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Robert Seaman
Robert Seaman

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“As Christians, we are enjoined to love God and love people. Part of the love of both is sharing the gospel, drawing more people to God
through Jesus Christ. Muslims are people—they are people God loves. It’s not that God will love them when they
become Christians; God loves them now. We are called to do the same. How can we love them if we don’t know about them?” (story on p. 12)
A narrow break
An opening
A sharp cut
A revelation of the mystery
A split second
An eruption
Dazzling light
A new beginning
A snap
A flap
Wide bright wings
A stunning transformation
A rupture
A rift
Vulnerable flaw
A trembling opportunity
+ Crack10 and poetic description by Trung Pham
oil on canvas, 30" x 40", 2013
We are pleased to offer a mini-exhibition of the
work of Fuller Northwest Artist in Residence Trung
Pham, with two other pieces bracketing the theology section on pages 34–35 and 74–75. We happily discovered Trung through the forward-thinking
Fuller Northwest Gallery and its inaugural exhibition of his work which was curated by program
manager Martín Jiménez and sponsored by the
Brehm Center for Worship, Theology, and the Arts
in partnership with Cascadia: Worship & Arts.
The Extraordinary Life and Work of Dudley Woodberry
Professor of Islamic Studies Dudley Woodberry makes a powerful case for listening and learning as a way of evangelism
18 The Joy of Working Side by Side
Clinical community psychologist Cindy Scott’s work has taken her all over the world in her decades of training counselors to help trauma victims
Suppose . . .
Fuller Orange County Director Mike McNichols moonlights in a surprising field
Speaking the Language of Art and Ministry
MDiv student Humberto Rebollo navigates the spaces between his twin callings as an artist and a pastor
30 Stuck Between Religion and Race
Fuller graduate and filmmaker Avril Speaks dialogues with student Caleb Campbell on their experiences with race and religion at Fuller
36 Introduction: Integration of Psychology and Theology
Brad D. Strawn, Guest Theology Editor
38 Integration: What with What and with Whom?
Brad D. Strawn
The Brain, Religion, and Baseball: Revisited
Warren S. Brown
48 Selfies, Upward Mobility, Conversion, and the Gospel of
Western Individualism
Jenny H. Pak, Kenneth T. Wang, and Alvin Dueck
54 The Work of the Holy Spirit and the Christian Therapist
An interview with Siang-Yang Tan by Brad Strawn
56 Caring for Practitioners: Relationships, Burnout, and
Cynthia B. Eriksson, Ashley Wilkins, and Jude Tiersma Watson
62 Do You Need Jesus to be a Good Therapist?
Cameron Lee
68 Building Virtues in Youth: A Developmental Take on
Spiritual Formation
Sarah A. Schnitker and Benjamin J. Houltberg
76 Changing Missiology
88 The City
From Mark Labberton, President
94 New Faculty Books
96 New Fuller Faculty
98 Benediction
98 About Fuller Theological Seminary
IS SUE # 5
Mark Labberton President
C. Douglas McConnell Provost
Bill Clark EVP, Chief of Strategy and Staff
Irene Neller VP Communications, Marketing, Admissions
Lauralee Farrer Storyteller and Chief Creative
Randall Cole Creative Director
Tamara Johnston McMahon Managing Editor
Michael Wright Associate Editor
Brandon Hook Design
Nate Harrison Senior Photographer and Video Storyteller
Becky Still Contributing Editor
Susan Carlson Wood Technical Editor
Denise Louise Klitsie Principal Illustrator
Adam Gossman Archivist
Jinna Jin, Emmanuel Moon, Amy Kim, and Luz Conte
Translation Services
Meggie Anderson Story Table Coordinator
Valentin Dedu, TJ Lee, Farida Saidi, Cindy Scott, John
Thompson, Matthew Whitney, JoAnna Wilbarger, Matthew
Kaemingk, Taylor Martyn
Chair Joel B. Green PhD, Dean, School of Theology
Ryan Bolger PhD, Associate Professor of Church in
Contemporary Culture
D. Scott Cormode PhD, Director of Innovation
J. Andrew Dearman PhD, Associate Dean, Fuller Texas
Kurt Fredrickson PhD, Associate Dean for the DMin and
Continuing Education
Mark Labberton PhD, President
Evelyne A. Reisacher PhD, Associate Professor of Islamic
Studies and Intercultural Relations
Brad D. Strawn PhD, Evelyn and Frank Freed Professor of
the Integration of Psychology and Theology
Miyoung Yoon Hammer PhD, Assistant Professor of
Marital and Family Therapy
Reed Metcalf Media Relations Specialist
Steve Smith Executive Director of Admissions
Marcus Sun Director of Marketing Strategy and Analytics
Jon Yasuda VP for Development
Issue #5 2016
FULLER magazine (ISSN 2377-5432) is published for the global
community of Fuller Theological Seminary. The editorial content of FULLER
magazine reflects the opinions of the various authors and should not be
interpreted as necessarily representing the views of Fuller Theological
Seminary. We are a free publication of Fuller Theological Seminary. If
you would like to make a contribution or have any other inquiries, please
email [email protected]
© 2016 by Fuller Theological Seminary. Produced in limited quantities.
+ Integration as a Core Value
When Brad Strawn was asked by the
faculty advisory board of FULLER
magazine to guest edit on integration,
considerable conversation took place
around integration as a basic tenet
of Fuller life. Integration of theology
and art, science, work, culture, and
psychology—these are arenas that we
focus on specifically. In the Theology
section of this magazine, pages 34–75,
Strawn and his colleagues consider in
greater detail how theology integrates
with psychology at Fuller.
Fuller, however, is committed to an
ethos of integration, something more
than overlapping one category with
another like a venn diagram. We intend
to apply theology to the whole of life,
and the whole of life to theology, so
that this commitment informs and gives
meaning to everything we study.
This is evidenced specifically in that
our curriculum requires every Master
of Divinity and Master of Arts student
to take four integrative study courses.
More generally, our entire curriculum is
concerned with integration among the
academic disciplines, with “academics”
increasingly defined not simply as
expertise in a topic but in terms of
formation within our Christian tradition.
As School of Theology Dean Joel Green
explains it, “Today, ‘biblical studies’ and
‘ethics’ are two separate things in many
places of the academy in the West.
Outsiders might consider many things
to be ‘theology’ without knowing that
theology itself is a fractured discipline.
Among some, the distance between
theology and science is minor compared
to the distance between theology and
biblical studies.” For Fuller, though,
integration means that “theological”
disciplines talk to each other and “get
in each other’s business,” says Green.
Faith and life. Church and academy.
Prayer and politics. The contexts for
integration are as infinite as the scope
of human life. Cultural or religious or
political differences, racial divides,
technology, and city life—all of these
exude theological commitments and
invite theological reflection. Recognizing
those commitments, and engaging them
as evangelicals, is the undercurrent of
seminary life. Not, does God exist? but
where is God at work, and why and how
does it matter?
This defining value—and the
“reckless love” that it engendered in
him as a boy—is what drove Senior
Professor of Islamic Studies Dudley
Woodberry, for example, to listen and
learn about the Muslim culture as a
path toward evangelism (see p. 12).
That hospitable path, it so happens, is
fueled by the belief that “Muslims are
people—they are people God loves,”
as he says on our cover. And so the
cycle returns to Christian theology, or
rather its center: the good news of
Jesus Christ.
storyteller and
chief creative
at Fuller,
editor in chief
magazine, and
creative director
30 Avril Speaks
Living an Integrated Life
Viviendo una Vida Integrada
통합적 관점으로 삶을 이해하기
From Mark Labberton, President
On a recent trip to China, I met a young pastor who was trying to put pieces of his life,
his ministry, and his world together. Just
as his country is undergoing dramatic and
rapid change, so is he. Having come from a
rough background, he finds it unlikely that
he would have become a Christian, let alone
that he would serve—as he does now—as a
pastor in the registered, Three-Self church.
As a father, still further complexities and
anxieties plague him for his family. This
young brother spoke honestly with me
about many personal needs, and then he
said, “The most helpful thing for me has
been reading Paul Tournier.”
“It has been the most important, valuable
resource I have found,” he said excitedly.
“How do you know of him?”
That the name of a Swiss Christian psychiatrist would suddenly appear in a conversation in the middle of China was a
thunderbolt. Paul Tournier? I wondered
aloud: “How do you know of him?” The psychiatrist’s name popped up in my friend’s
Internet search, which led to him reading
Tournier’s book The Meaning of Persons.
My amazement arose from the fact that
when I was a new Christian, trying to put
pieces of my life, ministry, and world together, Tournier had been the same help to me.
The sense of a dis-integrated, fractured life
had left me confused and hungry for help.
I was an emerging young adult, a baby in
faith, a perplexed young man, an inquiring
En un viaje reciente a China, conocí a un
pastor joven que estaba tratando de juntar las
piezas de su vida, su ministerio y su mundo.
Así como su país está atravesando cambios
rápidos y dramáticos, también los está atravesando él. Viniendo de un origen difícil,
considera que era poco probable que se haya
convertido en cristiano, mucho menos en
pastor –como lo es ahora- de la iglesia registrada Las Tres Autonomías. Como padre,
carga aún con más complejidades y preocupaciones por su familia. Este joven hermano
habló honestamente conmigo sobre muchas
necesidades personales, y luego dijo, “Lo que
más me ha ayudado fue leer a Paul Tournier.”
la fuente más importante y valiosa que he
encontrado,” dijo entusiasmado “¿Cómo es
que tú sabes de él?”
Que el nombre de un psiquiatra suizo cristiano apareciera en una conversación en el
medio de China fue como un relámpago.
¿Paul Tournier? Me pregunté en voz alta:
“¿Cómo sabes de él?” El nombre del psiquiatra apareció en una búsqueda de internet de
mi amigo, llevándole a leer el libro de Tournier El Significado de las Personas. “Ha sido
Mi sorpresa surgió del hecho de que cuando
yo era un nuevo cristiano, tratando de juntar
las piezas de mi vida, mi ministerio y mi
mundo, Tournier había sido la misma ayuda
para mí. El sentido de una vida fracturada y
desintegrada me había dejado confundido y
necesitado de ayuda. Yo era un joven adulto
emergente, un niño en la fe, un joven perple-
최근 중국 여행에서 만난 한 젊은 사역자는 그의 개인적
인 삶, 사역 그리고 세계를 통합적으로 이해하려고
애쓰는 중이라고 했습니다. 자신의 나라가 빠르고 격
하게 변화하고 있는 것처럼 그 자신도 그렇게 변하고
있었습니다. 험한 환경 속에서 성장한 그로서는, 기독
교인으로 더구나 정부에 등록 된 삼자 교회(ThreeSelf church)에 속한 목회자가 될거라고 생각해본 적이
없었습니다. 이러한 예상치 못했던 사역이 가져온 고뇌
와 함께, 한 가장으로서 가족을 향한 또 다른 걱정과
염려도 그의 마음을 무겁게 하고 있었습니다.
이 젊은 형제는 저와 여러 사적인 필요와 바램에 대해
솔직히 나누면서, “폴 투르니에 (Paul Tournier)의 책을
읽어온 것이 무엇보다도 힘이 되었다”고 말했습니다.
의 이름을 발견하게 된 그는, 투르니에의 대표적 저서
중 하나인 ‘The Meaning of Persons’을 찾아 읽게 되
었다고 했습니다. “그 책은 제가 만난 모든 책들 중에
서 제 인생에 가장 중요하고 가치있는 것입니다.” 라
고 말하면서, 오히려 저에게 “총장님은 그분을 어떻게
아시죠?” 라며 되물왔습니다.
폴 투르니에 (Paul Tournier)라고? 스위스의 정신과
의사이자 기독교인이었던 폴 투르니에 박사의 이름을
중국 대륙의 한 가운데에서 듣게 되리라고는 상상도
못한 일이었습니다. “아니 어떻게 폴 투르니에 박사를
알고 있죠?” 저는 놀라서 되물을 수밖에 없었습니다.
인터넷을 검색하다 우연히 폴 투르니에 (Paul Tournier)
사실 제가 놀란 이유는, 저에게도 개인적 삶, 목회,
그리고 세계의 의미와 목적을 함께 맞추어 보려고
애쓰던 때가 있었고, 그 당시 폴 투르니에가 저에게 큰
student, and it seemed that college classes
and new friendships only took me into deeper questioning. I was looking for help from
someone far more insightful and informed
than I was when I heard from a friend about
the integration of theology and psychology
stoked by Paul Tournier’s clinical experience and thoughtful Christian wisdom. I
proceeded to read everything he had written. Though the details of what I faced back
then were dramatically different than those
of my Chinese friend, both our searches
were driven by the same question: What
does it take to live a truly human life?
jo, un estudiante curioso, y parecía que las
clases en la universidad y las nuevas amistades sólo me conducían a cuestionamientos
más profundos. Estaba buscando ayuda de
alguien con mucha más información y perspicacia que yo, cuando me enteré por un
amigo sobre la integración de la teología y
la psicología incentivada por la experiencia
clínica y la concienzuda sabiduría cristiana
de Paul Tournier. Procedí a leer todo lo que
había escrito. Aunque los detalles de lo que
yo enfrentaba en ese momento eran comple-
tamente diferentes a los que enfrentaba mi
amigo chino, nuestras búsquedas surgían
de la misma pregunta: ¿Qué se necesita para
vivir una vida humana verdadera?
도움이 되었기 때문이었습니다. 어딘가에서 결코
맞추어지지 않을 것 같은 부서진 삶의 조각들을 안은
채, 저는 도움을 구할 수밖에 없었습니다. 마음의 혼란
은 대학의 수업을 들으면서도, 새로운 친구들을 만나면
서도 역시 더해만 갈 뿐이었습니다, 어른이 되었다고는
하지만 여전히 연약한 믿음을 가진 어린 학생에 불과
하였던 저로서는 통찰력을 가지고 방향을 제시하여 줄
누군가를 기대했던 것이 어쩌면 당연한 일이었는지도
모릅니다. 이 때 마침 한 친구를 통해, 본인의 임상
경험과 기독교 정신에 입각해, 신학과 심리학을
하나로 통합해 이해하고자 했던 폴 투니어 박사에
대하여 듣게 됩니다. 그 후 저는 폴 투니어 박사가
쓴 모든 저서를 다 찾아 읽었습니다. 저의 경험이 물론
중국에서 만났던 형제의 경험과 자세한 내용까지 다
같을 수는 없겠지만, 결국 우리 두 사람 모두가 동일한
질문, “가장 진실된 모습의 삶을 산다는 것은 인간에게
무엇을 의미하는가?”에 대한 답을 얻고자 했던 것은
Even more than Tournier’s writings, it was
that introduction to theological and psychological integration that proved most meaningful to me in the years since. Marriage,
parenting, death of loved ones, pastoral
ministry, struggles with two seasons of depression, and the myriad challenges of midlife—all have provided plenty of opportunity for integration to prove its vital role in my
Más que los escritos de Tournier, la introducción a la integración teológica y psicológica
fue lo que demostró ser más significativo
para mí a través de los años. El matrimonio,
el ser padre, la muerte de seres queridos, el
ministerio pastoral, las luchas con dos temporadas de depresión y un sinfín de desafíos
신학과 심리학을 연계하여 이해하기 시작하면서,
own journey. That journey has included seasons of psychotherapy, and though not every
50-minute session proved transformative, I
matured in ways I would not have otherwise
because of many remarkable, life-changing
moments in those sacred contexts.
Integration is needed on a personal level,
but also on social, intellectual, and pastoral
levels. Though psychology is not my academic discipline, I continue to read in the
field and to find voices that raise important
challenges. Decades of experience serving
the church have taught me that preaching—
de la mediana edad –todo eso ha provisto
mucha oportunidad para que la integración
pruebe su rol vital en mi propio viaje. Ese
viaje ha incluido temporadas de psicoterapia
y, aunque no todas las sesiones de cincuenta minutos resultaron transformadoras, he
madurado de formas que no hubiera podido
madurar de otra manera debido a muchos
momentos notables y transformadores en
esos contextos sagrados.
La integración es necesaria a nivel personal, pero también a nivel social, intelectual y
pastoral. Aunque la psicología no es mi disciplina académica, continúo leyendo dentro de
ese campo y encontrando voces que puedan
crear importantes desafíos. Décadas de ex-
affected as it often is by pop-psychology-influenced culture—can easily be psychologically unhealthy. Though denial, deflection,
and scapegoating are handy crutches in
challenging circumstances, true integration requires looking at the problem of evil
up-close and personal, for our own sakes
and for the sake of others. It is very hard
work and requires tremendous courage.
As pastor, leader, theologian, and preacher,
I want my work to be psychologically responsible. Only God knows the vulnerabilities of those I might influence, and the Good
periencia sirviendo en la iglesia me han enseñado que el predicar –afectado como lo está
usualmente por la cultura con influencia de
psicología pop- puede ser psicológicamente
insalubre. Aunque la negación, la desviación y tener chivos expiatorios son muletas
convenientes a la hora de desafiar las circunstancias, la verdadera integración requiere encarar el problema del mal en forma
cercana y personal, por nuestro propio bien
y por el bien de las demás personas. Es un
trabajo duro y requiere tremenda valentía.
Como pastor, líder, teólogo y predicador,
quiero que mi trabajo sea psicológicamente
responsable. Sólo Dios sabe las vulnerabilidades de aquellas personas que puedo
저는 이 후 제 인생에 찾아온 각각의 전환점들을 역시
같은 관점으로 바라보는 것을 배우기 시작했습니다.
결혼, 자녀 양육, 사랑했던 이들의 죽음, 목회 사역,
두 차례에 걸친 우울증, 또 수많은 중년기 도전의 순간
들을 경험하며 전 제 삶의 여정 자체에 신학과 심리학
의 통합적 관점으로의 이해가 얼마나 중요한지 배울
수밖에는 없었습니다. 상담 치료의 기간은 저에게,
그 통합적 시각의 연장선에서 제 삶을 이해할 수 있도
록 해 주었습니다. 물론 그 50분의 상담마다 매번
제가 변한 것은 아닙니다. 하지만, 그 시간과 과정들은
제가 이전에 절대로 가질 수 없었던 성숙과 변화로 저
를 이끌었습니다.
꾸준히 책을 찾아 읽으며 최근 쟁점이 되고 있는 논의
에 항상 귀를 기울이고자 노력합니다. 오랜 시간 교회
를 섬기며 깨달은 점은 설교도 건강하지 못할 수 있다
는 것입니다. 교회 안의 설교마저도 대중 취향에 맞춰
심리학을 편리하게도 오용하는 요즘 세태의 영향을
받기가 쉽습니다. 힘든 상황에서는 문제를 부인하거나
왜곡하고 또는 다른 이에게 책임을 전가해버리는 것이
탈출구처럼 여겨질 수도 있습니다. 그러나 통합적인
관점으로 삶을 이해한다는 것은 우리 자신을 위해,
또한 다른 형제, 자매들을 위해 그 악의 근본적 문제를
직시하여 바라보는 것을 의미합니다. 이것은 매우 어려
운 일이며 큰 용기가 필요한 일입니다.
통합적 관점으로의 이해는 우리 각자의 삶에서 뿐만이
아니라, 사회적, 지식적, 목회적으로도 적용될 수
있어야 합니다. 저는 전공 분야가 심리학은 아니지만
목회자, 지도자, 신학자, 설교자로서, 전 제가 하는
모든 일이 미칠 수 있는 정서적 영향력을 잘 인지하고
있습니다. 오직 선한 목자되신 우리 주님께서만이 저의
Shepherd would want me to be a truthful,
kind, and loving expression of the gospel—
integrated and ever-maturing. All of us lead
out of brokenness, and the integration of
theology and psychology can help us find
the means to bring more than brokenness
to our relationships and work lives. Integration, whether personal or intellectual, is
never finished, but “the One who has begun
a good work in us will bring it to completion
in the day of Jesus Christ.” That also means
that our journey is never alone. Whether in
Beijing, Paris, Beirut, or Pasadena, the One
who integrates us in love is also with us.
influenciar, y el Buen Pastor quiere que sea
honesto, bondadoso y que exprese el amor del
evangelio –integrado y madurando en forma
constante. Nosotros y nosotras lideramos
desde el quebrantamiento, y la integración de
la teología y la psicología pueden ayudarnos
a encontrar los medios para aportar algo más
que quebrantamiento a nuestras relaciones y
vida laboral. La integración, ya sea personal
o intelectual, nunca finaliza, pero “Aquel que
ha comenzado una buena obra en nosotros y
nosotras la completará en el día de Jesucristo.” Eso también significa que nuestro viaje
nunca lo hacemos por nuestra cuenta. Ya sea
en Pekín, Paris, Beirut o Pasadena, Aquel
que nos integra en el amor está también con
nosotros y nosotras.
말 한마디로 상처받을 수 있는 마음들을 잘 아시기에,
제가 항상 진실하고 온유한 사랑의 표현으로, 복음의
증거가 되어 하나됨을 실천하고, 끊임없이 성장해야
함을 지도하십니다. 우리 모두에게 부서지고 깨어졌던
기억이 있습니다. 온전히 하나로 회복된다는 것은, 그
논의의 차원이 개인적이던 또는 학문적이던지 간에,
어느 한 시점에서 완성되어 끝낼 수 있는 숙제가 아닙
니다. 하지만 우리에게는 우리 가운데 선한 일을 시작
하신 이가 그리스도 예수의 날까지 이루실 것을 확신
하는 믿음이 자리하고 있습니다. 우리 옆에 동행하시
는 이가 계시기에 결코 이 여정은 외롭지가 않습니다.
그곳이 Beijing, Paris, Beirut, 또는 Pasadena 이든지
간에 우리를 사랑하시며 온전히 회복시키시는 그 분
께서 우리와 함께 하십니다.
Encounter is part of Peter Brook’s [MAICS ’15] “Heaven and Earth” collection, a series of paintings he completed for his capstone
theology and art thesis project. Inspired by abstract expressionists and traditional iconography, he sees his creative process as a form
of worship and uses painting, he says, “to convey spiritual meaning and theological ideas.” Peter’s work is currently exhibited in Fuller
Pasadena’s Payton Hall in an exhibit curated by Maria Fee, adjunct faculty for Fuller’s Brehm Center for Worship, Theology, and the Arts.
Hear Peter’s “Heaven and Earth” presentation online.
+ Encounter (2015) by Peter Brook, acrylic and gold leaf on canvas, 40" by 60", peterbrookarts.com
n 2014, an American evangelical missionary walked into
the Foreign Ministry buildings in Tehran, at the invitation of
the Iranian Foreign Minister, to facilitate understanding between
those countries at the beginning of nuclear negotiations. The
last time he had received a similar invitation was almost 35
years before—when US government personnel asked him to
help prepare an overview of the Muslim world for President
Carter after the capture of 52 American hostages in Tehran,
and to suggest ways of improving the relationship.
Now he was on the other side of a teaching career
building bridges between the Western world and the Middle
East, leading the way in a new age of Islamic studies,
and training countless evangelical missionaries to work
in the Islamic world. Even as a member of an academic
bridge-building team, a Christian missionary was the last
person anyone expected to see as a guest in the heart
of the Ayatollah’s domain. Fuller’s senior professor of
Islamic studies carried a briefcase of gifts for the Iranian
dignitaries he would meet. When subsequently he was
introduced to one of the religious leaders, the Iranian
exclaimed, “Yes, Professor Woodberry, we have read all
about you!” The moment perfectly captured the surreal
nature of Dudley Woodberry’s life as a missionary and
scholar in places where few others had dared to go.
Born to second-generation missionaries to China, John
The Extraordinary
Life and Work of
Dudley Woodberry
Dudley Woodberry carries a reckless love for other human
beings in his blood. This selflessness—which led his
grandparents to leave their mother country and his father
to serve as a chaplain for Chinese POWs during the Korean
War—was infused in Dudley’s veins and would direct the
course of his life.
Having first become a Christian “in a childlike way”
when he was three years old, Dudley says that the freezing
waters of the Yantai Harbor catalyzed his faith in the winter
of 1939. Five-year-old Dudley fell through the ice, which
led to pneumonia. Barely surviving the illness, Dudley
became convinced that divine intervention saved his life.
Even at five years of age, “I had a sense,” he says, “that I
had been saved for a purpose.”
It was not the first nor the last providential moment in
his life, a life that would read as much like an adventure
novel as a memoir. Two years later, when the Japanese
bombed Pearl Harbor and declared war on the United
States, Dudley and his family were made prisoners of war
by the occupying Japanese army in China. Parents and
children were separated; Dudley and his siblings became
POWs in a different part of the country from their parents.
Months later, a civilian prisoner exchange was negotiated
between the United States and Japan. A Japanese officer
arranged for a long journey by bus and train for the four
siblings to reunite with their parents. At one point their
train was delayed on a side track to allow another train to
Dudley discovered that “something” at age 13, when he
heard the missionary pioneer Samuel Zwemer say, “If you
want the most difficult but most rewarding work in the
world, minister among Muslims.”
In 1955 Dudley enrolled in the Bachelor of Divinity
program at Fuller, as the School of World Mission would
not be founded to train missionaries and missiologists
until a decade later. Students at Fuller and Princeton
Theological Seminary at that time collaborated to create the
International Studies Program, which gave the opportunity
for two students from each school to travel to a mission
field and complete studies in indigenous cultures. Dudley,
one of the program’s founders, was selected; for the next
two years he studied at the American University of Beirut,
where he began a master’s degree in Arab Studies.
In Lebanon, Dudley focused on formal Islam. There was
a lack of teaching on “folk Islam”—the systems of belief
and practice of many Muslims in their local contexts. These
more pedestrian views fascinated Dudley, but studying
them was simply not an option; the academic focus was
on erudite traditionalists and imams. Yet when he actually
hit the ground as a missionary years later, he realized how
pervasive folk Islam was. In his mission fields he would
find that many followed some mixture of orthodox Islam
and superstition, which proved to be a massive obstacle in
understanding and reaching them.
Lebanon was also the place he met his wife and
ministry partner, Roberta, where she was studying at
Beirut College for Women. Dudley returned and finished
his BD (later upgraded to an MDiv) at Fuller as Roberta
completed her studies in Lebanon. More study led him to
the conviction that Westerners in general—and evangelicals
in particular—often misunderstood Muslims and Islam.
Westerners often saw Muslims as an unsophisticated
people, completely ignoring their highly varied and
developed cultures rich with art, tradition, and theological
reflection. Dudley still had the heart of a missionary, but
his time in Lebanon convinced him that rigorous intellectual
preparation would lead to more effective witnessing.
When he graduated from Fuller, Harvard accepted him
to study under the preeminent Western scholar of Islam
Sir Hamilton Gibb. Dudley did well in his studies, writing
his dissertation on the theology of Hasan al-Banna, the
founder of the Muslim Brotherhood—and meeting secretly
with some of its leaders—but again found an absence of
material on folk Islam. Furthermore, his commitment to
missions was sometimes frowned upon. It was thought by
some that one should appreciate Arab culture, not convert
it. His missional commitment was not crushed, but it
was modified; Dudley learned to love and appreciate the
indigenous culture of the Islamic nations for what they
were, while still yearning to bring the redeeming love and
light of Christ to them.
run ahead on the same track. The next morning the train
stopped again, and the children were told to walk on foot.
They eventually walked past the wreckage of the previous
train, which had been derailed over a large embankment by
Chinese guerrillas.
Once reunited with their parents they traveled to
Shanghai, where they boarded an Italian ship bound for
Portuguese East Africa—and subsequently learned that an
American submarine named Plunger was on the verge of
torpedoing that ship when it received word that it contained
American civilians. In East Africa they exchanged ships
with Japanese civilians from the United States and Canada
who had come on a Swedish ship. Then, shortly before
landing in New York, they passed the burning remains of an
American freighter destroyed by a German U-boat. Through
all this, Dudley perceived confirmation that he was being
preserved for a specific task: that God was keeping him
around for something.
Finally it happened when he graduated from Harvard: after
years of training and discernment, two master’s degrees,
one doctorate, and two children, Dudley and Roberta
became full-time missionaries to Pakistan, funded by the
Presbyterian Church. Dudley worked at the Christian Study
Centre in Rawalpindi, just outside the capital of Islamabad.
Determined to work closely with Muslims, he made great
progress in building bridges between Christianity and
Islam. At times, those bridges were used for dialogue
and mutual respect; at other times, they were used for
bringing Muslims to the Christian faith. It was a tremendous
accomplishment for Dudley and his colleagues in the area,
particularly because of a hurdle that Dudley’s graduate
studies had failed to address—the ubiquity of folk Islam.
Folk Islam was a dominant form of practice in places
where Dudley ministered. Not having taken seriously
the ordinary expressions of ordinary people’s religion,
the Western world had not prepared its international
representatives—diplomats, missionaries, aid workers—to
successfully interact with a significant segment of Muslims.
The religion of many of the Muslims Dudley encountered
extended beyond the Qur’an. They prayed to ancestors
and worshipped spirits. They practiced magic and believed
in demonic powers at work in their lives. It was unlike
anything Dudley had ever been taught. Academic resources
on these phenomena were few and far between, so Dudley
set about recording the facets of what is now called
“Muslim popular piety.” He collected talismans, books, and
prayers, and in the meantime discovered a world outside
the mosque that believed in and feared magic, spirits,
demons, and curses.
The tale of Dudley’s incredible life is exceeded only by the
extraordinary depth of his work. It’s been suggested that he
write a memoir: three arrests in three countries, hitchhiking
from New York to Ecuador and through Iran, Pakistan, and
India, working as a deckhand for passage from Panama
to the United States, negotiating on behalf of hostages,
weaving through civil wars and revolutions: all this surely
warrants some sort of literary commemoration.
“Oh, no,” says Dudley, shaking his head. “I don’t think
I’ll have time. I have too much work to do.”
REED METCALF, [MDiv ’14] storyteller,
is Fuller’s Media Relations and Communications Specialist
and cofounder of Fuller’s Faith and Science student group.
accepted a request to teach their grandson and other
expatriate children during the academic year at a school in
Pakistan—allowing their son to continue to direct PACTEC,
a humanitarian aviation and communication agency
serving Afghanistan when it was primarily controlled by the
Taliban. Joining his wife in Pakistan in the months between
teaching intensive courses at Fuller, Dudley was able to
keep current on the Muslim World. After 9/11, when the
Taliban were driven from much of Afghanistan, PACTEC
and the school where Roberta taught moved there, and
Dudley continued to commute for two more academic years
between Fuller and Kabul.
During this time Fuller became very involved in
peacebuilding with Muslims both in the United States and
overseas. Later Dudley was privileged to be asked to edit
the most comprehensive study to date of how Muslims were
coming to faith in Christ, entitled From Seed to Fruit: Global
Trends, Fruitful Practices, and Emerging Isssues among
Muslims (2008, 2011).
Because Dudley is quick to tell a story and slow to
take credit, it bears telling that he influenced movements
in missions, academia, and diplomacy that affect the
discussion of how Christians and the West interact with
Muslims. When Provost Doug McConnell, then dean of the
School of Intercultural Studies, was asked how he could
possibly replace Dudley at Dudley’s retirement, McConnell
responded he already had—but it required four new faculty
members to do it. “We would have gone nowhere in Islamic
Studies without him,” McConnell says. “He has always led
by bringing others around him and asking them to join him
on the journey.”
Dudley’s scholastic endeavors also unexpectedly proved
crucial for his own safety and the safety of others. During
his first tour in Afghanistan, two missionaries were arrested
for distributing copies of the Gospel of Luke. Though he
never appeared in court, Dudley hired a defense lawyer and
developed the defense himself, based on Qur’anic verses
that allowed Christians and Muslims to coexist peacefully.
The missionaries were released.
A similar situation presented itself in Saudi Arabia,
where Dudley was called to serve as the first sanctioned
resident pastor in the Arabian interior since shortly
after the Islamic conquests of the seventh century. The
church in the capital of Riyadh and elsewhere grew at an
astounding rate, to an extent that made the government
uncomfortable. To help ease tensions, Dudley showed them
letters ascribed to Muhammad that gave Christians the
right to worship in their own churches as long as they were
loyal and met certain financial and other obligations. The
Christians were then allowed to continue a lower-profile
worship. When Dudley and his family returned to the United
States because of Roberta’s health and their children’s
educational needs—after 11 years of ministry in Pakistan,
Afghanistan, and Saudi Arabia—King Khalid thanked him
for his work.
Dudley began teaching in Michigan in 1979, during the
Iranian Revolution: when the American Embassy personnel
in Tehran were taken hostages, the Grand Mosque in
Mecca was taken over by militants, and the American
Embassy in Pakistan was burned down. Subsequently
he and his family moved to Pasadena, where he initially
taught at Fuller while serving at the Zwemer Institute, then
became a full-time professor of Islamic Studies in Fuller’s
School of World Mission in 1985.
