Chapter 11: World War II, 1939-1945

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Dallas and John Heakon/CORBIS
1939–1945
World War II
. The Big Ideas ,
SECTION 1: Paths to War
Nations compete for natural resources and strategic advantages over other nations.
Nationalistic competition and ambitions on the part of Japan and Germany paved the way for
the outbreak of World War II.
SECTION 2: The Course of World War II
War causes immeasurable devastation. The devastation of the war was brought to an end
by Allied perseverance, effective military operations, and Axis miscalculations.
SECTION 3: The New Order and the Holocaust
War causes immeasurable devastation. Devastation and suffering resulted during World
War II when Germany set up a New Order in Europe and Japan set up a Greater East Asia CoProsperity Sphere in Asia.
SECTION 4: The Home Front and the Aftermath of the War
International rivalry between superpowers and growing nationalism in the Third
World led to major conflicts in the Cold War. In the wake of World War II, a new set of
Cold War problems faced the international community.
World History—Modern Times Video The Chapter 11 video,
“The Holocaust,” illustrates the horrors of Hitler’s Final Solution.
1939
Britain and
France declare
war when
Germany
invades Poland
1936
Germany signs
separate pacts with
Italy and Japan
1935
1935
Hitler violates
Treaty of
Versailles
530
Hulton Getty/Tony Stone Images
1936
1937
1938
Adolf Hitler and Nazi
officers in Paris, 1940
1939
1940
1940
France falls
to Germany
The Marine Corps War Memorial in Arlington County, Virginia, depicts Marines raising the American flag
on Iwo Jima in February 1945.
Atomic bomb dropped
on Hiroshima
Self-Portrait with a
Jewish Identity Card by
Felix Nussbaum, 1943
1945
Japanese surrender
after United States
drops atomic bombs
on Japan
1942
Nazi death camps
in full operation
1941
1942
1941
United States
enters war after
Japan attacks
Pearl Harbor
1943
1944
1945
1946
1945
Germany
surrenders
1946
Churchill
proclaims
existence of
“iron curtain”
in Europe
Soldiers and civilians
celebrate VE-Day, Paris
HISTORY
Chapter Overview
Visit the Glencoe World
History—Modern
Times Web site at
wh.mt.glencoe.com
and click on Chapter 11–
Chapter Overview to
preview chapter information.
531
(tl)AKG Berlin/AKG London, (tr)Culver Pictures, (b)AKG London
O
ften, you answer a teacher’s questions directly from the text. Other
questions, however, require you to turn to your own knowledge and
experience. Readers have to supply additional ideas and information
because authors could never write down every single thing that supports
their message.
When you supply this additional information, you are inferring, based
on what the author has suggested in the text. After the excerpt below, you
will find two questions. Both of them ask you to make an inference—come
to a logical conclusion by combining your general knowledge of the world
with what the text says. See if the example below helps make clear what
an inference is.
Read the following paragraph from this chapter about German
and Soviet teenagers during World War II and discuss the
answers with a partner.
INFERRING
Question #1: Combine your
understanding of how difficult
war is with the text to answer
this.
Question #2: Think about what
would motivate you to undertake such work to answer this.
At times, young people were expected to carry
the burden of fighting the war. In the last year of
the war, Hitler Youth members, often only 14 or 15
years old, could be found in the front lines. In the
Soviet Union, children as young as 13 or 14 spied
on German positions and worked with the resistance movement. Some were even given decorations for killing the enemy.
Question #1: How did the governments of
Germany and the Soviet Union view
teenagers during World War II?
Question #2: Why would German and Russian
youth do work that would place them in so
much physical danger?
Look closely at the questions in each
of the Section Assessments in this
chapter. These questions are often
examples of “author-plus-you” or
“on-your-own” questions. Make a
chart indicating which questions fall
into the first category and which
ones fall into the second category.
532
CHAPTER 11
World War II
Historical Interpretation: Standard HI 4 Students understand the meaning,
implication, and impact of historical events and recognize that events could
have taken other directions.
C
onsider the following hypothetical events: The colonists lose the American
Revolutionary War in 1776; Thomas Jefferson decides not to make the
Louisiana Purchase in 1803; and, women are denied the vote in 1919. Historians
analyze events to understand their consequences, but they must also consider
what would have happened if events had turned out differently. In this chapter,
consider the situation of Asians during World War II. Many were torn between
their hatred of European colonial rulers and of Japanese invaders.
Read the following excerpt from pages 556–557 of your text:
The Japanese had conquered Southeast Asia under the slogan ‘Asia for the Asiatics.’
Japanese officials in occupied territories quickly made contact with anticolonialists.
They promised the people that local governments would be established under
Japanese control. Such governments were eventually set up in Burma, the
Dutch East Indies, Vietnam, and the Philippines.
In fact, real power rested with Japanese military authorities in each territory. . . .
The economic resources of the colonies were used for the benefit of the Japanese
war machine. The native peoples in occupied lands were recruited to serve in
local military units or were forced to work on public works projects.
In some cases, these policies brought severe hardships to peoples living
in the occupied areas. In Vietnam, for example, local Japanese authorities
forcibly took rice and shipped it abroad. This led directly to a food
shortage that caused over a million Vietnamese to starve to death
in 1944 and 1945.
How would Asians under European
control have reacted if the Japanese
had acted differently? What if the
Japanese had actually worked to create
a new order that benefited all Asians
equally? Would you want the Allies to
win World War II?
CHAPTER 11
World War II
533
Poster, c. 1938,
which proclaims
“One People, one
State, one Leader!”
After becoming dictator in 1933, Hitler often held
large rallies to inspire the loyalty of Germans.
Hitler’s Vision
O
n February 3, 1933, Adolf Hitler met secretly with
Germany’s leading generals. He had been appointed
chancellor of Germany only four days before and was by
no means assured that he would remain in office for long.
Nevertheless, he spoke with confidence.
Hitler told the generals about his desire to remove the
“cancer of democracy,” create “the highest authoritarian state
leadership,” and forge a new domestic unity. All Germans
would need to realize that “only a struggle can save us and
that everything else must be subordinated to this idea.” The
youth especially would have to be trained and their wills
strengthened “to fight with all means.”
Hitler went on to say that Germany must rearm by instituting a military draft. Leaders must ensure that the men who
were going to be drafted were not “poisoned by pacifism,
Marxism, or Bolshevism.” Once Germany had regained its
military strength, how should this strength be used? Hitler
had an answer. Because Germany’s living space was too small
for its people, it must prepare for “the conquest of new living
space in the east and its ruthless Germanization.”
Even before he had consolidated his power, Hitler had a
clear vision of his goals. Reaching those goals meant another
European war. Although World War I has been described as a
total war, World War II was even more so. It was fought on a
scale unprecedented in history and led to the most widespread
human-made destruction that the world had ever seen.
534
CHAPTER 11
World War II
(l)AKG London, (r)Hugo Jaeger/LIFE Magazine, Time, Inc.
Why It Matters
World War II in Europe was clearly
Hitler’s war. Other countries may
have helped make the war possible
by not resisting Germany earlier,
before it grew strong, but it was
Nazi Germany’s actions that made
the war inevitable. Globally, World
War II was more than just Hitler’s
war. It consisted of two conflicts.
One arose, as mentioned above,
from the ambitions of Germany in
Europe. The other arose from the
ambitions of Japan in Asia. By 1941,
with the involvement of the United
States in both conflicts, these two
conflicts merged into one global
world war.
History and You The decision
by the United States to use atomic
bombs against Japan led to the end
of World War II. Find two contrasting
views on the potential of nuclear
warfare today and analyze the
perspectives.
Paths to War
Guide to Reading
Section Preview
Academic Vocabulary
Reading Strategy
Nationalistic competition and ambitions
on the part of Japan and Germany paved
the way for the outbreak of World War II.
labor, achieve, conference, assume
Categorizing Information Create a chart
like the one below listing examples of
Japanese aggression and German aggression prior to the outbreak of World
War II.
• Adolf Hitler’s theory of Aryan racial
domination laid the foundation for
aggressive expansion outside of
Germany. (p. 536)
• The need for natural resources fueled
the Japanese plan to seize other
countries. (p. 539)
Places to Locate
Content Vocabulary
People to Identify
Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Joseph
Stalin, Chiang Kai-shek
Japanese Aggression German Aggression
Rhineland, Sudetenland, Manchukuo
Reading Objectives
1. Describe the agreement reached at
the Munich Conference.
2. Explain why Germany believed it
needed more land.
demilitarized, appeasement, New Order,
sanction
Preview of Events
✦1931
✦1932
1931
Japanese forces
invade Manchuria
✦1933
✦1934
✦1935
✦1936
1936
Hitler and Mussolini
create Rome-Berlin Axis
✦1937
1937
Japanese seize
Chinese capital
✦1938
1938
Hitler annexes
Austria
✦1939
1939
World War II
begins
California Standards in This Section
Reading this section will help you master these California History–Social Science standards.
10.7.3: Analyze the rise, aggression, and human costs of
10.8:
10.8.1: Compare the German, Italian, and Japanese
totalitarian regimes (Fascist and Communist) in
Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union, noting
especially their common and dissimilar traits.
drives for empire in the 1930s, including the
1937 Rape of Nanking, other atrocities in China,
and the Stalin-Hitler Pact of 1939.
Students analyze the causes and consequences
of World War II.
10.8.2: Understand the role of appeasement, nonintervention (isolationism), and the domestic distractions in Europe and the United States prior to
the outbreak of World War II.
CHAPTER 11
World War II
535
The German Path to War
Adolf Hitler’s theory of Aryan racial domination laid the foundation for aggressive expansion outside
of Germany.
Reading Connection Have you ever been forsaken by a
friend? Read to find out how Czechoslovakia was abandoned
by its Western allies.
World War II in Europe had its beginnings in the
ideas of Adolf Hitler, the head of the Nazi Party and
leader of Germany. He believed that Germans
belonged to a so-called Aryan race that was superior
to all other races and nationalities. Thus, Hitler felt
that Germany was capable of building a great civilization. To do so, however, Germany needed more
land to support a larger population. During the
1930s, Hitler became more aggressive, but no nation
opposed him, even when he demanded a part of
neighboring Czechoslovakia. One British politician,
however, Winston Churchill, believed that Hitler’s
actions could only lead to war.
In 1938, after France and Great Britain gave in to
Hitler’s demands for territory in Czechoslovakia,
Churchill gave a stern warning to the British House
of Commons:
“
I will begin by saying what everybody would
like to ignore or forget but which must nevertheless be stated, namely, that we have sustained a
total and unmitigated defeat. . . . And I will say
this, that I believe the Czechs, left to themselves
and told they were going to get no help from the
Western Powers, would have been able to make
better terms than they have got. . . . We are in the
presence of a disaster of the first magnitude
which has befallen Great Britain and France. . . .
And do not suppose that this is the end. This is
only the beginning of the reckoning.
as slave labor to build the Third Reich, an “Aryan”
racial state that Hitler thought would dominate
Europe for a thousand years.
The First Steps
After World War I, the Treaty of Versailles had limited Germany’s military power. As
chancellor, Hitler, posing as a man of peace, stressed
that Germany wished to revise the unfair provisions of
the treaty by peaceful means. Germany, he said, only
wanted its rightful place among the European states.
On March 9, 1935, however, Hitler announced the
creation of a new air force. One week later, he began
a military draft that would expand Germany’s army
from 100,000 to 550,000 troops. These steps were in
direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles.
France, Great Britain, and Italy condemned Germany’s actions and warned against future aggressive
steps. In the midst of the Great Depression, however,
these nations were distracted by their own internal
problems and did nothing further.
Hitler believed the Western states would not use
force to maintain the Treaty of Versailles. Hence, on
March 7, 1936, he sent troops into the Rhineland. The
Rhineland was part of Germany, but, according to the
Treaty of Versailles, it was a demilitarized area. That
is, Germany was not permitted to have weapons or
fortifications there. France had the right to use force
against any violation of the demilitarized Rhineland
but would not act without British support.
Great Britain did not support the use of force against
Germany, however. The British government viewed
the occupation of German territory by German troops
as a reasonable action by a dissatisfied power. The
London Times noted that the Germans were only
“going into their own back garden.” Great Britain thus
”
As early as the 1920s, Hitler had indicated that a
Nazi regime would find this land to the east—in the
Soviet Union. Germany therefore must prepare for
war with the Soviet Union. Once the Soviet Union
had been conquered, Hitler planned to resettle it with
German peasants. The Slavic peoples could be used
536
Bettmann/CORBIS
CHAPTER 11
World War II
Winston Churchill
Union With Austria
By 1937, Germany was once
more a “world power,” as Hitler proclaimed. He was
convinced that neither France nor Great Britain
would provide much opposition to his plans. In 1938,
he decided to pursue one of his goals: Anschluss
(ANSH•luhs), or union, with Austria, his native land.
By threatening Austria with invasion, Hitler
forced the Austrian chancellor to put Austrian Nazis
in charge of the government. The new government
promptly invited German troops to enter Austria and
“help” in reinforcing law and order. One day later, on
March 13, 1938, after his triumphal return to his
native land, Hitler annexed Austria to Germany.
History
This 1937 Italian illustration depicts Hitler
and Mussolini. What ideology brought
Hitler and Mussolini together?
began to practice a policy of appeasement. This policy
was based on the belief that if European states satisfied
the reasonable demands of unsatisfied powers, the
unsatisfied powers would be content, and stability and
peace would be achieved in Europe.
New Alliances Meanwhile, Hitler gained new
allies. Benito Mussolini had long dreamed of creating a new Roman Empire in the Mediterranean, and,
in October 1935, Fascist Italy invaded Ethiopia.
Angered by French and British opposition to his
invasion, Mussolini welcomed Hitler’s support. He
began to draw closer to the German dictator.
In 1936, both Germany and Italy sent troops to
Spain to help General Francisco Franco in the Spanish
Civil War. In October 1936, Mussolini and Hitler made
an agreement recognizing their common political and
economic interests. One month later, Mussolini spoke
of the new alliance between Italy and Germany, called
the Rome-Berlin Axis. Also in November, Germany
and Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact, promising
a common front against communism.
Demands and Appeasement Hitler’s next objective was the destruction of Czechoslovakia. On September 15, 1938, he demanded that Germany be
given the Sudetenland, an area in northwestern
Czechoslovakia that was inhabited largely by Germans. He expressed his willingness to risk “world
war” to achieve his objective.
At a hastily arranged conference in Munich,
British, French, German, and Italian representatives
did not object to Hitler’s plans but instead reached an
agreement that met virtually all of Hitler’s demands.
German troops were allowed to occupy the Sudetenland. Abandoned by their Western allies, the Czechs
stood by helplessly.
