The Impact of Plant Variety Protection in Korea

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WIPO Donor Conference
Impact of
Plant Variety Protection in Korea
Yoon, Jin Young
Advisor, Nonwoobio Co. Ltd.
Republic of Korea
November 5, 2009
Contents
Ⅰ. Korean Agriculture and Breeding in Brief
II. PVP system in Korea
III . Impact of PVP system
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Increase the number of new varieties
Diversification & improvement of varieties
Encouragement of breeding activity
Utilization of protected varieties for breeding new variety
Benefiting growers and export
IV. Another advantage
V. Summary
2
I. Korean agriculture and
breeding in brief
Korean Agriculture – some major points
• Small scale (average land holding – 1.45ha)
• Aged farm managers (63.3% over 60 years old)
• High dependency on imports of food/feed crops (74%
of total consumption)
- rice: 96% (+ 5.6% of MMA) : over supply causes price dropping
- wheat 0.4%, corn 0.9%, soybean 7.1%: little domestic market
• Import increase in most horticultural crops since 1995
• Therefore, opportunities are sought in
- high value specialty and functional crops/varieties
- export to Asia and to the world
Crops breeding
– at the time of PVP adoption
• Rice and food/feed crops
– government programs only.
• Vegetables
– private-led.
– advanced in unique traditional crops(radish, pepper
& Chinese cabbage).
• Ornamentals and fruit trees
– almost totally dependent on foreign varieties.
5
II. PVP in Korea
History of PVP System and
Implementing Organizations
 Brief history
O Dec. 1995
Consolidation of Seed Industry Law
- Article 27.3(b) of WTO/TRIPS
O Dec. 1997
Implementation of PVP system
from December 31
O Jan. 2002
Joining as a UPOV’s 50th member
 Offices implementing PVP
O Korea Seed & Variety Service (KSVS) : Agricultural species
O Korea Forest Seed & Variety Center : Forestry species
7
No. of Species to Entitled
500
400
300
200
100
27
57
88
113
155
189
All
Except
223 For 6
All
0
'97
'00
'01
'02
'04
'06
'08
'09
12
Exclusions : strawberry, raspberry, blueberry, mandarin, cherry, sea weeds
8
(1998-2008)
Fruits
191 , 5%
Others
205, 5%
•Others : Industrial crops (142),
•Mushroom(44)
Agricultural
635 , 16%
Vegetables
711 , 18%
Ornamentals
2,177, 56%
9
Rice
Soybean
Hot pepper
Tomato
Rose
Chrysanthemum
kalanchoe 0
Gerbera
Anthrium 0
Apple
Kiwifruit
0%
99
99
99
96
30
51
48
86
82
20%
40%
60%
80%
resident
non-resident
100%
Japan
33%
Germany
US
10%
6%
Denmark
5%
Italy
5%
Israel
Others
3%
NewZealand
Spain
France
Netherlands
39%
Others
11
II. Impact of PVP System
A.
B.
C.
D.
Increase the number of new varieties
Diversification & improvement of varieties
Encouragement of breeding activity
Utilization of protected varieties for breeding new
variety
E. Benefiting growers and export
The reason behind two conspicuous peaks
- 2002 : UPOV membership & Entitlement of rose, chrysanthemum
as PVP subject
- 2005 : Entitlement of gerbera as PVP subject
13
in terms of No. of PVP titles granted
476
Rose
Chrysanthemum
Rice
Soybean
Chin Cactus
Gerbera
Kalanchoe
Hot pepper
Barley
Chinese Cabbage
262
202
101
82
81
79
78
71
52
0
100
200
300
400
500
14
15
II. Impact of PVP System
A.
B.
C.
D.
Increase the number of new varieties
Diversification & improvement of varieties
Encouragement of breeding activity
Utilization of protected varieties for breeding new
variety
E. Benefiting growers and export
Breeding objectives
Productivity
Productivity
+ steamed quality
• Quality
• Resistance to
(a)biotic stress
• Functional
food use
17
<L> Ordinary variety
<M> Giant embryo variety
<R> Waxy variety with giant embryo
<L> Variety with white core
<R> Variety with transparent milled rice
Green kerneled variety
<L> Unhulled, <R> Dehulled
18
Hot pepper
Characteristics of newly developed varieties
Resistant to Phytophthora blight/virus
Strong to flooding damage
High yield
Good quality of dried pepper
shape, color, proper degree of pungency
- Above : Resistant variety to Phytophthora
blight (a fungal disease)
- Bottom : Susceptible variety
19
Rose
Diversification in variety spectrum
Standard type ⇒ standard + spray + pot type
Color: Red, White, Pink ⇒ bi-colors, pastel (orange) and green
are added.