Though he oversaw key initiatives in the School of World
Mission (SWM) as its dean from 1992 to 1999, Dudley’s
impact was perhaps greatest in the study of Muslims
and their contexts. His research in Muslim popular piety
built on the study of Folk Religion already taught in SWM.
Muslims were seen as combining the formal tenets of the
faith with the superstitions and fears of their environs.
Dudley’s field research filled gaps in the discipline,
greatly influencing Fuller’s own approach. He further
oversaw research in South Asia and West and East Africa
demonstrating that Muslims were coming to faith in Christ
not only in an “attractional model”—being attracted to a
church or to Christians—but also in a “transformational
model”: studying the Bible stories of people mentioned in
the Qur’an within trusted groups of fellow Muslims, and
thus gradually coming to faith in Christ as Savior.
After Dudley retired from the deanship of SWM, Roberta
by Dudley Woodberry
There are parallels between the first century
and today. The fullness of time for the Prince
of Peace to come in the first century involved
“the slaughter of the innocents,” Jesus’ family
becoming refugees in Egypt, lands occupied by
a conquering power, and the cross. Yet even in
that context, Jesus taught his disciples to “love
your enemies” and provided the means for peace
with God.
Recently we have seen the beheading of 21
Egyptian Christians in Libya, thousands of refugees including a dead two-year-old Kurdish
boy on a Greek beach, and the conquests of the
Islamic State (ISIS). Yet since the Khomeini Revolution in Iran in 1979, the slaughter of 9/11, and
the rise of the Islamic State, we have seen an
increase in peacebuilding between Muslims and
Christians and, also, many Muslims who have
found peace with God through Jesus. The Lord
has allowed many from our Fuller community to
be participants in these movements—including alumna Farida Saidi and professor Evelyne
Reisacher, who ministered to Parisians after the
recent massacre (see p. 90).
Faculty members in the Islamic Studies Program
here developed as their purpose statement “to
equip leaders to understand Islam and Muslims
and serve the incarnation of the gospel among
Muslims of every culture.” This purpose statement can be illustrated by an image of an endowed professor’s chair in al-Azhar University
Mosque in Cairo, where the practice of endowing
literal “chairs” to support university professors
first developed and was passed on, at least figuratively, to Europe and elsewhere.
The legs of the chair illustrate the four components of the Islamic Studies Program at Fuller.
The first leg represents the study of the great
texts of Islam. The second indicates the use of
the tools of the social sciences to see how various Muslims actually understand and practice
their faith. Having listened to Islam and Muslims on their own terms, we turn to the third
leg, which represents studying them from the
perspective of biblical revelation. The fourth leg
represents our call to serve the incarnation of
the gospel among Muslims by our lifestyle, humble verbal witness, and pointing to the communities of faith that embody the love of Christ.
In these troubled times, with the increased interest in peacebuilding between Muslims and
Christians and the increased responsiveness
to the gospel among Muslims, it is evidently the
fullness of time for Muslims. Let us as individuals and as an institution actively participate in
what God is doing.
NATE HARRISON, photographer,
is FULLER magazine’s senior photographer and video
storyteller. Find his work at NateCHarrison.com.
The Joy of Working Side by Side
s a clinical community psychologist serving in places
all over the globe, Cindy Scott [PsyD ’99] finds
deep reward and, sometimes, unpredictable intensity in
her work—and shares a story to illustrate. At one health
center where she was offering training support, a child
was brought in after she saw her father violently attack
her mother. “She didn’t know yet that her mother died
after that attack,” Cindy remembers. The health worker
and family asked for guidance navigating a situation that
seemed overwhelming. Cindy felt the shock of it herself:
“How do you tell a girl that her father has murdered her
“Even though this was one of the most horrible things
imaginable,” says Cindy, “it was a privilege for me to say to
one of the health workers, you can handle this: to sit down
with her, coach her through the process with the child and
her family, and see her leave that evening knowing she’d
done a good job.” That staff member learned how to be
helpful to the stunned and grieving family, says Cindy, and
knew she could be just as helpful to other families in the
Over the years Cindy has been drawn to people and
places seared by trauma, with work that has taken her to
such far-flung locations as Papua New Guinea, Uzbekistan,
Ethiopia, Sierra Leone, and now the Solomon Islands. As
she equips local counselors, nurses, and other providers to
offer psychological help to those affected by trauma, the
impact of her work is both powerful and enduring.
“I don’t do the work of psychosocial support directly;
I train and sit with those who are doing the work,” she
explains. “Because psychology is quite new in these
contexts, my joy is when I see the lights going on—when
my trainees say, Oh! Now I get it!” But the learning goes
both ways, she stresses: “I can do the counseling training,
but I have to learn the culture from them.”
The spark that launched Cindy on her vocational trajectory
came early. “When I became a Christian as a child, I
loved stories about missionaries,” she recalls. “People
working cross-culturally, translating the Bible into local
languages—it drew me in.” She thought she might become
a missionary herself: “I wanted to help people.”
That yearning to help led her, as a teenager, to start
volunteering in a local child-abuse receiving facility. “Why
they allowed me as a teen to volunteer I don’t know, but
they did,” she says. Her role was to draw pictures with the
abused kids, and the more she sat with them, the more
fascinated she became with their recovery process. She
watched how the staff helped the children start talking
about the trauma they had experienced, and the impact
of that on young Cindy was great. She chose to continue
working at the home as a staff member and even began
taking classes in psychology to further inform her work,
leading eventually to a bachelor’s degree in criminal justice
and psychology.
Not long after graduating, Cindy took a job with an
inner-city job training program in the “Little Havana”
district of Miami, Florida, offering support services and lay
counseling for youth who were African American, Cuban,
Caribbean, and South American. It was a pivotal time, she
says, in her cross-cultural understanding and approach.
“I was pretty much the only white person around,
and that could be very challenging,” she recounts. “The
miscommunication—sensing that others are uncomfortable
but not knowing why—it wasn’t an easy thing. And I
realized that if I was able to tolerate it, I could actually
learn from those uncomfortable moments and find ways to
begin building trust. It came down to this: Do I run when
people don’t like me, or do I ask, how am I interacting
that reinforces stereotypes? Can I embrace the situation,
let there be awkwardness, and talk about it? In fact, yes, I
could, and people wanted me to.”
After several years in this work Cindy felt the need for
more training and, in 1989, enrolled in Fuller’s School of
Psychology. “I had been feeling that my psychology and
my Christian faith were moving farther apart, and I needed
to struggle with becoming more congruent. What would it
mean to integrate my faith and psychology?”
At Fuller she found a place that allowed her to grapple
with her questions, with support and insight from such
faculty members as longtime School of Psychology
professors Judy and Jack Balswick and Professor of
Theology and Ministry Ray Anderson. She also found
Cindy has since worked in postings around the world, most
often with humanitarian organization Doctors Without
Borders—or, as it’s known in French, Médecins Sans
Frontières (MSF). She has typically served as part of a
medical team in places experiencing medical emergencies,
training local counselors and healthcare workers to provide
psychosocial support and psychological first aid. The most
intense of those assignments came in 2014, in the midst
of the Ebola outbreak in Kailahun, Sierra Leone, where
she was shocked, Cindy says, to see “the entire collapse
of the country’s medical infrastructure.” She found herself
supporting “a heroic group” of local counselors who
assisted Ebola patients and their families, as well as other
health care workers who faced death daily.
“It was a life changer, working with Ebola,” says Cindy
of a time that was both wrenching and redemptive. But
as impactful as that experience was, her deepest calling
is to longer, ongoing missions, ones that allow her to
build capacity, she says, “by training local people to offer
psychological support for the long haul.” That is what she
is doing now, in the Solomon Islands. Initially part of an
MSF team responding to a devastating flood there in April
2014, Cindy learned about a serious need for longer-term
psychological help among the area’s people.
“There are high levels of sexual and family violence
in the Solomons,” she says, citing the findings of a 2009
study by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community: 64
percent of the country’s women reported being victims
of intimate partner violence, and 37 percent had been
sexually abused by the age of 15. Yet there are no trained
psychologists in the country. “Seventy percent of study
respondents had never told anyone about their abuse,” she
says, “and most do not know that essential medicine and
psychosocial support can be life-saving.”
Now serving as a consultant through the World Health
Organization, Cindy’s mission is to build the capacity of
those who work with survivors of sexual and family violence,
from the initial medical response to supporting the process
of recovery. Discovering early on something quite common
in resource-poor settings—a limited capacity in the area of
child protection—she began engaging the government on
the ways trauma impacts children, and that more might be
needed than just removing a child from immediate danger.
“I told staff, the next time you have a case, let me sit with
you, walk you through it. They said, ‘you’d really do that?’”
In the last year the government has expanded its
network of services to victims of sexual and family violence,
and Cindy now spends time wherever she’s needed:
assisting clinic staff to do psychological first aid when a
rape survivor comes in; coaching volunteers who man a new
24-hour hotline for abuse victims; training mental health
nurses to provide counseling care.
“It’s about building trust; it’s a mutual learning process.
They have a lot to teach me about the culture,” Cindy says,
and offers an example. Shortly after the 2014 flood that left
10,000 homeless, she worked closely with a nurse to offer
psychological first aid in the evacuation camps as part of
the emergency medical response. They began to notice that
children were coming to the groups, but few adults. “We
also discovered that the medical team was getting a lot of
patients with ambiguous body pain that was not responding
to medical interventions,” Cindy says. “So the nurse and I
decided to do what we called a body pain group.”
That group did attract adults to its first meeting, “but
the nurse told me, ‘Cindy, they’re going to expect you to
give them medicine.’ So on the first day, we drew a picture
of the body and I asked them to mark the places where
they felt fear and sadness in their bodies. Then I said, ‘I
have bad news for you: there’s no medicine for fears and
worries, but there are things you can do to help your body
feel better.’ We introduced simple relaxation techniques
and information about traumatic stress reactions. People
were so engaged with the process! They said, ‘Yes, my
body really does feel better!’ It was humbling. Traditional
mental health practices sometimes don’t work! Instead,
together, the nurse and I adapted our intervention in a way
that was culturally appropriate.”
something she didn’t expect: culture shock. After being
immersed in Miami’s inner city for seven years, the move
into a scholarly community that was largely white knocked
her off kilter. “I looked like I fit in, but I didn’t feel like
I fit in,” she says. She found the diversity she sought in
what was then the School of World Mission, and made
international friendships that became pivotal to her
calling—including Francis Kamau [PhD ’97], a pastor from
Kenya, whose faith inspired her to continue her training
beyond the master’s level and get a PsyD.
“If God had told me in my earlier years that this is what I’d
be doing, I think I would have run!” Cindy says with a laugh.
“This work is unpredictable—I never know what my next
assignment will be—and it’s hard. Honestly, it’s outside my
comfort zone.” But it’s the work God has for her.
A study Fuller offered last year on calling, Cindy
remembers, made the point that God is continually calling
us to a life we never imagined—and that resonated with her.
“Life has been so full of surprises and challenges in my faith
and walk, and yet it’s been so fulfilling,” she affirms. “I don’t
know what’s next. But God has been faithful to provide all
I need to serve him, and I know he’ll continue to teach me
how to represent his love in the world.”
+ Snapshots at left and on the preceding page provided by
Cindy Scott from her decades of offering psychological training
support in places all over the world such as Papua New Guinea,
Uzbekistan, Ethiopia, Sierra Leone, and the Solomon Islands.
BECKY STILL, storyteller,
is senior editorial manager at Fuller, writing and editing
primarily marketing and web content.
magine a storyteller by morning, a regional campus director by
day, and an affiliate professor of intercultural studies by night.
Suppose this man, let’s call him Mike, finds all three areas of his
life filled with truth, grit, and a little mystery—and that nearly
everything he does is an occasion to wrestle with deep questions
of faith.
Author C. S. Lewis used a tactic he called “the supposal” in his
writing to ask a series of “what if” questions. When he posed the
question, “Suppose that God’s reconciling work happened not in
our world but in a fanciful world?” The Chronicles of Narnia were
born. Orange County regional campus director, faculty member,
and novelist Mike McNichols uses the same tactic whenever he
is working on a new book. His immersion in the world of theology
sparks all kinds of “supposals” for his novels. “Suppose you have
someone whose life and vocation is in the world of faith as a pastor
or religious studies professor. And let’s say he loses it all on a desperately self-destructive path to alcohol poisoning. Would God still
be with him? Suppose there were supernatural creatures involved,
or a murder?”
While Mike has always been interested in writing stories, he
never really put pen to paper until he started working on his
dissertation at George Fox University. That’s when he learned to
love the adventure of storytelling. “You have characters, you have a
general idea of how things are going to go, and then the characters
seem to drive it—they come alive. You start to love them or hate
them, and you feel compelled to get to the end of the story or you’ll
leave these people in limbo.” His doctoral project became his first
published novel, The Bartender: A Fable about a Journey.
Resisting the sanitized storylines of many Christian authors,
Mike found the gritty stories of Ray Bradbury, Stephen King, and
similar writers compellingly authentic. Growing up immersed in
classic stories of monsters, vampires, and werewolves allowed
Mike to unlock a secret strength in these archetypes. “There is a
wonderful thing you can do with mysteries and even tales of horror
that allow good and evil to interplay.” The legend of the vampire
embodies evil in Mike’s stories by inverting the meaning of the
Eucharist. “In the vampire story, the blood of many is taken for the
benefit of the one,” he says, “whereas in the Eucharist the blood of
the one is given for the sake of the many.”
Like C. S. Lewis, who imagined the interior lives of children
enduring the deprivations of war, Mike’s grandchildren inspired the
“supposals” for many of his stories. After learning more about his
Suppose . . .
NATE HARRISON, photographer,
is FULLER magazine’s senior photographer and video
storyteller. Find his work at NateCHarrison.com.
MEGGIE ANDERSON, storyteller,
is an MDiv student and FULLER magazine’s story table
grandchildren’s interest in the Twilight saga, Mike determined to
set the record straight about the “true” character of vampires. One
short story written for his family led to an entire trilogy of vampire-inspired tales whose characters encounter the deeper realities
of evil, suffering, forgiveness, and atonement: This Side of Death,
A Body Given, and On Turpin’s Head.
Mike’s pastoral experience also generated all kinds of “supposals” for his stories. A conversation with a church member in
recovery became the skeletal structure for The Haunts of Violence,
a story about a man and his alcohol-induced hallucinations of
Jesus. In writing his most recent, not-yet-published novel, Mike
found healing for the grief he experienced closing the church he
pastored for many years. That tale—a murder mystery about a man
who moves into a house haunted by a crime committed 100 years
earlier—helped Mike sort through his feelings of loss.
Mike enjoys the rhythm of starting his day writing stories. While
he may wear many hats as a tri-vocational professional, there is
a wonderful unity in all that he does. “What I love about Fuller is
that it’s a place where someone like me, who likes to write serious
stuff, can also write crazy weird horror stuff and nobody wants to
kick me out!”
Ultimately, Mike hopes that his stories allow readers to wrestle
with hard questions without the undertones of a moral agenda. “I
would like people who are struggling with loss and wondering,
‘Where is God in the midst of this pain?’ to read my first vampire
book,” Mike says. Which leads to the final “supposal”: Suppose
that vampire story leaves such a reader marveling, “Well, those
characters are struggling with pain too, and they are finding
meaning in the midst of this agony. They are finding reconciled
relationships in this desperate drama that is being played out.”
Suppose that a story about a vampire, a hallucinating alcoholic, or
even a mysterious murder reveals the truth of God’s relationship to
humankind in the most unexpected way.
At the same time, Humberto and his wife, Yolanda,
were planting a church in Fellsmere, a small Latino
community a few miles south. They met weekly in a
local school, teaching art classes, performing dramas,
and doing crafts with the local children. “I took my
artwork to the community because that was the only
way I could connect with them,” he says. Yet the church
wasn’t growing. While he had some success bringing
second-generation Latinos into the congregation, there
was resistance: “I got rejected a lot of times. I knocked
on a lot of doors, and one time a father almost hit
Div student Humberto Rebollo’s greatest struggle
of faith began when he was given a gift any artist
would dream of: the keys to an art gallery. When the
owner—an established painter “who adopted me into
the arts,” he remembers—was diagnosed with cancer,
Humberto worked late into the nights to keep it running.
By the time she passed away, he had slowly taken over
the whole operation, and with the blessing of the surviving
family, Humberto took ownership of what would soon
become Highland Art and Studio, the first Latino gallery
in Melbourne, Florida.
Speaking the Language of Art and Ministry
Hablando el lenguaje del arte y del ministerio
+ Humberto stands next
to Time to Paint, a
painting for an exhibition on Ecclesiastes
by the Brehm Center
for Worship, Theology,
and the Arts. The exhibit showcased work
from an increasing
number of students
who come to Fuller to
reflect theologically on
their art. With a title
referencing Ecclesiastes’ meditation on
accepting rhythms of
change, Humberto’s
painting is both a
reflection on Scripture
and a self-portrait:
student, artist, and
minister, all in God’s
a lucha más grande de fe de Humberto Rebollo,
estudiante de Maestría en Divinidad, comenzó
cuando recibió el regalo que cualquier artista sueña con
recibir: las llaves de una galería de arte. Fue cuando
su dueña –una pintora reconocida “quien me adoptó
en el mundo de las artes”, recuerda, fue diagnosticada
con cáncer. Humberto trabajó hasta altas horas de la
noche para mantener la galería funcionando. Cuando ella
falleció, Humberto llegó gradualmente a estar a cargo de
toda la operación, y con la bendición de los familiares
de ella, Humberto se hizo dueño de lo que pronto se
convertiría en Highland Art and Studio, la primera galería
de arte latino en Melbourne, Florida.
Al mismo tiempo, Humberto y su esposa Yolanda estaban
estableciendo una iglesia en Fellsmere, una comunidad
latina ubicada a unas cuantas millas al sur. Se encontraban
semanalmente en una escuela local, dando clases de arte,
haciendo obras de teatro y enseñando artesanías a los niños
locales. “Llevé mi obra artística a la comunidad, porque era
la única manera de comunicarme con esas personas,” dice
Humberto, “Aún así, la iglesia no crecía. Si bien habíamos
tenido cierto éxito convocando a la comunidad latina de
segunda generación a la congregación, había resistencia:
“Fui rechazado en muchas oportunidades. Golpeé muchas
puertas, y un día, un padre casi llegó a golpearme.” El
apoyo financiero se estaba acabando, y la denominación de
Humberto –que apoya abiertamente todos los llamados al
ministerio- ofrecía escasa tutoría o apoyo emocional. “Yo era
un misionero doméstico,” dice, “pero me encontraba solo a la
hora de construir un iglesia.”
통합적 관점으로 삶을 이해하기
트 갤러리를 소유할 수 있다는 건 모든 예술가들의 꿈일 수
도 있겠지만, 막상 신학(M.Div)을 전공하는 학생,
Humberto Rebollo에게 갤러리의 열쇠가 주어졌을 때에는 그의 신
앙생활의 가장 큰 고비도 함께 찾아왔습니다. 갤러리의 주인은 잘
알려진 화가이자, Humberto를 예술의 세계로 인도하였던 분이었습
니다. 주인이 암 진단을 받게 되면서 Humberto는 갤러리 유지를
위해 밤 늦은 시간까지 일하기 시작합니다. 그렇게 갤러리의 운영을
점차 맡아 나가던 Humberto는 주인이 암으로 세상을 떠나면서 유
족들의 축복하에 운영 전반을 책임지게 되었습니다. Humberto가
이어받은 미술관은 곧 Florida주 Melbourne시 최초의 라틴 미술
전문 갤러리, Highland Art and Studio로 다시 태어나게 됩니다.
당시 Humberto와 아내, Yolanda는 남쪽으로 몇 마일 떨어진
작은 라틴계 마을, Fellsmere에서 한 교회를 세우는 과정 중에 있었
습니다. Humberto는 매주 근처 학교에서 아내와 함께 지역 사회
아이들에게 그림, 연극, 공예 등을 가르쳤던 당시를 회상하며
다음과 같이 말합니다. “내가 그린 작품을 가지고 직접 지역 사회 한
가운데로 들어가는 것이 그 사회와 정말 하나가 될 수 있는 방법이라
고 생각한 거죠.” 하지만 교회는 전혀 성장하고 있지 않았습니다.
어느 정도 라틴계 2세들의 호응도 있었지만 또 동시에 반발하는
사람들도 생겨났습니다. “거절도 수시로 당해봤고 문 앞에서 되돌아
와야 한 경우도 많았어요. 한번은 어떤 학생의 아버지에게 맞아본
적도 있었죠.” 재정 역시 바닥이 나고 있었고, 교단에서는 표면상,
기독교인들 각자가 의미있는 사역에 참여할 수 있기를 강조하고는
있었지만, 실질적으로 교단으로부터 도움이나 지지를 기대하기가
힘들었습니다. “국내 선교사라는 직함아래, 사실상 저 혼자서 교회
를 세워보려고 애쓰고 있었습니다.”
사역의 한계를 느끼며 갈등하던 중, 예상 밖으로 Humberto는
아트 갤러리를 시작해보라는 주변의 권고를 받게 됩니다.
Humberto는 “처음에는 무엇부터 시작해야 할지 몰랐어요.”라고 말
me.” Financial support was running out, and Humberto’s
denomination—vocally supportive of every Christian’s call
to ministry—offered little mentoring or emotional support.
“I was a domestic missionary,” he says, “but I was really
on my own to raise a church.”
While he felt alone in his call to ministry, Humberto
was surprised with the support he received to start the art
gallery. “I didn’t know what to expect at first,” he recalls.
“Launching the gallery was a step of faith”—a step that
was, as it turned out, endorsed by others. His landlord
guided him through the legal paperwork, an editor at
a local arts magazine helped him build a website, and
artists and gallery owners came out to the first showing
that featured the work of over a dozen local Latino artists,
including Humberto’s own art.
Yet Humberto struggled as an artist just as much
as he did in his church ministry. While he was learning
new painting techniques, he saw his own work as too
commercialized and lacking the deeper purpose he felt
in his ministry. Even more, he struggled to manage two
vocations that slowly competed for his attention. Traveling
between these two cities was becoming more than a weekly
commute—it was an exhausting cross-cultural journey.
Caught between his ministry and his art, Humberto started
looking for a place where he could find the support he
needed to strengthen and deepen both.
When a close friend encouraged him to move to the
West Coast for a fresh start, Humberto decided to apply
to the MDiv program at Fuller Seminary through its Centro
Latino. It was a new leap of faith—away from his art gallery
and ministry, and toward a new season in life as a student.
Once he was accepted, he began to understand his time
in Florida as forging into new territory: “It was a stage in
my life when I was pioneering. God permitted me to see a
glimpse of what these two lives were like.”
Humberto found more new territory at Fuller’s Centro
Latino. He was shocked at the diversity of cultures in his
program: “My horizons expanded when I came here,” he
says. He met seasoned pastors from cultures as far away
as Chile, Peru, Puerto Rico, and Argentina, and his own
Si bien se sintió solo en su llamado al ministerio,
Humberto se sorprendió con el apoyo que recibió para abrir la
galería de arte. “Al principio no sabía qué esperar,” recuerda.
“Lanzar la galería fue dar un paso de fe” –un paso que,
al final, terminó recibiendo el apoyo de otras personas. El
propietario de la casa que rentaba lo guió con los trámites
legales, el editor de una revista de arte local le ayudó a
construir su sitio web, y artistas y dueños y dueñas de galerías
de arte lo acompañaron en su primera exhibición donde
presentó la obra de más de una docena de artistas locales de
la comunidad latina, incluyendo su propia obra.
Sin embargo, Humberto tuvo que luchar tanto como artista
como en su ministerio de la iglesia. Mientras aprendía nuevas
técnicas de pintura, notó que su obra se comercializaba
mucho pero que carecía de un propósito más profundo como
sentía que poseía su ministerio. Aún más, Humberto luchó
por manejar sus dos vocaciones, las cuales gradualmente
comenzaban a competir por su atención. Viajar entre las dos
ciudades se tornó en algo más que un simple camino al trabajo
–se convirtió en un agotador viaje intercultural. Atrapado entre
su ministerio y su arte, Humberto comenzó a buscar un lugar
donde encontrar el apoyo que necesitaba para fortalecer y
profundizar ambas vocaciones.
Cuando una amistad cercana lo entusiasmó para mudarse
a la costa oeste para comenzar de nuevo, Humberto decidió
aplicar al programa de Maestría en Divinidad del Seminario
Fuller a través de su Centro Latino. Fue dar un salto de fe
–lejos de su galería de arte y ministerio, se dirigía hacia una
nueva etapa de la vida, la de estudiante. Una vez que fue
aceptado, comenzó a entender que su tiempo en Florida le
hizo surcar un nuevo territorio: “Fue la etapa de mi vida en
que estaba iniciándome. Dios me permitió vislumbrar lo que
esas dos vidas serían.”
Humberto se encontró con un nuevo territorio para explorar
en el Centro Latino de Fuller. Se asombró de la diversidad de
culturas en su programa: “Mis horizontes se expandieron cuando
llegué,” dice. Conoció un experimentado pastorado de culturas
tan lejanas como las de Chile, Perú, Puerto Rico y Argentina;
y su propia fe -expuesta a la historia de la iglesia latina y la
teología de la liberación- se profundizó de manera inesperada.
“갤러리를 시작하기 위해 정말 필요했던 건 믿음으로 첫 발을 내딛는 것
이었습니다.” 곧 Humberto의 그 첫 발자국을 따라 여러 사람들의 지원
이 이어지게 됩니다. 임대주는 법적 서류 작성을 맡아 도와주었고, 지역
예술잡지의 편집장은 웹사이트를 시작하도록 힘을 보태 주었습니다.
예술가들과 갤러리 대표들이 모인 가운데, 드디어 문을 연 Humberto의
갤러리는 그 첫 전시를 통해 Humberto 자신의 작품을 포한한 지역
사회 내 여러 라틴계 화가들의 작품을 한 자리에 모아 소개할 수 있었습
하지만 교회사역이 Humberto에게 힘이 들었듯이 예술가로서의
길 또한 그에게 만만치 않았습니다. 새로운 테크닉들을 그림에 적용해
보고자 하고는 있었지만 훔버르토에게는 그의 작품들이, 사역의 현장
에서 그가 느꼈던 소명을 반영하기에 역시 너무 상업적으로 느껴질 뿐
이었습니다 .더욱이, 교회와 갤러리를 동시에 관리하는 것은 그에게
역부족인 듯 했습니다. 서로 다른 문화를 가진 두 도시 사이를 매주 오
가야 할 때마다 Humberto는 더욱 지쳐갔습니다. 마침내 그는 목회
와 예술 모두의 의미와 역할이 견고히 되고 깊어질 수 있는 길을 찾기
에 이릅니다
마침 가까운 친구 한명이 그에게 서부 지역으로 옮겨 새로운 출발
을 해보기를 권유하면서, Humberto는 풀러신학교 산하 히스패닉 교
회, 및 지역사회 연구 센터, Centro Latino를 통해 MDiv과정에 지원
해 보고자 결심합니다. 갤러리 운영과 목회 사역 모두에서 벗어나 학생
의 자격으로 삶의 새로운 장을 펼쳐볼 것을 믿음으로 결단하게 된 것입
니다. 입학이 확정되면서 Humberto의 눈 앞에서 이제는 Florida에
서 보냈던 시간과는 전혀 다른 무대가 펼쳐지고 있었습니다.
“제 삶의 새로운 시점에 도달했던 것이죠. 하나님께서는 목회와 예술,
이 두 가지 모두의 의미를 제가 마침내 이해할 수 있도록 저를 준비시
키고 계셨습니다.”
Humberto는 곧 풀러신학교의 Centro Latino를 통해서 새로운
무대를 발견하게 됩니다. 그는 학사 과정 내 다양하게 공존하는 문화에
먼저 큰 충격을 받았던 것을 기억합니다. “저의 시야가 풀러에 와서
넓어졌다고 생각해요.”라고 Humberto는 말합니다. Chile, Peru,
Puerto Rico, Argentina 출신의 이미 경험이 많은 목사님들과 만나
게 되고, 라틴 교회사와 해방신학을 함께 배워나가게 되면서
Humberto는 자신의 신앙이 정말 예상치 못했던 길을 통해 깊어짐을
느끼게 되었습니다. 풀러신학교는 그의 사고의 폭을 넓혀주었습니다.
Humberto는 “특별히 국제적 시각을 가지고 바라보는 법을 배우게 되
었다”고 말합니다.
Humberto는 다른 학생들에게 그림을 가르치기 시작하였고, 이미
몇몇 지역 교회들을 위해 벽화를 디자인하기도 했지만, 여전히 그에게는
마음껏 그림을 그릴 시간이 충분치 못한 듯합니다. 아직도 풀어야 할
숙제가 많이 있지만, Humberto는 풀러에서의 시간을 자신을 준비시키
고 단련시키는 과정으로 이해하고자 합니다. “ 견디기 힘든 때가 있어요.
하지만 하나님께서는 더 창대한 일을 저에게 보이시기 위해서 저를 준비
시키시고 계신다고 믿습니다.” 학위를 받기까지 이제 1년을 앞두고,
그 창대한 일들이 Humberto 앞에서 빠르게 윤곽을 드러내고 있습니
다. 교회 벽화를 더 그려볼 계획도 있고 아이들을 위한 성경동화책을 내
보려고도 합니다. 또한 그림을 그리는 것을 계속하면서, 지역 교회에 도
움이 될 수 있는 목회 사역을 시작하는 것도 생각하고 있습니다.
faith, exposed to Latino church history and liberation theology, deepened in
unexpected ways. Fuller broadened his thinking, he says, “especially in terms
of a global context.”
He’s also found time to teach a painting class for his peers, and he’s
created a few murals for local churches. Still, Humberto is not able to paint
as much as he wants to, and with much of his work stored under the bed, he
has learned to see his time at Fuller as another season of preparation: “It’s
uncomfortable, but sometimes God tells you to wait, because he’s preparing
you for greater things.” With a year to go before he finishes his degree, those
greater things are quickly coming into focus: Humberto has plans for more
church murals, biblical children’s books, and a pastoral ministry that can
support local churches while still giving him time to paint.
“Being bivocational is a blessing to the community, and it’s a language
that can communicate the gospel,” Humberto says. It’s a conviction that can
only come after years of moving between two cultures, and—with his Bible
and paintbrush in hand—a language he’s ready to speak.
MICHAEL WRIGHT [MAT ’12], storyteller,
is Fuller’s editorial and social media specialist. Find him on Twitter
NATE HARRISON, photographer,
is FULLER magazine’s senior photographer and video storyteller.
Find his work at NateCHarrison.com.
Fuller le amplió su forma de pensar, expresa Humberto, “especialmente en términos
de contexto global.”
También ha encontrado tiempo para dar clases de pintura a sus pares, y ha
creado unos cuantos murales para iglesias locales. Aún así, Humberto no tiene
suficiente tiempo como para pintar todo lo que le gustaría, y teniendo mucho de
su obra guardada debajo de la cama, ha aprendido a considerar su paso por Fuller
como otra etapa de preparación: “Es incómodo, pero algunas veces Dios te pide
que esperes, porque te está preparando para algo más grande.” Faltándole un año
para que finalice su grado, esas cosas grandes se colocan rápidamente en foco:
Humberto tiene planes de hacer más murales para las iglesias, libros bíblicos
para la niñez, y un ministerio pastoral que pueda mantener a las iglesias locales y
aún darle tiempo para pintar.
“Ser bi-vocacional es una bendición para la comunidad, y es un lenguaje que
puede transmitir el evangelio,” dice Humberto. Es una convicción que sólo puede
llegar después de años de moverse entre dos culturas, y –con su Biblia y pincel a
mano- es un lenguaje que está listo para hablar.
“두 가지의 소명에 부름 받았다는 것은 섬기는 공동체에게는 축복입니다. 그 자체가
복음을 전하는 언어가 되는 것이죠.”라고 Humberto는 말합니다. 한 손에는 성경책을,
다른 한 손에는 붓을 쥐고서 달려온 지난 시간이 있었기에 그는 이제 확신을 가지고 그만의
언어를 말하고 있습니다.
사진 설명: Humberto가 Brehm Center 주최로 열리는 전시회 출품작인 ‘붓을 들
때가 있으며’ 앞에 서 있다. 전도서를 주제로 열리는 이번 전시회를 통해 일반에게 소개되는
풀러 학생들의 작품들은 예술에의 신학적 접근을 모색하는 최근 추세를 잘 반영하고 있다.