The Munich Conference was the high point of Western appeasement of Hitler. When Neville Chamberlain, the British prime minister, returned to Britain
from Munich, he boasted that the agreement meant
“peace for our time.” Hitler had promised Chamberlain that he would make no more demands. Like many
others, Chamberlain believed Hitler’s promises.
Great Britain and France React
In fact, Hitler was
more convinced than ever that the Western democracies were weak and would not fight. Increasingly,
Hitler was sure that he could not make a mistake,
and he had by no means been satisfied at Munich.
In March 1939, Hitler invaded and took control of
Bohemia and Moravia in western Czechoslovakia. In
the eastern part of the country, Slovakia became a
puppet state controlled by Nazi Germany. On the
evening of March 15, 1939, Hitler triumphantly
declared in Prague that he would be known as the
greatest German of them all.
At last, the Western states reacted to the Nazi
threat. Hitler’s aggression had made clear that his
promises were worthless. When Hitler began to
demand the Polish port of Danzig, Great Britain saw
CHAPTER 11
World War II
537
Mary Evans Picture Library
German and Italian Expansion, 1935–1939
10°E
UNITED
KINGDOM
North
Sea
Paris
LUX.
FRANCE
EAST
PRUSSIA
Berlin
SOVIET
UNION
Warsaw
GERMANY
SUDETEN
Prague
POLAND
LA
N
C ZECHOS D SL
O VA
LO
VAKI A KIA
Vienna
Munich
SWITZ.
AUSTRIA
HUNGARY
Germany, 1935
German occupation, 1936
German acquisitions,
1938–1939
Italy and possessions, 1935
Italian acquisitions,
1935–1939
ROMANIA
YUGOSLAVIA
ITALY
Corsica
BULGARIA
Rome
40°N
30°E
LITHUANIA
Sea
ND
ELA
IN
RH
BELGIUM
LATVIA
20°E
MEMEL
Baltic TERR.
Danzig
NETHER–
LANDS
50°N
SWEDEN
DENMARK
Caspian
Sea
Black
Sea
ALBANIA
Sardinia
Sicily
ERITR
EA
Addis
Ababa
10°N
ETHIOPIA
N
W
Mediterranean Sea
KENYA
0
E
0
S
0
A
IT MA
O
500 miles S
500 kilometers
0°
50°E
500 miles
500 kilometers
0
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
LIBYA
the danger and offered to protect Poland in the event
of war. At the same time, both France and Britain
realized that only the Soviet Union was powerful
enough to help contain Nazi aggression. They began
political and military negotiations with Joseph
Stalin, the Soviet dictator.
Hitler and the Soviets Meanwhile, Hitler pressed
on in the belief that the West would not fight over
Poland. He now feared, however, that the West and
the Soviet Union might make an alliance. Such an
alliance could mean a two-front war for Germany. To
prevent this possibility, Hitler made his own agreement with Joseph Stalin.
On August 23, 1939, Germany and the Soviet
Union signed the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact. In
it, the two nations promised not to attack each other.
As compensation for signing the pact, Hitler offered
Stalin control of eastern Poland and the Baltic states.
Because he expected to fight the Soviet Union anyway, it did not matter to Hitler what he promised—
he was accustomed to breaking promises.
538
L
LI I A N
LA
ND
SUD
AN
GREECE
CHAPTER 11
World War II
Germany and Italy expanded their territories in the years
leading up to World War II.
1. Interpreting Maps Approximately how much territory
did Germany annex between 1936 and 1939? How did
Italy’s size in 1939 compare to its size in 1935?
2. Applying Geography Skills Use the information on
the map to create a chart comparing German and Italian
expansion. What geographic factors made it easier for
Germany to expand more readily?
Hitler shocked the world when he announced the
nonaggression pact. The treaty gave Hitler the freedom to attack Poland. He told his generals, “Now
Poland is in the position in which I wanted her. . . . I
am only afraid that at the last moment some swine
will submit to me a plan for mediation.”
Hitler need not have worried. On September 1,
German forces invaded Poland. Two days later,
Britain and France declared war on Germany.
Reading Check Explaining Why were the Western
allies willing to appease Hitler?
Reading Connection Have you heard about possible oil
shortages in the United States in the next 30 years? Read to
learn about how the Japanese reacted when they needed
certain natural resources in the 1930s.
Japanese Expansion,
1933–1941
SOVIET UNION
KARAFUTO
140°E
N
W
MANCHUKUO
(Manchuria)
E
The New Asian Order
Japanese military leaders
had hoped to force Chiang to agree to join a New
Order in East Asia, comprising Japan, Manchuria,
and China. Japan would attempt to establish a new
system of control in Asia with Japan guiding its
Asian neighbors to prosperity. After all, who could
He
Beijing
Hua
War with China
N
KOREA
Yan-an
CHINA
Nanjing
SICHUAN Chongqing
PROVINCE
ng
Ch
Chiang Kai-shek tried to avoid a
conflict with Japan so that he could deal with what
he considered the greater threat from the Communists. When clashes between Chinese and Japanese
troops broke out, he appeased Japan by allowing it to
govern areas in northern China. As Japan moved
steadily southward, protests grew stronger in Chinese cities. In December 1936, Chiang ended his military efforts against the Communists and formed a
united front against the Japanese. In July 1937, Chinese and Japanese forces clashed south of Beijing.
This 1937 incident eventually turned into a major
conflict. The Japanese seized the Chinese capital of
Nanjing in December. Chiang Kai-shek refused to
surrender and moved his government upriver, first
to Hankou, then to Chongqing.
40°
Sea of
Japan
S
ng
In September 1931, Japanese soldiers had seized
Manchuria, which had natural resources that Japan
needed. To justify their seizure, Japan cited a Chinese
attack on a Japanese railway near the city of Mukden.
In fact, the “Mukden incident” had been carried out
by Japanese soldiers disguised as Chinese.
World protests against the Japanese led the League
of Nations to send investigators to Manchuria. When
the investigators issued a report condemning the
seizure, Japan withdrew from the League. Over the
next several years, Japan strengthened its hold on
Manchuria, which was renamed Manchukuo. Japan
now began to expand into northern China.
By the mid-1930s, militants connected to the government and the armed forces had gained control of
Japanese politics. The United States refused to recognize the Japanese takeover of Manchuria but was
unwilling to threaten force.
PA N
The need for natural resources fueled the
Japanese plan to seize other countries.
better teach Asian societies how to modernize than
the one Asian country that had already done it?
Part of Japan’s plan was to seize Soviet Siberia,
with its rich resources. During the late 1930s, Japan
began to cooperate with Nazi Germany. Japan
assumed that the two countries would ultimately
launch a joint attack on the Soviet Union and divide
Soviet resources between them.
When Germany signed a nonaggression pact with
the Soviets in August 1939, Japanese leaders had to
rethink their goals. Japan did not have the resources
to defeat the Soviet Union without help. Instead
Japan turned its attention to raw materials that could
be found in Southeast Asia to fuel its military
machine. A move southward, however, would risk
war with Europe and the United States. Japan’s
JA
The Japanese Path to War
30°N
Shanghai
Hankou
g Ji a
an
Formosa
Guangzhou
F
IC O
TROP ER
CANC
20°N
Hong Kong U.K.
Hainan
South
China
Sea
FRENCH
INDOCHINA
110°E
Japanese territory, 1933
Japanese acquisitions
to November 1941
1,000 miles
10°N
0
0
1,000 kilometers
Two-Point Equidistant projection 130°E
Like Germany, Japan attempted to expand its territories
prior to the beginning of the war.
1. Applying Geography Skills Pose and answer your
own question about the territories Japan did not
acquire but wanted to acquire.
CHAPTER 11
World War II
539
History
Prime Minister Hideki Tojo (front center) is pictured
with the Cabinet of Japan. Tojo had a military career
before being appointed prime minister in October
1941. What do you think Tojo’s appointment represented in terms of Japanese foreign policy?
attack on China in the summer of 1937 had already
aroused strong criticism. Nevertheless, in the summer of 1940, Japan demanded the right to exploit economic resources in French Indochina.
The United States objected. It warned Japan that
it would apply economic sanctions—restrictions
intended to enforce international law—unless Japan
withdrew to the borders of 1931. Japan badly needed
the oil and scrap iron it was getting from the United
States. If these resources were cut off, Japan would
have to find them elsewhere.
Japan was now caught in a dilemma. To guarantee
access to the raw materials it wanted in Southeast
Checking for Understanding
Asia, Japan had to risk losing raw materials from the
United States. Japan’s military leaders, guided by
Hideki Tojo, decided to launch a surprise attack on
U.S. and European colonies in Southeast Asia.
Reading Check Explaining Why did Japan want to
establish a New Order in East Asia?
HISTORY
For help with the concepts in this section of Glencoe World
History—Modern Times, go to wh.mt.glencoe.com and
click on Study Central.
Critical Thinking
Cause and Effect
In what sense was World War II a product of World War I? CA HI 2
1. Vocabulary Define: labor, demilitarized, appeasement, achieve, conference, New Order, assume, sanction.
5.
2. People Identify: Adolf Hitler, Benito
Mussolini, Joseph Stalin, Chiang
Kai-shek.
6. Sequencing Information Create a
chart like the one below listing in
chronological order the agreements
that emboldened Hitler in his aggressive expansion policies.
3. Places Locate: Rhineland, Sudetenland,
Manchukuo.
Reviewing Big Ideas
4. List the reasons why Hitler’s pact with
Stalin was a key factor in forcing Britain
and France to declare war on Germany.
Study Central
Agreements Encouraging Hitler’s Aggression
Leading to World War II
Analyzing Visuals
7. Analyze the illustration on page 537 to
determine what opinion the artist had
about Italy’s alliance with Germany.
What aspects of the illustration indicate
that its creator and its publisher either
did or did not support Hitler’s relationship with Mussolini and Italy?
8. Persuasive Writing Imagine you
are the editor of a British newspaper
in 1938. Write an editorial that captures the essence of your viewpoint
on how war can be avoided.
CA 10WA2.4a,c
540
CORBIS
CHAPTER 11
World War II
The Course of
World War II
Guide to Reading
Section Preview
The devastation of the war was brought
to an end by Allied perseverance,
effective military operations, and Axis
miscalculations.
• Germany used a “lightning war” to gain
control of much of western and central
Europe, but Britain was undefeated and
German troops were stopped in Russia.
(p. 542)
• The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
outraged Americans and led to the
entry of the United States into the war.
(p. 544)
• The Allied forces stopped the advance
of the Germans and the Japanese.
(p. 546)
Preview of Events
✦1939
✦1940
1940
Germans bomb
British cities
Reading Objectives
• Allied victories forced Germany and
Japan to surrender unconditionally.
(p. 548)
1. Explain why the United States did not
enter the war until 1941.
2. Identify the major events that helped
end the war in Europe and Asia.
Content Vocabulary
blitzkrieg, partisan
Reading Strategy
Academic Vocabulary
isolationism, neutrality, indefinite
People to Identify
Franklin D. Roosevelt, Douglas MacArthur,
Winston Churchill, Harry S. Truman
Cause and Effect Create a chart like the
one below listing key events during World
War II and their effect on the outcome of
the war.
Event
Places to Locate
Effect
Stalingrad, Midway Island, Normandy,
Hiroshima
✦1941
✦1942
✦1943
1942
Japanese defeated at the
Battle of Midway Island
✦1944
1943
Germans defeated
at Stalingrad
✦1945
1944
Allied forces invade
France on D-Day
California Standards in This Section
Reading this section will help you master these California History–Social Science standards.
10.8.3: Identify and locate the Allied and Axis powers on
a map and discuss the major turning points of
the war, the principal theaters of conflict, key
strategic decisions, and the resulting war conferences and political resolutions, with emphasis on
the importance of geographic factors.
10.8.4: Describe the political, diplomatic, and military
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Emperor Hirohito,
Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Joseph Stalin,
Douglas MacArthur, Dwight Eisenhower).
10.8.6: Discuss the human costs of war, with particular
attention to the civilian and military losses in
Russia, Germany, Britain, the United States,
China, and Japan.
leaders during the war (e.g., Winston Churchill,
CHAPTER 11
World War II
541
Europe at War
Germany used a “lightning war” to gain control of much of western and central Europe, but Britain was
undefeated and German troops were stopped in Russia.
Reading Connection Have you ever been in the middle
of two people fighting, but you refused to take a side? Read
how the United States remained neutral even though the
British asked for its help.
Hitler stunned Europe with the speed and efficiency of the German attack on Poland. His innovative blitzkrieg, or “lightning war,” used armored
columns, called panzer divisions, supported by airplanes. Each panzer division was a strike force of
about 300 tanks with support forces. Hitler had committed Germans to a life-or-death struggle.
No one described the sacrifices this struggle would
demand better than Hitler himself. On September 1,
1939, after the attack on Poland began, Hitler
addressed the German Reichstag with these words:
I do not want to be anything other than the
“
first soldier of the German Reich. I have once more
put on the uniform which was once most holy and
precious to me. I shall only take it off after victory
or I shall not live to see the end. . . . As a National
Socialist and as a German soldier, I am going into
this struggle strong in heart. My whole life has
been nothing but a struggle for my people, for
their revival, for Germany. . . . Just as I myself am
ready to risk my life any time for my people and
for Germany, so I demand the same of everyone
else. But anyone who thinks that he can oppose
this national commandment, whether directly or
indirectly, will die! Traitors can expect death.
”
The forces of the blitzkrieg broke quickly through
Polish lines and encircled the bewildered Polish
troops. Regular infantry units then moved in to hold
the newly conquered territory. Within four weeks,
Poland had surrendered. On September 28, 1939,
Germany and the Soviet Union divided Poland.
Hitler’s Early Victories
After a winter of waiting
(called the “phony war”), Hitler resumed the attack on
April 9, 1940, with another blitzkrieg against Denmark
542
CHAPTER 11
National Archives (#306-NT-1222E)
World War II
and Norway. One month later, on May 10, Germany
launched an attack on the Netherlands, Belgium, and
France. The main assault was through Luxembourg
and the Ardennes (ahr•DEHN) Forest. German
panzer divisions broke through weak French defensive positions there and raced across northern France.
French and British forces were taken by surprise
when the Germans went around, instead of across,
the Maginot Line—a series of concrete and steel fortifications armed with heavy artillery along France’s
border with Germany. The Germans’ action split the
Allied armies, trapping French troops and the entire
British army on the beaches of Dunkirk. Only by the
heroic efforts of the Royal Navy and civilians in private boats did the British manage to evacuate 338,000
Allied troops. Most of them were British.
The French signed an armistice on June 22. German
armies now occupied about three-fifths of France. An
authoritarian regime under German control was set
up over the remainder of the country to the south of
the parts of France the Nazis occupied. It was known
as Vichy France and was led by an aged French hero
of World War I, Marshal Henri Pétain. Germany was
now in control of western and central Europe, but
Britain had still not been defeated. After Dunkirk, the
British appealed to the United States for help.
