kalābīṣ2,
‫ البصووة‬kalābiṣa (eg.) clown, buffoon,
harlequin
‫ اماا لووال‬umm al-kulūl river mussel
(zool.)
‫ ا ووالل‬iklāl pl. -āt breach, infraction,
violation (of a law, of a treaty, and the
like); offence (against), transgression,
infringement (of); disturbance (of an
order, of a system); impairment, injury,
harm (to); average, damage, by sea │‫مواا‬
‫‘( عوووودمااال وووواللاب‬adami l-i.) without
prejudice to, without detriment to ‫ا وأالل‬
iktilāl
deficiency,
defectiveness,
imperfection; (a falling into) disrepair,
deterioration; faultiness; disturbance (of a
system, of a function, of the equilibrium,
etc.); disorder, confusion
‫ لو‬kalaja i and III to be on s.o.’s (‫ )ه‬mind,
trouble, preoccupy, prepossess (‫ ه‬s.o.,
s.o.’s mind; said of worries, doubts, etc.);
to pervade, fill (‫ ه‬s.o.; said of a feeling) │‫ا‬
‫اللب‬
(qalbahū) to be uppermost in s.o.’s
heart V to be shaken, be convulsed, be
rocked VIII to quiver, tremble, quake,
shake; to twitch (eye, limb, body); to
animate, move, stir, inspire, fill, pervade,
possess (‫هوـ‬, ‫ و‬the heart; said of a feeling)
│ ‫( اا وأل اغم و‬gamman) to be filled with
sorrow, with grief (heart)
‫ م لول‬mukallal pickled; salted; (pl. -āt)
pickles, pickled vegetables
‫لجووووة‬
kalja pl. ka1ajāt emotion,
sentiment; scruple, qualm, misgiving
‫ م ول‬mukill disgraceful, shameful │‫م ولا‬
‫ ب ب اب‬immoral, indecent, improper 252
‫ لوي‬kalīj pl. ‫ لو‬kulj, ‫ لجو ن‬kuljān bay,
gulf; canal; ‫ ا لوي‬name of Cairo’s ancient
city canal which was abandoned and
leveled at the end of the 19th century
│ ‫ ا لي اا ف رس‬the Persian Gulf
‫ لوب‬kalaba i u (kalb) to seize with the claws,
clutch (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), pounce (‫ هوـ‬on); -- u (‫البوة‬
kilāba) to cajole, coax, wheedle (‫ ه‬s.o.); to
inveigle, beguile, bewitch, enchant (‫ ه‬s.o.,
‫‘ عقلووو‬aqlahū s.o.’s mind); to charm,
fascinate, captivate (‫ ه‬s.o.) III to cajole,
wheedle, coax. inveigle, beguile, bewitch,
enchant (‫ ه‬s.o.) VIII to seize with the
claws, clutch (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), pounce (‫ هوـ‬on); to
cajole, inveigle, beguile, bewitch, enchant
(‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ لووب‬kilb pl. ‫ ا ووالب‬aklāb fingernail,
claw, talon
‫ بووو ا لووب‬barqun kallābun and barqu
kullabin lightning without a downpour; a
disappointing, disillusioning matter; ‫لووب‬
and ‫ لبام ابو‬delusion, illusion
‫ووال‬
qualm
kilāj misgiving, doubt, scruple,
‫ ا أالجوة‬iktilāja (n. vic.) convulsion, jerk,
twitch; tremor
‫ جوة‬kālija pl. ‫ واا‬kawālij2 emotion,
sentiment; scruple, qualm; idea
‫ ل ل‬kalkala to shake, convulse, rock (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
to rarefy (‫ هوـ‬s.th., e.g., air; chem.- phys.) II
takalkala to be shaken, be rocked; to come
off, become disjointed, become detached;
to become loose, work loose; to be or
become rarefied (chem.- phys.)
‫ ل ل‬kalkal pl. ‫ ال ل‬kalākil2 anklet
‫ لب و‬kullabī: ‫( شوولا لووب‬fašak) blank
cartridges (Syr.; mil.)
‫ ل ل‬kalkāl pl. ‫ ال يل‬kalākīl 2 anklet
‫وووالب‬
kallāb gripping, captivating,
fascinating; attractive, engaging, winning;
tempting, enticing; fraudulent, deceitful;
deceptive, delusive, fallacious
‫ م ل ول‬mukalkal and ‫ مأ ل ول‬mutakalkil
rarefied
‫البوووووة‬
kilāba engaging
attractiveness, charm
manners,
‫ م لوب‬miklab pl. ‫ م ووب‬makālib claw,
talon
‫ب‬
kālib = ‫ الب‬kallāb
‫ لبص‬II kalbaṣa (eg.) to clown
‫ ت ل ل‬takalkul rarefication
‫لود‬
kalada u ( ‫ لوا‬kulūd) to remain or last
forever, be everlasting; to be immortal,
deathless, undying; to abide forever (‫ ا وو‬or
‫ ب‬in, with); to remain, stay (‫ ا وو‬or ‫ ب‬or ‫ل‬
at a place) │‫ا لداا وواا واحوة‬to rest, relax; ‫لودا‬
‫ ا وواا وام‬to lie down to sleep II to make
eternal or
everlasting,
perpetuate,
eternalize (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.), make immortal,
immortalize (‫ هوووووـ‬s.o.); to make
ineffaceable, unforgettable (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.; a
memory); to remain, stay, abide, linger (‫ب‬
at, in a place); to grow very old, enjoy a
long life, be long-lived IV to eternize,
immortalize, make immortal (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫هووـ‬
s.th.); to perpetuate (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to remain,
stay, abide, linger (‫ ا وو‬or ‫ ب‬at, in a place)
253 to be disposed, incline, lean, tend (‫ا وو‬
to) V to become eternal or immortal,
perpetuate o.s. j to be or become long,
lasting, perpetual
‫ لود‬kuld infinite duration, endless time,
perpetuity, eteruity │‫ا اراا لود‬Paradise, the
hereafter
‫ لد‬kuld mole (zool.)
‫ لود‬kalad, pl. ‫ ا وال‬aklād mind, heart,
spirit, temper
‫ ل وا‬kulūd infinite duration, endless
time, perpetuity, eternity; eternal life,
immortality; abiding, remaining, staying
‫ ت ليود‬taklīd perpetuation, eternization,
immortalization
‫ ود‬kālid everlasting, perpetual, eternal;
immortal,
deathless,
undying;
unforgettable, glorious; pl. ‫ اا ود‬kawālid2
mountains │ ‫ ا جزائوووواا ووودا‬the Canary
Islands
‫ م لود‬muklid disposed, inclined, tending
(‫ ا و‬to)
‫ لوس‬kalasa i (kals) to steal (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to pilfer,
filch, swipe, purloin (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) III ‫لسو اا روو‬
(naẓara) to glance furtively at s.o. VIII to
steal, pilfer, filch, swipe (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to get
under false pretenses or by crooked means
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to embezzle, misappropriate (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to spend secretly (‫ هوـ‬hours) │‫ا وألسا‬
‫( ا وواا وو‬kuṭā) to sneak up on s.o.; ‫ا وألسا‬
‫ ا رواا واي ة‬to glance furtively at s.o.