Humberto 작품의 제목은 전도서에서 말하고 있는 변화의 리듬에 착안한 것이다. 그의 작
품은 말씀에 대한 묵상이자, 하나님의 때를 따라, 학생, 예술가, 그리고 목회자로서의 소명
을 담당하고자 하는 Humberto 본인의 자화상이기도 하다.
By Oscar García-Johnson, Associate Dean, Centro Latino
Associate Professor of Theology and Latino/a Studies
Bible and paintbrushes do not usually go together within
Latina evangelicalism—unless, of course, we visit a church
with an outreach to gang members or pay a visit to “el
cuarto de los jóvenes” (youth ministry room) in a Hispanic
church that owns its facilities. Christian art in the form of
painting and literature is yet to be discovered as a gift to
evangelical faith in the Latino church. Latino culture, on the
other hand, is overwhelmingly artistic, visual, ever creative,
and diversified. This seems to be a contradiction, and it is.
By Oscar García-Johnson, Director del Centro Latino
Profesor Asistente de Teología Sistemática y Espiritualidad
La Biblia y los pinceles no van generalmente de la mano
dentro del evangelicalismo latino–a menos que, por
supuesto, visitáramos una iglesia que convoque a los
miembros de una ‘pandilla’ o visitáramos el cuarto de
los jóvenes en una iglesia hispana que sea dueña de
sus instalaciones. El arte Cristiano en forma de pintura
y literatura aún está por descubrirse como un regalo a
la fe evangélica en la iglesia latina. La cultura latina,
por otro lado, es sobrecogedoramente artística, visual,
también creativa, y diversificada. Esto parece ser una
contradicción, y lo es. La misión conservadora Protes-
REBOLLO의 아름다운 사역
By Oscar García-Johnson
히스페닉 센터 원장 및 히스페닉 신학 조교수
라틴 문화의 복음주의 틀 안에서 성경책과 그림붓을 함께
연상하기란 쉬운 일이 아닙니다. 물론 갱단의 일원들에게
가까이 다가가고자 하는 교회에 가본다거나, 라틴계 교회 내
청년부실(“el cuarto de los jóvenes”)의 문을 열어본다면
이야기는 달라 질 수 있습니다. 하지만 대체로 미술이나
문학 작품 형태의 기독교 예술개념을 라틴 교회가 가지고
있는 복음주의 신앙 고백에서 발견하기란 아직 어려운 것이
사실입니다. 이 점은, 라틴 문화가 가진 시각적 예술성과 그
창조적이며 다양한 성격을 생각해봤을 때, 이해하기가 힘든
모순으로 여겨집니다.
보수적 성향의 개신교 선교운동은 라틴 예술을 마치
Conservative Protestant mission efforts targeted
Latina art across the Americas (Latin America and
the US) as something to be converted from, as satanic products of culture. Nearly all forms of art were reduced to singing hymns and playing classical instruments. A continent made of Native, African, Arabic,
and European artistic traditions would certainly react
to this Protestant denial of cultural beauty, and so
a few local Protestant expressions—especially Pentecostalism—have opened ways to gradually experience what the Latino theologian Alejandro García-Rivera called “the community of the beautiful.” The
denial of beauty to the Latina Christian community
is something that we, as educators, theologians,
and pastors, have to cope with and rectify. “It is a
Beauty that is subversive yet gracious, ever hoping
and fresh, [that] crosses barriers and creates community,” García-Rivera writes. “Beauty’s call [makes]
possible the impossible and [makes] visible the invisible. Beauty [can] cross differences made long ago.
Indeed, Beauty loves difference” (The Community of
the Beautiful, p.3). God, beauty, and the beauty of
God that we have come to know through other theologians and artists have yet to be discovered in Latina
culture. García-Rivera points to an evident canvas,
popular religion, where faith happens without much
formal and Western regulation.
tante se esforzó por apuntar contra el arte latino a lo
largo de las Américas (América Latina y los Estados
Unidos) como algo del cual uno debe apartarse, como
si fuera un producto satánico de la cultura. Casi todas las formas de arte fueron reducidas a himnos y
a utilizar instrumentos clásicos. Un continente hecho
de tradiciones artísticas nativas, africanas, árabes y
europeas seguramente reaccionaría a esta negación
Protestante de belleza cultural, y así fue que unas
pocas expresiones locales Protestantes –especialmente las Pentecostales- han abierto maneras de
incorporar gradualmente lo que el teólogo latino Alejandro García-Rivera denominó “la comunidad de lo
teólogos y pastores, debemos abordar y rectificar. “Es una belleza que es subversiva y al mismo
tiempo que posee gracia, siempre con esperanza y
frescura, que cruza barreras y crea comunidad,” escribe García-Rivera. “El llamado de la belleza [hace]
posible lo imposible y [hace] visible lo invisible. La
belleza [puede] cruzar diferencias que fueron creadas hace mucho tiempo. En efecto, la belleza ama las
diferencias (La comunidad de lo bello, p.3).” Dios, la
belleza, y la belleza de Dios que hemos llegado a conocer a través de otros teólogos y artistas, aún no se
han manifestado en la cultura latina. García-Rivera
habla de una pintura evidente, una religión popular,
donde la fe existe sin acarrear con demasiados formalismos propios de las normas occidentales.
La negación de la belleza en la comunidad latina
Cristiana es algo que nosotros, como educadores,
사탄적인 세상 문화의 부산물인 것처럼 간주하였기에
북남미 대륙 전역(남미와 미국)에 걸쳐 복음주의 내에서
라틴 예술의 흐름을 끊어버리고자 한 시도가 있었던
것이 사실입니다. 라틴 예술의 표현 가능한 형태라고는
한 때, 찬송을 부르거나 클래식 악기를 연주하는 경우를
제외하고는 거의 찾아볼 수가 없었을 정도였습니다.
그러나 원주민 고유의 전통, 또한 아프리카, 아랍, 유럽
문화의 예술적 전통이 어우러져 나타난 미학적 역사를
부인하였던 당시 선교운동은 북남미 전역에서 적지 않은
반발을 불러일으키게 되었고, 곧 몇몇 다른 개신교인들,
지역적 교파들 (특히 오순절교단) 로부터 점진적으로 라틴
예술을 포용하고자하는 움직임이 나타나기에 이릅니다.
라틴 신학자 Alejandro García-Rivera는 라틴 예술이
살아 움직이는 총체를 “아름다움의 공동체‘라고 일컬은 바
있습니다. 바로 이 ”아름다움의 공동체“를 경험해보고자
하는 노력이 개신교 안에서도 나타나게 된 것입니다.
라틴 기독교 문화가 가지고 있는 아름다움을 부인한다는
것은, 교육자, 신학자, 목사로서 우리 모두가 시정하고
Rebollo’s art as a beautiful gift of God and a gift
of and to our Latino culture. In Humberto’s paintings
and murals, beauty crosses enormous barriers and
violent borders by blending inspiration from Latino
artists—Diego Rivera and Picasso—and modern
abstract art. And yet all of these expressions of beauty find a path in Humberto’s biblical and evangelical
imagination. Stunningly, his visual faith is bringing
beauty into church ministry—the very thing our Protestant ancestors felt afraid of and thought impossible to achieve. “Beauty makes possible the impossible and visible the invisible,” just as García-Rivera
has said.
At Fuller Seminary’s Center for the Study of Hispanic
Church and Community, we have embraced Humberto
nidad Hispana del Seminario Fuller, hemos adoptado
el arte de Humberto Rebollo como un bello regalo de
Dios y como un regalo de y para nuestra cultura latina. En las pinturas y murales de Humberto, la belleza
cruza barreras enormes y fronteras violentas, al combinar inspiración de artistas latinos –Diego Rivera y
Picasso- con arte moderno abstracto. Y, sin embargo, todas estas expresiones de belleza encuentran
un camino en la imaginación bíblica y evangélica
de Humberto. Sorprendentemente, su fe visual está
aportando belleza al ministerio de la iglesia -precisamente lo que nuestros antepasados Protestantes
temían y pensaban que era imposible de lograr. “La
belleza hace posible lo imposible y visible lo invisible,” justo lo que ha expresado García–Rivera.
En el Centro para el Estudio de la Iglesia y Comu-
바로잡아야 하는 태도임에 분명합니다. “저항적이나
온유하며, 모든 것을 바라며, 언제까지든지 떨어지지
아니하는 이 아름다움이 막힌 담을 헐고 공동체를 새롭게
창조하는 것입니다,” 라고 Alejandro García-Rivera는
말하고 있습니다. “아름다움으로의 부름에 귀를 기울일 때,
불가능한 것이 가능한 것으로, 보이지 않았던 것이 보이는
것으로 탈바꿈됩니다. 아름다움의 추구를 통해 오래전부터
존재해왔던 이질성이 극복될 수 있습니다. 사실,
아름다움은 오히려 다양성을 흠모합니다.”(아름다움의
공동체, 3페이지) 여타 신학자들과 예술가들이 추구해온
하나님, 아름다움, 하나님의 아름다우심 등의 주제는
앞으로 라틴 문화 속에서도 논의되어야 할 분야임에 틀림이
없습니다. García-Rivera는 그 논의의 배경으로, 격식적
규제, 또는 서구 문화적 규율로부터 훨씬 자유롭다고 할 수
있는 라틴 카톨릭 신앙에 지목하고 있습니다.
Humberto Rebollo의 예술적 재능은 하나님께서
그에게 허락하신 아름다운 은사이자 라틴 문화의
선물이기에, 풀러신학교 Centro Latino에서는
앞으로 Humberto가 그의 예술을 통해 라틴 문화에
더욱 기여할 것을 기대하고 있습니다. Humberto의
그림과 벽화를 통해서 아름다움의 의미가 정말 넘을
수 없을 것 같았던 벽을 넘어, 거칠고 혹독한 접경을
건너 우리에게 다가옵니다. Humberto의 작품 속에서
Diego Rivera, Picasso와 같은 라틴계 예술가들과
현대 추상미술사조의 영향을 발견하게 되지만, 결국
이 모든 예술적 표현 저변에는 Humberto 본인이
추구하여 온 성경적이며 복음적인 영감과 상상력이
자리하고 있습니다. 놀랍게도 이제 Humberto는
예술의 아름다움을 교회 사역의 현장에서 그려내기
시작하였습니다. 우리 개신교 믿음의 선진들에게는
두렵고 불가능해 보이기만 하였던 예술과 목회와의
만남이 가능하게 된 것입니다. “아름다움으로의 부름에
귀를 기울일 때, 불가능한 것이 가능한 것으로, 보이지
않았던 것이 보이는 것으로 탈바꿈됩니다.”라고 하였던
García-Rivera의 말이 이루어지는 순간입니다.
and Race
oppression, but Caleb sees a new need for effective
strategy in addition to Christian principles. We need to
fight injustice with new strategies that reflect contemporary
waves of thought, he feels, while continuing to look to
those who came before us for cues on effectiveness. “King
was able to make creative protest a powerful force against
injustice. They used their imaginations, they prayed, they
sought God’s help, and their demonstrations—freedom
rides, marches, etc—were creative. We have to be just
as creative, while keeping love at the center,” he says,
relishing the fact that many of the efforts to spark change
that he admires were birthed out of the black church.
For both of us, this rekindles the frustration that the
black theological narrative has largely been absent in our
education as well as in culture at large.
Though Caleb believes that the #BlackLivesMatter
movement has been evoking creativity and imagination
resonant with Dr. King’s, on a local level he and a group
of students are responding to the call toward creative
protest by forming Onyx, a student group committed to
empowering and developing black male students at Fuller.
As vice president of the newly formed campus organization,
Caleb reflects on self-determination, self-agency, and
the ways in which African Americans can shift others’
perceptions of black men. “It’s very easy to point the
finger away from ourselves, but at the same time we have
to reflect on ourselves,” he believes. “We have to look
at behaviors, patterns of behavior, that do not help our
situation and that simply perpetuate stereotypes.”
Some critics would label Caleb’s approach a form of
respectability politics, or criticizing one’s own community
in order to appear more acceptable to mainstream culture.
After all, the thinking goes, why should the onus be on
black people to behave nicer, instead of calling white people
to task for their racism and implicit biases? The task of
reconciling, says Caleb, requires the unity of black and white
Christians working together. “It’s not about attacking white
people. This is a human problem, reflected in many different
ways, and in one way or another, we’re all complicit.”
That responsibility needs to be exercised in the
classroom as well. Caleb recalls times when white
classmates have insisted that current examples of racial
violence are merely isolated incidents, with no implied
undercurrent. On the other hand, he also remembers when
his American church history professor James Bradley led
a devotional at the beginning of class on the day it was
revealed that the white police officer who shot unarmed
black teenager Michael Brown was acquitted. "He showed
genuine, sincere grief over the whole matter,” Caleb
remembers. “He prayed over it and brought Scripture to
us to help us make sense of it. I saw deep concern and
compassion, and that touched my heart.”
Love and compassion are two-way streets, and even
though it can be a humbling reality, Caleb is determined
to enter conversations on race with grace—at Fuller and
elsewhere. We have to begin with the Christian context,
he says, pointing out that who one defines as “neighbor”
determines how one will treat others. “When you see that
the biblical understanding is that all of humanity—everyone
that you are sharing this world with—is your neighbor,
that obliges you to show love to everyone,” he insists. As
we seek to tear down walls, Caleb reminds me that even
though current events make it seem as though retaliation is
our only option, true love is demonstrated when both sides
put their armor down and look for ways to understand each
other. I think that is something worth fighting for, and my
prayer is that hope in that truth will sustain us in the hard
road ahead.
uring his 1963 speech in Detroit, Michigan,
“Message to the Grass Roots,” activist Malcolm
X once said, “Be peaceful, be courteous, obey the law,
respect everyone; but if someone puts his hand on you,
send him to the cemetery. That’s a good religion.” As I
read another statistic on how many black people have
died at the hands of police this year, I feel conflict: deep
down inside I believe there is another way, but sometimes
I have my doubts. It raises an important question during
a time when the reality of racial injustice most easily
breeds anger—As a Christian, how can I preach “love your
neighbor” when my instinct is to fight back?
That was the question on my mind as I entered into a
dialogue with second-year MDiv student Caleb Campbell
on a rare cloudy afternoon in Pasadena, California. As
accounts of offenses toward black bodies continue to
permeate my online news feed, how do I reconcile the
black community’s approach to justice that often seems so
different from the church’s? Caleb’s answer to the question
is consistent—it always comes back to love. “That’s the
responsibility of black Christians because we have to
navigate these two worlds,” he says, urging that we have
to bring the reconciling power of the gospel to our black
brothers and sisters to see this is the key that we need. “It
always goes back to love,” he insists. “There’s so much
hope in that. Love has the power to overrule darkness.” His
words serve as a reminder of my own hopes that love will
indeed prevail in the end. I hold onto this aspiration as our
lengthy conversation wades through the muddy waters of
race, being a black student at Fuller, and grappling with the
appearance of “respectability politics.”
Caleb grew up in Westmont, a neighborhood in the
South Central area of Los Angeles only about 20 miles
south of Pasadena, yet he had never heard of Fuller
Seminary. It wasn’t until he started researching seminaries
with high academic standards that Fuller emerged as a
graduate institution committed to the fundamentals of
Christian faith and rigorous scholarship. That scholarship
has its blind spots, however, and we both acknowledge our
disappointment with the lack of inclusion of the African
American experience and its contribution to church history
within the classroom. Yet some exceptions—such as
Lewis B. Smedes Professor of Christian Ethics Hak Joon
Lee’s course “Theology and Ethics of Martin Luther King
Jr.”—have strengthened Caleb’s resolve to revive Christian
principles that have inspired justice movements in the
past. Martin Luther King Jr. and the Civil Rights movement
used the Christian faith as their framework for fighting
AVRIL Z. SPEAKS, storyteller,
is a filmmaker and instructor at Azusa Pacific University and
University of La Verne. Find her work at azuspeak.com.
NATE HARRISON, photographer,
is FULLER magazine’s senior photographer and video
storyteller. Find his work at NateCHarrison.com.
p. 36
Integration: What with What
and with Whom?
Brad D. Strawn
p. 38
The Brain, Religion, and
Baseball: Revisited
Warren S. Brown
p. 44
Selfies, Upward Mobility,
Conversion, and the Gospel of
Western Individualism
Jenny H. Pak, Kenneth T. Wang, and Alvin Dueck
p. 48
The Work of the Holy Spirit and
the Christian Therapist
An Interview with Integration Pioneer
Siang-Yang Tan
p. 54
Caring for Practitioners:
Relationships, Burnout, and
Cynthia B. Eriksson, Ashley Wilkins,
and Jude Tiersma Watson
p. 56
Do You Need Jesus
to Be a Good Therapist?
Cameron Lee
p. 62
Building Virtues in Youth:
A Developmental Take on
Spiritual Formation
Sarah A. Schnitker and Benjamin J. Houltberg
p. 68
“When two different entities come to interact with each
other, a potency lies within the spaces that are in-between.
The difference between these entities creates vital tensions
and suspension of ambiguity. The dynamic interactions of
the difference and potency of the space of ‘in-between’
inspire me to create my work.
“Exposing the space ‘in-between’ reveals a deeper understanding about the complex, incomplete, and unsteady
reality of human nature. Revealing these suspended spaces
suggests that there is no such thing as fixed boundaries,
extreme difference, hierarchy, or purity in race, ethnicity, or
culture. Fluidity, dialogues, and exchanges are part of the
nature of interaction. Translation and negotiation become
necessary during their vital encounter. Hybridity is a sure
path to transformation.
“To represent this dynamic interaction, I use biomorphic
forms in my paintings. These natural organic forms are
embedded in the visible brushstrokes of texture, yet the
forms also suspend and integrate with their surroundings,
thereby creating a sense of movement. They have a sense of
an illusion of space but still reflect the two-dimensional surfaces on which they are painted. These organic forms vary
in composition in order to create dynamic spaces for visual
interaction. The precise ways in which these binary forms
interact now symbolically rely on the viewer’s perception.”
—Trung Pham, artist
+ Drift from Space in Between series by Trung Pham, Oil on
Canvas, 18" x 30", 2006
The Fuller School of Psychology has never
approached integration with this adversarial
posture. While a number of different integration models have been developed within or
alongside Fuller (several are described in
the articles that follow), the enduring central
commitment of our work has been to bring
the best of Christian theology (faith and practice) into honest conversation with the best of
psychology (science and practice).
The articles that make up this theology
section of FULLER magazine demonstrate
that commitment. You will read of science
as it is used in the service of developing
Christian virtues; how neuroscience does
(and does not) inform religious experience;
how psychology can equip those in ministerial settings to care for themselves in
order to more effectively share and embody
the gospel; what Christian faith has to add
to the clinical practice of counseling; and
even how we can use theology to critique
psychology as it plays out in cross-cultural
settings. Through it all, one should see that
the integrative project is not a debate but a
dialogue in which genuine learning, growth,
and transformation take place as these two
ancient disciplines of study, under the Lordship of Jesus Christ, attempt to serve the
kingdom of God.
Los artículos que conforman esta sección de
teología de la revista FULLER demuestran
ese compromiso. Podrá leer sobre ciencia y
cómo se utiliza en servicio del desarrollo de
las virtudes cristianas; cómo la neurociencia
informa (o no informa) sobre la experiencia
religiosa; cómo la psicología puede ayudar
a aquellas personas que sirven con su ministerio para cuidar a su propio ser, a fin de
compartir y representar más eficientemente
al evangelio; lo que la fe cristiana tiene para
aportar a la práctica clínica de la terapia; y
hasta cómo podemos utilizar la teología para
analizar la psicología en un marco intercultural. A través de todo, se puede ver que el
proyecto integrador no es un debate sino un
diálogo por el cual se produce un genuino
aprendizaje, crecimiento y transformación
mientras estas dos antiguas disciplinas de
estudio, bajo el Señorío de Jesucristo, intentan servir al Reino de Dios.
풀러 신학교의 움직임에 대해, 몇몇 기독교 커뮤너티의 반응
결국 함께 존재할 수 없음을 지적하였습니다. 비평의 목소
가져올 수 있는 다양한 가능성들을 조명해 보고자 합니다.
은 그리 호의적이지만은 않았습니다. 전 심리학 대학원내
리는 다양해도, 저변에 자리한 공통적 질문은 “심리학과
이번 호에서는 과학이 어떻게 기독교적 가치관을 형성하고
하나 서 있습니다. 동상 앞, 명판에는 “십자가를
통합 (Integration of Psychology and Theology) 의장직에
기독교 믿음이 연합될 수 있다면, 과연 둘 중 어느 쪽이
발달시키는데 사용되는지—어떻게 신경과학이 신앙 경험의
심리학의 마음 중심에 심으며” 라고 한 짤막한 설명이 붙어
있었던, Al Dueck 교수의 말을 빌리자면, 당시 회의적 태도
우선인가?”를 항상 물어 왔다고 보여집니다.
인식을 하게 하는지, 어떻게 심리학이 사역자들을 도와
있습니다. 1964년, 개교 이 후, 풀러 신학교내 심리학부는
는 마치 Tertullian의 질문처럼 “ 아테네와 예루살렘이 무슨
바로 이 하나됨의 원칙을 구현하기 위한 노력을 멈춘 적이
관계가 있단 말입니까?”를 묻는 듯 했습니다.
n el patio del edificio donde enseño,
hay una escultura de bronce de la letra
griega psi combinada con una cruz cristiana. Una placa en el lugar dice, “Plantando
la cruz en el corazón de la psicología.” Desde
sus comienzos en 1964, la Escuela de Psicología de Fuller se ha enfocado en lograr
este esfuerzo conocido como “integración.”
nidad cristiana percibieron la alianza de
Fuller entre la sicología y la teología como
algo nuevo y peligroso - preguntándose, tal
como el previo presidente de integración de
Fuller Alvin Dueck hacía referencia a Tertulian, “¿Qué tiene que ver Jerusalem con
Décadas atrás, algunas personas consideraban extravagante que Fuller comenzara a
ofrecer el primer programa doctoral acreditado en psicología clínica con énfasis cristiano. La psicología, la filosofía y la teología
eran en efecto disciplinas similares hasta
que se separaron a fines del siglo diecinueve; el trabajo de lo que podría llamarse
“reintegración” comenzó en ese periodo.
Sin embargo, algunas personas en la comu-
Durante los últimos cincuenta años, personas
críticas y negativistas, y han habido muchos y
muchas, tenían preocupación sobre el proyecto de integración de Fuller. Algunas personas
objetaban que la psicología era una ciencia
secular que ignoraba sus puntales filosóficos y éticos y no se condecía con la teología
cristiana. Otras personas se preocupaban de
que nuestro énfasis científico –con su cuantificación y positivismo lógico- superara a la
teología y a una fe cristiana que no pudiera
가 가르치는 건물 안쪽 뜰에는 그리스 문자, psi
의 형태를 십자가와 맞물려 표현해 놓은 동상이
ser medida en forma empírica. Los cuestionamientos de las personas críticas siempre
parecían circular alrededor del mismo tema:
“Cuando la psicología y la fe cristiana se integren, ¿cuál superará a la otra?”
La Escuela de Psicología de Fuller nunca
encaró la integración con esta postura adversa.
Mientras que un número de diferentes modelos
de integración han sido desarrollados dentro
de Fuller (varios son descritos en los artículos
que siguen a continuación), el compromiso
central permanente de nuestro trabajo ha sido
incorporar lo mejor de la teología cristiana (fe
y práctica) en un diálogo honesto con lo mejor
de la psicología (ciencia y práctica).
효과적으로 복음을 선포하게 하는지, 상담치료에 어떤 기독
풀러의 심리학부는 결코 이러한 회의적 반발감을 가지고 연
교 신앙의 부분이 더해 져야 하는지, 그리고 신학을 어떻게
합의 주제를 접근하지 않습니다. 여러 형태의 연합의 본보
사용하여 통합적으로 사용되어지는 심리학을 비판적으로
지난 반세기동안, 풀러 신학교가 펼쳐왔던 심리학과 신학의
기가 풀러 신학교 안팎에서 그 윤곽을 드러내 오는 동안,
성찰 할 수 있는지—를 읽으시게 될 것입니다. 이러한 것들
수십 년 전, 풀러 신학교에 기독교 정신에 입각한 임상
통합적 연구를 두고 많은 사람들이 비평하고 반대해 왔습니
(이에 자세한 소개는 다음 글에 이어집니다.) 그 중심에는
을 통하여 결국 신학과 심리학의 하나됨이 단지 논쟁의 주
심리학 박사과정 프로그램이 처음으로 생겼을 때에는
다. 어떤 이들은 심리학의 비종교적 성격상, 철학, 및 윤리
항상, 기독교 신학의 핵심(믿음과 실행)과 심리학의 핵심
제로 전락되어 버리기에는, 그 연합이 불러올 수 있는 배움
의아해 하는 주변의 시선이 없지 않았던 것도 사실입니다.
적 기준이 적용될 수는 없음을 강조하며, 심리학과 기독교
(과학과 실행)을 함께 솔직히 이야기할 수 있는 열린 대화
과 성장, 변화의 가능성이 너무 크다는 사실을 아시게 될 것
19세기 후반까지는 심리학, 철학, 신학의 개념을 따로 떼어
신학은 상충된 가치를 가질 수밖에 없다고 주장하였습니다.
의 장을 마련하고자 하는 풀러 신학교의 노력이 있었습니
입니다. 풀러 신학교는 그 가능성을 바라보기에, 오래된
생각하는 일이 드물었습니다. 통합을 말하는 현재의 논의도
또 다른쪽에서는 심리학의 과학적 사고방식, 즉 수량적
학문의 이 두 줄기를 붙잡고 그리스도의 인도하심아래 주의
사실 오래 전에 이미 그 기원이 존재한 셈입니다. 그럼에도
해석방법과 논리 실증주의 등의 배경이 과학적 실험으로는
불구하고, 심리학과 신학을 연계하여 이해하고자 하는
측량할 수 없는 기독교 신학의 본체, 그 믿음의 원칙과는
Decades ago, some found it outlandish when
Fuller offered the first accredited doctoral
program in clinical psychology with a Christian emphasis. Psychology, philosophy, and
theology were in fact kindred disciplines
until they were unhinged from one another
in the late 19th century; the work of what
might be called “reintegration” began way
back then. Nevertheless, some in the Chris-
Over the last half-century critics and naysayers, and there have been many, worried about
Fuller’s integration project. Some worried
that psychology was a secular science that
ignored its philosophical and ethical underpinnings and was at odds with Christian theology. Others worried that our scientific emphasis—with its quantification and logical
positivism—would override theology and a
Christian faith that could not be measured
empirically. Critics’ questions always seem
to circle around the same theme: “When psychology and Christian faith are integrated,
which trumps the other?”
Brad D. Strawn,
Evelyn and Frank Freed Professor of the Integration of Psychology and Theology Guest Editor
tian community perceived Fuller’s alliance
of psychology and theology as new and possibly dangerous—wondering, as Fuller’s
former chair of integration Alvin Dueck references Tertullian, “What does Jerusalem
have to do with Athens?”
n the courtyard of the building where
I teach is a bronze sculpture of a Greek
psi combined with a Christian cross. A
plaque nearby reads, “Planting the cross
in the heart of psychology.” From its beginnings in 1964, the School of Psychology at
Fuller has been about this endeavor known
as “integration.”
나라를 섬기고자 오늘도 노력하고 있습니다.
풀러 매거진 이번호 신학 섹션을 통해 바로 그 대화가
Brad D. Strawn
Brad D. Strawn is the Evelyn and
Frank Freed Professor of the Integration of Psychology and Theology
and Chair of Integration, Department of Clinical Psychology, in
Fuller’s School of Psychology.
Strawn is a member of the Christian
Association for Psychological
Studies; Society for the Study of
Psychology and Wesleyan Studies
(founding member and officer);
Society for the Exploration of Psychoanalytic Psychotherapies and
Theology (founding member and
associate director); and the
Brookhaven Institute for Psychoanalysis and Christian Theology
(faculty member). Prior to joining
the faculty of Fuller’s Graduate
School of Psychology in 2012, Dr.
Strawn was professor of psychology
at Point Loma Nazarene University
and also practiced as a clinical psychologist and served as vice president for spiritual development and
dean of the chapel at Southern
Nazarene University.
n 1953 psychologist Fritz Kunkel first used
the term “integration” as a description of
the interdisciplinary activity between theology and psychology.1 Kunkel was a major
pioneer in the integration movement in the
1940s and 1950s, establishing a Christian
counseling center in Los Angeles as well
as the Foundation for the Advancement of
Religious Psychology. Integration historian
Hendrika Vande Kemp notes that the term
integration was picked up by the editors of the
journal Pastoral Psychology and was applied to
both Kunkel and later to famous American
psychologist Gordon Allport.
Since the ’50s the term integration has been
used in diverse ways, including (but not
limited to) the integration of psychology
and Christianity, psychology and religion,
psychology and theology (faith and practice,
belief and life), psychology and Christian
faith, psychology and spirituality, psychotherapy and theology, and even psychotherapy
and spirituality.
While the term integration is relatively young,
the scientific study of the “psychology of religion” has been around for some time. 2 The
psychology of religion uses the science of psychology to study religion and religious experience. While some have worried that this approach may reduce religion to “nothing-but”
psychology, it has produced fascinating and
helpful findings on everything from the development of cults, the experience of spiritual transcendence, and religion and health
to brain science and religious phenomena.
For these reasons, the psychology of religion
continues to be an important avenue of study.
The field of integration, however, is a more superordinate concept. While it may include the
psychology of religion, it may also include the
religion of psychology. Here religion, theology,
or spirituality might be used in an attempt to
explain/critique some branch of psychology
(e.g., humanistic clinical psychology) or psychological experience (e.g., struggle with sin).
From the perspective of the religion of psychology, it has been argued that integration
has been going on in theological circles for a
long time.3
Integration may also include the application
of psychological findings to areas that have
import for Christian theology and life such
as virtue acquisition, forgiveness and reconciliation, spiritual formation, life and health
of the church and its ministers and missionaries (see the article by Eriksson, Wilkins,
and Tiersma Watson), Christian marriage
and families, health issues, and overall sanctification, and growth in holiness—just to
name a few. Integration in counseling and
therapy has also grown as scholars study
Christian therapists working with Christian
clients, develop unique Christian counseling
approaches, and explore ways to understand
God’s activity in the counseling moment (see
the interview with Tan).
It is safe to say that the field of integration has
exploded since the early 1950s with the development of master’s and doctoral level training
programs specifically aimed at integration
training, and with the development of professional journals, professional organizations,
and international conferences specifically
focused on integration. Even secular organizations such as the American Psychological
Association and the American Psychiatric
Association are now recognizing the importance of religion and spirituality in mental
health, and their publishing houses produce
books and journals every year on integrative
topics. It could be argued that integration is a
subdiscipline in the larger field of psychology.4
Despite the long history and work in integration, the task has not been without its detrac-
tors and critics. Some have simply argued
that Christianity, faith, and theology should
have nothing to do with psychology. They
have seen psychology as a secular enterprise
whose agenda was usually incompatible with
Christianity and at worst was in the business
of the eradication of religion.5 Practitioners
from this school of thought, such as the “biblical counseling”6 proponents, argue that they
find everything needed for mental health in
the pages of the Bible and subsequently reject
theories and findings emerging from secular
It should also be noted that there are some in
the field committed to relating psychology
and theology that don’t care for the term integration. They worry that integration sounds
like making one discipline out of two, perhaps
forcing one on the other while doing violence
to both. Or they may question the primary
integrative assumption that we are dealing
with two separate disciplines to begin with.
Still others, while not rejecting the project
outright, have recognized a persistent and
unanswered question. The question boils
down to which, if either, of the two disciplines is privileged, and what are the implications of such privileging?7 On one end of
the continuum, psychology explains away
theology/Christian faith and trumps any
conflict between the two by relying on the
power of science while never acknowledg-
ing science’s limitations. On the other end of
the spectrum, theology is conceived as the
queen of the sciences and trumps psychology whenever there is a conflict, relying on
the power of revelation and ultimate Truth,
while never acknowledging that theology is
an interpretive process.
With this question operating in the background, it is understandable why the early
years of the integration task (like the development of any new scientific discipline) included building models of integration. The
Graduate School of Psychology at Fuller
Theological Seminary was established in the
years 1964–1965 with the primary goal of integration, so it makes sense that faculty began
to build models of integration. Paul Clement,
one of the early faculty members in the School
of Psychology, developed a tripartite model of
integration based on “theory, research, and
practice.”8 Integration meant that theology
must impact a psychologist’s work at each of
these three levels. Newt Malony, who joined
the psychology faculty in 1969, also had a
tripartite model: he discussed “integration
at the level of principles, of profession, and of
person, the 3Ps.”9 The diagram [above] indicates that these two models can be combined,
suggesting that theory, research, and practice
may be important at each of Malony’s levels
of principles, profession, and person, while
theology influences all.