Hitler addresses the Reichstag on September 1, 1939.
President Franklin D.
Roosevelt denounced the
aggressors, but the United
States followed a strict policy of isolationism. A
series of neutrality acts,
passed in the 1930s, prevented the United States
from taking sides or
becoming involved in any
European wars. Many
Americans felt that the
United States had been
drawn into World War I
due to economic involvement in Europe, and they
wanted to prevent a recurrence. Roosevelt was convinced that the neutrality
acts actually encouraged
Axis
aggression
and
wanted the acts repealed.
They
were
gradually
relaxed as the United States
supplied
food,
ships,
planes, and weapons to
Britain.
The Battle of Britain
Hitler realized that an
amphibious
(land-sea)
London buildings collapse as a result of nightly German bombing.
invasion of Great Britain
could succeed only if GerAttack on the Soviet Union Although he had no
many gained control of the
desire for a two-front war, Hitler was convinced that
air over the island nation. At the beginning of August
Britain stayed in the war only because it expected
1940, the Luftwaffe (LOOFT•vah•fuh)—the German
Soviet support. If the Soviet Union was smashed,
air force—launched a major offensive. German
Britain’s last hope would be eliminated. Hitler was
planes bombed British air and naval bases, harbors,
also convinced that the Soviet Union had a pitiful
communication centers, and war industries.
army and could be defeated quickly.
The British fought back with determination. They
Hitler’s invasion of the Soviet Union was schedwere supported by an effective radar system that
uled for the spring of 1941, but the attack was
gave them early warning of attacks. Nevertheless, by
delayed because of problems in the Balkans. Hitler
the end of August, the British air force had suffered
had already gained the political cooperation of Huncritical losses. In September, in retaliation for a
gary, Bulgaria, and Romania, but the failure of MusBritish attack on Berlin, Hitler had the Luftwaffe
solini’s invasion of Greece in 1940 had exposed
begin massive bombing of British cities. Hitler hoped
Hitler’s southern flank to British air bases in Greece.
to break British morale. Instead, because military tarTo secure his Balkan flank, Hitler seized both Greece
gets were not being hit, the British were able to
and Yugoslavia in April.
rebuild their air strength quickly. Soon, the British air
Reassured, Hitler invaded the Soviet Union on
force was inflicting major losses on Luftwaffe
June 22, 1941, believing it could be decisively
bombers. At the end of September, Hitler postponed
defeated before the brutal winter weather set in. The
the invasion of Britain indefinitely.
CHAPTER 11
World War II
543
Bettmann Archive
World War II in Europe and North Africa, 1939–1945
10°W
20°W
0°
20°E
10°E
SWEDEN
Atlantic
Ocean
IRELAND
UNITED
KINGDOM
Liverpool
Birmingham
Bristol
Plymouth
50°
N
Baltic
Sea LATVIA
E
W
SOVIET
UNION
Minsk
(July 1944)
Kursk
(July 1943)
POLAND
(Apr.–
N
Moscow
DENMARK
Manchester
LITHUANIA
Hull
Ger.
Coventry
Bremen Hamburg
London NETH.
Berlin
Stalingrad
(Aug. 1942–
Feb. 1943)
Hanover May 1945)
Dunkirk
Warsaw
D¨usseldorf
BELG.
(Aug. 1944–Jan. 1945)
Dresden
Cologne
Normandy (June 1944)
Kiev
Frankfurt
Battle of the Bulge (Dec. 1944–Jan. 1945)
Mannheim G ERMAN Y
Paris (Aug. 1944)
Stuttgart
FRANCE
Munich SLOVAKIA
AUSTRIA
HUNGARY
SWITZ.
Budapest
Vichy
Battle of Britain (July–Oct. 1940)
60°E
Leningrad
(Sept. 1941–Jan. 1944)
ESTONIA
North
Sea
Rotterdam
50°E
40°E
30°E
FINLAND
NORWAY
Vo
lg
aR
.
Rhi
ne
E n g l i s h C h a n n el
GA
L
Ploiesti
RT
U
YUGOSLAVIA
SPAIN
SP. MOROCCO
MOROCCO
ALBANIA
It.
North Africa
Landings
(Nov. 1942)
TURKEY
Sicily
(July 1943)
Malta
SYRIA
Valletta
Cyprus
Crete
TUNISIA
Tobruk
(April 1941)
ALGERIA
Axis Powers
Axis-controlled area, November 1942
Farthest Axis advance, December 1941
Vichy France and territories
Allied Powers
Allied-controlled area, November 1942
Neutral nations
Major battle with date
Major city severely
damaged by bombing
Air battle
Maginot Line
massive attack stretched out along a front some 1,800
miles (about 2,900 km). German troops advanced
rapidly, capturing two million Russian soldiers. By
November, one German army group had swept
through Ukraine. A second army was besieging the
city of Leningrad, while a third threatened Moscow,
the Soviet capital.
An early winter and fierce Soviet resistance, however, halted the German advance. Because of the
planned spring date for the invasion, the Germans
had no winter uniforms. For the first time in the war,
German armies had been stopped. A counterattack in
December 1941 by a Soviet army came as an ominous
ending to the year for the Germans.
Reading Check Evaluating In the spring of 1941,
what caused Hitler to delay his invasion of the Soviet Union?
CHAPTER 11
World War II
IRAQ
El Alamein LEBANON
(Oct.–
Nov. 1942) PALESTINE
Alexandria
Cairo
LIBYA
544
IRAN
GREECE
Mediterranean Sea
Tunis
(May 1943)
Black
Sea
BULGARIA
Rome
Corsica
Anzio
(Jan.–Mar. 1944)
Monte Cassino
Sardinia (Jan.–May 1944)
PO
N
ROMANIA
Belgrade
a
Se
40°
Ca
sp
i
an
ITALY
S
TRANS-JORDAN
SAUDI
ARABIA
EGYPT
0
400 miles
400 kilometers
0
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
Japan at War
The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor outraged
Americans and led to the entry of the United States into
the war.
Reading Connection Do you think the terrorist attacks
of 2001 unified or divided Americans? Read to find out how the
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor affected American opinion
about World War II.
On December 7, 1941, Japanese aircraft attacked
the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian
Islands. The same day, other Japanese units launched
additional assaults on the Philippines and began
advancing toward the British colony of Malaya.
Axis Offensives, 1939–1941
Axis offensives, 1939
Axis offensives, 1940
Axis offensives, 1941
10°W
0°
30°E
40°E
S
PO
RTU
GA
L
40°N
Fr.
400 miles
TUNISIA
SOVIET
UNION
ROMANIA
e rra n
Fr.
400 kilometers
0
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
Fr.
ean Sea
LIBYA
LEBANON
IRAQ
PALESTINE U.K. TRANSJORDAN
EGYPT
It.
10°E
U.K.
SAUDI
ARABIA
Heavy fighting took place in Europe and North Africa.
1. Interpreting Maps Name at least six major land battles of the war in Europe. Which side, the Allies or the
Axis Powers, was more aggressive at the beginning of
the war? Summarize the changes in direction of this
side’s offensives during the first three years of the war.
2. Applying Geography Skills Using information from
all of the maps on pages 544 and 545, create an imaginary model of the war’s outcome had Hitler chosen not
to invade the Soviet Union. Your model could take the
form of a map, a chart, or a database and include such
items as battles, offensives, and casualties.
Soon after, Japanese forces invaded the Dutch East
Indies and occupied a number of islands in the
Pacific Ocean. In some cases, as on the Bataan Peninsula and the island of Corregidor in the Philippines,
resistance was fierce. By the spring of 1942, however,
almost all of Southeast Asia and much of the western
Pacific had fallen into Japanese hands.
A triumphant Japan now declared the creation of a
community of nations. The name given to this new
“community” was the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity
Sphere. The entire region would now be under Japanese direction.
Japan also announced its intention to liberate the
colonial areas of Southeast Asia from Western colonial rule. For the moment, however, Japan needed
the resources of the region for its war machine, and it
SWITZ.
VICHY
FRANCE
0
E
W
S
SOVIET
UNION
HUNGARY
40°N
ALBAN.
TURKEY
SP. MOR.
Fr.
60°E
ROMANIA
YUGOSLAVIA BULGARIA Black Sea
ITALY
SPAIN
MOROCCO
50°E
N
20°E
FINLAND
NORWAY
Atlantic
Ocean
HUNGARY
ed it
0°
30°E 40°E
SWEDEN ESTONIA
LATVIA
DENMARK
IRELAND UNITED
Ger. LITH.
50°
N
KINGDOM
NETH.
BELG.
GERMANY POLAND
FRANCE
SLOVAKIA
YUGOSLAVIA BULGARIA Black Sea
ITALY
ALBAN.
TURKEY
GREECE
SYRIA
M
SPAIN
10°W
20°W
E
W
SWITZ.
VICHY
FRANCE
Allied offensives, 1942–1943
Allied offensives, 1944–1945
N
NORWAY
SP. MOR.
ALGERIA
MOROCCO
0
60°E
FINLAND
SWEDEN ESTONIA
LATVIA
DENMARK
IRELAND UNITED
Ger. LITH.
50°
N
KINGDOM
NETH.
Atlantic
BELG.
GERMANY POLAND
Ocean
FRANCE
SLOVAKIA
Fr.
Allied Offensives, 1942–1945
50°E
PO
RTU
GA
L
20°W
20°E
GREECE
ALGERIA
Fr.
400 miles
Med
it
TUNISIA
Fr.
SYRIA
e rra n
400 kilometers
0
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
ean Sea
LIBYA
LEBANON
Fr.
IRAQ
PALESTINE TRANSU.K.
JORDAN
EGYPT
It.
U.K.
SAUDI
ARABIA
treated the countries under its rule as conquered
lands.
Japanese leaders had hoped that their lightning
strike at American bases would destroy the American
fleet in the Pacific. The Roosevelt administration,
they thought, would now accept Japanese domination of the Pacific. Why did the Japanese predict such
a reaction from the United States government? The
answer is that in the eyes of many Japanese leaders,
the American people were soft. Their prosperous and
easy life had made them unable to fight.
The Japanese miscalculated. The attack on Pearl
Harbor unified American opinion. Up to this time,
many Americans wanted to remain neutral. Now
they were ready to become involved in the war. The
United States now joined with European nations and
Nationalist China in a combined effort to defeat
Japan.
This decision quickly brought a declaration of war
against the United States from the Nazis. The German navy had been fighting an undeclared sea war
with American ships helping the British. Now that
Hitler’s ally Japan had attacked the United States, the
long-expected war with America had come. Four
days after the Pearl Harbor attack, Germany and the
United States were at war. Another European conflict
had turned into a global war.
Reading Check Determining Why did the Japanese
attack Pearl Harbor?
CHAPTER 11
World War II
545
World War II: Attack and Counterattack
September 1939
• Germany invades
Poland
• Great Britain and
France declare war
on Germany
1939
May 1940
• Attacks against
Netherlands,
Belgium, France
August 1940
• Air attack
against Britain
1940
April 1940
• Blitzkrieg against
Denmark and
Norway
1941
December 1941
• Japan attacks
Pearl Harbor,
Philippines, and
Dutch East Indies
• United States
enters war
1942
June 1941
April 1941
• Hitler invades
• Greece and
Soviet Union
Yugoslavia
are captured
June 1940
• France
surrenders
The Allies Advance
The Allied forces stopped the advance of the
Germans and the Japanese.
Reading Connection Have you ever had to fight obstacles to achieve a goal? Read to find out how the Allied forces
fought the Germans and the Japanese to work for the unconditional surrender of Germany and Japan.
The entry of the Americans into the war created a
new coalition, the Grand Alliance: the United States,
Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. Ever since the
Russian Revolution of 1917, the Soviet Union had
been relatively isolated from the West. Now they had
to come together to fight a common enemy, Nazi Germany. To overcome mutual suspicions, the Allies
agreed to stress military operations and ignore political differences.
At the beginning of 1943, the Allies agreed to fight
until the Axis Powers—Germany, Italy, and Japan—
surrendered unconditionally. The unconditional surrender principle, which required the Axis nations to
surrender without any favorable condition,
cemented the Grand Alliance by making it nearly
impossible for Hitler to divide his foes.
CHAPTER 11
February 1943
• Germans surrender
at Stalingrad
1943
May 1943
• German and Italian
troops surrender in
French North Africa
World War II
May 1945
• Germany
surrenders
June 1944
• Rome falls
to Allies
• D-Day, June 6
1944
August 1944
• Paris is
liberated
July 1943
Fall 1942
• Soviets defeat
• Germans attack
Germans at
Stalingrad
Battle of Kursk
• Britain and United States
invade North Africa
Spring 1942
• Japan controls most
of Southeast Asia
Axis attacks and victories
Allied attacks and victories
546
Spring 1942
• United States wins
battles of the Coral Sea
and Midway
1945
1946
April 1945
• Soviets enter Berlin
• Hitler and
Mussolini die
March 1945
• Germany is
invaded
August 1945
• United States
drops atomic
bombs on Japan
• Japan surrenders
The time line above traces the major events of World
War II.
1. Identifying How much time elapsed from
France’s defeat until Paris was liberated?
2. Cause and Effect What were the effects of three
dramatic events in 1939, 1941, and 1945?
The European Theater
Defeat was far from
Hitler’s mind at the beginning of 1942. As Japanese
forces advanced into Southeast Asia and the Pacific,
Hitler continued fighting the war in Europe against
the armies of Britain and the Soviet Union.
Until late 1942, it appeared that the Germans
might still prevail on the battlefield. In North Africa,
Erwin Rommel, whose daring exploits and willingness to use trickery to outwit his foes had earned him
the nickname “Desert Fox,” commanded the Reich’s
Afrika Korps. Rommel’s clever tactics helped the
Germans break through the British defenses in Egypt
and advance toward Alexandria. Meanwhile, a
renewed German offensive in the Soviet Union led to
the capture of the entire Crimea in the spring of 1942.
In August, Hitler confidently boasted:
Hulton/Archive by Getty Images
“
As the next step, we are going to advance south
of the Caucasus and then help the rebels in Iran and
Iraq against the English. Another thrust will be
directed along the Caspian Sea toward Afghanistan
and India. Then the English will run out of oil. In two
years we’ll be on the borders of India. Twenty to
thirty elite German divisions will do. Then the British
Empire will collapse.
”
This would be Hitler’s last optimistic outburst.
By the fall of 1942, the war had turned against the
Germans.
In North Africa, British forces had stopped Rommel’s troops at El Alamein (EL A•luh•MAYN) in the
summer of 1942. The Germans then retreated back
across the desert. In November 1942, British and
American forces invaded French North Africa. They
forced the German and Italian troops there to surrender in May 1943.