‫ لسووة‬kulsatan by stealth, stealthily,
surreptitiously, furtively
‫ الس‬kilāsī mulatto, bastard
‫ ا وأالس‬iktilās pl. -āt embezzlement,
misappropriation, defalcation
‫ م ألس‬muktalis embezzler, defalcator
‫لووص‬
kalaṣa u (‫ لوواص‬kulūṣ) to be pure,
unmixed, unadulterated; to belong (‫ ل‬to
s.o.); to get, come (‫ ا و‬to), arrive (‫ ا و‬at); -(‫ والص‬kallāṣ) to be or become free, be
freed, be liberated ( ‫ مو‬from), be cleared,
get rid ( ‫ مو‬of); to be saved, be rescued,
escape ( ‫ م و‬from); to be redeemed, be
delivered, attain salvation (Chr.); -(colloq.) to be finished, be done, be
through, be over; to be all gone II to clear,
purify, refine, purge, rectify (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
clarify (‫ هووـ‬a situation); to liberate, free,
save, rescue (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ م‬from), rid (. s.o., ‫مو‬
of); to redeem, deliver (Chr.); to prepay
the postage (‫ علوو‬on); to pay duty (‫علووا‬
‫ ا ب و ئا‬on merchandise), clear (‫ علوو‬goods);
to settle (‫ هوـ‬a bill); (colloq.) to finish (‫هوـ‬
s.th.) │ ‫( لصاحق‬ḥaqqahū) to restore one’s
right, secure one’s due III to act with
integrity, with sincerity (‫ ه‬toward s.o.),
treat (‫ ه‬s.o.) fair and square; to get even,
become quits (‫ ه‬with s.o.) IV to dedicate
(‫ ل هـ‬to s.o. s.th.); to be loyal (‫ ل‬to s.o.); to
be devoted, be faithful (‫ ل‬to) │‫ا لوصا و ا‬
‫( ا حوب‬ḥubba) to love s.o. dearly; ‫ا لوصاهللا‬
‫( ي و‬li-llāhi dīnahū) to worship God
faithfully and sincerely V to rid o.s. ( ‫مو‬
of), free o.s. ( ‫ مو‬from), get rid ( ‫ مو‬of); to
be freed, be delivered, be saved, be
rescued, escape ( ‫ مو‬from) VI to act with
reciprocal integrity and sincerity; to be
quits, be even X to extract (‫ هوـ‬s.th., ‫مو‬
from); to copy, excerpt (‫ هوـ‬s.th., ‫ مو‬from);
to abstract, take, gather, work out (‫ هـ‬s.th.,
as the quintessence, ‫ مو‬of); to deduce,
infer, derive ( ‫ موو‬s.th., ‫ موو‬from); to
discover, make out, find out (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to
select, choose (‫ هووـ‬s.th.) ; to demand
payment of a sum (‫ )هوـ‬and get it ( ‫ مو‬from
s.o.) │ ‫ اسأ لصا ئد امو‬to derive profit from,
profit, benefit from; ‫اسوووأ لصام ووو اوعووودا‬
(wa‘dan) to exact a promise from s.o.
‫ وووالص‬kalāṣ liberation, deliverance,
riddance; rescue, salvation ( ‫ موو‬from);
redemption (Chr.); payment, settlement,
liquidation (of a bill); receipt; placenta,
afterbirth 254
‫ الصوة‬kulāṣa pl. -āt excerpt; extract,
essence; quintessence, substance, gist (of
s.th.); abstract,
resume,
summary,
epitome; synopsis │‫( الصوةاظه ئيوة‬nihā’īya)
summation (jur.); ‫( ا الصوووةاا الهاتيوووة‬allāhītīya) the “summa theological” (of
Thomas Aquinas); ‫‘( الص وةاع ويووة‬iṭrīya)
perfume essence; ‫ وا الصوة‬in short, briefly,
in a word (introducing a summary of the
basic ideas)
‫ لوويص‬kalīṣ, pl. ‫ لصو‬kulaṣā’2 pure,
clear, unmixed, unadulterated; sincere,
faithful, loyal; loyal adherent
‫ لواص‬kulūṣ clearness, purity; sincerity,
candor; frankness
‫ الص‬kallāṣ (magr.) tax collector
‫ م لوووص‬maklaṣ safe place; refuge,
escape, rescue, salvation, deliverance
‫ ت لووويص‬taklīṣ clearing, purification,
refining,
rectification;
clarification;
liberation, extrication, deliverance, rescue,
salvation;
payment,
settlement,
liquidation; prepayment of postage (‫علووو‬
on); customs clearance, payment of duty
(‫ علوواا ب و ئا‬on merchandise; also ‫ت لوويصا‬
‫)ا ب ئا‬
‫ م صة‬mukālaṣa pl. -āt receipt
‫ ا ووالص‬iklāṣ sincere devotion, loyal
attachment, sincere affection; sincerity,
frankness, candor; loyalty, faithfulness,
fidelity, allegiance (‫ ل‬to)
‫ ت لوووص‬takalluṣ freedom, liberation,
release, extrication, escape ( ‫ م‬from)
‫ اسوأ الص‬istiklāṣ extraction; excerption;
derivation, deduction; selection; collecting
(of a sum of money)
‫ و ص‬kāliṣ pl. ‫ لوص‬kullaṣ clear; pure,
unmixed, unadulterated; sincere, frank,
candid, true; free, exempt ( ‫ مووو‬from)
│ ‫ صاادجو‬k. al-ujra post-free; ‫صاا وو‬
k. ar-radd prepaid, reply paid for
(telegram);
‫ووو صاموووو اا كموووو‬
(gumrug)
dutyfree; ‫ صاا ويبة‬tax-exempt
‫ م لووووص‬mukalliṣ
Redeemer (Chr.)
liberator;
Savior,
‫ م لوصايعليو ة‬mukallaṣ (‘alaihi) postage
paid
‫ م لوص‬mukliṣ devoted; sincere, frank,
candid; loyal; faithful (‫ ل‬to s.o., to s.th.);
purehearted, virtuous, righteous; ‫ا م لووص‬
(in letters) approx.: yours truly …,
sincerely yours ...