“When I gave the integration lectures years
ago, the title was the somewhat dated term
‘the Nature of Man.’ I argued that it wasn’t
the nature of man; it’s the nature of people.
There’s no such thing as a person alone. . . .
It is indeed the life of the church where Jesus
is expressed, where we learn about him;
that’s where we’re corrected through comments other people make, sermons and the
like, and that’s really a place where we need
to grow.”
+ RICHARD GORSUCH is a senior
professor of psychology. This
quote is taken from an Integration
panel convened for the School of
Psychology’s 50th anniversary.
More online.
A seminal book in the recent history of integration is the edited volume by Eric L.
Johnson, first published as Psychology &
Christianity: Four Views, now in its second
edition with a fifth view added.10 In this book,
integration is considered one particular view
of engaging psychology and theology while
advancing at least four others. This has been a
widely used text at both the graduate and undergraduate level, although it could be argued
that this approach further complicates an
already complicated terrain. Perhaps it is best
to continue to speak of integration as a superordinate principle with many available methodologies for how to practice it. And while this
approach and the views have been critiqued
(even by each author, which was the format
of the book), it has opened up the idea that
there is more than one way, or more than one
correct way, to conduct integration. Perhaps
we should speak of “integration methodologies” rather than the singular “integration.”
Classic model building, however, seems to be
running out of steam. In their quest for clarity
models often minimize uniqueness and particularity. As the title of this article implies,
if one is integrating two disciplines, with
what is one integrating? There are numerous
branches in psychology and theology. What
branch of theology (e.g., systematic, practical,
ethical, etc.) is being integrated with what
branch of psychology (e.g., research, clinical,
developmental, etc.)? The permutations are
numerous and the exercise is not semantic,
as the outcomes have real-life implications.
Integration can also be problematic when integrators don’t particularize their theological
tradition. Much of the early work in integration was conducted from a Reformed theological tradition, which left Christians from
other traditions feeling perplexed by some of
the assumptions and conclusions. Books and
articles have been written on clinical and
counseling theories, psychopathology, family
therapy, and even particular psychological approaches with subtitles such as “A Comprehensive Christian Appraisal,” or “Toward a
Comprehensive Christian Approach,” or “A
Christian Perspective.” And yet it is clear that
it is impossible to do a comprehensive Christian anything as that would mean including
all theological differences. The theological
tradition and commitments of the integrator
have enormous implications for how one understands and goes about the integrative task.
So we have argued for “tradition-based integration,”11 in which integrators begin with a
confessional theological stance. For example,
think of the differences between Reformed and Wesleyan traditions when
it comes to understanding counseling and its relationship to human
freedom and God’s sovereignty.
Because no integrative model is encyclopedic or monolithic enough to
handle all the differences in both theological traditions and the various branches of psychology and theology, perhaps we
could be more humble when it comes to
some of the integrative “views” or “models”
we espouse. Perhaps we should recognize that
our view may be more or less equipped to aid
in specific types of integrative endeavors (e.g.,
clinical settings, research settings, or ecclesial
settings) and even within particular theological traditions.
The complexity of the integration task above
has moved some thinkers away from classic
model building and toward process, relational, dialogical, and intrapersonal integrative
ways of thinking.
Integration as process. Warren Brown has
advanced a process of integration based on
the idea of resonance.12 This approach is
+ “As a community psychologist I believe that
effective education does more than simply
educate students—it also acts as a conduit
that helps to create, sustain, and improve our
communities. Accordingly, I believe it is essential
in my role as director of clinical training and PhD
program director in Fuller’s School of Psychology
to focus on educating and encouraging students
to develop into responsible, caring, and
contributing citizens.” —Tina R. Armstrong,
assistant professor of clinical psychology
As the diagram indicates [following page],
each of these domains can be imagined as
radios emanating sound waves toward one
another with truth residing at the intersection.
Brown suggests that when the waves become
resonant, truth comes into focus. If our understanding of truth is fuzzy it indicates that the
domains are not resonant, and we will need
to “fine tune” one or more of the domains to
bring truth into greater clarity. Brown notes
that each domain has information limits. We
can’t ask neuroscience to speak to the telos
of human nature any more than we can ask
Scripture to tell us about the structural or
functional nature of the brain. Brown’s approach is unique among integration models in
that (a) it provides a process for the discovery
of truth (no domain trumps another but the
clarity of truth indicates the right use of each
domain); (b) it is a hybrid of modern and postmodern sensibilities in that Brown recognizes
that while there is such a thing as “truth” it
will always be partially known; and (c) it is a
“tradition-based” approach anchored within
a particular Christian tradition (Wesleyan)
although not limited to it. Brown also notes
that resonance is a community endeavor. No
one person can be an expert in all fields. For
this process to work, there must be relational
dialogue between individuals steeped in the
various domains.
Integration as relational. In a recent article,
Sandage and Brown point out that disciplines
don’t integrate, people do.14 They argue for
what they call “relational integration,” in
which relational issues take center stage. Their
challenge is for integrators to think overtly
about the content and process of the relational
dynamics that occur between psychologists
and theologians who attempt integration. If
integration is truly to be communal and relational it will include interpersonal conflict,
destabilizing of one’s perspective, recognition
of the other, and the practice of such virtues as
humility, justice, and forgiveness. They advocate for a “differentiated relationality,” which is
integration “that prioritizes relational connection between differentiated integrators . . . [and]
highlights a dialectical balance for interdisciplinary work between (a) maintaining personal identity and disciplinary integrity and (b)
fostering authentic relationship, dialogue, and
mutual influence across disciplinary boundaries.”15 They refer to this process as “relating
with differences,” and clearly it is not for the
faint of heart. Like Warren Brown’s approach,
this relational model resists monolithic understandings or explanations of integration but
provides a process model for how integration
can be hospitable to both disciplines and to the
integrators themselves.
Integration as dialogical. Al Dueck is also
in this process-oriented relational camp
when he suggests that we move from thinking of psychology and theology as disciplines to viewing them as cultures.16 While
he recognizes that there are variations and
subcultures within cultures, each culture
has a more-or-less common language and
grammar. Integration is therefore not abstract theological and psychological model
building, but a kind of cultural immersion
in which integrators learn the language of
the other culture—having actual dialogues
with and learning from the other. Integration becomes a cross-cultural dialogue. For
Dueck, integration is a kind of peacemaking
process between cultures. (See Lee’s article
on peacemaking as a metaphor for integrative therapy.) This is to move integration from
the situation of Babel where all differences
are collapsed into one language (psychology or theology), to a Pentecost celebration
of diversity and exploration, which makes
learning a richer, thicker, and more relational process. This anthropological approach is
not only process, relationally, and dialogically
oriented, but implies that integration is hard
and long work! It is hard to learn another language, let alone the dialects, customs, metaphors, and humor they contain.
Hopefully one can see in these later approaches—tradition-based, resonance, relational,
and cultural—the commonality of process
(i.e., how one goes about the task), relationality (i.e., it is people/cultures that integrate, not
disciplines), and dialogue (i.e., integration is so
big that it can’t be done by solitary individuals
but requires groups of people and cultures in
dialogue with one another). With whom are we
integrating? We are integrating with a distinct
other that speaks a different language (e.g.,
theological tradition and disciplinary dialect);
a real person, not just a theory, but a stranger
bearing a gift that we can learn from and with
whom we can both be changed. In fact, this is
one of the unique contributions of the School
of Psychology at Fuller Theological Seminary. There is great heterogeneity among the
psychology faculty theologically, clinically, in
terms of research, etc. And there are also the
built-in dialogue opportunities of being situated within a three-school seminary (theology,
psychology, and intercultural studies). While
these cultural differences can be challenging,
at times leading to miscommunication and
even hurt feelings, they can also provide the
opportunity for a Pentecost experience where
founded on the Wesleyan quadrilateral developed by Albert Outler.13 Outler attempted
to capture John Wesley’s implicit procedure
when dealing with multiple authorities in the
search for Christian truth. The four domains
are Scripture, tradition, reason, and experience. These four domains are put into conversation whenever one is trying to capture the
truth about God, human creation, or theological concepts. This process implies that each
source of authority has a valid voice and that
truth is best conceptualized somewhere at the
intersection of all four. While it is certainly
true that Wesley privileged Scripture, at times
he relied on the other domains to assist him in
interpretation. Brown separates “reason” into
two categories, reason and science, to allow
for methodological differences between empirical science and philosophy and logic.
differences are celebrated and new learning
takes place.
While it is impossible in such a short space
to adequately describe historically or culturally the integration project between psychology and theology, hopefully the reader has
gained a glimpse of the work that has gone
on over the years, the issues at stake, and an
appreciation of the seriousness with which
those in the field approach the task. Integration is a calling for many, and the articles in
this section of FULLER magazine will give
further glimpses into the integrative world of
research, clinical practice, and theory.
Integration as intrapersonal. But as noted
above, disciplines don’t integrate—people do,
which brings us to integration as intrapersonal. For many years thinkers and writers have
recognized that integration is about character,
which includes the personal formation of the
therapist, professor, or researcher.17 A Christian integrator is someone who is working on
his or her own integrative journey of faith.
Christian integrators will take personal
responsibility to thoroughly engage their
particular faith traditions and practices in
holistic ways that bring about theological and
psychological formation. If Dueck is right that
integrators must immerse themselves in both
cultures, then integrators are anthropologists
who are changed by this immersion. It is not
enough to be objective observers outside the
fray. Christian integrators are embodied and
embedded, in that they pray, read Scripture,
and serve the needs of the neighbor with other
believers in the body of Christ. This is the
only way to bring integration from intellectual contemplation into day-to-day living. In
this way we will be better equipped to know
what we are integrating, with what, and with
1. See Hendrika Vande Kemp, in collaboration with H. Newton
Malony, Psychology and Theology in Western Thought, 1672–
1965: A Historical and Annotated Bibliography (Millwood, NY:
Kraus International Publications, 1984).
2. For example, see The Varieties of Religious Experience by
William James.
3. See Eric L. Johnson, ed., Psychology & Christianity: Five
Views (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2010), esp.
chaps. 1 and 4.
4. H. Vande Kemp, “Historical Perspective: Religion and
Clinical Psychology in America,” in Religion and the Clinical
Practice of Psychology, ed. E. P. Shafranske (Washington, DC:
American Psychological Association, 1996).
5. While this has been true of many writers, perhaps none
so popularly captured the public’s imagination than Sigmund
Freud himself, who saw religion as an illusion that a mature
society would eventually outgrow.
6. See David A. Powlison, “A Biblical Counseling View,” in
Johnson, Psychology & Christianity, 245–73.
7. S. J. Sandage and J. K. Brown, “Relational Integration,
Part 1: Differentiated Relationality between Psychology and
Theology,” Journal of Psychology and Theology 43, no. 3
(2015): 165–78.
8. See H. Newton Malony, in collaboration with Hendrika
Vande Kemp, Psychology and the Cross: The Early History of
Fuller Seminary’s School of Psychology (Pasadena, CA: Fuller
Seminary Press, 1995).
9. Ibid., 123.
10. Johnson, Psychology & Christianity.
11. Brad Strawn, Ronald W. Wright, and Paul Jones, “Tradition-Based Integration: Illuminating the Stories and Practices
that Shape Our Integrative Imaginations,” Journal of Psychology and Christianity 33, no. 4 (2014): 300–312.
12. Warren S. Brown, “Resonance: A Model for Relating
Science, Psychology and Faith,” Journal of Psychology and
Christianity 23 (2004): 110–20.
13. For a detailed look at the quadrilateral, see W. S. Gunter,
S. J. Jones, T. A. Campbell, R. L. Miles, and R. L. Maddox,
Wesley and the Quadrilateral: Renewing the Conversation
(Nashville: Abingdon, 1997).
14. Sandage and Brown, “Relational Integration, Part 1.”
15. Ibid., p. 169.
16. Alvin Dueck, “Babel, Esperanto, Shibboleths, and Pentecost: Can We Talk?” Journal of Psychology and Christianity
21 (2002): 72–80.
17. See John D. Carter and S. Bruce Narramore, The Integration of Psychology and Theology (Grand Rapids: Zondervan,
1979). See also Siang-Yang Tan, “Intrapersonal Integration:
The Servant’s Spirituality,” Journal of Psychology and Christianity 6, no. 1 (1987): 34–39.
Warren S. Brown
Warren S. Brown is the director of
the Lee Edward Travis Research
Institute and professor of psychology, in the Department of Clinical
Psychology in Fuller’s School of
He has served at Fuller since 1982.
Currently, Brown is most actively
involved in neuroscience research
related to the cognitive and psychosocial disabilities in a congenital
brain malformation called agenesis
of the corpus callosum. He has also
studied callosal function in dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder, multiple sclerosis, and
Alzheimer’s disease; and he has
done research on brain wave
changes associated with aging and
dementia, language comprehension, dialysis treatment for kidney
disease, and attention deficits in
recently received a phone call from a producer of the TechKnow program on Al Jazeera.
She was doing a story about research going
on at the University of Utah involving studies
of brain activity during religious experiences,1 and she wanted me to comment on the
research. She had read my article on the neuroscience of religiousness on the website of the
International Society for Science and Religion2
and wanted my perspective on the relationship
between brain function and religiousness, and
on what this sort of research can tell us about
religion. What is the nature of religiousness
and what does it have to do with the brain?
Being a neuropsychologist at a theological seminary, this is the sort of issue about which I am
often asked to comment. We are in a scientific
era in which functional magnetic resonance
imaging (fMRI) is making it possible to observe
distributions of activity throughout the brain
while people are mentally doing interesting
cognitive, social, and emotional tasks—such
as viewing pictures showing social interactions, solving moral dilemmas, or imagining
an emotional experience. We are in a cultural phase in which brain and neuroscience are
buzzwords invoked in many conversations
with a certain degree of cachet. The answers I
give to questions about the brain and religiousness constitute a part of my contribution to the
larger work of the School of Psychology on the
integration of theology and psychology.
As described on “The Religious Brain Project”
website, this study at the University of Utah
aims to find “answers to fundamental questions, like ‘What happens in the brain during
religious or spiritual experiences?’ and ‘How
is the brain changed by religious experience?’
We also want to understand which brain networks contribute to religious feeling.”3 This
study is similar in design and experimental
questions to a number of other studies of the
neuroscience of religiousness. Typically, these
experiments involve having persons see, hear,
and/or meditate on religious stimuli or themes,
during which the patterns of activity in the
brain are measured using fMRI or other measures of brain activity. For example, studies
of brain activity have been done with respect
to meditation (both Christian and Buddhist),
prayer, listening to Scripture passages, and
judging theological statements to be true or
false.4 Since it is pretty clear that all of human
life and experience is tied up in some way with
the functioning of our brains, it is not surprising that something is seen in each of these
brain imaging studies. However, each study
finds a different pattern of brain activity associated with the religious condition, and thus
different forms of religious activity or experience are related to different patterns of activity
in the brain. There is not a particular area of
the brain that is always active during mental
processing that is experienced as religious.
There are two implicit assumptions of this
sort of study that I find questionable. One is
that brain activity associated with a religious
experience will be functionally unique—that
is, that the brain will function in a way that
is unique to religious experiences and distinct
from other forms of brain functioning. The
other problematic assumption is that human
religiousness can be adequately telescoped
down to a form of subjective internal experience elicited by certain “religious” stimuli.
The presence of these assumptions means that
religious life gets reduced to nothing-but brain
states associated with internal experiences
elicited by a few decontextualized stimuli.
I once wrote a book chapter that I entitled “The
Brain, Religion, and Baseball.”5 It was the
last chapter of an edited book involving chapters describing studies on the neurology of
religious experience (not unlike the Religious
Brain Project at the University of Utah). My
chapter was the conclusion, and my job was to
review and discuss points made from the other
chapters. In order to convey a perspective on
the neuroscience of religiousness, I wondered
what it might be like to substitute “baseball”
for “religion” in these research projects—i.e.,
a neuroscience of baseball. Moving to a different domain of life helps us see more clearly the
issues surrounding the neuroscience of religion.
The point of using baseball as a comparison
was to signal the fact that the religious lives
of people are incredibly complex and diverse,
involving all sorts of situations, responses, engagements, and life perspectives. In this respect
religiousness is much like baseball, which also
encompasses a great many engagements, behaviors, and experiences. So, what form of engagement with baseball would one choose to study?
Playing baseball? But what sort of playing:
small-scale friendly games or professional
baseball? And what aspect of playing: fielding,
batting, pitching? Watching baseball? But what
sort of watching: watching a group of friends
playing, or attending a professional game, or
watching on TV? Would one study being the
umpire, talking about baseball with friends,
betting on the outcome of games? All of these
events and experiences will have different and
diverse patterns of neural activity and bodily engagement. One cannot imagine that a particular
neural system or neural pattern is involved with
all of baseball, or even that the various patterns
will always include particular brain area—a
“baseball module” somewhere in the brain. The
point is that it would not make much sense to
go looking for a unique and particular neuroscience of baseball. Human religiousness is at least
as wide-ranging in its contexts, behaviors, and
experiences—such that, though it is embodied (I
believe), there is not a particular aspect of brain
activity that is universally related to religious
experience or behavior.
The problem with studies of the neuroscience
of religiousness or religious experience is that,
when a particular pattern of brain activity is
found to be relatively consistently present
across individuals when they are processing
a specific form of religious stimulus or task, it
is concluded that this pattern of activity must
be the neural basis of all religious thoughts and
experiences. The complexities of religious life
are thereby reduced to patterns of brain activity associated with a temporally and situationally limited event.
An important background presupposition
driving this research is the assumption that
there must be an evolutionarily endowed tendency for humans to be religious. The idea
(sometimes only implicit) is that religiousness is
uniquely human, and everything that is uniquely human must have come about through a
history of natural selection of genetic mutations
expressed in biological organization. Thus,
there must be something we can find in brain
activity and organization that is the expression
of the genetics of this characteristically human
behavior. Entangled in this assumption is also
a commitment to “inside-out” with respect to
human behavior—the idea that the causes of all
behavior originate inside the individual.
Philosophical ideas about brain and mind (or
brain and religiousness) have their root in one
of two basic positions. One idea quite common
in religious circles is that religiousness is not
about the body or the brain at all. That is, our
religious lives are the manifestation of a nonbodily, nonmaterial thing or property called
a “soul” or “spirit.” This answer has a long
history in philosophy and Christian thought,
extending back from René Descartes to St. Augustine and eventually back to Plato, with lots
of nuances and variations along the path. Since
the soul/mind is understood as inner, this position also entails a view of religion as inside-out.
Considered on its own, and outside of integra-
“My latest work is dealing with the growing
pathologies related to digital overuse. . . .
I’m working with universities with students
who are potential digital addicts in the lives
that they live. Our programs really need to
pay attention to the digital pathologies that
are emerging, because they are not going to
go away, and we’re facing severe pathologies
in the future.”
+ ARCHIBALD HART was the third dean
of Fuller’s School of Psychology and
currently a senior professor of psychology. This quote is taken from a
Fuller panel convened for the School
of Psychology’s 50th anniversary.
More online.
tive considerations involving neurology and
neuropsychology, this view is reasonable and
certainly not incoherent.
brain, just does not resonate well with so
much of what is known about the relationship
of the body to spiritual life.
However, for many (me included), this Cartesian framework is inadequate when faced
with the impact of brain disorder on many
forms of religiousness and religious-like life
experiences. For example, temporal lobe
seizures are, in some cases, accompanied
by deeply religious subjective experiences.
Hallucinogenic drugs that alter neurotransmitter systems can produce experiences that
in some cases seem richly spiritual. Certain
forms of frontal lobe brain damage can loose
the moorings of a person’s moral compass.
Dementia confuses not only everyday cognitions, but also one’s religious cognitions
and experiences. The dulling of life in Parkinson’s disease also impacts religious experiences. Thus, the thesis of a dual nature,
according to which religiousness is a matter
of the spirit and not of the physical body or
The other basic position provides an alternative answer—that religious mental processing (and religious experiences) are no
more than the outcome of brain events. All
of mental life is caused by the electrical activity of brain cells, and nothing more. Thus,
for example, if the anterior temporal lobe gets
abnormally active (due to epilepsy or electromagnetic stimulation), we have an experience that we interpret as religious although,
in reality, it is just the electrical activity of the
brain. Moral sensitivities are no more than
the wiring of the frontal lobes. One’s beliefs
are mostly the consequence of a pre-wired
brain. This is a reductionist answer—that is,
complex mental or religious experiences are
reduced to nothing-but the activity of particular neural systems. It is also another version
of inside-out—all behavior and experience is
So, my first response to the producer from
Al Jazeera was to try to sort out for her the
Cartesian and biological reductionism alternatives, and to suggest why I think that both
hold some elements of truth, but are in the
end inadequate. However, there are other positions than these alternatives that are both
reasonable and more consistent with what is
known about brain processes. The view that
I (and others) believe provides the greatest
resonance between a neuroscientific view of
human nature and all that is experienced by
religious persons can be represented by four
descriptors: embodied, emergent, embedded,
and extended. Each term embraces a large
literature of theory and discussion that
cannot be reviewed and discussed herein.6
However, I will try to sort out these ideas in
a brief and comprehensible way.
To say we are embodied is to move away from
the Cartesian idea of a disembodied soul as
the source of our religiousness and spiritu-
While human properties like mind and religiousness are (in this framework) embodied
and emergent, it is also critical to recognize
the social, cultural, and congregational embeddedness of an embodied and emergent
person. Even when we are alone in our
thoughts, we exist in the context of our extensive history of physical and social engagements, and we interact with these memories
as the basis of our thoughts and meditations.
We don’t think, feel, believe, desire, hope, or
emote entirely alone as isolated persons, but
rather, our thinking, feeling, and believing is
always embedded in life contexts.
The concept of embeddedness leads to a
recent idea in the philosophy of mind—extended cognition. The idea is that we frequently
become engaged with objects and persons in
our environment such that they become an indistinguishable part of the processes of mind.
In this view, once such engagement occurs,
there is no clear functional boundary between
the brain, the body, and the environment.
While such engagements are temporary and
transient, nevertheless the capacities of mind
are for the moment enhanced by interactions
with things or persons outside of the individual person. For example, a notebook or smart
phone can expand our memory capacity in
ways that are not functionally different from
using the memory structures in our brains.
Even more so, when we are extended into
the ongoing processes of social interactions, a
great deal of what constitutes our mind at the
moment emerges from the nature and experience of ongoing interpersonal interactivity.
My mind is supersized for the moment by my
engagement with other persons in conversation and interaction. The recent work that
Brad Strawn and I have been doing considers the embodied, embedded, and extended
nature of our personhood with respect to the
nature of Christian life. If these concepts
are true, what are the implications for the
church?7 What if human religiousness and
spirituality (and baseball) do not exist inside
individual persons, but exist within coupled
systems—when we are engaged with other
persons, or with God?
My answers to the journalist from Al Jazeera,
as well as the context and content of the discussion in this article, are admittedly naturalist. That is, the discussion has been about the
nature of persons (anthropology), concentrating our attention on the sort of persons God
has created. What has not been included in
this discussion is recognition of the presence
and work of the Spirit of God. God’s Spirit is
not embodied in the manner of the religious
and spiritual lives of his human creatures.
Thus, this essay has left bracketed the nature
and work of the Spirit of God for the sake of
this discussion of the relationship between religiousness and brain function. However, if interactions with a physical or social world are
so critical for the nature of the human mind
and religious experiences, then it is coherent
to consider our interactions with the Spirit of
God as the critical context for the emergence
of spirituality in embodied persons.
with a certain degree of cachet. The answers I give to questions about the brain and religiousness constitute
a part of my contribution to the larger work of the School of Psychology on the integration of theology and
psychology.” —Warren S. Brown
As we have seen, it is possible that we are
embodied in ways that support a reductionist view that all the properties of the human
mind are nothing but the firing of neurons.
However, this idea is becoming increasingly
improbable in current research and theory
where behavior, experiences, thoughts, ideas,
motivations, and so on cannot be reduced to
the firing of neurons or even activity in neural
subsystems without the disappearance of the
important properties of mind one wishes to
explain. While neural activity is critical, the
higher properties of the human mind emerge
from broad patterns of interactions within
the brain, and between the brain, the body,
and the world. The interesting properties are
not in the parts (neurons), but in their vastly
complex and temporally extended interactions. The idea of emergence, therefore, means
that out of the neural patterns of interaction
emerge genuinely new complex, rational,
intelligent, and interpersonal mental properties. While this idea of emergence seems
mysterious, there are many demonstrations
and theoretical arguments regarding how
individual parts (like individual neurons)
can interact together in ways that result in
the emergence of new properties (like mind)
that cannot be reduced to the functions of the
parts. The causes of the properties of mind
are patterns of interactions among neurons,
not the neurons themselves. In this view, our
mental and religious (soulish) lives are bodily
processes that entail complex neural patterns
that embody nonreducible aspects of us as
acting, thinking, and relational agents.
+ “We are in a cultural phase in which brain and neuroscience are buzzwords invoked in many conversations
As you might expect, there are some significant problems with this sort of answer
as well, some of which are built into the
premises driving the interpretation of
the results of neuroscience research.
The first problem is that there is a
lot of variability between people in
what they experience during the
experiment. Averaging patterns
of brain activity across people
easily draws us into over-simplification and assumptions about
uniformity in brain processes.
Second, it is never the case that
these studies are able to test all
of the events and experiences
that are similar to the religious
variable in the experiment but that
persons would not consider religious—
and being similar would likely elicit the
same pattern of brain activity. Is what is
being shown in the pattern of brain activity
described in the results of these studies really
unique to religiousness, or is it common to
other domains of life? Finally, due to the
necessities of research design, religiousness
and religious life get concatenated to some
predefined, contextually isolated, and very
diminished event or stimulus, which, with
respect to the research at hand, come to stand
for the whole of religious life.
ality, and toward the idea of humankind as
nested in God’s physical creation. We were
created by God as beings inescapably implicated with the physical and biological world.
What is more, a lot of recent research and
theory suggests that we are truly em-bodied and not just em-brained. That is, our
thoughts, ideas, beliefs, memories, etc. are
grounded in our bodily existence. We think
by remembering, rehearsing, and simulating
sensations and actions from our history of
bodily interactions with the world—including acts of speech. Thus, what we experience
as inner thought (or religious experiences) is
built upon, and continues to draw upon, our
memories of ourselves as behaving and interacting bodies. While religiousness may be
considered a particular subdomain of the operation of these embodied mental capacities,
it is more true to say that all of our capacities
participate in our religious selves, and which
capacities participate depends on which of
the great variety of religious contexts that
engages us at the moment.
caused exclusively by the inner brain.
Through the neuroscience of religious
experiences we can know a bit about ourselves as creatures, but due to the limits of
scientific investigations, we can only know
about a contributing part to a larger whole
that is human religious life. What is more,
this research will leave untapped (and unresearchable by neuroscience) the deeper
theological questions about the nature and
work of the Spirit of God within his creatures
and created world.
1. See “New Religious Brain Project Seeks to Uncover Brain
Activation during Religious and Spiritual Experiences,” February 4, 2014, University of Utah Health Care webpage: http://
2. Warren S. Brown, “Neuroscience of Religion,” The International Society for Science and Religion (2010). Website http://
3. Quote from Jeff Anderson, MD, “New Religious Brain
4. Some of this research is reviewed in P. McNamara, ed.,
Where God and Science Meet: How Brain and Evolutionary
Studies Alter Our Understanding of Religion, vol. 2: The Neurology of Religious Experience (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2006).
5. Warren S. Brown, “The Brain, Religion, and Baseball:
Comments on the Potential for a Neurology of Religion,” in
McNamara, Where God and Science Meet.
6. This view of human nature is described in great detail in
Warren S. Brown, Nancey Murphy, and H. Newton Malony,
eds., Whatever Happened to the Soul? Scientific and Theological Portraits of Human Nature (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998);
Nancey Murphy and Warren S. Brown, Did My Neurons Make
Me Do It? Philosophical and Neurobiological Perspectives on
Moral Responsibility and Free Will (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2007); Malcolm A. Jeeves and Warren S. Brown, Neuroscience, Psychology and Religion: Illusions, Delusions, and
Realities about Human Nature (Radnor, PA: Templeton Press,
2009); Warren S. Brown and Brad D. Strawn, The Physical
Nature of Christian Life: Neuroscience, Psychology and the
Church (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012).
7. Brown and Strawn, The Physical Nature of Christian Life.
Jenny H. Pak, Kenneth T. Wang, and Alvin Dueck
Jenny H. Pak is an associate professor of psychology in the Department of Clinical Psychology who
joined Fuller’s faculty in 2014.
Kenneth T. Wang, at Fuller since
2014, is an associate professor of
psychology in the Department of
Clinical Psychology.
Alvin Dueck, the Distinguished
Professor of Cultural Psychologies
in the Department of Clinical
Psychology, teaches on culture,
psychology, and theology.
ur young Chinese guide was explaining various points of historical and
cultural interest around China’s scenic
Huangshan Mountain—all the while taking
“selfies.” She admired all things Western.
She had taught herself English by watching
American movies, and any new word I (AD)
uttered, she asked for a definition and put it
in her personal “dictionary.” Given her more
collectivist society, her behavior seemed most
incongruous. What appears to be happening
is that, globally, interdependent cultures and
selves are simultaneously becoming more
independent.1 How does the fact of shifting
culture influence the dialogue between our
faith and practice as psychologists?
Too often we assume that within the person
there is a central core processor that is universal. Culture adds only a few local flourishes. 2 Over the past 40 years, psychological
research that takes the social and cultural
context more seriously has provided us with
a treasure trove of findings that support the
notion that differences in cultures and communities are reflected in the individual.3
But how do cultures and communities vary?
Some communities/cultures are thick, saturated with a network of relationships that
provide mutual support, while other communities are thin, providing few significant
relationships with most of those relationships
judged by their usefulness. 4 However, it is
possible for a given individual to have both
a small social circle of family and trusted
friends and at the same time have a broad
range of acquaintances and social circles.
They differ in the time spent together, emotional intensity, level of intimacy and transparency, and support and reciprocity.5 One’s
work group is different in relational quality
from a circle of stamp collectors. Persons
with thick relational communities may
have different faith experiences, motivation,
identity, emotions, and relationships than a
person in thin relational communities.
Societies also differ in the number of communities that prioritize the flourishing of
the individual or valorize the common good.
In the first, where the person is the center of
attention, it is hoped that this individual will
grow to be autonomous, authentic, respectful
of others, and from this position of independence, to develop significant relationships
with others. At best, this individual possesses self-confidence and is unique, assertive,
expressive, and intentional.6
In other communities, and even within the
same individual, there is an emphasis on the
whole of which the individual is a part. Here
social harmony is highly valued. The healthy
individual is one who is aware of the needs of
the other and willing to accommodate. The
larger whole is acknowledged more often
than the individual part. The model individual is one capable of controlling his or her own
emotions, sacrificing on behalf of the other,
belonging, fitting in, maintaining harmony,
and promoting others’ goals.7
So it appears that our thoughts, feelings,
actions, and relationships are constituted in a
dynamic relationship with one’s cultural environment. Our meanings, attitudes, images,
representations, and cultural products are
shaped by interpersonal interaction, institutional practices, and systems. In the United
States, Markus and Conner found more independent self-construal among males, the upper-class, non-religious individuals, and Caucasians, but greater interdependence among
females, the lower-class, religious individuals,
and ethnic minorities.8 People develop both
styles of self-construal, but the societal triggers that evoke these syndromes vary such
that one pattern is privileged over another in
different communities, societies, and cultures.
If cultures and communities are powerful
factors in shaping personal experience, one
would expect that the psychological nature
of religious experience would reflect the cultural context. So when it comes to the task of
integrating psychology and theology, culture
matters. We begin with how the experience
of the Korean ethnic church with its cultural
history of trauma has shaped the individual
as he or she immigrated to the United States.
It appears that capitalism and a particular
style of being the church have engendered a
corrosive individualism. We then reflect on
spiritual conversion in more rich, relational
communities using the example of Chinese
churches. In each case more than the individual’s motivation is needed to explain behavior. Thick integration calls for complex dialogue, while thin integration ignores culture
as a partner in the conversation between
theology and psychology.