On the Eastern Front, after the capture of the
Crimea, Hitler’s generals wanted him to concentrate
Women as Spies in World War II
For thousands of years, governments have relied on
spies to gather information about their enemies. Until
the twentieth century, most spies were men. During
World War II, however, many women became active in
the world of espionage.
Yoshiko Kawashima was born in China but raised in
Japan. In 1932, she was sent to China by Japanese
authorities to gather information for the invasion of
China. Disguised as a young man, Kawashima was an
active and effective spy until her arrest by the Chinese
in 1945. The Chinese news agency announced that “a
long-sought-for beauty in male costume was arrested
today in Beijing.” She was executed soon after her
arrest.
Hekmath Fathmy was an Egyptian dancer. Her hatred
of the British, who had occupied Egypt, caused her to
become a spy for the Germans. Fathmy sang and
danced for British troops in the Kit Kat Club, a nightclub
in Cairo. After shows, she took British officers to her
houseboat on the banks of the Nile. Any information
she was able to obtain from her guests was passed on
to John Eppler, a German spy in Cairo. Eventually, she
was caught, but she served only a year in prison for her
spying activities.
on the Caucasus and its oil fields. Hitler, however,
decided that Stalingrad, a major industrial center on
the Volga, should be taken first.
In perhaps the most terrible battle of the war,
between November 1942 and February 2, 1943, the
Soviets launched a counterattack. German troops
were stopped, then encircled, and supply lines were
cut off, all in frigid winter conditions. The Germans
were forced to surrender at Stalingrad. The entire
German Sixth Army, considered the best of the German troops, was lost.
By February 1943, German forces in Russia were
back to their positions of June 1942. By the spring of
1943, even Hitler knew that the Germans would not
defeat the Soviet Union.
The Asian Theater
In 1942, the tide of battle in the
East changed dramatically. In the Battle of the Coral
Sea on May 7 and 8, 1942, American naval forces
stopped the Japanese advance and saved Australia
from the threat of invasion.
Violette Szabo of French/English background became a spy
after her husband died fighting
the Germans in North Africa.
She joined Special Operations
Executive, an arm of British
Intelligence, and was sent to
France several times. In August
1944, she parachuted into
France to spy on the Germans.
Caught by Gestapo forces at
Salon La Tour, she was tortured
and then shipped to Ravensbruck, a women’s concentration
camp near Berlin. She was executed there in April 1945.
Violette Szabo spied
for the Allies to avenge
her husband’s death.
People have different motives for becoming spies.
List several motives that might draw someone to
espionage. Do you think the motives are different in
peacetime? Investigate current espionage activities
using the Internet or library. What various methods
do governments use today to gather intelligence?
World War II
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
5 5Rome
Rome
andCHAPTER
and
the Rise
the Rise
of 11
19
Christianity
of Christianity
547 547547
World War II in Asia and the Pacific, 1941–1945
1,000 miles
0
SOVIET UNION
1,000 kilometers
0
Mercator projection
45
19
194
5
1945
19
45
Major Allied air operation
(Aug. 1945)
Shanghai
PaCIFic
Ocean
JAPAN
KOREA
Nagasaki
CHINA
Japan and Japanesecontrolled area, 1942
Maximum extent of Japanese
control, 1942
Allied offensive
Kuril
Islands
MANCHUKUO
MONGOLIA
Aleutian Islands
Sakhalin
(Karafuto)
Tokyo
Major battle or attack
Conventional bombing
Atomic bombing
Hiroshima
(Aug. 1945)
30°N
19 4
5
19
1943
INDIA
BURMA
44
Hong
Kong
Hainan
THAILAND(Jan.–AprilBataan
1942)
194
Philippine
Islands Philippine Sea
Java Sea
(Feb. 1942)
indian
Ocean
(June 1944)
Leyte Gulf
(Oct. 1944)
Mariana Islands
Saipan (June–July 1944)
194
2
Hawaiian
Islands
Marshall Islands
4
Guam
(July–Aug. 1944)
3
19
194
2
SARAWAK
Borneo Celebes
194
4
New Britain
(Dec. 1944)
New Guinea
DUTCH EAST INDIES
Java
194
Tarawa
(Nov. 1943)
1944
EQUATOR
0°
Solomon Islands
1943
Coral Sea
(May 1942)
Guadalcanal
(Aug. 1942–Feb. 1943)
Eastern Solomons (Aug. 1942)
Santa Cruz (Oct. 1942)
1942
Coral
Sea
N
W
E
S
New
Hebrides
New
Caledonia
Fiji
TROPIC OF CAPRICORN
90°E
“Island hopping,”
the Allied strategy in120°E
Asia, focused more
on the Pacific islands instead of the Asian mainland.
150°E
1. Interpreting Maps What was the approximate distance from Japan to its farthest point of control?
bypass others, “island hopping” up to Japan. After a
series of bitter engagements in the waters off the
Solomon Islands from August to November 1942,
Japanese fortunes were fading.
2. Applying Geography Skills Compare this map to the
maps in the chapter on the war in Europe. Then analyze
the effects of geographic factors on the major events in
the two different theaters of war.
The turning point of the war in Asia came on
June 4, at the Battle of Midway Island. U.S. planes
destroyed four attacking Japanese aircraft carriers.
The United States defeated the Japanese navy and
established naval superiority in the Pacific.
By the fall of 1942, Allied forces in Asia were gathering for two operations. One, commanded by U.S.
general Douglas MacArthur, would move into the
Philippines through New Guinea and the South
Pacific Islands. The other would move across the
Pacific with a combination of U.S. Army, Marine, and
Navy attacks on Japanese-held islands. The policy
was to capture some Japanese-held islands and
548
194
Wake Island
(Dec. 1941)
44
Sumatra
TROPIC OF CANCER
1945
Corregidor
FRENCH
5
INDOCHINA
MALAYA
Iwo Jima (Feb.–March 1945)
Okinawa
(April–June 1945)
Formosa
Midway Island
(June 1942) Pearl Harbor
(Dec. 1941)
CHAPTER 11
World War II
180°
150°W
Reading Check Summarizing Why was the German
assault on Stalingrad a crushing defeat for the Germans?
Last Years of the War
Allied victories forced Germany and Japan to
surrender unconditionally.
Reading Connection In wartime, does the end justify
the means? Read to learn about President Truman’s decision to
use the atomic bomb.
By the beginning of 1943, the tide of battle had
turned against Germany, Italy, and Japan. Axis forces
in Tunisia surrendered on May 13, 1943. The Allies
then crossed the Mediterranean and carried the war
to Italy, an area that Winston Churchill had called
the “soft underbelly” of Europe. After taking Sicily,
Allied troops began an invasion of mainland Italy in
September.
The European Theater
After the fall of Sicily, Mussolini was removed from office and placed under
arrest by Victor Emmanuel III, king of Italy. A new Italian government offered to surrender to the Allied
forces. However, Mussolini was liberated by the Germans in a daring raid and then set up as the head of a
puppet German state in northern Italy. At the same
time, German troops moved in and occupied much of
Italy.
The Germans set up effective new defensive lines
in the hills south of Rome. The Allied advance up the
Italian Peninsula turned into a painstaking affair with
very heavy casualties. Rome did not fall to the Allies
until June 4, 1944. By that time, the Italian war had
assumed a secondary role as the Allied forces opened
their long-awaited “second front” in western Europe.
Since the autumn of 1943, the Allies had been
planning an invasion of France from Great Britain,
across the English Channel. Finally, on June 6, 1944
(D-Day), Allied forces under U.S. general Dwight D.
Eisenhower landed on the beaches of Normandy in
history’s greatest naval invasion. The Allies fought
their way past underwater mines, barbed wire, and
horrible machine-gun fire. There was heavy German
resistance even though the Germans thought the battle was a diversion and the real invasion would occur
elsewhere. Their slow response enabled the Allied
forces to set up a beachhead. Within three months,
the Allies had landed two million men and a half million vehicles. Allied forces then pushed inland and
broke through German defensive lines.
After the breakout, Allied troops moved south and
east. In Paris, resistance fighters rose up against the
occupying Germans. The Allies liberated Paris by the
end of August. In March 1945, they crossed the Rhine
River and advanced into Germany. At the end of
April 1945, Allied armies in northern Germany
moved toward the Elbe River, where they linked up
with the Soviets.
The Soviets had come a long way since the Battle
of Stalingrad in 1943. In the summer of 1943, Hitler
gambled on taking the offensive using newly developed heavy tanks. German forces were soundly
defeated by the Soviets at the Battle of Kursk (July 5
to 12), the greatest tank battle of World War II.
Soviet forces now began a steady advance westward. They had reoccupied Ukraine by the end of
1943 and moved into the Baltic states by the beginning of 1944. Advancing along a northern front,
Soviet troops occupied Warsaw in January 1945 and
entered Berlin in April. Meanwhile, Soviet troops,
along a southern front, swept through Hungary,
Romania, and Bulgaria.
By January 1945, Adolf Hitler had moved into a
bunker 55 feet (almost 17 m) under the city of Berlin
to direct the final stages of the war. In his final political testament, Hitler, consistent to the end in his antiSemitism, blamed the world’s Jews for the war. He
wrote, “Above all I charge the leaders of the nation
and those under them to scrupulous observance of
Winston Churchill
1874–1965
British prime minister
Winston Churchill was Great Britain’s wartime leader. At the beginning of the
war, Churchill had already had a long political career. He had advocated a hardline policy toward Nazi Germany in the 1930s. On May 10, 1940, he became
British prime minister.
Churchill was confident that he could guide Britain to ultimate victory.
“I thought I knew a great deal about it all,” he later wrote, “and I was sure I
should not fail.” Churchill proved to be an inspiring leader who rallied the British
people with stirring speeches: “We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on
the landing grounds, in the fields, in the streets, and in the hills. We shall never surrender.” Time magazine designated Churchill the Man of the Year in 1940 and named
him the Man of the Half Century in 1950.
CHAPTER 11
World War II
549
CORBIS
Battle Deaths in World War II
Country
USSR
Germany
Yugoslavia
Poland
Romania
United States
United Kingdom
France
Hungary
Finland
Italy
Greece
Canada
Battle Deaths
7,500,000
3,500,000
410,000
320,000
300,000
292,000
245,000
210,000
140,000
82,000
77,000
74,000
37,000
the laws of race and to merciless opposition to the
universal poisoner of all peoples, international
Jewry.”
Hitler committed suicide on April 30, two days after
Mussolini had been shot by Italian partisans, or resistance fighters. On May 7, 1945, German commanders
surrendered. The war in Europe was finally over.
The Asian Theater
The war in Asia continued.
Beginning in 1943, U.S. forces had gone on the offensive and advanced, slowly at times, across the Pacific.
As Allied military power drew closer to the main
Japanese islands in the first months of 1945, Harry S.
Truman, who had become president on the death of
Roosevelt in April, had a difficult decision to make.
Should he use newly developed atomic weapons to
bring the war to an end or find another way to defeat
the Japanese forces?
Using atomic weapons would, Truman hoped,
enable the United States to avoid an invasion of
Japan. The Japanese had made extensive preparations
to defend their homeland. Truman and his advisers
had become convinced that American troops would
suffer heavy casualties if they invaded Japan. At the
time, however, only two bombs were available, and
no one knew how effective they would be.
Truman decided to use the bombs. The first bomb
was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on
August 6. Three days later, a second bomb was
dropped on Nagasaki. Both cities were leveled.
Thousands of people died immediately, and thousands more died later from radiation. Emperor Hirohito now stepped in and forced the Japanese military
leaders to surrender unconditionally, which they did
on August 14.
World War II was finally over. Seventeen million
had died in battle. Perhaps 20 million civilians had
perished as well. Some estimates place total losses at
50 million.
Reading Check Evaluating Why is the invasion of
Normandy considered one of history’s greatest naval invasions?
HISTORY
Study Central
For help with the concepts in this section of Glencoe World
History—Modern Times, go to wh.mt.glencoe.com and
click on Study Central.
Checking for Understanding
1. Vocabulary Define: blitzkrieg, isolationism, neutrality, indefinite, partisan.
2. People Identify: Franklin D. Roosevelt,
Douglas MacArthur, Winston Churchill,
Harry S. Truman.
3. Places Locate: Stalingrad, Midway
Island, Normandy, Hiroshima.
Reviewing Big Ideas
4. Explain Hitler’s strategy of attacking
the Soviet Union. Why did his delay in
launching the attack ultimately contribute to the Soviet victory over the
Germans?
550
CHAPTER 11
World War II
5.
Critical Thinking
Evaluating How
might the Allied demand for unconditional surrender have helped Hitler
maintain control over Germany?
CA HR 3
6. Sequencing Information Using a chart
like the one below, place the events of
World War II in chronological order.
Year
1939
Country
Event
Analyzing Visuals
7. Examine the photo on page 543 showing the destruction caused by the Luftwaffe’s bombing raids on London.
Explain how this strategy of Hitler’s
hurt, rather than helped, Germany’s
efforts.
8. Descriptive Writing Imagine you
lived in California during World War
II. Write an essay about your expectations of a Japanese invasion of California. You can choose to believe
that an invasion was possible or
impossible. CA 10WA2.1
The New Order and
the Holocaust
Guide to Reading
Section Preview
Devastation and suffering resulted during
World War II when Germany set up a
New Order in Europe and Japan set up a
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere in
Asia.
• The German conquest of continental
Europe forced millions of native peoples
to labor for the Nazi war machine.
(p. 552)
• Adolf Hitler’s philosophy of Aryan
superiority led to the Holocaust.
(p. 553)
Preview of Events
✦1940
1941
Einsatzgruppen
active in Poland
✦1941
Reading Objectives
• The Japanese conquest of Southeast
Asia forced millions of native peoples
to work for the Japanese war machine.
(p. 556)
1. Describe how the Nazis carried out
their Final Solution.
2. Explain how the Japanese created a
dilemma for nationalists in the lands
they occupied.
Content Vocabulary
genocide, collaborator
Reading Strategy
Academic Vocabulary
Compare and Contrast Using a Venn
diagram like the one below, compare and
contrast the New Order of Germany with
the New Order of Japan.
implement, adjust
People to Identify
Heinrich Himmler, Reinhard Heydrich
Places to Locate
Germany
Poland, Auschwitz
✦1942
1942
Two million ethnic Germans
resettled in Poland
✦1943
Japan
✦1944
1943
Japan uses forced labor to
build Burma-Thailand railroad
✦1945
1944
Nazis continue Final Solution
even as they start losing the war
California Standards in This Section
Reading this section will help you master these California History–Social Science standards.
10.8.5: Analyze the Nazi policy of pursuing racial purity, especially against the European Jews; its transformation into the Final Solution; and the Holocaust that
resulted in the murder of six million Jewish civilians.
10.8.6: Discuss the human costs of the war, with particular attention to the civilian
and military losses in Russia, Germany, Britain, the United States, China,
and Japan.