‫ مسوووأ لص‬mustaklaṣ pl. -āt extract,
excerpt
‫ لوط‬kalaṭa i (kalṭ) to mix, mingle, commingle,
blend (‫ هوووـ ب‬s.th. with); to confuse,
confound, mix up ( ‫ بي‬two things; ‫بي ا–اوبي‬
s.th. with), mistake (‫او‬--‫ بوي ا‬s.th. for) II to
mix, mingle, commingle, blend (‫ هوـ‬s.th.);
to cause confusion III to mix, mingle,
blend, merge, fuse (‫ هووـ‬with s.th.); to
meddle (‫ هوـ‬in), interfere (‫ هوـ‬with); to mix,
associate (‫ ه‬with s.o.); to have to do (‫ ه‬with
s.o.) │ ‫( و طاظفسو‬nafsahū) to befall, attack
s.o. (pain, etc.); ‫ ووا طا و اعقل و‬kūliṭa fī
‘aqlihi to be or become disordered in
mind VIII to be mixed, mix, mingle, form
a mixture or blend; to consist of a
heterogeneous mixture, be motley,
promiscuous; to associate, be on intimate
terms (‫ ب‬with); to be or become confused,
get all mixed up
‫لوووووووط‬
kalṭ
mixing,
blending;
combination; mingling, commingling (‫ب‬
with); confusing, confounding, mistaking,
mix-up, confusion
‫ لوط‬kilṭ pl. ‫ ا واله‬aklāṭ component of a
mixture; ingredient; pl. mixture, blend │‫ا‬
‫ ا والهااالظسو ن‬the four humors of the human
body (blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and
black bile); ‫ ا والهامو اا و س‬common people,
populace, rabble, riffraff, mob; ‫ لوطاملوط‬kilṭ
milṭ, kalṭ malṭ motley, pell-mell,
promiscuously 255
‫ ل ة‬kalṭa mixture, blend, medley
‫ ل ة‬kulta company; mixture
‫ واله‬and ‫الهوة‬
mixing machine
kallāṭa pl. -āt mixer,
‫ لووويط‬kalīṭ mixed, blended; motley,
heterogeneous, promiscuous; mixture,
blend ( ‫ مو‬of); medley, hodgepodge; (pl.
‫ ل ووو‬kulaṭā’2) associate, companion,
comrade
‫ ت ليط‬taklīṭ pl. -āt insanity; delirium
‫وة‬
‫ م‬mukālaṭa company, intercourse,
association
‫ ا وووأاله‬iktilāṭ (process of) mixing,
blending;
mingling,
commingling;
confusion; mental disorder; (social)
intercourse, association, dealings (‫ ب‬with)
‫ م لووواه‬maklūṭ pl. ‫ م ووو يط‬makālīṭ2
mixture, blend; alloy
‫ م لط‬mukallaṭ confused, disordered
‫ م و ط‬mukālaṭ stricken, afflicted (‫ ب‬e.g.,
by a disease)
‫ م وألط‬muktaliṭ mixed │‫اا محو كماا م أل وة‬
the mixed courts, see ‫تعلوويمام ووألط ;محكمووة‬
coeducation
‫ لوا‬kala‘a a (kal‘) to take off, put off, slip off
(‫ هوـ‬a garment); to doff, take off (‫هوباشوة‬
one’s tarboosh); to extract, pull (‫ هووـ‬a
tooth); to wrench, dislocate, luxate (‫ هوـ‬a
joint); to depose, remove, dismiss,
discharge (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ مو‬from an office); to
renounce, forgo, give up (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.),
withdraw (‫ هوـ‬from); to throw off, cost off
(‫‘ عووولاره‬idārahū one’s restraint, one’s
inhibitions); to refuse (‫ ا عوة‬obedience);
to disown, repudiate ( ‫ اب و‬one’s son); to
divorce ( ‫ هو‬one’s wife) in return for a
compensation to be paid by her; to get
through, have done (‫ هووـ‬with s.th.), be
through, have gone through s.th. (‫هـ‬, e.g., a
hard day); to impart (‫ هوـ علوو‬s.th. to); to
confer, bestow (‫ هوـ علوو‬s.th. upon s.o.),
grant, award (‫ هـ علو‬s.th. to s.o.) │ ‫ا لوااثي بو‬
(tiyābahū) to undress; ‫‘( لعو امو اا عووش‬arš)
to dethrone s.o.; ‫( لوااعليو ا لعوة‬kil‘atan) to
bestow a robe of honor upon s.o.; ‫لوااعلووا‬
‫( ظفس احق‬ḥaqqa) to arrogate to o.s. the right
of ...; -- kalu‘a u (‫ العوة‬kalā‘a) to be
dissolute, morally depraved II to take
away, remove, displace, dislocate (‫هوووـ‬
s.th.); to knock out of joint, take or break
apart (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); pass. kulli‘a to fall to
pieces, get out of joint III to divorce ( ‫هو‬
one’s wife, in return for a compensation to
be paid by her) V to go to pieces, fall
apart, break; to become or be luxated,
dislocated (joint); to take a vacation in the
country (tun.) │‫(ات لاا اا شواب‬šarāb) to be
addicted to drinking, drink heavily VII to
be displaced, be dislocated, be removed;
to be divested, be deprived, be stripped
( ‫ مو‬of s.th.), forfeit, lose ( ‫ مو‬s.th.) │‫ااظ لواا‬
‫( للبو‬qalbuhū) he was completely taken
aback, he was alarmed, startled
‫ ل وا‬kal‘ slipping off, taking off (of
clothes); deposition (e.g., of a ruler);
dislocation, luxation │‫ لااادسو ن‬extraction
of teeth
‫ لوا‬kul‘ khula, divorce at the instance
of the wife, who must pay a compensation
(Isl. Law)
‫ لعة‬kil‘a pl. ‫ لا‬kila‘ robe of honor
‫ ليوا‬kalī‘ pl. ‫ لعو‬kula‘a’2 deposed,
dismissed, discharged (from an office);
repudiated, disowned; wanton, dissolute,
dissipated, profligate, morally depraved
‫ وووال‬kallā‘ wild, unruly, wanton,
shameless, impudent
‫ العوة‬kalā‘a dissoluteness, dissipation,
profligacy, wantonness, licentiousness,
moral depravity; (tun.) recreation in the
country, summer vacation
‫ ا ا‬kaula’ fool, dolt, simpleton 256
‫ووو ا‬
kāli‘: ‫ووو ااا عووولار‬
k. al-‘idār
unrestrained,
;uninhibited,
wanton;
libertine, debauchee, roué, rake
‫ م لوا‬maklū‘ unrestrained, uninhibited,
wanton; wild, unruly; reckless, heedless,
irresponsible; crazy, mad
‫ لوف‬kalafa u to be the successor (‫ ه‬of s.o.),
succeed (‫ ه‬s.o.): to follow (‫ ه‬s.o.), come
after s.o. (‫)ه‬: to take the place of s.o. (‫)ه‬,
substitute (. for s.o.): to replace (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫هوـ‬
s.th.): to lag behind s.o. ( ‫)ع و‬: to stay
behind ( ‫ عو‬after s.o.’s departure); to be
detained, be held back, be kept away, stay
away ( ‫ مو‬from) II to appoint as successor
(‫ ه‬s.o.); to leave behind, leave (‫هوـ‬, ‫ ه‬s.o.,
s.th.); to have descendants, have offspring
III to be contradictory, contrary, opposed
(‫ هوـ‬to): to conflict, clash, be at variance (‫هوـ‬
with); to contradict (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to be
different, differ, diverge (‫ هووـ‬from), be
inconsistent, incompatible, not in keeping,
not to harmonize (‫ هوـ‬with); to offend (‫هوـ‬
against a command, a rule), break, violate,
disobey (‫ هوـ‬a command, a rule) IV to leave
(‫ ه‬offspring, children); to compensate,
requite, recompense (‫ علووو‬s.o.; said of
God): to break, fail to keep (‫ وعوده‬wa‘dahū
one’s promise), go back on one’s word; to
disappoint ( ‫ ا وجو‬ar-rajā’a the hopes) V
to stay behind; to lag or fall behind ( ‫;)عو‬
to stay, stay on, remain; to fail to appear
or show up; to play truant; to be absent; to
stay away ( ‫ عو‬from), not go ( ‫ عو‬to), not
attend ( ‫ ع‬s.th.) │ ‫( ت لفاع اا مج‬majī’) to
fail to come or arrive; ‫ت لووفاع و اا عووا‬
(‘auda) not to return VI to disagree, differ,
be at variance; to differ in opinion, be of a
different mind VIII to differ, be different,
vary ( ‫ ع و‬from); to be varied, varying,
variable, various, diverse, dissimilar; to
vary ( ‫ بوي‬between); to disagree, differ in
opinion, be at variance, argue, quarrel,
dispute ( ‫ ووو‬about); to come or go
frequently (‫ ا وو‬to), frequent, patronize (‫ا وو‬
a place), visit frequently (‫ ا وو‬s.o., s.th.),
come and go (‫ ا وو‬at); to come, descend
(‫ علوو‬upon s.o.; said of afflictions), befall,
overtake (‫ علووو‬s.o.) X to appoint as
successor or vicar (‫ ه‬s.o.)
‫ لف‬kalf back, rear, rear part or portion;
successors; kalfu and ‫ مو ا لوف‬min kalfu
(adv.) at the back, in the rear; kalfa (prep.)
behind, after, in the rear of │ ‫ اجووىا لفهو‬he
ran after her: ‫ مو ا لوف‬min kalfi behind, in
the rear of; ‫ مو اا لوف‬from behind, from the
rear; ‫ ا وواا لوف‬to the rear, backward, back;
‫ ا ووا لوفاا شو‬in the wake of s.th.; ‫و اا لوف‬
in the rear; at the back, in the background
‫ لف‬kalfī rear, hind, hinder, back
‫ لووف‬kilf pl. ‫ ا ووالا‬aklāf test, nipple,
mammilla
‫لووووف‬
kulf dissimilarity, disparity,
difference, contrast, variance, discrepancy
‫ لووف‬kalaf pl. ‫ ا ووالا‬aklāf substitute;
successor; descendant, offspring, scion
‫لفووووة‬
kilfa dissimilarity, disparity,
difference; that which follows s.th. and
replaces it (e.g., second growth of plants,
day and night, etc.)
‫ ليف وة‬kalīfa pl. ‫ لف و‬kulafā’2, ‫الئ وف‬
kalā’if2 vicar, deputy; successor; caliph;
(formerly) senior official of the native
administration in Tunis, assigned to a ‫ل ئود‬
(formerly) title of the ruler of Spanish
Morocco
‫ ا م قوةاا ليفيوة‬al-minṭaqa al-kalīfīya the
Caliphate Zone (formerly, designation of
Spanish Morocco)
‫ال وووة‬
kilāfa vicarship, deputyship;
succession; caliphate, office or rule of a
caliph:
(formerly)
administrative
department of a ‫( ليفة‬Tun.), see above
‫ م وووالا‬miklāf pl. ‫ م ووو يف‬makālīf2
province (Yemen) 257
‫ والا‬kilāf pl. -āt difference, disparity,
dissimilarity;
divergence,
deviation;
contrast,
contrariety,
incongruity,
contradiction, conflict; disagreement,
difference of opinion (‫ علوو‬or ‫ و‬about);
dispute, controversy; kilāfa (prep.) beside,
apart from, aside from │ ‫ ال و‬kilāfuhū (=
‫ )غيووه‬other, the like, ‫ ال هوم‬others (than
those mentioned), ‫ و ال و‬and the like (after
an enumeration); ‫ ب ووالا‬bi-kilāfi beside,
apart 'from, aside from; contrary to, as
opposed to, unlike; ‫ ال ووو ال‬kilāfan li
contrary to, against, in contradiction to;
‫ علووا والاا ول‬unlike that, contrary to that,
on the contrary, on the other hand
‫ ال‬kilāfī controversial, disputed
‫ م فوووة‬mukālafa pl. -āt contrast,
contrariety; contradiction, inconsistency;
contravention, infringement, violation;
misdemeanor (jur.; as distinguished from
‫ ج حة‬and ‫ ;)ج ية‬fine (for a misdemeanor)
‫ت لووووووف‬
takalluf
staying
away,
nonappearance,
nonattendance,
nonpresence, absence, truancy (also ‫ت لوفا‬
‫ ;)ع و اا ح ووار‬staying behind, staying on;
stopover (railroad); backwardness
‫ ا ووووأالا‬iktilāf pl. -āt difference,
dissimilarity, disparity; diversity, variety;
variant, variation; difference of opinion,
disagreement; controversy │‫ا وعيوووةاعلووووا‬
‫( ا ووأالااا موولاهباا دي يووة‬ra‘īya, dīnīya) the
subjects of every (= irrespective of their)
religious denomination; ‫علووواا وأالاااحووزابهم‬
whichever party they may belong to; ‫ا فااك ا‬
‫ علوواا أال هو‬all the different fruits, fruits of
every kind
‫ م لا ة‬maklūfa pl. -āt camel saddle
‫ م لووف‬mukallaf left, left behind; left
over; pl.
‫ م لفو‬heritage, legacy, estate;
scraps, leftovers
‫ م ووو ف‬mukālif divergent, varying,
different;
inconsistent,
incompatible,
contradictory, contrasting, conflicting;
transgressor (of a command)
‫ مأ لووف‬mutakallif residual; left over;
retarded,
backward,
underdeveloped
(mentally, in growth, etc.); pl. -ūn one left
behind; straggler; pl.