Korea as a nation has had to cope with
chronic invasions by different foreign powers
and multiple strains of oppression throughout history. For 4,000 years of existence
Korea has not had a moment of peace, leaving
marks on the Korean collective psyche and
character.9 Han is a term that has been used
in daily life among Korean people since
ancient times to describe the depths of human
suffering or “frustrated hope,” and it is still
commonly referred to by those who lived
through the Korean War. The collective han
stemming from patriarchy, hierarchy, and
foreign intervention is indigenous to Korean
people and deeply saturates every segment
of the Korean culture and way of life.10 One
cannot understand the individual Korean
psyche apart from this historical context.
Most immigrant parents are reticent to share
details of their losses and the dislocation they
experienced as children during the Korean
War. Often only fragments of fleeing the
war zone and battling extreme poverty and
hunger are retold to the next generation.
Though they may not have been directly
exposed to the event, powerful collective
experiences of trauma can be transmitted
across generations, often in complex and
implicit ways, and the urgency for family
security may be internalized and identified
by the children of survivors.11 In addition,
group trauma can be subsequently perpetuated through microaggressions, another form
of abuse involving daily discrimination and
racism for immigrants and ethnic minorities
living in the United States.12 Reflecting on
the destruction, loss, and poverty that profoundly shaped a nation facilitates a deeper
understanding of Korean immigrants’ responses to the historical trauma. Linking
the historical to the personal allows one to
be compassionate and empathic through understanding.
The Korean immigration to the United
States was prompted in large part by the
1965 reform of US immigration law and a
desire to escape the political, economic, and
social upheavals of war. As a result of the
new wave of immigrants, Korean churches
grew from only 30 in the late 1960s to 4,233
by 2013.13 Such explosive growth brought
the unintended problem of increasing individualism in Korean ethnic churches.
What is unique to Korean immigrants in
recent times is that a history of trauma has
fatally merged with the individualistic materialism that drives America. Not only did
financial success satiate internal needs, but
Korean immigrants also found that capital
was equated with acceptance in a country
that rejected them as aliens. Individually
acquired wealth became a natural crutch
to lean on, as it provided tangible means to
measure immigrant success. This unhealthy
“Fuller has made this huge contribution as a
school of psychology, yet our greatest contribution to the church . . . is to bring a healing
presence to individuals, to children, and to
couples in the name of our Lord in all the
Christian communities that our graduates
+ WINSTON GOODEN is dean emeritus
of Fuller’s School of Psychology and
Evelyn and Frank Freed Professor
Emeritus of Psychotherapy and
Spirituality. This quote is taken
from an Integration panel convened
for the School of Psychology’s 50th
anniversary. More online.
focus on obtaining economic security has, unfortunately, reinstated the traditional Korean
class structure that separated the haves and
have-nots. This division within the church
inevitably created a fragmented community,
vulnerable to interpersonal conflict. While
needing to reconcile structural isolation and
social marginalization in this country as a
minority, the congregation also needed to
transform the class-based anxiety accentuated by a history of trauma and immigrant
experience within the group.
In the 1970s when the Korean community
was in early stages of development, Korean
churches provided assistance to facilitate immigrant families’ adaptation to America by
offering information about housing and employment, language assistance, and enrolling
children in school. By catering to these pressing needs, the church inadvertently nurtured
a self-serving dependency. Many Korean immigrants came to the church with the misguided notion of one-sided receiving and only
remained at a church if the individual needs
were being fulfilled. If such members were
not happy, they left for the next religious community promising immediate satisfaction.
Failure to address “church hopping” was a
lost opportunity for Korean congregations to
work through differences and embody Christ
relationally by developing mutual trust, commitment, and maturity.
Rather than correcting the problem of self-interest, the sermons in Korean churches that
focus exclusively on prosperity or how to
receive God’s blessing often feed into unhealthy individualism. By emphasizing what
people can “get” from God or the church, the
true message of the gospel—Jesus’ sacrificial love—is downplayed or missed entirely.
Prayers to God that focus exclusively on personal problems further contribute to individualistic pietism rather than strengthening
the faith community.14 Problems commonly
observed in Korean ethnic churches today
are not issues that sprang up overnight, but
reflect a history of unresolved trauma, loss,
and suffering. Generational trauma and victimization manifests itself not only at the individual level but also in the collective psyche
with societal consequence.
To understand the psychology and/or spirituality of an individual apart from his or her
cultural context is like trying to understand
the Apostle Paul as a generic human being
rather than one deeply embedded in his
Jewish culture. Krister Stendahl pointed out
that Paul’s conversion was less like Luther’s
and more like a vocation, a call to reconcile
Jew and Gentile.15 Paul was an authentic and
faithful Jew. He read the doctrine of justification by faith through the eyes of Habakkuk,
not the failure of the Catholic Church. Like
a good Jew, Paul believed we are saved by
God’s faithfulness. So again culture matters.
To assume that Paul’s ethos was the same as
that of the Reformation or that people in different cultures are all the same tends to thin
out the rich texture of human experience,
whether Jew or Gentile.
In many Asian communities, coming to faith
is not simply the individualistic decision so
common in the Western world. In more collectivistic communities, we often see families
converting to Christianity as a unit rather
than simply as individuals. Chinese folk
religions and Daoism incorporate ancestral
worship and the concept of passing on the
family torch. Thus, when a person converts
to Christianity, they may be extinguishing
this family torch. Hence, in deeply relational
cultures one can be disowned for betraying
the family by taking on new beliefs and practices as a Christian.
My (KW) wife was the first member of her
family to become Christian after enduring
a serious kidney disease. Initially, her conversion was not well accepted by her family.
She was on a spiritual path different from
her family members, and practically, she was
no longer able to participate in traditional
customs of ancestor worship. It was not until
our wedding day that my wife’s family came
into contact with Christianity. Upon finding
that the wedding would be held at our church,
my parents-in-law felt the need to check
out this group. Through their interactions
with our church, they became more socially
comfortable there, which gradually melted
the initial reluctance toward Christianity.
Despite leaving Taiwan after our wedding,
my parents-in-law continued on their own
to stay connected socially with our former
church. A part of it was related to a form
of social reciprocity (renqing, 人情) since our
church community had hosted our wedding.
Several years later, my wife’s parents and her
two sisters’ families became Christians.
The example of my wife’s family is in line with
Katrin Fiedler’s essay that examines the communal nature of Protestant Christianity in
China.16 She does so from a variety of angles:
accessibility, group dynamics and perceptions, Christian gatherings as a leisure option,
and the role of the family. Unlike Buddhist
and Daoist worship that are more serious and
individualized, Fiedler points out that Christianity offered a more socially interactive
and engaging communal life for the Chinese
populace. Members of the Chinese Christian
church community not only conceptualize
themselves as being a family in Christ, but
literally address each other as brothers and
sisters. The church also acts as a surrogate
family system fulfilling a communal need
when family ties are not strong due to conflict
or migration.17 Consequently, there is often
strong peer pressure to adhere to group norms
and rules within the Chinese church community.18 The collectivistic Chinese values that
emphasize relational favors and obligations
play an important role in the church community as well. Individuals within the Chinese
Christian community often view themselves
with other Christian members as in-group
and view non-Christians as out-group. And
the implicit and explicit rules for members
within the church community apply similarly
to how rules and roles apply within a family.
Therefore, there is often a more explicit and
unified ethic and system of rules within many
Chinese churches.
As mentioned earlier in this essay about
the selfies taken by the tour guide, China is
an evolving society strongly influenced by
Western and individualistic values in secular
and religious life. Not all Chinese are collectivists. Although China has a traditionally
collectivistic culture, there are more individualistic influences in urban city settings.
Many younger individuals in urban China
explore Christianity because they view it as
a trendy Western way of living. The urban
churches may look a little bit more like those
in Western settings compared to the ones in
China’s rural areas. In sum, although we
provide examples to illustrate the communal
nature of Chinese Christians, the diversity
in Chinese society should not be overlooked.
This makes the task of thick integration of
culture, faith, and practice a complex endeavor. Overgeneralizations about culture can
lead researchers, therapists, and ministers
working cross-culturally to make errors.
If cultures are all the same, we can then
export our theology and psychology without
qualification. The integration of the two is
then the same in all cultures. While cultures
differ on many dimensions, we have focused
on societies with thick relational networks
versus thinner market-driven, individualistic communities. We have argued that these
cultural and psychological differences impact
the conversation between culture and faith
differently for Korean Americans and for
new Protestant Christians in China. While
not all Korean churches are individualistic, cultural forces and church policy have
colluded to increase individualism in many
Korean immigrant churches. In China the
embodied community of Christ is attractive
precisely because it is more collective than
Our hope is that the church would transcend
the extremes of individualism and collectivism.19 Being the body of Christ requires
emphasizing Jesus’ teachings calling for humility and courage. Only when the message
of the cross is fully embraced can strong individuals in the church point to the kingdom
of God in a world seeking justice and peace.
Just as Christ calls us to be in union with
him, the church can only be built through
unity. Our brokenness at the individual,
family, and social levels can be healed and
brought to wholeness if we prioritize community building and consciously resist
divisiveness. Whether individualistic or
collectivistic, unless self-serving human tendencies are regenerated in Christ, churches
cannot function as the loving community of
God that seeks to be salt and light in a broken
1. W. M. Ye, M. Sarrica, and L. Fortunati, “Two Selves and
Online Forums in China,” Asian Journal of Social Psychology
17, no. 1 (2014): 1–11.
2. R. A. Shweder, “Cultural Psychology: What Is It?” in The
Culture and Psychology Reader, ed. Nancy Rule Goldberger
and Jody Bennet Veroff, 41–86 (New York: New York University Press, 1995).
3. S. Kitayama and D. Cohen, eds., Handbook of Cultural
Psychology (New York: Guilford Press, 2010).
4. Alvin Dueck and Kevin Reimer, A Peaceable Psychology:
Christian Therapy in a World of Many Cultures (Grand Rapids:
Brazos, 2009).
5. M. Granovetter, “The Strength of Weak Ties: A Network
Theory Revisited,” Sociological Theory 1 (1983): 201–33.
6. H. R. Markus and A. Conner, Clash! 8 Cultural Conflicts that
Make Us Who We Are (New York: Hudson Street Press, 2013).
7. H. R. Markus and S. Kitayama, “Culture and the Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and Motivation,” Psychological
Review 98, no. 2 (1991): 224–53.
8. Markus and Conner, Clash!
9. C. H. Son, Haan of Minjung Theology and Han Philosophy:
In the Paradigm of Process Philosophy and Metaphysics of Relatedness (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2000).
Son distinguishes two phonetic forms of “han” indigenous to
Korean people, but in this article a common English spelling
of the word “han” is used to refer to the former meaning (a
psychological or affective state deep within the heart of the
10. A. S. Park, The Wounded Heart of God: The Asian Concept
of Han and the Christian Doctrine of Sin (Nashville: Abingdon,
11. J. H. C. Pak, Korean American Women: Stories of Acculturation and Changing Selves (New York: Routledge, 2006).
12. T. Evans-Campbell and K. L. Walters, “Catching Our
Breath: A Decolonization Framework for Healing Indigenous
Families,” in Intersecting Child Welfare, Substance Abuse,
and Family Violence: Culturally Competent Approaches, ed. R.
Fong, R. McRoy, and C. O. Hendricks, 266–92 (Alexandria,
VA: CSWE Publications, 2006).
13. As reported in christiantoday.us 1/29/2014 [in Korean].
14. P. G. Min, “The Structure and Social Functions of Korean
Immigrant Churches in the United States,” International Migration Review 26, no. 4 (1992): 1370–94.
15. Krister Stendahl, Paul among the Jews and Gentiles, and
Other Essays (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1976).
16. K. Fiedler, “China’s ‘Christianity Fever’ Revisited: Towards
a Community Oriented Reading of Christian Conversions in
China,” Journal of Current Chinese Affairs 39, no. 4 (2010):
17. Li Yao, “Reasons for the Growth of Christianity in China
after the Reform and Opening,” Research into Contemporary
Chinese History 11, no. 3 (2004): 71–77.
18. C. Währisch-Oblau, “Gemeindewachstum durch Glaubensheilungen: Heilungsgebet und Heilungszeugnisse in den Chinesischen Gemeinden [Congregational Growth through Faith
Healing: Healing Prayers and Healing Testimonies in Chinese
Congregations],” unpublished manuscript (1998).
19. Warren S. Brown and Brad D. Strawn, The Physical Nature
of Christian Life: Neuroscience, Psychology, and the Church
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012).
+ The nexus where theology and psychology integrate is more than a philosophical juncture, it is a place where people meet. The bricks and mortar
of Fuller’s C. Davis and Annette Weyerhaeuser School of Psychology complex serve the people engaged in those meetings. There, people gather for
therapy, classes, lectures, informal dialogue, research, study sessions, prayer, and conversation. A host of resources makes this possible, including
grants totaling nearly $5 million managed by Fuller’s Thrive Center. These grants enable research on topics as diverse as virtue development, spiritual
formation, psychology of religion in Chinese society, and academic and social emotional functioning in ethnic minority youth. This robust activity is
evidence of the widespread application of a commitment to integration between theology and psychology at Fuller.
Siang-Yang Tan is professor of
psychology in the Department of
Clinical Psychology at Fuller, and
has been an active member of the
seminary faculty since 1985. He
also serves as senior pastor of First
Evangelical Church in Glendale,
California. A licensed psychologist
and Fellow of the American
Psychological Association, he has
published numerous articles and
books, including Counseling and
Psychotherapy: A Christian Perspective (Baker Academic, 2011).
STRAWN: Dr. Tan, you have written widely on
the integration of psychology and theology,
helping integrators think about principled
integration (which includes theoretical-conceptual and research), professional integration
(clinical/practice), and personal integration
(i.e., the spirituality of the integrator or Christian therapist). In addition, you have made
important contributions to the field in areas
such as lay counseling, clarifying the difference between implicit and explicit integration
in clinical practice, and the importance of informed consent when practicing as a Christian therapist. But as you know, some critics
have worried that psychotherapy or counseling, even practiced by Christians, is not really
Christian. In other words, what differentiates
a Christian therapist from a secular therapist?
This is where I think your work on the Holy
Spirit is so important. So I want to ask you
about your understanding of the Holy Spirit
in the realm of professional integration.
the area of counseling. The spiritual gifts that
are most salient for counseling include exhortation or encouragement (Rom 12:8), healing (1
Cor 12:9, 28), wisdom (1 Cor 12:8), knowledge
(1 Cor 12:8), discerning of spirits (1 Cor 12:10),
and mercy (Rom 12:8).
TAN: The Holy Spirit is essential when it comes
to the work of the Christian therapist. The
Holy Spirit is called the Counselor, Comforter, Helper, or Advocate in John 14:16–17. The
work and the ministry of the Holy Spirit can
be understood as taking place in three major
ways: the Spirit’s power, the Spirit’s truth, and
the Spirit’s fruit.
STRAWN: So when the Christian therapist is
in tune with the Spirit, that therapist can be
certain that his or her practice is truly Christian, Christ centered, and biblically based.
What about the Spirit’s fruit?
STRAWN: Tell us about those three areas.
TAN: First of all is the Holy Spirit’s power. As
Christians we understand that the Spirit
is essential to life and ministry and we are
commanded to be continuously filled with the
Spirit (Eph 5:18). To be filled with the Spirit
is to yield to the Spirit, allowing the Spirit to
take control and shape us to become more
like Jesus and to empower us to do the works
of Jesus—which can include counseling. As
we are in tune with the Spirit, we are given
spiritual gifts that enable us to be fruitful in
STRAWN: So the source and power of our work
as Christian counselors emanate from the
Spirit. What about the Spirit’s truth?
TAN: The Holy Spirit as the Spirit of truth
teaches and guides us into all truth (John 14:26;
16:13), which includes psychological truth.
Because we know that the Holy Spirit inspired
God’s Word, we can be certain that the Spirit
will never contradict the truth of Scripture
when interpreted properly. This means, for
Christian counselors who are abiding in the
Spirit, that they can be certain that the Spirit
will enable their work to be consistent with the
moral and ethical aspects of biblical teaching.
TAN: Of course the Spirit produces the fruit of
the Spirit, as we see in Galatians 5:22–23: love,
joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control. When
the Spirit is involved in Christian counseling,
we can expect that the therapist will evidence
such fruit toward his or her clients and that
the outcome of the therapy will be a person
who is more and more exhibiting Christlike
fruit. Shorthand for the Spirit’s fruit is agape,
or Christlike love. The Spirit’s fruit of agape
is powerful in Christian counseling!
STRAWN: You have also written about how
these three aspects of the Spirit’s work need
to be in balance.
TAN: Yes, while these three aspects are crucial
in both Christian life and Christian therapy,
they need to be present in biblical balance.
Power without love can result in abuse. Power
without truth may lead to heresy. But power
based in biblical truth and steeped in Christlike love can produce renewal, revival, and
deep healing of broken lives.
STRAWN: Can you tell us a little bit more about
how you see the Holy Spirit’s activity in the
actual clinical setting?
TAN: I talk about this and have written
about this in five ways. First, the Spirit can
empower the Christian therapist to discern
the root of the client’s problem through the
gifts of knowledge and wisdom (1 Cor 12:8).
Second, the Spirit can provide spiritual direction as a therapist and client participate
in more explicit integration by using Christian practices such as prayer or engaging
Scripture. Third, of course, the Spirit can
touch a client and bring powerful experiences of grace and healing at any time during
the counseling work. This may be gradual
or occur during “quantum change” when
epiphanies bring about sudden transformations. Sometimes this happens when the
therapist makes use of inner healing prayer
with those patients where it is appropriate and there has been informed consent.
Fourth, the Spirit can assist the Christian
therapist to discern the presence of the
demonic. While this is a controversial topic
in some areas of Christian integration, I
have written that one of the spiritual gifts
of the Holy Spirit is discerning of spirits (1
Cor 12:10). The Spirit will not only enable the
Christian therapist to discern these spirits
and make differential diagnoses between
demonization and mental illness, but will
also help the therapist know when prayer for
deliverance should be a part of the therapy
or whether a referral to a pastor or prayer
ministry team is also called for. Finally, the
Spirit is involved in deep spiritual transformation of both client and therapist into
greater Christlikeness as they participate in
the spiritual disciplines with the Spirit’s help
and enabling. Some of these disciplines may
be practiced in the session and some may be
given as homework assignments between
sessions. But either way, these disciplines
help us access the presence and power of the
Spirit leading to growth and healing.
STRAWN: If I am understanding you, then, the
Christian therapist/counselor assures that
what he or she is doing is Christ-centered
and biblically based by staying steeped in the
work and ministry of the Holy Spirit. This is
what brings about real change—which I think
I also hear you saying is growth in Christlikeness for both client and therapist!
TAN: Yes, that is correct. The Holy Spirit is
crucial for Christian therapy! Of course training and competence and professional ethics
and all that are needed, but the Christian
therapist will use these in dependence on God
the Holy Spirit.
The content of this written “interview” is taken from
Dr. Tan’s writings and approved by him in this format.
“We used to talk about the 50-minute hour,
but what is the use of that 10 minutes? That
10 minutes before the Christian therapist
might be thought of as a time you lift up to
God this person you’re going to be dealing
with and that you also lift up yourself. . . .
The issue is—and I’ve become consumed
with this—is spirituality: every minute you
have—whether it’s at a stoplight or for 10
minutes before the next therapy session, [we
must] not be so preoccupied with what’s happening but be open to the Holy Spirit—that’s
what the Spirit is there for!”
+ H. NEWTON MALONY is professor
emeritus of psychology in Fuller’s
School of Psychology. This quote is
taken from an Integration panel convened for the School of Psychology’s
50th anniversary. More online.
Tan, Siang-Yang. (1991). Lay Counseling: Equipping Christians
for a Helping Ministry. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
Tan, S.Y., and Gregg, D. H. (1997). Disciplines of the Holy
Spirit. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.
Tan, S.Y. (1999). “Holy Spirit: Role in Counseling.” In D. G.
Benner and P. Hill (eds.), Baker Encyclopedia of Psychology and Counseling (2nd ed., pp. 568–69). Grand Rapids:
———. (2006). Full Service: Moving from Self-Serve Christianity to Total Servanthood. Grand Rapids: Baker.
———. (2011). Counseling and Psychotherapy: A Christian
Perspective. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic. Korean
edition: Jireh Publishing, 2014.
Cynthia Eriksson, Ashley Wilkins, and Jude Tiersma Watson
Cynthia B. Eriksson is associate
professor of psychology in the Department of Clinical Psychology at
et’s start with a question. Before you
begin reading this article, take a minute
to stop and reflect. In your work and ministry, what is it that you seek for those you are
serving? What is the healing or wholeness
that you desire for the people to whom you
minister? Write those thoughts down.
Now, consider that list for yourself. How
does your life reflect that place of wholeness
or healing? God desires that you also live
in a way that is connected intimately with
the knowledge of who you were created to
be, that you know how much God loves you,
and that you are transformed and healed:
God wants you to have a ministry plan that
can sustain you. Is that the plan you follow?
Ashley Wilkins is a third-year PhD
student in Fuller’s Clinical Psychology program.
Ministry with shalom at its center is a mutually transforming ministry. As we pursue a
life of service that seeks to live out shalom
for others, God seeks to transform us so that
we live in dynamic relationship with our self,
God, our loved ones, and our community. Our
participation in ministry is then a reciprocal
involvement in redemption and restoration;
we are restored as we participate in the restoration of others.
Yet how often does the work of ministry,
health care, or psychotherapy lead to the
experience of exhaustion, disillusionment,
or despair? It is not uncommon to hear colleagues say that they are “burned out.” Is
this what you desire for the people you are
serving? Is your goal for them to be so invested in their work and ministry that they do not
have time to pause and rest? How can this be
what God desires for you?
Jude Tiersma Watson is associate
professor of urban mission in Fuller’s School of Intercultural Studies.
In this article we will explore the association
between burnout and shalom, and the ways
that human relationship to God, self, others,
and community are interwoven in these ex-
periences of wholeness and brokenness. We
assert that it is within the transformative
power of relationship that we move toward
shalom, and when we break down in our authentic connection to God, self, and others we
are prone to burnout. In fact, we do violence
to others and ourselves, and we violate God’s
plan for shalom when we do not value the authentic needs of self and of others.1
There are many reasons to embark on
thoughtful, quality integration of psychological science and intercultural and theological reflection. However, one pressing reason
may be that the use of psychological research
on burnout in conversation with ministry
settings may help us protect a whole generation of ministry leaders from an orientation
that violates shalom. Social psychologist
Christina Maslach, in her early research and
writing on burnout, emphasized that “what
is unique about burnout is that the stress
arises from the social interaction between
helper and recipient.”2 Burnout is relational;
it is in the context of relationships that the
stress develops. By connecting with others in
need and experiencing the emotional burden
of another’s pain and suffering, the caregiver is required to give of herself emotionally
to create an opportunity for healing—for
shalom. The experience of burnout is also
relational as it is connected to one’s sense
of relationship to self, which is influenced
by one’s relationships with colleagues and
leaders within the ministry or care setting.
This primary relational context joins our
understanding of ministry burnout to the
concept of shalom.
Maslach’s theory includes three components
of burnout: “emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment.”3 The theory suggests an interactive
relationship between these three compo-
nents. The emotional demands of serving
people in healing or helping roles can cause
workers to extend themselves beyond their
capacities. Needs may feel urgent and ever-present, and the worker can begin to feel
“used up,” that there is “nothing left” and no
source for gaining energy for the work. When
emotional exhaustion sets in, one possible way
to try to conserve energy is to not extend
oneself as much to the relationships. This
can move the worker to a place of distancing
from or depersonalizing those whom he/she is
caring for. While a certain balanced amount
of detachment may be a necessary boundary
in emotionally charged work, a worker who
is burning out becomes emotionally cold and
unfeeling or cynical about the needs of the
client. Finally, these experiences of distance
and exhaustion can be exacerbated by a
sense of limited personal accomplishment, and
perhaps even self-recrimination that one has
“failed” or “become like the other burned out
The impact of burnout moves beyond these
internal experiences of exhaustion and lack
of accomplishment. Research suggests that
burnout is associated with lower work productivity, lessened commitment or loyalty
to an organization, more sick days, more
stress-related illness, and finally, attrition.5
There is more than simply risk of personal
misery when a health professional experiences burnout; it ripples outward and affects
ministry, relationships, organizational
culture, and morale.
Maslach and her colleagues have identified
six specific areas within the work setting
that contribute to the risk of developing
burnout: “workload, community, values,
personal control, reward, and fairness.”6
We will briefly describe these constructs and
connect them with the overall framework of
relationship. As might be expected, workload
is a critical factor in burnout, particularly
with respect to emotional exhaustion. When
the work demand is beyond one’s capacity,
and when there are not seasons of lessened
work to allow for recovery, exhaustion can
develop.7 Community is the general quality of
relationships within the workplace or organization. Support from peers can increase one’s
sense of accomplishment and effectiveness
in work, while support from supervisors can
buffer against exhaustion.
Personal control in work is exemplified in the
ability to contribute to organizational decisions and having clarity and limited conflict
in job roles; more control is associated with
less burnout. While there may be limits to
the ability to control outside circumstances or resources, the ability to participate in
decisions and problem solving may help to
buffer the impact of these limitations. The
importance of reward is also associated with
burnout—not only financial compensation,
but also recognition for work accomplished.
Fairness in the job setting is the perception
that decisions are equitable, processes of decision-making are unbiased, and one’s efforts,
time investment, and skills are justly acknowledged and compensated. In a longitudinal study, Maslach and Leiter found that for
those already at risk of burnout, unfairness
was a key predictor for them actually experiencing burnout a year later.8 Finally, we consider worker values. These ideals and principles bring people to a particular job, motivate
them for their work, and set expectations for
what they want to accomplish. When these
personal values align with organizational
values, burnout is less likely.9 This requires
us to be able to reflect and identify what our
personal values and motivations for ministry
truly are.
“If we were to take Jesus more seriously, we
would take the body of Christ more seriously.
We need to learn it is in the body of Christ
that we are formed, and that character
formation shapes the way in which we are
therapists, researchers, and educators. . . .
It is such a temptation professionally to move
beyond the provincial church into the rarified
air of our own professionalism. While I believe
strongly in our responsibility to society and
immersing ourselves in its brokenness, I
think we have a profound responsibility as
followers of Christ to take care of the body
of Christ.”
+ ALVIN DUECK is the Distinguished
Professor of Cultural Psychologies in
the School of Psychology. This quote
is taken from a Fuller panel convened for the School of Psychology’s
50th anniversary. More online.
Because relational stress in work correlates
to burnout, an important antidote against it
is supportive work relationships. Humans
turn to relationships when stressed, and
social support as a psychological construct
represents both the experience of being emotionally and practically supported ourselves
and doing this for others.10
Psychological literature identifies four
main sources of social support that mitigate
burnout: professional, personal, organizational,
and church-based. Professional support comes
from supervisors, colleagues, and patients.11
Family and friends provide personal life
social support. 12 Organizations, through
policy and other structures, institute supportive environments. Two examples of organizational support include predictable workloads
and employee input in policy.13 Churches not
only offer emotional support through clergy
and members but also provide avenues of
encouragement to maintain, deepen, and
integrate faith with daily life.14
The presence of social support can both
prevent and buffer against the effects of
burnout, as “social support not only reduces
the likelihood of strain, but social support
is mobilized as a coping mechanism when
strain does occur.”15 Research with samples
of healthcare workers, first responders,
psychologists, caregivers of patients with
advanced cancer, and counseling center
staff supports the conclusion that higher
levels of burnout occur when there are low,
insufficient, or dissatisfying levels of social
support. 16 In humanitarian aid workers,
social support was significantly related to
less emotional exhaustion and more personal accomplishment, and organizational
support (indicated by a feeling of being
supported by the agency, as well as the perception of supportive policies) correlated to
lower levels of emotional exhaustion and
How can whole, shalom-oriented relationships
contribute to a work or ministry model that
can move past burnout into a sustainable ministry? Clearly shalom cannot be attained by
addressing only one aspect of our lives or work
but rather requires a dynamic understanding
of our relationships. Realistically, even when
we desire to embody a reciprocal transformative model of ministry, there may be seasons
in which we are overextended. However, attending to the warning signs of these seasons
of stress allows ministry workers to create
time for continued refinement and transformation. Facing burnout remains an opportunity to grow in understanding more about
ourselves as well as others. In order to more
deeply explore this interaction, we begin with
a model of human relationship.
Martin Buber offers a theological framework
for humanness that reflects the relational
image of God and the value of persons. In
a simple way, his “I-Thou” understanding
of personhood reflects the fact that we are a
true self only within relationship; the self is
known only in relation to another. The relationship with another—“I-Thou”—reflects
the sacred space that is formed when we are
in authentic relationship; Buber contrasted
this with having an “experience” of a person,
rather than authentic connection, represented as “I-It.”18 Balswick, King, and Reimer
expound on Buber’s theological anthropology
to present a model of relatedness with four
quadrants, based on the framework of an
x-axis that represents value of self (from low,
insecure sense of self, “It,” to a high, secure
sense of self, “I”) and a y-axis to identify the
value of the other (from low recognition of
the unique humanness of the other, “It,” to
a high regard for the other, “Thou”).19 This
model then identifies four quadrants or types
of relations depending upon the location on
the axes: I-Thou (upper right quadrant), I-It
(lower right), It-Thou (upper left), and It-It
(lower left). The I-Thou relationship is then
the best description of a whole and healthy
relationship with self and with other. God’s
intention is that we be fully ourselves and
fully acknowledge the uniqueness of another
in relationship. Shalom is based on an I-Thou
model, a developing self that is secure in an
understanding of her/his particular identity
and value, in relation with Thou (an “other”
with unique being and identity). Burnout as
just described is represented in the quadrants where either the “I” or the “Thou” has
become an “It.” When we live out of a place of
limited self-awareness and self-identity, our
own needs and values can become subsumed
in the caring relationship, demonstrated, for
example, when it feels impossible to say “no.”
When we thus become exhausted by the
emotional demands of those in need, the
other may become an “It” in an effort for the
“I” to survive. We may feel it is too much to
relate to the unique value of each person in
need and may disconnect from our ministry
We enact I-Thou or I-It relationships within
our ministry cultures, so we must seek to
reinforce the value of self and value of other
within them. An organization that esteems
its own workers (or its ministry identity)
over recipients often lacks sensitivity to the
unique needs of the community and cultural
context; it also fails to embody mutuality and
the reciprocal nature of all ministry. Organizational cultures that value the recipient
over the worker oppress their own workers
and impede their health and transformation.
This is clearly not participation in God’s
How might Buber’s I-Thou model enrich our
understanding of shalom? We consider the
personal, social, and organizational impacts
of this model. First, within the mutual transformation model of ministry, each self is of
value; we must commit to the challenging
work of authentically regarding both self (I)
and other (Thou). Transformational ministry
also recognizes the ongoing mutual healing
of both the caregiver and the care-receiver.
Finally, institutions bear responsibility for
creating an organizational culture of shalom,
places that encourage and reward relationships of mutual enrichment rather than
burnout and oppression.
Personal Impact of the Absence of Shalom
A dynamic model of shalom reminds us
that we are in the midst of transformation,
and we each bear a personal responsibility
to pursue well-being and spiritual maturity. We have already argued against the idea
that burnout is merely a matter of personal
weakness. Nonetheless, we do participate in
our transformation. In this regard, Miner
and colleagues have identified an “internalized orientation to ministry” that serves as a
buffer to burnout in clergy. 20 This emphasis on an internal sense of identity, role, and
competence highlights the importance of a
secure sense of ministry self—an “I” as ministry worker, not an “It.”
Having a secure ministry identity challenges the temptation to a messiah complex. A
messiah complex springs from an overactive sense of agency in which we consider
our role to be greater than it actually is. We
are not truly connected to our own unique
gifts and needs; in surprising ways we may
be treating ourselves as an “It.” Of course,
caregivers do not wake up in the morning
and decide that today they will become
the messiah to those for whom they care.
Rather, this savior complex subtly (or not
so subtly) enters in when caregivers find it
difficult to let God be God and thus take on
more than they intend. At this point we are
not participating with God but rather have
taken on God’s role as well as our own. 21
When we are unable to stop or say no to the
requests of others, we may be acting as rescuers rather than as coworkers with the one
true Savior who redeems us for shalom. The
messiah complex prevents us from realizing
our own need for transformation, instead
seeing transformation as something that
needs to be accomplished “out there” and
not “in here.”
The principle of Sabbath is one way to regain
perspective on our identity and role in our
work. Sabbath means not only resting but
ceasing, including ceasing to try to be God. On
the Sabbath, “we do nothing to create our own
way. We abstain from work, from our incessant
need to produce and accomplish. . . . The result
is that we can let God be God in our lives.”22
When we remember who God is in our lives,
we are reminded of our role and God’s role; we
can refrain from the temptation to be God in
the lives of those for whom we feel responsible.