Standard type
Bi-colors
Pastel (orange)
color
Spray type
Green color
20
Current status
Eight varieties was bred and PBR granted since PVP
introduction
Improved features
Enhanced production ratio of red ginseng
15 % (landrace, past) ⇒ 20~38%
High yield of root
※ Red ginseng
The six year old ginseng roots which is
steamed for preserving vital nutrients
and flavors.
Recently released variety “Chun-poong”
21
II. Impact of PVP System
A.
B.
C.
D.
Increase the number of new varieties
Diversification & improvement of varieties
Encouragement of breeding activity
Utilization of protected varieties for breeding new
variety
E. Benefiting growers and export
Changes of breeding activity
- Private sector -
Changes of breeding activity in terms of no. of application
120
115
100
92
110
100
80
69
60
58
40
20
0
0
14
4
‘97
‘98
57
56
51
47
26
20
10
25
12
9
‘99
‘00
‘01
Individual Breeders
58
49
14
‘02
‘03
‘04
‘05
‘06
‘07
‘08
Seed Companies
23
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
120
100
80
N.A
60
N.A
40
20
No. of application
No. of individual breeders
Changes in number of individual
breeders and their application
0
'03
'04
'05
'06
'07
'08
Year
24
Changes of breeding activity in terms of no. of application
200
160
120
80
40
0
206
133
128
131
89
0
0
4
40
8
‘97
‘98
‘99
‘00
38
Local Government
97
61
24
10
‘01
‘02
37
35
‘03
‘04
‘05
96
106
97
111
87
‘07
‘08
43
‘06
Central Government
25
R&D Matching fund trend in Plant Breeding
14000
12000
10000
Governmental investment
(US : 1,000 $)
8000
6000
4000
2000
0
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
26
II. Impact of PVP System
A.
B.
C.
D.
Increase the number of new varieties
Diversification & improvement of varieties
Encouragement of breeding activity
Utilization of protected varieties for breeding
new variety
E. Benefiting growers and export
Utilizing protected varieties
for breeding new varieties
Case of a private company; ‘Daniela’ tomato
Segregation and
selection
Hybridization and
selection
Long shelf life
Daniela (ES ’93, IL, ’94
NL ‘96, PL ‘94, ZA ‘98 )
Long shelf life + more uniform fruits
F1 Duesshra
28
Utilizing protected varieties
for breeding new varieties
Case of a private company; ‘Marathon’ broccoli
Marathon (DE ‘86,
HU ‘98 NO ‘95)
Long time market leader
Anther culture and selection
Combined with another parent
F1 04B411
More uniform heads
Less side shoots
29
Utilizing protected varieties
for breeding new varieties
Protected varieties entered in crossing block
of a government-funded Paprika program
Variety
Protection
(country, year)
Characteristics
Special
NL, 2006
Stress tolerance, Long shelf life, Earliness
Plenty
NL, 2006
Stress tolerance
Ferrari
NL, 2006
Stress tolerance, Good fruit setting
Fantasy
NL, Applied
TMV-Res., Good storability
Balstar
NL, 2009
TMV and TSWV-Res.
Derbi
RU, 2005
High yield, Heat tolerance, Long shelf life
Maseriti
NL, 2007
TMV-Res., High yield
Fiasta
NL, 2006
Uniform fruit, TMV-Res.
Kelly
NL, 2006
Heat tolerance, TMV-Res.