‫ مأ لفووو‬heritage,
legacy, estate; leftovers; scraps, refuse,
offal │‫( اتوبوةامأ لفوة‬atriba) waste material,
overburden, superstratum (in mining); ‫ا مي ها‬
‫( ا مأ لفة‬miyāh) waste water, sewage
‫ م ألووووف‬muktalif different, varying,
divergent ( ‫ مووو‬from); varied, various,
diverse; having a different opinion,
disagreeing ( or ‫ علو‬about)
disgraceful, ignominious, despicable; a
worthless fellow, a good-for-nothing
‫ ليوووق‬kalīq pl.
‫ لقووو‬kulaqā’2 fit,
qualified, suitable, appropriate (‫ب‬, ‫ ل‬for
s.th., ‫ ان‬to do s.th.); apt (‫ ان‬to do s.th.); in
keeping with (‫)ب‬, adequate (‫ ب‬to), worthy
(‫ ب‬of) │‫ ظحو ا ليقواناان‬it is (would be) only
fair that we ..., we should ..., we ought to
...; ‫ هواا ليوقاان‬he is apt to ..., it is only
natural for him that he ...; ‫ليوقابهولااانايكوانا‬
‫( مؤ مو‬mu’liman) this is apt to be paicful. it
is only natural that this is painful; ‫ظروو ا‬
‫( يسويو ا ليقوةااناتق ع و ابوبن‬tuqni‘anā) no more
than a quick glance is apt to convince us
that ...
‫ م ألووفا يو ايعليو ة‬muktalaf fīhi (‘alaihi)
controversial, disputed
‫ لوق‬kalaqa u (kalq) to create, make, originate
(‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to shape, form, mold (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); -kaliqa a and kaluqa u to be old, worn,
shabby (garment); -- kaluqa u (‫اللوووة‬
kalāqa) to be fit, suitable, suited II to
perfume (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) IV to wear out (‫ هوـ‬s.th.),
let (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) become old and shabby V
pass. of II; to be molded, be shaped (‫ ب‬by
a model or pattern), change (‫ ب‬with a
model); to become angry VIII to invent,
contrive, devise (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to fabricate,
concoct, think up (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to attribute
falsely (‫ علو هـ‬to s.o. s.th.)
‫ لوا‬kalūq of firm character, steadfast,
upright
‫ ا لوووق‬aklaq more adequate,
appropriate, more natural
‫ لوق‬kalq creation; making; origination;
s.th. which is created, a creation;
creatures; people, man, mankind; physical
constitution
‫ ال‬kallāq Creator, Maker (God)
‫ ليقوة‬kalīqa the creation, the universe
created by God; nature; natural
disposition, trait, characteristic; creatures,
created beings; pl. ‫ الئوق‬kalā’iq2 creatures,
created beings
‫ لوق‬kulq, kuluq pl. ‫ ا وال‬aklāq innate
peculiarity; natural disposition, character,
temper, nature; -- pl. ‫ ا وال‬aklāq character
(of a person); morals; morality │ ‫سوا اا لوق‬
sū’ al-k. ill nature; ‫ سيئاا لوق‬sayyi’ al-k. illnatured; ‫ سوهلاا لوق‬sahl al-k. complaisant,
obliging; ‫ ضويقاا لوق‬ḍayyiq al-k. impatient,
restless; ‫‘ علومااد وال‬ilm al-a. ethics; moral
science, morals; 258 ‫ سوماااد وال‬sumūw ala. nobility of character; ‫ مكو رمااد وال‬noble
manners, high moral standards; ‫شوووهةا‬
‫ اد ال‬šurṭa al-a. vice squad
‫ ا اللو‬aklāqī moral; ethic(al); ethicist,
moral philosopher │ ‫( جووووماا اللووو‬jurm)
offence against public morals; ‫ا فلسوووفةا‬
‫( اد الليووة‬falsafa) moral science, moral
philosophy; ethics
‫ أ اللية‬aklāqīya morality, moral practice
‫ لق ظ‬kulqānī dealer in old clothes
‫و ق‬
(God)
‫ لقو‬kulqī ethic(al), moral │‫اجووائما لقيوة‬
offenses against public morals
‫ م ألوق‬muktaliq inventor, fabricator (of
untruths)
‫ لقوة‬kilqa pl. ‫ لوق‬kilaq creation; innate
peculiarity
of
character,
natural
disposition,
nature;
constitution;
physiognomy; kilqatan by nature
‫ لقة‬kalaqa rag, tatter
‫ وال‬kalāq share (of positive qualities,
of religion) │ ‫( االا وووووال ا ووووو‬kalāqa)
kāliq creative; Creator, Maker
‫ م لوا‬maklūq created; (pl. -āt. ‫م و يق‬
makālīq2) creature, created being
‫ لوق‬kalaq (m. and f.) pl. ‫ لقو ن‬kulqān,
‫ ا وووال‬aklāq shabby, threadbare, worn
(garment)
‫ لق و‬kilqī natural, native, congenital,
innate, inborn, inbred
more
‫ م ألوق‬muktalaq fabricated, trumped up,
invented, fictitious; apocryphal; pl. -āt
lies, falsehoods, fabrications, fictions
‫ لقوي‬kalqīn pl. ‫ اللوي‬kalāqīn2 caldron,
boiler, kettle
1
2
‫ ا ل‬kalanj heath, erica (bot.)
‫ ا ل جو ن‬kulungān (eg.) (rhizome of) galingale
(Polypodium Calaguala Kz.; bot.)
‫ ووالاي لوواة‬kalā u (kulūw, ‫ ووال‬kalā’) to be
empty, vacant; -- (kuluw) to be free ( ‫ مو‬or
‫ عو‬from); to be devoid ( ‫ مو‬of s.th.), lack,
want ( ‫ مو‬s.th.), be in need ( ‫ مو‬of); to be
vacant (office); -- ( ‫ لوا‬kalwa) to be alone
(‫ب‬, ‫ا وو‬, ‫ موا‬with s.o., ‫ ا وو‬also: with or in
s.th.); to isolate o.s., seclude o.s.; to
withdraw, retire (‫ لمداو وة‬li-l-mudāwala for
deliberation; court, jury); to withdraw for
spiritual communion, in order to take
counsel (‫ ا وو‬with); to devote o.s., apply
o.s.. give one's attention (‫ ل‬to s.th.); ‫والابو‬
to forsake, desert s.o., leave s.o. in the
lurch; -- to pass (‫ ه‬s.o.), go by s.o. (‫ ;)ه‬to
pass, elapse, go by, be bygone, past, over
(time) │‫( ووالا و اا جووا‬jaww) to have free
scope. have freedom 259 of action; ‫الاي لواا‬
‫( مو اجمو ل‬jamāl) it is not without a certain
beauty; ‫( الاي لوواام و امب غووة‬mubālaga) it is
slightly exaggerated; ‫ الاي لواامو ا ئود‬it is not
quits useless; ‫ والاا وواظفسو‬to be alone with
o.s.; to commune with o.s., take counsel
with o.s., search one’s heart; ‫م لاعشواس اا ا‬
‫ لوت‬mundu ‘ašri sanawātin kalat for the
past ten years II to vacate, evacuate (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to leave, leave alone (‫ ه‬s.o.); to
release, let go (‫ ه‬s.o., ‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to desist,
abstain, refrain ( ‫ عو‬from), give up ( ‫عو‬
s.th.) │ ‫( لوواسوبيل‬sabīlahū) to let s.o. off,
let s.o. go, release s.o.; ‫لووابوي ا والناوبوي ا‬
‫ ا شو‬to give s.o. a free hand in, let s.o.