Sabbath creates a time and space in which
shalom relationships are lived out and
marred relationships are made whole. The
accurate “I” view of the self is deepened as
we experience God in the keeping of the
Sabbath and Sabbath rest. Exhaustion is not
the mark of spirituality. Sabbath is not only
about personal time with God, or a personal time of rest, but also the place in which
social support can be encouraged. Sabbath
is a communal event that is best and most
fully shared with others. Once Sabbath thus
alters our orientation, it is not so much an
isolated day as an atmosphere, a climate in
which we live all our days. 23 Importantly,
Sabbath offers a foretaste of what is to come,
when all will live in shalom. Messianic
Rabbi Stuart Dauermann writes, “In fact,
the standard Jewish salutation at the end of
conversations or letters during the week as
the Sabbath approaches is ‘Shabbat shalom,’
wishing someone ‘Sabbath wellness/wholeness/restoration as an anticipation of that Day
when all is altogether shalom.’”24
Caring for ourselves and living out Sabbath
rest in community impacts how able we are to
truly care for our team, our family, and those
we seek to serve. Through the ongoing transformation of a commitment to pursue shalom,
we maintain an accurate sense of self.
Shalom in Organizations
The call to shalom and healthy community
relationships requires a countercultural
perspective. Cultural values of progress and
productivity directly threaten healthy relationships; Sabbath counteracts this. Health
care or any ministry that rigidly follows
managerial culture by primarily valuing
numerical growth or monetary cost runs
the risk of treating others as “It”—one more
cancer patient, one more family in economic
need. What happens when the cancer patient
does not get better? What is felt when the
economic needs become more complex? We
are not advocating an unreal or idealistic
perspective on the vast needs of ministry and
healthcare settings, but we are asking for an
organizational commitment to eschewing an
orientation that considers progress or productivity the ultimate goal of service.
“When we fail to acknowledge our interdependence . . . we fail to serve the purposes
of God optimally. We may do so out of pride,
believing our own efforts to be sufficient, or
out of self-reliance, believing our own efforts
should be sufficient, or out of shame, believing ourselves undeserving of assistance.
But when we insist on acting independently,
we can thwart the opportunities of others to
contribute as God made them to contribute.
These contributions from others can be
complicated, frustrating, and wonderful, but
even when more the former than the latter,
interdependence enriches both the self and
the other. God made us for relationship and
+ MARI CLEMENTS, dean of the
School of Psychology, in her 2014
Baccalaureate address
Organizational leaders seeking shalom recognize that viewing progress and productivity as their highest values will not create
an organizational culture that supports
workers’ choices for margin, rest, and restoration. 25 In a shalom-oriented organization,
leaders model keeping the Sabbath; they
encourage staff to take their vacation time.
Leaders need to uphold a high view of the
value of each worker as well as each person
they serve while themselves exemplifying
healthy “I-Thou” relationships. Mutual
transformation can then occur at all levels
of the agency.
We violate God’s plan for shalom when we do violence to ourselves and others through burnout.
While this statement may seem extreme,
we contend that the experience of burnout
represents a violence of self-deception and
expectations of others that extend beyond capacity for health. Let us commit to enacting
a ministry culture that lives in shalom and
creates mutual transformation in ministry.
+ Originally published in a slightly different form in
Health, Healing, and Shalom: Frontiers and Challenges for Christian Health Missions, ed. Bryant
L. Myers, Erin Dufault-Hunter, and Isaac B. Voss
(Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library, 2015).
1. Bryant L. Myers, “Health, Healing, and Wholeness: Theological Reflections on Shalom and Salvation,” in Health,
Healing, and Shalom: Frontiers and Challenges for Christian
Health Missions, ed. Bryant L. Myers, Erin Dufault-Hunter, and
Isaac B. Voss (Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library, 2015),
15. See also Bryant L. Myers, Walking with the Poor: Principles and Practices of Transformational Development, rev. and
expanded ed. (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2011), 172.
2. Christina Maslach, Burnout: The Cost of Caring (Englewood
Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982), 3; emphasis in the original.
3. Ibid., p. 3
4. Ibid., 3ff.; Christina Maslach, Wilmar B. Schaufeli, and
Michael P. Leiter, “Job Burnout,” Annual Review of Psychology
52, no. 1 (2001): 399.
5. Maslach, Schaufeli, and Leiter, “Job Burnout,” 406.
6. Christina Maslach and Michael P. Leiter, “Early Predictors
of Job Burnout and Engagement,” Journal of Applied Psychology 93 (2008): 500ff.
7. Ibid., 500.
8. Ibid., 500ff.
9. Ibid., 500.
10. Carolyn E. Cutrona and Daniel W. Russell, “The Provisions
of Social Relationships and Adaptation to Stress,” in Advances
in Personal Relationships, ed. W. H. Jones and D. Perlman,
1:37–67 (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1987).
11. J. E. Prins, H. M. Hoekstra-Weebers, S. M. Gazendam-Donofrio, H. B. Van de Wiel, F. Sprangers, F. C. A.
Jaspers, and F. M. Van der Heijden, “The Role of
Social Support in Burnout among Dutch Medical Residents,” Psychology, Health & Medicine 12 (2007): 5,
12. Randall R. Ross, Elizabeth A. Altmaier, and Daniel W.
Russell, “Job Stress, Social Support, and Burnout among
Counseling Center Staff,” Journal of Counseling Psychology
36 (1989): 466.
13. Kyle D. Killian, “Helping Till It Hurts? A Multimethod
Study of Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Self-care in Clinicians Working with Trauma Survivors,” Traumatology 14, no.
2 (2008): 42.
14. Neal Krause, Christopher G. Ellison, Benjamin A. Shaw,
John P. Marcum, and Jason D. Boardman, “Church-Based
Social Support and Religious Coping,” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 40, no. 4 (2001): 642, doi:10.1111/00218294.00082.
15. Jonathon B. Halbesleben, “Sources of Social Support
and Burnout: A Meta-Analytic Test of the Conservation of
Resources Model,” Journal of Applied Psychology 91, no. 5
(2006): 1140, doi:10.1037/0021-9010.91.5.1134.
16. G. Gustafsson, S. Eriksson, G. Strandberg, and A. Norberg,
“Burnout and Perceptions of Conscience among Healthcare
Personnel: A Pilot Study,” Nursing Ethics 17 (2010): 34,
doi:10.1177/0969733009351950; Gabriele Prati and Luca
Pietrantoni, “The Relation of Perceived and Received Social
Support to Mental Health among First Responders: A Meta-Analytic Review,” Journal of Community Psychology 38
(2010): 411, doi:10.1002/jcop.20371; Barbara J. Daly, Sara
Douglas, Amy Lipson, and Helen Foley, “Needs of Older Caregivers of Patients with Advanced Cancer,” Journal of the American Geriatric Society 57, Suppl. 2: S293–95 (2009): 294;
Ross, Altmaier, and Russell, “Job Stress, Social Support,”
17. Cynthia B. Eriksson, Jeff P. Bjorck, Linnea C. Larson,
Sherry M. Walling, Gary A. Trice,
John Fawcett, Alexis D. Abernethy, and David
W. Foy, “Social
Organisational Support, and Religious Support in Relation
to Burnout in Expatriate Humanitarian Aid Workers,” Mental
Health, Religion & Culture 12, no. 7 (2009): 675ff.
18. Martin Buber, I and Thou: A New Translation, with a
Prologue and Notes by Walter Kaufmann (New York: Charles
Scribner’s Sons, 1970), 53ff.
19. Jack O. Balswick, Pamela Ebstyne King, and Kevin S.
Reimer, The Reciprocating Self: Human Development in
Theological Perspective (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press,
2005), 41ff.
20. Maureen H. Miner, Martin Dowson, and Sam Sterland,
“Ministry Orientation and Ministry Outcomes: Evaluation of
a New Multidimensional Model of Clergy Burnout and Job
Satisfaction,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology 83 (2010): 169, doi:10.1348/096317909X414214.
21. Jude Tiersma, “What Does It Mean to Be Incarnational
When We Are Not the Messiah?” in God So Loves the City:
Seeking a Theology for Urban Mission, ed. Charles Van Engen
and Jude Tiersma (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2009), 15.
22. Marva Dawn, Keeping the Sabbath Wholly: Ceasing,
Resting, Embracing, Feasting (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans,
1989), 29.
23. Abraham Heschel, The Sabbath (New York: Farrar,
Straus & Giroux, 1951), 21.
24. Personal communication with Rabbi Stuart
Dauermann, August 14, 2012.
25. Richard A. Swenson, Margin: Restoring Emotional, Physical, Financial, and Time Reserves to Overloaded Lives, rev. ed. (Colorado Springs: NavPress, 2004), 39.
+ “In an academic institution like Fuller, I believe
that my work as a faculty member in the School of
Psychology will help me integrate mind and heart
in the work of spiritual formation as I continue my
own study and teach courses that will explore this
topic from many perspectives.” —Laura Robinson
Harbert, dean of chapel and spiritual formation
and assistant professor of clinical psychology
Cameron Lee
Cameron Lee is professor of
marriage and family studies in the
Department of Marriage and Family
in Fuller’s School of Psychology.
Lee has been a member of the
Marriage and Family program
faculty since 1986. While teaching
marriage and family studies courses
on the Fuller campus, he also
speaks off-campus as a Certified
Family Life Educator. He is a
licensed Family Wellness Trainer
and a member of the National
Council on Family Relations. Lee’s
current project is the development
of the Fuller Institute for Relationship Education (FIRE), which
seeks to help congregations create
sus tainable
relationship education ministries
through the low-cost training of
volunteer leaders. Lee maintains a
personal blog entitled Squinting
Through Fog, a series of reflections
on the Christian life (available
t was nearing the end of the academic
year, and one of our graduating family
therapy students came to my office for a
chat. She sat across from me, beaming, full
of enthusiasm for her newfound clinical
skills. To be frank, I don’t remember much
of the conversation. But one sentence lodged
forever in my mind. With a glow of delight
on her face, she reported what for her was a
new and exciting insight: “I don’t need Jesus
to be a good therapist!”
Something in me cringed as she said this.
I didn’t take her to mean “I don’t need
Jesus, period,” and to some extent, I could
agree with what she said. Many excellent
therapists aren’t Christians, and Christians
have much to learn from them; conversely,
being a follower of Christ is no guarantee of
clinical wisdom or competence. Nor would
I want to endorse the kind of instrumental
thinking in which a relationship with Jesus
becomes a mere means to some other end,
even as worthy an end as becoming a skilled
Still, I couldn’t suppress the feeling that I
had failed somehow in my own vocation
as a teacher. I had taken too much of our
students’ personal and spiritual formation
for granted.
We talked for a while, but I doubt that I
had much of anything constructive to say.
Eventually we said farewell at my office
door, and I never saw her again. But her
words haunted me. Something was missing.
I wasn’t sure what. But I knew that in some
way it had to do with this thing we call
But what is integration? And why does it
I have often asked our students, “How
many of you came to Fuller because of our
emphasis on integration?” Invariably, nearly
every hand goes up.
The problem, of course, is that the word
integration can connote quite different
things to different people. Moreover, it’s
easy to forget that the terms psychology
and theology each represent a wide range of
personal and professional meanings. Part
of the difficulty is that, by its very nature,
the academy encourages specialization and
subspecialization. Expertise, as they say,
consists in knowing more and more about
less and less. This sets a practical limit on the
extent of integration that can occur within
each discipline, let alone across them.
That’s not a counsel of despair. Psychology,
for example, encompasses a vast domain
of empirical research, a complex array of
theories of personality and behavior, and
an eclectic mix of clinical practices. But no
one would seriously suggest that the whole
enterprise be abandoned simply because
researchers, theorists, and practitioners
can’t always agree. Productive and insightful
work continues to be done, and many hold
out the hope of greater synergy. In recent
decades, for example, neuroscience has
begun to serve as a common platform for
discussion between professionals of quite
different stripes, a trend that seems likely to
But there’s an alternative to thinking of
integration primarily in cross-disciplinary
terms. What, we might ask ourselves, is the
perceived problem to which integration is the
proposed solution?
To begin with, there is the practical problem
suggested above. The state of knowledge in
well-established disciplines such as the
social and behavioral sciences and biblical
studies and theology continues to grow
apace. It’s difficult enough for scholars and
practitioners to keep abreast of developments
in their own fields; it’s more difficult still to
develop anything approaching expertise in
other domains. The problem is felt keenly by
dissertation students. Even if their curiosity
extends across disciplines, the pragmatic
reality is that they are rewarded more for
specialization than cross-bench thinking.
Much of what drives the interest in
integration, however, is personal and in some
sense political. The relationship between the
church and the profession of psychology has
often been fraught with mutual suspicion.
Many early writings in integration had
an apologetic tone, as if a certain level of
justification was needed for dabbling in such
dark arts as psychology and psychotherapy.
The need for such defensiveness seems to
have lessened over the decades. But many
of our students still come to Fuller over
someone’s objections: By all means, study
to be a pastor or missionary—is the message
they receive, directly or indirectly, but why
be a therapist?
The matter can be put in more personal
terms. First, students arrive at Fuller with
a set of preunderstandings shaped by their
families, churches, and other social contexts.
For many students, seminary is a profoundly
enriching experience. But even enrichment
can come at the price of deconstruction,
as students have their habits of thinking
about God, the Bible, and even themselves
challenged in destabilizing ways.
Second, psychotherapeutic practice is neither
uniformly nor unilaterally determined by
empirical research (nor can we be sure that
most therapists are dedicated to keeping
up with their academic journals!). Theories
of psychotherapy, therefore, with their
assumptions about human nature and the
well-lived life, often function as worldviews,
or “cultures of healing.”1 To some extent,
therapy consists of socializing clients
into new ways of thinking and being that
hopefully lead to greater satisfaction and
fewer problems.
This assumes that therapists themselves
have been thus socialized, quite possibly into
multiple cultures of healing, and in ways that
may clash with their pre-understandings.
This can lead to a fragmented imagination
and a compartmentalization of experience
in which a person thinks one way in one
context (e.g., church) and another way in
the next (e.g., the clinic). The problem is
thus one of “coherent construal,” to use
Walter Brueggemann’s term: of being able
to interpret and experience reality whole, to
tell a coherent story about what is happening,
how one should respond, and why. 2
Beyond mere intellectual interest, therefore,
one of the motivations for integration is the
sense that one’s personal integrity is at stake:
Is there any conflict between being a Christian
and being a psychotherapist? The question
isn’t unique to the practice of therapy;
many Christians experience some degree
of compartmentalization of faith and work,
confession and profession. But therapists,
who are intimately involved in helping
people correct the course of their lives, may
feel the question more keenly.
“A part of our role is how does God use us in
that transformation process [of therapy] to
challenge, to question, and to help people see
the consequences of [their choices]. Another
part is this beautiful intimacy when people
share their lives with you in that very sacred
place where, because you’ve given them
that faithful, unconditional love and empowerment, now they can share their hearts and
their secrets at a level of knowing and being
known at the very core of their being. That is
a sacred privilege for therapists. . . . We’re on
our knees before God here.”
+ JUDY BALSWICK is a senior professor of marital and family therapy.
This quote is taken from an Integration panel convened for the School
of Psychology’s 50th anniversary.
More online.
Thus, there is an important sense in which
“the integration of psychology and theology”
can be understood in academic and
interdisciplinary terms, and much fruitful
work has been done on that basis. To think of
integration as a matter of integrity, however,
emphasizes a more personal dimension.
+ “As my life continues to unfold, God
What’s needed is a coherent narrative
framework capable of holding together a
developing sense of vocation as Christians
and as therapists. In Fuller’s Marriage and
Family program, that framework is provided
by the biblical motif of peacemaking. Other
models, of course, are possible. But formation
requires some coherent framework, and
we believe that peacemaking, along
with what we call the attendant “clinical
virtues”—humility, compassion, hope, and
Sabbath rest—provides one that is true to
the narrative of Scripture. I sketch that
framework briefly below.
The early chapters of Genesis provide a
leitmotif that runs through the biblical
narrative. What God creates is good, even
very good—but sin spoils and defaces that
good creation, and humanity bears the
consequences. A doctrine of sin should
encompass more than just the conscious
and individual violation of moral norms.
We are not only disobedient, but also broken
and bent; we not only create and perpetuate
suffering, but through our relationships we
also suffer what stems from the brokenness
of others.
A peacemaking perspective assumes that
creation was originally suffused by shalom,
a rich biblical term for peace that conveys
much more than the mere absence of conflict.
Shalom is the presence of contentment,
wholeness, and justice. Sin sunders shalom;
in Cornelius Plantinga’s memorable phrase,
a world broken by sin is “not the way it’s
supposed to be,” not the way God intended. 4
Psychotherapists must deal with brokenness
of every kind: physical, emotional, spiritual,
relational. The work can be difficult and
draining. Under professional strictures of
confidentiality, therapists find themselves
carrying burdensome stories of suffering
that they cannot tell to others. Many
Christian therapists, moreover, work in
contexts in which explicitly sharing the
gospel with clients would violate ethical
norms. What vision, then, will sustain them
in their work?
The high-water mark of the Beatitudes is
the call to be peacemakers (Matt 5:9), nestled
in the context of Jesus’ teaching about the
kingdom of heaven (Matt 5:3, 10). All of his
disciples must understand themselves as
citizens of that kingdom, making peace by
participating in the ongoing work by which
God is restoring shalom to creation. Disciples
who would also be psychotherapists must
bring that kingdom orientation to their work.
What we thus call the clinical virtues are not
ad hoc character qualities that simply make
one a better therapist; they draw their unity
from the internal logic of the Beatitudes.
would vote as most likely to succeed.
Jesus holds up a surprising list of people
as exemplifying God’s kingdom—at least
surprising to those whose imaginations have
not been shaped by a right understanding of
prophecy (see, e.g., Luke 4:14–30; Isa 61:1–2).
In Matthew 5:3–6, Jesus calls the poor in
spirit and the meek blessed, together with
those who mourn and hunger for justice. In
Luke 6:20–22, it’s the poor and the hungry,
the distraught and disenfranchised. God’s
kingdom, in other words, comes by grace
rather than merit and must be received as
a gift. It does not belong to those whom we
This is active work: peacemakers are not
peace-wishers. People who humbly grieve
brokenness—both their own and that of
others—hunger to see God make things
right. And they are not content to sit idly
by. Blessed through the knowledge and
experience of God’s mercy, they in turn
embody that mercy for others (Matt 5:7).
The clinical virtue appropriate to such a state
of affairs is humility. It is not necessarily those
who come from privileged backgrounds and
model families, for example, who make the
best therapists. People who aspire to assist
others in navigating their brokenness must
know their own with clear-sighted honesty.
Against the modern, almost gnostic worship
of technical know-how, the humble Christian
therapist stands amazed—Who, me?—at the
privilege of helping others find and nurture
moments of wholeness and peace.
This is expressed through the clinical
virtue of compassion, a word whose root
means “to suffer with.” A therapist’s
compassion, motivated by the desire to
see one’s client move toward
wholeness, is the foundation of the
healing relationship. Many who seek
counseling will say that their therapist is
the first person who truly listened to them,
who truly understood. No longer invisible,
no longer isolated in their suffering, troubled
clients begin to perceive glimmers of hope.
Therapists face hopelessness on a daily basis,
and therefore need the virtuous disposition
of hope themselves. Compassion, after all,
is difficult to sustain. In addition to the
emotional demands of what happens inside
the therapy room, therapists have their own
personal concerns with which to contend
(and for which they need self-compassion!).
Burnout and emotional exhaustion, feelings
of futility and meaninglessness are everpresent possibilities, and the therapist’s
own hope-full or hope-less attitude will
be communicated to clients through the
therapeutic relationship.
Social psychologist Ken Gergen has
called it “multiphrenia”: a problem
of identity, a “splitting of the individual
into a multiplicity of self-investments.”3
It’s a good description, I believe, of what
happens to students during their formative
but frequently confusing years of graduate
seems to be combining my passion for
mentoring graduate students with his vision
to reach hurting people. I’ve long been in
solidarity with Hispanic people, and I have
been uniquely placed to provide clinical
supervision as Fuller Psychological and
Family Services (FPFS) has begun over
the past year to provide therapy services
in Spanish.”—­Anne Turk Nolty, assistant
professor of clinical psychology
“We can’t just think of spirituality as an experience of transcendence. It’s something
that radically changes lives, that changes the
way we understand ourselves and the way we
are in this world. Here in the School of Psychology that’s something that the faculty are
very committed to doing: enabling our students to have an educational experience that
is transformative to who they are as people,
that shapes them and forms them, and that
convicts and propels them to go out and
serve in this world.”
L. Benson Associate Professor of
Applied Developmental Science.
This quote is taken from an
Integration panel convened for
the School of Psychology’s 50th
anniversary. More online.
For Christians, hope entails cultivating
the enduring ability to imagine present
challenges in terms of the future promised
by God. Even small steps toward peace
can be celebrated for their participation in
the divine work of restoring wholeness to
creation. Every therapist faces days or weeks
in which clients seem stuck with no progress
in sight, tempting therapists to blame their
You are not oiling the wheels of a machine
that’s about to roll over a cliff. You are not
restoring a great painting that’s shortly
going to be thrown on the fire. . . . You are
. . . accomplishing something that will
become in due course part of God’s new
world. . . . [W]hat we do in Christ and by
the Spirit in the present is not wasted.5
Wright admits that we cannot know exactly
how such things will come to pass. But we
shouldn’t underestimate the value of knowing
that our work is not wasted. At times, therapy
can be an agonizingly slow process of growth.
Against the background of a results-oriented,
quick-fix culture, this can be discouraging to
therapists and clients alike, and a temptation
to despair. A robust eschatological vision—the
vision of a hopeful future under the sovereign
promise of God—may be just what a Christian
therapist needs to be sustained in the virtues
of humility and compassion.
Finally, therapists have long been taught the
need for self-care. Some have gone as far as
to propose it as an ethical imperative, since
therapists who neglect their own needs risk
endangering their clinical competence.6
From a peacemaking perspective, however,
the language of “self-care” is too narrow;
Sabbath rest, rightly understood, provides
the more appropriate image. We may think
of Sabbath as a break from work, and busy
therapists may indeed need the enforced rest.
But rest is neither an end in itself, nor a means
to “enhancing the efficiency of [our] work.”7
Rather, through Sabbath rest, we cultivate
a right relationship to work itself. Even God
rested (Exod 20:8–11)—and we are not God.
Moreover, we rest, and grant rest to others,
as a sign of remembrance that we have been
rescued from slavery by God’s mercy and
might (Deut 5:15). In these ways, Sabbath
brings us back full circle to humility, for
in our rest, we remember that God’s work
precedes and gives meaning to our own.
The clinical virtues of humility, compassion,
hope, and Sabbath rest are narrativedependent. In other words, their meaning
and unity derive from their place in a shared
story. We can consider them as character
qualities, but only in the sense that they
are appropriate to being a character in a
particular story: the story of God’s ongoing
restoration of shalom.
The model of integration as integrity, within
the vocational narrative of peacemaking, is
the product of a departmental history that
is too long and complicated to tell here.
Suffice it to say that Marriage and Family
was once a ministry program within
the School of Theology; changes to state
licensing laws prompted us to relocate to the
School of Psychology in 1987. The troubling
conversation mentioned above happened
during the early years of that transition,
when we were still adjusting to our new
institutional home and trying to identify our
Today, marriage and family students are
introduced to the peacemaking framework
in their first quarter. Simultaneously, in their
first and second quarters, they participate in
small groups, led by faculty, to explore their
own personal narratives in connection with
peacemaking and the virtues. Then, in the
spring quarter of both their first and second
years, the students, staff, and faculty of the
program gather off-campus for a day of
worship, meditation, and conversation. It’s
indicative of the graduate school subculture
that many of us enter the day feeling too busy
to take that time away from our work. But it’s
a testimony to the wisdom of Sabbath that by
the end of the day, we wonder why we waited
so long.
Integration as integrity is necessarily
about formation. Whether we intentionally
engage in formational practices or not, the
fact remains that students will be formed
by their seminary experience, sometimes in
ways that pose unintentional challenges to a
coherent sense of identity and vocation.
As suggested earlier, this kind of challenge
is not unique to the study of psychology or
even to seminary. Nor is peacemaking only
relevant to Christians training as therapists.
If Gergen is right, then multiphrenia and a
piecemeal sense of identity is more and more
becoming the norm in highly technologydependent societies. Graduate school may
exacerbate the condition, and training to be
one who is paid to guide people through the
ups and downs of their lives raises the stakes.
Integration matters because integrity and a
coherent sense of identity as one whom Jesus
has called to be a peacemaker matter. Do
you need a relationship with Jesus in order
to be a good therapist? Well, in some sense,
no. But that’s asking the question the wrong
way around. Can the rigors and challenges
of learning to be a good therapist become
the testing ground for a coherent identity as
a peacemaker? Yes. And if I had a chance to
do that fateful conversation over again—who
knows—this time I might have something
more constructive to say.
Author’s note: Deep thanks to my colleague Terry
Hargrave for his excellent feedback on an earlier
draft of this article.
1. Robert T. Fancher, Cultures of Healing: Correcting the Image
of American Mental Health Care (New York: W. H. Freeman,
2. Walter Brueggemann, Biblical Perspectives on Evangelism:
Living in a Three-Storied Universe (Nashville: Abingdon, 1993).
3. Kenneth J. Gergen, The Saturated Self: Dilemmas of Identity
in Contemporary Life (New York: Basic Books, 2000), 73–74.
4. Cornelius Plantinga, Not the Way It’s Supposed to Be: A
Breviary of Sin (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1995).
5. N. T. Wright, Surprised by Hope: Rethinking Heaven, the
Resurrection, and the Mission of the Church (New York: HarperOne, 2008), 208–9.
6. E.g., Jeffrey E. Barnett, Ellen K. Baker, Nancy S. Elman,
and Gary R. Schoener, “In Pursuit of Wellness: The Self-Care
Imperative,” Professional Psychology 38 (2007): 603–12.
7. Abraham Heschel, The Sabbath (New York: Farrar, Straus
& Giroux, 2005), 14.
Before joining the faculty at Fuller, I was, for 24 years, a pastor. The
congregation I served, and all congregations, are messy: jumbled
expectations, people experiencing times of great joy and of deep
sorrow, heated discussions at board meetings, casseroles, preaching,
and weekly critiques on just about anything. Congregations are messy
places for one simple reason—they are an assembly of people. Being
a pastor is tough, but most of the time, it is the best life.1
The work of a pastor is to help people grow as disciples of Jesus Christ:
leading people from sickness to healing, from immaturity to maturity,
and from being settled to being sent. The Apostle Paul described his
work with the churches in Galatia this way: “My little children, I’m
going through labor pains again until Christ is formed in you” (Galatians 4:19). This labor towards discipleship happens as pastors go
about their routines of ministry. This work happens when the church
gathers, but most often it happens in the midst of ordinary life, in
relationships, as pastors intentionally pay attention to what God is
doing, or seeks to do, in the life of a person whom they shepherd.2
In the church I served, we would often say: “All of us are broken
people; some of us have better masks.” With “battles on the outside,
fears in the inside” (2 Corinthians 7:5), we gather as church. We are
defined not by problems, but defined as those loved by God in the
process of being formed into the image of Christ.3
To do this work well, theology is not enough. Certainly, pastors need
to study the Bible, church history, and doctrine, but the workplace of
a pastor is the lives of people. The Word becomes real in the lives of
people, not in isolation, but in the ordinary twists and turns of life.
Pastors attend to theology, but they must also pay attention to what
is happening with people. Eugene Peterson confesses:
I realized that I knew a lot more about scripture and truth
than I did about souls and prayer. I also realized that for
me as pastor, souls and prayer required an equivalent
demand on my attention as scripture and truth. This is
what pastors are for—to keep these things alive and yoked
in everyday life. 4
Pastors are not therapists. We are not trained to deal with complex
psychological issues. But pastors, in order to serve their people in
process, must develop an understanding of issues related to mental
health, suicide, grieving and loss, eating disorders, relationship troubles, addictions, trauma, family systems, and just plain listening. This
allows pastors to do a better job of detecting concerns, referring
people to professionals, and simply being able to care in a more informed way.
Students who study at Fuller benefit from faculty who teach in the
areas of theology, intercultural studies, and psychology. This allows
us to better equip those who serve the church. In my master’s-level
class, Pastoral Ministry, I bring in the best voices from our Schools of
Psychology and Theology to give students new lenses to attend to
issues that arise in the life of a congregation. Fuller’s Doctor of Ministry program offers courses taught by leading psychologists and
theologians in order to enhance the skills of ministry leaders as they
focus on people in their care.
clients’ “resistance” or to give up altogether.
But as N. T. Wright reminds us:
Being a pastor is a hard and demanding job. Our Doctor of Ministry
program, and other departments at Fuller, are working to help pastors
and other ministry leaders attend to their own spiritual and psychological well-being so that they might serve well, and finish well.5
Every local congregation is a work in process. It's a holy assembly of
people growing into the image of Christ. Pastors are faithful guides
and mentors ministering the Word to people in the ordinary realities
of life. They do this best as they attend to the Word and attend to
souls. I am grateful for the integration of theology and psychology that
happens at Fuller Seminary.
1. “I remain convinced that if you are called to it, being a pastor is the
best life there is,” in David Wood, “Eugene Peterson on Pastoral Ministry,” The Christian Century, March 13–20, 2002, pp. 18–25. Through
his books, Eugene Peterson has been a mentor to me. His book The
Pastor: A Memoir (New York: HarperOne, 2011) is essential reading.
2. I get this idea of discipleship and pastoral care as relational, intentional, and ordinary from Deuteronomy 6:5–9.
3. Peterson, The Pastor, 137.
4. Ibid., 230.
5. School of Psychology professor Cameron Lee and I wrote the book
That Their Work Will Be a Joy: Understanding and Coping with the Challenges of Pastoral Ministry (Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2012) to help ministry
leaders be healthier and serve well.
associate dean
of Fuller’s Doctor
of Ministry and
Continuing Education
programs and assistant
professor of pastoral
ministry. Before he
came to Fuller in
2003, he was a
pastor in Simi Valley,
California, for 24 years.
Sarah A. Schnitker and Benjamin J. Houltberg
Sarah A. Schnitker is associate professor of psychology in the Department of Clinical Psychology at
Benjamin J. Houltberg is assistant
professor of human development in
Fuller’s Department of Marriage
and Family.
eenagers have tremendous capacity for
spiritual growth and thriving when
they are embedded in a context telling
them they have a purpose in life and that
they are valuable and capable members of
society. Many minority youth growing up
in socioeconomic disadvantage, however,
are at much higher risk for outcomes such
as incarceration and emotional disruption.
Consider for a moment the hypothetical
lives of two teenagers: Trevor and Evan.1
Both young men attend a high school on the
south side of Chicago and live in a neighborhood replete with challenges that can hinder
positive development. Many people would
consider their odds of becoming flourishing
adults quite low; however, their experiences
as adolescents have the power to shape and
even transform their life paths.
About a year ago, the trajectories of these
fictitious boys’ lives began to diverge.
Trevor heard about a group called Team
World Vision (TWV) from one of his friends.
He went to a TWV meeting and found out
that 30–40 teens from his school would be
running 26.2 miles in the Chicago Marathon
to raise money for clean water in Africa.
Although Trevor had never really thought
about raising money for kids halfway around
the world (his family had barely enough
money to get by), he was really inspired by
the passion of the group leaders and decided
to sign up for the marathon. Over the next
few months as Trevor began to train with
his team, others began to observe changes
in Trevor. His teachers began to notice that
he was spending more time on his homework
and was more patient with annoying kids
in class. Trevor also seemed better able to
manage his anger and began to care about
others. He started developing virtues like
patience, self-control, and generosity.
Evan began participating in athletics, but he
had a different type of experience. He joined
the basketball team at his school. His coach
emphasized winning at all costs and would
tell Evan he was only as good as his last
game. Evan was the top player on the team
and began to dream of a professional basketball career and making money. Evan began
to really enjoy his newfound social status at
school and attending parties where drugs
and alcohol were abundant. He felt like he
deserved a break after working so hard in
practice, so he didn’t feel bad drinking a lot.
Evan did increase in self-control during basketball season, but he was pretty focused on
himself and what served him.
Both of these young men began to engage in
athletics, but the effect of their sport participation differed significantly. Trevor began
to derive worth from his relationships with
others and God as well as the contribution
he could make to the world. Evan began to
derive worth from his personal status as an
athlete and future success. Although both
boys demonstrated short-term benefits from
their athletic involvement, only Trevor seems
to be developing character strengths and
virtues that will enable him to make a contribution to his community as he gets older.