President
NL, 2006
TMV-Res., Good vigor
30
Utilizing protected varieties
for breeding new varieties
Protected varieties entered in crossing block
of a government-funded Paprika program
Crop
Variety bred
Protected variety utilized (country, year)
Apple
Honggeum
Hongro x Shenshu (JP ’80, expired)
Hongso
Hongro x Yoko(JP, 1981, expired)
Summer
Dream
Tsugaru x Natsumidori (JP ‘83, WDRI in 1993)
Picnic
Fuji x Sansa (DE ‘90, JP ‘88, NL’90 , US ‘89)
Mihong
Yumeong x Chiyomaru(JP, 1989, expired)
Miss Hong
Yumeong x Chiyomaru(JP, 1989, expired)
Sumi
Yumeong x Chiyomaru(JP, 1989, expired)
Yumi
Yumeong x Chiyomaru(JP, 1989, expired)
Peach
31
Utilizing protected varieties
for breeding new varieties
○ ‘Pearl Red’ Rose
- Bred by : NHRI
- Year : 2004
- Cross : Red Sandra(IL, ’82 trade name)
× Baroness
○ ‘Little Sun’ Rose
- Bred by : Gyeonggi PRDA
- Year : 2006
- Cross : Nikida x
Ruigerdan(NL, ’87, KR, 04, JP ‘93)
Utilizing protected varieties
for breeding new varieties
○ ‘Shiny Gold ’ Freesia
- Bred by: NHRI
- Year : 2003
- Cross : Arizona (NL, ’93) x
Yvonne (NL, ’89)
○ ‘Pink Jewel’ Freesia
- Bred by: NHRI
- Year : 2003
- Cross : Michelle x Rossini (NL, ’87)
Utilizing protected varieties
for breeding new varieties
○ ‘Baegma’ Chrysanthemam
- Breeder : NHRI
- Year released : 2004
- Cross : Iwanohakusen (’95, JP)x Jinma
○ ‘Saerona ‘ Lily
- Bred by : NHRI
- Year : 2004
- Cross : Lilium Oriental 'Casa Blanca' (NL, ’81)
× Almeria (AU, ‘’04)
34
II. Impact of PVP System
A.
B.
C.
D.
Increase the number of new varieties
Diversification & improvement of varieties
Encouragement of breeding activity
Utilization of protected varieties for breeding new
variety
E. Benefiting growers and export
화훼 신품종 육성 발전방향
○ Auction price comparison
6000
5000
4000
Highest
Lowest
Average
3000
2000
1000
0
Morning
Shine
Peace
Domestic varieties
Decoration
Lidia
Foreign varieties
Courtesy of Y. J. Kim
37
Changes share of domestic varieties
(2000 to 2008)
• Grafted cactus: 100% maintained
• Rose: nil
8%
spray rose: nil to 40%
• Freesia: nil
8%
• Chrysanthemum: nil
10%
‘Baegma’: good acceptance in Japan
• Lily and some other crops: coming up
Courtesy of Y. J. Kim
38
Strawberry ‘Maehyang’
• Cross: Tochinomine(JP, ’93) x Akihime(JP, ’ 92)
• Net income increase by 34% due to higher yield and
higher selling price
* As royalty for foreign strawberry varieties had become an
political issue since PVP adoption, public funding for breeding
this crop was intensified to prepare for PVP entitlement of this
crop.
39
Acreage share of domestic varieties
of strawberry
42.4
34.6
17.9
4.1
7.4
2003
2004
9.2
2005
2006
2007
2008
(%)
Courtesy of NHRI
IV. Another advantage – preferred location
• Considerations in choosing research locations of
seed firms
- For efficiency: climate, infrastructure, manpower, cost,
proximity to target markets, breeding and related science and
technology level, etc.
- For germplasm security:
a) government policy regarding PVP and IP in general
b) social environment for and tradition of IP protection
• Similar factors are also considered in choosing
country of seed production sites
41
V. Summary
PVP boosts breeding and benefits growers.
Increase of PVP application
Especially soon after PVP entitlement of a given crop
Diversification of varieties and/or genetic resources
Utilization of foreign varieties for breeding new varieties –
virtue of breeder’s exemption
Encouragement of breeding activities
especially in private sector and local governments
Benefiting growers
More choices, higher valued products and increased export
Necessary to attract breeding and seed production
By ensuring germplasm security
42
Acknowledgment
• A great large part of this presentation was taken from Mr. CH
Kim, Director General of Korea Seed & Variety Service, who
reported PVP impact study in Korea in the 2nd world seed
conference.
• Acknowledgment also goes to Drs. YJ Kim and YU Shin of NHRI,
Ms MH Yang and Mr. CU Park of KSVS, Dr. BS Lee of RDA , Dr. SG
Yang of Nongwoobio, and Dr. YK Kwon of NACF’s Seed Business
Center for their help in tracing records and collecting data.
Thank you for kind attention
×

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