have his own way with or in, let s.o. alone
with; to open the way for s.o. to; ‫ولاع ولا‬
‫ هوولهاا ميووال‬kalli ‘anka h. l-muyūla desist
from such desires! IV to empty, void,
drain, deplete ( ‫ هوـ مو‬s.th. of); to vacate,
leave uninhabited or untenanted (‫ هووـ‬a
place); to evacuate (‫ هوـ‬a city) │ ‫ا لوواسوبيل‬
(sabīlahū) to let s.o. off, let s.o. go, release
s.o.; ‫ ا لوواا سوبيلال‬to open the way for ...;
‫( ا لوواهووا‬ṭarafahū) to dismiss, discharge
s.o., send s.o. away; to exonerate,
exculpate, clear s.o.; ‫( ا لواسمع ال‬sam‘ahū)
to be all ears for ..., listen intently to ...;
‫ ا لوابي و اوبوي امو ايقوال‬to let s.o. say whatever
he likes, let s.o. talk freely V to give up,
relinquish, forgo, abandon ( ‫ ع‬or ‫ مو‬s.th.),
withdraw, resign ( ‫ عو‬or ‫ مو‬from); to cede,
leave, surrender (‫ عو ل‬s.th. to s.o.); to lay
down ( ‫ عووو‬an office) VIII to retire,
withdraw, step aside, be alone (‫ ب‬or ‫موا‬
with)
‫ لا‬kilw free ( ‫ م‬from), devoid ( ‫ م‬of)
‫ لوا‬kulūw emptiness, vacuity; freedom
( ‫ م‬from)
‫ وال‬kalā and ‫( مو ا وال‬with foll. acc. or
genit.) except, save, with the exception of
‫ ووال‬kalā’ emptiness, vacuity; empty
space, void, vacancy, vacuum; open
country │ ‫ تحوتاا وال‬or ‫ و اا وال‬under the
open sky, outdoors, in the open air; ‫بيوتا‬
‫ ا ال‬bait al-k. toilet, water closet
‫لووووا‬
kalwa pl. kalawāt privacy,
solitude; seclusion, isolation, retirement;
place of retirement or seclusion, retreat,
recess; secluded room; hermitage;
religious assembly hall of the Druses;
booth, cabin │ ‫ علوووووا لووووا‬alone; in
retirement, in seclusion; ‫ لوا اا حمو م‬k. alḥammām bathhouse
‫ لوا‬kalawī lonely, solitary, secluded,
isolated, outlying; located in the open
country, rural, rustic, country │ ‫بيوتا لوا‬
(bait) country house
‫ لووو‬kalīy pl. ‫ ا ليو‬akliyā’2 free ( ‫م و‬
from), void, devoid ( ‫ م و‬of) │‫لووواا ب و ل‬
carefree, easygoing, happy-go-lucky
‫ ليوة‬kalīya pl. ‫ اليو‬kalāyā beehive; cell
(biol.) │‫( ا ليوةاا حيايوةاادو وو‬al-ḥayawīya lūlā) protoplasm; ‫ مو ا اليو‬from within ...,
from inside ..., out of ...
‫ م ال‬miklāh nosebag
‫ ت لية‬takliya vacating, evaluation
‫ ا وال‬iklā’ emptying, voiding, draining;
clearing; vacating, evacuation │ ‫ا وال اسوبيل‬
i. sabīlihī; his release
‫ت وووووووول‬
takallin
relinquishment,
abandonment, surrender, renunciation,
resignation ( ‫ ع‬of s.th.)
‫ ا أال‬iktilā’ privacy, solitude
‫ول‬
kālin empty, void; open, vacant (office,
position); free, unrestrained, untrammeled,
unencumbered; free ( ‫ مو‬from), devoid ( ‫مو‬
of)
│in
numerous
compounds
corresponding to Engl. -less or un-, e.g.,
‫ لامو اا ف ئود‬useless, ‫( و لامو اا سوك ن‬sukkān)
uninhabited, untenanted, unoccupied; ‫و ا‬
‫ ا ودي‬kālī d-dain not bound by, without
obligation to, free ( ‫ م و‬from); ‫و واا ب و ل‬
carefree, easygoing, happy-go-lucky; -(pl. ‫ واال‬kawālin) 260 past, bygone (time)
│‫ ا قوووناا يوة‬the past centuries; ‫و اااليو ما‬
‫ ا اا‬fī l-ayyāmi l-kawālī in the days past
ripe, ripen (also fig.: an idea in s.o.’s
mind)
‫ وم‬kamma u (kamm) to sweep (‫ هوـ‬a room); -- i
u (kamm, ‫ موام‬kumūm) to exude a rotten,
foul smell; to rot, putrefy, decay
‫ موو‬kamr m. and f., pl. ‫ موار‬kumūr
wine; pl. alcoholic beverages, liquor
‫ وم‬kumm pl. ‫ ا مو م‬akmām coop, chicken
coop, brooder; poultry pen
‫ مووو‬kamrī golden brown, reddish
brown, bronze-colored (actually, winecolored)
‫ مة‬kamma putrid smell, stench
‫مود‬
‫ مو‬kamra wine
‫ و م‬kāmm stinking, rotten, putrid, foulsmelling; kām look up alphabetically
‫ مويووة‬kamrīya pl. -āt wine poem,
bacchanalian verse
‫ م ووم‬mukimm stinking, rotten, putrid,
foul-smelling
‫ م ر‬/fimar pl. ‫ ا مو‬akmira, ‫ موو‬kumur
veil covering head and face of a woman
‫مو‬
decay
kamija a (kamaj) to spoil, rot,
‫ مو ر‬kumār aftereffect of intoxication,
hang-over
kamada u ( ‫ موا‬kumūd) to go out, die
(fire); to abate, subside, let up, calm
down, cease, die down IV to extinguish,
put out (‫ هوـ‬fire); to calm, appease, placate,
soothe, lull, still, quiet (‫ هووـ‬s.th.); to
suppress, quell (‫ هـ‬s.th.); to subdue, soften,
deaden, dull (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to stifle, smother,
kill (‫ هـ‬s.th.; fig.)