CHAPTER 11
World War II
551
The New Order in Europe
The German conquest of continental Europe
forced millions of native peoples to labor for the Nazi war
machine.
Reading Connection Did you know that four million
enslaved African Americans were freed after the Civil War in
the United States? Read to learn about the Nazi plan to use
slave labor.
In 1942, the Nazi regime stretched across continental Europe from the English Channel in the west
to the outskirts of Moscow in the east. Nazi Europe
was usually organized in one of two ways. Some
areas, such as western Poland, were directly annexed
and made into German provinces. Most of occupied
Europe, however, was run by German military or
civilian officials with help from local people willing
to collaborate with the Nazis. Because the Nazis controlled all Europe, they were able to carry out one of
the most horrible atrocities in human history—the
murder of some six million Jews, as well as other
people they judged unfit for the new German Reich.
Many of Europe’s Jews perished in the death
camps. The most notorious was at Auschwitz where
Rudolf Höss was the commanding officer. Höss
described what happened to Jews when they arrived
at the camp:
Resettlement in the East
Nazi administration in
the conquered lands to the east was especially ruthless. These lands were seen as the living space for German expansion. They were populated, Nazis thought,
by racially inferior Slavic peoples. Hitler’s plans for an
Aryan racial empire were so important to him that he
and the Nazis began to implement their racial program soon after the conquest of Poland.
Heinrich Himmler, the leader of the SS, was put in
charge of German resettlement plans in the east.
Himmler’s task was to move the Slavic peoples out
and replace them with Germans. Slavic peoples
included Czech, Polish, Serbo-Croatian, Slovene, and
Ukrainian. This policy was first applied to the new
German provinces created from the lands of western
Poland.
One million Poles were uprooted and transferred to
southern Poland. Hundreds of thousands of ethnic
Germans (descendants of Germans who had migrated
years ago from Germany to different parts of southern
and eastern Europe) were brought in to colonize the
German provinces in Poland. By 1942, two million
ethnic Germans had been settled in Poland.
The invasion of the Soviet Union made the Nazis
even more excited about German colonization in the
east. Hitler spoke to his intimate circle of a colossal
project of social engineering after the war. Poles,
Ukrainians, and Russians would be removed from
their lands and become slave labor. German peasants
would settle on the abandoned lands and “Germanize” them.
Himmler told a gathering of SS officers that 30 million Slavs might die in order to achieve German
“
We had two SS doctors on duty at Auschwitz to
examine the incoming transports of prisoners. The
prisoners would be marched by one of the doctors
who would make spot decisions as they walked by.
Those who were fit for work were sent into the
camp. Others were sent immediately to the extermination plants. Children of tender years were
invariably exterminated since by reason of their
youth they were unable to work. . . . At Auschwitz
we fooled the victims into thinking that they were
to go through a delousing process. Frequently they
realized our true intentions and we sometimes had
riots and difficulties due to that fact.
”
The camps were the final stage of genocide, but
the Nazi plan for exterminating the Jews began with
the movement of Jews and other “undesirables.”
552
CORBIS
CHAPTER 11
World War II
Rudolf Höss
Anne Frank
1929–1945
Dutch Holocaust victim
Anne Frank was one of the millions of victims of the Holocaust. When the Nazis
began to round up Jews in the Netherlands, the Frank family, along with another family, moved into a secret annex above a warehouse owned by the family business.
Employees of the Frank family provided food and a lifeline to the outside world.
Anne remained hopeful. She kept a diary to while away the time spent in hiding.
On July 15, 1944, she wrote, “In spite of everything I still believe that people are really
good at heart.”
On August 4, 1944, the Nazis found the secret annex of the Frank family. Anne and
her sister were sent to Bergen-Belsen, a concentration camp in Germany. There they died
of typhus. Anne’s father, Otto Frank, who survived, later found Anne’s diary. Published
in 1947, The Diary of Anne Frank became an international best-seller.
plans in the east. He continued, “Whether nations
live in prosperity or starve to death interests me only
insofar as we need them as slaves for our culture.
Otherwise it is of no interest.”
Slave Labor in Germany
German labor shortages
led to a policy of rounding up foreign workers. In
1942, a special office was set up to recruit labor for
German enterprises. By mid-1944, seven million
Europeans were working in Germany. Another seven
million workers were forced to labor for the Nazis in
their own countries, sometimes in military camps.
The use of forced labor often caused problems, however. Sending so many workers to Germany disrupted
industrial production in the occupied countries that
could have helped Germany. Then, too, the brutal way
in which Germany recruited foreign workers led more
and more people to resist the Nazi occupation forces.
Reading Check Describing What was Hitler’s vision
for the residents of eastern Europe?
The Holocaust
Adolf Hitler’s philosophy of Aryan superiority
led to the Holocaust.
Reading Connection Have you seen films about the
Holocaust? Read to find out how the Nazis planned to exterminate the Jews.
No aspect of the Nazi New Order was more terrifying than the deliberate attempt to exterminate the
Jews. Racial struggle was a key element in Hitler’s
world of ideas. To him, racial struggle was a clearly
defined conflict of opposites. On one side were
Hitler’s “master German race,” creators of human
progress. On the other side were the Jews, parasites,
in Hitler’s view, who were trying to destroy Germans
and control the world.
Himmler and the SS closely shared Hitler’s racial
ideas. The SS was given responsibility for what the
Nazis called their Final Solution to the Jewish problem. The Final Solution was genocide, the physical
extermination of the Jewish people.
The Einsatzgruppen Reinhard Heydrich, head of
the SS’s Security Service, was given the task of
administering the Final Solution. Heydrich created
special strike forces, called Einsatzgruppen, to carry
out the Nazi plans for the extermination of the Jews.
After the defeat of Poland, he ordered these forces to
round up all Polish Jews and put them in ghettos set
up in a number of Polish cities.
Conditions in the ghettos were horrible. Families
were crowded together in unsanitary housing. The
Nazis attempted to starve residents by allowing only
minimal amounts of food. Despite suffering, residents tried to adjust, and some ghettos organized
resistance against the Nazis.
In June 1941, the Einsatzgruppen were given the
new job of acting as mobile killing units. These SS
death squads followed the regular army’s advance
into the Soviet Union. Their job was to round up Jews
in their villages, execute them, and bury them in
mass graves. The graves were often giant pits dug by
the victims themselves before they were shot.
CHAPTER 11
World War II
553
AKG London
The leader of one death squad described their
methods:
The unit selected for this task would enter a vil“
lage or city and order the prominent Jewish citizens
to call together all Jews for the purpose of resettlement. They were requested to hand over their valuables to the leaders of the unit, and shortly before
the execution to surrender their outer clothing. The
men, women, and children were led to a place of
execution which in most cases was located next to a
more deeply excavated anti-tank ditch. Then they
were shot, kneeling or standing, and the corpses
thrown into the ditch.
”
The Death Camps
Probably one million Jews were
killed by the Einsatzgruppen. As appalling as that
sounds, it was too slow by Nazi standards. They
decided to kill the European Jewish population in
specially built death camps.
Beginning in 1942, Jews from countries occupied
by Germany (or sympathetic to Germany) were
rounded up, packed like cattle into freight trains, and
shipped to Poland. Six extermination centers were
built in Poland for this purpose. The largest was
Auschwitz (OWSH•VIHTS).
About 30 percent of the arrivals at Auschwitz were
sent to a labor camp, where many were starved or
worked to death. The remainder went to the gas
chambers. Some inmates were subjected to cruel and
painful “medical” experiments.
By the spring of 1942, the death camps were in full
operation. First priority was given to the elimination
of the ghettos in Poland. By the summer of 1942,
however, Jews were also being shipped from France,
Belgium, and Holland. Even as the Allies were winning the war in 1944, Jews were being shipped from
Greece and Hungary. Despite desperate military
needs, even late in the war when Germany faced
Major Nazi Camps
0°
N
W
20°E
NORWAY
E
SWEDEN
10°E
Se
a
S
North
Sea
Ba
UNITED
KINGDOM
50°N
l
LITHUANIA
EAST
Moscow
Smolensk
Stutthof PRUSSIA
Neuengamme
UNION OF SOVIET
Ravensbr¨uck
Ger.
Minsk
Westerbork
BergenSachsenhausen
Koldichevo
NETH.
SOCIALIST REPUBLICS
Belsen
Treblinka
Dora- GERMANY
Warsaw
POLAND
BELGIUM Mittelbau
Buchenwald Chelmno
Sobibor
Gross-Rosen
Majdanek
Plaszow
Paris
Theresienstadt
LUX.
Auschwitz- Belzec
CZ
Flossenb¨urg
Janowska
ECH
Birkenau
OSLO
VA K I A
Natzweiler
Dachau
Sered
Mauthausen
FRANCE
SWITZ.
AUSTRIA HUNGARY
Jasenovac
Jadovno
Sajmiste
Ad
YUGOSLAVIA
ri
Rome
at
ITALY
SPAIN
Concentration camp
Death camp
Location of
Einsatzgruppen
International
boundary, Jan. 1938
ROMANIA
San Sabba
0
Valvara
Klooga
ESTONIA
LATVIA
Kaiserwald
Riga
ti
c
DENMARK
FINLAND
ic
500 miles
500 kilometers
0
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection
Se
a
ALBANIA
GREECE
The Nazis devoted extensive resources to what they termed
the Final Solution.
1. Interpreting Maps How many concentration camps
are shown on the map? How many death camps?
2. Applying Geography Skills What geographical factors
do you think were involved in the Germans’ decisions
about the locations of the death camps?
554
CHAPTER 11
World War II
Jews from the Warsaw ghetto surrendering after their rebellion in 1943
utter defeat, the Final Solution had priority in using
railroad cars to ship Jews to death camps.
The Death Toll The Germans killed between five
and six million Jews, over three million of them in
the death camps. Virtually 90 percent of the Jewish
populations of Poland, the Baltic countries, and Germany were killed. Overall, the Holocaust was responsible for the death of nearly two out of every three
European Jews.
The Nazis were also responsible for the deliberate
death by shooting, starvation, or overwork of at least
another nine to ten million non-Jewish people. The
Nazis considered the Roma, sometimes known as
Gypsies, to be an alien race. The Roma were rounded
up for mass killing. About 40 percent of Europe’s one
million Roma were killed in the death camps.
The leading citizens of the Slavic peoples—the
clergy, intellectuals, civil leaders, judges, and
lawyers—were arrested and killed. Probably an additional four million Poles, Ukrainians, and Belorussians
lost their lives as slave laborers for Nazi Germany.
Finally, at least three million to four million Soviet
prisoners of war were killed in captivity.
This mass slaughter of European civilians, particularly European Jews, is known as the Holocaust.
Jews in and out of the camps attempted to resist the
Nazis. Some were aided by friends and even
strangers, hidden in villages or smuggled into safe
areas. Foreign diplomats would try to save Jews by
issuing exit visas. The nation of Denmark saved
almost its entire Jewish population.
Some people did not believe the accounts of death
camps because, during World War I, the Allies had
greatly exaggerated German atrocities to arouse
enthusiasm for the war. Most often, people pretended not to notice what was happening. Even
worse, collaborators (people who assisted the
enemy) helped the Nazis hunt down Jews. The Allies
were aware of the concentration camps and death
camps but chose to concentrate on ending the war.
Not until after the war did they learn the full extent
of the horror and inhumanity of the Holocaust.
; (See page 775 to read an excerpt from a French doctor’s
description of the Holocaust in the Primary Sources
Library.)
Children in the War
Young people of all ages were
also victims of World War II. Because they were
unable to work, Jewish children, along with their
mothers, were the first ones selected for the gas
HISTORY
Web Activity
Visit the Glencoe World History—Modern Times Web
site at wh.mt.glencoe.com and click on Chapter 11–
Student Web Activity to learn more about
concentration camps.
CHAPTER 11
World War II
555
Bettmann/CORBIS
chambers upon their arrival in the death camps of
Poland. Young Jewish males soon learned to look as
adult as possible in order to survive. Altogether, 1.2
million Jewish children died in the Holocaust.
Many children were evacuated from cities during
the war in order to avoid the bombing. The Germans
created about 9,000 camps for children in the countryside. In Japan, 15,000 children were evacuated from
Hiroshima before its destruction. The British moved
about 6 million children and their mothers in 1939.
Some British parents even sent their children to
Canada and the United States. This, too, could be
dangerous. When the ocean liner Arandora Star was
hit by a German torpedo, it had 77 British children on
board. They never made it to Canada.
Children evacuated to the countryside did not
always see their parents again. Some of them, along
with many other children, became orphaned when
their parents were killed. In 1945, there were perhaps
13 million orphaned children in Europe.
In eastern Europe, children especially suffered
under the harsh occupation policies of the Germans.
All secondary schools in German-occupied eastern
Europe were closed. Their facilities and equipment
were destroyed.
Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS, said of these
Slavic children that their education should consist
History
American and Filipino prisoners of war were
held in the Philippines. What role did prisoners of war play in the Japanese war effort?
only “in teaching simple arithmetic up to 500, the
writing of one’s name, and that God has ordered obedience to the Germans, honesty, diligence, and politeness. I do not consider an ability to read as necessary.”
At times, young people were expected to carry the
burden of fighting the war. In the last year of the war,
Hitler Youth members, often only 14 or 15 years old,
could be found in the front lines. In the Soviet Union,
children as young as 13 or 14 spied on German positions and worked with the resistance movement. Some
were even given decorations for killing the enemy.
Reading Check Summarizing What was the Nazis’
Final Solution?
The New Order in Asia
The Japanese conquest of Southeast Asia
forced millions of native peoples to work for the Japanese
war machine.
Reading Connection How would you feel if you were
separated from your family and forced to work for a foreign
country? Read to learn about the Japanese policies in the
occupied areas of Southeast Asia.
Japanese war policy in the areas in Asia occupied
by Japan was basically defensive. Japan hoped to use
its new possessions to meet its need for raw materials, and also as an outlet for manufactured goods. To
organize these possessions, Japanese leaders included
them in the Greater East Asia
Co-Prosperity Sphere, the
economic community supposedly designed to provide
benefits to the occupied areas
and the home country.
Japanese
Policies The
Japanese had conquered
Southeast Asia under the slogan “Asia for the Asiatics.”
Japanese officials in occupied
territories quickly made contact with anticolonialists.
They promised the people
that local governments would
be established under Japanese
control. Such governments
were eventually set up in
Burma, the Dutch East Indies,
Vietnam, and the Philippines.
556
Bettmann/CORBIS
CHAPTER 11
World War II
In fact, real power rested with Japanese military
authorities in each territory. In turn, the local Japanese
military command was directly subordinated to the
Army General Staff in Tokyo. The economic resources
of the colonies were used for the benefit of the Japanese
war machine. The native peoples in occupied lands
were recruited to serve in local military units or were
forced to work on public works projects.