As researchers who study thriving and
character development, we wonder what it
is about the experiences of these two boys
that are most predictive of their divergent
pathways. We surmise that it is the transcendent purpose and spirituality embedded in
Trevor’s athletic involvement that enables
him to develop virtues in the TWV context,
whereas the focus on the self and personal
performance on Evan’s team stunts character development.
As much as these are compelling anecdotes of
the way spirituality can influence the trajectory of an adolescent’s development, it is difficult
to know if Trevor is just an exceptional human
being, or if the ability of spirituality to build
character in the lives of youth is replicable
across individuals and contexts. To answer
this question, researchers in the School of Psychology’s Thrive Center have been engaging
in scientific inquiry to understand the nature
of thriving and how religion and spirituality
might affect thriving in adolescents.
What does it mean for a person or community
to thrive? In many ways the idea of thriving
has become a buzzword in popular culture,
but very few people (psychologists included)
can clearly define it. As the science of human
thriving has expanded over the past 15 years,
it has become apparent that it is impossible to
create a value-neutral definition of thriving.
Instead, philosophy, ethics, and theology are
highly relevant to understanding the good
life in a meaningful way.
Given the vast theological resources available to us at Fuller, a team of faculty from the
Thrive Center (Drs. Pam King, Justin Barrett,
Jim Furrow, and Sarah Schnitker) along with
some theology colleagues (Drs. Oliver Crisp,
William Whitney, Bill Dyrness, Joel Green,
Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen, Jason McMartin, and
Matt Jenson) began constructing a new definition of thriving based on Christian theolo-
gy and various psychological theories. After
examining various psychological perspectives in connection with Christian doctrines,
including creation, Christology, theological
anthropology, soteriology, and ecclesiology,
among others, the group concluded that thriving is “a state of growing toward that which
something is supposed to be . . . [and] given
this definition, thriving can only be evaluated
in relationship to some purpose or telos.”2 But
what is our God-endowed telos—both corporate and individual?
Personality psychologists hold the truism
that “every [person] is in certain respects:
(a) like all other [persons], (b) like some other
If you ever participated in a sport, who would
you say played a significant role in the development and enhancement of that experience?
Most people think of a coach. As a track and
field coach of 12 years, I have sought to
provide formative experiences for my athletes.
As a student researcher at the Thrive Center,
I want to know how to make sports a positive
formative experience for all athletes.
Competition can often evoke the worst in
people, so how might a coach use competition to build virtue? A coach can provide a
narrative to an athlete’s experience, especially a young athlete experiencing a difficult loss
or making a tough decision on the field. This
narrative involves framing the competition
as a test of one’s character and a learning
opportunity, and at the same time avoiding
narratives that frame the competition as a
test of one’s worth. I teach my athletes that
we can test what we have learned in practice,
and we can learn from the experience.
However, it is important to note that devel-
oping virtue and character in the midst of
wins and losses begins before competition.
This narrative must be told from the beginning of the season and reinforced across
time. For example, the disappointment of a
loss is a prime opportunity to work on the
virtue of patience coupled with the character strength of perseverance. I share with
my athletes that hard work does not end and
begin with each challenge; it is an ongoing
process. The ways in which a coach discusses disappointment can impact how athletes
process their emotions. I’ve heard coaches
say, “Remember the disappointment and
pain you feel now and work hard to never
feel it again.” I avoid this kind of negative
motivation at all costs. It may motivate
some kids, but not in a healthy, sustainable
way. Instead, I tell my athletes, “If you tried
your best, that is all anyone can ask of you.
If you think you could do something different, let’s try it out in practice and get ready
for next time.” It takes courage to compete
in sports. I affirm the courage I see in my
athletes after competition.
Young athletes have high hopes and expectations, yet have little control over many
of the outcomes of a competition. I had an
athlete who worked incredibly hard in and
out of season to achieve his goals. He went
into section finals as the top runner. In the
middle of his race, he tore a tendon in his
foot and he finished in the middle of the pack.
We talked a lot about his disappointment. I
helped provide a positive narrative for his
experience. I shared with him the meaning
of patience and perseverance and how I saw
those character traits in him. He was able to
be patient, continued training after such a
devastating loss, and had great success as
a collegiate athlete. This young man showed
great poise and control in difficult situations.
He did not develop great character alone. He
had years of caring coaches who shaped a
value for character beyond success, and he
was able to shine.
and feet in the world, drawing athletes to
learn and experience the goodness of God in
all aspects of life. Coaches who understand
this reality and use all aspects of the sport
to provide meaning and purpose to athletes
are doing a noble work in the kingdom of God.
+ NANYAMKA REDMOND is a doctoral
student in psychological sciences at
Fuller, studying at the Thrive Center
in the School of Psychology. She is
also a coach of track and field at
Maranatha High School in Pasadena,
Wins and losses, trials and triumphs, all have
their place in our formation. Coaches, much
like teachers and parents, can be God’s hand
+ “The Holy Spirit is essential when it comes to the
Although scholars should examine all
of these levels of human purpose, our research team has chosen to focus on the
telos of thriving that all people share. We
ask, who does God intend to develop and
thrive? Although theology points to multiple answers to this question, a strong case
can be made that God desires all of us to
become virtuous people, demonstrating
God’s loving work in our lives through the
fruit of the Spirit described in Galatians
5:22–23. Virtues are the habits that people
develop through intentional practices and
meaningful relationships that build up the
moral community for a higher purpose. N.
T. Wright describes the centrality of virtue
formation in Christian ethics based on New
Testament teachings in After You Believe:
Why Christian Character Matters. He states,
“What Paul understands by holiness or
sanctification (is) the learning in the present
of the habits which anticipate the ultimate
future.”4 Virtues become the means by
which people are able to experience communion with God and with each other.
For psychologists who do integrative research, this then poses an interesting question: how do we help adolescents to develop
virtues, and how can spiritual development
facilitate (or hinder) this process? Christian
Scripture and theology suggest that virtues
develop by allowing the Spirit to work in
our lives (Matt 7:15–27; Gal 5:22–24), enduring suffering (Rom 5:3–4), and engaging in
spiritual practices with a religious community.5 Psychology provides tools by which we
can test when these three actually produce
virtues and test the psychological mechanisms by which they bring about change.
Since the late 1990s, the field of positive psychology has been investigating how character strengths and virtues are developed, and
numerous positive psychological interventions that foster character strengths such
as gratitude, forgiveness, self-control, and
compassion have been empirically validated. However, these interventions are often
presented in the popular press as a means
to attain personal happiness in a context
devoid of moral meaning. Researchers warn
against the dangers of pursuing happiness
for its own sake because pursuing virtues for
hedonic purposes can actually undermine
both virtue development and well-being.
It is important to avoid seeing virtues as a
means to an end (happiness), but instead to
view them as important outcomes in their
own right.
But who a s s ig n s
signif icance and
wor th to v ir tue
development? Historically, the development of virtues
has been located
in religious contexts for the purpose
of honoring deities
or the community. 6 In
modern times, virtue
development has shifted
to secular or therapeutic
contexts for the purpose of
individual well-being. Our
research team asks, do virtue-building activities differ
when practiced in a secular
context rather than a religious
context? Has this modern shift
undermined virtue formation
in our society—especially for
adolescents and emerging
adults—and can we facilitate
the formation of virtues by
imbuing interventions with
spiritual purpose and meaning?
One approach our research group has adopted
to answering such questions is using experimental research designs to directly test
if framing an intervention activity with a
spiritual versus instrumental purpose will
affect the efficacy of the activity to build
virtues. For example, Dr. Schnitker’s
doctoral student Kelsy Richardson
conducted a study in which emerging adult participants engaged in
a gratitude journaling exercise for
five weeks. The participants were
randomly assigned to either pray
thanks to God (imbuing the activity with spiritual meaning), read
thanks to another person,
or to read thanks to
himself or herself.
Findings showed
that those in the
prayer condition
greater gains
in virtues and
well-being than
those in the other
conditions, suggesting that gratitude
might be more effective when practiced
as a spiritual versus
psychological exercise.
At present, our team is
engaged in a large-scale
experimental study to
examine the effects of
framing an intervention
that builds self-control
and patience in adolescents as spiritual,
moral, or instrumental
in its purpose. A plethora of research studies
have shown that the
ability to regulate one’s
behaviors and emotions
has a major positive impact
on nearly all life domains, and a variety of
interventions have been empirically validated to build patience and self-control. In
many ways, self-control is like a muscle; it
is a domain-general resource that is depleted after use but can become stronger with
regular exercise. Many of the interventions
that build self-control and patience seem
to have corresponding spiritual disciplines
that engage the same type of activity. For
instance, regulating one’s diet or spending
are empirically validated self-control interventions; the spiritual disciplines of fasting
and tithing draw on these same basic actions
but also include a higher purpose.
[persons], and (c) like no other [person].”3
The same may be true for God’s purpose in
our lives. There are ways that all men and
women are to intended to reflect the image
of God and glorify him; there are ways he has
given specific gifts and callings to groups of
people; and there are ways he has made each
of us to uniquely reflect his image and serve
his kingdom.
work of the Christian therapist. The Holy Spirit is
called the Counselor, Comforter, Helper, or Advocate
in John 14:16–17. The work and the ministry of the
Holy Spirit can be understood as taking place in three
major ways: the Spirit’s power, the Spirit’s truth, and
the Spirit’s fruit.” —Siang-Yang Tan
In our study, we are recruiting 480 adolescents to engage in a two-week self-control
and patience intervention. The intervention
is delivered in a game-like and interactive
way through the CharacterMe smartphone
app we’ve developed with Matt Lumpkin
and Matthew Geddert (see p. 86 for more).
The app includes challenges meant to build
basic regulatory resources (e.g., the “hand
swap” challenge builds self-control by having
participants use their nondominant hand to
use their phones) as well as activities that
build emotional fluency and help people
solve interpersonal conflicts (e.g., the “selfie”
challenge helps participants recognize their
own emotions, and the “taking perspective”
challenge helps participants reappraise negative interactions). Participants are randomly assigned to different versions of the app
in which the language and framing of the
activities emphasize how building strengths
(or fixing weaknesses) will help them connect
with something bigger than themselves (e.g.,
God; spiritual condition), will help them
become a better person (moral condition), or
will help them do better in school and athletics (instrumental condition). We are tracking
the adolescents’ self-reported character from
before they begin the intervention through
six months after they complete it. We are also
collecting ratings of the adolescents’ virtues
from parents, friends, coaches, and teachers
because those individuals may be better able
to report true change. Our hypothesis is that
the School of Intercultural Studies
and professor of world Christianity
at Fuller.
In addition to examining virtue and spiritual
development in amateur sport, we are especially interested in examining responses to
our research questions among elite athletes.
The high-pressured environment of elite athletics provides unique challenges to spiritual
and virtue development. Competition plays
an important role in our society. It can help
individuals maximize their potential by cultivating positive character virtues as well as
creating mental and spiritual frameworks of
resilience, purpose, and joy. However, humans
do not always flourish in highly competitive
It might be assumed that Christian athletes
would not struggle as much with basing their
worth in sporting performance. After all, the
heart of the Christian gospel is the unconditional love of God demonstrated through the
sacrifice of Jesus that is clearly not based on
human performance. However, in collaboration with Dr. Kenneth Wang, our preliminary
research findings are linking perfectionistic
views of God to performance-based identity and negative emotional outcomes (e.g.,
shame, depression, anxiety) among a sample
of Olympic and collegiate athletes. These
findings introduce several questions about the
impact of elite competition on the emotional
and spiritual health of young athletes and why
performance-based identity is also prevalent
in Christian athletes.
One explanation of this might be an application
of “muscular” Christianity to sporting performance. In other words, for some Christian ath-
This spiritual framework holds potential for
promoting character virtues and emotional
health even in stressful environments such as
elite competition. Identity that is rooted and established in God’s unconditional love and connection to something greater than self creates
a freedom to perform at one’s best without the
fear of not measuring up, and maximizes the
potential for thriving. This has been seen in
preliminary findings from our work with elite
athletes. Purpose and meaning in life beyond
sport was related to better emotional outcomes
and feelings of comfort from God when experiencing a disappointing performance. This research has important implications for parents,
coaches, and youth organizations that desire
to see sports be used as a mechanism for character development. Perhaps Christian schools
and organizations would benefit from a more
intentional approach that promotes connection to God, others, and purpose in sports and
counters the natural tendency toward performance-based identity. Further, in our estimation, findings derived from our research apply
beyond the sporting context and are relevant
across a variety of performance domains. We
plan to continue to further explore and develop
research-informed resources in this area.
Overall, we believe that our research will continue to identify key ways to promote thriving
among youth and highlight the central role of
spirituality and religion in virtue formation
and emotional health. We also plan to produce
research-informed insights and resources
to equip caring adults (e.g., parents, youth
pastors, coaches) who play a critical role in
shaping the lives of young people. Perhaps
the late Peter Benson’s quote best captures the
essence of the communities that we want to
create: “Thriving is about communities where
people feel and know that they are persons of
value and worth; that they have something
unique to offer the world; and that they have
the courage to act on their gifts.”10
Author’s note: The self-control and patience interventions and TWV studies described were made possible
through the generous support of a grant from the John
Templeton Foundation. The opinions expressed in this
article are those of the authors and do not necessarily
reflect the views of the John Templeton Foundation.
1. The accounts of Trevor and Evan are fictional, but their stories
are loosely based on the experiences of many of the participants
in our research studies.
2. P. E. King and W. B. Whitney, “What’s the ‘Positive’ in Positive Psychology? Teleological Considerations Based on Creation
and Imago Doctrines,” Journal of Psychology and Theology 43
(2015): 47–59.
3. C. Kluckhohn and H. A. Murray, “Personality Formation: The
Determinants,” in Personality in Nature, Society, and Culture, ed.
C. Kluckhohn, H. A. Murray, and D. M. Schneider (New York:
Knopf, 1953), 35.
4. N. T. Wright, After You Believe: Why Christian Character
Matters (New York: HarerOne, 2010), 93.
5. Stanley Hauerwas, The Peaceable Kingdom (Notre Dame,
IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1984); Wright, After You
6. K. Armstrong, The Case for God (New York: Alfred A.
Knopf, 2009); J. Graham and J. Haidt, “Beyond Beliefs:
Religions Bind Individuals into Moral Communities,” Personality and Social Psychology Review 13 (2010): 140–49,
doi:10.1177/1088868309353415; G. M. Leffel, “Beyond
Meaning: Spiritual Transformation in the Paradigm of Moral
Intuitionism: A New Direction for the Psychology of Spiritual
Transformation,” Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion 22 (2012): 25–125.
7. J. Stoeber, “Perfectionism in Sport and Dance: A Double
Edged Sword,” International Journal of Sport Psychology 45, no.
4 (2014): 385–94, doi:10.7352/IJSP 2014.45.385
8. E. E. Conroy, J. P. Willow, and J. N. Metzler, “Multidimensional Fear of Failure Measurement: The Performance Failure
Appraisal Inventory,” Applied Sport Psychology 14 (2002):
76–90, doi:10.1080/10413200252907752
9. Ashley Null, “Some Preliminary Thoughts on Philosophies of
Sports Ministry and Their Literature,” and “‘Finding the Right
Place’: Professional Sport as a Christian Vocation,” in The Image
of God in the Human Body: Essays on Christianity and Sports,
ed. Donald Deardoff II and John White (Lewiston, NY: Edwin
Mellen, 2008), 241–54 and 315–66.
10. P. L. Benson, Sparks (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008).
+ SCOTT SUNQUIST is the dean of
As described in the story of Trevor and Evan
at the beginning of the article, we are studying
adolescents running half and full marathons
with Team World Vision. By tracking adolescents from the time they sign up to train
for the marathon through three months after
they finish the race, we are able to examine
the effects of rigorous training on virtues like
self-control, patience, and generosity. In addition, we are examining how motivations for
training (e.g., honoring God, raising money for
clean water, or getting physically fit) and social
relationships with other runners and leaders
affect virtue development as well as athletic
and fundraising outcomes.
It doesn’t take long for children to discover
their giftedness in sport and take notice of the
affirmation that accompanies outstanding athletic performance. The natural trajectory of a
talented young person is to begin to derive a
sense of meaning and worth solely from athletic performance. This is especially true in
the period of adolescence and emerging adulthood, a time of active identity development
and of tendencies toward social comparisons
with heightened sensitivity to social rejection.
The challenge of self-worth being based in
performance is that the stakes get higher as
you perform better. Winning only means that
the young person will have to keep winning
in order protect his or her self-worth. Thus
competition can be perceived as a threat that
carries the same physiological and emotional processes that occur with a threat to one’s
physical safety. This performance-based
identity is not sustainable over time and often
leads to emotional difficulties and challenges.
letes, winning is not just a matter of proving
their own worth and value in sport but also appeasing a God who expects perfection in order
for them to be deemed worthy. Therefore, God’s
love is not only earned through performance
but also requires domination as a way to bring
glory to God’s name. This can also have evangelistic appeal, as some Christian organizations
may focus on recruiting successful Christian
athletes as spokespersons because of their athletic success. Although winning can create a
pedestal to preach the gospel, it can also leave
Christian athletes feeling that they must attain
athletic success to be useful to God’s kingdom.
This would be an example of ministering
“through” athletes rather than ministering “to”
athletes. In contrast, the latter focuses on sport
as a context for spiritual transformation as a
part of one’s vocation, which includes giftings
that (a) remind one of God’s unchanging love,
(b) provide a source of joy, and (c) create opportunities to connect and serve others.9
“One of the joys of working at Fuller Theological Seminary is working in a Christian
academic community that consciously works
at the integration of various disciplines. The
School of World Mission (now School of Intercultural Studies) has always been dominated
by the use of social sciences in service of
God’s mission. Interacting with the School of
Psychology has been one of the great joys
and surprises for me, a historian and missiologist. I have met a number of psychology
professors, as well as students, who entered
counseling because of their experience as
missionaries or working on short-term missions. Committed to mission, they saw the
importance of psychology in the service of
God’s mission. In the middle of my first year
at Fuller I encountered my first integration
seminar where I was asked to give a response
to a fascinating paper dealing with ‘Clinical
Work with Evangelicals in Transition,’ by
Marie T. Hoffman. I have been hooked ever
since, seeing the value of the School of
Psychology faculty and students working
closely together in developing healthy habits,
wholesome responses, and careful analyses.
Positive psychology, core virtues, and the
concern for human thriving tie our schools
and scholarship closely together.”
Although experimental studies provide a
rigorous means to examine the effects of
spirituality on virtue development, it is just
as important to examine how spirituality
and religion affect character development
across time in real-world contexts to increase
generalizability and applicability of findings.
A specific context of virtue and spiritual
formation that our team examines is that of
sport. Athletics are often presented as a crucible of character formation, but empirical
studies (as well as glaring moral failures of
celebrity athletes) suggest that sports do not
always promote virtues. Similarly, athletes
often integrate religious or spiritual practices
into their athletics, but the ways this is done
may actually cause psychological harm or be
theologically flawed. Thus, we are engaged in
several studies to specifically examine virtue
and spiritual formation in the context of sport.
environments, particularly when performance outcomes become the determiner of
human worth. High-achieving individuals
may impose unrealistic expectations for performance, which results in becoming overly
critical when these expectations are not met.7
A sense of worth contingent on outcomes and
expectation of perfection can create a performance-based identity that can have detrimental effects on emotional health.8
the spiritual framing will lead to greater and
longer-lasting development of patience and
“This is the loneliest time in the history of
America for people. . . . The issue of friendship, relationships, and relationship process
is key for psychology. . . . Most of us don’t
have much conscious knowledge of what’s
going on in our brain. . . . The only way to get
that knowledge is through a phenomenological approach where we go in and ask the
individual—the individual’s the only person
that can tell you what they’re thinking and
feeling at any given moment. They may not
have that in their consciousness, but once
you ask them the question, very often they’ll
be able to [tell what they’re thinking or
second dean of Fuller’s School of
Psychology, is also the founder of
eHarmony, an online relationship
service. His company hopes to
use phenomenological research to
address loneliness in contemporary
American culture. This quote is
taken from a Fuller panel convened
for the School of Psychology’s 50th
anniversary. More online.
“I painted wounds to depict beauty in vulnerability and brokenness. These paintings enfold
the grotesque, deformed, contorted look of wounds, yet through the ruptured and punctured appearance, the beauty of their tenderness and fragility emerges.
“My desire is to point one’s sensitivity to the brokenness, open the viewers’ sense of compassion and understanding, and inspire them to perceive beauty in the most unexpected
and unimaginable. I believe that vulnerability has the power of transformation.”
­—Trung Pham
+ Wound19 by Trung Pham, Oil on Canvas, 30" x 30", 2015
“The last fifty or sixty years have
seen a radically changed world, and
many of the older patterns are no
longer relevant or even possible.
On the other hand, the Church has
grown enormously in the former
‘mission fields’ since 1945. We are
seeing new personnel as well as
new approaches to mission today.
The Christian mission remains the
same, but our context is very different, . . . [and] that fact calls us
to sensitivity to each culture, hard
thinking, and openness to the creativity of the Holy Spirit.”
+ Dean Emeritus Paul E. Pierson,
second from right, from his book The
Dynamics of Christian Mission.
Changing Missiology
“The theological task as we have come to know it in the West is facing
a transformation of its cartography and of its historical archives.
The territory, texture, and phenomena of Christian practice . . . are
shifting to include a theological self-representation coming out of decolonial theological categories that neither necessarily abandon nor
depend on Western culture but instead seek autonomy of thought.”
+ Oscar García-Johnson, associate dean for Fuller’s Centro Latino and professor
of theology and Latino/a studies, in Theology Without Borders: An Introduction to Global Conversations, coauthored with William Dyrness, professor of
theology and culture. Pictured is a world globe made with precious materials
presented by Dean Emeritus Dudley Woodberry for the 50th anniversary of the
School of Intercultural Studies. See the ceremony of its dedication online.
+ This content is curated from ongoing conversations taking place throughout the Fuller community. Visit fullermag.com for full videos, articles, and more.
+ The School of Intercultural Studies
celebrated its 50th anniversary in
2015, including a panel (upper
right) of previous deans Douglas C.
McConnell (2003–2011), J. Dudley
Woodberry (1992–1999), Paul E.
Pierson (1980–1992), and Sherwood G. Lingenfelter (1999–2003).
More available online.
“Not only does Christian theology
point to cooperation and partnerships
in mission, but the size and complexity of global concerns to which
the church should speak requires
this partnership. No one individual,
church, or even national church can
solve the major issues of violence
and human trafficking, nor can they
alone reach the mass of unreached
people in the world. The missio Dei
requires that we work together as the
body of Christ, not building personal
kingdoms, but looking forward in our
ministry to the city built by God.”
+ Scott W. Sunquist, dean of the
School of Intercultural Studies, from
his book Understanding Christian
Mission: Participation in Suffering
and Glory.
South Korea. Hear his lecture on Korean perspectives of Christian mission online.
+ Pablo Deiros, vice president at International
Baptist Theological Seminary, in Buenos Aires,
Argentina. Hear his lecture on a Latin American
perspective of eschatology online.
“If God is opening new horizons by radically
shifting Global Christianity, what is the Holy
Spirit speaking to us, and what is the possibility? I suggest ‘democratization’ is the word that
we should play. The vision of mission in our
time can be summarized as democratization—
or even liberation—of mission. Democratization
is a theological concept referring to a process
through which a privileged status or call initially
granted to a small group of selected people is
eventually expanded to include the whole community of God’s people. This idea of democratization has an important agenda for revisioning
+ Moonjang Lee, senior pastor of Doorae Church,
“A three-dimensional understanding of the
reality of missions suits better our globalizing
understanding of reality. This linear understanding that differentiates between sending
countries and receiving countries has been
replaced by a more dynamic polyhedral network
of multiple relationships, in which all send and
all receive at the same time under the lordship
of Jesus Christ.“
“The Christian mission in the coming years will
become multidirectional, from everywhere to everywhere. This reflection demands us to discard
the old positions and habits of thought formed
within colonial frameworks.”
+ Wonsuk Ma, executive director at the Oxford
Centre for Mission Studies in Oxford, England.
Hear his lecture on globalization and theological
education online.
“I see within the church a preoccupation with
power, so there is a call to let go of our power
and control and to recover the redemptive
power of the gospel message of the cross that
we are challenged to accept as a minority. . . .
We must accept the shift that we are no longer
the center of Western Christianity; we in Europe
are a part of the periphery of global Christianity,
and this calls us to strengthen our attitude of
waiting on God in deep humility.”
+ Anne-Marie Kool, associate professor of missiology
at Baptist Theological Academy in Budapest, Hungary. Hear her reflections on changes in missiology
in European contexts online.
+ These quotes represent a variety of international voices in missiology speaking during the School of Intercultural Studies 50th Celebration. Hear more online.
“To affirm that the Reign of God has cultural manifestations is to recognize that
there are many cultures. The Reign of God does require one to choose which cultural vision has priority. It sensitizes one to the importance of recognizing that cultures
provide meaning for individuals and that one’s research or therapy must respect
that plurality.”
“Since we live in an age when economy and politics transcend national borders, it
stands for us to ask what the scope of our ethical responsibility is now more than
ever before. . . . We must yield to the plurality of perceptions and experiences. A
genuinely globally minded church must incorporate a diversity of principles and
+ Alvin Dueck, Distinguished Professor of Cultural Psychologies, from his book
+ Kyong-Jin Lee, assistant professor of Old Testament studies, from her Fuller
Between Jerusalem and Athens: Ethical Perspectives on Culture, Religion, and
Forum lecture on globalization and the book of Esther. Watch her entire lecture
“It’s important for us to recognize the positions of privilege we’ve come from. We
may not have enacted violence in certain situations, but we may have benefited
from it. What privilege do I have as a white woman? What privilege do I have as an
academic? We need to be living out a recognition of that so that we can say, ‘join me
in this’ and so that we’re raising each other up. What parts of my privilege can I give
to you? What parts of my privilege are unearned and I can let go of?”
“In the light of religious resurgence, complex flows of migrants, capital and technology, and the dramatic growth of Christianity in some areas and its retraction in
others, we believe we are in the midst of a massive re-formation of the Christian
church at the global level. . . . The way forward in a globalizing world, we believe, is
to acknowledge this diversity of Christian difference.”
+ Cynthia Erikkson, associate professor of psychology, reflecting on humanitarian
professor of systematic theology, in their coedited volume Global Dictionary of
Theology, a five-year project presenting scholarship from Christian theologians
from around the world.
aid, mental health, and privilege in a panel discussion for Scott Sunquist’s
installation as dean. Listen to the entire panel online.
+ Bill Dyrness, professor of theology and culture, and Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen,
+ Pictured is the Shepherd Choir, a group of SIS Korean Studies students and spouses who volunteer their time to perform sacred music.
The choir represents one of the many languages spoken and sung at the School of Intercultural Studies 50th Celebration gala.
Available Classes
Understanding Christian Mission: Participation in Suffering and Glory
Scott W. Sunquist (Baker Academic, 2013)
The Unexpected Christian Century: The Reversal and Transformation of Global
Christianity, 1900–2000
Scott W. Sunquist (Baker Academic, 2015)
Exploring World Mission: Context and Challenges
Bryant Myers (World Vision International, 2003)
The Dynamics of Christian Mission: History through a Missiological Perspective
Paul Pierson (William Carey International University Press, 2009)
The Great World House: Martin Luther King, Jr., and Global Ethics
Hak Joon Lee (Pilgrim Press, 2011)
Global Christian Worship and Witness with Roberta King
American Christianity in a Global Historical Context with Nathan Feldmeth
Global Pentecostalism and Mission with Amos Yong
God and Globalization with Hak Joon Lee
The Modern Church in a Global Historical Context with Mel Robeck
Modern Theology in a Global Context with Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen
Christianity in China, Korea, and Japan with Scott Sunquist
“The future of Christian theology lies in global sensitivity: theologizing can no longer
be the privilege of one culture, neither Western nor any other. Systematic theology is
fast becoming a collection of various voices from all over the world, often a cacophony of dissonant sounds. What would a genuinely African ecclesiology look like? Or
an Asian one? Or Latin American? . . . Classical Western theology may benefit in an
unprecedented way from the encounter with these contextual and global voices. At its
best, this dialogue may become an ecumenical exchange of gifts.”
+ Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen, professor of systematic theology, in his book An Introduction to Ecclesiology, part of his series on systematic theology from a global
perspective. Read his articles on ecumenism and theological education online.
Jesus’ missionaries have to learn that they can be agents of healing only as they
themselves are healed by others—agents of social, political, economic, and cultural
transformation only as they themselves are transformed socially, politically, economically, and culturally. They not only bear the truth as they come as missionaries
but learn the truth in their missionary encounter. . . . We must learn there is no safe
way of serving or encountering Jesus. His touch leaves no one person, no culture,
no politics, no economics unchallenged or unchanged. That is what it means for
him to be Lord.”
+ Tommy Givens, assistant professor of New Testament studies, reflecting on
Christ sending out his missionaries, in a panel discussion for Scott Sunquist’s
installation as dean. Listen to the whole panel online.
devotional with students at Fuller Texas as students
in Phoenix and Pasadena join them through livestreaming—both a technological innovation and
an image of unity stretching across geographical
“We are the stories we tell. From the flickering flames of the campfire to the video captures of the humiliating or hilarious, stories
have guided tribe and tradition. A community’s canon, whether an
ancient Holy Book or a viral blog post, influences how one imagines
the identity of those within their community and how the community imagines outsiders. . . . The mandate for the followers of Christ to
go into all the world will not be fulfilled by riding a donkey through
Jerusalem but going into the virtual spaces made available through
digital technology.”
+ Joy Moore, assistant professor of preaching, in her essay “Social Media and the
Church,” available online. Above: a student works on an online class in front of
Fuller Pasadena’s Payton Hall. See more about innovations in Fuller’s courses online.
+ This content is curated from ongoing conversations taking place throughout the Fuller community. Visit fullermag.com for full videos, articles, and more.
+ (above) Dean Scott Sunquist is pictured leading a
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“We tend to think of technology as more science than art, or at
least an applied science dependent on art. (Could this be a key for
holding arts and sciences together?) Heidegger links techne to a
bringing forth, to the notion of poiesis. At its best, technology is a
creative act, merging thought with matter and time. Creation can
be seen as God’s poetry, the realization of word and image, ideas
made manifest.”
“Technology at Fuller allows us to think of students and staff in places
like Seattle, Phoenix, Houston, and many more around the country and
around the world as our neighbors, as part of a community which we call
Fuller. My job at Fuller becomes a matter of hospitality, helping create
spaces of welcome for people who would otherwise be on the margins
of this community. By shrinking the space between us, technology becomes a medium through which we may be present to one another.”
+ Craig Detweiler, in his book iGods: How Technology Shapes
+ Eric Mulligan, Fuller videoconferencing support coordinator
Our Spiritual and Social Lives. He recently taught Fuller’s DMin
course “Theology and Pop Culture.”
“We’re now in a culture that flows through networks, and to
understand a people, you need to map the networks they’re a part
of. If you drew a circle around my street to understand the people in
my neighborhood—and that’s all you looked at—you wouldn’t know
us very well. You’d have to study the global networks we’re connected
to. . . . We’re sharing emotional space, connected space, completely
outside the face to face relationships we have. This is a new aspect
of culture we haven’t had before.”
“I’m thrilled when I walk by a Pasadena classroom and see classrooms from our remote campuses made present to each other by
our videoconferencing technology. I smile when I see administrators
across our campuses communicating synchronously in one of our
conference rooms. . . . As Fuller moves forward, the technological
possibilities for extending its educational resources to more people,
including those less privileged, is a very exciting prospect to me,
and I look forward to being a part of that initiative.”
+ “Wall” Wofford, director of Fuller’s technology support services
+ Ryan Bolger, associate professor of church in contemporary
culture, in a lecture on church communities and technological
“The reenchantment of the world is linked to our use of technology.
The access to the fruits of modernity, the age of scientific nationalism, is what allows us ultimately to reenchant our lives. Technology,
both the written word that perhaps marks the dawning of the modern
age and the computer technologies that herald its morphing into a
new stage, provides the means by which a bureaucratized culture
finds its way back to the mystical.”
+ Barry Taylor, artist in residence at Fuller’s Brehm Center for
Worship, Theology and the Arts, in his book Entertainment
Theology: New-Edge Spirituality in a Digital Democracy.
“Pastors and Christian educators must consider the fact that students and congregants are not only engaging in Christian formation within the walls of churches and institutions, but also online.