‫ مي وو‬kamīr leavened (dough); ripe,
mature, mellow; leaven; leavened bread
‫مووووا‬
kumūd extinction; decline,
degeneration, deterioration; quietness,
stillness, tranquility, calm; immobility,
motionlessness
‫ ا موو‬ikmād extinction, putting out;
calming,
soothing,
placation,
appeasement, lulling, stilling; subduing,
softening,
dulling;
settlement;
suppression, quelling (of a riot)
‫ موود‬kāmid dying; abating, subsiding;
calm, tranquil, still, quiet
‫ موو‬kamara u (kamr) and II to cover, hide,
conceal (‫ هووـ‬8.th.); to leaven, raise (‫هووـ‬
dough); to ferment (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.), cause
fermentation (‫ هوووـ‬in) III to permeate,
pervade (‫ هوـ‬s.th.), mix, blend (‫ هوـ‬with); to
possess, seize, overcome (‫ ه‬s.o., e.g., an
idea, a feeling) IV to leaven, raise (‫هووـ‬
dough); to ferment (‫ هوووـ‬s.th.), cause
fermentation (‫ هـ‬in); to harbor, entertain (‫هـ‬
s.th.); to bear a grudge, feel resentment (‫ل‬
against s.o.) V to ferment, be in a state of
fermentation; to rise (dough); to veil the
head and face (woman) VI to conspire,
plot, collude, scheme, intrigue (‫علوووو‬
against) VIII to ferment, be in a state of
fermentation; to rise (dough); to become
‫ ميوو‬kamīra pl. ‫ مو ئو‬kamā’ir2 leaven;
ferment; barm, yeast; enzyme (chem.);
(fig.) starter, nucleus, basis (from which
s.th. greater develops)
‫ مو ر‬kammār wine merchant, keeper of
a wineshop
‫ م ر‬kammāra wineshop, tavern
‫ ميوووو‬kimmīr winebibber, drunkard,
tippler, sot
‫ ت ميوووو‬takmīr leavening, raising (of
dough); fermenting, fermentation
‫ ا أم ر‬iktimār (process of) fermentation
‫ م موووار‬makmūr drunk, intoxicated,
inebriated
‫ م أموو‬muktamir fermenting, fermented;
alcoholic 261
‫ موس‬II to quintuple, make fivefold, multiply
by five (‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to make pentagonal (‫هوـ‬
s.th.); to divide into five parts (‫ هـ‬s.th.)
‫ موس‬kums pl. ‫ م وس‬akmās one fifth
│ ‫ ضوباا م س ا ااسداس‬ḍaraba akmāsahū fī
asdāsihī and ‫( ضووووباا م سووو ادسوووداس‬liasdāsin) to rack one’s brain in search of a
way out; to be at one’s wit’s end; to
scheme, intrigue
‫ مسة‬kamsa (f. ‫ مس‬kams) five
‫ مسوةاعشوو‬kamsata ‘ašara (f. ‫موساعشوو‬
kamsa ‘ašrata) fifteen
‫ مسوان‬kamsūn fifty │ ‫‘ اعيوداا مسوي‬īd alk. Whitsuntide, Pentecost; ‫ احوداا مسوي‬aḥad
al-k. Whitsunday; ‫ أي و ماا مس وي‬ayyām alkamsīn the period of about 50 days
between Easter and Whitsuntide; □ ‫مسوي‬
and ‫ م سوي‬khamsin, a hot southerly wind
in Egypt
‫ م ول‬kami and ‫ ملووة‬kamla nap, the
rough, hairy surface of a fabric; fibers
‫مووول‬
listless
‫مووووال‬
kumūl obscurity; weakness
lassitude, languor, lethargy; indolence,
sluggishness,
inactivity;
apathy,
indifference; sleepiness, drowsiness
‫‘ عيدا مسي‬īd kamsīn 50th anniversary
‫ مويس‬kamīs and ‫ يواماا مويس‬yaum al-k.
Thursday │‫ مويساا جسود‬k. al-jasad Corpus
Christi Day (Chr.); ‫ مويساا فصوا‬k. al-fiṣḥ,
‫ مويساادسووار‬k. al-asrār, and ‫ مويساا عهود‬k.
al-‘ahd Maundy Thursday (Chr.)
‫ ميلوة‬kamīla pl. ‫ م ئول‬kamā’il2 place
with luxuriant tree growth; thicket, brush,
scrub
‫مووووول‬
kāmil unknown, obscure,
undistinguished,
unimportant,
minor;
weak, languid, sluggish
‫ موو س‬kammās pl. ‫ م سووة‬kamāmisa
(magr.) sharecropper receiving one fifth
of the crop as wages
‫ م مل‬mukmal velvet-like fabric, velvet
‫ م ملو‬mukmalī velvety │ ‫( جلودام ملو‬jild)
deerskin, buckskin
‫م سووو‬
kumāsī fivefold, quintuple;
consisting of five consonants (gram.)
│ ‫م سوووو‬
(zawāyā) pentagonal, fivecornered
‫ مو‬II to guess, conjecture, surmise; to make
conjectures (‫ هوـ‬as to); to assess, appraise,
estimate (‫ هـ‬s.th.) 262
‫ميسوووة‬
kumaisa (mor. Pronounced
kmīsa) ornament in the shape of a hand
(worn by women and children as a
talisman against the evil eye)
‫ ت موووي‬takmīn appraisal, assessment,
estimation; ‫ ت مي و‬takmīnan and ‫علووات موي‬
approximately, roughly
‫ ا مس‬al-kāmis the fifth
‫ م‬mukammin appraiser, assessor
‫ م موووس‬mukammas pentagonal, fivecornered; pentagon; fivefold, quintuple; O
pentameter
1
‫ا و‬kanna i ( ‫ ووي‬kanīn) to speak nasally,
nasalize; to twang, speak through the nose
‫ة‬
‫ موش‬kamaša i u (kamš) and II to scratch (‫هوـ‬
e.g., the face, the skin, with the nails)
‫ مووش‬kamš pl. ‫م واش‬
scratch mark, scar
kamaṣa u and kamiṣa a to be empty,
hungry (stomach)
2
‫ و‬kunn (= ‫ وم‬kumm) pl. ‫ ا و ن‬aknān coop.