In some cases, these policies brought severe hardships to peoples living in the occupied areas. In Vietnam, for example, local Japanese authorities forcibly
took rice and shipped it abroad. This led directly to a
food shortage that caused over a million Vietnamese
to starve to death in 1944 and 1945.
Japanese Behavior
At first, many Southeast Asian
nationalists took Japanese promises at face value and
agreed to cooperate with the Japanese authorities. In
Burma, for example, an independent government
was set up in 1943 and declared war on the Allies.
Eventually, the nature of Japanese occupation policies became clear, and sentiment turned against
Japan.
Japanese officials provoked such attitudes by their
arrogance and contempt for local customs. In the
Dutch East Indies, for example, Indonesians were
required to bow in the direction of Tokyo and to recognize the divinity of the Japanese emperor. In Burma,
Buddhist pagodas were used as military latrines.
Like German soldiers in occupied Europe, Japanese military forces often had little respect for the lives
of their subject peoples. After their conquest of Nanjing, China, in 1937, Japanese soldiers spent several
days killing, raping, and looting. After the conquest
of Korea, almost 800,000 Korean people were sent to
Japan, most as forced laborers.
In construction projects to help their war effort, the
Japanese made extensive use of labor forces composed of both prisoners of war and local peoples. In
building the Burma-Thailand railway in 1943, for
example, the Japanese used 61,000 Australian, British,
and Dutch prisoners of war and almost 300,000 workers from Burma, Malaya, Thailand, and the Dutch
East Indies. An inadequate diet and appalling work
conditions in an unhealthy climate led to the death of
12,000 Allied prisoners of war and 90,000 workers by
the time the railway was completed.
Such Japanese behavior created a dilemma for
nationalists in occupied countries. They had no desire
to see the return of the colonial powers, but they did
not like what the Japanese were doing. Some turned
against the Japanese. Others simply did nothing.
Indonesian patriots tried to have it both ways. They
pretended to support Japan while actually sabotaging
the Japanese administration. In French Indochina, Ho
Chi Minh’s Communist Party made contact with U.S.
military units in southern China. The Communists
agreed to provide information on Japanese troop
movements and to rescue downed American fliers in
the area. By the end of the war, little support remained
in the region for the Japanese “liberators.”
Reading Check Examining What was Japan’s war
policy in the occupied areas of Southeast Asia?
HISTORY
Study Central
For help with the concepts in this section of Glencoe World
History—Modern Times, go to wh.mt.glencoe.com and
click on Study Central.
Checking for Understanding
1. Vocabulary Define: implement, genocide, adjust, collaborator.
2. People Identify: Heinrich Himmler,
Reinhard Heydrich.
3. Places Locate: Poland, Auschwitz.
Reviewing Big Ideas
4. Explain what the Nazis meant by the
Final Solution. How did Hitler’s commitment to the Final Solution hinder Germany’s war effort?
5.
Critical Thinking
Evaluating What
was the impact of the Holocaust on history? What lessons does the Holocaust
have for us today? CA HR 3
6. Cause and Effect Create a chart giving
examples of Hitler’s actions to create a
New World Order in Europe and the
outcome of his efforts.
Hitler’s Actions
Outcome
Analyzing Visuals
7. Examine the scene pictured on page
555. Based on your reading, describe
the series of events that will most likely
follow.
8. Persuasive Writing Imagine you
are a member of Hitler’s inner circle
who is alarmed about the Final Solution. Compose a letter to Hitler, outlining why he should abandon plans
to send Jews to the death camps.
CA 10WA2.4a,c
CHAPTER 11
World War II
557
The Home Front and the
Aftermath of the War
Guide to Reading
Section Preview
Content Vocabulary
Reading Strategy
In the wake of World War II, a new set of
Cold War problems faced the international community.
mobilization, kamikaze, Cold War
Compare and Contrast Create a chart
like the one below comparing and contrasting the impact of World War II on the
lives of civilians.
• The Soviet Union, the United States,
Germany, and Japan all mobilized for
the war with an emphasis on personal
sacrifice. (p. 559)
• The bombing of cities in Britain, Germany, and Japan destroyed buildings
and killed thousands of civilians.
(p. 562)
• Political tensions, suspicions, and a conflict of ideas led the United States and
the Soviet Union into the Cold War.
(p. 563)
Preview of Events
✦1942
1942
Major bombing raids
on German cities
begin
✦1943
Academic Vocabulary
impact, alternative
People to Identify
Albert Speer, General Hideki Tojo
Country
Places to Locate
Soviet Union
London, Dresden
United States
Reading Objectives
Japan
1. Explain why the Japanese were
encouraged to serve as kamikaze
pilots.
2. Describe the outcome of the Yalta
Conference in 1945.
Germany
✦1944
1943
Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill
meet in Tehran to determine
future course of war
✦1945
✦1946
1945
Allies bomb
Dresden
Impact on Lives
of Civilians
✦1947
1946
Churchill proclaims existence
of “iron curtain” in Europe
California Standards in This Section
Reading this section will help you master these California History–Social Science standards.
10.8.3: Identify and locate the Allied and Axis powers on
a map and discuss the major turning points of
the war, the principal theaters of conflict, key
strategic decisions, and the resulting war conferences and political resolutions, with emphasis on
the importance of geographic factors.
10.8.4: Describe the political, diplomatic, and military
leaders during the war (e.g., Winston Churchill,
558
CHAPTER 11
World War II
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Emperor Hirohito,
Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Joseph Stalin,
Douglas MacArthur, Dwight Eisenhower).
10.9.1: Compare the economic and military power shifts
caused by the war, including the Yalta Pact, the
development of nuclear weapons, Soviet control
over Eastern European nations, and the economic recoveries of Germany and Japan.
The Mobilization of Peoples:
Four Examples
The Soviet Union, the United States, Germany,
and Japan all mobilized for the war with an emphasis on
personal sacrifice.
Reading Connection Can you think of a time when you
felt all citizens should cooperate in a national crisis? Read on to
understand the feelings of sacrifice during the crisis of the Second World War.
Even more than World War I, World War II was a
total war. Fighting was much more widespread and
covered most of the world. Outside of the damage
done to Japanese cities in the last month of the war in
Asia, German cities were the hardest hit.
A German civilian described an Allied bombing
raid on Hamburg in 1943:
“
As the many fires broke through the roofs of
the burning buildings, a column of heated air rose
more than two and a half miles high and one and
a half miles in diameter. . . . This column was fed
from its base by in-rushing cooler ground-surface
air. One and one half miles from the fires this
draft increased the wind velocity from eleven to
thirty-three miles per hour. At the edge of the
area the velocities must have been much greater,
as trees three feet in diameter were uprooted. In
a short time the temperature reached ignition
point for all combustibles, and the entire area was
ablaze. In such fires, complete burnout occurred,
that is, no trace of combustible material
remained.
The Soviet Union
The initial defeats of the Soviet
Union led to drastic emergency measures that
affected the lives of the civilian population.
Leningrad, for example, experienced nine hundred
days of siege. Its inhabitants became so desperate for
food that they ate dogs, cats, and mice. Probably 1.5
million people died in the city.
As the German army made its rapid advance into
Soviet territory, Soviet workers dismantled and
shipped the factories in the western part of the Soviet
Union to the interior—to the Urals, western Siberia,
and the Volga regions. Machines were placed on the
bare ground. As laborers began their work, walls
went up around them.
Stalin called the widespread military and industrial mobilization of the nation a “battle of
machines.” The Soviets won, producing 78,000 tanks
and 98,000 artillery pieces. In 1943, 55 percent of the
Soviet national income went for war materials, compared with 15 percent in 1940. As a result of the
emphasis on military goods, Soviet citizens experienced severe shortages of both food and housing.
Soviet women played a major role in the war
effort. Women and girls worked in industries, mines,
and railroads. Overall, the number of women working in industry increased almost 60 percent. Soviet
women were also expected to dig antitank ditches
and work as air-raid wardens. In addition, the Soviet
Union was the only country in World War II to use
women in battle. Soviet women served as snipers
and also in aircrews of bomber squadrons.
A B-26 drops bombs on Germany.
”
The bombing of civilians made the home front far
more dangerous than in previous wars. The home front
was also more affected by economic mobilization, the
act of assembling and preparing for war. Mobilization
affected women far more than in other wars. Finally,
the number of civilians killed—almost 20 million—was
far higher. Many of these victims were children.
World War II had an enormous impact on civilian
life in the Soviet Union, the United States, Germany,
and Japan. We consider the home fronts of those four
nations next.
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World War II
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CORBIS
The United States
The home front in the United
States was quite different from that of the other major
powers. The United States was not fighting the war
in its own territory. Eventually, the United States
became the arsenal of the Allied Powers; it produced
much of the military equipment the Allies needed. At
the height of war production in November 1943, the
country was building six ships a day and about
96,000 planes a year.
The mobilization of the American economy led to
some social turmoil. The construction of new factories
created boomtowns that attracted thousands, but often
the workers faced a shortage of houses and schools.
During the war, there was widespread migration.
About 16 million men and women in military service
moved to join up, and moved often thereafter.
Another 16 million were moving often, too. These
were mostly wives and girlfriends of servicemen or
of workers looking for jobs.
Over a million African Americans moved from the
rural South to the cities of the North and West to find
jobs in industry. Since African Americans were now
living in places where they had not before, racial tensions increased. Sometimes there were race riots. In
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World War II
Detroit in June 1943, for example, white mobs
roamed the streets attacking African Americans.
One million African Americans joined the military.
There they were segregated in their own battle units.
Angered by discrimination, some became militant
and were determined to fight for their civil rights
after the war.
Japanese Americans faced even more serious discrimination. On the West Coast, 110,000 Japanese
Americans, 65 percent of whom had been born in the
United States, were removed to camps surrounded
by barbed wire and required to take loyalty oaths.
Public officials claimed this policy was necessary for
security reasons.
The racism in the treatment of Japanese Americans
was evident when the California governor, Culbert
Olson, said, “You know, when I look out at a group of
Americans of German or Italian descent, I can tell
History
Many Japanese American families in southern California were transported to internment camps. Would
you have supported the internment policy for
Japanese Americans during the war? Explain.
whether they’re loyal or
not. I can tell how they
think and even perhaps
what they are thinking. But
it is impossible for me to
do this with inscrutable
Orientals, and particularly
the Japanese.”
Germany
In August 1914,
Germans had enthusiastically cheered their soldiers
marching off to war. In
September 1939, the streets
were quiet. Many Germans
did not care. Even worse
for the Nazi regime, many
feared disaster.
Hitler was well aware of the importance of the
home front. Despite the facts, Hitler believed that the
Germans had lost World War I because of a “stab in
the back”—a collapse of the will to win by those on
the home front. Determined to avoid this same result,
Hitler adopted certain economic policies that may
have cost Germany the war.
To maintain the morale at home during the first
two years of the war, Hitler refused to cut the production of consumer goods or increase the production
of armaments. After German defeats on the Russian
front and the American entry into the war, however,
the economic situation in Germany changed.
Early in 1942, Hitler finally ordered a massive
increase in armaments production and in the size of
the army. Hitler’s architect, Albert Speer, was made
minister for armaments and munitions in 1942. In
one year, Speer was able to triple armaments production despite Allied air raids.
In July 1944, the economy was totally mobilized.
Schools, theaters, and cafes were closed. Total mobilization came too late to save Germany, however.
Nazi attitudes toward women changed over the
course of the war. Before the war, the Nazis had
worked to keep women out of the job market. As the
war progressed and more and more men were called
up for military service, this position no longer made
sense. Nazi magazines now proclaimed, “We see the
woman as the eternal mother of our people, but also
as the working and fighting comrade of the man.”
In spite of this change, the number of women
working in industry, agriculture, commerce, and
domestic service increased only slightly. The total
number of employed women in September 1944 was
Kamikaze attacker being shot down in the Pacific, 1945
14.9 million, compared with 14.6 million in May 1939.
Many women, especially those of the middle class,
did not want jobs, particularly in factories.
Japan
Wartime Japan was a highly mobilized society. To guarantee its control over all national
resources, the government created a planning board
to control prices, wages, labor, and resources. Traditional habits of obedience and hierarchy were used to
encourage citizens to sacrifice their resources, and
sometimes their lives, for the national cause.
The calls for sacrifice reached a high point in the
final years of the war. Young Japanese men were
encouraged to volunteer to serve as pilots in suicide
missions against U.S. fighting ships at sea. These
pilots were known as kamikaze, or “divine wind.”
Japan was extremely reluctant to mobilize women
on behalf of Japan’s war effort. General Hideki Tojo,
prime minister from 1941 to 1944, opposed female
employment. He argued that “the weakening of the
family system would be the weakening of the nation
. . . we are able to do our duties only because we have
wives and mothers at home.”
The number of women working outside the home
increased during the war, but only in areas like the
textile industry and farming, where women had traditionally worked. Instead of using women to meet
labor shortages, the Japanese government brought in
Korean and Chinese laborers as an alternative.
Reading Check Evaluating How did World War II
contribute to racial tensions in the United States?
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Bettmann/CORBIS
The bombing of cities in Britain, Germany, and
Japan destroyed buildings and killed thousands of civilians.
Reading Connection
Has a relative told you about living
someplace where military attacks were a threat? Read to learn
about the bombing of cities during World War II.
Bombing was used in World War II against a variety
of targets, including military targets, enemy troops,
and civilian populations. The bombing of civilians in
World War II made the home front a dangerous place.
A few bombing raids had been conducted in the
last year of World War I. The bombing of civilian
populations had led to a public outcry. The bombings
and the reaction to them had given rise to the argument that bombing civilian populations would be an
effective way to force governments to make peace. As
a result, European air forces began to develop longrange bombers in the 1930s.
Britain
The first sustained use of civilian bombing
began in early September 1940. Londoners took the
first heavy blows. For months, the German air force
bombed London nightly. Thousands of civilians were
killed or injured, and enormous damage was done.
Nevertheless, Londoners’ morale remained high.
Dresden after the bombing in 1945
The blitz, as the British called the German air
raids, soon became a national experience. The blitz
was carried to many other British cities and towns.
The ability of Londoners to maintain their morale set
the standard for the rest of the British population.
The theory that the bombing of civilian targets would
force peace was proved wrong.
Germany
The British failed to learn from their own
experience, however. Churchill and his advisers
believed that destroying German communities
would break civilian morale and bring victory. Major
bombing raids on German cities began in 1942. On
May 31, 1942, Cologne became the first German city
to be attacked by a thousand bombers.
Bombing raids added an element of terror to circumstances already made difficult by growing shortages of food, clothing, and fuel. Germans especially
feared the incendiary bombs, which created
firestorms that swept through cities. The ferocious
bombing of Dresden from February 13 to 15, 1945,
created a firestorm that may have killed as many as
100,000 inhabitants and refugees.