. . . Not only are United States citizens being formed by the media-saturated culture they are embedded within, in general, they are
participating and socializing online far more than they are participating or socializing in churches or classrooms.”
“We have students connecting from over 60 different countries speaking a number of different languages. Ten years ago, the only way we
could bring these people together would have been meeting in a single
geolocation, and our faith would have been less rich and less diverse
because the distance becomes a debilitating factor. With technology,
it is easier and faster to cross borders and bring every person of the
Christian faith, no matter their ethnicity, their location, or their resources, together at a single table to teach and learn together.”
+ Jeff DeSurra, instructional designer in Fuller’s distributed learning
“When I was initially approached to teach my course, Pastoral
Care and Addictions, via Fuller Live!, I was apprehensive. The class
addresses highly sensitive material and includes a great deal of
self-disclosure and personal testimonies. I was concerned that due
to the distance learning medium, there would be a lack of personal
connection, but thankfully this has not been an issue. I have taught
my course twice using Fuller Live!, and despite the many miles that
have separated us, there has been only respect, unity, and connection among myself and students near and far.”
+ Shannae Anderson, adjunct professor for pastoral care and
addiction courses
+ Angela Gorrell [PhD student], from her research on social media
and community formation. Hear her interview at The Gathering
Place, a resource for Anabaptist youth ministers, online.
+ Pictured: a data center housed on the Pasadena campus. Jim
Rispin, the director of information technology services, sees the
servers within it as “a tangible expression of the intangible power of
the gospel being lived out by students, staff, and faculty through the
‘ones and zeros’ of their papers, blog posts, and emails.”
“Even as a firm believer in online interaction, I know there is often
no substitute for face-to-face communication. With that attitude we
often eschew some technologies, thinking them to stand in the way
of ‘real’ human connection. But it’s worth asking ourselves, perhaps
especially in the contexts of ministry or education: Does this tool
provide us with a connection we would otherwise not have had?”
+ Cory Piña, online community coordinator for Distributed Learning
and developer for the Quad, Fuller’s online student forum
“As a person who builds new technologies, I feel as
though the church is standing at the edge of a vast
ocean of new connective, potentially faith-transmitting
technologies. It can feel overwhelming. But we can
temper any fears we might feel with the knowledge
that the faith we now hold came to us through earlier
technologies. Like the first scribes and the printing-press
reformers after them, we have a responsibility, with God’s
help, to use the technologies at hand in ways that are
both daring and faithful. . . . We need to design systems
that pay attention to how that power is forming people—
both the good and bad.
Technology has the potential to connect people across the
world and quickly communicate ideas and stories that transform our society and individuals in radical ways. And just
like working out, when we perceive our training as a game,
it’s more fun and we’re more inclined to do it regularly. So
we’ve designed an app to empower young people who are
looking to develop their character by giving them a path to
get there and have some fun while they’re doing it.”
“Because of social media, Black Lives Matter has been
able to disrupt the public sphere and become a movement
with a global scope. The justice issues they address,
powered through new social platforms, have resulted in
some tangible change. I contend that the church has yet
to seize this opportunity. While technology fuels social
transformation, the church is largely on the sidelines. What
might it look like if we had a platform where . . . truth
and theological thought leadership had more followers
than Facebook or Instagram? Where we could create a
connected Christian church bound by a network of love?”
+ Trustee C. Jeffrey Wright, from his lecture at the Rewiring conference. Wright is executive director of FULLER Studio, a new
venture providing formation resources for the global Christian
church and individuals seeking a deeply informed spiritual life.
The Digital Invasion: How Technology Is Shaping You
and Your Relationships
Archibald Hart and S. H. Frejd (Baker, 2013)
Human Identity at the Intersection of Science,
Technology, and Religion
Edited by Nancey Murphy and C. Knight (Ashgate, 2010)
Right Click: Parenting Your Teenager in a Digital Media
Kara Powell, Art Bamford, and Brad M. Griffin (Fuller
Youth Institute, 2015)
Available Classes
The Church in a Culture of Technology with Ryan Bolger
Narrative Communication in a Visual Age with Ken Fong
+ Matt Lumpkin, pictured right, is Fuller’s online user
experience strategist and developer for the Quad, Fuller’s
online student forum. CharacterMe is a mobile app
developed by the Thrive Center that combines technology
and cognitive behavorial therapy to help teenagers practice
emotional regulation while also delivering real-time data to
researchers. (See pp. 68–73 for an article explaining more
in detail the purpose and use of this app.)
“When it comes to the use of digital technology
in the church, we should be missional, creative,
and faithful. What we do with technology should
be motivated and guided by our mission as the
people of God called into God’s service for the
sake of the world. Our use of technology should
also be creative and not merely an imitation of
secular patterns and practices. Wouldn’t it be
wonderful if the church actually created new
technologies that reflect the grace, rhythms, and
justice of God? We need to be thinking critically—as well as creatively and prayerfully, in light
of Scripture—about these tools God has entrusted to us and all the uses to which we put them.”
+ Mark Roberts, director of the Max De Pree Center
for Leadership, from his talk “How God Uses
Technology for His Purposes” at the Rewiring:
Faith and Technology Conference (pictured, middle
right). Read his daily e-devotional “Life for Leaders” online.
“Conflicts in the church over the use of “technology” in worship rarely have anything to do with technology
and often have everything to do with our collective (mis)understanding of the meaning and purpose of worship. For example, some Christians believe that Sunday morning is a time of theological education, others see
it as a time for aesthetic entertainment, still others see it as an opportunity for private spiritual enrichment. In
the end, Christian communities will purchase and implement liturgical technologies to serve their prospective
goals for worship. What we have in the church is not a technology problem—we have a worship problem.
Education, aesthetics, and enrichment might all play a proper role in worship but none of them constitute the
true end of worship. If the true purpose of worship is the glory of God and the formation of God’s people for
mission, we must ask ourselves first and foremost how these liturgical technologies either serve and distract
from the people’s worship.”
+ Matthew Kaemingk, director of Fuller Institute for Theology and Northwest Culture, from his lecture during its recent
conference Rewiring: Faith and Technology. Learn more about Fuller Northwest and the Fuller Institute for Theology
and Northwest Culture—including its blog Christ & Cascadia—online. At right: a conference-goer stays connected
during a break between sessions at the conference
“As Christian leaders it is the mission of the Clergy
Community Coalition [CCC] to work with the community to improve the quality of life for all people
through spiritual transformation and creative solutions
that enhance educational advancement, economic
empowerment, and health and wellness. . . . This
year the CCC celebrates 10 years of instilling hope
in our community through reconciliation, spiritual
transformation, and collaborative relationships for the
shalom of our city and the surrounding areas.”
+ Jean Burch [MAGL ’15] has lived in Pasadena and been
an advocate for churches and the community. The CCC
was founded in 2005 and currently has a membership of
over 40 pastors and leaders within the Pasadena community. She’s pictured at Fuller where she met with student
leaders who want to foster new relationships with the city.
The City
“There are many, many ways God is at work in the urban context, and
we really need to develop eyes to see that. I think part of working in
the city is asking God, ‘God, show us what you see.’ The city can be
the place not just where hard things happen. The transformation of
God’s kingdom means that those hard things can produce amazing
character and real beauty. I think part of my desire . . . is for us to
learn to see those things. For us to see differently.”
+ Jude Tiersma Watson, associate professor of urban mission, speaking with Fuller
Youth Institute on developing sustainable practices for caring for the city. Above: a
student looks over the city of Los Angeles from Mt. Wilson.
“Beyond mere survival, beyond job function,
bureaucratic specialization, or social roles,
is a wide scope of human concern and
responsibility. We are all given gifts for which
we all must care. Just as we’re learning the
importance of taking care of our environment
to leave the earth healthy for future
generations, so we must all care for culture
so future generations can thrive.”
+ Mako Fujimura, visual artist and director of the
Brehm Center for Worship, Theology, and the Arts,
from his recent book Culture Care. He is pictured
challenging staff and faculty at Fuller to cultivate a
new engagement with culture.
+ This content is curated from ongoing conversations taking place throughout the Fuller community. Visit fullermag.com for full videos, articles, and more.
“I spent my first year here at Fuller just listening
to people in City Hall, the school district, and
nonprofits, and as I heard from people in the city, I
would look for partners within the Fuller community who were doing that kind of work. I wasn’t trying
to create a program or make Fuller create them—I
was looking for any natural connections that we
could make and trying to create linkages. My hope
is that Fuller will have committed relationships to
people in Pasadena, that it will be a part of our
DNA, and that there will be more ways for us to
share our stories with each other—stories about
what God’s doing in us and through us by being
willing to serve our neighbors.”
+ Janet Labberton—a veteran Young Life leader—volunteers with Pasadena High School students, and, as part
of a commitment to Fuller and the city of Pasadena,
works to facilitate new partnerships between them.
It Matters to Us!
We are still here
and if we ever become grandparents
we will tell our little ones:
“It was worth it living here!”
Now it’s our turn
to give our very best
We will not be indifferent
selfish, cynical spectators
Hey, Hey!
Hey, Hey!
It matters to us!
This is home!
+ lyrics from a song by Cristian Cazacu [MAICS ’10]
that became a rallying cry in Romania during a
recent presidential election, calling on people to
be committed and hope-filled participants in the
public sphere rather than withdrawing in fear and
cynicism. Hear the song sung by Cristian in the
original language online.
“Many churches have deserted French
neighborhoods such as the ones in
which the attackers grew up. I often
think of the transformation that could
happen if these places would know
that Jesus is the Prince of Peace.
When I stood at the sites of the attacks
where row after row of flowers, signs,
candles, and other tributes had been
left, I was surprised to see so many
notes longing for peace, harmony, and
love. What if interconnectedness also
meant including Jesus, the Prince of
Peace and the Giver of Life, as our
partner in opposing terrorism and
bringing hope to our world?”
+ (above) Evelyne Reisacher, associate
professor of Islamic studies and French
citizen, after the recent shootings in
Paris. Reisacher took written prayers with
her from the Fuller community offered
in solidarity and grief from thousands
of miles away. Read her full reflection
“I want to do more than protest and pray. I want to be part of an effort to take
even a small step toward healing and justice in my community. I want to give voice
to people who are usually told that they are the problem. I want for people on all
sides of the issue to be humanized instead of stereotyped or vilified. I want to find
a way to be faithful to a gospel in which Jesus focuses on people that society has
abandoned and left for
dead in order to touch
them, heal them, listen to
them, and restore them
into a loving community.
It’s a sacred story that says
Jesus gave his everything,
including his life, just to
love those whom others
considered unlovable. For
me, the Trust Talks are a
first step toward creating
that kind of community
and that kind of love.”
+ Delonte Gholston [MDiv ’15], a pastoral intern at New City Church in downtown Los Angeles,
responded to the violence he saw around him by creating the Trust Talks, a parachurch event
that gathers community leaders and members of the police force together to discuss issues
of race, police violence, and poverty. More online.
+ Matthew Whitney, pictured a in “Self Portrait” (watercolor and ink on paper, 2014),
“writes text into the urban grid” by praying as he walks carefully planned patterns on
Seattle streets. He then paints or illustrates those grids as a completion of his prayer
for those neighborhoods. Whitney is a Cascade Fellow, a new initiative started by
Fuller’s Institute for Theology and Northwest Culture in partnership with Seattle-area
churches and marketplace ministries. See more of his work online.
“Multiethnicity is not essentially a problem to be solved. It’s part of the plan.
From the get-go, God has been creating a people in which diversity is not
simply tolerated but advanced. . . . In the New Testament, the Holy Spirit
unites people by opening them out to each other, unblocking closed minds
and hearts, unlocking those otherwise locked in.”
+ Jeremy Begbie, from his lecture at the inaugural event for Brehm Texas. Pictured
above: President Mark Labberton speaks with Mark Lanier inside the Lanier
Theological Library and chapel facility in Houston, Texas, where the event was held.
“The essence of incarnation is embedded in the
indwelling of God in us through the Holy Spirit.
. . . Standing with the poor as we stand with Christ
requires time and the building of mutual trust as well
as commitment. [This kind of] incarnational solidarity
requires a long-term commitment. In the beginning
when you’re working with the poor, you often feel like
you do not have enough resources. It feels like all you
have are a few loaves and a few fish—and five thousand
problems. However, the longer you stay . . . the
resources miraculously multiply.”
+ Sofia Herrera is a licensed clinical psychologist and
cofounder of the Office for Urban Initiatives (OUI). Hear her
entire lecture at the 2010 Integration Symposium and
more information on OUI’s many initiatives throughout the
city online.
+ Fuller Seminary’s Office for Urban Initiatives
equips students to develop and participate in
strategies of social justice, following the tradition
of past and contemporary Christian reformers.
Founders Joe Colleti and Sophia Herrara (see left)
teach students to address local and global issues
of injustice. (At right: a student works for the yearly
homeless count facilitated by the Office of Urban
Initiatives and the City of Pasadena. Students
canvas the city in groups gathering information
from the homeless population in order to provide
more robust social services. More online.)
“My own life has been transformed by the many urban
social issues that I became involved in over the past 25
years and by infusing my Christian faith and spiritual
practices into every one of them. This integrative
experience has led me to call myself ‘an urban monk.’
. . . I so wanted to move from the ‘state of beginners’
that St. John of the Cross talked about to the ‘purified
soul’ that I eagerly sought to climb the ‘mystic ladder of
divine love’ that purified the soul rung by rung through
prayer, love, and forgiveness. At the same time, I
began to fashion my own ladder of service to homeless
persons based upon my deeper understanding and
experiences of compounding complications such as
mental illness.”
+ Joe Colletti is an affiliate associate professor of Urban
Studies, the cofounder of the Office for Urban Initiatives,
and the founder of the Society of Urban Monks. Find more
information on this and many other initiatives throughout the
city online.
Available Classes
Walking With the Poor
Bryant Meyers (Orbis Books, 2011)
The Dangerous Act of Loving Your Neighbor
Mark Labberton (IVP, 2010)
God So Loves the City: Seeking a Theology for Urban Mission
ed. by Charles Van Engen and Jude Tiersma (Wipf and Stock, 2009)
Encountering the City with Jude Tiersma Watson
Complex Urban Environments with Jude Tiersma Watson
Urban Church Planting with Jude Tiersma Watson
Integration of Spirituality and Urban Ministry with Joe Colletti
Homelessness, Congregations and Community Partnerships with Joe Colletti
Introduction to Urban Studies with Joe Colletti
“We have giant populations of people who live in the
shadows of our culture. That affects our schools.
That affects our communities. That affects the history
of who we are. . . . How are we going to pay attention
to the entire city as a whole—and not just the pretty parts?”
+ Billy Thrall [MAT ’87] leads CityServe AZ, a parachurch initiative to connect resources and social services
to impoverished families in the cities of Arizona. More online.
New Faculty Books
An Ethiopian Reading of the Bible: Biblical Interpretation of the
Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church
Keon-Sang An (Pickwick Publications, 2015)
Questions for Proper Christian Living—Answers from Dr. Seyoon
Kim [a collection of interview articles]
Seyoon Kim (Seoul: Duranno, 2015)
Canoeing the Mountains: Christian Leadership in Uncharted
Tod Bolsinger (IVP Books, 2015)
Religion in the History of Psychology: Selected Comments and The
Psychology of Religion: Revisited
H. Newton Malony (Xlibris, 2015)
Youth Ministry in the 21st Century: 5 Views
edited by Chap Clark (Baker Academic, 2015), with contributed chapter,
“The Adoption View of Youth Ministry”
The Unexpected Christian Century: The Reversal and Transformation
of Global Christianity, 1900–2000
Scott W. Sunquist (Baker Academic, 2015)
Jonathan Edwards among the Theologians
Oliver D. Crisp (Eerdmans, 2015)
The Gospel and Pluralism Today: Reassessing Lesslie Newbigin in
the 21st Century (Missiological Engagements Series)
edited by Scott W. Sunquist and Amos Yong (IVP Academic, 2015), with
introduction by Scott Sunquist, “The Legacy of Newbigin for Mission
to the West,” and Amos Yong article “Pluralism, Secularism, and
Pentecost: Newbigin-ings for Missio Trinitatis in a New Century”
Locating Atonement: Explorations in Constructive Dogmatics
Proceedings of the Third Los Angeles Theology Conference, 2015,
edited by Oliver D. Crisp and Fred Sanders (Zondervan Academic,
Theology without Borders: An Introduction to Global Conversations
William Dyrness and Oscar García-Johnson (Baker Academic, 2015)
Jeremiah for Everyone
John Goldingay (Westminster John Knox, 2015)
An Introduction to the Old Testament: Exploring Text, Approaches
& Issues
John Goldingay (IVP Academic, 2015)
Conversion in Luke-Acts: Divine Action, Human Cognition, and the
People of God
Joel B. Green (Baker Academic, 2015)
John: A Commentary
Marianne Meye Thompson, The New Testament Library (Westminster
John Knox, 2015)
Research Design in Counseling, 4th ed.
P. P. Heppner, B. E. Wampold, J. J. Owen, M. N. Thompson, and Kenneth
T. Wang (Thomas Brooks/Cole, 2015)
Paul Tillich and Pentecostal Theology: Spiritual Presence and
Spiritual Power
Nimi Wariboko and Amos Yong (Indiana University Press, 2015), with
Amos Yong article “Why is the ‘Correlation’ between Pentecostal
Theology and Paul Tillich Important, and Who Cares?”
New Fuller Faculty
Headington Assistant Professor of Global
Leadership Development of Theology and Culture
Assistant Professor of Clinical Psychology
In September 2015, Peter Lim joined the School of Intercultural Studies
faculty at the Pasadena campus. He comes from Washington, where
he taught for Fuller as an adjunct associate professor of intercultural
leadership and served as a consultant on leadership development and
cultural exchange with the Outreach Foundation/China Mission.
Although well known in Fuller’s School of Theology, having taught here for
four years, Anne Turk Nolty officially joined the faculty as of September 1,
2015. Along with teaching and student advising, Nolty’s ongoing research
includes projects to understand resilience of humanitarian aid workers and
first responders, and investigation of Cogmed, a computerized, interactive
working memory training program.
Recent Faculty Journal Articles
LESLIE ALLEN, “Macrostructure: How to Retrieve a Coherent Whole from Complex Information,” in The
Genre of Biblical Commentary: Essays in Honor of John E. Hartley on His 75th Birthday, ed. Timothy D. Finlay
and William Yarchin (Pickwick, 2015), 93–111. JUSTIN L. BARRETT and M. J. Jarvinen, “Cognitive
Evolution, Human Uniqueness, and the Imago Dei,” in The Emergence of Personhood: A Quantum Leap?
ed. M. Jeeves, 163–83 (Eerdmans, 2015). WARREN S. BROWN, with Lynn K. Paul, “Brain Connectivity
and the Emergence of Capacities of Personhood: Reflections from Callosal Agenesis and Autism,” in The
Emergence of Personhood: A Quantum Leap? ed. M. Jeeves, 104–19 (Eerdmans, 2015); and, with Van
Slyke, J., and Garrels, S. “Internal or Situated Religiousness: A Girardian Solution,” in How We Became
Human: Mimetic Theory and the Science of Evolutionary Origins, ed. P. Antonello and P. Gifford (Michigan
State University Press, 2015). WARREN S. BROWN and BRAD D. STRAWN, ”Beyond the Isolated
Self: Extended Mind and Spirituality,” in Arguing Our Way Toward Flourishing, ed. R. Newson and B.
Kallenberg (Cascade, 2015); and “The Physical Nature of Pastoral Care and Counseling,” Sacred Spaces:
The E-Journal of the American Association of Pastoral Counselors (2015). OLIVER CRISP, “Anselm and
Edwards on the Doctrine of God,” in The Ecumenical Edwards: Jonathan Edwards and the Theologians,
ed. Kyle Strobel (Ashgate, 2015). WILLIAM DYRNESS, “Listening for Fresh Voices in the History of
the Church,” in Teaching Global Theologies: Power and Praxis, ed. Kwok Pui-Lan et al. (Baylor University
Press, 2015); and “God’s Play: Calvin, Theatre and the Rise of the Book,” in Calvin and the Book: The
Evolution of the Printed Word in Reformed Protestantism, ed. Karen Spierling (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht,
2015). CYNTHIA B. ERIKSSON, with J. M. Holland, J. M. Currier, L. M. Snider, A. K. Ager, R. R. Kaiser,
and W. S. Simon, “Trajectories of Spiritual Change among Expatriate Humanitarian Aid Workers: A
Prospective Longitudinal Study,” Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 7 (2015): 13–23, DOI:10.1037/
a0037703. JAMES L. FURROW, “Sacred Ties: Helping Couples Find Faith in Love,” in Transforming
Wisdom: Pastoral Psychotherapy in Theological Perspective, ed. F. Kelcourse and K. B. Lyon, 199–213
(Cascade, 2015). MARK HOPKINS, “Leadership Development in a Seminary Context: The Case of Two
In-Service Degrees at Fuller Theological Seminary,” Asian Missions Advance 49, October 2015, 13–18.
ROBERT JOHNSTON, “The Biblical Noah, Darren Aronofsky’s Film Noah, and Viewer Response to
Noah: The Complex Task of Responding to God’s Initiative,” Ex Auditu 31 (2015): 88–112. VELI-MATTI
KÄRKKÄINEN, “Teaching Global Theology in a Comparative Mode,” in Teaching Global Theologies: Power
and Praxis, ed. K. Pui-lan, C. González-Andrieu, and D. N. Hopkins, 45–53 (Baylor University Press, 2015);
with Michael Karim, “Community and Witness in Transition: Newbigin’s Missional Ecclesiology Between
Modernity and Postmodernity,” in The Gospel and Pluralism Today: Reassessing Lesslie Newbigin in the
21st Century, ed. Scott W. Sunquist and Amos Yong, 71–100 (InterVarsity Press, 2015); and “Spiritual
Power and Spiritual Presence: The Contemporary Renaissance in Pneumatology in Light of a Dialogue
between Pentecostal Theology and Tillich,” in Paul Tillich and Pentecostal Theology: Spiritual Presence
& Spiritual Power, ed. Nimi Wariboko and Amos Yong, 17–29 (Indiana University Press, 2015). SEONGHYEON KIM, T. M. Corbett, N. Strenger, and CAMERON LEE, “An Actor-Partner Interdependence
Analysis of the ABC-X Stress Model Among Clergy Couples,” Psychology of Religion and Spirituality (June
8, 2015) DOI:10.1037/rel0000031. SEYOON KIM, “Reconciliation,” in The Oxford Encyclopedia of the
Bible and Theology (Oxford University Press, 2015). HAK JOON LEE, “Immigration,” in Asian American
Christian Ethics, ed. G. Kao and Il Sup Ahn, 177–202 (Baylor University Press, 2015); and “Public Theology,” in The Cambridge Companion to Political Theology, ed. C. Jackson and T. Jackson, 44–65 (Cambridge
University Press, 2015). TIMOTHY K. PARK , “The Missionary Movement of the Korean Church: A
Non-Western Church Mission Model,” in Korean Church, God’s Mission, Global Christianity, ed. Wonsuk Ma
and Kyo Seong Ahn, 19–31, Regnum Edinburgh Centenary 26 (Wipf & Stock, 2015); and “Leadership and
Listening to God,” Asian Missions Advance (East-West Center for Missions Research and Development,
2015), 2–5. MICHAEL PASQUARELLO III, “Ambrose of Milan,” Carolingian Renaissance,” “John
Chrysostom,” “History of Theological Education,” “Sabbath,” “Virtue Ethics,” in Encyclopedia of Christian
Education, ed. G. T. Kurian and M. Lamport (Rowman & Littlefield, 2015). CECIL M. ROBECK, 오순
절주의와 한국교회: 역사적, 신학적 평가 (“Pentecostalism in the Korean Church: A Historical
and Theological Evaluation”), Church Growth 6 (2015): 36–42; “Panel Presentation on the Church:
Towards a Common Vision,” Journal of Ecumenical Studies 50 (2015): 288–94; and “An Evangelical
Perspective on Church and Mission,” in The Mission of God: Studies in Orthodox and Evangelical Mission,
ed. M. Oxbrow and T. Grass, 68–84, Regnum Studies in Mission (Regnum Books International, 2015).
WILBERT SHENK, “Newbigin in His Time,” in The Gospel and Pluralism Today: Reassessing Lesslie
Newbigin in the 21st Century, ed. S. W. Sunquist and A. Yong, pp. 29–47 (IVP Academic, 2015). SIANGYANG TAN, “Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Practice: A Brief Review and Christian Perspective,”
Journal of Psychology and Christianity 34 (2015): 367–75; and, with E. Scalise, “On Belay: The Role of
the Church in Lay Helping,” Christian Counseling Today 21 no. 2 (2015): 45–50. KENNETH T. WANG,
with B. Methikalam, R. B. Slaney, and J. G. Yeung, “Perfectionism, Family Expectations, Mental Health,
and Asian Values Among Asian Indians in the United States,” Asian American Journal of Psychology
6 (2015): 223–32, DOI:10.1037/aap0000023; with G. E. K. Allen and H. Stokes, “Examining Family
Perfectionism and Well-Being among LDS Individuals,” Mental Health, Religion & Culture 18 (2015):
246–58, DOI:10.1080/13674676.2015.1021312; and, with H. N. Suh and B. J. Arterberry, “Development
and Initial Validation of the Self-Directed Learning Inventory with Korean College Students,” Journal of
Psychoeducation Assessment 33 (2015): 687–97, DOI:10.1177/0734282914557728.
IS SUE # 6 | SPRING 2016
Miyoung Yoon Hammer
Benediction: Acts that Speak the Good Word
+ Don’t Miss
Experience: Fuller Prospective Student Event
Working in a Christian environment
was something I’ve always wanted,
but at the same time I didn’t
understand why God had me here
at Fuller when I was so used to
being the only Christian at work.
It was quite an adjustment. I
remember telling my wife Lilian as
we went home one day, “I don’t
know why God has me here. I
haven’t figured it out yet.” She
asked me, “Well, do you enjoy it?”
I loved it!
I think the issue was this:
at my other jobs, I was the only
Christian, and I was always the
one people would come to with
questions. Here, I was surrounded
by professors and students who
already knew Christ, and they all
had way more education than I
had. So during that first year I was
constantly asking, “What am I doing
here?” It was an ongoing process,
but I remember one day when God
finally answered me.
I was walking around campus
doing my deliveries, and when I
walked by the corner, I met a former
student and staff member. From
our earlier conversations I knew
she was engaged to be married,
and as we were walking she started
telling her story. She and her fiancé
had broken up. I thought of all the
things you could say, but nothing
seemed appropriate. All I could
think of was that I could pray for
her. After we talked, she headed off
to the bookstore, and as I walked
to the 250 Madison building, it
occurred to me that God answered
my prayer: my job was to pray. So
as I would go to each office on my
daily rounds, I started praying for
my coworkers.
Whenever staff members
became sick, I would especially
pray for them. Toi and Sam PerkinsPrince, Ruth Vuong, Juan Martínez
and his wife—every time I went by
their offices I would quietly pray for
them. If I came by twice, I would
pray twice. If people were getting
married, I would pray that things
would go smoothly. Now whenever
we sort the mail, I start praying for
people as I see their names, and
whenever I see a check, I’ll pray,
“Okay Lord, let this multiply. Use
this for your glory.” It’s been nine
years since I started praying here,
and I’ve been doing it ever since.
+ Larry Puga has been working at Fuller
as a mail clerk since 2007. Although
he’s stopped walking the route, he still
prays for people every day as he sorts
mail and waits on people from behind
the mail window.
March 2 | Pasadena campus
Q Commons at Fuller: A Live Learning Experience
March 3 | Pasadena campus | 7:00–9:00 p.m.
Culture Care: Music, Beauty, and Creativity
Brehm Worship Event with David Gungor, The Brilliance, and Mako Fujimura
March 4–5 | Pasadena campus
School of Theology Payton Lectures:
“Reading John Missionally” with Michael Gorman
April 6–7 | Pasadena campus
“The Theology, Spirituality, and Practice of Singleness”
with Christina Cleveland
May 6–7 | Arizona campus
Altered Egos: Gospel, Pop Culture, and Asian American Identity
May 21 | Pasadena campus
June 11 | Pasadena campus
For more: fuller.edu/events
Main Campus/Pasadena, Fuller
Online, Fuller Arizona, Fuller
Bay Area, Fuller Colorado, Fuller
Northwest, Fuller Orange County,
Fuller Sacramento, Fuller Texas
fuller.edu / 800.2Fuller
What is Fuller?
Fuller Theological Seminary is
one of the world’s most influential
evangelical institutions, the largest
multidenominational seminary, and
a leading voice for faith, civility,
and justice in the global church
and wider culture. With deep
roots in orthodoxy and branches
in innovation, we are committed
to forming Christian women and
men to be faithful, courageous,
innovative, collaborative, and
fruitful leaders who will make an
exponential impact for Jesus in any
Fuller offers 18 degree
¿Qué es Fuller?
programs at 8 campuses—with
Spanish, Korean, and online
options—through our Schools
of Theology, Psychology, and
Intercultural Studies, as well
as 20 centers, institutes, and
initiatives. Approximately 4,000
students from 90 countries and
110 denominations enroll in
our programs annually, and our
41,000 alumni have been called
to serve as ministers, counselors,
teachers, artists, nonprofit leaders,
businesspersons, and in a multitude
of other vocations around the world.
El Seminario Teológico Fuller es una
de las instituciones evangélicas más
influyentes del mundo, el seminario
teológico más grande, y una voz principal para la fe, la cortesía (civility en
inglés) y la justicia en la iglesia global
y la cultura en general. Con raíces profundas en la ortodoxia y sucursales en
innovación, estamos comprometidos a
formar mujeres y hombres cristianos
a ser fieles, valientes, innovadores,
colaboradores y líderes de éxito que
tendrán un impacto exponencial para
Jesús en cualquier contexto.
Fuller ofrece 18 programas de
estudio en 8 localidades—con op-
풀러는 어떤 신학교인가?
ciones en Español, Coreano, y clases
en línea—a través de nuestras facultades de Teología, Sicología y Estudios Interculturales juntamente con
20 centros, institutos e iniciativas.
Aproximadamente 4,000 estudiantes
de 90 países y 110 denominaciones
ingresan anualmente a nuestros
programas y nuestros 41,000 ex
alumnos y ex alumnas han aceptado
el llamado a servir en el ministerio,
la consejería, educación, las artes, en
organizaciones sin fines de lucro, los
negocios y una multitud de diferentes
vocaciones alrededor del mundo.
풀러신학교는 오늘날 세계에서 가장
영향력있는 복음주의 기관들 중 하나이자
가장 큰 신학교로서, 지구촌 교회 내에서와
다양한 문화 속에서 믿음, 시민교양,
정의를 위한 선도적 목소리가 되고
있습니다. 정통신앙에 깊이 뿌리내리고
혁신의 가지를 뻗어가는 가운데, 우리는
그리스도인 형제 자매들이 신실하고,
용기있고, 혁신적이고, 상호협력하고,
열매를 맺는 리더들이 되어 어떤
상황에서도 예수님을 위해 폭발적인
영향력을 미칠 수 있도록 준비시키는 데
전념하고 있습니다.
심리학대학원, 선교대학원 등 3개의
대학원과 20개 센터 및 연구소를 통해,
8개의 다른 캠퍼스에서, 18개의 학위
과정—영어, 스페인어, 한국어 그리고
온라인 —을 제공하고 있습니다. 풀러의
여러 학위 과정에는 매년 90여개국,
110여 교단 출신의 4,000여명의
학생들이 등록을 하고 있으며, 41,000
여명의 동문들은 목회자, 상담가, 교사,
예술인, 비영리 단체 리더, 사업가를
비롯하여 세상에서 다양한 직업에서
하나님의 부르심에 부응하여 활약하고
+ Fuller Orange County
135 North Oakland Avenue
Pasadena, California 91182
“What stories are we going to tell aboutMuslims?
Of despair or of hope? Like the prophet
Zechariah, I am a hostage of hope. Why?
Because I’ve seen God doing amazing things in
the Muslim world for over 50 years.”
—Evelyne Reisacher Associate Professor of Islamic
Studies and Intercultural Relations, at Urbana 15
At Fuller we see a need for biblically grounded Christians
with a sophisticated knowledge of Islam, ready to engage
with Muslims in ways that contribute to the spiritual and
social transformation of today’s most challenging realities. If
this is your call, explore our Islamic Studies emphasis. You’ll
learn from Dr. Reisacher, who is eager to share her depth of
expertise—whether it’s with thousands at the Urbana Student
Missions Conference, or one-on-one with her students.
Learn more at Fuller.edu/IslamicStudies

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