chicken coop, brooder
‫وث‬
‫موا‬
kanit oft, effeminate
‫ ثوو‬kuntā pl. ‫و ث‬
hermaphrodite
‫اثة‬
kināt, ‫و ثو‬
kanatā
kunūta effeminacy
‫ ت ث‬takannut effeminacy
kumū‘) to limp,
‫ مول‬kamala u (‫ موال‬kumūl) to be unknown,
obscure, undistinguished; to be weak,
languid
kanita a to be soft, effeminate V to
display effeminate manners, become or be
effeminate
‫ث‬
‫ ا موصاا قودم‬akmaṣ al-qadam pl. ‫ ا و مص‬akāmiṣ2
hollow of the sale (of the foot) │‫امو اا ووأسا‬
‫ ا واا مصاا قدم‬from head to toe
kama‘a a (kam‘,
walk with a limp
kanīn twanging, nasal twang
‫ ا و‬akann2, f. ‫ و‬kanna’2 twanging,
speaking through the nose
‫ م ويص‬kamīs
‫ م ويصاا ووب‬k. al-baṭn,
‫ م ويصاا حشوو‬k. al-ḥašā with an empty
stomach, hungry
‫موا‬
kunna nasal twang
‫ي‬
kumūš scratch,
‫ م شة‬kumāša pl. -āt scratch, scar
‫موص‬
kamil languid, sluggish, dull,
‫ م ووث‬mukannat bisexual; effeminate;
powerless, impotent, weak
‫جو‬
kanjar pl. ‫جو‬
kanājir2 dagger
‫و‬
‫د‬
‫د‬
kankana to nasalize, speak, nasally; to
twang, speak through the nose
kandaqa to dig a ditch or trench ( ‫ ;) ودل‬to
take up positions, prepare for battle
kandaq pl.
‫زواظية‬
‫زب‬
‫زيوو‬
kanādiq2 ditch; trench
‫وق‬
kanq strangling, strangulation; throttling,
suppression │‫ا وقاادظواار‬k. al-anwāar dimout
‫قةاا يد‬
‫و‬
kunzuwānīya megalomania
kanzab Satan, Devil
kinzīr pl. ‫ و زيو‬kanāzir2 swine, pig, hog;
‫( زيوابو‬barrī) wild hoar; ‫ و زيو‬scrofula,
scrofulosis (med.)
‫زيو‬
‫زيو‬
kinzīra sow
kanāzīrī scrofulous
‫شر‬
kinšār fern (bot.)
‫اص‬
kinnauṣ pl. ‫ظيص‬
‫سو‬
‫ م وق‬maknaq neck, throat │ ‫ أ ولهابم قو‬to grab
s.o. by the throat, bear down on s.o.; to
have power over s.o.
‫و‬
kansā’2, pl. ‫و س‬
kinṣir pl. ‫صووو‬
kanāṣir2 little finger
│‫ عقوداا صووايا صووةاعلوو‬to give s.th. toprating because of its excellence, put s.th.
above everything else
‫وا‬
kana‘a a ( ‫ وا‬kunū‘) to yield, surrender,
bow, stoop (‫ ل‬or ‫ ا وو‬to s.o.). humble o.s.,
cringe (‫ ل‬or ‫ ا و‬before s.o.)
‫ووووو ظق‬
kāniq choking, strangling;
suffocating,
asphyxiating,
stifling,
smothering; throttling, throttle· (in
compounds; tech.); (pl. ‫ ااظووق‬kawāniq2)
choke coil, reactor (radio); gorge, ravine,
canyon │ ‫ غو زا و ظق‬asphyxiating gas;
‫ا‬
‫ووووو ظقاا ووووولئب‬
k.
ad-di’b
wolfsbane,
monkshood, aconite (bot.)
‫ م وا‬maknūq strangled; suffocated,
stifled, smothered; suppressed, choking
(voice, laughter, etc.); constricted;
strangulated; throttled
‫ وا‬kunū‘ submissiveness, meekness,
servility
kanaf (eg.) twanging, nasal twang
‫فو‬
kanfara to snuffle, snort
‫و فس‬
kunfus and ‫ فسو‬kunfusā’2 pl. ‫و س‬
kanāfis2 dung beetle, scarab
‫وق‬
kanaqa u (kanq) to choke (‫ ه‬s.o.); to
suffocate, stifle, smother, strangle,
throttle, choke to death (‫ ه‬s.o.); to throttle
down (techn.; ‫ هوـ‬s.th.); to slow down, cut,
check, suppress (‫ هوـ‬s.th.) III to quarrel,
have a fight (‫ ه‬with s.o.) VI to quarrel,
dispute, have a fight (‫ موا‬with s.o.) VII
pass. of I; VIII to he throttled, be
suppressed; to be tight, constricted
(throat); to be strangled, be choked to
death
kināqa quarrel,
‫ ا أ و‬iktināq suffocation, asphyxiation;
constriction; asphyxia (med.)
‫ وا‬kanū‘ submissive, servile, meek,
humble; treacherous, perfidious, disloyal
‫ف‬
kināq strangling cord; neck, throat │‫ضويقا‬
‫( ا و اعلووو‬ḍayyaqa) to tighten the grip
around s.o.’s throat, tread on s.o.’s neck,
oppress s.o., beset s.o. grievously; ‫أ لاب ل‬
to grab s.o. by the throat
‫ و‬kināq and ‫ل وة‬
fight, row
kanānīṣ2 piglet
‫صووو‬
kunāq suffocation; angina (med.); kunāq
and ‫ و ظا‬kānūq quinsy, diphtheria 263
(med.); pl. ‫ ااظووق‬kawāniq2 and ‫ااظيووق‬
kawānīq2 do.
kannāq choking, throttling, strangling
‫ ا و س‬al-kannās epithet of the Devil (properly
speaking, he who withdraw, when the
name of God is mentioned)
‫ ا و س‬aknas f.
kuns pug-nosed
kanqat (kunqat) al-yad wrist
‫ م أ وق‬muktaniq crammed, jammed, crowded,
chock-full (‫ ب‬with)
(‫وا‬
and ‫ و ) وو‬kanā u, ‫ و‬kaniya a (‫وو‬
kanan) to use obscene language IV to hit
hard, afflict grievously, wear down, ruin,
destroy, crush (‫ علو‬s.o., s.th.; said of fate)
‫ووو‬
kanan obscene language; s.th.
indecent
or
obscene;
prostitution;
fornication
‫ ااجوة‬kawāja pl. -āt sir, Mr. (title and form of
address, esp., for Christians and
Westerners, used with or without the
name of the person so addressed)
‫وواان‬
kuwān, kiwān pl. ‫ ا اظووة‬akwina, ‫ا و وي‬
akāwīn2 table │‫ وووااناا زي وووة‬k. az-zīna
dressing table
(‫ هووـ‬into s.th.), tackle courageously (‫هووـ‬
s.th.), embark boldly (‫ هوـ‬on); to penetrate
(‫ هوووـ‬or
‫ ووو‬into), become absorbed,
engrossed (‫ هـ‬or ‫ و‬in); to go into a subject
( ), take up ( ‫ هوـ و‬subject), deal ( ‫ و‬with)
│‫( وو اا معوكوووة‬ma‘raka) to rush into
battle; ‫( و اغمو راا حووب‬gimāra l-ḥarb) to
enter the war
‫ اجة‬kōga (eg.) teacher, schoolmaster
‫ اخ‬II (