Germany suffered enormously from the Allied
bombing raids. Millions of buildings were destroyed,
and possibly 500,000 civilians died. Nevertheless, it is
highly unlikely that Allied bombing sapped the
morale of the German people. Instead, Germans,
whether pro-Nazi or anti-Nazi, fought on stubbornly,
often driven simply by a desire to live.
Dresden in 2000
CORBIS
Frontline Civilians:
The Bombing of Cities
Uranium
wedge
The Atomic Bomb
Uranium
target
E
arly in the twentieth century, scientists began to think about the possibilities of splitting the atom to release energy and create a devastating
weapon, an atomic bomb. During World War II, the fear that the Germans
might make such a weapon convinced the U.S. government to try to develop
one first. In 1942, the United States set in motion the Manhattan Project.
The Manhattan Project was a code name for creating the first atomic
bomb. It was an enormous industrial and technical enterprise that cost
2 billion dollars and employed 600,000 people. Physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer directed the center in Los Alamos, New Mexico, where the bomb
was built. The bomb was successfully tested on July 16, 1945, near Alamogordo, New Mexico. Although the war in Europe was over, the war in Japan
was not.
Atomic bomb
Radar
antenna
On August 6, 1945, a B-29 bomber nicknamed Enola Gay dropped the
bomb on Hiroshima. An area of about 5 square miles (13 sq km) was turned
to ashes. Of the 76,000 buildings in the city, 70,000 were flattened. Of its
350,000 inhabitants, 140,000 had died by the end of 1945. By the end of
1950, another 50,000 had died from the effects of radiation. A second bomb
was dropped on Nagasaki on August 9. The world had entered the Nuclear
Age.
Evaluating Was the decision to use the atomic bomb different from
Allied decisions to bomb civilian population centers in Europe? Why or
why not?
Hiroshima after atomic bomb dropped,
August 1945
Nor did the bombing destroy Germany’s industrial capacity. Production of war materials actually
increased between 1942 and 1944, despite the bombing. Nevertheless, the widespread destruction of
transportation systems and fuel supplies made it
extremely difficult for the new materials to reach the
German military.
a People’s Volunteer Corps. Fearing high U.S. casualties in a land invasion of Japan, President Truman
and his advisers decided to drop the atomic bomb on
Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945.
Japan
Peace and a New War
In Japan, the bombing of civilians reached a
new level with the use of the first atomic bomb. Japan
was open to air raids toward the end of the war
because its air force had almost been destroyed.
Moreover, its crowded cities were built of flimsy
materials that were especially vulnerable to fire.
Attacks on Japanese cities by the new U.S. B-29
Superfortresses, the biggest bombers of the war, had
begun on November 24, 1944. By the summer of 1945,
many of Japan’s industries had been destroyed,
along with one-fourth of its dwellings.
The Japanese government decreed the mobilization of all people between the ages of 13 and 60 into
Reading Check Explaining Why were civilian populations targeted in bombing raids?
Political tensions, suspicions, and a conflict of
ideas led the United States and the Soviet Union into the
Cold War.
Reading Connection
How do you react to people you
do not trust? Read to learn how the United States and the
Soviet Union reacted to one another in this era.
The total victory of the Allies in World War II was
followed not by a real peace but by a period of political tensions, known as the Cold War. Primarily an
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Europe After World War II
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The Tehran Conference Stalin, Roosevelt, and
Churchill were the leaders of what was called the Big
Three (the Soviet Union, the United States, and Great
Britain) of the Grand Alliance. They met at Tehran in
November 1943 to decide the future course of the war.
Their major tactical decision concerned the final
assault on Germany. Stalin and Roosevelt had argued
successfully for an American-British invasion through
France. This was scheduled for the spring of 1944.
This plan had important consequences. It meant
that Soviet and British-American forces would meet
in defeated Germany along a north-south dividing
line. Most likely, Eastern Europe would be liberated
by Soviet forces. The Allies also agreed to a partition
of postwar Germany.
The Yalta Conference The Big Three powers met
again at Yalta in southern Russia in February 1945. By
then, the defeat of Germany was obvious. The Western powers, which had once believed that the Soviets
were in a weak position, were now faced with the
reality of 11 million Soviet soldiers taking possession
of Eastern and much of Central Europe.
Stalin was deeply suspicious of the Western powers. He wanted a buffer to protect the Soviet Union
CHAPTER 11
TURKEY
nS
ea
ideological conflict between the United States and
the Soviet Union, the Cold War was to dominate
world affairs until the end of the 1980s.
564
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Area of Soviet influence
Area of Western influence
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NETHERLANDS
40°
500 kilometers
0
Lambert Azimuthal
Equal-Area projection
NORWAY
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50
°N
500 miles
0
FINLAND
World War II
30°E
40°E
The political map of Europe
changed dramatically as a
result of World War II.
1. Interpreting Maps
Compare the map on
page 468 to this map
and identify the political
changes in Europe from
the 1920s to 1945.
2. Applying Geography
Skills Create a chart
that shows how Europe
was divided according
to Soviet and Western
influence.
from possible future Western aggression. This would
mean establishing pro-Soviet governments along the
border of the Soviet Union.
Roosevelt, however, favored the idea of selfdetermination for Europe. This involved a pledge to help
liberated Europe in the creation of “democratic institutions of their own choice.” Liberated countries would
hold free elections to determine their political systems.
At Yalta, Roosevelt wanted Soviet military help
against Japan. At this point, the atomic bomb was not
yet a certainty. Roosevelt therefore agreed to Stalin’s
price for military aid against Japan: possession of
Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, which were ruled by
Japan, as well as two warm-water ports and railroad
rights in Manchuria.
The creation of the United Nations was a major
American concern at Yalta. Roosevelt wanted the Big
Three powers to pledge to be part of such an international organization before difficult issues divided
them into hostile camps. Both Churchill and Stalin
accepted Roosevelt’s plans for the establishment of a
United Nations organization and set the first meeting
for San Francisco in April 1945.
Differences over Germany and Eastern Europe were
treated less decisively. The Big Three reaffirmed that
Germany must surrender unconditionally. It would be
divided into four zones, which would be occupied and
governed by the military forces of the United States,
Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union.
A compromise was also worked out on Poland.
Stalin agreed to free elections in the future to determine a new government in that country. The issue of
free elections in Eastern Europe, however, caused a
split between the Soviets and Americans, as soon
became evident at the next conference of the Big
Three powers at Potsdam, Germany.
The Potsdam Conference The Potsdam Conference of July 1945 began under a cloud of mistrust.
Roosevelt had died on April 12 and was succeeded
by Harry S. Truman. At Potsdam, Truman demanded
free elections in Eastern Europe. Stalin responded,
“A freely elected government in any of these East
European countries would be anti-Soviet, and that
we cannot allow.”
After a war in which the Soviets had lost more
people than any other country, Stalin sought absolute
military security. Only the presence of Communist
states in Eastern Europe could guarantee this.
War Crimes Trials
By the summer of 1945, the
Allies had agreed to hold a trial of war leaders for
committing aggressive war and crimes against
humanity. Nazi leaders were tried and condemned as
war criminals at the Nuremberg war crimes trials in
Germany in 1945 and 1946. War crimes trials were
also held in Japan and Italy.
A New Struggle
Even while memories of the war
were fading, the Cold War struggle began. Many in
the West thought Soviet policy was part of a global
Communist conspiracy. The Soviets viewed Western,
and especially American, policy as nothing less than
global capitalist expansionism.
Checking for Understanding
1. Vocabulary Define: mobilization,
impact, kamikaze, alternative, Cold War.
2. People and Events Identify: Albert
Speer, General Hideki Tojo.
3. Places Locate: London, Dresden.
Reviewing Big Ideas
4. List examples of Japan’s vulnerability to
Allied air attack in late 1944. What type
of U.S. aircraft was used for the heaviest bombing of Japanese targets?
Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin at Yalta
In March 1946, in a speech, the former British
prime minister Winston Churchill declared that “an
iron curtain” had “descended across the continent,”
dividing Europe into two hostile camps. Stalin
branded Churchill’s speech a “call to war with the
Soviet Union.” Only months after the world’s most
devastating conflict had ended, the world was bitterly divided again.
Reading Check Identifying Why did Stalin want to
control Eastern Europe after World War II?
HISTORY
Study Central
For help with the concepts in this section of Glencoe World
History—Modern Times, go to wh.mt.glencoe.com and
click on Study Central.
Critical Thinking
5.
Contextualizing
Why did General Hideki Tojo oppose
having Japanese women join the labor
force? CA HI 3
Analyzing Visuals
7. Analyze the photo of the leaders of the
Big Three at the top of this page. How
might the seating arrangement for the
three leaders be significant?
6. Organizing Information Create a
chart listing countries where bombing
of heavily populated cities took place.
Country
City
8. Persuasive Writing President Truman concluded that dropping the
atomic bomb on Japan was justifiable. Write an essay that takes a
position on Truman’s decision.
CA 10WA2.4a,c
CHAPTER 11
World War II
565
E.T. Archive
During the Holocaust, over six millions Jews were murdered. Read these accounts to understand more
about the atrocities of this period.
SOURCE 1: Escape from Poland
After the Nazi invasion and occupation of Poland, the
border into the Soviet Union remained open throughout
1939, and over 300,000 Jews crossed it. The following
survivor describes the dangers involved in making the
trip across the border in November 1939.
. . . There is no present and no future for young
Jews. They escape for their lives. They get away by different methods: on foot, by auto, train, carts and every
other kind of transport. The border is open. The Soviets do nothing to prevent it. The occupying forces have
no fixed system. You can never know what is forbidden and what is allowed. In a word—one day they are
lenient and one day severe. . . . At the beginning of
the Occupation the border was open . . . the roads
were beset with dangers. According to the “Regulations” persons crossing the border could take only 20
zloty1 with them. . . . Devices were therefore thought
up in order to smuggle larger sums across, and here
many failed. People were robbed and beaten on the
way and left naked, with everything gone. The Border
Guards know that the blood and the money of Jews
were outside the law. . . . From this time the border
crossers preferred to cross without permission. They
had no confidence in the legalisms of the Occupying
Power. When they crossed quietly they were more
secure. There simply was no refugee who did not take
with him a sum of money larger than that which the
“Regulations” permitted. . . .
It is reliably estimated that more than a million
refugees escaped to Russia. However many came they
were still well received. But—where was the great
mass of people to go? A small part, particularly those
with a trade, have already been moved to the interior
of Russia. As to the majority—either they had money
with them and could eat, or they had nothing and
hungered and thirsted. . . .
In Auschwitz my block was right across from the
crematorium2. Perhaps thirty meters separated the
crematorium from me. I had occasion to witness
everything. It was entirely open. They didn’t even try to
cover it up. . . . The transports arrived there, huge
transports. In ten minutes by the clock we already saw
the fire coming from the chimneys. . . . There were
seasons when the ovens weren’t able to burn as many
transports as there were, [so] they dug ditches, pits . . .
almost as if they were burning people who were still
quite alive. . . .
➤1
➤2
zloty: Polish currency
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CHAPTER 11
The entrance to Auschwitz death camp
SOURCE 2: A Survivor of Auschwitz
Auschwitz was the largest Nazi death camp where the
greatest number of Jews were murdered during the Holocaust. This interview of Hadassah M. begins in 1943.
crematorium: building where the deceased are incinerated
World War II
Without having the people gassed?
. . . The people were only like they had lost consciousness. They even begrudged [them] a little gas.
We had occasion to hear all the cries of Shema
Yisroeil 3 and sometimes the singing of the Hatikveh4.
I myself saw how the oven [gas chamber] was being
opened and the people were being pushed in. . . .
You happened to pass by, yourself?
No. Our work crew passed along the road that time.
So we observed quite well. There were also cases that
out of giant transports nobody, nobody was let into the
camp alive. Children were altogether out of the question. If they want to claim that they only burned weak
people, the living witnesses can tell that they took
away the most beautiful, the youngest, the healthiest
people, still sufficiently capable and strong [enough] for
work. There was a time when they installed a children’s block. The children were given the finest and
best, but it was only when they had to present proof
for an inspection or such. During one nice, bright
morning the children were taken away and all burned.
able quarters.” My parents knew what that meant.
How right they were—both soon perished at
Poniatowa Concentration Camp. . . .
. . . [O]ne day, I left the ghetto in the column of
cleaning women, marched to the hospital, changed
clothes with the woman who wanted to return, and
was taken away by a waiting Marisia. She took me to
the suburbs, then found a priest who was willing to
sell her a birth certificate of a girl my age who had
died. With this document, she was able to pass me off
as her niece. She worked whenever possible to feed
and house us. . . .
She took me to a cousin with whom she had not
been in contact for many years. She introduced me as
her child out of wedlock. As unpleasant as this admission was to her religious cousin, she allowed us to
rent a room in an apartment she was renting to a
prostitute who made home-made whiskey on the side
to supplement her income. She and Marisia made an
arrangement whereby Marisia would hide the whiskey
in a basket under some slaughtered chickens, take
them to Warsaw, sell them, and split the profits. That’s
how we stayed alive.
SOURCE 3: A Jewish Girl in Hiding
The Holocaust produced many who risked their lives in
order to ensure the survival of some Jews. This survivor
describes how her governess, Marisia, helped her to
escape from the Polish ghetto and hid her.
. . . When the Germans invaded Poland in September 1939, my father, a captain in the Cavalry, pitted his
horses against steel tanks. The horses lost. . . . [T]he
Germans ordered all Jews to move immediately into a
specified area. It came to be known as the Warsaw
Ghetto5. . . .
At the end of 1942, the Germans announced that all
workers of certain factory complexes in the ghetto
would be transported to “more suitable and comfort-
➤3
Shema Yisroeil (usually spelled “Yisroel”): declaration
of one God. It’s Jewish custom to make these the final words
before death.
4Hatikveh: Israel’s national anthem, meaning “the Hope”
5Ghetto: city quarter to which Jews were restricted
CA HI 2, HI 3
Source 1: According to this survivor, why was it so risky
for Jews to cross the open border between Poland
and the Soviet Union?
Source 2: According to Hadassah M.’s account, how did
the overseers of Auschwitz go to great lengths to disguise their activities because of possible inspections
by the Red Cross?
Source 3: According to this account, how was it possible for Jews to escape and hide throughout the
Holocaust?
Comparing and Contrasting Sources
1. Comparing each of these accounts, is it surprising
that many Jews risked their lives to avoid being sent
to the camps? Explain. CA 10RL3.5
2. Why do you believe some groups took advantage of
escaping Jews (Source 1), while others risked their
lives in order to save them (Source 3)?
CHAPTER 11
World War II
567
Standards 10.7.3, 10.8, 10.8.1, 10.8.2, 10.8.3, 10.8.4, 10.8.5, 10.8.6, 10.9.1
Reviewing Content Vocabulary
On a sheet of paper, use each of these terms in a sentence.
1. demilitarized
2. appeasement
3. sanction
4. blitzkrieg
5. partisan
6. genocide
7. mobilization
8. kamikaze
9. Cold War
Reviewing Academic Vocabulary
On a sheet of paper, use each of these terms in a sentence that
reflects the term’s meaning in the chapter.
10.
11.
12.
13.
labor
achieve
conference
assume
14.
15.
16.
17.
isolationism
neutrality
indefinite
implement
18. adjust
19. impact
20. alternative
Reviewing the Main Ideas
Section 1
21. Where was the Sudetenland? Why was it important?
22. Explain why Japan felt the need to control other nations.
Section 2
23. What significant military action occurred at Midway Island in
1942?
24. What event triggered the entry of the United States into the
war?
Section 3
25. What percentage of the Jewish populations of Poland,
the Baltic countries, and Germany were killed during the
Holocaust?
26. List examples of questionable Japanese occupation policies
in Asia.
Section 4
27. In what way were Japanese Americans treated differently
than German Americans and Italian Americans?
28. Explain the significance of the Yalta Conference.
World War II was the most devastating total war in human history. Events engaged four continents, involved countless people
and resources, and changed subsequent history. The chart below summarizes some of the themes and developments.
Country
Movement
Cooperation
Conflict
United States
• Retakes Japanese positions
in Southeast Asia
• Relaxes neutrality acts
• Meets with Allies at Tehran,
Yalta, and Potsdam
• Leads war effort
• Conducts island-hopping counterattacks
• Drops atomic bombs on Japan
Great Britain
• Makes huge troop movements
at Dunkirk and Normandy
• Meets with Allies at Tehran,
Yalta, and Potsdam
• Stops Rommel at El Alamein
• Withstands heavy German bombing
Soviet Union
• Occupies Kuril and Sakhalin
Islands
• Takes control of much of
eastern Europe
• Meets with Allies at Tehran,
Yalta, and Potsdam
• Defeats Germany at Stalingrad
• Forces Germany to fight war
on two fronts
Germany
• Takes over Austria, Poland,
and Sudetenland
• Forms Rome-Berlin Axis
• Signs Anti-Comintern Pact
• Uses blitzkrieg tactics
• Conducts genocide of Jews and others
• Besieges Leningrad
Italy
• Invades Ethiopia
• Forms Rome-Berlin Axis
• Becomes German puppet state
(northern Italy)
Japan
• Seizes Manchuria and
renames it Manchukuo
• Invades China
• Signs Anti-Comintern Pact
• Attacks Pearl Harbor
• Conquers Southeast Asia from
Indochina to Philippines
568
CHAPTER 11
World War II
HISTORY
Analyzing Maps and Charts
Refer to the map on page 548 to answer the following questions.
37. Why did the Allies not retake every Japanese-held island?
38. How far is it from Pearl Harbor to Japan?
Critical Thinking
29. Cause and Effect What factors caused President Truman to
order the dropping of atomic bombs in Japan?
30. Drawing Conclusions How did World War II affect the
world balance of power? What nations emerged from the
conflict as world powers?
German-Controlled Territory, 1943
Inferring Hitler, a Nazi, and Mussolini, a Fascist, had similar beliefs. What did these two men
have in common as World War II approached?
Writing About History
32.
Directions: Use the map and your knowledge of world history to answer the following question.
Alternative History In an essay,
examine whether events leading to World War II, or even
the war itself, would have occurred if England, France, and
Italy had enforced the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles
when Germany initially broke them. CA HI 4
Write an essay that examines the different
approaches to colonial governing in Asia taken by the Japanese during World War II and by Europeans before the war.
Be sure to include information about key people, places, and
events from each of the two periods in history.
34. Persuasive Writing Some historians believe that President
Truman dropped atomic weapons on Japan not to end the
war in the Pacific, but to impress the Soviet Union with U.S.
military power. Write a position paper evaluating this
hypothesis in light of what you have learned about Stalin
and the United States. CA 10WA2.4a,c
Whether nations live in prosperity or starve to
“
death interests me only insofar as we need them as
slaves for our culture. Otherwise it is of no interest.
”
35. Describe Heinrich Himmler’s opinion of the people that Germany conquered.
36. Compare the Nazi philosophy of creating a New Order with
the Japanese philosophy of Asia for the Asiatics.
ESTONIA
ESTONIA
North
Sea
SWEDEN
DENMARK
DENMARK
UNITED
KINGDOM
t
B al
NETH.
English C h a n n
BELG.
LATVIA
i
LITH.
GER.
RUSSIA
POLAND
GERMANY
LUX.
FRANCE
SLOVAKIA
SWITZ.
AUSTRIA
S
ALP
33.
Analyzing Sources Heinrich Himmler, head of the German SS,
argued:
FINLAND
NORWAY
el
31.
Standards Practice
ea
Visit the Glencoe World History—Modern Times Web
site at wh.mt.glencoe.com and click on Chapter 11–
Self-Check Quiz to prepare for the Chapter Test.
cS
Self-Check Quiz
SPAIN
HUNGARY
ROMANIA
ITALY
YUGOSLAVIA
BULGARIA
ALBANIA
ALBANIA
Mediterranean Sea
GREECE
39. What geographic factors influenced German military
advances?
A German troops had to cover long distances.
B Colder climates created problems that the German military could not overcome.
C The blitzkrieg relied on tanks that were most effective on
flatter terrain.
D All of the above.
CA Standard 10.8.3 Identify and locate the Allied and Axis
powers on a map and discuss the major turning points of
the war, the principal theaters of conflict, key strategic decision, and the resulting war conferences and political resolutions, with emphasis on the importance of geographic
factors.
CHAPTER 11
World War II
569
from A
Room of
One’s Own
by Virginia Woolf
Virginia Woolf was born in 1882 in
London. Her work changed the ways many
modern novels were written. She used an
experimental narrative technique known as
stream of consciousness, in which characters
are portrayed through their inner lives and
thoughts without explanation from the writer.
She is also known for her feminist writings.
One of the most famous of these is A Room
of One’s Own. Its title reflects her belief that
a woman “must have money and a room of
her own” in order to write.
Read to Discover
How does Virginia Woolf express her belief
that gender influences the development of
talent? Do you think Woolf is being fair in
her assessment? Does her analysis of the differences between treatment of men and
women apply today?
Reader’s Dictionary
agog: full of intense interest or excitement
moon: to dream
570
CHAPTER 11
(l)CORBIS, (r)Bridgeman Art Library/Art Resource, NY
World War II
. . . Let me imagine, since facts are so hard to come by,
what would have happened had Shakespeare had a
wonderfully gifted sister, called Judith, let us say.
Shakespeare himself went, very probably—his mother
was an heiress—to the grammar school, where he may
have learnt Latin—Ovid, Virgil and Horace—and the
elements of grammar and logic. He was, it is well
known, a wild boy who poached rabbits, perhaps shot
a deer, and had, rather sooner than he should have
done, to marry a woman in the neighbourhood, who
bore him a child rather quicker than was right. That
escapade sent him to seek his fortune in London. He
had, it seemed, a taste for the theatre; he began by
holding horses at the stage door. Very soon he got
work in the theatre, became a successful actor, and
lived at the hub of
the universe, meeting everybody,
knowing everybody, practising his
art on the boards,
exercising his wits
in the street, and
even getting access
to the palace of the
queen. Meanwhile
A surviving manuscript shows London’s
Globe theater where
Shakespeare’s plays
were performed. Woolf
asks what would have
happened to a sister of
Shakespeare if she had
wanted to write.
his extraordinarily gifted sister, let us suppose,
remained at home. She was as adventurous, as
imaginative, as agog to see the world as he was.
But she was not sent to school. She had no chance
of learning grammar and logic, let alone of reading
Horace and Virgil. She picked up a book now and
then, one of her brother’s perhaps, and read a few
pages. But then her parents came in and told her
to mend the stockings or mind the stew and not
moon about with books and papers. They would
have spoken sharply but kindly, for they were substantial people who knew the conditions of life for
a woman and loved their daughter—indeed, more
likely than not she was the apple of her father’s
eye. Perhaps she scribbled some pages up in an
apple loft on the sly, but was careful to hide them
or set fire to them. Soon, however, before she was
out of her teens, she was to be betrothed to the
son of a neighbouring wool-stapler. She cried out
that marriage was hateful to her, and for that she
was severely beaten by her father. Then he ceased
to scold her. He begged her instead not to hurt
him, not to shame him in this matter of her marriage. He would give her a chain of beads or a fine
petticoat, he said; and there were tears in his eyes.
How could she disobey him? How could she break
his heart? The force of her own gift alone drove
her to it. She made up a small parcel of her
belongings, let herself down by a rope one summer’s night and took the road to London. She was
not seventeen. The birds that sang in the hedge
were not more musical than she was. She had the
quickest fancy, a gift like her brother’s, for the tune
of words. Like him, she had a taste for the theatre.
She stood at the stage door; she wanted to act, she
said. Men laughed in her face. The manager—a
fat, loose-lipped man—guffawed. He bellowed
something about poodles dancing and women acting—no woman, he said could possibly be an
actress. He hinted—you can imagine what. She
could get no training in her craft. Could she even
seek her dinner in a tavern or roam the streets at
midnight? Yet her genius was for fiction. . . . At
last—for she was very young, oddly like Shakespeare the poet in her face, with the same grey eyes
and rounded brows—at last Nick Greene the
actor-manager took pity on her; [but] she . . .
killed herself one winter’s night and lies buried at
some cross-roads where the omnibuses now stop
outside the Elephant and Castle.
But for my part, it is unthinkable that any
woman in Shakespeare’s day should have had
Shakespeare’s genius. For genius like Shakespeare’s
is not born among labouring, uneducated, servile
people. How, then, could it have been born among
women whose work began, almost before they
were out of the nursery, who were forced to it by
their parents and held to it by all the power of law
and custom? Yet genius of a sort must have existed
among women as it must have existed among the
working classes. Now and again an Emily Brontë
or a Robert Burns blazes out and proves its presence. But certainly it never got itself on to paper.
When, however, one reads of a witch being
ducked, of a woman possessed by devils, of a wise
woman selling herbs, or even of a very remarkable
man who had a mother, then I think we are on the
track of a lost novelist, a suppressed poet, of some
mute and inglorious Jane Austen, some Emily
Brontë who dashed her brains out on the moor or
mopped and mowed about the highways crazed
with the torture that her gift had put her to. . . .
This may be true or it may be false—who can
say?—but what is true in it, so it seemed to me,
reviewing the story of Shakespeare’s sister as I had
made it, is that any woman born with a great gift
in the sixteenth century would certainly have gone
crazed, shot herself, or ended her days in some
lonely cottage outside the village, half witch, half
wizard, feared and mocked at. For it needs little
skill in psychology to be sure that a highly gifted
girl who had tried to use her gift for poetry would
have been so thwarted and hindered by other people, so tortured and pulled asunder by her own
contrary instincts, that she must have lost her
health and sanity to a certainty. No girl could have
CHAPTER 11
World War II
571
A woman writing in
a room of her own
walked to London and stood at a stage door and
forced her way into the presence of actor-managers
without doing herself a violence and suffering an
anguish which may have been irrational. . . . To have
lived a free life in London in the sixteenth century
would have meant for a woman who was poet and
playwright a nervous stress and dilemma which
might well have killed her. Had she survived, whatever she had written would have been twisted and
deformed, issuing from a strained and morbid imagination. And undoubtedly, I thought, looking at the
shelf where there are no plays by women, her work
would have gone unsigned. . . . Currier Bell, George
Eliot, George Sand, all the victims of inner strife as
their writings prove, sought ineffectively to veil themselves by using the name of a man. Thus they did
homage to the convention, which if not implanted by
the other sex was liberally encouraged by them (the
chief glory of a woman is not to be talked of, said
Pericles, himself a much-talked-of man) that publicity
in women is detestable. Anonymity runs in their
blood. . . .
That woman, then, who was born with a gift of
poetry in the sixteenth century, was an unhappy
woman, a woman at strife against herself. All the conditions of her life, all her own instincts, were hostile
572
Alinari Archives/CORBIS
CHAPTER 11
World War II
to the state of mind which is needed to set free
whatever is in the brain. But what is the state of
mind that is most propitious to the act of creation?
I asked.
But for women, I thought, looking at the empty
shelves, these difficulties were infinitely more formidable. In the first place, to have a room of her own,
let alone a quiet room or a sound-proof room, was
out of the question. . . .
1. What were “the conditions of life for a woman” that
made Judith’s parents scold her for attempting to
read and write? CA 10RL 3.12
2. Why does Judith’s father beat her?
3. What is Woolf’s conclusion about the possibility of
a woman becoming Shakespeare?
4. CRITICAL THINKING Why does Virginia Woolf
have Shakespeare marry, but Shakespeare’s sister
run away from marriage?
Applications Activity
What does a person today need to succeed as a writer
or artist? Write a descriptive account to illustrate your
argument.
Here are several books you may want to read on your own.
These authors have explored some of the topics covered in this unit.
All Quiet on the Western Front (Fiction)
Erich Maria Remarque (1897–1970) wrote this classic novel of World War I. It captures the despair and anger of the young Germans who faced the senseless conditions of
trench warfare. Remarque himself served in the war, and the authentic note is on every
page. Hitler saw it as dangerous because it seemed to question whether war could ever
be justified, and the Nazis ordered all copies to be burned.
Journey into the Whirlwind (Autobiography)
Eugenia Ginzburg (1906?–1977) experienced the purges of Stalinist Russia and lived to
write about it. A devoted Communist Party member and intellectual, she was arrested
because she worked with an editor targeted by Stalin’s police. She spent about 18 years in
prisons and labor camps. This gripping tale of survival in desperate circumstances also
shows how strong the commitment was to socialist goals in 20th century Russia.
God’s Bits of Wood (Fiction)
Sembene Ousmane (1923–) a prominent Senegal writer and filmmaker, set his novel in
Senegal before it gained its independence from France in 1960. Ousmane tells the story of
Senegal railroad workers who go on strike against their French bosses for better pay. The
French use ruthless tactics to pressure the workers. As the story unfolds, the workers’ wives
are drawn into the struggle, and gain a new sense of what women can contribute to community life.
The Death of Artemio Cruz (Fiction)
Carlos Fuentes (1928–) has achieved international recognition for his novels. The son of a
Mexican diplomat, Fuentes himself had a diplomatic career before focusing entirely on literature. Like other of Fuentes’s novels, The Death of Artemio Cruz explores themes in Mexican history. The tragic hero is an idealist as a young man, fighting bravely during the Mexican
Revolution, but he later marries for money and becomes selfish and greedy.
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